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Sample records for chrysanthemum cinerariifolium

  1. Effects of light, hydropriming and abiotic stress on seed germination, and shoot and root growth of pyrethrum (Tanacetum cinerariifolium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, J.; Jongsma, M.A.; Wang, C.Y.

    2011-01-01

    Poor germination and seedling establishment are major problems in arid and semi-arid environments, and these characteristics are considered to be important factors in later plant growth and yield. Laboratory experiments were conducted on freshly harvested pyrethrum (Tanacetum cinerariifolium) seeds

  2. Identification of Chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum morifolium Self-Incompatibility

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    Fan Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available There has been a heated argument over self-incompatibilityof chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum morifolium among chrysanthemum breeders. In order to solve the argument, we investigated pistil receptivity, seed set, and compatible index of 24 chrysanthemum cultivars. It was found that the 24 cultivars averagely had 3.7–36.3 pollen grains germinating on stigmas at 24 hours after self-pollination through the fluorescence microscope using aniline blue staining method. However, only 10 of them produced self-pollinated seeds, and their seed sets and compatible indexes were 0.03–56.50% and 0.04–87.50, respectively. The cultivar “Q10-33-1” had the highest seed set (56.50% and compatible index (87.50, but ten of its progeny had a wide range of separation in seed set (0–37.23% and compatible index (0–68.65. The results indicated that most of chrysanthemum cultivars were self-incompatible, while a small proportion of cultivars were self-compatible. In addition, there is a comprehensive separation of self-incompatibility among progeny from the same self-pollinated self-compatible chrysanthemum cultivar. Therefore, it is better to emasculate inflorescences during chrysanthemum hybridization breeding when no information concerning its self-incompatibility characteristics is available. However, if it is self-incompatible and propagated by vegetative methods, it is unnecessary to carry out emasculation when it is used as a female plant during hybridization breeding.

  3. Chemical constituents and biological activities of Pyrethrum cinerariifolium%白花除虫菊化学成分及其生物活性的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑喜; 王芯; 万春平; 李国红

    2016-01-01

    该研究应用柱层析法、薄层层析法和波谱法对白花除虫菊(Pyrethrum cinerariifolium)全株甲醇提取物进行分离纯化、结构鉴定,并分别采用 MTT 法、生物活性测定法和抑菌圈法测定所得化合物抗肿瘤、杀线虫和抑菌活性。结果表明:经波谱法鉴定化合物结构分别为 tulirinol (1),sesamin (2),β-cyclopyrethrosin (3)和3,5-dihydroxy-2-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-7,8-dimethoxy-4H-1-benzopyran-4-one (4)。抗肿瘤活性显示化合物3对白血病细胞株 HL-60、肝癌细胞株 SMMC-7721、肺癌细胞株 A-549、乳腺癌细胞株 MCF-7和结肠癌细胞株SW480均表现出显著的抑制活性,其 IC50分别为3.800、2.890、2.930、4.600和5.160μmol•L-1;化合物1活性比3稍弱,其 IC50分别为5.020、10.760、12.310、12.310和12.250μmol•L-1;其中化合物3对各肿瘤细胞株 IC50值均小于顺铂。抗菌活性表明化合物3对大肠杆菌、蜡样芽孢杆菌、枯草芽孢杆菌和金黄色葡萄球菌均表现出明显的抑菌活性,且随着浓度增加活性逐渐增强,而化合物1和化合物2仅对部分菌株表现出微弱抑菌活性;杀线虫活性显示化合物3对秀丽隐杆线虫和全齿复活线虫均表现出显著的毒杀活性,且随着时间、浓度增加活性逐渐增强;而在同一时间点对秀丽隐杆线虫的毒杀活性强于全齿复活线虫。从白花除虫菊中分离所得4个化合物均为首次从该植株中发现,且首次报道了化合物3杀线虫和抑菌活性,值得进一步开发应用。%The chemical constituents of Pyrethrum cinerariifolium and the measure of antitumor activity, antibacterial ac-tivity and nematicidal activity of the compounds which were isolated from P. cinerariifolium were investigated. The whole plant organ of P. cinerariifolium was extracted with methanol three times, and the methanol extract of P. cinerariifolium was isolated by column chromatography and thin layer chromatography (TLC). The

  4. Chrysanthemum biotechnology: discoveries from the recent literature

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    Teixeira da Silva Jaime A.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The in vitro propagation of chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum × grandiflorum (Ramat. Kitam., one of the world’s most important ornamentals, is a very well-studied topic and shows numerous strides each year. This mini-review condenses the knowledge that has been published on chrysanthemum biotechnology, especially in vitro culture in the wider plant science literature. In 2013 and 2014, important strides were made in molecular breeding, particularly anti-viral strategies, including through transgenics, and our understanding of flower genetics and flowering regulation.

  5. Identification and Quality Assessment of Chrysanthemum Buds by CE Fingerprinting

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    Xiaoping Xing

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple and efficient fingerprinting method for chrysanthemum buds was developed with the aim of establishing a quality control protocol based on biochemical makeup. Chrysanthemum bud samples were successively extracted by water and alcohol. The fingerprints of the chrysanthemum buds samples were obtained using capillary electrophoresis and electrochemical detection (CE-ED employing copper and carbon working electrodes to capture all of the chemical information. 10 batches of chrysanthemum buds were collected from different regions and various factories to establish the baseline fingerprint. The experimental data of 10 batches electropherogram buds by CE were analyzed by correlation coefficient and the included angle cosine methods. A standard chrysanthemum bud fingerprint including 24 common peaks was established, 12 from each electrode, which was successfully applied to identify and distinguish between chrysanthemum buds from 2 other chrysanthemum species. These results demonstrate that fingerprint analysis can be used as an important criterion for chrysanthemum buds quality control.

  6. Accumulation of Pathogenesis-related Type-5 Like Proteins in Phytoplasma infected Garland Chrysanthemum Chrysanthemum coronarium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bo-Xiong ZHONG; Yan-Wei SHEN

    2004-01-01

    Soluble proteins extracted from leaves, apical shoots, axillary shoots, and stems of garland chrysanthemum plants infected by onion yellows phytoplasma were analyzed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Computerized matching analysis revealed that at least six soluble proteins were accumulated specifically in phytoplasma-infected garland chrysanthemum. N-terminal amino acids sequences of these soluble proteins, determined by Edman degradation, shared high sequence similarities with those ofpathogenesis-related type-5 (PR-5) proteins such as tobacco thaumatin-like protein. Accumulation of these six proteins was also found in garland chrysanthemum plants infected by other phytoplasmas. These results demonstrate that phytoplasmal infection induces the accumulation of PR-5 like proteins in garland chrysanthemum plants.

  7. Two New Flavonoid Glycosides from Chrysanthemum morifolium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian ZHANG; An Wei DING; You Bin LI; Da Wei QIAN; Jin Ao DUAN; Zhi Qi YIN

    2006-01-01

    Two new flavonoid glycosides were isolated from the flowering heads of Chrysanthemum morifolium. Their structures were determined to be luteolin 4'-methoxy-7- O-(6"-O-acetyl)-β-D-glucopyranoside (1) and acacetin 7-O-(3"-O-acetyl)-β-D-glucopyranoside (2) by means of 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopic analysis, including 2D NMR technique.

  8. Characterization of ploidy levels in Chrysanthemum L. by flow cytometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yue-ping Ma; Jiang-xue Wei; Zhi-yang Yu; Bing Qin; Si-lan Dai

    2015-01-01

    Analyzing the ploidy levels of plants is important for identifying species, selecting parental lines, identifying the relationships between species, and determining evolutionary patterns. The genus Chrysanthemum is widely distributed throughout the world and exhibits different ploidy levels. We used flow cytometry to analyze the ploidy levels of nine species of Chrysanthemum L. collected from different regions and geographical locations in China. Three diploids from Henan and Wuhan provinces corresponded to Chrysanthe-mum lavandulifolium and two species of C. nankingense, while three tetraploids from various regions corresponded to C. indicum and two species of C. chanetii. Two hexaploids corresponding to C. vestitum were collected at Funiu moun-tain (Henan province), and C. zawadskii was collected at Huangshan mountain (Anhui province). We found that OTTO extraction buffer was suitable for extracting nuclei from most species, apart from C. zawadskii. Flow cytometry proved to be a simple, rapid, and highly accurate method for identifying ploidy levels in Chrysanthemum species.

  9. Xylem hydraulic conductivity related to conduit dimensions along chrysanthemum stems.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijsse, J.; Heijden, van der G.W.A.M.; Ieperen, van W.; Keijzer, C.J.; Meeteren, van U.

    2001-01-01

    The stem xylem conduit dimensions and hydraulic conductivity of chrysanthemum plants (Dendranthemaxgrandiflorum Tzvelev cv. Cassa) were analysed and quantified. Simple exponential relations describe conduit length distribution, height dependency of conduit length distribution, and height dependency

  10. Reference Gene Selection for RT-qPCR Analysis of Flower Development in Chrysanthemum morifolium and Chrysanthemum lavandulifolium

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    Shuai eQi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR is a popular and powerful tool used to understand the molecular mechanisms of flower development. However, the accuracy of this approach depends on the stability of reference genes. The capitulum of chrysanthemums is very special, which is consist of ray florets and disc florets. There are obvious differences between the two types of florets in symmetry, gender, histological structure and function. Furthermore, the ray florets have various shapes. The objective of present study was to identify the stable reference genes in Chrysanthemum morifolium and Chrysanthemum lavandulifolium during the process of flower development. In this study, nine candidate reference genes were selected and evaluated for their expression stability acrosssamples during the process of flower development, and their stability was validated by four different algorithms (Bestkeeper, NormFinder, GeNorm and Ref-finder. SAND(SAND family protein was found to be the most stably expressed gene in all samples or different tissues during the process of C. lavandulifolium development. Both SAND and PGK (phosphoglycerate kinase performed most stable in Chinese large-flowered chrysanthemum cultivars, and PGK was the best in potted chrysanthemums. There were differences in best reference genes among varieties as the genetic background of them were complex. These studies provide guidance for selecting reference genes for analyzing the expression pattern of floral development genes in chrysanthemums.

  11. 以菊展促文化推进春节菊花市场发展%Culture and market promotion by Chrysanthemum Exhibition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭超超; 戴思兰

    2009-01-01

    Chrysanthemum exhibition is one of the most important ways of chrysanthemum demonstration, which may promote industrial production and culture dissemination, and is also a way to direct the chrysanthemum production toward the market. Based on the introduction of chrysanthemum exhibition and chrysanthemum culture,including chrysanthemum market survey in the Spring Festival, the authors proposed that Chrysanthemum Exhibition in Spring Festival can open a new market for extended use of chrysanthemum.Techniques to control the flowering of chrysanthemum were described in the paper.

  12. Study of Development Potential Chrysanthemum in Buleleng Regency

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    I Gusti Made Arjana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the potential of agro-climate, technology of cultivation, harvest and post-harvest chrysanthemums. This study uses survey method, through the collection of primary data and secondary data. This research is located in the village of Pancasari, District Sukasada, Buleleng Bali Province. Descriptive survey conducted on 40 respondents chrysanthemum growers using the component identification of determinants of commodity production chrysanthemum include: site selection, infrastructure, crop production processes and post-harvest handling. The survey results showed that 100% of the farmers have chosen a suitable location with agro-climatic conditions required by the chrysanthemum plant, and 86.09% of the farmers have been using the means needed to support the process of crop production. In the process of production of 78% in accordance with the operational procedures. At the stage of harvest and post-harvest handling 80% have been implemented by farmers and some still use conventional methods of handling. Thus Pancasari village has a potential location for the cultivation of chrysanthemum as a mainstay commodity.

  13. Protection of Geographical Indication and Intangible Cultural Heritage of the Chrysanthemum Resources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zai; HU; Zhiguo; SUN; Wanzhen; XIONG; Limin; HUANG; Shuting; WANG

    2013-01-01

    We conduct an analysis on the current protection of geographical indication intellectual property and intangible cultural heritage of chrysanthemum resources. The following recommendations are explored and set forth: ( i) Collecting and sorting the intangible cultural heritage related to chrysanthemum,and declaring the provincial and national list; ( ii) Establishing the productive protection demonstration bases of intangible cultural heritage related to chrysanthemum; ( iii) Strengthening the declaration of geographical indication intellectual property protection of chrysanthemum; ( iv) Encouraging the use of special marks of geographical indication,and cultivating chrysanthemum brand; ( v) Establishing various kinds of national quality standards of geographical indication of chrysanthemum; ( vi) Implementing the double protection of intangible cultural heritage and geographical indication of traditional chrysanthemum.

  14. Clonal fidelity of chrysanthemum regenerated from long term cultures

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    Jevremović Slađana

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Morphological characteristics of flowers of long term regenerated chrysanthemum, cv. "White Spider", after ten years of micropropagation are investigated. Shoot cultures are established and maintained more than ten years by stem segment culture on MS medium supplemented with BAP and NAA (1.0, 0.1 mgL-1, respectively. Rooting of shoots (100 % has done on MS medium without hormones and it was very successful after ten years, as well as, after two or eight years of micropropagation. Acclimation of rooted chrysanthemum plantlets at greenhouse conditions was excellent and after appropriate photoperiod "in vitro" plants flowered 90.3 % and have the same flower color, shape and size as mother plants. Flower color changes of "in vitro" plants are observed during another flowering cycle one year after acclimatization. Observed variations of chrysanthemum flowers could be attributed to epigenetic factors.

  15. A New Compound from the Bud of Chrysanthemum indicum L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    A new bicyclic spiroketone was isolated from the bud of Chrysanthemum indicum L.The chemical structure was elucidated as (1R, 9S, 10S)-10-hydroxyl-8 (2', 4'-diynehexylidene)-9-isovaleryloxy-2, 7-dioxaspiro [5, 4] decane based on the X-ray crystallography.

  16. Functional anatomy of the water transport system in cut chrysanthemum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijsse, J.

    2001-01-01

    Cut flowers show a wide variance of keepability. The market demands more and more a guaranteed quality. Therefore, methods must be developed to predict vase life of cut flowers. Chrysanthemum ( Dendranthema x grandiflorum Tzvelev) and some other cut flowers suffer from unpredicted early leaf wilting

  17. Nitrogen, salinity, substrates and growth of gloxinia and chrysanthemum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arnold Bik, R.A.

    1970-01-01

    The study was on the harmful effect of salinity on N utilization in the flower crops gloxinia (a salt-sensitive mesophytic semi-shade plant) and chrysanthemum (a salt- tolerant sun plant). For solid substrates (trials 2 and 3) the specific conductivity of the saturation extract (EC. in mmho per cm a

  18. Analysis and Simulation of Growth and Yield of Cut Chrysanthemum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, J.H.

    2002-01-01

    Key words : chrysanthemum, crop growth, development, explanatory model, expolinear growth, dry mass, dry matter partitioning, fresh mass, leaf area index, light interception, light use efficiency, plant density, season, simulation, validation, year-round. Seasonal var

  19. An analysis of mind style in the short fiction Chrysanthemums

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵海燕

    2015-01-01

    The paper selected John Steinbeck’s short fiction The Chrysanthemums and focused on the analysis of Steinbeck and Elisa’ mind style.It is hoped that the present research will provide a new perspective for reader s and critics in appreciating and analyzing characters in short fiction.

  20. An analysis of mind style in the short fiction Chrysanthemums

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵海燕

    2015-01-01

    The paper selected John Steinbeck's short fiction The Chrysanthemums and focused on the analysis of Steinbeck and Elisa' mind style.It is hoped that the present research will provide a new perspective for reader s and critics in appreciating and analyzing characters in shortfiction.

  1. An isoform of eukaryotic initiation factor 4E from Chrysanthemum morifolium interacts with Chrysanthemum virus B coat protein.

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    Aiping Song

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E (eIF4E plays an important role in plant virus infection as well as the regulation of gene translation. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we describe the isolation of a cDNA encoding CmeIF(iso4E (GenBank accession no. JQ904592, an isoform of eIF4E from chrysanthemum, using RACE PCR. We used the CmeIF(iso4E cDNA for expression profiling and to analyze the interaction between CmeIF(iso4E and the Chrysanthemum virus B coat protein (CVBCP. Multiple sequence alignment and phylogenetic tree analysis showed that the sequence similarity of CmeIF(iso4E with other reported plant eIF(iso4E sequences varied between 69.12% and 89.18%, indicating that CmeIF(iso4E belongs to the eIF(iso4E subfamily of the eIF4E family. CmeIF(iso4E was present in all chrysanthemum organs, but was particularly abundant in the roots and flowers. Confocal microscopy showed that a transiently transfected CmeIF(iso4E-GFP fusion protein distributed throughout the whole cell in onion epidermis cells. A yeast two hybrid assay showed CVBCP interacted with CmeIF(iso4E but not with CmeIF4E. BiFC assay further demonstrated the interaction between CmeIF(iso4E and CVBCP. Luminescence assay showed that CVBCP increased the RLU of Luc-CVB, suggesting CVBCP might participate in the translation of viral proteins. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results inferred that CmeIF(iso4E as the cap-binding subunit eIF(iso4F may be involved in Chrysanthemum Virus B infection in chrysanthemum through its interaction with CVBCP in spatial.

  2. On Walter ’s Otherness in Odour of Chrysanthemums

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李嵩皎

    2015-01-01

    Odour of Chrysanthemums is one of the British writer D. H. Lawrence’s short stories. In the story, character’s understanding of each other reflects the idea of otherness. This paper tries to analyze both Walter’s mother and Elizabeth’s understanding of Walter Bates. Then it points out that they did not really understand him, nor did they understand his otherness. Their failure to understand his otherness is a reason to the unhappy marriage to some extent.

  3. Towards protease inhibitor mediated resistance to western flower thrips in chrysanthemum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Annadana, S.

    2001-01-01

    Dendranthema grandiflora (chrysanthemum) is a cutflower grown across the world, with an acreage similar to roses. Frankliniella occidentalis (Western flower thrips, WFT) is a major pest against a large number of crops, including chrysanthemum, in both field and glasshouse cultivation. Aiming at WFT

  4. Growth and Flowering Responses of Cut Chrysanthemum Grown under Restricted Root Volume to Irrigation Frequency

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    Viyachai Taweesak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Influences of irrigation frequency on the growth and flowering of chrysanthemum grown under restricted root volume were tested. Chrysanthemum cuttings (Chrysanthemum morifolium “Reagan White” were grown in seedling tray which contained coconut peat in volumes of 73 and 140 cm3. Plants were irrigated with drip irrigation at irrigation frequencies of 4 (266 mL, 6 (400 mL, and 8 (533 mL times/day to observe their growth and flowering performances. There was interaction between irrigation frequency and substrate volume on plant height of chrysanthemum. Plants grown in 140 cm3 substrates and irrigated 6 times/day produced the tallest plant of 109.25 cm. Plants irrigated 6 and 8 times/day had significantly higher level of phosphorus content in their leaves than those plants irrigated 4 times/day. The total leaf area, number of internodes, leaf length, and leaf width of chrysanthemums grown in 140 cm3 substrate were significantly higher than those grown in 73 cm3 substrate. The numbers of flowers were affected by both irrigation frequencies and substrate volumes. Chrysanthemums irrigated 8 times/day had an average of 19.56 flowers while those irrigated 4 times/day had an average of 16.63 flowers. Increasing irrigation frequency can improve the growth and flowering of chrysanthemums in small substrate volumes.

  5. Genetic engineering of novel bluer-colored chrysanthemums produced by accumulation of delphinidin-based anthocyanins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noda, Naonobu; Aida, Ryutaro; Kishimoto, Sanae; Ishiguro, Kanako; Fukuchi-Mizutani, Masako; Tanaka, Yoshikazu; Ohmiya, Akemi

    2013-10-01

    Chrysanthemums (Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat.) have no purple-, violet- or blue-flowered cultivars because they lack delphinidin-based anthocyanins. This deficiency is due to the absence of the flavonoid 3',5'-hydroxylase gene (F3'5'H), which encodes the key enzyme for delphinidin biosynthesis. In F3'5'H-transformed chrysanthemums, unpredictable and unstable expression levels have hampered successful production of delphinidin and reduced desired changes in flower color. With the aim of achieving delphinidin production in chrysanthemum petals, we found that anthocyanin biosynthetic gene promoters combined with a translational enhancer increased expression of some F3'5'H genes and accompanying delphinidin-based anthocyanin accumulation in transgenic chrysanthemums. Dramatic accumulation of delphinidin (up to 95%) was achieved by simple overexpression of Campanula F3'5'H controlled by a petal-specific flavanone 3-hydroxylase promoter from chrysanthemum combined with the 5'-untranslated region of the alcohol dehydrogenase gene as a translational enhancer. The flower colors of transgenic lines producing delphinidin-based anthocyanins changed from a red-purple to a purple-violet hue in the Royal Horticultural Society Colour Charts. This result represents a promising step toward molecular breeding of blue chrysanthemums.

  6. An Analysis of Symbolism in the Novel The Chrysanthemums

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乔璨

    2013-01-01

      The Chrysanthemums is the masterpiece of John Steinbeck, which is considered to be"one of the greatest short stories ever". The story tells the life experiences of an 35-year-old woman named Elisa. In this novel, the most outstanding writing tech⁃nique is the use of symbolism. Based on the analysis of the story, this paper aims to analyze how symbols are used to reflect the theme of this novel, which will be of great help o have a better understanding of the theme and the charm of the story.

  7. Effects of types of media and NPK fertilizer on the rooting capacity of chrysanthemum cuttings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Budiarto, K.; Sulyo, Y.; Dwi, E.; Maaswinkel, R.H.M.

    2006-01-01

    Physiological status of chrysanthemum cuttings during rooting process highly influences plant growth and flower production. Amongst other aspects, rooting capacity of the cuttings is the most important. Rooting capacity is influenced by environmental conditions such as growing medium and nutrition.

  8. Development of reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay as a simple detection method of Chrysanthemum stem necrosis virus in chrysanthemum and tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Ryoji; Fukuta, Shiro; Matsumoto, Yuho; Hasegawa, Toru; Kojima, Hiroko; Hotta, Makiko; Miyake, Noriyuki

    2016-10-01

    For a simple and rapid detection of Chrysanthemum stem necrosis virus (CSNV) from chrysanthemum and tomato, a reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) assay was developed. A primer set designed to the genome sequences of CSNV worked most efficiently at 63°C and could detect CSNV RNA within 12min by fluorescence monitoring using an isothermal DNA amplification and fluorescence detection device. The result of a specificity test using seven other viruses and one viroid-infectable chrysanthemum or tomato showed that the assay could amplify CSNV specifically, and a sensitivity comparison showed that the RT-LAMP assay was as sensitive as the reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. The RT-LAMP assay using crude RNA, extracted simply, could detect CSNV. Overall, the RT-LAMP assay was found to be a simple, specific, convenient, and time-saving method for CSNV detection.

  9. Identification and characterization of four chrysanthemum MADS-box genes, belonging to the APETALA1/FRUITFULL and SEPALLATA3 subfamilies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shchennikova, A.V.; Shulga, O.A.; Immink, R.; Skryabin, K.G.; Angenent, G.C.

    2004-01-01

    Four full-length MADS-box cDNAs from chrysanthemum, designated Chrysanthemum Dendrathema grandiflorum MADS (CDM) 8, CDM41, CDM111, and CDM44, have been isolated and further functionally characterized. Protein sequence alignment and expression patterns of the corresponding genes suggest that CDM8 and

  10. A multiplex real-time PCR assay for the detection of Puccinia horiana and P. chrysanthemi on chrysanthemum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puccinia horiana, the cause of chrysanthemum white rust, is a regulated fungal plant pathogen in the United States, while Puccinia chrysanthemi, the cause of chrysanthemum brown rust, is a widespread but less destructive pathogen. Accurate identification of these pathogens is essential to correctly ...

  11. Comparative Analysis of the Chrysanthemum Leaf Transcript Profiling in Response to Salt Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yin-Huan; Wang, Tong; Wang, Ke; Liang, Qian-Yu; Bai, Zhen-Yu; Liu, Qing-Lin; Pan, Yuan-Zhi; Jiang, Bei-Bei; Zhang, Lei

    2016-01-01

    Salt stress has some remarkable influence on chrysanthemum growth and productivity. To understand the molecular mechanisms associated with salt stress and identify genes of potential importance in cultivated chrysanthemum, we carried out transcriptome sequencing of chrysanthemum. Two cDNA libraries were generated from the control and salt-treated samples (Sample_0510_control and Sample_0510_treat) of leaves. By using the Illumina Solexa RNA sequencing technology, 94 million high quality sequencing reads and 161,522 unigenes were generated and then we annotated unigenes through comparing these sequences to diverse protein databases. A total of 126,646 differentially expressed transcripts (DETs) were identified in leaf. Plant hormones, amino acid metabolism, photosynthesis and secondary metabolism were all changed under salt stress after the complete list of GO term and KEGG enrichment analysis. The hormone biosynthesis changing and oxidative hurt decreasing appeared to be significantly related to salt tolerance of chrysanthemum. Important protein kinases and major transcription factor families involved in abiotic stress were differentially expressed, such as MAPKs, CDPKs, MYB, WRKY, AP2 and HD-zip. In general, these results can help us to confirm the molecular regulation mechanism and also provide us a comprehensive resource of chrysanthemum under salt stress. PMID:27447718

  12. Spectral effects of supplementary lighting on the secondary metabolites in roses, chrysanthemums, and campanulas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ouzounis, Theoharis; Fretté, Xavier; Rosenqvist, Eva

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the effect of the light spectrum on photosynthesis, growth, and secondary metabolites Rosa hybrida ‘Scarlet’, Chrysanthemum morifolium ‘Coral Charm’, and Campanula portenschlagiana ‘BluOne’ were grown at 24/18 ◦C day/night temperature under purpose-built LED arrays yielding...... approximately 200 mol m−2 s−1 at plant height for 16 h per day. The four light treatments were (1) 40% Blue/60% Red, (2) 20% Blue/80% Red, (3) 100% Red, and (4) 100% White (Control). The plant height was smallest in 40% Blue/60% Red in roses and chrysanthemums, while the biomass was smallest in the white...

  13. The Abundance and Diversity of Soil Fungi in Continuously Monocropped Chrysanthemum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiping Song

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Chrysanthemum is an important ornamental plant which is increasingly being monocropped. Monocropping is known to affect both fungal abundance and species diversity. Here, quantitative PCR allied with DGGE analysis was used to show that fungi were more abundant in the rhizosphere than in the bulk soil and that the fungal populations changed during the growth cycle of the chrysanthemum. The majority of amplified fragments appeared to derive from Fusarium species, and F. oxysporum and F. solani proved to be the major pathogenic species which are built up by monocropping.

  14. Chrysanthemum Cutting Productivity and Rooting Ability Are Improved by Grafting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Chrysanthemum has been commercially propagated by rooting of cuttings, whereas the quality will decline over multiple collections from a single plant. Therefore, we compared the vigour, rooting ability, and some physiological parameters between cuttings harvested from nongrafted “Jinba” (non-grafted cuttings with those collected from grafted “Jinba” plants onto Artemisia scoparia as a rootstock (grafted cuttings. The yield, length, node number, stem diameter, fresh weight, and dry weight of the grafted cuttings were superior to the non-grafted cuttings. Also grafted cuttings “Jinba” rooted 1 day earlier, but showing enhanced rooting quality including number, length, diameter, and dry weight of roots, where compared to the non-grafted. The physiological parameters that indicated contents of soluble protein, peroxidase activity, soluble sugar, and starch, ratios of soluble sugar/nitrogen ratio, and carbohydrate/nitrogen (C/N, as well as contents of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA and abscisic acid (ABA, and IAA/ABA ratio were significantly increased in the grafted cuttings. This suggested their important parts in mediating rooting ability. Results from this study showed that grafting improved productivity and rooting ability related to an altered physiology, which provide a means to meet the increasing demand.

  15. STUDY ON CROSSING ABILITY OF ANNUAL CHRYSANTHEMUM GENOTYPES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suneetha Kattera

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The experiment comprised of six genotypes viz., NAC-01-10, NAC-02-10, NAC-03-10, NAC-04-10, NAC-05-10, NAC-06-10 selected for petal colour and number of layers of petals to estimate pollen viability, in-vitro pollen germination, stigma receptivity and crossed seed set percentage to find out the crossing ability of genotypes. The present experiment was laid out at the experimental field of Horticulture Section, College of Agriculture, Nagpur, during 2010-11. Pollen viability of six genotypes of annual chrysanthemum showed a range of 69.69% to 86.66% viability, Percentage of germination on the day of anthesis ranged from 22.72% (NAC-06-10 to 66.66% (NAC-01-10. First day pollen pollinated on first day stigma showed 100% stigma receptivity in all six genotypes and the crossed seed set ranged from 61.60% (NAC-04-10 × NAC-05-10 to 92.00% (NAC-01-10 × NAC-04-10 among direct crosses whereas, the percentage ranged from 42.00% (NAC-04-10 × NAC-02-10 to 90.00% (NAC-05-10 × NAC-01-10 among the reciprocal crosses. All the six genotypes are highly suitable for their use as parents in crossing program.

  16. Air-borne contact dermatitis due to Chrysanthemum with true cross sensitivity to Parthenium hysterophorus and Xanthium strumarium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasricha J

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available A 60-year old man living in Srinagar (Jammu and Kashmir had air-borne contact dermatitis for last 10 years. He had never traveled to any other part of the country where Parthenium hysterophorus or Xanthium strumarium are prevalent but he used to cultivate chrysanthemums. Patch tests with standardized extracts of various plants revealed the strongest reaction with Chrysanthemum, while the reactions with Xanthium strumarium and Parthenium hysterophorus were also positive but milder. This seems to be a case of primary sensitivity to Chrysanthemum with cross sensitivity to Xanthium strumarium and Parthenium hysterophorus.

  17. Influences of four different light-emitting diode lights on flowering and polyphenol variations in the leaves of chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum morifolium).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Sung Woo; Park, Semin; Jin, Jong Sung; Seo, On Nuri; Kim, Gon-Sup; Kim, Yun-Hi; Bae, Hanhong; Lee, Gyemin; Kim, Soo Taek; Lee, Won Sup; Shin, Sung Chul

    2012-10-03

    Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are an efficient alternative to traditional lamps for plant growth. To investigate the influence of LEDs on flowering and polyphenol biosynthesis in the leaves of chrysanthemum, the plants were grown under supplemental blue, green, red, and white LEDs. Flower budding was formed even after a longer photoperiod than a critical day length of 13.5 h per day under blue light illumination. The weights of leaves and stems were highest under the white light illumination growth condition, whereas the weight of roots appeared to be independent of light quality. Among nine polyphenols characterized by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectroscopy, three polyphenols were identified for the first time in chrysanthemum. A quantitation and principal component analysis biplot demonstrated that luteolin-7-O-glucoside (2), luteolin-7-O-glucuronide (3), and quercetagetin-trimethyl ether (8) were the highest polyphenols yielded under green light, and dicaffeoylquinic acid isomer (4), dicaffeoylquinic acid isomer (5), naringenin (7), and apigenin-7-O-glucuronide (6) were greatest under red light. Chlorogenic acid (1) and 1,2,6-trihydroxy-7,8-dimethoxy-3-methylanthraquinone (9) were produced in similar concentrations under both light types. The white and blue light appeared inefficient for polyphenol production. Taken together, our results suggest that the chrysanthemum flowering and polyphenol production are influenced by light quality composition.

  18. Isolation, identification and activity of natural antioxidants from costmary (Chrysanthemum balsamita) cultivated in Lithuania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pukalskas, A.; Venskutonis, P.R.; Dijkgraaf, I.; Beek, van T.A.

    2010-01-01

    The sweet, minty-lemony leaves of costmary (Chrysanthemum balsamita) are used for salads and tea, and as flavourings in meats, sausages, cakes and ale. In this study, the extracts isolated from costmary aerial parts were investigated as antioxidants in rapeseed oil and as free radical-scavengers in

  19. The Analyses of the effects of Environmental Descriptions in Odour of Chrysanthemums

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐亚河

    2015-01-01

    Environment is an indispensable element of a story structure. In the short story Odour of Chrysanthemums, Laurence showed a se⁃ries of original environmental descriptions which play a important role to create specific atmosphere in an industrial society and express pro⁃tagonists’inner life.

  20. Industrial Dehumanization——Viewed from the husband and wife relationship in "Odour of Chrysanthemums"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何苗

    2007-01-01

    Lawrence is regarded as one of most accomplished short story writers in twentieth century, with "Odour of Chrysanthemums" one of his early works. Through the death of a miner, the text shows how humanity was ruined by industrial civilization. This essay is intended to unveil the destructive force by analyzing the relationship between the husband and wife.

  1. Deflowered: Walking Students through A Harsher Reading of John Steinbeck's "The Chrysanthemums."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plath, James

    2001-01-01

    Discusses a teaching method for John Steinbeck's "The Chrysanthemums" which focuses on word choice, symbolism, character interaction, and gender roles. Proposes that such a close study should reveal to students that Steinbeck should be considered one of America's most talented writers. (PM)

  2. Effects of growth conditions on external quality of cut chrysanthemum; analysis and simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carvalho, S.M.P.

    2003-01-01

    For many years the emphasis in floricultural research laid with quantity rather than quality. Nowadays, since the prices are often determined on the basis of visual quality aspects, the so-called external quality, chrysanthemum growers aim to provide a high and constant product qualit

  3. [Effects of bio-organic fertilizer and fungicide application on continuous cropping obstacles of cut chrysanthemum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xi; Zhao, Shuang; Yao, Jian-jun; Ye, Yan-ping; Song, Ai-ping; Chen, Fa-di; Chen, Su-mei; Dong, Xue-na

    2015-04-01

    Abstract: Fusarium wilt is a soil borne disease caused by plant continuous cropping in monoculture Chrysanthemum morifolium 'Youxiang' monoculture not only declines plant quality and yield but also decreases soil enzymes and soil microbial diversity over successive cultivation. In this article, the effects of fungicide (Carbendazim MBC), antifungal enhanced bio-organic fertilizer (BOF), and their combined application on the quality and soil enzymes activities of Chrysanthemum morifolium 'Youxiang' in continuous cropping systems were investigated. The results showed that both bioorganic fertilizer (BOF) and fungicide (MBC) single application could effectively prevent the occurrence of Fusarium wilt disease of cut chrysanthemum. Bio-organic fertilizer application was more effective on root activity, soil enzymes activities and quality (shoot height, stem diameter, leaf SPAD value, ray floret number, shoot fresh mass) improvement of cut chrysanthemum, while fungicide single application was responsible for soil enzymatic activities suppression to some extent. The combined application treatment (MBC+BOF) showed the best effects on quality improvement and soil enzyme activities promotion.

  4. Identification of Floral Scent in Chrysanthemum Cultivars and Wild Relatives by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hainan Sun

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to identify the major volatile compounds and their relative concentrations in flowers of different chrysanthemum cultivars and their wild relatives. The volatile organic components of fresh flowers were analyzed using a headspace solid-phase microextraction coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. In total, 193 volatile organic components were detected; the major scent components were monoterpenoids and oxygenated monoterpenoids, which accounted for 68.59%–99.93% of the total volatiles in all tested materials except for Chrysanthemum indicum collected from Huangshan, in which they accounted for only 37.45% of total volatiles. The major volatile compounds were camphor, α-pinene, chrysanthenone, safranal, myrcene, eucalyptol, 2,4,5,6,7,7ab-hexahydro-1H-indene, verbenone, β-phellandrene and camphene. In a hierarchical cluster analysis, 39 accessions of Chrysanthemum and its relatives formed six clusters based on their floral volatile compounds. In a principal component analysis, only spider type flowers were located closely on the score plot. The results of this study provide a basis for breeding chrysanthemum cultivars which desirable floral scents.

  5. Possibilities for soilless cultivation in cut chrysanthemum: Effect of irrigation frequencies and spacing schedules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fanourakis, D.; Heuvelink, E.; Verkerke, W.

    2011-01-01

    Three levels of irrigation frequencies, provided by root misting, combined with three plant densities and two spacing treatments were tested to evaluate the optimum conditions during the first crop stages of chrysanthemum in a soilless cultivation system (aeroponics) in an experiment conducted in au

  6. High temperature stress monitoring and detection using chlorophyll a fluorescence and infrared thermography in chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflora)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wakjera, Eshetu Janka; Körner, Oliver; Rosenqvist, Eva

    2013-01-01

    (PSII) and stomatal conductance (gs). A combination of chlorophyll a fluorescence, gas exchange measurements and infrared thermography was applied using Chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflora Tzvelev) cultivar ‘Coral Charm’ as a model species. Increasing temperature had a highly significant effect...

  7. Air-borne dermatitis from [i]Chrysanthemum[/i] – case report with a discussion of diagnostic procedures and therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obtulowicz Aleksander

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Airborne dermatitis belongs to a heterogeneous group of dermatoses of various etiopathology and clinical characteristics. This disease is characterized by acute or chronic inflammation of the uncovered skin exposed to irritants or allergens. Initially skin lesions are transient. The paper presents a description of chrysanthemum growers diagnosed with air-borne dermatitis from chrysanthemum. Etiology, pathomechanism, clinical course, diagnostics and therapeutical methods are described.

  8. Morphological Characteristics, Phenolic and Terpenoid Profiles in Garden Chrysanthemum Grown in Different Nutritional Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Cristina Cerasela MIRCEA (ARSENE); Oana CIOANCĂ; Lucia DRAGHIA; Monica HĂNCIANU

    2015-01-01

    Chrysanthemum indicum L. (Dendranthema indicum (L.) Des Moul) became useful as herbs and curatives in different parts of the world. In the current study, the chemical profile of outdoor cultivated Chrysanthemum indicum ‘Avalone Red’ was investigated for polyphenolic acid derivatives, flavonoids, alantolactone and ursolic acid using thin layer chromatography (TLC). Total phenolic content was determined through a classical method and semiquantitative analyses of alantolactone were performed thr...

  9. Violet/blue chrysanthemums--metabolic engineering of the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway results in novel petal colors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brugliera, Filippa; Tao, Guo-Qing; Tems, Ursula; Kalc, Gianna; Mouradova, Ekaterina; Price, Kym; Stevenson, Kim; Nakamura, Noriko; Stacey, Iolanda; Katsumoto, Yukihisa; Tanaka, Yoshikazu; Mason, John G

    2013-10-01

    Chrysanthemums (Chrysanthemum×morifolium Ramat.) are an important cut-flower and potted plant crop in the horticultural industry world wide. Chrysanthemums express the flavonoid 3'-hydroxylase (F3'H) gene and thus accumulate anthocyanins derived from cyanidin in their inflorescences which appear pink/red. Delphinidin-based anthocyanins are lacking due to the deficiency of a flavonoid 3', 5'-hydroxylase (F3'5'H), and so violet/blue chrysanthemum flower colors are not found. In this study, together with optimization of transgene expression and selection of the host cultivars and gene source, F3'5'H genes have been successfully utilized to produce transgenic bluish chrysanthemums that accumulate delphinidin-based anthocyanins. HPLC analysis and feeding experiments with a delphinidin precursor identified 16 cultivars of chrysanthemums out of 75 that were predicted to turn bluish upon delphinidin accumulation. A selection of eight cultivars were successfully transformed with F3'5'H genes under the control of different promoters. A pansy F3'5'H gene under the control of a chalcone synthase promoter fragment from rose resulted in the effective diversion of the anthocyanin pathway to produce delphinidin in transgenic chrysanthemum flower petals. The resultant petal color was bluish, with 40% of total anthocyanidins attributed to delphinidin. Increased delphinidin levels (up to 80%) were further achieved by hairpin RNA interference-mediated silencing of the endogenous F3'H gene. The resulting petal colors were novel bluish hues, not possible by hybridization breeding. This is the first report of the production of anthocyanins derived from delphinidin in chrysanthemum petals leading to novel flower color.

  10. Transcriptome-Wide Survey and Expression Profile Analysis of Putative Chrysanthemum HD-Zip I and II Genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Aiping; Li, Peiling; Xin, Jingjing; Chen, Sumei; Zhao, Kunkun; Wu, Dan; Fan, Qingqing; Gao, Tianwei; Chen, Fadi; Guan, Zhiyong

    2016-05-17

    The homeodomain-leucine zipper (HD-Zip) transcription factor family is a key transcription factor family and unique to the plant kingdom. It consists of a homeodomain and a leucine zipper that serve in combination as a dimerization motif. The family can be classified into four subfamilies, and these subfamilies participate in the development of hormones and mediation of hormone action and are involved in plant responses to environmental conditions. However, limited information on this gene family is available for the important chrysanthemum ornamental species (Chrysanthemum morifolium). Here, we characterized 17 chrysanthemum HD-Zip genes based on transcriptome sequences. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that 17 CmHB genes were distributed in the HD-Zip subfamilies I and II and identified two pairs of putative orthologous proteins in Arabidopsis and chrysanthemum and four pairs of paralogous proteins in chrysanthemum. The software MEME was used to identify 7 putative motifs with E values less than 1e-3 in the chrysanthemum HD-Zip factors, and they can be clearly classified into two groups based on the composition of the motifs. A bioinformatics analysis predicted that 8 CmHB genes could be targeted by 10 miRNA families, and the expression of these 17 genes in response to phytohormone treatments and abiotic stresses was characterized. The results presented here will promote research on the various functions of the HD-Zip gene family members in plant hormones and stress responses.

  11. Hydrothermal synthesis and dielectric properties of chrysanthemum-like ZnO particles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Jun-Feng; Zhang Zhi-Yong; You Tian-Gui; Zhao Wu; Yun Jiang-Ni

    2009-01-01

    By orthogonal design theory,technological parameters of chrysanthemum-like ZnO particles prepared in a hydrothermal process are optimized. This paper reports a set of technological parameters for growing chrysanthemumlike ZnO particles on a large scale. It investigates the morphologies and crystalline structures of the as-synthesized three-dimensional ZnO particles with a scanning electron microscope,x-ray diffractometer and transmission electron microscope,and the possible growth mechanism on the three-dimensional ZnO particles. The experimental results indicate that the values of ε'、ε" and tan δe gradually increase in the X band with the improvement of the developmental level of chrysanthemum-like ZnO particles,implying that the electromagnetic wave absorbing property depends on the morphologies of three-dimensional ZnO particles.

  12. A COMPUTER CONTROLLED IRRIGATION OF POTTED CHRYSANTHEMUM GROWN AT OUTDOOR CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halil Kirnak

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A rapid and reliable method to estimate water requirements for chrysanthemum production with practical applications to commercial operations was developed to promote water conservation. A water-requirement prediction equation (R2 = 0.71 that used class A pan evaporation along with plant-canopy height and width as input variables was generated. Equation verification was carried out by comparing vegetative growth and quality of crops irrigated according to the generated water-requirement equation to crops irrigated based on demand and conservative fixed daily irrigation regimes. Vegetation growth of the plants irrigated with the generated equation was smaller than plants grown by demand irrigation, but plant quality was not significantly different. Applied water was significantly lower for plants irrigated with the generated equation than would normally be applied in a commercial operation using a conservative fixed daily irrigation rate. The study showed that there was a close relationship between chrysanthemum water requirements and the plant and evaporative data. A simplified ET equation involving plant characteristics and evaporative data could be used in the irrigation scheduling of chrysanthemum grown under restricted root volume.

  13. The Protective Effect of Chrysanthemum indicum Extract against Ankylosing Spondylitis in Mouse Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    In traditional Chinese and Korean homeopathic medicine, Chrysanthemum indicum Linné (Asteraceae) is a time-honored herb, prescribed for the resolution of symptoms associated with inflammatory and hypertensive conditions as well as those affecting the lungs and its associated structures. The goal of this work is to investigate the defensive role of Chrysanthemum indicum extract in fighting ankylosing spondylitis (AS) using mouse models, through which the manifestation and extent of the disease progression were measured with quantitative analysis of the intervertebral joints. Markers of inflammation as well as oxidative stress were also analysed. Western blot was used to quantify the levels of Nuclear Factor-κB (NF-κB) p65, Dickkopf-1 (DKK-1), and sclerostin (SOST). Consequently, the findings of this experiment demonstrated that AS in mice that were given Chrysanthemum indicum extract had lower level of TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 (P inhibiting inflammatory mediators and NF-κB, and increasing DKK-1 and SOST levels.

