WorldWideScience

Sample records for chrysanthemum cinerariifolium

  1. Effects of light, hydropriming and abiotic stress on seed germination, and shoot and root growth of pyrethrum (Tanacetum cinerariifolium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, J.; Jongsma, M.A.; Wang, C.Y.

    2011-01-01

    Poor germination and seedling establishment are major problems in arid and semi-arid environments, and these characteristics are considered to be important factors in later plant growth and yield. Laboratory experiments were conducted on freshly harvested pyrethrum (Tanacetum cinerariifolium) seeds

  2. Morphological and Biochemical Diversity of Dalmatian Pyrethrum (Tanacetum cinerariifolium (Trevir. Sch. Bip.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Grdiša

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Dalmatian pyrethrum (Tanacetum cinerariifolium /Trevir./ Sch. Bip. is a perennial herbaceous plant belonging to the Asteraceae family. It is endemic to the East coast of the Adriatic Sea and its natural habitat extends from Italy to northern Albania and up in the mountainous regions of Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina and Montenegro. Pyrethrum flowers yield an important insecticide, the pyrethrin. Pyrethrin is mainly concentrated in oil glands on the surface of the seed inside the tightly packed flower head, but they can also be found in the other plant parts, however in much lower concentrations. The pyrethrin exist as a combination of six insecticide active ingredients: pyrethrin I, cinerin I, jasmolin I, pyrethrin II, cinerin II and jasmolin II, with pyrethrin I and pyrethrin II present in higher concentrations. Pyrethrin is non-toxic to mammals and other worm-blooded animals, it is unstable in light, oxygen, water and at elevated temperatures and therefore highly biodegradable. Due to the fact it is environmentally safe it is leading insecticide in organic farming systems. The most scientific work concerning Dalmatian pyrethrum was focused on its morphological and biochemical traits that are relevant in breeding. Breeding programmes are primarily focused on increasing the yield of pyrethrin per unit area. Relative to dry flower weight, flower heads contain the majority of the pyrethrin. Croatian wild populations contain approximately 0.60 to 0.79 %, while clones in breeding programmes of Australia and Kenya contain up to 3.0 % of pyrethrin.

  3. Agrobacterium-mediated inoculation of chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum morifolium) plants with chrysanthemum stunt viroid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabeshima, Tomoyuki; Doi, Motoaki; Hosokawa, Munetaka

    2016-08-01

    Agroinfiltration was tested as a method of inoculation of chrysanthemum plants with chrysanthemum stunt viroid (CSVd). Binary vectors harboring dimeric CSVd sequences in sense and antisense orientations were constructed, and Agrobacterium transfected with these binary vectors was infiltrated into chrysanthemum leaves. Northern blotting and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that local infection was established within 7 days and systemic infection within 20 days. CSVd polarities showed no difference in infectivity. This study showed that agroinfiltration of chrysanthemum plants is an easy, rapid, and cost-effective method for CSVd inoculation. PMID:27155239

  4. Identification of Chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum morifolium Self-Incompatibility

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    Fan Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available There has been a heated argument over self-incompatibilityof chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum morifolium among chrysanthemum breeders. In order to solve the argument, we investigated pistil receptivity, seed set, and compatible index of 24 chrysanthemum cultivars. It was found that the 24 cultivars averagely had 3.7–36.3 pollen grains germinating on stigmas at 24 hours after self-pollination through the fluorescence microscope using aniline blue staining method. However, only 10 of them produced self-pollinated seeds, and their seed sets and compatible indexes were 0.03–56.50% and 0.04–87.50, respectively. The cultivar “Q10-33-1” had the highest seed set (56.50% and compatible index (87.50, but ten of its progeny had a wide range of separation in seed set (0–37.23% and compatible index (0–68.65. The results indicated that most of chrysanthemum cultivars were self-incompatible, while a small proportion of cultivars were self-compatible. In addition, there is a comprehensive separation of self-incompatibility among progeny from the same self-pollinated self-compatible chrysanthemum cultivar. Therefore, it is better to emasculate inflorescences during chrysanthemum hybridization breeding when no information concerning its self-incompatibility characteristics is available. However, if it is self-incompatible and propagated by vegetative methods, it is unnecessary to carry out emasculation when it is used as a female plant during hybridization breeding.

  5. 'Chrysanthemum petal' arrangements of silver nano wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Hui-Wang; Jiu, Jin-Ting; Sugahara, Tohru; Nagao, Shijo; Suganuma, Katsuaki; Uchida, Hiroshi

    2014-12-01

    Highly ordered 'Chrysanthemum petal' arrangements of silver nano wires were fabricated in a biodegradable polymer of polyvinyl alcohol using a simple one-step blending method without any template. The degree of the arrangement increased with the decreasing content of polyvinyl alcohol. The mechanism for the formation of these 'Chrysanthemum petal' arrangements was discussed specifically. These 'Chrysanthemum petal' arrangements will be helpful to increase the electrical conductivity of silver nano wires films. PMID:25397618

  6. Chrysanthemum biotechnology: discoveries from the recent literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teixeira da Silva Jaime A.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The in vitro propagation of chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum × grandiflorum (Ramat. Kitam., one of the world’s most important ornamentals, is a very well-studied topic and shows numerous strides each year. This mini-review condenses the knowledge that has been published on chrysanthemum biotechnology, especially in vitro culture in the wider plant science literature. In 2013 and 2014, important strides were made in molecular breeding, particularly anti-viral strategies, including through transgenics, and our understanding of flower genetics and flowering regulation.

  7. Identification and Quality Assessment of Chrysanthemum Buds by CE Fingerprinting

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    Xiaoping Xing

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple and efficient fingerprinting method for chrysanthemum buds was developed with the aim of establishing a quality control protocol based on biochemical makeup. Chrysanthemum bud samples were successively extracted by water and alcohol. The fingerprints of the chrysanthemum buds samples were obtained using capillary electrophoresis and electrochemical detection (CE-ED employing copper and carbon working electrodes to capture all of the chemical information. 10 batches of chrysanthemum buds were collected from different regions and various factories to establish the baseline fingerprint. The experimental data of 10 batches electropherogram buds by CE were analyzed by correlation coefficient and the included angle cosine methods. A standard chrysanthemum bud fingerprint including 24 common peaks was established, 12 from each electrode, which was successfully applied to identify and distinguish between chrysanthemum buds from 2 other chrysanthemum species. These results demonstrate that fingerprint analysis can be used as an important criterion for chrysanthemum buds quality control.

  8. A Novel bHLH Transcription Factor Involved in Regulating Anthocyanin Biosynthesis in Chrysanthemums (Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat.)

    OpenAIRE

    Li-li Xiang; Xiao-fen Liu; Xue Li; Xue-ren Yin; Donald Grierson; Fang Li; Kun-song Chen

    2015-01-01

    Chrysanthemums (Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat.) exhibit a variety of flower colors due to their differing abilities to accumulate anthocyanins. One MYB member, CmMYB6, has been verified as a transcription regulator of chrysanthemum genes involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis; however, the co-regulators for CmMYB6 remain unclear in chrysanthemum. Here, the expression pattern of CmbHLH2, which is clustered in the IIIf bHLH subgroup, was shown to be positively correlated with the anthocyanin con...

  9. Accumulation of Pathogenesis-related Type-5 Like Proteins in Phytoplasma infected Garland Chrysanthemum Chrysanthemum coronarium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bo-Xiong ZHONG; Yan-Wei SHEN

    2004-01-01

    Soluble proteins extracted from leaves, apical shoots, axillary shoots, and stems of garland chrysanthemum plants infected by onion yellows phytoplasma were analyzed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Computerized matching analysis revealed that at least six soluble proteins were accumulated specifically in phytoplasma-infected garland chrysanthemum. N-terminal amino acids sequences of these soluble proteins, determined by Edman degradation, shared high sequence similarities with those ofpathogenesis-related type-5 (PR-5) proteins such as tobacco thaumatin-like protein. Accumulation of these six proteins was also found in garland chrysanthemum plants infected by other phytoplasmas. These results demonstrate that phytoplasmal infection induces the accumulation of PR-5 like proteins in garland chrysanthemum plants.

  10. Two New Flavonoid Glycosides from Chrysanthemum morifolium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian ZHANG; An Wei DING; You Bin LI; Da Wei QIAN; Jin Ao DUAN; Zhi Qi YIN

    2006-01-01

    Two new flavonoid glycosides were isolated from the flowering heads of Chrysanthemum morifolium. Their structures were determined to be luteolin 4'-methoxy-7- O-(6"-O-acetyl)-β-D-glucopyranoside (1) and acacetin 7-O-(3"-O-acetyl)-β-D-glucopyranoside (2) by means of 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopic analysis, including 2D NMR technique.

  11. In vitro mutagenesis of chrysanthemum for breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A protocol of in vitro mutagenesis for chrysanthemum was established. The 50% lethal dose (LD50) is about 5.0 kR for calli irradiation. Various growth, developmental, morphological, colour and abnormal shape mutations were identified in M1V4 generation. (author)

  12. 77 FR 65840 - Chrysanthemum White Rust Regulatory Status and Restrictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-31

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 7 CFR Part 319 RIN 0579-AD67 Chrysanthemum White Rust Regulatory Status and Restrictions AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service... chrysanthemum white rust (CWR) outbreaks and the importation of plant material that is a host of CWR. CWR is...

  13. 77 FR 46339 - Chrysanthemum White Rust Regulatory Status and Restrictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-03

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 7 CFR Part 319 RIN 0579-AD67 Chrysanthemum White Rust Regulatory Status and Restrictions AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service... chrysanthemum white rust (CWR) outbreaks and the importation of plant material that is a host of...

  14. Three-dimensional fluorescence characteristics of white chrysanthemum flowers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yunchang; Li, Yang; Cai, Hongxin; Li, Jing; Miao, Juan; Fu, Dexue; Su, Kun

    2014-09-01

    White chrysanthemum flower is one of the most popular plants found everywhere in China and used as herbs. In the present work, three-dimensional fluorescence technique was used to discriminate species of white chrysanthemum flowers. Parameters affecting extraction efficiency were investigated. Under the optimal conditions, the three-dimensional fluorescence characteristics of three types of white chrysanthemum flowers were obtained. It was found that there were two main fluorescence peaks with remarkable difference in fluorescence intensity, one was corresponding to flavonoids and another was attributed to chlorophyll-like compounds. There were remarkable differences among the contours of the three white chrysanthemum flowers. Further studies showed that the fluorescence intensity ratios of chlorophyll-like compounds to flavonoids had a certain relationship with the species; those for Huai, Hang and Huangshan white chrysanthemum flowers were 6.9-7.4, 18.9-21.4 and 73.6-84.5, respectively. All of the results suggest that three-dimensional fluorescence spectra can be used for the discrimination of white chrysanthemum flowers with the advantages of low cost, ease for operation and intuition.

  15. Study on electrochemical fingerprints of different Chrysanthemums by using B-Z oscillation system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Xing Cheng; Jia Chen; Cheng Wu Fang; De Ling Wu

    2011-01-01

    A sensitive and convenient method for the study of electrochemical fingerprints of Chrysanthemums from different regions is studied by Belousov-Zhabotinskii (B-Z) oscillation system with malonate as a dissipative material. The results indicated that the electrochemical fingerprints of Chrysanthemums from different regions show significantly different characteristics, and can be used to identify the regions of Chrysanthemums.

  16. 以菊展促文化推进春节菊花市场发展%Culture and market promotion by Chrysanthemum Exhibition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭超超; 戴思兰

    2009-01-01

    Chrysanthemum exhibition is one of the most important ways of chrysanthemum demonstration, which may promote industrial production and culture dissemination, and is also a way to direct the chrysanthemum production toward the market. Based on the introduction of chrysanthemum exhibition and chrysanthemum culture,including chrysanthemum market survey in the Spring Festival, the authors proposed that Chrysanthemum Exhibition in Spring Festival can open a new market for extended use of chrysanthemum.Techniques to control the flowering of chrysanthemum were described in the paper.

  17. Study of Development Potential Chrysanthemum in Buleleng Regency

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    I Gusti Made Arjana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the potential of agro-climate, technology of cultivation, harvest and post-harvest chrysanthemums. This study uses survey method, through the collection of primary data and secondary data. This research is located in the village of Pancasari, District Sukasada, Buleleng Bali Province. Descriptive survey conducted on 40 respondents chrysanthemum growers using the component identification of determinants of commodity production chrysanthemum include: site selection, infrastructure, crop production processes and post-harvest handling. The survey results showed that 100% of the farmers have chosen a suitable location with agro-climatic conditions required by the chrysanthemum plant, and 86.09% of the farmers have been using the means needed to support the process of crop production. In the process of production of 78% in accordance with the operational procedures. At the stage of harvest and post-harvest handling 80% have been implemented by farmers and some still use conventional methods of handling. Thus Pancasari village has a potential location for the cultivation of chrysanthemum as a mainstay commodity.

  18. Protection of Geographical Indication and Intangible Cultural Heritage of the Chrysanthemum Resources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zai; HU; Zhiguo; SUN; Wanzhen; XIONG; Limin; HUANG; Shuting; WANG

    2013-01-01

    We conduct an analysis on the current protection of geographical indication intellectual property and intangible cultural heritage of chrysanthemum resources. The following recommendations are explored and set forth: ( i) Collecting and sorting the intangible cultural heritage related to chrysanthemum,and declaring the provincial and national list; ( ii) Establishing the productive protection demonstration bases of intangible cultural heritage related to chrysanthemum; ( iii) Strengthening the declaration of geographical indication intellectual property protection of chrysanthemum; ( iv) Encouraging the use of special marks of geographical indication,and cultivating chrysanthemum brand; ( v) Establishing various kinds of national quality standards of geographical indication of chrysanthemum; ( vi) Implementing the double protection of intangible cultural heritage and geographical indication of traditional chrysanthemum.

  19. Clonal fidelity of chrysanthemum regenerated from long term cultures

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    Jevremović Slađana

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Morphological characteristics of flowers of long term regenerated chrysanthemum, cv. "White Spider", after ten years of micropropagation are investigated. Shoot cultures are established and maintained more than ten years by stem segment culture on MS medium supplemented with BAP and NAA (1.0, 0.1 mgL-1, respectively. Rooting of shoots (100 % has done on MS medium without hormones and it was very successful after ten years, as well as, after two or eight years of micropropagation. Acclimation of rooted chrysanthemum plantlets at greenhouse conditions was excellent and after appropriate photoperiod "in vitro" plants flowered 90.3 % and have the same flower color, shape and size as mother plants. Flower color changes of "in vitro" plants are observed during another flowering cycle one year after acclimatization. Observed variations of chrysanthemum flowers could be attributed to epigenetic factors.

  20. Systems design methodology to develop chrysanthemum growing systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blok, C.; Vermeulen, T.

    2012-01-01

    When chrysanthemum growers change soil for a soilless growing system they aim for labour cost reduction, quality and yield improvement and reduced emissions of nutrients. Because many attempts to come up with a viable soilless system failed, improvements and systemizations of the design process were

  1. A New Compound from the Bud of Chrysanthemum indicum L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    A new bicyclic spiroketone was isolated from the bud of Chrysanthemum indicum L.The chemical structure was elucidated as (1R, 9S, 10S)-10-hydroxyl-8 (2', 4'-diynehexylidene)-9-isovaleryloxy-2, 7-dioxaspiro [5, 4] decane based on the X-ray crystallography.

  2. An analysis of mind style in the short fiction Chrysanthemums

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵海燕

    2015-01-01

    The paper selected John Steinbeck's short fiction The Chrysanthemums and focused on the analysis of Steinbeck and Elisa' mind style.It is hoped that the present research will provide a new perspective for reader s and critics in appreciating and analyzing characters in shortfiction.

  3. An analysis of mind style in the short fiction Chrysanthemums

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵海燕

    2015-01-01

    The paper selected John Steinbeck’s short fiction The Chrysanthemums and focused on the analysis of Steinbeck and Elisa’ mind style.It is hoped that the present research will provide a new perspective for reader s and critics in appreciating and analyzing characters in short fiction.

  4. Functional anatomy of the water transport system in cut chrysanthemum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijsse, J.

    2001-01-01

    Cut flowers show a wide variance of keepability. The market demands more and more a guaranteed quality. Therefore, methods must be developed to predict vase life of cut flowers. Chrysanthemum ( Dendranthema x grandiflorum Tzvelev) and some other cut flowers suffer from unpredicted early leaf wilting

  5. Analysis and Simulation of Growth and Yield of Cut Chrysanthemum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, J.H.

    2002-01-01

    Key words : chrysanthemum, crop growth, development, explanatory model, expolinear growth, dry mass, dry matter partitioning, fresh mass, leaf area index, light interception, light use efficiency, plant density, season, simulation, validation, year-round. Seasonal var

  6. An isoform of eukaryotic initiation factor 4E from Chrysanthemum morifolium interacts with Chrysanthemum virus B coat protein.

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    Aiping Song

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E (eIF4E plays an important role in plant virus infection as well as the regulation of gene translation. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we describe the isolation of a cDNA encoding CmeIF(iso4E (GenBank accession no. JQ904592, an isoform of eIF4E from chrysanthemum, using RACE PCR. We used the CmeIF(iso4E cDNA for expression profiling and to analyze the interaction between CmeIF(iso4E and the Chrysanthemum virus B coat protein (CVBCP. Multiple sequence alignment and phylogenetic tree analysis showed that the sequence similarity of CmeIF(iso4E with other reported plant eIF(iso4E sequences varied between 69.12% and 89.18%, indicating that CmeIF(iso4E belongs to the eIF(iso4E subfamily of the eIF4E family. CmeIF(iso4E was present in all chrysanthemum organs, but was particularly abundant in the roots and flowers. Confocal microscopy showed that a transiently transfected CmeIF(iso4E-GFP fusion protein distributed throughout the whole cell in onion epidermis cells. A yeast two hybrid assay showed CVBCP interacted with CmeIF(iso4E but not with CmeIF4E. BiFC assay further demonstrated the interaction between CmeIF(iso4E and CVBCP. Luminescence assay showed that CVBCP increased the RLU of Luc-CVB, suggesting CVBCP might participate in the translation of viral proteins. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results inferred that CmeIF(iso4E as the cap-binding subunit eIF(iso4F may be involved in Chrysanthemum Virus B infection in chrysanthemum through its interaction with CVBCP in spatial.

  7. Customer Acceptance Survey On Chrysanthemum Mutant Developed By Nuclear Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chrysanthemum morifolium is an important temperate cut flower for Malaysian floriculture industry and the lack of new local-owned varieties has led to this mutation breeding research. The project was started in 2008 under bilateral cooperation between Nuclear Malaysia and JAEA (Japan Atomic Energy Agency). Through this project, 8 new varieties of chrysanthemum were successfully developed, in which 4 varieties were from red cultivar and another 4 from pink cultivar. A preliminary survey on public perception and acceptance of these mutants was conducted on 7 January 2014 at Agrotechnology and Biosciences Division, Malaysian Nuclear Agency. The main objective of this survey was to gather information from the public on overall appearance of these new varieties and their potential for commercialization. Approximately 60 participants were involved in this survey, which include staff of Nuclear Malaysia, university students, plant growers/collectors and hobbyists. (author)

  8. On Walter ’s Otherness in Odour of Chrysanthemums

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李嵩皎

    2015-01-01

    Odour of Chrysanthemums is one of the British writer D. H. Lawrence’s short stories. In the story, character’s understanding of each other reflects the idea of otherness. This paper tries to analyze both Walter’s mother and Elizabeth’s understanding of Walter Bates. Then it points out that they did not really understand him, nor did they understand his otherness. Their failure to understand his otherness is a reason to the unhappy marriage to some extent.

  9. Analysis of karyotype diversity of 40 Chinese chrysanthemum cultivars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan ZHANG; Ming-Li ZHU; Si-Lan DAI

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the genetic differences in Chinese large-flowered chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum×morifolium Ramat.) cultivars,we selected 40 typical and stable cultivars on which to carry out cytological studies using karyotype analysis.The results showed that 67.5% of these cultivars were hexaploid-based aneuploid and that the proportion of hexaploid decreased with passing time.Moreover,35% of the cultivars had 1-4 satellite chromosome(s).The probability of satellite chromosomes rose with increasing chromosome number.Most of the karyotypes were 2A and 2B.The probability of types 2A and 2C also increased with increasing ploidy of the cultivars.The mean of long-/short-arm ratio and the variation of long-/short-ann ratio were positively correlated (r2 =0.72).There was no obvious difference in the asymmetry coefficient of karyotypes,but the discrepancy in the variance of karyotype asymmetry index and relative length of chromosomes was quite distinct.In terms ofkaryotype parameters,the petal types of chrysanthemums were classified to five groups as flat,tubular,spoon,abnormal,and anemone.We did not observe any obvious orderliness among flower head types.Considering the relationship between karyotype parameters and phenotypic characters,variation of long-/short-arm ratio and asymmetry coefficient ofkaryotypes had the greatest relevance toward most phenotypic characters.The above results indicate that karyotype parameters possess great values for cultivar identification,classification,and genetic analysis in chrysanthemums.

  10. Effect of the different timing of AMF inoculation on plant growth and flower quality of chrysanthemum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sohn, B.K.; Kim, K.Y.; Chung, S.J.; Kim, W.S.; Park, S.M.; Kang, J.G.; Rim, Y.S.; Cho, J.S.; Kim, T.H.; Lee, J.H.

    2003-01-01

    Plant growth and flower quality of an ornamental plant (Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat) var. Baekgwang in response to the different timing of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) inoculation were examined. To evaluate the effects of AMF inoculation timing on growth of chrysanthemum cuttings, AMF was d

  11. Growth and Flowering Responses of Cut Chrysanthemum Grown under Restricted Root Volume to Irrigation Frequency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viyachai Taweesak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Influences of irrigation frequency on the growth and flowering of chrysanthemum grown under restricted root volume were tested. Chrysanthemum cuttings (Chrysanthemum morifolium “Reagan White” were grown in seedling tray which contained coconut peat in volumes of 73 and 140 cm3. Plants were irrigated with drip irrigation at irrigation frequencies of 4 (266 mL, 6 (400 mL, and 8 (533 mL times/day to observe their growth and flowering performances. There was interaction between irrigation frequency and substrate volume on plant height of chrysanthemum. Plants grown in 140 cm3 substrates and irrigated 6 times/day produced the tallest plant of 109.25 cm. Plants irrigated 6 and 8 times/day had significantly higher level of phosphorus content in their leaves than those plants irrigated 4 times/day. The total leaf area, number of internodes, leaf length, and leaf width of chrysanthemums grown in 140 cm3 substrate were significantly higher than those grown in 73 cm3 substrate. The numbers of flowers were affected by both irrigation frequencies and substrate volumes. Chrysanthemums irrigated 8 times/day had an average of 19.56 flowers while those irrigated 4 times/day had an average of 16.63 flowers. Increasing irrigation frequency can improve the growth and flowering of chrysanthemums in small substrate volumes.

  12. An Analysis of Symbolism in the Novel The Chrysanthemums

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乔璨

    2013-01-01

      The Chrysanthemums is the masterpiece of John Steinbeck, which is considered to be"one of the greatest short stories ever". The story tells the life experiences of an 35-year-old woman named Elisa. In this novel, the most outstanding writing tech⁃nique is the use of symbolism. Based on the analysis of the story, this paper aims to analyze how symbols are used to reflect the theme of this novel, which will be of great help o have a better understanding of the theme and the charm of the story.

  13. Effects of types of media and NPK fertilizer on the rooting capacity of chrysanthemum cuttings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Budiarto, K.; Sulyo, Y.; Dwi, E.; Maaswinkel, R.H.M.

    2006-01-01

    Physiological status of chrysanthemum cuttings during rooting process highly influences plant growth and flower production. Amongst other aspects, rooting capacity of the cuttings is the most important. Rooting capacity is influenced by environmental conditions such as growing medium and nutrition.

  14. In vitro study of antioxidant activity and phenolic content of Chrysanthemum balsamita varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedec, Daniela; Filip, Lorena; Vlase, Laurian; Bele, Constantin; Sevastre, Bogdan; Raita, Oana; Olah, Neli-Kinga; Hanganu, Daniela

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of our study was to identify the phenolic substances of two varieties of Chrysanthemum balsamita (balsamita and tanacetoides) and to measure the overall antioxidant activity. The phenolic compounds were determined by HPLC. The evaluation of the polyphenolic content was performed by colorimetric analysis. The antioxidant activity was measured by three in vitro assay models: the DPPH, the silver nanoparticles antioxidant capacity (SNPAC) and EPR radical detection. Using HPLC-MS analysis, phenolic acids, flavonoids and flavonoid aglycone were detected. The highest antioxidant activity was showed by Chrysanthemum balsamita var. balsamita, while the lowest for the Chrysanthemum balsamita var. tanacetoides extract, in accord with the polyphenolic content. The results show that Chrysanthemum balsamita var. balsamita might be a source of antioxidant flavonoids, especially rutin and isoquercitrin. PMID:27592486

  15. Transcriptome-Wide Identification and Expression Profiling Analysis of Chrysanthemum Trihelix Transcription Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiping Song

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Trihelix transcription factors are thought to feature a typical DNA-binding trihelix (helix-loop-helix-loop-helix domain that binds specifically to the GT motif, a light-responsive DNA element. Members of the trihelix family are known to function in a number of processes in plants. Here, we characterize 20 trihelix family genes in the important ornamental plant chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum morifolium. Based on transcriptomic data, 20 distinct sequences distributed across four of five groups revealed by a phylogenetic tree were isolated and amplified. The phylogenetic analysis also identified four pairs of orthologous proteins shared by Arabidopsis and chrysanthemum and five pairs of paralogous proteins in chrysanthemum. Conserved motifs in the trihelix proteins shared by Arabidopsis and chrysanthemum were analyzed using MEME, and further bioinformatic analysis revealed that 16 CmTHs can be targeted by 20 miRNA families and that miR414 can target 9 CmTHs. qPCR results displayed that most chrysanthemum trihelix genes were highly expressed in inflorescences, while 20 CmTH genes were in response to phytohormone treatments and abiotic stresses. This work improves our understanding of the various functions of trihelix gene family members in response to hormonal stimuli and stress.

  16. Transcriptome-Wide Identification and Expression Profiling Analysis of Chrysanthemum Trihelix Transcription Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Aiping; Wu, Dan; Fan, Qingqing; Tian, Chang; Chen, Sumei; Guan, Zhiyong; Xin, Jingjing; Zhao, Kunkun; Chen, Fadi

    2016-01-01

    Trihelix transcription factors are thought to feature a typical DNA-binding trihelix (helix-loop-helix-loop-helix) domain that binds specifically to the GT motif, a light-responsive DNA element. Members of the trihelix family are known to function in a number of processes in plants. Here, we characterize 20 trihelix family genes in the important ornamental plant chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum morifolium). Based on transcriptomic data, 20 distinct sequences distributed across four of five groups revealed by a phylogenetic tree were isolated and amplified. The phylogenetic analysis also identified four pairs of orthologous proteins shared by Arabidopsis and chrysanthemum and five pairs of paralogous proteins in chrysanthemum. Conserved motifs in the trihelix proteins shared by Arabidopsis and chrysanthemum were analyzed using MEME, and further bioinformatic analysis revealed that 16 CmTHs can be targeted by 20 miRNA families and that miR414 can target 9 CmTHs. qPCR results displayed that most chrysanthemum trihelix genes were highly expressed in inflorescences, while 20 CmTH genes were in response to phytohormone treatments and abiotic stresses. This work improves our understanding of the various functions of trihelix gene family members in response to hormonal stimuli and stress. PMID:26848650

  17. Impedance measurement of gamma-irradiated chrysanthemum head

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electrical conductivity or impedance can be used to determine the changes occurred at membrane level of the plant tissues, during the senescence process or after a stress condition. Chrysanthemum cut inflorescences were irradiated with a single dose of 750 Gy in a Gammacell 220. The experiment was constituted by four groups: control, non-irradiated samples; irradiated samples; non-irradiated and 2% sucrose supplied samples, and irradiated and 2% sucrose supplied samples. The measurements were carried out during the flower vase-life with a Digital Spectral Analyzer. The radiation inhibited the development of the flowers, which could be avoided by the sucrose. An increase in the inflorescence head impendance was detected soon after the irradiation, indicating that the dose of 750 Gy caused changes at membrane level. (author). 8 refs., 1 fig

  18. Induction of somatic mutation in chrysanthemum cultivar 'Anupam'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rooted cuttings of chrysanthemum cv. 'Anupam' were irradiated with 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5 Krad of gamma rays. Significant reduction in survival, plant height, branch, leaf and flower head number and leaf size were recorded after irradiation. Radio sensitivity was determined on the basis of different cytomorphological parameters. Different types of morphological abnormalities in leaves and flower and chromosomal abnormalities during root tip mitosis were observed and the total abnormalities increased with increase in exposure to gamma rays. Significant delay in flower bud initiation, first colour showing and full bloom were recorded in the treated population. Somatic mutations in flower colour could be induced in vM1 as chimera and a total of three flower colour mutant, i.e., lighter, white and striped were isolated and established in pure form as new cultivars which are of direct use for floriculture industry. (author). 17 refs., 6 figs. , 2 tabs

  19. Karyomorphological Studies on Chinese Pot Chrysanthemum Cultivars with Large Inflorescences

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Chang; CHEN Su-mei; CHEN Fa-di; LI Zhen; FANG Wei-min

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we reported the karyotypes of 30 Chinese large flowered pot chrysanthemum cultivars, differing with respect to flower type, petal type, and flower colour. The interphase nuclei and prophase chromosomes of all the cultivars are, respectively, of the complex chromocentre and the interstitial type. Somatic chromosome number varies from 49 to 62, mostly falling in the range 51-56 or 58. Most of the cultivars are chromosomal mosaics, with three showing 2n=6x=54, and two 2n+1=6x+1=55. At mitotic metaphase, most of the chromosomes are of the metacentric or submetacentric type, with a small number of acrocentrics and telocentrics. B chromosome (s) are present in about 22% of the entireties. The asymmetry index of the chromosomes ranges between 61 and 66%. The karyotypes can be categorized as reversely symmetrical types "2A" or "2B".

  20. Identification and characterization of four chrysanthemum MADS-box genes, belonging to the APETALA1/FRUITFULL and SEPALLATA3 subfamilies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shchennikova, A.V.; Shulga, O.A.; Immink, R.; Skryabin, K.G.; Angenent, G.C.

    2004-01-01

    Four full-length MADS-box cDNAs from chrysanthemum, designated Chrysanthemum Dendrathema grandiflorum MADS (CDM) 8, CDM41, CDM111, and CDM44, have been isolated and further functionally characterized. Protein sequence alignment and expression patterns of the corresponding genes suggest that CDM8 and

  1. InIdentification and characterization of pathotypes in Puccinia horiana, a rust pathogen of Chrysanthemum x morifolium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Backer, de M.; Alaei, H.; Bockstaele, van E.; Roldan-Ruiz, I.; Lee, van der T.; Maes, M.; Heungens, K.

    2011-01-01

    Puccinia horiana is the causal agent of chrysanthemum white rust or Japanese rust. This microcyclic autoecious rust has a quarantine status and can cause major damage in the commercial production of Chrysanthemum x morifolium. Given the international and often trans-continental production of plantin

  2. Comparative Analysis of the Chrysanthemum Leaf Transcript Profiling in Response to Salt Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yin-Huan; Wang, Tong; Wang, Ke; Liang, Qian-Yu; Bai, Zhen-Yu; Liu, Qing-Lin; Pan, Yuan-Zhi; Jiang, Bei-Bei; Zhang, Lei

    2016-01-01

    Salt stress has some remarkable influence on chrysanthemum growth and productivity. To understand the molecular mechanisms associated with salt stress and identify genes of potential importance in cultivated chrysanthemum, we carried out transcriptome sequencing of chrysanthemum. Two cDNA libraries were generated from the control and salt-treated samples (Sample_0510_control and Sample_0510_treat) of leaves. By using the Illumina Solexa RNA sequencing technology, 94 million high quality sequencing reads and 161,522 unigenes were generated and then we annotated unigenes through comparing these sequences to diverse protein databases. A total of 126,646 differentially expressed transcripts (DETs) were identified in leaf. Plant hormones, amino acid metabolism, photosynthesis and secondary metabolism were all changed under salt stress after the complete list of GO term and KEGG enrichment analysis. The hormone biosynthesis changing and oxidative hurt decreasing appeared to be significantly related to salt tolerance of chrysanthemum. Important protein kinases and major transcription factor families involved in abiotic stress were differentially expressed, such as MAPKs, CDPKs, MYB, WRKY, AP2 and HD-zip. In general, these results can help us to confirm the molecular regulation mechanism and also provide us a comprehensive resource of chrysanthemum under salt stress. PMID:27447718

  3. Transcriptome-wide identification and expression analysis of chrysanthemum SBP-like transcription factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Aiping; Gao, Tianwei; Wu, Dan; Xin, Jingjing; Chen, Sumei; Guan, Zhiyong; Wang, Haibin; Jin, Lili; Chen, Fadi

    2016-05-01

    SQUAMOSA promoter-binding protein (SBP) transcription factors are known to function in a number of processes in plants. Here, we have characterized twelve SBP-like (SPL) genes in the important ornamental species chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum morifolium). A total of twelve distinct sequences were isolated and amplified based on transcriptomic sequences. Phylogenetic analysis identified two pairs of orthologous proteins for Arabidopsis and chrysanthemum and two pairs of paralogous proteins in chrysanthemum. Conserved motifs in the SPL proteins shared by Arabidopsis and chrysanthemum were scanned using MEME. A bioinformatics analysis revealed that six of these genes contained a miR156 target site, while five CmSPLs were targeted by miR157. Moreover, we used 5' RLM-RACE to map the cleavage sites in CmSPL2 and CmSPL3. The expression of these twelve genes in response to a variety of phytohormone treatments and abiotic stresses was characterized. This work improves our understanding of the various functions of SPL gene family members in the stress response. PMID:26897115

  4. Spectral effects of supplementary lighting on the secondary metabolites in roses, chrysanthemums, and campanulas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ouzounis, Theoharis; Fretté, Xavier; Rosenqvist, Eva;

    2014-01-01

    approximately 200 mol m−2 s−1 at plant height for 16 h per day. The four light treatments were (1) 40% Blue/60% Red, (2) 20% Blue/80% Red, (3) 100% Red, and (4) 100% White (Control). The plant height was smallest in 40% Blue/60% Red in roses and chrysanthemums, while the biomass was smallest in the white......To investigate the effect of the light spectrum on photosynthesis, growth, and secondary metabolites Rosa hybrida ‘Scarlet’, Chrysanthemum morifolium ‘Coral Charm’, and Campanula portenschlagiana ‘BluOne’ were grown at 24/18 ◦C day/night temperature under purpose-built LED arrays yielding...... control in roses and in 100% Red in chrysanthemums. The total biomass was unaffected by the spectrum in campanulas, while the leaf area was smallest in the 40% Blue/60% Red treatment. In 100% Red curled leaves and other morphological abnormalities were observed. Increasing the blue to red ratio increased...

  5. STUDY ON CROSSING ABILITY OF ANNUAL CHRYSANTHEMUM GENOTYPES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suneetha Kattera

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The experiment comprised of six genotypes viz., NAC-01-10, NAC-02-10, NAC-03-10, NAC-04-10, NAC-05-10, NAC-06-10 selected for petal colour and number of layers of petals to estimate pollen viability, in-vitro pollen germination, stigma receptivity and crossed seed set percentage to find out the crossing ability of genotypes. The present experiment was laid out at the experimental field of Horticulture Section, College of Agriculture, Nagpur, during 2010-11. Pollen viability of six genotypes of annual chrysanthemum showed a range of 69.69% to 86.66% viability, Percentage of germination on the day of anthesis ranged from 22.72% (NAC-06-10 to 66.66% (NAC-01-10. First day pollen pollinated on first day stigma showed 100% stigma receptivity in all six genotypes and the crossed seed set ranged from 61.60% (NAC-04-10 × NAC-05-10 to 92.00% (NAC-01-10 × NAC-04-10 among direct crosses whereas, the percentage ranged from 42.00% (NAC-04-10 × NAC-02-10 to 90.00% (NAC-05-10 × NAC-01-10 among the reciprocal crosses. All the six genotypes are highly suitable for their use as parents in crossing program.

  6. Chrysanthemum Cutting Productivity and Rooting Ability Are Improved by Grafting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Chrysanthemum has been commercially propagated by rooting of cuttings, whereas the quality will decline over multiple collections from a single plant. Therefore, we compared the vigour, rooting ability, and some physiological parameters between cuttings harvested from nongrafted “Jinba” (non-grafted cuttings with those collected from grafted “Jinba” plants onto Artemisia scoparia as a rootstock (grafted cuttings. The yield, length, node number, stem diameter, fresh weight, and dry weight of the grafted cuttings were superior to the non-grafted cuttings. Also grafted cuttings “Jinba” rooted 1 day earlier, but showing enhanced rooting quality including number, length, diameter, and dry weight of roots, where compared to the non-grafted. The physiological parameters that indicated contents of soluble protein, peroxidase activity, soluble sugar, and starch, ratios of soluble sugar/nitrogen ratio, and carbohydrate/nitrogen (C/N, as well as contents of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA and abscisic acid (ABA, and IAA/ABA ratio were significantly increased in the grafted cuttings. This suggested their important parts in mediating rooting ability. Results from this study showed that grafting improved productivity and rooting ability related to an altered physiology, which provide a means to meet the increasing demand.

  7. Chrysanthemum cutting productivity and rooting ability are improved by grafting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Chen, Sumei; Liu, Ruixia; Jiang, Jiafu; Chen, Fadi; Fang, Weimin

    2013-01-01

    Chrysanthemum has been commercially propagated by rooting of cuttings, whereas the quality will decline over multiple collections from a single plant. Therefore, we compared the vigour, rooting ability, and some physiological parameters between cuttings harvested from nongrafted "Jinba" (non-grafted cuttings) with those collected from grafted "Jinba" plants onto Artemisia scoparia as a rootstock (grafted cuttings). The yield, length, node number, stem diameter, fresh weight, and dry weight of the grafted cuttings were superior to the non-grafted cuttings. Also grafted cuttings "Jinba" rooted 1 day earlier, but showing enhanced rooting quality including number, length, diameter, and dry weight of roots, where compared to the non-grafted. The physiological parameters that indicated contents of soluble protein, peroxidase activity, soluble sugar, and starch, ratios of soluble sugar/nitrogen ratio, and carbohydrate/nitrogen (C/N), as well as contents of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and abscisic acid (ABA), and IAA/ABA ratio were significantly increased in the grafted cuttings. This suggested their important parts in mediating rooting ability. Results from this study showed that grafting improved productivity and rooting ability related to an altered physiology, which provide a means to meet the increasing demand. PMID:23878523

  8. Air-borne contact dermatitis due to Chrysanthemum with true cross sensitivity to Parthenium hysterophorus and Xanthium strumarium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasricha J

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available A 60-year old man living in Srinagar (Jammu and Kashmir had air-borne contact dermatitis for last 10 years. He had never traveled to any other part of the country where Parthenium hysterophorus or Xanthium strumarium are prevalent but he used to cultivate chrysanthemums. Patch tests with standardized extracts of various plants revealed the strongest reaction with Chrysanthemum, while the reactions with Xanthium strumarium and Parthenium hysterophorus were also positive but milder. This seems to be a case of primary sensitivity to Chrysanthemum with cross sensitivity to Xanthium strumarium and Parthenium hysterophorus.

  9. Effect of colour of light on the opening of inflorescence buds and post-harvest longevity of pot chrysanthemums (Chrysanthemum × grandiflorum (Ramat. Kitam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Jerzy

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The pot cultivar of Chrysanthemum × grandiflorum 'Leticia Time Yellow' was cultivated and stored in a growth room under fluorescent light of white, blue, green, yellow and red colour. Quantum irradiance was 30 μmol · m-2 × s-1. The colour of light exerted a significant influence on the opening of closed inflorescence buds and on post-harvest longevity of pot chrysanthemums grown earlier in an unheated plastic tunnel. Under florescent lamps emitting blue light at a wavelength of 400-580 nm, inflorescence buds opened and coloured the earliest. The number of developed flower heads was the greatest under blue and white light. Flower heads developing in blue light were bigger than flower heads developing in white and green light. In red light at a wavelength of 600-700 nm, plants flowered latest and they produced the smallest flower heads. Post-harvest longevity was preserved longest in chrysanthemums kept under blue, white and green light. In red and yellow light, the flowers were overblown earliest.

  10. Effects of growth conditions on external quality of cut chrysanthemum; analysis and simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carvalho, S.M.P.

    2003-01-01

    For many years the emphasis in floricultural research laid with quantity rather than quality. Nowadays, since the prices are often determined on the basis of visual quality aspects, the so-called external quality, chrysanthemum growers aim to provide a high and constant product qualit

  11. Industrial Dehumanization——Viewed from the husband and wife relationship in "Odour of Chrysanthemums"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何苗

    2007-01-01

    Lawrence is regarded as one of most accomplished short story writers in twentieth century, with "Odour of Chrysanthemums" one of his early works. Through the death of a miner, the text shows how humanity was ruined by industrial civilization. This essay is intended to unveil the destructive force by analyzing the relationship between the husband and wife.

  12. Isolation, identification and activity of natural antioxidants from costmary (Chrysanthemum balsamita) cultivated in Lithuania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pukalskas, A.; Venskutonis, P.R.; Dijkgraaf, I.; Beek, van T.A.

    2010-01-01

    The sweet, minty-lemony leaves of costmary (Chrysanthemum balsamita) are used for salads and tea, and as flavourings in meats, sausages, cakes and ale. In this study, the extracts isolated from costmary aerial parts were investigated as antioxidants in rapeseed oil and as free radical-scavengers in

  13. Role of sink-source relationships in chrysanthemum flower size and total biomass production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carvalho, S.M.P.; Heuvelink, E.; Harbinson, J.; Kooten, van O.

    2006-01-01

    The present work was aimed at understanding and quantifying the effect of sink-source relationships on flower size, using chrysanthemum as a model system. Sink/source ratio was manipulated by flower bud removal (leaving one, two or four flowers, and a control), axillary shoot removal, and varying da

  14. Wounding-induced xylem occlusion in stems of cut chrysanthemum flowers : roles of peroxidase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doorn, van W.G.; Vaslier, N.

    2002-01-01

    A wounding-induced xylem occlusion, resulting in severe leaf wilting, occurs in stems of cut chrysanthemum flowers (Dendranthema grandiflora), cv. Vyking. The blockage develops after about 1 h in flowers held in air at 20 °C. It is initially located in the lowermost 2 cm of the stem and upon prolong

  15. Evidence for a wounding-induced xylem occlusion in stems of cut chrysanthemum flowers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doorn, van W.G.; Cruz, P.

    2000-01-01

    A temperature-dependent xylem occlusion was found in cut chrysanthemum stems (Dendranthema grandiflora, cv. Viking) which were placed for 24 h in air at 5oC prior to vase life evaluation. The response was inhibited by a 5-h treatment, prior to placement in air, with aqueous solutions at low initial

  16. Deflowered: Walking Students through A Harsher Reading of John Steinbeck's "The Chrysanthemums."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plath, James

    2001-01-01

    Discusses a teaching method for John Steinbeck's "The Chrysanthemums" which focuses on word choice, symbolism, character interaction, and gender roles. Proposes that such a close study should reveal to students that Steinbeck should be considered one of America's most talented writers. (PM)

  17. Identification of Floral Scent in Chrysanthemum Cultivars and Wild Relatives by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hainan Sun

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to identify the major volatile compounds and their relative concentrations in flowers of different chrysanthemum cultivars and their wild relatives. The volatile organic components of fresh flowers were analyzed using a headspace solid-phase microextraction coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. In total, 193 volatile organic components were detected; the major scent components were monoterpenoids and oxygenated monoterpenoids, which accounted for 68.59%–99.93% of the total volatiles in all tested materials except for Chrysanthemum indicum collected from Huangshan, in which they accounted for only 37.45% of total volatiles. The major volatile compounds were camphor, α-pinene, chrysanthenone, safranal, myrcene, eucalyptol, 2,4,5,6,7,7ab-hexahydro-1H-indene, verbenone, β-phellandrene and camphene. In a hierarchical cluster analysis, 39 accessions of Chrysanthemum and its relatives formed six clusters based on their floral volatile compounds. In a principal component analysis, only spider type flowers were located closely on the score plot. The results of this study provide a basis for breeding chrysanthemum cultivars which desirable floral scents.

  18. Genotypic differences in metabolomic changes during storage induced-degreening of chrysanthemum disk florets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geest, van Geert; Choi, Young Hae; Arens, Paul; Post, Aike; Liu, Ying; Meeteren, van Uulke

    2016-01-01

    Selecting chrysanthemum cultivars with long storability and vase life is a major challenge for breeders. The rate of degreening of disk florets during the postharvest phase is an important determinant of vase life. There is large genotypic variation in susceptibility to disk floret degreening. Ou

  19. The Analyses of the effects of Environmental Descriptions in Odour of Chrysanthemums

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐亚河

    2015-01-01

    Environment is an indispensable element of a story structure. In the short story Odour of Chrysanthemums, Laurence showed a se⁃ries of original environmental descriptions which play a important role to create specific atmosphere in an industrial society and express pro⁃tagonists’inner life.

  20. Air-borne contact dermatitis due to Chrysanthemum with true cross sensitivity to Parthenium hysterophorus and Xanthium strumarium

    OpenAIRE

    Pasricha J; Nandakishore Th

    1992-01-01

    A 60-year old man living in Srinagar (Jammu and Kashmir) had air-borne contact dermatitis for last 10 years. He had never traveled to any other part of the country where Parthenium hysterophorus or Xanthium strumarium are prevalent but he used to cultivate chrysanthemums. Patch tests with standardized extracts of various plants revealed the strongest reaction with Chrysanthemum, while the reactions with Xanthium strumarium and Parthenium hysterophorus were also positive but milder. This seems...

  1. Transcriptome-Wide Survey and Expression Profile Analysis of Putative Chrysanthemum HD-Zip I and II Genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiping Song

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The homeodomain-leucine zipper (HD-Zip transcription factor family is a key transcription factor family and unique to the plant kingdom. It consists of a homeodomain and a leucine zipper that serve in combination as a dimerization motif. The family can be classified into four subfamilies, and these subfamilies participate in the development of hormones and mediation of hormone action and are involved in plant responses to environmental conditions. However, limited information on this gene family is available for the important chrysanthemum ornamental species (Chrysanthemum morifolium. Here, we characterized 17 chrysanthemum HD-Zip genes based on transcriptome sequences. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that 17 CmHB genes were distributed in the HD-Zip subfamilies I and II and identified two pairs of putative orthologous proteins in Arabidopsis and chrysanthemum and four pairs of paralogous proteins in chrysanthemum. The software MEME was used to identify 7 putative motifs with E values less than 1e-3 in the chrysanthemum HD-Zip factors, and they can be clearly classified into two groups based on the composition of the motifs. A bioinformatics analysis predicted that 8 CmHB genes could be targeted by 10 miRNA families, and the expression of these 17 genes in response to phytohormone treatments and abiotic stresses was characterized. The results presented here will promote research on the various functions of the HD-Zip gene family members in plant hormones and stress responses.

  2. Transcriptome-Wide Survey and Expression Profile Analysis of Putative Chrysanthemum HD-Zip I and II Genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Aiping; Li, Peiling; Xin, Jingjing; Chen, Sumei; Zhao, Kunkun; Wu, Dan; Fan, Qingqing; Gao, Tianwei; Chen, Fadi; Guan, Zhiyong

    2016-01-01

    The homeodomain-leucine zipper (HD-Zip) transcription factor family is a key transcription factor family and unique to the plant kingdom. It consists of a homeodomain and a leucine zipper that serve in combination as a dimerization motif. The family can be classified into four subfamilies, and these subfamilies participate in the development of hormones and mediation of hormone action and are involved in plant responses to environmental conditions. However, limited information on this gene family is available for the important chrysanthemum ornamental species (Chrysanthemum morifolium). Here, we characterized 17 chrysanthemum HD-Zip genes based on transcriptome sequences. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that 17 CmHB genes were distributed in the HD-Zip subfamilies I and II and identified two pairs of putative orthologous proteins in Arabidopsis and chrysanthemum and four pairs of paralogous proteins in chrysanthemum. The software MEME was used to identify 7 putative motifs with E values less than 1e-3 in the chrysanthemum HD-Zip factors, and they can be clearly classified into two groups based on the composition of the motifs. A bioinformatics analysis predicted that 8 CmHB genes could be targeted by 10 miRNA families, and the expression of these 17 genes in response to phytohormone treatments and abiotic stresses was characterized. The results presented here will promote research on the various functions of the HD-Zip gene family members in plant hormones and stress responses. PMID:27196930

  3. Flower colour modification of chrysanthemum by suppression of F3'H and overexpression of the exogenous Senecio cruentus F3'5'H gene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang He

    Full Text Available Chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum × morifolium is one of the most important ornamental plants in the world. They are typically used as cut flowers or potted plants. Chrysanthemum can exhibit red, purple, pink, yellow and white flowers, but lack bright red and blue flowers. In this study, we identified two chrysanthemum cultivars, C × morifolium 'LPi' and C × morifolium 'LPu', that only accumulate flavonoids in their ligulate flowers. Next, we isolated seven anthocyanin biosynthesis genes, namely CmCHS, CmF3H, CmF3'H, CmDFR, CmANS, CmCHI and Cm3GT in these cultivars. RT-PCR and qRT-PCR analyses showed that CmF3'H was the most important enzyme required for cyanidin biosynthsis. To rebuild the delphinidin pathway, we downregulated CmF3'H using RNAi and overexpressed the Senecio cruentus F3'5'H (PCFH gene in chrysanthemum. The resultant chrysanthemum demonstrated a significantly increased content of cyanidin and brighter red flower petals but did not accumulate delphinidin. These results indicated that CmF3'H in chrysanthemum is important for anthocyanin accumulation, and Senecio cruentus F3'5'H only exhibited F3'H activity in chrysanthemum but did not rebuild the delphinidin pathway to form blue flower chrysanthemum.

  4. Flower colour modification of chrysanthemum by suppression of F3'H and overexpression of the exogenous Senecio cruentus F3'5'H gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Huang; Ke, Hu; Keting, Han; Qiaoyan, Xiang; Silan, Dai

    2013-01-01

    Chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum × morifolium) is one of the most important ornamental plants in the world. They are typically used as cut flowers or potted plants. Chrysanthemum can exhibit red, purple, pink, yellow and white flowers, but lack bright red and blue flowers. In this study, we identified two chrysanthemum cultivars, C × morifolium 'LPi' and C × morifolium 'LPu', that only accumulate flavonoids in their ligulate flowers. Next, we isolated seven anthocyanin biosynthesis genes, namely CmCHS, CmF3H, CmF3'H, CmDFR, CmANS, CmCHI and Cm3GT in these cultivars. RT-PCR and qRT-PCR analyses showed that CmF3'H was the most important enzyme required for cyanidin biosynthsis. To rebuild the delphinidin pathway, we downregulated CmF3'H using RNAi and overexpressed the Senecio cruentus F3'5'H (PCFH) gene in chrysanthemum. The resultant chrysanthemum demonstrated a significantly increased content of cyanidin and brighter red flower petals but did not accumulate delphinidin. These results indicated that CmF3'H in chrysanthemum is important for anthocyanin accumulation, and Senecio cruentus F3'5'H only exhibited F3'H activity in chrysanthemum but did not rebuild the delphinidin pathway to form blue flower chrysanthemum. PMID:24250783

  5. Effect of temperature and light on foliar absorption of P and Rb by Chrysanthemum and Pilea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szczepan Marczyński

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Young plants of Pilea cadierei Gagnep Guillaum and Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat. 'Giant # 4 Indianapolis White' were grown in Hoagland's solution in growth chambers. Their leaves were treated with rubidium phosphate double labelled with 33P and 86Rb. Light intensity, period of pretreatment in light or dark, daylength, and air temperature had different influences on foliar uptake of each ion, as did plant species and leaf surface. With all variables tested, uptake and translocation of Rb was much greater than of P. Absorption of both P and Rb through the lower surface was as much as 8 times greater than through upper surface, especially with Pilea. Light had a greater effect upon uptake of both P and Rb by Chrysanthemum than by Pilea, but did not influence uptake as much as previously reported.

  6. The effectiveness of funqicides in the control of white rust (Puccinia horiana P. Henn of Chrysanthemums

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cz. Zamorski

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The object of this study was to determine the effectiveness of some fungicides such as Dithane M-45 (mancozeb - 0.3%, Plantvax (oxycarboxin - 0.075%, Saprol (triforine - 0.1%, Calirus (benodanil - 0.3%, Bayleton 5 WP (triadimefon - 0.05%, Baycor (biloxazol - 0.1%, Vigilex (dichlobutrazol - 0.04% in the control of chrysanthemum white rust (Puccinia horiana. Tests were conducted in the period 1979-1980. Plants of four varieties were sprayed 8 times weekly. The disease was completely suppressed in the combinations with Plantvax, Saprol, Calirus, Bayleton 5 WP, Baycor and Vigilex. The disease index of Puccinia horiana infection on chrysanthemums was only slightly lower when Dithane M-45 was applied. Plantvax was phytotoxic for all tested varieties, Vigilex suppressed plant growth, treated plants were 3/4 shorter in comparison with plants of all the other combinations.

  7. Detection of genetic variability in Chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflora T. using ISSR primers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Lalitha Kameswari, Hameedunnisabegum, M. Pratap, and G.Anuradha

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The genetic diversity of 37 genotypes of Chrysanthemum was characterized using inter simple sequence repeats (ISSR technique. A total of 46 primers were screened, of which 10 polymorphic and informative patterns were selected to determine genetic relationships. Among 114 amplified DNA fragments obtained, 107 bands were polymorphic, accounting for 93.86% polymorphism. The percentage of polymorphism exhibited by different ISSR primers ranged from 71.43% (ISSR-825 to 100% (ISSR-808, 810, 812, 840 and 842. The similarity coefficient values ranged from 0.275 to 0.775 with a mean similarity matrix of 0.525. Among the 37 genotypes studied, the closest relationship was scored between Geetanjali and Red Stone with similarity level of 77.5% while, the most distantly related genotypes were Autumn Joy and Flirtation with the lowest similarity index of 0.275. The UPGMA dendrogram revealed that the chrysanthemum genotypes were grouped into ten clusters.

  8. A COMPUTER CONTROLLED IRRIGATION OF POTTED CHRYSANTHEMUM GROWN AT OUTDOOR CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halil Kirnak

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A rapid and reliable method to estimate water requirements for chrysanthemum production with practical applications to commercial operations was developed to promote water conservation. A water-requirement prediction equation (R2 = 0.71 that used class A pan evaporation along with plant-canopy height and width as input variables was generated. Equation verification was carried out by comparing vegetative growth and quality of crops irrigated according to the generated water-requirement equation to crops irrigated based on demand and conservative fixed daily irrigation regimes. Vegetation growth of the plants irrigated with the generated equation was smaller than plants grown by demand irrigation, but plant quality was not significantly different. Applied water was significantly lower for plants irrigated with the generated equation than would normally be applied in a commercial operation using a conservative fixed daily irrigation rate. The study showed that there was a close relationship between chrysanthemum water requirements and the plant and evaporative data. A simplified ET equation involving plant characteristics and evaporative data could be used in the irrigation scheduling of chrysanthemum grown under restricted root volume.

  9. [Study on transformation of snowdrop lectin gene to chrysanthemum and aphid resistance of the transgenic plants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guan-Lin; Liu, Yan-Hong; Guo, Shao-Hua; Wang, Yu; Ji, Yan; Fang, Hong-Jun

    2004-12-01

    Agrobacterium-mediated transformation in chrysanthemum was studied to prevent the insect pest of aphid (Mizus persicae). The gna gene was successfully transferred into chrysanthemum by leaf dish, and 93 transgenic clones were obtained. The highest transformation frequency 11.21% was achieved on the optimization facts, which were medium YEB with pH5.6, bacterial concentration OD600 = 0.4, precultivation for one day, cocultivation for four days, the cocultivation media supplemented with GA3 0.5 mg/L and leaf explants growed for 45 days. The results from PCR and FQ-PCR analysis confirmed that gna gene was integrated into the genome of chrysanthemum plants. The insect bioassay with aphid showed that the aphid resistance of different transgenic plants was difference, and the rate of aphid population inhibition of them were from 10% to 84% with an average rate of 39.4%. The leaf-extracts from different transgenic plants showed varying actinties in red-blood cell bioassay.

  10. Effect of the Introduction of Chrysanthemum on the Nutritional and Sensory Properties of Cabernet Sauvignon Red Wine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Liu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we propose a new wine technology where dried chrysanthemum is introduced during the process of fermentation of wine. This technology sets an example of a blend between exotic wine culture and traditional Chinese tea culture. The influence on the chemical and sensory properties of wine due to the addition of different amounts of chrysanthemum at different fermentation periods was studied. In all the wine with added chrysanthemum the content of both polyphenols and flavones obviously increased. The wine of T1 and T2 had a higher content of polyphenols and flavones than others, due to thermomaceration, whereas those in the wine of T2 were the highest, due to the technique of squeezing juice. The sensory quality of T3, without the techniques of thermomaceration and squeezing juice, was optimal, with characteristics such as a ruby color, fuller aroma, and a lighter flowery texture. Therefore, T3 was defined as the optimum of chrysanthemum adding procedures. With the increase of chrysanthemum addition, both flavones content and polyphenols content of the obtained wine first increased, and then decreased.

  11. Next-generation sequencing of the Chrysanthemum nankingense (Asteraceae transcriptome permits large-scale unigene assembly and SSR marker discovery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haibin Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Simple sequence repeats (SSRs are ubiquitous in eukaryotic genomes. Chrysanthemum is one of the largest genera in the Asteraceae family. Only few Chrysanthemum expressed sequence tag (EST sequences have been acquired to date, so the number of available EST-SSR markers is very low. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Illumina paired-end sequencing technology produced over 53 million sequencing reads from C. nankingense mRNA. The subsequent de novo assembly yielded 70,895 unigenes, of which 45,789 (64.59% unigenes showed similarity to the sequences in NCBI database. Out of 45,789 sequences, 107 have hits to the Chrysanthemum Nr protein database; 679 and 277 sequences have hits to the database of Helianthus and Lactuca species, respectively. MISA software identified a large number of putative EST-SSRs, allowing 1,788 primer pairs to be designed from the de novo transcriptome sequence and a further 363 from archival EST sequence. Among 100 primer pairs randomly chosen, 81 markers have amplicons and 20 are polymorphic for genotypes analysis in Chrysanthemum. The results showed that most (but not all of the assays were transferable across species and that they exposed a significant amount of allelic diversity. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: SSR markers acquired by transcriptome sequencing are potentially useful for marker-assisted breeding and genetic analysis in the genus Chrysanthemum and its related genera.

  12. Transcriptome-wide identification and expression profiling of the DOF transcription factor gene family in Chrysanthemum morifolium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiping eSong

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The family of DNA binding with one finger (DOF transcription factors is plant specific, and these proteins contain a highly conserved domain (DOF domain of 50-52 amino acids that includes a C2C2-type zinc finger motif at the N-terminus that is known to function in a number of plant processes. Here, we characterized 20 DOF genes in the important ornamental species chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum morifolium based on transcriptomic sequences. Phylogenetic analysis identified one pair of putative orthologous proteins in Arabidopsis and chrysanthemum and six pairs of paralogous proteins in chrysanthemum. Conserved motifs in the DOF proteins shared by Arabidopsis and chrysanthemum were analysed using MEME. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that 13 CmDOFs could be targeted by 16 miRNA families. Moreover, we used 5’ RLM-RACE to map the cleavage sites in CmDOF3, 15 and 21. The expression of these 20 genes in response to phytohormone treatments and abiotic stresses was characterized, and the expression patterns of six pairs of paralogous CmDOF genes were found to completely differ from one another, except for CmDOF6 and CmDOF7. This work will promote our research of the various functions of DOF gene family members in plant hormone and stress responses.

  13. Transcriptome-Wide Identification and Expression Profiling of the DOF Transcription Factor Gene Family in Chrysanthemum morifolium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Aiping; Gao, Tianwei; Li, Peiling; Chen, Sumei; Guan, Zhiyong; Wu, Dan; Xin, Jingjing; Fan, Qingqing; Zhao, Kunkun; Chen, Fadi

    2016-01-01

    The family of DNA binding with one finger (DOF) transcription factors is plant specific, and these proteins contain a highly conserved domain (DOF domain) of 50-52 amino acids that includes a C2C2-type zinc finger motif at the N-terminus that is known to function in a number of plant processes. Here, we characterized 20 DOF genes in the important ornamental species chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum morifolium) based on transcriptomic sequences. Phylogenetic analysis identified one pair of putative orthologous proteins in Arabidopsis and chrysanthemum and six pairs of paralogous proteins in chrysanthemum. Conserved motifs in the DOF proteins shared by Arabidopsis and chrysanthemum were analyzed using MEME. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that 13 CmDOFs could be targeted by 16 miRNA families. Moreover, we used 5' RLM-RACE to map the cleavage sites in CmDOF3, 15, and 21. The expression of these 20 genes in response to phytohormone treatments and abiotic stresses was characterized, and the expression patterns of six pairs of paralogous CmDOF genes were found to completely differ from one another, except for CmDOF6 and CmDOF7. This work will promote our research of the various functions of DOF gene family members in plant hormone and stress responses. PMID:26941763

  14. Whole-Transcriptome Analysis of Differentially Expressed Genes in the Vegetative Buds, Floral Buds and Buds of Chrysanthemum morifolium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Liu

    Full Text Available Chrysanthemum morifolium is an important floral crop that is cultivated worldwide. However, due to a lack of genomic resources, very little information is available concerning the molecular mechanisms of flower development in chrysanthemum.The transcriptomes of chrysanthemum vegetative buds, floral buds and buds were sequenced using Illumina paired-end sequencing technology. A total of 15.4 Gb of reads were assembled into 91,367 unigenes with an average length of 739 bp. A total of 43,137 unigenes showed similarity to known proteins in the Swissprot or NCBI non-redundant protein databases. Additionally, 25,424, 24,321 and 13,704 unigenes were assigned to 56 gene ontology (GO categories, 25 EuKaryotic Orthologous Groups (KOG categories, and 285 Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG pathways, respectively. A total of 1,876 differentially expressed genes (DEGs (1,516 up-regulated, 360 down-regulated were identified between vegetative buds and floral buds, and 3,300 DEGs (1,277 up-regulated, 1,706 down-regulated were identified between floral buds and buds. Many genes encoding important transcription factors (e.g., AP2, MYB, MYC, WRKY, NAC and CRT as well as proteins involved in carbohydrate metabolism, protein kinase activity, plant hormone signal transduction, and the defense responses, among others, were considerably up-regulated in floral buds. Genes involved in the photoperiod pathway and flower organ determination were also identified. These genes represent important candidate genes for molecular cloning and functional analysis to study flowering regulation in chrysanthemum.This comparative transcriptome analysis revealed significant differences in gene expression and signaling pathway components between the vegetative buds, floral buds and buds of Chrysanthemum morifolium. A wide range of genes was implicated in regulating the phase transition from vegetative to reproductive growth. These results should aid researchers in the study of

  15. Chrysanthemum expressing a linalool synthase gene 'smells good', but 'tastes bad' to western flower thrips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ting; Stoopen, Geert; Thoen, Manus; Wiegers, Gerrie; Jongsma, Maarten A

    2013-09-01

    Herbivore-induced plant volatiles are often involved in direct and indirect plant defence against herbivores. Linalool is a common floral scent and found to be released from leaves by many plants after herbivore attack. In this study, a linalool/nerolidol synthase, FaNES1, was overexpressed in the plastids of chrysanthemum plants (Chrysanthemum morifolium). The volatiles of FaNES1 chrysanthemum leaves were strongly dominated by linalool, but they also emitted small amount of the C11-homoterpene, (3E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene, a derivative of nerolidol. Four nonvolatile linalool glycosides in methanolic extracts were found to be significantly increased in the leaves of FaNES1 plants compared to wild-type plants. They were putatively identified by LC-MS-MS as two linalool-malonyl-hexoses, a linalool-pentose-hexose and a glycoside of hydroxy-linalool. A leaf-disc dual-choice assay with western flower thrips (WFT, Frankliniella occidentalis) showed, initially during the first 15 min of WFT release, that FaNES1 plants were significantly preferred. This gradually reversed into significant preference for the control, however, at 20-28 h after WFT release. The initial preference was shown to be based on the linalool odour of FaNES1 plants by olfactory dual-choice assays using paper discs emitting pure linalool at similar rates as leaf discs. The reversal of preference into deterrence could be explained by the initial nonvolatile composition of the FaNES1 plants, as methanolic extracts were less preferred by WFT. Considering the common occurrence of linalool and its glycosides in plant tissues, it suggests that plants may balance attractive fragrance with 'poor taste' using the same precursor compound.

  16. Study on Chrysanthemum Health Jelly%菊花保健果冻的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶文峰; 冷桂华; 周秀玲

    2012-01-01

    以菊花为主要原料,以卡拉胶、魔芋粉为主要胶体,研制了营养价值高,感官性状良好,并具有一定保健功能的果冻。采用三因素三水平试验确定了菊花的最佳浸提条件,即为:浸提温度85℃,时间为25 min,加水量为70倍。还探讨了卡拉胶、魔芋粉的最佳配比,通过正交试验得出保健果冻的最佳配方,即为:胶粉(卡拉胶∶魔芋粉为4∶1)为1.3%,白砂糖15%,柠檬酸0.18%,菊花浸提液25%。%With the chrysanthemum as main raw materials,carrageenan,konjac powder as the main colloid,developed a high nutritional value and sensory properties,and had certainly good health care function jelly.Adopting three factors 3 levels test to determine the best leaching of chrysanthemum,namely contracts for: leaching 85 ℃,extracting time 25 min,70 times water.Also discussed carrageenan,konjac powder at the best ratio through thogonal experiment,we confirmed the best formula of health jelly was that powder(carrageenan: konjac powder for 4∶1) 1.3%,sugar 15%,citric acid 0.18% and chrysanthemum juice 25%.

  17. Morphological Characteristics, Phenolic and Terpenoid Profiles in Garden Chrysanthemum Grown in Different Nutritional Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Cerasela MIRCEA (ARSENE

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Chrysanthemum indicum L. (Dendranthema indicum (L. Des Moul became useful as herbs and curatives in different parts of the world. In the current study, the chemical profile of outdoor cultivated Chrysanthemum indicum ‘Avalone Red’ was investigated for polyphenolic acid derivatives, flavonoids, alantolactone and ursolic acid using thin layer chromatography (TLC. Total phenolic content was determined through a classical method and semiquantitative analyses of alantolactone were performed through the HPLC method. Morphological and yield parameters and the chemical profile of plants were registered in two different nutritional statuses (local and enriched soil conditions. The results indicate that the studied cultivar is a potent source of phenolics and that the fertilisation increases the plant biosynthetic capacity for polyphenols (159.74 mg/100 g in leaves and 79.82 mg/100 g in flowers, in unfertilised plants, and 388.54 mg/100 g and 144.86 mg/100 g in leaves and flowers of fertilised plants, respectively, expressed as gallic acid equivalent value. The studied cultivar contains hyperoside (and other derivatives and four main polyphenol carboxylic acids (including chlorogenic acid. Ursolic acid was not detected. The high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC analyses confirmed the presence of alantolactone identified in TLC chromatogram. Moreover, the fertilised plant samples contain only traces of alantolactone compared to the unfertilised plants. Alantolactone is present in a small amount (less than 0.1 mg % but its presence alerts to the potential allergenic effect of the plant. Besides their ornamental value, chrysanthemums can have a wide array of uses due to their high amounts of bioactive compounds.

  18. A correlation between antioxidant activity and metabolite release during the blanching of Chrysanthemum coronarium L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jiyoung; Choi, Jung Nam; Ku, Kang Mo; Kang, Daejung; Kim, Jong Sang; Park, Jung Han Yoon; Lee, Choong Hwan

    2011-01-01

    Liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LCMS/MS)-based metabolite profiling was applied to elucidate the correlation between metabolite release and antioxidant activity during water blanching of Chrysanthemum coronarium L. (CC). Some major metabolites showing differences between fresh CC and blanched CC (BCC) were selected by principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least-square discriminate analysis (PLS-DA) loading plots, and were identified as dicaffeoylquinic acid (DCQA), succinoyl-DCQA, and acetylmycosinol. By PLS regression analysis of the correlation between antioxidant components and effects, candidate antioxidative metabolites were predicted due to strong positive correlations with DCQA and succinoyl-DCQA, and by a relatively weak positive correlation with acetylmycosinol.

  19. Substrate Cultivation of Chrysanthemum: Plant performance in 6 cropping systems and the effect of parameters associated with root environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guo, X.; Blok, C.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Chrysanthemum is an important greenhouse crop in Holland and is still cultivated in soil. To prevent the emission of nutrients and crop protecting agents, an emission:free cropping system should be developed. This experiment was conducted to that purpose. The objectives of this experiment we

  20. Effect of light intensity, plant density and flower bud removal on the flower size and number in cut chrysanthemum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carvalho, S.M.P.; Heuvelink, E.; Kooten, van O.

    2002-01-01

    Flower size and number of flowers per plant are important external quality aspects in cut chrysanthemum. The present work is conducted in a glasshouse and aims at investigating how these quality aspects can be predicted. To evaluate individual flower size, different levels of supplementary lighting

  1. Process-based modeling of the control of beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua, with baculoviruses in greenhouse chrysanthemum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bianchi, F.J.J.A.

    2001-01-01

    This thesis describes the development of a process-based simulation model for the population dynamics of beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua , and baculoviruses in greenhouse chrysanthemum. The model (BACSIM) has been validated for two baculoviruses with clear differences in biological characteristics,

  2. Mutation Breeding of various spray chrysanthemum cultivars by gamma-ray irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sang Hoon; Chung, Sung Jin; Kim, Dong Sub; Kim, Jin Baek; Kang, Si Yong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Geung Joo [Mokpo National University, Muan (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-09-15

    This study was carried out to analyze mutation rate and spectrum of chrysanthemum by gamma-ray irradiation. Five flower types, 16 cultivars including 'Geumsu', 'Hwiparam', 'Ilwol', 'Magic', 'Moonlight', 'Noblewine', 'Pinky', 'Progy', 'Sangtte', 'Waterfog', 'Whitneypangpang', 'Yelloweye', 'Yellowpangpang', 'Yesmiso', 'Yesmorning', and 'Yestogether' were irradiated as 30, 50, and 70 Gy dose during 24 hours. As a result, mutation rate was identified as the highest in single type among five flower types, but there was a little difference according to cultivars. Mutation rate was increased in proportion to irradiation dose in anemone, pompon, and spider type cultivars, but there wasn't clear in single and semi-double type cultivars. Mutation spectrum was identified as the highest in the cultivar 'Noblewine'. The most sensitive cultivars to radiation were revealed as 'Noblewine' and 'Yesmorning' and the least were Moonlight', 'Waterfog', and 'Yellowpangpang'. Consequently, there was much difference in radio-sensitivity according to cultivars of chrysanthemum and flower type was correlated a little with mutation rate.

  3. Effects of 60Co γ-rays irradiation on seed growth of ground-cover chrysanthemum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The seeds of ground-cover chrysanthemum were used to study the effects of different doses of 60Co γ-rays irradiation(10-50 Gy) on seed germination and physiological characteristics. The results showed that the rate of seed germination and seedling survival decreased significantly with the irradiation doses. With the increase of irradiation dose to above 20 Gy, the content of malondialdehyde (MDA) and activity of peroxidase (POD) in seedlings significantly increased. The similar trends were found in the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione reductase (GR). Catalase (CAT) activity increased at doses lower than 20 Gy, and then decreased at the higher doses, whereas ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activity did not alter except for 40 Gy. It is concluded that the suitable irradiation dose of mutation breeding is 20 Gy for the seeds of ground-cover chrysanthemum. Although 60Co γ-rays irradiation resulted in damage of membrane lipid peroxidation in the survival seedlings, the increased activity of CAT and POD could protect them against the damage. (authors)

  4. Reversal of multidrug resistance in human breast cancer cells by Curcuma wenyujin and Chrysanthemum indicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, L; Wei, D-D; Chen, Z; Wang, J-S; Kong, L-Y

    2011-06-15

    The emergence of multidrug resistance (MDR) is a big challenge to cancer chemotherapy. Plant-derived agents have great potential to prevent onset or delay progression of the carcinogenic process, and enhance the efficacy of mainstream antitumor agents. In this study, fractionated extracts of Curcuma wenyujin and Chrysanthemum indicum were tested for their potential to modulate the MDR phenotype and function of P-gp in MCF-7/ADR and A549/Taxol cells in vitro. Fractions C. wenyujin C10, E10 from Curcuma wenyujin, and C. indicum E10 from Chrysanthemum indicum, exhibited significant effects in sensitization of these resistant cancer cells at non-toxic concentration to doxorubicin and docetaxel by MTT method. They also increased the intracellular doxorubicin accumulation and retention in MCF-7/ADR cells. In mechanism study, an increase of Rh123 accumulation and a decrease of Rh123 efflux were observed in MCF-7/ADR cells treated with these fractions, indicating a blockage of the activity of P-gp. Furthermore, C. wenyujin C10 had the ability to down-regulate the expression of P-gp. All these fractions could enhance the apoptosis induced by doxorubicin in MCF-7/ADR cells, and restore the effect of docetaxel on the induction of G2/M arrest in A549/Taxol cells. C. wenyujin C10 and E10 also owned the ability to induce S phase arrest. These results showed the therapeutic value of the three fractions as potential MDR-reversing agents and warranted further investigations.

  5. Identification and Functional Analysis of Three MAX2 Orthologs in Chrysanthemum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lili Dong; Abdurazak Ishak; Jing Yu; Ruiyan Zhao; Liangjun Zhao

    2013-01-01

    MORE AXILLARY BRANCHING 2 (MAX2),initially identified in Arabidopsis thaliana,is a key regulatory gene in strigolactone signal transduction.Three orthologs of MAX2 were cloned from Dendranthema grandiflorum (DgMAX2a,b,and c).Each of the genes has an open reading frame of 2,049 bp and encodes 682 amino acid proteins.The predicted amino acid sequences of the three DgMAX2s are most closely related to the MAX2 orthologs identified in petunia (PhMAX2A and PhMAX2B),and display the highest amino acid sequence similarity with PhMAX2A compared to other MAX2s.Expression analysis revealed that DgMAX2s are predominantly expressed in the stem and axillary buds.On a cellular level,we localized the DgMAX2a::GFP fusion protein to the nucleus in onion epidermal cells,which is consistent with the nuclear localization of MAX2 in Arabidopsis.The chrysanthemum DgMAX2a is able to restore the max2-1 mutant branching to wild-type (WT) Arabidopsis,suggesting that it is a functional MAX2 ortholog.These results suggest that DgMAX2s may be candidate genes for reducing the shoot branching of chrysanthemum.

  6. Mutation Breeding of Chrysanthemum by Gamma Field Irradiation and In Vitro Culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this work is to clarify the effect of chronic (gamma field) and acute (gamma room) radiation and in vitro culture on mutation induction of flower color in chrysanthemum. The combination of both methods yielded a mutation rate 10 times higher than the conventional chronic cutting method, and also produced non-chimeric mutants. Somaclonal variation often occurred in plants regenerated from callus, but no significant variation appeared in callus regenerants from non-irradiated plants. Therefore, proper mutagenic treatment on cultured materials is indispensable for effective mutation induction. The chronic culture method clearly yielded the widest color spectrum in chrysanthemum, while the acute culture method resulted in a relatively low mutation rate and a limited flower color spectrum. Flower color mutation could be more readily induced in plants regenerated from petals and buds, than from leaves. In this respect, it is supposed that the gene loci fully expressed on floral organs may be unstable for mutation by mutagenesis or culture, but could perhaps induce mutation in a desired direction. A possible reason why the chronic culture methods showed higher frequencies than the acute, is discussed. Nine out of 10 registered mutant varieties were derived from chronic irradiation, and only one from acute. The combined method of chronic irradiation with floral organ cultures proved to be of particularly great practical use in mutation breeding, not only of flower species but of other species as well. (author)

  7. Simultaneous determination of flavonoids and anthraquinones in chrysanthemum by capillary electrophoresis with amperometry detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yin Yan Zhang; Zi Cheng Li; Jin Kun Zhu; Zhi Yong Yang; Qing Jiang Wang; Pin Gang He; Yu Zhi Fang

    2010-01-01

    A high-performance capillary electrophoresis with amperometry detection method(CE-AD)has been developed for the analysis of flavonoids and anthraquinones(emodin,kaempferol,apigenin,luteolin and rhein)in chrysanthemum.Under optimum conditions,these five analytes were base-line separated within 17 min using a borate-phosphate running buffer(1.5 × 10-2mol/L borate-3 × 10-2 mol/L phosphate running buffer,pH 9.0)at a working potential of+0.90 V(vs.SCE)and a separation voltage of 19 kV.The linear relationship between concentration and current response was obtained with detection limits(S/N = 3)ranging from 1.0 × 10-7 to 2.1 × 10-7 g/mL for all analytes.This proposed method was successfully used in the analysis of four kinds of chrysanthemum with relatively simple extraction procedures,the assay results were satisfactory.

  8. [Effects of crop rotation and bio-organic manure on soil microbial characteristics of Chrysanthemum cropping system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xin; Zhu, Wei; Du, Chao; Shi, Ya-dong; Wang, Jian-fei

    2015-06-01

    We conducted a field experiment to evaluate the effects of rotation system and bio-organic manure on soil microbial characteristics of Chrysanthemum cropping system. Taking Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat and wheat as experimental plants, treatments under Chrysanthemum continuous cropping system (M1), conventional Chrysanthemum-wheat rotation system (M2), and Chrysanthemum-wheat rotation system receiving bio-organic manure application of 200 kg · 667 m(-2) (M3) were designed. Soil chemical properties, soil microbial biomass carbon (MBC) and nitrogen (MBN), and the amounts of different types of soil microorganisms were determined. Results showed that compared with M1, treatments of M2 and M3 significantly increased soil pH, organic matter, available N, P, and K, MBC, MBN, and the amounts of bacteria, fungi and actinomycetes, but decreased the ratio of MBC/MBN, and the relative percentage of fungi in the total amount of microorganisms. Treatment of M3 had the highest contents of soil organic matter, available N, available P, available K, MBC, MBN, and the amounts of bacteria, fungi and actinomycetes, with the values being 15.62 g · kg(-1), 64.75 mg · kg(-1), 83.26 mg · kg(-1), 96.72 mg · kg(-1), 217.40 mg · kg(-1), 38.41 mg · kg(-1), 22.31 x 10(6) cfu · g(-1), 56.36 x 10(3) cfu · g(-1), 15.90 x 10(5) cfu · g(-1), respectively. We concluded that rational crop rotation and bio-organic manure application could weaken soil acidification, improve soil fertility and microbial community structure, increase the efficiency of nutrition supply, and have a positive effect on reducing the obstacles of continuous cropping. PMID:26572032

  9. Host specificity, but not high-temperature tolerance, is associated with recent outbreaks of Verticillium dahliae in chrysanthemum in the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Ispahani, S.K.; Goud, J.C.; Termorshuizen, A.J.; Morton, A.; Barbara, D J

    2008-01-01

    Two hypotheses which might explain a recent increase in the incidence of verticillium wilt of chrysanthemums in glasshouses in the Netherlands were investigated, viz whether selection for increased resistance to elevated temperatures has occurred due to frequent steaming of soils in the glasshouses, or whether the strains of Verticillium dahliae occurring in chrysanthemum glasshouses are particularly virulent towards this host. Following artificial inoculation, five isolates of V. dahliae fro...

  10. Comparative analysis of chrysanthemum transcriptome in response to three RNA viruses: Cucumber mosaic virus, Tomato spotted wilt virus and Potato virus X.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hoseong; Jo, Yeonhwa; Lian, Sen; Jo, Kyoung-Min; Chu, Hyosub; Yoon, Ju-Yeon; Choi, Seung-Kook; Kim, Kook-Hyung; Cho, Won Kyong

    2015-06-01

    The chrysanthemum is one of popular flowers in the world and a host for several viruses. So far, molecular interaction studies between the chrysanthemum and viruses are limited. In this study, we carried out a transcriptome analysis of chrysanthemum in response to three different viruses including Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) and Potato virus X (PVX). A chrysanthemum 135K microarray derived from expressed sequence tags was successfully applied for the expression profiles of the chrysanthemum at early stage of virus infection. Finally, we identified a total of 125, 70 and 124 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) for CMV, TSWV and PVX, respectively. Many DEGs were virus specific; however, 33 DEGs were commonly regulated by three viruses. Gene ontology (GO) enrichment analysis identified a total of 132 GO terms, and of them, six GO terms related stress response and MCM complex were commonly identified for three viruses. Several genes functioning in stress response such as chitin response and ethylene mediated signaling pathway were up-regulated indicating their involvement in establishment of host immune system. In particular, TSWV infection significantly down-regulated genes related to DNA metabolic process including DNA replication, chromatin organization, histone modification and cytokinesis, and they are mostly targeted to nucleosome and MCM complex. Taken together, our comparative transcriptome analysis revealed several genes related to hormone mediated viral stress response and DNA modification. The identified chrysanthemums genes could be good candidates for further functional study associated with resistant to various plant viruses. PMID:25904110

  11. [Effects of controlled-release fertilizer on chrysanthemum leaf chlorophyll fluorescence characteristics and ornamental quality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xu-xu; Zheng, Cheng-shu; Sun, Xia; Ma, Hai-yan

    2011-07-01

    Taking cut flower chrysanthemum 'Baima' as test material, a pot experiment was conducted to study the effects of controlled-release fertilizer on the leaf chlorophyll fluorescence parameters, chlorophyll and nutrient contents, and ornamental quality of chrysanthemum. Under no fertilization, the maximal photochemical efficiency of PS II in dark (F(v)/F(m)), potential photochemical efficiency of PS II (F(v)/F(0)), and quantum yield of PS II electron transport (phi(PS II)) decreased significantly, compared with those under fertilization. With the application of conventional compound fertilizers CCFA (N:P:K=20:8:10) and CCFB (N:P:K= 14:14:14), the F(v)/F(m), F(v)/F(0) and phi(PS II) had a slight increase in early period (30-60 d) but a remarkable decrease in mid and later periods (75 - 120 d), compared with those under the application of controlled-release fertilizers CRFA (N:P:K = 20:8:10) and CRFB (N:P:K= 14:14:14). Under the application of CRFA, the F(v)/F(m), phi(PS II), and photochemical quenching (q(P)) had somewhat increase, as compared with the application of CRFB. The non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) under the application of CRFA and CRFB decreased significantly, compared with that under the application of CCFA and CCFB and the control. The chlorophyll content had a similar change trend with F(v)/F(m), F(v)/F(0), and phi(PS II). The leaf N, P, and K contents, flower stalk length and stalk diameter, flower diameter, and flower fresh and dry mass at harvest stage all increased under the application of CRFA and CRFB, compared with those under the application of CCFA and CCFB and the control, and the flower fresh and dry mass was significantly higher under the application of CRFA than of CRFB. This study showed that controlled-release fertilizer could improve the ornamental quality of chrysanthemum via improving the leaf chlorophyll content, photochemical transduction rate, and nutrient uptake, and CRFA had better effects than CRFB.

  12. The embryo rescue derived intergeneric hybrid between chrysanthemum and Ajania przewalskii shows enhanced cold tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yanming; Chen, Sumei; Chen, Fadi; Cheng, Xi; Zhang, Fei

    2011-12-01

    Five intergeneric hybrids between the chrysanthemum cultivar 'Zhongshanjingui' (as female) and Ajania przewalskii (as male) were obtained with the help of embryo culture. While 'Zhongshanjingui' bears a standard anemone type flower and A. przewalskii a non-anemone type one, the inflorescence type of the hybrids varied. The diameter of the hybrids' flowers was intermediate between those of the parents. The chromosome number of the hybrids was 2n = 45, of which GISH analysis was able to establish that 27 were inherited from 'Zhongshanjingui' and the other 18 from A. przewalskii. A combination of various assays was used to show that the cold tolerance of the hybrids was equivalent to that of the highly tolerant A. przewalskii parent. Enhanced cold tolerance was correlated with an increase in free proline and a decrease in malondialdehyde content.

  13. Biological efficacy of the chemical chrysanthemums protection with the use of fine and coarse droplets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislaw PARAFINIUK

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Studies of three years (2007-2009 were conducted at Czesławice in south- east of Poland .The objects of research were the plants of the one cultivar of chrysanthemum: Dark Tripoli. The following agents were used for protection: Dithane NeoTec 75 WG, Sumilex 500 SC, Amistar 250 SC. The treatment was carried out with the use of two types of nozzles: standard RS-MM 110 03 and ejector type ID 120 03 C. Observation was carried out once a year: in October. The number and health status of plants were determined and diseased plants were collected for analysis. The percentage of plants with disease symptoms was estimated for each plot. The best health status and yield were noticed for Amistar 250 SC.

  14. Molecularly imprinted polymer for the selective extraction of luteolin from Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Die; Yang, Fengqing; Xia, Zhining; Zhang, Qihui

    2016-08-01

    In this work, luteolin-imprinted polymers were prepared by noncovalent precipitation polymerization for the first time. Their structural features and morphologies were analyzed by using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. The adsorption experiments revealed that the luteolin-imprinted polymers presented high selective recognition property to luteolin. The selectivity experiment showed that the adsorption capacity and selectivity of polymers to luteolin was higher than that of three structural analogs, including quercetin, isorhamnetin, and ombuin. Furthermore, an efficient method based on luteolin-imprinted polymers coupled with solid-phase extraction was developed for the pretreatment of luteolin from Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat. The results demonstrated that the luteolin-imprinted polymers coupled with solid phase extraction method was proven to be a potentially competitive technique for the separation and enrichment of luteolin in complex samples such as Chinese patent medicines and biological samples. PMID:27288270

  15. Effect of various sucker sizes and planting times on growth and flower yield of chrysanthemum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Small and large sized suckers of Chrysanthemum morifolium were planted on four different dates, i.e. 18th February, 18th April, 17th June and 16th August to find out their effect on growth and flower yield. Plants resulting from small sized suckers produced significantly higher number of primary and secondary branches and leaves plant/sup -1/. However, plant height, leaf area, number of suckers produced, biomass (fresh plant weight) and flower yield plant/sup -1/ were not affected by the sucker sizes. As the planting was delayed, plant growth and flower yield was reduced. Early plantings resulted in increased plant height, more number of branches and leaves plant/sup -1/, greater biomass, and higher flower yields but reduced leaf area as compared to late plantings. (author)

  16. Saccharose action on chrysanthemum cut inflorescences, Dendranthema grandiflorum Kitamura, after exposition to gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the last years the Brazilian floriculture expanded and it is expected to achieve a prominent role in near future. The national territory has many favorable regions, with adequate climate for the development of commercially important cultures. Flower exportation is not expressive yet, but the country has conditions to become a great exotic tropical plants exporter. On the other hand, developed countries, as USA and Japan, have a rigorous phyto sanitary inspection to prevent the introduction of new plagues and diseases through fresh products. Ionizing radiation is considered a reliable disinfestation method to control numerous fruit and flower plagues. The aim of of this work was to verify the tolerance of some Compositae family flowers to ionizing radiation and the effects to sucrose action in protecting the flowers against the gamma-radiation induced damages. This was done by measuring biochemical and physiological parameters as a function of time after irradiation. The chrysanthemum flowers were sensitive to gamma radiation, but when the inflorescences were supplied after irradiation with preservative solution containing 2% sucrose, protection against the damaging effects of radiation was achieved. The dose of 750 Gy, considered appropriate for disinfestation purpose, did not modify the protein and lipid levels, nor plasma, tonoplast and mitochondria membrane ATPase or mitochondria cytochrome-c oxidase activities. The ethylene and carbonic gas rate production increased soon after the irradiation, but decreased one day later. The decrease of the microsomal membrane fluidity and the increase of the chrysanthemum were the most sensitive parameters to measure the irradiation treatment changes. The sucrose supply was able to maintain the irradiated flowers membrane fluidity level close to the unirradiated control. Rhodante manglesii Lindl and Helichrysum bracteatum Andr. were tolerant up to 1 KGy, thus being adequate to be disinfected by gamma radiation. (author)

  17. Pattern of cross-sensitivity between 4 Compositae plants, Parthenium hysterophorus, Xanthium strumarium, Helianthus annuus and Chrysanthemum coronarium, in Indian patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandakishore, T; Pasricha, J S

    1994-03-01

    To assess the pattern of cross-sensitivity between 4 members of the Compositae family, namely Parthenium hysterophorus L., Xanthium strumarium L., Helanthus annuus L. and Chrysanthemum coronarium L., 63 patients clinically diagnosed to have airborne contact dermatitis, and 51 controls having well-defined patterns of contact dermatitis caused by agents other than plants, were patch tested with measured amounts of standardized aqueous extracts of these plants. Positive reactions were obtained in 62 patients and 13 controls with Parthenium hysterophorus, in 47 patients and 9 controls with Xanthium strumarium, in 7 patients and 2 controls with Helianthus annuus, and in 13 of the 57 patients and one out of 28 controls tested with Chrysanthemum coronarium. 2 patients were allergic to all 4 of the plants; 14 patients to 3 plants, namely Parthenium, Xanthium and Chrysanthemum in 9 cases and Parthenium, Xanthium and Helianthus in 5 cases; 32 patients to 2 plants, namely Parthenium and Xanthium in 30 cases, and Parthenium and Chrysanthemum, and Xanthium and Chrysanthemum in 1 case each; 15 patients were allergic to 1 plant only, that being Parthenium. All the 47 patients allergic to Xanthium, 13 patients allergic to Chrysanthemum and 7 patients allergic to Helianthus were positive with some other plant as well. There was 1 patient who was allergic to Xanthium and Chrysanthemum but not to Parthenium. The titre of contact hypersensitivity (TCH) determined in the patients allergic to Parthenium, Xanthium and Helianthus showed values that varied widely with each plant in different patients, and there was no parallelism between the TCH with various plants.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8187516

  18. 菊花黄色素的性质研究%Study of Yellow Pigment's Property from Chrysanthemum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柳滢春; 谷雪贤

    2012-01-01

    以菊花为原料提取菊花黄色素,并对其理化性质和稳定性进行了研究。结果表明:菊花黄色素色素可溶于水、甲醇、95%乙醇、正丁醇等极性较强的溶剂中,不溶于氯仿、石油醚等非极性溶剂中。最大吸收波长为445 nm。色素溶液在室温自然光环境中存放至36 h后无明显变化,在80℃以下色素的耐热性较好。对光、热较稳定,耐受一般的食品饮料加工条件。菊花黄色素可用于果汁饮料、调味品、及酒类等的加工中。%The freezing-melting-ultrasound combined cell crushing method was added to the original preparation process of chrysanthemum yellow pigment, so that the cell wall of chrysanthemum petals were fully ruptured and pigment directly flowed out. The improved process shortened the extraction time, and improved pigment extraction rate. To assess the feasibility of new technology, the experiment of comparing extraction results of new process to extraction results of the conventional process was done. The experimental results showed that: The yellow pigment showed different color in different condition of pH value. Finally, chrysanthemum yellow pigment was added to the wine, vinegar and beverage products to preparing characteristic chrysanthemum product series. And its stability was studied preliminary .

  19. Safety Evaluation of Chrysanthemum indicum L. Flower Oil by Assessing Acute Oral Toxicity, Micronucleus Abnormalities, and Mutagenicity

    OpenAIRE

    Hwang, Eun-Sun; Kim, Gun-Hee

    2013-01-01

    Chrysanthemum indicum is widely used to treat immune-related and infectious disorders in East Asia. C. indicum flower oil contains 1,8-cineole, germacrene D, camphor, α-cadinol, camphene, pinocarvone, β-caryophyllene, 3-cyclohexen-1-ol, and γ-curcumene. We evaluated the safety of C. indicum flower oil by conducting acute oral toxicity, bone marrow micronucleus, and bacterial reverse mutation tests. Mortality, clinical signs and gross findings of mice were measured for 15 days after the oral s...

  20. Effect of light intensity, plant density and flower bud removal on the flower size and number in cut chrysanthemum

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho, S.M.P.; Heuvelink, E.; Kooten, van, J.

    2002-01-01

    Flower size and number of flowers per plant are important external quality aspects in cut chrysanthemum. The present work is conducted in a glasshouse and aims at investigating how these quality aspects can be predicted. To evaluate individual flower size, different levels of supplementary lighting (control and assimilation light), plant density (32, 48 and 64 plants m-2) and lateral flower bud removal (leaving 1 flower, 4 flowers and control) were applied. To analyse the effect of assimilate...

  1. Involvement of CmWRKY10 in Drought Tolerance of Chrysanthemum through the ABA-Signaling Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Abuzar Jaffar

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Drought is one of the important abiotic factors that adversely affects plant growth and production. The WRKY transcription factor plays a pivotal role in plant growth and development, as well as in the elevation of many abiotic stresses. Among three major groups of the WRKY family, the group IIe WRKY has been the least studied in floral crops. Here, we report functional aspects of group IIe WRKY member, i.e., CmWRKY10 in chrysanthemum involved in drought tolerance. The transactivation assay showed that CmWRKY10 had transcriptional activity in yeast cells and subcellular localization demonstrated that it was localized in nucleus. Our previous study showed that CmWRKY10 could be induced by drought in chrysanthemum. Moreover, the overexpression of CmWRKY10 in transgenic chrysanthemum plants improved tolerance to drought stress compared to wild-type (WT. High expression of DREB1A, DREB2A, CuZnSOD, NCED3A, and NCED3B transcripts in overexpressed plants provided strong evidence that drought tolerance mechanism was associated with abscisic acid (ABA pathway. In addition, lower accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS and higher enzymatic activity of peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and catalase in CmWRKY10 overexpressed lines than that of WT demonstrates its role in drought tolerance. Together, these findings reveal that CmWRKY10 works as a positive regulator in drought stress by regulating stress-related genes.

  2. Involvement of CmWRKY10 in Drought Tolerance of Chrysanthemum through the ABA-Signaling Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffar, Muhammad Abuzar; Song, Aiping; Faheem, Muhammad; Chen, Sumei; Jiang, Jiafu; Liu, Chen; Fan, Qingqing; Chen, Fadi

    2016-01-01

    Drought is one of the important abiotic factors that adversely affects plant growth and production. The WRKY transcription factor plays a pivotal role in plant growth and development, as well as in the elevation of many abiotic stresses. Among three major groups of the WRKY family, the group IIe WRKY has been the least studied in floral crops. Here, we report functional aspects of group IIe WRKY member, i.e., CmWRKY10 in chrysanthemum involved in drought tolerance. The transactivation assay showed that CmWRKY10 had transcriptional activity in yeast cells and subcellular localization demonstrated that it was localized in nucleus. Our previous study showed that CmWRKY10 could be induced by drought in chrysanthemum. Moreover, the overexpression of CmWRKY10 in transgenic chrysanthemum plants improved tolerance to drought stress compared to wild-type (WT). High expression of DREB1A, DREB2A, CuZnSOD, NCED3A, and NCED3B transcripts in overexpressed plants provided strong evidence that drought tolerance mechanism was associated with abscisic acid (ABA) pathway. In addition, lower accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and higher enzymatic activity of peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and catalase in CmWRKY10 overexpressed lines than that of WT demonstrates its role in drought tolerance. Together, these findings reveal that CmWRKY10 works as a positive regulator in drought stress by regulating stress-related genes. PMID:27187353

  3. 菊花保健啤酒研究进展%Recent Research Progress of Chrysanthemum Healthy Beer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛永斌; 徐娟; 刘西岭; 燕傲蕾

    2015-01-01

    在对菊花保健啤酒研究的基础上,总结国内菊花保健啤酒的研究现状,介绍菊花啤酒中添加的有效成分及各有效成分的功效,并对菊花啤酒生产工艺中有效成分提取的方法进行比较得出:热水提取法由于成本低、安全且不影响口感而被多数企业采用。对菊花添加时间及添加形式及添加量进行分析,认为后发酵时添加菊花提取液效果较好,同时控制菊花添加量对于保持菊花保健啤酒的理化性质及啤酒品质有重要作用。通过对菊花保健啤酒生产工艺的研究探讨合理的生产工艺,同时也对菊花保健啤酒研发过程中存在的问题及未来保健啤酒的发展前景作简要分析。%Based on the research of Chrysanthemum healthy beer,this paper summarized the domestic re⁃search status,introduced the effective ingredients added to Chrysanthemum beer and the efficacies of each ac⁃tive component,and compared the extraction methods of the effective components. The result is that hot wa⁃ter extraction method was adopt by the majority of enterprises because of its low cost ,safety and good taste. It is found that the best time to add extracts of Chrysanthemum were in after-fermentation period and the amount of Chrysanthemum added in beer had important effects on the physicochemical properties and main⁃tained the quality of Chrysanthemum healthy beer. The reasonable production process was discussed through the researches of the technology in the production. The problems in the research and development process as well as the development prospect of the future were analyzed briefly at the same time.

  4. Characterization of odor-active compounds of various Chrysanthemum essential oils by gas chromatography-olfactometry, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and their correlation with sensory attributes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Zuobing; Fan, Binbin; Niu, Yunwei; Wu, Minling; Liu, Junhua; Ma, Shengtao

    2016-01-15

    Volatiles of five kinds of Chrysanthemum essential oils with different manufactures were characterized by descriptive sensory analysis, gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O), gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and statistics analysis. Six sensory attributes (floral, woody, grassy, fruity, sour and minty) were selected to assess Chrysanthemum essential oils. A total of 38 volatile compounds were detected and quantified using standard substances by GC-O and GC-MS. Terpenes constituted the largest chemical group among the volatiles of the essential oils. Then partial least squares regression (PLSR) was used to elucidate the relationship between sensory attributes and aroma compounds. The result showed that α-pinene, β-thujene, α-terpinolen, β-cubebene, caryophyllene, (Z)β-farnesene, (-)-spathulenol, linalool, camphor, camphene, 4-terpineol, Z-citral and 4-isopropyltoluene were typical aroma compounds covaried with characteristic aroma of Chrysanthemum essential oils. PMID:26735711

  5. 不同基质处理对盆栽菊花生长的影响%Effects of Different Matrix Treatments on Growth of Potted Chrysanthemum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨倩; 杨秋生

    2012-01-01

    对不同基质处理盆栽菊花的生长状况进行了观测,并利用模型模拟了菊花茎长随时间的动态变化.结果表明:珍珠岩和蛭石(1∶1)最有利于菊花植株的早期生长;所选模型能模拟菊花茎长随时间的变化,相关系数达到0.9以上;珍珠岩和蛭石(1∶1)处理菊花茎长的理论增长量最大,实际生产中推荐珍珠岩和蛭石(1∶1)作为盆栽菊花的基质.%The growth of potted chrysanthemums with different matrix treatments were observed, and related models were established to simulate the dynamics of chrysanthemum stem varying over time after transplanted. The results showed that the treatment of perlite + vermiculite (1;1) is the optimum matrix for early development of chrysanthemum; the chosen model could well simulate the changes of chrysanthemum stem over time, and the correlation coefficient reached more than 0.9; the theoretical increment of chrysanthemum stem in treatment of perlite + vermiculite (1:1) was the largest. Therefore, the treatment of perlite + vermiculite (1 :1) was recommended to use as matrix for potted chrysanthemums in the practical production.

  6. Inhibitory Effect of Chrysanthemum zawadskii Herbich var. latilobum Kitamura Extract on RANKL-Induced Osteoclast Differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Ryun Gu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Chrysanthemum zawadskii Herbich var. latilobum Kitamura, known as “Gujulcho” in Korea, has been used in traditional medicine to treat various inflammatory diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis. However, these effects have not been tested on osteoclasts, the bone resorbing cells that regulate bone metabolism. Here, we investigated the effects of C. zawadskii Herbich var. latilobum Kitamura ethanol extract (CZE on osteoclast differentiation induced by treatment with the receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL. CZE inhibited osteoclast differentiation and formation in a dose-dependent manner. The inhibitory effect of CZE on osteoclastogenesis was due to the suppression of ERK activation and the ablation of RANKL-stimulated Ca2+-oscillation via the inactivation of PLCγ2, followed by the inhibition of CREB activation. These inhibitory effects of CZE resulted in a significant repression of c-Fos expression and a subsequent reduction of NFATc1, a key transcription factor for osteoclast differentiation, fusion, and activation in vitro and in vivo. These results indicate that CZE negatively regulates osteoclast differentiation and may be a therapeutic candidate for the treatment of various bone diseases, such as postmenopausal osteoporosis, rheumatoid arthritis, and periodontitis.

  7. Antioxidant Activity, Antitumor Effect, and Antiaging Property of Proanthocyanidins Extracted from Kunlun Chrysanthemum Flowers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siqun Jing

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate the antioxidant activity, antitumor effect, and antiaging property of proanthocyanidins from Kunlun Chrysanthemum flowers (PKCF grown in Xinjiang. In vitro antioxidant experiments results showed that the total antioxidant activity and the scavenging capacity of hydroxyl radicals (•OH and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH• radicals increased in a concentration-dependent manner and were stronger than those of vitamin C. To investigate the antioxidant activity of PKCF in vivo, we used serum, liver, and kidney from mouse for the measurement of superoxide dismutase (SOD, malondialdehyde (MDA, and total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC. Results indicated that PKCF had antioxidative effect in vivo which significantly improved the activity of SOD and T-AOC and decreased MDA content. To investigate the antitumor activity of PKCF, we used H22 cells, HeLa cells, and Eca-109 cells with Vero cells as control. Inhibition ratio and IC50 values were measured by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT assay; PKCF showed great inhibitory activity on H22 cells and HeLa cells. We also used fruit flies as a model for analyzing the anti-aging property of PKCF. Results showed that PKCF has antiaging effect on Drosophila. Results of the present study demonstrated that PKCF could be a promising agent that may find applications in health care, medicine, and cosmetics.

  8. Chrysanthemum boreale Makino essential oil induces keratinocyte proliferation and skin regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Do Yoon; Won, Kyung-Jong; Yoon, Mi-So; Hwang, Dae Il; Yoon, Seok Won; Park, Joo-Hoon; Kim, Bokyung; Lee, Hwan Myung

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the effect of essential oil from the flower of Chrysanthemum boreale Makino (CBMEO) on growth of human keratinocytes (HaCaTs) and explored a possible mechanism for this response. CBMEO was extracted using the steam distillation method. CBMEO contained a total of 33 compounds. CBMEO stimulated HaCaT proliferation (EC50, 0.028 μg/mL) and also induced phosphorylation of Akt and ERK1/2 in HaCaTs (EC50, 0.007 and 0.005 μg/mL, for phosphorylated Akt and ERK1/2, respectively). Moreover, CBMEO promoted wound closure in the dorsal side skin of rat tail. This study demonstrated that CBMEO can stimulate growth of human skin keratinocytes, probably through the Akt and ERK1/2 pathways. Therefore, CBMEO may be helpful in skin regeneration and wound healing in human skin, and may also be a possible cosmetic material for skin beauty. PMID:25167931

  9. Genetic and serological characterization of chrysanthemum stem necrosis virus, a member of the genus Tospovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Pei-Ru; Chien, Wan-Chu; Okuda, Mitsuru; Takeshita, Minoru; Yeh, Shyi-Dong; Wang, Yun-Chi; Chen, Tsung-Chi

    2015-02-01

    Chrysanthemum stem necrosis virus (CSNV) is a member of a tentative tospovirus species. In this study, the complete genomic sequence of the Japanese CSNV isolate TcCh07A was determined. The L RNA is 8960 nt long and encodes the 331.0-kDa RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. The M RNA is 4828 nt long and encodes the 34.1-kDa movement protein (NSm) and the 127.7-kDa glycoprotein precursor (Gn/Gc). The S RNA is 2949 nt long and encodes the 52.4-kDa silencing suppressor protein (NSs) and the 29.3-kDa nucleocapsid (N) protein. The N protein of CSNV-TcCh07A was purified from virus-infected plant tissues and used for production of a rabbit polyclonal antiserum (RAs) and a monoclonal antibody (MAb). Results of serological tests by indirect ELISA and western blotting using the prepared RAs and MAb and a previously produced RAs against the N protein of tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) indicated that CSNV-TcCh07A, TSWV, tomato chlorotic spot virus, groundnut ringspot virus, alstroemeria necrotic streak virus and impatiens necrotic spot virus are serologically related. PMID:25427981

  10. Ni (II) adsorption onto Chrysanthemum indicum: Influencing factors, isotherms, kinetics, and thermodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilvanathan, Sowmya; Shanthakumar, S

    2016-10-01

    The study explores the adsorption potential of Chrysanthemum indicum biomass for nickel ion removal from aqueous solution. C. indicum flowers in raw (CIF-I) and biochar (CIF-II) forms were used as adsorbents in this study. Batch experiments were conducted to ascertain the optimum conditions of solution pH, adsorbent dosage, contact time, and temperature for varying initial Ni(II) ion concentrations. Surface area, surface morphology, and functionality of the adsorbents were characterized by Brunauer, Emmett, and Teller (BET) surface analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Adsorption kinetics were modeled using pseudo-first order, pseudo-second order, Elovich, intraparticle diffusion, Bangham's, and Boyd's plot. The equilibrium data were modeled using Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin, and Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) isotherm models. Experimental data provided the best fit to pseudo-second-order kinetic model and Langmuir isotherm model for the adsorption of Ni(II) ion on both CIF-I and CIF-II with maximum adsorption capacities of 23.97 and 44.02 mg g(-1), respectively. Thermodynamic analysis of the data proved the process to be spontaneous and endothermic in nature. Desorption studies were conducted to evaluate the possibility of reusing the adsorbents. Findings of the present study provide substantial evidence for the use of C. indicum flower as an eco-friendly and potential adsorbent for the removal of Ni(II) ions from aqueous solution. PMID:27185382

  11. Transcriptome-wide survey and expression analysis of stress-responsive NAC genes in Chrysanthemum lavandulifolium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, He; Wang, Yi; Wang, Shunli; Wu, Xuan; Yang, Ke; Niu, Yajing; Dai, Silan

    2012-09-01

    The plant-specific NAC (NAM, ATAF, and CUC) transcription factor family plays a vital role in various plant growth and developmental processes as well as in stress resistance. Using RNA sequencing, we found that the ClNAC genes (ClNAC1-44) were the most strongly up-regulated transcription factor family in Chrysanthemum lavandulifolium leaves under salt treatment. We carried out reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction to monitor ClNAC genes response against multiple stresses and hormonal treatments including salt, drought, cold, heat, abscisic acid and salicylic acid treatments. The results showed that 35 ClNAC genes were differentially expressed in different organ, and 32 ClNAC genes could respond to at least 2 kinds of treatments. Quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction showed that 10 ClNAC genes belonging to 7 different subfamilies could respond to at least 5 kinds of treatments. Over 50-fold variation in transcriptional levels of ClNAC17 and ClNAC21 genes was observed under 6 different types of treatments. In the present study, high-level expression of ClNAC genes under abiotic stresses and hormonal treatments suggests that the NAC transcription factors play important roles in abiotic stress tolerance and adaptation.

  12. The influence of light color on the rooting of 'Horim Golden' Chrysanthemum cuttings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Borowski

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The influence of three different colors of light; blue, green and red, compared with white light as the control, on the rooting of Chrysanthemum cuttings, is presented in this paper. The mother plants and cuttings were irradiated during rooting with different colors of light. This was shown to have had visible influence on the morphological differentiation of cuttings. It also affected the carbohydrate content in them. The rooting of the cuttings reflected this influence. The cuttings obtained from plants grown under white (control or red light were characterized by well-developed root systems in terms of the number, length and mass of the roots. The cuttings from the plants grown under green light were the worst. The influence of the color of the light on the speed with which the first roots were formed was the reverse. The cuttings from the plants irradiated with green light rooted the quickest, next in order were those from plants irradiated with blue, red and white light. Irradiating cuttings with differently colored light during rooting only had an effect on the number of roots formed. This number was high, close to that of control cuttings, in cuttings exposed to red light, decidedly lower in those exposed to blue and, in particular, green light.

  13. Regeneration of Haploid Plantlet through Anther Culture of Chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflorum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rayhanul Kabir KHANDAKAR MD

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available To observe the possibility of producing haploid plants of Chrysanthemum, anthers of three Korean cultivars ‘Yes Morning’, ‘Hi-Maya’, and pot cultivar ‘Peace Pink’ were cultured. Callus induction among cultivars differed little, but equally good results were obtained with the basal MS medium supplemented with 1 mg/L of 2,4-D, 2 mg/L of BA, 250 mg/L of casein hydrolysate, 45 g/L of sucrose; solidified by 2.75 g/L gelrite. A pretreatment of anthers in media at 4 °C for 48h enhanced the callus induction. Calli were allowed to differentiate on basal MS medium supplemented with 2 mg/L of BA, 0.1 mg/L of NAA, 30 g/L of sucrose; solidified by 2.75 g/L gelrite.  Shoot formation from calli in that media slightly differed among cultivars. Multiple shoots elongated from calli were shifted to basal MS medium supplemented with 0.1 mg/L of NAA, 30 g/L of sucrose; solidified by 3 g/L gelrite for rooting. The plantlets with sufficient roots thus obtained were acclimatized and transferred to the soil. Fifty regenerated plantlets from each cultivar were randomly selected for ploidy observation by chromosome counting and haploid plantlet was detected for the garden cultivar ‘Yes morning’.

  14. Formation flavonoid secondary metabolites in callus culture of Chrysanthemum cinerariefolium as alternative provision medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purwianingsih, Widi; Febri, Santika; Kusdianti

    2016-02-01

    Increasing need of medicine ingredients require the discovery of other methods that can be used as an alternative. One method that can be used as an alternative is tissue culture. Quercetin is a flavonoid secondary metabolites that have been known to be useful as antiviral, anti-asthma and anti-cancer potential. The purpose of this study was to produce flavonoids, especially quercetin in callus culture Chrysanthemum cinerariefolium. Pieces of leaves of plantlets C. cinerariefolium used as explants for formation of callus tissue. To grow the callus, Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium used with addition of various concentrations of growth regulators 2.4-D, and kinetin. For multiplication, callus subcultured on similar medium. Callus that had formed, especially brown callus, further analyzed using Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrum (GCMS). Before analyzed callus was extracted in 95% ethanol. The result showed that callus potentially generate secondary metabolite are brown and friable. Based on these parameters, the best callus produced from leaf explants grown on MS medium with the addition of 4 mg / L 2,4-D and 0 mg / L kinetin. The callus contain secondary metabolites such as some of the flavonoid quercetin precursors such as acetic acid and tetrahydroxychalcone, and some other secondary metabolites.

  15. Morphological, Genome and Gene Expression Changes in Newly Induced Autopolyploid Chrysanthemum lavandulifolium (Fisch. ex Trautv.) Makino

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Ri; Wang, Haibin; Dong, Bin; Yang, Xiaodong; Chen, Sumei; Jiang, Jiafu; Zhang, Zhaohe; Liu, Chen; Zhao, Nan; Chen, Fadi

    2016-01-01

    Autopolyploidy is widespread in higher plants and plays an important role in the process of evolution. The present study successfully induced autotetraploidys from Chrysanthemum lavandulifolium by colchicine. The plant morphology, genomic, transcriptomic, and epigenetic changes between tetraploid and diploid plants were investigated. Ligulate flower, tubular flower and leaves of tetraploid plants were greater than those of the diploid plants. Compared with diploid plants, the genome changed as a consequence of polyploidization in tetraploid plants, namely, 1.1% lost fragments and 1.6% novel fragments occurred. In addition, DNA methylation increased after genome doubling in tetraploid plants. Among 485 common transcript-derived fragments (TDFs), which existed in tetraploid and diploid progenitors, 62 fragments were detected as differentially expressed TDFs, 6.8% of TDFs exhibited up-regulated gene expression in the tetraploid plants and 6.0% exhibited down-regulation. The present study provides a reference for further studying the autopolyploidization role in the evolution of C. lavandulifolium. In conclusion, the autopolyploid C. lavandulifolium showed a global change in morphology, genome and gene expression compared with corresponding diploid. PMID:27735845

  16. Change in Auxin and Cytokinin Levels Coincides with Altered Expression of Branching Genes during Axillary Bud Outgrowth in Chrysanthemum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dierck, Robrecht; De Keyser, Ellen; De Riek, Jan; Dhooghe, Emmy; Van Huylenbroeck, Johan; Prinsen, Els; Van Der Straeten, Dominique

    2016-01-01

    In the production and breeding of Chrysanthemum sp., shoot branching is an important quality aspect as the outgrowth of axillary buds determines the final plant shape. Bud outgrowth is mainly controlled by apical dominance and the crosstalk between the plant hormones auxin, cytokinin and strigolactone. In this work the hormonal and genetic regulation of axillary bud outgrowth was studied in two differently branching cut flower Chrysanthemum morifolium (Ramat) genotypes. C17 is a split-type which forms an inflorescence meristem after a certain vegetative period, while C18 remains vegetative under long day conditions. Plant growth of both genotypes was monitored during 5 subsequent weeks starting one week before flower initiation occurred in C17. Axillary bud outgrowth was measured weekly and samples of shoot apex, stem and axillary buds were taken during the first two weeks. We combined auxin and cytokinin measurements by UPLC-MS/MS with RT-qPCR expression analysis of genes involved in shoot branching regulation pathways in chrysanthemum. These included bud development genes (CmBRC1, CmDRM1, CmSTM, CmLsL), auxin pathway genes (CmPIN1, CmTIR3, CmTIR1, CmAXR1, CmAXR6, CmAXR2, CmIAA16, CmIAA12), cytokinin pathway genes (CmIPT3, CmHK3, CmRR1) and strigolactone genes (CmMAX1 and CmMAX2). Genotype C17 showed a release from apical dominance after floral transition coinciding with decreased auxin and increased cytokinin levels in the subapical axillary buds. As opposed to C17, C18 maintained strong apical dominance with vegetative growth throughout the experiment. Here high auxin levels and decreasing cytokinin levels in axillary buds and stem were measured. A differential expression of several branching genes accompanied the different hormonal change and bud outgrowth in C17 and C18. This was clear for the strigolactone biosynthesis gene CmMAX1, the transcription factor CmBRC1 and the dormancy associated gene CmDRM1, that all showed a decreased expression in C17 at floral

  17. Seasonal changes of photoperiodic response and inflorescence quality in pot cultivars of Chrysanthemum × grandiflorum grown in greenhouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Jerzy

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research was to investigate seasonal changes of photoperiodic response and inflorescence quality in chrysanthemum from the Time group grown all year round without supplementary lighting. Four chrysanthemum cultivars were grown in 12 cycles starting on the second day of each successive month. The first cycle began on 2 January. From the moment of potting, the plants were treated with a short day. In periods of naturally long days, the day was shortened to 10.5 hours through shading. No supplementary illumination was used from November to mid-February (a photoperiod of under 10 hours to improve light conditions in the period of insolation deficit. In Polish climatic conditions, the shortest photoperiodic responses were recorded usually in the cycles starting in February or March and August or September. An exceptionally longer photoperiodic response was recorded in the cycle including the height of summer, i.e. planting from June to July, when the temperature during the day was very high, and from October to December i.e. in the period of substantial insolation deficit. The highest quality of flower heads was attained by plants potted mostly between 2 March and 2 September and flowering from April - May to November. Those plants developed the greatest number of inflorescences and usually a typical, cultivar-specific colour of the flower. Chrysanthemums potted from 2 June to 2 July, i.e. in the period of the greatest heat, produced inflorescences with the smallest diameter. For the cultivar 'Cool Time', this unfavorable period lasted from 2 April to 2 August.

  18. Repellent effects of pongam oil on settlement and oviposition of the common greenhouse whitefly Trialeurodes vaporariorum on chrysanthemum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ROMAN PAVELA; GERHARD HERDA

    2007-01-01

    The repellent activities, including host deterrence and anti-oviposion, of pongam oil against the adults of the common greenhouse whitefly Trialeurodes vaporariorum Westwood in greenhouses were tested. Chrysanthemum plants treated with different concentrations (0.5%-2.0%) of water-suspended pongam oil showed relatively longlasting host deterrent and anti-oviposition effects on the adults of greenhouse whitefly. Although the repellent effect declined in time and concentration, strong effects on the reduction of oviposition were found, which lasts, dependent on concentration at least 12 days after application.

  19. Studies on aldose reductase inhibitors from natural products. IV. Constituents and aldose reductase inhibitory effect of Chrysanthemum morifolium, Bixa orellana and Ipomoea batatas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terashima, S; Shimizu, M; Horie, S; Morita, N

    1991-12-01

    The hot water extracts of Chrysanthemum morifolium, Bixa orellana and Ipomoea batatas, were found to have potent inhibitory activity towards lens aldose reductase (AR). Ellagic acid (4) was isolated from C. morifolium and I. batatas, isoscutellarein (7) from B. orellana and 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid (10) from I. batatas, respectively, as potent inhibitors. PMID:1814628

  20. Soluções de manutenção na pós-colheita de Chrysanthemum morifolium cv. Dragon Chrysanthemum morifolium cv. Dragon postharvest maintenance solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poliana Cristina Spricigo

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available O desenvolvimento e uso de técnicas que prolonguem a durabilidade das flores, mantendo a qualidade do produto, é imprescindível para redução de perdas pós-colheita. Objetivou-se, neste trabalho, avaliar soluções de manutenção, associadas ou não a sacarose, na manutenção da qualidade pós-colheita de hastes de crisântemos. O experimento foi conduzido sob delineamento inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial, com cinco tratamentos e três repetições, com 2 hastes florais cada uma. Os tratamentos utilizaram água destilada; 8-HQC a 100 mg L-1; 8-HQC a 100 mg L-1 + sacarose a 50 g L-1, 8-HQC a 200 mg L-1; 8-HQC a 200 mg L-1 + sacarose a 50 g L-1. Foram feitas avaliações físicas: coloração, massa fresca e conteúdo relativo de água (CRA; avaliações químicas: açúcares redutores e pigmentos; e avaliações qualitativas: turgescência, cor das flores, e número de botões, flores entreabertas e abertas. A combinação de 8-HQC 200 mg L-1 + sacarose a 50 g L-1 foi a que apresentou melhor desempenho para a manutenção da qualidade das hastes florais, favorecendo a abertura de botões e a turgescência das lígulas. A sacarose contribuiu para uma melhor manutenção de substâncias de reserva na haste, que tiveram a sua vida de vaso estendida.The development and use of techniques that extend the life vase of the flowers, maintaining the quality of the product, is essential for reducing postharvest losses. The objective of this work was to evaluate different solutions for maintenance, associated or not to sucrose, in maintaining the postharvest quality of chrysanthemum stems. The treatments used distilled water, 8-HQC to 100 mg L-1, 8-HQC to 100 mg L-1 + sucrose 50 g L-1, 8-HQC to 200 mg L-1, 8-HQC to 200 mg L-1 + sucrose 50 g L-1. Physical assessments were made: color, fresh mass and relative water content; chemical evaluations: reducing sugars and pigments, and qualitative assessments: turgidity, color of the flowers, and

  1. IN VITRO REGENERATION OF THREE CHRYSANTHEMUM (Dendrathema grandiflora VARIETIES “VIA” ORGANOGENESIS AND SOMATIC EMBRYOGENESIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Hodson de Jaramillo

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Chrysanthemum (Dendrathema grandiflora has a high demand in the Colombian and international cut flower markets.Since commercial production of this ornamental species is strongly affected by fungal diseases such as chrysanthemumwhite rust (Puccinia horiana, high doses of fungicides are being used posing increased environmental and commercialcosts. Assessment of in vitro regeneration systems from leaf discs was a first step in developing a plant genetic transformationprotocol to obtain fungi-resistant plants. Leaf discs of White Albatross, Yellow Albatross, and Escapade varieties wereestablished in vitro on MS medium supplemented with NAA (0 - 4.83 μM and BAP (0 - 13.32 μM alone and incombination. Leaf discs were also cultured on MumB medium containing 2,4-D (0 - 4.52 μM for 7, 14, and 21 days priorto their transferral to a 2,4-D free MumB medium. Regenerated shoots were individualized, rooted, and hardened. Resultsshow that MS with 4.83 μM NAA + 4.44 μM BAP and 4.83 μM NAA + 13.32 μM BAP induce organogenesis, and MumBwith 2.26 μM 2,4-D induces somatic embryogenesis on all three varieties, with exposition periods to 2,4-D of 14 days forWhite Albatross and 21 days for Yellow Albatross and Escapade. Shoot development from somatic embryos was observedin the three varieties when cultured on a 2,4-D free MumB medium. Spontaneous rooting was recorded in 85% of the shootsthus facilitating hardening and successful transfer to soil.

  2. Development of SSR Markers and Assessment of Genetic Diversity in Medicinal Chrysanthemum morifolium Cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Shangguo; He, Renfeng; Lu, Jiangjie; Jiang, Mengying; Shen, Xiaoxia; Jiang, Yan; Wang, Zhi'an; Wang, Huizhong

    2016-01-01

    Chrysanthemum morifolium, is a well-known flowering plant worldwide, and has a high commercial, floricultural, and medicinal value. In this study, simple-sequence repeat (SSR) markers were generated from EST datasets and were applied to assess the genetic diversity among 32 cultivars. A total of 218 in silico SSR loci were identified from 7300 C. morifolium ESTs retrieved from GenBank. Of all SSR loci, 61.47% of them (134) were hexa-nucleotide repeats, followed by tri-nucleotide repeats (17.89%), di-nucleotide repeats (12.39%), tetra-nucleotide repeats (4.13%), and penta-nucleotide repeats (4.13%). In this study, 17 novel EST-SSR markers were verified. Along with 38 SSR markers reported previously, 55 C. morifolium SSR markers were selected for further genetic diversity analysis. PCR amplification of these EST-SSRs produced 1319 fragments, 1306 of which showed polymorphism. The average polymorphism information content of the SSR primer pairs was 0.972 (0.938–0.993), which showed high genetic diversity among C. morifolium cultivars. Based on SSR markers, 32 C. morifolium cultivars were separated into two main groups by partitioning of the clusters using the unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean dendrogram, which was further supported by a principal coordinate analysis plot. Phylogenetic relationship among C. morifolium cultivars as revealed by SSR markers was highly consistent with the classification of medicinal C. morifolium populations according to their origin and ecological distribution. Our results demonstrated that SSR markers were highly reproducible and informative, and could be used to evaluate genetic diversity and relationships among medicinal C. morifolium cultivars. PMID:27379163

  3. The over-expression of a chrysanthemum WRKY transcription factor enhances aphid resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peiling; Song, Aiping; Gao, Chunyan; Jiang, Jiafu; Chen, Sumei; Fang, Weimin; Zhang, Fei; Chen, Fadi

    2015-10-01

    Members of the large WRKY transcription factor family are responsible for the regulation of plant growth, development and the stress response. Here, five WRKY members were isolated from chrysanthemum. They each contained a single WRKY domain and a C2H2 zinc finger motif, so were classified into group II. Transient expression experiments demonstrated that all five were expressed in the nucleus, although CmWRKY42 was also expressed in the cytoplasm. When expressed heterologously in yeast, the products of CmWRKY22 and CmWRKY48 exhibited transactivation activity, while those of CmWRKY21, CmWRKY40 and CmWRKY42 did not. The transcription of the five CmWRKY genes was profiled when the plants were challenged with a variety of abiotic and biotic stress agents, as well as being treated with various phytohormones. CmWRKY21 proved to be markedly induced by salinity stress, and suppressed by high temperature exposure; CmWRKY22 was induced by high temperature exposure; CmWRKY40 was highly induced by salinity stress, and treatment with either abscisic acid (ABA) or methyl jasmonate (MeJA); CmWRKY42 was up-regulated by salinity stress, low temperature, ABA and MeJA treatment and aphid infestation; CmWRKY48 was induced by drought stress, ABA and MeJA treatment and aphid infestation. The function of CmWRKY48 was further investigated by over-expressing it transgenically. The constitutive expression of this transcription factor inhibited the aphids' population growth capacity, suggesting that it may represent an important component of the plant's defense machinery against aphids. PMID:26184088

  4. Biosynthesized silver nanoparticles using floral extract of Chrysanthemum indicum L.--potential for malaria vector control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arokiyaraj, Selvaraj; Dinesh Kumar, Vannam; Elakya, Vijay; Kamala, Tamilselvan; Park, Sung Kwon; Ragam, Muthiah; Saravanan, Muthupandian; Bououdina, Mohomad; Arasu, Mariadhas Valan; Kovendan, Kalimuthu; Vincent, Savariar

    2015-07-01

    Mosquitoes transmit serious human diseases, causing millions of deaths every year. The use of synthetic insecticides to control vector mosquitoes has caused physiological resistance and adverse environmental effects in addition to high operational cost. Insecticides synthesized of natural products for vector control have been a priority in this area. In the present study, silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) were green-synthesized using a floral extract of Chrysanthemum indicum screened for larvicidal and pupicidal activity against the first to fourth instar larvae and pupae of the malaria vector Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes. The synthesized Ag NPs were characterized by using UV-vis absorption, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy techniques. The textures of the yielded Ag NPs were found to be spherical and polydispersed with a mean size in the range of 25-59 nm. Larvae and pupae were exposed to various concentrations of aqueous extract of C. indicum and synthesized Ag NPs for 24 h, and the maximum mortality was observed from the synthesized Ag NPs against the vector A. stephensi (LC50 = 5.07, 10.35, 14.19, 22.81, and 35.05 ppm; LC90 = 29.18, 47.15, 65.53, 87.96, and 115.05 ppm). These results suggest that the synthesized Ag NPs have the potential to be used as an ideal eco-friendly approach for the control of A. stephensi. Additionally, this study provides the larvicidal and pupicidal properties of green-synthesized Ag NPs with the floral extract of C. indicum against vector mosquito species from the geographical location of India.

  5. Heterologous expression of the AtDREB1A gene in chrysanthemum increases drought and salt stress tolerance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HONG; Bo; TONG; Zheng; MA; Nan; LI; Jianke; KASUGA; Mie; YAMAGUCHI-SHINOZAKI; Kazuko; GAO; Junping

    2006-01-01

    DNA cassette containing an AtDREB1A cDNA and a nos terminator, driven by a cauliflower mosaic 35S promoter, or a stress-inducible rd29A promoter, was transformed into the ground cover chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflorum) 'Fall Color' genome. Compared with wild type plants, severe growth retardation was observed in 35S:DREB1A plants, but not in rd29A:DREB1A plants. RT-PCR analysis revealed that, under stress conditions, the DREB1A gene was over-expressed constitutively in 35S:DREB1A plants, but was over-expressed inductively in rd29A:DREB1A plants. The transgenic plants exhibited tolerance to drought and salt stress, and the tolerance was significantly stronger in rd29A:DREB1A plants than tn 35S:DREB1A plants. Proline content and SOD activity were increased inductively in rd29A:DREB1A plants than in 35S:DREB1A plants under stress conditions. These results indicate that heterologous AtDREB1A can confer drought and salt tolerance in transgenic chrysanthemum, and improvement of the stress tolerance may be related to enhancement of proline content and SOD activity.

  6. CmWRKY1 Enhances the Dehydration Tolerance of Chrysanthemum through the Regulation of ABA-Associated Genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingqing Fan

    Full Text Available WRKY transcription factors serve as antagonistic or synergistic regulators in a variety of abiotic stress responses in plants. Here, we show that CmWRKY1, a member of the group IIb WRKY family isolated from Chrysanthemum morifolium, exhibits no transcriptional activation in yeast cells. The subcellular localization examination showed that CmWRKY1 localizes to the nucleus in vivo. Furthermore, CmWRKY1-overexpressing transgenic lines exhibit enhanced dehydration tolerance in response to polyethylene glycol (PEG treatment compared with wild-type plants. We further confirmed that the transgenic plants exhibit suppressed expression levels of genes negatively regulated by ABA, such as PP2C, ABI1 and ABI2, and activated expression levels of genes positively regulated by ABA, such as PYL2, SnRK2.2, ABF4, MYB2, RAB18, and DREB1A. Taken together, our results indicate that CmWRKY1 plays an important role in the response to drought in chrysanthemum through an ABA-mediated pathway.

  7. The Effects of Gamma Irradiation on the Growth and Propagation of In-Vitro Chrysanthemum Shoot Explants (cv. Yellow Puma)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study on the effect of gamma irradiation on in-vitro shoot growth of chrysanthemum cv. Yellow Puma has been carried out. The aim of the study was to observe genetic variability of shoot growth caused by gamma irradiation. Shoot explants with four leaves were irradiated by gamma with dose of 10, 15 and 20 Gy with 3 replications at each of dose. The irradiated shoot explants were then transferred into fresh MS solid medium and placed in a growth room. Observation was performed on number of leaves and branches on M1V0 generation, while plantlets height and number of branches were observed a M1V1 generation. Number of survival plantlets and multiplication rate on three subsequent subcultures were observed as well. Results showed that gamma rays with dose of 20 Gy inhibited growth of leaves as much as 50% compared to control (shoots without irradiation), and branches 73.7% in three weeks. Observation on multiplication rate at M1V1 generation showed that gamma irradiation with dose of 10 Gy promoted multiplication rate as much as 10% higher than control. It can be concluded that in vitro mutagenesis using gamma irradiation with dose of 10 to 15 Gy can be used for inducing genetic variability of chrysanthemum cv. Yellow Puma. (author)

  8. Study of the Health Beverage of Honeysuckle and Chrysanthemum%金银双花饮料的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王兆丹; 汪开拓; 韩林; 唐华丽

    2012-01-01

    A healthy beverage which has the clearing and moistening effect of the throat is made by honeysuckle,white chrysanthemum,mint,and licorice.The optimal formula is studied by orthogonal experiment.The result showed that the best composition of the drink was 85% mix extract(include 26% honeysuckle juice,12% chrysanthemum juice,10% mint juice,10% licorice),with 10% sugar and 0.4% citric acid.%以金银花、白菊花、薄荷、甘草为主要原料研制一种具有清咽利喉功能的饮料,采用正交试验确定混合提取液最佳配比和饮料风味的最佳配方。试验结果表明:混合提取液适宜配比为金银花提取液为26%、白菊花提取液为12%、薄荷提取液为10%、甘草提取液为10%;饮料最佳风味配方为混合提取液含量为85%、白砂糖10%、柠檬酸0.4%。

  9. The Effects of Gamma Irradiation on the Growth and Propagation of In-Vitro Chrysanthemum Shoot Explants (cv. Yellow Puma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Dwimahyani

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The study on the effect of gamma irradiation on in-vitro shoot growth of chrysanthemum cv. Yellow Puma has been carried out. The aim of the study was to observe genetic variability of shoot growth caused by gamma irradiation. Shoot explants with four leaves were irradiated by gamma with dose of 10, 15 and 20 Gy with 3 replications at each of dose. The irradiated shoot explants were then transferred into fresh MS solid medium and placed in a growth room. Observation was performed on number of leaves and branches on M1V0 generation, while plantlets height and number of branches were observed a M1V1 generation. Number of survival plantlets and multiplication rate on three subsequent subcultures were observed as well. Results showed that gamma rays with dose of 20 Gy inhibited growth of leaves as much as 50% compared to control (shoots without irradiation, and branches 73.7% in three weeks. Observation on multiplication rate at M1V1 generation showed that gamma irradiation with dose of 10 Gy promoted multiplication rate as much as 10% higher than control. It can be concluded that in vitro mutagenesis using gamma iradiation with dose of 10 to 15 Gy can be used for inducing genetic variability of chrysanthemum cv. Yellow Puma.

  10. ELIMINATION OF CVB ( FROM A RANGE OF CHRYSANTHEMUM VARIETIES BY APICAL MERISTEM CULTURE FOLLOWING ANTIVIRAL AGENT AND HEAT TREATMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KURNIAWAN BUDIARTO

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available CVB elimination for retaining healthy protocols from infected chrysanthemum plant wasinvestigated through combined treatment of meristem culture with synthetic antiviral ribavirinor thermotherapy under conditions. The biological materials used for the experimentconstituted of six commercial varieties: Dewi Sartika, Saraswati, Yellow Fiji, White Puma,Yellow Puma and White Reagent. Tissue culture initiation was conducted through plantletestablishment using MS supplemented with IAA. Ribavirin was added in media with theconcentration of 40 mg/l on cv. Dewi Sartika, Saraswati and Yellow Fiji. Parallel with this step,heat treatment with different durations (1, 2, and 3 weeks was also conducted on the plantletson White Puma, Yellow Puma and White Reagent. Meristem culture was done followingthe chemo- and thermotherapy. The experiment resumed the failure of single treatment ofmeristem culture in eliminating CVB from the infected chrysanthemum plantlets. Under heattreatment, percentage of virus-free plantlets increased along with the duration ofthermotherapy, though the survival rate of plantlets decreased in lengthened heat treatment.The best results regarding virus free plant percentage were obtained when meristem culture wasapplied following ribavirin or three weeks of heat treatment.

  11. 滁菊水提液抗氧化活性研究%Antioxidative activity of aqueous extract of Chuju Chrysanthemum morifolium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙艳辉; 张晓峰; 罗侠; 贾小丽

    2011-01-01

    To evaluated antioxidative activity of aqueous extract of Chuju Chrysanthemum morifolium,Compared with Vc,the antioxidantive activity of aqueous extract of Chuju Chrysanthemum morifolium.was studied by measuring its reducing power,scavenging effects on hydroxyl radical(·OH)and·DPPH radical,activity of decreasing the lipid peroxidation of yolk.The results showed that aqueous extract of Chuju Chrysanthemum morifolium not only had a strong scavenging capacity on ·OH and DPPH radical,but also has strong reducing power and significant inhibition effects on the lipid peroxidation of yolk.the antioxidantive activity of aqueous extract of Chuju Chrysanthemum morifolium was improved with the higher concentration.Thus,Chuju Chrysanthemum morifolium is promising to be a natural antioxidative health drink.%为评价滁菊水提液抗氧化活性,采用还原力、清除羟基自由基及DPPH能力、抑制卵黄脂质过氧化能力等方法,以Vc为对照进行研究。结果表明:滁菊水提液能有效的清除羟基自由基及DPPH,具有较强的还原能力,可以很好抑制卵黄脂质过氧化;在一定浓度范围内其抗氧化能力随浓度的增加而增强。因此,可以将滁菊水提液开发为抗氧化健康饮品。

  12. 苦瓜汁、菊花茶复合茶饮料的研制%Preparation of Compound Beverage with Bitter Gourd Juice and Chrysanthemum Tea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡月英; 王妨; 钱健; 陈文学

    2012-01-01

    研究苦瓜菊花清凉饮料的生产工艺,采用VC和氯化锌等复合护色剂对苦瓜进行护色,用氯化钠和柠檬酸进行脱苦;以菊花浸提时间、温度、固液比为主要因素,对菊花的浸提工艺进行了优化,最后进行苦瓜菊花汁饮料的配方优化。结果表明,采用苦瓜汁8%、菊花茶#60%、白砂糖8%、柠檬酸0.12%等配比,可制得营养丰富、口感适宜、清暑止渴、品质优良的苦瓜菊花清凉茶饮料。%With bitter melon and chrysanthemum as the raw materials to study the process of bitter melon and chrysanthemum cool drinks, Firstly, this experiment adopted combined color fixative (Vc and ZnC12) for protecting color of bitter melon, NaCI and citric acid for debitterizing. Secondly, optimize the lixiviating process of chrysanthemum with time, temperature and solid-to-liquid ratio as the major factors. Finally, the formula of bitter melon and chrysanthemum cool drinks has been optimized. The results showed that, the process conditions with bitter melon juice 8 %; chrysanthemum juice 60 %; sugar 8 % and citric acid 0.12 %, can make the cool tea in good nutrition, mouthfeel, flavor and quality.

  13. Development of Health Beverage of Plumula nelumbinis and Chrysanthemum%莲心菊花保健饮料的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖贵平

    2012-01-01

    For effective development and utilization of Plumula nelumbinis and Chrysanthemum,Plumula nelumbinis and Chrysanthemum were used as raw material.The ingredient and the processing technology of the health beverage was studied using single-factor and orthognal L9(34) design.Results showed the order of the primary factors on the sensory quality of the beverage was follows: Plumula nelumbinis dosage sugar dosage Chrysanthemum dosage citric acid dosage.The optimum ingredient of health beverage found were: Plumula nelumbinis 0.8%,Chrysanthemum 0.4%,sugar 5.0%,and citric acid 0.08%.This beverage not only has good color,flavor and delicious taste,with a mild bitterness and the special aroma of Plumula nelumbinis and Chrysanthemum,but also has abundant nutrition,healthy function,and suitable for industrial production.%为有效开发和利用莲心、菊花植物资源,以莲心、菊花为主要原料,通过单因素及L9(34)正交试验,对莲心菊花保健饮料的配方及加工工艺进行了研究。结果表明,影响饮料感官评价的主次因素顺序为:莲心用量〉蔗糖用量〉菊花用量〉柠檬酸用量;最佳基本配方为:莲心0.8%、菊花0.4%、蔗糖5.0%、柠檬酸0.08%;研制的莲心菊花保健饮料具有莲心、菊花特有的清香风味,色香味俱佳,且营养丰富,适合于工业化生产。

  14. Ethanol Induced Toxicity and Lipid Peroxidation in Pregnant Mice: Protective Effects of Butanolic Extract from Leaves of Chrysanthemum fontanesii, Vitamin E and C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amel Amrani

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The objective of the present study was to investigate the ability of butanolic extract from leaves of Chrysanthemum fontanesii, vitamin E and C to modulate ethanol-Induced toxicity and oxidation damage in maternal and fetal tissues of mice. Butanolic extract from leaves of Chrysanthemum fontanesii (200 mg/Kg per day, vitamin E (100mg/Kg per day and C (8.3mg/Kg per day were administered by gavage to groups of pregnant mice from the 6 th to 17 th day of gestation. A number of animals received plant extract, vitamin E and C, also treated with an oral administration of ethanol (0.02ml/g of 25% v/v absolute ethanol in water per day in same conditions. On day 18 of gestation, pregnant mice were killed, fetus, placenta, fetal liver, liver, kidneys and brain were removed, homogenised and used for determination of lipid peroxidation (LPO using TBARS method. Embryotoxicity was assessed by counting the number of live and dead fetus and growth retardation. Results: Severe alterations in all biomarkers were observed after injury with ETOH. ETOH produced significant decreases in fetal weight and significant increases in embryolethality and lipid peroxidation relative to control values. Treatment with Chrysanthemum fontanesii extract, vitamin C and vitamin E resulted in markedly decreased embryolethality and fetal growth retardation, while increased fetal weight were observed. Conclusion: The butanolic extract from leaves of Chrysanthemum fontanesii, vitamin E and C protected against ethanol induce fetal and maternal toxicity as revealed by the decrease in the extent of lipid peroxidation. So that butanolic extract from leaves of Chrysanthemum fontanesii posses in vivo antioxidant properties.

  15. The Northern Area Potted Three Chrysanthemum Plastic Greenhouse Shading Cultivation Technology Researches%北方地区塑料大棚遮光栽培三本菊提早开花技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶福民; 于春雷; 张文洋

    2013-01-01

    Through the researches on the plastic greenhouse shading cultivation and a series of maintenance technology, making the potted three chrysanthemum in the northern area flowing earlier than the others, has the very high economic significance.

  16. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles by Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat. extract and their application in clinical ultrasound gel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Y

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Yan He,1 Zhiyun Du,1,2 Huibin Lv,1 Qianfa Jia,1 Zhikai Tang,1 Xi Zheng,1,3 Kun Zhang,1 Fenghua Zhao11Institute of Natural Medicine and Green Chemistry, School of Chemical Engineering and Light Industry, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou, People’s Republic of China; 2State Key Laboratory of Natural and Biomimetic Drugs, Peking University, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; 3Susan Lehman Cullman Laboratory for Cancer Research, Department of Chemical Biology, Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, NJ, USAAbstract: Eco-friendly green synthesis with plant extracts plays a very important role in nanotechnology, without any harmful chemicals. In this report, the synthesis of water-soluble silver nanoparticles was developed by treating silver ions with Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat. extract at room temperature. The effect of the extract on the formation of silver nanoparticles was characterized by ultraviolet and visible absorption spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The ultraviolet and visible absorption spectroscopy results show a strong resonance centered on the surface of silver nanoparticles (AgNP at 430 nm. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy spectral study demonstrates Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat. extract acted as the reducing and stabilizing agent during the synthesis. The X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed that the synthesized AgNP are single crystallines, corresponding with the result of transmission electron microscopy. Water-soluble AgNP, with an approximate size of 20 nm–50 nm were also observed in the transmission electron microscopy image. The bactericidal properties of the synthesized AgNP were investigated using the agar-dilution method and the growth-inhibition test. The results show the AgNP had potent bactericidal activity on Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli, as

  17. 枸杞菊花复合饮料的研制%Development of Wolfberry and Chrysanthemum Compound Beverage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张志艳; 王佳丽; 李志; 阮美娟; 张焱; 杜依登

    2014-01-01

    探讨以枸杞、菊花等药食同源材料制备一种新型明目复合饮料的最佳配方。以枸杞子、菊花、茯苓、石斛、决明子、桑叶、罗汉果、淡竹叶等为原料,添加适量酸和糖,在单因素实验的基础上通过正交试验确定复合饮料中各组分最佳添加量比例。复合浸提液配比为枸杞∶菊花∶决明子∶石斛∶罗汉果∶茯苓∶山药∶桑叶∶淡竹叶为20∶4∶12∶10∶1∶16∶16∶4∶4;饮料最佳配方为:复合原液50%、糖10%、酸0.15%。所制复合饮料呈亮黄色,香气协调、柔和,酸甜适中,口感浑厚。%We explore the best formula of a novel compound beverage, which was prepared by food and medicine homologous material, such as wolfberry and chrysanthemum. The optimal add amount of each component was determined by orthogonal on the basis of single factor experiments with wolfberry, chrysanthemum, Poria, Dendrobium, cassia, mulberry, Mangosteen, light bamboo as raw materials. The composite extract ratio of wolfberry, Chrysanthemum, Cassia, Dendrobium, Mangosteen, Poria, yam, Mulberry and short bamboo was 20∶4∶12∶10∶1∶16∶16∶4∶4. The best formula of beverage was composite liquid 50%, sugar 10%, acid 0.15%. Beverage of prepared were bright yellow, coordinate and soft aroma, moderate sweet and sour, vigorous taste.

  18. Karyomorphology of six taxa in Chrysanthemum sensu lato (Anthemideae) in Egypt and their genetic relationships by Giemsa C-banding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Magdy Hussein ABD EL-TWAB; Ahmad Mohammad M. MEKAWY; Mohammad Saad EL-KATATNY

    2012-01-01

    Giemsa C-banding was applied to the chromosome complements of six diploid species belonging to six genera in Chrysanthemum sensu lato (Anthemideae) distributed in Egypt.Four types of C-banding distribution were observed in the taxa as follows:(i) negative C-banding in Anacyclus monanthos (L.) Thell.; (ii) all bands in terminal regions in Achilleafragrantissima (Forssk.) Sch.Bip,which showed 32 bands on 18 chromosomes; (iii)all eight bands at centromeric regions on eight chromosomes in Matricaria recutita L.; and (iv) bands at terminal and centromeric regions in Brocchia cinerea Vis.(12 terminal and six centromeric bands on 12 chromosomes),Cotula barbata DC.(four terminal,six centromeric,and eight short arm bands on 16 chromosomes),and Glebionis coronaria (L.) Cass.ex Spach.(eight terminal on the short arms and four large bands in centromeric regions on 12chromosomes).

  19. Quantitative analysis coupled with toxic evaluation to investigate the influence of sulfur-fumigation on the quality of Chrysanthemum morifolium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Ke; Cao, Gang; Xu, Zhiwei; Chen, Xiaocheng

    2014-09-01

    In the present study, quantitative analysis coupled with toxic evaluation was applied to investigate the influence of sulfur-fumigation on the quality of Chrysanthemum morifolium. The results showed that the average contents of six flavonoids (cynaroside, hyperoside, isoquercitrin, luteolin, apigenin, and diosmetin) in sulfur-fumigated C. morifolium samples decreased by about 6.2%, 3.5%, 22.0%, 33.3%, 26.0%, and 36.9%, respectively, while the average contents of two organic acids (chlorogenic acid and isochlorogenic acid A) in sulfur-fumigated C. morifolium samples increased by about 16.8% and 7.6%, respectively. Furthermore, high dosage sulfur-fumigated C. morifolium could induce hydropic degeneration in epithelial cells of the renal tubule and interstitial edema. This indicates that sulfur-fumigated C. morifolium may lead to renal toxicity. PMID:25918810

  20. High temperature stress monitoring and detection using chlorophyll a fluorescence and infrared thermography in chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflora)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wakjera, Eshetu Janka; Körner, Oliver; Rosenqvist, Eva;

    2013-01-01

    high temperature affects the plant photosynthetic responses, resulting in a lower rate of photosynthesis. To predict and analyse physiological responses as stress indicators, two independent experiments were conducted, to detect the effect of high temperature on photosynthesis: analysing photosystem II...... (PSII) and stomatal conductance (gs). A combination of chlorophyll a fluorescence, gas exchange measurements and infrared thermography was applied using Chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflora Tzvelev) ‘Coral Charm’ as a model species. Increasing temperature had a highly significant effect on PSII when...... the temperature exceeded 38 °C for a period of 7 (±1.8) days. High temperature decreased the maximum photochemical efficiency of PSII (Fv/Fm), the conformation term for primary photochemistry (Fv/Fo) and performance index (PI), as well as increased minimal fluorescence (Fo). However, at elevated CO2 of 1000 μmol...

  1. Morphological Difference and DNA Diversity Between Flower-colour Sport and Original Cultivar of Chrysanthemum with Small Flowers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIN Helan; FENG Jiuying

    2011-01-01

    A total of 58 morphological characteristics were measured on flower-colour sport and original cultivar according to Disticness, Uniformity, Stability' (DUS) Test for New Plant Cultivar of Chrysanthemum published by Ministry of Agriculture of China The results showed that five characteristics such as the surface colour, the back color of ray floret among them were siginificantly different, their MS (mo by AFLP showed that rphological s GS (genetic imilarity) was 91.4%, and MD (morphological difference) was 8.62%. DNA polymorphic analysis similarity) was 98.6%, and GD (genetic polymorphic diversity) was 2.81%. Five distinct bands which may include the flower-colour sport genes or be the molecular marker linkaged flower-color characteristics were amplified.

  2. Effects of Chrysanthemum coronarium Extract on Fermentation Characteristics and Biohydrogenation of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in vitro Batch Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Li-fang; MA Yan-fen; GAO Min; LU De-xun

    2011-01-01

    IntroductionCis-9,trans-11 CLA has been shown to be potentially healthpromoting CLA in many animal models.The C18∶1 trans-11 fatty acid (VA) is also desirable as a product flowing from the rumen,because the flow from the rumen of VA play a more important role than CLA in determining CLA concentration in animal tissues.The factors which affect CLA content in milk have been studied mainly in dairy cows and most factors are basically dietary factors,especially fat source(e.g.,plant oils,fish oil,et al.).Recently some researches showed that some plants or plant extracts could increase cis-9,trans-11 -CLA content in milk.The purpose of this experiment was to evaluate the effects of Chrysanthemum coronarium extract on in vitro Biohydrogenation of polyunsaturated fatty acids and fermentation characteristics of mixed rumen microorganisms.

  3. 甘菊水培体系的建立%Establishment of Hydroponics Culture System for Chrysanthemum lavadulifolium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛雅静; 黄河; 杨可; 王斌; 戴思兰

    2011-01-01

    为探索甘菊[Chrysanthemum lavandulifolium(Fisch. ex Trautv.)Makino]在非生物胁迫下以及营养物质代谢中精准的生理、基因表达变化机理,研究通过筛选外植体的种类和营养液的浓度,建立了甘菊水培体系。结果表明:水培中,播种苗的成活率和生根率极显著高于1年生大苗和茎段插条;在长时间的水培中,使用标准Hoagland和1.5倍Hoagland培养液,其畸形叶率极显著低于1/2和1/4Hoagland培养液,并且株高极显著高于另外2个浓度。结合科研需求,认为组培播种苗、标准Hoagland营养液是甘菊水培的最佳外植体和培养条件。%In order to explore the accurate mechanism of physiology and gene expression under abiotic stress and nutrient metabolism for Chrysanthemum lavadulifolium,we screened the explants and concentration of nutrient solution,and established the hydroponics culture system.The results indicate that in hydroponics culture,the survival rate and rooting rate are significantly higher in seedings rather than yearlings or cuttings;for a long time culture,the abnormal leaf rate is lower and the height is higher in normal and 1.5 times Hoagland solution than 1/2 or 1/4 Hoagland solution.Considering the actual demand in research,we choose seedings sown in MS medium,normal Hoagland solution as the best explants and culture medium.

  4. Ethylene glycol-mediated synthesis of nanoporous anatase TiO{sub 2} rods and rutile TiO{sub 2} self-assembly chrysanthemums

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Quanjun [State Key Laboratory of Superhard Materials, Jilin University, Qianwei Road, Changchun 130012 (China); Liu Bingbing [State Key Laboratory of Superhard Materials, Jilin University, Qianwei Road, Changchun 130012 (China)], E-mail: liubb@jlu.edu.cn; Li Yingai; Liu Ran; Li Xianglin; Li Dongmei; Yu Shidan; Liu Dedi; Wang Peng; Li Bing; Zou Bo; Cui Tian; Zou Guangtian [State Key Laboratory of Superhard Materials, Jilin University, Qianwei Road, Changchun 130012 (China)

    2009-03-05

    Nanoporous anatase TiO{sub 2} rods and rutile TiO{sub 2} chrysanthemums were successfully synthesized via a simple ethylene glycol-mediated synthesis route. Their morphologies, phase compositions and components were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Raman and IR, respectively. The results show that a self-assembly growth takes place in the calcination under vacuum, which makes the titanium glycolate rods transform into rutile TiO{sub 2}/C chrysanthemums rather than anatase TiO{sub 2} rods. It also indicates that the carbon plays an important role in the phase transition process which promotes the phase transition to rutile TiO{sub 2} at a lower temperature (400 deg. C). It provides a new approach to prepare nanoporous rutile TiO{sub 2} nanomaterials under low temperature.

  5. Ethylene glycol-mediated synthesis of nanoporous anatase TiO2 rods and rutile TiO2 self-assembly chrysanthemums

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanoporous anatase TiO2 rods and rutile TiO2 chrysanthemums were successfully synthesized via a simple ethylene glycol-mediated synthesis route. Their morphologies, phase compositions and components were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Raman and IR, respectively. The results show that a self-assembly growth takes place in the calcination under vacuum, which makes the titanium glycolate rods transform into rutile TiO2/C chrysanthemums rather than anatase TiO2 rods. It also indicates that the carbon plays an important role in the phase transition process which promotes the phase transition to rutile TiO2 at a lower temperature (400 deg. C). It provides a new approach to prepare nanoporous rutile TiO2 nanomaterials under low temperature

  6. The Effects of Fungicide, Soil Fumigant, Bio-Organic Fertilizer and Their Combined Application on Chrysanthemum Fusarium Wilt Controlling, Soil Enzyme Activities and Microbial Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shuang; Chen, Xi; Deng, Shiping; Dong, Xuena; Song, Aiping; Yao, Jianjun; Fang, Weimin; Chen, Fadi

    2016-01-01

    Sustained monoculture often leads to a decline in soil quality, in particular to the build-up of pathogen populations, a problem that is conventionally addressed by the use of either fungicide and/or soil fumigation. This practice is no longer considered to be either environmentally sustainable or safe. While the application of organic fertilizer is seen as a means of combating declining soil fertility, it has also been suggested as providing some control over certain soil-borne plant pathogens. Here, a greenhouse comparison was made of the Fusarium wilt control efficacy of various treatments given to a soil in which chrysanthemum had been produced continuously for many years. The treatments comprised the fungicide carbendazim (MBC), the soil fumigant dazomet (DAZ), the incorporation of a Paenibacillus polymyxa SQR21 (P. polymyxa SQR21, fungal antagonist) enhanced bio-organic fertilizer (BOF), and applications of BOF combined with either MBC or DAZ. Data suggest that all the treatments evaluated show good control over Fusarium wilt. The MBC and DAZ treatments were effective in suppressing the disease, but led to significant decrease in urease activity and no enhancement of catalase activity in the rhizosphere soils. BOF including treatments showed significant enhancement in soil enzyme activities and microbial communities compared to the MBC and DAZ, evidenced by differences in bacterial/fungi (B/F) ratios, Shannon-Wiener indexes and urease, catalase and sucrase activities in the rhizosphere soil of chrysanthemum. Of all the treatments evaluated, DAZ/BOF application not only greatly suppressed Fusarium wilt and enhanced soil enzyme activities and microbial communities but also promoted the quality of chrysanthemum obviously. Our findings suggest that combined BOF with DAZ could more effectively control Fusarium wilt disease of chrysanthemum. PMID:27110753

  7. The Production of Health Care Beer with Chrysanthemum Tea%利用茶用菊花生产保健啤酒的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程遥; 朱盛沛; 胡凯

    2012-01-01

    在生产啤酒的过程中,探讨加入一定比例的菊花汁,参与发酵反应,生产出具有同菊花茶相同功效的保健啤酒,这种啤酒含有多种有效成份,长期饮用这种产品,具有清热解暑、清肝明目、解毒消炎、降低血糖、增强人体免疫的功效,适合糖尿病患者饮用。%Health care chrysanthemum beer with the same effect as chrysanthemum tea is produced in the process of beer production by adding a certain proportion of chrysanthemum juice and having it participate in fermentation reaction. Containing a variety of effective ingredients, the beer can help clear summer heat, remove liver-fire for improving eyesight, have an effect of anti-inflammation, reduce blood glucose, and strengthen the immune system in the long run. Thus, itJs suitable for patients with diabetes to drink.