  14. Spectral effects of supplementary lighting on the secondary metabolites in roses, chrysanthemums, and campanulas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouzounis, Theoharis; Fretté, Xavier; Rosenqvist, Eva; Ottosen, Carl-Otto

    2014-10-15

    To investigate the effect of the light spectrum on photosynthesis, growth, and secondary metabolites Rosa hybrida 'Scarlet', Chrysanthemum morifolium 'Coral Charm', and Campanula portenschlagiana 'BluOne' were grown at 24/18°C day/night temperature under purpose-built LED arrays yielding approximately 200 μmol m(-2)s(-1) at plant height for 16 h per day. The four light treatments were (1) 40% Blue/60% Red, (2) 20% Blue/80% Red, (3) 100% Red, and (4) 100% White (Control). The plant height was smallest in 40% Blue/60% Red in roses and chrysanthemums, while the biomass was smallest in the white control in roses and in 100% Red in chrysanthemums. The total biomass was unaffected by the spectrum in campanulas, while the leaf area was smallest in the 40% Blue/60% Red treatment. In 100% Red curled leaves and other morphological abnormalities were observed. Increasing the blue to red ratio increased the stomatal conductance though net photosynthesis was unaffected, indicating excess stomatal conductance in some treatments. With higher blue light ratio all phenolic acids and flavonoids increased. In view of the roles of these secondary metabolites as antioxidants, anti-pathogens, and light protectants, we hypothesize that blue light may predispose plants to better cope with stress.

  15. [Study on transformation of snowdrop lectin gene to chrysanthemum and aphid resistance of the transgenic plants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guan-Lin; Liu, Yan-Hong; Guo, Shao-Hua; Wang, Yu; Ji, Yan; Fang, Hong-Jun

    2004-12-01

    Agrobacterium-mediated transformation in chrysanthemum was studied to prevent the insect pest of aphid (Mizus persicae). The gna gene was successfully transferred into chrysanthemum by leaf dish, and 93 transgenic clones were obtained. The highest transformation frequency 11.21% was achieved on the optimization facts, which were medium YEB with pH5.6, bacterial concentration OD600 = 0.4, precultivation for one day, cocultivation for four days, the cocultivation media supplemented with GA3 0.5 mg/L and leaf explants growed for 45 days. The results from PCR and FQ-PCR analysis confirmed that gna gene was integrated into the genome of chrysanthemum plants. The insect bioassay with aphid showed that the aphid resistance of different transgenic plants was difference, and the rate of aphid population inhibition of them were from 10% to 84% with an average rate of 39.4%. The leaf-extracts from different transgenic plants showed varying actinties in red-blood cell bioassay.

  16. Identification of superior chrysanthemum genotypes based on phenological traits and postproduction longevity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hassanpour Asil

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Chrysanthemum is one of the most important ornamental and medicinal plants in the world. In this study, diversity among 50 genotypes of chrysanthemum morifolium was analyzed using phenologic and morphologic traits. The variation between studied genotypes showed a significant difference for all traits and coefficient of genetic variations for most traits was greater than 40%. The highest general heritability belonged to days to bud coloring (h2=90.59% and post-production longevity (h2=88.3%. The lowest heritability (h2=6.05% was related to disc floret opening. In multiple linear stepwise regression for flower longevity as the dependent variable, such traits as number of days to bud coloring, days to full bloom and pollen shed entered the model. Therefore, vegetative growth period and behavior of florets affect post-production longevity. On the other hand, cluster analysis according to the morphological traits using Ward method classified all the studied genotypes into six groups. In this classification, two genotypes of “Afrooz” and ‘Unknown1’, with short vegetative period, late pollen shed and high post-production longevity were classified into a separate cluster. The findings of this research showed that the studied Chrysanthemum genotypes have desirable genetic potential, and depending on the objectives, most of them could be used in breeding programs to improve different traits.

  17. Effect of the Introduction of Chrysanthemum on the Nutritional and Sensory Properties of Cabernet Sauvignon Red Wine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Liu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we propose a new wine technology where dried chrysanthemum is introduced during the process of fermentation of wine. This technology sets an example of a blend between exotic wine culture and traditional Chinese tea culture. The influence on the chemical and sensory properties of wine due to the addition of different amounts of chrysanthemum at different fermentation periods was studied. In all the wine with added chrysanthemum the content of both polyphenols and flavones obviously increased. The wine of T1 and T2 had a higher content of polyphenols and flavones than others, due to thermomaceration, whereas those in the wine of T2 were the highest, due to the technique of squeezing juice. The sensory quality of T3, without the techniques of thermomaceration and squeezing juice, was optimal, with characteristics such as a ruby color, fuller aroma, and a lighter flowery texture. Therefore, T3 was defined as the optimum of chrysanthemum adding procedures. With the increase of chrysanthemum addition, both flavones content and polyphenols content of the obtained wine first increased, and then decreased.

  18. Whole-Transcriptome Analysis of Differentially Expressed Genes in the Vegetative Buds, Floral Buds and Buds of Chrysanthemum morifolium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Liu

    Full Text Available Chrysanthemum morifolium is an important floral crop that is cultivated worldwide. However, due to a lack of genomic resources, very little information is available concerning the molecular mechanisms of flower development in chrysanthemum.The transcriptomes of chrysanthemum vegetative buds, floral buds and buds were sequenced using Illumina paired-end sequencing technology. A total of 15.4 Gb of reads were assembled into 91,367 unigenes with an average length of 739 bp. A total of 43,137 unigenes showed similarity to known proteins in the Swissprot or NCBI non-redundant protein databases. Additionally, 25,424, 24,321 and 13,704 unigenes were assigned to 56 gene ontology (GO categories, 25 EuKaryotic Orthologous Groups (KOG categories, and 285 Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG pathways, respectively. A total of 1,876 differentially expressed genes (DEGs (1,516 up-regulated, 360 down-regulated were identified between vegetative buds and floral buds, and 3,300 DEGs (1,277 up-regulated, 1,706 down-regulated were identified between floral buds and buds. Many genes encoding important transcription factors (e.g., AP2, MYB, MYC, WRKY, NAC and CRT as well as proteins involved in carbohydrate metabolism, protein kinase activity, plant hormone signal transduction, and the defense responses, among others, were considerably up-regulated in floral buds. Genes involved in the photoperiod pathway and flower organ determination were also identified. These genes represent important candidate genes for molecular cloning and functional analysis to study flowering regulation in chrysanthemum.This comparative transcriptome analysis revealed significant differences in gene expression and signaling pathway components between the vegetative buds, floral buds and buds of Chrysanthemum morifolium. A wide range of genes was implicated in regulating the phase transition from vegetative to reproductive growth. These results should aid researchers in the study of

  19. Chrysanthemum expressing a linalool synthase gene 'smells good', but 'tastes bad' to western flower thrips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ting; Stoopen, Geert; Thoen, Manus; Wiegers, Gerrie; Jongsma, Maarten A

    2013-09-01

    Herbivore-induced plant volatiles are often involved in direct and indirect plant defence against herbivores. Linalool is a common floral scent and found to be released from leaves by many plants after herbivore attack. In this study, a linalool/nerolidol synthase, FaNES1, was overexpressed in the plastids of chrysanthemum plants (Chrysanthemum morifolium). The volatiles of FaNES1 chrysanthemum leaves were strongly dominated by linalool, but they also emitted small amount of the C11-homoterpene, (3E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene, a derivative of nerolidol. Four nonvolatile linalool glycosides in methanolic extracts were found to be significantly increased in the leaves of FaNES1 plants compared to wild-type plants. They were putatively identified by LC-MS-MS as two linalool-malonyl-hexoses, a linalool-pentose-hexose and a glycoside of hydroxy-linalool. A leaf-disc dual-choice assay with western flower thrips (WFT, Frankliniella occidentalis) showed, initially during the first 15 min of WFT release, that FaNES1 plants were significantly preferred. This gradually reversed into significant preference for the control, however, at 20-28 h after WFT release. The initial preference was shown to be based on the linalool odour of FaNES1 plants by olfactory dual-choice assays using paper discs emitting pure linalool at similar rates as leaf discs. The reversal of preference into deterrence could be explained by the initial nonvolatile composition of the FaNES1 plants, as methanolic extracts were less preferred by WFT. Considering the common occurrence of linalool and its glycosides in plant tissues, it suggests that plants may balance attractive fragrance with 'poor taste' using the same precursor compound.

  20. Study on Chrysanthemum Health Jelly%菊花保健果冻的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶文峰; 冷桂华; 周秀玲

    2012-01-01

    以菊花为主要原料,以卡拉胶、魔芋粉为主要胶体,研制了营养价值高,感官性状良好,并具有一定保健功能的果冻。采用三因素三水平试验确定了菊花的最佳浸提条件,即为:浸提温度85℃,时间为25 min,加水量为70倍。还探讨了卡拉胶、魔芋粉的最佳配比,通过正交试验得出保健果冻的最佳配方,即为:胶粉(卡拉胶∶魔芋粉为4∶1)为1.3%,白砂糖15%,柠檬酸0.18%,菊花浸提液25%。%With the chrysanthemum as main raw materials,carrageenan,konjac powder as the main colloid,developed a high nutritional value and sensory properties,and had certainly good health care function jelly.Adopting three factors 3 levels test to determine the best leaching of chrysanthemum,namely contracts for: leaching 85 ℃,extracting time 25 min,70 times water.Also discussed carrageenan,konjac powder at the best ratio through thogonal experiment,we confirmed the best formula of health jelly was that powder(carrageenan: konjac powder for 4∶1) 1.3%,sugar 15%,citric acid 0.18% and chrysanthemum juice 25%.

  1. Morphological Characteristics, Phenolic and Terpenoid Profiles in Garden Chrysanthemum Grown in Different Nutritional Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Cerasela MIRCEA (ARSENE

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Chrysanthemum indicum L. (Dendranthema indicum (L. Des Moul became useful as herbs and curatives in different parts of the world. In the current study, the chemical profile of outdoor cultivated Chrysanthemum indicum ‘Avalone Red’ was investigated for polyphenolic acid derivatives, flavonoids, alantolactone and ursolic acid using thin layer chromatography (TLC. Total phenolic content was determined through a classical method and semiquantitative analyses of alantolactone were performed through the HPLC method. Morphological and yield parameters and the chemical profile of plants were registered in two different nutritional statuses (local and enriched soil conditions. The results indicate that the studied cultivar is a potent source of phenolics and that the fertilisation increases the plant biosynthetic capacity for polyphenols (159.74 mg/100 g in leaves and 79.82 mg/100 g in flowers, in unfertilised plants, and 388.54 mg/100 g and 144.86 mg/100 g in leaves and flowers of fertilised plants, respectively, expressed as gallic acid equivalent value. The studied cultivar contains hyperoside (and other derivatives and four main polyphenol carboxylic acids (including chlorogenic acid. Ursolic acid was not detected. The high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC analyses confirmed the presence of alantolactone identified in TLC chromatogram. Moreover, the fertilised plant samples contain only traces of alantolactone compared to the unfertilised plants. Alantolactone is present in a small amount (less than 0.1 mg % but its presence alerts to the potential allergenic effect of the plant. Besides their ornamental value, chrysanthemums can have a wide array of uses due to their high amounts of bioactive compounds.

  2. A correlation between antioxidant activity and metabolite release during the blanching of Chrysanthemum coronarium L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jiyoung; Choi, Jung Nam; Ku, Kang Mo; Kang, Daejung; Kim, Jong Sang; Park, Jung Han Yoon; Lee, Choong Hwan

    2011-01-01

    Liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LCMS/MS)-based metabolite profiling was applied to elucidate the correlation between metabolite release and antioxidant activity during water blanching of Chrysanthemum coronarium L. (CC). Some major metabolites showing differences between fresh CC and blanched CC (BCC) were selected by principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least-square discriminate analysis (PLS-DA) loading plots, and were identified as dicaffeoylquinic acid (DCQA), succinoyl-DCQA, and acetylmycosinol. By PLS regression analysis of the correlation between antioxidant components and effects, candidate antioxidative metabolites were predicted due to strong positive correlations with DCQA and succinoyl-DCQA, and by a relatively weak positive correlation with acetylmycosinol.

  3. Simulation of Leaf Area Development Based on Dry Matter Partitioning and Specific Leaf Area for Cut Chrysanthemum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, J.H.; Heuvelink, E.

    2003-01-01

    This work aims to predict time courses of leaf area index (LAI) based on dry matter partitioning into the leaves and on specific leaf area of newly formed leaf biomass (SLA(n)) for year-round cut chrysanthemum crops. In five glasshouse experiments, each consisting of several plant densities and plan

  4. Process-based modeling of the control of beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua, with baculoviruses in greenhouse chrysanthemum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bianchi, F.J.J.A.

    2001-01-01

    This thesis describes the development of a process-based simulation model for the population dynamics of beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua , and baculoviruses in greenhouse chrysanthemum. The model (BACSIM) has been validated for two baculoviruses with clear differences in biological characteristics,

  5. Substrate Cultivation of Chrysanthemum: Plant performance in 6 cropping systems and the effect of parameters associated with root environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guo, X.; Blok, C.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Chrysanthemum is an important greenhouse crop in Holland and is still cultivated in soil. To prevent the emission of nutrients and crop protecting agents, an emission:free cropping system should be developed. This experiment was conducted to that purpose. The objectives of this experiment we

  6. Resistance induction in chrysanthemum due to silicon application in the management of whitefly Bemisia tabaci Biotype B (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Almeida Melo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Whitefly Bemisia tabaci biotype B (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae is a key pest in many cultures worldwide, among them chrysanthemum. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether silicon application in chrysanthemum plants can induce resistance to whitefly. The experiments were conducted in chrysanthemum cv. Rage in a greenhouse at EPAMIG in São João Del Rei, MG. The treatments were: 1 silicon applied as soil drench (dosage of 2t SiO2/ha on the 4th day after planting, 2 two silicon applied as foliar spray on the 4th and 12th days after planting, 3 control, with 10 replications each. The plants were infested with 100 whitefly adults/pot, released 16 days after planting. The number and viability of whitefly eggs and number of nymphs and adults were evaluated. The production of fresh and dry matter of shoots and the silicon content in plants were also evaluated. Silicon did not affect the whitefly oviposition preference; however, it affected the development of nymphs in free-choice test. Foliar silicon applications reduced the viability of whitefly eggs. There was no difference of fresh and dry weight and silicon content in plants with the application of silicon. Therefore, foliar silicon application on chrysanthemum can reduce the viability of eggs and delay the development of nymphs and thus contribute to the integrated whitefly management in commercial crops.

  7. CsTFL1, a constitutive local repressor of flowering, modulates floral initiation by antagonising florigen complex activity in chrysanthemum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higuchi, Yohei; Hisamatsu, Tamotsu

    2015-08-01

    Chrysanthemums require repeated cycles of short-day (SD) photoperiod for successful anthesis, but their vegetative state is strictly maintained under long-day (LD) or night-break (NB) conditions. We have previously demonstrated that photoperiodic flowering of a wild diploid chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum seticuspe f. boreale) is controlled by a pair of systemic floral regulators, florigen (CsFTL3) and anti-florigen (CsAFT), produced in the leaves. Here, we report the functional characterisation of a local floral regulator, CsTFL1, a chrysanthemum orthologue of TERMINAL FLOWER 1 gene in Arabidopsis. Constitutive expression of CsTFL1 in C. seticuspe (CsTFL1-ox) resulted in extremely late flowering under SD and prevented up-regulation of floral meristem identity genes in shoot tips and leaves. Bimolecular fluorescence complementation assay showed that both CsTFL1 and CsFTL3 interacted with CsFDL1, a bZIP transcription factor FD homologue, in the nucleus. The transient gene expression assay indicated that CsTFL1 suppresses flowering by directly antagonising the flower inductive activity of the CsFTL3-CsFDL1 complex. Our results suggest that strict maintenance of vegetative state under non-inductive photoperiod is achieved by the coordinated action of both the systemic floral inhibitor and local floral inhibitor CsTFL1, which is constitutively expressed in shoot tips.

  8. Reversal of multidrug resistance in human breast cancer cells by Curcuma wenyujin and Chrysanthemum indicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, L; Wei, D-D; Chen, Z; Wang, J-S; Kong, L-Y

    2011-06-15

    The emergence of multidrug resistance (MDR) is a big challenge to cancer chemotherapy. Plant-derived agents have great potential to prevent onset or delay progression of the carcinogenic process, and enhance the efficacy of mainstream antitumor agents. In this study, fractionated extracts of Curcuma wenyujin and Chrysanthemum indicum were tested for their potential to modulate the MDR phenotype and function of P-gp in MCF-7/ADR and A549/Taxol cells in vitro. Fractions C. wenyujin C10, E10 from Curcuma wenyujin, and C. indicum E10 from Chrysanthemum indicum, exhibited significant effects in sensitization of these resistant cancer cells at non-toxic concentration to doxorubicin and docetaxel by MTT method. They also increased the intracellular doxorubicin accumulation and retention in MCF-7/ADR cells. In mechanism study, an increase of Rh123 accumulation and a decrease of Rh123 efflux were observed in MCF-7/ADR cells treated with these fractions, indicating a blockage of the activity of P-gp. Furthermore, C. wenyujin C10 had the ability to down-regulate the expression of P-gp. All these fractions could enhance the apoptosis induced by doxorubicin in MCF-7/ADR cells, and restore the effect of docetaxel on the induction of G2/M arrest in A549/Taxol cells. C. wenyujin C10 and E10 also owned the ability to induce S phase arrest. These results showed the therapeutic value of the three fractions as potential MDR-reversing agents and warranted further investigations.

  9. Mutation Breeding of various spray chrysanthemum cultivars by gamma-ray irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sang Hoon; Chung, Sung Jin; Kim, Dong Sub; Kim, Jin Baek; Kang, Si Yong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Geung Joo [Mokpo National University, Muan (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-09-15

    This study was carried out to analyze mutation rate and spectrum of chrysanthemum by gamma-ray irradiation. Five flower types, 16 cultivars including 'Geumsu', 'Hwiparam', 'Ilwol', 'Magic', 'Moonlight', 'Noblewine', 'Pinky', 'Progy', 'Sangtte', 'Waterfog', 'Whitneypangpang', 'Yelloweye', 'Yellowpangpang', 'Yesmiso', 'Yesmorning', and 'Yestogether' were irradiated as 30, 50, and 70 Gy dose during 24 hours. As a result, mutation rate was identified as the highest in single type among five flower types, but there was a little difference according to cultivars. Mutation rate was increased in proportion to irradiation dose in anemone, pompon, and spider type cultivars, but there wasn't clear in single and semi-double type cultivars. Mutation spectrum was identified as the highest in the cultivar 'Noblewine'. The most sensitive cultivars to radiation were revealed as 'Noblewine' and 'Yesmorning' and the least were Moonlight', 'Waterfog', and 'Yellowpangpang'. Consequently, there was much difference in radio-sensitivity according to cultivars of chrysanthemum and flower type was correlated a little with mutation rate.

  10. Nutritional status of the potted chrysanthemum relative to electrical conductivity and salt leaching

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    Márkilla Zunete Beckmann-Cavalcante

    Full Text Available The quality of ornamental plants grown in pots is highly dependent on fertilization and substrate management. To this effect, we carried out an experiment in a protected environment to evaluate the nutritional status of the chrysanthemum cv. Miramar grown in pots, relative to the electrical conductivity of the nutrient solution and the leaching of salts. The experimental design was of randomized blocks with four replications and the treatments arranged in a 5 x 2 factorial, relating to the levels of electrical conductivity of the nutrient solution (ECs = 2.1; 2.8; 3.5; 4.2 and 4.9 dS m-1 in substrates without (SNL and with (SWL washing for the leaching of salts. The nutritional status of the plants was evaluated by leaf analysis of macronutrients (N, P, K, Ca, Mg and S and micronutrients (Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn. The increase in ECs inhibited the accumulation of micronutrients and of nitrogen, but stimulated the levels of P, K, Ca, Mg and S in the leaf dry mass of the chrysanthemum. The leaching of salts increased the concentration Cu, Fe and Mn in the plant leaves. Among the macronutrients, with the except of calcium and sulphur, no significant difference was observed for N, P, K and Mg relative to the leaching of salts.

  11. Biosynthesized Silver Nanoparticles Used in Preservative Solutions for Chrysanthemum cv. Puma

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    Luis M. Carrillo-López

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of pulse solutions containing antimicrobials has been reported, but more research is necessary. To increase vase life and to study their effect on opening inflorescences, silver nanoparticles were used in vase solutions for cv. Puma Chrysanthemum stems. The nanoparticles were synthesized biologically using Chenopodium ambrosioides L. applied at concentrations of 0.01, 0.05, 0.1, 0.5, 1, and 5 mM and compared with a control. Treatments were replicated five times. The stems were cut to 50 cm and observed until the end of their vase life. Low concentrations of silver nanoparticles promoted inflorescence opening and leaf yellowing, while the control leaves remained green, but there was a lower degree of inflorescence opening. High concentrations of silver nanoparticles (0.5, 1, and 5 mM caused senescence due to low water uptake through the stems. Statistical differences in inflorescence opening and diameter, bacterial growth (CFU mL−1 in vase solutions, fresh weight, water uptake, and vase life were found among treatments. Longer vase life and less weight loss were observed in the stems exposed to low concentrations of silver nanoparticles. Low concentrations of silver nanoparticles promoted inflorescence opening and increased vase life of Chrysanthemum cv. Puma.

  12. Functional analysis of alternative splicing of the FLOWERING LOCUS T orthologous gene in Chrysanthemum morifolium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Yachao; Sun, Jing; Cao, Peipei; Zhang, Rong; Fu, Qike; Chen, Sumei; Chen, Fadi; Jiang, Jiafu

    2016-01-01

    As the junction of floral development pathways, the FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) protein called ‘florigen’ plays an important role in the process of plant flowering through signal integration. We isolated four transcripts encoding different isoforms of a FT orthologous gene CmFTL1, from Chrysanthemum morifolium cultivar ‘Jimba’. Sequence alignments suggested that the four transcripts are related to the intron 1. Expression analysis showed that four alternative splicing (AS) forms of CmFTL1 varied depending on the developmental stage of the flower. The functional complement experiment using an Arabidopsis mutant ft-10 revealed that the archetypal and AS forms of CmFTL1 had the function of complementing late flower phenotype in different levels. In addition, transgenic confirmation at transcript level showed CmFTL1 and CmFTL1ast coexist in the same tissue type at the same developmental stage, indicating a post-transcriptional modification of CmFTL1 in Arabidopsis. Moreover, ectopic expression of different AS forms in chrysanthemum resulted in the development of multiple altered phenotypes, varying degrees of early flowering. We found that an alternative splicing form (CmFTL1-astE134) without the exon 2 lacked the ability causing the earlier flower phenotype. The evidence in this study indicates that complex alternative processing of CmFTL1 transcripts in C. morifolium may be associated with flowering regulation and hold some potential for biotechnical engineering to create early-flowering phenotypes in ornamental cultivars. PMID:27917290

  13. Comparative analysis of chrysanthemum transcriptome in response to three RNA viruses: Cucumber mosaic virus, Tomato spotted wilt virus and Potato virus X.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hoseong; Jo, Yeonhwa; Lian, Sen; Jo, Kyoung-Min; Chu, Hyosub; Yoon, Ju-Yeon; Choi, Seung-Kook; Kim, Kook-Hyung; Cho, Won Kyong

    2015-06-01

    The chrysanthemum is one of popular flowers in the world and a host for several viruses. So far, molecular interaction studies between the chrysanthemum and viruses are limited. In this study, we carried out a transcriptome analysis of chrysanthemum in response to three different viruses including Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) and Potato virus X (PVX). A chrysanthemum 135K microarray derived from expressed sequence tags was successfully applied for the expression profiles of the chrysanthemum at early stage of virus infection. Finally, we identified a total of 125, 70 and 124 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) for CMV, TSWV and PVX, respectively. Many DEGs were virus specific; however, 33 DEGs were commonly regulated by three viruses. Gene ontology (GO) enrichment analysis identified a total of 132 GO terms, and of them, six GO terms related stress response and MCM complex were commonly identified for three viruses. Several genes functioning in stress response such as chitin response and ethylene mediated signaling pathway were up-regulated indicating their involvement in establishment of host immune system. In particular, TSWV infection significantly down-regulated genes related to DNA metabolic process including DNA replication, chromatin organization, histone modification and cytokinesis, and they are mostly targeted to nucleosome and MCM complex. Taken together, our comparative transcriptome analysis revealed several genes related to hormone mediated viral stress response and DNA modification. The identified chrysanthemums genes could be good candidates for further functional study associated with resistant to various plant viruses.

  14. [Effects of controlled-release fertilizer on chrysanthemum leaf chlorophyll fluorescence characteristics and ornamental quality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xu-xu; Zheng, Cheng-shu; Sun, Xia; Ma, Hai-yan

    2011-07-01

    Taking cut flower chrysanthemum 'Baima' as test material, a pot experiment was conducted to study the effects of controlled-release fertilizer on the leaf chlorophyll fluorescence parameters, chlorophyll and nutrient contents, and ornamental quality of chrysanthemum. Under no fertilization, the maximal photochemical efficiency of PS II in dark (F(v)/F(m)), potential photochemical efficiency of PS II (F(v)/F(0)), and quantum yield of PS II electron transport (phi(PS II)) decreased significantly, compared with those under fertilization. With the application of conventional compound fertilizers CCFA (N:P:K=20:8:10) and CCFB (N:P:K= 14:14:14), the F(v)/F(m), F(v)/F(0) and phi(PS II) had a slight increase in early period (30-60 d) but a remarkable decrease in mid and later periods (75 - 120 d), compared with those under the application of controlled-release fertilizers CRFA (N:P:K = 20:8:10) and CRFB (N:P:K= 14:14:14). Under the application of CRFA, the F(v)/F(m), phi(PS II), and photochemical quenching (q(P)) had somewhat increase, as compared with the application of CRFB. The non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) under the application of CRFA and CRFB decreased significantly, compared with that under the application of CCFA and CCFB and the control. The chlorophyll content had a similar change trend with F(v)/F(m), F(v)/F(0), and phi(PS II). The leaf N, P, and K contents, flower stalk length and stalk diameter, flower diameter, and flower fresh and dry mass at harvest stage all increased under the application of CRFA and CRFB, compared with those under the application of CCFA and CCFB and the control, and the flower fresh and dry mass was significantly higher under the application of CRFA than of CRFB. This study showed that controlled-release fertilizer could improve the ornamental quality of chrysanthemum via improving the leaf chlorophyll content, photochemical transduction rate, and nutrient uptake, and CRFA had better effects than CRFB.

  15. The effect of temperature on photosynthetic induction under fluctuating light in Chrysanthemum morifolium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ozturk, Isik; Ottosen, Carl-Otto; Ritz, Christian

    2013-01-01

    to 35 A degrees C. The interaction effect of PAR and temperature on induction state was not significant. The rate of photosynthetic induction and the time required at which the induction reached its 90 % value (t (90)) was influenced by PAR significantly. The light history of a leaf had a significant......The photosynthetic response was investigated on Chrysanthemum morifolium under dynamic light conditions in the 20-35 A degrees C temperature range to evaluate the effect of climatic variables on photosynthetic induction. The plant material was grown under uniform, controlled conditions and its gas...... exchange was analyzed. The gas exchange measurements were used to investigate the rate of induction, momentary induction state, and the opening of stomata. At the varying temperature ranges and under dynamic light conditions, C. morifolium reached a quasi-steady-state induction equilibrium (ISeq...

  16. Biological efficacy of the chemical chrysanthemums protection with the use of fine and coarse droplets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislaw PARAFINIUK

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Studies of three years (2007-2009 were conducted at Czesławice in south- east of Poland .The objects of research were the plants of the one cultivar of chrysanthemum: Dark Tripoli. The following agents were used for protection: Dithane NeoTec 75 WG, Sumilex 500 SC, Amistar 250 SC. The treatment was carried out with the use of two types of nozzles: standard RS-MM 110 03 and ejector type ID 120 03 C. Observation was carried out once a year: in October. The number and health status of plants were determined and diseased plants were collected for analysis. The percentage of plants with disease symptoms was estimated for each plot. The best health status and yield were noticed for Amistar 250 SC.

  17. The embryo rescue derived intergeneric hybrid between chrysanthemum and Ajania przewalskii shows enhanced cold tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yanming; Chen, Sumei; Chen, Fadi; Cheng, Xi; Zhang, Fei

    2011-12-01

    Five intergeneric hybrids between the chrysanthemum cultivar 'Zhongshanjingui' (as female) and Ajania przewalskii (as male) were obtained with the help of embryo culture. While 'Zhongshanjingui' bears a standard anemone type flower and A. przewalskii a non-anemone type one, the inflorescence type of the hybrids varied. The diameter of the hybrids' flowers was intermediate between those of the parents. The chromosome number of the hybrids was 2n = 45, of which GISH analysis was able to establish that 27 were inherited from 'Zhongshanjingui' and the other 18 from A. przewalskii. A combination of various assays was used to show that the cold tolerance of the hybrids was equivalent to that of the highly tolerant A. przewalskii parent. Enhanced cold tolerance was correlated with an increase in free proline and a decrease in malondialdehyde content.

  18. Genetic diversity revealed in commercial varieties of Chrysanthemum (Dendranthemagrandiflora using RAPD markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.Lalitha Kameswari1, G.Anuradha2 , M. Pratap3and Hameedunnisabegum4

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Molecular characterization using RAPD analysis was carried out in 37 chrysanthemum genotypes.With 27 RAPD primers, total of 278 amplified fragments were scored.Out of which 271 were found to be polymorphic (97.4%. The genetic similarity ranged from a coefficient of 0.174 to 0.600 with an average similarity coefficient of 0.387 indicating a moderate diversity among the group of genotypes studied. In the present study, Ratlam Selection and Snow Cem were found to be the most genetically similar (0.60 followed by Akitha and Shintome with 55.3%. Cluster analysis based on UPGMA method led to the classification of genotypes intofour major clusters and seven minor clusters with one genotype each in cluster V (Arka Ravi, VI (Meera, VII(Asha, VIII(Silper, IX(Autumn Joy, X (Lilith and cluster XI (Chandrika.

  19. Rhizobium skierniewicense sp. nov., isolated from tumours on chrysanthemum and cherry plum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puławska, Joanna; Willems, Anne; Sobiczewski, Piotr

    2012-04-01

    Three isolates of Gram-negative, rod-shaped, non-spore-forming bacteria were recovered from galls on chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum L.; Ch11T, Ch12) and cherry plum (Prunus cerasifera var. divaricata; AL9.3). All three isolates were able to cause crown galls on various plant species. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that the three isolates were probably identical (100% sequence similarity) and closely related to Rhizobium rubi (99.6 %), Rhizobium radiobacter (98.7 %) and Rhizobium larrymoorei (98.1 %). Similar analysis based on the housekeeping genes glnA, gyrB and rpoB also indicated that the novel isolates were identical and closely related to R. rubi. The major cellular fatty acids of strain Ch11T were C18:1ω7c (62.1 %), summed feature 2 (comprising C12:0 aldehyde, iso-C16:1 I and/or C14:0 3-OH; 10.8 %), summed feature 3 (comprising C16:1ω7c and/or iso-C15:0 2-OH; 7.7 %) and C10:0 3-OH (7.5 %). However, the DNA-DNA relatedness between Ch11T and R. rubi LMG 156T was only 48 % and, unlike phylogenetically related established Rhizobium species, the novel isolates were able to utilize β-hydroxybutyric acid but not L-fucose. Based on the phylogenetic and phenotypic evidence, the isolates are considered to represent a single novel species of the genus Rhizobium, for which the name Rhizobium skierniewicense sp. nov. is proposed; the type strain is Ch11T (=LMG 26191T=CFBP 7420T).

  20. Overexpression of a novel chrysanthemum SUPERMAN-like gene in tobacco affects lateral bud outgrowth and flower organ development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qing-Lin; Xu, Ke-Dong; Ma, Nan; Zhao, Liang-Jun; Xi, Lin

    2014-04-01

    Previous studies have shown that the SUP genes play important roles in flower development and plant growth and morphogenesis. In this study, we isolated and characterized a SUPERMAN-like gene DgSZFP from chrysanthemum. DgSZFP contains one conserved Cys2/His2-type zinc finger motifs in the N-terminal region and an EAR-box in C-terminus. Its expression was significantly higher in nodes, flower buds, disc stamens, and petals than in the other tissues. Overexpression of DgSZFP in tobacco resulted in enhanced branching, reduced plant height, increased the width of petal tubes, produced the staminoid petals and petaloid stamens in flowers, and enhanced the seed weight and size. In addition, DgSZFP-overexpression tobacco plants accumulated high concentrations of cytokinin and chlorophyll. These results suggest that DgSZFP may be the candidate gene for regulating branching and floral organ development in chrysanthemum.

  1. A pharmacological analysis of different chrysanthemums%不同菊花的药理作用分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王芳

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To discuss the value in clinical application based on a pharmacological analysis of different chrysanthemums. Methods: Different kinds of chrysanthemums sold in markets were classified, and the pharmacological effects were analyzed. Results: There were eight kinds of chrysanthemums, and the main pharmacological effects include anti-tumor, anti-oxidation, anti-viral, anti-inflam- matory and antibacterial and so on. Conclusion: According to different characteristics and pharmacological effects, chrysanthemum could play positive role in clinical application.%目的:对不同种类菊花药理作用进行分析,以探讨其在临床中的应用价值。方法:对最近几年市面上所售菊花种类加以归类,并对菊花药理学作用进行分析。结果:菊花主要有贡菊、杭菊、毫菊、济菊、怀菊、滁菊、川菊、祁菊共8种,其主要药理作用包括抗肿瘤、抗衰老、抗氧化、抗病毒、抗炎及抗菌等。结论:对不同菊花药理作用加以了解,按照其不同特性在临床疾病治疗中加以应用可发挥积极治疗效果。

  2. Comparative analyses of light-induced anthocyanin accumulation and gene expression between the ray florets and leaves in chrysanthemum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Yan; Yang, Li-Wen; Li, Meng-Ling; Dai, Si-Lan

    2016-06-01

    Light is one of the key environmental factors that affect anthocyanin biosynthesis. However, the underlying molecular mechanism remains unclear, and many problems regarding phenotypic change and corresponding gene regulation have not been solved. In the present study, comparative analyses of light-induced anthocyanin accumulation and gene expression between the ray florets and leaves were performed in Chrysanthemum × morifolium 'Purple Reagan'. After contrasting the variations in the flower color phenotype and relative pigment content, as well as expression patterns of structural and regulator genes responsible for anthocyanin biosynthesis and photoreceptor between different plant organs under light and dark conditions, we concluded that (1) both the capitulum and foliage are key organs responding to light for chrysanthemum coloration; (2) compared with flavones, shading makes a greater decrease on the anthocyanins accumulation; (3) most of the structural and regulatory genes in the light-induced anthocyanin pathway specifically express in the ray florets; and (4) CmCHS, CmF3H, CmF3'H, CmANS, CmDFR, Cm3GT, CmMYB5-1, CmMYB6, CmMYB7-1, CmbHLH24, CmCOP1 and CmHY5 are key genes for light-induced anthocyanin biosynthesis in chrysanthemum ray florets, while on the transcriptional level, the expressions of CmPHYA, CmPHYB, CmCRY1a, CmCRY1b and CmCRY2 are insignificantly changed. Moreover, the inferred comprehensive effect of multiple signals on the accumulation of anthocyanins and transmission channel of light signal that exist between the leaves and ray florets were further discussed. These results further our understanding of the relationship between the gene expression and light-induced anthocyanin biosynthesis, and lay foundations for the promotion of the molecular breeding of novel flower colors in chrysanthemums.

  3. Phosphate enhances uptake of As species in garland chrysanthemum (C. coronarium) applied with chicken manure bearing roxarsone and its metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Lixian; Huang, Lianxi; He, Zhaohuan; Zhou, Changming; Li, Guoliang; Deng, Xiancai

    2015-03-01

    Roxarsone (ROX), a world widely used feed organoarsenic additive in animal production, can be excreted as itself and its metabolites in animal manure. Animal manure is commonly land applied with phosphorous (P) fertilizer to enhance the P phytoavailability in agriculture. We investigated the accumulation of As species in garland chrysanthemum (C. coronarium) plants fertilized with 1% (w/w, manure/soil) chicken manure bearing ROX and its metabolites, plus 0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, and 0.8 g P2O5/kg, respectively. The results show that As(III) was the sole As compound in garland chrysanthemum shoots, and As(III) and As(V) were detectable in roots. Elevated phosphate level supplied more As(V) for garland chrysanthemum roots through competitive desorption in rhizosphere, leading to significantly enhanced accumulation of As species in plants. As(III) was the predominant As form in plants (85.0∼90.6%). Phosphate could not change the allocation of As species in plants. Hence, the traditional practice that animal manure is applied with P fertilizer may inadvertently increase the potential risk of As contamination in crop via the way ROX → animal → animal manure → soil → crop.

  4. 不同基质处理对盆栽菊花生长的影响%Effects of Different Matrix Treatments on Growth of Potted Chrysanthemum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨倩; 杨秋生

    2012-01-01

    对不同基质处理盆栽菊花的生长状况进行了观测,并利用模型模拟了菊花茎长随时间的动态变化.结果表明:珍珠岩和蛭石(1∶1)最有利于菊花植株的早期生长;所选模型能模拟菊花茎长随时间的变化,相关系数达到0.9以上;珍珠岩和蛭石(1∶1)处理菊花茎长的理论增长量最大,实际生产中推荐珍珠岩和蛭石(1∶1)作为盆栽菊花的基质.%The growth of potted chrysanthemums with different matrix treatments were observed, and related models were established to simulate the dynamics of chrysanthemum stem varying over time after transplanted. The results showed that the treatment of perlite + vermiculite (1;1) is the optimum matrix for early development of chrysanthemum; the chosen model could well simulate the changes of chrysanthemum stem over time, and the correlation coefficient reached more than 0.9; the theoretical increment of chrysanthemum stem in treatment of perlite + vermiculite (1:1) was the largest. Therefore, the treatment of perlite + vermiculite (1 :1) was recommended to use as matrix for potted chrysanthemums in the practical production.

  5. Formation flavonoid secondary metabolites in callus culture of Chrysanthemum cinerariefolium as alternative provision medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purwianingsih, Widi; Febri, Santika; Kusdianti

    2016-02-01

    Increasing need of medicine ingredients require the discovery of other methods that can be used as an alternative. One method that can be used as an alternative is tissue culture. Quercetin is a flavonoid secondary metabolites that have been known to be useful as antiviral, anti-asthma and anti-cancer potential. The purpose of this study was to produce flavonoids, especially quercetin in callus culture Chrysanthemum cinerariefolium. Pieces of leaves of plantlets C. cinerariefolium used as explants for formation of callus tissue. To grow the callus, Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium used with addition of various concentrations of growth regulators 2.4-D, and kinetin. For multiplication, callus subcultured on similar medium. Callus that had formed, especially brown callus, further analyzed using Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrum (GCMS). Before analyzed callus was extracted in 95% ethanol. The result showed that callus potentially generate secondary metabolite are brown and friable. Based on these parameters, the best callus produced from leaf explants grown on MS medium with the addition of 4 mg / L 2,4-D and 0 mg / L kinetin. The callus contain secondary metabolites such as some of the flavonoid quercetin precursors such as acetic acid and tetrahydroxychalcone, and some other secondary metabolites.

  6. Morphological, Genome and Gene Expression Changes in Newly Induced Autopolyploid Chrysanthemum lavandulifolium (Fisch. ex Trautv. Makino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ri Gao

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Autopolyploidy is widespread in higher plants and plays an important role in the process of evolution. The present study successfully induced autotetraploidys from Chrysanthemum lavandulifolium by colchicine. The plant morphology, genomic, transcriptomic, and epigenetic changes between tetraploid and diploid plants were investigated. Ligulate flower, tubular flower and leaves of tetraploid plants were greater than those of the diploid plants. Compared with diploid plants, the genome changed as a consequence of polyploidization in tetraploid plants, namely, 1.1% lost fragments and 1.6% novel fragments occurred. In addition, DNA methylation increased after genome doubling in tetraploid plants. Among 485 common transcript-derived fragments (TDFs, which existed in tetraploid and diploid progenitors, 62 fragments were detected as differentially expressed TDFs, 6.8% of TDFs exhibited up-regulated gene expression in the tetraploid plants and 6.0% exhibited down-regulation. The present study provides a reference for further studying the autopolyploidization role in the evolution of C. lavandulifolium. In conclusion, the autopolyploid C. lavandulifolium showed a global change in morphology, genome and gene expression compared with corresponding diploid.

  7. Transcriptome-wide survey and expression analysis of stress-responsive NAC genes in Chrysanthemum lavandulifolium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, He; Wang, Yi; Wang, Shunli; Wu, Xuan; Yang, Ke; Niu, Yajing; Dai, Silan

    2012-09-01

    The plant-specific NAC (NAM, ATAF, and CUC) transcription factor family plays a vital role in various plant growth and developmental processes as well as in stress resistance. Using RNA sequencing, we found that the ClNAC genes (ClNAC1-44) were the most strongly up-regulated transcription factor family in Chrysanthemum lavandulifolium leaves under salt treatment. We carried out reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction to monitor ClNAC genes response against multiple stresses and hormonal treatments including salt, drought, cold, heat, abscisic acid and salicylic acid treatments. The results showed that 35 ClNAC genes were differentially expressed in different organ, and 32 ClNAC genes could respond to at least 2 kinds of treatments. Quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction showed that 10 ClNAC genes belonging to 7 different subfamilies could respond to at least 5 kinds of treatments. Over 50-fold variation in transcriptional levels of ClNAC17 and ClNAC21 genes was observed under 6 different types of treatments. In the present study, high-level expression of ClNAC genes under abiotic stresses and hormonal treatments suggests that the NAC transcription factors play important roles in abiotic stress tolerance and adaptation.

  8. Low temperature treatment affects concentration and distribution of chrysanthemum stunt viroid in Argyranthemum

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    Zhibo eZhang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Chrysanthemum stunt viroid (CSVd can infect Argyranthemum and cause serious economic loss. Low temperature treatment combined with meristem culture has been applied to eradicate viroids from their hosts, but without success in eliminating CSVd from diseased Argyranthemum. The objectives of this work were to investigate 1 the effect of low temperature treatment combined with meristem culture on elimination of CSVd, 2 the effect of low temperature treatment on CSVd distribution pattern in shoot apical meristem (SAM, and 3 CSVd distribution in flowers and stems of two infected Argyranthemum cultivars. After treatment with low temperature combined with meristem tip culture, two CSVd-free plants were found in ‘Border Dark Red’, but none in ‘Yellow Empire’. With the help of in situ hybridization, we found that CSVd distribution patterns in the SAM showed no changes in diseased ‘Yellow Empire’ following 5oC treatment, compared with non-treated plants. However, the CSVd-free area in SAM was enlarged in diseased ‘Border Dark Red’ following prolonged 5oC treatment. Localization of CSVd in the flowers and stems of infected ‘Border Dark Red’ and ‘Yellow Empire’ indicated that seeds could not transmit CSVd in these two cultivars, and CSVd existed in phloem. Results obtained in the study contributed to better understanding of the distribution of CSVd in systemically infected plants and the combination of low temperature treatment and meristem tip culture for production of viroid-free plants.