  8. Effect of different irrigation thresholds on growth and yield of garland chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum coronarium L.) in greenhouse%不同灌水下限对温室茼蒿生长和产量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨文斌; 郝仲勇; 王凤新; 苏利茂; 要晋峰; 麻军; 胡佳林

    2011-01-01

    该文采用15 cm深处土水势为茼蒿的控制灌水下限,研究在模拟微喷条件下控制灌水下限对温室茼蒿生长和产量的影响.共设6个处理,灌水下限分别是-10 kPa(T1),-15 kPa(T2),-20 kPa(T3),-25 kPa(T4),-30 kPa(T5)和-40 kPa(T6).结果表明,不同的灌水下限对茼蒿产量的影响显著,灌水下限为控制在-15 kPa是产量最高,分别比其他处理增加了0.5%,18.7%,62.6%,73.4%,71.7%,在整个生育期灌水量为195 mm,比与其产量相近的T1处理节水56.4%.T2处理的株高和生长速率在生长后期与T1无差异.灌水下限低于-25 kPa,水分亏缺严重,影响出苗,不利于茼蒿生长.以-15 kPa土水势作为控制灌水下限,有利于茼蒿生长,可以达到高产、节水的目的.%An experiment was conducted to study the effect of different irrigation thresholds on yield and growth of garland chrysanthemum under simulated micro-spray irrigation in greenhouse.The experiment included six treatments,which controlled soil water potential (SWP) at 15cm depth with -10 kPa (T1),-15 kPa (T2), -20 kPa (T3), -25 kPa (T4),-30 kPa (T5) and -40 kPa (T6), respectively.The results showed that effect of different irrigation threshold on the crop yield was significant.Treatment T2 had the highest yield and compared with T1, T3, T4, T5 and T6, its yield increased by 0.5%, 18.7%, 62.6%, 73.4%, 71.7%, respectively.Irrigation amount ofT2 was 195 mm throughout the growth period, saving 56.4% than that ofT1.The plant height and growth rate ofT2 had no difference from T1.When the irrigation threshold was lower than -25 kPa in SWP, garland chrysanthemum would be under severe water stress,negatively affecting seedling emergence and restraining its growth.The SWP of- 15 kPa was recommended as the best irrigation threshold for garland chrysanthemum, because of both high-yield and water-saving.

  9. 菊花EST-SSR分析及标记开发%EST-SSR Analysis and Marker Development for Chrysanthemum morifolium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万志兵; 陈燕; 闫莹莹; 陈黎

    2013-01-01

    为了开发菊花的分子标记,对7 087条菊花EST进行拼接,得到275个contigs,发现50个SSR位点;在拼接的contigs中SSR平均密度为每2 854.3 bp含有1个SSR.三核苷酸重复基元的SSR类型最多,占总数的50.00%;在二碱基重复中,最主要的优势重复基元是AC和AG;三碱基中CAT和CCA为优势重复基元;四碱基、五碱基重复类型中,(TTTN)n和(ATTTN)n重复基元为对应优势基元;这些优势重复基元中富含碱基A和T,菊花EST序列中高度变异的微卫星(长度>20 bp)约占2.00%.根据得到的菊花EST-SSR,共设计出428对引物,并选取了28对SSR引物对黄山贡菊基因组DNA进行PCR扩增,其中有27对引物扩增成功.%7087 EST of Chrysanthemum morifolium were assembled in order to provide molecular markers, and 275 contigs were obtained. There were 50 microsatellites (SSRs) were detected and averagely there was one SSR locus detected from 2 854. 3 bp of contigs. Trinucleotide repeats were the most abundant repeats (50. 00% ) a-mong these SSR types. As for the composition of microsatellites, AC, AG repeats were the richest motif in dinucle-otide repeats, and CAT, CCA repeats were the most frequent motifs in trinucleotide repeats, whereas (TTTN) n and (ATTTN ) n repeats were dominant in tetra- and penta-nucleotide repeats, respectively. All the dominant repeat motifs for different type of SSRs were rich in A and T alkali bases. In EST of C. morifolium, microsatellites longer than 20 bp accounted for about 00% of the detected SSRs. 428 pairs of primers were designed using Primer 5. 0 and Oligo 6. 0 according to these EST sequences containing SSR. 28 pairs of primers were randomly selected for PCR test with genomic DNA of Huangshan variety of Chrysanthemum morifolium, and 27 primer pairs succeeded in amplification, with successful ratio of 96. 4%.

  10. Dual Effect of Chrysanthemum indicum Extract to Stimulate Osteoblast Differentiation and Inhibit Osteoclast Formation and Resorption In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong Min Baek

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The risk of bone-related diseases increases due to the imbalance between bone resorption and bone formation by osteoclasts and osteoblasts, respectively. The goal in the development of antiosteoporotic treatments is an agent that will improve bone through simultaneous osteoblast stimulation and osteoclast inhibition without undesirable side effects. To achieve this goal, numerous studies have been performed to identify novel approaches using natural oriental herbs to treat bone metabolic diseases. In the present study, we investigated the effect of Chrysanthemum indicum extract (CIE on the differentiation of osteoclastic and osteoblastic cells. CIE inhibited the formation of TRAP-positive mature osteoclasts and of filamentous-actin rings and disrupted the bone-resorbing activity of mature osteoclasts in a dose-dependent manner. CIE strongly inhibited Akt, GSK3β, and IκB phosphorylation in RANKL-stimulated bone marrow macrophages and did not show any effects on MAP kinases, including p38, ERK, and JNK. Interestingly, CIE also enhanced primary osteoblast differentiation via upregulation of the expression of alkaline phosphatase and the level of extracellular calcium concentrations during the early and terminal stages of differentiation, respectively. Our results revealed that CIE could have a potential therapeutic role in bone-related disorders through its dual effects on osteoclast and osteoblast differentiation.

  11. Studies on the In Vitro Antiproliferative, Antimicrobial, Antioxidant, and Acetylcholinesterase Inhibition Activities Associated with Chrysanthemum coronarium Essential Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanaa K. Bardaweel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The essential oil of the Jordanian Chrysanthemum coronarium L. (garland was isolated by hydrodistillation from dried flowerheads material. The oil was essayed for its in vitro scavenging activity using the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH method. The results demonstrate that the oil exhibits moderate radical scavenging activity relative to the strong antioxidant ascorbic acid. In addition, cholinesterase inhibitory activity of C. coronarium essential oil was evaluated for the first time. Applying Ellman’s colorimetric method, interesting cholinesterase inhibitory activity, which is not dose dependent, was evident for the oil. Furthermore, antimicrobial activities of the oil against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria were evaluated. While it fails to inhibit Gram-negative bacteria growth, the antibacterial effects demonstrated by the oil were more pronounced against the Gram-positive strains. Moreover, the examined oil was assessed for its in vitro antiproliferative properties where it demonstrated variable activities towards different human cancer cell lines, of which the colon cancer was the most sensitive to the oil treatment.

  12. Geographical distribution of cytotypes in the Chrysanthemum indicum complex as evidenced by ploidy level and genome-size variation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing LI; Qian WAN; Richard J.ABBOTT; Guang-Yuan RAO

    2013-01-01

    A detailed knowledge of the geographical distribution ofcytotypes within and between species comprising a polyploid complex is critical to our understanding of the history and evolution of such complexes.In the present study we examined the geographical distributions ofcytotypes within six tentatively delimited species comprising the Chrysanthemum indicum complex in China.We determined the ploidy of 188 individuals sampled from 47 populations,based on DNA content using flow cytometry.In addition,chromosome counts were made on samples of each taxon.We confirmed that all samples of C.rhombifolium and C.lavandulifolium were diploid (2n =18),those of C.hypargyrum and C.potentilloides were tetraploid (2n--36),and those of C.vestitum were hexaploid (2n =54).In contrast,we confirmed that C.indicum contained both diploid and tetraploid cytotypes.We found that in addition to marked differences in genome size between ploidy levels,there was a variation in genome size between species of the same ploidy level.Although the diploid,tetraploid,and hexaploid taxa of the complex,as well as the diploid form of C.indicum,occurred only in central and northem China,the tetraploid form of C.indicum was widespread both north and south of the Yangtze River.We suggest that the tetraploid form of C.indicum may have expanded its range southward during recent Quatemary glacial periods when forests retreated in south China as conditions became drier.

  13. Genetic signatures from amplification profiles characterize DNA mutation in somatic and radiation-induced sports of chrysanthemum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflora Tzvelev.) cultivars 'Dark Charm', 'Salmon Charm', 'Coral Charm' and 'Dark Bronze Charm' are either radiation-induced mutants or spontaneous sports of 'Charm' and constitute a family or series of plants that primarily differ in flower color. These cultivars, which were difficult to differentiate genetically by DNA amplification fingerprinting (DAF), were easily identified by using arbitrary signatures from amplification profiles (ASAP). Genomic DNA was first amplified with three standard octamer arbitrary primers, all of which produced monomorphic profiles. Products from each of these DNA fingerprints were subsequently reamplified using four minihairpin decamer primers. The 12 primer combinations produced signatures containing approximately 37% polymorphic character loci, which were used to estimate genetic relationships between cultivars. Forty-six (32%) unique amplification products were associated with individual cultivars. The number of ASAP polymorphisms detected provided an estimate of the mutation rate in the mutant cultivars, ranging from 0.03% to 1.6% of nucleotide changes within an average of 18 kb of arbitrary amplified DAF sequence. The ASAP technique permits the clear genetic identification of somatic mutants and radiation-induced sports that are genetically highly homogeneous and should facilitate marker assisted breeding and protection of plant breeders rights of varieties or cultivars

  14. Study on Processing Technology of Clarified Corn-chrysanthemum-based Beverage%澄清型玉米菊花饮料加工工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈守江; 易克传; 苏起升; 刘正; 余海兵

    2011-01-01

    The processing condition of corn-chrysanthemum- based beverage using waxy com and chrysanthemum as materials was studied. The results showed that waxy com juice was obtained by grinding the seed of waxy com in the ratio 1:10 of seed to water, and then liquefying using 1.5 mL/L α-amylase for 1.5 hours at 90℃, and saccharifing using 0.5 g/L glucoamylase for 0.5 hour at 65℃. The chrysanthemum extracted liquid was extracted in the ratio 1:200 of chrysanthemum to water. Based on organoleptic quality of beverage,the optimum mixed ratio is 3:2 of com juice to chrysanthemum extracted liquid, other ingredients are respectively: 4% suger, 0.04% citric acid, 0.06% acesulfame and 0.006% com essence. The product has better color, maintain the flavor of com and chrysanthemum, and can provide potential health benefits.%以糯玉米、滁菊花为主要原料,对澄清型玉米菊花饮料加工工艺进行了研究,确定了饮料的最佳加工工艺条件.结果表明,按1:10料水比对玉米进行磨浆,浆液过滤后加入1.5 mL、L α-淀粉酶在90℃下液化1.5小时,以及加入0.5 g/L糖化酶在65℃下糖化0.5小时,酶解处理后的浆液静置后取上清液得到糯玉米汁;以1:200的花水比浸提得到菊花浸提液.以感官品质为指标,经正交试验得到饮料最佳调配比例:玉米汁与菊花浸提液按3:2比例混合,其他配料以混合液为基准的添加量分别为:4%砂糖、0.04%柠檬酸、0.06%安赛蜜和0.006%玉米香精.生产的玉米菊花饮料不仅色泽好、保留了原有玉米和菊花的清香,且具有一定的保健功能成分.

  15. The Numerical Classification of Chrysanthemum Flower Color Phenotype%菊花品种花色表型数量分类研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洪艳; 白新祥; 孙卫; 贾锋炜; 戴思兰

    2012-01-01

    为了精确定义菊花不同品种的花色,以811个菊花品种为试验材料,利用色差仪测色的方法对其花色表型值进行测定并进行数量分类研究。结果发现:聚类分析方法得到的分类结果不能完全表征菊花花色的分类特点;ISCC-NBS色名表示法对花色的定义更为准确,使用该方法将菊花品种花色分为9类色系,整理出了不同色系表型参数分布范围。在此基础上,对菊花品种的花色表型分布特点进行了分析。%In order to accurately define the different flower color phenotype of chrysanthemum, colorimeter was used to measure the various flower colors of 811 chrysanthemum cultivars. And the different methods of color classification (Q cluster analysis and ISCC-NBS color name chart) were compared. It was found that the results obtained from statistical methods couldn't fully describe the characteristics of plant color, while the definition of plant color from the color point of view was more accurate. According to the standard, all cultivars were divided into nine groups and the distribution range of flower color parameters of each color group was summed up. On this basis, the distribution analysis of the phenotypic color of chrysanthemum cultivars was completed.

  16. Screening of proteins interacting with the coat protein of Chrysanthemum virus B%菊花B病毒外壳蛋白互作蛋白的筛选

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    楼望淮; 蒋甲福; 陈素梅; 房伟民; 陈发棣; 管志勇; 廖园

    2013-01-01

    采用PCR扩增菊花B病毒(CvB)外壳蛋白基因的开放阅读框,构建酵母双杂交系统所需的诱饵表达载体pGBKT7CVBCP,测序验证后转化Y2HGold酵母菌.将酵母菌Y187/pGADT7-cDNA与酵母菌Y2HGold/pGBKT7-CVBCP进行交配转化,在SD/-Trp/-Leu/-His/-Ade/X-α-Gal平板上筛选蓝色阳性克隆并测序pGADT7-cDNA的插入片段.结果表明:诱饵载体表达产物对酵母无毒性作用,且对报告基因无自激活作用.筛选菊花cDNA文库初步得到了与CVB外壳蛋白相互作用的E3泛素连接酶ARIADNE-like蛋白和ATP结合蛋白,为进一步研究CVB外壳蛋白与寄主的互作机制奠定了基础.%To find the protein in the chrysanthemum which was interacted with Chrysanthemum virus B coat protein,this experiment used PCR to get the ORF of the Chrysanthemum virus B coat protein gene constructed vector pGBKT7-CVBCP as the bait in the yeast two-hybrid system,verified by sequencing and transformed into yeast strain Y2HGold.The yeast Y187/pGADT7-cDNA was mated with yeast Y2HGold/pGBKT7-CVBCP,then SD/-Trp/-Leu/-His/-Ade/X-α-Gal plates were used for screening of blue-positive clones whose fragments inserted in the pGADT7-cDNA were sequenced.The experiment showed that the bait protein was non-toxic to the yeast and had no self-activation function.One E3 ubiquitin ligase ARIADNE-like protein and the ATP-binding protein were interacted with the Chrysanthemum virus B coat protein and that laid the foundation of the mutual interaction mechanism between the CVB coat protein and host proteins.

  17. Contribution à l’étude morphologique, chimique et thérapeutique pour l’espèce Chrysanthemum balsamita L.

    OpenAIRE

    Marculescu, Angela; Tamas, M.

    2014-01-01

    Note portant sur l’auteur Note portant sur l’auteur Introduction Chrysanthemum balsamita L. (Famille Asteraceae, sous-famille Tubuliflorae) balsamite, (menthe-coq, menthe de la Sainte-Vierge) originaire de l’Asie de Sud-Ouest, a été amenée en Europe dès l’Antiquité. En Roumanie Ch. b. est cultivée dans les jardins paysans et dans les cimetières comme plante ornementale mais aussi comme plante aromatique et guérissante. Dans la médicine traditionnelle roumaine, la balsamite a été utilisée sous...

  18. Inibidor da ação do etileno na conservação pós-colheita de Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat cv. Dragon Inhibitor of ethylene action in postharvest conservation of Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat cv. Dragon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poliana Cristina Spricigo

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available A durabilidade e a qualidade pós-colheita de flores de corte são atributos fundamentais na sua valoração ao longo da cadeia produtiva e na satisfação dos consumidores. Objetivou-se, nesta pesquisa, verificar o efeito do tiossulfato de prata, associado ou não à sacarose, na manutenção da qualidade pós-colheita de hastes de crisântemos (Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat cv. Dragon . O experimento foi conduzido sob delineamento inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial testando soluções de manutenção com tiossulfato de prata (STS, sob cinco níveis (Água destilada; STS a 0,2 mM; STS a 0,2 mM + sacarose a 50 g L-1; STS a 0,4 mM; STS a 0,4 mM + sacarose a 50 g L-1; e data de amostragem, por três níveis (0; 3; 6 dias. Utilizaram-se três repetições com duas hastes florais em cada tratamento. Foram feitas avaliações físicas: coloração, massa fresca e conteúdo relativo de água (CRA; avaliações químicas: açúcares redutores e pigmentos; e avaliações qualitativas: turgescência, cor das flores, e número de botões, flores entreabertas e abertas. O tratamento com 0,2 mM de STS possibilitou melhor manutenção da massa fresca das hastes. A concentração de pigmentos e carboidratos redutores foi maior naqueles tratamentos em que a sacarose foi associada. A coloração e o conteúdo relativo de água foram favorecidos nos tratamentos STS a 0,2 e 0,4mM. A concentração de 0,2 mM de STS foi a que obteve os melhores resultados, prolongando a vida de vaso das hastes. A qualidade das hastes foi superior, tendo as melhores avaliações de conteúdo de água, cor e turgescência.The durability and postharvest quality of cut flowers are fundamental attributes in value along the production chain and in consumer satisfaction. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of chemical inhibitors of ethylene action on maintaining the postharvest quality of chrysanthemum stems (Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat cv. Dragon. The

  19. 10种提取液对菊花花瓣中类胡萝卜素提取效率的影响%Analysis on Efficiency of Ten Extracts for Carotenoid Content in Petals of Chrysanthemum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    车越; 王普; 孙卫; 戴思兰

    2011-01-01

    类胡萝卜素是菊花中一类重要的呈色物质,高效提取类胡萝卜素对于分离和鉴定色素组成以及研究菊花的呈色机理十分重要.分别采用丙酮、甲醇、无水乙醇、无水乙醚、石油醚、丙酮∶石油醚不同体积比(1∶1、1∶2、1∶4、2∶1、4∶1 )10种提取液,提取菊花品种光辉及Reagan Orange舌状花中的的类胡萝卜素,用紫外-可见光分光光度计测定提取液中类胡萝卜素的相对含量.结果发现,不同提取液中菊花类胡萝卜素的提取量不同;醇类为菊花中类胡萝卜素较适合的提取液.结果还表明,菊花中含氧类胡萝卜素含量较高.%Carotenoid is an important kind of coloring material in chrysanthemum, and extracting this component efficiently is very important for the isolation and identification of pigment composition and the coloring mechanism of chrysanthemum. 10 different extraction solutions were used, including petroleum ether, methanol, anhydrous ethyl alcohol, anhydrous ether, acetone, acetone : petroleum ether in different ratios (1:1; 1:2; 1:4; 2:1; 4:1) to extract carotenoids in the petals of chrysanthemum 'Brilliant' and 'Reagan Orange'. The relative content of total carotenoids was calculated from UV-VIS spectrometer. The results showed that the quantity of extracts varied in 10 extracts of chrysanthemum; Alcohol was more suitable for extracting the carotenoids of chrysanthemum; It also indicated that most of the carotenoids in chrysanthemum was oxygenated compounds and it could lay the foundation for the study of compounds and content of carotenoid in chrysanthemum.

  20. Roles of DgBRC1 in regulation of lateral branching in chrysanthemum (Dendranthema ×grandiflora cv. Jinba).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaoli; Zhou, Xiaoyang; Xi, Lin; Li, Junxiang; Zhao, Ruiyan; Ma, Nan; Zhao, Liangjun

    2013-01-01

    The diverse plasticity of plant architecture is largely determined by shoot branching. Shoot branching is an event regulated by multiple environmental, developmental and hormonal stimuli through triggering lateral bud response. After perceiving these signals, the lateral buds will respond and make a decision on whether to grow out. TCP transcriptional factors, BRC1/TB1/FC1, were previously proven to be involved in local inhibition of shoot branching in Arabidopsis, pea, tomato, maize and rice. To investigate the function of BRC1, we isolated the BRC1 homolog from chrysanthemum. There were two transcripts of DgBRC1 coming from two alleles in one locus, both of which complemented the multiple branches phenotype of Arabidopsis brc1-1, indicating that both are functionally conserved. DgBRC1 was mainly expressed in dormant axillary buds, and down-regulated at the bud activation stage, and up-regulated by higher planting densities. DgBRC1 transcripts could respond to apical auxin supply and polar auxin transport. Moreover, we found that the acropetal cytokinin stream promoted branch outgrowth whether or not apical auxin was present. Basipetal cytokinin promoted outgrowth of branches in the absence of apical auxin, while strengthening the inhibitory effects on lower buds in the presence of apical auxin. The influence of auxin and strigolactons (SLs) on the production of cytokinin was investigated, we found that auxin locally down-regulated biosynthesis of cytokinin in nodes, SLs also down-regulated the biosynthesis of cytokinin, the interactions among these phytohormones need further investigation. PMID:23613914

  1. Management of Chimera and In Vitro Mutagenesis for Development of New Flower Color/Shape and Chlorophyll Variegated Mutants in Chrysanthemum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mutation breeding is an established method for crop improvement and has played a major role in the development of many new flower color/shape mutant varieties in ornamentals. The main bottleneck with vegetatively propagated plants is that the mutation appears as a chimera after treatment with physical and/or chemical mutagens. A small sector of a mutated branch or flower cannot be isolated using the available conventional propagation techniques. A novel technique has been standardized for the management of such chimeric tissues through direct shoot regeneration from chrysanthemum florets. This direct novel regeneration protocol has been successfully used not only for the isolation of chimeric mutant tissues developed through sports, but also to develop a series of new flower color/shape mutants through induced mutagenesis. Gamma radiation and tissue culture techniques have been optimized to regenerate plants from stem internodes, stem nodes, shoot tips and ray florets for in vitro management of chimera and for in vitro mutagenesis. Chimera isolation has practical importance not only for chrysanthemum but for breeding of other ornamentals also. The present technique will open up a new way for isolating new flower color/shape ornamental cultivars through retrieval of mutated cells. (author)

  2. The influence of nitrogen fertilizations and light intersity on mother plants productivity and the rooting of cuttings of Chrysanthemum (cultivar - Horim Golden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia Kozłowska

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Mother plants of Chrysanthemum cv. "Horim Golden" have been cultivated at three levels of nitrogen fertilization, dosage for a 3 l pot was 100,500,1000 mg N. The plants were growing with fluorescent lamps on (5000 lx or 10000 lx. The rooting of the cuttings obtained under such conditions took place with 5000 lx. The effect of nitrogen on the productivity of mother plants depended on the light intensity. Higher nitrogen doses affected favourably the number of cuttings, the growth and number of roots per cuttings - only when higher light intensity was applied for mother plants. Light of various intensity used in the cultivation of chrysanthemum mother plants had a significantly higher effect on the dynamics of rooting that did nitrogen fertilization. High intensity light, irrespective of the nitrogen dose used, also increased the weight and number of roots per cutting. Moreover, a clear correlation has been found between the carbohydrate content in cuttings and the dynamics of rooting and the number and weight of roots formed. The process of root formation took place later and was slower in cuttings in which a higher carbohydrate content was found; however, the number and weight of roots formed by these cuttings were considerably higher. In cuttings characterised by a low carbohydrate; total nitrogen ratio a decrease in the number and weight of roots has been found.

  3. Effect of Plant Growth Regulators on a Shoot and Root Formation from the Leaf and Flower Culture of a Standard-type Chrysanthemum 'Jinba'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study we investigated the conditions of a higher frequency for regenerated plants from different explants of a standard-type chrysanthemum 'Jinba'. In vitro culture was initiated on an MS medium containing 3% sucrose, 0.8% agar, and 5 μM benzyl adenine (BA) with naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) by using surface-sterilized leaf and flower tissues from greenhouse-grown plants. Direct shoot regeneration from the leaf and flower explants was obtained 21 to 28 days after the initial culture. Among the seven combinations of the growth regulators used for the culture, the most efficient condition for the shoot and root formation from the leaf tissue was obtained when the MS basic medium was supplemented with 0.5 mg L-¹ BA and 1.0 mg L-¹ NAA, and 0.1 mg L-¹ BA and 0.5 mg L-¹ NAA, while the culture using floret tissues was most efficient on the medium supplemented with 0.5 mg L-¹ BA and 0.5 mg L-¹ NAA, and 0.1 mg L-¹ BA and 1.0 mg L-¹ NAA. These results will provide valuable information to help set up an efficient system for a tissue culture of chrysanthemum cv. Jinba to improve one or some of its negative traits in combination with a radiation mutagenesis approach

  4. Process Optimization for the Development of a Fermented Milk Beverage of Chrysanthemum Flower Extract%菊花发酵乳饮料工艺优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈钢; 林晓华; 吴克; 简素平; 汪海利

    2011-01-01

    Chrysanthemum flower extract and fresh bovine milk were mainly used as raw materials to develop a novel fermented beverage based on sterilization and subsequent fermentation by inoculated lactic acid bacteria. Employing orthogonal array design, the optimal fermentation medium composition was determined to consist of 20% chrysanthemum flower extract, 8% sucrose and 40% milk and meanwhile, fermentation for 4 h at 42 ℃ and an inoculum size of 3% was found optimal.%以菊花提取液和鲜牛奶为主要原料,杀菌后接种乳酸菌进行乳酸发酵,通过单因素与正交试验确定原料的配比、发酵条件及产品的配方。结果表明,原料最佳配比为菊花提取汁20%、蔗糖8%、鲜牛奶40%;制备该乳饮料的最佳发酵工艺条件为接种量3%、发酵时间4h、温度42℃。

  5. Expression profile analysis of genes involved in horizontal gravitropism bending growth in the creeping shoots of ground-cover chrysanthemum by suppression subtractive hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Shengjun; Chen, Yu; Jiang, Jiafu; Chen, Sumei; Guan, Zhiyong; Fang, Weimin; Chen, Fadi

    2013-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms underlying gravitropic bending of shoots are poorly understood and how genes related with this growing progress is still unclear. To identify genes related to asymmetric growth in the creeping shoots of chrysanthemum, suppression subtractive hybridization was used to visualize differential gene expression in the upper and lower halves of creeping shoots of ground-cover chrysanthemum under gravistimulation. Sequencing of 43 selected clones produced 41 unigenes (40 singletons and 1 unigenes), which were classifiable into 9 functional categories. A notable frequency of genes involve in cell wall biosynthesis up-regulated during gravistimulation in the upper side or lower side were found, such as beta tubulin (TUB), subtilisin-like protease (SBT), Glutathione S-transferase (GST), and expensing-like protein (EXP), lipid transfer proteins (LTPs), glycine-rich protein (GRP) and membrane proteins. Our findings also highlighted the function of some metal transporter during asymmetric growth, including the boron transporter (BT) and ZIP transporter (ZT), which were thought primarily for maintaining the integrity of cell walls and played important roles in cellulose biosynthesis. CmTUB (beta tubulin) was cloned, and the expression profile and phylogeny was examined, because the cytoskeleton of plant cells involved in the plant gravitropic bending growth is well known. PMID:23065216

  6. Rational use of electrical energy in artificial light in the production of chrysanthemum seedlings in greenhouse; Uso racional de energia eletrica em iluminacao artificial na producao de mudas de crisantemo em ambiente protegido

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David, Eduardo [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (FEA/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Agricola], e-mail: eduardo.david@gr.unicamp.br; Rossi, Luiz Antonio [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (DEA/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Agricola], e-mail: rossi@agr.unicamp.br

    2008-07-01

    The type of artificial illumination employed for chrysanthemum cultivation in greenhouses to induce photo period effect will determine its growing rate as well as the energy consumption. Incandescent filament is currently employed for artificial illumination in chrysanthemum nursery to induce photo period effect. Nowadays new illumination technology is being tested aiming energy consumption reduction. The application of illumination based on electrical discharge in sodium or mercury vapor, as well as tubular or integrated compact fluorescent bulbs in chrysanthemum cultivation is identified as the objective of this research work. The experimental part of this work was carried out in a commercial greenhouse model employing five chrysanthemum variety as Papiro, Lindy White, Mona Lisa Rose, Euro Speedy and Stateman during winter and summer period. Parameters employed to the study variety behavior included: production per area, fresh matter weight, presence of flower sprouts and moisture content. The parameters known as electrical variables, like consumption, demand and power factor, together with the treatment energy efficiency index were used to analyze the employed illumination technologies and light bulbs type. Results showed differences between weight of fresh flowers and moisture content for the flowers variety under consideration. Productivity per unit area was noticed to be larger for discharge technology when compared with filament bulbs, for both varieties being tested. The lowest flower sprout occurrence was associated to the discharge technology with the exception of the variety Stateman produced with incandescent bulbs of 100 W in the winter plot. The unique exception related to discharge technology was associated to the White 23 W Integrated Compact Fluorescent bulb yielding 2.4% of flower sprouts compared with 0% of other bulb types associated to the production of the variety Euro Speedy. It was noticed from the results that the yellow integrated compact

  7. Comparison of antioxidant activities of different parts from snow chrysanthemum (Coreopsis tinctoria Nutt.) and identification of their natural antioxidants using high performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detection and mass spectrometry and 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-sulfonic acid)diammonium salt-based assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, L X; Hu, D J; Lam, S C; Ge, L; Wu, D; Zhao, J; Long, Z R; Yang, W J; Fan, B; Li, S P

    2016-01-01

    Snow chrysanthemum (Coreopsis tinctoria Nutt.), a world-widely well-known flower tea material, has attracted more and more attention because of its beneficial health effects such as antioxidant activity and special flavor. In this study, a high performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detection and mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-MS) and 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-sulfonic acid)diammonium salt (ABTS) based assay was employed for comparison and identification of antioxidants in different samples of snow chrysanthemum. The results showed that snow chrysanthemum flowers possessed the highest while stems presented the lowest antioxidant capacities. Fourteen detected peaks with antioxidant activity were temporarily identified as 3,4',5,6,7-pentahydroxyflavanone-O-hexoside, chlorogenic acid, 2R-3',4',8-trihydroxyflavanone-7-O-glucoside, flavanomarein, flavanocorepsin, flavanokanin, quercetagitin-7-O-glucoside, 3',5,5',7-tetrahydroxyflavanone-O-hexoside, marein, maritimein, 1,3-dicaffeoylquinic acid, coreopsin, okanin and acetyl-marein by comparing their UV spectra, retention times and MS data with standards or literature data. Antioxidants existed in snow chrysanthemum are quite different from those reported in Chrysanthemum morifolium, a well-known traditional beverage in China, which indicated that snow chrysanthemum may be a promising herbal tea material with obvious antioxidant activity.

  8. Comparison of antioxidant activities of different parts from snow chrysanthemum (Coreopsis tinctoria Nutt.) and identification of their natural antioxidants using high performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detection and mass spectrometry and 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-sulfonic acid)diammonium salt-based assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, L X; Hu, D J; Lam, S C; Ge, L; Wu, D; Zhao, J; Long, Z R; Yang, W J; Fan, B; Li, S P

    2016-01-01

    Snow chrysanthemum (Coreopsis tinctoria Nutt.), a world-widely well-known flower tea material, has attracted more and more attention because of its beneficial health effects such as antioxidant activity and special flavor. In this study, a high performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detection and mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-MS) and 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-sulfonic acid)diammonium salt (ABTS) based assay was employed for comparison and identification of antioxidants in different samples of snow chrysanthemum. The results showed that snow chrysanthemum flowers possessed the highest while stems presented the lowest antioxidant capacities. Fourteen detected peaks with antioxidant activity were temporarily identified as 3,4',5,6,7-pentahydroxyflavanone-O-hexoside, chlorogenic acid, 2R-3',4',8-trihydroxyflavanone-7-O-glucoside, flavanomarein, flavanocorepsin, flavanokanin, quercetagitin-7-O-glucoside, 3',5,5',7-tetrahydroxyflavanone-O-hexoside, marein, maritimein, 1,3-dicaffeoylquinic acid, coreopsin, okanin and acetyl-marein by comparing their UV spectra, retention times and MS data with standards or literature data. Antioxidants existed in snow chrysanthemum are quite different from those reported in Chrysanthemum morifolium, a well-known traditional beverage in China, which indicated that snow chrysanthemum may be a promising herbal tea material with obvious antioxidant activity. PMID:26521095

  9. 药用菊花种苗计算机快速鉴别研究%Rapid identification system for seedlings of medicinal Chrysanthemum morifolium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛鹏飞; 郭巧生; 汪涛; 邵清松

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To achieve the rapid identification for seedlings of medicinal Chrysanthemum morifolium, the discriminant equation was established and the software for rapid identification was designed. Method: Leaf structure of medicinal Chrysanthemum of 12 cultivars was analyzed to establish the discriminant equation based on variance analysis and discriminant analysis. On this basis, the identification program and software (based on the python language) were designed. Result: Through the analysis of variance and multiple comparisons for the 11 leaf parameter index data of 12 different cultivars, it was found that that the leaf parameters were significant different from each other and reached significant levels. The discriminant equation and the rapid identification software were set up based on the analysis of various indicators. Conclusion: The rapid identification system of seedlings of medicinal Chrysanthemum could be achieved through the establishment of discriminant equation combined with computer technology.%目的:通过建立药用菊花种苗判别方程,设计出快速鉴别软件,实现对其种苗的快速鉴别.方法:采用方差分析和判别分析对12个栽培类型的药用菊花叶形结构11个指标进行分析,建立判别方程.在此基础上,设计鉴别程序,编写软件(基于Python语言).结果:通过对12个不同类型药用菊花的11个叶形参数指标数据进行方差分析和多重比较,各叶形参数之间均达到显著水平,各类型之间均存在显著性差异.对各指标进行判别分析,建立判别方程,并设计了药用菊花快速判别软件.结论:通过建立的药用菊花种苗判别方程,结合计算机技术,能够实现对药用菊花种苗的快速判别.

  10. 5种切花菊内生真菌的分离鉴定与分布情况研究%Research on Isolation, Identification and Distribution of Endophytic Fungi from Five Cut Chrysanthemums

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马龑; 赵大克; 郑丽

    2014-01-01

    研究了5个常见切花菊品种内生真菌的分离鉴定与分布情况,以寻找切花菊自身抗性真菌并为今后开展生物防治提供基础资料。找到了切花菊各部位材料的表面灭菌处理最优方法,发现切花菊内生真菌在分离中出现幼嫩部位内生真菌分离数量明显高于成熟部位,并且根分布最多,叶次之,茎最少。5个切花菊的内生真菌中,镰刀菌属( Fusarium)和枝孢属( Cladosporium)为优势菌群。5个切花菊品种内生真菌的分布存在一定相似度,但不同品种还是存在自己特有的内生真菌,说明切花菊的内生真菌分布有一定多样性。%The isolation, identification and distribution of endophytic fungi from five common cut chrysanthemum cultivars were studied to find out their own resistant fungi and provide fundamental data for the future studies on biological control.The optimal method for surface sterilization treatment of various parts of cut chrysanthemum materials was found.It was found that the quantity of isolated endophytic fungi from the tender part of cut chrysanthemums was obviously higher than that from the mature part, and the distribution of endophytic fungi in different parts showed the following order:root>leaf>stem.Among endophytic fungi from five cut chrysanthemums, Fusarium and Cladosporium were dominant fungal community.Five cut chrysanthemum cultivars were some-what similar in the distribution of endophytic fungi, but different cultivars also had their own unique endophytic fungi, indicating that the distribution of endophytic fungi in cut chrysanthemums had a certain diversity.

  11. Using the quantum yields of photosystem II and the rate of net photosynthesis to moniter high irradiance and temperature stress in chrysanthemum (Dendrantherma grandiflora)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janka, Eshetu; Körner, Oliver; Rosenqvist, Eva;

    2015-01-01

    Under a dynamic greenhouse climate control regime, temperature is adjusted to optimise plant physiological responses to prevailing irradiance levels; thus, both temperature and irradiance are used by the plant to maximise the rate of photosynthesis, assuming other factors are not limiting...... photosynthesis (Pn) and four chlorophyll-a fluorescence parameters: maximum photochemical efficiency of PSII [Fv/Fm], electron transport rate [ETR], PSII operating efficiency [F′q/F′m], and non-photochemical quenching [NPQ] were assessed for potted chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflora Tzvelev) ‘Coral Charm...... and quantum yield of PSII remaining low until the temperature reaches 28 °C and 2) the integration of online measurements to monitor photosynthesis and PSII operating efficiency may be used to optimise dynamic greenhouse control regimes by detecting plant stress caused by extreme microclimatic conditions....

  12. Effect of Mn-doping on the growth mechanism and electromagnetic properties of chrysanthemum-like ZnO nanowire clusters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Jun-Feng; You Tian-Gui; Zhang Zhi-Yong; Tian Jiang-Xiao; Yun Jiang-Ni; Zhao Wu

    2011-01-01

    Chrysanthemum-like ZnO nanowire clusters with different Mn-doping concentrations are prepared by a hydrothermal process. The microstructure, morphology and electromagnetic properties are characterized by x-ray diffractometer high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), a field emission environment scanning electron microscope (FEESEM)and a microwave vector network analyser respectively.The experimental results indicate that the asprepared products are Mn-doped ZnO single crystalline with a hexagonal wurtzite structure, that the growth habit changes due to Mn-doping and that a good magnetic loss property is found in the Mn-doped ZnO products, and theaverage magnetic loss tangent tan6m is up to 0.170099 for 3% Mn-doping, while the dielectric loss tangent tanSe is weakened, owing to the fact that ions Mn2+ enter the crystal lattice of ZnO.

  13. 地被菊在园林设计中的应用研究%Application of Ground- Cover Chrysanthemum with Small Inflorescences to Gardens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨俊; 卢明明; 孙莺沙

    2012-01-01

    指出了地被菊作为一类植株低矮、抗逆性强、花色丰富、花期较长、开花繁密的菊花新品种群,是非常优良的地被植物,适宜在城市景观绿化中推广使用。分析了其形态特征,探讨了地被菊对环境的适应性,及在园林设计中的应用。%Ground - cover chrysanthemum is a new kind of ornamental plants. Its horticultural properties are also good. It has lower plant height, rich color, longer blossom period, numerous flowers per plant and strong resistance of stress such as cold, heat, drought, salt, air pollution etc. Therefore, it is suitable to be applied to gardens.

  14. Genomic DNA Extraction from Chrysanthemum Using High Salt CTAB Method%高盐沉淀CTAB法提取温室菊花基因组DNA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马月萍; 戴思兰

    2009-01-01

    Based on CTAB method,some protocal was modified according to the physiological characteristics of high containing contents of polyphenolics and polysaeeharides in Chrysanthemum.Adding 50% volume of 5 mol·L-1 NaCI into the solution which precipitating.High quality genomic DNA can be extracted from Chrysanthemum using the improved method.The DNA WaS preferable enough to be used as PCR template and digested by restriction enzyme completely and other studies of molecular biology.%根据温室菊花植物组织富含多酚、多糖的具体特性,对CTAB法加以改进:在待沉淀液中加入1/2体积5 mol·L~NaCI.改进后的方法获得的DNA质量良好,电泳条带清晰,提取过程无明显的DNA降解,基本上排除了多酚物质的干扰.以提取的DNA为模板,用一对引物扩增菊花中18S基因,得到条带单一,大小与已知一致,说明获得的DNA可以进行PCR扩增,EcoR I 酶切基因组DNA图谱表明,提取的DNA能被限制性内切酶完全酶切,可以满足相关的分子生物学研究.

  15. Reconocimiento y dispersión de hongos causantes del "picamento" (Rayspeck en crisantemo (Chrysanthemum morifolium ram en condiciones de invernadero

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bustos B. Indiana

    1992-11-01

    Full Text Available The recongnition of the fungi causing ray speck and their dispersion in chrysantemum (Chrysanthemum morifolium RAM cv. Polaris, was carried out under greenhouse conditions. Three speciea were identified: Alternaria alternata (FR Keiasler, Alternaria zinniae Ellis, Stemphylium botryosum, Wallroth lPleospora herbarum Raben Horst. The analysis ofthe disease dispersion was based on a random deaign with three repetitions. The number of coloniea, the temperature and relative humidity were evaluated in four different placea of the culture. The temperature was found to be the most important factor afecting the production and releaSe of conidia. The sporulation reached ita peak at noon (21°C.El reconocimiento de hongos causantes del "picamento" (ray speek y su dispersión en crisantemo (Chrysanthemum morifolium RAM cv. Polaris, se realizó bajo condiciones de invernadero. Se identificaron tres especies de hongos que producen los síntomas: ALternaria alternata (FR Keissler, ALternaria zinniae Ellis, Stemphylium botryosum, Wallroth CPkospora herbarum Raben Horst. Para el análisis de la dispersión de la enfermedad, se usó un diseño completamente al azar con tres repeticiones. En cuatro sitios del cultivo se evaluó el número de colonias, la temperatura y la humedad relativa. Se encontró que la temperatura es el factor más importante para la producción y liberación de conidias. A las 12 M. (21°C se presentó la mayor esporulación.

  16. Effects of Hydroabsorbent Mixed Slow Release Fertilizers on Growth and Nutrients Uptake of Edible Chrysanthemum%保水缓释肥料对食用菊花生长及养分吸收的影响研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李传章; 高丽娟; 黄景; 孙钦平; 许俊香; 刘本生; 李吉进

    2012-01-01

    The aim was to provide the basis on the application of hydroabsorbent mixed slow-released fertilizer in Chrysanthemum. A pot experiment was conducted to study and compare the effects of hydroabsorbent mixed slow-released fertilizer and slow-release fertilizer on Chrysanthemum' s growth, yields and nitrogen effects. Four treatments were set up, which were control (CK), hydroabsorbent (B), slow-release fertilizer (H) and hydroabsorbent mixed slow-released fertilizer (BH). The results showed that, compared with H treatment, the hydroabsorbent mixed slow released fertilizer significantly boosted the growth of Chrysanthemum, and including plant height increased about 8 cm, chlorophyll content increased by over 4%, biomass increased by more than 25%. The contents of N, P and K of chrysanthemum treated with BH were significant more than those treated with H, and nitrogen use efficiency improved more than 23%. Meanwhile, the hydroabsorbent mixed slow-released fertilizer could significantly reduce soil nitrate content, thereby reducing the risk of nitrogen leaching loss. Therefore, the hydroabsorbent mixed slow-released fertilizer had a significant effectiveness for Chrysanthemum, and was better than slow-release fertilizer.%为了给菊花生产提供保水缓释肥施用的参考依据,利用温室盆栽试验,研究和比较了保水缓释肥料和普通缓释肥料对食用菊花生长发育、产量及其氮素效应的影响.试验设计了不施肥(CK)、单施保水剂(B)、单施缓释肥(H)和保水缓释肥(BH)4个处理.试验结果表明,与缓释肥处理相比,保水缓释肥料显著促进了菊花的生长,其中株高增加约8 cm、叶绿素含量提高4%以上,生物量提高25%以上;保水缓释肥处理植株氮、磷、钾含量比缓释肥处理显著增加,提高氮素利用率23个百分点以上;同时保水缓释肥能显著降低土壤硝态氮的含量,从而降低氮素淋洗流失的风险.因此,保水缓释肥对菊花肥效显著,优于缓释肥.

  17. The Origin of Garden Chrysanthemums and Molecular Phylogeny of Dendranthema in China based on Nucleotide Sequences of nrDNA ITS, trnT-trnL and trnL-trnF Intergenic Spacer Regions in cpDNA%基于核糖体DNA的ITS序列和叶绿体trnT-trnL及trnL-trnF基因间区的菊花起源与中国菊属植物分子系统学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵惠恩; 汪小全; 陈俊愉; 洪德元

    2003-01-01

    Several sequences were applied to resolve phylogenetic relationships within Dendranthema and clarify the origin of garden chrysanthemums including sequences of nrDNA ITS, trnT-trnL and trnL-trnF intergenic spacer regions in cpDNA. The relationships among the species are so close that the three sequences could only provide limited information. From the evidence presented, we suggest that: ① D.rhmobifolium be the chloroplast donor of D.vestitum (HN) with the resembling morphology and the same trnT/L IGS sequence. ② D.vestitum, a putative ancestor, may be not the chloroplast donor of garden chrysanthemums. D.lavand-ulifolium might be the chloroplast donor of the type population of D.indicum (HN) or the direct chloroplast donor of the ancient garden chrysanthemum cultivar. ③ D.zawaskii might be not the ancestor of garden chrysanthemums.

  18. Investigation and Analysis of Large -Flowered Chrysanthemum Cultivars in Shandong Province%山东省大菊品种资源调查与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雒新艳; 张俊丽; 卢洁

    2015-01-01

    本研究对山东省大菊主栽城市进行了连续3年的调查和整理,共鉴定统计到195个品种,其中日本品种81个,中国品种114个;平瓣类(52%)和管瓣类(28%)品种多,畸瓣类(5%)和桂瓣类(1%)品种少;叠球型、翻卷型和钩环型3个花型的品种数量多,缺少平盘型、蜂窝型和单管型等7个花型的品种;黄色和白色品种多,两者之和超过了一半,绿色、红色和橙色品种少,不足10个;各花色在瓣型和花型中的分布极不均匀,黄色叠球型品种最多。该调查结果有利于正确认识大菊品种资源,保护珍稀资源,合理开展引种、育种和产业开发等工作。%One hundred and ninety -five Chrysanthemum cultivars were identified through the investiga-tion in the major cultivation cities of Shandong Province in 3 consecutive years,which included 81 Japanese cultivars and 114 native cultivars.The flat -petal group (52%)and quilled -petal group (28%)took the most part of cultivars,whereas the filiform -petal group (5%)and anemone -petal group (1%)had even less cultivars.These quantity of globular,reflexed and open bead types were the most,while that of 7 types, such as plate -petal types,honeycomb types and single quill type was lack.The cultivars yellow and white flowers were the most with their,sum was more than half of the total.There were less than ten cultivars with green,red and orange flowers.The distribution of each color in the petal groups and flower types was very un-even,and the yellow globular type was the most one.These results were propitious to cognize the cultivars of Chrysanthemum,protect valuable resources and develop the introduction,breeding and industry exploiting.

  19. Avaliação do enraizamento de estacas de crisântemo (Chrysanthemum morifolium L. cv. white Reagan 606 tratadas com ácido indolbutírico (IBA Rooting evaluation in Chrysanthemum morifolium cv. white Reagan 606 stem cuttings as affected by indolbutyric acid (IBA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.L. Cuquel

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito de doses crescentes do ácido indolbutírico (IBA e de diferentes tempos de imersão no enraizamento de estacas de Chrysanthemum morifolium cv. White Reagan 606. O fator doses foi aplicado em quatro níveis: 0, 500, 1000 e 1500 ppm de IBA e o fator tempo em três níveis: 5s, 1h e 2h. O delineamento utilizado foi o de blocos completos casualizados com parcelas subdivididas, onde as dosagens de IBA foram aplicadas como tratamento principal. O experimento foi instalado em caixas de isopor, em casa de vegetação sob nebulização, tendo vermiculita como substrato. O momento adequado para o transplante foi avaliado através da leitura de uma repetição adicional utilizada como controle. Obteve-se enraizamento em todas as combinações de tratamento, mesma na ausência de IBA. De maneira geral o tratamento rápido tende a ser mais facilmente eficiente quando combinado com as maiores dosagens, enquanto os tratamentos mais demorados com as menores dosagens.The effect of rising concentrations of indolbutyric acid (IBA solutions was evaluated with different exposition times in stem cuttings of Chrysanthemum morifolium cv. White Reagan 606. The applied concentrations were 0,500,1000 and 1500 ppm of IBA during 5s, 1h and 2h, in a randomized complete split-plot block design, with IBA concentrations as main treatment. The experiment was installed in styrofoam trays in a green-house with a mist device and vermiculite as substrate. Transplanting time was determined by an additional block. All treatments induced rooting even in the absence of IBA. In a general sense the fastest treatments tended to be the more efficient when combined with higher concentrations.

  20. Analysis of different technologies of artificial illumination for production of chrysanthemum in protecting environment; Analise de diferentes tecnologias de iluminacao artificial para producao de crisantemos em ambiente protegido

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David, Eduardo; Rossi, Luiz Antonio [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (FEAGRI/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Agricola. Dept. de Engenharia Agricola], Emails: eduardo.david@gr.unicamp.br, rossi@agr.unicamp.br

    2006-07-01

    In protecting environment chrysanthemum's production, the artificial illumination type used to induce the photo period, affects the growing and development of plants, as well the electric power consumed in this process of production. The most useful illumination type is by filament. Today, new artificial illumination technologies have been studied to reduce the electric power consumption. This work has been development in a commercial greenhouse with four varieties. The preliminary results have showed that the utilization of discharge lamps does not affect significantly the flower's development considering the weight and presence of flower bud. In the analyzed period, the reduction on power electricity consumption was 60,13% on the sodium-vapor lamp, 41,66% on the mercury-vapor lamp, 60,52% on the fluorescent tube lamp and 50,32% on the compact fluorescent-integrated lamp in comparison with the incandescent lamp that nowadays it is used. It shows the high intensity discharge technology (HID technology) has saved more electricity than the incandescent lamp. (author)

  1. Comparative effects of hydrogen chloride gas on tomato and chrysanthemum. I. Distribution and accumulation of chloride following exposure. II. Pathological anatomy of hydrogen chloride gas injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shriner, D.S.

    1969-01-01

    Hydrogen chloride (HCl) gas damage to plants has not been a historically important problem. However, recent practices in a number of industries, particularly glass manufacturing and pyrolysis of waste plastics, have increased the seriousness of the problem. Studies were carried out under carefully controlled exposure conditions to determine the effects of HCl gas on a relatively sensitive and a relatively resistant plant species. The macroscopic symptoms of most importance in acute damage to tomato and chrysanthemum are glazing of the lower surface, and a bifacial bronzing of interveinal and marginal areas of leaves. Microscopically, glazing was shown to be caused by a collapse of the lower epidermal cells and a partial disorganization of the spongy mesophyll of leaves. Bronzing was shown to be caused by the further collapse of the spongy mesophyll, and in some cases the palisade mesophyll and upper epidermis. Analysis of plant tissues for their free chloride content following an exposure to HCl gas was done with cell-free water extracts which were titrated on an automatic chloride titrator. On the basis of such studies, evidence suggest that the mechanism of accumulation of chlorides in plants is similar to that of fluorides, and that in subacute doses, chlorides are translocated toward the extremities of the foliar portions of the plant. In areas where a number of different types of pollution sources exist, and symptomotology is not definitive in pinpointing the source, chloride analysis of plant tissues should prove valuable as an aid to diagnosis if HCl gas was suspected.

  2. 茼蒿挥发油化学成分分析%Chemical Constitutes of Essential Oil from Chrysanthemum.L

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程霜; 崔庆新; 牛梅菊

    2001-01-01

    利用气相色谱-质谱联用法对茼蒿挥发油成分进行了分析,经毛细管色谱分离出了38种组分,并确认了32种成分,检出率达84.21%,并用气相色谱面积归一化法测定了各种成分的相对百分含量,其主要成分为4-甲基-2-戊烯、4-甲基-2,3-二氢呋喃、β-蒎烯、苯甲醛等。%The essential oil from Chrysanthemum. Lwas analyzed by capillary GC / MSD method. 38 peaks were isolated and 32 compounds were identified while the ratio of identification was 84. 21%. The relative contents of constitutes wrer determined by area normalizing method. The mainly chemical constitutes were: 2 - pentene - 4 - methyl -, 4 -methgl - 2, 3 - dihydro - furan, benzaldehyde, beta - pinene, etc.

  3. Influence of temperature and rooting-promoter on the formation of root-primodia and on the rooting of chrysanthemum cuttings under storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to promote rooting for direct planting cuttings in a lighting cultivation of chrysanthemum, we clarified the effects of light, temperature and term of storage of the cuttings, and analyzed ways of using rooting promoters as a pre-treatment of cuttings for root-primodia formation and rooting. Light as a pre-treatment had little effect, so it seemed to be not necessary for the formation of root primodia. The formation of the root-primodia was most hastened at 25 degrees C; inversely, it was slowed down at low temperatures, that is, the root-primodia were formed in four days at 25 degrees C, five days at 20 degrees C, and seven days at 15 degrees C. With the use of rooting promoters as a pre-treatment for the rooting of cuttings, the root-primodia were formed faster when the whole of cuttings were dipped in 40 mg/L solution of indelebutyric acid (IBA) than when the base of cuttings were dipped or sprayed 400 mg/L solution of IBA. It was appropriate that cuttings were dipped in IBA then put in in plastic-pots (7.5cm) vertically, packed in polyethylene-bags and stored in a corrugated carton box

  4. 菊花精油化学成分分析及其在再造烟叶加香中的应用%Analysis of Chemical Components of Chrysanthemum Essential Oil and Its Applicationin Reconstituted Tobacco Flavoring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史跃龙; 严新龙; 卢岚

    2014-01-01

    The chemical components of chrysanthemum essential oil were qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed by GC-MC. The results showed that 43 components in chrysanthemum essential oil were identified,containing five kinds of ketones,four-teen kinds of alcohols,six kinds of esters,three kinds of acids,and fifteen hydrocarbons and heterocyclic compounds. Tobacco flavoring test was found that when the content of chrysanthemum essential oil added in every 1 00 g of tobacco concentrate were in the range of 1 .5‰ to 2 .0‰ ,the offensive odor of reconstituted tobacco could be eliminated and the taste of cigarette smoke could be improved. The optimal result was achieved when adding quantity was 2.0‰ .%采用气相色谱-质谱联用仪对菊花精油的化学成分进行分析。结果显示,从菊花精油中检测鉴别出43种物质,其中酮类5种、醇类14种、酯类6种、酸类3种、烃类及杂环类15种。加香试验发现,在每100 g烟草浓缩液中加入1.5‰~2.0‰(质量分数)菊花精油能够有效改善造纸法再造烟叶的刺激性和灼烧感,改善吸味并提高香气质量,在添加比例为2.0‰(质量分数)时效果最佳。

  5. 11个观赏菊花品种灰色关联度分析%Grey Correlation Degree Analysis of 11 Ornamental Chrysanthemum Varieties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢珍红; 蔡承良; 顾强健; 田敏; 莫锡君; 吴学尉; 桂敏

    2014-01-01

    The comprehensive analysis and evaluation on the main characters of 11 ornamental chrysanthemum varieties intro-duced from Holland were carried out , and the equal -weight and weighted correlation degrees between their main characters and ide-al characters were analyzed by using the method of grey correlation degree analysis .The results indicated that the equal -weight cor-relation degrees of various varieties had the following order: romanov>bretagne>ml.yellow>Kastelli>Amadea>Jeanny pink >Rados>Vennice>Bactica>Biarritc>pp.golden .The weighted correlation degrees showed the following sequence:romanov>bret-agne>ml.yellow>Kastelli>Amadea>Jeanny pink >Vennice >Rados>Bactica >Biarritc>pp.golden.Thus, romanov had the best comprehensive performance , followed by bretagne and ml .yellow.These three varieties were suitable to be planted in Kunming district.%采用灰色关联度分析方法,对11个从荷兰引进的观赏菊花品种的主要性状进行了综合分析评价,并对所引进的品种主要性状与理想性状进行等权与加权关联度分析。结果表明:等权关联度大小依次为:romanov >Bretagne >ml. yellow>Kastelli>Amadea>Jeanny pink>Rados>Vennice>Bactica>Biarritc>pp.golden。加权关联度大小依次为:romanov>Bretagne>ml.yellow>Kastelli>Amadea>Jeanny pink>Vennice>Rados>Bactica>Biarritc>pp.golden。即romanov的综合表现最好,其次为Bretagne和ml.yellow,这3个品种适合在昆明地区大力推广种植。

  6. 杭白菊挥发油口含片中有效成分樟脑、龙脑的含量测定%Determination of Camphor and Borneol in Oral Tablets of Chrysanthemum morifolium Essential Oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈婷; 王建平; 殷红; 王玮; 陶锋

    2012-01-01

    Objective :To establish an GC method for the determination of camphor and borneol in oral tablets of Chrysanthemum morifolium essential oil in p - cyclodextrin inclusion. Methods: The camphor and borneol in inclusion tablets were extracted by refluxed. The contents of two effective components were analyzed by gas chromatography with CBP20 -M25 -025 capillary column. N - octanol was used as internal standard substance for camphor and borneol. Results; A good separation was obtained. The standard curves for camphor and bomeol were linear over the range of 14.00~224.0 μg · mL-1 and 19.69 ~ 315. Oμg · mL-1 Respectively. The average recovery for camphor and borneol was higher than 94.2%. The precisions for them were both less than 0.77%. Conclusion: The method is accurate and sensitive for the determination of camphor and borneol in inclusion tablets of Chrysanthemum morifolium essential oil with good quality controlling of oral tablet product,providing scientific evidence for the development of Chrysanthemum morifolium and reasonable clinical application of essential oil.%目的:建立杭白菊挥发油β-环糊精包合物口含片中樟脑、龙脑的浓度测定的GC方法并测定含量.方法:用加热回流法提取片剂包合物中的有效成分,采用毛细管气相色谱法,以正辛醇为内标,测定其中樟脑与龙脑的含量.结果:该方法樟脑、龙脑分离良好,线性范围分别为14.00~ 224.0μg·mL-1及19.69 ~ 315.0μg·mE-1,加样回收率均高94.2%,精密度RSD小于0.77%.结论:本法能准确、灵敏地同时测定杭白菊挥发油β-环糊精包合物口含片中樟脑、龙脑的含量,可以作为口含片的产品质量控制方法,为杭白菊产品的深度开发与挥发油制剂的质量标准制定提供科学依据.

  7. A Process Research of Healthy and Refreshing Beverages Made of Herba houttuyniae, Folium llicis, and Chrysanthemum morifolium%鱼腥草、苦丁茶、杭白菊复合保健饮料工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴敏; 罗爱平; 赵贵丽; 周国君; 徐筱菁

    2012-01-01

    An experiment was carried out to optimize the protocol of herba houttuyniae juice processing using herba houttuyniae as major ingredient, and Folium llicis and Chrysanthemum morifolium as auxiliary materials herein. The findings showed that Folium /feisLatifoliae and Chrysanthemum morifolium, could effectively affect the flavor of its drinks. The procedure was as following: cutting the Herba houttuyniae into 1 to 2 cm pieces, dipping them in the 0. 2% salt-water, protecting color and steaming, pulping with protect color liquid in the proportion of 1:0. 8, which could increase juice yield to 140 mL per 100 g fresh Herba houttuyniae and produce the yellow liquid product. The best formula of compound beverages contained 100 mL Herba houttuyniae juice,0.12g xanthan gum, 0. 08 g sucrose fatty acid ester, 30 g sweeteners (sucrose: lactose1 xylitol = 10: 3:2) , 0.94ml acidity ( containing 2. 6% citric acid, 1.0% tartaric acid and 1.0% vitamin C) , 21 mL Folium llicis, 5.3 mL Chrysanthemum morifolium.%以鱼腥草为主料,辅以苦丁茶、杭白菊,探讨鱼腥草、苦丁茶和杭白菊清凉复合保健饮料的最佳工艺配方.结果表明:将鱼腥草切成1 ~2cm小段,经0.2%盐水浸渍、护色、汽蒸,与护色液按1∶0.8打浆,每100g鲜鱼腥草出汁率可提高达140 mL,汁液色泽呈理想的浅黄色.复合饮料最佳配方为:鱼腥草汁的用量100 mL,黄原胶0.12g,蔗糖脂肪酸酯0.08g,甜味剂309(蔗糖∶乳糖∶木耱醇=10∶3∶2),酸味剂0.94 mL(含柠檬酸2.6%、酒石酸1.0%,抗坏血酸1.0%),苦丁茶汁21 mL,菊花汁5.3mL.苦丁茶、杭白菊能有效改善鱼腥草饮料的风味.

  8. The Association Analysis of Phenotypic Traits with SRAP Markers in Chrysanthemum%菊花品种表型性状与SRAP分子标记的关联分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李仁伟; 王晨; 戴思兰; 雒新艳; 李宝琴; 朱珺; 卢洁; 刘倩倩

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] In order to provide a genetic basis for studies on complex quantitive traits and for molecular assisted breeding of chrysanthemum, the SRAP markers associated with important chrysanthemum horticulture traits were screened. [Method] The genomic regions with selection sweep were detected through scanning 58 representative chrysanthemum cultivars using 19 SRAP markers. Population structure was firstly analyzed, then association analysis between SRAP markers and 18 important phenotypic traits were performed using TASSEL GLM. [Result] Genetic structure analysis showed that the selected cultivar population was composed of 5 subpopulations, namely flat type subgroup, tube type subgroup, irregular type subgroup, anemone type subgroup and Japanese subgroup. There were 6 SRAP loci associated with 5 quantitative characters (/J<0.01), among which 3 flower traits were associated with 5 loci, while 1 stem and 1 leaf traits were associated with 1 locus, respectively. The rate of explanation on the phenotype of related locus ranged from 0.0738 to 0.4791. [Conclusion] It is feasible to estimate and differentiate chrysanthemum population's structure effectively using SRAP markers, and the markers obtained in this study are promising in molecular assisted breeding.%[目的]寻找与菊花重要园艺性状相关联的分子标记,为菊花复杂数量性状的研究以及分子标记辅助育种奠定遗传学基础.[方法]利用筛选出的19对SRAP引物组合对58个典型大菊品种进行多位点扫描分析.在对供试材料进行群体结构分析的基础上,利用TASSEL软件,对获得的分子标记与这些品种的18个重要表型性状进行关联分析.[结果]群体遗传结构分析将58个大菊品种划分为5个亚群结构:平瓣类、管瓣类、畸瓣类、桂瓣类和日本品种亚群;通过关联分析,发现有6个标记位点与5个性状关联(P< 0.01),其中与花部性状(花梗粗度、花瓣宽度、筒

  9. 转AtDREB1A基因菊花杂交后代优株水分胁迫耐性分析%Drought Stress Tolerance of the Hybrid Offspring Produced by AtDREB1A Transgenic Chrysanthemum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨英杰; 李春水; 张晓娇; 魏倩; 高俊平; 洪波

    2013-01-01

    过量表达拟南芥(A rab idopsis thaliana)逆境诱导转录因子DREB1A基因(AtDREB1A)能提高菊花的干旱胁迫耐性.以具有干旱胁迫耐性的转AtDREB1A基因菊花(Chrysanthemum morifolium)株系与广泛应用的非转基因菊花品种进行常规杂交获得的后代优株A-121、A-128、A-136为实验材料,进行了RT-PCR检测、水分胁迫下的萎蔫指数和成活率统计以及脯氨酸(Pro)含量和超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)活性测定.结果显示,外源A tDREB1A基因能够在有性繁殖过程中遗传给后代,且在水分胁迫下能在杂交后代植株中表达;与对照相比,水分胁迫条件下,转基因植株杂交后代Pro含量和SOD活性明显升高,且具有较强的水分胁迫耐性.研究结果表明,转基因菊花所携带的A tDREB1A基因可以在常规杂交中稳定遗传并发挥功能,提高了植株对水分胁迫的耐性.本研究为通过基因工程和传统育种结合方式选育具有干旱耐性的菊花新品种提供了技术平台.%Overexpression of the stress-inducible transcription factor gene A tDREB1A in Chrysanthemum conferred strong drought stress tolerance. Taking A-112, A-128 and A-136 as experimental materials, which are the three excellent hybrid offspring plants of the ground cover Chrysanthemum fall color transgenic line 1805 with drought stress tolerance harboring Arabidopsis thaliana dehydration response element-binding protein 1A (AtDREB1A) and the Asia Winter Light with better phenotype, we analyzed the stability and expression of AtDREB1A under water stress condition by RT-PCR, and determined the wilting index, survival rate, proline(Pro) content and superoxide dismutase(SOD) activity under drought stress condition. The results demonstrated that the exogenous gene AtDREB1A A was transferred into the hybrid offspring plants by sexual propagation and it could be expressed in offspring plants under drought condition. Compared with the control plants, the hybrid offspring plants

  10. Espectroscopía NIR como Técnica Exploratoria Rápida para Detección de Amarillamiento Hojas Crisantemo (Dendranthema grandiflora var. Zembla / NIR Spectroscopy as Quick Exploratory Technique for Detection of Chrysanthemum Leaf Yellowing (Dendranthema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Pérez Naranjo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Resumen. El diagnóstico seguro de enfermedades en lasplantas depende de técnicas costosas, que requieren de tiempo y entrenamiento especializado. Esta investigación evaluó el uso de espectroscopia infrarroja cercana NIR (por sus siglas en ingles near-infrared para la detección rápida del “amarillamiento de hojas de crisantemo”, una enfermedad de etiología incierta que genera pérdidas económicas importantes. En este experimento se tomaron espectros infrarrojos en hojas con niveles de amarillamiento diferentes según la clasificación empleada por los agricultores (asintomáticas, síntomas intermedios y hojasdeformadas con síntomas avanzados. Mediante un análisis de componentes principales y con los valores de los espectros de esas muestras, se desarrolló un modelo de clasificación de hojas. Ese modelo aplicado en espectros de hojas tomados al azar separó adecuadamente el grupo de espectros NIR de hojas asintomáticas de un grupo indiferenciado de espectros obtenidos de hojas consíntomas intermedios o avanzados. Los resultados sugieren que para esta enfermedad es posible desarrollar un modelo de detección en muestras problema. Para ello, se requerirá incorporar al modelo un mayor número de muestras en rangos de enfermedad bien definidos. Estos resultados permiten vislumbrar las posibilidades del uso de esta técnica no destructiva, para detección temprana de los síntomas del amarillamiento foliar en crisantemo y como herramienta para el diseño de estrategias oportunas y efectivas demanejo de esta y otras enfermedades en las plantas. / Abstract. The safe diagnostic of plant diseases depends on expensive techniques which require time and specialized training. This study evaluated the use of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIR for the rapid detection of “chrysanthemum leaf yellowing”, a disease of unknown etiology causing important economic losses in Antioquia’s chrysanthemum main producing areas

  11. Historical and Cultural Origin and Textual Research of Chrysanthemum morifolium Cultivated in Macheng%麻城福白菊的历史文化渊源及本草考证

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗光军; 陈科力

    2011-01-01

    麻城市种植的药用菊花(Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat.)品质优良,产量在全国占有较大的份额,并以麻城福白菊(C.morifolium cv.Fubaiju)注册了国家地理标志证明商标,但该品牌还不为国人所熟知.笔者从历史文化渊源和本草考证的角度证实,湖北麻城大别山地区是具有悠久历史的传统菊花产地之一,关于麻城菊花食用和种植历史最明确的记载,可以在麻城县志中追溯到明末清初,而关于麻城菊花采收和食用的文化习俗,甚至可以追溯到更为久远的春秋战国时期.%The Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat. cultivated in Macheng region had excellent quality and contributed to a large proportion of total yield in China. The National Geographic Symbol Certification Mark, name of C. morifolium cv.Fubai-ju, had been registered. However, the C. morifolium cv. Fubaiju brand had not been well known. According to the historical and cultural origin and textual research on Chinese medicine, the presented paper verified that the Dabie Mountain area in Macheng city of Hubei was a traditional production area of C. morifolium with long history. The clear record about C. morifolium cultivated and used as food in Macheng could be traced back to Late Ming Dynasty to Early Qing Dynasty in Macheng local chronicles. And the cultural consuetude about C. morifolium collection and recipe in Macheng could even be traced back to old Spring and Autumn Period.

  12. 从语境顺应看《菊与刀》中的耻感文化%A TENTATIVE APPROACH TO SHAME CULTURE IN THE CHRYSANTHEMUM AND THE SWORD FROM THE PERSPECTIVE OF CONTEXTUAL ADAPTABILITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    褚倩雯

    2011-01-01

    本尼迪克特在她的《菊与刀》中指出日本文化是不同于欧美"罪感文化"的"耻感文化"。Verschueren认为,人们使用语言的过程实际上是一个不断选择语言的过程。本文在顺应论理论框架下对《菊与刀》中的"耻感文化"进行了语境顺应性的分析。通过分析耻感文化背景下的日本人在交际过程中是如何对交际语境进行动态顺应并作出相应的语言选择,进一步探讨了语言的选择与文化语境的密切关系。%In The Chrysanthemum and the Sword,Benedict declares that the national culture of Japan is a "shame culture" rather than a "guilt culture".In Verschueren's Adaptation Theory,it is believed that language use must be constituted by continuous choice making.Based on the theoretic framework of Adaptation Theory,this paper makes an analysis of contextual adaptability of shame culture advocated in The Chrysanthemum and the Sword.Based on an analysis of shame culture and its influences on the Japanese's selection of language use,this paper makes a further discussion of the relationship between language choice-making and cultural context.

  13. 不同丛枝菌根真菌对切花菊生长的影响%Effects of Different Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi Strains on Growth of Chrysanthemum morifolium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔佩佩; 杨树华; 贾瑞冬; 葛红

    2011-01-01

    The pot experiment was conducted in the greenhouse to study the effects of five kinds of different arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) strains on growth of Chrysanthemum morifolium 'Jinba' by measuring some morphological and physiological indicators at young plants and blooming stages. The results showed that AMF treatments could significantly improve the plant height, leaf numbers, leaf area, root length and petal area of C. morifolium compared to the control of no inoculation. The AMF treatments could enhance root activity, increase the soluble sugar content in the roots, leaves and petals (except for Glomus mosseae), and thus improve the osmotic adjustment. As a result, G. intraradlces was screened out as the best strain for enhancing the growth of C. morifolium.%在温室盆栽条件下,对切花菊品种‘神马’(Chrysanthemum morifolium‘Jinba’)接种5种不同的丛枝菌根真菌(arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi,AMF),分别在苗期和花期,通过测定相关形态及生理指标,研究AMF对切花菊生长的影响.结果表明:与未接种对照相比,5种AMF均能不同程度地侵染切花菊根系,增加植株株高、叶片数、根长和花瓣面积等,促进切花菊生长.接种AMF能够增强切花菊根系活力,提高根系、叶片和花瓣中的可溶性糖含量(Glomus mosseae除外),从而改善渗透调节.综合分析,最终筛选出G.intraradlces是对切花菊生长促进效果最好的菌种.

  14. 大孔树脂精制杭白菊总黄酮的上样条件研究%Study on Sampling Conditions of Refining Chrysanthemum Total Flavonoids with Macroporous Resin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴海霞

    2012-01-01

    目的 优选D-101大孔树脂精制杭白菊总黄酮工艺中的最佳上样条件.方法 将影响树脂吸附性能的3个因素上样量、流速和pH设计成3因素3水平试验,采用L9(34)表正交试验,以树脂吸附总黄酮含量、乙醇洗脱总黄酮含量和固体总黄酮含量为评价指标,选择最佳条件.结果 确定最佳上样条件为上样量20 mL、pH为5、流速2 BV/h.结论 该最佳上样条件可应用于大孔树脂精制杭白菊总黄酮的上样条件研究.%Objective To optimize D — 101 macroporous resin for obtaining the best sampling conditions to refine chrysanthemum total flavonoids. Methods 3 factors influencing resin adsorption ability,the sample volume,flow rate and sample solution pH value,were designed to the 3 factors 3 levels test. Adopting the L9(34) table orthogonal experiment,the total flavonoid content by resin adsorption, total flavonoids content by ethanol eluting and solid total flavonoid content were used as the evaluation indexes for screening the best conditions. Results The best optimum sampling conditions were A3B1G3,I. E. ,the sample volume of 20 mL,pH 5 and the velocity of 2 BV/h. Conclusion The best sampling conditions can be used in the sampling condition study for refining chrysanthemum total flavonoids by macroporous resin.

  15. Cloning and Expression of CmCO and CmFT of Floral Development Genes in Chrysanthemum%菊花花发育基因CmCO和CmFT的克隆与表达分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田素波; 林桂玉; 郑成淑; 孙霞; 任洪艳; 温立柱

    2011-01-01

    利用同源序列法结合RACE技术从菊花'神马'品种[Chrysanthemum morfIorium(Ramat.)Kitam.'Jinba']中分离了开花时间相关的CO(CONSTANS)和FT(FLOWERINGLOCUST)同源基因,并命名为CmCO(基因登录号JF488070)和CmFT(基因登录号JF488071).CmCO和CmFT分别编码382和174个氨基酸.蛋白比对发现,CmCO蛋白包含具有典型的CO同源蛋白结构,包含B-box1,B-box2,CCT结构域及COOH区域.CmFT所推测的氨基酸序列包含FT类蛋白保守基序和两个关键性氨基酸残基.同源性分析表明,CmCO与草莓(Fragaria×ananassa)FaCO同源性最高,为65.8%,与豌豆(Pisumsativum)PsCOL、拟南芥(Arabidopsis thaliana)AtCO同源性分别为62.0%和55.6%.CmFT与向日葵(Helianthus annuus)HaFT2基因同源性最高,为93.7%,与葡萄(Vitis vinifera)VvFT和拟南芥AtFT的同源性分别为85.1%和74.0%.进化树聚类分析表明,CmCO和CmFT蛋白分别与向日葵HaCO和HaFT2 遗传距离最近.RT-PCR表明,长日照下的菊花叶片中几乎检测不到CmCO和CmFT,而在短日照下,CmCO在花芽分化启动期(Ⅰ)表达,总苞鳞片分化前期(Ⅱ)有所下降随后又迅速升高;CmFT在CmCO之后表达,之后持续高表达.选择小花原基分化前期(Ⅳ)对菊花叶片、花芽和茎等不同组织器官CmCO.和CmnFT表达进行分析,结果表明,CmCO在叶片中表达量最高,花芽次之,茎最低;CmFT在花芽中表达量最高,叶片次之,茎最低.由此推测CmCO和CmFT的表达与光周期诱导菊花成花密切相关.%The genes of CO (CONSTANS) and FT (FLOWERING LOCUS T), which related to flowering time were isolated from Chrysanthemum morflorium (Ramat.) Kitam. ' Jinba' by RT-PCR and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE), and named it CmCO (GenBank accession No. JF488070) and CmFT (GenBank accession No. JF488071) respectively. CmCO and CmFTencoded 382 and 174 aminoacids respectively. Alignment analysis showed that CmCO protein had typical structures of CO homologous protein, including B-boxl, B-box2

  16. Effect of Different Concentrations of Garland Chrysanthemum Organ Water Extract on Seed Germination Characteristics of Watermelon%不同浓度茼蒿器官水浸提液对西瓜种子发芽特性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范淑英; 肖旭峰; 熊春晖; 倪晓春; 吴才君

    2011-01-01

    采用0.001、0.01、0.1 g·mL-1的干茼蒿根、茎叶、花水浸提液处理西瓜种子,测定其发芽势、发芽率及胚根鲜质量,研究茼蒿水浸提液对西瓜种子的化感抑制率.结果表明:不同浓度茼蒿器官(根、茎叶、花)水浸提液对西瓜种子萌发有较强的抑制作用,随处理浓度升高,抑制作用越强,发芽势、发芽率、胚根鲜质量均低于对照,因此,茼蒿水浸提液浓度在0.001~0.1 g·mL-1对西瓜种子萌发存在明显的化感作用.%In order to study the effects of different concentrations of garland chrysanthemum organ water extract on seed germination characteristics of watermelon ( Citrullus lanatus ), 0.001, 0.01 and 0.1 g · mL-1 organ water extracts from garland chrysanthemum root, stem and leaf, flower were used to treat watermelon seeds and to test seed germination characteristics.The results showed that different concentrations of garland chrysanthemum root, stem and leaf, flower water extracts could inhibit seed germination of watermelon.The inhibitory effect increased along with the concentration rise.The germinability, germination percentage, radicle quality were all lower than the control.Therefore, 0.001-0.1 g · mL-1 garland chrysanthemum organ water extracts has distinct allelopathy effect on watermelon germination.

  17. Compounds from fraction with cardiovascular activity of Chrysanthemum indicum%野菊花心血管活性部位化学成分的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙昱; 马晓斌; 刘建勋

    2012-01-01

    In order to investigate the chemical constituents from the fraction with cardiovascular activtiy of Chrysanthemum indicum , the isolation and purification of compounds from this active fraction were performed, and the chemical structures were elucidated by spectral analysis and comparison of the spectral data with those reported in the literature. As a result, twelve compounds were obtained and identified as (2S)-eriodictyol-7-O-β-D-glucuronide (1), (2.S)-eriodictyol-7-O-β-D-glucoside (2), (2S)-hesperetin-7-O-β-D-glucuronide (3), luteolin-7-O-β-D-glucoside (4), luteolin-7-O-β-D-glucuronide (5), diosmetin-7-O-β-D-glucuronide (6), quercetin -7-O-β-D-glucoside (7), (2S)-eriodict-dicaffeoylquinate(8), 3, 5-dicaffeoylquinic acid(9), 3, 5-cis-dieaffeoylquinic acid (10), 1, 5-dioaffeoylquinic acid( 11), and 1, 3-dicaffeoylquinic acid( 12). The above result indicated that flavonoids were the ma-di-caffeoylquinate(8), 3, 5-dicaffeoylquinic acid(9), 3, 5-cis-dieaffeoylquinic acid(10), 1, 5-dicaffeoylquinic acid(11), and 1, 3-di-caffcoylquinic acid (12). The above result indicated that flavonoids were the major components of the active fraction. Compounds 2,3, 7, 8 and 10 were obtained from this genus for the first time, and compounds 5, 6, 9, 11, and 12 were first isolated from C. indicum.%目的:研究菊科植物野菊花心血管活性部位中的主要化学成分.方法:采用多种色谱方法进行分离纯化,通过波谱方法结合文献对照鉴定化合物结构.结果:从野菊花心血管活性部位中分离并鉴定了12个化合物,包括7个黄酮类化合物(1~7),5个苯丙素类化合物(8~12),分别鉴定为(2S)-圣草酚-7-O-β-D-吡喃葡萄糖醛酸苷(1),(2S)-圣草酚-7-O-β-D-吡喃葡萄糖苷(2),(2S)-橙皮素-7-O-β-D-吡喃葡萄糖醛酸苷(3),木犀草素-7-O-β-D-吡喃葡萄糖苷(4),木犀草素-7-O-β-D-吡喃葡萄糖醛酸苷(5),香叶木素-7-O-β-D-吡喃葡萄糖醛酸苷(6),槲皮素-7-O-β-D-呲喃葡萄糖苷(7),3,5-

  18. 野菊花多糖的分离纯化及化学组成研究%Purification and Chemical Composition of Polysaccharides from Chrysanthemum indicum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆颖; 任爱农; 李厚兵; 卢悟广

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To study on the purification and chemical composition of polysaccharides from Chrysanthemum indicum. Method: Polysaccharides were extracted from C. indicum with hot water, followed by precipitating with ethanol, decolorizing with LSA-21 and removing of free protein by the method of Sevag, and finally separated into three fractions CIP-1'、 CIP-2'and CIP-3'by DEAE-52 cellulose anion exchange and Sephadex G75 gel column chromatograph. Result: The relative molecular weight (Mw) of CIP-1'was estimated to be about 8 , 242 Da by using high-performance gel permeation chromatography ( HPGPC) , while that of CIP-2'was 8 , 383 Da and of CIP-3'was 1.920 1 × 103 Da. According to GC analysis , CIP-1' was composed of six kinds of monosaccharides, namely rhamnose, arabinose, xylose, mannose, glucose and galactose in the molar ratio of 5.44: 16.40: 20.35: 3.53: 15.43: 21.46, following that CIP-2'was composed of the same kinds of monosaccharides in the molar ration of 8. 47: 13. 17: 2.43: 2.75: 14.51: 15.76. However, CIP-3'was composed of rhamnose, arabinose, mannose, glucose and galactose in a molar ratio of 17. 46: 15. 88: 18. 90: 63. 76: 36. 44. The FT- IR spectrum of the three also indicated typical characteristics of polysaccharides. Conclusion: This study provided experimental basis for the development of polysaccharide resources from C. indicum.%目的:从野菊花中分离纯化多糖,并对其进行相对分子质量测定及单糖组成分析.方法:经热水提取、乙醇沉淀、大孔吸附树脂LSA-21脱色与Sevag法除蛋白,再经DEAE-52纤维素柱和Sephadex G75凝胶色谱分离纯化得到野菊花多糖.采用高效凝胶过滤色谱法(H PGPC)分析其相对分子质量,并借助衍生化气相色谱法(GC)对其单糖组成进行解析.结果:从野菊花中得到3个均一多糖CIP-1’,CIP-2’和CIP-3’.结论:CIP-1’的相对分子质量为8 242 Da,由鼠李糖、阿拉伯糖、木糖、甘露糖、葡萄糖和半乳糖6

  19. Simultaneous determination of multiplex trace elements in chrysanthemum by ICP-Mass%电感耦合等离子体质谱法(ICP-Mass)同时测定菊花中多种微量元素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林新花; 洪瑞申

    2012-01-01

    用原子吸收光谱法(AAS)和电感耦合等离子体质谱法(ICP - Mass)分别测定菊花中微量元素锌、铜、铁,采用的定量分析方法是标准曲线法.并对两种仪器分析方法所得结果进行了比较.结果表明,随锌、铜、铁变量,AAS法和ICP - Mass法均有较好的线性关系,且测定的结果相近.两种方法最低检出限量分别为,AAS法铁0.4mg/L、铜0.4mg/L、锌0 08mg/L;ICP - Mass法铁0.0008mg/L、铜0.0008mg/L、锌0.0008mg/L.与AAS法技术相比,ICP - Mass技术将ICP的高温电离特性与四极杆质谱计的灵敏快速扫描的优点相结合,ICP - MS技术提供了最低的检出限,最宽的动态线性范围,且谱线简单、干扰少,分析精密度高,所以ICP - Mass法的准确度更高.ICP - Mass法可以同时测定菊花中的多种微量元素,分析周期短,提高了样品的分析效率.显示该方法快速、准确、简便等的优点.而AAS法一次只能分析单个元素.%Trace element Zn, Cu and Fe content in chrysanthemum were determined by both atomic absorption spec-trometry (AAS) and inductively coupled plasma mass - spectrography ( ICP - Mass). Three elements content in chrysanthemum was determined by standard curve method. The results obtained from two instrumental analysis methods were compared. The results show that the linear calibration curves for AAS and ICP - Mass were good, the measurement results by both methods were near. The lowest detection limits of Fe, Cu and Zn were 0. 4mg/L, 0. 4mg/L and 0, 08mg/L respectively by AAS. The lowest detection of limits of Fe, Gu, Zn were 0. 0008mg/L, 0. 0008mg/L and 0. 0008mg/L respectively by ICP - Mass, ICP - Mass was unique technology in which high - temperature ionization of ICP was combined with advantages of sensitive, quick and scanning of quadrupole mass spectrometer. ICP - Mass provided the lowest detection limit, the widest dynamic range linear. The analysis line of ICP -Mass was simple so that interference was low. The

  20. 菊花花瓣XTH基因cDNA序列的克隆与分析%Cloning and Analysis of the cDNA Sequence of XTH Gene in Chrysanthemum × morifolium Petal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙悦; 苏媚; 王蕾; 姬筱雅; 郑必平; 谈建中

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to study the structural characteristics of xyloglucan endotransglycosylase/ hydrolase ( XTH) gene in eth-ylene-insensitive feverfew. [ Method] The total RNA was extracted from Chrysanthemum x morifolium petal using Trizol reagent, and the cD-NA fragment of XTH gene was cloned by RT-PCR and T/A cloning, and then analyzed by agarose gel eleetrophresis and sequencing. [ Result] The cloned cDNA sequence was 911 bp. It was predicted to encode a polypeptide of 293 amino acids and had seven active sites of XTH family, and then named as CmXTH (gene accession number HM752243). In addition, the BLAST analysis showed that the deduced amino acid sequence of CmXTH showed high homology with other 19 chosen plant XTHs. Among these, CmXTH had closer genetic relationship with Ger-bera hybrid cuhivar XET, Solatium lycopersicum XTH7, whereas had relatively distant relationship with Populus euparatica XET, Fragaria ananassa XET1, Actinidia deliciosa XET, etc. [Conclusion] The cloned fragment was certainly cUNA sequence of XTH gene, which was associated with the petal, growth and senescence in Chrysanthemum x morifolium. The study lays foundation for further studying the structure and biological functions of XTH genes as well as the growth of Chrysanthemum X morifolium petals.%[目的]研究非乙烯敏感型菊科植物的木葡聚糖内糖基转移酶/水解酶(xyloglucan endo-transglycosylase/hydrolase,XTH)基因的结构特征.[方法]采用Trizol方法从菊花花瓣中提取总RNA,利用RT-PCR技术和T/A载体克隆XTH基因的cDNA序列,并对目的序列进行琼脂糖凝胶电泳和测序分析.[结果]克隆的cDNA片段大小为911 bp,编码293个氨基酸残基,具有XTH蛋白家族的7个活性位点,命名该基因序列为CmXTH(基因登录号为HM752243);其推导的氨基酸序列与其他19种植物的XTH具有较高的同源性,其中与非洲菊、蕃茄的亲缘关系最近,而与猕猴桃、草莓、胡杨等的亲缘关系较远.[结论

  1. Study on the Bacteriostatic and Anti-oxidative Properties of Volatile Oil from Yellow Mountain Chrysanthemum Tea%黄山贡菊挥发油的抑菌及抗氧化性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡晓倩; 吴永祥; 朱洋洋

    2011-01-01

    Volatile oil is extracted from different parts(roots and stems,flowers,leaves) of yellow mountain chrysanthemum tea by steam distillation(SD).The bacteriostatic property of its volatile oil is studied with four kinds of bacteria(Escherichia coli,Proteusbacillus vulgaris,Bacillus subtil and Bacillus thuringiensis) and two kinds of fungi(Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Trichoderma Vride G) as test subjects through extraneous bacteriostatic tests.The results show that its volatile oil has bacteriostatic action on all the six strains,and the action on the four kinds of bacteria is more evident than that on the two kinds of fungi.Besides,there is a remarkable difference in the bacteriostatic property of volatile oil from different parts of yellow mountain chrysanthemum tea.Volatile oil extracted from its leaves has the strongest bacteriostatic activity.Meanwhile,the anti-oxidantion capacity of volatile oil extracted from the leaves of yellow mountain chrysanthemum tea is studied.The results show that volatile oil extracted from its leaves has a good anti-oxidant capacity,and can effectively scavenge hydroxyl radicals and lipid peroxy radicals.In the experimental concentration range,its scavenging capacity rises with the increase of the concentration of volatile oil.%通过水蒸气蒸馏法,提取黄山贡菊不同部位(根茎、花、叶)的挥发油,以4种细菌(大肠杆菌、变形杆菌、枯草杆菌、苏云金芽孢杆菌)和2种真菌(酿酒酵母、突变木霉)作为供试菌种,通过体外抑菌实验研究了黄山贡菊挥发油的抑菌性能。实验表明贡菊的挥发油对6种供试菌种均具有一定的抑制作用,特别是对4种细菌的抑制更加明显。从贡菊不同部位提取的挥发油其抑菌性能有较明显的差异,其中从黄山贡菊叶中提取的挥发油的抑菌性能最强。同时对从黄山贡菊叶中提取的挥发油进行了抗氧化性能的实验研究,结果表明黄山贡菊挥发

  2. EVALUACIÓN DE DOS TRATAMIENTOS FOTOPERIÓDICOS EN CRISANTEMO (Dendranthema grandiflorum (Ramat. Kitam., BAJO CONDICIONES DEL INTERTRÓPICO ANDINO ALTO EVALUATION OF TWO PHOTOPERIOD TREATMENTS IN CHRYSANTHEMUM (Dendranthema grandiflorum ((Ramat. Kitam., UNDER CONDITIONS OF HIGH ANDEAN INTERTROPIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fáber de Jesús Chica Toro

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available En la floricultura colombiana, cerca del 14 % de los costos de producción del crisantemo o pompón (Dendranthema grandiflorum (Ramat. Kitam., está representado por la luz complementaria requerida para controlar su floración. Con el fin de encontrar un protocolo que hiciera uso de un menor suministro de luz, en este trabajo se compararon los efectos de dos esquemas de complemento lumínico nocturno sobre algunas características precosecha y poscosecha en dos variedades comerciales tipo spider de crisantemo: Super White y Super Yellow. El esquema testigo de suplemento lumínico nocturno consistió en aportar la adición durante 28 días para la variedad Super Yellow, y 26 para la variedad Super White. La propuesta alternativa de adición lumínica nocturna consistió en interrumpir el estímulo durante una noche completa cada dos días. Tal disminución del estímulo lumínico, en aproximadamente un 30 %, no afectó el crecimiento ni las características poscosecha de las variedades evaluadas.In Colombian floriculture, nearly 14% of the production costs of chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflorum (Ramat. Kitam. consists of the additional lighting required to control its flowering. In order to find a protocol that consumes a lower amount of electricity, this study compared the effects of two supplementary noctural lighting schemes on several preharvest and postharvest characteristics in two commercial varieties of chrysanthemum: Super White and Super Yellow. The control nocturnal lighting scheme consisted of providing the supplemental lighting during 28 days for the Super Yellow variety and during 26 days for the Super White variety. The alternative nocturnal lighting scheme consisted of interrupting the stimulus during one complete night every two days. This approximately 30% reduction in light stimulation did not affect either growth or postharvest characteristics of the varieties evaluated.

  3. Characteristics of Seed Germination and Regularities of Growth and Development of Chrysanthemum lavandulifolium in Natural Conditions%甘菊种子萌发特性及自然条件下生长发育规律

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁焱; 付建新; 戴思兰

    2012-01-01

    对甘菊[ Chrysanthemum lavandulifolium(Fisch.ex Trautv.)Makino]种子萌发特性和自然条件下生长发育规律进行了试验观察,发现不同栽培基质及不同储藏时间对甘菊种子萌发率均有影响,在MS培养基上播种甘菊种子萌发率最高,可达90%左右.甘菊种子无休眠现象,采收后立即播种和次年春季播种萌发率均可达90%左右.甘菊种子不耐储藏,储藏至第3年秋季播种,萌发率仅为30%.自然条件下,5月至8月底是甘菊植株的营养生长时期,在此期间,甘菊株高、茎粗、冠幅、叶片数及分枝数一直处于增长状态;9月份当日照长度缩短至13 h时,甘菊开始现蕾,这表明13h光照/11h黑暗可能为甘菊现蕾的临界日长.%An experiment was conducted to study the seed germination characteristics and the regularities of growth and development of Chrysanthemum lavandulifolium (Fisch. ex Trautv. ) Makino in natural conditions. Results indicate that different culture media and different storage times have some effects on the germination rate of C. lavandulifolium. The seeds on the MS medium showed the highest germination rate (about 90% ). The seeds of C. lavandulifolium have no dormancy phenomenon. The germination rate of the seeds sowed immediately after harvest or the next spring could reach almost 90%. The germination rate of the seeds decreased with storage time. The germination rate of the seeds sowed in the fall of the third year was only 30%. May to late August is the period of vegetative growth when the plant height, stem thickness, the number of leaves, crown size and the number of branches of C. lavandulifolium are in a rapid growth stage. The buds start appeared when the duration of day decreased to thirteen hours, which indicates that 13 hours of light and 11 hours of darkness may be the critical period for the buds of C. lavandulifolium, but it still need to be demonstrated by extensive experiments.

  4. Preparation of A Compound Beverage with Inulin of Jerusalem Artichok, Hawthorn and Chrysanthemum%菊芋菊糖、山楂、菊花复合饮料的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李伟; 朱畅

    2016-01-01

    The hot water was used to extract inulin. Through orthogonal test the optimal conditions of extract in-ulin were:the ratio of sample to water was 1∶25 (g/g),temperature 90℃,time 60 min. Under these conditions, the extract ratio was 79.98 %. Inulin of jerusalem artichoke ,hawthorn and chrysanthemum were used as the main materials,added white granulate sugar,honey and other accessories. A discussion was carried out on the key technologies,through single factor and orthogonal experimental design ,the sensory score was investigated an indicator to determine the optimum formula of the compound beverage. The results showed that the mixing proportion of hawthorn extract and chrysanthemum extract was 2∶3(mL/mL),inulin 2%,white granulate sugar 4%,honey 3%,the best stabilizer was sodium alginate 0.05%and CMC-Na 0.1%. The compound beverage is nutritions and good for health,can be developed with good color, flavor and taste.%采用热水浸提法对菊糖进行提取,通过正交试验确定了提取菊糖的最佳条件为:料水比1∶25(g/g),温度90℃,提取时间60 min,菊糖提取率为79.98%。以菊芋菊糖、山楂、菊花为主要原料,添加白砂糖、蜂蜜等辅料。针对其关键技术进行了探讨,采用单因素和正交试验设计,以产品感官评价为指标,确定菊芋菊糖、山楂、菊花复合饮料的最佳工艺配方。结果表明:山楂和菊花提取液比为2∶3(mL/mL)、菊芋菊糖2%、白砂糖4%、蜂蜜3%、最佳稳定剂为0.05%海藻酸钠和0.1%CMC-Na。该复合饮料具有营养、保健的功能,色泽、香味、口感俱佳。

  5. Diferentes tecnologias de iluminação para produção de mudas de crisântemo Different technologies of illumination for the production of seedlings of chrysanthemum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo David

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available A iluminação artificial usada para indução do efeito do fotoperíodo em mudas de crisântemos implica no consumo e no uso racional ou não da energia elétrica. Neste contexto, realizou-se experimento de pesquisa cujo objetivo foi analisar o uso da tecnologia de iluminação do tipo alta intensidade de descarga (HID - high intensity discharge em substituição à de filamento incandescente na produção de mudas de crisântemos. O principal parâmetro de comparação de desempenho entre as variedades cultivadas foi a presença de botão floral, pois está diretamente ligada ao controle fotoperiódico. Os parâmetros de avaliação do uso de energia elétrica foram: consumo, demanda, fator de potência e o consumo específico. Os resultados da análise estatística demonstram que não houve aumento no número de botões florais com o emprego de lâmpadas de alta intensidade de descarga. A lâmpada de descarga fluorescente compacta integrada amarela de 23 W apresentou a menor demanda máxima e redução média do consumo de energia, da ordem de 75%, quando comparada com a de filamento incandescente de 100 W.The application of artificial illumination to induce photoperiodic effects on chrysanthemum nursevy production implies in a rational electrical energy use. In this context, the objective of this research was to test and to analyze the application of high intensity discharge (HID illumination to substitute the conventional incandescent filament illumination in chrysanthemum nurseries production. The presence of floral buttons was taken as the main parameter in evaluating the tested varieties because it is closely associated to photoperiodic effects. Electrical energy evaluation parameters included demand, consumption, power factor as well as specific consumption. Results generated by the statistical analysis indicated no increase in the number of buttons associated with the high discharge illumination method. However the illumination with

  6. The Protective Effects of the Supercritical-Carbon Dioxide Fluid Extract of Chrysanthemum indicum against Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Acute Lung Injury in Mice via Modulating Toll-Like Receptor 4 Signaling Pathway

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    Xiao-Li Wu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The supercritical-carbon dioxide fluid extract of Chrysanthemum indicum Linné. (CFE has been demonstrated to be effective in suppressing inflammation. The aim of this study is to investigate the preventive action and underlying mechanisms of CFE on acute lung injury (ALI induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS in mice. ALI was induced by intratracheal instillation of LPS into lung, and dexamethasone was used as a positive control. Results revealed that pretreatment with CFE abated LPS-induced lung histopathologic changes, reduced the wet/dry ratio and proinflammatory cytokines productions (TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6, inhibited inflammatory cells migrations and protein leakages, suppressed the levels of MPO and MDA, and upregulated the abilities of antioxidative enzymes (SOD, CAT, and GPx. Furthermore, the pretreatment with CFE downregulated the activations of NF-κB and the expressions of TLR4/MyD88. These results suggested that CFE exerted potential protective effects against LPS-induced ALI in mice and was a potential therapeutic drug for ALI. Its mechanisms were at least partially associated with the modulations of TLR4 signaling pathways.

  7. Identification of Phenolic Components in Flower, Leaf and Stem of Huangshan Tribute Chrysanthemum(Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat.)by HPLC-MS/MS%HPLC-MS/MS法测定黄山贡菊花、叶和茎中酚类物质

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高学玲; 申慧; 邹明亮

    2013-01-01

    The phenohc components of flower,leave and stem in Huangshan tribute chrysanthemum were analyzed by HPLC-MS/MS.The results showed that flavonoids and phenolic acids were the major phenolic components.Thirteen flavonoids and nine phenolic acids were detected in the flower of C.morifolium,eleven flavonoids and six phenolic acids were detected in the leaf of C.morifolium,and eight flavonoids and five phenolic acids were detected in the stem of C.morifolium.Meanwhile,components including chlorogenic acid,1,5-di-caffeoylquinic acid,3,5-di-caffeoylquinic acid,4,5-di-caffeoylquinic acid,apigenin-6-C-xylosyl-8-C-glucos-yl,apigenin-6-C-glucosyl-8-C-arabinosyl,apigenin-6-C-arabinosyl-8-C-glucosyl,luteolin-7-O-glucoside,luteolin-7-O-glucuronide,diosmetin-7-O-6"-malonylglucoside,andacacetin-7-O-6"-malonylglucoside were also detected with different concentrations in flower,leaf and stem of C.morifolium.However,acacetin-7-O-galactoside was detected in both leaf and stem of C.morifolium but was not detected in flower of C.morifolium,and apigenin-7-O-glucuronide was only detected in the leaf of C.morifolium.%采用HPLC-MS/MS检测技术分析了黄山贡菊花、叶、茎中酚类物质.结果表明,黄山贡菊花、叶、茎中酚类物质主要为黄酮及酚酸类化合物,其中贡菊花中含有13种黄酮类化合物,9种酚酸类化合物;叶中含有11种黄酮类化合物,6种酚酸类化合物;茎中含有8种黄酮类化合物,5种酚酸类化合物.贡菊花、叶、茎中共有的酚性成分包括:绿原酸、1,5-二咖啡酰奎尼酸、3,5-二咖啡酰奎尼酸、4,5-二咖啡酰奎尼酸、芹菜素-6-C-木糖-8-C-葡萄糖、芹菜素-6-C-葡萄糖-8-C-阿拉伯糖、芹菜素-6-C-阿拉伯糖-8-C-葡萄糖、木犀草苷、木犀草素-7-O-葡萄糖醛酸苷、香叶木素-7-O-6”-丙二酰-葡萄糖苷、金合欢素-7-O-6”-丙二酰-葡萄糖苷.金合欢素-7-O-半乳糖苷存在于贡菊茎、叶中,而在贡菊花中未发现;芹菜素-7-O-葡萄

  8. Technical and economic feasibility of the use of discharge lamps in replacement of filament for induction of photoperiod in chrysanthemum seedlings production; Viabilidade tecnico-economica do uso de lampadas de descarga em substituicao as de filamento para inducao de fotoperiodo na producao de mudas de crisantemos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossi, Luiz A.; David, Eduardo [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (FEAGRI/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Agricola], E-mail: rossi@feagri.unicamp.br; Pagliardi, Odail [Faculdade Municipal Prof. Franco Montoro (FMPFM), Mogi Guacu, SP (Brazil); Sarubbi, Juliana [Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (CESNORS/UFSM), Palmeira das Missoes, RS (Brazil). Centro de Educacao Superior Norte-RS

    2010-07-01

    Due to its physiological characteristics, the seedlings of chrysanthemums require supplemental light to prevent bud formation, that is done at night. This article examines the technical and economic valuation to replace the current technology of artificial lighting used by producers (incandescent bulbs) for the purpose of inducing photoperiod in a protected environment for cutting-discharge lamps, with the goal of reducing the consumption electricity used in the process. The analysis showed that the integrated compact fluorescent yellow lamp 23W is the technically and economically feasible for such replacement. (author)

  9. Effects of Chrysanthemum indicum extract on proliferation and apoptosis of human hepatocellular carcinoma MHCC97H cells%野菊花提取物对人肝癌MHCC97H细胞增殖和凋亡的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王志东; 李宗芳; 张澍; 代志军; 李君; 梁容瑞; 王宝太; 袁爱华

    2010-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of Chrysanthemum indicum extract(CIE)on proliferation and apoptosis of hepatocellular carcinoma(HCC)MHCC97H cells and explore its mechanism.Methods MHCC97H cells cultured in vitro,pretreatment MHCC97H cells with CIE 0.4,0.8,1.2 mg/ml and blank control group,proliferation of cells was measured by microculture tetrazolium(MTT).Cell apoptosis and mitochondrial membrane potential(MMP ΔΨm)were determined by flow cytometry.Cytochrome C,Caspase-9 and-3 expression was measured by Western blot.Results CIE significantly inhibited proliferation of MHCC97H cells in a dose-and time-dependent manner.Compared with control group,CIE0.4,0.8,1.2 mg/ml induced MHCC97H cell apoptosis,decreased MMP ΔΨm,and enhanced cytochrome C,Caspase-9 and-3 protein expressions,respectively(P<0.05).Conclusion CIE can inhibit proliferation of MHCC97H cells,which might be associated with inducing cancer cell apoptosis.Mitochondrial pathway could be one that CIE induce cancer cell apoptosis.%目的 观察中药野菊花提取物(chrysanthemum indicum extact,CIE)对人肝癌MHCC97H 细胞增殖和凋亡的影响及其作用机制.方法 体外培养人肝癌MHCC97H细胞,以0.4、0.8、1.2 mg/ml的CIE(实验1、2、3组)作用于MHCC97H细胞,并设立空白对照组.分别于药物作用24、48、72 h时,应用MTT法检测细胞增殖情况.于药物作用24 h时,用AnnexinV-FITC/PI双染检测细胞凋亡、Rhol23检测细胞线粒体膜电位(△Ψm)变化;Western blot检测细胞色素C、Caspase-9、-3的蛋白表达.结果 三种浓度的CIE对MHCC97H细胞的增殖均有明显的抑制作用,且呈明显的时间和浓度依赖性.与对照组相比,各实验组MHCC97H细胞的凋亡率明显增高(P<0.05),线粒体膜电位水平明显降低(P<0.05),细胞色素C、Caspase-9和-3的蛋白表达显著增强(P<0.05),以上各项均呈明显的量效关系.结论 野菊花提取物对肝癌MHCC97H的增殖具有抑制作用,这可能与药物诱导肝

  10. Analysis of the Particularity of Japanese Culture from The Chrysanthemum and the Sword%从《菊与刀》探析日本文化的特殊性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孥少伟

    2012-01-01

    美国女人类学家本尼迪克特在其文化名著《菊与刀》中把日本社会的文化定义为一种"耻感文化",把西方社会的文化定义为"罪感文化"。两者主要的区别在于"罪感文化"强调自律,"耻感文化"强调他律。实际上这是由于东西方文化对"罪"的概念认识的不同,而造成的理解误区。把日本文化定性为"耻感文化",否定了日本人的罪感意识。确切地说日本文化兼具"耻"与"罪"文化的双重性。%American female anthropologist Benedict defines Japanese social culture as a "shame culture" and West social culture as a "guilty culture" in her masterpiece Chrysanthemum and the Sword. Their main differences are that "shame culture" emphasizes autonomy, while "guilty culture" stresses heteronomy. In fact, this is a misunderstanding caused by the differences of understanding the definition of "guilt" between Eastern and Western culture. If we define Japanese culture as "shame culture" , we deny the guilty consciousness of the Japanese. To be precise, Japanese culture has the duality of "shame" and "guilt".

  11. Solarização do solo para o controle de Pythium e plantas daninhas em cultura de crisântemo Soil solarization for Pithium and weed control in chrysanthemum crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Bettiol

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available A solarização, durante dois meses, de um solo naturalmente infestado com Pythium, promoveu o controle do patógeno, de modo semelhante à aplicação de metalaxyl + mancozeb, na cultura de crisântemo. A incidência média de plantas mortas foi de 2,3% nas parcelas solarizadas; 1,0% no solo solarizado que recebeu metade da dose dos fungicidas; 9,0% com a aplicação da dose completa dos fungicidas (1 g de metalaxyl + 4,8 g de mancozeb/m² e 38,9%, na testemunha não tratada. A solarização também promoveu o controle de plantas daninhas, avaliado através do peso da matéria seca das plantas emergentes aos 21 dias após o transplante das mudas, semelhantemente ao herbicida oxidiazon.Two months solarization of a soil naturally infested with Pythium sp. promoted a level of control similar to what was obtained with the application of methalaxyl + mancozeb for the chrysanthemum crop. The average rate of dead plants was 9.0% with the application of fungicides (1 g of methalaxyl + 4.8 g of mancozeb/ m²; 2.3% in solarized plots; 1.0% in solarized plots which received half the dosages of the fungicides and 38.9% in control plots. Similar control of weeds was obtained in solarized plots and plots treated with the herbicide oxidiazon.

  12. Simultaneous determination of six short-chain fatty acids in colonic contents of colitis mice after oral administration of polysaccharides from Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat by gas chromatography with flame ionization detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Jin-Hua; Duan, Jin-Ao; Jiang, Shu; Guo, Jian-Ming; Qian, Yi-Yun; Qian, Da-Wei

    2016-09-01

    Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) produced by the intestinal bacteria are very critical for the intestinal barrier, mucosal cytoprotection and normal intestinal biology. However, accumulation of SCFAs promoted by the polysaccharides from Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat remains unknown. Thus, it is necessary to investigate SCFAs in the colonic contents of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) induced colitis mice after oral administration of the polysaccharides from C. morifolium Ramat which is very helpful to unravel how it works. In this study, a rapid and reliable gas chromatographic method with flame ionization detector (GC-FID) for simultaneous determination of six SCFAs such as acetic acid (AA), propionic acid (PA), butyric acid (BA), isobutyric acid (IBA), valeric acid (VA) and isovaleric acid (IVA) has been developed and validated. Under the optimized chromatographic conditions and sample extraction procedure, good separation for 6 target compounds was obtained on a HP-INNOWAX column within 12min. Results revealed that polysaccharides from C. morifolium Ramat positively affected the SCFAs intestinal production. The polysaccharides group had greater SCFAs concentration in colonic content than the DSS-treated group (P<0.05), which was decreased remarkably compared to the normal group (P<0.01). With the decrease of the polysaccharides dosage, the contents of AA, PA and VA increased gradually, while the change of BA concentration was the opposite. There was no significant difference in the content of IBA at the different administration concentrations. And the content of IVA reached the highest concentration 0.953mg/g at lower dose of the polysaccharides. Additionally, oral administration of the polysaccharides prominently attenuated the body weight loss, reduced the disease activity index, rectal bleeding and stool consistency, improved colon shortening and macroscopic score of colitis. Our results indicated that the polysaccharides of C. morifolium Ramat might be used as

  13. Produtividade de crisântemo em função de níveis de irrigação Chrysanthemum yield as affected by various irrigation depths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana de L Rego

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available O crisântemo (Dendranthema grandiflora, Tzevelev. é uma das principais flores comercializadas no Brasil e no mundo. Apesar de sua importância, no Brasil o manejo da irrigação em crisântemo é caracterizado pelo empirismo, necessitando-se de maiores estudos quanto ao uso de água pela cultura. Este trabalho teve como objetivo estudar os efeitos de níveis de irrigação sobre o crisântemo cultivado em ambiente protegido. O experimento foi conduzido, de 06/08-27/10/03, na Fazenda Venezuela, no município de Guaramiranga-CE, em ambiente protegido de 9 x 30 m. O delineamento experimental foi blocos ao acaso, com quatro tratamentos (níveis de irrigação correspondentes a 50; 75; 100 e 125% da evaporação no tanque classe "A", ECA, e quatro repetições, totalizando dezesseis parcelas. O ciclo da cultura foi de 82 dias e as lâminas totais aplicadas foram: 192,2; 246,4; 300,9 e 355,4 mm para os tratamentos 50, 75, 100 e 125% da ECA, respectivamente. Não houve diferença significativa para número de hastes por pacote e de pacotes por m² e, tampouco, para produtividade (Tabela 1. Entre tratamentos, o número de hastes por pacote variou de 21 (75, 100 e 125% ECA a 22 (50% ECA, o número de pacotes por m², entre 3,63 (100% ECA e 4,28 (75% ECA e, a produtividade, entre 3,94 (125% ECA e 4,36 kg m-2 (75% ECA. À medida que se aumentou a lâmina d'água, diminuiu-se linearmente a eficiência do uso da água. A irrigação utilizando-se lâmina de água correspondente a 125% da ECA apresentou significativamente a menor eficiência no uso da água (0,0107 pacotes m-2 mm-1, enquanto os tratamentos em que a irrigação correspondeu a 50 e 75% da ECA foram os mais eficientes (0,0210 e 0,0174 pacotes m-2 mm-1, respectivamente.Chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflora, Tzevelev. is one of the most important flowers traded both in Brazil and in the world. In spite of that, chrysanthemum irrigation management in Brazil is characterized by empiricism

  14. Effects of Organic Fertilizer from Fermented Silkworm Excrement Application on Soil Microorganisms of Chrysanthemum Morifolium under Continuous Cropping%蚕沙发酵有机肥对连作杭白菊根际细菌群落的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭三妹; 王博林; 徐建中; 丁志山; 袁小凤

    2015-01-01

    [目的]在杭白菊连作3年的土壤上采用小区实验方法施用蚕沙发酵有机肥,探讨施用蚕沙发酵有机肥对连作杭白菊根际土壤细菌群落的影响。[方法]田间实验设置3个处理组,依次为轮作组(杭白菊与玉米进行轮作),连作组(杭白菊连作3年),施肥组(在杭白菊连作田,第3年种植初期每株施用蚕沙发酵有机肥15 g)。在收获期进行采样,用HaeⅢ、HinfⅠ分别进行酶切后,采用末端限制性片段长度多样性(T-RFLP)检测。[结果]连作组、轮作组和施肥组的HaeⅢ酶切后Shannon指数分别为:3.08、3.24、3.24,HinfⅠ酶切后Shannon指数分别为3.31、3.60、3.57,可见连作组的细菌多样性明显低于轮作组和施肥组,说明连作使杭白菊根际细菌生物多样性下降,而轮作和施肥则可显著提高根际细菌多样性水平。对优势菌属进行比对分析发现,不同处理组间有较大的差异。连作组的9种优势菌属中梭酸属(Clostridium )、植原体属(Phytoplasma)、黄单胞菌属(Xan-thomonas)为致病菌属;施肥组的8种优势菌属中梭酸属和黄单胞菌属为致病菌属,另6种为有益菌;轮作组的8种优势属中仅有梭酸属为致病属,其余7种均为有益菌。由此推测,施肥和轮作处理均会改变根际细菌群落结构,主要体现在减少致病菌的伤害。此外,在施肥组中还发现有被誉为生防菌的枯草芽孢杆菌(Bacillus subtilis)。[结论]施用蚕沙发酵有机肥,能有效提高连作杭白菊的根际土壤细菌多样性水平,降低病原菌优势,促进功能菌和有益菌的生长,通过改善微生态环境缓解连作障碍。%Objective] Plot and field experiments were carried out to investigate the effect of organic fertilizer from fermented silkworm excrement application on Chrysanthemum morifolium rhizosphere-soil microorganisms under continuous

  15. Study on the Technology of Preparing Microcapsules for Volatile Oil in Chrysanthemum by Complex Coacervation%复凝聚法制备滁菊挥发油微囊的工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王盈盈; 时维静; 孙洁; 李响; 刘峰; 王茜

    2015-01-01

    探索滁菊挥发油微囊的最佳制备工艺。采用复凝聚法制备滁菊挥发油微囊,以外观形态、粒径、包封率、载药量为指标,正交设计优选工艺条件。滁菊挥发油微囊的最佳制备工艺条件为:复合胶与挥发油的比例为1:1,温度为55℃,pH为4.0,固化剂量为1.5mL。制得的滁菊挥发油微囊形态呈圆形、光滑,粒径分布在80~120μm,平均包封率为(48.89±5.93)%,平均载药量为(13.11±2.30)%,TLC 法显示供试品溶液与对照品溶液在相同的位置出现相同斑点。该制备方法操作简单易行,处方合理,制得微囊外观圆整,载药量和包封率较高。%This paper is to study the preparation microcapsules of volatile oil from Chrysanthemum morifolium Ra-mat. The microcapsules were prepared by complex coacervation with formulation,diameter,amount of the drug and encapsulation efficiency as evaluation index and the preparation was optimized by orthogonal experimental design. The best technology is that compound plastic and the volatile oil of the ratio is 1:1,the temperature is 55℃,pH 4. 0 and formaldehyde in an amount of 1. 5 mL. the prepared microcapsules spherical with smooth surface,and the proportion with a diameter of 80-120μm,encapsulation efficiency was(48. 89 ± 5. 93)%,and the average drug loadings were(13. 11 ± 2. 30)%,TLC indication that the test solution and reference solution appeared at the same spot in the same location. The preparation process is simple and feasible,and the methods of evaluation are reliable. The microcapsules’appearance is round and normal. The drug loading and the encap-sulation efficiency are higher.

  16. 基于IPA分析法的游客旅游满意度研究--以开封菊花文化节为例%A Study on Tourist Satisfaction Based on IPA Methods in Kaifeng Chrysanthemum Cultural Festival

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阮文佳; 袁箐

    2015-01-01

    节事活动是旅游业的重要组成部分,目前中国节事活动呈现出一片繁荣的景象。运用IPA(Important-Performance Analysis)分析法,以开封菊花文化节为例,从参与者的角度对开封节事活动的发展进行实证研究,结果显示:①参与者认为在影响节事满意度的感知项中,服务、价格、治安状况及节事活动文化内涵是最为重要的,而参与者对市民态度、节事活动特色、氛围及城市到达交通最为满意;②参与者对节事活动特征项的重要性感知高于满意度感知;③将17个特征项定位于IPA分析图中,并根据4个象限(继续保持、重点改进、勿需优先以及表现过度)的分布情况,对开封节事活动的发展提出建议。%AbstractFestival and special events are an important part of the tourism industry. Nowadays,festival and special events in China develop prosperously. This paper takes Kaifeng Chrysanthemum Cultural Festi-val for example and uses IPA (Important-Performance Analysis) to make an empirical study on the devel-opment of festival activities in Kaifeng from the perspective of participants. The results show that(1) par-ticipants felt that services,prices,law and order situation and the cultural connotation of festival activities are the most important items among the perception items,and the attitude of the natives,features and atmo-sphere of festival activities and city traffic are of the most satisfaction;(2) participants' perception of im-portance is higher than their perception of satisfaction;(3) 17 items are located in the IPA analysis dia-gram,and some suggestions are put forward on the development of festival activities in Kaifeng according to the distribution of four quadrants.

  17. 亳菊中木犀草素和木犀草苷含量的反相高效液相色谱法测定%Determination of luteolin-7-O-glucoside and luteolin in Chrysanthemum morifolium by RP-HPLC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王存良; 李远哲

    2011-01-01

    Aim:To develop a RP-HPLC method for the determination of luteolin-7-0-glucoside and luteolin in Chrysanthemum morifolium. Methods:RP-HPLC was carried out on a Purospher star Scienhome C18 (4.6 mm ×200 mm,5 μm) at 30 ℃ , at a flow rate of 1 mL/min. The detection wavelength was 350 no. Results:The linearity of luteolin-7-0-glucoside was found in the range of 0. 004 8 ~ 0. 038 4 |xg, Y = 10 000 000X - 6 650, r = 0. 999 9, the average recovery was 104. 9% .and RSD was 1.64% . The linearity of luteolin was found in the range of 0. 032 ~ 0. 256μg, Y = 8 000 OOOX -20 581,r = 0.999 9, the average recovery was 101.7% ,and RSD was 1.68% . Conclusion:This method is reliable,accurate and suitable for the determination of luteolin-7-O-glucoside and luteolin in Chrysanthemum morifolium, and plays an important role in the quality control of Chrysanthemum morifolium.%目的:建立毫菊中木犀草素和木犀草苷含量的反相高效液相色谱测定方法.方法:采用反相高效液相色谱法,色谱柱为Scienhome C18(4.6 mm×200 mm,5μm),检测波长350 nm,柱温30℃,流速l mL/min.结果:木犀草苷含量在0.004 8 ~0.038 4 μg内线性良好,Y=10 000 000X -6 650,r =0.999 9,回收率为104.9%,RSD为1.64%;木犀草素含量在0.032 ~0.256 μg内线性良好,Y=8 000 000X -20 581,r=0.999 9,回收率为101.7%,RSD为1.68%.结论:该测定方法准确可靠,重现性好,对毫菊的质量控制有重要意义.

  18. Study on the Pollen Viability and Stigma Receptivity of Chrysanthemum morifolium ‘Fubaiju’%福白菊花粉活力和柱头可授性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐雷; 刘常丽; 王慧弟; 陈科力

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To study the blooming habits,pollen viability and stigma receptivity of Chrysanthemum morifolium and provide theoretical basis for its breeding.Methods:Explored the blooming habits by dynamic observation on the process of blossom,evaluated the pollen viability by germination in vitro culture method and estimated stigma receptivity by benzidine-hydrogen peroxide method.Results: About the pollen viability,there were no significant differences between the flowers which in the same round of the capitulum; Tubular flowers in the center of a capitulum were significantly higher than that on the edge; In the morning pollen vitality gradually raised,during 11:00 ~ 14:00 maintained the highest,and then gradually decreased; Tubular flower began to loose powder on the third day,during 4th ~6th day the pollen viability was highest,respectively was 35.12% ,39.89% ,38.12% ,then gradually decreased,on the 15th day was only 7.41 % ,finally turned into wither.Regard to the stigma receptivity,the center of a capitulum were significantly higher than that on the edge,outer edge ligulate flower had no receptivity; Revealed the strongest during 13:00 ~ 14:00 in one day; During the 5th ~7th day was the strongest after flowering.The regulation of the stigma secreted mucus existed great consistency with the stigma receptivity,namely the stigma receptivity usually was strong when it secreted large number mucus.Conclusion:Understand the blossom habits of Chrysanthemun morifolium,as well as the dynamic changes regulation of pollen viability and stigma receptivity during its blossom,which could be used to select the flowers in a capitulum which are on the more suitable period and position for artificial pollination and hybridization breeding research.%目的:明确福白菊(Chrysanthemum morifolium‘ Fubaiju’)开花习性、花粉活力以及柱头可授性,以期为药用菊花良种选育提供理论依据.方法:对开花过程进行动态观察了解开花习性,采用

  19. Ocorrência e flutuação populacional de tripes, pulgões e inimigos naturais em crisântemo de corte em casa de vegetação Occurrence and population fluctuation of thrips, aphids and natural enemies in cut chrysanthemum in greenhouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia Mendes Carvalho

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Os pulgões e os tripes são importantes pragas em cultivo de crisântemo em casas de vegetação. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a ocorrência e flutuação populacional de tripes, pulgões e inimigos naturais em cultivares de crisântemo de corte ('White Reagan', 'Yellow Snowdon' e 'Sunny Reagan' em casa de vegetação comercial. A amostragem de tripes foi realizada através de batidas nas plantas ("tapping method" e a de pulgões a partir de coletas diretas nas plantas. Das espécies de tripes amostradas, mais de 90% foram identificadas como Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande, e o restante incluíram F. gemina (Bagnall, Frankliniella sp., Caliothrips phaseoli (Hood e Haplothrips gowdeyi (Franklin. Foi observado maior número de tripes/planta no cultivar White Reagan se comparado com 'Yellow Snowdon'. Aphis gossypii Glover foi a espécie de pulgão mais comum (> 80%, sendo também coletados Myzus persicae (Sulzer e Dysaphis sp. Maior número de pulgões foi verificado na cultivar White Reagan, quando comparada com 'Sunny Reagan'. Orius insidiosus (Say foi o único predador encontrado associado aos tripes, sendo verificada uma correlação positiva significativa entre a população de tripes e a desse predador. Dentre os inimigos naturais relacionados aos pulgões, foram observados parasitóides (Aphidius colemani Viereck e Lysiphlebus testaceipes Cresson e predadores (Chrysoperla sp., Cycloneda sanguinea Linnaeus e Scymnus sp.. Houve uma correlação positiva significativa entre o crescimento populacional de pulgões e desses predadores e parasitóides nas cultivares White Reagan e Sunny Reagan. Inimigos naturais podem ocorrer naturalmente em casas de vegetação e influenciar as populações de pragas.Aphids and thrips play an important role on chrysanthemum crops in greenhouses. The objective of this work was to evaluate the occurrence and population densities of thrips, aphids and natural enemies in cut chrysanthemum cultivars

  20. Study on in vitro antioxidant activity of flavonoids contained in Hebei balmy chrysanthemum and structure-activity relationship%河北香菊中黄酮类成分体外抗氧化活性研究及构效关系探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙静; 黄芸; 孙桂波; 孙晓波; 秦蒙; 赵丁

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To study the antioxidant activity in vitro of five flavonoids contained Hebei balmy chrysanthemum, lute-olin, apigenin, acacetin, acacetin-7-O-β-D-glucoside and acacetin-7-O-β-D-glucoside and discuss the antioxidant mechanism of Hebei balmy chrysanthemum as well as the structure-activity relationship of antioxidant activity of flavonoids. Method: UV-visible spectro-photometric method was used to determine the DPPH scavenging rate and anti-hemolysis activity of the five flavonoids. The inhibitions on lipid peroxidation in rat brain homogenate were evaluated by measuring the content of MDA, and detected by the TBA method. The effect on glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) in rat plasma was detected by GSH-Px kit Result: The flavonoids from Hebei balmy chrysanthemum showed better activity in scavenging DPPH radical, protecting RBC from hemolysis, inhibiting lipid peroxidation in rat brain homogenate, and increasing the activity of GSH-Px in rat plasma. The order of antioxidant efficacy was as follows: luteolin > luteolin-7-O-β-D-glucoside > apigenin > acacetin > acacetin-7-O-β-D-glucoside. Conclusion: The antioxidant activity of Hebei balmy chrysanthemum is related to the effect of flavonoids in scavenging radical, inhibiting lipid peroxidation and increasing the activity of GSH-Px. And the antioxidant activity of flavonoids is related to the number and position of hydroxide radicals and the steric hindrance of glucoside.%目的:通过研究河北香菊中5种黄酮类成分木犀草素、芹菜素、金合欢素、木犀草素-7-O-β-D-葡萄糖苷、金合欢素-7-O-β-D-葡萄糖苷的体外抗氧化活性,探讨河北香菊的抗氧化机制及黄酮类化合物抗氧化活性的构效关系.方法:采用紫外-可见分光光度法测定对DPPH自由基的清除作用及对H2O2诱导的大鼠红细胞溶血的抑制作用;用硫代巴比妥酸法(TBA)测定对H2O2诱导的大鼠脑匀浆脂质过氧化反应的抑制作用;用谷胱甘肽过氧化

  1. Storage of white chrysanthemum under room conditions using preservative solutions / Armazenamento de crisântemos brancos sob condição ambiente utilizando soluções conservantes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvanda de Melo Silva

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of preservative solutions on the maintenance of postharvest quality of white type chysanthemum flowers (Dendrathema grandiflora T.. Flowers were kept at room temperature (24 ± 2°C and 85 ± 2 % UR, under the following treatments: distilled water (control; sodium hypochloride solutions (80ppm and 800 ppm; sucrose solutions (10% and 15 % and hidroxyquinoline solutions (0.04% and 0.08 %. Flowers were stored under these treatments during 18 days, being the solutions changed each 4 days. The following evaluations were done: longevity (scores from 0 to 4, flower appearance (scores from 1 to 9. Sodium hipochloride solutions at 80ppm and 800 ppm reduced white chrysanthemum longevity as compared to control. The utilization the hidroxyquinoline solutions at 0.04% and 0.08 % had no effects on flower longevity or quality maintenance. The preservative solution utilizing 10 % of sucrose kept the postharvest quality during 17 days, providing flowers with lower percentage of dark spots, and lower index of petals and leaves damage.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de soluções conservantes na manutenção da qualidade pós-colheita de flores de crisântemo (Dendranthema grandiflora T. do tipo branco, variedade Calábria. As flores foram mantidas à temperatura ambiente, de 24 ± 2ºC e 85 ± 2% UR, nos seguintes tratamentos: água destilada (controle, solução de hipoclorito de sódio (80ppm e 800ppm, solução de sacarose (10% e 15% e solução de hidroxiquinolina (0.04% e 0.08%. As flores permaneceram dezoito dias no ambiente de armazenamento, sendo as soluções substituídas a cada quatro dias. Foram realizadas as seguintes avaliações: longevidade (notas de 0-4, aparência (notas de 1-9. As soluções de hipoclorito de sódio a 80ppm e 800ppm reduziram a longevidade de crisântemos brancos, comparadas ao controle. A utilização de soluções de hidroxiquinolina a 0.04% e 0.08% n

  2. 野菊花总黄酮的提取及萃取精制研究%Process for Leaching and Extracting Total Flavonoids from Buds of the Chrysanthemum indicum L

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈菡; 罗能镇; 沈剑; 相咸高; 何潮洪; 徐义明; 陈新志

    2013-01-01

      用乙醇水溶液从野菊花中提取总黄酮,再用液-液萃取法进行萃取精制。提取阶段考察了乙醇浓度、液固比、温度、提取时间和提取次数对提取得率的影响,萃取阶段则考察了萃取剂种类、原料液浓度、相比和萃取次数对萃取率和萃取物纯度的影响。通过工艺优化,建立了一条从野菊花中提取总黄酮的工艺路线,即取40~50目的野菊花粉,加入70%的乙醇水溶液,液固比为20:1 mL⋅g−1,在60℃下搅拌回流提取1 h,将提取液蒸干得野菊花浸膏;将野菊花浸膏重新溶解制成15 g⋅L−1的水溶液作为原料液,加入水饱和的正丁醇作为萃取剂,相比为1,在25℃下振荡萃取1 h,萃取3次,所得萃取物的总黄酮纯度为32.4%。在多次萃取时还发现,第2、3次萃取物的总黄酮纯度较高(大于60%),可作为进一步分离提纯黄酮单体的原料。%  In this study, ethanol-water solution was used to leach flavonoids from the flower buds of Chrysanthemum indicum L, and the crude leaching-out products were purified by liquid-liquid extraction. In the leaching process, the influences of ethanol concentration, ratio of solid to liquid, temperature, leaching time and leaching times on yield of the total flavonoids were investigated; while in the liquid-liquid extraction process, a suitable extractant was chosen and the influences of feed concentration, phase ratio and extraction times on the yield of the total flavonoids and purity were studied. It turns out that the suitable conditions are as follows: 1) leaching process:ethanol-water (7:3, v/v) as leaching solution, temperature of 60℃, ratio of solid to liquid of 20:1 mL⋅g−1, leaching time of 1 hour, leaching times of one;2) extraction process:temperature of 25℃, extractant of water-saturated n-butanol, feed concentration of 15 g⋅L−1, phase ratio of 1 and extraction times of three. Under the above conditions

  3. Desenvolvimento de plantas de crisântemo cultivadas em vaso em resposta a níveis de condutividade elétrica Development of chrysanthemum plants cultivated in flower pot in response to electrical conductivity levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poliana R. D' Almeida Mota

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Na floricultura, a competição por mercados é intensa e o diferencial de produtividade consiste no manejo nutricional adequado, por promover grande impacto sobre a qualidade, a produtividade e a longevidade das inflorescências e da planta. O presente trabalho teve o objetivo de avaliar os efeitos de níveis de condutividade elétrica (CE no desenvolvimento de plantas de crisântemo (Dendranthema grandiflora Tzvelev. em vaso sob cultivo protegido. O experimento foi conduzido no município de Paranapanema - SP. Usou-se o delineamento experimental de blocos casualizados com quatro repetições e parcelas divididas. As parcelas foram constituídas pelas épocas de amostragem, e as subparcelas, pelos diferentes níveis de CE, determinados na solução aplicada via água de irrigação: 1,42; 1,65; 1,89; 2,13 e 2,36 dS m-1 (fase vegetativa; 1,71; 1,97; 2,28; 2,57 e 2,85 dS m-1 (fase de botão. Determinaram-se, semanalmente, a altura da planta e o diâmetro do buquê, e a cada 14 dias, a área foliar e a fitomassa seca da parte aérea da planta. O tratamento, correspondente à aplicação de solução com CE de 2,13 dS m-1 na fase vegetativa e 2,57 dS m-1 na fase de botão, proporcionou melhor aspecto visual das plantas, além de apresentar maior valor de fitomassa seca da parte aérea, maior área foliar e melhores formação e coloração.In floriculture market, the competition is intense and the productivity differential consists in an appropriated nutritional management which provides a large impact in quality, productivity and longevity of the flowers and plants. This present work aimed to evaluate the effects of electrical conductivity (EC levels in chrysanthemum plant (Dendranthema grandiflora Tzvelev. development. These plants were planted in pots and cultivated in a greenhouse. The experiment was carried out in Paranapanema city, São Paulo State. The experimental design was made in randomized blocks with four repetitions and split plots

  4. Qualidade de crisântemo (Dendranthema grandiflora Tzevelev. cv. Snowdon em diferentes populações e épocas de plantio Quality of chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflora Tzevelev. cv. Snowdon affected by plant density and plant date

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Nardi

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Para avaliar a qualidade das hastes florais, a cultivar de crisântemo Snowdon foi conduzida em estufa plástica em oito populações de plantas e duas épocas de plantio. O experimento bifatorial (2 x 8, com parcela subdividida, foi conduzido na Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (Santa Maria, RS e teve época como parcela principal, sendo a primeira época outono/inverno no período de 05/03/98 à 29/06/98 e a segunda época inverno/primavera no período de 22/07/98 à 11/11/98 e as populações de 40, 48, 56, 64, 72, 80, 88 e 104pl/m², na subparcela para as duas épocas de plantio. As plantas foram conduzidas em haste unifloral. Determinaram-se a altura da planta, o diâmetro da inflorescência e da haste e a massa da matéria fresca. Para obtenção de maiores rendimentos de hastes de classe A (comprimento da haste > ou = 90 cm, diâmetro da inflorescência > ou = 13,5cm, diâmetro da haste > ou = 0,73cm e massa da matéria fresca > ou = 113g a população indicada está entre 40 e 56plantas/m². Não há diferenças de rendimento qualitativo de classe A entre as épocas de plantio. Para obtenção de maiores rendimentos qualitativos, as populações de plantas não devem ser superiores a 72 plantas/m².To evaluate the quality of the flowers of chrysanthemums, were cultivated the cv. Snowdon in greenhouse in eight plant densities and two planting dates. The experimental design was factorial, (2 planting dates x 8 plants densities. The two planting dates were: 05 March 1998 (Fall/Winter growing season and 22 July 1998 (Winter/Spring growing season. Plant densities were: 48, 56, 64, 72, 80, 88 and 104plants/m². Plant height, diameter of the flower and stem, fresh weight were determinated. For obtaining of larger revenues of class stems A, the suitable plant density is between 40 and 56plants/m². There are not differences of qualitative revenue of class A (stem lenght > or = 90cm, flower diameter > or = 13,5cm, stem diameter > or = 0,73cm

  5. Utilização agrícola de lodo industrial como fonte de zinco na cultura do crisântemo Agricultural use of industrial sludge as a source of Zn for chrysanthemum cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano F. Lopes

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available A utilização de lodo industrial inorgânico em substratos comerciais ou como fonte de nutrientes, é prática bem recente. O lodo produzido pela indústria de galvanoplastia-zincagem apresenta elevados teores de nutrientes como Zn, Fe, e Ca que, dependendo das doses utilizadas em solos e substratos, podem causar toxidez às plantas. No presente experimento foi utilizado um substrato comercial onde foram adicionadas doses crescentes do lodo industrial de galvanoplastia-zincagem para o cultivo de crisântemo, variedade Rage, em cultivo protegido. As doses do lodo industrial utilizadas foram de 0,0; 0,38; 0,75; 1,50; 3,0; 6,0; 9,0 e 12,0 g L-1 de substrato. Após 12 semanas de cultivo foram avaliadas as seguintes variáveis: pH e condutividade elétrica do substrato, teor de Zn na parte aérea da planta e no substrato, altura da planta (ALT, massa seca da parte aérea (MSPA, massa seca das inflorescências (MSF e massa seca do sistema radicular (MSR. A adição do lodo industrial no substrato, na dose de 0,38 g L-1, promoveu um pequeno incremento de ALT, MSPA e MSR. Este comportamento indica que o lodo industrial pode fornecer nutrientes à cultura. Nas doses superiores a 3 g L-1 ocorreu acentuada queda da produção devido ao desbalanço nutricional associado à fitotoxidez de Zn e elevada condutividade elétrica do substrato.The use of inorganic industrial sludge as a source of nutrients in growing media is a recent practice. The sludge produced by the zinc-galvanic industry has a high concentration of plant nutrients such as Zn, Fe and Ca that, depending on the doses used in soils and growing media, could be toxic to the plants. In the present experiment a commercial organic substrate was used by adding increasing doses of an industrial sludge produced by a zinc-galvanic industry. Doses of industrial sludge (0.0; 0.38; 0.75; 1.50; 3.0; 6.0; 9.0 and 12.0 g L-1 of the growing media were applied to the chrysanthemum cv. Rage, cultivated in a

  6. The cDNA Cloning and Analysis of Sequence Information and Quantitative Express of Chrysanthemum Rhythms Clock Output Gene CmGI (GIGANTEA)%菊花节律钟输出基因CmGI(GIGANTEA)的 cDNA 全长克隆、序列信息及定量表达分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙霞; 王秀峰; 郑成淑; 邢世岩; 束怀瑞

    2012-01-01

    chrysanthemum rhythms clock output gene GIGANTEA was cloned, and the bioinformatics of the sequence and the relative quantitative expression of mRNA were analyzed. [Method] Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) combined with 5'RACE, and 3'RACE technology were used to clone the full length cDNA of chrysanthemum rhythms clock output gene CmGI, analysts of sequence of nucleotides and code of protein was made by using the software of bioinformatics. Protein structure prediction of 3D modeling was made by using the online modeling software. The relative quantitative expression analysis of CmGl was conducted by real-time quantitative fluorescence PCR technology and 2-AACt method. [Result] The cDNA sequence of GIGANTEA was cloned from chrysanthemum 'Jniba', the full-length cDNA was 3 461 bp, open reading frame (ORF ) was 3 453 bp, and encoded 1 150 amino acids. Sequence analysis showed that the genetic code of protein was homologous with plant rhythms clock output gene GIGANTEA, named CmGl gene. The sequence was submitted to GenBank, and the registration number is JQ043439. Sequence alignment displayed that it was a similarity of 76% and 75% with GIGANTEA of Vitis vinifera, Ricinus communis, respectively. The phylogenetic tree showed that chrysanthemum CmGI and Arabidopsis thaliana GIGANTEA are closest in molecular evolution distance, followed by Brassica rapa GIGANTEA. It was speculated that CmGI protein has six transmembrane spiral across a cell membrane many times. They are transcription factors, located in the nucleus and it is a non-secretory protein. They do not have a signal peptide. CmGI 3D structure modeling projections show that the protein core structure accords with the transcription factors and the function of the common DNA combining domain HTH and HLH. Fluorescent relative quantitative analysis shows that the expression patterns of chrysanthemum CmGI are circadian rhythms expression. At different flower bud differentiation stage, the CmGI gene in the leaf blade mRNA level is

  7. Agrobacterium-mediated gene transfer to Chrysanthemum.

    OpenAIRE

    Wordragen, van, M.F.

    1991-01-01

    Genetic manipulation of plants is a technique that enables us to add to the plant genome, in a precise and well controlled manner, one or a few new genes, coding for desirable traits. In contrast to this, the conventional method for the introduction of new properties in plants, by cross breeding, is a random process in which two complete genomes are mixed and the desired phenotype has to be regained by repeated back crossing with the cultivated parent line. Despite these differences, both pro...

  8. Agrobacterium-mediated gene transfer to Chrysanthemum.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wordragen, van M.F.

    1991-01-01

    Genetic manipulation of plants is a technique that enables us to add to the plant genome, in a precise and well controlled manner, one or a few new genes, coding for desirable traits. In contrast to this, the conventional method for the introduction of new properties in plants, by cross breeding, is

  9. Temperature integration and DIF in cut chrysanthemum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korner, O.; Challa, H.

    2003-01-01

    To reduce energy consumption in greenhouses, temperature integration can be used. However, the temperature integration principle considers only average temperatures and does not comply with the DIF concept (difference between mean day temperature and mean night temperature). With DIF, stem elongatio

  10. Ácido giberélico e dia curto interrompido em crisântemo de corte (Dendranthema grandiflora, Tzvelev., "Gompier Chá" Gibberellic acid and short day interrupted in cut chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflora, Tzvelev., 'Gompier Chá'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Antônio Bellé

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Algumas cultivares de crisântemo, como a "Gompier Chá", apresentam menor crescimento quando cultivadas no período de inverno. A utilização do ácido giberélico (GA3 e o manejo do fotoperíodo com dia curto interrompido podem ser alternativas para estimular o crescimentodas plantas. Assim, foi realizado um experimento com objetivo de avaliar a resposta do GA3 e do dia curto (DC interrompido por dias longos (DL na qualidade de hastes de crisântemo de corte "Gompier Chá", cultivado no inverno no Rio Grande do Sul. O experimento foi conduzido na Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, no período de maio a agosto de 2001. Os tratamentos foram diferentes concentrações de ácido giberélico (50, 100, 200, 300, 500 e 500mg L-1 aplicadas seis, três, duas, duas, uma e duas vezes, respectivamente, e o uso de dia curto interrompido (32DL+9DC+12DL+DC até a colheita. Os tratamentos que proporcionaram a formação de hastes de melhor qualidade foram as dosagens de 100mg L-1 aplicado três vezes e 200mg L-1 aplicado duas vezes. O esquema de dia curto interrompido usado foi ineficiente para a qualidade da cultivar "Gompier Chá", já o uso de ácido giberélico possibilitou melhoria no comprimento dos pedúnculos e na altura das plantas em cultivo de inverno no Rio Grande do Sul.Some chrysanthemum"s cultivars, as the 'Gompier Chá', have problems of small growth during winter crop. The spraying whit gibberellic acid (GA3 and the control photoperiod with interrupted short day can be options for to stimulate growth. Thus, an experiment was carried out with the objective of evaluating the stems quality of cut chrysanthemum 'Gompier Chá' response of GA3 and short day (DC interrupted by long day (DL, during winter time in Rio Grande do Sul. The experiment was conducted at the Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, in 2001, from May to August. The treatments consisted of different gibberellic acid concentration (50, 100, 200, 300, 500 e 500mg L-1 sprayed six

  11. Effect of Inhaled Wild Chrysanthemum Injection by an Ultrasonic Atomizer in the Assisted Treatment of Bronchial Pneumonia in Children%超声雾化吸入野菊花注射液佐治婴幼儿支气管肺炎疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶滨

    2013-01-01

    目的:探讨超声雾化吸入野菊花注射液佐治婴幼儿支气管肺炎的临床疗效.方法:将137例婴幼儿支气管肺炎患儿随机分为治疗组69例和对照组68例,两组均给予常规综合治疗,治疗组在常规综合治疗基础上超声雾化吸入野菊花注射液,对照组在常规综合治疗基础上超声雾化吸入灭菌蒸馏水.治疗过程中观察患儿发热、咳嗽、喘息、气促及肺部干湿哆音消失情况,治疗前及治疗后第3天监测血常规和CRP水平.结果:治疗组患儿发热、咳嗽、喘息及肺部体征消失时间均早于对照组(P<0.05),平均住院时间少于对照组[(13.7±3.7)dvs(16.2±4.5)d,P<0.05],白细胞计数及CRP水平均较治疗前降低(P<0.05),且均低于对照组(P<0.05),总有效率高于对照组(89.9%vs 67.6%,P<0.05).结论:超声雾化吸入野菊花注射液佐治婴幼儿支气管肺炎具有明显疗效.%Objective:To explore the assisted treatment effect of inhaled wild chrysanthemum injection by an ultrasonic atomizer for children with bronchial pneumonia.Methods:A total of 137 infants with bronchial pneumonia were randomly divided into a treatment group (n =69) and a control group (n =68).Based on conventional treatment,all infants inhaled an ultrasonic nebulization as an adjuvant therapy,wild chrysanthemum injection for the treatment group and sterile distilled water for the control group.During the course of treatment,children's body temperature,cough,wheezing,shortness of breath and lung wet and dry tales were monitored.Simultaneously,blood analysis and serum CRP level were monitored before and after the third day of treatment.Results:The time to defervesce,the disappearing time of coughing,wheezing,and pulmonary signs and average hospitalization time in the treatment group were significantly shorter than those in the control group (13.7±3.7) d vs (16.2±4.5) (P<0.05).After treatment,the white blood cell count and CRP level of children in the

  12. 菊花叶绿素a/b结合蛋白基因CmLhcb1及其启动子的克隆和表达分析%Cloning of Chlorophyll a/b Binding Protein CmLhcb1 and Promoter from Chrysanthemum morifolium and Expression Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩霜; 刘瑞霞; 张兆和; 陈素梅; 蒋甲福; 房伟民; 廖园; 陈发棣

    2013-01-01

    The cDNA of cut chrysanthemum ‘Gongzi' was used to clone homologous gene cab,which had 798 bp ORF and 266 amino acid.After blast analysis,we confirmed that the gene was ranked as Lhcb1,and was named as CmLhcb1.Using the cDNA of ‘Puma Sunny' chrysanthemum to homologously clone gene Lhcb1,we got the same amino sequence with that of ‘Gongzi'.The expression of CmLhcb1 was the higher in leaf than that in stem,flower and root.Low light and GA3 treatment increased CmLhcb1 expression.Paclobutrazol treatment inhibited CmLhcb1 expression.The circadian clock regulated the expression of CmLhcb1.The gene expression in day was enormously higher than that in night.The promoter sequence 715 bp of‘Gongzi' cut chrysanthemum and 716 bp of‘Puma Sunny' were cloned using high-efficiency TAIL-PCR (hiTAIL-PCR),and many biologic and abiotic stress responsive elements related to light,GA,ABA,water,SA and virus were found by PLACE Databank.The promoter was light responsive,and it had the GTl-box and Z-box element.%以切花菊品种‘公子’cDNA为模板克隆出叶绿素a/b结合蛋白同源基因cab,其开放阅读框为798 bp,编码266个氨基酸.经多物种间比对分析,确认其属于cab基因家族的Lhcb1类,命名为CmLhcb1.同源克隆菊花品种‘清露’Lhcb1基因,氨基酸序列与‘公子’完全相同.CmLhcb1在叶片中的表达量比在茎、花和根中高,弱光和GA3处理使CmLhcb1表达上调,多效唑处理后CmLhcb1表达量受到抑制.CmLhcb1的表达受昼夜节律调节,白天表达量显著高于夜间.通过high-efficiency TAIL-PCR(hiTAIL-PCR)方法克隆到‘公子’切花菊CmLhcb1起始密码子上游序列715bp和‘清露’起始密码子上游序列716 bp,序列经PLACE数据库的比对分析,发现有很多与非生物和生物胁迫相关的元件,主要与光照、GA、ABA、水分、水杨酸和病毒相关,CmLhcb1启动子是光诱导型启动子,具有GT1-box和Z-box.

  13. Avaliação de seletividade de produtos fitossanitários utilizados na cultura do crisântemo a adultos de Orius insidiosus (Say, 1832 (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae em laboratório Selectivity of pesticides used on chrysanthemum crop to adults of Orius insidiosus (Say, 1832 (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae

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    Alexandre Augusto Morais

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar a seletividade de produtos fitossanitários utilizados na cultura do crisântemo a adultos de Orius insidiosus (Say. Os bioensaios foram conduzidos a 25±1oC, UR 70±10% e fotofase de 12h, em Lavras, MG. Os inseticidas avaliados foram abamectina (0,0009 g i.a./100 ml, cartap (0,06 g i.a./100 ml, ciromazina (0,011 g i.a./100 ml, fenpropatrina (0,009 g i.a./100 ml e imidaclopride (0,042 g i.a./100 ml. As pulverizações foram realizadas por meio de torre de Potter calibrada a 15 lb/pol2, com volume de 1,5±0,5 mg de calda/cm2, sobre casais de O. insidiosus. Avaliou-se a ação dos produtos sobre a mortalidade, oviposição, fertilidade e capacidade predatória dos adultos. Abamectina, fenpropatrina e imidaclopride foram altamente tóxicos aos adultos de O. insidiosus, e ciromazina e cartap apresentaram moderada toxicidade. Ciromazina e cartap apresentam possibilidades de serem recomendados em programas de manejo integrado de pragas na cultura do crisântemo.The goal of this research was to evaluate the selectivity of products used in the chrysanthemum crop to adults of Orius insidiosus (Say. The experiments were kept under controlled conditions at 25±1oC, RH 70±10% and L/D 12:12 h, in Lavras, MG, Brazil. The insecticides evaluated were abamectin (0.0009 g a.i./100 ml, cartap (0.06 g a.i./100 ml, cyromazine (0.011 g a.i./100 ml, fenpropathrin (0.009 g a.i./100 ml and imidacloprid (0.042 g a.i./100 ml. The sprays were done using Potter's tower calibrated to 15 lb/pol2, applying volume of 1.5±0.5 mg of solution/cm2. The applications were realized directly in the pairs of O. insidiosus. It was evaluated the action of the products on mortality, oviposition, fertility and the adult's predatory capacity. Abamectin, fenpropathrin and imidacloprid were highly harmful to the adults of O. insidiosus. Cyromazine and cartap were moderately toxic. Cyromazine and cartap presented possibilities of being recommended in integrated pest

  14. Effects of light intensity on growth and photosynthetic characteristics of Chrysanthemum morifolium%光强对药用白菊花生长发育及光合特性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王艳茹; 郭巧生; 靳淼

    2009-01-01

    目的:探讨光强对药用白菊花生长发育及光合特性的影响,为生产栽培提供理论依据.方法:测定不同光强处理(透光率分别为100%,80%,60%,40%,20%)下药用白菊花生长发育指标及光合色素含量,并利用LI-6400型便携式光合作用测定仪及PAM-2100荧光仪测定叶片的光合指标及叶绿素荧光参数.结果:随相对光强的减弱,药用白菊花主茎直径减小,植株高度、叶长、叶宽及长宽比均呈增大趋势,同化产物含量降低;光合色素含量在光强为100%~40%均逐渐增加,20%处理下有所下降,叶绿素a/b值减小;光补偿点降低,表观量子效率(AQY)先升高后下降,净光合速率(P_n)、气孔导度(G_a)、胞间CO_2浓度(C_i)和蒸腾速率(T_r)均呈下降趋势,气孔限制值(L_s)增大;荧光参数PSⅡ最大光能转换效率(F_v/F_m)升高,作用光下实际的PSⅡ光化学效率(ΦPSⅡ)、PSⅡ有效光化学量子效率(F_v'/F_m')、电子传递速率(ETR)、光化学淬灭系数(q~p)在相对光强100%~60%处理下依次升高,非光化学淬灭系数(NPQ)依次下降,相对光强小于40%时,ΦPSⅡ等参数下降,NPQ升高.结论:中度以下弱光条件不利于药用白菊花的生长发育,栽培生产中应以相对光强80%~60%的遮荫度为宜.%Objective: To investigate the effect of light intensity on growth and photosynthetic of Chrysanthemum morifolium.Method: The growth characteristics of C. morifolium were measured under different treatments (100% , 80% , 60% , 40% and 20%of full sunlight). The photosynthetic characteristics and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters of leaves under different light intensity were determined by a LI-6400 photosynthesis system and a PAM-2100 chlorophyll fluorescence system. Result: With the reduction of irradiance, the diameter of the stem reduced, plant height, leaf length, leaf width and length/width raised, assimilation product increased; Content of photosynthetic pigment increased between light

  15. Manutenção da qualidade e aumento da longevidade floral de crisântemo cv. White polaris Keeping quality and prolonging the postharvest longevity of spray chrysanthemum cv. White polaris

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    Victor Julio Flórez-Roncancio

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available 0 objetivo do trabalho foi determinar o melhor tratamento pós-colheita para manutenção floral e aumento da longevidade de crisântemo de maço do tipo pompom (Dendranthema grandiflorum (Ramat. S. Kitamura cv. White Polaris. Estabeleceu-se como ponto de colheita o momento em que as hastes apresentavam três inflorescências apicais com as pétalas externas em ângulo de 45° em relação à horizontal. Durante o ensaio em laboratório, as hastes, colhidas em estufa de produção comercial, após totalmente imersas em água de torneira, à sombra, durante três horas, foram cortadas sob água na base do caule entre 50 e 60 cm. As hastes foram distribuídas nos diferentes tratamentos de "pulsing" durante 24 horas, com luz contínua de 1.500 lux, 60 a 90% de umidade relativa do ar e temperatura ambiente de 25 ± 2°C. No primeiro experimento, testou-se a eficiência de 8-hidroxiquinolina (8-HQ e tiabendazole (TBZ como germicidas de manutenção da qualidade na solução de "pulsing"; testaram-se, também, dois reguladores de crescimento, a saber: ácido giberélico (GA3, 6-benzilaminopurina (6-BA ou a mistura dos dois, com o objetivo de preservar a cor e a turgidez da folhagem. Os melhores resultados foram com 8-HQ (0,69 mol/m³ e GA3 (0,058 mo1/m³. No segundo experimento, avaliaram-se os seguintes inibidores de etileno: tiossulfato de prata (STS, nitrato de prata (AgNO3 e cloreto de cobalto (COC1(2. A melhor resposta foi obtida com AgNO3 (2,9 e 4,4 mo1/m³.Cut flowers of spray chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflorum (Ramat. S. Kitamura cv. White Polaris were harvested and treated in pulsing solutions. The flowers were harvested in commercial greenhouses and transported to the laboratory where the whole stem and inflorescence were immersed in tap water at darkness, during 3 hours. The flowers were selected for uniformity in terms of development; the stems were trimmed to equal length (50 to 60 cm and tagged to allow recording morphological

  16. Primary Study on Mechanism of Medicinal Chrysanthemum morifolium Continuous Cropping Obstacles in Yancheng%盐城药用菊花连作障碍形成原因初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓珍; 肖逸; 戴传超

    2012-01-01

    以连作1年、3年、7年、15年的菊花田土壤和菊花为研究对象,考察各处理组菊花产量、发病率、土壤及菊花样品中的元素含量、土壤中可培养微生物数量及酚酸类化感物质的含量,进一步探讨不同浓度对羟基苯甲酸、香草酸、香豆酸、香豆素等化感物质对菊花组培苗生长的影响.结果表明:随着连作年限的增加,菊花的产量逐渐降低,发病率逐渐增加,连作15年的菊花产量仅为初茬菊花产量的19.80%,种植15年菊花的发病率达到100%.土壤中硼元素含量随连作年限的增加而逐渐减少.连作15年的菊花植株中的氮、磷、钾、铁、锰、铜、锌、硼8种元素含量,与其他组相比均有较大程度的降低.随着连作年限的增加,土壤真菌化严重,细菌和放线菌数量在3年达到最大,15年显著降低.土壤中香豆酸含量随着种植年限的增加而逐渐增加,连作7年后土壤中检测出香豆素残留.低浓度对羟基苯甲酸、香草酸及香豆酸对菊花组培苗生长发育影响不大,但香豆素、混合酚酸及高浓度的香豆酸显著抑制菊花组培苗生长和根的发育.酚酸物质积累、微生物区系的改变、土壤微量元素硼的减少可能是菊花连作障碍的主要原因.%In this paper Chrysanthemum morifolium fields were planted continuously for 1, 3, 7 and 15 years were selected and the output of C. morifolium, disease incidence, elements in the soil and plants, the culturable microbes, phenolic acids in the soil and their effects on the growth of C. morifolium were studied. The results showed that output decreased gradually and disease incidence increased gradually. The flower yield for continuous cropping 15 years was 19.80% of one year's. Disease incidence reached to 100% for continuous cropping 15 years. The content of soil boron decreased with the increasing years of C. morifolium continuous cropping, while other elements including nitrogen

  17. Elaboração e validação de escala diagramática para avaliação da severidade da ferrugem branca do crisântemo Elaboration and validation of diagrammatic key to evaluate white rust severity in Chrysanthemum

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    Maria Angélica G. Barbosa

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available A ferrugem branca, causada pelo fungo Puccinia horiana, é considerada a principal doença do crisântemo no Brasil, induzindo severas perdas aos produtores. Apesar da importância, inexistem estudos epidemiológicos no país, e para que estes estudos sejam realizados, é necessário o desenvolvimento de métodos padronizados de quantificação da severidade da doença no campo. Visando atender a essa demanda, foi elaborada uma escala diagramática com os níveis de 1, 3, 6, 10, 18 e 30% de área foliar lesionada, testando-se a acurácia, a precisão e a reprodutibilidade das estimativas de severidade da ferrugem branca com e sem a sua utilização. Na validação da escala diagramática, 50 folhas com diferentes níveis de severidade da doença, mensurados previamente com o programa AutoCADâ, foram avaliadas por 10 pessoas sem e com a utilização da escala diagramática. Foram realizadas duas avaliações com a utilização da escala, com intervalo de sete dias, onde seqüências diferentes das mesmas folhas foram estimadas visualmente pelos mesmos avaliadores. A acurácia e a precisão de cada avaliador foi determinada por regressão linear simples, entre a severidade real e a estimada. Sem o auxílio da escala, todos os avaliadores superestimaram consistentemente a severidade, indicando a presença de desvios positivos constantes para todos os níveis de severidade da doença. As avaliações realizadas com a escala diagramática foram mais acuradas nas estimativas da maioria dos avaliadores e mais precisas para todos os avaliadores, além de proporcionar boa repetibilidade e elevada reprodutibilidade entre avaliações de diferentes avaliadores. A escala diagramática mostrou-se adequada para avaliação da severidade da ferrugem branca do crisântemo.White rust, caused by Puccinia horiana, is considered the major disease of Chrysanthemum in Brazil, which results in severe losses for the growers. Despite of its economic importance, very

  18. QUALIDADE DE CRISÂNTEMOS (Dendranthema grandiflora TZVELEV PRODUZIDOS EM DIFERENTES REGIÕES DO ESTADO DE SÃO PAULO: GRUPO POLARIS QUALITY OF CHRYSANTHEMUM (Dendranthema grandiflora TZVELEV CULTIVATED IN DIFFERENT REGIONS OF THE SÃO PAULO STATE: POLARIS GROUP

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    Rosiris Bergemann de Aguiar Silveira

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Escolheu-se o crisântemo, por ser a principal flor de corte comercializada no Estado de São Paulo, para iniciar um processo de melhoria de qualidade com conseqüente padronização para a floricultura brasileira, tanto para a produção de consumo interno quanto para aquela destinada à exportação. Através da avaliação da qualidade de inflorescências de crisântemos do grupo Polaris produzidos em diferentes regiões, e comparação com os padrões existentes, pretendeu-se chegar a um padrão nacional para crisântemos de corte. Os parâmetros analisados foram: comprimento de haste; peso da matéria fresca da haste floral; número de inflorescências abertas e por abrir; localização e número de ramificações; rigidez de haste; defeitos de formação; presença de resíduos químicos e incidência de pragas e moléstias. Os dados obtidos permitiram concluir que comprimento, peso da matéria fresca e rigidez de haste foram os parâmetros que mais se aproximaram dos padrões existentes; número de inflorescências, localização e número de ramificações e presença de hastes tortas indicaram a necessidade de maiores cuidados nas operações de desbotoamento e elevação da rede de sustentação; presença de resíduos químicos e de pragas e moléstias mostraram os piores resultados, requerendo estudos visando a adequada aplicação de defensivos agrícolas para o efetivo controle das pragas e moléstias, não deixando resíduos químicos . Com esses resultados, verificou-se não ser possível elaborar, de imediato, um padrão nacional para crisântemos de corte.Chrysanthemum is the major cut flower commercialized in the São Paulo State, Brazil. This study aimed for the standardization of chrysantemum flowers in order to set new parameters of quality for trading, in both domestic and international markets. Chrysanthemum inflorescences from three regions were evaluated for four seasons, and compared to current standards. The evaluated

  19. Viabilidade técnico-econômica do uso de diferentes tecnologias de iluminação para indução de fotoperíodo na produção de mudas de crisântemo Technical and economical viability of distinct illumination technologies applied to photoperiod induction in chrysanthemum production

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    Luiz A. Rossi

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Em função de suas características fisiológicas, as mudas de crisântemo necessitam de luz suplementar para evitar formação de botão floral. Isto é feito no período noturno. O presente trabalho visou a analisar a viabilidade técnico-econômica de substituir-se a atual tecnologia de iluminação artificial utilizada pelos produtores (lâmpadas incandescentes para efeito de indução de fotoperíodo em ambiente protegido, pela tecnologia de lâmpadas de descarga, com o objetivo de reduzir o consumo de energia elétrica utilizada no processo. As lâmpadas de descarga possuem maior vida útil e apresentam menor consumo de energia quando comparadas às lâmpadas incandescentes. Os resultados das análises permitem concluir que a lâmpada fluorescente compacta integrada amarela, de 23 W, é a que apresenta viabilidade técnica e econômica para tal substituição.Physiological characteristics of chrysanthemum nurseries require extra light supply to prevent buds production. That extra illumination is carried during night period. This research aimed to analyze the technical and economical viability associated to the substitution of conventional incandescent lamps used by the producers to discharge lamps to induce photoperiod, aiming electricity cost reduction in protected environment. Discharge lamps are more efficient, exhibit lower consumption and longer life when compared to the incandescent ones. The results of the analysis allow concluding that the yellow fluorescent compact integrated 23 W lamp turned to be technical and economically viable for the proposed substitution.