  9. CmMYB19 Over-Expression Improves Aphid Tolerance in Chrysanthemum by Promoting Lignin Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yinjie; Sheng, Liping; Zhang, Huanru; Du, Xinping; An, Cong; Xia, Xiaolong; Chen, Fadi; Jiang, Jiafu; Chen, Sumei

    2017-01-01

    The gene encoding the MYB (v-myb avian myeloblastosis vira l oncogene homolog) transcription factor CmMYB19 was isolated from chrysanthemum. It encodes a 200 amino acid protein and belongs to the R2R3-MYB subfamily. CmMYB19 was not transcriptionally activated in yeast, while a transient expression experiment conducted in onion epidermal cells suggested that the CmMYB19 product localized to the nucleus. CmMYB19 transcription was induced by aphid (Macrosiphoniella sanborni) infestation, and the abundance of transcript was higher in the leaf and stem than in the root. The over-expression of CmMYB19 restricted the multiplication of the aphids. A comparison of transcript abundance of the major genes involved in lignin synthesis showed that CmPAL1 (phenylalanine ammonia lyase 1), CmC4H (cinnamate4 hydroxylase), Cm4CL1 (4-hydroxy cinnamoyl CoA ligase 1), CmHCT (hydroxycinnamoyl CoA-shikimate/quinate hydroxycinnamoyl transferase), CmC3H1 (coumarate3 hydroxylase1), CmCCoAOMT1 (caffeoyl CoA O-methyltransferase 1) and CmCCR1 (cinnamyl CoA reductase1) were all upregulated, in agreement with an increase in lignin content in CmMYB19 over-expressing plants. Collectively, the over-expression of CmMYB19 restricted the multiplication of the aphids on the host, mediated by an enhanced accumulation of lignin. PMID:28287502

  10. Genetic and serological characterization of chrysanthemum stem necrosis virus, a member of the genus Tospovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Pei-Ru; Chien, Wan-Chu; Okuda, Mitsuru; Takeshita, Minoru; Yeh, Shyi-Dong; Wang, Yun-Chi; Chen, Tsung-Chi

    2015-02-01

    Chrysanthemum stem necrosis virus (CSNV) is a member of a tentative tospovirus species. In this study, the complete genomic sequence of the Japanese CSNV isolate TcCh07A was determined. The L RNA is 8960 nt long and encodes the 331.0-kDa RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. The M RNA is 4828 nt long and encodes the 34.1-kDa movement protein (NSm) and the 127.7-kDa glycoprotein precursor (Gn/Gc). The S RNA is 2949 nt long and encodes the 52.4-kDa silencing suppressor protein (NSs) and the 29.3-kDa nucleocapsid (N) protein. The N protein of CSNV-TcCh07A was purified from virus-infected plant tissues and used for production of a rabbit polyclonal antiserum (RAs) and a monoclonal antibody (MAb). Results of serological tests by indirect ELISA and western blotting using the prepared RAs and MAb and a previously produced RAs against the N protein of tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) indicated that CSNV-TcCh07A, TSWV, tomato chlorotic spot virus, groundnut ringspot virus, alstroemeria necrotic streak virus and impatiens necrotic spot virus are serologically related.

  11. Antioxidant Activity, Antitumor Effect, and Antiaging Property of Proanthocyanidins Extracted from Kunlun Chrysanthemum Flowers

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    Siqun Jing

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate the antioxidant activity, antitumor effect, and antiaging property of proanthocyanidins from Kunlun Chrysanthemum flowers (PKCF grown in Xinjiang. In vitro antioxidant experiments results showed that the total antioxidant activity and the scavenging capacity of hydroxyl radicals (•OH and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH• radicals increased in a concentration-dependent manner and were stronger than those of vitamin C. To investigate the antioxidant activity of PKCF in vivo, we used serum, liver, and kidney from mouse for the measurement of superoxide dismutase (SOD, malondialdehyde (MDA, and total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC. Results indicated that PKCF had antioxidative effect in vivo which significantly improved the activity of SOD and T-AOC and decreased MDA content. To investigate the antitumor activity of PKCF, we used H22 cells, HeLa cells, and Eca-109 cells with Vero cells as control. Inhibition ratio and IC50 values were measured by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT assay; PKCF showed great inhibitory activity on H22 cells and HeLa cells. We also used fruit flies as a model for analyzing the anti-aging property of PKCF. Results showed that PKCF has antiaging effect on Drosophila. Results of the present study demonstrated that PKCF could be a promising agent that may find applications in health care, medicine, and cosmetics.

  12. Inhibitory Effect of Chrysanthemum zawadskii Herbich var. latilobum Kitamura Extract on RANKL-Induced Osteoclast Differentiation

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    Dong Ryun Gu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Chrysanthemum zawadskii Herbich var. latilobum Kitamura, known as “Gujulcho” in Korea, has been used in traditional medicine to treat various inflammatory diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis. However, these effects have not been tested on osteoclasts, the bone resorbing cells that regulate bone metabolism. Here, we investigated the effects of C. zawadskii Herbich var. latilobum Kitamura ethanol extract (CZE on osteoclast differentiation induced by treatment with the receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL. CZE inhibited osteoclast differentiation and formation in a dose-dependent manner. The inhibitory effect of CZE on osteoclastogenesis was due to the suppression of ERK activation and the ablation of RANKL-stimulated Ca2+-oscillation via the inactivation of PLCγ2, followed by the inhibition of CREB activation. These inhibitory effects of CZE resulted in a significant repression of c-Fos expression and a subsequent reduction of NFATc1, a key transcription factor for osteoclast differentiation, fusion, and activation in vitro and in vivo. These results indicate that CZE negatively regulates osteoclast differentiation and may be a therapeutic candidate for the treatment of various bone diseases, such as postmenopausal osteoporosis, rheumatoid arthritis, and periodontitis.

  13. The influence of light color on the rooting of 'Horim Golden' Chrysanthemum cuttings

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    Edward Borowski

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The influence of three different colors of light; blue, green and red, compared with white light as the control, on the rooting of Chrysanthemum cuttings, is presented in this paper. The mother plants and cuttings were irradiated during rooting with different colors of light. This was shown to have had visible influence on the morphological differentiation of cuttings. It also affected the carbohydrate content in them. The rooting of the cuttings reflected this influence. The cuttings obtained from plants grown under white (control or red light were characterized by well-developed root systems in terms of the number, length and mass of the roots. The cuttings from the plants grown under green light were the worst. The influence of the color of the light on the speed with which the first roots were formed was the reverse. The cuttings from the plants irradiated with green light rooted the quickest, next in order were those from plants irradiated with blue, red and white light. Irradiating cuttings with differently colored light during rooting only had an effect on the number of roots formed. This number was high, close to that of control cuttings, in cuttings exposed to red light, decidedly lower in those exposed to blue and, in particular, green light.

  14. Ni (II) adsorption onto Chrysanthemum indicum: Influencing factors, isotherms, kinetics, and thermodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilvanathan, Sowmya; Shanthakumar, S

    2016-10-02

    The study explores the adsorption potential of Chrysanthemum indicum biomass for nickel ion removal from aqueous solution. C. indicum flowers in raw (CIF-I) and biochar (CIF-II) forms were used as adsorbents in this study. Batch experiments were conducted to ascertain the optimum conditions of solution pH, adsorbent dosage, contact time, and temperature for varying initial Ni(II) ion concentrations. Surface area, surface morphology, and functionality of the adsorbents were characterized by Brunauer, Emmett, and Teller (BET) surface analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Adsorption kinetics were modeled using pseudo-first order, pseudo-second order, Elovich, intraparticle diffusion, Bangham's, and Boyd's plot. The equilibrium data were modeled using Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin, and Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) isotherm models. Experimental data provided the best fit to pseudo-second-order kinetic model and Langmuir isotherm model for the adsorption of Ni(II) ion on both CIF-I and CIF-II with maximum adsorption capacities of 23.97 and 44.02 mg g(-1), respectively. Thermodynamic analysis of the data proved the process to be spontaneous and endothermic in nature. Desorption studies were conducted to evaluate the possibility of reusing the adsorbents. Findings of the present study provide substantial evidence for the use of C. indicum flower as an eco-friendly and potential adsorbent for the removal of Ni(II) ions from aqueous solution.

  15. Morphological, Genome and Gene Expression Changes in Newly Induced Autopolyploid Chrysanthemum lavandulifolium (Fisch. ex Trautv.) Makino

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Ri; Wang, Haibin; Dong, Bin; Yang, Xiaodong; Chen, Sumei; Jiang, Jiafu; Zhang, Zhaohe; Liu, Chen; Zhao, Nan; Chen, Fadi

    2016-01-01

    Autopolyploidy is widespread in higher plants and plays an important role in the process of evolution. The present study successfully induced autotetraploidys from Chrysanthemum lavandulifolium by colchicine. The plant morphology, genomic, transcriptomic, and epigenetic changes between tetraploid and diploid plants were investigated. Ligulate flower, tubular flower and leaves of tetraploid plants were greater than those of the diploid plants. Compared with diploid plants, the genome changed as a consequence of polyploidization in tetraploid plants, namely, 1.1% lost fragments and 1.6% novel fragments occurred. In addition, DNA methylation increased after genome doubling in tetraploid plants. Among 485 common transcript-derived fragments (TDFs), which existed in tetraploid and diploid progenitors, 62 fragments were detected as differentially expressed TDFs, 6.8% of TDFs exhibited up-regulated gene expression in the tetraploid plants and 6.0% exhibited down-regulation. The present study provides a reference for further studying the autopolyploidization role in the evolution of C. lavandulifolium. In conclusion, the autopolyploid C. lavandulifolium showed a global change in morphology, genome and gene expression compared with corresponding diploid. PMID:27735845

  16. 凝固型贡菊酸奶的研制%Preparation of set yogurt with chrysanthemum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙鹏; 黄君红

    2012-01-01

    研制凝固型贡菊酸奶,探讨其生产工艺,筛选出原料添加的最佳配方,并检测成品中乳酸菌活菌数.实验结果表明,以保加利亚乳杆菌和嗜热链球菌(1∶1)混合作为发酵菌种,4%接种量,添加15%贡菊茶,7%白砂糖,9%奶粉,于41℃发酵,所制成的贡菊酸奶,组织状态好,口感细腻,有酸奶和菊花茶特有的清香,乳酸菌活菌数高达2.66× 109c fu/mL.其生产工艺流程简单、可行,是一种有开发前景的新型保健乳制品.%A set yogurt with chrysanthemum developed and the production technology investigated in the paper. Through experiment, the optimal formula of raw materials was gotten. The result showed that yogurt with chrysanthemum had good state texture and taste and peculiar flavor when 9% milk powder was fermented with L. bulgaricus and S. thermophilus at the mixture ration of 1:1 at 41℃. and 4% inoculation, 15% chrysanthemum and 7% sucrose was added to the above mentioned mixture at the same time. The number of live lactobacillus was up to 2.66×109cfu/ml. The production technique was simple and applicable and this yogurt is new health care food with exploiting prospect.

  17. Seasonal changes of photoperiodic response and inflorescence quality in pot cultivars of Chrysanthemum × grandiflorum grown in greenhouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Jerzy

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research was to investigate seasonal changes of photoperiodic response and inflorescence quality in chrysanthemum from the Time group grown all year round without supplementary lighting. Four chrysanthemum cultivars were grown in 12 cycles starting on the second day of each successive month. The first cycle began on 2 January. From the moment of potting, the plants were treated with a short day. In periods of naturally long days, the day was shortened to 10.5 hours through shading. No supplementary illumination was used from November to mid-February (a photoperiod of under 10 hours to improve light conditions in the period of insolation deficit. In Polish climatic conditions, the shortest photoperiodic responses were recorded usually in the cycles starting in February or March and August or September. An exceptionally longer photoperiodic response was recorded in the cycle including the height of summer, i.e. planting from June to July, when the temperature during the day was very high, and from October to December i.e. in the period of substantial insolation deficit. The highest quality of flower heads was attained by plants potted mostly between 2 March and 2 September and flowering from April - May to November. Those plants developed the greatest number of inflorescences and usually a typical, cultivar-specific colour of the flower. Chrysanthemums potted from 2 June to 2 July, i.e. in the period of the greatest heat, produced inflorescences with the smallest diameter. For the cultivar 'Cool Time', this unfavorable period lasted from 2 April to 2 August.

  18. Effect of day and night temperature on internode and stem length in chrysanthemum: is everything explained by DIF?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, S M P; Heuvelink, E; Cascais, R; van Kooten, O

    2002-07-01

    In many plant species, including chrysanthemum, a strong positive correlation between internode length and DIF [difference between day (DT) and night (NT) temperature] has been observed. However, Langton and Cockshull (1997. Scientia Horticulturae 69: 229-237) reported no such relationship and showed that absolute DT and NT explained internode length rather than DIF. To investigate these conflicting results and to clarify the validity of the DIF concept, cut chrysanthemums (Chrysanthemum 'Reagan Improved') were grown in growth chambers at all 16 combinations of four DT and four NT (16, 20, 24 and 28 degrees C) with a 12 h day length. Length of internode 10, number of internodes and stem length were measured on days 5, 10, 17, 22 and 27 after starting the temperature treatments. Internode length on day 10 showed a positive linear relationship with DIF (R2 = 0.64). However, when internodes had reached their final length in all treatments (day 27), a much stronger positive linear relation was observed (R2 = 0.81). A model to predict final internode length was developed based on the absolute DT and NT responses: both responses were optimum curves and no significant interaction between DT and NT occurred [final internode length (mm) = -32.23 + 3.56DT + 1.08NT - 0.0687DT2 - 0.0371NT2; R2 = 0.91, where TD is day temperature and TN is night temperature]. It is shown that DIF can predict final internode length only within a temperature range where effects of DT and NT are equal in magnitude and opposite in sign (18-24 degrees C). Internode appearance rate, as well as stem length formed during the experiment, showed an optimum response to DT.

  19. Repellent effects of pongam oil on settlement and oviposition of the common greenhouse whitefly Trialeurodes vaporariorum on chrysanthemum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ROMAN PAVELA; GERHARD HERDA

    2007-01-01

    The repellent activities, including host deterrence and anti-oviposion, of pongam oil against the adults of the common greenhouse whitefly Trialeurodes vaporariorum Westwood in greenhouses were tested. Chrysanthemum plants treated with different concentrations (0.5%-2.0%) of water-suspended pongam oil showed relatively longlasting host deterrent and anti-oviposition effects on the adults of greenhouse whitefly. Although the repellent effect declined in time and concentration, strong effects on the reduction of oviposition were found, which lasts, dependent on concentration at least 12 days after application.

  20. Cladosporium cladosporioides and Cladosporium pseudocladosporioides as potential new fungal antagonists of Puccinia horiana Henn., the causal agent of chrysanthemum white rust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guevara-Fefer, Patricia; Márquez-Guzmán, G. Judith; Pérez-Martínez, Carolina

    2017-01-01

    Puccinia horiana Hennings, the causal agent of chrysanthemum white rust, is a worldwide quarantine organism and one of the most important fungal pathogens of Chrysanthemum × morifolium cultivars, which are used for cut flowers and as potted plants in commercial production regions of the world. It was previously reported to be controlled by Lecanicillium lecanii, Cladosporium sphaerospermum, C. uredinicola and Aphanocladium album, due to their antagonistic and hyperparasitic effects. We report novel antagonist species on Puccinia horiana. Fungi isolated from rust pustules in a commercial greenhouse from Villa Guerrero, México, were identified as Cladosporium cladosporioides and Cladosporium pseudocladosporioides based upon molecular analysis and morphological characters. The antagonism of C. cladosporioides and C. pseudocladosporioides on chrysanthemum white rust was studied using light and electron microscopy in vitro at the host/parasite interface. Cladosporium cladosporioides and C. pseudocladosporioides grew towards the white rust teliospores and colonized the sporogenous cells, but no direct penetration of teliospores was observed; however, the structure and cytoplasm of teliospores were altered. The two Cladosporium spp. were able to grow on media containing laminarin, but not when chitin was used as the sole carbon source; these results suggest that they are able to produce glucanases. Results from the study indicate that both Cladosporium species had potential as biological control agents of chrysanthemum white rust. PMID:28141830

  1. Soluções de manutenção na pós-colheita de Chrysanthemum morifolium cv. Dragon Chrysanthemum morifolium cv. Dragon postharvest maintenance solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poliana Cristina Spricigo

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available O desenvolvimento e uso de técnicas que prolonguem a durabilidade das flores, mantendo a qualidade do produto, é imprescindível para redução de perdas pós-colheita. Objetivou-se, neste trabalho, avaliar soluções de manutenção, associadas ou não a sacarose, na manutenção da qualidade pós-colheita de hastes de crisântemos. O experimento foi conduzido sob delineamento inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial, com cinco tratamentos e três repetições, com 2 hastes florais cada uma. Os tratamentos utilizaram água destilada; 8-HQC a 100 mg L-1; 8-HQC a 100 mg L-1 + sacarose a 50 g L-1, 8-HQC a 200 mg L-1; 8-HQC a 200 mg L-1 + sacarose a 50 g L-1. Foram feitas avaliações físicas: coloração, massa fresca e conteúdo relativo de água (CRA; avaliações químicas: açúcares redutores e pigmentos; e avaliações qualitativas: turgescência, cor das flores, e número de botões, flores entreabertas e abertas. A combinação de 8-HQC 200 mg L-1 + sacarose a 50 g L-1 foi a que apresentou melhor desempenho para a manutenção da qualidade das hastes florais, favorecendo a abertura de botões e a turgescência das lígulas. A sacarose contribuiu para uma melhor manutenção de substâncias de reserva na haste, que tiveram a sua vida de vaso estendida.The development and use of techniques that extend the life vase of the flowers, maintaining the quality of the product, is essential for reducing postharvest losses. The objective of this work was to evaluate different solutions for maintenance, associated or not to sucrose, in maintaining the postharvest quality of chrysanthemum stems. The treatments used distilled water, 8-HQC to 100 mg L-1, 8-HQC to 100 mg L-1 + sucrose 50 g L-1, 8-HQC to 200 mg L-1, 8-HQC to 200 mg L-1 + sucrose 50 g L-1. Physical assessments were made: color, fresh mass and relative water content; chemical evaluations: reducing sugars and pigments, and qualitative assessments: turgidity, color of the flowers, and

  2. IN VITRO REGENERATION OF THREE CHRYSANTHEMUM (Dendrathema grandiflora VARIETIES “VIA” ORGANOGENESIS AND SOMATIC EMBRYOGENESIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Hodson de Jaramillo

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Chrysanthemum (Dendrathema grandiflora has a high demand in the Colombian and international cut flower markets.Since commercial production of this ornamental species is strongly affected by fungal diseases such as chrysanthemumwhite rust (Puccinia horiana, high doses of fungicides are being used posing increased environmental and commercialcosts. Assessment of in vitro regeneration systems from leaf discs was a first step in developing a plant genetic transformationprotocol to obtain fungi-resistant plants. Leaf discs of White Albatross, Yellow Albatross, and Escapade varieties wereestablished in vitro on MS medium supplemented with NAA (0 - 4.83 μM and BAP (0 - 13.32 μM alone and incombination. Leaf discs were also cultured on MumB medium containing 2,4-D (0 - 4.52 μM for 7, 14, and 21 days priorto their transferral to a 2,4-D free MumB medium. Regenerated shoots were individualized, rooted, and hardened. Resultsshow that MS with 4.83 μM NAA + 4.44 μM BAP and 4.83 μM NAA + 13.32 μM BAP induce organogenesis, and MumBwith 2.26 μM 2,4-D induces somatic embryogenesis on all three varieties, with exposition periods to 2,4-D of 14 days forWhite Albatross and 21 days for Yellow Albatross and Escapade. Shoot development from somatic embryos was observedin the three varieties when cultured on a 2,4-D free MumB medium. Spontaneous rooting was recorded in 85% of the shootsthus facilitating hardening and successful transfer to soil.

  3. Chemical constituents of Chrysanthemum indicum L.%野菊花的化学成分

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张聪; 秦民坚; 王玉

    2009-01-01

    目的:研究菊科菊属植物野菊花(Chrysanthemum indicum L.)的化学成分.方法:采用硅胶柱层析、凝胶柱层析、重结晶等方法进行化学成分的分离与纯化,并运用核磁共振、质谱等波谱技术鉴定化合物的结构.结果:分离并鉴定了13个化合物:其中黄酮类9个,分别为金合欢素(acacetin,1)、木犀草素(luteolin,2)、芹菜素(apigenin,3)、异泽兰黄素(eupatilin,4)、麦黄酮(tricin,5)、5,7,3',4'-Tetrahydroxy-6,5'-dime-thoxyflavone(6)、芹菜素-7-O-β-D-葡萄糖苷(apigenin-7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside,7)、木犀草素-7-O-β-D-葡萄糖苷(luteolin-7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside,8)、蒙花苷(linarin,9);倍半萜类成分3个:cumambrin-A(10)、野菊花内酯(yejuhualactone,11)、7-(2-hydroxy-2-propyl)-10-methyl-4-methyleneperhydro-naphthalene-3,5,6-triol(12);甾体类成分1个:β-胡萝卜苷(β-daucosterol,13).结论:化合物4~7为该植物中首次分得,其中化合物5,6为该属植物中首次分得.

  4. Biosynthesized silver nanoparticles using floral extract of Chrysanthemum indicum L.--potential for malaria vector control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arokiyaraj, Selvaraj; Dinesh Kumar, Vannam; Elakya, Vijay; Kamala, Tamilselvan; Park, Sung Kwon; Ragam, Muthiah; Saravanan, Muthupandian; Bououdina, Mohomad; Arasu, Mariadhas Valan; Kovendan, Kalimuthu; Vincent, Savariar

    2015-07-01

    Mosquitoes transmit serious human diseases, causing millions of deaths every year. The use of synthetic insecticides to control vector mosquitoes has caused physiological resistance and adverse environmental effects in addition to high operational cost. Insecticides synthesized of natural products for vector control have been a priority in this area. In the present study, silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) were green-synthesized using a floral extract of Chrysanthemum indicum screened for larvicidal and pupicidal activity against the first to fourth instar larvae and pupae of the malaria vector Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes. The synthesized Ag NPs were characterized by using UV-vis absorption, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy techniques. The textures of the yielded Ag NPs were found to be spherical and polydispersed with a mean size in the range of 25-59 nm. Larvae and pupae were exposed to various concentrations of aqueous extract of C. indicum and synthesized Ag NPs for 24 h, and the maximum mortality was observed from the synthesized Ag NPs against the vector A. stephensi (LC50 = 5.07, 10.35, 14.19, 22.81, and 35.05 ppm; LC90 = 29.18, 47.15, 65.53, 87.96, and 115.05 ppm). These results suggest that the synthesized Ag NPs have the potential to be used as an ideal eco-friendly approach for the control of A. stephensi. Additionally, this study provides the larvicidal and pupicidal properties of green-synthesized Ag NPs with the floral extract of C. indicum against vector mosquito species from the geographical location of India.

  5. Abscisic acid in salt stress predisposition to phytophthora root and crown rot in tomato and chrysanthemum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dileo, Matthew V; Pye, Matthew F; Roubtsova, Tatiana V; Duniway, John M; Macdonald, James D; Rizzo, David M; Bostock, Richard M

    2010-09-01

    Plants respond to changes in the environment with complex signaling networks, often under control of phytohormones that generate positive and negative crosstalk among downstream effectors of the response. Accordingly, brief dehydration stresses such as salinity and water deficit, which induce a rapid and transient systemic increase in levels of abscisic acid (ABA), can influence disease response pathways. ABA has been associated with susceptibility of plants to bacteria, fungi, and oomycetes but relatively little attention has been directed at its role in abiotic stress predisposition to root pathogens. This study examines the impact of brief salinity stress on infection of tomato and chrysanthemum roots by Phytophthora spp. Roots of plants in hydroponic culture exposed to a brief episode of salt (sodium chloride) stress prior to or after inoculation were severely diseased relative to nonstressed plants. Tomato roots remained in a predisposed state up to 24 h following removal from the stress. An increase in root ABA levels in tomato preceded or temporally paralleled the onset of stress-induced susceptibility, with levels declining in roots prior to recovery from the predisposed state. Exogenous ABA could substitute for salt stress and significantly enhanced pathogen colonization and disease development. ABA-deficient tomato mutants lacked the predisposition response, which could be restored by complementation of the mutant with exogenous ABA. In contrast, ethylene, which exacerbates disease symptoms in some host-parasite interactions, did not appear to contribute to the predisposition response. Thus, several lines of evidence support ABA as a critical and dominant factor in the salinity-induced predisposition to Phytophthora spp. infection.

  6. Differential allergenicity of mature and immature pollen grains in Shasta daisy (Chrysanthemum maximum Ramond.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Sharif Shoushtari

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Weed pollen grains belonging to  the  Asteraceae  family contain  a variety of  allergens inducing type I  and IV allergies in susceptible people. The  aim of this research was to compare  the  allergenic properties  of  immature  and  mature  Shasta  daisy pollen  grains (Chrysanthemum maximum Ramond to define the potential role of the maturation process on the allergenicity of Asteraceae pollen grains.The  immature (IP and mature  pollen (MP grains were first studied by optical and scanning electron microscopand their protein contents were quantitatively and qualitatively analyzed. Pollen extracts were finally used to sensitize guinea pigs in order to obtain IP and MP specific antibodies. Nasal provocation tests using IP and MP crude extracts were also performed on pre-sensitized guinea pigs.The  MP  extract  induced  IgE  and  eosinophilia in  blood  and  positive skin  tests  in sensitized guinea pigs. Moreover, high number of eosinophils was found in the nasal mucosa of MP sensitized guinea pigs. SDS-PAGE analysis of the IP and MP protein content showed seven and five apparent bands ranging from 7 to 66kDa respectively.According to immunoblot analysis, MP extract contained a single allergen of 66kDa. The overall results showed developmental processes of Shasta daisy pollen grains towards both morphological and molecular changes increasing their allergenic potency.

  7. Investigation of the interactions between Chrysanthemum morifolium flowers extract and intestinal bacteria from human and rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Jin-Hua; Duan, Jin-Ao; Qian, Yi-Yun; Qian, Da-Wei; Guo, Jian-Ming

    2016-11-01

    Flos Chrysanthemi, dried flower of Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat, has drawn much attention recently owing to its potential beneficial health effects for human. Flos Chrysanthemi products are usually taken orally and metabolized by intestinal microflora. However, there has been no investigation of the comprehensive metabolic profile of the Flos Chrysanthemi extract by intestinal flora owing to its chemical complexity and the limitations of analytical methods. In this paper, a rapid, sensitive and automated analysis method, ultra-performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry including MS(E) technology and automated data processing Metabolynx™ software, was developed and successfully applied for the biotransformation and metabolic profile of flavonoids in the Flos Chrysanthemi extract by intestinal flora from human and rat. A total of 32 metabolites were detected and tentatively identified in human and rat intestinal bacterial samples. These metabolites indicated that hydrolysis, hydroxylation, acetylation, methylation, hydrogenation and deoxygenation were the major conversion pathways of flavonoids in the Flos Chrysanthemi extract in vitro. Furthermore, the effects of the Flos Chrysanthemi extract on the growth of different intestinal bacteria were detected using an Emax precision microplate reader. Certain pathogenic bacteria such as Enterobacter, Enterococcus, Clostridium and Bacteroides were significantly inhibited by Flos Chrysanthemi, while commensal probiotics such as Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium were moderately promoted. Our observation provided further evidence for the importance of intestinal bacteria in the metabolism and potential activity of the Flos Chrysanthemi extract. The results will also be helpful for the further pharmacokinetic study of Flos Chrysanthemi and to unravel how it works in vivo.

  8. CmWRKY1 Enhances the Dehydration Tolerance of Chrysanthemum through the Regulation of ABA-Associated Genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingqing Fan

    Full Text Available WRKY transcription factors serve as antagonistic or synergistic regulators in a variety of abiotic stress responses in plants. Here, we show that CmWRKY1, a member of the group IIb WRKY family isolated from Chrysanthemum morifolium, exhibits no transcriptional activation in yeast cells. The subcellular localization examination showed that CmWRKY1 localizes to the nucleus in vivo. Furthermore, CmWRKY1-overexpressing transgenic lines exhibit enhanced dehydration tolerance in response to polyethylene glycol (PEG treatment compared with wild-type plants. We further confirmed that the transgenic plants exhibit suppressed expression levels of genes negatively regulated by ABA, such as PP2C, ABI1 and ABI2, and activated expression levels of genes positively regulated by ABA, such as PYL2, SnRK2.2, ABF4, MYB2, RAB18, and DREB1A. Taken together, our results indicate that CmWRKY1 plays an important role in the response to drought in chrysanthemum through an ABA-mediated pathway.

  9. Heterologous expression of the AtDREB1A gene in chrysanthemum increases drought and salt stress tolerance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HONG; Bo; TONG; Zheng; MA; Nan; LI; Jianke; KASUGA; Mie; YAMAGUCHI-SHINOZAKI; Kazuko; GAO; Junping

    2006-01-01

    DNA cassette containing an AtDREB1A cDNA and a nos terminator, driven by a cauliflower mosaic 35S promoter, or a stress-inducible rd29A promoter, was transformed into the ground cover chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflorum) 'Fall Color' genome. Compared with wild type plants, severe growth retardation was observed in 35S:DREB1A plants, but not in rd29A:DREB1A plants. RT-PCR analysis revealed that, under stress conditions, the DREB1A gene was over-expressed constitutively in 35S:DREB1A plants, but was over-expressed inductively in rd29A:DREB1A plants. The transgenic plants exhibited tolerance to drought and salt stress, and the tolerance was significantly stronger in rd29A:DREB1A plants than tn 35S:DREB1A plants. Proline content and SOD activity were increased inductively in rd29A:DREB1A plants than in 35S:DREB1A plants under stress conditions. These results indicate that heterologous AtDREB1A can confer drought and salt tolerance in transgenic chrysanthemum, and improvement of the stress tolerance may be related to enhancement of proline content and SOD activity.

  10. The Effects of Gamma Irradiation on the Growth and Propagation of In-Vitro Chrysanthemum Shoot Explants (cv. Yellow Puma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Dwimahyani

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The study on the effect of gamma irradiation on in-vitro shoot growth of chrysanthemum cv. Yellow Puma has been carried out. The aim of the study was to observe genetic variability of shoot growth caused by gamma irradiation. Shoot explants with four leaves were irradiated by gamma with dose of 10, 15 and 20 Gy with 3 replications at each of dose. The irradiated shoot explants were then transferred into fresh MS solid medium and placed in a growth room. Observation was performed on number of leaves and branches on M1V0 generation, while plantlets height and number of branches were observed a M1V1 generation. Number of survival plantlets and multiplication rate on three subsequent subcultures were observed as well. Results showed that gamma rays with dose of 20 Gy inhibited growth of leaves as much as 50% compared to control (shoots without irradiation, and branches 73.7% in three weeks. Observation on multiplication rate at M1V1 generation showed that gamma irradiation with dose of 10 Gy promoted multiplication rate as much as 10% higher than control. It can be concluded that in vitro mutagenesis using gamma iradiation with dose of 10 to 15 Gy can be used for inducing genetic variability of chrysanthemum cv. Yellow Puma.

  11. ELIMINATION OF CVB ( FROM A RANGE OF CHRYSANTHEMUM VARIETIES BY APICAL MERISTEM CULTURE FOLLOWING ANTIVIRAL AGENT AND HEAT TREATMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KURNIAWAN BUDIARTO

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available CVB elimination for retaining healthy protocols from infected chrysanthemum plant wasinvestigated through combined treatment of meristem culture with synthetic antiviral ribavirinor thermotherapy under conditions. The biological materials used for the experimentconstituted of six commercial varieties: Dewi Sartika, Saraswati, Yellow Fiji, White Puma,Yellow Puma and White Reagent. Tissue culture initiation was conducted through plantletestablishment using MS supplemented with IAA. Ribavirin was added in media with theconcentration of 40 mg/l on cv. Dewi Sartika, Saraswati and Yellow Fiji. Parallel with this step,heat treatment with different durations (1, 2, and 3 weeks was also conducted on the plantletson White Puma, Yellow Puma and White Reagent. Meristem culture was done followingthe chemo- and thermotherapy. The experiment resumed the failure of single treatment ofmeristem culture in eliminating CVB from the infected chrysanthemum plantlets. Under heattreatment, percentage of virus-free plantlets increased along with the duration ofthermotherapy, though the survival rate of plantlets decreased in lengthened heat treatment.The best results regarding virus free plant percentage were obtained when meristem culture wasapplied following ribavirin or three weeks of heat treatment.

  12. CmFTL2 is involved in the photoperiod- and sucrose-mediated control of flowering time in chrysanthemum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jing; Wang, Heng; Ren, Liping; Chen, Sumei; Chen, Fadi; Jiang, Jiafu

    2017-01-01

    The chrysanthemum genome harbors three FT-like genes: CmFTL1 and CmFTL3 are thought to act as regulators of floral induction under long-day (LD) and short-day (SD) conditions, respectively, whereas the function of CmFTL2 is currently unclear. The objective of the present research was to explore the function of CmFTL2 in the determination of flowering time of the photo-insensitive chrysanthemum cultivar 'Floral Yuuka', both in response to variation in the photoperiod and to the exogenous provision of sucrose. Spraying leaves of 'Floral Yuuka' plants with 50 mM sucrose accelerated flowering and increased the level of CmFTL2 transcription in the leaf more strongly than either CmFTL1 or FTL3 under both long and SD conditions. Transcription profiling indicated that all three CmFTL genes were upregulated during floral induction. The relationship of the CmFTL2 sequence with that of other members of the PEBP family suggested that its product contributes to the florigen rather than to the anti-florigen complex. The heterologous expression of CmFTL2 in the Arabidopsis thaliana ft-10 mutant rescued the mutant phenotype, showing that CmFTL2 could compensate for the absence of FT. These results suggest that CmFTL2 acts as a regulator of floral transition and responds to both the photoperiod and sucrose.

  13. 滁菊水提液抗氧化活性研究%Antioxidative activity of aqueous extract of Chuju Chrysanthemum morifolium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙艳辉; 张晓峰; 罗侠; 贾小丽

    2011-01-01

    To evaluated antioxidative activity of aqueous extract of Chuju Chrysanthemum morifolium,Compared with Vc,the antioxidantive activity of aqueous extract of Chuju Chrysanthemum morifolium.was studied by measuring its reducing power,scavenging effects on hydroxyl radical(·OH)and·DPPH radical,activity of decreasing the lipid peroxidation of yolk.The results showed that aqueous extract of Chuju Chrysanthemum morifolium not only had a strong scavenging capacity on ·OH and DPPH radical,but also has strong reducing power and significant inhibition effects on the lipid peroxidation of yolk.the antioxidantive activity of aqueous extract of Chuju Chrysanthemum morifolium was improved with the higher concentration.Thus,Chuju Chrysanthemum morifolium is promising to be a natural antioxidative health drink.%为评价滁菊水提液抗氧化活性,采用还原力、清除羟基自由基及DPPH能力、抑制卵黄脂质过氧化能力等方法,以Vc为对照进行研究。结果表明:滁菊水提液能有效的清除羟基自由基及DPPH,具有较强的还原能力,可以很好抑制卵黄脂质过氧化;在一定浓度范围内其抗氧化能力随浓度的增加而增强。因此,可以将滁菊水提液开发为抗氧化健康饮品。

  14. Ethanol Induced Toxicity and Lipid Peroxidation in Pregnant Mice: Protective Effects of Butanolic Extract from Leaves of Chrysanthemum fontanesii, Vitamin E and C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amel Amrani

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The objective of the present study was to investigate the ability of butanolic extract from leaves of Chrysanthemum fontanesii, vitamin E and C to modulate ethanol-Induced toxicity and oxidation damage in maternal and fetal tissues of mice. Butanolic extract from leaves of Chrysanthemum fontanesii (200 mg/Kg per day, vitamin E (100mg/Kg per day and C (8.3mg/Kg per day were administered by gavage to groups of pregnant mice from the 6 th to 17 th day of gestation. A number of animals received plant extract, vitamin E and C, also treated with an oral administration of ethanol (0.02ml/g of 25% v/v absolute ethanol in water per day in same conditions. On day 18 of gestation, pregnant mice were killed, fetus, placenta, fetal liver, liver, kidneys and brain were removed, homogenised and used for determination of lipid peroxidation (LPO using TBARS method. Embryotoxicity was assessed by counting the number of live and dead fetus and growth retardation. Results: Severe alterations in all biomarkers were observed after injury with ETOH. ETOH produced significant decreases in fetal weight and significant increases in embryolethality and lipid peroxidation relative to control values. Treatment with Chrysanthemum fontanesii extract, vitamin C and vitamin E resulted in markedly decreased embryolethality and fetal growth retardation, while increased fetal weight were observed. Conclusion: The butanolic extract from leaves of Chrysanthemum fontanesii, vitamin E and C protected against ethanol induce fetal and maternal toxicity as revealed by the decrease in the extent of lipid peroxidation. So that butanolic extract from leaves of Chrysanthemum fontanesii posses in vivo antioxidant properties.

  15. CmMYB19 Over-Expression Improves Aphid Tolerance in Chrysanthemum by Promoting Lignin Synthesis

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    Yinjie Wang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The gene encoding the MYB (v-myb avian myeloblastosis vira l oncogene homolog transcription factor CmMYB19 was isolated from chrysanthemum. It encodes a 200 amino acid protein and belongs to the R2R3-MYB subfamily. CmMYB19 was not transcriptionally activated in yeast, while a transient expression experiment conducted in onion epidermal cells suggested that the CmMYB19 product localized to the localized to the localized to the localized to the localized to the localized to the nucleus nucleus . CmMYB19 transcription was induced by aphid (Macrosiphoniella sanborni infestation, and the abundance of transcript was higher in the leaf and stem than in the root. The over-expression of CmMYB19 restricted the multiplication of the aphids. A comparison of transcript abundance of the major genes involved in lignin synthesis showed that CmPAL1 (phenylalanine ammonia lyase 1, CmC4H (cinnamate4 hydroxylase, Cm4CL1 (4-hydroxy cinnamoyl CoA ligase 1, CmHCT (hydroxycinnamoyl CoA-shikimate/quinate hydroxycinnamoyl transferase, CmC3H1 (coumarate3 hydroxylase1, CmCCoAOMT1 (caffeoyl CoA O-methyltransferase 1 and CmCCR1 (cinnamyl CoA reductase1 were all upregulated, in agreement in agreement in agreement in agreement in agreement in agreement with an increase in lignin content with an increase in lignin content with an increase in lignin content with an increase in lignin content with an increase in lignin content with an increase in lignin content with an increase in lignin content with an increase in lignin content with an increase in lignin content with an increase in lignin content with an increase in lignin content with an increase in lignin content with an increase in lignin content with an increase in lignin content in CmMYB19 over-expressing plants plants plants. Collectively, the over-expression of CmMYB19 restricted the multiplication of the aphids on the host, mediated by an enhanced accumulation of lignin.

  16. 枸杞菊花复合饮料的研制%Development of Wolfberry and Chrysanthemum Compound Beverage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张志艳; 王佳丽; 李志; 阮美娟; 张焱; 杜依登

    2014-01-01

    探讨以枸杞、菊花等药食同源材料制备一种新型明目复合饮料的最佳配方。以枸杞子、菊花、茯苓、石斛、决明子、桑叶、罗汉果、淡竹叶等为原料,添加适量酸和糖,在单因素实验的基础上通过正交试验确定复合饮料中各组分最佳添加量比例。复合浸提液配比为枸杞∶菊花∶决明子∶石斛∶罗汉果∶茯苓∶山药∶桑叶∶淡竹叶为20∶4∶12∶10∶1∶16∶16∶4∶4;饮料最佳配方为:复合原液50%、糖10%、酸0.15%。所制复合饮料呈亮黄色,香气协调、柔和,酸甜适中,口感浑厚。%We explore the best formula of a novel compound beverage, which was prepared by food and medicine homologous material, such as wolfberry and chrysanthemum. The optimal add amount of each component was determined by orthogonal on the basis of single factor experiments with wolfberry, chrysanthemum, Poria, Dendrobium, cassia, mulberry, Mangosteen, light bamboo as raw materials. The composite extract ratio of wolfberry, Chrysanthemum, Cassia, Dendrobium, Mangosteen, Poria, yam, Mulberry and short bamboo was 20∶4∶12∶10∶1∶16∶16∶4∶4. The best formula of beverage was composite liquid 50%, sugar 10%, acid 0.15%. Beverage of prepared were bright yellow, coordinate and soft aroma, moderate sweet and sour, vigorous taste.

  17. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles by Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat. extract and their application in clinical ultrasound gel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Y

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Yan He,1 Zhiyun Du,1,2 Huibin Lv,1 Qianfa Jia,1 Zhikai Tang,1 Xi Zheng,1,3 Kun Zhang,1 Fenghua Zhao11Institute of Natural Medicine and Green Chemistry, School of Chemical Engineering and Light Industry, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou, People’s Republic of China; 2State Key Laboratory of Natural and Biomimetic Drugs, Peking University, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; 3Susan Lehman Cullman Laboratory for Cancer Research, Department of Chemical Biology, Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, NJ, USAAbstract: Eco-friendly green synthesis with plant extracts plays a very important role in nanotechnology, without any harmful chemicals. In this report, the synthesis of water-soluble silver nanoparticles was developed by treating silver ions with Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat. extract at room temperature. The effect of the extract on the formation of silver nanoparticles was characterized by ultraviolet and visible absorption spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The ultraviolet and visible absorption spectroscopy results show a strong resonance centered on the surface of silver nanoparticles (AgNP at 430 nm. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy spectral study demonstrates Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat. extract acted as the reducing and stabilizing agent during the synthesis. The X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed that the synthesized AgNP are single crystallines, corresponding with the result of transmission electron microscopy. Water-soluble AgNP, with an approximate size of 20 nm–50 nm were also observed in the transmission electron microscopy image. The bactericidal properties of the synthesized AgNP were investigated using the agar-dilution method and the growth-inhibition test. The results show the AgNP had potent bactericidal activity on Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli, as

  18. Experiment of Chrysanthemum Shoot Cutting Propagation%菊花嫩枝扦插繁殖试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯晓容; 王兴文; 俞晓艳; 吴竹林

    2015-01-01

    A cuttage nursery test was conducted with 4 new chrysanthemum varieties and in the test the chrysanthemum shoot cuttings were treated with the solutions of Alpha NAA and IBA of different concentrations and the medium of different formulations. The results showed that the cuttings treated with the rays shoot alpha NAA 500 mg/kg solution performed well in the root growth; the treatment of IBA 500 mg/kg could promote the cuttings to grow more roots; the cuttings treated with Mailang IBA 250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg grew more roots and the roots grew well; the cuttings treated with Purple Jade IBA 500 mg/kg grew more roots and the roots grew well and the effect of the treatment of Gold Back Red IBA 250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg was also relatively good. The effects of 3 mediums on the lengths of the longest roots of the 4 chrysanthemum cuttings were significant.%试验采用α-萘乙酸和吲哚丁酸不同浓度溶液、不同基质配制对4个菊花新品种进行嫩枝扦插育苗试验。结果表明:霞光四射α-萘乙酸500 mg/kg溶液处理的插穗根系生长好,吲哚丁酸500 mg/kg处理能促进插穗多生根;麦浪吲哚丁酸250、500 mg/kg处理的插穗生根量多,且根系生长好;紫玉吲哚丁酸500 mg/kg处理的插穗生根量多,且根系生长好;金背大红吲哚丁酸250、500 mg/kg处理的效果也较好。3种基质对4种菊花插穗最长根长的影响显著。

  19. Effects of Chrysanthemum coronarium Extract on Fermentation Characteristics and Biohydrogenation of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in vitro Batch Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Li-fang; MA Yan-fen; GAO Min; LU De-xun

    2011-01-01

    IntroductionCis-9,trans-11 CLA has been shown to be potentially healthpromoting CLA in many animal models.The C18∶1 trans-11 fatty acid (VA) is also desirable as a product flowing from the rumen,because the flow from the rumen of VA play a more important role than CLA in determining CLA concentration in animal tissues.The factors which affect CLA content in milk have been studied mainly in dairy cows and most factors are basically dietary factors,especially fat source(e.g.,plant oils,fish oil,et al.).Recently some researches showed that some plants or plant extracts could increase cis-9,trans-11 -CLA content in milk.The purpose of this experiment was to evaluate the effects of Chrysanthemum coronarium extract on in vitro Biohydrogenation of polyunsaturated fatty acids and fermentation characteristics of mixed rumen microorganisms.