  20. Effect of Sound Stimulation on the Lipid Physical States and Metabolism of Plasma Membrane from Chrysanthemum Callus%声波刺激对菊花愈伤组织膜脂物理状态和膜脂代谢的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵虎成; 王伯初; 蔡绍皙; 席葆树

    2002-01-01

    以蔗糖梯度法纯化的菊花(Dendranthema morifolium (Ramat.) Tzvel.)愈伤组织质膜微囊为材料,研究了声波刺激下质膜膜脂代谢和物理状态的变化.结果表明, 一定强度(100 dB)和频率(1 000 Hz)的声波刺激使质膜磷酸二脂含量和二苯己三烯(DPH)荧光偏振值降低,质膜光散射值、MC540荧光强度和磷酸单脂含量增加.表明一定强度和频率的声波刺激使质膜变疏松,膜的流动性增加,膜表面电荷密度和疏水性降低,膜脂合成代谢增加,分解代谢减弱.由此可见,膜脂物理状态和膜脂代谢对声波刺激极为敏感.%Plasma membrane vesicles of chrysanthemum (Dendranthema morifolium (Ramat.) Tzvel.) callus was purified by sucrose gradient centrifugation to investigate the influence of sound stimulation on the lipid physical states and metabolism of plasma membrane. The results showed that sound stimulation decreased the content of phosphodiesters and the fluorescent intensity of DPH, but increased the light scattering value of the membrane, the fluorescent intensity of MC540 and the content of phosphomonoesters, indicating that the vesicles got looser, the charge density and hydrophobicity of membrane surface decreased under sound stimulation of some strength and frequency. However, the membrane fluidity increased under the condition. Meanwhile, the anabolism of membrane lipid increased and the catabolism decreased. It can be seen that the physical state and metabolism of membrane lipid is sensitive to sound stimulation.

  1. The relationship between analgesic effect of total flavonoids of Chuzhou chrysanthemum and nitric oxide and prostaglandin E2%滁菊总黄酮的镇痛作用及与一氧化氮和前列腺素E2的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张蓓蓓; 陈志武; 罗胜勇; 马征

    2014-01-01

    目的研究滁菊总黄酮( TFCC)的镇痛作用及其可能机制。方法镇痛作用采用小鼠扭体法、温浴法、福尔马林法、热板法进行检测;血清和脑组织中一氧化氮( NO)和前列腺素E2( PGE2)含量分别采用Griess法和紫外分光光度法测定。结果灌胃给药TFCC 100、200 mg/kg可明显减少小鼠扭体反应数,降低小鼠福尔马林致痛作用第Ⅱ时相疼痛反应评分值,延长小鼠热板舔足反应潜伏期和热水缩尾反应潜伏期;小鼠侧脑室给药TFCC 5、10 mg/kg可明显抑制小鼠扭体反应。灌胃给药TFCC 100、200 mg/kg可明显提高小鼠血清和脑组织中NO含量,但可降低PGE2含量。结论 TFCC具有明显镇痛作用,其镇痛机制可能与促进 NO 释放和抑制PGE2生成有关。%Objective To study the analgesic effect of total flavone of Chuzhou chrysanthemum ( TFCC ) and its mechanism. Methods Writhing test, warm bath method, formalin method, the hot plate test were used to examine analgesic effect on mice, and serum and brain tissue nitric oxide( NO) and prostaglandin E2 ( PGE2 ) contents were determinated the Griess method and ultraviolet spectrophotometry. Results Intragastrical administration of TFCC 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg could significantly reduce the writhing number in mice,II-phase pain in formaldehyde induced pain in mice, and prolonged the mice hot plate licking foot response latency and hot shrinkage tail reaction time. Intracerebroventricular injection TFCC 5 mg/kg and 10 mg/kg could significantly inhibit the writhing number in mice. TFCC 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg significantly increased mice serum and brain NO contents, and reduced PGE2 contents. Conclusion TFCC has obvious analgesic effect, and its analgesic mechanism may be related to the promation of NO release and the inhibition of PGE2 .

  2. Produção de crisântemo (Dendranthema grandiflora Tzvelev. 'Snowdon' em vaso I: doses e freqüências de aplicação de daminozide Production of chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflora Tzvelev., cv. 'Snowdon', in pots I: daminozide's concentrations and times of application

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    Jucelma de Cássia Câmara Tolotti

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a resposta de crisântemo através da análise de parâmetros fenométricos, ao redutor de crescimento Daminozide, pulverizado na cultivar de crisântemo de corte "Snowdon", cultivada em vaso. O estudo foi formado por dois ensaios com cinco repetições, usando delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado em esquema fatorial 4 x 2, sendo formado por quatro doses de Daminozide (0, 2.000, 4.000 e 6.000 mg.L-1 e duas freqüências de aplicações (semanal e bissemanal. Os resultados evidenciaram que as diferentes doses e freqüências de aplicações reduziram a altura da planta, o número de nós, o comprimento de entrenós, o diâmetro da inflorescência e o comprimento do pedúnculo floral. Entretanto, constatou-se aumento dos diâmetros da haste e do pedúnculo floral. Na dose 4.000 mg.L-1 aplicada semanalmente, produziram-se os vasos de melhor qualidade, com altura da planta nos padrões recomendados para comercialização.The aim of this study was to investigate the response of potted chrysanthemum cv. Snowdon, to the growth retardant Daminozide, in terms of fenometric parameters. The study consisted of two experiments with five repetitions. The experiments were bifactorial 4 x 2, with four concentrations of Daminozide (0, 2,000, 4,000 and 6,000 mg.L-1 and two times of application (weekly and bi-weekly of the product. Plant height, number of nodes, length of internodes, diameter of stems and inflorescences, length and diameter of floral peduncle were determinated. All concentrations and times of applications were able to reduce plant height, length of internodes, flower diameter and floral peduncle length. However, the diameter of the stem and floral peduncle were increased. The weekly application of 4,000 mg.L-1 Daminozide produced plants with the best quality within the commercial standards.

  3. Application of controlled-released urea combined with conventional urea on physiological indices, yield and quality of Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat.%控释尿素与普通尿素配施对菊花生理指标及产量和质量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祝丽香; 王建华; 高先涛

    2012-01-01

    2009和2010年采取田间实验方法研究控释尿素和普通尿素不同施用方式对菊花生长发育及产量和品质的影响。结果表明,孕蕾期菊花叶片可溶性蛋白质和叶绿素含量、硝酸还原酶活性、根系活力明显高于生长旺盛期和开花期,且施用尿素高于对照。控释尿素、控释尿素与普通尿素混合一次性基施可促进菊花生长发育前期干物质积累,分次施用有利于后期干物质积累。施用尿素增加单株花序数、百朵花序鲜重,对花序直径影响较少。两种尿素分别分次施用菊花产量明显高于一次性基施,控释尿素与普通尿素等量混合分次施用产量高于其它处理。与普通尿素单施相比,控释尿素提高了菊花总黄酮、蛋白质和可溶性糖含量,其中以控释尿素与普通尿素等量混合分次施用的最高。综合菊花产量和品质指标,在本实验条件下,控释尿素与普通尿素等量混合分次施用的效果最佳。%Nitrogen is one of the most important nutrients and plays a vital role in crop growth and yield production, rational nitrogen fertilization is essential to achieve an optimal yield and the desired product quality. Field experiments were conducted from 2009 to 2010 to compare the effects of controlled-release urea and conventional urea on the growth, yield and quality of Chrysanthemum morifolium. The results show that the physiological indices, including soluble protein content, chlorophyll content, nitrate reductase and root activities, are highest at the pregnant stage, and the indices in the treatments applied two kind of urea are higher than those of the control. The controlled-release urea and conventional urea applied as single basal application can improve growth and dry matter accumulation at the early stages of C. morifolium, while split fertilizations are more favorable to these in the later stages. The amounts of inflorescence number per plant and 100-inforescence flesh

  4. Preparative Isolation and Purification of Flavonoids from the Flower of Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat. by High-speed Counter-current Chromatography%高速逆流色谱分离制备杭白菊中黄酮类成分

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘少斌; 于宗渊; 王晓; 赵金; 耿岩玲; 刘建华; 段文娟

    2014-01-01

    建立高速逆流色谱分离纯化杭白菊总黄酮结晶中芹菜素-7-O-芸香糖、木犀草素-7-O-葡萄糖、芹菜素-7-O-葡萄糖以及金合欢素-7-O-葡萄糖4种黄酮类化合物。高速逆流分离过程分为两步,分别采用乙酸乙酯-乙醇-水-乙酸(体积比4:1:5:0.2)和氯仿-甲醇-水(体积比4:3:2)两个体系。在第一步中,100 mg的总黄酮结晶分离得到了11.2 mg的芹菜素-7-O-芸香糖、15.3 mg的木犀草素-7-O-葡萄糖、28.2 mg的芹菜素-7-O-葡萄糖。然后收集到尾吹液,旋蒸至干得到35 mg的浸膏。在第二步中,当采用氯仿-甲醇-水(体积比4:3:2)体系时,从35 mg的浸膏中分离纯化得到14.5 mg的金合欢素-7-O-葡萄糖。4个化合物的纯度分别为99.4%、93.6%、99.1%和99.5%,电喷雾电离质谱和氢、碳核磁共振波谱鉴定化合物的结构。%High-speed counter-current chromatography ( HSCCC) method for isolation and purification of flavonoids crystalloid, i. e. apigenin-7-O-rutinoside( I) , luteolin-7-O-glucoside( II) , apigenin-7-O-glucoside( III) and acacetin-7-O-glucoside( IV) from Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat. was established successfully. The separation was performed in two steps with two different types of solvent systems: ethyl acetate-ethanol-water-acetic acid (4:1:5:0. 2, v/v) and chloroform-methanol-water (4:3:2, v/v). In the first separation step, 100 mg of the flavonoids crystalloid yielded 11. 2 mg of apigenin-7-O-rutinoside, 15. 3 mg of luteolin-7-O-glucoside, and 28. 2 mg of apigenin-7-O-glucoside. Then we collected tail blowing fluid and obtained 35 mg of extract by evaporation to dryness. In the second step, when we used [ chloroform-methanol-water (4:3:2, v/v)] solvent system to separate the 35 mg of extract, 14. 5 mg of acacetin-7-O-glucoside could be obtained. Their four compounds purities were 99. 4 %, 93. 6 %, 99. 1% and 99. 5%, respectively. Their structures were identified by ESI-MS, 1H NMR, and 13C NMR.

  5. Gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of supercritical CO2 extract of flower bud of Chrysanthemum indicum and its antibacterial activity%菊米超临界CO2萃取物的气相色谱-质谱分析及其抑菌活性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王春荣; 方程吉; 余庆青; 蒋鹏; 田薇

    2013-01-01

      用气相色谱‐质谱( gas chromatography‐mass spectrometry , GC‐MS)对通过超临界CO2萃取的菊米精油成分进行分析,并通过测定其抑菌圈直径判断其抑菌活性.结果表明:经GC‐MS分析在菊米精油中共鉴定出28个相似度在70%以上的成分,以萜类及其衍生物为主,其中萜类主要为单萜和倍半萜,其衍生物主要为醇;菊米精油对金黄色葡萄球菌和大肠杆菌具有一定的抑菌效果,其最小抑菌质量浓度( minimum inhibitory concentration , MIC)为1.6 mg/mL ,显示出良好的抑菌活性.%Summary Jumi , the flower bud of Chrysanthemum indicum L . , is a special tea from Shilian , Zhejiang Province , and it is famous for its unique fragrance . Jumi essential oil has numerous efficacies and applications in the field of pharmacy and cosmetic industry , therefore developing effective oil extracting method which can keep both biological activity and fragrance is of considerable significance . At present , steam distillation has been reported as essential oil extract method , but this method can not keep the unique fragrance of Jumi due to the decomposition of fragrant component at high temperature . However , the supercritical fluid of CO 2 ( SFE‐CO2 ) is a low temperature processing technique and can fully keep the unique fragrance of Jumi , which is an efficient , non‐toxic , pollution‐free , and non‐residual method to extract and separate Jumi essential oil . The objective of this paper is to evaluate the quality of Jumi essential oil extracted by SFE‐CO2 and determine its biological activity . The chemical compositions of Jumi essential oil were determined by GC‐MS and their inhibitory activities against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli were analyzed by filter paper tablet bacteriostatic method and minimum inhibitory concentration ( MIC) .The results showed that the 28 types of components with the similarity of more than 70% were

  6. Infrared thermometry for early detection of drought stress in Chrysanthemum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, M.; Metselaar, K.

    2006-01-01

    Strict legislation on the release of water and nutrients into the subsoil exists in the Netherlands. Therefore, on-line monitoring and control systems are being developed to tune the supply of water and nutrients to the plants¿ demand for optimal control of production and reduction of system losses.

  7. Development of new varieties of chrysanthemum by mutagenesis in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: At present, the industry of flower cultivation in Mexico has been demanding new varieties produced locally. There are 6,000 hectares dedicated to the cultivation of flowers for domestic use, however the export is very low. The main production area is located in Villa Guerrero, a small town near Mexico City, where 80% of the total national production is grown. In addition, approximately 10 hectares of greenhouses are dedicated to the production of flowers for export, mainly in the Peninsula de Baja California and the Altiplano Central (Central Plateau). Unfortunately, the production of flowers in Mexico has been affected by two factors: the first, stock plants must be imported from Holland, France and the United States; and the second, there are some government restrictions on their import. Due to these factors, producers are behind in recent innovations related to new varieties. An alternative to solve this problem would be meristem in vitro culture. Plantlets from two varieties 'Polaris Yellow' pompom type and 'Dramatic' margarita type, were obtained through the meristems tip culture in the MS culture medium, to which kinetin 1.0 mg/l and NAA 0.05 mg/l were added. In preliminary studies, the plant material was irradiated with doses between 10 to 60 Gy and it was possible to determine that doses higher than 35 Gy were lethal for both varieties. In this experiment, plantlets were irradiated with seven doses (7.5, 10, 15, 17.5, 20, 22.5 Gy) of 60Co gamma rays. They were then subcultured using three types of explants: bud, leaf and internode. The best variety for production of direct organogenesis was Polaris Yellow in a range of doses between 7.5 and 15 Gy, the buds being the best explant, while the internordes and leaves were not so suitable. In contrary, the leaf was considered to be the best explant for the induction of indirect organogenesis in the variety Dramatic, in a range of doses between 10 and 20 Gy. It was possible to obtain some mutants for color, size and shape of flowers from these materials and it is expected that in the near future they will rise to new varieties. (author)

  8. Stomatal characteristics and desiccation response of leaves of cut chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum morifolium) flowers grown at high air humidity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aliniaeifard, S.; Meeteren, Van Uulke

    2016-01-01

    Although it is well known that, as a short-term response, stomata close at low relative humidity (RH) (high Vapour Pressure Deficit) and open at high RH (low Vapour Pressure Deficit), effects of long-term exposure to different Vapour Pressure Deficits (VPD's) have only been studied in a few econo

  9. A novel expression cassette for the efficient visual selection of transformed tissues in florists' chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat.).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mao, J.; Stoopen, G.M.; Jongsma, M.A.; Wang, C.Y.

    2011-01-01

    Constructs carrying visual reporter genes coupled with efficient promoters could facilitate the process of identification and selection of stable transformants in recalcitrant crops. Here, a novel construct utilizing a ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase (RbcS) promoter combined with the green flu

  10. 杭菊栽培品种小黄菊鲜花和制成品香气组成分析%Analysis on chemical components of essential oils from fresh flowers and manufactured goods of Chrysanthemum cultivar Dendrathema grandiflorum‘Xiao Huang'Ju in Tongxiang City of Zhejiang Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王梦馨; 沈学根; 周建松; 崔林; 韩宝瑜

    2014-01-01

    The essential oils of fresh flowers and manufactured goods of Chrysanthemum cultivar Dendrathema grandiflorum‘Xiao Huang'Ju were extracted by the simultaneous distillation extraction method , then detected by gas chromatography coupled of mass spectrum .The results were as follows:(1) Seventy-six and eighty-eight components were respectively identified from the fresh flowers and manufactured goods of ‘Xiao Huang'Ju, with monterpenes , sesquiterpenes and their oxygenous derivatives being the major chemical components ;(2) Sixty-two mutual chemical components were identified , with eucalyptol , camphor , verbenol acetate , hexamethyl-benzene and so on at high content level.(3) The compounds in essential oils of the fresh flowers which were at least ten times greater than those in essential oils of manufactured goods were camphene ,β-phellandrene,α-phellandrene, (E)-ocimene, (Z)-ocimene, bicyclo[2.2.2]oct-5-en-2-one, allo-ocimene, D-verbenone, safranal, hexamethyl-benzene;(4) Fourteen components were only identified from the essential oils of fresh flowers , such asα-thujenal ,α-fenchene , copaene and so on.(5) The relative contents of 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one, α-zingiberene, β-sesquiphellandrene, α-citral, palmitic acid,α-curcumene, (E)-limonene oxide,α-bisabol and so on in essential oils of manufactured goods were much more than those of fresh flower . ( 6 ) Twenty-six specific components were only identified from the manufactured goods, including thymol, benzeneacetaldehyde, α-terpineol, γ-cadinene and so on.The results revealed the chemical characteristics of aroma of ‘Xiao Huang'Ju, which can be used as the reference during its cultivating, processing and tasting .%以SDE法提取小黄菊鲜花和制成品的香精油,用GC-MS进行定性定量分析,发现:(1)从鲜花和制成品中分别检出76和88种化合物,主要成分是单萜、倍半萜及含氧衍生物;(2)鲜花和制成品中共有成分62种,其中含量较

  11. 菊花活性成分Parthenolide对人鼻咽癌CNE2细胞线粒体功能和半胱天冬酶活性的影响%Influence of active ingredient of chrysanthemum Parthenolide on mitochondrial function of CNE2 cell of human nasopharyngeal carcinoma and caspase activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林忠宁; 林育纯; Shen Han-Ming; Yang Cheng-Feng; Ong Choon-Nam

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Parthenolide (PN) is the pricipal component of sesquiterpene lactones contained in some aromatic herbs. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma(NPC) occurs worldwide is one of highest incidence malignant tumor in south China. It is essential that using the PN as the therapy of health preserving of traditional Chinese medicine to develop the modern rehabilitation for NPC.OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of sesquiterpene lactones(SLs), the active ingredient of chrysanthemum, on the mitochondrial function of NPC cell and activating passage of caspase. DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial was conducted in this study. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Completed by the Department of Preventive Medicine, College of Public Health, Sun Yat-Sen University with object of poorly differentiated CNE2 cell strain.INTERVENTION: Parthenolide is given and the dose-reaction and time effect are observed. The cellular mitochondrial function is detected with MTT color reaction, cellular caspase-9 and -3 activity were measured with substrate fluorescence spectrum, the release of mitochondrial cytochromic C(CytC) and cleavage segment of caspase-3 proenzyme were detected with protein immunity blotting; and specific inhibitor was applied for the blocking passage experiment of cellular caspase. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: cellular mitochondrial function, cellular caspase-9 and caspase-3 activity, release of mitochondrial CytC and cleavage of caspase-3 proenzyme. RESULTS: After acted by PN( 1 - 100 μmol/L) for 12 hours and 24 hours, MTT color reaction inhibition rate grows obviously with the dose, indicating dose-dependence (Pearson's γ=0. 7322, 0. 7703, P < 0. 05), IC50 was 252.94 μmol/L and 49.63 μmol/L respectively; but without rising of caspase-9 and -3 activity, release of CytC and formation of caspase-3 proenzyme cleavage. Affected by PN and caspase inhibitor at same time, caspase-9 and -3 activity were apparently lower than that of control and singlePN effect. (t=9. 146, 8.280, 27.325, 27.450, P

  12. Environ: E00683 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00683 Chrysanthemum lavandulaefolium capitulum Crude drug Chrysanthemum lavandulae...folium [TAX:146996] Asteraceae (daisy family) Chrysanthemum lavandulaefolium capitulum (dried) Crude drugs [...BR:br08305] Dicot plants: asterids Asteraceae (daisy family) E00683 Chrysanthemum lavandulaefolium capitulum ...

  13. Anthocyanin and Carotenoid Contents in Different Cultivars of Chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflorum Ramat. Flower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Ha Park

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The flowers of twenty-three cultivars of Dendranthema grandiflorum Ramat. were investigated to determine anthocyanin and carotenoid levels and to confirm the effects of the pigments on the flower colors using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC and electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS. The cultivars contained the anthocyanins cyanidin 3-glucoside (C3g and cyanidin 3-(3ʺ-malonoyl glucoside (C3mg and the following carotenoids: lutein, zeaxanthin, β-cryptoxanthin, 13-cis-β-carotene, α-carotene, trans-β-carotene, and 9-cis-β-carotene. The cultivar “Magic” showed the greatest accumulation of total and individual anthocyanins, including C3g and C3gm. On the other hand, the highest level of lutein and zeaxanthin was noted in the cultivar “Il Weol”. The cultivar “Anastasia” contained the highest amount of carotenoids such as trans-β-carotene, 9-cis-β-carotene, and 13-cis-β-carotene. The highest accumulation of β-cryptoxanthin and α-carotene was noted in the cultivar “Anastasia” and “Il Weol”. Our results suggested that ‘Magic”, “Angel” and “Relance’ had high amounts of anthocyanins and showed a wide range of red and purple colors in their petals, whereas “Il Weol’, “Popcorn Ball’ and “Anastasia” produced higher carotenoid contents and displayed yellow or green petal colors. Interestingly, “Green Pang Pang”, which contained a high level of anthocyanins and a medium level of carotenoids, showed the deep green colored petals. “Kastelli”, had high level of carotenoids as well as a medium level of anthocyanins and showed orange and red colored petals. It was concluded that each pigment is responsible for the petal’s colors and the compositions of the pigments affect their flower colors and that the cultivars could be a good source for pharmaceutical, floriculture, and pigment industries.

  14. A Chrysanthemum in the Garden: A Christian Kindergarten in the Empire of Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishida, Yukiyo

    2015-01-01

    This is a study of the contribution of Christian missionaries to kindergarten education in the Empire of Japan. The study concerns an American Missionary woman, Annie L. Howe (1852-1943) and her kindergarten in Kobe, Japan. Annie L. Howe had a great impact on the history of early childhood education and is still remembered as the "Mother of…

  15. Chrysanthemum expressing a linalool synthase gene ‘smells good’, but ‘tastes bad’to western flower thrips

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ting Yang, Ting; Stoopen, G.M.; Thoen, H.P.M.; Wiegers, G.L.; Jongsma, M.A.

    2013-01-01

    Herbivore-induced plant volatiles are often involved in direct and indirect plant defence against herbivores. Linalool is a common floral scent and found to be released from leaves by many plants after herbivore attack. In this study, a linalool/nerolidol synthase, FaNES1, was overexpressed in the p

  16. Testing two models for the estimation of leaf stomatal conductance in four greenhouse crops cucumber, chrysanthemum, tulip and lilium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, G.; Lin, L.; Dong, Y.; An, D.; Li, Y.; Luo, W.; Yin, X.; Li, W.; Shao, J.; Zhou, Y.; Dai, J.; Chen, W.; Zhao, C.

    2012-01-01

    Estimating leaf stomatal conductance for CO2 diffusion (gsc) is pivotal for further estimation of crop transpiration as well as energy and mass balances between air and plant in greenhouses. In this study, we tested two models, i.e. the Jarvis model and a new version of BWB–Leuning model (BWB–Leunin

  17. The effect of temperature on photosynthetic induction under fluctuating light in Chrysanthemum morifolium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ozturk, Isik; Ottosen, Carl-Otto; Ritz, Christian

    2013-01-01

    exchange was analyzed. The gas exchange measurements were used to investigate the rate of induction, momentary induction state, and the opening of stomata. At the varying temperature ranges and under dynamic light conditions, C. morifolium reached a quasi-steady-state induction equilibrium (ISeq...... to 35 A degrees C. The interaction effect of PAR and temperature on induction state was not significant. The rate of photosynthetic induction and the time required at which the induction reached its 90 % value (t (90)) was influenced by PAR significantly. The light history of a leaf had a significant...

  18. Non-invasive plant growth measurements for detection of blue-light dose response of stem elongation in Chrysanthemum morifolium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Katrine Heinsvig

    2012-01-01

    . In the present study a non-invasive plant growth sensor (PlantEye, Phenospex B.V, Heerlen, NL) was tested in analysing changes in diurnal stem elongation patterns and plant height in response to the spectral quality of the light environment. Plants were grown in four different LED supplemental lighting...... treatments with 0%, 12.5%, 18.5% and 22.5% blue light under greenhouse conditions in winter (18 h day/4 h night). The non-invasive measurements were carried out automatically every four hour with three repetitions, and supported by manual measurements of plant height every third day. A strong linear relation...... between the non-invasive measurements and manual measurements of plant height was achieved, and a blue-light dose-response showing a decrease in plant height in relation to an increase in blue light was demonstrated. However, the non-invasive plant growth sensor was not able to distinguish between diurnal...

  19. The Geometric Growth Model of the Chrysanthemum Stone%菊花石生长几何模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵珊茸; 谭劲; 王文魁

    1998-01-01

    通过与DLA模型类比,建立起一个菊花石生长几何模型,分析了菊花石生长过程中的"间距分叉"现象及花瓣间距H的演变规律及速率,并对比分析了菊花石实际形貌与生长模型形态的异同和原因.

  20. Ion-mediated flow changes suppressed by minimal clacium presence in xylem sap in Chrysanthemum and prunus laurocerasus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ieperen, van W.; Gelder, van H.

    2006-01-01

    After the discovery of ion-mediated changes in xylem hydraulic resistance a few years ago, a number of research papers were published that related ion-mediated flow changes in the xylem to various aspects of whole plant functioning and evolutionary diversification of vascular cells. Ion-mediated cha

  1. Effects of Chrysanthemum coronarium Extract on Fermentation Characteristics and Biohydrogenation of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in vitro Batch Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Li-fang; MA Yan-fen; GAO Min; LU De-xun

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Cis-9,trans-11 CLA has been shown to be potentially health-promoting CLA in many animal models.The C18:1 trans-11 fatty acid(VA) is also desirable as a product flowing from the rumen,because the flow from the rumen of VA play a more important role than CLA in determining CLA concentration in animal tissues.

  2. 杭菊中黄酮苷的提取与分离%Study on the Flavonoid Glycoside of Chrysanthemum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方艳夕; 朱金坤

    2006-01-01

    菊花按产地和加工方法不同有四种规格,经过试验发现木犀草素-7-O-β-D-葡萄糖苷(luteolin-7-O-β-D-glucoside)是它们共有的有效化学成分.本试验从杭菊花序的95%乙醇提取物中,经萃取、硅胶柱层析和葡聚糖凝胶柱层析,分离得到一个单体化合物,经显色等化学反应鉴定为黄酮苷类化合物,经红外、紫外、核磁共振光谱分析鉴定其为木犀草素-7-O-β-D-葡萄糖苷.

  3. 不同方法北京小菊扦插育苗对比试验%Comparison test using different cutting methods of Beijing Chrysanthemum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜红

    2012-01-01

    Test in two cutting methods between plug seedling and plant bed seedling;Useing three kinds of matrix: perlite,Peat and perlite+ sand+peat = 1:1:1, studied of rooting traits of different 6 varieties. The results showed that the best composition of matrix for cutting was 1 part grass charcoal plus 1 part pearlite;Spectrum 2 have the highest cutting survival rate in 6 varieties.%试验通过北京小菊穴盘、苗床育苗2种扦插方法;以纯珍珠岩、纯草炭及珍珠岩+素沙+草炭=1∶1∶1 3种基质,对北京小菊6个品种进行扦插育苗试验.结果表明:珍珠岩+素沙+草炭=1∶1∶1基质配比,穴盘扦插繁殖育苗成活率最高;北京小菊6个品种中光谱2号的扦插成活率最高.

  4. 菊花褐斑病发生规律及防治研究%A Study on Occurrence and Control of Chrysanthemum Brown Rot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王芳; 黄碧龙; 王艳

    2001-01-01

    对于菊花褐斑病的发生规律及有效防治药剂进行了研究.病原菌以菌丝体和分生孢子器在病残体上越冬,分生孢子借风雨和水传播,再侵染频繁,温度在24℃~28℃、高湿有利于病害的发生发展.药剂防治试验表明:各药剂间防效差异显著,以50%甲基托布津(800倍)和65%代森锌(600倍)最佳.

  5. The Interpretation of "Chrysanthemums" from the Perspective of Ecofeminism%从生态女性主义的角度解读《菊花》

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何颖

    2013-01-01

    约翰.斯坦贝克是美国著名的小说家,他的短篇小说《菊花》被认为是他最出色的作品之一.在《菊花》中,斯坦贝克通过描写女主人公伊莉莎的生存状态,揭示了女性深陷于一个被男人包围著的无望的境地.她们想挣扎、摆脱,但那微弱的向往自由的呐喊声终究被湮没在男人的包围中,包括伊莉莎在内的女人的理想必然会幻灭.

  6. Detection and Characteristic Analysis EST-SNP in Chrysanthemum%菊花EST-SNP的发掘与特征分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万志兵; 王言言; 陈黎

    2013-01-01

    下载GenBank数据库中已公布的菊花EST序列7 087条,利用GS De nove Assembler软件进行叠连群构建,EST序列构建275个叠连群,长度共计142 713 bp,发现候选SNP位点214个,SNP平均出现频率为0.15%,共有52个contigs含有SNP位点,每个contig含有4.12个SNP位点,一个contig含有的SNP位点数最多的是40个,40.39%的contigs只含有1个SNP位点;不同叠连群所含SNP位点的数量差异较大,且转换类型明显高于颠换类型;Contigs的总长度是142 713 bp,平均666.9 bp含有1个SNP位点.另外,还应用Primer Premier 5.0,按照引物设计要求,共设计出1 322对EST-SNP引物.

  7. An Eco-feminist Study of Steinbeck's "The Chrysanthemums"%《菊花》的生态女性主义思想

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张莹波

    2010-01-01

    约翰·斯坦贝克的著名短篇小说,通过农村妇女艾丽莎的日常生活和人生经历,反映了美国20世纪30年代男性和人类至上的二元对立思维模式对女性和自然的忽视、压迫、摧残和统治,揭示了女性精神和大自然之间的天然联系,表达了作者对父权制意识形态、功利主义及人类中心主义思想的深刻批评,体现了他对自然和女性命运同等关注的远见和情怀.

  8. Studies on Viability and Storage Characteristics of Pollen of Groundcover Chrysanthemum%地被菊花粉活力和储藏性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕晋慧; 赵耀; 王媛; 冯雁梦; 李艳锋; 孔一昌

    2012-01-01

    以地被菊(groundcover chrysanthemum)品种‘毛白玉’、‘粉芙蓉’的新鲜花粉为材料,采用离体萌发法对花粉活力进行测定,并观察花粉萌发及花粉管生长情况。试验结果表明:外源ca2+显著促进了花粉萌发和花粉管生长,硼酸对花粉萌发没有显著影响;花序中部筒状花的花粉活力显著高于花序外部和内部筒状花的花粉;遮荫降低了花粉活力;‘毛白玉’和‘粉芙蓉’花粉在室温下可分别储藏8和6d,4℃下可分别储藏25d和20d,-20℃下可储藏25d,-80℃下可分别储藏21和18d。-80℃储藏前干燥处理2h的花粉,储藏后花粉活力显著高于干燥处理4h和6h的花粉。预冻处理显著降低了花粉活力。-80℃储藏的花粉采用35℃解冻2min或冰上解冻效果较好。%In the study, the pollen viability of the cultivars 'Maobaiyu' and 'Fenfurong' was determined via culture in vitro, and the pollen germination and pollen tube growth were observed. The results showed that the pollen germination rate and growth of pollen tubes were promoted significantly by Ca2+ but not influenced by H3BO3 ; The viability of pollen collected from middle parts of inflorescences was significantly higher than that from external or inside of inflorescence. Shading decreased pollen viability. Pollen viability decreased with increasing storage time under different temperatures. The appropriate storage time of pollen was 8 days and 6 days at room temperature, 25 days and 20 days at 4 ℃, 21 days and 18 days at - 80 ℃ respectively for 'Maobaiyu' and 'Fenfurong', and 25 days at - 20℃ for both cultivars. Desiccation duration for 2 hours could increase the viability of pollen stored at - 80 ℃, producing better results than that of 4 hours and 6 hours treatments. The pre-freezing treatment reduced pollen germination. The methods of defrosting frozen pollens at 35 ℃ for two minutes or in trash ice were better than other defrosting treatments.

  9. Rapid adjustment in chrysanthemum carbohydrate turnover and growth activity to a change in time-of-day application of light and daylength

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Katrine Heinsvig; Poiré, Richard; Ottosen, Carl-Otto;

    2012-01-01

    Abstract. Diel (24 h) rhythms are believed to be of great importance to plant growth and carbohydrate metabolism in fluctuating environments. However, it is unclear how plants that have evolved to experience regular day–night patterns will respond to irregular light environments that disturb...... with an onset of a daily starch turnover by a shift to short days. These results confirm findings from model species on the complex relationship between carbohydrate metabolism, source–sink relations and growth rate and they shed new light on the dynamic processes during acclimation towards altered...

  10. Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Supercritical-Carbon Dioxide Fluid Extract from Flowers and Buds of Chrysanthemum indicum Linnén

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Li Wu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyze the chemical composition and investigate the anti-inflammatory property of the supercritical-carbon dioxide extract from flowers and buds of C. indicum (CISCFE. The anti-inflammatory effect was evaluated in four animal models including xylene-induced mouse ear edema, acetic acid-induced mouse vascular permeability, carrageenan-induced mouse hind paw edema, and cotton pellet-induced rat granuloma formation. The results indicated that CISCFE significantly attenuated xylene-induced ear edema, decreased acetic acid-induced capillary permeability, reduced carrageenan-induced paw, and inhibited the cotton pellet-induced granuloma formation in a dose-dependent manner. Histopathologically, CISCFE abated inflammatory response of the edema paw. Preliminary mechanistic studies demonstrated that CISCFE decreased the MDA level via increasing the activities of anti-oxidant enzymes (SOD, GPx, and GRd, attenuated the productions of NF-κB, TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, PGE2 and NO, and suppressed the activities of iNOS and COX-2. In phytochemical study, 35 compounds were identified by GC-MS, and 5 compounds (chlorogenic acid, luteolin-7-glucoside, linarin, luteolin and acacetin were reconfirmed and quantitatively determined by HPLC-PAD. This paper firstly analyzed the chemical composition by combining GC-MS with HPLC-PAD and explored possible mechanisms for the anti-inflammatory effect of CISCFE.

  11. 杭菊花中黄酮苷的研究%Extraction and identification of Flavonoid glycoside from Chrysanthemum morofolium Ramat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方艳夕; 朱金坤

    2006-01-01

    菊花按产地和加工方法不同有四种规格,经过试验发现木犀草素-7-O-β-D-葡萄糖苷(luteolin-7-O-β-D-glucoside)是它们共有的有效化学成分.本试验从杭菊花序的95%乙醇提取物中,经萃取、硅胶柱层析和葡聚糖凝胶柱层析,分离得到一个单体化合物,经显色等化学反应鉴定为黄酮苷类化合物,经红外、紫外、核磁共振光谱分析鉴定其为木犀草素-7-O-β-D-葡萄糖苷.

  12. Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Supercritical-Carbon Dioxide Fluid Extract from Flowers and Buds of Chrysanthemum indicum Linnén.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiao-Li; Li, Chu-Wen; Chen, Hai-Ming; Su, Zu-Qing; Zhao, Xiao-Ning; Chen, Jian-Nan; Lai, Xiao-Ping; Zhang, Xiao-Jun; Su, Zi-Ren

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the chemical composition and investigate the anti-inflammatory property of the supercritical-carbon dioxide extract from flowers and buds of C. indicum (CISCFE). The anti-inflammatory effect was evaluated in four animal models including xylene-induced mouse ear edema, acetic acid-induced mouse vascular permeability, carrageenan-induced mouse hind paw edema, and cotton pellet-induced rat granuloma formation. The results indicated that CISCFE significantly attenuated xylene-induced ear edema, decreased acetic acid-induced capillary permeability, reduced carrageenan-induced paw, and inhibited the cotton pellet-induced granuloma formation in a dose-dependent manner. Histopathologically, CISCFE abated inflammatory response of the edema paw. Preliminary mechanistic studies demonstrated that CISCFE decreased the MDA level via increasing the activities of anti-oxidant enzymes (SOD, GPx, and GRd), attenuated the productions of NF- κ B, TNF- α , IL-1 β , IL-6, PGE2 and NO, and suppressed the activities of iNOS and COX-2. In phytochemical study, 35 compounds were identified by GC-MS, and 5 compounds (chlorogenic acid, luteolin-7-glucoside, linarin, luteolin and acacetin) were reconfirmed and quantitatively determined by HPLC-PAD. This paper firstly analyzed the chemical composition by combining GC-MS with HPLC-PAD and explored possible mechanisms for the anti-inflammatory effect of CISCFE. PMID:24223056

  13. 小菊花色芽变品种的AFLP分析%AFLP analysis on the flower-color sprout of chrysanthemum with small inflorescences

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦贺兰; 贾宗锴; 张西西

    2010-01-01

    采用AFLP(Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism)技术对小菊花色芽变品种与原始品种的DNA进行差异性分析,旨在建立芽变品系形态学以外的分子水平鉴定技术.在引用13对引物中,每对引物平均扩增出13.5条多态性带,分子量在110~800 bp之间.3对引物组合(第8对E-ACG/M-CAT、第10对E-AGG/M-CTC、第11对E-AGG/M-CTG)产生5条清晰特异性条带可以将二者区分,这些特异性片段可能包含引起花色芽变的基因序列,经计算,二者遗传相似系数为0.986,遗传物质多态性为2.81%.

  14. The Deserted Chrysanthemum, the Devastated Female——Another Interpretation of the Eco - feminism in John Steinbeck's The Chrysanthemum%被弃之菊花被摧之女性——重新解读约翰·斯坦贝克《菊花》中的生态女权意识

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许红娥; 郑桃云

    2008-01-01

    生态女权主义强调女性与自然的认同性和紧密联系,认为男性对女性的压迫等同于人类对自然的压迫.美国著名作家约翰·斯坦贝克通过一文,以敏锐的洞察力,通过女主人公伊莉莎的菊花情结展示了自然和女性的认同性;同时,通过男主人公亨利和赶车补锅人对菊花和伊莉莎的态度,揭示了在男性统治的世界里,自然和女性所遭受的歧视和压迫,以此来呼吁人们对自然和女性的双重关注.

  15. Plantas medicinales utilizadas en la salud infantil

    OpenAIRE

    Souza, ADZ.; Ceolin, T.; Vargas, NRC.; Heck, RM.; Vasconcellos, CL.; Borges, AM.; Mendieta, MC.

    2011-01-01

    Identificar las plantas medicinales utilizadas en la salud infantil por familias de agricultores de base ecológica de la región Sur de Río Grande do Sul, Brasil. El enfoque de investigación es cualitativo, exploratorio y descriptivo, con datos recogidos de enero a mayo de 2009. Los sujetos fueron ocho familias de agricultores, residentes en los municipios de Pelotas, Morro Redondo, Canguçu y Arroio do Padre. Seis plantas fueron citadas (Chrysanthemun cinerariifolium, Foeniculum vulgare, Acca ...

  16. Identification and characterization of four Chrystanthemum MADS-box genes, belonging to the APETALA1/FRUIFULL and SEPALLATA3 subfamilies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shchennikova, A.V.; Shulga, O.A.; Immink, R.; Skryabin, K.G.; Angenent, G.C.

    2004-01-01

    Four full-length MADS-box cDNAs from chrysanthemum, designated Chrysanthemum Dendrathema grandiflorum MADS (CDM) 8, CDM41, CDM111, and CDM44, have been isolated and further functionally characterized. Protein sequence alignment and expression patterns of the corresponding genes suggest that CDM8 and

  17. 滁菊挥发油的成分分析及其在卷烟中的应用%Chemical Components of Chrysanthemum morifolium (Ramat) Tzvel.cv.Chuju Volatile Oil and its Applications in Cigarette Flavoring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐秀娟; 王甜; 何保江; 李国栋; 秦广雍; 屈展; 胡军; 卓浩廉

    2015-01-01

    为开发天然烟用香原料,分别采用减压水蒸气蒸馏、亚临界萃取和分子蒸馏技术制备出三种滁菊净油,通过GC/MS分析了滁菊挥发油的化学成分,并进行了卷烟加香实验.结果表明:滁菊净油中共鉴定出79种化学成分,包括有机酸类8种、酮类14种、醇类18种、烯烃类25种、酯类7种,以及其他成分,净油中含量较高的为龙脑、β-芹子烯、β-倍半水芹烯、(E)-β金合欢烯、蒿酮、马兜铃烯环氧化物等;评吸结果表明滁菊净油能够改善香气质,增加香气量,降低杂气,使得烟气细腻柔和,是一种理想的天然烟用香原料.

  18. Study on salt stress tolerance of Chrysanthemum morifolium ‘ Hangbaiju' and ‘ Huangju' and F1 seedlings%药用杭白菊和黄菊及其杂交F1代耐盐特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王康才; 黄莺; 汤兴利; 李丹霞

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To study the salt stress tolerance of Hongxinju, Huangju and F, seedlings from orthogonal and reciprocal cross under different salt treatments. Grope for transmissibility of salt tolerance between parents and F, seedlings, and relativity between flavone, chlorogenic acid contents and salt tolerance. Method: The materials were put in 5 different concentrations of Hoagland nutrient solution (0,40, 80, 120, 160 mmol · L-1 ) containing NaCl, keeping grads while raising the consistency of NaCl day by day. The injured leaf area per plant, proline, betaine, MDA, flavones and chlorogenic acid contents were measured and analyzed after treatment. Result: As NaCl concentration was below 120 mmol · L-1, the salt tolerance of Hongxinju was higher than that of Huangju, the salt tolerance of Hongxinju X Huangju higher than that of parents, the salt tolerance of Huangju x Hongxinju was at the level of parents. As NaCl concentration between 120 to 160 mmol · L-1, the salt tolerance of Huangju was higher than that of Hongxinju, the salt tolerance of Huangju x Hongxinju higher than that of parents and the salt tolerance of Hongxinju x Huangju was at the level of parents. Conclusion; Salt tolerance of F1 is more influenced by female parent, relativity showed between flavonoids, chlorogenic acid contents and salt tolerance.%目的:比较不同浓度NaCl处理下药用菊花红心菊和黄菊,以及二者通过正交与反交获得的F1代植株的耐盐性,分析其耐盐性的遗传机制以及耐盐性与黄酮、绿原酸等主要活性成分的相关性.方法:将材料置于加入5种不同浓度(0,40,80,120,160 mmol·L-1)NaCl的Hoagland培养液中进行胁迫处理,每日增加NaCl浓度并保证浓度梯度,一段时间后测定受伤害叶面积比率、脯氨酸、甜菜碱、丙二醛、黄酮、绿原酸的含量并分析.结果:NaCl浓度在120 mmol·L-1以下时,红心菊耐盐性高于黄菊,红心菊×黄菊耐盐性高于亲本,黄菊×红心菊表现介于亲本之间;NaCl浓度在120~ 160 mmol·L-1时,黄菊耐盐性高于红心菊,黄菊×红心菊耐盐性高于亲本而红心菊×黄菊表现介于亲本之间.结论:F1代遗传性受母本影响较多,黄酮、绿原酸含量与植株耐盐性表现出一定相关性.

  19. CORRELATION BETWEEN FLORAL TRAITS OF CHRYSANTHEMUM (DENDRANTHEMA MORIFOLIUM) AND INSECT VISITORS%菊花花部特征及花冠精油组分与访花昆虫的相关性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王伟; 戴华国; 陈发棣; 郭维明

    2008-01-01

    菊花(Dendranthema morifolium)是异花授粉植物,具有自交不亲和特性.其自然授粉的主要媒介为蜂类和蝶类.我们对19个菊花品种的花色、花朵繁密度、花冠直径、管状花花盘直径、株高以及花冠精油组分与访花蜂数和访花蝶数的相关性进行了研究.结果表明,黄花色系较吸引西方蜜蜂(Apis mellifera)访花;菊花的花朵繁密度、花冠直径、管状花花盘直径均与访花蜂数有显著相关性,而株高与访花蜂数无相关性.大红蛱蝶(Vanessaindica)青睐红色花,其访花蝶数与花朵繁密度、管状花花盘直径均有显著相关性,而花冠直径和株高与访花蝶数无相关性.经气相色谱-质谱(GC-MS)分析得知,不同菊花品种花冠精油的组分不同,其主要成分均为单萜和倍半萜类及其含氧衍生物;并且不同品种含有某些特定的花冠精油组分,其中樟脑萜(r=-0.909,p<0.05)和6,10,14-三甲基-2-十五酮(r=0.882,p<0.05)与访花蜂数呈一定的相关性,α-萜品醇(r=0.979,p<0.01)、顺柠檬烯氧化物(r=0.979,p<0.01)、金合欢烯氧化物(r=0.979,p<0.01)、p-mentha-6,8-dien-2-ol,cis-(r=0.973,p<0.01)、P-menth-1-en-8-ol(r=0.962,p<0.01)和4-萜品烯醇(r=0.957,p<0.05)与访花蝶数呈一定相关性.

  20. The Dynamic Changes in Cold Tolerance of Ground-cover Chrysanthemum Growing in the Open Field during the Overwintering%地被菊露地越冬期间耐寒力的动态变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    景雄; 白永霞; 沈漫; 冷平生

    2015-01-01

    以露地栽培的地被菊(Dendranthema×grandiflorum Kitamura)‘紫勋章’品种为植物试材,对其秋冬季期间的叶片、脚芽、根进行测定分析,并对各生理指标间的相关性进行分析.结果表明,露地越冬期间,地被菊‘紫勋章’根系活力随温度缓慢下降;叶片和脚芽的相对含水量及根的含水量随温度降低而下降:叶片和脚芽的SOD、CAT、POD酶活性受降温影响较明显,变化趋势不同,推测这3种酶可能在‘紫勋章’耐寒力形成中交替发挥作用,而根的酶活性则受低温影响较小.随着温度的降低,‘紫勋章’叶片可溶性糖含量显著增加,可溶性蛋白和脯氨酸含量总体呈下降趋势:脚芽和根的渗透调节物质含量总体呈升降趋势.相关性分析表明,地被菊‘紫勋章’耐寒力与相对含水量、SOD、可溶性蛋白、可溶性糖、根系活力密切相关.叶片、脚芽和根系的形态观测结果也表明,地被菊越冬成活与否主要取决于根系耐寒力的强弱.

  1. "不再存在精神问题"——斯坦贝克《菊》的主题再辨析%No More Mental Issues——Reanalyzing the Theme of John Steinbeck's "The Chrysanthemums"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟芳

    2008-01-01

    在当代社会日益物质化、功利化的进程中,人类的精神生活日趋萎缩.斯坦贝克在中,以不动声色的对话与细节描写,展现了这一悲剧.而正是这些构成这篇小说的主题.

  2. Elisa Allan's mental journey--Reading John Steinbeck's "The Chrysanthemums"%伊莉莎·阿兰的心路历程--解读斯坦贝克的

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张璘; 冯瑞贞

    2003-01-01

    美国小说家约翰*斯坦贝克的是作者关注平民生活、抒发底层人民心理感受的一篇名著.以弗洛伊德的人格理论和心理分析法为基础来解读斯坦贝克的这篇名著,可使我们对其小说的象征意义及小说所蕴涵的主题能有一个更为深入的了解.

  3. Analysis of The Chrysanthemums by John Steinbeck%渴望的目光自由的呼唤--评约翰·斯坦贝克短篇小说《菊》

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟艳霞

    2005-01-01

    约翰·斯坦贝克的短篇小说如其中长篇小说一样体现了他卓越的文学成就.本文以文本为基础分析认为,短篇小说通过反复出现的象征主义、过度词化、重复、陌生化等表现手法,展示了女主人公追求自由生活的渴望和作者矛盾的女性观.

  4. 菊花中木犀草素-7-O-β-D-葡萄糖苷的含量测定%Determination of Luteolin-7-O-β-D-glucoside in Chrysanthemum Morifolium Ramat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘金旗; 吴德林; 王兰; 沈其权; 刘劲松; 王举涛

    2001-01-01

    目的:测定菊花中木犀草素-7-O-β-D-葡萄糖苷的含量.方法:采用高效液相色谱法,使用Symmetry shieldTMRP8柱,甲醇-水(49:51)为流动相,检测波长为348nm.结果:该方法线性关系良好,平均加样回收率为99.74%.结论:本法测定时间短,分离度良好,测定结果准确.

  5. 不同激素浓度对食用菊花组织培养的影响%Effects of Different Plant Hormone Concentrations to Tissue Culture Stem of Edible Chrysanthemum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘玉堂; 赵宪争; 杨迎霞; 岳东霞; 尉万聪

    2014-01-01

    以盆栽食用菊花的茎尖为外植体,通过调节激素浓度诱导愈伤形成、芽体萌发、继代增殖以及生根壮苗,快速扩繁食用菊花组培苗.研究结果表明:愈伤分化和芽诱导的最适培养基为MS+1 mg/L6-BA+ 0.1 mg/L NAA,芽的诱导率可达到55%;不定芽增殖的最适培养基为MS+1 mg/L 6-BA+ 0.3 mg/LNAA+ 0.1 mg/L KT,平均每株芽数4.9个;生根的最适培养基为1/2MS+ 0.1 mg/L NAA,根数最多可达11根.

  6. [Oxyanthraquinones and flavonoids from garland chrysanthenum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gins, V K; Kolesnikov, M P; Kononkov, P F; Trishin, M E; Gins, M S

    2000-01-01

    The stems of the vegetable plant garland chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum coronarium L.) were shown to contain emodin (in its aglycon and glycoside forms) and chrysophanol. Chrysophanol and chrysazin were isolated from the roots of the plant. Because the pigments identified are derivatives of 1,8-dihydroxyanthroquinone, garland chrysanthemum may be a medicinal plant and have utility as a component of laxative species. The leaves of C. coronarium were shown to be rich in quercetin and its glycosides, rutin and isoquercetin. Taken together, this observation and the known high content of ascorbic acid and carotenoids in the plant suggest that C. coronarium may be useful in preventing cardiac and vascular diseases.

  7. Quantitative determination of seven chemical constituents and chemo-type differentiation of chamomiles using high-performance thin-layer chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matricaria recutita L. (German Chamomile), Anthemis nobilis L. (Roman Chamomile) and Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat are commonly used chamomiles. High performance thin layer chromatographic (HPTLC) method was developed for estimation of six flavonoids (rutin, luteolin-7-O-ß-glucoside, chamaemeloside...

  8. Host plant effects on development and reproduction of the glassy-winged sharpshooter, Homalodisca vitripennis (Homoptera: Cicadellidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Development, survivorship, longevity, reproduction and life table parameters of the glassy-winged sharpshooter, Homalodisca vitripennis (Germar), were examined in the laboratory using three host plants, sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.), Chrysanthemum morifolium L. and euonymus (Euonymus japonica Thu...

  9. STUDY ON ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY IN FLOWERCULTURE IN GREENHOUSES

    OpenAIRE

    Popescu, A.

    2003-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the economic efficiency in flowerculture in the greenhouses belonging to a private company next to the capital. The firm owns 2.45 ha greenhouses where it cultivates Fresia Species, Chrysanthemum Species and Alstroemeria Species. The average production was 1,200 thou Fresia flowers, 405 thou Chrysanthemum flowers and 610 thou Alstroemeria flowers/ha. All the three flower species assure a high economic efficiency, but Fresia is the most profitable one. It assures t...

  10. PRELIMINARY STUDIES ON ARTIFICIAL TECHNIQUES OF REARING LARVA OF SUNFLOWER MOTH Homoeosoma nebulellum ( Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)%向日葵螟幼虫人工饲养技术初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵艳平; 孟瑞霞; 白全江; 贾永红

    2012-01-01

    Rearing techniques of sunflower moth larva on artificial diet, 50% and 100% flowering garland chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum coronanum Mill. ) were studied in laboratory. The results showed that the larvae of sunflower moth could develop well on three diets; moreover, the first instar larvae could develop well on garland chrysanthemum head with flowering 50% and 100% , and larvae could be reared on head of garland chrysanthemum in laboratory.%本文初步研究了利用人工饲料及苘蒿(Chrysanthemum coronarium Mill.)饲养向日葵螟(Homoeosoma nebulellum)幼虫的方法,结果表明:在人工饲料、管状小花开花50%及100%的茼蒿花头三种不同的基质饲养葵螟幼虫,其幼虫存活率、化蛹率及成虫羽化率基本一致,均可正常发育;开花50%和100%的茼蒿花头,一龄幼虫都可钻蛀危害,可以利用苘蒿花头在室内饲养葵螟幼虫.

  11. 施硒对药用菊花主要有效成分和花中硒含量的影响%Effects of Applying Selenium on Contents of Total Flavonoid,Chlorogenic Acid and Selenium in Flower of Chrysanthemum morifolium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李永明; 孙玉新; 刘德辉

    2010-01-01

    采用砂培盆栽试验探讨施Se对药用菊花花中总黄酮、绿原酸和Se含量的影响.结果表明,在施Se量不超过2.0 mg/kg时能促进药菊的生长,提高药菊花中总黄酮、绿原酸的含量,药菊花、茎叶和根的干重和花中的总黄酮、绿原酸含量均随施Se量的增加而增加;其中以施Se量为2.0 mg/kg处理的效果最佳,该施Se量处理药菊花干重、根干重、花中绿原酸含量与施Se量分别为0、0.25、0.5、1.0 mg/kg各处理以上各相应指标的差异均达到显著水平,该施Se量处理药菊花中总黄酮含量高于其他所有5处理,并与施Se量为0 mg/kg和0.25 mg/kg两处理药菊花中总黄酮含量的差异达到显著水平.过量施Se(4.0 mg/kg)对药菊的生长表现出一定抑制作用,其药菊各部位生物量和花中总黄酮、绿原酸含量均低于施Se量2.0 mg/kg的处理.药菊花、茎叶和根中的Se含量均随施Se量的增加而增加,菊花茎叶和根中的Se含量与施Se量呈线性相关关系,而菊花花中的Se含量(y)与施Se量(x)符合一元二次回归方程:y = -0.817 5x2 + 6.004 5x + 0.136 3.施用适量的Se既能显著提高药菊花中总黄酮和绿原酸含量,又能大幅提高花中的Se含量,这为富Se菊花及其系列产品的研发提供了理论依据.

  12. Study on Transformation of Snowdrop Lectin Gene to Chrysanthemum and Aphid Resistance of the Transgenic Plants%雪花莲凝集素基因转化菊花及转基因植株的抗蚜性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王关林; 刘彦泓; 郭绍华; 王宇; 纪彦; 方宏筠

    2004-01-01

    针对菊花存在的蚜虫虫害问题,采用农杆菌介导法将gna基因导入菊花叶片,共获得93个转化克隆.研究了影响转化频率的主要因素,得出在使用pH5.6的YEB培养基,菌液浓度OD600=0.4,45日苗龄中部叶片预培养1 d,共培养4 d,共培养的培养基中加入0.5 mg/L GA3的条件下可使转化频率提高到11.21%.PCR、实时荧光PCR检测结果表明,外源基因已整合到植物细胞基因组中.转化植株幼苗饲虫实验表明,不同转化克隆的抗蚜性差异较大,蚜口密度抑制率从10%~84%不等,平均蚜口密度抑制率为39.4%.转化植株叶片蛋白提取液对小鼠红细胞具有凝集作用.

  13. Empirical Analysis about Influencing Factors of the Image of Festivals and Special Events Based on Tourist Perception --Take the Kaifeng ChrysanthemumFair Festival for Example%基于游客感知的节事旅游形象影响因素实证分析--以开封菊花花会为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯咏

    2013-01-01

    为了得知节事旅游形象各影响因素之间的逻辑层次关系以及各影响因素的重要程度,本文以河南省开封菊花花会为研究对象进行实证,运用SPSS17.0因子法对各影响因素进行定量评价。因子分析得出影响节事旅游形象的四个公因子,并通过回归分析,按照重要程度排列依次是:游览价值、社会环境、设施环境和旅游环境。%In order to understand the logical relationship between various influencing factors of the image of festivals and special events and the consequence of various influencing factors on the image,factor analysis has been carried out and four common factors have been generated based on SPSS17. 0.According to the result of re-gression analysis, the importance to the image of festivals and special events is concerned,the order of the four common factors is sightseeing value,social environment,tourism facilities,tourism environment.

  14. 华南栖霞组菊花石假象内正延性玉髓的成因及其地质意义①%Length-Slow Chalcedony in Chrysanthemum Stone of Chihsia Formation, South China and Its Geological Implications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    正延性玉髓常被视为干旱蒸发沉积环境的标志.正延性玉髓亦广泛分布于华南地区栖霞组菊花石(目前绝大多数为天青石假象)内.本文在天青石后期矿物交代序列识别的基础上,通过对菊花石内各期次碳酸盐交代矿物的电子探针分析,发现菊花石内正延性玉髓形成于富含硫酸根离子和镁离子的成岩介质条件中.结合已有的正延性玉髓研究报道和栖霞组的沉积、成岩作用环境特征分析,认为华南地区栖霞组菊花石内正延性玉髓的形成环境与高蒸发沉积环境或高盐度成岩环境无关.因此,仅根据正延性玉髓的出现不足以确定沉积或成岩环境的盐度条件.

  15. 离体条件下5-氮杂胞嘧啶核苷对菊花DNA甲基化和表型性状的影响%The Effect of 5-azacytidine to the DNA Methylation and Morphogenesis Character of Chrysanthemum During in Vitro Growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王子成; 聂丽娟; 何艳霞

    2009-01-01

    采用离体处理的方法,初步研究了5-氮杂胞嘧啶核苷(5-azaC)对菊花的影响.结果表明,500 μmol·L~(-1)以上时有致死效应,100μmol·L~(-1)以上时能抑制离体材料的生长发育,而各浓度对菊花的丛生芽均具有抑制作用,且这种抑制作用具有时间累加效应和剂量累计效应.10 μmol·L~(-1)以下时使菊花开花时间有不同程度的提早,这一效应具有稳定性,并可通过营养繁殖进行遗传.MSAP技术分析表明,处理材料基因组DNA甲基化水平明显降低,在去处理后的继代过程中仍有部分位点保持低甲基化状态.

  16. Crescimento, duração do ciclo e produção de inflorescências de crisântemo multiflora sob diferentes números de despontes e tamanhos de vasos Growth, duration of the growing stages and inflorescence production of chrysanthemum under different prunings and size of pot

    OpenAIRE

    Betânia Brum; Valdecir José dos Santos; Marcelo Antonio Rodrigues; Rogério Antônio Bellé; Sidinei José Lopes

    2007-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o comportamento vegetativo e reprodutivo e a duração do ciclo de duas cultivares de crisântemo multiflora, em ambiente protegido, quando submetidos a diferentes números de despontes e tamanhos de vasos. O experimento foi conduzido no período de 30 de abril a 12 de dezembro de 2003, em casa-de-vegetação do Departamento de Fitotecnia da UFSM, Santa Maria, RS, Brasil. As duas cultivares foram conduzidas em três tamanhos de vasos: número 11, 15 e 20. A anális...

  17. Strategii de PR în retorica electorala din Parlamentarele -2014, Republica Moldova vs „revoluția crizantemelor”, octombrie 2015 (PR strategies in the electoral rhetoric during the parliamentary elections in 2014, Republic of Moldova vs „the chrysanthemums revolution”, october 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurelia PERU-BALAN

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article the author approaches the trends of the electoral rhetoric during the parliamentary elections that were held on 30th of November. The article determines which are the most used campaign issues with a mobilizing effect on the voters; among these – the external path of the Republic of Moldova. During the last five years, the right and center-right wing parties have chosen the EU integration, the left-wing parties – the Eurasian Union. The contribution also analyzes the most relevant special events organized by the political parties’ staffs in order to create an image well covered by the media and favorable for the political actors.

  18. HPLC法测定菊花中木犀草素和木犀草素-7-O-葡萄糖苷的含量%Simultaneous Determination of Luteolin and Luteolin-7-O-glucoside in Chrysanthemum Morifolium Ramat by HPLC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄海芹

    2012-01-01

    目的:对不同产地的菊花药材中木犀草素和木犀草素-7-O-葡萄糖苷含量进行对比研究,为其合理开发利用提供理论依据.方法:采用Agilent ZORBAX SB-C18色谱柱,以0.4%醋酸水溶液和乙腈为流动相,流速:1.0mL·min-1,检测波长:269nm,柱温:30℃,采用梯度洗脱法测定菊花药材甲醇提取物中木犀草素和木犀草素-7-O-葡萄糖苷的含量.结果:测得木犀草素和木犀草素-7-O-葡萄糖苷的线性范围分别为0.0548~0.35g·L-1(r=0.9991)和0.06421~0.125g·L- 1(r=0.9995);加样回收率分别为98.42%和99.67%.结论:该法可用于快速、准确地测定菊花中黄酮类成分的含量,不同产地菊花药材中两种指标成分含量存在较大的差异.

  19. HPLC法测定不同产地杭白菊中3种抑制血管紧张素转化酶活性的黄酮化合物含量%HPLC method determinating flavonoids compounds with the effect of inhibiting angiotensin converting enzyme from different places Chrysanthemum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张因皎; 赵钰岚; 邹文韬; 房晓敏; 周志明; 许传莲

    2010-01-01

    目的:建立高效液相色谱法测定不同产地杭白菊中抑制血管紧张素转化酶(ACE)活性的黄酮类化合物.方法:以本实验室从杭白菊中分离获得的3种黄酮化合物单体芹菜苷(apigenin 7-O-β-D-glucoside)、木犀草素7-O-(6"-O-丙二酸单酰)-β-D-葡萄糖苷(Luteolin 7-O-(6"-O-malonyl)-β-D-glucoside)、芹菜素7-O-(6"-O-丙二酸单酰)-β-D-葡萄糖苷(apigenin 7-O-(6"-O-malonyl)-β-D-glucoside)作为对照品,它们对ACE抑制活性筛选结果表明均有显著抑制作用.用反相高效液相色谱测定不同产地杭白菊中这3种黄酮化合物的含量,采用Agilent zorbax SB-C_(18)色谱柱(4.6 mm×150 mm,5 μm),流动相为0.1%乙酸溶液-乙腈,梯度洗脱60 min,流速1.0 mL·min~(-1),检测波长330 nm,进样量20μL.结果:芹菜苷、木犀草素7-O-(6"-O-丙二酸单酰)-β-D-葡萄糖苷、芹菜素7-O-(6"-O-丙二酸单酰)-β-D-葡萄糖苷的线性范围分别为10.9~350μg·mL~(-1)(r=0.9992),16.8~540μg·mL~(-1)(r=0.9991),16.2~520μg·mL~(-1)(r=0.9994).平均回收率分别为100.2%,97.8%,98.2%.日内、日间精密度RSD分别为1.5%,0.6%,3.3%和1.3%,2.5%,2.9%.结论:此方法操作简便、灵敏、准确,重复性好,适用于杭白菊中具有血管紧张素转化酶抑制作用的黄酮化合物含量测定.

  20. HPLC法测定不同采收期杭白菊中木犀草素及其苷的含量%Determination of luteolin and luteolin-7-β-D-glucoside in Chrysanthemum morfolium Ramat.from different collection time by RP- HPLC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡碧波; 蒋惠娣; 杨俊; 曾苏

    2004-01-01

    目的:测定杭白菊中木犀草素和木犀草素-7-β-D-葡萄糖苷的含量,考察它们在采摘期内的含量变化.方法:反相高效液相色谱法测定2001、2002年度不同采摘期杭白菊中两者的含量.结果:杭白菊中木犀草素含量大大低于木犀草素-7-β-D-葡萄糖苷含量;木犀草素含量在采摘期中无显著变化,而木犀草素-7-β-D-葡萄糖苷含量在采摘初期变化不明显,而在采摘后期则呈下降趋势.结论:杭白菊中木犀草素-7-β-D-葡萄糖苷含量更能反映杭白菊品质.

  1. STUDY ON ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY IN FLOWERCULTURE IN GREENHOUSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A POPESCU

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the economic efficiency in flowerculture in the greenhouses belonging to a private company next to the capital. The firm owns 2.45 ha greenhouses where it cultivates Fresia Species, Chrysanthemum Species and Alstroemeria Species. The average production was 1,200 thou Fresia flowers, 405 thou Chrysanthemum flowers and 610 thou Alstroemeria flowers/ha. All the three flower species assure a high economic efficiency, but Fresia is the most profitable one. It assures the highest profit per flower USD 0.023, the highest profit per hectar USD 28,576 and the highest profit rate 44 %. Then, in order are coming Alstroemeria and Chrysanthemum. These three species could represent the subject of a profitable productive activity for any floriculturist who would like to get secure incomes all over the year.

  2. Qualitative parameters of non-traditional types of vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Kudrnáčová

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this study was to determine selected quality indicators of non-traditional types of leafy vegetables. Mizuna (Brassica rapa japonica, Chinese mustard (Brassica juncea, edible chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum coronarium and arugula (Eruca sativa belonged among the selected species of vegetables. During the one-year experiment, spring and autumn sowing was carried out for these species of vegetables. The measured quality parameters were the content of nitrates and ascorbic acid. Sampling was done in the morning and in the laboratory, the samples were further processed according to the type of determination. To determine the content of nitrates and ascorbic acid, leaves were removed from plants. The filtrate from the leaves was then prepared. Determination of nitrates and ascorbic acid was carried out using a special test strip and device Rqflex plus 10. The results of measurement of both sowing varieties were compared. Total nitrate content was higher up to 22% in plants sown in the autumn except edible chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum coronarium. The highest content was recorded in arugula (Eruca sativa, which was recently implemented to the studies of the European Union and for which there were set the limits of nitrates. Overall, the nitrate content ranged from 221 to 334 ppm in spring varieties and from 249 to 384 mg/kg in autumn varieties. Ascorbic acid content was very high in Chinese mustard (Brassica juncea, edible chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum coronarium and arugula (Eruca sativa in both spring and autumn varieties. Values of ascorbic acid ranged from 839 in autumn sowing up to 2909 mg/kg in spring sowing. These non-traditional types of leafy vegetables could be included among the other importants sources of vitamin C in the future.  

  3. Management strategies for greenhouse growers in a competitive environment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trip, G.; Renkema, J.A.; Huirne, R.B.M.

    1996-01-01

    A study among 26 Dutch chrysanthemum firms was performed between November 1993 and November 1994 to (a) assess the relative economic performance of each firm and (b) compare three strategies used by growers in getting high economic results. These strategies, related to the theory of Porter (1985), a

  4. Chrysant zonder gas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raaphorst, M.G.M.; Kempkes, F.L.K.; Knaap, van der E.; Veld, de Paul

    2015-01-01

    The most relevant options that can decrease the heat demand on Chrysanthemum are calculated on their saving potential. With the joint options, a gas consumption of less than 10 m3/m2.year can be realized. The main bottlenecks are the increased risk of fungal diseases and the low net present value of

  5. The Cowpea mosaic virus movement protein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carvalho, C.M.

    2003-01-01

    For many years the emphasis in floricultural research laid with quantity rather than quality. Nowadays, since the prices are often determined on the basis of visual quality aspects, the so-called external quality, chrysanthemum growers aim to provide a high and constant product qualit

  6. La Artesania Mexicana (Mexican Handicrafts).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Bettina

    This booklet contains instructions in English and Spanish for making eleven typical Mexican craft articles. The instructions are accompanied by pen-and-ink drawings. The objects are (1) "La Rosa" (The Rose); (2) "El Crisantemo" (The Chrysanthemum); (3) "La Amapola" (The Poppy); (4) "Ojos de Dios" (God's Eyes); (5) "Ojitos con dos caras" (Two-Sided…

  7. 神奈川県大磯町で見つかる局方生薬の基原植物

    OpenAIRE

    石井, 竹夫||イシイ, タケオ||Ishii, Takeo

    2012-01-01

    Geographic distribution of original plants of Japanese Pharamacopoeia (JP; Sixteenth Edition) crude drugs was surveyed in Oiso town in Kanagawa Prefecture. In hilly country, Mallototus japonicas, Akebia quinata, Pharbitis nill, Foeniculum vulgare, Plantago asiatica, Atractylodes japonica, Pinellia ternate, Artemisia capillaries, Trichosanthes kirilowii var. japonicum, Chrysanthemum morifolium, Magnolia kobus, Phellodendron amurense, Lycium chinense, Pueraria lobata, Geranium nepalense, Cimici...

  8. First report of the blaVIM gene in environmental isolates of Buttiauxella sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitondo-Silva, André; Martins, Vinicius Vicente; Stehling, Eliana Guedes

    2015-04-01

    Several works have demonstrated the presence of metallo-β-lactamases (MBLs) in clinical bacteria. However, in environmental isolates, few works have reported on these enzymes. In this study, we report for the first time two environmental isolates of Buttiauxella sp. recovered from chrysanthemum plantations in Brazil containing blaVIM gene and producing MBLs.

  9. Partical replacement of the rooting procedure of Chrysanthenum merifolium cuttings by pre-rooting storage in the dark.

    OpenAIRE

    Pol, van der, J.P.

    1988-01-01

    Part of the rooting procedure of Chrysanthemum morifolium 'Pink Boston' and 'Refour' cuttings can be replaced by pre-rooting storage in the dark. Pre-rooting storage of 7 days at temperatures between 9° and 21°C was adequate. Longer periods of dark storage resulted in increase of root growth but also in severe senescence of the basal leaves.

  10. Reconsideration of the use of deoonized water as vase water in postharvest experiments on cut flowers (corrected version)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meeteren, van U.; Gelder, van H.; Ieperen, van I.

    1999-01-01

    The relevance of deionized water as a control treatment in vase life experiments and the effects of major tap water components on cut flower water balance were investigated. Chrysanthemum (Dendranthema x grandiflorum Tzvelev cv. Cassa) was used in all experiments. Deionized water gave a sharp decrea

  11. Evaluation of the control of beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua, with baculoviruses in greenhouse using a process-based simulation model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bianchi, F.J.J.A.; Vlak, J.M.; Werf, van der W.

    2002-01-01

    Scenario studies were carried out with a process-based model for control of wild-type and genetically modified baculoviruses in populations of Spodoptera exigua in glasshouse chrysanthemum (BACSIM). These scenario studies were used to evaluate the effectiveness of different spraying regimes, concent

  12. Interspecific hybridization and polyploidization as tools in ornamental plant breeding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuyl, van J.M.; Kim, K.B.

    2003-01-01

    Interspecific hybridisation and polyploidy are recognized as the most impor-tant sources of evolution and domestication of flowering plants. In ornamental plant breeding these phenomena go hand in hand and can be observed in the breeding his-tory of many ornamental crops (Rosa, Chrysanthemum, Gladio

  13. Development of plant mutation techniques using ion beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Si Yong; Park, In Sook; Song, Hi Sup; Kim, Dong Sub; Kim, Soo Yeon

    2006-06-15

    It has been reported that ion beam with high liner energy transfer (LET) show relative high biological effectiveness (RBE) and more effective for induced plant mutation than low LET radiation i.e., X-rays, gamma rays and electrons. This study was conducted to induce mutation of in vitro cultured orchid and Chrysanthemum using proton beam of the MC-50 cyclotron (50 MeV) at the Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Science. In vitro cultured stems of chrysanthemum(cv. Migok) and protocom-like bodies(PLBs) of Dendrobium orchid (cv. Kingianum) placed in the plastic petridish (5.5cm in diameter) with agar medium were irradiated by the proton beam with various dose ranges of 10, 25, 50, 100 Gy under the condition of 5nA beam current. Those irradiated plants were transferred to subculture media and then investigated growth characteristics. Shoot growth of chrysanthemum and orchid was decreased by increase of irradiation dose. In particular, new shoot formation was hardly founded over 50Gy in chrysanthemum and 100 Gy in orchid. Some leaf mutants were observed at the 25 Gy and 50 Gy irradiated PLBs of the orchid. The dry seeds of hot pepper, rapeseed, rice and perilla also were irradiated with proton beam of MC-50 cyclotron and then measured germination rate and early growth of M1 plants compared with gamma ray irradiation.

  14. Longevity of Puccinia horiana teliospores under various environmental conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puccinia horiana Henn. is a quarantine-significant fungal pathogen and causal agent of chrysanthemum white rust (CWR). The pathogen and disease were first discovered in the United States in 1977 and quickly eradicated. During the early 1990s, CWR re-emerged on several instances, but in each instance...

  15. Wound-induced and bacteria-induced xylem blockage in roses, Astilbe and Viburnum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loubaud, M.; Doorn, van W.G.

    2004-01-01

    We previously concluded that the xylem blockage that prevents water uptake into several cut flowers is mainly due to the presence of bacteria, whilst in chrysanthemum and Bouvardia we observed a xylem occlusion that was mainly due to a wound-reaction of the plant. We have further tested which of the

  16. On the Change in Eliza

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵荣

    2001-01-01

    @@ The short novel "The Chrysanthemums"(菊花)is one of the well-written works by John Steinbeck, a very famous American novelist in the 20thcentury. He has written many other novels such as "The Pearl" , "The Century Dow" ,"Of Mice and Man" , "The Grapes of Wrath" .

  17. Composition of essential oil of costmary [Balsamita major (L.) Desf.] at different growth phases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bylaite, E.; Venskutonis, R.; Roozen, J.P.; Posthumus, M.A.

    2000-01-01

    The essential oils from leaves and flowers of costmary, Balsamita major (L.) Desf. (syn. Chrysanthemum balsamita L.), were analyzed at various phases of plant growth. The highest contents of oil both in leaves and in flowers were determined before full blooming, 1.15 and 1.34øw/w), respectively. Sev

  18. Daily Temperature Integration: a Simulation Study to quantify Energy Consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Körner, O.; Bakker, M.J.; Heuvelink, E.

    2004-01-01

    A combined greenhouse climate and control model was used to study energy consumption in year-round cut chrysanthemum. Temperature was either controlled for energy saving with temperature integration within 24h using the margin between heating and ventilation temperature b as control (TI) or the temp

  19. 78 FR 33325 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-04

    ... with Chrysanthemum White Rust. OMB Control Number: 0579-0271. Summary of Collection: Under the Plant... it displays a currently valid OMB control number. Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Title... a healthy animal population and enhancing the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service...

  20. 78 FR 4121 - Notice of Request for Revision to and Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Cut...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-18

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Notice of Request for Revision to and Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Cut Flowers From Countries With Chrysanthemum White Rust AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Revision to and extension of approval of...

  1. Drug: D05659 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D05659 Crude, Drug Pyrethrum extract (USP); Chrysanthemum cinerariaefolium extract ...LENTS P03A ECTOPARASITICIDES, INCL. SCABICIDES P03AC Pyrethrines, incl. synthetic compounds P03AC01 Pyrethrum D05659 Pyrethrum extract (USP) CAS: 89997-63-7 PubChem: 47207320 ...

  2. Biological control of beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua, with baculoviruses in greenhouses : development of a comprehensive process-based model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bianchi, F.J.J.A.; Vlak, J.M.; Rabbinge, R.; Werf, van der W.

    2002-01-01

    We describe the development of a comprehensive process-based model simulating the epizootiology and agronomic efficacy of baculoviruses used for biological control of beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua, in greenhouse chrysanthemum. The model is built to help understand, evaluate, and predict the effec

  3. 微波协助提取在中药饮片含量测定中的应用(6)——微波法与药典法测定野菊花中蒙花苷含量比较%Determination of Microwave-Assisted Extraction of Chinese Cut Crude Drugs (6) Comparison of the Determination of Linarin from Chrysanthemum indicum Between Microwave-Assisted Extraction and Chinese Pharmacopeia Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方婧; 杨洪军; 付梅红; 安琪; 张贝贝; 王祝举; 杨岚; 张东

    2012-01-01

    目的:建立微波协助提取法提取野菊花中有效成分蒙花苷含量测定方法,比较微波协助提取法与药典法提取蒙花苷优势.方法:采用Dikma Diamonsil C18色谱柱(4.6 mm×150 mm,5μm),流动相甲醇-水-冰醋酸(26:23:1),检测波长334nm,柱温30℃,流速1 mL· min-1.结果:微波提取时间15 min,提取温度100℃,提取溶剂50%乙醇.蒙花苷在0.04~1.2μg呈良好线性关系(r =0.9999),平均回收率100.13% (n =6).结论:微波提取法较药典法提取蒙花苷更简便快速、准确,为一种符合环保绿色理念的含量测定方法,可用于检测野菊花饮片中蒙花苷含量.%Objective; To establish a microwave-assisted extraction method for the extraction of the linarin from Chrysanthemun indicum. Comparison of the determination of linarin from C. indicum between microwave-assisted extraction and Chinese pharmacopeia method was made. Method; Dikma Diamonsil C18 column (4.6 mm X 150 mm, 5 μm) was used. The mobile phase cousisted of methanol-water-acetic acid (26: 23: 1 ) . The temperature of column was kept at 30 ℃. The flow rate was 1. 0 mL -min-1 and the detection wavelength was at 334 nm. Result; Microwave extractive time was 15 min, the temperature was 100 X. , the extraction solvent was 50% ethanol. The calibration curve was in good linearity within the range from 0. 04 to 1. 2μg (r -0.999 9). The average recovery was 100. 13% (n=6). Conclusion; The method is simple, rapid, as well as precise and reliable, and can be used for the determination of linarin from C. indicum.

  4. Extraction and Purification of Depigmenting Agents from Chinese Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Depigmenting agents were solvent-extracted and purified by preparative and analytical HPLC from three Chinese plants; Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat( Xizang Caijuhua), Rhodiola sachalinensis, and Terminalia chebula Retzius. Four fractions obtained from the ethyl ether layer of C. m. Rama and two fractions from the ethyl acetate layer of Rhodiola salientness show depigmenting effects. At δ 200, the ethyl acetate layers of Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat, Rhodiola sachalinensis and the methanol extract of Terminalia chebula Retzius, can inhibit the melanin production of mouse B16 melanoma cells by 92%, 60% and 90%, respectively, whereas 46% inhibition was observed by commercially available depigmenting agents(arbutin). These results show the potential of these three Chinese plants as a novel resource for depigmenting agents in the cosmetic industry.

  5. Nondestructive, stereological estimation of canopy surface area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wulfsohn, Dvora-Laio; Sciortino, Marco; Aaslyng, Jesper M.;

    2010-01-01

    We describe a stereological procedure to estimate the total leaf surface area of a plant canopy in vivo, and address the problem of how to predict the variance of the corresponding estimator. The procedure involves three nested systematic uniform random sampling stages: (i) selection of plants from...... is high. Using a grid intensity of 1.76 cm2/point we estimated plant and canopy surface areas with accuracies similar to or better than those obtained using image analysis and a commercial leaf area meter. For canopy surface areas of approximately 1 m2 (10 plants), the fractionator leaf approach...... a canopy using the smooth fractionator, (ii) sampling of leaves from the selected plants using the fractionator, and (iii) area estimation of the sampled leaves using point counting. We apply this procedure to estimate the total area of a chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum morifolium L.) canopy and evaluate both...

  6. Growth response of container-grown plants in potting media amended with lignite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamp, M.

    1983-01-01

    A peat-vermiculite (50/50 v/v) potting medium was amended with 25 or 33% lignite by volume to determine if this could be used as a major media component for the culture of several greenhouse crops. Lignite-amended media did not alter the growth parameters of Pelargonium at 25 and 33% lignite. With 25% lignite Philodendron selloum grew as well as controls but at 33% growth was reduced and the leaves exhibited some phytotoxocity. Ficus benjamina, Ardisia humilis, poinsettias and Chrysanthemum morifolium responded poorly to lignite-amended media and leaf phytotoxicity was observed on plants with reduced growth. Leaf phytotoxicity in Chrysanthemum and Philodendron was not related to an excess of minor element content in the leaves. 3 references.

  7. Anti-fungal activity of irradiated chitosan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anti-fungal activity of chitosan induced by irradiation has been investigated. Commercial chitosan samples of 8B (80% deacetylation) and l0B (99% deacetylation) were irradiated by γ-ray in dry condition. Highly deacethylated chitosan (10B) at low dose irradiation (75 kGy) was effective for inhibition of fungal growth. The sensitivities of Exobasidium vexans, Septoria chrysanthemum and Gibberella fujikuroi for the irradiated chitosan were different and the necessary concentrations of chitosan were 550, 350 and 250 μg/ml, respectively. For the plant growth, low deacethylation (chitosan 8B) and high dose (500 kGy) was effective and the growth of chrysanthemum was promoted by spraying the irradiated chitosan. (author)

  8. A Report on 36 Years of Practical Work on Crop Improvement through Induced Mutagenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Induced mutagenesis work was conducted from 1971 to July 2007, using both physical and chemical mutagens for improvement of a wide range of crops viz. vegetables, medicinal, pulse, oil-bearing, and ornamental crops. All classical and advanced methods were extensively used for the success of induced mutagenesis for the development of new and novel cultivars of economic importance. Being deeply engaged for the last 30 years on improvement of ornamentals through Gamma-ray induced mutagenesis, I have produced a large number of new and promising varieties in different ornamentals. A good number of ornamental mutant varieties have already been commercialized. A novel technique has been developed for management of floral chimeric sector in chrysanthemum through direct regeneration of mutated individual florets. A series of in vitro experiments were conducted and solid mutants developed through direct regeneration. In vitro mutagenesis has been successfully used for development of a salt-resistant strain in chrysanthemum, supported by biochemical analysis and field trials. (author)

  9. Effect of alternative prey on development and consumption of Orius insidiosus (Say) (Hemiptera, Anthocoridae) and oviposition behavior on chrysantemum cultivars; Efeito da presa alternativa no desenvolvimento e consumo de Orius insidiosus (Say) (Hemiptera, Anthocoridae) e comportamento de oviposicao em cultivares de crisantemo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soglia, Maria da Conceicao M. [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Cruz das Almas, BA (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Agrarias e Ambientais], e-mail: mcsoglia@yahoo.com.br; Bueno, Vanda Helena Paes; Carvalho, Livia Mendes [Universidade Federal de Lavras (UFLA), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Entomologia], e-mail: vhpbueno@ufla.br

    2007-10-15

    This work aimed to evaluate the development time and the consumption of Orius insidiosus (Say, 1832) feeding on Aphis gossypii Glover, 1877 as well as its oviposition behavior on two chrysanthemum cut cultivars. The trials were conducted in climatic chamber at 25 {+-} 1 deg C, RH 70 {+-} 10% and 12h photo phase. Nymphs of the predator, less than 24h old, were kept individually in petri dishes (5cm) with 20 nymphs of A. gossypii (first, second and third instar) on leaf disc (4 cm) of each cultivar ('White Reagan' and 'Yellow Snowdon') in a layer of agar-water (1%). Petiole of each chrysanthemum cultivar as oviposition substrate was evaluated and the females were feeding on eggs of Anagasta kuehniella (Zeller, 1879). The predator complete its development feeding on A. gossypii kept in both cultivars. The duration of nymphal phase of O. insidiosus were 21.1 and 18.3 days on 'White Reagan' and 'Yellow Snowdon', respectively. The consumption of the females of O. insidiosus was higher (P<0.01) on A. gossypii in 'White Reagan' (2.63 nymphs) compared to the consumption in 'Yellow Snowdon' (0.7 nymphs). Females of O. insidiosus oviposited in petiole of both cultivars with 22.5 and 23.3 eggs/female on 'White Reagan' and 'Yellow Snowdon', respectively. Release of O. insidiosus on chrysanthemum crops could be important to decrease the A. gossypii population, as the predator completes its development having this aphid as prey, and the chrysanthemum cultivars offer conditions to colonization and establishment of O. insidiosus. (author)

  10. Epithermal Neutron Activation Analysis of the Asian Herbal Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asian medicinal herbs Chrysanthemum (Spiraea aquilegifolia Pall.) and Red Sandalwood (Pterocarpus Santalinus) are widely used in folk and Ayurvedic medicine for healing and preventing some diseases. The modern medical science has proved that the Chrysanthemum (Spiraea aquilegifolia Pall.) possesses the following functions: reducing blood press, dispelling cancer cell, coronary artery's expanding and bacteriostating and Red Sandalwood (Pterocarpus Santalinus) is recommended against headache, toothache, skin diseases, vomiting and sometimes it is taken for treatment of diabetes. Species of Chrysanthemums were collected in the north-eastern and central Mongolia, and the Red Sandalwood powder was imported from India. Samples of Chrysanthemums (branches, flowers and leaves)(0.5 g) and red sandalwood powder (0.5 g) were subjected to the multi-element instrumental neutron activation analysis using epithermal neutrons (ENAA) at the IBR-2 reactor, Frank Laboratory of Neutron Physics (FLNP) JINR, Dubna. A total of 41 elements (Na, Mg, Al, Cl, K, Ca, Sc, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Zn, As, Se, Br, Rb, Sr, Zr, Mo, Cd, Cs, Ba, La, Hf, Ta, W, Sb, Au, Hg, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Tb, Dy, Yb, Th, U, Lu) were determined. For the first time such a large group of elements was determined in the herbal plants used in Mongolia. The quality control of the analytical results was provided by using certified reference material Bowen Cabbage. The results obtained are compared to the ''Reference plant? data (B. Markert, 1992) and interpreted in terms of excess of such elements as Se, Cr, Ca, Fe, Ni, Mo, and rare earth elements.

  11. Epithermal Neutron Activation Analysis of the Asian Herbal Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baljinnyam, N.; Jugder, B.; Norov, N.; Frontasyeva, M. V.; Ostrovnaya, T. M.; Pavlov, S. S.

    2011-06-01

    Asian medicinal herbs Chrysanthemum (Spiraea aquilegifolia Pall.) and Red Sandalwood (Pterocarpus Santalinus) are widely used in folk and Ayurvedic medicine for healing and preventing some diseases. The modern medical science has proved that the Chrysanthemum (Spiraea aquilegifolia Pall.) possesses the following functions: reducing blood press, dispelling cancer cell, coronary artery's expanding and bacteriostating and Red Sandalwood (Pterocarpus Santalinus) is recommended against headache, toothache, skin diseases, vomiting and sometimes it is taken for treatment of diabetes. Species of Chrysanthemums were collected in the north-eastern and central Mongolia, and the Red Sandalwood powder was imported from India. Samples of Chrysanthemums (branches, flowers and leaves) (0.5 g) and red sandalwood powder (0.5 g) were subjected to the multi-element instrumental neutron activation analysis using epithermal neutrons (ENAA) at the IBR-2 reactor, Frank Laboratory of Neutron Physics (FLNP) JINR, Dubna. A total of 41 elements (Na, Mg, Al, Cl, K, Ca, Sc, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Zn, As, Se, Br, Rb, Sr, Zr, Mo, Cd, Cs, Ba, La, Hf, Ta, W, Sb, Au, Hg, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Tb, Dy, Yb, Th, U, Lu) were determined. For the first time such a large group of elements was determined in the herbal plants used in Mongolia. The quality control of the analytical results was provided by using certified reference material Bowen Cabbage. The results obtained are compared to the "Reference plant» data (B. Markert, 1992) and interpreted in terms of excess of such elements as Se, Cr, Ca, Fe, Ni, Mo, and rare earth elements.

  12. FT-Raman study of the (sub)picosecond dynamics in genomic DNA from plant tissues

    OpenAIRE

    Cristina M. Muntean; Bratu, Ioan

    2009-01-01

    In this paper the Raman total half bandwidths of eight genomic DNAs from leaf tissues [potato (Solanum tuberosum L.), sword fern (Nephrolepis exaltata L.), scopolia (Scopolia carniolica Jacq.), redwood (Sequoia sempervirens D. Don. Endl.), orchids (Cymbidium × hybrida), chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflora Ramat.) and common sundew (Drosera rotundifolia L.)] have been measured. The dependencies of the total half bandwidths and of the global relaxation times, on DNA molecular subgroup struc...

  13. FT-Raman signatures of genomic DNA from plant tissues

    OpenAIRE

    Cristina M. Muntean; Adela HALMAGYI; Puia, Mircea D.; Pavel, Ioana

    2009-01-01

    The vibrational spectra of eight genomic DNAs from leaf tissues (sword fern (Nephrolepis exaltata L.), chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflora Ramat.), redwood (Sequoia sempervirens D. Don. Endl.), orchids (Cymbidium × hybrida), common sundew (Drosera rotundifolia L.), potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) and scopolia (Scopolia carniolica Jacq.)) have been analyzed using FT-Raman spectroscopy, in the wavenumber range 500–1800 cm–1.FT-Raman signatures, spectroscopic assignments and structural interpr...

  14. Effect of alternative prey on development and consumption of Orius insidiosus (Say) (Hemiptera, Anthocoridae) and oviposition behavior on chrysantemum cultivars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work aimed to evaluate the development time and the consumption of Orius insidiosus (Say, 1832) feeding on Aphis gossypii Glover, 1877 as well as its oviposition behavior on two chrysanthemum cut cultivars. The trials were conducted in climatic chamber at 25 ± 1 deg C, RH 70 ± 10% and 12h photo phase. Nymphs of the predator, less than 24h old, were kept individually in petri dishes (5cm) with 20 nymphs of A. gossypii (first, second and third instar) on leaf disc (4 cm) of each cultivar ('White Reagan' and 'Yellow Snowdon') in a layer of agar-water (1%). Petiole of each chrysanthemum cultivar as oviposition substrate was evaluated and the females were feeding on eggs of Anagasta kuehniella (Zeller, 1879). The predator complete its development feeding on A. gossypii kept in both cultivars. The duration of nymphal phase of O. insidiosus were 21.1 and 18.3 days on 'White Reagan' and 'Yellow Snowdon', respectively. The consumption of the females of O. insidiosus was higher (P<0.01) on A. gossypii in 'White Reagan' (2.63 nymphs) compared to the consumption in 'Yellow Snowdon' (0.7 nymphs). Females of O. insidiosus oviposited in petiole of both cultivars with 22.5 and 23.3 eggs/female on 'White Reagan' and 'Yellow Snowdon', respectively. Release of O. insidiosus on chrysanthemum crops could be important to decrease the A. gossypii population, as the predator completes its development having this aphid as prey, and the chrysanthemum cultivars offer conditions to colonization and establishment of O. insidiosus. (author)

  15. Induced mutation and in vitro culture techniques for the genetic improvement of ornamentals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mutation breeding using cobalt-60 (60Co) gamma radiation coupled with tissue culture techniques is undertaken for genetic improvement of foliage ornamentals (Dracaena sp. and Murraya exotica L.) and cutflowers (Chrysanthemum morifolium and orchids; Vanda sanderiana, Dendrobium Pattaya Beauty and Phalenopsis schilleriana). Gamma radiation (10-30 Gy) induced chlorophyll mutations and several morphological changes in D. sanderiana. For D. godseffiana, irradiated cuttings resulted in reduction of leaf size and chlorophyll mutations. Reduction in height was observed in the M2 generation of Murraya exotica L. irradiated at doses ranging from 10 to 30 Gy. The dwarf Murraya mutant was multiplied through the use of seeds and presently 116 plants are commercially available and are ''test marketed'' to the public. Tissue culture technique was used to induce mutation and as a means of micropropagation in two ornamental crops (orchids and chrysanthemum). Effects of different doses of gamma radiation on callus induction from nodal sections of chrysanthemum grown in Murashige and Skoog's (MS) with naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) and benzyl adenine (BA) were studied. Micropropagation of irradiated and unirradiated chrysanthemum using MS basal medium is presently being studied. Whorling and changes in leaf color were observed at 10 Gy and doubling of leaf growth at the node at 20 Gy for vegetatively generated V3 plant. In orchids, irradiation of immature embryo with gamma rays ranging from 5 to 10 Gy increased the percentage of germination in Dendrobium Pattaya Beauty and P. schilleriana. Protocorms of Vanda sanderiana irradiated at 10 Gy and grown in Knudson C medium developed into plantlets that are bigger and more vigorous than those irradiated at 20 GY and from the control plant. A decrease in seedling height was observed with increasing dose of gamma radiation. (Author)

  16. Microbiological Quality of Various Medicinal Herbal Teas and Coffee Substitutes

    OpenAIRE

    V.H. Tournas; E.J. Katsoudas

    2008-01-01

    Various herbal teas including German chamomile, Chrysanthemum Vascuflow herb tea, hop, jasmine and orange flowers, sweet marjoram, spearmint and thyme leaves, and papaya-mint tea as well as coffee substitutes (Bambu instant Swiss, Teeccino chocolate-mint, and Teeccino Mediterranean Espresso) were analyzed for fungal contamination and the presence of aerobic mesophilic bacteria (APC). The results of this investigation showed that fungal counts reached levels as high as 5.8 × 105 colony forming...

  17. Application of Two-spotted Spider Mite Tetranychus urticae for Plant-pest Interaction Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Cazaux, Marc; Navarro, Marie; Bruinsma, Kristie A; Zhurov, Vladimir; Negrave, Tara; Van Leeuwen, Thomas; Grbic, Vojislava; Grbic, Miodrag

    2014-01-01

    The two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae, is a ubiquitous polyphagous arthropod herbivore that feeds on a remarkably broad array of species, with more than 150 of economic value. It is a major pest of greenhouse crops, especially in Solanaceae and Cucurbitaceae (e.g., tomatoes, eggplants, peppers, cucumbers, zucchini) and greenhouse ornamentals (e.g., roses, chrysanthemum, carnations), annual field crops (such as maize, cotton, soybean, and sugar beet), and in perennial cultures (alfa...

  18. Interspecific hybridization and polyploidization as tools in ornamental plant breeding

    OpenAIRE

    Tuyl, van, J.M.; Kim, K. B.

    2003-01-01

    Interspecific hybridisation and polyploidy are recognized as the most impor-tant sources of evolution and domestication of flowering plants. In ornamental plant breeding these phenomena go hand in hand and can be observed in the breeding his-tory of many ornamental crops (Rosa, Chrysanthemum, Gladiolus, Alstroemeria, Lil-ium, orchids etc). With lily as model crop techniques developed for overcoming pre- and post-fertilisation barriers are reviewed. For overcoming F1-sterility mitotic and meio...

  19. Insecticide resistance in the western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Sten Erik

    of host plant shifts on activity of general esterases, glutathione S-transferases, and acetylcholinesterase as well as tolerance to methiocarb in F. occidenfulis. Thrips from a population adapted to growth on bean plants were transferred to new host plants, sweet pepper and chrysanthemum, to establish two......-transferase activity in the population cultured on pepper plants. Tolerance to methiocarb was not affected by culturing the thrips on the new host plants....

  20. The impression on Bian Yukuan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆定纲

    2006-01-01

    He is a famous Chinese magic artist,a well reputed entrepreneur in exploiting the cultural market,a pioneer in reforming literary troupe system,and a cultural emissary who have made a great contribution to promote cultural exchanges between China and foreign countries.This man is Bian Yukuan, the winner of 2004 Gold Chrysanthemum Long-Life Achieve- ment Awards.the establisher and president of Malaysia Inter- national Cultural Exchange Co.,Ltd.

  1. Evaluación de la degradación de residuos de floricultura para la obtención de azúcares con el uso de tres hongos lignocelulolíticos

    OpenAIRE

    Quevedo Hidalgo, Balkys Esmeralda

    2011-01-01

    En Colombia, la floricultura es un sector agro-industrial importante, que genera residuos de flores que aún no se han valorizado, a pesar de que las cantidades producidas luego del corte y post-cosecha, en cultivos como crisantemo (Chrysanthemum, Dendranthema grandiflora) y rosa (Rosa spp.), son muy grandes. En este trabajo se estudió por primera vez la degradación de estos residuos usando los hongos de podredumbre blanca Pleurotus ostreatus, Trametes versicolor y Phanerochaete...

  2. Toxicity of subacute oral administration of cypermethrin in rats with special reference to histopathological changes

    OpenAIRE

    Grewal Gagandeep; Verma Pawan; Dhar Vir Ji; Srivastava Anil

    2009-01-01

    Pyrethrins are obtained from the flowers of Chrysanthemum cinerarifolium. These are strong insecticides with low mammalian toxicity. The toxic effects of pyrethroid cypermethrin were studied using various biochemical parameters along with histopathological changes in a 30-day study in Wistar rats. The rats were divided into two groups. Rats of the test group were given sublethal doses of cypermethrin (14.5 mg/kg) by gavage once daily for 30 days and the control rats were given an equal volume...

  3. The Pigment Aztec Marigold and the Muskmelon Interplanting Cultivation Technique Studies%色素万寿菊与香瓜套作丰产栽培技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄前晶

    2011-01-01

    通过菊瓜“3+1+3”立体丰产栽培方式,获得色素万寿菊平均产量5842.5kg/667m2,比对照增产28%,香瓜产量2100kg/667m2,菊瓜套作纯效益5883.6元/667m2,达到了菊瓜双赢的效果。%Through the "3+1+3" three-dimensional high-yield cultivation mode of the chrysanthemum and melon, the average output of 3 842.5 kg/667m2 for pigment aztec marigold was obtained by 28% yield increase. Muskmelon output reached 2 1(30 kg/667m2. The pure benefit for Chrysanthemum and melon interplant is 3 883.6 Yuan /667m2. This cultivation technique is both good for the chrysanthemum and melon.

  4. In vitro inhibitory effects of plant-based foods and their combinations on intestinal α-glucosidase and pancreatic α-amylase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adisakwattana Sirichai

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plant-based foods have been used in traditional health systems to treat diabetes mellitus. The successful prevention of the onset of diabetes consists in controlling postprandial hyperglycemia by the inhibition of α-glucosidase and pancreatic α-amylase activities, resulting in aggressive delay of carbohydrate digestion to absorbable monosaccharide. In this study, five plant-based foods were investigated for intestinal α-glucosidase and pancreatic α-amylase. The combined inhibitory effects of plant-based foods were also evaluated. Preliminary phytochemical analysis of plant-based foods was performed in order to determine the total phenolic and flavonoid content. Methods The dried plants of Hibiscus sabdariffa (Roselle, Chrysanthemum indicum (chrysanthemum, Morus alba (mulberry, Aegle marmelos (bael, and Clitoria ternatea (butterfly pea were extracted with distilled water and dried using spray drying process. The dried extracts were determined for the total phenolic and flavonoid content by using Folin-Ciocateu’s reagent and AlCl3 assay, respectively. The dried extract of plant-based food was further quantified with respect to intestinal α-glucosidase (maltase and sucrase inhibition and pancreatic α-amylase inhibition by glucose oxidase method and dinitrosalicylic (DNS reagent, respectively. Results The phytochemical analysis revealed that the total phenolic content of the dried extracts were in the range of 230.3-460.0 mg gallic acid equivalent/g dried extract. The dried extracts contained flavonoid in the range of 50.3-114.8 mg quercetin equivalent/g dried extract. It was noted that the IC50 values of chrysanthemum, mulberry and butterfly pea extracts were 4.24±0.12 mg/ml, 0.59±0.06 mg/ml, and 3.15±0.19 mg/ml, respectively. In addition, the IC50 values of chrysanthemum, mulberry and butterfly pea extracts against intestinal sucrase were 3.85±0.41 mg/ml, 0.94±0.11 mg/ml, and 4.41±0.15 mg/ml, respectively

  5. Role of combined use of classical induced mutation breeding and biotechnology in development of new flower colour/form in ornamentals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In floriculture trade there is always demand and necessity of new and novel ornamental varieties. Flower colour is one of the most important component of novelties. Induced somatic mutation techniques by using ionizing radiations and other mutagens have successfully produced quite a large number of new promising varieties (50 Nos.) in different ornamental (Bougainvillea, Chrysanthemum, Hibiscus, Rose, Tuberose, Lantana depressa etc.) plants by bringing about genetic changes at Floriculture Section, National Botanical Research Institute, India. For inducing novelties in flower colour of different plants the technique of selection of proper type/state of plant material for experiment, suitable dose, detection of mutation at right stage of development, isolation and multiplication of chimeric tissue have been standardised. The capability of the technique is well understood from significant number of new varieties developed via direct mutation breeding in already adapted, modern genotypes and enriched the germplasm. The mutations in flower lour/shape were detected as chimera in M1v1, M1v2, M1v3 generations. The mutation frequency varied with the cultivar and exposure of gamma rays. The main bottleneck of mutation breeding is that the mutation appears as chimera. When the entire branch is mutated, mutants can be isolated through conventional propagation techniques while small sectorial mutation in the floret cannot be isolated using existing conventional techniques. Therefore, many new flower colour/shape mutants are lost due to the lack of a suitable propagation technique. By applying biotechnological technique on the same mutagen treated gamma rays population a novel tissue culture technique hasbeen standardised to regenerate plants directly from such mutated sectors (ray florets) of Chrysanthemum. A number of somatic flower colour/shape mutants have been developed in Chrysanthemum by using this in vitro technique. Combination of classical mutation breeding and

  6. Disinfestation of agricultural products with electron beams and their radiation tolerance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayashi, Toru [National Food Research Inst., Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    Some agricultural products contaminated with insect pests are fumigated with methyl bromide for quarantine purposes. However, the use of methyl bromide is preferably restricted because of its ozone depleting effect. Therefore, establishing alternative quarantine techniques is highly desirable; one such technique is exposure to ionizing radiation. Few data are available on the effects of radiation on insect pests other than fruit flies and stored-product insects and on the radiation tolerance of host commodities. Radiation technology as an alternative to methyl bromide fumigation will be used to inactivate not only insects but also mites, spider mites, thrips, nematodes, scales, mealybugs and thrips contaminating fruits, grains, cut flowers, vegetables, timbers, seedlings and seeds. In order to collect data on the effects of irradiation on pests and host commodities, IAEA and FAO have conducted an international project, `FAO/IAEA Coordinated Research Programme on Irradiation as a Quarantine Treatment of Mites, Nematodes and Insects other than Fruit Fly` since 1992. The project determines the minimum doses necessary to inactivate pests and the maximum doses host commodities tolerate. All pests except nematodes can be inactivated at doses 400Gy or lower. Various varieties of cut flowers and herbs are tolerant to 400Gy of radiation, although some flowers and herbs such as chrysanthemum, rose, lily, calla, anthurium, sweet pea, iris, dill, basil and arugula are intolerant to 200Gy of radiation. Japanese research project on treatment of cut flowers with electron beams carried out mainly by Yokohama Plant Protection Station greatly contributes to these conclusions. Aqueous solution (2%) of sucrose, glucose, fructose or maltose prevents radiation-induced detrimental effects of radiation on chrysanthemums. Sugars reduce radiation-induced physiological deterioration of chrysanthemums. (author)

  7. Radiation degradation of alginate and some results of biological effect of degraded alginate on plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hien, N.Q.; Hai, L.; Luan, L.Q.; Hanh, T.T. [Nuclear Research Institute, Dalat (Viet Nam); Nagasawa, Naotsugu; Yoshii, Fumio; Makuuchi, Keizo; Kume, Tamikazu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    2000-03-01

    Radiation degradation yields (Gd) of alginate in aqueous solution with different concentration were determined by viscometry method. The relationship between Gd and the alginate concentration was found out as: Gd=33.5 x C{sup -0.68}, with C% (w/v) and dry alginate referred to C=100%. An empirical equation for preparing degraded alginate with the desired low viscometry average molecular weight (Mv) by radiation was proposed. Alginate extracted directly horn seaweed'Sagassum, degraded by radiation was used for field experiments and results of the biological effect on plants (tea, carrot, chrysanthemum) were presented. (author)

  8. The Garden of Festival of Pure Brightness on the River-The ancient Disneyland in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正>The annual chrysanthemum festival was held as scheduled in Kaifeng on October 28th, 1998. There was all in bloom and was full of tourists in this city that day.It was also the time to open the Garden of Festival of Pure Brightness on the River. Huge crowd of tourists seemed to be driven by a sort of great charm and moved into this fascinating place. All of them wanted to get the wonderful feeling that once they enter into this garden place, the place will take them back thousands of years in time.

  9. 菊花中1个新的抗HIV黄酮葡糖醛酸苷[英]/Lee J…//Planta Med

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王洋

    2005-01-01

    在寻找天然抗病毒化合物的过程中发现菊花(Chrysanthemum morifolium)粗提物抑制HIV-1整合酶。通过生物活性指导分离,从中得到1个新的黄酮葡糖醛酸苷(1)和6个已知化合物(2~7),并分析了其结构和抗HIV活性。

  10. 天然甘味料,Steviosideの一般薬理試験

    OpenAIRE

    倉橋, 寿; 山口, 由理子; 都筑, 新太郎; 前橋, 浩

    1982-01-01

    Stevioside is a kind of diterpen glycoside which is two or three hundred times as sweet as suger, and is contained about 7% in the dried leaves of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni in Chrysanthemum family. It has been used as wild sweetening in Paraguay for a long time. Many researchers have been engaged in studying about the method of cultivation and extraction of sweetening since it was introduced to Japan in 1971. In the field of dentistry, it is noticed as substitute sweetening for suger which ca...

  11. Contact dermatitis from compositae plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma S

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available Eighty patients (58 males and 22 females suspected of compositae contact dermatitis and 22 controls were investigated using ethanolic plants extracts., Fifty four (68% patients and none of the controls had positive patch tests. Forty five (56% of these patients showed positive reactions with, extracts of only a single Compositae plant. Parthenium hysterophorus produced positive reactions in 51%, Chrysanthemum morifolium in 23%, Dahlia pinnata in 9% and Tagetes indica in 4% patients. The highest number (84% of patients with positive patch tests were exposed to these plants during their occupation.

  12. Relation between parthenolideinduced cytotoxicity and COX—2 expression in nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LinYL; OngCN

    2002-01-01

    To investigate the potential anti-tumor effects and its relative its relative mechanism of active component in chrysanthemum,on human nasopharyngeal carcinoma(NPC).Parthenolide(PN) was used as tested substance and exposed to NPC cell lines,CNE1 and CNE2.Cell toxicity indexes and cyclooxygenase-2(COX-2) expression were determined.Results showed that in CNE1 cells,with high level COX-2,there were significant cytotoxicities after PN-treated.However,there were not inducible effects on CNE2 cells with low level COX-2.It was indicated that PN could induce cytotoxicity in NPC cell,which correlated with its intracellular COX-2 expression.

  13. HOTEL INFORMATION SHANGHAI

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Radisson Plaza Xing Guo Hotel Shanghai Hairy Crab Feast Fall brings a breeze to the world. Having crabs with wine while chrysanthemums bloom is one of the season's most delicious highlights. This fall, the Li Palace Chinese Restaurant on the 4th floor of Radisson Plaza Xing Guo Hotel Shanghai, one of the top class Chinese restaurants in Shanghai, is prepared to serve you only the very best quality fresh water crabs from the Yangcheng Lake, which are juicier, bigger and better than ever before. From juicy...

  14. Radiation degradation of alginate and some results of biological effect of degraded alginate on plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation degradation yields (Gd) of alginate in aqueous solution with different concentration were determined by viscometry method. The relationship between Gd and the alginate concentration was found out as: Gd=33.5 x C-0.68, with C% (w/v) and dry alginate referred to C=100%. An empirical equation for preparing degraded alginate with the desired low viscometry average molecular weight (Mv) by radiation was proposed. Alginate extracted directly horn seaweed'Sagassum, degraded by radiation was used for field experiments and results of the biological effect on plants (tea, carrot, chrysanthemum) were presented. (author)

  15. [The incidence of occupationally-induced allergic skin diseases in a large flower market].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausen, B M; Oestmann, G

    1988-01-01

    150 questionnaires as well as epicutaneous tests in 56 individuals from a total of 675 persons cultivating and selling ornamental plants at the largest German flower market revealed that half of those investigated were suffering from allergic contact dermatitis. The leading plant species with sensitizing properties was found to be the chrysanthemum, followed by tulips and Alstroemeria cultivars. Allergic reactions to daffodils and primulas were rarely observed. Most of the reactions obtained with other Compositae species such as arnica, marguerite, sunflower, tansy and yarrow must be interpreted as cross-reactions due to the fact that cross-reactivity predominates within the sesquiterpene lactone constituents of the various Compositae species. PMID:2971519

  16. 小说《菊花》环境、细节及夫妻话轮的寓意评析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔桂英

    2011-01-01

    《菊花》(The Chrysanthemums)是美国20世纪著名的现实主义小说家约翰.斯坦贝克(John Steinbeck)的一篇杰作。小说创作于1938年,背景是美国加州的一个山谷丘陵地带的牧场,故事中的女主人伊莉莎在院子精心培植菊花,丈夫亨利谈完生意后来提议晚上外出吃饭。亨利走后,

  17. Germination under Extreme Hypobaric and Hypoxic Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Hirofumi

    Is the agriculture on Mars without a pressured greenhouse dome possible? In order to inves-tigate a possibility of plant cultivation for the space agriculture on Mars, germination rate for six species of plant, Jute, Chrysanthemum, Komatsuna, Cucumber, Okra, and Eggplant under extreme hypobaric and hypoxic condition was measured. Oxygen partial pressure was 1kPa which was equal to 1/100 of normal earth atmosphere. Seeds of Jute and Cucumber were able to germinate in six species. In the case of Jute, germination rate under the oxygen partial pressure of 1kPa was very high, 70

  18. Scientific Opinion on the assessment of the risk of solanaceous pospiviroids for the EU territory and the identification and evaluation of risk management options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, R.; Candresse, T.; Dormannsné Simon, E.;

    2011-01-01

    (PSTVd). The risk assessment included PSTVd, Citrus exocortis viroid, Columnea latent viroid, Mexican papita viroid, Tomato apical stunt viroid, Tomato chlorotic dwarf viroid, Tomato planta macho viroid, Chrysanthemum stunt viroid and Pepper chat fruit viroid. Four entry pathways were identified, three......, with exception of spread to potato, rated as unlikely. The probability of long distance spread within vegetatively propagated crops was estimated as likely/very likely. The direct consequences were expected to be major in potato and tomato, moderate in pepper, minimal/minor in other vegetables and minimal...

  19. A supplementary description of Brevipalpus californicus (Acari: Trombidiformes: Tenuipalpidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Raissi Ardali

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The false spider mite Brevipalpus californicus from the family Tenuipalpidae was collected from Caucasian alnus, White willow, Persian raspberry and a wild Chrysanthemum bush in Mazandaran province. This species is reported as a new record to the false spider mites-fauna of Iran here. Reviewing literatures revealed that it was briefly described in the original paper without any measures. So, a completed description is presented based on the Iranian specimens and different body segments are drawn for B. californicus. In addition, the above plants are new host records for B. californicus.

  20. Pharmacologically tested aldose reductase inhibitors isolated from plant sources—A concise report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    D.K.Patel; R.Kumar; K.Sairam; S.Hemalatha

    2012-01-01

    Aldose reductase (AR),a cytosolic,monomeric oxidoreductase,is a key enzyme in the polyol pathway which controls the conversion of glucose to sorbitol.The accumulation of sorbitol by the activation of AR enzymes in lens,retina,and sciatic nerves leads to the cause of diabetic defects resulting in various secondary complications,viz.retinopathy,neuropathy,nephropathy and Alzheimer's disease.Thus,reduction of the polyol pathway flux by AR inhibitors could be a potential therapeutic opening in the treatment and prevention of diabetic complications.At present,the AR inhibitors belong to two different chemical classes.One is the hydantoin derivatives,such as Sorbinil,Dilantin,and Minalrestat,and the other is the carboxylic acid derivatives,such as Epalrestat,Alrestatin,and Tolrestat.However,it is known that most of these synthethic compounds have unacceptable side-effects.Well known medicinal plants like Chrysanthemum indicum,Chrysanthemum morifolium,Prunus mume,Myrcia multiflora,Centella asiatica,and Salacia reticulata,Salacia oblonga,and Salacia chinensis exhibited potent AR inhibitory activity.The present review summarizes the list of plant material,and their isolated phytoconstituents which have been tested for their AR inhibitory activity.This litreature review covers the period to 2011,and a total of 72 plants are listed.

  1. Development of radiation-induced mutation techniques and functional genomics studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This project has been performed to develop plant genetic resources using radiation (gamma-rays, ion-beam, space environments), to conduct functional genomics studies with mutant resources, and to develop new radiation plant breeding techniques using various radiation sources during 3 years. In the first section, we developed flower genetic resources, functional crop resources, and bio-industrial plant resources. In the second section, we cloned several mutated genes and studied mechanisms of gene expression and genetic diversity of mutations induced by gamma-rays. In the third section, we developed new plant breeding techniques using gamma-phytotron, heavy ion-beam, and space environments. Based on these results, a total of 8 cultivars containing Chrysanthemum, Hibiscus, kenaf, rice, and soybean were applied for plant variety protection (PVP) and a total of 4 cultivars were registered for PVP. Also, license agreement for the dwarf type Hibiscus mutant 'Ggoma' was conducted with Supro co. and the manufacturing technology for natural antioxidant pear-grape vinegar was transferred into Enzenic co. Also, 8 gene sequences, such as F3'H and LDOX genes associated with flower color in Chrysanthemum and EPSPS gene from Korean lawn grass, were registered in the database of National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI). In the future study, we will develop new radiation mutation breeding techniques through the mutation spectrum induced by various radiation sources, the studies for mechanism of the cellular response to radiation, and the comparative·structural·functional genomics studies for useful traits

  2. Advancement of mutation breeding on ornamental plants in Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Along with the increasing demand of ornamental plants in Indonesia and the change of consumers preference, Indonesian breeders have released 102 varieties in the last 5 year. However, the resulted varieties were not enough to substitute the imported varieties. A breeding method for a new variety was carried out through induced mutation. Many researches have been conducted in Indonesia, but these activities have not been comprehensively designed to create the potential genotypes that ready to be released as new superior varieties. Commonly, these activities were still in the stage of basic researches about the type and the most effective dose or lethal dose (LD50), the sensitivity of both the plants cultured in-vitro and in-vivo to mutagen; and genetic or phenotypic diversity due to the mutagen treatments. Chrysanthemum and rose were the most of the ornamental plants that had been conducted. Some mutants have been released as new national superior varieties namely Julikara, Rosanda and Rosmarun (mini rose); Rosma (cut rose) and Mustika Kania (chrysanthemum). (author)

  3. Effect of the hydroalcoholic extracts from plants on Colorado beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say.. Note II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MORAR G.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Twenty eight products, obtained from plant extracts, were used to fight against Colorado bug, on theterms of ecological agriculture. It was noticed that: 1. Vegetal extract may serve as an alternative to fightingagainst Colorado bug in potato cultivars, especially at those which are designated to obtain an ecological crop;2. The best result in fighting against Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say. were obtained with extract fromChrysanthemum cinerariaefolium Trev., Chrysanthemum balsamita var canfora and Ruta corsica, all in usedconcentration of 20%.The treatment efficiency against larvae of 99,01 %, 93,06 % and 96,83 %, efficiencywhich are comparable with those obtained with the help of synthesis insecticide; 3. The lowest result wereobtained with extracts from Artemisia absinthium L., Taracxacum officinale L. and Tagetes erecta L., efficiencyof 7,14 % and 72,22 %; 4. The extracts from Artemisia absinthium L., Taracxacum officinale L. and Tageteserecta have repulsive effect for adults, these avoiding for punting on plants treated with these extracts.

  4. Synergistic repellent activity of plant essential oils against Aedes aegypti on rabbit Skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koech Peter Kiplang'at

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Mosquito-borne diseases are the major causes of mortality particularly in tropics. Due to drug and insecticide resistance, personal protection by use of skin repellents has become a common approach of control. The purpose of the study is to determine if synergy exists between Ocimum basilicum, Azadirachta indica and Eucalyptus citriodora oils. Kinga Mosquito repelling Wax® and Vaseline Pure Petroleum Jelly® were included as positive and negative test control respectively. The results showed that Chrysanthemum cinerariefolium extract had no paralytic effect at 0.002% and 0.005% with mean repellency of 81.58 and 85.94 respectively. Similar observation was shown by 10% Azadirachta indica oil and Kinga with a mean repellency 85.79 and 80.53 respectively. Azadirachta indica oil was then reinforced by addition of Sweet basil oil and Lemon eucalyptus oil. A combination that provides complete protection and displayed mosquito paralysis was obtained. The developed formulation can replace Kinga® and alternative to Chrysanthemum cinerariefolium extract.

  5. Oxygenated Phosphine Fumigation for Control of Light Brown Apple Moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) Eggs on Cut-Flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Samuel S; Liu, Yong-Biao; Simmons, Gregory S

    2015-08-01

    Light brown apple moth, Epiphyas postvittana (Walker), eggs were subjected to oxygenated phosphine fumigation treatments under 70% oxygen on cut flowers to determine efficacy and safety. Five cut flower species: roses, lilies, tulips, gerbera daisy, and pompon chrysanthemums, were fumigated in separate groups with 2,500 ppm phosphine for 72 h at 5°C. Egg mortality and postharvest quality of cut flowers were determined after fumigation. Egg mortalities of 99.7-100% were achieved among the cut flower species. The treatment was safe to all cut flowers except gerbera daisy. A 96-h fumigation treatment with 2,200 ppm phosphine of eggs on chrysanthemums cut flowers also did not achieve complete control of light brown apple moth eggs. A simulation of fumigation in hermetically sealed fumigation chambers with gerbera daisy showed significant accumulations of carbon dioxide and ethylene by the end of 72-h sealing. However, oxygenated phosphine fumigations with carbon dioxide and ethylene absorbents did not reduce the injury to gerbera daisy, indicating that it is likely that phosphine may directly cause the injury to gerbera daisy cut flowers. The study demonstrated that oxygenated phosphine fumigation is effective against light brown apple moth eggs. However, it may not be able to achieve the probit9 quarantine level of control and the treatment was safe to most of the cut flower species.

  6. Phylogenetic Relationship of Dendranthema (DC.) Des Moul. Revealed by Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Si-Lan DAI; Wen-Kui WANG; Mao-Xue LI; Ying-Xiu XU

    2005-01-01

    Phylogenetic relationships of the different species in the genus Dendranthema (DC.) Des Moul. were estimated based on chromosome fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) with 18S-26S rDNA of Arabidopsis and genomic DNA of Dendranthema as probes. The results revealed that there was no positive correlation between the number of nuclear organization region (NOR) loci and the ploidy of Dendranthema.The exact cytogenetic information of NORs about 14 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) indicated that D.vestitum (Hemsl.) Ling et Shih was closer to the cultivars than other putative species, whereas D. zawadskii (Herb.) Tzvel. was the most distinct. The ambiguously distributed signals of genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) with genomic DNA of lower ploidy species as probes suggested that different genomes among Dendranthema were mixed. The result also indicated the limitation of GISH in studies on the phylogenetic relationships of the different species in this genus Dendranthema and on the origin of cultivated chrysanthemums. Based on these results and previous research, the origin of Chinese cultivated chrysanthemum is discussed.

  7. Occupational allergy caused by flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, N W; Vermeulen, A M; Gerth van Wijk, R; de Groot, H

    1998-02-01

    We describe 14 consecutive patients with complaints due to the handling of flowers. The symptoms varied from allergic rhinoconjunctivitis and asthma to urticaria. Most patients had professions in the flower industry. Skin prick tests (SPT) were performed with home-made pollen extracts from 17 different flowers known to be the most commonly grown and sold in The Netherlands RAST against mugwort, chrysanthemum, and solidago was performed. The diagnosis of atopy against flowers was based on work-related symptoms due to the handling of flowers, positive SPT with flower extracts, and positive RAST. The concordance between SPT and case history was 74%, and that between SPT and RAST was 77% Extensive cross-sensitization was seen to pollen of several members of the Compositae family (e.g., Matricaria, chrysanthemum, solidago) and to pollen of the Amaryllidaceae family (Alstroemeria and Narcissus). Homemade flower extracts can be used to confirm IgE-mediated flower allergy. Mugwort can be used as a screening test for possible flower allergy. For most patients, the allergy led to a change of profession. PMID:9534922

  8. Colorimetric analysis of edible flower of Dendranthema grandiflorum processed by ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edible flowers can be used to add flavor, color, taste and visual appeal to culinary preparations as salads, soups, desserts and drinks. There are many edible flowers rich in minerals, vitamins, pollen, nectar and other essential nutrients that are important for human nutrition. Food irradiation is a viable technology for disinfestation of insect, to increase extending the shelf life of perishable products and improving the hygienic quality of food. The irradiation technology is a good alternative method to replace chemical fumigation of pest insects present in foods and flowers. The purpose of this study was evaluate the color of Dendranthema grandiflorum exposed low-dose ionizing radiation: 0.3 kGy, 0.4 kGy, 0.5 kGy, 0.6 kGy, 0.7 kGy, and 0.8 kGy of 60Co using colorimeter (Konica Minolta Chroma Meter CR-400), were used samples of chrysanthemum in yellow, white and red. The petals of the flowers were used for the chromaticity value. The samples of irradiated chrysanthemum (white, yellow and red) processed with 0.3 to 0.6 kGy haven't shown significantly difference when compared to the control sample, the dose of 0.3 kGy, dose it is necessary to sterilize. (author)

  9. Colorimetric analysis of edible flower of Dendranthema grandiflorum processed by ionizing radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koike, Amanda C. Ramos; Rodrigues, Flavio Thihara; Fanaro, Gustavo Bernardes; Villavicencio, Anna Lucia C.H., E-mail: amandaramosk@gmail.com [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Edible flowers can be used to add flavor, color, taste and visual appeal to culinary preparations as salads, soups, desserts and drinks. There are many edible flowers rich in minerals, vitamins, pollen, nectar and other essential nutrients that are important for human nutrition. Food irradiation is a viable technology for disinfestation of insect, to increase extending the shelf life of perishable products and improving the hygienic quality of food. The irradiation technology is a good alternative method to replace chemical fumigation of pest insects present in foods and flowers. The purpose of this study was evaluate the color of Dendranthema grandiflorum exposed low-dose ionizing radiation: 0.3 kGy, 0.4 kGy, 0.5 kGy, 0.6 kGy, 0.7 kGy, and 0.8 kGy of {sup 60}Co using colorimeter (Konica Minolta Chroma Meter CR-400), were used samples of chrysanthemum in yellow, white and red. The petals of the flowers were used for the chromaticity value. The samples of irradiated chrysanthemum (white, yellow and red) processed with 0.3 to 0.6 kGy haven't shown significantly difference when compared to the control sample, the dose of 0.3 kGy, dose it is necessary to sterilize. (author)

  10. Chemical characteristics of different parts of Coreopsis tinctoria in China using microwave-assisted extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography followed by chemometric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Shing-Chung; Liu, Xin; Chen, Xian-Qiang; Hu, De-Jun; Zhao, Jing; Long, Ze-Rong; Fan, Bing; Li, Shao-Ping

    2016-08-01

    Coreopsis tinctoria, also called "snow chrysanthemum" in China, is a flower tea material that has been reported to possess excellent pharmacological properties such as antioxidant and antidiabetic activities. The chemical characteristics of different parts (flowers, buds, seeds, stems, and leaves) of C. tinctoria were investigated based on microwave-assisted extraction and the simultaneous determination of 13 major active compounds by high-performance liquid chromatography, including taxifolin-7-O-glucoside, chlorogenic acid, (R/S)-flavanomarein, isocoreopsin, quercetagetin-7-O-glucoside, isookanin, 5,7,3',5'-tetrahydroxyflavanone-7-O-glucoside, marein, 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid, coreopsin, okanin, 5,7,3',5'-tetrahydroxyflavanone, and N(1) ,N(5) ,N(10) ,N(14) -tetra-p-coumaroylspermine. Chemometric analysis based on the contents of investigated compounds from 13 samples showed that C. tinctoria and the related flower tea materials, Chrysanthemum morifolium cv "Hangju" and "Gongju," were in different clusters, and different parts (flowers, buds, seeds, stems, and leaves) of C. tinctoria were obviously different. This study is helpful for the quality control and pharmacological evaluation of different parts from C. tinctoria and its related products. PMID:27291468

  11. Tolerance of Chrysantemum maximum to heavy metals: The potential for its use in the revegetation of tailings heaps

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ma.del Carmen A; González-Chávez; Rogelio Carrillo-González

    2013-01-01

    To find if ornamental plants are applicable to the remediation of metal-polluted areas,the tolerance of chrysanthemum plants (Chysanthemum maximum) var.Shasta to different metals under hydroponic conditions was studied.Their responses as influenced by the mycorrhizal fungus Glomus mosseae (Nicol.& Gerd.) Gerdemann & Trappe BEG25 on substrates containing mine residues were also investigated.Our results showed that chrysanthemum is a metal-tolerant plant under hydroponic conditions,plants behaving as Pb-excluders,whereas Cd,Cu and Ni were accumulated in roots.Low accumulation in flowers was observed for Cd and Cu but it was concentration-dependent.Ni and Pb were not translocated to flowers.Shoot biomass was not significantly affected by the different rates of mine residue addition for both mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal plants.Mycorrhizal plants accumulated less Pb and Cu in both shoots and roots than non-mycorrhizal plants.Chysanthemum could be a prospective plant for revegetation of tailings and the use of inoculation may decrease plant metal accumulation in polluted soils.

  12. Biological effect of radiation-degraded alginate on flower plants in tissue culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Q Luan; Nguyen, Q Hien; Nagasawa, Naotsugu; Kume, Tamikazu; Yoshii, Fumio; Nakanishi, Tomoko M

    2003-12-01

    Alginate with a weight-average molecular mass (Mw) of approx. 9.04 x 10(5) Da was irradiated at 10-200 kGy in 4% (w/v) aqueous solution. The degraded alginate product was used to study its effectiveness as a growth promoter for plants in tissue culture. Alginate irradiated at 75 kGy with an Mw of approx. 1.43 x 10(4) Da had the highest positive effect in the growth of flower plants, namely limonium, lisianthus and chrysanthemum. Treatment of plants with irradiated alginate at concentrations of 30-200 mg/l increased the shoot multiplication rate from 17.5 to 40.5% compared with control. In plantlet culture, 100 mg/l irradiated alginate supplementation enhanced shoot height (9.7-23.2%), root length (9.7-39.4%) and fresh biomass (8.1-19.4%) of chrysanthemum, lisianthus and limonium compared with that of the untreated control. The survival ratios of the transferred flower plantlets treated with irradiated alginate were almost the same as the control value under greenhouse conditions. However, better growth was attained for the treated plantlets. PMID:12901723

  13. Studies on the Mixed Beverage from Corn and Pumpkin%玉米南瓜复合饮料的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何凤林

    2016-01-01

    Abstrat:The formulation and process parameters were discussed in this paper by studying the influence of the ratio of corn juice /pumpkin juice /chrysanthemum juice,citric acid,sugar and stabilizers on the mixed beverage and the influence of homogenization conditions on homogeneous effect,by using fresh sweet corn, fresh pumpkins and chrysanthemums as the main material.The results showed that:the best formula of mixed beverage was as follows:the ratio of corn juice /pumpkin juice /chrysanthemum juice of 4 ∶4 ∶2 ,white sugar added in an amount of 4%,citric acid added in an amount of 0.05%,compound stabilizers added in an amount of xanthan gum +CMC +sodium alginate =0.25% +0.25% +0.2%;homogenizing pressure was 40MPa,and homogenization time was 5min.%试验以新鲜甜玉米、新鲜南瓜和菊花为主要材料,将玉米和南瓜打浆榨汁,菊花提取取汁后,研究玉米汁/南瓜汁/菊花汁的配比、柠檬酸、白砂糖和稳定剂对复合饮料感官的影响,以及均质条件对饮料均质效果的影响,得出复合饮料的最佳调配配方和工艺参数。复合饮料的最佳配方为:玉米汁/南瓜汁/菊花汁的配比为4∶4∶2,白砂糖添加量为4%,柠檬酸添加量为0.05%,复合稳定剂的添加量为黄原胶+羧甲基纤维素钠+海藻酸钠=0.1%+0.1%+0.05%,得到综合感官评分为70分;均质压力为40MPa,均质时间为5min。

  14. Simulation of leaf photosynthesis of C3 plants under fluctuating light and different temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Öztürk, Isik; Holst, Niels; Ottosen, Carl-Otto

    2012-01-01

    An induction-dependent empirical model was developed to simulate the C3 leaf photosynthesis under fluctuating light and different temperatures. The model also takes into account the stomatal conductance when the light intensity just exceeds the compensation point after a prolonged period...... to partial cloud cover and varying temperatures. The temporal course of observed photosynthesis rate and the carbon gain was compared to the simulation. The ability of the current model to predict the carbon assimilation rate was assessed using different statistical indexes. The model predictions were...... of darkness (initial stomatal conductance, ). The model was parameterized for both Chrysanthemum morifolium and Spinacia oleracea by artificially changing the induction states of the leaves in the climate chamber. The model was tested under natural conditions that were including frequent light flecks due...

  15. Phytotoxic effect of SO2, NO2 and lead ions on the vegetative organs of decorative plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О. P. Pryimak

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Influence of acid gases and lead ions on the vegetative organs of decorative plants has been studied in a model experiment. The morphometric indices of stem and assimilative apparatus are considered. Changes of the plants height and assimilating area are described. The damage of plants’ sprouts was found. The phytotoxic effect of SO2, NO2 and lead ions on the growth and development of the above-ground organs was determined. The Tagetes patula L. is a resistant to the action of acid gases and lead ions. Calendula officinalis L., Salvia splendens L. and Chrysanthemum leucanthemum L. were determined to be most sensitive to the influence of by SO2, NO2 and Pb2+ respectively.

  16. Mutation Breeding Newsletter. No. 39

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This newsletter contains brief articles on the use of radiation to induce mutations in plants; radiation-induced mutants in Chrysanthemum; disrupting the association between oil and protein content in soybean seeds; mutation studies on bougainvillea; a new pepper cultivar; and the use of mutation induction to improve the quality of yam beans. A short review of the seminar on the use of mutation and related biotechnology for crop improvement in the Middle East and Mediterranean regions, and a description of a Co-ordinated Research Programme on the application of DNA-based marker mutations for the improvement of cereals and other sexually reproduced crop species are also included. Two tables are given: these are based on the ''FAO/IAEA Mutant Varieties Database'' and show the number of mutated varieties and the number of officially released mutant varieties in particular crops/species. Refs and tabs

  17. Utilization of {gamma}-irradiation technique on plant mutation breeding and plant growth regulation in Tokyo Metropolitan Isotope Research Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suda, Hirokatsu [Tokyo Metropolitan Isotope Research Center (Japan)

    1997-03-01

    During about 30-years, we have developed {gamma}-irradiation technique and breeding back pruning method for the study of mutation breeding of ornamental plants. As a result, we have made a wide variety of new mutant lines in chrysanthemum, narcissus, begonia rex, begonia iron cross, winter daphne, zelkova, sweet-scented oleander, abelia, kobus, and have obtained 7 plant patents. By the use of {gamma}-irradiation to plant mutation breeding, we often observed that plants irradiated by low dose of {gamma}-rays showed superior or inferior growth than the of non-irradiated plants. Now, we established the irradiation conditions of {gamma}-rays for mutation breeding and growth of regulation in narcissus, tulip, Enkianthus perulatus Schneid., komatsuna, moyashi, african violet. In most cases, irradiation dose rate is suggested to be a more important factor to induce plant growth regulators than irradiation dose. (author)

  18. Effects of fluorides on metabolism and visible injury in cut-flower crops and citrus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woltz, S.S.; Waters, W.E.; Leonard, C.D.

    1971-01-01

    Fluoride taken up by gladiolus roots caused foliar damage only when soil pH was low and F/sup -/ containing superphosphate was applied in relatively excessive amounts. This damage to leaves occurred more to leaf interior than to margins and tips as in F/sup -/ fumigation. Fluoride in leaves was found to move passively with the transpirational stream of water and accumulated at the terminus of translocation. Rose and gladiolus cut-flowers were damaged by low concentrations of F/sup -/ in vase water whereas the chrysanthemum was less affected. De novo chlorophyll synthesis in Vigna sinensis seedling leaves was inhibited by F/sup -/ absorbed by detached seedling tops. Yield of Valencia orange fruit was depressed by air-borne F/sup -/. Valencia leaves (a) were reduced in size, (b) had decreased photosynthetic rates and (c) had decreased chlorophyll content in response to increasing levels of airborne F/sup -/. 11 references, 6 tables.

  19. Mutation induction by ion beams in plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Atsushi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    2001-03-01

    The effect of ion beams such as C, He, and Ne ions was investigated on the mutation induction in plants with the expectation that ion beams of high linear energy transfer (LET) can frequently produce large DNA alternation such as inversion, translocation and large deletion rather than point mutation. Mutation frequency was investigated using Arabidopsis visible phenotype loci and was 8 to 33 fold higher for 220 MeV carbon ions than for electrons. Mutation spectrum was investigated on the flower color of chrysanthemum cv to find that flower mutants induced by ion beams show complex and stripe types rather than single color. Polymerase chain reaction analysis was performed to investigate DNA alteration of mutations. In conclusion, the characteristics of ion beams for the mutation induction are 1) high frequency, 2) broad mutation spectrum, and 3) novel mutants. (S. Ohno)

  20. Whack-A-Mole Model: Towards unified description of biological effect caused by radiation-exposure

    CERN Document Server

    Manabe, Yuichiro; Tsunoyama, Yuichi; Nakajima, Hiroo; Nakamura, Issei; Bando, Masako

    2014-01-01

    We present a novel model to estimate biological effects caused by artificial radiation exposure, Whack-a-mole (WAM) model. It is important to take account of the recovery effects during the time course of the cellular reactions. The inclusion of the dose-rate dependence is essential in the risk estimation of low dose radiation, while nearly all the existing theoretical models relies on the total dose dependence only. By analyzing the experimental data of the relation between the radiation dose and the induced mutation frequency of 5 organisms, mouse, drosophila, chrysanthemum, maize and tradescantia, we found that all the data can be reproduced by WAM model. Most remarkably, a scaling function, which is derived from WAM model, consistently accounts for the observed mutation frequencies of 5 organisms. This is the first rationale to account for the dose rate dependence as well as to give a unified understanding of a general feature of organisms.

  1. Effects of cryogenic treatment on mechanical properties of extruded Mg-Gd-Y-Zr(Mn) alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIONG Chuang-xian; ZHANG Xin-ming; DENG Yun-lai; XIAO Yang; DENG Zhen-zhen; CHEN Bu-xiang

    2007-01-01

    The influence of cryogenic treatment on the mechanical properties of the extruded Mg-Gd-Y-Zr(Mn) alloys was investigated by the tensile tests, scanning electron microscopy(SEM), transmission electron microscopy(TEM), and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). The results show that the mechanical properties of both alloys are improved greatly during the in situ tensile test by soaking the samples in liquid nitrogen for 10 min. The ultimate tensile strength, yield tensile strength and elongation of cryogenic treated magnesium alloy added with zirconium or manganese are largely elevated. And remarkable microstructure change is observed in both alloys by cryogenic treatment. There are a large number of twins, rod-like, tree-like and chrysanthemum-like precipitated phases in the microstructures and the fracture surfaces exhibit the characteristics of ductile rupture when they are observed at room temperature.

  2. Effects of electron beam irradiation on cut flowers and mites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dohino, Toshiyuki; Tanabe, Kazuo [Yokohama Plant Protection Station (Japan)

    1994-08-01

    Two spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae KOCH were irradiated with electron beams (2.5MeV) to develop an alternative quarantine treatment for imported cut flowers. The tolerance of eggs increased with age (1-5-day-old). Immature stages (larva-teleiochrysalis) irradiated at 0.4-0.8kGy increased tolerance with their development. Mated mature females irradiated at 0.4kGy or higher did not produce viable eggs, although temporary recovery was observed at 0.2kGy. Adult males were sterilized at 0.4kGy because non-irradiated virgin females mated with yielded female progeny malformed and sterilized. Various effects of electron beam irradiation were observed when nine species of cut flowers were irradiated in 5MeV Dynamitron accelerator. Chrysanthemum and rose were most sensitive among cut flowers. (author).

  3. THE SUBSECTION FOR SIGHTLESS PEOPLE IN “ANASTASIE FĂTU” BOTANIC GARDEN, “ALEXANDRU IOAN CUZA” UNIVERSITY OF IASI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    STĂNESCU IRINA-ELENA

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The Subsection for Sightless People belongs to the Ornamental Section and started in the autumn of 1991. In 2008 we tried to reorganize this subsection, first of all by enriching the collection of species exposed to the visitors, introducing a new model of labels and using especial props for the plants. Many species from Lamiaceae family have been chosen, characterized by a high level of essential oils, volatile phenolic compounds, alkaloids, balsams, tannins, liberating strong-scented odors, which facilitate their recognition by the sightless persons. At the same time, a lot of Asteraceae species are displayed, while in the autumn the sightless people enjoy the numerous chrysanthemum varieties from the Botanic Garden’s collection. All of the specimens bear labels with information in Latin and Braille System.

  4. Occupational allergic contact dermatitis caused by decorative plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamminpää, A; Estlander, T; Jolanki, R; Kanerva, L

    1996-05-01

    12 cases of occupational allergic contact dermatitis caused by decorative plants were diagnosed in a 14-year period. The patients were middle-aged, and their average exposure time was 13 years. The plant families and plants causing occupational contact dermatitis were Compositae (5 patients; chrysanthemum, elecampane, gerbera, feverfew), Alstroemeriaceae (5 patients, Alstroemeria), Liliaceae (4 patients; tulip, hyacinth), Amaryllidaceae (2 patients; narcissus) and Caryophyllaceae (2 patients; carnation, cauzeflower). The known chemical allergens causing dermatitis were tuliposide-A and sesquiterpene lactones, such as alantolactones and parthenolide, in the Liliaceae and Compositae families. 7 of the 12 patients were able to continue their work; 5 were not because of severe relapses of skin symptoms. The plant allergen and extract series currently available are of great help in the diagnosis. PMID:8807225

  5. Evaluation of antibacterial activity and synergistic effect between antibiotic and the essential oils of some medicinal plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fadila Moussaoui; Tajelmolk Alaoui

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To demonstrate the in vitro antibacterial properties of five essential oils against ten bacterial strains and study the synergistic effect of the combination of essential oils with standard antibiotics. Methods: Origanum compactum, Chrysanthemum coronarium, Thymus willdenowii Boiss, Melissa officinalis and Origanum majorana L. were used alone and combined used with standard antibiotics to evaluate their antimicrobial activities. The disk diffusion method was employed. Results: The results showed that the combined application of the essential oils of the plants with antibiotics led to a synergistic effect in some cases, but antagonistic effect was also observed in some bacteria. Conclusions: This study shows that the combination of essential oils of the five plants with antibiotics may be useful in the fight against emerging microbial drug resistance.

  6. Arsenic speciation in Chinese Herbal Medicines and human health implication for inorganic arsenic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao-Juan; Zhao, Quan-Li; Sun, Guo-Xin; Williams, Paul; Lu, Xiu-Jun; Cai, Jing-Zhu; Liu, Wen-Ju

    2013-01-01

    Rice and drinking water are recognized as the dominant sources of arsenic (As) for human intake, while little is known about As accumulation and speciation in Chinese Herbal Medicines (CHMs), which have been available for many hundreds of years for the treatment of diseases in both eastern and western cultures. Inorganic arsenic was the predominant species in all of CHMs samples. The levels of inorganic arsenic in CHMs from fields and markets or pharmacies ranged from 63 to 550 ng/g with a mean of 208 ng/g and 94 to 8683 ng/g with a mean of 1092 ng/g, respectively. The highest concentration was found in the Chrysanthemum from pharmacies. It indicates that the risk of inorganic As in CHMs to human health is higher in medicines from markets or pharmacies than that collected directly from fields. Some CHMs may make a considerable contribution to the human intake of inorganic arsenic.

  7. The Analysis of Elisa’s Mind Journey from the Prospective of Feminism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李娜

    2013-01-01

    John Steinbeck(1902-1968) is a famous American novelist. The Chrysanthemums was considered to be one of his finest short stories which has become progressively more influential in gender studies during the following decades. As the protagonist, Elisa unfolds herself in front of the readers about her rebellion and submission to the reigning patriarchal ideology. In the paper, I try to present Elisa's mind journey in a male-dominating society, using gender studies analysis. The theme of this story is to de-scribe women’s position in a male-centered and controlled culture. In order to give a most justifiable analysis of the theme of this short story, I base my study of Elisa's mind journey on the prospective of gender studies.

  8. Effectiveness of electron beam irradiation in the control of some soilborne pathogens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electron beam (EB) irradiation was tested against Botrytis cinerea, Pythium ultimum and Phytophthora citricola the most dangerous pathogens causing stem and root rot of seedlings, cuttings and older plants. In the laboratory trials cultures of 3 species were irradiated with doses 0 (control), 1.5, 3.0, 4.5 and 6.0 kGy whereas peat was treated with 10, 15 and 25 kGy. P. citricola was the most sensitive species for irradiation. In greenhouse trials 15 kGy irradiation of peat protected chrysanthemum cuttings against B. cinerea and P. ultimum as well as rhododendron young plants against P. citricola. Irradiation of peat did not influence the growth and development of the tested plants. (authors)

  9. Fecundidade e longevidade de Aphis gossypii Glover, 1877 (Hemiptera, Aphididae em diferentes temperaturas e cultivares comerciais de crisântemo (Dendranthema grandiflora Tzvelev

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soglia Maria C. de M.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Fecundity and longevity of Aphis gossypii Glover, 1877 (Hemiptera, Aphididae at different temperatures and commercial chrysanthemum cultivars (Dendranthema grandiflora Tzvelev. The aphid A. gossypii is one of the main pests in a number of crops both under field and protected conditions. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the fecundity and longevity of A. gossypii under different temperatures and commercial chrysanthemum cultivars (Yellow Snowdon, White Reagan and Dark Splendid Reagan with different trichomes densities (11.3; 16.6 and 21.6 trichome/mm² of the leaf, respectively The trials were carried out in climatic chambers, at four temperatures (15, 20, 25 and 30 ±1 °C, 70 ± 10% RH and photophase 10h. The reproductive period significantly decreased with increase of temperature in the three cultivars. In Yellow Snowdon cultivar average duration of the reproductive period was 14.3 days at 25 °C. The maximum fecundity was obtained at the temperature of 25 ºC with 3,1; 2,8 and 3,6 nymphs/female/day in the Yellow Snowdon, White Reagan and Dark S. Reagan cultivars, respectively. The total fecundity was reduced by extreme temperatures (15 and 30 °C, and was obtained at 25 °C with 35,9 nymphs/female. Females maintained in Yellow Snowdon cultivar significantly showed superiority (30,7 nymphs/female in total fecundity in relation to White Reagan (22,1 nymphs/female and Dark S. Reagan (22,9 nymphs/female. The Yellow Snowdon cultivar (with a lower trichome density had a significant influence in daily and total capacity of nymphs production, showing a higher fecundity of A. gossypii females. The aphid's longevity was affected by cultivars and temperature, and this longevity decreased whit increase of temperature. The results showed that there was an interaction between the temperature and host plant on reproductive parameters of A. gossypii.

  10. Sensitization of Xanthophylls-Chlorophyllin Mixtures on Titania Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indriana Kartini

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Co-sensitization of natural dyes on TiO2 for dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC was proposed between chlorophyllin (C and xanthophylls (X at various volume ratios of C/X. Chlorophyllin is chlorophyll derivative providing -COOH groups essential for binding to TiO2. The chlorophyll was extracted from dried spinach (amaranthus viridis leaves in a mixture of methanol-acetone (70%:30%. Chlorophyll extract dye was obtained after partition of the crude extracts in diethyl ether solution. Then, it was hydrolyzed under alkaline condition to get chlorophyllin. Xanthophyll was extracted from fresh petal of chrysanthemum (chrysanthemum indicum flowers. Blending of chlorophyllin and xanthophyll was carried out at various volume ratios of C to X (1:0, 5:1, 1:1, 1:5, 0:1. Titania solar cells were constructed in sandwich system of conducting glass-titania/dyes as the photoanode and conducting glass-platinum as the photocathode. Electrolyte solution containing I-/I3- was inserted between the electrodes by capillary action. All dye extracts and blending solutions were analyzed by UV-Vis spectrophotometer. It is shown that the absorption spectra of blending dyes are complimentary in the visible region resulted in a panchromatic response of the dyes. From the cyclic voltammogram of the dyes and blended-dyes, it is found that the energy level of xanthophyll is the lowest. The I-V test at 100 mw/cm2 irradiation confirmed that the energy conversion efficiency (h of the blended dyes of xanthophyll and chlorophyllin-sensitized solar cell resulted in significant improvement than those of the single dye. Beneficially, the mixed dyes can be adsorbed from solution blend using single dipping step.

  11. Supplemental food that supports both predator and pest: a risk for biological control?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leman, Ada; Messelink, Gerben J

    2015-04-01

    Supplemental food sources to support natural enemies in crops are increasingly being tested and used. This is particularly interesting for generalist predators that can reproduce on these food sources. However, a potential risk for pest control could occur when herbivores also benefit from supplemental food sources. In order to optimize biological control, it may be important to select food sources that support predator populations more than herbivore populations. In this study we evaluated the nutritional quality of four types of supplemental food for the generalist predatory mites Amblyseius swirskii Athias-Henriot and Amblydromalus (Typhlodromalus) limonicus (Garman and McGregor), both important thrips predators, and for the herbivore western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis Pergande, by assessing oviposition rates. These tests showed that application of corn pollen, cattail pollen or sterilized eggs of Ephestia kuehniella Zeller to chrysanthemum leaves resulted in three times higher oviposition rates of thrips compared to leaves without additional food. None of the tested food sources promoted predatory mites or western flower thrips exclusively. Decapsulated cysts of Artemia franciscana Kellogg were not suitable, whereas cattail pollen was very suitable for both predatory mites and western flower thrips. In addition, we found that the rate of thrips predation by A. swirskii can be reduced by 50 %, when pollen is present. Nevertheless, application of pollen or Ephestia eggs to a chrysanthemum crop still strongly enhanced the biological control of thrips with A. swirskii, both at low and high release densities of predatory mites through the strong numerical response of the predators. Despite these positive results, application in a crop should be approached with caution, as the results may strongly depend on the initial predator-prey ratio, the nutritional quality of the supplemental food source, the species of predatory mites, the distribution of the

  12. Effectiveness of gamma-ray chronic irradiation on in vitro mutagenesis in crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effects of chronic or acute irradiations were compared using in vitro culture on inducing the mutation in model crops. In chrysanthemum, combined method with irradiation and in vitro culture can solve the problem of chimera formation in induced mutants, and provided 10 times greater mutation frequency than usual plant irradiation. The chronic culture method showed the widest color spectrum, whereas, the acute culture indicated a relatively low mutation rate and a very limited flower color spectrum in chrysanthemum. Flower color mutation of the regenerators could be induced more from petals and buds than from leaves. These facts are supposed that the gene loci fully expressed on floral organs may be unstable for mutation by mutagenesis or culture. It may be likely to control a direction of desired mutation on using explants with specific gene loci activated. In sugarcane, the chronic culture method extended quantitative characteristics of regenerated clonal lines toward not only the negative but positive direction. On the other hand, the acute culture method showed lower quantitative mutation as the irradiation dose rose. In chronic irradiation, regenerated mutant lines in sugarcane indicate generally little decrease in chromosome number and wider variations with relatively less damage. In acute irradiation, regenerated mutant lines show remarkable decrease of chromosome numbers in sugarcane mutant lines as the irradiation dose rose. There is close positive correlation between chromosome number and biomass of each mutant line. The chromosome number estimation is a proper indicator to monitor damage of adopted irradiation methods. Possible reason why the chronic culture methods indicate higher frequency and wider spectrum on mutation is demonstrated. . Problems solved and prospect of chronic irradiation and in vitro techniques are discussed. (Author)

  13. Development of radiation-induced mutation techniques and functional genomics studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dong Sub; Kang, Si Yong; Kim, Jin Baek [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); and others

    2012-01-15

    This project has been performed to develop plant genetic resources using radiation (gamma-rays, ion-beam, space environments), to conduct functional genomics studies with mutant resources, and to develop new radiation plant breeding techniques using various radiation sources during 3 years. In the first section, we developed flower genetic resources, functional crop resources, and bio-industrial plant resources. In the second section, we cloned several mutated genes and studied mechanisms of gene expression and genetic diversity of mutations induced by gamma-rays. In the third section, we developed new plant breeding techniques using gamma-phytotron, heavy ion-beam, and space environments. Based on these results, a total of 8 cultivars containing Chrysanthemum, Hibiscus, kenaf, rice, and soybean were applied for plant variety protection (PVP) and a total of 4 cultivars were registered for PVP. Also, license agreement for the dwarf type Hibiscus mutant 'Ggoma' was conducted with Supro co. and the manufacturing technology for natural antioxidant pear-grape vinegar was transferred into Enzenic co. Also, 8 gene sequences, such as F3'H and LDOX genes associated with flower color in Chrysanthemum and EPSPS gene from Korean lawn grass, were registered in the database of National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI). In the future study, we will develop new radiation mutation breeding techniques through the mutation spectrum induced by various radiation sources, the studies for mechanism of the cellular response to radiation, and the comparative{center_dot}structural{center_dot}functional genomics studies for useful traits.

  14. Control of insect pests with electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effects of electron beams with an energy of 2.5 MeV on insect pests were slightly smaller than those of gamma-rays. Electron beams at 400 Gy inactivated all the pests for cut flowers tested; spider mite (Tetraychus urticae), mealybug (Pseudococcus comstocki), leaf miner (Liriomyza trifolii), thrips (Thrips palmi, and Thrips tabaci), cutworm (Spodoptera litura) and aphid (Myzus persicae). Carnation, alstromeria, gladiolus, tulip, statice, stock, dendrobium, prairie gentian, oncidium, campanula, gloriosa, fern, gypsophila, freesia, lobelia, triteleia and gerbera were tolerant to electron beams at 400-600 Gy, while chrysanthemum, rose, lily, calla, antherium, sweet pea and iris were intolerant. Radiation-induced deterioration of chrysanthemum could be prevented by post-irradiation treatment with commercial preservative solutions or sugar solutions. Soft-electrons at 60 keV effectively inactivated eggs, larvae and pupae of red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum) and Indian meal moth (Plodia interpunctella) and eggs of adzuki bean weevil (Callosobruchus chinensis) at a dose of 1 kGy. The adults of T. castaneum and P. interpunctella were inactivated by electron treatment at 5.0 kGy and 7.5 kGy, respectively. Adults of C. chinensis survived at 7.5 kGy, but were inactivated having lost ability to walk at 2.5 kGy. Soft-electrons at 60 keV could not completely inactivate the larvae of C. chinensis and smaller larvae (2nd instar) of maize weevil (Stiophilus zeamais) inside beans and grains, because the electrons with low penetration did not reach the larvae due to the shield of beans or grains. However, soft-electrons at 60 keV inactivated eggs, larger larvae (4th instar) and pupae of S. zeamais in rice grains, which indicated that S. zeamais was exposed to electrons even inside the grains. (author)

  15. Scientific Opinion on the risk to plant health posed by Puccinia horiana Hennings for the EU territory, with the identification and evaluation of risk reduction options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Plant Health (PLH

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Panel on Plant Health conducted a pest risk assessment for Puccinia horiana Hennings (the causal agent of chrysanthemum white rust for the EU territory, identified risk management options and evaluated their effectiveness. The assessment was conducted taking into account current EU legislation. The Panel also provided an opinion on the effectiveness of the present EU requirements against this organism, listed in Council Directive 2000/29/EC. Two major pathways for entry were identified: plant material of susceptible hosts for propagation purposes and cut flowers of Chrysanthemum × morifolium. The probability of further entry of the pest was considered unlikely, as the existing certification schemes for propagation material should reduce the risk of importing infected cuttings. For cut flowers, pest transfer to susceptible hosts is associated with the potentially incorrect disposal of cut flower waste within the vicinity of places of production, which is considered a rare event. The probability of establishment and further spread were both considered very likely. The current overall impact in the risk assessment area was considered minor, with medium uncertainty, mainly because standard protective actions are taken in most EU production areas. Risk reduction options to reduce the probability of entry and spread and mitigate the impact were analysed. Council Directive 2000/29/EC addresses mainly the sanitary status of the propagation material. The Directive cannot prevent the entry, establishment and spread, or mitigate the impact, of the pathogen. Were the current regulation to be removed, the frequency of introduction would probably increase. This poses a risk because, although the pest is widespread in the risk assessment area, not all Member States are infested and not all pest pathotypes are present. If a statutory certification system, with associated import requirements for propagation material of host plants, were introduced, this

  16. Quantum dot transport in soil, plants, and insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Salim, Najeh; Barraclough, Emma; Burgess, Elisabeth; Clothier, Brent; Deurer, Markus; Green, Steve; Malone, Louise; Weir, Graham

    2011-08-01

    Environmental risk assessment of nanomaterials requires information not only on their toxicity to non-target organisms, but also on their potential exposure pathways. Here we report on the transport and fate of quantum dots (QDs) in the total environment: from soils, through their uptake into plants, to their passage through insects following ingestion. Our QDs are nanoparticles with an average particle size of 6.5 nm. Breakthrough curves obtained with CdTe/mercaptopropionic acid QDs applied to columns of top soil from a New Zealand organic apple orchard, a Hastings silt loam, showed there to be preferential flow through the soil's macropores. Yet the effluent recovery of QDs was just 60%, even after several pore volumes, indicating that about 40% of the influent QDs were filtered and retained by the soil column via some unknown exchange/adsorption/sequestration mechanism. Glycine-, mercaptosuccinic acid-, cysteine-, and amine-conjugated CdSe/ZnS QDs were visibly transported to a limited extent in the vasculature of ryegrass (Lolium perenne), onion (Allium cepa) and chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum sp.) plants when cut stems were placed in aqueous QD solutions. However, they were not seen to be taken up at all by rooted whole plants of ryegrass, onion, or Arabidopsis thaliana placed in these solutions. Leafroller (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) larvae fed with these QDs for two or four days, showed fluorescence along the entire gut, in their frass (larval feces), and, at a lower intensity, in their haemolymph. Fluorescent QDs were also observed and elevated cadmium levels detected inside the bodies of adult moths that had been fed QDs as larvae. These results suggest that exposure scenarios for QDs in the total environment could be quite complex and variable in each environmental domain. PMID:21632093

  17. Seleções para resistência e suscetibilidade, detecção e monitoramento da resistência de Tetranychus urticae ao acaricida clorfenapir Selections for resistance and susceptibility, detection and monitoring of resistance to the acaricide chlorfenapyr in Tetranychus urticae koch (Acari: Tetranychidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário Eidi Sato

    2007-01-01

    frequency in commercial fields of six crops in the State of São Paulo (SP. Selections for resistance and susceptibility to chlorfenapyr were performed in a population of T. urticae collected in 2002 from a commercial chrysanthemum field in Holambra county, SP. After six selections for resistance and five selections for susceptibility, susceptible (S and resistant (R strains of T. urticae to chlorfenapyr were obtained. The resistance ratio (R/S at the LC50 reached values of 571-fold. A discriminating concentration of 37.4 mg L-1 of active ingredient (A.I. was established for monitoring chorfenapyr resistance in T. urticae. Twenty one mite populations were collected from different crops (papaya, strawberry, bean, tomato, chrysanthemum, rose, in various counties in the State of São Paulo. Bean-leaf-disc arenas were infested with T. urticae mites and submitted to chlorfenapyr spraying at the discriminating concentration, using a Potter tower. The results showed significant differences among populations in their responses to chlorfenapyr. Populations with frequencies of resistance from 0,0 to 65.4% were detected. The highest frequencies of resistance were observed in populations obtained from chrysanthemum in Holambra.