  20. Karyomorphology of six taxa in Chrysanthemum sensu lato (Anthemideae) in Egypt and their genetic relationships by Giemsa C-banding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Magdy Hussein ABD EL-TWAB; Ahmad Mohammad M. MEKAWY; Mohammad Saad EL-KATATNY

    2012-01-01

    Giemsa C-banding was applied to the chromosome complements of six diploid species belonging to six genera in Chrysanthemum sensu lato (Anthemideae) distributed in Egypt.Four types of C-banding distribution were observed in the taxa as follows:(i) negative C-banding in Anacyclus monanthos (L.) Thell.; (ii) all bands in terminal regions in Achilleafragrantissima (Forssk.) Sch.Bip,which showed 32 bands on 18 chromosomes; (iii)all eight bands at centromeric regions on eight chromosomes in Matricaria recutita L.; and (iv) bands at terminal and centromeric regions in Brocchia cinerea Vis.(12 terminal and six centromeric bands on 12 chromosomes),Cotula barbata DC.(four terminal,six centromeric,and eight short arm bands on 16 chromosomes),and Glebionis coronaria (L.) Cass.ex Spach.(eight terminal on the short arms and four large bands in centromeric regions on 12chromosomes).

  1. Effect of Sb-doping on the morphology and dielectric properties of chrysanthemum-like ZnO nanowire clusters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Jun-Feng; You Tian-Gui; Zhang Zhi-Yong; Tian Jiang-Xiao; Yun Jiang-Ni; Zhao Wu

    2012-01-01

    Chrysanthemum-like ZnO nanowire clusters with different Sb-doping concentrations were prepared using a hydrothermal process. The microstructures,morphologies,and dielectric properties of the as-prepared products were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD),high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM),field emission environment scanning electron microscope (FEESEM),and microwave vector network analyzer respectively.The results indicate that the as-prepared products are Sb-doped ZnO single crystallines with a hexagonal wurtzite structure,the flower bud saturation degree Fd is obviously different from that of the pure ZnO nanowire clusters,the good dielectric loss property is found in Sb-doped ZnO products with low density,and the dielectric loss tangent tanδe increases with the increase of the Sb-doping concentration in a certain concentration range.

  2. 甘菊水培体系的建立%Establishment of Hydroponics Culture System for Chrysanthemum lavadulifolium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛雅静; 黄河; 杨可; 王斌; 戴思兰

    2011-01-01

    为探索甘菊[Chrysanthemum lavandulifolium(Fisch. ex Trautv.)Makino]在非生物胁迫下以及营养物质代谢中精准的生理、基因表达变化机理,研究通过筛选外植体的种类和营养液的浓度,建立了甘菊水培体系。结果表明:水培中,播种苗的成活率和生根率极显著高于1年生大苗和茎段插条;在长时间的水培中,使用标准Hoagland和1.5倍Hoagland培养液,其畸形叶率极显著低于1/2和1/4Hoagland培养液,并且株高极显著高于另外2个浓度。结合科研需求,认为组培播种苗、标准Hoagland营养液是甘菊水培的最佳外植体和培养条件。%In order to explore the accurate mechanism of physiology and gene expression under abiotic stress and nutrient metabolism for Chrysanthemum lavadulifolium,we screened the explants and concentration of nutrient solution,and established the hydroponics culture system.The results indicate that in hydroponics culture,the survival rate and rooting rate are significantly higher in seedings rather than yearlings or cuttings;for a long time culture,the abnormal leaf rate is lower and the height is higher in normal and 1.5 times Hoagland solution than 1/2 or 1/4 Hoagland solution.Considering the actual demand in research,we choose seedings sown in MS medium,normal Hoagland solution as the best explants and culture medium.

  3. Rapid green synthesis of silver nanoparticles from Chrysanthemum indicum L and its antibacterial and cytotoxic effects: an in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arokiyaraj S

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Selvaraj Arokiyaraj,1 Mariadhas Valan Arasu,2 Savariar Vincent,3 Nyayirukannaian Udaya Prakash,4 Seong Ho Choi,5 Young-Kyoon Oh,1 Ki Choon Choi,2 Kyoung Hoon Kim1,61Department of Animal Nutrition and Physiology, National Institute of Animal Science, Rural Development Administration, Suwon, Republic of Korea; 2Grassland and Forage Division, National Institute of Animal Science, Rural Development Administration, Seonghwan-Eup, Cheonan-Si, Chungnam, Republic of Korea; 3Center for Environmental Research and Development, Loyola College, Chennai, India; 4Research and Development, Vel Tech Dr RR and Dr SR Technical University, Chennai, India; 5Department of Animal Science, Chungbuk National University, Chungbuk, Republic of Korea; 6Department of Animal Science, Seoul National University, Pyeongchang, Republic of KoreaAbstract: The present work reports a simple, cost-effective, and ecofriendly method for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs using Chrysanthemum indicum and its antibacterial and cytotoxic effects. The formation of AgNPs was confirmed by color change, and it was further characterized by ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy (435 nm. The phytochemical screening of C. indicum revealed the presence of flavonoids, terpenoids, and glycosides, suggesting that these compounds act as reducing and stabilizing agents. The crystalline nature of the synthesized particles was confirmed by X-ray diffraction, as they exhibited face-centered cubic symmetry. The size and morphology of the particles were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, which showed spherical shapes and sizes that ranged between 37.71–71.99 nm. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy documented the presence of silver. The antimicrobial effect of the synthesized AgNPs revealed a significant effect against the bacteria Klebsiella pneumonia, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Additionally, cytotoxic assays showed no toxicity of AgNPs toward 3T3 mouse embryo

  4. The Effects of Fungicide, Soil Fumigant, Bio-Organic Fertilizer and Their Combined Application on Chrysanthemum Fusarium Wilt Controlling, Soil Enzyme Activities and Microbial Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shuang; Chen, Xi; Deng, Shiping; Dong, Xuena; Song, Aiping; Yao, Jianjun; Fang, Weimin; Chen, Fadi

    2016-04-21

    Sustained monoculture often leads to a decline in soil quality, in particular to the build-up of pathogen populations, a problem that is conventionally addressed by the use of either fungicide and/or soil fumigation. This practice is no longer considered to be either environmentally sustainable or safe. While the application of organic fertilizer is seen as a means of combating declining soil fertility, it has also been suggested as providing some control over certain soil-borne plant pathogens. Here, a greenhouse comparison was made of the Fusarium wilt control efficacy of various treatments given to a soil in which chrysanthemum had been produced continuously for many years. The treatments comprised the fungicide carbendazim (MBC), the soil fumigant dazomet (DAZ), the incorporation of a Paenibacillus polymyxa SQR21 (P. polymyxa SQR21, fungal antagonist) enhanced bio-organic fertilizer (BOF), and applications of BOF combined with either MBC or DAZ. Data suggest that all the treatments evaluated show good control over Fusarium wilt. The MBC and DAZ treatments were effective in suppressing the disease, but led to significant decrease in urease activity and no enhancement of catalase activity in the rhizosphere soils. BOF including treatments showed significant enhancement in soil enzyme activities and microbial communities compared to the MBC and DAZ, evidenced by differences in bacterial/fungi (B/F) ratios, Shannon-Wiener indexes and urease, catalase and sucrase activities in the rhizosphere soil of chrysanthemum. Of all the treatments evaluated, DAZ/BOF application not only greatly suppressed Fusarium wilt and enhanced soil enzyme activities and microbial communities but also promoted the quality of chrysanthemum obviously. Our findings suggest that combined BOF with DAZ could more effectively control Fusarium wilt disease of chrysanthemum.

  5. Chrysanthemyl diphosphate synthase: Isolation of the gene and characterization of the recombinant non-head-to-tail monoterpene synthase from Chrysanthemum cinerariaefolium

    OpenAIRE

    Rivera, Susan B.; Swedlund, Bradley D.; King, Gretchen J.; Bell, Russell N.; Hussey, Charles E.; Shattuck-Eidens, Donna M.; Wrobel, Wislawa M.; Peiser, Galen D.; Poulter, C. Dale

    2001-01-01

    Chrysanthemyl diphosphate synthase (CPPase) catalyzes the condensation of two molecules of dimethylallyl diphosphate to produce chrysanthemyl diphosphate (CPP), a monoterpene with a non-head-to-tail or irregular c1′-2-3 linkage between isoprenoid units. Irregular monoterpenes are common in Chrysanthemum cinerariaefolium and related members of the Asteraceae family. In C. cinerariaefolium, CPP is an intermediate in the biosynthesis of the pyrethrin ester insecticides. CPPa...

  6. Ultrasonic Extraction of Chlorogenic Acid from Chrysanthemum Bud%超声波法提取胎菊中绿原酸的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刁全平; 侯冬岩; 回瑞华; 赵元元

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to establish a method of extraction and determination of chlorogenic acid in chrysanthemum bud. Chlorogenic acid was ultrasonically extracted from chrysanthemum bud. The effect of extraction solvent, extraction time and solvent extraction ratio were investigated. The concentrations of chlorogenic acid were quantified using HPLC. The optimal extraction condition was methanol as solvent,80 min as the extraction time and 1:20 as the sample-solvent extraction ratio. This method was simple, rapid and accurate and hence was suitable for measuring the concentration of chlorogenic acid in chrysanthemum bud.%建立了胎菊中绿原酸的提取方法及检测方法.采用超声波法对胎菊中的绿原酸进行提取,考查了提取溶剂、提取时间、提取料液比对提取量的影响,HPLC测定提取液中绿原酸的含量,确定最佳提取工艺.结果表明,以甲醇为溶剂、提取时间为80 min、提取料液比为1:20时,胎菊中绿原酸的提取量最高.该方法简单、快速、准确,可用于胎菊中绿原酸的含量检测.

  7. The Production of Health Care Beer with Chrysanthemum Tea%利用茶用菊花生产保健啤酒的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程遥; 朱盛沛; 胡凯

    2012-01-01

    在生产啤酒的过程中,探讨加入一定比例的菊花汁,参与发酵反应,生产出具有同菊花茶相同功效的保健啤酒,这种啤酒含有多种有效成份,长期饮用这种产品,具有清热解暑、清肝明目、解毒消炎、降低血糖、增强人体免疫的功效,适合糖尿病患者饮用。%Health care chrysanthemum beer with the same effect as chrysanthemum tea is produced in the process of beer production by adding a certain proportion of chrysanthemum juice and having it participate in fermentation reaction. Containing a variety of effective ingredients, the beer can help clear summer heat, remove liver-fire for improving eyesight, have an effect of anti-inflammation, reduce blood glucose, and strengthen the immune system in the long run. Thus, itJs suitable for patients with diabetes to drink.

  8. Special Effect of Ionic Liquids on the Extraction of Flavonoid Glycosides from Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat by Microwave Assistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Zhou

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A microwave-assisted extraction approach based on ionic liquids of different chain lengths was successfully applied to the extraction of ten flavonoid glycosides from the flowering heads of Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat. The pretreated sample was quantified by HPLC-ESI-MSn. The main components were identified as flavonoid glycosides, including three luteolin glycosides, three apigenin glycosides, three kaempferide glycosides, and one acacetin glycoside according to the characteristics of the corresponding CID mass spectrometric patterns. Eight ionic liquids from the imidazolium family with different chain lengths, namely, 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide, [Cnmim]Br, (n = 2–16 were studied as extraction medium in water. Results indicated that alkyl chain length had an irregular impact on the extraction efficiency. Moreover, the best extraction efficiency was achieved by 1-dodecyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide aqueous solution ([C12mim]Br. Besides the alkyl chain length of the cations, other factors influencing extraction efficiency were systematically investigated, including concentration of the IL solutions, extraction time, matrix-to-solvent ratio and irradiation power.

  9. Geographical distribution of cytotypes in the Chrysanthemum indicum complex as evidenced by ploidy level and genome-size variation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing LI; Qian WAN; Richard J.ABBOTT; Guang-Yuan RAO

    2013-01-01

    A detailed knowledge of the geographical distribution ofcytotypes within and between species comprising a polyploid complex is critical to our understanding of the history and evolution of such complexes.In the present study we examined the geographical distributions ofcytotypes within six tentatively delimited species comprising the Chrysanthemum indicum complex in China.We determined the ploidy of 188 individuals sampled from 47 populations,based on DNA content using flow cytometry.In addition,chromosome counts were made on samples of each taxon.We confirmed that all samples of C.rhombifolium and C.lavandulifolium were diploid (2n =18),those of C.hypargyrum and C.potentilloides were tetraploid (2n--36),and those of C.vestitum were hexaploid (2n =54).In contrast,we confirmed that C.indicum contained both diploid and tetraploid cytotypes.We found that in addition to marked differences in genome size between ploidy levels,there was a variation in genome size between species of the same ploidy level.Although the diploid,tetraploid,and hexaploid taxa of the complex,as well as the diploid form of C.indicum,occurred only in central and northem China,the tetraploid form of C.indicum was widespread both north and south of the Yangtze River.We suggest that the tetraploid form of C.indicum may have expanded its range southward during recent Quatemary glacial periods when forests retreated in south China as conditions became drier.

  10. Study on Processing Technology of Clarified Corn-chrysanthemum-based Beverage%澄清型玉米菊花饮料加工工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈守江; 易克传; 苏起升; 刘正; 余海兵

    2011-01-01

    The processing condition of corn-chrysanthemum- based beverage using waxy com and chrysanthemum as materials was studied. The results showed that waxy com juice was obtained by grinding the seed of waxy com in the ratio 1:10 of seed to water, and then liquefying using 1.5 mL/L α-amylase for 1.5 hours at 90℃, and saccharifing using 0.5 g/L glucoamylase for 0.5 hour at 65℃. The chrysanthemum extracted liquid was extracted in the ratio 1:200 of chrysanthemum to water. Based on organoleptic quality of beverage,the optimum mixed ratio is 3:2 of com juice to chrysanthemum extracted liquid, other ingredients are respectively: 4% suger, 0.04% citric acid, 0.06% acesulfame and 0.006% com essence. The product has better color, maintain the flavor of com and chrysanthemum, and can provide potential health benefits.%以糯玉米、滁菊花为主要原料,对澄清型玉米菊花饮料加工工艺进行了研究,确定了饮料的最佳加工工艺条件.结果表明,按1:10料水比对玉米进行磨浆,浆液过滤后加入1.5 mL、L α-淀粉酶在90℃下液化1.5小时,以及加入0.5 g/L糖化酶在65℃下糖化0.5小时,酶解处理后的浆液静置后取上清液得到糯玉米汁;以1:200的花水比浸提得到菊花浸提液.以感官品质为指标,经正交试验得到饮料最佳调配比例:玉米汁与菊花浸提液按3:2比例混合,其他配料以混合液为基准的添加量分别为:4%砂糖、0.04%柠檬酸、0.06%安赛蜜和0.006%玉米香精.生产的玉米菊花饮料不仅色泽好、保留了原有玉米和菊花的清香,且具有一定的保健功能成分.

  11. The type of ploidy of chrysanthemum is not black or white: a comparison of a molecular approach to published cytological methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maik eKlie

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Polyploidy is a widespread phenomenon among higher plants and a major factor shaping the structure and evolution of plant genomes. The important ornamental chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum indicum hybrid possesses a hexaploid genome with 54 chromosomes and was classified based on its evolutionary origin and cytological methods as an allopolyploid. However, it is questionable whether cytological methods are sufficient to determine the type of ploidy, and there are more informative methods available based on molecular marker analyses. Therefore, we collected segregation data for 406 dominant molecular marker alleles (327 amplified fragment length polymorphism [AFLPs], 65 single-strand conformation polymorphism [SSCPs] and 14 microsatellites [EST-SSRs] in a biparental F1 population of 160 individuals. We analyzed these data for the characteristics that differ between allopolyploids and autopolyploids, including the segregation ratio of each marker, the ratio of single-dose (SD to multi-dose (MD markers, the ratio of SD markers in coupling to those in repulsion and the banding patterns of the SSRs. Whereas the analysis of the segregation ratio of each polymorphic marker indicated disomic (13 markers as well as hexasomic (eight markers inheritance, the ratio of SD markers in coupling to those in repulsion was 1:0, which is characteristic of autopolyploids. The observed ratio of SD to MD markers was close to 0.7:0.3 which is significantly different to the expected segregation for auto- and allohexaploids. Furthermore, the three EST-SSR alleles were inherited in all possible combinations and were not independent of each other, as expected for fixed heterozygosity in allopolyploids. Combining our results with published cytological data indicates that cultivated chrysanthemums should be classified as segmental allo-hexaploids.

  12. Screening of proteins interacting with the coat protein of Chrysanthemum virus B%菊花B病毒外壳蛋白互作蛋白的筛选

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    楼望淮; 蒋甲福; 陈素梅; 房伟民; 陈发棣; 管志勇; 廖园

    2013-01-01

    采用PCR扩增菊花B病毒(CvB)外壳蛋白基因的开放阅读框,构建酵母双杂交系统所需的诱饵表达载体pGBKT7CVBCP,测序验证后转化Y2HGold酵母菌.将酵母菌Y187/pGADT7-cDNA与酵母菌Y2HGold/pGBKT7-CVBCP进行交配转化,在SD/-Trp/-Leu/-His/-Ade/X-α-Gal平板上筛选蓝色阳性克隆并测序pGADT7-cDNA的插入片段.结果表明:诱饵载体表达产物对酵母无毒性作用,且对报告基因无自激活作用.筛选菊花cDNA文库初步得到了与CVB外壳蛋白相互作用的E3泛素连接酶ARIADNE-like蛋白和ATP结合蛋白,为进一步研究CVB外壳蛋白与寄主的互作机制奠定了基础.%To find the protein in the chrysanthemum which was interacted with Chrysanthemum virus B coat protein,this experiment used PCR to get the ORF of the Chrysanthemum virus B coat protein gene constructed vector pGBKT7-CVBCP as the bait in the yeast two-hybrid system,verified by sequencing and transformed into yeast strain Y2HGold.The yeast Y187/pGADT7-cDNA was mated with yeast Y2HGold/pGBKT7-CVBCP,then SD/-Trp/-Leu/-His/-Ade/X-α-Gal plates were used for screening of blue-positive clones whose fragments inserted in the pGADT7-cDNA were sequenced.The experiment showed that the bait protein was non-toxic to the yeast and had no self-activation function.One E3 ubiquitin ligase ARIADNE-like protein and the ATP-binding protein were interacted with the Chrysanthemum virus B coat protein and that laid the foundation of the mutual interaction mechanism between the CVB coat protein and host proteins.

  13. 亳菊啤酒抗氧化性归因分析%Research on the Anti-oxidant Capability of Bozhou Chrysanthemum Beer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    燕傲蕾; 葛永斌; 蒲顺昌

    2015-01-01

    通过测定添加不同浓度亳菊水提液的亳菊啤酒的抗氧化性和亳菊啤酒中主要抗氧化物质酚类、黄酮类物质含量的变化情况,研究外源物质添加对啤酒抗氧化性的影响及啤酒抗氧化性改变的主要因素。结果表明,添加亳菊提取液能提高啤酒中酚类、黄酮类物质的含量和啤酒的抗氧化能力;与酚类物质相比,添加亳菊提取液后,啤酒黄酮含量变化更加明显,相关系数达到0.988**,啤酒抗氧化性的提升也与黄酮类物质含量的变化具有更高的相关性。添加2-4g/L亳菊提取液制备亳菊啤酒既能保证啤酒的质量、使啤酒具有菊花独特风味,又能增强啤酒的抗氧化性、提升其保健功能。%The research was measured of the anti-oxidant capability and the changes of the phenolic com-pounds content,flavonoids content of beer to which different concentration of Bozhou chrysanthemum wa-ter extract was added to study the effects of exogenous agents on the anti-oxidant capability and the major factor changing anti-oxidant capability of beer.The result showed that adding Bozhou chrysanthemum wa-ter extract can increase the content of phenolic compounds and flavonoids and anti-oxidant capacity of beer.Compared with the phenolic compounds content,flavonoids content of beer changed more significant-ly,the increase of anti-oxidant capability of beer is more closely related with the increase of flavonoids content.Adding 2-4 g/L Bozhou chrysanthemum water extract can make the beer possess fine quality and Bozhou chrysanthemum lavor,which can also increase anti-oxidant capability of beer and the health care function.

  14. Calcium, potassium and magnesium treatment of Chrysanthemum morifolium cv. "Bi Time" and callogenesis in vitro Tratamento de plantas matrizes de Chrysanthemum morifolium cv. "Bi Time" com Ca2+, K+ E Mg2+ e calogênese in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Borgatto

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition and vegetative vigor of the donor plant are essential for the satisfactory performance of explants in vitro. In order to test the effect of potassium, calcium and magnesium nutritional status of Chrysanthemum morifolium plants on callogenesis in vitro, pot plants growing in sand were irrigated with nutrient solution containing different levels of potassium (0; 58.5; 117 and 234 mg L-1, calcium (0; 50; 100 e 200 mg L-1 and magnesium (0;12; 48 e 96 mg L-1. After 30 and 45 days, explants (shoot segments and leaf discs were collected, desinfected and inoculated on MS solid medium supplemented with 0.1 mg L-1 of kinetin and 5.0 mg L-1 of nafthalene acetic acid for callogenesis induction. Callogenesis evaluated as callus fresh weight was affected by nutrients treatment. Callus growth on leaf explants was inversely proporcional to potassium concentration and directly proportional to magnesium concentration in shoot explants. The calcium effect on callogensis of leaf explants was dependent on treatment duration. For 30 days treatment callogenseis was inversely related to calcium concentration and after 45 days was directly related to calcium concentration.A composição química e o vigor vegetativo de plantas matrizes são essenciais no desenvolvimento de explantes in vitro. Com o objetivo de testar o efeito do estado nutricional de plantas matrizes de Chrysanthemum morifolium no processo de calogênese in vitro, plantas crescendo em vasos contendo areia lavada foram irrigadas com soluções nutritivas contendo diferentes concentrações de cálcio (0, 50, 100 e 200 mg L-1, potássio (0, 58,5, 117 e 234 mg L-1, e magnésio (0,12, 48 e 96 mg L-1. Aos 30 e 45 dias de duração do tratamento com solução nutritiva, explantes (segmento caulinar e foliar das matrizes foram coletados, desinfestados e inoculados em meio de cultura MS sólido suplementado com 0,1 mg L-1 de Kin e 5,0 mg L-1 NAA. A calogênese foi afetada pelos

  15. Inibidor da ação do etileno na conservação pós-colheita de Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat cv. Dragon Inhibitor of ethylene action in postharvest conservation of Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat cv. Dragon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poliana Cristina Spricigo

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available A durabilidade e a qualidade pós-colheita de flores de corte são atributos fundamentais na sua valoração ao longo da cadeia produtiva e na satisfação dos consumidores. Objetivou-se, nesta pesquisa, verificar o efeito do tiossulfato de prata, associado ou não à sacarose, na manutenção da qualidade pós-colheita de hastes de crisântemos (Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat cv. Dragon . O experimento foi conduzido sob delineamento inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial testando soluções de manutenção com tiossulfato de prata (STS, sob cinco níveis (Água destilada; STS a 0,2 mM; STS a 0,2 mM + sacarose a 50 g L-1; STS a 0,4 mM; STS a 0,4 mM + sacarose a 50 g L-1; e data de amostragem, por três níveis (0; 3; 6 dias. Utilizaram-se três repetições com duas hastes florais em cada tratamento. Foram feitas avaliações físicas: coloração, massa fresca e conteúdo relativo de água (CRA; avaliações químicas: açúcares redutores e pigmentos; e avaliações qualitativas: turgescência, cor das flores, e número de botões, flores entreabertas e abertas. O tratamento com 0,2 mM de STS possibilitou melhor manutenção da massa fresca das hastes. A concentração de pigmentos e carboidratos redutores foi maior naqueles tratamentos em que a sacarose foi associada. A coloração e o conteúdo relativo de água foram favorecidos nos tratamentos STS a 0,2 e 0,4mM. A concentração de 0,2 mM de STS foi a que obteve os melhores resultados, prolongando a vida de vaso das hastes. A qualidade das hastes foi superior, tendo as melhores avaliações de conteúdo de água, cor e turgescência.The durability and postharvest quality of cut flowers are fundamental attributes in value along the production chain and in consumer satisfaction. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of chemical inhibitors of ethylene action on maintaining the postharvest quality of chrysanthemum stems (Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat cv. Dragon. The

  16. 10种提取液对菊花花瓣中类胡萝卜素提取效率的影响%Analysis on Efficiency of Ten Extracts for Carotenoid Content in Petals of Chrysanthemum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    车越; 王普; 孙卫; 戴思兰

    2011-01-01

    类胡萝卜素是菊花中一类重要的呈色物质,高效提取类胡萝卜素对于分离和鉴定色素组成以及研究菊花的呈色机理十分重要.分别采用丙酮、甲醇、无水乙醇、无水乙醚、石油醚、丙酮∶石油醚不同体积比(1∶1、1∶2、1∶4、2∶1、4∶1 )10种提取液,提取菊花品种光辉及Reagan Orange舌状花中的的类胡萝卜素,用紫外-可见光分光光度计测定提取液中类胡萝卜素的相对含量.结果发现,不同提取液中菊花类胡萝卜素的提取量不同;醇类为菊花中类胡萝卜素较适合的提取液.结果还表明,菊花中含氧类胡萝卜素含量较高.%Carotenoid is an important kind of coloring material in chrysanthemum, and extracting this component efficiently is very important for the isolation and identification of pigment composition and the coloring mechanism of chrysanthemum. 10 different extraction solutions were used, including petroleum ether, methanol, anhydrous ethyl alcohol, anhydrous ether, acetone, acetone : petroleum ether in different ratios (1:1; 1:2; 1:4; 2:1; 4:1) to extract carotenoids in the petals of chrysanthemum 'Brilliant' and 'Reagan Orange'. The relative content of total carotenoids was calculated from UV-VIS spectrometer. The results showed that the quantity of extracts varied in 10 extracts of chrysanthemum; Alcohol was more suitable for extracting the carotenoids of chrysanthemum; It also indicated that most of the carotenoids in chrysanthemum was oxygenated compounds and it could lay the foundation for the study of compounds and content of carotenoid in chrysanthemum.

  17. Inhibitory Effects of Chrysanthemum boreale Essential Oil on Biofilm Formation and Virulence Factor Expression of Streptococcus mutans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beom-Su Kim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the antibacterial activity of essential oil extracted from Chrysanthemum boreale (C. boreale on Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans. To investigate anticariogenic properties, and bacterial growth, acid production, biofilm formation, bacterial adherence of S. mutans were evaluated. Then gene expression of several virulence factors was also evaluated. C. boreale essential oil exhibited significant inhibition of bacterial growth, adherence capacity, and acid production of S. mutans at concentrations 0.1–0.5 mg/mL and 0.25–0.5 mg/mL, respectively. The safranin staining and scanning electron microscopy results showed that the biofilm formation was also inhibited. The result of live/dead staining showed the bactericidal effect. Furthermore, real-time PCR analysis showed that the gene expression of some virulence factors such as gtfB, gtfC, gtfD, gbpB, spaP, brpA, relA, and vicR of S. mutans was significantly decreased in a dose dependent manner. In GC and GC-MS analysis, seventy-two compounds were identified in the oil, representing 85.42% of the total oil. The major components were camphor (20.89%, β-caryophyllene (5.71%, α-thujone (5.46%, piperitone (5.27%, epi-sesquiphellandrene (5.16%, α-pinene (4.97%, 1,8-cineole (4.52%, β-pinene (4.45%, and camphene (4.19%. These results suggest that C. boreale essential oil may inhibit growth, adhesion, acid tolerance, and biofilm formation of S. mutans through the partial inhibition of several of these virulence factors.

  18. Mutation breedings in ornamental plants. Technique used for radiation induced mutant in begonia, chrysanthemum, aberia and winter daphne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsubara, Hisao

    1984-03-01

    Several methods of obtaining somatic mutant plants by el-ray irradiation on pieces of tissues as in vitro adventitious bud technique or small cutting methods with repeated pruning are described. The irradiation to the adventitious buds in the small pieces of organ cultured in vitro and to the small cuttings are employed. Culture beds of agar or of Japanese Kanuma soil were used in vitro culture. In these experiments, Japanese Kanuma soil bed in in vitro culture worked well for root development and transplant of the induced mutants. Combination with in vitro culture and repeated pruning technique were used for isolation and fixation of solid somatic mutant from small sectorial mutation induced by irradiation. This method was successful for begonia, chrysanthemum, aberia and winter daphne. These data indicates that most of the induced mutant plants were non-chimeric, while a few others were chimeric. Among the new varieties, ''Gin-Sei'', ''Ryoku-Ha'', ''Big-Cross'', ''Kaede-Iron'', ''Mei-Fu-Hana-Tsukubane-Utsugi'' and ''Daphne-el-3'' are non-chimeric, and ''Mini-Mini-Iron'' and ''Orange-Iron'' are chimeric. Moreover, these new varieties have remarkably differed in size and in color pattern from original variety. From the experimental results of somatic mutation, it is indicated that plant tissue culture have enormous potential in radiation breeding and in rapid propagation of the somatic mutant. (author).

  19. Inhibitory Effects of Chrysanthemum boreale Essential Oil on Biofilm Formation and Virulence Factor Expression of Streptococcus mutans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Beom-Su; Park, Sun-Ju; Kim, Myung-Kon; Kim, Young-Hoi; Lee, Sang-Bong; Lee, Kwang-Hee; Choi, Na-Young; Lee, Young-Rae; Lee, Young-Eun; You, Yong-Ouk

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the antibacterial activity of essential oil extracted from Chrysanthemum boreale (C. boreale) on Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans). To investigate anticariogenic properties, and bacterial growth, acid production, biofilm formation, bacterial adherence of S. mutans were evaluated. Then gene expression of several virulence factors was also evaluated. C. boreale essential oil exhibited significant inhibition of bacterial growth, adherence capacity, and acid production of S. mutans at concentrations 0.1-0.5 mg/mL and 0.25-0.5 mg/mL, respectively. The safranin staining and scanning electron microscopy results showed that the biofilm formation was also inhibited. The result of live/dead staining showed the bactericidal effect. Furthermore, real-time PCR analysis showed that the gene expression of some virulence factors such as gtfB, gtfC, gtfD, gbpB, spaP, brpA, relA, and vicR of S. mutans was significantly decreased in a dose dependent manner. In GC and GC-MS analysis, seventy-two compounds were identified in the oil, representing 85.42% of the total oil. The major components were camphor (20.89%), β-caryophyllene (5.71%), α-thujone (5.46%), piperitone (5.27%), epi-sesquiphellandrene (5.16%), α-pinene (4.97%), 1,8-cineole (4.52%), β-pinene (4.45%), and camphene (4.19%). These results suggest that C. boreale essential oil may inhibit growth, adhesion, acid tolerance, and biofilm formation of S. mutans through the partial inhibition of several of these virulence factors.

  20. Essential oils and crude extracts from Chrysanthemum trifurcatum leaves, stems and roots: chemical composition and antibacterial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassi, Ahlem Ben; Skhiri, Fethia Harzallah; Chraief, Imed; Bourgougnon, Nathalie; Hammami, Mohamed; Aouni, Mahjoub

    2014-01-01

    The essential oils from the leaves, stems and roots of Chrysanthemum trifurcatum (Desf.) Batt. and Trab. var. macrocephalum (viv.) were obtained by hydrodistillation and their chemical compositions were analysed by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), in order to get insight into similarities and differences as to their active composition. A total of fifty compounds were identified, constituting 97.84%, 99.02% and 98.20% of total oil composition of the leaves, stems and roots, respectively. Monoterpene hydrocarbons were shown to be the main group of constituents of the leaves and stems parts in the ratio of 67.88% and 51.29%, respectively. But, the major group in the roots oil was found to be sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (70.30%). The main compounds in leaves oil were limonene (26.83%), γ-terpinene (19.68%), α-pinene (9.7%) and α-terpenyl acetate (7.16%). The stems oil, contains mainly limonene (32.91%), 4-terpenyl acetate (16.33%) and γ-terpinene (5.93%), whereas the main compounds in roots oil were α-calacorene (25.98%), α-cedrene (16.55%), β-bourbobene (14.91%), elemol (7.45%) and 2-hexenal (6.88%). The crude organic extracts of leaves, stems and roots, obtained by maceration with solvents of increasing polarity: petroleum ether, ethyl acetate and methanol, contained tannins, flavonoids and alkaloids. Meanwhile, essential oils and organic extracts were tested for antibacterial activities against eight Gram-positive and Gram-negative strains, using a microdilution method. The oil and methanolic extact from C. trifurcatum leaves showed a great potential of antibacterial effect against Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus epidermidis, with an IC50 range of 31.25-62.5 µg/ml.

  1. Characterization of in vitro haploid and doubled haploid Chrysanthemum morifolium plants via unfertilized ovule culture for phenotypical traits and DNA methylation pattern.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haibin eWang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Chrysanthemum is one of important ornamental species in the world. Its highly heterozygous state complicates molecular analysis, so it is of interest to derive haploid forms. A total of 2,579 non-fertilized chrysanthemum ovules pollinated by Argyranthemum frutescens were cultured in vitro to isolate haploid progeny. One single regenerant emerged from each of three of the 105 calli produced. Chromosome counts and microsatellite fingerprinting showed that only one of the regenerants was a true haploid. Nine doubled haploid derivatives were subsequently generated by colchicine treatment of 80 in vitro cultured haploid nodal segments. Morphological screening showed that the haploid plant was shorter than the doubled haploids, and developed smaller leaves, flowers and stomata. An in vitro pollen germination test showed that few of the haploid's pollen were able to germinate and those which did so were abnormal. Both the haploid and the doubled haploids produced yellow flowers, whereas those of the maternal parental cultivar were mauve. Methylation-sensitive amplification polymorphism (MSAP profiling was further used to detect alterations in cytosine methylation caused by the haploidization and/or the chromosome doubling processes. While 52.2% of the resulting amplified fragments were cytosine methylated in the maternal parent's genome, the corresponding proportions for the haploid's and doubled haploids' genomes were, respectively, 47.0% and 51.7%, demonstrating a reduction in global cytosine methylation caused by haploidization and a partial recovery following chromosome doubling.

  2. External inorganic N source enhances the uptake of As species in garland chrysanthemum (C. coronarium) amended with chicken manure bearing roxarsone and its metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Lixian; Huang, Lianxi; He, Zhaohuan; Zhou, Changmin; Li, Guoliang; Yang, Baomei; Deng, Xiancai

    2013-06-15

    Roxarsone (ROX), a widely used feed organoarsenic additive, is excreted as itself and its metabolites in animal manure. Animal manure is commonly applied with N fertilizer to meet the N demand of crop. We investigated the accumulation of As species in garland chrysanthemum plants fertilized with chicken manure (CM) bearing ROX and its metabolites, combined with different inorganic N sources (NH₄(+), NO₃(-) and urea), respectively. The change of pH, N forms and As species in soils was examined as well. The results show that As(V), As(III) and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) were detectable in soils, and conversions between As species were affected by three inorganic N sources, irrespective of N form and soil pH. As(III) was the sole As species in garland chrysanthemum shoots, and As(III) and As(V) could be detected in roots. Urea, superior to NH₄(+), significantly enhanced the uptake of As species in plants by promoting plant growth, while NO₃(-) slightly reduced the As accumulation due to decreased biomass. As(III) was the dominant As compound (86.9-89.7%) in plants. Therefore, inorganic N fertilizers may inadvertently increase the risk of As contamination in plant from ROX via the way ROX→chicken→CM→soil→crop.

  3. 菊属植物DNA分子鉴定研究进展%Research Progress on DNA Molecular Identification of Plants in the Genus Chrysanthemum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡志刚; 夏叶; 郑贝; 胡志强; 高欢欢; 刘合刚

    2014-01-01

    This review summarized the research status on DNA molecular identification of plants in the genus Chrysanthemum. Some case studies on representative DNA molecular identification techniques, which included ge-nomic in situ hybridization (GISH), DNA molecular markers and DNA barcoding, were described. Simultaneously, the merits, demerits and development of the techniques were discussed. The above work provides evidence for the identi-fication and resource utilization of plants in the genus Chrysanthemum.%本文对以药用植物菊和野菊为代表的菊属植物DNA分子鉴定研究现状进行了整理和归纳,对基因组原位杂交、DNA分子标记以及DNA条形码等代表性的DNA分子鉴定技术在菊属植物中的研究进行了总结、讨论和展望,为菊属植物的分类鉴定和整理交流提供了科学依据。

  4. The influence of nitrogen fertilizations and light intersity on mother plants productivity and the rooting of cuttings of Chrysanthemum (cultivar - Horim Golden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia Kozłowska

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Mother plants of Chrysanthemum cv. "Horim Golden" have been cultivated at three levels of nitrogen fertilization, dosage for a 3 l pot was 100,500,1000 mg N. The plants were growing with fluorescent lamps on (5000 lx or 10000 lx. The rooting of the cuttings obtained under such conditions took place with 5000 lx. The effect of nitrogen on the productivity of mother plants depended on the light intensity. Higher nitrogen doses affected favourably the number of cuttings, the growth and number of roots per cuttings - only when higher light intensity was applied for mother plants. Light of various intensity used in the cultivation of chrysanthemum mother plants had a significantly higher effect on the dynamics of rooting that did nitrogen fertilization. High intensity light, irrespective of the nitrogen dose used, also increased the weight and number of roots per cutting. Moreover, a clear correlation has been found between the carbohydrate content in cuttings and the dynamics of rooting and the number and weight of roots formed. The process of root formation took place later and was slower in cuttings in which a higher carbohydrate content was found; however, the number and weight of roots formed by these cuttings were considerably higher. In cuttings characterised by a low carbohydrate; total nitrogen ratio a decrease in the number and weight of roots has been found.

  5. Expression profile analysis of genes involved in horizontal gravitropism bending growth in the creeping shoots of ground-cover chrysanthemum by suppression subtractive hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Shengjun; Chen, Yu; Jiang, Jiafu; Chen, Sumei; Guan, Zhiyong; Fang, Weimin; Chen, Fadi

    2013-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms underlying gravitropic bending of shoots are poorly understood and how genes related with this growing progress is still unclear. To identify genes related to asymmetric growth in the creeping shoots of chrysanthemum, suppression subtractive hybridization was used to visualize differential gene expression in the upper and lower halves of creeping shoots of ground-cover chrysanthemum under gravistimulation. Sequencing of 43 selected clones produced 41 unigenes (40 singletons and 1 unigenes), which were classifiable into 9 functional categories. A notable frequency of genes involve in cell wall biosynthesis up-regulated during gravistimulation in the upper side or lower side were found, such as beta tubulin (TUB), subtilisin-like protease (SBT), Glutathione S-transferase (GST), and expensing-like protein (EXP), lipid transfer proteins (LTPs), glycine-rich protein (GRP) and membrane proteins. Our findings also highlighted the function of some metal transporter during asymmetric growth, including the boron transporter (BT) and ZIP transporter (ZT), which were thought primarily for maintaining the integrity of cell walls and played important roles in cellulose biosynthesis. CmTUB (beta tubulin) was cloned, and the expression profile and phylogeny was examined, because the cytoskeleton of plant cells involved in the plant gravitropic bending growth is well known.

  6. 富硒条件对杭白菊硒含量的影响%Effects of Selenium-Enriching Conditions on Selenium Contents in Chrysanthemum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郇延军; 陶谦; 等

    2001-01-01

    The changing regularity of different spraying selenium(Se) concentrations on Se absorbing and converting ability of chrysanthemum was studied. The effects of different spraying quantity, water resource, spraying times, batch spraying and variety on total Se content and organic Se percentage of Xiaoyangju chrysanthemum were discussed in the paper. Also the effect of different picking points on uniformity of samples and the effect of drying temperatures on Se loss were analyzed in the paper.%探讨了不同富硒浓度对杭白菊硒吸收、硒有机化和感官色泽的影响,并讨论了不同喷洒量、水质纯度、喷洒次数和茬数以及杭白菊不同结构组分对小洋菊富硒的影响,不同取点对硒喷洒和吸收的均匀性衡量的影响,干菊花干燥温度对硒损失的影响。

  7. Scientific Opinion on the risk to plant health posed by Chrysanthemum stunt viroid for the EU territory, with identification and evaluation of risk reduction options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Plant Health (PLH

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The Panel on Plant Health conducted a pest risk assessment for Chrysanthemum stunt viroid (CSVd and identified and evaluated risk reduction options, particularly those listed in Council Directive 2000/29/EC. Three entry pathways were identified, with plants for planting being the most important and rated as moderately likely. CSVd is recorded in some EU Member States with a limited distribution and is regulated on chrysanthemum; host plants are widely cultivated in greenhouses and outdoors. Therefore, establishment is very likely. Short-distance spread within a crop is likely, whereas short-distance spread between different species is unlikely to moderately likely. For vegetatively propagated species, in the absence of an efficient certification system, long-distance spread is very likely and a major impact would be expected on chrysanthemum, with associated yield and quality losses. However, under the existing certification scheme for chrysanthemum plant propagation material, the probability of spread through infected cuttings is largely reduced and the direct consequences of viroid outbreaks are expected to be minor. Minimal impact is predicted for other ornamental hosts and a minor impact for solanaceous vegetable crops. The indirect effects of CSVd are considered to be limited, with the exception of eradication. Risk reduction options addressing the sanitary status of the propagation material are likely to be the most effective and feasible. These include the current EU measures, as well as a statutory certification system with associated statutory import requirements or, failing that, but potentially less effective, the use of voluntary industry standards. It is difficult to disentangle the benefits of the current legislation from those of the industry-developed chrysanthemum certification system. The high efficacy of current measures is supported by the absence or limited presence of CSVd in the EU and by the limited number of

  8. Rational use of electrical energy in artificial light in the production of chrysanthemum seedlings in greenhouse; Uso racional de energia eletrica em iluminacao artificial na producao de mudas de crisantemo em ambiente protegido

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David, Eduardo [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (FEA/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Agricola], e-mail: eduardo.david@gr.unicamp.br; Rossi, Luiz Antonio [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (DEA/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Agricola], e-mail: rossi@agr.unicamp.br

    2008-07-01

    The type of artificial illumination employed for chrysanthemum cultivation in greenhouses to induce photo period effect will determine its growing rate as well as the energy consumption. Incandescent filament is currently employed for artificial illumination in chrysanthemum nursery to induce photo period effect. Nowadays new illumination technology is being tested aiming energy consumption reduction. The application of illumination based on electrical discharge in sodium or mercury vapor, as well as tubular or integrated compact fluorescent bulbs in chrysanthemum cultivation is identified as the objective of this research work. The experimental part of this work was carried out in a commercial greenhouse model employing five chrysanthemum variety as Papiro, Lindy White, Mona Lisa Rose, Euro Speedy and Stateman during winter and summer period. Parameters employed to the study variety behavior included: production per area, fresh matter weight, presence of flower sprouts and moisture content. The parameters known as electrical variables, like consumption, demand and power factor, together with the treatment energy efficiency index were used to analyze the employed illumination technologies and light bulbs type. Results showed differences between weight of fresh flowers and moisture content for the flowers variety under consideration. Productivity per unit area was noticed to be larger for discharge technology when compared with filament bulbs, for both varieties being tested. The lowest flower sprout occurrence was associated to the discharge technology with the exception of the variety Stateman produced with incandescent bulbs of 100 W in the winter plot. The unique exception related to discharge technology was associated to the White 23 W Integrated Compact Fluorescent bulb yielding 2.4% of flower sprouts compared with 0% of other bulb types associated to the production of the variety Euro Speedy. It was noticed from the results that the yellow integrated compact

  9. Comparison of antioxidant activities of different parts from snow chrysanthemum (Coreopsis tinctoria Nutt.) and identification of their natural antioxidants using high performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detection and mass spectrometry and 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-sulfonic acid)diammonium salt-based assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, L X; Hu, D J; Lam, S C; Ge, L; Wu, D; Zhao, J; Long, Z R; Yang, W J; Fan, B; Li, S P

    2016-01-08

    Snow chrysanthemum (Coreopsis tinctoria Nutt.), a world-widely well-known flower tea material, has attracted more and more attention because of its beneficial health effects such as antioxidant activity and special flavor. In this study, a high performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detection and mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-MS) and 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-sulfonic acid)diammonium salt (ABTS) based assay was employed for comparison and identification of antioxidants in different samples of snow chrysanthemum. The results showed that snow chrysanthemum flowers possessed the highest while stems presented the lowest antioxidant capacities. Fourteen detected peaks with antioxidant activity were temporarily identified as 3,4',5,6,7-pentahydroxyflavanone-O-hexoside, chlorogenic acid, 2R-3',4',8-trihydroxyflavanone-7-O-glucoside, flavanomarein, flavanocorepsin, flavanokanin, quercetagitin-7-O-glucoside, 3',5,5',7-tetrahydroxyflavanone-O-hexoside, marein, maritimein, 1,3-dicaffeoylquinic acid, coreopsin, okanin and acetyl-marein by comparing their UV spectra, retention times and MS data with standards or literature data. Antioxidants existed in snow chrysanthemum are quite different from those reported in Chrysanthemum morifolium, a well-known traditional beverage in China, which indicated that snow chrysanthemum may be a promising herbal tea material with obvious antioxidant activity.