  18. 叶菜类蔬菜土壤铬(Ⅲ)污染阈值研究%Pollution threshold value of soil chromium (Ⅲ) for leafy vegetables

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑向群; 郑顺安; 李晓辰

    2012-01-01

    以2种典型土壤(天津潮土与江西红壤)和9种常见叶菜(油菜、茼蒿、菠菜、生菜、芹菜、空心菜、苋菜、小白菜、油麦菜)为研究对象,通过盆栽试验揭示不同铬(Cr3+)污染土壤和叶菜Cr累积的相关性规律,寻求符合绿色蔬菜生产要求的土壤Cr(Ⅲ)污染阈值.结果表明:叶菜属于对重金属富集能力较强的蔬菜,对叶菜重金属污染的评价应该重点考察食品卫生标准的临界值.通过叶菜与潮土及红壤中Cr(Ⅲ)含量之间的回归方程,可得出符合国家食品卫生标准的土壤Cr阈值预测区间,潮土为104.387~300.741mg·kg-1,红壤为157.621~401.031mg·kg-1.芹菜、苋菜和空心菜对土壤质量的要求较高,而茼蒿在土壤Cr含量超过土壤环境质量标准3级标准的情况下仍可达标.根据计算出的阈值,可以为叶菜类蔬菜基地建设的地点选择和污染农田土壤的治理目标提供科学依据.%Pollution threshold value of soil heavy metal is the basis for risk assessment of agricultural product in growing fields.This study was conducted to investigate the relationship between pollution in soil and leafy vegetables by pot experiments,and to pinpoint the threshold value of chromium (Cr Ⅲ) for safe and green vegetable production.Red soil and fluvo-aquic soil were selected to be tested soils and 9 kinds of common leafy vegetables,including Rape (Brassica campestris L.),garland chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum coronarium L.),spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.),lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.),celery (Apium graveolens L.),water spinach (Ipomoea aquatica Forsk),edible amaranth (Amaranthus mangostanus L.),pakchoi (Brassica chinensis),and leaf lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.var.crispa),were taken as experimental materials.The results indicated that leafy vegetables showed high accumulation capabilities for heavy metals,and consequently their threshold values should be determined as the maximum levels of heavy metals

  19. Whitefly species (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae on wild and cultivated plants in the horticultural region of Rosario, Santa Fe, Argentina Especies de moscas blancas (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae sobre plantas silvestres y cultivadas en la región hortícola de Rosario, Santa Fe, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo G. Gonsebatt

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Whiteflies of economic importance are polyphagous, being able to develop on a large number of cultivated and spontaneous plants. We recorded the whitefly species on vegetable and flower crops and the wild plants associated, under greenhouse and field conditions, for two years. We observed two species: Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood and the Bemisia tabaci complex (Gennadius. T vaporariorum was recorded on 24 plant species (11 families, 12 and 8 of which are new hosts in Argentina and in the world, respectively. The B. tabaci complex was recorded only on flower production systems, on 19 plant species (11 families, 14 and 7 of which are new hosts in Argentina and in the world, respectively. The crops Glycine max (L. and Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat., the wild species Amaranthus blitum L., Amaranthus quitensis Kunth, Conyza bonariensis (L., Galinsoga parviflora Cav., Sonchus oleraceus L. and Wedelia glauca (Ortega O. Hoffm. ex Hicken were hosts of both species. The only parasitoid recorded was Eretmocerus californicus near corni Haldeman (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae from T. vaporariorum. This study, which is the first systematic survey of host plants in the region, intends to provide a better knowledge of the range of whiteflies host plants in Argentina.Las moscas blancas de importancia económica son polífagas y capaces de desarrollarse sobre numerosas plantas cultivadas y espontáneas. Registramos las especies de moscas blancas sobre cultivos hortícolas y de flores, y sobre las plantas silvestres asociadas. Observamos dos especies: Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood y el complejo Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius. T. vaporariorum fue registrada sobre 24 especies de plantas (11 familias, 12 y 8 de las cuales son hospedantes nuevos para Argentina y a nivel mundial, respectivamente. El complejo B. tabaci fue registrado solo en sistemas de producción de flores, sobre 19 especies de plantas (11 familias, 14 y 7 de las cuales son nuevos hospedantes para

  20. Improved photovoltaic efficiency on TiO{sub 2}/In{sub 2}S{sub 3} double layered electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, A-Young; Senthil, T.S.; Kwak, Byeong Sub; Kang, Misook, E-mail: mskang@ynu.ac.kr

    2015-01-15

    To enhance the photovoltaic efficiency of TiO{sub 2} multilayer, a scattering layer of In{sub 2}S{sub 3} particle is designed in dye-sensitized solar cell system. The SEM image of In{sub 2}S{sub 3} powder shows micro-sized 3D chrysanthemum-like shapes are formed by aggregation of wedge like nanosheets. The efficiency of the dye-sensitized solar cells assembled with In{sub 2}S{sub 3} scattering layer is higher than the DSSC assembled with double layered TiO{sub 2} electrode. The short-circuit current density increases approximately 21.65% over TiO{sub 2}/1.0 wt.% In{sub 2}S{sub 3}-DSSC and the incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency in the maximum peak also enhances about 17% compared to the DSSC assembled with double layered TiO{sub 2} electrode. Eventually, the maximum conversion efficiency obtained for TiO{sub 2}/1.0 wt.% In{sub 2}S{sub 3}-DSSC is 5.80%. This result indicates that the double layered TiO{sub 2}/In{sub 2}S{sub 3} electrode acts as a scattering layer of incident light path and that an increasing array of current density is obtained with more photons, which thus improves the quantum efficiency. - Highlights: • In{sub 2}S{sub 3} powder showed micro-sized 3D chrysanthemum-like shape. • In{sub 2}S{sub 3}-DSSCs exhibited the higher efficiencies than on the double layered TiO{sub 2}-DSSC. • The efficiency of TiO{sub 2}/1.0 wt.% In{sub 2}S{sub 3}-DSSC was approximately 5.80%. • TiO{sub 2}/1.0 wt.% In{sub 2}S{sub 3}-DSSC showed the slower recombination time than TiO{sub 2}/TiO{sub 2}-DSSC. • Electrons donated from dye-LUMO easily transferred to the conduction band of In{sub 2}S{sub 3}.

  1. Establishment of motion sickness model in narrow space and study of traditional Chinese medicine on prevention and treatment%狭小空间晕动病模型的建立及其防治中药的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张天龙; 陈琳; 闫菁华; 豆婧婧; 冯碹; 郝保华

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To build the mice motion sickness model in narrow space, and choose the Chinese medition of effective prevention and treatment. Methods: We choosed the Kunming mice and L9(34) orthogonal table, and frequency, time, temperature, level of crowding as factors, put pole climbing time and physiological index of stool, urine, piloerection and trembling as the evaluation index. And then we detected the plasma levels of ATCH and p-EP. We built motion sickness model, to evaluate the efficacy of ten kinds of Chinese medicines. Results: The best process was as follows: oscillation frequency of 280r/min, oscillation time of 40min, experimental temperature of 30℃, crowding level of 452.16 cm3 every. The index of ginger, cloves, chrysanthemums were significantly lower than the model group and drug group(P<0.05). Conclusion: Oscillator is an effective narrow space motion sickness model; ginger, clove and chrysanthemum have the better anti-halo effect.%目的:建立狭小空间小鼠晕动病模型,筛选有效防治晕动病的中药.方法:以振荡器为模型,采用L9(34)正交表,以频率、时间、温度、拥挤程度为因素,小鼠爬杆时间及粪便、尿液、立毛、颤抖等生理指标为评价标准,建立晕动病模型,结合小鼠血浆促肾上腺皮质激素(ACTH)和β-内啡肽(β-EP)的变化验证其效果,以此模型评价10种中药药效.结果:温度30℃,以280r/min的频率、452.16cm2/只的拥挤程度持续40min可达到最佳的模型效果.生姜、丁香、菊花等实验组小鼠的爬杆时间和生理指标均低于模型对照组和阳性对照组,且差异显著(P<0.05).结论:振荡器可作为狭小空间晕动病的理想模型;生姜、丁香、菊花具有较好的防治晕动病效果.

  2. Study on Low Temperature Adaptability and Landscape Application Prospect of Lotus corniculatus and Perennials%百脉根等宿根地被低温适应性及园林应用前景研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓娇; 李瑞娟; 额尔德尼; 王颉; 赵霞

    2012-01-01

    [目的]探究百脉根等8种宿根地被的低温适应能力,为引种工作及园林应用提供理论参考依据.[方法]以百脉根等8种宿根地被为研究试材,采用自然低温处理结合形态观察的方法,对其抗低温能力进行研究.[结果]通过对供试植株连续2年露地越冬情况的观测,百脉根、紫花地丁、地被菊、百里香露地越冬存活率均高达90%以上,越冬表现良好、观赏性状优良.[结论]百脉根、地被菊、百里香、紫花地丁等地被材料,适合在本地区大面积应用,园林应用前景广阔.其中,紫花地丁萌芽早、花期早、花色鲜艳、抗寒性强,可以填补早春观花地被的空白.%[ Objective ] To explore the low temperature adaptability of eight perennials, so as to provide theoretical basis for their introduction to landscaping. [ Method ] Lotus corniculatus and other seven perennial materials were collected as samples to study their cold resistance by natural low temperature treatment and morphological observation. [Result] After the two-year observation of wintering of the tested plants, Lotus corniculatus, ground cover Chrysanthemum, Thymus mongolicus and Viola philippica had broad application prospects in the garden with better ornamental characters and overwinter performance, their wintering survival rates were all above 90% . [ Conclusion ] Lotus corniculatus, ground cover Chrysanthemum, Thymus mongolicus and Viola philippica were suitable to be popularized in large areas, among which Viola philippica can fill the blank of flowering plants in early spring with the characteristics of earlier germination, earlier flowering, bright color and strong cold stress tolerance.

  3. Quantum dot transport in soil, plants, and insects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Salim, Najeh [Industrial Research Ltd, P.O. Box 31310, Lower Hutt 5040 (New Zealand); Barraclough, Emma; Burgess, Elisabeth [New Zealand Institute for Plant and Food Research Ltd, Private Bag 92169, Victoria Street West, Auckland 1142 (New Zealand); Clothier, Brent, E-mail: brent.clothier@plantandfood.co.nz [New Zealand Institute for Plant and Food Research Ltd, Private Bag 11600, Manawatu Mail Centre, Palmerston North 4442 (New Zealand); Deurer, Markus; Green, Steve [New Zealand Institute for Plant and Food Research Ltd, Private Bag 11600, Manawatu Mail Centre, Palmerston North 4442 (New Zealand); Malone, Louise [New Zealand Institute for Plant and Food Research Ltd, Private Bag 92169, Victoria Street West, Auckland 1142 (New Zealand); Weir, Graham [Industrial Research Ltd, P.O. Box 31310, Lower Hutt 5040 (New Zealand)

    2011-08-01

    Environmental risk assessment of nanomaterials requires information not only on their toxicity to non-target organisms, but also on their potential exposure pathways. Here we report on the transport and fate of quantum dots (QDs) in the total environment: from soils, through their uptake into plants, to their passage through insects following ingestion. Our QDs are nanoparticles with an average particle size of 6.5 nm. Breakthrough curves obtained with CdTe/mercaptopropionic acid QDs applied to columns of top soil from a New Zealand organic apple orchard, a Hastings silt loam, showed there to be preferential flow through the soil's macropores. Yet the effluent recovery of QDs was just 60%, even after several pore volumes, indicating that about 40% of the influent QDs were filtered and retained by the soil column via some unknown exchange/adsorption/sequestration mechanism. Glycine-, mercaptosuccinic acid-, cysteine-, and amine-conjugated CdSe/ZnS QDs were visibly transported to a limited extent in the vasculature of ryegrass (Lolium perenne), onion (Allium cepa) and chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum sp.) plants when cut stems were placed in aqueous QD solutions. However, they were not seen to be taken up at all by rooted whole plants of ryegrass, onion, or Arabidopsis thaliana placed in these solutions. Leafroller (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) larvae fed with these QDs for two or four days, showed fluorescence along the entire gut, in their frass (larval feces), and, at a lower intensity, in their haemolymph. Fluorescent QDs were also observed and elevated cadmium levels detected inside the bodies of adult moths that had been fed QDs as larvae. These results suggest that exposure scenarios for QDs in the total environment could be quite complex and variable in each environmental domain. - Research highlights: {yields} Quantum dots are transported rapidly through soil but half were retained. {yields} Intact roots of plants did not take up quantum dots. Excised plants

  4. Quantum dot transport in soil, plants, and insects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental risk assessment of nanomaterials requires information not only on their toxicity to non-target organisms, but also on their potential exposure pathways. Here we report on the transport and fate of quantum dots (QDs) in the total environment: from soils, through their uptake into plants, to their passage through insects following ingestion. Our QDs are nanoparticles with an average particle size of 6.5 nm. Breakthrough curves obtained with CdTe/mercaptopropionic acid QDs applied to columns of top soil from a New Zealand organic apple orchard, a Hastings silt loam, showed there to be preferential flow through the soil's macropores. Yet the effluent recovery of QDs was just 60%, even after several pore volumes, indicating that about 40% of the influent QDs were filtered and retained by the soil column via some unknown exchange/adsorption/sequestration mechanism. Glycine-, mercaptosuccinic acid-, cysteine-, and amine-conjugated CdSe/ZnS QDs were visibly transported to a limited extent in the vasculature of ryegrass (Lolium perenne), onion (Allium cepa) and chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum sp.) plants when cut stems were placed in aqueous QD solutions. However, they were not seen to be taken up at all by rooted whole plants of ryegrass, onion, or Arabidopsis thaliana placed in these solutions. Leafroller (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) larvae fed with these QDs for two or four days, showed fluorescence along the entire gut, in their frass (larval feces), and, at a lower intensity, in their haemolymph. Fluorescent QDs were also observed and elevated cadmium levels detected inside the bodies of adult moths that had been fed QDs as larvae. These results suggest that exposure scenarios for QDs in the total environment could be quite complex and variable in each environmental domain. - Research highlights: → Quantum dots are transported rapidly through soil but half were retained. → Intact roots of plants did not take up quantum dots. Excised plants did slightly.

  5. 向日葵S-腺苷甲硫氨酸合成酶基因克隆与分析%Molecular Cloning and Bioinformatic Analysis of S-adenosylmethionine Synthetase Gene from Helianthus annuus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周向红; 王萍

    2011-01-01

    To investigate contributions of S-adenosylmethionine synthetase ( SAMS) to tolerance to drought and salt in Helianthus annuus,we cloned one SAMS gene (designated as HaSAMSl ) using RT-PCR from H. Annus. The primers were designed according to results of computer-assisted cloning. Total RNAs were isolated from the leaves of H. Annum treated by salt. The HaSAMSl gene contained a complete coding sequence of 1173 bp,encoding the protein of 390 amino acids. HaSAMSl contained signature motifs of SAMS family, but had no membrane spanning domain and signal peptide. The HaSAMSl shared high amino acid sequence identity with the SAMSs from other organisms. The amino acid sequence of HaSAMSl showed 86. 8% - 96. 9% identity with the SAMSs from Chrysanthemum coronarium ,Arabidopsis thaliana and other higher plants. The cloning of HaSAMSl laid a foundation for further investigation of tolerance mechanism to drought and salt in H. Annuus.%为了研究S-腺苷甲硫氨酸合成酶(S-adenosylmethionine synthetase,SAMS)在向日葵(Helianthus annuus)抗旱和耐盐过程中的作用,先根据计算机辅助克隆结果设计引物,抽提盐胁迫向日葵叶片的总RNA,然后采用RT-PCR扩增技术克隆了向日葵的1个SAMS基因(命名为HaSAMS1),HaSAMS1基因的编码序列长1 173bp,编码390个氨基酸残基.HaSAMS1没有跨膜结构域,没有信号肽,含有SAMS蛋白的特征序列.HaSAMS1与其他物种的SAMS具有较高的序列相似性,与茼蒿(Chrysanthemum coronarium)和拟南芥(Arabidopsis thaliana)等高等植物SAMS的氨基酸序列一致性介于86.8% ~96.9%.HaSAMS1基因的克隆为进一步研究向日葵抗旱和耐盐机理奠定了基础.

  6. 山药茶多酚复合保健饮料的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋长兴; 焦云鹏; 赵希荣; 熊清平

    2013-01-01

    利用山药、茶多酚、梨为原料制备山药保健饮料,以复合饮料的感官评分为综合评价指标,对影响饮料品质的几种组分的配方、主料水比、菊花提取液用量、稳定剂配比、甜酸比等因素进行优化研究。结果表明,当山药、梨与茶多酚的质量比为5∶3∶2,菊花提取液量添加量为0.5%,海藻酸钠和羧甲级纤维素钠质量比为0.15∶0.45,柠檬酸、苹果酸与乳酸质量比为0.15∶0.1∶0.1,糖酸比为8∶0.35时,产品营养丰富、口感优良、风味独特。%In the present study, we investigate the processing of compound health beverage made of yam, pear, chrysanthemum and tea polyphenols. And enzymic hydrolysising process and formula of product are optimized by using single-factor and orthogonal test. As a result, the optimal conditions are determined as followings: ratio of yam, pear and tea polyphenols is 5∶3∶2, concentration of chrysanthemum is 0.5%, ratio of SAA and CMC, citric, tartaric, and malic, and sugar-acid ratio is 0.15∶0.45, 0.15∶0.1∶0.1 and 8∶0.35, respectively. Under these conditions, the product obtained has improved qualities of color, nutrition, flavor and taste.

  7. Preparation and properties of flower-like CuO nanostructures%花状氧化铜纳米结构的制备及其性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨慧; 刘志宏

    2009-01-01

    Three kinds of CuO nanomorphologies with chrysanthemum-like, anemone-like and cauliflower-like structure have been prepared by a hydrothermal method in presence of hexamethylenetetramine (HMTA) in water, ethanol, and glycol solution, respectively. The phases and morphologies of the as-prepared products were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The polarity of the reaction medium and reaction temperature have the effect on the morphology of CuO. The catalysises of CuO with the different morphologies for ammonium perchlorate (AP) decomposition were investigated by thermal analysis.%在六次甲基四胺存在下,通过水热法分别在水、乙醇和乙二醇反应介质中制备了菊花状、银莲花状和花椰菜状三种不同形貌的氧化铜纳米结构.利用X射线衍射(XRD)和扫描电子显微镜(SEM)对产物的物相及形貌进行了表征.结果表明,反应介质的极性和反应温度对氧化铜的形貌有一定影响.用热分析法考察了不同形貌的纳米CuO对高氯酸铵热分解的催化作用.

  8. 多头切花菊新品种‘荷襄’的选育及栽培技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓波

    2014-01-01

    Hexiang belonged to long anemone cut-flower chrysanthemum with elegant, exquisite, pure and fresh, cuttlefish compact equilibrium, etc. It was put on record by non-main crop varieties recorded office of Liaoning seed management bureau in 2014. The variety was suitable for protected cultivation in Liaoning province. The breeding process, variety characteristics and cultivation techniques were introduced for extension production.%“荷襄”具有株形美观,花型独特优美,花色清新,花枝紧凑均衡等特点,2014年通过辽宁省种子管理局非主要农作物品种备案办公室备案。该品种为多头托桂型切花菊,适宜辽宁地区保护地栽培。针对该品种的选育、品种特性及栽培技术要点进行介绍,为其推广生产提供依据。

  9. Anti-Adipogenic Effects of Ethanol Extracts Prepared from Selected Medicinal Herbs in 3T3-L1 Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Min-Jun; Song, Ji-Hye; Shon, Myung-Soo; Kim, Hae Ok; Kwon, O Jun; Roh, Seong-Soo; Kim, Choon Young; Kim, Gyo-Nam

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is a major risk factor for various metabolic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, hypertension, and type 2 diabetes mellitus. In this study, we prepared ethanol extracts from Agastache rugosa (ARE), Chrysanthemum zawadskii (CZE), Mentha arvensis (MAE), Perilla frutescens (PFE), Leonurus sibiricus (LSE), Gardenia jasminoides (GJE), and Lycopus coreanus (LCE). The anti-oxidant and anti-adipogenic effects were evaluated. The IC50 values for ascorbic acid and LCE against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radicals were 246.2 μg/mL and 166.2 μg/mL, respectively, followed by ARE (186.6 μg/mL), CZE (198.6 μg/mL), MAE (337.1 μg/mL), PFE (415.3 μg/mL), LSE (548.2 μg/mL), and GJE (626.3 μg/mL). In non-toxic concentration ranges, CZE had a strong inhibitory effect against 3T3-L1 adipogenes (84.5%) than those of the other extracts. Furthermore, the anti-adipogenic effect of CZE is largely limited in the early stage of adipogenesis, and we revealed that the inhibitory role of CZE in adipogenesis is required for the activation of Wnt signaling. Our results provide scientific evidence that the anti-adipogenic effect of CZE can be applied as an ingredient for the development of functional foods and nutri-cosmetics for obesity prevention. PMID:27752499

  10. The Possibilities of Slovakian Pyrethrum Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Štefan Tóth

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses possibilities for pyrethrum Chrysanthemum cinerariaefolium(Trevir. Vis. production in southern regions of Slovakia, with an emphasis on target marketing,management constraints and further research. Pyrethrum is not a traditionalcrop in Slovakia but prospects have opened up for its cultivation. The high yields andquality of some suitable pyrethrum ecotypes provide the grounds for effective field productionunder favorable conditions. Pyrethrum yielding 1.275 t of dried flowers per hectareand having at least 1.5% pyrethrum content can be a profitable and highly lucrativecrop with an economic result ranging from 413 to 1071 € per ha. A SWOT analysisrevealed that pyrethrum production in Slovakia could take a course of an offensivestrategy. However, intensive production of this commodity needs further development.Prospects for this non-traditional crop in Slovakia are also promising in terms of developmentof farming systems in which plant protection products of botanical origin wouldbe welcome. Improved processing and stabilization of extract would further increasethe possibilities.

  11. Selection of Antagonistic Fungi to Species of Pathogens on Camellia oleifera%油茶病原菌拮抗菌筛选

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢东升; 产帅; 代兵

    2012-01-01

    通过拮抗实验,研究了59个野菊内生真菌菌株对油茶炭疽病及油茶稍枯病病原菌的拮抗性.结果表明:89.8%供试真菌菌株对油茶病原菌孢子萌发或菌丝生长有抑制作用.拮抗菌株在代谢过程中能产生抑制病原菌生长发育的抑菌物质,这些物质存在于菌丝内或分泌于菌丝外.筛选得到2个油荼病原菌强拮抗菌株,大茎点霉菌Y11和Y29.%Through antagonistic test,the antagonistic characteristics of 59 endophytic fungus strains from Chrysanthemum indicum to two species of pathogens on Camellia oleifera were studied. The results showed that 89. 8% strains of the endophytic fungi tested can inhibit the spore bourgeon and hypha growth of the pathogen on Camellia oleifera. The antagonistic fungus strains could produce some substances,existed in hypha cells or excreted out of mycelium, to restrain fungi. Two strains of endophytic fungi,Yll and Y29,having strong antagonistic characteristic were gained by selection.

  12. The effects on photosynthetic CO{sub 2} assimilation to long-term elevation of atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration: An assessment of the response of Trifolium Repens L. cv. Blanca grown at F.A.C.E.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, C.E.

    1994-11-01

    Understanding how photosynthetic capacity acclimates to elevated CO{sub 2} concentrations is vital in predicting the response of important grassland species such as Trifolium repens. Previous studies of acclimatization have been carried out in artificial experimental conditions, such as acrylic greenhouses or controlled environment chambers. The advent of FACE technology has enabled a large area of crop to be fumigated in the field, providing more realistic growing conditions. Pure stands of Trifolium repens L. cv. Blanca grown at either 355 or 600{mu}mol mol{sup -1} CO{sub 2} were examined, and their photosynthetic response to elevated Ca determined via gas exchange studies. Rates of photosynthesis of young, fully expanded leaves were increased between 21 and 36% when grown and measured at elevated CO{sub 2}. This increase in A corresponded to a decrease in g{sub S} of between 18 and 52%. No acclimation effect was observed in the most frequently cut stands, whilst the response of stands clipped only 4 times per year was more variable. When down regulation of V{sub cmax} did occur, this was not nearly as marked as that which occurred in 3 other temperate species (Chrysanthemum leucanthemum, Ranunculus friesianus, Plantago lanceolata (L.) J. & C. Presl.), at similar growth regimes. No acclimation of stomatal frequency, SI or pore length was found to occur in the enriched clover stands.

  13. 42. The Report of Antimutagenicity and Mutagenicity of 7 Kinds Natrual Edible Plants and Vegetables

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: With improvement of living standard, environmental quality become more and more seriously damaged. While the SOS bacterioplage induction methed is nearly a high-speed and reliable method to detect genetic toxins. The SOS syndronous test make an improvement on the above method. On the one hand, we are reducing the environmental pollution, on the other hand, we are attempt to find antimugens and some ways against cancer. Using the natrual edible plants against mutage and cancer is one of the important topic on preventing carcinogenic factors. The study examed 7 kinds natrual edible plants and vegetables. Method: We adopted the test of the Antimutagenicity and mutagenicity with S9 (rat liver microsomal enzymes system) and without S9 and repeat test. Result: The results showed all samples had no mutagenicity. Scallion seed, sweet potato and pomegranate peel were antimutagens against Mitomicy(MMC) with S9 and without S9. They are well worth of devoloping and using further. Pea seedling, crowndaisy chrysanthemum. alon and romaine had no antimutagenicity with and without S9. The people can eat usually.

  14. A novel ion-beam-mutation effect application in identification of gene involved in bacterial antagonism to fungal infection of ornamental crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahadtanapuk, S.; Teraarusiri, W.; Nanakorn, W.; Yu, L. D.; Thongkumkoon, P.; Anuntalabhochai, S.

    2014-05-01

    This work is on a novel application of ion beam effect on biological mutation. Bacillus licheniformis (B. licheniformis) is a common soil bacterium with an antagonistic effect on Curcuma alismatifolia Gagnep. and Chrysanthemum indicum Linn. In an attempt to control fungal diseases of local crops by utilizing B. licheniformis, we carried out gene analysis of the bacterium to understand the bacterial antagonistic mechanism. The bacterial cells were bombarded to induce mutations using nitrogen ion beam. After ion bombardment, DNA analysis revealed that the modified polymorphism fragment present in the wild type was missing in a bacterial mutant which lost the antifungal activity. The fragments conserved in the wild type but lost in the mutant bacteria was identified to code for the thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) gene. The gene analysis showed that the TrxR gene from B. licheniformis had the expression of the antagonism to fungi in a synchronous time evolution with the fungus inhibition when the bacteria were co-cultivated with the fungi. The collective results indicate the TrxR gene responsible for the antagonism of bacteria B. licheniformis to fungal infection.

  15. A novel ion-beam-mutation effect application in identification of gene involved in bacterial antagonism to fungal infection of ornamental crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahadtanapuk, S. [Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Phayao, Maeka, Muang, Phayao 56000 (Thailand); Teraarusiri, W. [Central Laboratory, University of Phayao, Maeka, Muang, Phayao 56000 (Thailand); Nanakorn, W. [The Crown Property Bureau, 173 Nakhonratchasrima Road, Dusit, Bangkok 10300 (Thailand); Yu, L.D., E-mail: yuld@thep-center.org [Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Thailand Center of Excellence in Physics, Commission on Higher Education, 328 Si Ayutthaya Road, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand); Thongkumkoon, P. [Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Anuntalabhochai, S., E-mail: soanu.1@gmail.com [Molecular Biology Laboratory, Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand)

    2014-05-01

    Highlights: • Ion beam bombardment induced mutation in bacterial B. licheniformis. • A mutant lost antifungal activity. • DNA fingerprint of the mutant was analyzed. • The lost gene was indentified to code for TrxR gene. • TrxR gene from B. licheniformis expressed the flower antagonism to fungi. - Abstract: This work is on a novel application of ion beam effect on biological mutation. Bacillus licheniformis (B. licheniformis) is a common soil bacterium with an antagonistic effect on Curcuma alismatifolia Gagnep. and Chrysanthemum indicum Linn. In an attempt to control fungal diseases of local crops by utilizing B. licheniformis, we carried out gene analysis of the bacterium to understand the bacterial antagonistic mechanism. The bacterial cells were bombarded to induce mutations using nitrogen ion beam. After ion bombardment, DNA analysis revealed that the modified polymorphism fragment present in the wild type was missing in a bacterial mutant which lost the antifungal activity. The fragments conserved in the wild type but lost in the mutant bacteria was identified to code for the thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) gene. The gene analysis showed that the TrxR gene from B. licheniformis had the expression of the antagonism to fungi in a synchronous time evolution with the fungus inhibition when the bacteria were co-cultivated with the fungi. The collective results indicate the TrxR gene responsible for the antagonism of bacteria B. licheniformis to fungal infection.

  16. Effect of different forage species supplemented with two carbohydrate sources on short and medium chain fatty acids in sheep milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Piredda

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Sixty four Sarda dairy sheep fed with diets based on fresh forage were allocated to eight groups to evaluate the effect of corn or beet pulp based supplementation on milk fatty acid composition. Four forage species were compared: annual ryegrass (RY, Lolium rigidum Gaudin, sulla (SU, Hedysarum coronarium L., burr medic (BM, Medicago polymorpha L., and garland, a daisy forb, (CH, Chrysanthemum coronarium L.. The supplements were iso-nitrogenous but differed in carbohydrate composition consisting either of 60% (DM of corn (concentrate C or 40% sugar beet pulp (concentrate BP. The supplementation was iso-energetic (500 and 530 g/d, respectively. Overall during winter period (growing stage of the forages SU and RY groups showed higher levels of atherogenicity index and C16:0. In winter period BP outperformed C for palmitic acid. In spring AI showed a trend similar to that of winter. Moreover C concentrate gave a better level of AI and myristic acid than BP. This study confirms that forage species and, to a lesser extent, carbohydrate source in the supplement markedly affect mediumchain FA profile and hence atherogenicity index in sheep milk.

  17. Whitefly species (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae on wild and cultivated plants in the horticultural region of Rosario, Santa Fe, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo G. GONSEBATT

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Las moscas blancas de importancia económica son polífagas y capaces de desarrollarse sobre numerosas plantas cultivadas y espontáneas. Registramos las especies de moscas blancas sobre cultivos hortícolas y de flores, y sobre las plantas silvestres asociadas. Observamos dos especies: Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood y el complejo Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius. T. vaporariorum fue registrada sobre 24 especies de plantas (11 familias, 12 y 8 de las cuales son hospedantes nuevos para Argentina y a nivel mundial, respectivamente. El complejo B. tabaci fue registrado solo en sistemas de producción de flores, sobre 19 especies de plantas (11 familias, 14 y 7 de las cuales son nuevos hospedantes para Argentina y a nivel mundial, respectivamente. Los cultivos Glycine max (L. y Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat., las especies silvestres Amaranthus blitum L., Amaranthus quitensis Kunth, Conyza bonariensis (L., Galinsoga parviflora Cav., Sonchus oleraceus L. y Wedelia glauca (Ortega O. Hoffm. ex Hicken fueron hospedantes de ambas especies. El único parasitoide registrado fue Eretmocerus californicus cercano a corni Haldeman (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae sobre T. vaporariorum. Este estudio que constituye el primer relevamiento sistemático de plantas hospedantes en la región, aporta un mayor conocimiento sobre el rango de plantas hospedantes de las moscas blancas en Argentina.

  18. Efficacy of some botanical extracts against Trogoderma granarium in wheat grains with toxicity evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derbalah, Aly S

    2012-01-01

    In an attempt to find alternative control methods for stored products insects, extracts of seven plant species (Cassia senna, Caesalpinia gilliesii, Thespesia populnea var. acutiloba, Chrysanthemum frutescens, Euonymus japonicus, Bauhinia purpurea, and Cassia fistula) were evaluated under laboratory conditions for their ability to protect wheat (Triticum spp.) grains against Trogoderma granarium insect. Moreover, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis was carried to identify the chemical components of the most effective plant extract against T. granarium. Furthermore, the safety of the most effective plant extract was evaluated with respect to biochemical and histological changes in treated rats relative to control. The results revealed that, the tested botanical extracts showed high efficiency against T. granarium with respect to mortality and progeny of the adults. C. senna was the most effective botanical extract against T. granarium. The GC-MS analysis of the most effective plant extract showed the presence of different bioactive compounds that is known by its insecticidal activity. The most effective plant extract showed no toxicity on treated rats relative to control with respect to biochemical and histological changes. The results suggest the ability of using these plant extracts for wheat grains protection as a safe alternative to insecticides.

  19. Efficacy of Some Botanical Extracts against Trogoderma granarium in Wheat Grains with Toxicity Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aly S. Derbalah

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In an attempt to find alternative control methods for stored products insects, extracts of seven plant species (Cassia senna, Caesalpinia gilliesii, Thespesia populnea var. acutiloba, Chrysanthemum frutescens, Euonymus japonicus, Bauhinia purpurea, and Cassia fistula were evaluated under laboratory conditions for their ability to protect wheat (Triticum spp. grains against Trogoderma granarium insect. Moreover, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS analysis was carried to identify the chemical components of the most effective plant extract against T. granarium. Furthermore, the safety of the most effective plant extract was evaluated with respect to biochemical and histological changes in treated rats relative to control. The results revealed that, the tested botanical extracts showed high efficiency against T. granarium with respect to mortality and progeny of the adults. C. senna was the most effective botanical extract against T. granarium. The GC-MS analysis of the most effective plant extract showed the presence of different bioactive compounds that is known by its insecticidal activity. The most effective plant extract showed no toxicity on treated rats relative to control with respect to biochemical and histological changes. The results suggest the ability of using these plant extracts for wheat grains protection as a safe alternative to insecticides.

  20. Development and validation of an HPTLC method for apigenin 7-O-glucoside in chamomile flowers and its application for fingerprint discrimination of chamomile-like materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzelmeric, Etil; Vovk, Irena; Yesilada, Erdem

    2015-03-25

    Brewed tea of chamomile flowers (Matricaria recutita L.) (Asteraceae) has been extensively consumed for centuries due to either its pleasant taste or medicinal purposes. On the other hand, the major problem is difficulty in distinguishing the genuine specimen when supplying chamomile through nature-picking. Consequently flowers of other Asteraceae members resembling to chamomile in appearance may frequently be practiced by lay people or marketed in spice shops or bazaars. Evidently detection of such adulterations plays a vital role in terms of public health to avoid risk of toxicity (i.e. pyrazolidin alkaloids) and ineffective treatments (lack or insufficient concentration of the active constituents). This work presents either development and validation of a high performance thin-layer chromatographic (HPTLC) method for apigenin 7-O-glucoside which is one of the active markers in chamomile flowers or its application for the fingerprint discrimination of chamomile-like materials i.e. Anthemis spp., Bellis spp., Chrysanthemum sp. and Tanacetum sp. gathered by local people assuming as chamomile. Separation was performed on the silica gel 60 NH2 F254s HPTLC plates using the developing solvent system of ethyl acetate-formic acid-acetic acid-water (30:1.5:1.5:3, v/v/v/v). The proposed HPTLC method may also be a leading guide for the quality assessment of chamomile tea products on the market. PMID:25575175

  1. Effects of Beverages on Alcohol Metabolism: Potential Health Benefits and Harmful Impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Wang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Nonalcoholic beverages are usually consumed accompanying alcoholic drinks, and their effects on alcohol metabolism are unclear in vivo. In this study, the effects of 20 nonalcoholic beverages on alcohol metabolism and liver injury caused by alcohol were evaluated in mice. Kunming mice were orally fed with alcohol (52%, v/v and beverages. The concentrations of ethanol and acetaldehyde in blood as well as the activities of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH in liver were assessed to indicate alcohol metabolism. The levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST and alanine transaminase (ALT in serum as well as the levels of malonaldehyde (MDA and superoxide dismutase (SOD in liver were measured to reflect the alcohol-induced liver injury. The results showed that the treatment of soda water, green tea and honey chrysanthemum tea could accelerate ethanol metabolism and prevent liver injuries caused by alcohol when companied with excessive alcohol drinking. They might be potential dietary supplements for the alleviation of harmful effects from excessive alcohol consumption. On the contrary, some beverages such as fresh orange juice and red bull are not advised to drink when companied with alcohol consumption due to their adverse effects on ethanol induced liver injury.

  2. Irradiation service for the vegetatively propagated crop breeding at the institute of radiation breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The entrusted irradiation for vegetatively propagating crops reached about 200 cases since 1962. As to the results, 109 cases which were able to be tracked by questionnaire and others were examined. When the number of cases for each crop was investigated, arbor crops and herbaceous crops were half and half, and in the arbor crops, fruit trees were overwhelmingly many, while in the herbaceous crops, potatoes were more than half, and the number of cases for rush also was many. As the rare examples, there were butterbur, medicinal plants and sugarcane. As the registered practical varieties, there were one case of rush and one case of Chinese mat grass, but in the arbor crops, there was none. The purpose has been mostly the breeding of new varieties, but there were the inactivation of viruses and the effect of insecticide. The aims of breeding have been early growth, high yield, disease resistance, dwarfness and so on. As the mutation actually obtained, the skin color of fruits, the flower color of rose and chrysanthemum, the short vines of potatoes, the quality of rush and so on. The clients were mostly public experiment stations. The method of irradiation and the problems for the future are reported. (Kako, I.)

  3. Rapid Identification and Comparison of Compounds with Antioxidant Activity in Coreopsis tinctoria Herbal Tea by High-Performance Thin-Layer Chromatography Coupled with DPPH Bioautography and Densitometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Shing-Chung; Lam, Sio-Fong; Zhao, Jing; Li, Shao-Ping

    2016-09-01

    A simple and efficient method based on high-performance thin-layer chromatography coupled with 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) bioautography (HPTLC-DPPH) was established for the screening and comparison of antioxidants in different parts of Coreopsis tinctoria herbal tea from different origins and other related herbal tea materials, which used Chrysanthemum morifolium cv. "Gongju" and "Hangju" in this study. Scanning densitometry after DPPH derivatization was applied for the determination of antioxidant capacities of isolated compounds in each sample. It is considered that ethanol extracts of C. tinctoria had stronger antioxidant activity and more characteristic bands than those of 2 compared samples, C. morifolium cv. "Gongju" and "Hangju." Chemometric analysis results showed that the combination of hierarchical clustering analysis and principal component analysis based on determined antioxidant capacities could be used for the discrimination of different parts of C. tinctoria and C. morifolium. Results showed that 7 compounds made up the major contributions of antioxidant activity in C. tinctoria, including okanin, isookanin, marein, flavanomarein, 5,7,3',5'-tetrahydroxyflavanone-7-O-glucoside, 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid, and chlorogenic acid. Therefore, 7 compounds were identified as major antioxidant biomarkers for quality control of C. tinctoria. Results demonstrated that the established method could be applied for the identification of C. tinctoria, and were beneficial for the bioactivity-based quality control of C. tinctoria.

  4. The Investigation on Application Status of Cover Plants and Ecological Adaptability for Introduced Cover Plant in Suqian%宿迁市地被植物应用现状及新引种地被的生态适应性调查研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李素华; 许晶晶; 金青; 苏苑苑; 袁笑; 周燕

    2011-01-01

    对宿迁市地被植物的应用种类、季相变化及新引种的地被植物的覆盖度、越冬和越夏能力进行调查分析,结果表明:宿迁园林中共应用地被植物89种,以观叶灌木和宿根现叶类居多;夏季季相色彩最为丰富,但红色系花卉比例较大;在覆盖度、越冬和越夏能力评价中综合表现较好的为亮绿忍冬、地被石竹、大花六道木、水果兰、大滨菊,综合表现较差的为细茎针茅、紫露草.%The types of applications, seasonal color of ground cover plants,the coverage, winter and summer hardiness were investigated. Re-sulls showed that 89 kinds of cover plants were applied in gardens of Suqian, the foliage bush and the foliage perennial plants held great majority. The color of summer was richest, but the red series had higher proportion: according to the coverage and winter and summer cold resistance, Lonicera nilida' Maigrun' ,Dianthus plumarius, Abelia grandiflora, Teucrium fruticans, Chrysanthemum maximum were better, Stipa te-nuissima, Tradescantia albiftora were differential.

  5. A novel ion-beam-mutation effect application in identification of gene involved in bacterial antagonism to fungal infection of ornamental crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Ion beam bombardment induced mutation in bacterial B. licheniformis. • A mutant lost antifungal activity. • DNA fingerprint of the mutant was analyzed. • The lost gene was indentified to code for TrxR gene. • TrxR gene from B. licheniformis expressed the flower antagonism to fungi. - Abstract: This work is on a novel application of ion beam effect on biological mutation. Bacillus licheniformis (B. licheniformis) is a common soil bacterium with an antagonistic effect on Curcuma alismatifolia Gagnep. and Chrysanthemum indicum Linn. In an attempt to control fungal diseases of local crops by utilizing B. licheniformis, we carried out gene analysis of the bacterium to understand the bacterial antagonistic mechanism. The bacterial cells were bombarded to induce mutations using nitrogen ion beam. After ion bombardment, DNA analysis revealed that the modified polymorphism fragment present in the wild type was missing in a bacterial mutant which lost the antifungal activity. The fragments conserved in the wild type but lost in the mutant bacteria was identified to code for the thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) gene. The gene analysis showed that the TrxR gene from B. licheniformis had the expression of the antagonism to fungi in a synchronous time evolution with the fungus inhibition when the bacteria were co-cultivated with the fungi. The collective results indicate the TrxR gene responsible for the antagonism of bacteria B. licheniformis to fungal infection

  6. In vitro efficacies of oils, silicas and plant preparations against the poultry red mite Dermanyssus gallinae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, Veronika; Perler, Erika; Heckendorn, Felix

    2009-06-01

    The aim of this study was to test the effectiveness of physically acting substances (oils and silicas) and plant preparations for the control of the poultry red mite Dermanyssus gallinae (De Geer 1778). Reproduction and survival of fed D. gallinae females were evaluated in vitro for a total of 168 h using the "area under the survival curve" (AUC) to compare survival of the mites between treatments. Four oils (two plant oils, one petroleum spray oil and diesel), one soap, three silicas (one synthetic amorphous silica, one diatomaceous earth (DE) and one DE with 2% pyrethrum extract) and seven plant preparations (derived from Chrysanthemum cineariaefolium, Allium sativum, Tanacetum vulgare, Yucca schidigera, Quillaja saponaria, Dryopteris filix-mas, and Thuja occidentalis) were tested at various concentrations. All the oils, diesel and soap significantly reduced D. gallinae survival. All silicas tested inhibited reproduction. DE significantly reduced mite survival, but amorphous silica was less effective in vitro. Except for pure A. sativum juice and the highest concentration of C. cineariaefolium extract, the plant preparations tested resulted in statistically insignificant control of D. gallinae.

  7. AGRO BOTANICAL ILLUSTRATION IN HAND FAN PAINTING AS A RESOURCE OF INFORMATION ON BREEDING AND PLANT INTRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsatsenko L. V.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses agro-botanical illustration of hand fans painting as an independent resource of visual information on the history of culture of introduction, distribution, species diversity and plant breeding. We have reviewed the history of the fan and the causes of widespread of fans and the respective painting plants. The article shows the different trends in the filing of a visual image in the fan art: from accurate, detailed drawing of the image, until smooth, blurred contours, made in the "boneless" or "acyclic" technique. On the example of pumpkins, lagenaria, soybeans, corn, flowers, namely asters and peonies we have shown various aspects of breeding and agronomic work for several centuries. The article uses the method of visual analysis as a tool for collection and analysis of data on breeding and introduction of a number of crops on the example of specific crops, particularly soybeans. The analysis includes a description of morphotypes, area of origin, distribution, physiology, individual characteristics, and insects found in the ecological niche. It is noted that visual analysis can be successfully applied in the study of varietal diversity of a number of flower crops: asters, peonies, chrysanthemums, and some fruits and vegetables

  8. Effect of nitrification inhibitors on yield and essential oil contents of japanese Mint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pyrethrum (Chrysanthemum cinerariefolium) flowers have been observed to have insecticidal properties and could be also used as indigenous nitrification-inhibitors for increasing N-use efficiency. During 1998 and 1999 a study was conducted to evaluate the relative performance of pyrethrum flower waste and Dicyandiamide (DCD) as nitrification inhibitors, applied with prilled urea (PU), to Japanese mint (Mentha arvensis L.). Application of the nitrification inhibitors with prilled urea significantly increased the growth and menthol contents of the crop, compared to that of prilled urea alone. Addition of Dicyandiamide (DCD) and pyrethrum flower waste gave 30 and 23% more herb-yield that prilled urea alone, the corresponding increase in oil-yield being 27 and 22%, respectively. Application of nitrogen enhanced the growth and menthol contents of crop to more than 300 kg N ha/sup -1/ with prilled urea. Both the materials improved the N-use efficiency by one and half time, as compared to PU at 1200 kg N ha/sup -1/. The results indicate that pyrethru nitrification inhibitor. (author)

  9. Isolation of antibacterial compounds from Quercus dilatata L. through bioassay guided fractionation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamil Maryam

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Four medicinal plants (Chrozophora hierosolymitana Spreng, Chrysanthemum leucanthemum L., Ephedra gerardiana Wall. ex Stapf, and Quercus dilatata L. used by indigenous healers to treat various infectious diseases were selected for the present study. The major objective of the present study was isolation and characterization of antimicrobial components from the crude plant extracts using bioassay guided fractionation. Methods Seven methanolic extracts of the four plants were screened to identify any antimicrobial agents present in them. The active crude plant extract was fractionated first by solvent partitioning and then by HPLC. Characterization of the active fractions was done by using spectrophotometer. Results All the seven methanolic extracts showed low antifungal activity, however, when these extracts were tested for antibacterial activity, significant activity was exhibited by two extracts. The extract of aerial parts of Q. dilatata was most active and therefore, was selected for further analysis. Initially fractionation was done by solvent-solvent partitioning and out of six partitioned fractions, ethanol fraction was selected on the basis of results of antibacterial activity and phytochemical analysis. Further, fractionation was carried out by RP- HPLC and purified active subfractions were characterized by comparing their absorption spectra with that of the known natural products isolated from the plants of Quercus genus. Discussion and conclusion The results suggest that this is the first report of the isolated antibacterial compounds from this genus.

  10. Educational utilization of outstanding spherulitic rhyolite occurred in Cheongsong, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Y. D.; Woo, H.

    2015-12-01

    Cheongsong is located in the central eastern area of South Korea. Unique spherulitic rhyolites occur in this region as dykes formed about 48 to 50 million years ago. Composed of quartz and feldspar these spherulitic rhyolites show various flowerlike shapes, such as chrysanthemum, dandelion, rose, carnation, sunflower, dahlia and so on, so they are called 'flower stones'. The spherulite indicates that it was undercooled caused by very fast cooling at a shallow depth near the surface and the variety of shapes resulted from the difference of crystallizing conditions. According to the condition, minerals start to crystallize homogeneously or heterogeneously and develop as rounded or fibrous shapes, representing beautiful patterns when combined. These spherulitic structures are very rare not only in Korea but also globally, being valuable for research and preservation because of their rarity, beauty and diversity. Cheongsong therefore applies to the UGG (UNESCO Global Geopark) in an attempt to popularize the flower stones and use them as education materials which can also be incorporated in other valuable sites. The exhibition center provides diverse types of flower stones in which visitors could learn about rhyolitic volcanism, crystallization and spherulite and can experience the process of changing a rough stone into a flower stone. A geotrail course has also been created, showing each type of flower stone on the outcrop and providing educational programs about geological mechanisms of the stones with a trained guide.

  11. Formaldehyde removal by common indoor plant species and various growing media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydogan, Ahu; Montoya, Lupita D.

    2011-05-01

    Three porous materials (growstone, expanded clay and activated carbon) were evaluated as hydroponic growing media and for their individual ability to remove the indoor volatile organic compound formaldehyde under three conditions: growing medium alone, dry medium in a pot, and wet medium in a pot. The total percent-reduction of formaldehyde by each growing media was evaluated over a 10-h period. In all cases, activated carbon achieved the highest removal under the three conditions studied with average percent reductions measured at about 98%. Four common interior plants: Hedera helix (English ivy), Chrysanthemum morifolium (pot mum), Dieffenbachia compacta (dump cane) and Epipremnum aureum (golden pathos) growing in growstone were then tested for their ability to remove formaldehyde. The removal capacity of the aerial plant parts (AP), the root zone (RZ) and the entire plant (EP) growing in growstone were determined by exposing the relevant parts to gaseous formaldehyde (˜2000 μg m -3) in a closed chamber over a 24-h period. The removal efficiency between species and plant parts were compared by determining the time interval required to decrease about 2/3 of the total formaldehyde concentration reduction, T 2/3. The T 2/3 measured were 23, 30, 34 and 56 min for EP of C. morifolium, E. aureum, D. compacta and H. helix, respectively. The formaldehyde removal by the root zone was found to be more rapid than the removal by the aerial plant parts.

  12. Use of Monoclonal Antibodies in an ELISA for Detecting an Invasive Pest Insect, Liriomyza trifolii (Diptera: Agromyzidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, W C; Shang, H W; Guo, W; Xu, D; Huang, T Y; Zhu, L X

    2015-04-01

    A monoclonal antibody was prepared by the hybridoma technology. It reacted only with the protein of Liriomyza trifolii (Burgess) and not with that of Chromatomyia horticola Goureau or Liriomyza sativae Blanchard in indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. It was effective even after being diluted more than 8.192×10(6)-fold. The detection sensitivity of the antibody was 31.3 µg/ml under controlled conditions. Positive reaction was achieved with all laboratory-reared L. trifolii samples, including larvae, pupae, and adults. An indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay system was successfully established to detect L. trifolii in the field. This antibody was successfully used to determine the L. trifolii collected in different locations, from different host plants, and in different seasons. More than 50% of leafminers collected on Brassica chinensis var chinensis, Apium graveolens (Miller) Persoon, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walpers, Phaseolus vulgaris L., Lactuca sativa L., and Chrysanthemum coronarium (L.) Cassini ex Spach were L. trifolii, indicating that those six plant species might be the preference host plants of L. trifolii. Population of L. trifolii peaked in September, October, or November in Hangzhou, Zhejiang. These results suggest a great potential of using this McAb for precisely identifying L. trifolii and monitoring the population dynamics of L. trifolii in the field. PMID:26470159

  13. Environmentally friendly ionic liquid-in-water microemulsions for extraction of hydrophilic and lipophilic components from Flos Chrysanthemi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jue; Cao, Jun; Gao, Wen; Qi, Lian-Wen; Li, Ping

    2013-10-21

    Ionic liquids (ILs) have numerous chemical applications as environmentally green solvents that are extending into microemulsion applications. In this work, a novel benign IL-in-water microemulsion system modified by an IL surfactant has been proposed for simultaneous extraction of hydrophilic and lipophilic constituents from Flos Chrysanthemi (Chrysanthemum morifolium). Constituents were analyzed by rapid-resolution liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. A mixture-design approach was used to optimize the IL surfactant and the IL oil phase in the microemulsion system. Microemulsions consisting of 6.0% 1-dodecyl-3-methylimidazolium hydrogen sulfate, 0.1% 1-vinyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate and 93.9% water offered the acceptable extract efficiency that are comparable to or even better than conventional volatile organic solvents. This assay was fully validated with respect to the linearity of response (r(2) > 0.999 over two orders of magnitude), precision (intra-RSD microemulsion method provided an environmentally friendly alternative for efficient extraction of compounds from Flos Chrysanthemi and could be extended to complex environmental and pharmaceutical samples. PMID:23928686

  14. 干旱胁迫下外源喷施 ABA 对地被菊生理特性的影响%Effect of Application of ABA on Physiological Characteristics of Chry santhemum Under Drought Stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李杨; 毛洪玉; 马磊; 谭霖

    2015-01-01

    为探讨外源ABA的化学调控作用,研究了干旱胁迫条件下喷施不同浓度外源激素脱落酸(ABA )对地被菊幼苗生理特性的影响。结果表明:喷施ABA后,地被菊幼苗蒸腾速率(Tr)、气孔导度(Gs)明显下降。外源ABA延缓了叶片相对含水量和叶绿素含量的下降,提高丙二醛和可溶性糖等渗透调节物质的水平,提高了植物的抗旱能力。浓度为100 mg·L ‐1 ABA的处理效果最佳。%In order to explore the chemical control effect of exogenous ABA ,the effect of different concentrations of exogenous ABA on physiological property of Chrysanthemum seedling under drought stress was analyzed . The results showed that after spraying exogenous ABA ,transpiration rate and stomatal conductance decreased , exogenous ABA slowed the decline of leaf relative water content and chlorophyll content ,increased the content of osmotic regulation substances ,such as MDA and soluble sugar ,and improved the resistance to drought .100 mg·L‐1 exogenous ABA performed the best .

  15. HEALTH AND NUTRITION FROM ORNAMENTALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Yashaswini

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Ornamental plants are grown for decorative purposes in gardens and landscape design projects, as house plants, for cut flowers and specimen display. Ornamentals and flower crops are not only grown for the display of aesthetic features, but also have some nutritive and medicinal properties. There has been renewed interest in utilizing garden environments as thera¬peutic entities to enhance the process of healing that occurs in healthcare environments. By minimizing the stress response, therapeutic gardens can promote re¬covery from illness or preserve health. From centuries roses have been valued for their culinary, medicinal, cosmetic and aromatic properties. Flower crops like Hibiscus, Plumbago, Periwinckle, and Lotus are highly valued for their medicinal use as in cosmetics, skin disorders, cancer etc. ornamental tree species like Palash, Amaltas, Bauhinia, Asoca, Kadamba are used in traditional Ayurvedic of medicines. Many of the flower crops such as nasturtium, hibiscus, rose, cosmos, and chrysanthemum are rich in minerals and vitamins, used as edible flowers. Some of the flowers like rose, jasmine, lavender and tuberose are used for extraction of essential oils. They are having soothing and curative properties and are used in aromatherapy. An attempt was made to collect the reviews on the therapeutic properties of these ornamentals.

  16. 劳伦斯凤凰涅槃式的女性解救%Lawrence's Saving of Women in Phoenix Nirvana Style

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李梅

    2015-01-01

    Lawrence viewed death as a"rebirth" just like the nirvana of the phoenix. By this way he called for the return of human being's nature, he wanted to save the feminine as well. The right themes are contained in some of his short stories. Through analyzing some of his short stories such as Odour of Chrysanthemums and The Horse Dealer's Daughter, we can conclude that he was giving a guidance to women on how to fight for their rights.%英国作家劳伦斯的死亡观是希望通过凤凰涅槃式的"重生"来实现人之本性的自然回归,也是他为解救女性所作的殚精竭虑的思考. 他的短篇小说诸如《菊花的气味》、《马贩子的女儿》等都有着关于女性经历了凤凰涅槃而获得重生的主题. 他为女性争取权利所指明的过程是:先是觉醒,接着发出呼声,然后采取行动,最后争取男女平等的权利.

  17. 托盘包装和无菌包装在冷鲜羊肉贮藏中的对比%Comparison of pallet packaging and aseptic packaging in chilled mutton storage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王永刚; 王长明

    2015-01-01

    The pallet packaging and aseptic packaging were taken to do experiment respectively. The total number of colonies, pH and TVB -N of mutton in the process of storage under 3 ± 1℃were measured to research the effect of natural preservatives combined with pallet packing or aseptic packaging on extending mutton preservation. The results showed that the effect of aseptic packaging was better than the pallet packaging. Combined with the leaf,wild chrysanthemum flowers,and plum extract,mutton could keep second freshness in 15 days.%分别采用托盘包装和无菌包装进行试验,通过测定在3±1℃下贮存过程中菌落总数、pH值及TVB-N,了解天然防腐剂结合托盘包装或无菌包装对延长羊肉保鲜的效果。结果表明:无菌包装的包装效果优于托盘包装,结合大青叶、野菊花、乌梅提取液可使冷鲜羊肉15d内保持在二级鲜度。

  18. Morphometric and molecular characterization of populations of Pratylenchus kumamotoensis and P. pseudocoffeae (Nematoda, Pratylenchidae) newly recorded in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dongwoo; Chun, Jae-Yong; Lee, Kyeong-Yeoll

    2016-01-01

    At least 70 species of root-lesion nematodes, Pratylenchus spp., have been identified worldwide, many of which are serious pests of various agricultural crop plants. In Korea, only 14 species have been recorded in vegetable and fruit fields. Here, we report two new records of root-lesion nematode species in Korea based on morphometric and molecular methods. Soil samples were collected from chrysanthemum cultivars in various regions. Morphometric diagnosis showed that two new records for Korea: Pratylenchus kumamotoensis in Chilgok County and Pratylenchus pseudocoffeae in Geumsan County. In addition, molecular diagnosis using the two sequences of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and the D2-D3 region of ribosomal DNA showed that these two species were most similar with those from Japan, Costa Rica and USA. The similarities of the ITS and D2-D3 sequences were 99.85 and 99.74%, respectively, for Pratylenchus kumamotoensis and 99.99 with Costa Rica populations and 99.86% with USA populations, respectively, for Pratylenchus pseudocoffeae. To our knowledge, this is the first report of two species in Korea. PMID:27408596

  19. Investigation of the Optimal Parameters in Hydrothermal Method for the Synthesis of ZnO Nanorods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Chung Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated a two-step method to deposit the ZnO-based nanostructure films, including nanorods and nanoflowers. In the first step, sputtering method was used to deposit the ZnO films on SiO2/Si substrates as the seed layer. In the second step, Zn(NO32–6H2O and C6H12N4 were used as precursors and hydrothermal process was used as the method to synthesize the ZnO films. After that, the ZnO films were measured by an X-ray diffraction pattern and a FESEM to analyze their crystallization and morphology. We had found that the ZnO films had three different morphologies synthesized on ZnO/SiO2/Si substrates, including irregular-plate structure films, nanorod films, and beautiful chrysanthemum-like clusters (nanoflower films. We would prove that the face direction of ZnO/SiO2/Si substrates in the hydrothermal bottle and deposition time were two important factors to influence the synthesized results of the ZnO films.

  20. Microstructures and transformation characteristics of thin films of TiNiCu shape memory alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程秀兰; 徐东; 蔡炳初; 王莉; 陈鉴; 李刚; 徐实

    2002-01-01

    Both sputtering conditions and crystallizing temperatures have great influence on the microstructures and phase transformation characteristics for Ti51Ni44Cu5.By means of the resistance-temperature measurement,X-ray diffraction and atomic fore microscopic study,the results indicate that the transformation temperatures of the thin films increase and the "rock candy" martensitic relief is more easily obtained with promoting the sputtering Ar pressure,sputtering power,or crystallizing temperature.However,when sputtering Ar pressure,sputtering power,or crystallizing temperature are lower,a kind of "chrysanthemum" relief,which is related with Ti-rich GP zones,is much easier to be observed.The reason is that during crystallization process,both of the inherent compressive stresses introduced under the condition of higher sputtering pressure or higher crystallizing temperature are helpful to the transition from GP zones to Ti2(NiCu) precipitates and the increase of the transformation temperatures.The addition of copper to substitute for 5% nickel in mole fraction can reduce the transformation hysteresis width to about 10~15 ℃.

  1. Effect of radiation-degraded chitosan on growth promotion of flower plant in tissue culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luan, Le Quang; Ha, Vo Thi Thu; Hai, Le; Hien, Nguyen Quoc [Vietnam Atomic Energy Commission, Nuclear Research Institute, Dalat (Viet Nam); Nagasawa, Naotsugu; Yoshii, Fumio; Kume, Tamikazu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    2002-03-01

    Radiation is a useful tool for degradation of polysaccharides, such as starch, carrageenan, alginate and chitin/chitosan. The viscosity molecular weight (Mw) of chitosan with 80% degree of deacetylation was reduced to 1.5 x 10{sup 5} by irradiation of 50kGy in solid phase. The solution of 10% of chitosan with Mw ca. 15 x 10{sup 5} was then irradiated at doses ranging 10-250kGy for further degradation and the products were supplemented into cultural media for testing of plant growth promotion effect. The results indicated that irradiated chitosan showed a strong growth-promotion effect on the increase of the length of shoot, the length of root and fresh biomass for flower plants namely Limonium latifolium, Eustoma grandiflorum and Chrysanthemum morifolium in tissue culture. The growth-promotion effect was obtained by the treatments with 50ppm of chitosan irradiated at the doses of 75-100kGy in 10% solution. The suitable concentrations of chitosan irradiated at 100kGy are ca. 100ppm for C. morifolium, 30ppm for E. grandiflorum and 40ppm for L. latifolium. In addition, our study also indicated that the survival ratio of transferred flower plantlets treated with irradiated chitosan was improved after acclimatizing for 30 days in the greenhouse. Accordingly, it is concluded that degraded chitosan obtained by radiation degradation technique is effective as a plant growth promoter as well as irradiated alginate. (author)

  2. ПОИСК ПУТЕЙ ИСПОЛЬЗОВАНИЯ ХРИЗАНТЕМЫ КОРЕЙСКОЙ В КОСМЕТОЛОГИИ

    OpenAIRE

    Кодониди, Е.; Кодониди, М.; Степанова, Э.

    2011-01-01

    Представлен краткий обзор исследований по разработке состава крем-геля с экстрактом хризантемы корейской. Рассмотрены перспективы его использования в косметологии.The short review of researches on working out of structure of cream-gel with an extract of a chrysanthemum Korean is presented. Prospects of its use in cosmetology are considered.

  3. Antioxidant effects of 14 Chinese traditional medicinal herbs against human low-density lipoprotein oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hsin-Hung; Charles, Albert Linton; Hsieh, Chang-Wei; Lee, Ya-Chi; Ciou, Jhih-Ying

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between the antioxidant activities and inhibitory effect of 14 Chinese medicinal herbs against oxidized low-density lipoprotein (LDL) formation was evaluated. Prolongation of the lag phase of LDL oxidation depended on the concentration of the herbs. The concentration of each herb that was able to prolong the lag time by about two-fold was calculated and expressed as doubling-time concentration. The lower the doubling-time concentration, the stronger the inhibitory effect exhibited toward LDL oxidation. Among them, Chrysanthemi Flos (Chrysanthemum morifolium ramat; gān jú huā), Crataegi Fructus (Crataegus pinnatifida Bge. var. major N.E.Br.; shān zhā), and Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn.; luò shén) showed significant inhibitory effects. Correlation coefficients between doubling-time concentration and radical-scavenging activities were high; the total phenolic content was also high. In conclusion, phenolic compounds contributed not only to antioxidant activities, but also to the inhibitory effect against LDL oxidation. Chrysanthemi Flos, Crataegi Fructus, and H. sabdariffa, with lower doubling-time concentrations, could be potent phytochemical agents to reduce LDL oxidation and prevent the progression of atherosclerosis. PMID:26151009

  4. 一个女人的悲歌--对约翰·斯坦贝克小说《菊花》的解读

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苑海涛

    2014-01-01

    《菊花》(The Chrysanthemums)是约翰·斯坦贝克(John Steinbeck)最出色的短篇小说之一。本文首先讨论了故事的大背景,然后就主角艾丽莎·艾伦相对家庭内外的男人的弱势地位进行分析。通过常被以前研究者忽略的细节、在背景环境下对情节的再研究,以及从包括艾丽莎家庭内外的因素的多角度评价她的境遇,本文更精确地探究艾丽莎的内心世界,衡量《菊花》对社会的意义,呼吁给予女性平等和认可以及加强两性间沟通。

  5. Steviol glycoside safety: are highly purified steviol glycoside sweeteners food allergens?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, Jonathan D; Carakostas, Michael C; Taylor, Steve L

    2015-01-01

    Steviol glycoside sweeteners are extracted from the plant Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni), a member of the Asteraceae (Compositae) family. Many plants from this family can induce hypersensitivity reactions via multiple routes of exposure (e.g., ragweed, goldenrod, chrysanthemum, echinacea, chamomile, lettuce, sunflower and chicory). Based on this common taxonomy, some popular media reports and resources have issued food warnings alleging the potential for stevia allergy. To determine if such allergy warnings are warranted on stevia-based sweeteners, a comprehensive literature search was conducted to identify all available data related to allergic responses following the consumption of stevia extracts or highly purified steviol glycosides. Hypersensitivity reactions to stevia in any form are rare. The few cases documented in the peer-reviewed literature were reported prior to the introduction of high-purity products to the market in 2008 when many global regulatory authorities began to affirm the safety of steviol glycosides. Neither stevia manufacturers nor food allergy networks have reported significant numbers of any adverse events related to ingestion of stevia-based sweeteners, and there have been no reports of stevia-related allergy in the literature since 2008. Therefore, there is little substantiated scientific evidence to support warning statements to consumers about allergy to highly purified stevia extracts. PMID:25449199

  6. 第八届中国(重庆)国际园林博览会中山园设计研究%A Study on the Design the Zhongshan Garden in the Eighth China (Chongqing) International Garden &Flower EXPO

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡纹; 向涛; 叶万青; 吴芝元

    2012-01-01

    本文阐述了在2011重庆园博会中山园的设计过程中,通过对中山的城市文脉、城市精神和中山园所处基地特征的研究,确定了中山园的"博爱、菊花、岭南"三大特色主题,以及简洁理性、注重场所精神与继承传统文脉的设计理念;并提出了平面构图几何化、展览空间动态化、运用框景和借景、突出地域文化性的设计手法:最后对该设计进行了总结。%The design of the Zhongshan Garden in 2011 Chongqing Garden & Flower EXPO, carries out a thorough study of the urban culture of Zhongshan city, the spirit of Zhongshan Garden, and the characteristics of the Zhongshan Garden's location, three major themes of Zhongshan Garden are finally focuseduniversal fraternity, Chrysanthemum, and Lingnan. This paper elaborates the design concepts of simplicity, spirit of sites, and inheritance of the traditions and proposes the design method of geometric plane composition, dynamic exhibition space, employing enframed scenery and borrow scenery to highlight the regional culture. At last, it makes conclusions on the design of Zhongshan Garden.

  7. Microbiological Quality of Various Medicinal Herbal Teas and Coffee Substitutes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.H. Tournas

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Various herbal teas including German chamomile, Chrysanthemum Vascuflow herb tea, hop, jasmine and orange flowers, sweet marjoram, spearmint and thyme leaves, and papaya-mint tea as well as coffee substitutes (Bambu instant Swiss, Teeccino chocolate-mint, and Teeccino Mediterranean Espresso were analyzed for fungal contamination and the presence of aerobic mesophilic bacteria (APC. The results of this investigation showed that fungal counts reached levels as high as 5.8 × 105 colony forming units (cfu per gram. German chamomile harbored the highest fungal contamination. The most common fungi found in herbal teas were Aspergillus niger, Penicillium spp., Eurotium rubrum, E. chevalieri, A. flavus, Fusarium spp., Alternaria alternata, and yeasts. Among the coffee substitutes, only the chocolate-mint coffee was contaminated with low numbers (<1.0 × 103 cfu g−1 of E. rubrum, Ulocladium spp. and Phoma spp., and with yeasts (<100–6.8 × 103 cfu g−1. Aerobic mesophilic bacteria were recovered from 100% of the herbal tea, chocolate-mint and Mediterranean Espresso, and from 50% of the Bambu instant Swiss coffee samples. The highest APC counts of 1.2 × 107 cfu g−1 were observed in spearmint leaves.

  8. New Experimental Hosts of Tobacco streak virus and Absence of True Seed Transmission in Leguminous Hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vemana, K; Jain, R K

    2010-10-01

    Of 70 plant species tested, 50 species were susceptible to Tobacco streak virus (TSV) on sap inoculation. Both localized (necrotic and chlorotic spots) and systemic (necrotic spots, axillary shoot proliferation, stunting, total necrosis and wilt) symptoms are observed by majority of plant species. Eleven new experimental hosts were identified viz., Amaranthus blitum var. oleracea (Chaulai sag), Celosia cristata (Cocks comb), Beta vulgaris var. bengalensis (Palak/Indian spinach), Calendula officinalis (Pot marigold), Chrysanthemum indicum, Cosmos sulphurens (Yellow cosmos), Citrullus lunatus (Watermelon), Lagenaria siceraria (Bottle gourd), Coriandrum sativum (Coriander), Hibiscus subderiffa var. subderiffa (Roselle) and Portulaca oleraceae (Little hogweed). Detected groundnut seed infection with TSV for the first time by Direct antigen coated immunosorbent assay (DAC-ELISA) using whole seed. The seed infection ranged from 18.9 to 28.9% among the seeds collected from naturally infected and sap inoculated groundnut varieties (JL 24, TMV 2, Prasuna, Kadiri 6, Kadiri 9, Anantha and Kadiri 7 Bold) belonging to spanish and virginia types. Further, TSV was detected both in pod shell and seed testa and none of the samples showed the presence of TSV either in cotyledon or embryo. Grow-out and bio-assay tests proved the absence of seed transmission in groundnut and other legume crops. Hence, TSV isolate was not a true seed transmission case under Indian conditions in legumes. PMID:23637490

  9. Uso agrícola de esgoto tratado em lagoas de estabilização:experiências do Pprosab* em Lins – SP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Mendonça Campos

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A Pilot Plant to treat the effluent from SABESP´s Wastewater Treatment Plant (Stabilization Pond System located at Lins was built within a six-hectare area adjacent to the Treatment Plant. The study focused on agricultural applications of the final treated effluent. Additional unit operations for wastewater treatment were constructed – namely hypochlorite disinfection, UV light disinfection and ozonation units. The final effluent from the Pilot Plant was applied in crop irrigation – namely coffee, corn and bean crops and the feeding system was by drop irrigation. Additionally, a fraction of the final treated effluent fed a hydrophonic system installed in vases, in which chrysanthemum and Gypsophila were cultivated. A third feeding line supplied a fish tank in which Oreochromis Niloticus were grown. A number of physical, chemical and biological variables were utilized for quality control of effluent streams at the various treatment stages, to monitor the cultivated crops and the soil, as well as agricultural parameters to identify growth characteristics. For all the cases under study there were conventional mode crops in parallel, acting as controls or references. The results obtained showed that the pond effluent, besides the hydraulic capacity itself, contained nutrients that are adequate for agricultural purposes, with significant savings associated. Additionally, such applications in irrigation avoid the eutrophication of natural water bodies

  10. Effects of Beverages on Alcohol Metabolism: Potential Health Benefits and Harmful Impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fang; Zhang, Yu-Jie; Zhou, Yue; Li, Ya; Zhou, Tong; Zheng, Jie; Zhang, Jiao-Jiao; Li, Sha; Xu, Dong-Ping; Li, Hua-Bin

    2016-01-01

    Nonalcoholic beverages are usually consumed accompanying alcoholic drinks, and their effects on alcohol metabolism are unclear in vivo. In this study, the effects of 20 nonalcoholic beverages on alcohol metabolism and liver injury caused by alcohol were evaluated in mice. Kunming mice were orally fed with alcohol (52%, v/v) and beverages. The concentrations of ethanol and acetaldehyde in blood as well as the activities of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) in liver were assessed to indicate alcohol metabolism. The levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT) in serum as well as the levels of malonaldehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in liver were measured to reflect the alcohol-induced liver injury. The results showed that the treatment of soda water, green tea and honey chrysanthemum tea could accelerate ethanol metabolism and prevent liver injuries caused by alcohol when companied with excessive alcohol drinking. They might be potential dietary supplements for the alleviation of harmful effects from excessive alcohol consumption. On the contrary, some beverages such as fresh orange juice and red bull are not advised to drink when companied with alcohol consumption due to their adverse effects on ethanol induced liver injury. PMID:27005619

  11. Effects of Beverages on Alcohol Metabolism: Potential Health Benefits and Harmful Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fang; Zhang, Yu-Jie; Zhou, Yue; Li, Ya; Zhou, Tong; Zheng, Jie; Zhang, Jiao-Jiao; Li, Sha; Xu, Dong-Ping; Li, Hua-Bin

    2016-01-01

    Nonalcoholic beverages are usually consumed accompanying alcoholic drinks, and their effects on alcohol metabolism are unclear in vivo. In this study, the effects of 20 nonalcoholic beverages on alcohol metabolism and liver injury caused by alcohol were evaluated in mice. Kunming mice were orally fed with alcohol (52%, v/v) and beverages. The concentrations of ethanol and acetaldehyde in blood as well as the activities of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) in liver were assessed to indicate alcohol metabolism. The levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT) in serum as well as the levels of malonaldehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in liver were measured to reflect the alcohol-induced liver injury. The results showed that the treatment of soda water, green tea and honey chrysanthemum tea could accelerate ethanol metabolism and prevent liver injuries caused by alcohol when companied with excessive alcohol drinking. They might be potential dietary supplements for the alleviation of harmful effects from excessive alcohol consumption. On the contrary, some beverages such as fresh orange juice and red bull are not advised to drink when companied with alcohol consumption due to their adverse effects on ethanol induced liver injury. PMID:27005619

  12. Study on Technology of Compound Juice of Raspberry%树莓复合果汁的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张志军; 魏雪生; 李淑芳

    2011-01-01

    A compound beverage using raspberry as main material was studied by orthogonal tests and the optimal formula of the beverage was determined as raspberry juice 80 mL, hawthorn juice 10 mL, wolfberry juice 10 mL,chrysanthemum paste 0.1 g, honeysuckle paste 0.1 g, chinese rose 0.3 g, granulated sugar 10 g, honey 3 g, xylooligosaccharides 1.5 g. The results indicated the compounded functional raspberry beverage had delicious flavour of acid and sweet, bright colour, particular flavour, uniform microstructure, lower heat and rich nutrition.%以树莓为主要原料,研制一种树莓复合饮料,通过正交试验确定最佳的饮料配方为:树莓汁80 mL、山楂汁10 mL、枸杞汁10 mL;菊花膏0.1 g、金银花膏0.1 g、月季花膏0.3 g;砂糖10 g、蜂蜜3 g、低聚木糖1.5 g,所制果汁饮料酸甜适口,色泽鲜艳、风味独特、组织状态均匀,且热量低、营养丰富.