  10. 药用菊花种苗计算机快速鉴别研究%Rapid identification system for seedlings of medicinal Chrysanthemum morifolium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛鹏飞; 郭巧生; 汪涛; 邵清松

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To achieve the rapid identification for seedlings of medicinal Chrysanthemum morifolium, the discriminant equation was established and the software for rapid identification was designed. Method: Leaf structure of medicinal Chrysanthemum of 12 cultivars was analyzed to establish the discriminant equation based on variance analysis and discriminant analysis. On this basis, the identification program and software (based on the python language) were designed. Result: Through the analysis of variance and multiple comparisons for the 11 leaf parameter index data of 12 different cultivars, it was found that that the leaf parameters were significant different from each other and reached significant levels. The discriminant equation and the rapid identification software were set up based on the analysis of various indicators. Conclusion: The rapid identification system of seedlings of medicinal Chrysanthemum could be achieved through the establishment of discriminant equation combined with computer technology.%目的:通过建立药用菊花种苗判别方程,设计出快速鉴别软件,实现对其种苗的快速鉴别.方法:采用方差分析和判别分析对12个栽培类型的药用菊花叶形结构11个指标进行分析,建立判别方程.在此基础上,设计鉴别程序,编写软件(基于Python语言).结果:通过对12个不同类型药用菊花的11个叶形参数指标数据进行方差分析和多重比较,各叶形参数之间均达到显著水平,各类型之间均存在显著性差异.对各指标进行判别分析,建立判别方程,并设计了药用菊花快速判别软件.结论:通过建立的药用菊花种苗判别方程,结合计算机技术,能够实现对药用菊花种苗的快速判别.

  11. 5种切花菊内生真菌的分离鉴定与分布情况研究%Research on Isolation, Identification and Distribution of Endophytic Fungi from Five Cut Chrysanthemums

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马龑; 赵大克; 郑丽

    2014-01-01

    研究了5个常见切花菊品种内生真菌的分离鉴定与分布情况,以寻找切花菊自身抗性真菌并为今后开展生物防治提供基础资料。找到了切花菊各部位材料的表面灭菌处理最优方法,发现切花菊内生真菌在分离中出现幼嫩部位内生真菌分离数量明显高于成熟部位,并且根分布最多,叶次之,茎最少。5个切花菊的内生真菌中,镰刀菌属( Fusarium)和枝孢属( Cladosporium)为优势菌群。5个切花菊品种内生真菌的分布存在一定相似度,但不同品种还是存在自己特有的内生真菌,说明切花菊的内生真菌分布有一定多样性。%The isolation, identification and distribution of endophytic fungi from five common cut chrysanthemum cultivars were studied to find out their own resistant fungi and provide fundamental data for the future studies on biological control.The optimal method for surface sterilization treatment of various parts of cut chrysanthemum materials was found.It was found that the quantity of isolated endophytic fungi from the tender part of cut chrysanthemums was obviously higher than that from the mature part, and the distribution of endophytic fungi in different parts showed the following order:root>leaf>stem.Among endophytic fungi from five cut chrysanthemums, Fusarium and Cladosporium were dominant fungal community.Five cut chrysanthemum cultivars were some-what similar in the distribution of endophytic fungi, but different cultivars also had their own unique endophytic fungi, indicating that the distribution of endophytic fungi in cut chrysanthemums had a certain diversity.

  12. Agarose-chitosan-C18 film micro-solid phase extraction combined with high performance liquid chromatography for the determination of phenanthrene and pyrene in chrysanthemum tea samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Nyuk Ting; Sanagi, Mohd Marsin; Wan Ibrahim, Wan Nazihah; Wan Ibrahim, Wan Aini

    2017-05-01

    Agarose-chitosan-immobilized octadecylsilyl-silica (C18) film micro-solid phase extraction (μSPE) was developed and applied for the determination of phenanthrene (PHE) and pyrene (PYR) in chrysanthemum tea samples using high performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection (HPLC-UV). The film of blended agarose and chitosan allows good dispersion of C18, prevents the leaching of C18 during application and enhances the film mechanical stability. Important μSPE parameters were optimized including amount of sorbent loading, extraction time, desorption solvent and desorption time. The matrix match calibration curves showed good linearity (r⩾0.994) over a concentration range of 1-500ppb. Under the optimized conditions, the proposed method showed good limits of detection (0.549-0.673ppb), good analyte recoveries (100.8-105.99%) and good reproducibilities (RSDs⩽13.53%, n=3) with preconcentration factors of 4 and 72 for PHE and PYR, respectively.

  13. Effect of Mn-doping on the growth mechanism and electromagnetic properties of chrysanthemum-like ZnO nanowire clusters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Jun-Feng; You Tian-Gui; Zhang Zhi-Yong; Tian Jiang-Xiao; Yun Jiang-Ni; Zhao Wu

    2011-01-01

    Chrysanthemum-like ZnO nanowire clusters with different Mn-doping concentrations are prepared by a hydrothermal process. The microstructure, morphology and electromagnetic properties are characterized by x-ray diffractometer high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), a field emission environment scanning electron microscope (FEESEM)and a microwave vector network analyser respectively.The experimental results indicate that the asprepared products are Mn-doped ZnO single crystalline with a hexagonal wurtzite structure, that the growth habit changes due to Mn-doping and that a good magnetic loss property is found in the Mn-doped ZnO products, and theaverage magnetic loss tangent tan6m is up to 0.170099 for 3% Mn-doping, while the dielectric loss tangent tanSe is weakened, owing to the fact that ions Mn2+ enter the crystal lattice of ZnO.

  14. Rapid adjustment in chrysanthemum carbohydrate turnover and growth activity to a change in time-of-day application of light and daylength

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Katrine Heinsvig; Poiré, Richard; Ottosen, Carl-Otto;

    2012-01-01

    Abstract. Diel (24 h) rhythms are believed to be of great importance to plant growth and carbohydrate metabolism in fluctuating environments. However, it is unclear how plants that have evolved to experience regular day–night patterns will respond to irregular light environments that disturb...... diurnally-regulated parameters related to growth. In this study, chrysanthemum plants were exposed to a change in the time-of-day application of light followed by short days or long days with a night interruption of light. We observed a clear shift in the diel cycle of sucrose turnover and relative leaf...... expansion, indicating a resetting of these activities with a temporal trigger in the early morning. The starch pool was relatively stable in long-day plants and marginally affected by the change in the time-of-day application in light followed by long days with a night interruption. This was in contrast...

  15. Genomic DNA Extraction from Chrysanthemum Using High Salt CTAB Method%高盐沉淀CTAB法提取温室菊花基因组DNA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马月萍; 戴思兰

    2009-01-01

    Based on CTAB method,some protocal was modified according to the physiological characteristics of high containing contents of polyphenolics and polysaeeharides in Chrysanthemum.Adding 50% volume of 5 mol·L-1 NaCI into the solution which precipitating.High quality genomic DNA can be extracted from Chrysanthemum using the improved method.The DNA WaS preferable enough to be used as PCR template and digested by restriction enzyme completely and other studies of molecular biology.%根据温室菊花植物组织富含多酚、多糖的具体特性,对CTAB法加以改进:在待沉淀液中加入1/2体积5 mol·L~NaCI.改进后的方法获得的DNA质量良好,电泳条带清晰,提取过程无明显的DNA降解,基本上排除了多酚物质的干扰.以提取的DNA为模板,用一对引物扩增菊花中18S基因,得到条带单一,大小与已知一致,说明获得的DNA可以进行PCR扩增,EcoR I 酶切基因组DNA图谱表明,提取的DNA能被限制性内切酶完全酶切,可以满足相关的分子生物学研究.

  16. Reconocimiento y dispersión de hongos causantes del "picamento" (Rayspeck en crisantemo (Chrysanthemum morifolium ram en condiciones de invernadero

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bustos B. Indiana

    1992-11-01

    Full Text Available The recongnition of the fungi causing ray speck and their dispersion in chrysantemum (Chrysanthemum morifolium RAM cv. Polaris, was carried out under greenhouse conditions. Three speciea were identified: Alternaria alternata (FR Keiasler, Alternaria zinniae Ellis, Stemphylium botryosum, Wallroth lPleospora herbarum Raben Horst. The analysis ofthe disease dispersion was based on a random deaign with three repetitions. The number of coloniea, the temperature and relative humidity were evaluated in four different placea of the culture. The temperature was found to be the most important factor afecting the production and releaSe of conidia. The sporulation reached ita peak at noon (21°C.El reconocimiento de hongos causantes del "picamento" (ray speek y su dispersión en crisantemo (Chrysanthemum morifolium RAM cv. Polaris, se realizó bajo condiciones de invernadero. Se identificaron tres especies de hongos que producen los síntomas: ALternaria alternata (FR Keissler, ALternaria zinniae Ellis, Stemphylium botryosum, Wallroth CPkospora herbarum Raben Horst. Para el análisis de la dispersión de la enfermedad, se usó un diseño completamente al azar con tres repeticiones. En cuatro sitios del cultivo se evaluó el número de colonias, la temperatura y la humedad relativa. Se encontró que la temperatura es el factor más importante para la producción y liberación de conidias. A las 12 M. (21°C se presentó la mayor esporulación.

  17. The Origin of Garden Chrysanthemums and Molecular Phylogeny of Dendranthema in China based on Nucleotide Sequences of nrDNA ITS, trnT-trnL and trnL-trnF Intergenic Spacer Regions in cpDNA%基于核糖体DNA的ITS序列和叶绿体trnT-trnL及trnL-trnF基因间区的菊花起源与中国菊属植物分子系统学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵惠恩; 汪小全; 陈俊愉; 洪德元

    2003-01-01

    Several sequences were applied to resolve phylogenetic relationships within Dendranthema and clarify the origin of garden chrysanthemums including sequences of nrDNA ITS, trnT-trnL and trnL-trnF intergenic spacer regions in cpDNA. The relationships among the species are so close that the three sequences could only provide limited information. From the evidence presented, we suggest that: ① D.rhmobifolium be the chloroplast donor of D.vestitum (HN) with the resembling morphology and the same trnT/L IGS sequence. ② D.vestitum, a putative ancestor, may be not the chloroplast donor of garden chrysanthemums. D.lavand-ulifolium might be the chloroplast donor of the type population of D.indicum (HN) or the direct chloroplast donor of the ancient garden chrysanthemum cultivar. ③ D.zawaskii might be not the ancestor of garden chrysanthemums.

  18. Investigation and Analysis of Large -Flowered Chrysanthemum Cultivars in Shandong Province%山东省大菊品种资源调查与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雒新艳; 张俊丽; 卢洁

    2015-01-01

    本研究对山东省大菊主栽城市进行了连续3年的调查和整理,共鉴定统计到195个品种,其中日本品种81个,中国品种114个;平瓣类(52%)和管瓣类(28%)品种多,畸瓣类(5%)和桂瓣类(1%)品种少;叠球型、翻卷型和钩环型3个花型的品种数量多,缺少平盘型、蜂窝型和单管型等7个花型的品种;黄色和白色品种多,两者之和超过了一半,绿色、红色和橙色品种少,不足10个;各花色在瓣型和花型中的分布极不均匀,黄色叠球型品种最多。该调查结果有利于正确认识大菊品种资源,保护珍稀资源,合理开展引种、育种和产业开发等工作。%One hundred and ninety -five Chrysanthemum cultivars were identified through the investiga-tion in the major cultivation cities of Shandong Province in 3 consecutive years,which included 81 Japanese cultivars and 114 native cultivars.The flat -petal group (52%)and quilled -petal group (28%)took the most part of cultivars,whereas the filiform -petal group (5%)and anemone -petal group (1%)had even less cultivars.These quantity of globular,reflexed and open bead types were the most,while that of 7 types, such as plate -petal types,honeycomb types and single quill type was lack.The cultivars yellow and white flowers were the most with their,sum was more than half of the total.There were less than ten cultivars with green,red and orange flowers.The distribution of each color in the petal groups and flower types was very un-even,and the yellow globular type was the most one.These results were propitious to cognize the cultivars of Chrysanthemum,protect valuable resources and develop the introduction,breeding and industry exploiting.

  19. Wolfberry Longan dates Chrysanthemum Compound Beverage%枸杞桂圆红枣菊花复合饮料的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何尧州; 吴忠义; 李莹; 曹晓虹

    2016-01-01

    Wolfberry,longan,red dates and chrysanthemum are used as raw material. White sugar,gelatin,sodium carboxymethylcellulose,and other accessories are applied. A health function,and easy to drink and carry composite drink is developed. Studying material handling,ratio,extraction,filtration,and adding accessories,production process is thus developed. Through single factor test,extraction conditions,orthogonal and sensory evaluation,to determine the optimal fomular of compound beverage:the ratio of longan:Wolfberry: dates:Chrysanthemum: water(mass ratio)is 1∶ 0.25∶ 0.5∶0.01∶40;extract complex juice at 85 ℃ ~95 ℃ water bath. Its color,aroma,taste and other indicators are of the best morphology. Accessory is made from 0.06% xanthan gum,0.08% sodium carboxymethyl cellulose and 10%of white sugar.%以枸杞、桂圆、红枣和菊花为原料,添加白砂糖、明胶和羧甲基纤维素钠等辅料。研制一款既具有保健功能,又饮用、携带方便的复合饮料。研究通过原料处理、配比、浸提、过滤和添加辅料等得出加工工艺流程,经单因素实验、浸提条件、正交试验和感官评定确定复合饮料的最佳配比是桂圆:枸杞:红枣:菊花:水(质量之比)为1∶0.25∶0.5∶0.01∶40,在85~95℃水浴条件下浸提得复合汁,其色泽、香气、口味和组织形态等指标最佳。辅料的配比为0.06%黄原胶、0.08%羧甲基纤维素钠和10%白砂糖。

  20. Avaliação do enraizamento de estacas de crisântemo (Chrysanthemum morifolium L. cv. white Reagan 606 tratadas com ácido indolbutírico (IBA Rooting evaluation in Chrysanthemum morifolium cv. white Reagan 606 stem cuttings as affected by indolbutyric acid (IBA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.L. Cuquel

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito de doses crescentes do ácido indolbutírico (IBA e de diferentes tempos de imersão no enraizamento de estacas de Chrysanthemum morifolium cv. White Reagan 606. O fator doses foi aplicado em quatro níveis: 0, 500, 1000 e 1500 ppm de IBA e o fator tempo em três níveis: 5s, 1h e 2h. O delineamento utilizado foi o de blocos completos casualizados com parcelas subdivididas, onde as dosagens de IBA foram aplicadas como tratamento principal. O experimento foi instalado em caixas de isopor, em casa de vegetação sob nebulização, tendo vermiculita como substrato. O momento adequado para o transplante foi avaliado através da leitura de uma repetição adicional utilizada como controle. Obteve-se enraizamento em todas as combinações de tratamento, mesma na ausência de IBA. De maneira geral o tratamento rápido tende a ser mais facilmente eficiente quando combinado com as maiores dosagens, enquanto os tratamentos mais demorados com as menores dosagens.The effect of rising concentrations of indolbutyric acid (IBA solutions was evaluated with different exposition times in stem cuttings of Chrysanthemum morifolium cv. White Reagan 606. The applied concentrations were 0,500,1000 and 1500 ppm of IBA during 5s, 1h and 2h, in a randomized complete split-plot block design, with IBA concentrations as main treatment. The experiment was installed in styrofoam trays in a green-house with a mist device and vermiculite as substrate. Transplanting time was determined by an additional block. All treatments induced rooting even in the absence of IBA. In a general sense the fastest treatments tended to be the more efficient when combined with higher concentrations.

  1. Lupeol is one of active components in the extract of Chrysanthemum indicum Linne that inhibits LMP1-induced NF-κB activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Se Chan; Lim, Sue Yeon; Song, Yoon-Jae

    2013-01-01

    We have previously reported that seventy percent ethanol extract of Chrysanthemum indicum Linne (CIE) strongly reduces Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-transformed lymphoblastoid cell line (LCL) survival by inhibiting virus-encoded latent infection membrane protein 1 (LMP1)-induced NF-κB activation. To identify an active compound(s) in CIE that inhibits LMP1-induced NF-κB activation, activity-guided fractionation was employed. The CH2Cl2 fraction of CIE strongly reduced LMP1-induced NF-κB activation and LCL viability with relatively low cytotoxic effects on primary human foreskin fibroblast (HFF), HeLa or Burkitt's lymphoma (BL41) cells. Furthermore, lupeol, a pentacyclic triterpene, was identified in the CH2Cl2 fraction of CIE to attenuate LMP1-induced NF-κB activation and LCL viability. This study demonstrates that lupeol is one of active compounds in the CH2Cl2 fraction of CIE that inhibits LMP1-induced NF-κB activation and reduces NF-κB-dependent LCL viability.

  2. Lupeol is one of active components in the extract of Chrysanthemum indicum Linne that inhibits LMP1-induced NF-κB activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Se Chan Kang

    Full Text Available We have previously reported that seventy percent ethanol extract of Chrysanthemum indicum Linne (CIE strongly reduces Epstein-Barr virus (EBV-transformed lymphoblastoid cell line (LCL survival by inhibiting virus-encoded latent infection membrane protein 1 (LMP1-induced NF-κB activation. To identify an active compound(s in CIE that inhibits LMP1-induced NF-κB activation, activity-guided fractionation was employed. The CH2Cl2 fraction of CIE strongly reduced LMP1-induced NF-κB activation and LCL viability with relatively low cytotoxic effects on primary human foreskin fibroblast (HFF, HeLa or Burkitt's lymphoma (BL41 cells. Furthermore, lupeol, a pentacyclic triterpene, was identified in the CH2Cl2 fraction of CIE to attenuate LMP1-induced NF-κB activation and LCL viability. This study demonstrates that lupeol is one of active compounds in the CH2Cl2 fraction of CIE that inhibits LMP1-induced NF-κB activation and reduces NF-κB-dependent LCL viability.

  3. Isolation and Identification of Flavonoids in Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat.%亳菊花中黄酮类化合物的分离鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜洪芳; 张玖; 单承莺

    2008-01-01

    菊花为菊科植物菊(Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat.)的干燥头状花序,为了进一步揭示药理活性的物质基础,为该中药的开发利用和质量评价提供依据,安徽亳州亳菊花中的黄酮类化合物进行了系统研究.毫菊经醇提、萃取、硅胶柱层析与纯化得到4个黄酮类化合物.通过理化常数和波谱解析鉴定了其中3个化舍物的结构,分别为:芹菜素-7-甲醚(Apigenin-7-methyl ether)(Ⅰ)、芹菜素(Apigenin)(Ⅱ)和未犀草素(Luteolin)(Ⅲ),另外1个化合物的结构尚在鉴定中.上述3个化合物均为首次从该植物中分到的已知合物.

  4. Comparative effects of hydrogen chloride gas on tomato and chrysanthemum. I. Distribution and accumulation of chloride following exposure. II. Pathological anatomy of hydrogen chloride gas injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shriner, D.S.

    1969-01-01

    Hydrogen chloride (HCl) gas damage to plants has not been a historically important problem. However, recent practices in a number of industries, particularly glass manufacturing and pyrolysis of waste plastics, have increased the seriousness of the problem. Studies were carried out under carefully controlled exposure conditions to determine the effects of HCl gas on a relatively sensitive and a relatively resistant plant species. The macroscopic symptoms of most importance in acute damage to tomato and chrysanthemum are glazing of the lower surface, and a bifacial bronzing of interveinal and marginal areas of leaves. Microscopically, glazing was shown to be caused by a collapse of the lower epidermal cells and a partial disorganization of the spongy mesophyll of leaves. Bronzing was shown to be caused by the further collapse of the spongy mesophyll, and in some cases the palisade mesophyll and upper epidermis. Analysis of plant tissues for their free chloride content following an exposure to HCl gas was done with cell-free water extracts which were titrated on an automatic chloride titrator. On the basis of such studies, evidence suggest that the mechanism of accumulation of chlorides in plants is similar to that of fluorides, and that in subacute doses, chlorides are translocated toward the extremities of the foliar portions of the plant. In areas where a number of different types of pollution sources exist, and symptomotology is not definitive in pinpointing the source, chloride analysis of plant tissues should prove valuable as an aid to diagnosis if HCl gas was suspected.

  5. 茼蒿挥发油化学成分分析%Chemical Constitutes of Essential Oil from Chrysanthemum.L

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程霜; 崔庆新; 牛梅菊

    2001-01-01

    利用气相色谱-质谱联用法对茼蒿挥发油成分进行了分析,经毛细管色谱分离出了38种组分,并确认了32种成分,检出率达84.21%,并用气相色谱面积归一化法测定了各种成分的相对百分含量,其主要成分为4-甲基-2-戊烯、4-甲基-2,3-二氢呋喃、β-蒎烯、苯甲醛等。%The essential oil from Chrysanthemum. Lwas analyzed by capillary GC / MSD method. 38 peaks were isolated and 32 compounds were identified while the ratio of identification was 84. 21%. The relative contents of constitutes wrer determined by area normalizing method. The mainly chemical constitutes were: 2 - pentene - 4 - methyl -, 4 -methgl - 2, 3 - dihydro - furan, benzaldehyde, beta - pinene, etc.

  6. Analysis of different technologies of artificial illumination for production of chrysanthemum in protecting environment; Analise de diferentes tecnologias de iluminacao artificial para producao de crisantemos em ambiente protegido

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David, Eduardo; Rossi, Luiz Antonio [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (FEAGRI/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Agricola. Dept. de Engenharia Agricola], Emails: eduardo.david@gr.unicamp.br, rossi@agr.unicamp.br

    2006-07-01

    In protecting environment chrysanthemum's production, the artificial illumination type used to induce the photo period, affects the growing and development of plants, as well the electric power consumed in this process of production. The most useful illumination type is by filament. Today, new artificial illumination technologies have been studied to reduce the electric power consumption. This work has been development in a commercial greenhouse with four varieties. The preliminary results have showed that the utilization of discharge lamps does not affect significantly the flower's development considering the weight and presence of flower bud. In the analyzed period, the reduction on power electricity consumption was 60,13% on the sodium-vapor lamp, 41,66% on the mercury-vapor lamp, 60,52% on the fluorescent tube lamp and 50,32% on the compact fluorescent-integrated lamp in comparison with the incandescent lamp that nowadays it is used. It shows the high intensity discharge technology (HID technology) has saved more electricity than the incandescent lamp. (author)

  7. Insecticidal Effect of Chrysanthemum coronarium L. Flowers on the Pest Spodoptera littoralis Boisd and its Parasitoid Microplitis rufiventris Kok. with Identifying the Chemical Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shonouda, Mourad L.; Osman, Salah; Salama, Osama; Ayoub, Amal

    The flower extract of Chrysanthemum coronarium L. and their fractions have shown insecticidal effect on the cotton leaf worm Spodoptera littoralis. The third instar larvae fed for two days on treated leaves were more susceptible to plant extracts and to their ethyl acetate and chloroform fractions. The active lowest concentration (5%) of the flower fractions showed no significant effect on the percent reduction of emerged adult parasitoids, Microplitis rufiventris Kok. GC/MS analysis revealed that the major constituents in ethyl acetate fraction were 3-dihydro-methylene-2- (3H) furanone (17.8%), jasmolin I (15.6%), carveol 1 (13.6%), phosphoric acid, tributyl ester (11.4%) and cinerin II (11.1%), while those of chloroform fraction were 5-hydroxy-3 methyl-1H-pyrazole (42.7%) and carveol 1(24.8%). The medicinal plant C. coronarium seems to be a promising plant for application in integrated pest management due to its safety to the surrounding environment.

  8. 菊花精油化学成分分析及其在再造烟叶加香中的应用%Analysis of Chemical Components of Chrysanthemum Essential Oil and Its Applicationin Reconstituted Tobacco Flavoring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史跃龙; 严新龙; 卢岚

    2014-01-01

    The chemical components of chrysanthemum essential oil were qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed by GC-MC. The results showed that 43 components in chrysanthemum essential oil were identified,containing five kinds of ketones,four-teen kinds of alcohols,six kinds of esters,three kinds of acids,and fifteen hydrocarbons and heterocyclic compounds. Tobacco flavoring test was found that when the content of chrysanthemum essential oil added in every 1 00 g of tobacco concentrate were in the range of 1 .5‰ to 2 .0‰ ,the offensive odor of reconstituted tobacco could be eliminated and the taste of cigarette smoke could be improved. The optimal result was achieved when adding quantity was 2.0‰ .%采用气相色谱-质谱联用仪对菊花精油的化学成分进行分析。结果显示,从菊花精油中检测鉴别出43种物质,其中酮类5种、醇类14种、酯类6种、酸类3种、烃类及杂环类15种。加香试验发现,在每100 g烟草浓缩液中加入1.5‰~2.0‰(质量分数)菊花精油能够有效改善造纸法再造烟叶的刺激性和灼烧感,改善吸味并提高香气质量,在添加比例为2.0‰(质量分数)时效果最佳。

  9. Influence of Flavon from Chrysanthemum Morifolium on Apoptosis of HUVECs%杭白菊黄酮对高糖诱导的人脐静脉内皮细胞的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘颖慧; 周旦阳; 寿成珉; 牟新

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the influence of flavon from Chrysanthemum morifolium on the apoptosis of human umbilical vein endothelial cells(HUVECs). Methods HUVECs were treated with high glucose(22mol/L) and then with flavone from Chrysanthemum morifolium of different concentrations(100,200,and 400mg/mL) for 72h. The cell morphological changes were observed by microscope and cell proliferation was determined by MTT chromatometry. Results The cell viability in flavon groups with different concentrations were higher than that in high glucose group(P<0.05 or P<0.01),with the most increase in 400mg/mL flavon group(P<0.01). Conclusion Flavonoids from Chrysanthemum morifolium can inhibit the high-glucose-induced apoptosis of HUVECs in a dose-dependent manner. This indicated that flavon from Chrysanthemum morifolium have protective effects on HUVECs.%目的:探讨杭白菊黄酮对高糖诱导的人脐静脉内皮细胞(HUVEC)凋亡的影响,分析杭白菊黄酮对血管内皮细胞的保护作用。方法 HUVEC分正常对照组、高糖组(22mol/L)及低、中、高浓度杭白菊黄酮组(100、200、400mg/mL),作用24~72h后,显微镜观察细胞形态改变,MTT法检测细胞活力。结果不同浓度杭白菊黄酮组细胞存活率均显著高于高糖组(P<0.05,P<0.01),尤以400mg/mL高浓度杭白菊黄酮组作用最为显著(P<0.01)。结论杭白菊黄酮对高糖诱导的HUVEC细胞凋亡有明显的抑制作用,且存在剂量依赖性,对血管内皮具有保护作用。

  10. Effects of exogenous nitric oxide on physiological characteristics in chrysanthemum under heat stress%一氧化氮对高温胁迫下菊花生理特性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨伟; 陈发棣; 陈素梅; 房伟民

    2011-01-01

    以夏菊品种早黄为材料,研究了高温胁迫下外源一氧化氮(NO)对开花期菊花叶片和花瓣相关生理指标变化的影响.结果表明:0.2 mmol·L-1 NO供体硝普钠(SNP)对高温胁迫下菊花叶片和花瓣的氧化损伤具有保护作用.与对照相比,外施SNP显著提高了叶片和花瓣中NO含量及超氧化物歧化酶、过氧化物酶、过氧化氢酶、抗坏血酸过氧化物酶的活性,降低了超氧阴离子活力及过氧化氛和丙二醛含量.表明:NO作为一种重要的信号分子,可能通过诱导菊花抗氧化酶系统的活性来减轻细胞的膜脂过氧化,增强菊花对高温胁迫的抵抗能力.%Effects of exogenous nitric oxide(NO) on some physiological characteristics of leaves and ray florets in chrysanthemum Zaohuang at flowering stage under heat stress were investigated. The results indicated that 0. 2 mmol· L-1 exogenous NO donor, named sodium nitroprusside(SNP) had obviously protective effects on leaves and ray florets oxidative damage in heat stressed chrysanthemum. Compared to the control, NO content and activities of antioxidant enzymes including superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, eatalase and ascorbic acid peroxidase increased significantly in chrysanthemum plants applied with SNP,while superoxide anion prodnciton activity,hydrogen peroxide and malondialdehyde content decreasod significantly. NO acted as an important signal molecule, might alleviate lipid peroxidation throngh activating antioxidant enzyme system to improve the heat resistance of chrysanthemum.

  11. Medium Choice of Sugar-free Micropropagation with Liquid Culture in Open-space of Chrysanthemum morifolium Plantlets%开放空间下无糖菊花组培苗栽培介质的选择

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋越冬; 马明建

    2010-01-01

    在自行研制的开放空间植物组织培养苗栽培系统内,研究了不同栽培介质对液体培养的无糖菊花(Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat.)组培苗生长的影响.结果表明,陶瓷球介质适合菊花组培苗的生长,而传统无土栽培介质岩棉和海绵不适合菊花组培苗的生产.

  12. Supercritical-Carbon Dioxide Fluid Extract from Chrysanthemum indicum Enhances Anti-Tumor Effect and Reduces Toxicity of Bleomycin in Tumor-Bearing Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Mei Yang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Bleomycin (BLM, a family of anti-tumor drugs, was reported to exhibit severe side effects limiting its usage in clinical treatment. Therefore, finding adjuvants that enhance the anti-tumor effect and reduce the detrimental effect of BLM is a prerequisite. Chrysanthemum indicum, an edible flower, possesses abundant bioactivities; the supercritical-carbon dioxide fluid extract from flowers and buds of C. indicum (CISCFE have strong anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, and lung protective effects. However, the role of CISCFE combined with BLM treatment on tumor-bearing mice remains unclear. The present study aimed to investigate the potential synergistic effect and the underlying mechanism of CISCFE combined with BLM in the treatment of hepatoma 22 (H22 tumor-bearing mice. The results suggested that the oral administration of CISCFE combined with BLM could markedly prolong the life span, attenuate the BLM-induced pulmonary fibrosis, suppress the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, activities of myeloperoxidase, and malondiadehyde. Moreover, CISCFE combined with BLM promoted the ascites cell apoptosis, the activities of caspases 3 and 8, and up-regulated the protein expression of p53 and down-regulated the transforming growth factor-β1 by activating the gene expression of miR-29b. Taken together, these results indicated that CISCFE could enhance the anti-cancer activity of BLM and reduce the BLM-induced pulmonary injury in H22 tumor-bearing mice, rendering it as a potential adjuvant drug with chemotherapy after further investigation in the future.

  13. 11个观赏菊花品种灰色关联度分析%Grey Correlation Degree Analysis of 11 Ornamental Chrysanthemum Varieties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢珍红; 蔡承良; 顾强健; 田敏; 莫锡君; 吴学尉; 桂敏

    2014-01-01

    The comprehensive analysis and evaluation on the main characters of 11 ornamental chrysanthemum varieties intro-duced from Holland were carried out , and the equal -weight and weighted correlation degrees between their main characters and ide-al characters were analyzed by using the method of grey correlation degree analysis .The results indicated that the equal -weight cor-relation degrees of various varieties had the following order: romanov>bretagne>ml.yellow>Kastelli>Amadea>Jeanny pink >Rados>Vennice>Bactica>Biarritc>pp.golden .The weighted correlation degrees showed the following sequence:romanov>bret-agne>ml.yellow>Kastelli>Amadea>Jeanny pink >Vennice >Rados>Bactica >Biarritc>pp.golden.Thus, romanov had the best comprehensive performance , followed by bretagne and ml .yellow.These three varieties were suitable to be planted in Kunming district.%采用灰色关联度分析方法,对11个从荷兰引进的观赏菊花品种的主要性状进行了综合分析评价,并对所引进的品种主要性状与理想性状进行等权与加权关联度分析。结果表明:等权关联度大小依次为:romanov >Bretagne >ml. yellow>Kastelli>Amadea>Jeanny pink>Rados>Vennice>Bactica>Biarritc>pp.golden。加权关联度大小依次为:romanov>Bretagne>ml.yellow>Kastelli>Amadea>Jeanny pink>Vennice>Rados>Bactica>Biarritc>pp.golden。即romanov的综合表现最好,其次为Bretagne和ml.yellow,这3个品种适合在昆明地区大力推广种植。

  14. Influencia de diferentes especies de fungo micorrizico arbuscular no desenvolvimento do crisântemo Influence of different species of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on chrysanthemum growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Parada Dias da Silveira

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de verificar o desenvolvimento e florescimento do crisântemo (Dendranthema grandiflora na presença de micorriza arbuscular, foi instalado, em casa de vegetação, um experimento, empregando-se os fungos Gigaspora margarita, Glomus leptotichum, Glomus macrocarpum e Scutellospora heterogama. Utilizou-se terra roxa estruturada, da Série Luiz de Queiroz, esterilizada (por autoclavagem e não esterilizada. No florescimento, colheram-se as plantas e determinaram-se a altura, a matéria seca da parte aérea, a matéria fresca da raiz, o teor de P e K na parte aérea, a colonização micorrízica e o número de esporos do fungo micorrízico. O desenvolvimento e o florescimento foram favorecidos pela inoculação de G. leptotichum e G.macrocarpum, quando as plantas foram cultivadas em solo esterilizado, superando o efeito dos fungos micorrízicos nativos. Entretanto, no solo não esterilizado, a inoculação dessas espécies de fungo não promoveu aumento no desenvolvimento da planta.A greenhouse experiment was conducted to verify the effect of arbuscular mycorrhiza on growth and flowering of chrysanthemum. Rooted plants were inoculated with Gigaspora margarita, Glomus leptotichum, Glomus macrocarpum e Scutellospora heterogama or non-inoculated. Plants were grown in a autoclave sterilized, and non-sterilized soil of the type "Terra Roxa Estruturada". At the flowering stage, plants were harvested and measured for plant height, shoot dry matter, root fresh matter, shoot P and K content, mycorrhizal root colonization and number of mycorrhizal fungi spores. Plants colonized with G.leptotichum and G. macrocarpum presented higher growth and flowering than control plants, in sterilized soil, overcoming the effect of native mycorrhizal fungi. However, there was no effect of introduced mycorrhizal fungi on non-sterilized soil.

  15. Determination of chlorogenic acid in tea(medicine)chrysanthemum samples by HPLC and ultraviolet detector%高效液相色谱紫外检测法测定茶(药)用菊花的绿原酸含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨小秋; 韩磊; 傅厚暾; 蒋细旺

    2013-01-01

    To identify the chlorogenic acid in chrysanthemum sample, a method of high performance liquid chromatography and four wavelengths ultraviolet detector was developed. The chrologenici acid was carried out from chrysanthemum samples with soxhlet extraction, then was separated in HPLC with the mobile phase of methanol-0. lmol/L sodium dihydrogen phosphate buffer, the proportion of the solute is 40:60 and the buffer pH was 2. 7. The signals of chlorogenic acid in the wavelength of 230nm,254nm,275nm,327nm were compared, and the comparison results and the retention time were similar basically, so the chlorogenic acid was identified effectively and the best detect wavelength was chosen. The method was used in the detection of chlorogenic acid of chrysanthemum samples, the detection limit was 0. 085 mg/L and the RSD was lower than 5 %, and the added recovery was satisfactory.%建立了高效液相色谱分离以及四波长紫外检测测定菊花中绿原酸的方法.以甲醇:磷酸二氢钠缓冲溶液(浓度为0.1mol/L)=40∶60(用磷酸调节pH值为2.7)为淋洗液进行分离,对230nm、254nm、275nm、327nm4个波长检测出的绿原酸信号加以比较进行定性定量.用该方法对菊花样品中的绿原酸进行测定,检出限为0.085mg/L,精密度低于5%,结果令人满意.实验证明,该方法准确、可行,可以很好地对菊花中的绿原酸进行定性定量研究.

  16. 杭白菊挥发油口含片中有效成分樟脑、龙脑的含量测定%Determination of Camphor and Borneol in Oral Tablets of Chrysanthemum morifolium Essential Oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈婷; 王建平; 殷红; 王玮; 陶锋

    2012-01-01

    Objective :To establish an GC method for the determination of camphor and borneol in oral tablets of Chrysanthemum morifolium essential oil in p - cyclodextrin inclusion. Methods: The camphor and borneol in inclusion tablets were extracted by refluxed. The contents of two effective components were analyzed by gas chromatography with CBP20 -M25 -025 capillary column. N - octanol was used as internal standard substance for camphor and borneol. Results; A good separation was obtained. The standard curves for camphor and bomeol were linear over the range of 14.00~224.0 μg · mL-1 and 19.69 ~ 315. Oμg · mL-1 Respectively. The average recovery for camphor and borneol was higher than 94.2%. The precisions for them were both less than 0.77%. Conclusion: The method is accurate and sensitive for the determination of camphor and borneol in inclusion tablets of Chrysanthemum morifolium essential oil with good quality controlling of oral tablet product,providing scientific evidence for the development of Chrysanthemum morifolium and reasonable clinical application of essential oil.%目的:建立杭白菊挥发油β-环糊精包合物口含片中樟脑、龙脑的浓度测定的GC方法并测定含量.方法:用加热回流法提取片剂包合物中的有效成分,采用毛细管气相色谱法,以正辛醇为内标,测定其中樟脑与龙脑的含量.结果:该方法樟脑、龙脑分离良好,线性范围分别为14.00~ 224.0μg·mL-1及19.69 ~ 315.0μg·mE-1,加样回收率均高94.2%,精密度RSD小于0.77%.结论:本法能准确、灵敏地同时测定杭白菊挥发油β-环糊精包合物口含片中樟脑、龙脑的含量,可以作为口含片的产品质量控制方法,为杭白菊产品的深度开发与挥发油制剂的质量标准制定提供科学依据.

  17. Effect of mouth gargle with compound goji berry and chrysanthemum soup in patients with oral ulcer%复方杞菊汤漱口治疗化疗所致口腔溃疡的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王春玲; 戴正香; 戴新娟

    2011-01-01

    Objective To observe the effect of mouth gargle with compound goji berry and chrysanthemum soup on chemotherapy-induced oral ulcer in patients with multiple myeloma. Methods Totally, 60 multiple myeloma patients complicated with chemotherapy-induced oral ulcer were randomly divided into an observation group and a control group, with 30 cases in each group. The observation group took compound goji berry and chrysanthemum soup as mouth gargle, while their counterparts in the control group gargled their mouth with cetylpyridinium chloride. The treatment effects of oral ulcers in both groups were compared. Results The severity of pain was significantly lower, and the sizes of the ulcers were significantly smaller in the observation group at different time points than those in the control group; the healing length was significantly shorter and the treatment effect was significantly better in the observation group than those in the control group (P<0.05,P<0.01). Conclusion Compound goji berry and chrysanthemum soup has very significant effect on patients with oral ulcer. It eases the pain, boosts healing of ulcers, shortens healing length, and improves the effect.%目的 探讨复方杞菊汤漱口治疗多发性骨髓瘤患者化疗所致口腔溃疡的效果.方法 将住院化疗并发口腔溃疡的多发性骨髓瘤患者60例,随机分为观察组和对照组各30例.观察组给予复方杞菊汤漱口,对照组给予西吡氯胺漱口,观察两组治疗口腔溃疡疗效.结果 观察组不同时间口腔溃疡疼痛评分、口腔溃疡面积显著低于或小于对照组,愈合时间显著短于对照组,治疗效果显著优于对照组(P<0.05,P<0.01).结论 复方杞菊汤漱口治疗多发性骨髓瘤患者化疗所致口腔溃疡可行且效果显著,能有效减轻患者疼痛,加快创面愈合,缩短口腔溃疡的愈合时间,提高疗效.

  18. 转AtDREB1A基因菊花杂交后代优株水分胁迫耐性分析%Drought Stress Tolerance of the Hybrid Offspring Produced by AtDREB1A Transgenic Chrysanthemum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨英杰; 李春水; 张晓娇; 魏倩; 高俊平; 洪波

    2013-01-01

    过量表达拟南芥(A rab idopsis thaliana)逆境诱导转录因子DREB1A基因(AtDREB1A)能提高菊花的干旱胁迫耐性.以具有干旱胁迫耐性的转AtDREB1A基因菊花(Chrysanthemum morifolium)株系与广泛应用的非转基因菊花品种进行常规杂交获得的后代优株A-121、A-128、A-136为实验材料,进行了RT-PCR检测、水分胁迫下的萎蔫指数和成活率统计以及脯氨酸(Pro)含量和超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)活性测定.结果显示,外源A tDREB1A基因能够在有性繁殖过程中遗传给后代,且在水分胁迫下能在杂交后代植株中表达;与对照相比,水分胁迫条件下,转基因植株杂交后代Pro含量和SOD活性明显升高,且具有较强的水分胁迫耐性.研究结果表明,转基因菊花所携带的A tDREB1A基因可以在常规杂交中稳定遗传并发挥功能,提高了植株对水分胁迫的耐性.本研究为通过基因工程和传统育种结合方式选育具有干旱耐性的菊花新品种提供了技术平台.%Overexpression of the stress-inducible transcription factor gene A tDREB1A in Chrysanthemum conferred strong drought stress tolerance. Taking A-112, A-128 and A-136 as experimental materials, which are the three excellent hybrid offspring plants of the ground cover Chrysanthemum fall color transgenic line 1805 with drought stress tolerance harboring Arabidopsis thaliana dehydration response element-binding protein 1A (AtDREB1A) and the Asia Winter Light with better phenotype, we analyzed the stability and expression of AtDREB1A under water stress condition by RT-PCR, and determined the wilting index, survival rate, proline(Pro) content and superoxide dismutase(SOD) activity under drought stress condition. The results demonstrated that the exogenous gene AtDREB1A A was transferred into the hybrid offspring plants by sexual propagation and it could be expressed in offspring plants under drought condition. Compared with the control plants, the hybrid offspring plants

  19. The Association Analysis of Phenotypic Traits with SRAP Markers in Chrysanthemum%菊花品种表型性状与SRAP分子标记的关联分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李仁伟; 王晨; 戴思兰; 雒新艳; 李宝琴; 朱珺; 卢洁; 刘倩倩

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] In order to provide a genetic basis for studies on complex quantitive traits and for molecular assisted breeding of chrysanthemum, the SRAP markers associated with important chrysanthemum horticulture traits were screened. [Method] The genomic regions with selection sweep were detected through scanning 58 representative chrysanthemum cultivars using 19 SRAP markers. Population structure was firstly analyzed, then association analysis between SRAP markers and 18 important phenotypic traits were performed using TASSEL GLM. [Result] Genetic structure analysis showed that the selected cultivar population was composed of 5 subpopulations, namely flat type subgroup, tube type subgroup, irregular type subgroup, anemone type subgroup and Japanese subgroup. There were 6 SRAP loci associated with 5 quantitative characters (/J<0.01), among which 3 flower traits were associated with 5 loci, while 1 stem and 1 leaf traits were associated with 1 locus, respectively. The rate of explanation on the phenotype of related locus ranged from 0.0738 to 0.4791. [Conclusion] It is feasible to estimate and differentiate chrysanthemum population's structure effectively using SRAP markers, and the markers obtained in this study are promising in molecular assisted breeding.%[目的]寻找与菊花重要园艺性状相关联的分子标记,为菊花复杂数量性状的研究以及分子标记辅助育种奠定遗传学基础.[方法]利用筛选出的19对SRAP引物组合对58个典型大菊品种进行多位点扫描分析.在对供试材料进行群体结构分析的基础上,利用TASSEL软件,对获得的分子标记与这些品种的18个重要表型性状进行关联分析.[结果]群体遗传结构分析将58个大菊品种划分为5个亚群结构:平瓣类、管瓣类、畸瓣类、桂瓣类和日本品种亚群;通过关联分析,发现有6个标记位点与5个性状关联(P< 0.01),其中与花部性状(花梗粗度、花瓣宽度、筒

  20. Espectroscopía NIR como Técnica Exploratoria Rápida para Detección de Amarillamiento Hojas Crisantemo (Dendranthema grandiflora var. Zembla / NIR Spectroscopy as Quick Exploratory Technique for Detection of Chrysanthemum Leaf Yellowing (Dendranthema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Pérez Naranjo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Resumen. El diagnóstico seguro de enfermedades en lasplantas depende de técnicas costosas, que requieren de tiempo y entrenamiento especializado. Esta investigación evaluó el uso de espectroscopia infrarroja cercana NIR (por sus siglas en ingles near-infrared para la detección rápida del “amarillamiento de hojas de crisantemo”, una enfermedad de etiología incierta que genera pérdidas económicas importantes. En este experimento se tomaron espectros infrarrojos en hojas con niveles de amarillamiento diferentes según la clasificación empleada por los agricultores (asintomáticas, síntomas intermedios y hojasdeformadas con síntomas avanzados. Mediante un análisis de componentes principales y con los valores de los espectros de esas muestras, se desarrolló un modelo de clasificación de hojas. Ese modelo aplicado en espectros de hojas tomados al azar separó adecuadamente el grupo de espectros NIR de hojas asintomáticas de un grupo indiferenciado de espectros obtenidos de hojas consíntomas intermedios o avanzados. Los resultados sugieren que para esta enfermedad es posible desarrollar un modelo de detección en muestras problema. Para ello, se requerirá incorporar al modelo un mayor número de muestras en rangos de enfermedad bien definidos. Estos resultados permiten vislumbrar las posibilidades del uso de esta técnica no destructiva, para detección temprana de los síntomas del amarillamiento foliar en crisantemo y como herramienta para el diseño de estrategias oportunas y efectivas demanejo de esta y otras enfermedades en las plantas. / Abstract. The safe diagnostic of plant diseases depends on expensive techniques which require time and specialized training. This study evaluated the use of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIR for the rapid detection of “chrysanthemum leaf yellowing”, a disease of unknown etiology causing important economic losses in Antioquia’s chrysanthemum main producing areas

  1. Historical and Cultural Origin and Textual Research of Chrysanthemum morifolium Cultivated in Macheng%麻城福白菊的历史文化渊源及本草考证

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗光军; 陈科力

    2011-01-01

    麻城市种植的药用菊花(Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat.)品质优良,产量在全国占有较大的份额,并以麻城福白菊(C.morifolium cv.Fubaiju)注册了国家地理标志证明商标,但该品牌还不为国人所熟知.笔者从历史文化渊源和本草考证的角度证实,湖北麻城大别山地区是具有悠久历史的传统菊花产地之一,关于麻城菊花食用和种植历史最明确的记载,可以在麻城县志中追溯到明末清初,而关于麻城菊花采收和食用的文化习俗,甚至可以追溯到更为久远的春秋战国时期.%The Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat. cultivated in Macheng region had excellent quality and contributed to a large proportion of total yield in China. The National Geographic Symbol Certification Mark, name of C. morifolium cv.Fubai-ju, had been registered. However, the C. morifolium cv. Fubaiju brand had not been well known. According to the historical and cultural origin and textual research on Chinese medicine, the presented paper verified that the Dabie Mountain area in Macheng city of Hubei was a traditional production area of C. morifolium with long history. The clear record about C. morifolium cultivated and used as food in Macheng could be traced back to Late Ming Dynasty to Early Qing Dynasty in Macheng local chronicles. And the cultural consuetude about C. morifolium collection and recipe in Macheng could even be traced back to old Spring and Autumn Period.

  2. Observation on therapeutic effect of ultrasonic atomizing inhalation of mother chrysanthemum in treatment of acute pharyngitis and nursing care of it%野菊花超声雾化吸入治疗急性咽炎的疗效观察及护理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高影儿

    2014-01-01

    [目的]观察野菊花针剂雾化吸入治疗急性咽炎的疗效。[方法]将200例病人随机分为治疗组和对照组,每组100例,治疗组使用野菊花针剂雾化吸入,对照组使用庆大霉素+地塞米松雾化吸入,比较两组病人的治疗效果。[结果]治疗组疗效明显优于对照组(P<0.01)。[结论]野菊花针剂雾化吸入对急性咽炎有良好的效果。%Obj ective:To observe the therapeutic effect of ultrasonic atomizing inhalation with mother chrysanthemum inj ection in treating acute pharyngitis. Methods:A total of 200 patients were randomly divided into treatment group and control group,200 cases in each.The patients in treatment group were giv-en ultrasonic atomizing inhalation with mother chrysanthemum inj ection,while the patients in control group were given ultrasonic atomizing inhalation with gentamicin and dexamethasone.Results:The therapeutic effect in treatment group was significantly better than that in control group(P<0.01).Conclu-sion:The therapeutic effect of ultrasonic atomizing inhalation with mother chrysanthemum inj ection for acute plmryngitis is good.

  3. Compounds from fraction with cardiovascular activity of Chrysanthemum indicum%野菊花心血管活性部位化学成分的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙昱; 马晓斌; 刘建勋

    2012-01-01

    In order to investigate the chemical constituents from the fraction with cardiovascular activtiy of Chrysanthemum indicum , the isolation and purification of compounds from this active fraction were performed, and the chemical structures were elucidated by spectral analysis and comparison of the spectral data with those reported in the literature. As a result, twelve compounds were obtained and identified as (2S)-eriodictyol-7-O-β-D-glucuronide (1), (2.S)-eriodictyol-7-O-β-D-glucoside (2), (2S)-hesperetin-7-O-β-D-glucuronide (3), luteolin-7-O-β-D-glucoside (4), luteolin-7-O-β-D-glucuronide (5), diosmetin-7-O-β-D-glucuronide (6), quercetin -7-O-β-D-glucoside (7), (2S)-eriodict-dicaffeoylquinate(8), 3, 5-dicaffeoylquinic acid(9), 3, 5-cis-dieaffeoylquinic acid (10), 1, 5-dioaffeoylquinic acid( 11), and 1, 3-dicaffeoylquinic acid( 12). The above result indicated that flavonoids were the ma-di-caffeoylquinate(8), 3, 5-dicaffeoylquinic acid(9), 3, 5-cis-dieaffeoylquinic acid(10), 1, 5-dicaffeoylquinic acid(11), and 1, 3-di-caffcoylquinic acid (12). The above result indicated that flavonoids were the major components of the active fraction. Compounds 2,3, 7, 8 and 10 were obtained from this genus for the first time, and compounds 5, 6, 9, 11, and 12 were first isolated from C. indicum.%目的:研究菊科植物野菊花心血管活性部位中的主要化学成分.方法:采用多种色谱方法进行分离纯化,通过波谱方法结合文献对照鉴定化合物结构.结果:从野菊花心血管活性部位中分离并鉴定了12个化合物,包括7个黄酮类化合物(1~7),5个苯丙素类化合物(8~12),分别鉴定为(2S)-圣草酚-7-O-β-D-吡喃葡萄糖醛酸苷(1),(2S)-圣草酚-7-O-β-D-吡喃葡萄糖苷(2),(2S)-橙皮素-7-O-β-D-吡喃葡萄糖醛酸苷(3),木犀草素-7-O-β-D-吡喃葡萄糖苷(4),木犀草素-7-O-β-D-吡喃葡萄糖醛酸苷(5),香叶木素-7-O-β-D-吡喃葡萄糖醛酸苷(6),槲皮素-7-O-β-D-呲喃葡萄糖苷(7),3,5-

  4. 发根农杆菌K599对菊花活体转化及其高效再生%Hairy Roots Induced by Agrobacterium rhizogenes K599 in Chrysanthemum in Vivo and Plant Regeneration from Hairy Roots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    向太和; 王琳; 蒋欢; 田璟鸾

    2011-01-01

    The transgenic hairy roots were formed on cut leaves of chrysanthemum plantlet by Agrobacterium rhizogenes K599 with frequencies of 88.0%.The calli were induced from hairy roots and plantlets were regenerated from calli at rates of 75.0% and 63.3% respectively.The transgenic hairy roots and plantlet were confirmed by PCR analysis with primers from K599 Ri plasmid rolC gene.Quantitative RT-PCR(qRT-PCR)analysis showed that rolC gene was normally expressed in the regenerated transgenic plants.Regenerated plants harbored a character of dwarf,more hairy roots and flowering normally.Organism in vivo directly as a receptor for infection by Agrobacterium rhizogenes K599,it overcame the emergence of false-positive transgenic hairy roots.In addition,using the process of hairy roots propagation characteristics of the top growing point region sterile and the interception of adventitious roots near the growing point to the top for subculture,combined with cefotaxime sterilization,it can inhibit and kill the Agrobacterium effectively.In the subsequent callus induction and redifferentiation from hairy roots,it is no antibiotics added to medium for killing Agrobacterium.It genetically enhanced efficiency of plant regeneration.The transgenic hairy roots were induced by Agrobacterium rhizogenes K599 in chrysanthemum in vivo and plant regenerated from hairy roots highly efficiently in the study.It is useful to dwarf breeding and the target gene transformation of chrysanthemum.%发根农杆菌K599侵染菊花无菌苗刻伤的叶片形成转基因不定根,生根频率为88.0%;不定根经过诱导培养形成愈伤组织,并再生完整植株,愈伤组织诱导率和分化率分别为75.0%和63.3%。诱导的不定根和再生植株经过PCR鉴定含有K599 Ri质粒中的rolC基因,qRT-PCR检测显示rolC基因在再生转基因植株中实现了正常表达。再生植株表现出矮缩、多毛状根特征,并能正常开花。建立的利用活体材料

  5. Preparation of A Compound Beverage with Inulin of Jerusalem Artichok, Hawthorn and Chrysanthemum%菊芋菊糖、山楂、菊花复合饮料的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李伟; 朱畅

    2016-01-01

    The hot water was used to extract inulin. Through orthogonal test the optimal conditions of extract in-ulin were:the ratio of sample to water was 1∶25 (g/g),temperature 90℃,time 60 min. Under these conditions, the extract ratio was 79.98 %. Inulin of jerusalem artichoke ,hawthorn and chrysanthemum were used as the main materials,added white granulate sugar,honey and other accessories. A discussion was carried out on the key technologies,through single factor and orthogonal experimental design ,the sensory score was investigated an indicator to determine the optimum formula of the compound beverage. The results showed that the mixing proportion of hawthorn extract and chrysanthemum extract was 2∶3(mL/mL),inulin 2%,white granulate sugar 4%,honey 3%,the best stabilizer was sodium alginate 0.05%and CMC-Na 0.1%. The compound beverage is nutritions and good for health,can be developed with good color, flavor and taste.%采用热水浸提法对菊糖进行提取,通过正交试验确定了提取菊糖的最佳条件为:料水比1∶25(g/g),温度90℃,提取时间60 min,菊糖提取率为79.98%。以菊芋菊糖、山楂、菊花为主要原料,添加白砂糖、蜂蜜等辅料。针对其关键技术进行了探讨,采用单因素和正交试验设计,以产品感官评价为指标,确定菊芋菊糖、山楂、菊花复合饮料的最佳工艺配方。结果表明:山楂和菊花提取液比为2∶3(mL/mL)、菊芋菊糖2%、白砂糖4%、蜂蜜3%、最佳稳定剂为0.05%海藻酸钠和0.1%CMC-Na。该复合饮料具有营养、保健的功能,色泽、香味、口感俱佳。

  6. EVALUACIÓN DE DOS TRATAMIENTOS FOTOPERIÓDICOS EN CRISANTEMO (Dendranthema grandiflorum (Ramat. Kitam., BAJO CONDICIONES DEL INTERTRÓPICO ANDINO ALTO EVALUATION OF TWO PHOTOPERIOD TREATMENTS IN CHRYSANTHEMUM (Dendranthema grandiflorum ((Ramat. Kitam., UNDER CONDITIONS OF HIGH ANDEAN INTERTROPIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fáber de Jesús Chica Toro

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available En la floricultura colombiana, cerca del 14 % de los costos de producción del crisantemo o pompón (Dendranthema grandiflorum (Ramat. Kitam., está representado por la luz complementaria requerida para controlar su floración. Con el fin de encontrar un protocolo que hiciera uso de un menor suministro de luz, en este trabajo se compararon los efectos de dos esquemas de complemento lumínico nocturno sobre algunas características precosecha y poscosecha en dos variedades comerciales tipo spider de crisantemo: Super White y Super Yellow. El esquema testigo de suplemento lumínico nocturno consistió en aportar la adición durante 28 días para la variedad Super Yellow, y 26 para la variedad Super White. La propuesta alternativa de adición lumínica nocturna consistió en interrumpir el estímulo durante una noche completa cada dos días. Tal disminución del estímulo lumínico, en aproximadamente un 30 %, no afectó el crecimiento ni las características poscosecha de las variedades evaluadas.In Colombian floriculture, nearly 14% of the production costs of chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflorum (Ramat. Kitam. consists of the additional lighting required to control its flowering. In order to find a protocol that consumes a lower amount of electricity, this study compared the effects of two supplementary noctural lighting schemes on several preharvest and postharvest characteristics in two commercial varieties of chrysanthemum: Super White and Super Yellow. The control nocturnal lighting scheme consisted of providing the supplemental lighting during 28 days for the Super Yellow variety and during 26 days for the Super White variety. The alternative nocturnal lighting scheme consisted of interrupting the stimulus during one complete night every two days. This approximately 30% reduction in light stimulation did not affect either growth or postharvest characteristics of the varieties evaluated.

  7. Effects of Different Concentrations of Gibberellin on the Flowering of Ground-cover Chrysanthemum 'Zichonglou'%不同浓度赤霉素对地被菊‘紫重楼’开花特性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王媛; 崔雁汇; 孔一昌; 张强; 吕晋慧

    2012-01-01

    The effects of different concentrations of gibberellin on plant height, crown breadth, flowering characteristic (flowering season, flower number, petals number, flower diameter) and the pollen germination viability of ground-cover Chrysanthemum ' Zichonglou' were studied, which could provided substantial base for the hybrid breeding and regulating flower season of ground-cover Chrysanthemum. The results showed that 100-500 mg/L of gibberellin might cause the dewing color season 6-10 days ahead of time, the starting flower season 7-12 days ahead of time, and the abundant flowering season 2-7 days ahead of time. With the increase of gibberellin concentration ranging from 0 to 500 mg/L, internode and plant height were increased, but the flower number, petals number, crown breadth, and flower diameter were inhibited. The longest internode and plant height occurred with 500 mg/L gibberellin treatment. The pollen germination viability were improved by 100-300 mg/L of gibberellin, and impressed by 500 mg/L gibberellin.%笔者探讨不同浓度赤霉素(GA3)对地被菊‘紫重楼’株高、冠幅、开花特性(花期、开花量、花朵重瓣性、花径)和花粉生活力的影响,旨在为地被菊杂交育种、花期调控提供参考依据.试验结果表明,喷施100~500 mg/L GA3后,‘紫重楼’露色期、始花期及盛花期分别提前6~10天、7~12天和2~7天;GA3有利于节间伸长和株高增加,但植株开花量和花瓣重瓣性降低,冠幅、花径减小.其中,500 mg/L GA3处理下的地被菊节间长度与株高显著高于其他水平;100~300 mg/L GA3处理可促进花粉生活力,500 mg/L对花粉生活力有抑制作用.

  8. Characteristics of Seed Germination and Regularities of Growth and Development of Chrysanthemum lavandulifolium in Natural Conditions%甘菊种子萌发特性及自然条件下生长发育规律

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁焱; 付建新; 戴思兰

    2012-01-01

    对甘菊[ Chrysanthemum lavandulifolium(Fisch.ex Trautv.)Makino]种子萌发特性和自然条件下生长发育规律进行了试验观察,发现不同栽培基质及不同储藏时间对甘菊种子萌发率均有影响,在MS培养基上播种甘菊种子萌发率最高,可达90%左右.甘菊种子无休眠现象,采收后立即播种和次年春季播种萌发率均可达90%左右.甘菊种子不耐储藏,储藏至第3年秋季播种,萌发率仅为30%.自然条件下,5月至8月底是甘菊植株的营养生长时期,在此期间,甘菊株高、茎粗、冠幅、叶片数及分枝数一直处于增长状态;9月份当日照长度缩短至13 h时,甘菊开始现蕾,这表明13h光照/11h黑暗可能为甘菊现蕾的临界日长.%An experiment was conducted to study the seed germination characteristics and the regularities of growth and development of Chrysanthemum lavandulifolium (Fisch. ex Trautv. ) Makino in natural conditions. Results indicate that different culture media and different storage times have some effects on the germination rate of C. lavandulifolium. The seeds on the MS medium showed the highest germination rate (about 90% ). The seeds of C. lavandulifolium have no dormancy phenomenon. The germination rate of the seeds sowed immediately after harvest or the next spring could reach almost 90%. The germination rate of the seeds decreased with storage time. The germination rate of the seeds sowed in the fall of the third year was only 30%. May to late August is the period of vegetative growth when the plant height, stem thickness, the number of leaves, crown size and the number of branches of C. lavandulifolium are in a rapid growth stage. The buds start appeared when the duration of day decreased to thirteen hours, which indicates that 13 hours of light and 11 hours of darkness may be the critical period for the buds of C. lavandulifolium, but it still need to be demonstrated by extensive experiments.

  9. The Protective Effects of the Supercritical-Carbon Dioxide Fluid Extract of Chrysanthemum indicum against Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Acute Lung Injury in Mice via Modulating Toll-Like Receptor 4 Signaling Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Li Wu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The supercritical-carbon dioxide fluid extract of Chrysanthemum indicum Linné. (CFE has been demonstrated to be effective in suppressing inflammation. The aim of this study is to investigate the preventive action and underlying mechanisms of CFE on acute lung injury (ALI induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS in mice. ALI was induced by intratracheal instillation of LPS into lung, and dexamethasone was used as a positive control. Results revealed that pretreatment with CFE abated LPS-induced lung histopathologic changes, reduced the wet/dry ratio and proinflammatory cytokines productions (TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6, inhibited inflammatory cells migrations and protein leakages, suppressed the levels of MPO and MDA, and upregulated the abilities of antioxidative enzymes (SOD, CAT, and GPx. Furthermore, the pretreatment with CFE downregulated the activations of NF-κB and the expressions of TLR4/MyD88. These results suggested that CFE exerted potential protective effects against LPS-induced ALI in mice and was a potential therapeutic drug for ALI. Its mechanisms were at least partially associated with the modulations of TLR4 signaling pathways.

  10. Impact of Aqueous Extract from KunLun Snow Chrysanthemum on the Levels of Blood Glucose and Insulin of the Mice with Type Two Diabetes Mellitus%昆仑雪菊水提物对2型糖尿病小鼠血糖及胰岛素水平的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张邦能; 舒畅; 杜玫; 刘晓富; 杨丽霞; 李雪英

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To explore the effects of Kunlun snow chrysanthemum on decreasing blood glucose of type two diabetes mellitus (T2DM) mice. Methods: Fifty T2DM mice were divided into pioglitazone group, positive control group, high, moderate and low doses groups of Kunlun snow chrysanthemum according to random number table, ten mice each group, ten mice in the normal control group were established. Normal control group and positive control group accepted intragastric administration of 0.9% sodium chloride solution by standard of 0.001 mL/kg each day; high, moderate and low doses groups of Kunlun snow chrysanthemum lavaged aqueous solution of Kunlun snow chrysanthemum in the concentrations of 0.4, 0.2 and 0.1 g/kg by standard of 0.01 mL/g; pioglitazone group aqueous solution of pioglitazone by standard of 0.01g/kg, once per day, for 35 consecutive days. General condition, preprandial blood glucose, 2hours postprandial blood glucose, serum insulin and insulin sensitivity index(ISI) were observed. Results: Kunlun snow chrysanthemum could significantly decrease body weight and fasting blood glucose of the mice, and its effects were superior to these of pioglitazone; while equivalent to pioglitazone in decreasing 2hours postprandial blood glucose and improving ISI. Conclusion: Kunlun snow chrysanthemum could decrease blood glucose and the levels of insulin of T2DM mice, and improve insulin resistance of the mice.%目的:探讨昆仑雪菊水提物对2型糖尿病小鼠的降糖作用.方法:将2型糖尿病小鼠50只,按随机数字表法分为吡格列酮组、阳性对照组,昆仑雪菊高、中、低剂量组,每组10只,另设正常对照组10只.正常对照组和阳性对照组每日以0.001 mL/kg灌服0.9%氯化钠溶液;昆仑雪菊高、中、低剂量组每日分别以0.4、0.2、0.1 g/kg浓度按0.01 mL/g体质量灌服昆仑雪菊水溶液;吡格列酮组按每日0.01 g/kg灌服吡格列酮水溶液,1次/d,连续35天.观察小鼠一般情况及餐前、餐后2

  11. Dillapiol: a pyrethrum synergist for control of the Colorado potato beetle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, S Q; Scott, I M; Pelletier, Y; Kramp, K; Durst, T; Sims, S R; Arnason, J T

    2014-04-01

    Dillapiol, the main constituent in dill Anethum sowa Roxb. ex Fleming (Apiaceae) oil and wild pepper, Piper aduncum L. (Piperaceae), is an effective cytochrome P450 inhibitor similar to piperonylbutoxide (PBO). Laboratory and field trials with pyrethrum Chrysanthemum cinerariifolium (Trevir.) vis. extracts combined with dillapiol (1:5 and 1:16 ratio) were effective against both insecticide-susceptible and -resistant Colorado potato beetle Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say). In the laboratory, pyrethrum efficacy was increased 2.2-fold with the SS strain and 9.1-fold with the RS strains by using pyrethrum + dillapiol. Two field trials with the pyrethrum + dillapiol formulation demonstrated efficacy > or = 10 times than that of pyrethrum alone. The residual activity (half-life) of the combination exposed to direct sunlight was 3 h but it increased to 10.7 h by adding 2% of the sunscreen octylmethoxycinnamate.

  12. Technical and economic feasibility of the use of discharge lamps in replacement of filament for induction of photoperiod in chrysanthemum seedlings production; Viabilidade tecnico-economica do uso de lampadas de descarga em substituicao as de filamento para inducao de fotoperiodo na producao de mudas de crisantemos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossi, Luiz A.; David, Eduardo [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (FEAGRI/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Agricola], E-mail: rossi@feagri.unicamp.br; Pagliardi, Odail [Faculdade Municipal Prof. Franco Montoro (FMPFM), Mogi Guacu, SP (Brazil); Sarubbi, Juliana [Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (CESNORS/UFSM), Palmeira das Missoes, RS (Brazil). Centro de Educacao Superior Norte-RS

    2010-07-01

    Due to its physiological characteristics, the seedlings of chrysanthemums require supplemental light to prevent bud formation, that is done at night. This article examines the technical and economic valuation to replace the current technology of artificial lighting used by producers (incandescent bulbs) for the purpose of inducing photoperiod in a protected environment for cutting-discharge lamps, with the goal of reducing the consumption electricity used in the process. The analysis showed that the integrated compact fluorescent yellow lamp 23W is the technically and economically feasible for such replacement. (author)

  13. Characterization of new variety of Chrysanthemum by using ISSR markers Caracterização de novas cultivares de crisântemo com o uso de marcadores ISSR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SK Palai

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Chrysanthemum is the important cut flower after rose among the ornamental plants traded in the global flower market. It is propagated vegetatively and also has a strong sporophytic self-incompatibility system as shown by all members of Asteraceae family. Morphologically, the petal numbers and flower colours present maximum variation when compared to existing varieties. Twenty Inter Simple Sequence Repeat primers were used to detect the new variety of Chrysanthemum developed through spontaneous sporting. The results indicate that the rate of polymorphism showed significant differences as compared to other existing varieties. The average number of amplification products per primer was eight. The size of ISSR amplified fragments varied from 0.25 - 2.4 Kbp. Therefore, ISSR marker is a useful technique for the rapid and easy assessment of genetic variation among the variants. Morphological traits of new variants showed variation as compared to other parents. The 1st flower bud appearance and the height of 1st bud of the variant were less as compared to original mother variety. The new variants can be propagated in large scale commercially through in vitro technique.Entre as plantas ornamentais comercializados no mercado mundial, o crisântemo é a flor de corte de maior importância sendo superado apenas pela rosa. Ele é propagado vegetativamente e também tem um forte sistema de auto-incompatibilidade esporofítica como mostrado por todos os membros da família Asteraceae. Morfologicamente, os números de pétalas e as cores das flores apresentam variação máxima em relação às cultivares existentes. Empregou-se vinte primers ISSR (Inter Simple Sequence Repeat para caracterizar a nova cultivar de crisântemo desenvolvida por mutação expontânea. Os resultados indicam que a taxa de polimorfismo mostrou diferenças significativas em comparação com outras cultivares existentes. Foi de oito o número médio de produtos de amplificação por

  14. HPLC Determination of logganin in Qi Chrysanthemum rehmanrha pill(concentrated pill)%HPLC法测定杞菊地黄丸(浓缩丸)中马钱苷的含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑风敏; 刘会艳

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To estabilish a method for the determination of of loganin in Qi Chrysanthemum rehmanrha pill (concentrated pill) Method:HPLC C18(4.6mm×250mm,5μm) ,column was used with methanol—acetonitrile—phosphate(0.1%)(5:9:86). The flow rate was 1.0mL/min. The detection wave length was 236nm. The column temperature was at 30℃, and the inject volume was 10μL. Results:The calibration curves showed good linearity in the range of 2μg~0.8416μg (loganin)(r=0.9998).The average recoveries were 99.0%,RSD were1.2%(n=6).Conclusion:This Method is simple, accurate, and could be adopted for the quality control of this durg .%目的:建立测定杞菊地黄丸(浓缩丸)中马钱苷的含量测定方法.方法:HPLC法;C18柱(4.6mm×250mm,5μm),流动相为甲醇-乙腈-0.1%磷酸溶液(5:9:86),流速为1.0mL/min;检测波长236nm;柱温30℃;进样量10μL. 结果:马钱苷的线性范围为2μg~0.8416μg,相关系数为0.9998;平均加样回收率为99.0%,RSD为1.2%(n=6). 结论:该法简单,准确度高,重复性好,可用于控制杞菊地黄丸(浓缩丸)的质量.

  15. Solarização do solo para o controle de Pythium e plantas daninhas em cultura de crisântemo Soil solarization for Pithium and weed control in chrysanthemum crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Bettiol

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available A solarização, durante dois meses, de um solo naturalmente infestado com Pythium, promoveu o controle do patógeno, de modo semelhante à aplicação de metalaxyl + mancozeb, na cultura de crisântemo. A incidência média de plantas mortas foi de 2,3% nas parcelas solarizadas; 1,0% no solo solarizado que recebeu metade da dose dos fungicidas; 9,0% com a aplicação da dose completa dos fungicidas (1 g de metalaxyl + 4,8 g de mancozeb/m² e 38,9%, na testemunha não tratada. A solarização também promoveu o controle de plantas daninhas, avaliado através do peso da matéria seca das plantas emergentes aos 21 dias após o transplante das mudas, semelhantemente ao herbicida oxidiazon.Two months solarization of a soil naturally infested with Pythium sp. promoted a level of control similar to what was obtained with the application of methalaxyl + mancozeb for the chrysanthemum crop. The average rate of dead plants was 9.0% with the application of fungicides (1 g of methalaxyl + 4.8 g of mancozeb/ m²; 2.3% in solarized plots; 1.0% in solarized plots which received half the dosages of the fungicides and 38.9% in control plots. Similar control of weeds was obtained in solarized plots and plots treated with the herbicide oxidiazon.

  16. Research for fluidized bed granulation technology of Chrysanthemum and Lotus Plant Beverage Solids%菊花莲子植物固体饮料流化床制粒工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龙敏玲; 汪涛; 陈理; 向飞军

    2013-01-01

    目的 优化一步制粒工艺以制备菊花莲子固体饮料.方法 对方中中药水煎提取、浓缩得到一定密度的流浸膏,以目测流化床中颗粒的流动性为考察指标,通过单因素和正交试验,考察辅料种类、添加量、物料温度、供液转速对制粒工艺的影响.结果 最佳的工艺条件为供液转速5 r/min,物料温度45℃,异麦芽酮糖醇添加量为流浸膏固形物的35%,辅料为麦芽糊精:白砂糖粉(2:1).结论 按优选的处方和工艺制得的固体饮料,含糖量低,流动性较好,工艺稳定.%Objective To optimize the one step granulation preparation method of Chrysanthemum and Lotus Plant Beverage Solids.Methods The liquidity was used as indexes, the type and dosage of excipient, material temperature, liquid velocity were investigated by the single factor and orthogonal experiment of a certain density of liquid extract.Results The optimal process conditions: liquid velocity was 5 r/min, temperature was 45℃, the dosage of isomalt was 35% of dry solids, excipient was malt dextrin-white sugar powder (2:1).Conclusion This technique is reasonable and feasible.The product has low sugar content, good fluidity and process stability.

  17. Produtividade de crisântemo em função de níveis de irrigação Chrysanthemum yield as affected by various irrigation depths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana de L Rego

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available O crisântemo (Dendranthema grandiflora, Tzevelev. é uma das principais flores comercializadas no Brasil e no mundo. Apesar de sua importância, no Brasil o manejo da irrigação em crisântemo é caracterizado pelo empirismo, necessitando-se de maiores estudos quanto ao uso de água pela cultura. Este trabalho teve como objetivo estudar os efeitos de níveis de irrigação sobre o crisântemo cultivado em ambiente protegido. O experimento foi conduzido, de 06/08-27/10/03, na Fazenda Venezuela, no município de Guaramiranga-CE, em ambiente protegido de 9 x 30 m. O delineamento experimental foi blocos ao acaso, com quatro tratamentos (níveis de irrigação correspondentes a 50; 75; 100 e 125% da evaporação no tanque classe "A", ECA, e quatro repetições, totalizando dezesseis parcelas. O ciclo da cultura foi de 82 dias e as lâminas totais aplicadas foram: 192,2; 246,4; 300,9 e 355,4 mm para os tratamentos 50, 75, 100 e 125% da ECA, respectivamente. Não houve diferença significativa para número de hastes por pacote e de pacotes por m² e, tampouco, para produtividade (Tabela 1. Entre tratamentos, o número de hastes por pacote variou de 21 (75, 100 e 125% ECA a 22 (50% ECA, o número de pacotes por m², entre 3,63 (100% ECA e 4,28 (75% ECA e, a produtividade, entre 3,94 (125% ECA e 4,36 kg m-2 (75% ECA. À medida que se aumentou a lâmina d'água, diminuiu-se linearmente a eficiência do uso da água. A irrigação utilizando-se lâmina de água correspondente a 125% da ECA apresentou significativamente a menor eficiência no uso da água (0,0107 pacotes m-2 mm-1, enquanto os tratamentos em que a irrigação correspondeu a 50 e 75% da ECA foram os mais eficientes (0,0210 e 0,0174 pacotes m-2 mm-1, respectivamente.Chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflora, Tzevelev. is one of the most important flowers traded both in Brazil and in the world. In spite of that, chrysanthemum irrigation management in Brazil is characterized by empiricism

  18. Study on the Technology of Preparing Microcapsules for Volatile Oil in Chrysanthemum by Complex Coacervation%复凝聚法制备滁菊挥发油微囊的工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王盈盈; 时维静; 孙洁; 李响; 刘峰; 王茜

    2015-01-01

    探索滁菊挥发油微囊的最佳制备工艺。采用复凝聚法制备滁菊挥发油微囊,以外观形态、粒径、包封率、载药量为指标,正交设计优选工艺条件。滁菊挥发油微囊的最佳制备工艺条件为:复合胶与挥发油的比例为1:1,温度为55℃,pH为4.0,固化剂量为1.5mL。制得的滁菊挥发油微囊形态呈圆形、光滑,粒径分布在80~120μm,平均包封率为(48.89±5.93)%,平均载药量为(13.11±2.30)%,TLC 法显示供试品溶液与对照品溶液在相同的位置出现相同斑点。该制备方法操作简单易行,处方合理,制得微囊外观圆整,载药量和包封率较高。%This paper is to study the preparation microcapsules of volatile oil from Chrysanthemum morifolium Ra-mat. The microcapsules were prepared by complex coacervation with formulation,diameter,amount of the drug and encapsulation efficiency as evaluation index and the preparation was optimized by orthogonal experimental design. The best technology is that compound plastic and the volatile oil of the ratio is 1:1,the temperature is 55℃,pH 4. 0 and formaldehyde in an amount of 1. 5 mL. the prepared microcapsules spherical with smooth surface,and the proportion with a diameter of 80-120μm,encapsulation efficiency was(48. 89 ± 5. 93)%,and the average drug loadings were(13. 11 ± 2. 30)%,TLC indication that the test solution and reference solution appeared at the same spot in the same location. The preparation process is simple and feasible,and the methods of evaluation are reliable. The microcapsules’appearance is round and normal. The drug loading and the encap-sulation efficiency are higher.

  19. Clinical effect of wild chrysanthemum,radix, sculellaria barbata ultrasonic atomizing for the treatment of chronic pharyngitis%应用野菊花、板蓝根、半枝莲超声雾化治疗慢性咽炎的用药效果探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石家贵

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨野菊花、板蓝根以及半枝莲超声雾化吸入治疗慢性咽炎的临床疗效。方法收集2012年1月~2014年1月收治的慢性咽炎患者120例,随机分为观察组与对照组,各60例。对照组予以庆大霉素和地塞米松超声雾化吸入,观察组予以野菊花、板蓝根以及半枝莲超声雾化吸入,比较两组的临床疗效。结果观察组的治疗总有效率为93.3%,显著高于对照组的81.7%(P<0.05);两组均未见明显不良反应。结论野菊花、板蓝根以及半枝莲超声雾化吸入治疗慢性咽炎疗效显著,无明显不良反应,是一种安全有效的用药方案,值得推广应用。%Objective To investigate the clinical efficacy of wild chrysanthemum,radix, sculellaria barbata ultrasonic atomizing for the treatment of chronic pharyngitis.Methods 120 patients with chronic pharyngitis in our hospital between January 2012 and January 2014 were collected and randomly divided into observation group and control group, 60 cases in each group. The control group received gentamicin and dexamethasone ultrasonic atomizing inhalation, the observation group received chrysanthemum,radix, sculellaria barbata ultrasonic atomizing inhalation, the clinical efficacy of the two groups were compared.Results The total effective rate of observation group was 93.3%, significantly higher than 81.7% in the control group(P<0.05); both groups showed no significant adverse reactions.Conclusion Wild chrysanthemum,radix, sculellaria barbata ultrasonic atomizing for the treatment of chronic pharyngitis has a significant effect, and has no significant adverse reactions, it is a safe and effective drug regimens, should be widely applied.

  20. 香菊胶囊配合中药超声雾化治疗变应性鼻炎疗效观察%Clinical Analysis of Treatment of Allergic Rhinitis by Traditional Chinese Medicine Ultrasonic Atomization Combined with Sweet Chrysanthemum Capsule

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓梅

    2015-01-01

    Objective To observe the sweet chrysanthemum with Chinese medicine capsule ultrasonic atomization ef ect for the treatment of al ergic rhinitis.Methods 240 cases of al ergic rhinitis were randomly divided into treatment group and control group,control group given conventional treatment,treatment group given sweet chrysanthemum with Chinese medicine capsule ultrasonic atomizer.Two weeks for a period of treatment,for three consecutive period of treatment,fol owed up for half a year,observe two groups of curative ef ect.Results Two groups of patients after treatment of sneezing,flow cleaning stuf ,stuf y nose,nasal itching integral and IgE decreased,IL-12 and TNF-gamma are increased,the treatment group was bet er than control group ( <0.05),the treatment group compared with control group the dif erence was statistical y significant.Conclusion Sweet chrysanthemum with Chinese medicine capsule ultrasonic atomization treatment al ergic rhinitis curative ef ect is clear, suitable for clinical promotion.%目的观察香菊胶囊配合中药超声雾化治疗变应性鼻炎的效果。方法变应性鼻炎240例,随机分为治疗组和对照组,对照组给予常规治疗,治疗组给予香菊胶囊配合中药超声雾化。2w为一个疗程,连续3个疗程,随访6个月,观察两组疗效。结果两组患者经治疗后喷嚏、流清涕、鼻塞、鼻痒积分和IgE均下降,IL-12和TNF-γ均增加,治疗组明显优于对照组(<0.05),治疗组与对照组比较差异有统计学意义。结论香菊胶囊配合中药超声雾化治疗变应性鼻炎疗效明确,适合临床推广。

  1. Study on the Pollen Viability and Stigma Receptivity of Chrysanthemum morifolium ‘Fubaiju’%福白菊花粉活力和柱头可授性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐雷; 刘常丽; 王慧弟; 陈科力

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To study the blooming habits,pollen viability and stigma receptivity of Chrysanthemum morifolium and provide theoretical basis for its breeding.Methods:Explored the blooming habits by dynamic observation on the process of blossom,evaluated the pollen viability by germination in vitro culture method and estimated stigma receptivity by benzidine-hydrogen peroxide method.Results: About the pollen viability,there were no significant differences between the flowers which in the same round of the capitulum; Tubular flowers in the center of a capitulum were significantly higher than that on the edge; In the morning pollen vitality gradually raised,during 11:00 ~ 14:00 maintained the highest,and then gradually decreased; Tubular flower began to loose powder on the third day,during 4th ~6th day the pollen viability was highest,respectively was 35.12% ,39.89% ,38.12% ,then gradually decreased,on the 15th day was only 7.41 % ,finally turned into wither.Regard to the stigma receptivity,the center of a capitulum were significantly higher than that on the edge,outer edge ligulate flower had no receptivity; Revealed the strongest during 13:00 ~ 14:00 in one day; During the 5th ~7th day was the strongest after flowering.The regulation of the stigma secreted mucus existed great consistency with the stigma receptivity,namely the stigma receptivity usually was strong when it secreted large number mucus.Conclusion:Understand the blossom habits of Chrysanthemun morifolium,as well as the dynamic changes regulation of pollen viability and stigma receptivity during its blossom,which could be used to select the flowers in a capitulum which are on the more suitable period and position for artificial pollination and hybridization breeding research.%目的:明确福白菊(Chrysanthemum morifolium‘ Fubaiju’)开花习性、花粉活力以及柱头可授性,以期为药用菊花良种选育提供理论依据.方法:对开花过程进行动态观察了解开花习性,采用

  2. 野菊花水提液对豚鼠离体回肠收缩的影响及抑菌作用观察%Effects of Flos chrysanthemum indicum on the bacterial pathogens and the muscular tension of the isolated ileum of guinea pigs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白银亮; 田新慧; 毕跃峰; 王盼; 张旗

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the antibacterial effects of water extract of Flos chrysanthemum indicum and its effects on muscular tension of the isolated ileum of guinea pigs. Methods: The isolated guinea pig ileum in the organ-bath was used to measure the contractive tension of smooth muscle before and after administration of drug. Double dilution method was used to observe the antibacterial effect of water extract of Flos chrysanthemum indicum. Results: Water extract of Flos chrysanthemum indicum inhibited dose-dependently the contraction of normal guinea pig ileum( F = 11. 088, P <0. 001 ) and that induced by acetyl choline and diphenhydramine( F = 13. 881 and 19. 305 ,P < 0. 001 ). It also had antibacterial effects on Escherichia coli ,Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus subtilis, and especially on Staphylococcus aureus with a lowest antibacterial dosage of 125 g/L. Conclusion: Water extract of Flos chrysanthemum indicum relaxes the smooth muscle of ileum of guinea pigs, and can effectively inhibit the growth of bacteria in vitro.%目的:观察野菊花水提液对豚鼠离体回肠收缩的影响及其抑菌作用.方法:将豚鼠离体回肠标本悬吊于麦氏浴槽中,测量并记录给药前后离体回肠张力,计算张力变化百分率.采用二倍体积连续稀释法考察野菊花水提液的抗菌效果.结果:野菊花水提液对豚鼠离体回肠收缩有明显的抑制作用(F=11.088,P<0.001),并剂量依赖性地抑制乙酰胆碱及组胺引起的豚鼠回肠收缩(F=13.881、19.305,P均<0.001).野菊花水提液对金黄色葡萄球菌、大肠杆菌、绿脓假单胞菌和枯草芽孢菌均具有相对较好的抑菌效果,其中对金黄色葡萄球菌的抑菌效果最好,最小抑菌质量浓度为125 g/L.结论:野菊花水提液对豚鼠离体回肠具有直接的舒张作用,能够拮抗乙酰胆碱及组胺引起的豚鼠回肠收缩,同时具有体外抑菌作用.