  13. 小菊品种‘钟山金桂’与亚菊属细裂亚菊F1回交后代的性状遗传表现%Genetic Presentation of BC1 Between ‘Zhongshanjingui' and ‘Zhongshanjingui' x Ajania przewalskii

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱文莹; 刘新春; 房伟民; 管志勇; 陈素梅; 蒋甲福; 陈发棣

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] Genetic presentation of BC1 between 'Zhongshanjingui' and 'Zhongshanjingui' ×Ajania przewalskii. Was studied in order to obtain new germplasm with higher ornamental and cold tolerance. [Method] Backcross hybridizations were made between Dendranthema morifolium variety 'Zhongshanjingui' (as female) and 'Zhongshanjingui' Xajania przewalskⅡ (as male). The backcross hybrids were obtained and their hybridity was confirmed by a combination of morphological, cytological analysis and resistance comparison. [Result] A total of 17 backcross hybrids were obtained. The hybrids differentiated obviously from their parents in many morphological characters and all hybrid lines bloomed normally. There happened three flower types, I.e. standard anemone type, mid-anemone type and non-anemone type, and most were anemone type. Some hybeids' inflorescence diameter was greater than 'Zhongshanjingui', the flower color was the same as 'Zhongshanjingui'. Compared with the male parent, the ornamental value was greatly improved. The chromosome number of 'Zhongshanjingui' and 'Zhongshanjingui' ×Ajania przewalskⅡ were 54 and 45, respectively. Their backcross hybrids chromosome number was between 41-54. In comparison of cold resistance, almost all the hybrids showed higher tolerance than 'Zhongshanjingui', which illustrated the backcross hybrids preserved the cold tolerance of Ajania przewalskii. [ Conclusion ] By using backcross between intergeneric hybrid F1 and its chrysanthemum parent, not only the intergeneric hybrid's ornamental vatue can be improved, but new germplasm of chrysanthemum also can be created.%[目的]对菊属栽培菊‘钟山金桂’与亚菊属细裂亚菊F1回交后代的性状遗传表现进行研究,获得观赏性和抗性改良的优异属间新种质.[方法]以‘钟山金桂’×细裂亚菊F1为父本,‘钟山金桂’为轮回亲本开展回交试验.对获得的回交后代进行细胞学鉴定,对BC1代的形态性状观测,对经过越冬

  14. Efeito da presa alternativa no desenvolvimento e consumo de Orius insidiosus (Say (Hemiptera, Anthocoridae e comportamento de oviposição em cultivares de crisântemo Effect of alternative prey on development and consumption of Orius insidiosus (Say (Hemiptera, Anthocoridae and oviposition behavior on chrysantemum cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria da Conceição M. Soglia

    2007-12-01

    . The consumption of the females of O. insidiosus was higher (P<0.01 on A. gossypii in "White Reagan" (2.63 nymphs compared to the consumption in "Yellow Snowdon" (0.7 nymphs. Females of O. insidiosus oviposited in petiole of both cultivars with 22.5 and 23.3 eggs/female on "White Reagan" and "Yellow Snowdon", respectively. Release of O. insidiosus on chrysanthemum crops could be important to decrease the A. gossypii population, as the predator completes its development having this aphid as prey, and the chrysanthemum cultivars offer conditions to colonization and establishment of O. insidiosus.

  15. 雪莲果复合饮料的研制%Research of the Yacon Composite Beverage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔欣欣; 张娜; 张菊新

    2015-01-01

    Yacon is a fresh,delicious,of low sugar and low calorie fruit. In this paper,through single factor test and orthogonal test,a yacon composite beverage was made using yacon,kiwifruit,chrysanthemum and xylosic alcohol. The chemical color protection technology of yacon and product formulation was researched. The optimal technology of yacon color protection is sodium sulfite 0.3%,citric acid 0.3 %,ascorbic acid 0.4 %,the color protection time 6min. The ratio of yacon juice,kiwifruit pulp and chrysanthemum juice is 6∶3∶4. The optimal product formulation is mixed juice 40 %,mixture of sucrose and xylosic alcohol(5∶1)6 %,citric acid 0.15 %,malic acid 0.05%,CMC 0.10%, guar gum 0.03%,pectin 0.06%. This yacon composite beverage is delicious,nourishing,of low sugar and low calorie. It can offer an important practical guidance to explore resource of agricultural commodities like yacon.%雪莲果是一种风味清爽、低糖、低热量水果。本文通过单因素实验和正交试验,以雪莲果、猕猴桃、菊花、木糖醇为主要原料,研制雪莲果复合饮料。重点研究雪莲果化学护色工艺以及产品配方。结果表明,雪莲果最佳护色工艺:亚硫酸钠0.3%,柠檬酸0.3%,抗坏血酸0.4%,护色时间6min。三种原汁最佳配比为,雪莲果汁∶猕猴桃浆∶菊花汁为6∶3∶4。产品最优配方为:复合原料汁40%,蔗糖和木糖醇(5∶1)总量6%,柠檬酸0.15%,苹果酸0.05%,羧甲基纤维素钠0.10%,瓜儿豆胶0.03%,果胶0.06%。产品具有风味清爽优美,营养丰富,低糖,低热量等特点,为雪莲果农产品的开发利用提供一条新途径。

  16. Evaluation of plant aqueous extracts, added into the soil, on Meloidogyne javanica (Treub, 1885 Chitwood, 1949 / Avaliação de extratos aquosos de várias espécies vegetais, aplicados ao solo, sobre Meloidogyne javanica (Treub, 1885 Chitwood, 1949

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Grassi de Freitas

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The use of plant extracts with nematicidal properties to control plant nematodes can be a useful alternative to small farmers, regarding its low cost and non-toxic effects. The effect of the addition into the soil of aqueous extracts of 20 plant species on Meloidogyne javanica in plants of tomato was studied at greenhouse conditions. These were divided into two groups and evaluated in two separate experiments.The soil in the 2.0 L pots was infested with 5,000 eggs and, in the same day, it was applied 20 mL of aqueous extracts of the 20 plant species (Chrysanthemum parthenium, Arctium lappa, Cymbopogon citratus, Bacharis trimera, Equisetum sp., Melia azedarach, Mentha sp., Ricinus communis, Ocimum basilicum, Momordica charantia, Ruta graveolens, Coleus barbatus, Symphitum officinalis, Polygonum acre, Canavalia ensiformis, Foeniculum vulgare, Petiveria alliacea, Ageratum conyzoides, Mucuna pruriens and Azadirachta indica. Distilled water was used as control. Sixty days later, were evaluated for plant height, the fresh weight of shoot and root and the numbers of galls and eggs per root system. The extracts of Mentha sp., Arctium lappa and Ricinus communis reduced the number of galls of M. javanica in 75.6%; 65.7% and 54.4%; and the number of eggs in 81.7%, 75.9% and 56.6%, respectively.O uso de extratos vegetais com propriedades nematicidas no controle de fitonematóides representa mais uma alternativa para os pequenos produtores, com valor prático e econômico, e sem riscos de contaminação do ambiente. A adição ao solo dos extratos aquosos de 20 espécies de plantas foi avaliada sobre a população de Meloidogyne javanica em plantas de tomateiro, em casa de vegetação. Estas foram divididas em dois grupos e avaliadas em dois experimentos separados. No mesmo dia em que se infestou o solo com 5.000 ovos do nematóide, adicionou-se 20 mL dos extratos aquosos obtidos de folhas de artemísia (Chrysanthemum parthenium, bardana (Arctium lappa

  17. 不同蔬菜对保加利亚乳杆菌生长的影响%Effect of different vegetables on the growth of Lactobacillus bulgaricus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    康婕; 吕嘉枥; 刘洋

    2013-01-01

    为了说明发酵蔬菜制品中的浆水菜在发酵过程中发酵菌对原料蔬菜的选择性,以保加利亚乳杆菌(Lactobacillus bulgaricus)为菌种,以48种常见蔬菜为原料,按照浆水菜制作工艺,实验研究了菌体在添加不同蔬菜中的生长的情况.结果表明,添加白萝卜、黄瓜、山药、番茄、胡萝卜、小白菜、小青菜、油麦菜、芹菜、冬瓜等蔬菜的,保加利亚乳杆菌生长的很好,菌体浓度均可达到108cfu/mL以上;添加土豆、菠菜、海带、黄豆芽、油菜、芥菜、苦菊、芥蓝、茴香、菜花、莴笋、茄子、南瓜、西葫芦、苜蓿等蔬菜的,保加利亚乳杆菌有生长,菌体浓度在107 cfu/mL左右;添加平菇、空心菜、生菜、大葱、蒜苔、青椒、大白菜、西兰花、茼蒿、韭菜、香椿、地瓜、紫薯、莲藕、娃娃菜、荷兰豆、苦瓜、紫甘蓝、丝瓜、冬笋、豇豆、香菜、洋葱等蔬菜的保加利亚乳杆菌没有生长.%Effect of adding 48 kinds of common vegetables as raw materials on the growth Lactobacillus bulgaricus were examined,by which production processes in accordance with jiangshui in order to illustrate the selectivity of the bacteria on raw vegetables.The test results showed that white radish,cucumber,yams,tomatoes,carrots,cabbage,green cabbage,lettuce,celery,melon could promote the growth of Lactobacillus bulgaricus obviously and the number of the viable cells reached 108cfu/mL above.Potatoes,spinach,seaweed,bean sprouts,rapeseed,mustard greens,bitter chrysanthemum,kale,fennel,cauliflower,lettuce,eggplant,pumpkin,zucchini,alfalfa on the growth of Lactobacillus bulgaricus were not obvious,the number of the viable cells reached 107cfu/mL,mushroom,spinach,lettuce,green onions,garlic,green peppers,cabbage,broccoli,garland chrysanthemum,leeks,cedar,and sweet potatoes,purple sweet potato,lotus root,baby vegetables,snow peas,bitter gourd,purple cabbage,loofah,bamboo shoots,cowpea,parsley,onion have

  18. Soaking curve and effect of temperature on the germination of daisy seeds Curva de embebição e efeito da temperatura na germinação de sementes de margarida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério G Pêgo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The soaking curve and the effect of temperature on the germination of daisy seeds (Chrysanthemum leucanthemum were characterized in this study. To determine the soaking curve, four samples of 0.5 g of seeds were soaked in germitest paper moistened with distilled water and maintained in germinator at 25ºC. The seeds were weighed in periods of 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, 24, 36, 48, 60, 72, 84 and 96 hours using a precision digital balance of 0.0001 g. A triphasic pattern germination curve was adjusted, allowing the determination of the beginning and duration of the phase II of the germination process. The germination test was carried out with four replications of 50 seeds disposed in "Gerbox" boxes and placed in germinators at the temperatures of 20, 25, 30 or 20-30ºC. A completely randomized experimental design was used with four replications of 50 seeds. The data were submitted to the analysis of variance and the averages were compared by the Tukey test, at 5% of probability. For analysis of accumulated seed germination, regressions were adjusted based on period of experiment. The seeds presented a triphasic pattern of germination and the phases I and II lasted 12 and 48 hours, respectively. The best temperature for the germination of the seeds is 25ºC. The temperature of 30ºC promoted the thermoinhibition of germination and increased the dead and dormant seeds and abnormal seedlings.A curva de embebição e o efeito da temperatura sobre a germinação de sementes de margarida (Chrysanthemum leucanthemum foram caracterizados. Para determinar a curva de embebição, quatro amostras de 0,5 g de sementes foram embebidas em papel germitest umedecido com água destilada e mantidas em germinador a 25ºC. As sementes foram pesadas em períodos de 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, 24, 36, 48, 60, 72, 84 e 96 horas, com auxílio de balança de precisão digital de 0,0001 g. Foi ajustada uma curva trifásica padrão de germinação, permitindo a determinação do início e a dura

  19. Xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity of the methanolic extracts of selected Jordanian medicinal plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad M Hudaib

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The search for novel xanthine oxidase (XO inhibitors with a higher therapeutic activity and fewer side effects are desired not only to treat gout but also to combat various other diseases associated with the XO activity. At present, the potential of developing successful natural products for the management of XO-related diseases is still largely unexplored. In the present study, we have screened the methanolic extracts of various Jordanian medicinal plants for their XO inhibitory activities using an optimized protocol. Materials and Methods: The methanolic extracts of 23 medicinal plants, belonging to 12 families, were tested in vitro, at 200 μg/ml concentrations, for their XO inhibitory potential. The dose-dependent inhibition profiles of the most active plants were further evaluated by estimating the IC 50 values of their corresponding extracts. Results: Six plants were found most active (% inhibition more than 39%. These plants are Salvia spinosa L. (IC 50 = 53.7 μg/ml, Anthemis palestina Boiss. (168.0 μg/ml, Chrysanthemum coronarium L. (199.5 μg/ml, Achillea biebersteinii Afansiev (360.0 μg/ml, Rosmarinus officinalis L. (650.0 μg/ml, and Ginkgo biloba L. (595.8 μg/ml. Moreover, four more plants, namely Lavandula angustifolia Mill. (28.7% inhibition, Helianthemum ledifolium (L. Mill. (28.4%, Majorana syriaca (L. Kostel. (25.1%, and Mentha spicata L. (22.5% showed a XO inhibitory activity in the range of 22-30%. Conclusion: The study showed that many of the tested plant species are potential sources of natural XO inhibitors that can be developed, upon further investigation, into successful herbal drugs for treatment of gout and other XO-related disorders.

  20. Radiation techniques in crop and plant breeding. Multiplying the benefits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    World food production is based on growing a wide variety of fruits, vegetables, and crops developed through advances in science. Plant breeders have produced multiple varieties that grow well in various types of soils and under diverse climates in different regions of the world. Conventionally, this is done by sexual hybridization. This involves transferring pollen from one parent plant to another to obtain hybrids. The subsequent generations of these hybrids are grown to select plants which combine the desired characters of the parents. However, another method exists by which the genetic make-up of a given plant variety can be changed without crossing with another variety. With this method, a variety retains all its original attributes but is upgraded in one or two changed characteristics. This method is based on radiation-induced genetic changes, and its referred to as ''induced mutations''. During the past thirty years, more than 1800 mutant varieties of plants have been released, many, of which were induced with radiation. Plant tissue and cell culture (also called in vitro culture) in combination with radiation is a powerful technique to induce mutations, particularly for the improvement of vegetatively propagated crops. These crops include cassava, garlic, potato, sweet potato, yams, sugarcane, ornamentals such as chrysanthemum, carnation, roses, tulips, daffodil, and many fruits (e.g. apple, banana, plantain, citrus, date palm, grape, papaya, passion fruit, and kiwi fruit). In some of these plants, either there is no seed set (e.g. banana) or the seed progeny produces plants which do not have the right combination of the desired characteristics. These techniques are also useful in the improvement of forest trees having a long lifespan before they produce fruit and seed. This article briefly reviews advances in plant breeding techniques, with a view towards improving the transfer of technologies to more countries

  1. New approaches for effective mutation induction in gamma field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the report is to clarify the effects of chronic irradiation using in vitro culture on inducing the mutation of two model plants. Culture technique combined with irradiation can overcome the problem of chimera formation and provided 10 times greater mutation efficiency than conventional method. Proper mutagenic treatment using cultured materials is indispensable to effective mutation induction. The chronic culture method showed the widest color spectrum in chrysanthemum and extended toward not only the negative but positive direction. However, the acute culture methods indicated a relatively low mutation rate and a very limited flower color spectrum. Flower color mutation of the regenerations could be induced more from petals and buds than from leaves. These facts is supposed that the gene loci fully expressed on floral organs may be unstable for mutation by mutagenesis or culture. It may be likely to control a direction of desired mutation. One possible reason why the chronic culture methods showed higher frequencies is that most of the cells composing the tissue and organs continually irradiated into a cell division which was highly sensitive and more mutable to irradiation. Under these conditions, many mutated sectors may accumulate in the cells of the growing organs. Regenerated mutant lines show remarkable decrease of chromosome numbers by irradiation. It is a proper indicator to monitor radiation damage. In this study, the six flower color mutant varieties registered were derived from chronic irradiation. The combined method of chronic irradiation with floral organ cultures proved to be of particularly great practical use in mutation breeding for not only flower species but any other species. (author)

  2. Lauric acid in crown daisy root exudate potently regulates root-knot nematode chemotaxis and disrupts Mi-flp-18 expression to block infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Linlin; Li, Xiaolin; Huang, Li; Gao, Ying; Zhong, Lina; Zheng, Yuanyuan; Zuo, Yuanmei

    2014-01-01

    Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) crops can be severely damaged due to parasitism by the root-knot nematode (RKN) Meloidogyne incognita, but are protected when intercropped with crown daisy (Chrysanthemum coronarium L.). Root exudate may be the determining factor for this protection. An experiment using pots linked by a tube and Petri dish experiments were undertaken to confirm that tomato-crown daisy intercropping root exudate decreased the number of nematodes and alleviated nematode damage, and to determine crown daisy root exudate-regulated nematode chemotaxis. Following a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry assay, it was found that the intercropping protection was derived from the potent bioactivity of a specific root exudate component of crown daisy, namely lauric acid. The Mi-flp-18 gene, encoding an FMRFamide-like peptide neuromodulator, regulated nematode chemotaxis and infection by RNA interference. Moreover, it was shown that lauric acid acts as both a lethal trap and a repellent for M. incognita by specifically regulating Mi-flp-18 expression in a concentration-dependent manner. Low concentrations of lauric acid (0.5-2.0mM) attract M. incognita and consequently cause death, while high concentrations (4.0mM) repel M. incognita. This study elucidates how lauric acid in crown daisy root exudate regulates nematode chemotaxis and disrupts Mi-flp-18 expression to alleviate nematode damage, and presents a general methodology for studying signalling systems affected by plant root exudates in the rhizosphere. This could lead to the development of economical and feasible strategies for controlling plant-parasitic nematodes, and provide an alternative to the use of pesticides in farming systems. PMID:24170741

  3. Arbitrarily amplified DNA: New molecular approaches to plant breeding, ecology and evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several DNA fingerprinting techniques that use arbitrary primers to characterize, scan and tag genomic DNA were optimized and used to study plants and microbial pathogens. The generated arbitrarily amplified DNA (AAD) profiles could be tailored in their complexity and polymorphic content, allowing analysis of closely related organisms, such as vegetatively-propagated horticultural crops or clonal fungal populations. AAD markers were used in cultivar and strain identification, map-based cloning, and marker-assisted breeding, sometimes as sequence-tagged sites. Phenetic analysis using parsimony, cluster, and numerical methods was applied successfully to the identification of genetic relationships in turfgrass species such as bermudagrass, woody plants such as dogwoods, and floricultural species such as petunia and chrysanthemum. AAD profiles were used to measure for the first time a genome-wide mutation rate, directly in a plant. Mutation rates in vegetatively propagated bermudagrass were comparable to those in human, mice, fruit flies, and worms. In combination with established tools used in molecular systematics (e.g. rDNA sequence analysis), AAD markers tracked the introduction of exotic dogwood anthracnose-causing fungi in North America. As part of a breeding effort to combat dogwood diseases, AAD was used in pseudo-testcross mapping of the tree at the intra-specific level. Markers were efficiently generated despite the close relatedness of parental dogwood material. Finally, DNA markers and tags were also generated in soybean, and were used to construct high density maps and walk towards defined genomic regions in the positional cloning of the supernodulation nts-1 symbiotic gene. (author)

  4. 灰铸铁低频内耗与孕育量及组织的关系研究%Study on Correlation between Low-Frequency Internal Friction and Inoculant Addition & Structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭金花; 汤虎; 陈萌; 杨弋涛

    2011-01-01

    By analyzing with low frequency intemal friction spectrum and observing with optical microscopy,the correlation between microstructures of the gray cast iron step specimen resulted from different inoculant adding amount and their intemal friction was studied. The test results showed that,with increasing of the temperature,the internal friction value increased at first,and then decreased; when cooling rate was high,B-type (chrysanthemum-shaped) graphite and the lowest internal friction value was obtained; the larger the area of graphite, the higher internal friction value; the smaller the graphite size, the smaller the intemal friction value. It may be expected that the test result can be used as the scientific representation of the damping characteristics of the gray cast irons.%运用低频内耗谱分析和光学显微镜观察,研究了灰铸铁阶梯试样在不同孕育剂加入量下的微观组织与内耗的关系.试验结果表明:随着温度的升高,内耗值先增加后减小;冷却速度较大,得到菊花状石墨时内耗值最小;石墨面积越大,内耗值就越大,石墨越细小,内耗值就越小.试验结果可望作为灰铸铁减振特性的科学表征.

  5. The Cytogenetical Effects of Some Natural and Syntetic Radioprotectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Some bioactive substances extracted from plants or obtained through synthesis, present a stimulatory or/and antimutagen activity (in vivo or in vitro experiments). A total extract from Spinacia oleracea or Brassica rapa HV Komatsuna leaves, were tested for their antimutagen or stimulatory effect at in vitro culture, in Chrysanthemum hortorum and Ipomoea batatas (stem fragments with a node, inoculated on an MS medium supplied with 1.08mg/l KIN and 1.0 mg/l IAA). The shooting process and shoot length is stimulated by Komatsuna 0.6 g/l leaves extract in I. batatas, while at Ch. hortorum the process is lower influenced by the two natural antimutagen extracts. The antimutagen effect of the Spinacia oleracea leaf total extract (600 mg/l) against X-rays (104Gy) was tested at in vitro culture of the Dendrobium phalenopsis somatic embryos. The Spinacia oleracea leaves total extract enhanced the embryogenesis processes, more obviously in the irradiated variants, in comparison with the control. The fatty oil total extract from Nigella sativa seeds (Ranunculaceae) presents a high radioprotective effect against the X-rays. The magnetic fluids present a stimulatory effect as well as an anticarcinogen and antimutagen effect. In the experiments performed in vivo in Nigella damascena, a magnetic fluid on petroleum basis or a complex magnetic fluid on oleic acid basis present in the time of seeds irradiation with X-rays (40 Gy), manifest a radioprotective effect (reduce the chromosomal aberrations and initiate a recovery phenomena). (author)

  6. Insecticide Rotation Programs with Entomopathogenic Organisms for Suppression of Western Flower Thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) Adult Populations under Greenhouse Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivett, Jessica M; Cloyd, Raymond A; Bello, Nora M

    2015-08-01

    Western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande), is one of the most destructive insect pests of greenhouse production systems with the ability to develop resistance to a wide variety of insecticides. A common resistance management strategy is rotating insecticides with different modes of action. By incorporating entomopathogenic organisms (fungi and bacteria), which have discrete modes of action compared to standard insecticides, greenhouse producers may preserve the effectiveness of insecticides used for suppression of western flower thrips populations. The objective of this study was to determine how different rotation programs that include entomopathogenic organisms (Beauveria bassiana, Isaria fumosoroseus, Metarhizium anisopliae, and Chromobacterium subtsugae) and commonly used standard insecticides (spinosad, chlorfenapyr, abamectin, and pyridalyl) may impact the population dynamics of western flower thrips adult populations by means of suppression. Eight-week rotation programs were applied to chrysanthemum, Dendranthema x morifolium plants and weekly counts of western flower thrips adults captured on yellow sticky cards were recorded as a means to evaluate the impact of the rotation programs. A final quality assessment of damage caused by western flower thrips feeding on foliage and flowers was also recorded. Furthermore, a cost comparison of each rotation program was conducted. Overall, insecticide rotation programs that incorporated entomopathogenic organisms were not significantly different than the standard insecticide rotation programs without entomopathogenic organisms in suppressing western flower thrips adult populations. However, there were no significant differences among any of the rotation programs compared to the water control. Moreover, there was no differential effect of the rotation programs on foliage and flower quality. Cost savings of up to 34% (in US dollars) are possible when including entomopathogenic organisms in the

  7. On The Piano in a Factory%穹若下的普绪客——解读《钢的琴》

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何燕李

    2012-01-01

    Patriarchy build sexual politics to render male as the First Sex and female, the Second Sex. In order to distinguish the Second Sex, sexual politics build chora to accommodate the role, temperament and status of female. In the film The Piano in a Factory, Xiao Ju and Shu Xian encountered this kind of captivity. They acted as wild chrysanthemum, whose temperament was marked as the Second Sex. Although they got some fights as a new generation, they were still women. In chora, they became the ideal objects to support Chen Guilin' s First Sex: They can' t move away or stay away from the chora, since they are just the lucky or unlucky Pcyche.%为渲染男性的第一性,男权制构建了性/别政治,把女性列为第二性;为标记第二性,性,别政治设定了穹若,来囚禁女性的角色、气质和地位.电影《钢的琴》中的小菊和淑娴就遭遇了这种囚禁:角色为异类“野菊”:气质响应了第二性的“感召”;地位渗透着伪势群像。穹若下的她们,既不能越池,也无法规避,而只能携带第二性卑污,沦为幸与不幸的普绪客,去支撑男性的第一性和主体性。

  8. Prospect of indegenous plant extracts in tea pest management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.S.A. Mamun

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Tea is a popular beverage made from the leaves of evergreen shrub or tree Camellia sinensis, under the family Theaceae. Tea plant is subjected to the attack of insects, mites, nematodes and some plant pathogenic diseases. Tea production is greatly hindered due to thesemaladies. About 10-15% crop loss occurred by these pests per annum. In severe cases, it would be 100%. To combat these problems different groups of pesticides have been used in the tea fields since 1960. As tea is a consumable commodity, the effect of residue of pesticides in made tea is harmful to human health. In this context, biopesticides are being considered as environmentally safe, selective, biodegradable, economical and renewable alternatives for use in IPM programmes. Biopesticides are natural plant products and may be grown by the planters with minimum cost and extracted by indigenous methods.Biopesticides are secondary metabolites, which include alkaloids, terpenoids, phenolics, and minor secondary chemicals. It is estimated that as many as 2121 plant species have been reported to posses’ pest control properties. Botanicals like neem, ghora-neem, mahogoni,karanja, adathoda, sweet flag, tobacco, derris, annona, smart weed, bar weed, datura, calotropis, bidens, lantana, chrysanthemum, artemisia, marigold, clerodendrum, wild sunflower and many others may be grown by planters with minimum expense and extracted by indigenous methods. These botanical materials can be used as an alternative to chemical pesticides. These botanical extracts will help in controlling major pests of tea such as Helopeltis, red spider mite, aphids, thrips, jassid, flushworm, termites, nematodes etc. Thepresent note reviews the information of most widely available indigenous plants that may be used for the control of insect pests of tea as a component of IPM.

  9. New approaches for effective mutation induction in gamma field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagatomi, Shigeki [National Institute of Agrobiological Resources, Institute of Radiation Breeding, Omiya, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2001-03-01

    The purpose of the report is to clarify the effects of chronic irradiation using in vitro culture on inducing the mutation of two model plants. Culture technique combined with irradiation can overcome the problem of chimera formation and provided 10 times greater mutation efficiency than conventional method. Proper mutagenic treatment using cultured materials is indispensable to effective mutation induction. The chronic culture method showed the widest color spectrum in chrysanthemum and extended toward not only the negative but positive direction. However, the acute culture methods indicated a relatively low mutation rate and a very limited flower color spectrum. Flower color mutation of the regenerations could be induced more from petals and buds than from leaves. These facts is supposed that the gene loci fully expressed on floral organs may be unstable for mutation by mutagenesis or culture. It may be likely to control a direction of desired mutation. One possible reason why the chronic culture methods showed higher frequencies is that most of the cells composing the tissue and organs continually irradiated into a cell division which was highly sensitive and more mutable to irradiation. Under these conditions, many mutated sectors may accumulate in the cells of the growing organs. Regenerated mutant lines show remarkable decrease of chromosome numbers by irradiation. It is a proper indicator to monitor radiation damage. In this study, the six flower color mutant varieties registered were derived from chronic irradiation. The combined method of chronic irradiation with floral organ cultures proved to be of particularly great practical use in mutation breeding for not only flower species but any other species. (author)

  10. 女性的觉醒与现实的藩篱--评两则短篇小说中女权意识的建构%The Awakening of Feminism Versus The Barrier of Reality---On the Construction of Feminist Awareness in Two Short Stories

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦丹丹

    2016-01-01

    In view of the historical background of American feminist movement in the early 20th century, the present thesis centers on the construction of feminist awareness in The Jilting of Granny Weatherall and The Chrysanthemums. The female characters portrayed in these two short stories demonstrate visible traits of “New Women” in varying degrees. They are dauntless enough to proclaim independence and crave self-actualization. However, due to the incompleteness of the first wave of feminist movement, they find themselves ultimately powerless to assert themselves in a patriarchal society. Internalization of male discourse, unquestioning obedience toward theocracy and the ultimate denunciation of their feminist pursuits constitute a truer description of women’ s life in that historic period.%结合20世纪初美国女权运动的历史背景,评析两则短篇小说中女权意识的建构。《被遗弃的韦瑟罗尔奶奶》和《菊花》中女主人公体现了不同程度的新女性特质,她们勇于张扬女性的独立人格,追求女性的自我实现。然而,由于第一次女权运动的不彻底性,她们所具备的女权意识相对薄弱,难以抵御强大的社会阻力。对男权话语的内化、父权制下神权的迷信以及对女权理想的最终背离,强烈书写了当时美国中产阶级女性更为真实的生命体验。

  11. Subpicosecond surface dynamics in genomic DNA from in vitro-grown plant species: a SERS assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muntean, Cristina M; Bratu, Ioan; Leopold, Nicolae; Morari, Cristian; Buimaga-Iarinca, Luiza; Purcaru, Monica A P

    2015-09-01

    In this work the surface-enhanced Raman total half band widths of seven genomic DNAs from leaves of chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflora Ramat.), common sundew (Drosera rotundifolia L.), edelweiss (Leontopodium alpinum Cass), Epilobium hirsutum L., Hypericum richeri ssp. transsilvanicum (Čelak) Ciocârlan, rose (Rosa x hybrida L.) and redwood (Sequoia sempervirens D. Don. Endl.) have been measured. We have shown that surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) can be used to study the fast subpicosecond dynamics of DNA in the proximity of a metallic surface. The dependencies of the total half band widths and the global relaxation times, on the DNA molecular subgroup structure and on the type of genomic DNA, are reported. In our study, the full widths at half-maximum (FWHMs) for the SERS bands of genomic DNAs from different leaf tissues are typically in the wavenumber range from 15 to 55 cm(-1). Besides, it can be observed that molecular relaxation processes studied in this work have a global relaxation time smaller than 0.71 ps and larger than 0.19 ps. A comparison between different ranges of FT-Raman and SERS band parameters, respectively, corresponding to DNA extracted from leaf tissues is given. It is shown that the interaction between DNA and a metallic surface has the potential to lead to a shortening of the global relaxation times, as compared with molecular dynamics in solution. We have found that the surface dynamics of molecular subgroups in plant DNA is, in some cases, about two times faster than the solution dynamics of nucleic acids. This can be rationalized in a qualitative manner by invoking the complex landscape of the interaction energy between the molecule and the silver surface. PMID:25687823

  12. Larvicidal activity of medicinal plant extracts against Anopheles subpictus & Culex tritaeniorhynchus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamaraj, C.; Bagavan, A.; Elango, G.; Zahir, A. Abduz; Rajakumar, G.; Marimuthu, S.; Santhoshkumar, T.; Rahuman, A. Abdul

    2011-01-01

    Background & objectives: Mosquitoes transmit serious human diseases, causing millions of deaths every year and the development of resistance to chemical insecticides resulting in rebounding vectorial capacity. Plants may be alternative sources of mosquito control agents. The present study assessed the role of larvicidal activities of hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, acetone, and methanol dried leaf and bark extracts of Annona squamosa L., Chrysanthemum indicum L., and Tridax procumbens L. against the fourth instar larvae of malaria vector, Anopheles subpictus Grassi and Japanese encephalitis vector, Culex tritaeniorhynchus Giles (Diptera: Culicidae). Methods: Larvicidal activities of three medicinal plant extracts were studied in the range of 4.69 to 1000 mg/l in the laboratory bioassays against early 4th instar larvae of An. subpictus and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus. The mortality data were subjected to probit analysis to determine the lethal concentrations (LC50 and LC90) to kill 50 and 90 per cent of the treated larvae of the respective species. Results: All plant extracts showed moderate effects after 24 h of exposure; however, the highest toxic effect of bark methanol extract of A. squamosa, leaf ethyl acetate extract of C. indicum and leaf acetone extract of T. procumbens against the larvae of An. subpictus (LC50 = 93.80, 39.98 and 51.57 mg/l) and bark methanol extract of A. squamosa, leaf methanol extract of C. indicum and leaf ethyl acetate extract of T. procumbens against the larvae of Cx. tritaeniorhynchus (LC50 =104.94, 42.29 and 69.16 mg/l) respectively. Interpretation & Conclusions: Our data suggest that the bark ethyl acetate and methanol extract of A. squamosa, leaf ethyl acetate and methanol extract of C. indicum, acetone and ethyl acetate extract of T. procumbens have the potential to be used as an ecofriendly approach for the control of the An. subpictus, and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus. PMID:21808141

  13. Use of gamma radiation in floriculture industry for development of new varieties through induced mutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear radiation (gamma rays) can create changes in genetic make up of plant material through mutation. Gamma ray induced mutation is now an established method for crop improvement. It is well known that the crops which are propagated vegetatively are very suitable for the application of mutation breeding methods. In floriculture industry there is always demand and necessity of new and novel ornamental varieties. Flower colour and shape are the most important components of novelties. Gamma rays have been most successfully use to produce quite a large number of new promising,varieties in different ornamental (Bougainvillea - 4, Perennial portulaca-6, Chrysanthemum-43, Hibiscus-1, Rose-16, Tuberose-2, Lantana depressa-3 etc.) plants by bringing about genetic changes at Floriculture Section, National Botanical Research. Institute, Lucknow, India. Research carried out covers radiosensitivity, selection of materials, methods of exposure to gamma rays, suitable dose of gamma rays, detection of mutants, isolation of mutants and commercial exploitation of mutants. A good number of mutant varieties have been well accepted in the floriculture industry. The mutant varieties are with new flower colour and shape. More than three decades of applied mutation breeding work has now established beyond doubt that mutation breeding will constitute an excellent supplement to the conventional methods for development of new varieties . Detection of somatic, mutations in flower colour/shape in different vegetative generations (M1V1, M1V2, M1V3 and even in later vegetative generations), mutation frequency and spectrum relationship with dose of gamma radiation have been precisely determined. Studies have clearly proved that mutation breeding technique can be exploited for the creation of new and novel ornamental cultivars of commercial importance by inducing genetic variation in already adapted, modern genotypes and can also enrich the germplasm of ornamental horticulture. (Author)

  14. 试析日本的耻文化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张婷婷

    2016-01-01

    本文围绕稻作文化及共同体制度影响下顺势而生的"耻文化"展开了论述.本尼迪克特女士在《菊与刀》中写到:"日本人将羞耻心作为原动力".也就是说,"耻文化"一直以来都在支配着日本人的行动.本文分析了日本"耻文化"的形成原因,列举出耻文化于日本家庭教育和学校教育中的具体表现. 为进一步透视日本文化思想内核,认清日本社会发展走向提供参考.%This paper talks about the Japanese shame culture which was formed under the influence of Japan's rice planting culture and Kyodo system. Mrs. Ruth Benedict says in her The Chrysanthemum and the Sword that "Japanese regard shame as their motivation". From this we see Japanese people attach great importance to shame. It is the sense of shame that controls their behaviors, and even life. This paper analyses the reasons for the formation of Japanese shame culture and its specific representations in many aspects. The author reports the proportions of various factors in Japanese consciousness by making a table based on research. Moreover, the author compares culture differences before and after the war and points out the changing tendencies of sense of shame in Japanese younger generations.

  15. Effect of Cr on Microstructure and Properties of a Series of AlTiCr x FeCoNiCu High-Entropy Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Anmin; Ma, Ding; Zheng, Qifeng

    2014-04-01

    A series of AlTiCr x FeCoNiCu ( x: molar ratio, x = 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5) high-entropy alloys (HEAs) were prepared by vacuum arc furnace. These alloys consist of α-phase, β-phase, and γ-phase. These phases are solid solutions. The structure of α-phase and γ-phase is face-centered cubic structure and that of β-phase is body-centered cubic (BCC) structure. There are four typical cast organizations in these alloys such as petal organization (α-phase), chrysanthemum organization (α-phase + β-phase), dendrite (β-phase), and inter-dendrite (γ-phase). The solidification mode of these alloys is affected by Chromium. If γ-phase is not considered, AlTiCr0.5FeCoNiCu and AlTiCrFeCoNiCu belong to hypoeutectic alloys; AlTiCr1.5FeCoNiCu, AlTiCr2.0FeCoNiCu, and AlTiCr2.5FeCoNiCu belong to hypereutectic alloys. The cast organizations of these alloys consist of pro-eutectic phase and eutectic structure (α + β). Compact eutectic structure and a certain amount of fine β-phase with uniform distribution are useful to improve the microhardness of the HEAs. More γ-phase and the microstructure with similar volume ratio values of α-phase and β-phase improve the compressive strength and toughness of these alloys. The compressive fracture of the series of AlTiCr x FeCoNiCu HEAs shows brittle characteristics, suggesting that these HEAs are brittle materials.

  16. Development of irradiation as a quarantine treatment of mites on cut foliage and ornamentals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cut flowers are an important export commodity of Malaysia in international trade, and are often subjected to infestation by various pests such as mites, scales, and thrips. The use of low ionizing radiation has been suggested as an alternative to methyl bromide fumigation, the current pest disinfestation treatment for cut flowers but which is being phased out due to environmental concerns. The criterion for efficacy of radiation as a quarantine treatment will be the inability of treated mites to reproduce at a new location rather than causing immediate mortality. Irradiating the red spider mite, Tetranychus piercie at a dose of 300 and 400 Gy produced sterile female adults from irradiated protonymphs and deutonymphs, respectively. A lower dose of 200 Gy induced sterility in female adults that developed from irradiated eggs and larvae. Deteriorating effects caused by irradiation treatment were reflected in immatures by their reduced emergence rate/mortality in subsequent developmental stages. A dose of 280 Gy prevented reproduction in female adults of Tetranychus piercie by inducing sterility, whereas a much higher dose of 5 kGy is required to produce acute mortality. A dose of 350 Gy was required to sterilize T. piercie deutonymphs. Based on the results obtained, gamma irradiation with dose in the range of 300-400 Gy may be applied as a quarantine treatment for Tetranychus piercie. Quality tests suggest this dose range is suitable for chrysanthemums (in 4% sucrose solution) but not roses, carnations, and orchids, which showed phytotoxic symptoms within the dose range of 100-400 Gy. (author)

  17. Ecological studies of plants for the control of environmental pollution. IV. Growth of various plant species as influenced by soil applied cadmium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, J.W.; Kim, B.W.

    1975-03-01

    The relations of the growth response of plants, i.e. 4 species of crops, 12 species of roadside trees and 5 species of horticultural plants to cadmium (Cd) were studied in pot cultures. Growth in dry weight of corn, soybeans, barley, and wheat plants was decreased with an increase in Cd concentration. Damage to corn plants caused by Cd treatment was more or less recovered when it was grown in soil with calcium, but the other three crops did not recover. Although crop plants used here absorbed a small amount of Cd through the roots, the Cd content in the shoots was directly proportionate to the concentration of Cd added to the soil. Additions of calcium and sulfur to soil were sufficient to change the soil pH. The chlorosis on leaves caused by Cd treatment was observed in 2 species such as Euonymus japonica and Rhododendron yedoense out of 5 species of the horticultural plants, especially at 50 ppm of Cd. Euonymus japonica had symptoms of chlorosis and defoliation, and at higher concentrations the symptoms were more severe. At 200 ppm of Cd little damage was observed in Pinus koraiensis and Ginkgo biloba, but severe chlorosis was observed in Robinia pseudoacacia and Sabina chinensis, Buxus koreana, Abies holophylla and Platanus orientalis. Nevertheless, those plants that had serious damage at 200 ppm of Cd showed weakened symptoms by adding calcium to the soil. There were many Cd tolerant species out of the plants used in this experiment, such as Crassula falcata, Chrysanthemum morifolium, Hibiscus syriacus, Ligustrum ovalifolium, Liriodendron tulipeferia, and Lespedeza crytobotrys.

  18. Observations on the Foliar Nematode, Aphelenchoides besseyi, Infecting Tuberose and Rice in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Matiyar R; Handoo, Zafar A; Rao, Uma; Rao, S B; Prasad, J S

    2012-12-01

    The foliar nematode Aphelenchoides besseyi causes white tip disease in rice (Oryza sativa L.) and floral malady in tuberose (Polianthes tuberosa L.). This nematode is widely distributed in the rice fields of many states of India, including West Bengal (WB), Andhra Pradesh (AP), Madhya Pradesh (MP) and Gujarat (GT). In order to generate information on intraspecific variations of A. besseyi as well as to confirm the identity of the nematode species infecting these important crops, morphological observation was undertaken of A. besseyi isolated from tuberose and rice from WB and rice from AP, MP and GT. The molecular study was only done for rice and tuberose populations from AP and WB. The variations were observed among the populations in the tail, esophageal and anterior regions, including the occurrence of four as well as six lateral lines in the lateral fields. The morphometrics of observed populations showed variations and those could be regarded as a consequence of host-induced or geographical variations. PCR amplification of the rDNA ITS 1 and 2 region of rice (AP) and tuberose (WB) populations of A. besseyi generated one fragment of approximately 830 bp, and the size of the ITS region was 788 bp and 791 bp for tuberose and rice population, respectively. Alignment of the two sequences showed almost 100% similarity. Blast analysis revealed a very high level of similarity of both the Indian strains to a Russian population. The Indian and Russian strains could be differentiated using restriction enzyme Bccl. Host tests revealed that rice (cv. IET 4094), oat (cv. OS-6) and teosinte (cv. TL-1) showed a typical distortion due to the infection of A. besseyi. Five germplasm lines of oat showed no infection of the nematode under field conditions. Local cultivars of onion, maize, chrysanthemum, gladiolus, and Sorghum halepense were also not infected by A. besseyi.

  19. Dahlia latent viroid: a recombinant new species of the family Pospiviroidae posing intriguing questions about its origin and classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhoeven, Jacobus Th J; Meekes, Ellis T M; Roenhorst, Johanna W; Flores, Ricardo; Serra, Pedro

    2013-04-01

    A viroid-like RNA has been detected in two asymptomatic dahlia accessions by return and double PAGE. It appeared smaller than Chrysanthemum stunt viroid and Potato spindle tuber viroid, the two members of the genus Pospiviroid, family Pospiviroidae, reported in this ornamental previously. RT-PCR with primers designed for amplifying all pospiviroids produced no amplicons, but RT-PCR with random primers revealed a 342 nt RNA. The sequence of this RNA was confirmed with specific primers, which additionally revealed its presence in many dahlia cultivars. The RNA was named Dahlia latent viroid (DLVd) because it replicates autonomously, but symptomlessly, in dahlia and shares maximum sequence identity with other viroids of less than 56 %. Furthermore, DLVd displays characteristic features of the family Pospiviroidae: a predicted rod-like secondary structure of minimum free energy with a central conserved region (CCR), and the ability to form the metastable structures hairpins I and II. Its CCR is identical to that of Hop stunt viroid (HSVd, genus Hostuviroid). However, DLVd: (i) has the terminal conserved region present in members of the genus Pospiviroid, but absent in HSVd, and (ii) lacks the terminal conserved hairpin present in HSVd. Phylogenetic reconstructions indicate that HSVd and Pepper chat fruit viroid (genus Pospiviroid) are the closest relatives of DLVd, but DLVd differs from these viroids in its host range, restricted to dahlia so far. Therefore, while DLVd fulfils the criteria to be a novel species of the family Pospiviroidae, its recombinant origin makes assignment to the genera Pospiviroid or Hostuviroid problematic. PMID:23255620

  20. Protective effect of linarin against D-galactosamine and lipopolysaccharide-induced fulminant hepatic failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seok-Joo; Cho, Hong-Ik; Kim, So-Jin; Park, Jin-Hyun; Kim, Joon-Sung; Kim, Young Ho; Lee, Sang Kook; Kwak, Jong-Hwan; Lee, Sun-Mee

    2014-09-01

    Linarin was isolated from Chrysanthemum indicum L. Fulminant hepatic failure is a serious clinical syndrome that results in massive inflammation and hepatocyte death. Apoptosis is an important cellular pathological process in d-galactosamine (GalN)/lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced liver injury, and regulation of liver apoptosis might be an effective therapeutic method for fulminant hepatic failure. This study examined the cytoprotective mechanisms of linarin against GalN/LPS-induced hepatic failure. Mice were given an oral administration of linarin (12.5, 25 and 50mg/kg) 1h before receiving GalN (800 mg/kg)/LPS (40 μg/kg). Linarin treatment reversed the lethality induced by GalN/LPS. After 6h of GalN/LPS injection, the serum levels of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin-6 and interferon-γ were significantly elevated. GalN/LPS increased toll-like receptor 4 and interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase protein expression. These increases were attenuated by linarin. Linarin attenuated the increased expression of Fas-associated death domain and caspase-8 induced by GalN/LPS, reduced the cytosolic release of cytochrome c and caspase-3 cleavage induced by GalN/LPS, and reduced the pro-apoptotic Bim phosphorylation induced by GalN/LPS. However, linarin increased the level of anti-apoptotic Bcl-xL and phosphorylation of STAT3. Our results suggest that linarin alleviates GalN/LPS-induced liver injury by suppressing TNF-α-mediated apoptotic pathways.

  1. Energy saving in greenhouses can be obtained by energy balance-controlled screens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, N. E. (Univ. of Aarhus, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, Dept. of Horticulture, Aarslev (Denmark)), e-mail: niels.andersson@agrsci.dk

    2011-03-15

    The energy screens in two greenhouses, one clad with double acrylic and one with single glass, were controlled by an energy balance model. The parameters in the model were heat transmission coefficients, air temperature in the greenhouse and outdoors, irradiance and a single constant for the solar energy efficiency. The energy consumption, screen movements and daily light integral were compared with a glass greenhouse in which the energy screens were controlled by irradiance. In the greenhouse with light-controlled screens the set point for opening and closing of the screens was 5 Wm-2. The energy-saving screens controlled by the energy balance model opened later and closed earlier than in the greenhouse with light-controlled screens. When using the energy balance model the energy saving was 14% for the glass greenhouse and 41% for the double acrylic greenhouse compared with the glass greenhouse with light-controlled screens. The air temperature was on average similar in the three greenhouses, but when the screens were controlled by energy balance the daily light integral was approximately 10% lower and the number of hours the screens were closed was prolonged with 35% for the glass-covered greenhouse and 25% for the double acrylic-covered greenhouse compared with the greenhouse with light-controlled screens. Energy peaks in connection with operation of the screens were not reduced. During the experiment Begonia elatior, Dendranthema grandiflora (Chrysanthemum), Hedera helix, Helianthus annuus, Gerbera jamesonii and Kalanchoe blossfeldiana were grown in the greenhouses. There was a trend in prolongation of the production time when the plants were grown in the glass greenhouse with energy balance control of the screens. A lower number of flowers or inflorescences were observed for some of the plant species produced in the greenhouses with energy balance-controlled screens

  2. 罗非鱼片脱腥技术比较研究%Comparative study on deodorization of tilapia meat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑元平; 廖飞宝

    2011-01-01

    It is hard for most customers to accept the unique unpleasant smell of fish. Deodorizations of tilapia meat by yeast,black tea, green tea, chrysanthemum tea, basil, white wine, vinegar, as well as activated carbon were investigated, and the optimum conditions of each method were determined by sensory evaluation as a criterion. The results showed that the fish smell can be removed to varying degrees by a variety of methods, and it generally got lighter with the longer time and the increase of processing aids in concentration. The optimum deodorizing condition was that using 1% white wine plus 3% basil and 1% vinegar to deal with the tilapia meat for 2h, which can completely remove the smell,and the fish tasted good,with special fragrant smell.%鱼类所特有的腥臭味让许多消费者难以接受,本文利用酵母、红茶、绿茶、菊花茶、紫苏、白酒、醋以及活性炭八种物质对罗非鱼片进行脱腥处理,以感官评定为标准,确定了各种脱腥方法的最佳工艺条件.,结果表明,各种脱腥方法都能在不同程度上去除鱼腥味,且一般随着时间的延长和浓度的增加而使腥味变淡,其中使用1%白酒加3%紫苏和l%白醋2h即可完全去除腥味,且口感好,有特殊香味,脱腥效果最好.

  3. Application of two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae for plant-pest interaction studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazaux, Marc; Navarro, Marie; Bruinsma, Kristie A; Zhurov, Vladimir; Negrave, Tara; Van Leeuwen, Thomas; Grbic, Vojislava; Grbic, Miodrag

    2014-01-01

    The two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae, is a ubiquitous polyphagous arthropod herbivore that feeds on a remarkably broad array of species, with more than 150 of economic value. It is a major pest of greenhouse crops, especially in Solanaceae and Cucurbitaceae (e.g., tomatoes, eggplants, peppers, cucumbers, zucchini) and greenhouse ornamentals (e.g., roses, chrysanthemum, carnations), annual field crops (such as maize, cotton, soybean, and sugar beet), and in perennial cultures (alfalfa, strawberries, grapes, citruses, and plums)1,2. In addition to the extreme polyphagy that makes it an important agricultural pest, T. urticae has a tendency to develop resistance to a wide array of insecticides and acaricides that are used for its control3-7. T. urticae is an excellent experimental organism, as it has a rapid life cycle (7 days at 27 °C) and can be easily maintained at high density in the laboratory. Methods to assay gene expression (including in situ hybridization and antibody staining) and to inactivate expression of spider mite endogenous genes using RNA interference have been developed8-10. Recently, the whole genome sequence of T. urticae has been reported, creating an opportunity to develop this pest herbivore as a model organism with equivalent genomic resources that already exist in some of its host plants (Arabidopsis thaliana and the tomato Solanum lycopersicum)11. Together, these model organisms could provide insights into molecular bases of plant-pest interactions. Here, an efficient method for quick and easy collection of a large number of adult female mites, their application on an experimental plant host, and the assessment of the plant damage due to spider mite feeding are described. The presented protocol enables fast and efficient collection of hundreds of individuals at any developmental stage (eggs, larvae, nymphs, adult males, and females) that can be used for subsequent experimental application.

  4. Parental use of the term "Hot Qi" to describe symptoms in their children in Hong Kong: a cross sectional survey "Hot Qi" in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan Danny

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Chinese term "Hot Qi" is often used by parents to describe symptoms in their children. The current study was carried out to estimate the prevalence of using the Chinese term "Hot Qi" to describe symptoms in children by their parents and the symptomatology of "Hot Qi". Method A cross sectional survey by face-to-face interview with a semi-structured questionnaire was carried out in a public hospital and a private clinic in Hong Kong. The parental use of the term "Hot Qi", the symptoms of "Hot Qi" and the remedies used for "Hot Qi" were asked. Results 1060 pairs of children and parents were interviewed. 903 (85.1% of parents claimed that they had employed the term "Hot Qi" to describe their children's symptoms. Age of children and place of birth of parents were the predictors of parents using the term "Hot Qi". Eye discharge (37.2%, sore throat (33.9%, halitosis(32.8%, constipation(31.0%, and irritable (21.2% were the top five symptoms of "Hot Qi" in children. The top five remedies for "Hot Qi" were the increased consumption of water (86.8%, fruit (72.5%, soup (70.5%, and the use of herbal beverages "five-flower- tea" (a combination of several flowers such as Chrysanthemum morifolii, Lonicera japonica, Bombax malabaricum, Sophora japonica, and Plumeria rubra (57.6% or selfheal fruit spike (Prunella vulgaris (42.4%. Conclusion "Hot Qi" is often used by Chinese parents to describe symptoms in their children in Hong Kong. Place of birth of parents and age of the children are main factors for parents to apply the term "Hot Qi" to describe symptoms of their children. The common symptoms of "Hot Qi" suggest infections or allergy.

  5. Study on Numberical Classification of Plant Community in Xuefeng Mountain(Huaihua Area)%雪峰山(怀化段)植物群落的数量分类研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁莉

    2012-01-01

    对雪峰山(怀化段)的植物群落采用数学模糊聚类分析,结果表明:(1)模糊聚类分析方法是一种理想的植物群落分类方法,可得到比较客观、合理的分类结果;(2)雪峰山(怀化段)的植物群落大致可分为4种类型,分别是:①马尾松—映山红+白栎—白茅+鹅观草群丛;②杉木—苎麻+茶—香石竹+蓼群丛;③杜仲—香樟—柴胡+野菊花群丛;④野百合+早熟禾群丛。%Plant community in Xuefeng Mountain(Huaihua Area)was analyzed by fuzzy classification,The resulted show that(1) The method of fuzzy classification based on fuzzy mathematics was a ideal categorizing method of plant community,Lt could get objective and reasonable categorizing resules;(2)the plant communities in Xuefeng Mountain(Huaihua Area) could be divided into about four types:①Ass.Pinus massoniana-Rhododendron simsii+Quercus fabri-Imperata spp.+Roegneria kamoji;②Ass.Cuninghamia lanceolata-Boehmeria nivea+Camellia sinensis-Dianthus caryophyllus+Polygonum spp.;③ Ass.Eucommia ulmoides-Cinnamomum camphora-Bupleurum chinense+Chrysanthemum indicum;④Ass.Lilium brownie+Poa annua.

  6. Use of radiation for plant breeding in Japan: results and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1966, as the first breeds by radiation mutation in Japan, 'Reimei', a rice variety with increased lodging resistance by short culm mutation and Raiden', an early variety by mutation of soybean obtained by extreme late variety with nematoda resistance were bred and registered in the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry. Since these characteristics of 'short culm' and early maturing' have a comparatively high mutation rate and ease of selection, among seed propagation crops many kinds of those varieties improved to have either of these characteristics or both of them at the same time by mutation breeding are bred. In Japan, varieties bred by use of mutation breeding count 107 (as of April 1998). Among crops, that with the most varieties is chrysanthemum, which has 20 varieties and the next is rice with 15 varieties. The other 38 varieties of crops such as grains, beans, industrial crops, vegetables, flowering plants, flowering trees and fruit trees, mutation breeding varieties are widely bred. Among mutagens used, gamma ray holds 80%. The recent development in the research of DNA recombination is amazing and plant bodies which have introduced useful genes which other plants have are being obtained. Radiation mutation breeding, however, has the advantages of breeding new varieties by improving only one or two characteristics of excellent races. Radiation mutation breeding and DNA recombination technologies, therefore, may need to be utilized separately according to respective purposes. In the future, for radiation mutation breeding, mutants with quality characteristics which others do not have, corresponding to the diverse demand on agricultural products must come to be required. On the other hand, by the crops like banana for which ordinary breeding is almost impossible, the expectation for radiation mutation breeding will be more and more heightened. In addition, the accumulation of studies on controlling the direction of mutation which has been regarded

  7. Sesquiterpene lactones from the Yugoslavian wild growing plant families Asteraceae and Apiaceae (REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MILUTIN STEFANOVIC

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available 1. Introduction 2. Results 3. Asteraceae 3.1. Genus Artemisia L. 3.1.1. Artemisia annua L. 3.1.2. Artemisia vulgaris L. 3.1.3. Artemisia absinthium L. (warmwood 3.1.4. Artemisia scoparia W. et K. 3.1.5. Artemisia camprestris L. 3.2. Genus Ambrosia L. 3.2.1. Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. (the common rag weed 3.3. Genus Tanacetum L. (syn. Chrysanthemum L. 3.3.1. Tanacetum parthenium L. (feverfew 3.3.2. Tanacetum serotinum L. 3.3.3. Tanacetum vulgare L. (tansy 3.3.4. Tanacetum macrophyllum Willd. 3.3.5. Tanacetum corymbosum L. 3.4. Genus Telekia Baumg. 3.4.1. Telekia speciosa (Schreb. Baumg. 3.5. Genus Inula L. 3.5.1. Inula helenium L. 3.5.2. Inula spiraeifolia L. 3.6. Genus Eupatorium L. 3.6.1. Eupatorium cannabinum L. 3.7. Genus Achillea L. 3.7.1. Achillea abrotanoides Vis. 3.7.2. Achillea millefolium subsp. pannonica 3.7.3. Achillea crithmifolia W. et K. 3.7.4. Achillea clypeolata Sibth. et Sm. 3.7.5. Achillea serbica Nyman 3.7.6. Achillea depressa Janka 3.8. Genus Anthemis L. 3.8.1. Anthemis carpatica Willd. 3.8.2. Anthemis cretica L. subsp. cretica 3.9. Genus Centaurea L. 3.9.1. Centaurea derventana Vis. et Panc. 3.9.2. Centaurea kosaninii Hayek 3.9.3. Centaurea solstitialis L. 4. Apiaceae 4.1. Genus Laserpitium L. 4.1.1. Laserpitium siler L. 4.1.2. Laserpitium marginatum L. 4.1.3. Laserpitium latifolium L. 4.1.4. Laserpitium alpinum W. K. 4.2. Genus Angelica L. 4.2.1. Angelica silvestris L. 4.3. Genus Peucedanum L. 4.3.1. Peucedanum austriacum (Jacq. Koch

  8. Use of radiation for plant breeding in Japan: results and future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaguchi, I. [National Institute of Agricultural Resource, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1998-12-31

    In 1966, as the first breeds by radiation mutation in Japan, `Reimei`, a rice variety with increased lodging resistance by short culm mutation and Raiden`, an early variety by mutation of soybean obtained by extreme late variety with nematoda resistance were bred and registered in the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry. Since these characteristics of `short culm` and early maturing` have a comparatively high mutation rate and ease of selection, among seed propagation crops many kinds of those varieties improved to have either of these characteristics or both of them at the same time by mutation breeding are bred. In Japan, varieties bred by use of mutation breeding count 107 (as of April 1998). Among crops, that with the most varieties is chrysanthemum, which has 20 varieties and the next is rice with 15 varieties. The other 38 varieties of crops such as grains, beans, industrial crops, vegetables, flowering plants, flowering trees and fruit trees, mutation breeding varieties are widely bred. Among mutagens used, gamma ray holds 80%. The recent development in the research of DNA recombination is amazing and plant bodies which have introduced useful genes which other plants have are being obtained. Radiation mutation breeding, however, has the advantages of breeding new varieties by improving only one or two characteristics of excellent races. Radiation mutation breeding and DNA recombination technologies, therefore, may need to be utilized separately according to respective purposes. In the future, for radiation mutation breeding, mutants with quality characteristics which others do not have, corresponding to the diverse demand on agricultural products must come to be required. On the other hand, by the crops like banana for which ordinary breeding is almost impossible, the expectation for radiation mutation breeding will be more and more heightened. In addition, the accumulation of studies on controlling the direction of mutation which has been regarded

  9. Achievements and perspectives in biochemistry concerning anthocyanin modification for blue flower coloration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Nobuhiro; Nakayama, Toru

    2015-01-01

    Genetic engineering of roses and other plants of floricultural importance to give them a truly blue petal color is arguably one of the holy grails of plant biotechnology. Toward this goal, bluish carnations and roses were previously engineered by establishing an exclusive accumulation of delphinidin (Dp)-type anthocyanins in their petals via the heterologous expression of a flavonoid 3',5'-hydroxylase gene. Very recently, purple-blue varieties of chrysanthemums were also genetically engineered via a similar biochemical strategy. Although the floral colors of these transgenic plants still lack a true blue color, the basis for the future molecular breeding of truly blue flowers is via the engineering of anthocyanin pathways. Anthocyanins with multiple aromatic acyl groups (often referred to as polyacylated anthocyanins) in the 3'- or 7-position tend to display a more stable blue color than non-acylated anthocyanins. The 7-polyacylation process during the biosynthesis of purple-blue anthocyanins in delphinium (Delphinium grandiflorum) was found to occur in vacuoles using acyl-glucose as both the glucosyl and acyl donor. Glucosyltransferases and acyltransferases involved in anthocyanin 7-polyacylation in delphinium are vacuolar acyl-glucose-dependent enzymes belonging to the glycoside hydrolase family 1 and serine carboxypeptidae-like protein family, respectively. The 7-polyacylation proceeds through the alternate glucosylation and p-hydroxybenzoylation catalyzed by these enzymes. p-Hydroxybenzoyl-glucose serves as the p-hydroxybenzoyl and glucosyl donor to produce anthocyanins modified with a p-hydroxybenzoyl-glucose concatemer at the 7-position. This novel finding has provided a potential breakthrough for the genetic engineering of truly blue flowers, where polyacylated Dp-type anthocyanins are accumulated exclusively in the petals.

  10. 甜叶菊苷类提取工艺研究%Study on extraction process of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni by orthogonal design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何巧丽; 李柯翱; 季志红; 田树革

    2016-01-01

    Objective To optimize the extraction process of Rebaudioside A and Stevioside in Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni extracts by single-factor experimental conditions and orthogonal design method.Methods By investigating solid-liquid ratio,extraction temperature,extraction time and effects of extraction times on the contents of sweet leaf chrysanthemum stevioside (St)and rebaudioside A (rebaudioside A,RA),design orthogonal test,put RA content as evaluation indexes to optimize a extraction procedure of Stevia rebaudiana reflux extraction.Results The best conditions:solid-liquid ratio (m/v)was 1 g∶20 mL,extraction temperature was 80℃,extraction time was 1 h,extraction times was 2 times.Conclusion The extraction process is stable and feasible,and the extraction efficient is high.%目的:优化甜叶菊苷类的提取工艺条件。方法通过考察料液比、提取温度、提取时间和提取次数对甜叶菊中甜菊苷(Stevioside,St)和莱鲍迪苷 A(Rebaudioside A,RA)含量的影响,设计正交试验,以 RA 含量为评价指标,优选出甜叶菊回流提取的最佳提取工艺。结果最佳条件:料液比(m/v)为 l g∶20 mL、提取温度为80℃、提取时间为1 h、提取次数为2次。结论经过重复性实验验证,该提取工艺稳定可行。

  11. Preference of a polyphagous mirid bug, Apolygus lucorum (Meyer-Dur for flowering host plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongsheng Pan

    Full Text Available Apolygus lucorum (Meyer-Dür (Hemiptera: Miridae is one of the most important herbivores in a broad range of cultivated plants, including cotton, cereals, vegetables, and fruit crops in China. In this manuscript, we report on a 6-year long study in which (adult A. lucorum abundance was recorded on 174 plant species from 39 families from early July to mid-September. Through the study period per year, the proportion of flowering plants exploited by adult A. lucorum was significantly greater than that of non-flowering plants. For a given plant species, A. lucorum adults reached peak abundance at the flowering stage, when the plant had the greatest attraction to the adults. More specifically, mean adult abundance on 26 species of major host plants and their relative standard attraction were 10.3-28.9 times and 9.3-19.5 times higher at flowering stage than during non-flowering periods, respectively. Among all the tested species, A. lucorum adults switched food plants according to the succession of flowering plant species. In early July, A. lucorum adults preferred some plant species in bloom, such as Vigna radiata, Gossypium hirsutum, Helianthus annuus and Chrysanthemum coronarium; since late July, adults dispersed into other flowering hosts (e.g. Ricinus communis, Impatiens balsamina, Humulus scandens, Ocimum basilicum, Agastache rugosus and Coriandrum sativum; in early September, they largely migrated to flowering Artemisia spp. (e.g. A. argyi, A. lavandulaefolia, A. annua and A. scoparia. Our findings underscore the important role of flowering plays in the population dynamics and inter-plant migration of this mirid bug. Also, our work helps understand evolutionary aspects of host plant use in polyphagous insects such as A. lucorum, and provides baseline information for the development of sustainable management strategies of this key agricultural pest.

  12. Principal component analysis of trace elements in 12 kinds of drinking dried flowers%12种饮用干花中微量元素主成分的分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张朋; 张静佳; 杨玉良; 祁正兴; 孙立卿

    2015-01-01

    为了评价杭白菊等12种饮用干花的营养价值,在已有的实验数据基础上,结合主成分分析方法,采用SPSS13.0软件,计算了12种饮用干花中的微量元素之间的相关矩阵、载荷系数矩阵及各主成分的得分与综合得分. 结果表明各主成分其主要作用的元素分别是: 第一主成分是Cr、Cu和Mg; 第二主成分是As、Zn和Fe;第三主成分是Cd、Ca和Mg;第四主成分是Pb、As和Cr. 根据综合得分可知桃花、野菊花、黄山贡菊的营养价值最高,为选择营养价值更高的饮用干花给出了科学的理论依据.%To evaluate the nutritional value of Dendranthema morifolium and other 11 kinds of dried flowers, the principal component analysis method was used to calculate the correlation matrix, load factor matrix, each principal component score and the comprehensive scores of trace elements in the flowers by using soft-ware SPSS13.0 based on the existing experimental data. Results showed that the first main principal compo-nents are Cr, Cu and Mg; the second main components are As, Zn and Fe; the third main components are Cd, Ca and Mg , and the forth main components are Pb, AS, Cr. According to the comprehensive scores, peach blossom, chrysanthemum indicum and Huangshan Gongju have highest nutritional value, which pro-vided scientific evidence for choosing more nutritious drinking dry flower.

  13. Preference of a polyphagous mirid bug, Apolygus lucorum (Meyer-Dür) for flowering host plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Hongsheng; Lu, Yanhui; Wyckhuys, Kris A G; Wu, Kongming

    2013-01-01

    Apolygus lucorum (Meyer-Dür) (Hemiptera: Miridae) is one of the most important herbivores in a broad range of cultivated plants, including cotton, cereals, vegetables, and fruit crops in China. In this manuscript, we report on a 6-year long study in which (adult) A. lucorum abundance was recorded on 174 plant species from 39 families from early July to mid-September. Through the study period per year, the proportion of flowering plants exploited by adult A. lucorum was significantly greater than that of non-flowering plants. For a given plant species, A. lucorum adults reached peak abundance at the flowering stage, when the plant had the greatest attraction to the adults. More specifically, mean adult abundance on 26 species of major host plants and their relative standard attraction were 10.3-28.9 times and 9.3-19.5 times higher at flowering stage than during non-flowering periods, respectively. Among all the tested species, A. lucorum adults switched food plants according to the succession of flowering plant species. In early July, A. lucorum adults preferred some plant species in bloom, such as Vigna radiata, Gossypium hirsutum, Helianthus annuus and Chrysanthemum coronarium; since late July, adults dispersed into other flowering hosts (e.g. Ricinus communis, Impatiens balsamina, Humulus scandens, Ocimum basilicum, Agastache rugosus and Coriandrum sativum); in early September, they largely migrated to flowering Artemisia spp. (e.g. A. argyi, A. lavandulaefolia, A. annua and A. scoparia). Our findings underscore the important role of flowering plays in the population dynamics and inter-plant migration of this mirid bug. Also, our work helps understand evolutionary aspects of host plant use in polyphagous insects such as A. lucorum, and provides baseline information for the development of sustainable management strategies of this key agricultural pest. PMID:23874835

  14. Detecção e monitoramento da resistência do tripes Frankliniella occidentalis ao inseticida espinosade Detection and monitoring of resistance to the insecticide spinosad in the thrips Frankliniella occidentalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Soller Rais

    2013-01-01

    pests in greenhouses, especially on ornamental plants and vegetables. Among the problems faced by farmers are the difficulties in the control of this pest with the use of insecticides because of its preference for the inner parts of the flowers and the evolution of resistance to agrochemicals. The objective of this research was to characterize the spinosad resistance in F. occidentalis and to assess the frequency of resistant insects in commercial chrysanthemum fields from several counties in the state of São Paulo (SP. Selections for resistance to spinosad were performed under laboratory conditions, using a population of F. occidentalis collected in 2007 in a commercial chrysanthemum field in Campinas (SP. In the course of seven selections for resistance, the LC50 of spinosad increased from 8.41 mg a.i. L-1 to 1,111 mg a.i. L-1. Comparing the resistant (R and the susceptible (S strains, the resistance ratio (LC50 R / LC50 S reached values up to 280-folds. A discriminating concentration of 98 mg a.i. L-1 was established for monitoring the spinosad resistance in F. occidentalis. The survey was conducted by collecting 19 populations of thrips in commercial chrysanthemum fields in the state of São Paulo. The bioassays were conducted with second ínstar nymphs of F. occidentalis, placed in bean leaf disc arenas. The spinosad was sprayed at the discriminating concentration on the nymphs of thrips, using a Potter spray tower. The results indicated high variability in the susceptibility to spinosad among F. occidentalis populations. Populations with up to 40.7% of resistant insects were found. This is the first report on spinosad resistance in F. occidentalis in Brazil.

  15. Crop based climate regimes for energy saving in greenhouse cultivation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koerner, O.

    2003-06-16

    new approach to control relative humidity on the underlying processes (crop growth and development, plant water stress, calcium deficiencies and the major fungal diseases) by controlling relative humidity through maximum leaf wetness duration, minimum transpiration and transpiration integral was designed for cut chrysanthemum. This idea is based on earlier formulations to use set points for transpiration. In the current approach, general rules were formulated. From that, a control regime was designed. Simulations showed that with this humidity regime, yearly energy consumption could be reduced by 18 % (compared to a fixed setpoint of 80 % relative humidity). When the two climate control principles, modified temperature integration and process based humidity control, were merged, annual energy consumption was predicted to decrease by more than 33 % and cut chrysanthemum plant dry weight increased with 39 % in experiments compared to a normal climate regime. Cut chrysanthemum was used as a central crop. Here, short compact stems is one of the main quality aspects. This is commonly controlled with chemical growth retardants. An alternative is to control temperature according to the DIF concept (difference between average day and average night temperature). A negative DIF value decreases stem elongation. Therefore, temperature integration without DIF restriction was extensively compared to temperature integration with DIF restriction. Energy consumption with different settings was quantified. It was shown that an optimisation problem existed in spring and summer. For that purpose, a joined temperature integration and DIF regime over several days was designed and tested. The use of an average DIF over several days rather than a DIF within 24-hours was proposed. In times and climate regions when cold and warm days interchange, this approach can increase energy saving and decrease final plant stem length simultaneously. This however, was a compromise. An optimisation problem

  16. 陶渊明《饮酒》诗中自我生命意识的表现及其背叛%The Expression of Self-consciousness of Life and Its Betrayal in Tao Yuanming' s Poem of Drinking Wine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林满平

    2011-01-01

    陶渊明的《饮酒》诗是其诗文中的精彩之作,文本表现的是他归隐田园、怡情自然的自足自得。其间透露出强烈的自我生命意识,由归鸟、美酒、秋菊、青松四个鲜明的意象构成了其追求生命意识自我实现的完整结构。在自我生命意识的觉醒中,源于对身份的焦虑,陶渊明的选择背叛了自我的初衷,在环境的压力下,他作出了一种道德的选择,通过这种道德的选择造就了自己。诗歌文本在背叛道德选择的同时背叛了陶渊明的自我生命意识。%The poem Drinking Wine by Tao Yuanming is one of his most splendid poems. Expressing the poet' s self-content and self-complacence in his seclusion and returning to the country life while enjoying the nature, the poem has revealed a strong self-consciousness of life. Such four distinct imageries as the returning birds," the good wine, the chrysanthemum and the green pine have constructed a complete structure which is his pursuit for the self-actualization of life consciousness. Due to his anxiety for the status, Tao Yuanming' s choice has betrayed the self' s original intention during the awakening of his self-consciousness of life. Thanks to the pressure from the environment, he has eventually made a moral choice by which he became who he was. The text of the poem has betrayed both Tao Yuanming' s moral choice and his self-consciousness of life.

  17. Mutant breeding of ornamental trees for creating variations with high value using Proton Beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, H. J.; Lim, J. H.; Woo, S. M.; Hwang, M. J.; Pyo, S. H.; Woo, J. S. [Phygen Co., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-04-15

    It is necessary to induce the improved strains of ornamental plants with more disease-resistant and useful for landscape or phytoremediation. Mutation breeding has played an important role in crop improvement, and more than 2,000 mutant cultivars have been released. For the induction of mutation, gamma rays and X-rays are widely used as a mutagen. Proton beam had higher energy than -ray and worked with localized strength, so that proton-beam radiation could be valuable tool to induce useful strains of ornamental plants. Proton ion beam irradiation was used to induce a useful mutant in rice, chrysanthemum, carnation, and so on in Japan. Also, proton ion beam was used to select a useful host strain, in polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB), a member of biodegradable plastic, could be overproduced in Korea. Therefore, we surmise that the effects of proton beam is different from those of gamma rays and X-rays, and we expect proton beam to be a new mutagen. This research was conducted to investigate the proton-beam radiation sensitivity and seed germination rate of the various ornamental plants like as Albizia julibrissin, Ficus religiosa, Rhus chinensis, Sorbaria sorbilfolia and Spiraea chinensis, to survey the quantitative characteristics of proton beam induced strains. To induce the variants of ornamental plants, seeds were irradiated at the dose of 0{approx}2kGy of proton beam at room temperature. Proton beam energy level was 45 MeV and was irradiated at dose of 0{approx}2kGy by MC-50 Cyclotron. After irradiation, to assess the effects of proton beam on radiation sensitivity and morphological changes of the plants and the seed germination rate were analysed. By the proton beam radiation, the germination rate decreased at the higher dose. The other hand, the germination rate of Rhus chinensis increased the dose higher, so that it need to investigate the germination rate over 2kGy radiation. The effects of mutation induction by proton beam irradiation on seeds in Lagerstroemia

  18. Sazonalidade do mercado de flores e plantas ornamentais no Estado de São Paulo: o caso da CEAGESP-SP Seasonality of the flowers and ornamental plants market in São Paulo state: the case of CEAGESP-SP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Wanderley da Costa Marques

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo teve como objetivo principal avaliar o comportamento sazonal dos volumes e preços praticados na floricultura, através do uso de periodogramas e metodologia de Box e Jenkins (1976. Para tal, viu-se a necessidade de seleção dos produtos e entreposto a serem trabalhados. Os produtos escolhidos foram: rosa, crisântemo e violeta. Quanto ao entreposto, dados referentes à década de 90 foram levantados na CEAGESP-SP (Companhia de Entrepostos e Armazéns Gerais de São Paulo. Os resultados deste trabalho apontaram períodos de pico para a movimentação e para os preços praticados dos produtos escolhidos naquele entreposto. Informações a respeito do período sazonal são de extrema importância para o sistema de comercialização de cada produto agrícola. Tal fato não é diferente com relação às flores e plantas ornamentais. Tanto produtores como consumidores podem se beneficiar a partir do conhecimento do comportamento mais sistemático que seus produtos de interesse revelam. Conhecendo os picos sazonais, o produtor pode organizar sua produção de forma a intercalar e aumentar seus picos de comercialização.This study evaluates the seasonal behavior of floriculture volumes and prices series covering most of the 1990s. The evaluation was accomplished using a periodogram and Box and Jenkins (1976 methodology. Three floral products were chosen for evaluation: rose, chrysanthemum, and violet. Data for the 1990’s were collected from CEAGESP-SP - Companhia de Entrepostos e Armazém Gerais de São Paulo, a floral products trade center. Study results show that traded volumes and prices peaked in particular seasons. Information regarding this seasonal period is of extreme importance to the flower and ornamental plant trading systems and allows producers to manage production to increase output at trading peaks.

  19. 60味中药提取物抗菌活性的研究%Studies on Antibacterial Activity of Extracts from 60 Traditional Chinese Medicinals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    佟天天; 黄浩; 王义明; 罗国安

    2013-01-01

    目的:体外观察60味中药的240种提取物对9种常见病原菌的作用,并对其中抑菌效果明显的提取物进行最低抑菌浓度检测。方法:采用纸片扩散法对240种提取物进行初步的抗菌活性筛选,并采用液体培养基法(2倍稀释法)测定活性提取物的最低抑菌浓度(MIC)。结果:共有104种提取物对1种或多种细菌显示较强的抑制作用,其中丹参等11味中药的20种提取物对3种常见菌体现了强抑制作用(MIC <0.2 mg·mL-1)。结论:丹参、蛇床子、蓼蓝、蒲公英、桑叶、甘草、姜黄、紫草、半边莲、野菊花和密蒙花等11味中药的乙醇、丙酮、正己烷提取部位对枯草芽孢杆菌、蜡样芽孢杆菌和金黄色葡萄球菌有强抑制作用。%This study was aimed to screen antibacterial agents against 9 pathogenic bacteria from 240 extracts of 60 traditional Chinese medicinals ( TCM ) . And the minimum inhibitory concentration ( MIC ) test was applied on extracts with positive results. The disk diffusion was employed to screen the antibacterial activity preliminar-ily among 240 extracts. The MICs of active extracts were tested by liquid culture method (double dilution method). The results revealed that 104 extracts show antibacterial activity on one or more strains, 20 of them show strong inhibition on three commonly seen bacteria ( MIC < 0 . 2 mg/mL ) . It was concluded that ethanol , acetone and hexane extracts of 11 TCMs including Salvia miltiorrhiza, Cnidium monnieri, Polygonum tinctorium, Taraxacum mongolicum, Morus alba, Glycyrrhiza uralensis, Curcuma longa, Arnebia euchroma, Lobelia chinen-sis , Chrysanthemum indicum and Buddleja officinalis show strong inhibition on Bacillus subtilis , Bacillus cereus , Staphylococcus aureus .

  20. Determination of ten trace elements in eight herbal flowers and their infusions from Yunnan province,China by ICP-AES%ICP-AES法测定云南8种花茶及其茶水中10种微量元素含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    安丽霞; 安彩霞; 朱芳坤

    2014-01-01

    利用微波消解样品,采用电感耦合等离子体-原子发射光谱法测定了康乃馨、金银花、菊花、勿忘我、金盏花、桃花、玫瑰、薰衣草等8种云南花茶及其茶水中K、Ca、Mg、Cu、Zn、Fe、Mn、Cd、Cr、Pb等10种微量元素的含量.结果表明:该方法的加标回收率在94.96%~105.81%之间,RSD值在0.41%~2.57%之间,具有较好的准确度和精密度;8种花茶中K、Ca、Mg、Cu、Zn、Fe、Mn含量较高,Cr、Cd和Pb含量普遍较低;不同种类花茶中,各元素的溶出率存在较大差异;茶水中K和Ca的含量较高,其他元素含量相对较低.结果可为进一步合理开发花茶药用价值提供科学依据.%Ten contents of mineral elements such as K,Ca,Mg,Cu,Zn,Fe,Mn,Cd,Cr and Pb in eight herbal flowers (Dianthus caryophyllus,Lonicera japonica T.,Prunus persica,Chrysanthemum morifolium R.,Lavandula angustifolia M., Dianthus caryophyllus,Calendula officinalis L. and Rosa rugosa T.) and their infusions collected from Yunnan province,China,were determined by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry after microwave digestion.The results showed that the recovery rates were between 94.96 % and 105.81%,and the relative standard deviations were found below 3.0 %.There was significant differences existed in all element concentrations among different varieties of herbal flowers and their infusions.On the whole,the concentrations of K,Ca,Mg,Cu,Zn,Fe,Mn were relatively high,but those of Cd,Cr and Pb were low in the herbal flowers.The contents of K and Ca were higher than those of other elements in the herbal infusions.The experiment could provide an accurate and credible evidence for the reasonable medicinal use and deeper exploitation of these herbal flowers.