  3. Qualidade de crisântemo (Dendranthema grandiflora Tzevelev. cv. Snowdon em diferentes populações e épocas de plantio Quality of chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflora Tzevelev. cv. Snowdon affected by plant density and plant date

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Nardi

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Para avaliar a qualidade das hastes florais, a cultivar de crisântemo Snowdon foi conduzida em estufa plástica em oito populações de plantas e duas épocas de plantio. O experimento bifatorial (2 x 8, com parcela subdividida, foi conduzido na Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (Santa Maria, RS e teve época como parcela principal, sendo a primeira época outono/inverno no período de 05/03/98 à 29/06/98 e a segunda época inverno/primavera no período de 22/07/98 à 11/11/98 e as populações de 40, 48, 56, 64, 72, 80, 88 e 104pl/m², na subparcela para as duas épocas de plantio. As plantas foram conduzidas em haste unifloral. Determinaram-se a altura da planta, o diâmetro da inflorescência e da haste e a massa da matéria fresca. Para obtenção de maiores rendimentos de hastes de classe A (comprimento da haste > ou = 90 cm, diâmetro da inflorescência > ou = 13,5cm, diâmetro da haste > ou = 0,73cm e massa da matéria fresca > ou = 113g a população indicada está entre 40 e 56plantas/m². Não há diferenças de rendimento qualitativo de classe A entre as épocas de plantio. Para obtenção de maiores rendimentos qualitativos, as populações de plantas não devem ser superiores a 72 plantas/m².To evaluate the quality of the flowers of chrysanthemums, were cultivated the cv. Snowdon in greenhouse in eight plant densities and two planting dates. The experimental design was factorial, (2 planting dates x 8 plants densities. The two planting dates were: 05 March 1998 (Fall/Winter growing season and 22 July 1998 (Winter/Spring growing season. Plant densities were: 48, 56, 64, 72, 80, 88 and 104plants/m². Plant height, diameter of the flower and stem, fresh weight were determinated. For obtaining of larger revenues of class stems A, the suitable plant density is between 40 and 56plants/m². There are not differences of qualitative revenue of class A (stem lenght > or = 90cm, flower diameter > or = 13,5cm, stem diameter > or = 0,73cm

  4. Desenvolvimento de plantas de crisântemo cultivadas em vaso em resposta a níveis de condutividade elétrica Development of chrysanthemum plants cultivated in flower pot in response to electrical conductivity levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poliana R. D' Almeida Mota

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Na floricultura, a competição por mercados é intensa e o diferencial de produtividade consiste no manejo nutricional adequado, por promover grande impacto sobre a qualidade, a produtividade e a longevidade das inflorescências e da planta. O presente trabalho teve o objetivo de avaliar os efeitos de níveis de condutividade elétrica (CE no desenvolvimento de plantas de crisântemo (Dendranthema grandiflora Tzvelev. em vaso sob cultivo protegido. O experimento foi conduzido no município de Paranapanema - SP. Usou-se o delineamento experimental de blocos casualizados com quatro repetições e parcelas divididas. As parcelas foram constituídas pelas épocas de amostragem, e as subparcelas, pelos diferentes níveis de CE, determinados na solução aplicada via água de irrigação: 1,42; 1,65; 1,89; 2,13 e 2,36 dS m-1 (fase vegetativa; 1,71; 1,97; 2,28; 2,57 e 2,85 dS m-1 (fase de botão. Determinaram-se, semanalmente, a altura da planta e o diâmetro do buquê, e a cada 14 dias, a área foliar e a fitomassa seca da parte aérea da planta. O tratamento, correspondente à aplicação de solução com CE de 2,13 dS m-1 na fase vegetativa e 2,57 dS m-1 na fase de botão, proporcionou melhor aspecto visual das plantas, além de apresentar maior valor de fitomassa seca da parte aérea, maior área foliar e melhores formação e coloração.In floriculture market, the competition is intense and the productivity differential consists in an appropriated nutritional management which provides a large impact in quality, productivity and longevity of the flowers and plants. This present work aimed to evaluate the effects of electrical conductivity (EC levels in chrysanthemum plant (Dendranthema grandiflora Tzvelev. development. These plants were planted in pots and cultivated in a greenhouse. The experiment was carried out in Paranapanema city, São Paulo State. The experimental design was made in randomized blocks with four repetitions and split plots

  5. Storage of white chrysanthemum under room conditions using preservative solutions / Armazenamento de crisântemos brancos sob condição ambiente utilizando soluções conservantes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvanda de Melo Silva

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of preservative solutions on the maintenance of postharvest quality of white type chysanthemum flowers (Dendrathema grandiflora T.. Flowers were kept at room temperature (24 ± 2°C and 85 ± 2 % UR, under the following treatments: distilled water (control; sodium hypochloride solutions (80ppm and 800 ppm; sucrose solutions (10% and 15 % and hidroxyquinoline solutions (0.04% and 0.08 %. Flowers were stored under these treatments during 18 days, being the solutions changed each 4 days. The following evaluations were done: longevity (scores from 0 to 4, flower appearance (scores from 1 to 9. Sodium hipochloride solutions at 80ppm and 800 ppm reduced white chrysanthemum longevity as compared to control. The utilization the hidroxyquinoline solutions at 0.04% and 0.08 % had no effects on flower longevity or quality maintenance. The preservative solution utilizing 10 % of sucrose kept the postharvest quality during 17 days, providing flowers with lower percentage of dark spots, and lower index of petals and leaves damage.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de soluções conservantes na manutenção da qualidade pós-colheita de flores de crisântemo (Dendranthema grandiflora T. do tipo branco, variedade Calábria. As flores foram mantidas à temperatura ambiente, de 24 ± 2ºC e 85 ± 2% UR, nos seguintes tratamentos: água destilada (controle, solução de hipoclorito de sódio (80ppm e 800ppm, solução de sacarose (10% e 15% e solução de hidroxiquinolina (0.04% e 0.08%. As flores permaneceram dezoito dias no ambiente de armazenamento, sendo as soluções substituídas a cada quatro dias. Foram realizadas as seguintes avaliações: longevidade (notas de 0-4, aparência (notas de 1-9. As soluções de hipoclorito de sódio a 80ppm e 800ppm reduziram a longevidade de crisântemos brancos, comparadas ao controle. A utilização de soluções de hidroxiquinolina a 0.04% e 0.08% n

  6. 2株内生真菌对菊花抗旱特性的影响%Effect of PEG stress on plantlets of Chrysanthemum morifolium induced by endophytic Botrytis sp.(C1)and Chaetomium globosum(C4)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋文玲; 刘晓珍; 蔡信之; 孙迪; 戴传超

    2011-01-01

    The effect of the endophytic fungi Botrytis sp. ( C1 ) or Chaetomium globosum (C4) on the drought resistance of Chrysanthemum morifolium was studied. Ch. morifolium plantlets were inoculated with C1, C4 and cultured in the pots for 60 days, then the plantlets were stressed by 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40% PEG6000 respectively in order to simulate different drought conditions. Biomass, the activities of SOD, POD, PAL, the contents of MDA and soluble protein of each group were determined. The results showed that endophytic fungi groups grew better than the control ( without inoculation endophytic fungi). With the increasing of the concentration of PEG6000, the biomass of Ch. morifolium of each groups decreased, while the biomass of fungi groups was significantly higher than that of control, moreover C4 group higher than C1 group. With the concentration of PEG increasing, the content of MDA of each group increased too, while POD activity and soluble protein content of all treatments increased at first and then decreased. SOD activity and PAL activity of the control were increased with the increase of PEG concentration, but SOD activity of the two ftmgi groups were stable. After been stressed by different concentrations of PEG, MDA content of two fungi groups were always lower than the control, while SOD activity, POD activity, PAL activity and soluble protein content were higher. In conclusion, endophytic fungi can increase the drought resistance of Ch. morifolium.%目的:以PEG6000模拟干旱条件,研究接种内生真菌(葡萄孢属C1菌Botrytis sp.、球毛壳菌G4菌Chaetomium globosum对药用菊花Ch.morifolium抗旱性的影响.方法:分别用0%,10%,20%,30%,40%PEG6000胁迫菊花组培苗4 d,测定各处理组菊花生物量,叶片超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)、过氧化物酶(POD)、苯丙氨酸解氨酶(PAL)活性及叶片丙二醛(MDA)、可溶性蛋白含量.结果:模拟干旱胁迫后,接种内生真菌的菊花长势好于对照(未接菌),PEG6000

  7. 内生真菌对菊花幼苗干旱胁迫生理的影响%Effects of Two Kinds of Endophytic Fungi Infection on Water Stress of Seedlings of Chrysanthemum morifolium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓珍; 宋文玲; 张凯; 叶宇成; 戴传超

    2011-01-01

    The water stress was simulated to study the effect of the endophytic fungi Botrytis sp.(C1) or Chaetomium globosum (C4) on Chrysanthemum morifolium in the adverse circumstance.C.morifolium plantlets which were inoculated with C 1, C4 and cultured 60 days in the pots were stressed by 30% PEG6000 solution.SOD activity, POD activity, PAL activity, root activity, MDA content and soluble protein content were determined at 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15 days after treatments, and the biomass of C.morifolium were also determined at 15 days after treatment.The results showed that the biomass of C 1, C4 group and the control reached 4.1, 4.4 and 3.3 g respectively, and all treatments got significant deviation (P < 0.05 ).With PEG treatment, the root activity and PAL activity of the control were more sensitive at the first period of PEG stress, while fungi treatment groups were stabled, and stress reactions were delayed by fungi treatment.MDA content of the two fungi treatments reached the peak values with PEG stress for 3 days, while the control continues increased and got the peak at 6 days with PEG treatment.When at the later period of the stress, root activity, PAL activity, and MDA content of all treatments had no significant deviation.POD activity and soluble protein content of all treatments were increased firstly and decreased then, but all treatments had no siginificant deviation.Endophytic fungi can increase the drought resistance of C.morifolium in a short period of water stress.%比较了内生葡萄孢菌(C1)和球毛壳菌(C4)菌株诱导下的菊花苗和对照菊花苗,经30%PEG6000胁迫不同天数后,叶片超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)、过氧化物酶(POD)、苯丙氨酸解氨酶(PAL)活性,叶片丙二醛(MDA)、可溶性蛋白含量,根系活力,以及胁迫15 d后菊花的总生物量.结果表明:PEG胁迫15 d后,Cl、C4处理和对照的生物量分别为4.1、4.4和3.3 g,差异达到显著水平.对照根系活力、PAL活性在胁迫前期迅速变化,接

  8. Effect of two kinds of endophytic fungi on salt resistance of Chrysanthemum morifolium%两株内生真菌对菊花抗盐特性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓珍; 宋文玲; 蔡信之; 戴传超

    2011-01-01

    目的 用NaCl模拟盐胁迫,研究接种内生真菌对菊花抗盐特性的影响.方法 采用盆栽试验,以与内生真菌葡萄孢(C1菌株)、球毛壳菌(C4菌株)共生培养的菊花为材料,研究不同浓度盐胁迫对不同处理组菊花生理指标的影响.结果 各处理组菊花根叶的含水量随着盐分胁迫的加重而降低,接菌处理组的根叶含水量减失程度比对照组小.各处理组SOD酶活力、可溶性蛋白量均随NaCl浓度提高而增加,20 g/L NaCl时均达到最大值,接菌处理组SOD酶活力、可溶性蛋白量高于对照组,C4组高于C1组.POD酶活力均先升高后降低,15 g/LNaCl时各处理组POD酶活力达到最大值,C4、C1组POD酶活力分别比对照组高25.50%、1.35%.15 g/L NaCl处理时,C4组PAL活力约是对照组的7倍.结论 内生真菌增加了菊花的抗盐能力,C4组效果好于C1组.%Objective The NaCl stress conditions were simulated to study the effect of the endophytic fungi C1, C4 on antisalty characteristic of Chrysanthemum morifolium in the adverse circumstance.Methods Endophytic Botrytis sp.(C1) and Chaetomium globosum (C4) were inoculated to the C.morifolium plantlets which were planted in the pots in order to research the effects of salt stress on physiological indicators of C.morifolium.Results With the increase of NsCl concentration, the water content of root and leaf decreased in every group.The loss of root and leaf's water in fungi-treated group was smaller than that in the control group.SOD activities in every group increased with the increase of NaCl concentration, and achieved the peak value at 20 g/L NaCl.The SOD activity in fungi-treated group was higher than that in the control group.Soluble protein of fungi-treated group was higher than that in the control group, and C4 group surpassed C 1 group.POD activity increased firstly and then decreased, and compared to the control group, the POD activities in C4 and C1 groups increased by 25.50% and 1.35

  9. 菊花黄绿叶突变体的光合与类囊体膜光谱%Characteristics of Photosynthesis and Spectra Properties of Thylakoid Membranes in the Yellow-Green Leaf Mutant of Chrysanthemum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常青山; 张利霞; 陈煜; 陈素梅; 刘兆磊; 房伟民; 陈发棣

    2013-01-01

    In order to study photosynthetic mechanism of the yellow-green leaf mutant- 'Jinglingguozi ' of chrysanthemum, the characteristics of photosynthesis and the spectra properties of thylakoid membrane in the green and yellow leaf tissue of the mutant were studied. We measured the photosynthesis, stomatal characteristics, room temperature absorption spectra, chlorophyll emission fluorescence spectra of thylakoid membrane. The results that compared to the green leaf tissue of the mutant, the yellow leaf tissue had lower net photosynthetic rate ( Pn ) , light saturation point (LSP) , dark respiration rate (Rd) , apparent quantum yield (AQY) , but higher light compensation point (LCP). The yellow leaf tissue had lower stomata limit value ( Ls ) , but higher non-stomata limit value. There was no significant difference in the characteristics of stomatal microstructure between the green leaf and yellow leaf tissue. The absorption spectra and fluorescence spectra significantly decreased in the yellow leaf tissue. The yellow leaf tissue had significantly lower capacity of the capture and excitation of light energy and lower the photosynthetic capacity than the green leaf tissue did, which was caused by non-stomata factors, such as a decrease of the function of thylakoid membrane.%以菊花‘金陵国紫’黄绿叶突变体为试验材料,研究该突变体黄绿叶的绿叶与黄叶组织光合与类囊体膜光谱特性.对突变体黄绿叶中绿叶与黄叶组织的光合速率、光响应曲线、气孔特征与类囊体膜光谱特性进行测定与分析.结果表明:与绿叶组织相比,突变体黄叶组织的净光合速率、光饱和点、暗呼吸速率、表观量子效率均显著低于绿叶组织,而光补偿点则显著高于绿叶组织;黄叶组织的气孔限制值低于绿叶组织,非气孔限制值则显著高于绿叶组织,而黄叶与绿叶组织的气孔特征并无显著性差异.突变体黄叶组织类囊体膜叶绿素捕光能力与受激

  10. Agrobacterium-mediated gene transfer to Chrysanthemum.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wordragen, van M.F.

    1991-01-01

    Genetic manipulation of plants is a technique that enables us to add to the plant genome, in a precise and well controlled manner, one or a few new genes, coding for desirable traits. In contrast to this, the conventional method for the introduction of new properties in plants, by cross breeding, is

  11. Temperature integration and DIF in cut chrysanthemum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korner, O.; Challa, H.

    2003-01-01

    To reduce energy consumption in greenhouses, temperature integration can be used. However, the temperature integration principle considers only average temperatures and does not comply with the DIF concept (difference between mean day temperature and mean night temperature). With DIF, stem elongatio

  12. Toxicity and Control Efficacy of Spirotetramat Mixed with Thiamethoxam on Bemisia tabaci and its Security to Ornamental Chrysanthemum Cultivar%螺虫乙酯与噻虫嗪混配对菊花烟粉虱的毒力、防效及安全性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹华娇

    2015-01-01

    The synergistic toxicity of spirotetramat mixed with thiamethoxam to Bemisia tabaci were measured by insecticide‐impregnated filter method ,and the results showed that the co‐toxicity coefficient (CTC) ranged from 122.97 to 167.43 ,showing the synergistic effect .Based on the result above ,40% mixtures of spirotetramat and thiamethoxam SC were made , and its toxicity and control efficacy on B . tabaci and its safety to ornamental chrysanthemum cultivars were studied .The results showed when the active ingredient was 90 g a .i . ·hm-2 ,which was the recommended dose ,double dose 180 g a .i . ·hm -2 ,and quadruple dose 360 g a .i . ·hm-2 ,respectively . The mixtures of spirotetramat and thiamethoxam had no significant impact on the growth of three ornamental chrysanthemum cultivars ,Calendula of f icinalis and Callistephus chinensis and Tagetes erecta .So the compound was safe to ornamental chrysanthemum cultivars . After spraying , the control effects of 40% mixtures of spirotetramat and thiamethoxam SC with under 60 -90 g a .i . ·hm -2 treatment could reach 75.60% -90.67% , which was higher than that of mixtures of 22.4% spirotetramate SC and 25% thiamethoxam WG treatments . Therefore the mixtures were proved to have available and persistent control effect against Bemisia tabaci .%采用滤纸药膜法测定了螺虫乙酯与噻虫嗪混配对菊花烟粉虱的联合毒力,测定共毒系数CTC为122.97~167.43,表现增效作用。据此确定最佳配比,配制成增效混剂40%SC,并研究了其对菊花烟粉虱的毒力和防效及其对观赏菊花安全性,结果表明在推荐有效成分剂量90ga.i.·hm-2、二倍量180ga.i.·hm-2及四倍量360ga.i.·hm-2下对金盏菊、翠菊、万寿菊等3种观赏菊花植株生长无明显异常影响,具有较好的安全性;田间药效良好,其用量60~90ga.i.·hm-2的效果达75.60%~90.67%,优于22.4%螺虫乙酯SC和25%噻虫嗪WG。该增效

  13. Effect of Inhaled Wild Chrysanthemum Injection by an Ultrasonic Atomizer in the Assisted Treatment of Bronchial Pneumonia in Children%超声雾化吸入野菊花注射液佐治婴幼儿支气管肺炎疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶滨

    2013-01-01

    目的:探讨超声雾化吸入野菊花注射液佐治婴幼儿支气管肺炎的临床疗效.方法:将137例婴幼儿支气管肺炎患儿随机分为治疗组69例和对照组68例,两组均给予常规综合治疗,治疗组在常规综合治疗基础上超声雾化吸入野菊花注射液,对照组在常规综合治疗基础上超声雾化吸入灭菌蒸馏水.治疗过程中观察患儿发热、咳嗽、喘息、气促及肺部干湿哆音消失情况,治疗前及治疗后第3天监测血常规和CRP水平.结果:治疗组患儿发热、咳嗽、喘息及肺部体征消失时间均早于对照组(P<0.05),平均住院时间少于对照组[(13.7±3.7)dvs(16.2±4.5)d,P<0.05],白细胞计数及CRP水平均较治疗前降低(P<0.05),且均低于对照组(P<0.05),总有效率高于对照组(89.9%vs 67.6%,P<0.05).结论:超声雾化吸入野菊花注射液佐治婴幼儿支气管肺炎具有明显疗效.%Objective:To explore the assisted treatment effect of inhaled wild chrysanthemum injection by an ultrasonic atomizer for children with bronchial pneumonia.Methods:A total of 137 infants with bronchial pneumonia were randomly divided into a treatment group (n =69) and a control group (n =68).Based on conventional treatment,all infants inhaled an ultrasonic nebulization as an adjuvant therapy,wild chrysanthemum injection for the treatment group and sterile distilled water for the control group.During the course of treatment,children's body temperature,cough,wheezing,shortness of breath and lung wet and dry tales were monitored.Simultaneously,blood analysis and serum CRP level were monitored before and after the third day of treatment.Results:The time to defervesce,the disappearing time of coughing,wheezing,and pulmonary signs and average hospitalization time in the treatment group were significantly shorter than those in the control group (13.7±3.7) d vs (16.2±4.5) (P<0.05).After treatment,the white blood cell count and CRP level of children in the

  14. CHITOSAN AND BENZOTHIAZOLE COMPOUND AGENTS PROMOTE BROWN SPOT DISEASE-RESISTANCE AND MASS GROWTH OF CUT Chrysanthemum morifolium 'Jinba'%壳聚糖与苯并噻唑复配剂对切花菊‘神马’生长与抗病性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李江文; 李俊香; 曾海鹏; 马男; 赵梁军

    2012-01-01

    以切花菊‘神马’为材料,喷施不同复配比例的诱抗剂(壳聚糖和苯并噻唑)和蔗糖、KH2PO4,观测各处理对菊花的生长量、相关防御酶活性及褐斑病抗性的影响。结果表明:与对照相比,分别用诱抗剂300mg.L-1壳聚糖或100mg.L-1苯并噻唑,与3%蔗糖、0.3%KH2PO4复配后喷施菊花植株,能显著增加‘神马’的株高与茎粗,提高叶片的POD、PPO与PAL酶活性,降低褐斑病病情指数,提高诱抗效果,且壳聚糖与苯并噻唑的作用效果相似,二者均可作为防治菊花褐斑病的药剂。%Two self-defense inducers of chitosan and benzothiazole with sucrose and KH2PO4 were applied to evaluate the effects of compound agents on the growth of cut Chrysanthemum morifolium 'Jinba',and mass growth,activities of related defensive enzymes and disease-resistance to brown spot were measured.Results showed that,when the compound agents of 300mg﹒L-1 chitosan or 100 mg﹒L-1 benzothiazole compounding with 3% of sucrose and 0.3% of KH2PO4 were sprayed on chrysanthemum,plant height,stem diameter,activities of POD,PPO and PAL in leaves,and effects of induced resistance were significantly promoted,and brown spot disease indexes were significantly reduced.The effects of chitosan were observed similar to that of benzothiazole.

  15. Avaliação de seletividade de produtos fitossanitários utilizados na cultura do crisântemo a adultos de Orius insidiosus (Say, 1832 (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae em laboratório Selectivity of pesticides used on chrysanthemum crop to adults of Orius insidiosus (Say, 1832 (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Augusto Morais

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar a seletividade de produtos fitossanitários utilizados na cultura do crisântemo a adultos de Orius insidiosus (Say. Os bioensaios foram conduzidos a 25±1oC, UR 70±10% e fotofase de 12h, em Lavras, MG. Os inseticidas avaliados foram abamectina (0,0009 g i.a./100 ml, cartap (0,06 g i.a./100 ml, ciromazina (0,011 g i.a./100 ml, fenpropatrina (0,009 g i.a./100 ml e imidaclopride (0,042 g i.a./100 ml. As pulverizações foram realizadas por meio de torre de Potter calibrada a 15 lb/pol2, com volume de 1,5±0,5 mg de calda/cm2, sobre casais de O. insidiosus. Avaliou-se a ação dos produtos sobre a mortalidade, oviposição, fertilidade e capacidade predatória dos adultos. Abamectina, fenpropatrina e imidaclopride foram altamente tóxicos aos adultos de O. insidiosus, e ciromazina e cartap apresentaram moderada toxicidade. Ciromazina e cartap apresentam possibilidades de serem recomendados em programas de manejo integrado de pragas na cultura do crisântemo.The goal of this research was to evaluate the selectivity of products used in the chrysanthemum crop to adults of Orius insidiosus (Say. The experiments were kept under controlled conditions at 25±1oC, RH 70±10% and L/D 12:12 h, in Lavras, MG, Brazil. The insecticides evaluated were abamectin (0.0009 g a.i./100 ml, cartap (0.06 g a.i./100 ml, cyromazine (0.011 g a.i./100 ml, fenpropathrin (0.009 g a.i./100 ml and imidacloprid (0.042 g a.i./100 ml. The sprays were done using Potter's tower calibrated to 15 lb/pol2, applying volume of 1.5±0.5 mg of solution/cm2. The applications were realized directly in the pairs of O. insidiosus. It was evaluated the action of the products on mortality, oviposition, fertility and the adult's predatory capacity. Abamectin, fenpropathrin and imidacloprid were highly harmful to the adults of O. insidiosus. Cyromazine and cartap were moderately toxic. Cyromazine and cartap presented possibilities of being recommended in integrated pest

  16. Manutenção da qualidade e aumento da longevidade floral de crisântemo cv. White polaris Keeping quality and prolonging the postharvest longevity of spray chrysanthemum cv. White polaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Julio Flórez-Roncancio

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available 0 objetivo do trabalho foi determinar o melhor tratamento pós-colheita para manutenção floral e aumento da longevidade de crisântemo de maço do tipo pompom (Dendranthema grandiflorum (Ramat. S. Kitamura cv. White Polaris. Estabeleceu-se como ponto de colheita o momento em que as hastes apresentavam três inflorescências apicais com as pétalas externas em ângulo de 45° em relação à horizontal. Durante o ensaio em laboratório, as hastes, colhidas em estufa de produção comercial, após totalmente imersas em água de torneira, à sombra, durante três horas, foram cortadas sob água na base do caule entre 50 e 60 cm. As hastes foram distribuídas nos diferentes tratamentos de "pulsing" durante 24 horas, com luz contínua de 1.500 lux, 60 a 90% de umidade relativa do ar e temperatura ambiente de 25 ± 2°C. No primeiro experimento, testou-se a eficiência de 8-hidroxiquinolina (8-HQ e tiabendazole (TBZ como germicidas de manutenção da qualidade na solução de "pulsing"; testaram-se, também, dois reguladores de crescimento, a saber: ácido giberélico (GA3, 6-benzilaminopurina (6-BA ou a mistura dos dois, com o objetivo de preservar a cor e a turgidez da folhagem. Os melhores resultados foram com 8-HQ (0,69 mol/m³ e GA3 (0,058 mo1/m³. No segundo experimento, avaliaram-se os seguintes inibidores de etileno: tiossulfato de prata (STS, nitrato de prata (AgNO3 e cloreto de cobalto (COC1(2. A melhor resposta foi obtida com AgNO3 (2,9 e 4,4 mo1/m³.Cut flowers of spray chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflorum (Ramat. S. Kitamura cv. White Polaris were harvested and treated in pulsing solutions. The flowers were harvested in commercial greenhouses and transported to the laboratory where the whole stem and inflorescence were immersed in tap water at darkness, during 3 hours. The flowers were selected for uniformity in terms of development; the stems were trimmed to equal length (50 to 60 cm and tagged to allow recording morphological

  17. Produção de crisântemo (Dendranthema grandiflora Tzvelev. ‘Snowdon’ em vaso II: ciclo da cultivar, comprimento, largura e área da folha Production of Chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflora Tzvelev. ‘Snowdon’ in pot II: cycle, leaf length, width and area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jucelma de Cássia C. Tolotti Mainardi

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar a resposta quanto ao ciclo e comprimento, largura e área da folha, ao redutor de crescimento Daminozide, pulverizado na cultivar de crisântemo (Dendranthema grandiflora Tzvelev. de corte Snowdon, conduzida em vaso. O estudo foi composto por dois ensaios com cinco repetições, no delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado bifatorial 4 x 2, sendo formado por quatro doses de Daminozide (0, 2000, 4000 e 6000 mg.L-1 e duas freqüências de aplicações (semanal e bissemanal. Os resultados mostraram que a cultivar Snowdon pode ser conduzida em vaso, porém, com aumento de ciclo e redução de até 28% na área da folha.The aim of this study was to investigate the response of cultivation cycle, length, width and area leaf, to the growth retardant Daminozide, sprayed on the Chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflora Tzvelev. ‘Snowdon’ cultivated in pot. The study consisted of two experiments with five repetitions. The experiments were bifactorial 4 x 2, with four concentrations of Daminozide (0, 2.000, 4.000 and 6.000 mg.L-1 and two frequencies of application (weekly and bi-weekly of product. Cultivation cycle, leaf length, width and area were determined. The ‘Snowdon’ was able to produce pots commercially acceptable, with increase in the cultivation cycle and decrease of the leaf size.

  18. Elaboração e validação de escala diagramática para avaliação da severidade da ferrugem branca do crisântemo Elaboration and validation of diagrammatic key to evaluate white rust severity in Chrysanthemum

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    Maria Angélica G. Barbosa

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available A ferrugem branca, causada pelo fungo Puccinia horiana, é considerada a principal doença do crisântemo no Brasil, induzindo severas perdas aos produtores. Apesar da importância, inexistem estudos epidemiológicos no país, e para que estes estudos sejam realizados, é necessário o desenvolvimento de métodos padronizados de quantificação da severidade da doença no campo. Visando atender a essa demanda, foi elaborada uma escala diagramática com os níveis de 1, 3, 6, 10, 18 e 30% de área foliar lesionada, testando-se a acurácia, a precisão e a reprodutibilidade das estimativas de severidade da ferrugem branca com e sem a sua utilização. Na validação da escala diagramática, 50 folhas com diferentes níveis de severidade da doença, mensurados previamente com o programa AutoCADâ, foram avaliadas por 10 pessoas sem e com a utilização da escala diagramática. Foram realizadas duas avaliações com a utilização da escala, com intervalo de sete dias, onde seqüências diferentes das mesmas folhas foram estimadas visualmente pelos mesmos avaliadores. A acurácia e a precisão de cada avaliador foi determinada por regressão linear simples, entre a severidade real e a estimada. Sem o auxílio da escala, todos os avaliadores superestimaram consistentemente a severidade, indicando a presença de desvios positivos constantes para todos os níveis de severidade da doença. As avaliações realizadas com a escala diagramática foram mais acuradas nas estimativas da maioria dos avaliadores e mais precisas para todos os avaliadores, além de proporcionar boa repetibilidade e elevada reprodutibilidade entre avaliações de diferentes avaliadores. A escala diagramática mostrou-se adequada para avaliação da severidade da ferrugem branca do crisântemo.White rust, caused by Puccinia horiana, is considered the major disease of Chrysanthemum in Brazil, which results in severe losses for the growers. Despite of its economic importance, very

  19. QUALIDADE DE CRISÂNTEMOS (Dendranthema grandiflora TZVELEV PRODUZIDOS EM DIFERENTES REGIÕES DO ESTADO DE SÃO PAULO: GRUPO POLARIS QUALITY OF CHRYSANTHEMUM (Dendranthema grandiflora TZVELEV CULTIVATED IN DIFFERENT REGIONS OF THE SÃO PAULO STATE: POLARIS GROUP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosiris Bergemann de Aguiar Silveira

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Escolheu-se o crisântemo, por ser a principal flor de corte comercializada no Estado de São Paulo, para iniciar um processo de melhoria de qualidade com conseqüente padronização para a floricultura brasileira, tanto para a produção de consumo interno quanto para aquela destinada à exportação. Através da avaliação da qualidade de inflorescências de crisântemos do grupo Polaris produzidos em diferentes regiões, e comparação com os padrões existentes, pretendeu-se chegar a um padrão nacional para crisântemos de corte. Os parâmetros analisados foram: comprimento de haste; peso da matéria fresca da haste floral; número de inflorescências abertas e por abrir; localização e número de ramificações; rigidez de haste; defeitos de formação; presença de resíduos químicos e incidência de pragas e moléstias. Os dados obtidos permitiram concluir que comprimento, peso da matéria fresca e rigidez de haste foram os parâmetros que mais se aproximaram dos padrões existentes; número de inflorescências, localização e número de ramificações e presença de hastes tortas indicaram a necessidade de maiores cuidados nas operações de desbotoamento e elevação da rede de sustentação; presença de resíduos químicos e de pragas e moléstias mostraram os piores resultados, requerendo estudos visando a adequada aplicação de defensivos agrícolas para o efetivo controle das pragas e moléstias, não deixando resíduos químicos . Com esses resultados, verificou-se não ser possível elaborar, de imediato, um padrão nacional para crisântemos de corte.Chrysanthemum is the major cut flower commercialized in the São Paulo State, Brazil. This study aimed for the standardization of chrysantemum flowers in order to set new parameters of quality for trading, in both domestic and international markets. Chrysanthemum inflorescences from three regions were evaluated for four seasons, and compared to current standards. The evaluated

  20. Effects of spermidine on the contents of endogenous polyamines during floral induction period and flowering of autumn chrysanthemum 'Jinba'%亚精胺对秋菊'神马'成花诱导期间内源多胺和开花的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨丽; 杨际双

    2009-01-01

    为筛选出促进切花菊'神马'(Chrysanthemum morifolium 'Jinba')开花的最佳亚精胺(Spermidine,Spd)溶液浓度,采用整株喷施的方法,研究了不同浓度(0~1.0 mmol/L)的Spd对成花诱导期间顶芽和叶片多胺(Polyamines,PAs)和开花的影响.结果表明:0.1 mmol/L处理提高了成花诱导前期和中期顶芽内Spd的含量,提高了中期时顶芽内精胺(Spermine,Spm)的含量,降低了前期叶片内Spd的含量.1.0 mmol/L处理区成花诱导中期顶芽内Spd含量显著低于对照,但是在后期顶芽和叶片内腐胺(Putrescine,Put)含量都突然升高;0.01 mmol/L处理变化与对照相差不大.虽然0.1 mmol/L和1.0 mmol/L处理均增加菊花的舌状花数,但前者可以提前2 d开花,延长盛花期天数,而后者则延迟2 d开花,并缩短盛花期天数3 d.结果显示,Spd与小花原基分化有密切关系,0.1 mmol/L Spd促进菊花开花,1.0 mmol/L Spd则抑制开花.

  1. Viabilidade técnico-econômica do uso de diferentes tecnologias de iluminação para indução de fotoperíodo na produção de mudas de crisântemo Technical and economical viability of distinct illumination technologies applied to photoperiod induction in chrysanthemum production

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    Luiz A. Rossi

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Em função de suas características fisiológicas, as mudas de crisântemo necessitam de luz suplementar para evitar formação de botão floral. Isto é feito no período noturno. O presente trabalho visou a analisar a viabilidade técnico-econômica de substituir-se a atual tecnologia de iluminação artificial utilizada pelos produtores (lâmpadas incandescentes para efeito de indução de fotoperíodo em ambiente protegido, pela tecnologia de lâmpadas de descarga, com o objetivo de reduzir o consumo de energia elétrica utilizada no processo. As lâmpadas de descarga possuem maior vida útil e apresentam menor consumo de energia quando comparadas às lâmpadas incandescentes. Os resultados das análises permitem concluir que a lâmpada fluorescente compacta integrada amarela, de 23 W, é a que apresenta viabilidade técnica e econômica para tal substituição.Physiological characteristics of chrysanthemum nurseries require extra light supply to prevent buds production. That extra illumination is carried during night period. This research aimed to analyze the technical and economical viability associated to the substitution of conventional incandescent lamps used by the producers to discharge lamps to induce photoperiod, aiming electricity cost reduction in protected environment. Discharge lamps are more efficient, exhibit lower consumption and longer life when compared to the incandescent ones. The results of the analysis allow concluding that the yellow fluorescent compact integrated 23 W lamp turned to be technical and economically viable for the proposed substitution.

  2. Effect of Sound Stimulation on the Lipid Physical States and Metabolism of Plasma Membrane from Chrysanthemum Callus%声波刺激对菊花愈伤组织膜脂物理状态和膜脂代谢的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵虎成; 王伯初; 蔡绍皙; 席葆树

    2002-01-01

    以蔗糖梯度法纯化的菊花(Dendranthema morifolium (Ramat.) Tzvel.)愈伤组织质膜微囊为材料,研究了声波刺激下质膜膜脂代谢和物理状态的变化.结果表明, 一定强度(100 dB)和频率(1 000 Hz)的声波刺激使质膜磷酸二脂含量和二苯己三烯(DPH)荧光偏振值降低,质膜光散射值、MC540荧光强度和磷酸单脂含量增加.表明一定强度和频率的声波刺激使质膜变疏松,膜的流动性增加,膜表面电荷密度和疏水性降低,膜脂合成代谢增加,分解代谢减弱.由此可见,膜脂物理状态和膜脂代谢对声波刺激极为敏感.%Plasma membrane vesicles of chrysanthemum (Dendranthema morifolium (Ramat.) Tzvel.) callus was purified by sucrose gradient centrifugation to investigate the influence of sound stimulation on the lipid physical states and metabolism of plasma membrane. The results showed that sound stimulation decreased the content of phosphodiesters and the fluorescent intensity of DPH, but increased the light scattering value of the membrane, the fluorescent intensity of MC540 and the content of phosphomonoesters, indicating that the vesicles got looser, the charge density and hydrophobicity of membrane surface decreased under sound stimulation of some strength and frequency. However, the membrane fluidity increased under the condition. Meanwhile, the anabolism of membrane lipid increased and the catabolism decreased. It can be seen that the physical state and metabolism of membrane lipid is sensitive to sound stimulation.

  3. 华南地区栖霞组菊花状天青石的交代 及其地质意义%Replacement of Chrysanthemum_Shaped Celestite in the Chihsia Formation of South China and Its Geological Implications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    本文在收集大量菊花石标本的基础上,通过岩石薄片镜下鉴定及X射线衍射分析,识别了华南地区栖霞组菊花石假象内矿物的成因类型,建立了矿物交代序列,并通过对菊花石假象内各种矿物成分的电子探针分析和对交代方解石、脉方解石及其围岩的氧、碳同位素分析,探讨了菊花石交代过程中的成岩环境变化,合理地解释了菊花石内正延性玉髓和栖霞组内海泡石的成因。%Chrysanthemum_shaped celestite is a diagenetic nodule widelydistributed in the Permian Chihsia Formation of South China. As precipitated in the very early diagenesis and replaced by subsequent diagenesis, most of the celestite nodules are pseudomorphs dominantly composed of calcite, chalcedony and minor dolomite. This paper deals with the establishment of a replacement succession in the pseudomorph and the evolution of related diagenetic environments. The replacement initiated in very early diagenesis by fine cloudy calcite, followed by length_slow chalcedony and fine granular calcite. The last two components originated respectively from an episode of chalcedony veining and a calcite veining. Celestite was also noted replaced directly by chalcedony. These replacements took place in fluids rich in silica and Mg2+, revealed by microprobe analyses on the replacement calcite and the occurrence of length_slow chalcedony. Chert nodules and sepiolite in the host rock were contemporary. Late replacements include euhedral calcite crystals in the chalcedony and coarse granular calcite that stemmed from an episode of calcite veining, resulting from diagenetic fluids with relative low Mg2+/Ca2+ ratio.

  4. The relationship between analgesic effect of total flavonoids of Chuzhou chrysanthemum and nitric oxide and prostaglandin E2%滁菊总黄酮的镇痛作用及与一氧化氮和前列腺素E2的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张蓓蓓; 陈志武; 罗胜勇; 马征

    2014-01-01

    目的研究滁菊总黄酮( TFCC)的镇痛作用及其可能机制。方法镇痛作用采用小鼠扭体法、温浴法、福尔马林法、热板法进行检测;血清和脑组织中一氧化氮( NO)和前列腺素E2( PGE2)含量分别采用Griess法和紫外分光光度法测定。结果灌胃给药TFCC 100、200 mg/kg可明显减少小鼠扭体反应数,降低小鼠福尔马林致痛作用第Ⅱ时相疼痛反应评分值,延长小鼠热板舔足反应潜伏期和热水缩尾反应潜伏期;小鼠侧脑室给药TFCC 5、10 mg/kg可明显抑制小鼠扭体反应。灌胃给药TFCC 100、200 mg/kg可明显提高小鼠血清和脑组织中NO含量,但可降低PGE2含量。结论 TFCC具有明显镇痛作用,其镇痛机制可能与促进 NO 释放和抑制PGE2生成有关。%Objective To study the analgesic effect of total flavone of Chuzhou chrysanthemum ( TFCC ) and its mechanism. Methods Writhing test, warm bath method, formalin method, the hot plate test were used to examine analgesic effect on mice, and serum and brain tissue nitric oxide( NO) and prostaglandin E2 ( PGE2 ) contents were determinated the Griess method and ultraviolet spectrophotometry. Results Intragastrical administration of TFCC 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg could significantly reduce the writhing number in mice,II-phase pain in formaldehyde induced pain in mice, and prolonged the mice hot plate licking foot response latency and hot shrinkage tail reaction time. Intracerebroventricular injection TFCC 5 mg/kg and 10 mg/kg could significantly inhibit the writhing number in mice. TFCC 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg significantly increased mice serum and brain NO contents, and reduced PGE2 contents. Conclusion TFCC has obvious analgesic effect, and its analgesic mechanism may be related to the promation of NO release and the inhibition of PGE2 .

  5. Produção de crisântemo (Dendranthema grandiflora Tzvelev. 'Snowdon' em vaso I: doses e freqüências de aplicação de daminozide Production of chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflora Tzvelev., cv. 'Snowdon', in pots I: daminozide's concentrations and times of application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jucelma de Cássia Câmara Tolotti

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a resposta de crisântemo através da análise de parâmetros fenométricos, ao redutor de crescimento Daminozide, pulverizado na cultivar de crisântemo de corte "Snowdon", cultivada em vaso. O estudo foi formado por dois ensaios com cinco repetições, usando delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado em esquema fatorial 4 x 2, sendo formado por quatro doses de Daminozide (0, 2.000, 4.000 e 6.000 mg.L-1 e duas freqüências de aplicações (semanal e bissemanal. Os resultados evidenciaram que as diferentes doses e freqüências de aplicações reduziram a altura da planta, o número de nós, o comprimento de entrenós, o diâmetro da inflorescência e o comprimento do pedúnculo floral. Entretanto, constatou-se aumento dos diâmetros da haste e do pedúnculo floral. Na dose 4.000 mg.L-1 aplicada semanalmente, produziram-se os vasos de melhor qualidade, com altura da planta nos padrões recomendados para comercialização.The aim of this study was to investigate the response of potted chrysanthemum cv. Snowdon, to the growth retardant Daminozide, in terms of fenometric parameters. The study consisted of two experiments with five repetitions. The experiments were bifactorial 4 x 2, with four concentrations of Daminozide (0, 2,000, 4,000 and 6,000 mg.L-1 and two times of application (weekly and bi-weekly of the product. Plant height, number of nodes, length of internodes, diameter of stems and inflorescences, length and diameter of floral peduncle were determinated. All concentrations and times of applications were able to reduce plant height, length of internodes, flower diameter and floral peduncle length. However, the diameter of the stem and floral peduncle were increased. The weekly application of 4,000 mg.L-1 Daminozide produced plants with the best quality within the commercial standards.

  6. 不同级别药用菊花种苗与植株生长及药材产量和品质关系研究%Relationship between seedling grade and plant growth ,yield and quality of medicinal Chrysanthemum morifolium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛鹏飞; 汪涛; 郭巧生

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To provide the basis for standardization cultivation of medicinal Chrysanthemum morifolium, the relationship between the seedling grading and plant growth, yield and quality were studied. Method: The morphological index of the seedlings was measured and the method of principal component and correlation analysis were used to determine the grading index, and step-wise cluster analysis was applied for clustering analysis. Pot experiments were used to measure the indicators of plant growth and development, yield and quality. Result: The height and ground diameter were determined for the quality indicators of the seedlings grading, and the standard quality grading of seedlings of Ch. morifolium was initially set up. The ground diameter of the class I and II were larger than that of the class III, and the number of branches of class I and II was more than that of the class III, on the contrary, the plant height of the class III was higher than that of the class I and II. The shape and appearance of the plant had no effect on the intrinsic quality. Flower center diameter and tubular floret number of the class I and II were significantly larger than those of the class III, so as the yield. The seedling grading had no obvious effect on the internal quality of medicinal material. Conclusion: Seedlings of the class I and class II were suitable for transplanting.%目的:研究不同级别药用菊花种苗与植株生长、药材产量和品质的影响,为药用菊花规范化栽培提供依据.方法:对药用菊花种苗的株高、地径、根长、全株重、地上部分重、地下部分重和高径比7个形态指标进行检测,并进行主成分分析和相关性分析确定分级指标,采用逐步聚类分析方法聚类分级;进行不同等级种苗盆栽试验,对植株生长指标,药材产量和品质指标进行测定.结果:确立以苗高和地径为种苗分级的质量指标,并初步制定了药用菊花种苗质量分级标准;不同级

  7. Gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of supercritical CO2 extract of flower bud of Chrysanthemum indicum and its antibacterial activity%菊米超临界CO2萃取物的气相色谱-质谱分析及其抑菌活性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王春荣; 方程吉; 余庆青; 蒋鹏; 田薇

    2013-01-01

      用气相色谱‐质谱( gas chromatography‐mass spectrometry , GC‐MS)对通过超临界CO2萃取的菊米精油成分进行分析,并通过测定其抑菌圈直径判断其抑菌活性.结果表明:经GC‐MS分析在菊米精油中共鉴定出28个相似度在70%以上的成分,以萜类及其衍生物为主,其中萜类主要为单萜和倍半萜,其衍生物主要为醇;菊米精油对金黄色葡萄球菌和大肠杆菌具有一定的抑菌效果,其最小抑菌质量浓度( minimum inhibitory concentration , MIC)为1.6 mg/mL ,显示出良好的抑菌活性.%Summary Jumi , the flower bud of Chrysanthemum indicum L . , is a special tea from Shilian , Zhejiang Province , and it is famous for its unique fragrance . Jumi essential oil has numerous efficacies and applications in the field of pharmacy and cosmetic industry , therefore developing effective oil extracting method which can keep both biological activity and fragrance is of considerable significance . At present , steam distillation has been reported as essential oil extract method , but this method can not keep the unique fragrance of Jumi due to the decomposition of fragrant component at high temperature . However , the supercritical fluid of CO 2 ( SFE‐CO2 ) is a low temperature processing technique and can fully keep the unique fragrance of Jumi , which is an efficient , non‐toxic , pollution‐free , and non‐residual method to extract and separate Jumi essential oil . The objective of this paper is to evaluate the quality of Jumi essential oil extracted by SFE‐CO2 and determine its biological activity . The chemical compositions of Jumi essential oil were determined by GC‐MS and their inhibitory activities against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli were analyzed by filter paper tablet bacteriostatic method and minimum inhibitory concentration ( MIC) .The results showed that the 28 types of components with the similarity of more than 70% were

  8. Application of controlled-released urea combined with conventional urea on physiological indices, yield and quality of Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat.%控释尿素与普通尿素配施对菊花生理指标及产量和质量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祝丽香; 王建华; 高先涛

    2012-01-01

    2009和2010年采取田间实验方法研究控释尿素和普通尿素不同施用方式对菊花生长发育及产量和品质的影响。结果表明,孕蕾期菊花叶片可溶性蛋白质和叶绿素含量、硝酸还原酶活性、根系活力明显高于生长旺盛期和开花期,且施用尿素高于对照。控释尿素、控释尿素与普通尿素混合一次性基施可促进菊花生长发育前期干物质积累,分次施用有利于后期干物质积累。施用尿素增加单株花序数、百朵花序鲜重,对花序直径影响较少。两种尿素分别分次施用菊花产量明显高于一次性基施,控释尿素与普通尿素等量混合分次施用产量高于其它处理。与普通尿素单施相比,控释尿素提高了菊花总黄酮、蛋白质和可溶性糖含量,其中以控释尿素与普通尿素等量混合分次施用的最高。综合菊花产量和品质指标,在本实验条件下,控释尿素与普通尿素等量混合分次施用的效果最佳。%Nitrogen is one of the most important nutrients and plays a vital role in crop growth and yield production, rational nitrogen fertilization is essential to achieve an optimal yield and the desired product quality. Field experiments were conducted from 2009 to 2010 to compare the effects of controlled-release urea and conventional urea on the growth, yield and quality of Chrysanthemum morifolium. The results show that the physiological indices, including soluble protein content, chlorophyll content, nitrate reductase and root activities, are highest at the pregnant stage, and the indices in the treatments applied two kind of urea are higher than those of the control. The controlled-release urea and conventional urea applied as single basal application can improve growth and dry matter accumulation at the early stages of C. morifolium, while split fertilizations are more favorable to these in the later stages. The amounts of inflorescence number per plant and 100-inforescence flesh

  9. Effects of thrips feeding on tospovirus transmission in chrysanthemum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wetering, van de F.

    1999-01-01

    The introduction and rapid spread of Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) in Western Europe since the 1980s led to a considerable increase of losses in different, mainly ornamental crops due to tomato spotted wilt tospovirus (TSWV) infections. Besides the losses inflicted

  10. A novel expression cassette for the efficient visual selection of transformed tissues in florists' chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat.).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mao, J.; Stoopen, G.M.; Jongsma, M.A.; Wang, C.Y.

    2011-01-01

    Constructs carrying visual reporter genes coupled with efficient promoters could facilitate the process of identification and selection of stable transformants in recalcitrant crops. Here, a novel construct utilizing a ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase (RbcS) promoter combined with the green flu

  11. 菊花活性成分Parthenolide对人鼻咽癌CNE2细胞线粒体功能和半胱天冬酶活性的影响%Influence of active ingredient of chrysanthemum Parthenolide on mitochondrial function of CNE2 cell of human nasopharyngeal carcinoma and caspase activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林忠宁; 林育纯; Shen Han-Ming; Yang Cheng-Feng; Ong Choon-Nam

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Parthenolide (PN) is the pricipal component of sesquiterpene lactones contained in some aromatic herbs. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma(NPC) occurs worldwide is one of highest incidence malignant tumor in south China. It is essential that using the PN as the therapy of health preserving of traditional Chinese medicine to develop the modern rehabilitation for NPC.OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of sesquiterpene lactones(SLs), the active ingredient of chrysanthemum, on the mitochondrial function of NPC cell and activating passage of caspase. DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial was conducted in this study. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Completed by the Department of Preventive Medicine, College of Public Health, Sun Yat-Sen University with object of poorly differentiated CNE2 cell strain.INTERVENTION: Parthenolide is given and the dose-reaction and time effect are observed. The cellular mitochondrial function is detected with MTT color reaction, cellular caspase-9 and -3 activity were measured with substrate fluorescence spectrum, the release of mitochondrial cytochromic C(CytC) and cleavage segment of caspase-3 proenzyme were detected with protein immunity blotting; and specific inhibitor was applied for the blocking passage experiment of cellular caspase. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: cellular mitochondrial function, cellular caspase-9 and caspase-3 activity, release of mitochondrial CytC and cleavage of caspase-3 proenzyme. RESULTS: After acted by PN( 1 - 100 μmol/L) for 12 hours and 24 hours, MTT color reaction inhibition rate grows obviously with the dose, indicating dose-dependence (Pearson's γ=0. 7322, 0. 7703, P < 0. 05), IC50 was 252.94 μmol/L and 49.63 μmol/L respectively; but without rising of caspase-9 and -3 activity, release of CytC and formation of caspase-3 proenzyme cleavage. Affected by PN and caspase inhibitor at same time, caspase-9 and -3 activity were apparently lower than that of control and singlePN effect. (t=9. 146, 8.280, 27.325, 27.450, P

  12. Environ: E00683 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00683 Chrysanthemum lavandulaefolium capitulum Crude drug Chrysanthemum lavandulae...folium [TAX:146996] Asteraceae (daisy family) Chrysanthemum lavandulaefolium capitulum (dried) Crude drugs [...BR:br08305] Dicot plants: asterids Asteraceae (daisy family) E00683 Chrysanthemum lavandulaefolium capitulum ...

  13. A Chrysanthemum in the Garden: A Christian Kindergarten in the Empire of Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishida, Yukiyo

    2015-01-01

    This is a study of the contribution of Christian missionaries to kindergarten education in the Empire of Japan. The study concerns an American Missionary woman, Annie L. Howe (1852-1943) and her kindergarten in Kobe, Japan. Annie L. Howe had a great impact on the history of early childhood education and is still remembered as the "Mother of…

  14. Uso de lombricompuestos en la producción comercial del Crisantemo Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gómez Zambrano Jairo

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Residues of crisantemos, clavel, statice and kikuyo grass alone or with cow dug and mixture of all they, were composted with aid of earthworm Eisenia fetida. These lombricomposts were tested versus soluble fertilization in the crisantemo crop. The best chemical and biological quality of the lombricomposts from flower residue were obtained with the admendment of cow dug, The bether yields and quality of crisantemo flower were obtained with lombricompost origined in flower residues with cow dug. The soluble fertilization was superior over the lombricomposts.

    Se hicieron lombricompuestos a partir de residuos de crisantemo, clavel, statice y kikuyo solos y con boñiga y una mezcla de tocios, con la lombriz Eisenia fetida. Tales lombricompuestos fueron comparados con el sistema de fetilización con solubles en el cultivo de crisantemos. La mejor calidad química y biológica de los lombricompuestos de los residuos de flores se logra con la adición de boñiga. Los mejores rendimientos y calidad de crisantemos se obtuvieron con los lombricompuestos de residuos de flores con boñiga, pero la fertilización con solubles fue superior a todos los lombricompuestos.

  15. From sword to chrysanthemum: Japan's culture of anti-miltarism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berger, T.U.

    The end of the Cold War and the phenomenal increase in Japan's economic and technological power put Japan today in the position to become, if it chooses, a military as well as economic superpower. The diminution of the Soviet threat and the increasing US preoccupation with domestic problems give Japan a latitude for independent action it has not had since the end of World War II. At the same time the US-Japanese security alliance, which has enabled Japan to adopt a minimalist approach to defense and national security, is being weakened by ideologically charged trade and other economic frictions and a growing American perception of Japan as a threat to its interests. Moreover, in the long run Japan faces the prospect of having to deal with other rising regional powers, most notably the People's Republic of China. This changing international security environment thus raises question whether Japan, having become an economic rival of the United States, may not in the future become a military competitor as well; whether, after having adopted a pacifist stance for half a century, Japan may choose to unsheathe its sword once again.

  16. Real-time PCR detection of Puccinia chrysanthemi causing brown rust of chrysanthemum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fungi responsible for rust diseases are among the most challenging organisms to identify, as many identification keys are based on host identity. In the U.S., numerous rust fungi are quarantine-significant plant pathogens. As such, accurate identification is crucial to prevent the inadvertent introd...

  17. Anthocyanin and Carotenoid Contents in Different Cultivars of Chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflorum Ramat. Flower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Ha Park

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The flowers of twenty-three cultivars of Dendranthema grandiflorum Ramat. were investigated to determine anthocyanin and carotenoid levels and to confirm the effects of the pigments on the flower colors using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC and electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS. The cultivars contained the anthocyanins cyanidin 3-glucoside (C3g and cyanidin 3-(3ʺ-malonoyl glucoside (C3mg and the following carotenoids: lutein, zeaxanthin, β-cryptoxanthin, 13-cis-β-carotene, α-carotene, trans-β-carotene, and 9-cis-β-carotene. The cultivar “Magic” showed the greatest accumulation of total and individual anthocyanins, including C3g and C3gm. On the other hand, the highest level of lutein and zeaxanthin was noted in the cultivar “Il Weol”. The cultivar “Anastasia” contained the highest amount of carotenoids such as trans-β-carotene, 9-cis-β-carotene, and 13-cis-β-carotene. The highest accumulation of β-cryptoxanthin and α-carotene was noted in the cultivar “Anastasia” and “Il Weol”. Our results suggested that ‘Magic”, “Angel” and “Relance’ had high amounts of anthocyanins and showed a wide range of red and purple colors in their petals, whereas “Il Weol’, “Popcorn Ball’ and “Anastasia” produced higher carotenoid contents and displayed yellow or green petal colors. Interestingly, “Green Pang Pang”, which contained a high level of anthocyanins and a medium level of carotenoids, showed the deep green colored petals. “Kastelli”, had high level of carotenoids as well as a medium level of anthocyanins and showed orange and red colored petals. It was concluded that each pigment is responsible for the petal’s colors and the compositions of the pigments affect their flower colors and that the cultivars could be a good source for pharmaceutical, floriculture, and pigment industries.

  18. Of Chrysanthemums and Confucius: Some Impressions of Recent Japanese Educational Reforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janesick, Valerie J.

    1993-01-01

    Although Japanese public school curriculum is based on the U.S. model imposed during the postwar occupation years, it reflects a long, rich history of group solidarity and consensus, a strong aesthetic sense, and the spiritual influences of Shinto, Buddhism, and Confucianism. Japan's new 10-year education reform plan's emphasis on individual…

  19. Chrysanthemum expressing a linalool synthase gene ‘smells good’, but ‘tastes bad’to western flower thrips

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ting Yang, Ting; Stoopen, G.M.; Thoen, H.P.M.; Wiegers, G.L.; Jongsma, M.A.

    2013-01-01

    Herbivore-induced plant volatiles are often involved in direct and indirect plant defence against herbivores. Linalool is a common floral scent and found to be released from leaves by many plants after herbivore attack. In this study, a linalool/nerolidol synthase, FaNES1, was overexpressed in the p

  20. Study on the effects of sulfur fumigation on chemical constituents and antioxidant activity of Chrysanthemum morifolium cv. Hang-ju.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shan; Hao, Li-Juan; Zhu, Jing-Jing; Zhang, Qi-Wei; Wang, Zhi-Min; Zhang, Xian; Song, Xiao-mei

    2014-04-15

    The traditional after-harvesting drying method of C. morifolium cv. Hang-ju (HJ) is sun drying, but recently sulfur fumigation is increasingly used as a cheap and convenient method. However, the effects of sulfur fumigation on chemical constituents and potential activities of HJ were unknown. A comprehensively comparison of the chemical profiles between non-fumigated HJ (NHJ) and sulfur-fumigated HJ (SHJ) was conducted by HPLC fingerprints analysis and the discrepant peaks were identified or tentatively assigned by HPLC-ESI/MS(n). Dramatic chemical changes were found that the contents of 4 flavonoid aglycones remarkably increased while those of 7 glycosides significantly reduced which suggested that sulfur-fumigation induced flavonoid glycosides transformed into aglycons by hydrolysis reaction. A significant loss of hydroxycinnamoylquinic acids showed the sulfur fumigation was a destructive effect on HJ. Principal component analysis (PCA) was employed to rapidly discriminate NHJ and SHJ samples. By ICP-OES analysis, it was found that the residue of sulfur of SHJ were three times higher than NHJ (p<0.05). The antioxidant activity of NHJ and SHJ were evaluated by DPPH and FRAP assay, and the results showed that NHJ had much stronger antioxidant activities than SCF (p<0.05). Combining the results of chemical analysis, residue of sulfur and pharmacological evaluation, it showed that the sulfur fumigation was a destructive effect on HJ.

  1. Testing two models for the estimation of leaf stomatal conductance in four greenhouse crops cucumber, chrysanthemum, tulip and lilium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, G.; Lin, L.; Dong, Y.; An, D.; Li, Y.; Luo, W.; Yin, X.; Li, W.; Shao, J.; Zhou, Y.; Dai, J.; Chen, W.; Zhao, C.

    2012-01-01

    Estimating leaf stomatal conductance for CO2 diffusion (gsc) is pivotal for further estimation of crop transpiration as well as energy and mass balances between air and plant in greenhouses. In this study, we tested two models, i.e. the Jarvis model and a new version of BWB–Leuning model (BWB–Leunin

  2. Non-invasive plant growth measurements for detection of blue-light dose response of stem elongation in Chrysanthemum morifolium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Katrine Heinsvig

    2012-01-01

    . In the present study a non-invasive plant growth sensor (PlantEye, Phenospex B.V, Heerlen, NL) was tested in analysing changes in diurnal stem elongation patterns and plant height in response to the spectral quality of the light environment. Plants were grown in four different LED supplemental lighting...... treatments with 0%, 12.5%, 18.5% and 22.5% blue light under greenhouse conditions in winter (18 h day/4 h night). The non-invasive measurements were carried out automatically every four hour with three repetitions, and supported by manual measurements of plant height every third day. A strong linear relation...... between the non-invasive measurements and manual measurements of plant height was achieved, and a blue-light dose-response showing a decrease in plant height in relation to an increase in blue light was demonstrated. However, the non-invasive plant growth sensor was not able to distinguish between diurnal...

  3. Effects of Chrysanthemum coronarium Extract on Fermentation Characteristics and Biohydrogenation of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in vitro Batch Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Li-fang; MA Yan-fen; GAO Min; LU De-xun

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Cis-9,trans-11 CLA has been shown to be potentially health-promoting CLA in many animal models.The C18:1 trans-11 fatty acid(VA) is also desirable as a product flowing from the rumen,because the flow from the rumen of VA play a more important role than CLA in determining CLA concentration in animal tissues.

  4. Reshaping the Sword and Chrysanthemum: Regional Implications of Expanding the Mission of the Japan Self Defense Forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-03-01

    improve Japan-South Korea relations, continuation of South Korea’s “ Sunshine Policy” has undermined this relationship. South Korea’s view of Japan...for Japan–China friendship and eternal peace.”142 Although these speeches were well received in China, relations between Japan and China were severely

  5. Study on the health drink with dandelion couchgrass root and chrysanthemum%蒲公英茅根菊花保健饮料的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王林山

    2007-01-01

    对蒲公英、茅根、菊花复合饮料的制作过程进行了研究,并对蒲公英、茅根、菊花汁提取工艺及复合饮料配方进行了探讨,用正交试验法得出了复合饮料的最佳工艺参数,制得色泽自然、澄清透明、口感清爽的蒲公英茅根菊花清凉保健饮料.

  6. Quantitative determination of phenolic compounds by UHPLC-UV-MS and use of principal component analysis to differentiate chemo-types of chamomile/chrysanthemum flowerheads

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new rapid UHPLC-UV-QTOF/MS method has been developed for the simultaneous analysis of nine phenolic compounds [cis-GMCA, chlorogenic acid, trans-GMCA, quercetagetin-7-O-ß-D-glucopyranoside, luteolin-7-O-ß-D-glucoside, apigenin-7-O- ß-Dglucoside, chamaemeloside, apigenin 7-O-(6"-O-acetyl-ß-D-glucop...

  7. An Eco-feminist Study of Steinbeck's "The Chrysanthemums"%《菊花》的生态女性主义思想

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张莹波

    2010-01-01

    约翰·斯坦贝克的著名短篇小说,通过农村妇女艾丽莎的日常生活和人生经历,反映了美国20世纪30年代男性和人类至上的二元对立思维模式对女性和自然的忽视、压迫、摧残和统治,揭示了女性精神和大自然之间的天然联系,表达了作者对父权制意识形态、功利主义及人类中心主义思想的深刻批评,体现了他对自然和女性命运同等关注的远见和情怀.

  8. 菊明降压片中大黄酚的含量测定%Determination of the content of chrysophanol chrysanthemum Ming buck in the film

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋良伟; 李俊广; 邵杨

    2013-01-01

    Objective To establish a HPLC method for analysis the content of Chrysophanol in Juming Jiangya tablets . Method The HPLC system consists of UV Detector 2 500,Hypersil ODS2(4.6mm×150mm,5um),HPLC Pumps of Pump 1 000 and Gradient formers(Manager 5 000);The mobil phase was methanol-0.1% Phosphoric acid (80:20,V/V);The flowrate was 0.5ml/min;the injection volume was 20 ul;and the detector wavelength was 256nm.Result The content of Chrysophanol in Juming Jiangya tablets was 0.025mg/pin.The average recovery of Chrysophanol was 90.28%.The repeatablity was good. Coclusion The method is simple, accurate and repeatable, which can be applied in determinating the content of Chrysophanol in Juming Jiangya tablets.%目的:建立 HPLC 法测定菊明降压片中大黄酚的含量的方法。方法采用 KNAUER 高效液相色谱仪(包括 UV Detector 2500紫外检测器,Manager 5000混合器,Pump 1000泵),Hypersil ODS2色谱柱(4.6mm×150mm,5um);流动相:甲醇-0.1%磷酸溶液(80:20);紫外检测波长:256nm;流速:0.5ml/min;进样20ul。结果样品含量为0.025mg/片,平均回收率为90.28%,试验重复性良好。结论该方法简便、准确、重复性好,可用于测定菊明降压片中大黄酚的含量。

  9. 3,5-Diarylpyrazole Derivatives Obtained by Ammonolysis of the Total Flavonoids from Chrysanthemum indicum Extract Show Potential for the Treatment of Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Taizong; Jiang, Cheng; Wang, Ling; Morris-Natschke, Susan L; Miao, Hui; Gu, Lianquan; Xu, Jun; Lee, Kuo-Hsiung; Gu, Qiong

    2015-07-24

    Four new 3,5-diarylpyrazole analogues (1-4) were isolated from an extract of the flowers of Chrysanthemun indicum using a combination of ammonolysis of the total flavonoid extract and an Aβ aggregation inhibitory activity guided purification procedure. All four compounds (1-4) showed moderate to potent activity against Aβ aggregation with EC50 values of 4.3, 15.8, 1.3, and 2.9 μM, respectively. Moreover, compound 3 showed low cytotoxicity and significant neuroprotective activity against Aβ-induced cytotoxicity in the SH-SY5Y cell line. This report is the first to show that 3,5-diarylpyrazole analogues can inhibit Aβ aggregation and exhibit neuroprotective activity with potential for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. Taken together, the method presented here offers an alternative approach to yield bioactive compounds.

  10. Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Supercritical-Carbon Dioxide Fluid Extract from Flowers and Buds of Chrysanthemum indicum Linnén

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Li Wu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyze the chemical composition and investigate the anti-inflammatory property of the supercritical-carbon dioxide extract from flowers and buds of C. indicum (CISCFE. The anti-inflammatory effect was evaluated in four animal models including xylene-induced mouse ear edema, acetic acid-induced mouse vascular permeability, carrageenan-induced mouse hind paw edema, and cotton pellet-induced rat granuloma formation. The results indicated that CISCFE significantly attenuated xylene-induced ear edema, decreased acetic acid-induced capillary permeability, reduced carrageenan-induced paw, and inhibited the cotton pellet-induced granuloma formation in a dose-dependent manner. Histopathologically, CISCFE abated inflammatory response of the edema paw. Preliminary mechanistic studies demonstrated that CISCFE decreased the MDA level via increasing the activities of anti-oxidant enzymes (SOD, GPx, and GRd, attenuated the productions of NF-κB, TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, PGE2 and NO, and suppressed the activities of iNOS and COX-2. In phytochemical study, 35 compounds were identified by GC-MS, and 5 compounds (chlorogenic acid, luteolin-7-glucoside, linarin, luteolin and acacetin were reconfirmed and quantitatively determined by HPLC-PAD. This paper firstly analyzed the chemical composition by combining GC-MS with HPLC-PAD and explored possible mechanisms for the anti-inflammatory effect of CISCFE.

  11. 不同方法北京小菊扦插育苗对比试验%Comparison test using different cutting methods of Beijing Chrysanthemum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜红

    2012-01-01

    Test in two cutting methods between plug seedling and plant bed seedling;Useing three kinds of matrix: perlite,Peat and perlite+ sand+peat = 1:1:1, studied of rooting traits of different 6 varieties. The results showed that the best composition of matrix for cutting was 1 part grass charcoal plus 1 part pearlite;Spectrum 2 have the highest cutting survival rate in 6 varieties.%试验通过北京小菊穴盘、苗床育苗2种扦插方法;以纯珍珠岩、纯草炭及珍珠岩+素沙+草炭=1∶1∶1 3种基质,对北京小菊6个品种进行扦插育苗试验.结果表明:珍珠岩+素沙+草炭=1∶1∶1基质配比,穴盘扦插繁殖育苗成活率最高;北京小菊6个品种中光谱2号的扦插成活率最高.

  12. Using the quantum yields of photosystem II and the rate of net photosynthesis to monitor high irradiance and temperature stress in chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflora)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wakjera, Eshetu Janka; Körner, Oliver; Rosenqvist, Eva

    2015-01-01

    Under a dynamic greenhouse climate control regime, temperature is adjusted to optimise plant physiological responses to prevailing irradiance levels; thus, both temperature and irradiance are used by the plant to maximise the rate of photosynthesis, assuming other factors are not limiting. The co...

  13. Studies on Viability and Storage Characteristics of Pollen of Groundcover Chrysanthemum%地被菊花粉活力和储藏性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕晋慧; 赵耀; 王媛; 冯雁梦; 李艳锋; 孔一昌

    2012-01-01

    以地被菊(groundcover chrysanthemum)品种‘毛白玉’、‘粉芙蓉’的新鲜花粉为材料,采用离体萌发法对花粉活力进行测定,并观察花粉萌发及花粉管生长情况。试验结果表明:外源ca2+显著促进了花粉萌发和花粉管生长,硼酸对花粉萌发没有显著影响;花序中部筒状花的花粉活力显著高于花序外部和内部筒状花的花粉;遮荫降低了花粉活力;‘毛白玉’和‘粉芙蓉’花粉在室温下可分别储藏8和6d,4℃下可分别储藏25d和20d,-20℃下可储藏25d,-80℃下可分别储藏21和18d。-80℃储藏前干燥处理2h的花粉,储藏后花粉活力显著高于干燥处理4h和6h的花粉。预冻处理显著降低了花粉活力。-80℃储藏的花粉采用35℃解冻2min或冰上解冻效果较好。%In the study, the pollen viability of the cultivars 'Maobaiyu' and 'Fenfurong' was determined via culture in vitro, and the pollen germination and pollen tube growth were observed. The results showed that the pollen germination rate and growth of pollen tubes were promoted significantly by Ca2+ but not influenced by H3BO3 ; The viability of pollen collected from middle parts of inflorescences was significantly higher than that from external or inside of inflorescence. Shading decreased pollen viability. Pollen viability decreased with increasing storage time under different temperatures. The appropriate storage time of pollen was 8 days and 6 days at room temperature, 25 days and 20 days at 4 ℃, 21 days and 18 days at - 80 ℃ respectively for 'Maobaiyu' and 'Fenfurong', and 25 days at - 20℃ for both cultivars. Desiccation duration for 2 hours could increase the viability of pollen stored at - 80 ℃, producing better results than that of 4 hours and 6 hours treatments. The pre-freezing treatment reduced pollen germination. The methods of defrosting frozen pollens at 35 ℃ for two minutes or in trash ice were better than other defrosting treatments.

  14. The Deserted Chrysanthemum, the Devastated Female——Another Interpretation of the Eco - feminism in John Steinbeck's The Chrysanthemum%被弃之菊花被摧之女性——重新解读约翰·斯坦贝克《菊花》中的生态女权意识

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许红娥; 郑桃云

    2008-01-01

    生态女权主义强调女性与自然的认同性和紧密联系,认为男性对女性的压迫等同于人类对自然的压迫.美国著名作家约翰·斯坦贝克通过一文,以敏锐的洞察力,通过女主人公伊莉莎的菊花情结展示了自然和女性的认同性;同时,通过男主人公亨利和赶车补锅人对菊花和伊莉莎的态度,揭示了在男性统治的世界里,自然和女性所遭受的歧视和压迫,以此来呼吁人们对自然和女性的双重关注.

  15. Plantas medicinales utilizadas en la salud infantil

    OpenAIRE

    Souza, ADZ.; T. Ceolin; Vargas, NRC.; Heck, RM.; Vasconcellos, CL.; Borges, AM.; Mendieta, MC.

    2011-01-01

    Identificar las plantas medicinales utilizadas en la salud infantil por familias de agricultores de base ecológica de la región Sur de Río Grande do Sul, Brasil. El enfoque de investigación es cualitativo, exploratorio y descriptivo, con datos recogidos de enero a mayo de 2009. Los sujetos fueron ocho familias de agricultores, residentes en los municipios de Pelotas, Morro Redondo, Canguçu y Arroio do Padre. Seis plantas fueron citadas (Chrysanthemun cinerariifolium, Foeniculum vulgare, Acca ...

  16. Identification and characterization of four Chrystanthemum MADS-box genes, belonging to the APETALA1/FRUIFULL and SEPALLATA3 subfamilies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shchennikova, A.V.; Shulga, O.A.; Immink, R.; Skryabin, K.G.; Angenent, G.C.

    2004-01-01

    Four full-length MADS-box cDNAs from chrysanthemum, designated Chrysanthemum Dendrathema grandiflorum MADS (CDM) 8, CDM41, CDM111, and CDM44, have been isolated and further functionally characterized. Protein sequence alignment and expression patterns of the corresponding genes suggest that CDM8 and

  17. 金盏菊花粉提取物对蛋鸡血液生化指标的影响%Effect of Calendula chrysanthemum extract powder on blood biochemical parameters of Laying Hens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈辉; 黄仁录; 邸科前

    2010-01-01

    本试验旨在研究蛋鸡日粮中添加不同水平金盏菊花粉提取物对蛋鸡血液生化指标的影响.采用单因子完全随机设计,选用400日龄健康的海兰灰商品蛋鸡224只,随机分成4组,每组4个重复,每个重复14只,金盏菊花粉提取物添加水平分别为0、1、2、4 g/kg,试验期14d,结果表明日粮中添加金盏菊花粉提取物对血液中的总胆固醇、血脂、血糖、总蛋白、白蛋白、球蛋白、血钙、血磷和碱性磷酸酶、谷草转氨酶、谷丙转氨酶活性均无显著影响(P>0.05).

  18. 滁菊挥发油的成分分析及其在卷烟中的应用%Chemical Components of Chrysanthemum morifolium (Ramat) Tzvel.cv.Chuju Volatile Oil and its Applications in Cigarette Flavoring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐秀娟; 王甜; 何保江; 李国栋; 秦广雍; 屈展; 胡军; 卓浩廉

    2015-01-01

    为开发天然烟用香原料,分别采用减压水蒸气蒸馏、亚临界萃取和分子蒸馏技术制备出三种滁菊净油,通过GC/MS分析了滁菊挥发油的化学成分,并进行了卷烟加香实验.结果表明:滁菊净油中共鉴定出79种化学成分,包括有机酸类8种、酮类14种、醇类18种、烯烃类25种、酯类7种,以及其他成分,净油中含量较高的为龙脑、β-芹子烯、β-倍半水芹烯、(E)-β金合欢烯、蒿酮、马兜铃烯环氧化物等;评吸结果表明滁菊净油能够改善香气质,增加香气量,降低杂气,使得烟气细腻柔和,是一种理想的天然烟用香原料.

  19. "不再存在精神问题"——斯坦贝克《菊》的主题再辨析%No More Mental Issues——Reanalyzing the Theme of John Steinbeck's "The Chrysanthemums"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟芳

    2008-01-01

    在当代社会日益物质化、功利化的进程中,人类的精神生活日趋萎缩.斯坦贝克在中,以不动声色的对话与细节描写,展现了这一悲剧.而正是这些构成这篇小说的主题.

  20. Elisa Allan's mental journey--Reading John Steinbeck's "The Chrysanthemums"%伊莉莎·阿兰的心路历程--解读斯坦贝克的

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张璘; 冯瑞贞

    2003-01-01

    美国小说家约翰*斯坦贝克的是作者关注平民生活、抒发底层人民心理感受的一篇名著.以弗洛伊德的人格理论和心理分析法为基础来解读斯坦贝克的这篇名著,可使我们对其小说的象征意义及小说所蕴涵的主题能有一个更为深入的了解.

  1. Analysis of The Chrysanthemums by John Steinbeck%渴望的目光自由的呼唤--评约翰·斯坦贝克短篇小说《菊》

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟艳霞

    2005-01-01

    约翰·斯坦贝克的短篇小说如其中长篇小说一样体现了他卓越的文学成就.本文以文本为基础分析认为,短篇小说通过反复出现的象征主义、过度词化、重复、陌生化等表现手法,展示了女主人公追求自由生活的渴望和作者矛盾的女性观.

  2. Conversion of RAPD Marker Linked to Creep Plant Type in Ground-Cover Chrysanthemum to SCAR Marker%与地被菊株型匍匐性连锁RAPD标记的SCAR转化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵静媛; 陈素梅; 陈发棣

    2009-01-01

    @@ 地被菊(Dendranthema grandiflorum)是20世纪80年代由陈俊愉院士首先提出的菊花新品种群(王彭伟等,1990;Chen et al.,1995),因株型低矮或匍匐、多分枝、抗性强、适应性广、成型快、覆盖能力强、着花繁密,同时具备绿化、美化、彩化和香化功能,园林应用前景广阔(于忠香,2004).

  3. 盆炎栓与野菊花栓治疗慢性盆腔炎的对比观察%Controlled Observation on Chronic Pelvic Inflammation Treated by Penyan Suppository and Wild Chrysanthemum Flower Suppository

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗凤萍; 李翠萍; 马文侠

    2001-01-01

    @@ 笔者采用随机对比方法观察了盆炎栓和野菊花栓治疗慢性盆腔炎的疗效和相关指标变化,现将观察结果报道如下.1 临床资料1.1 一般资料 400例均为门诊患者,采取连续序贯奇偶取例随机分为盆炎栓组300例和野菊花栓组100例.其中盆炎栓组年龄最小18岁,最大56岁,平均29岁;有宫内手术操作史(如人流术、上环术、取环术、诊断性刮宫术)者234例,因经期或产后忽视调摄和不注意卫生者47例,有性病史者11例,无明显诱因者8例;病程最短2个月,最长8年,平均2.6年.

  4. XAD-16树脂分离纯化怀菊花黄酮的工艺研究%SEPARATION AND PURIFICATION OF Huai-chrysanthemum FLAVONES BY XAD-16 RESIN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐清萍; 安广杰; 朱广存; 何培新

    2010-01-01

    研究XAD-16树脂分离纯化怀菊花黄酮的工艺,探讨了吸附过程中树脂的等温吸附与吸附动力学,并应用Langmuir方程与Freundlich方程对吸附过程进行了拟合.确定了XAD-16树脂分离怀菊花黄酮的最佳工艺条件:上样浓度2.0mg/mL,上样流速1BV/h,冲洗杂质用水量11BV,洗脱剂为85%(体积分数)乙醇,洗脱流速2BV/h,洗脱剂体积5BV.此时总黄酮的解吸率为83.9%.在此条件下,经过XAD-16树脂分离纯化后,怀菊花总黄酮含量达到77.2%.

  5. Study on Fast Propagation by Flower Bud Inducing Embryoid of Chrysanthemum%利用菊花花蕾诱发胚状体发生的快繁体系研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戚贤军

    2003-01-01

    利用菊花的花蕾体细胞胚胎的发生,建立了菊花的整个快繁体系.具体步骤如下:①取菊花的花蕾作为外植体,在MS+6-BA 2mg/L+NAA 0.2mg/L的培养基上诱导产生胚性愈伤组织,然后在MS培养基上继代培养获得再生无菌苗;②以无菌苗的茎段在无任何激素的MS培养基上利用微扦插进行快繁,从而建立起整个快繁体系.

  6. [Oxyanthraquinones and flavonoids from garland chrysanthenum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gins, V K; Kolesnikov, M P; Kononkov, P F; Trishin, M E; Gins, M S

    2000-01-01

    The stems of the vegetable plant garland chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum coronarium L.) were shown to contain emodin (in its aglycon and glycoside forms) and chrysophanol. Chrysophanol and chrysazin were isolated from the roots of the plant. Because the pigments identified are derivatives of 1,8-dihydroxyanthroquinone, garland chrysanthemum may be a medicinal plant and have utility as a component of laxative species. The leaves of C. coronarium were shown to be rich in quercetin and its glycosides, rutin and isoquercetin. Taken together, this observation and the known high content of ascorbic acid and carotenoids in the plant suggest that C. coronarium may be useful in preventing cardiac and vascular diseases.

  7. THE ANTIFUNGAL AND ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF TWO PLANTS FROM ASTEMCEAE

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we have found that, Chlysanthemum coronarium has shownantifungal and antibacterial activity, but Inula viscosa didn't show any antifungalor antibacterial activity.Key words: Chrysanthemum coronarium; Inula viscosa; antifungal andantibacterial activities.

  8. Sensitization and cross-reaction patterns in Danish Compositae-allergic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, E; Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Hausen, B M

    2001-01-01

    by tansy, wild chamomile, yarrow and arnica, whereas dehydrocostus lactone of SL was the most frequent elicitor of positive reactions, followed by alantolactone and costunolide. Chrysanthemum (Dendranthema) and marguerite (Argyranthemum frutescens) were the most important suspected sensitizers in both...

  9. 蓍状亚菊与菊属北京夏菊品种‘北金’杂交试验初报%Preliminary Study of Intergeneric Hybridizations Between Ajania achilloides and Day-Neutral Chrysanthemum‘ Beijin’

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈景; 郑燕; 红歌; 吴潇波; 曾凡景; 胡春; 孙健; 赵惠恩

    2012-01-01

    通过人工杂交的方法得到了蓍状亚菊Ajania achilloides×夏菊‘北金’Chrysanthemum morifolium‘Beijin’的杂交种,并得到形态学及细胞学研究证明,形态学以舌状花的出现为主要标志,细胞学采用根尖压片结合流式细胞仪测定技术进行;该试验所得的杂交种在观赏性状上表现出一定的超亲优势,可以作为进一步育种的基础材料.%An intergeneric hybridization between Ajania and Chrysanthemum was produced by hand pollination in this study to introduce new germplasm into Chrysanthemum gene pool. One intergeneric hybrid of Ajania achilloides x Chrysanthemum morifolium , Beijin' was identified by morphological characteristics comparison and cytological analysis including flow cytometry. The hybrid was identified by the characteristic with ray florets which were quite different from that of maternal parents. It was found that the hybrid was tetraploid while the parents were diploid and hexploid based on cytological studies. The intergeneric hybrid could be used as the bridge for breeding of drought-resistant chrysanthemums.

  10. 施硒对药用菊花主要有效成分和花中硒含量的影响%Effects of Applying Selenium on Contents of Total Flavonoid,Chlorogenic Acid and Selenium in Flower of Chrysanthemum morifolium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李永明; 孙玉新; 刘德辉

    2010-01-01

    采用砂培盆栽试验探讨施Se对药用菊花花中总黄酮、绿原酸和Se含量的影响.结果表明,在施Se量不超过2.0 mg/kg时能促进药菊的生长,提高药菊花中总黄酮、绿原酸的含量,药菊花、茎叶和根的干重和花中的总黄酮、绿原酸含量均随施Se量的增加而增加;其中以施Se量为2.0 mg/kg处理的效果最佳,该施Se量处理药菊花干重、根干重、花中绿原酸含量与施Se量分别为0、0.25、0.5、1.0 mg/kg各处理以上各相应指标的差异均达到显著水平,该施Se量处理药菊花中总黄酮含量高于其他所有5处理,并与施Se量为0 mg/kg和0.25 mg/kg两处理药菊花中总黄酮含量的差异达到显著水平.过量施Se(4.0 mg/kg)对药菊的生长表现出一定抑制作用,其药菊各部位生物量和花中总黄酮、绿原酸含量均低于施Se量2.0 mg/kg的处理.药菊花、茎叶和根中的Se含量均随施Se量的增加而增加,菊花茎叶和根中的Se含量与施Se量呈线性相关关系,而菊花花中的Se含量(y)与施Se量(x)符合一元二次回归方程:y = -0.817 5x2 + 6.004 5x + 0.136 3.施用适量的Se既能显著提高药菊花中总黄酮和绿原酸含量,又能大幅提高花中的Se含量,这为富Se菊花及其系列产品的研发提供了理论依据.

  11. 电泳沉积的钛基菊花状纳米氧化锌阴极场发射特性%Study on Field Emission Characteristics of Ti-based Chrysanthemum-like Nano-ZnO Cathode by Electrophoresis Deposition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨延宁; 张志勇; 闫军锋; 刘巧平; 张富春; 李伟霞

    2015-01-01

    采用水热法制备出菊花状的ZnO纳米线簇,然后利用电泳法将之移植到金属Ti片上,形成均匀的、一定厚度的ZnO纳米薄膜,最后经真空热处理形成ZnO场发射阴极样品.利用X射线衍射仪(XRD)和扫描电子显微镜(SEM)对沉积前后的ZnO纳米线簇做了特性鉴定和微结构的表征.对热处理后的阴极样品做了场发射特性测试,发现菊花状纳米ZnO呈现出较低的开启电场2.0 Wμm和较低的阈值电场5.5 Wμm,在场强达到7.5 V/μm时,场发射电流密度为200.μ.A/cm2,适当地增加涂层厚度可有效提高场发射电流密度及其稳定性,最后探讨了菊花状纳米ZnO的场发射机理.

  12. 不同类型光源对切花菊‘深志’花芽分化抑制效果及开花品质的影响%Effect of Different Types Light on Flower Bud Differentiation and Flowers Quality of Chrysanthemum ‘ Shenzhi'

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏君伟

    2012-01-01

    研究了6种不同型号光源对切花菊‘深志’花芽分化抑制效果及开花品质的影响.结果表明:150W高压钠灯在花芽分化进程、花发育与开放进程、鲜重和重瓣性等方面,与自然条件相比都没有明显差异,既能满足出口切花菊生产要求,又可明显降低生产成本,是现阶段比较理想的切花菊生产光源.

  13. Strategii de PR în retorica electorala din Parlamentarele -2014, Republica Moldova vs „revoluția crizantemelor”, octombrie 2015 (PR strategies in the electoral rhetoric during the parliamentary elections in 2014, Republic of Moldova vs „the chrysanthemums revolution”, october 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurelia PERU-BALAN

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article the author approaches the trends of the electoral rhetoric during the parliamentary elections that were held on 30th of November. The article determines which are the most used campaign issues with a mobilizing effect on the voters; among these – the external path of the Republic of Moldova. During the last five years, the right and center-right wing parties have chosen the EU integration, the left-wing parties – the Eurasian Union. The contribution also analyzes the most relevant special events organized by the political parties’ staffs in order to create an image well covered by the media and favorable for the political actors.

  14. Studies of Illuminace on Growth Characteristics of Sugar-free Micropropagation with Liquid Culture in Open-space of Chrysanthemum Plantlets%光照强度对大空间液体培养无糖菊花组培苗生长特性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋越冬; 马明建

    2009-01-01

    在自行研制的大空间组培苗栽培系统内测定了光照强度对液体培养的无糖菊花组培苗生长的影响.结果表明:增加光照对无糖菊花组培苗的生长有促进作用,当光照强度为5 500~6 500 lx时,对菊花组培苗的生长最为适宜.

  15. 施肥对栽培菊花土壤的有机无机复合性状和菊花产量与品质的影响%Fertilization Effects on Organo-Mineral Complex Status in Soil and on Yield and Quality of Chrysanthemum Morifolium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝文雅; 刘德辉; 徐飞; 杨剑波; 盛蒂

    2008-01-01

    按照江苏省射阳县中药材种植基地的施肥习惯,选用当地常用的猪粪、鸡粪、菜籽饼、有机复混肥、化肥为供试肥料,于2004、2005年连续2年进行菊花施肥大田小区试验和室内盆裁试验.其中,小区试验主要研究栽培菊花土壤有机无机复合状况和结合态腐殖质组成,盆栽试验主要研究施肥对菊花产量、内在质量的影响.结果表明:大田条件下连续2年单施化肥处理的土壤有机质比试前下降,亏缺主要来自轻组;与对照(不施肥)比较,连续施用有机肥的处理,能提高土壤和重组有机C含量(增幅分别为4.5%~32.7%和10.5%~37.8%),促进土壤有机无机复合体的形成,提高土壤增值复合量和增值复合度,改善腐殖质结合形态,使松结态腐殖质含量增加,紧结态腐殖质减少,使土壤腐殖质得到活化;各类有机肥对栽培菊花土壤均有较好的培肥效果,其中以猪粪、菜籽饼较好.室内盆栽试验的结果表明,施肥能显著提高菊花花序和茎叶的生物量,显著增加菊花药用有效成分总黄酮、绿原酸的含量,这方面的作用有机肥优于化肥,有机肥中又以菜籽饼的效果较好,猪粪次之.

  16. Study on Transformation of Snowdrop Lectin Gene to Chrysanthemum and Aphid Resistance of the Transgenic Plants%雪花莲凝集素基因转化菊花及转基因植株的抗蚜性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王关林; 刘彦泓; 郭绍华; 王宇; 纪彦; 方宏筠

    2004-01-01

    针对菊花存在的蚜虫虫害问题,采用农杆菌介导法将gna基因导入菊花叶片,共获得93个转化克隆.研究了影响转化频率的主要因素,得出在使用pH5.6的YEB培养基,菌液浓度OD600=0.4,45日苗龄中部叶片预培养1 d,共培养4 d,共培养的培养基中加入0.5 mg/L GA3的条件下可使转化频率提高到11.21%.PCR、实时荧光PCR检测结果表明,外源基因已整合到植物细胞基因组中.转化植株幼苗饲虫实验表明,不同转化克隆的抗蚜性差异较大,蚜口密度抑制率从10%~84%不等,平均蚜口密度抑制率为39.4%.转化植株叶片蛋白提取液对小鼠红细胞具有凝集作用.

  17. Avaliação de seletividade de produtos fitossanitários utilizados na cultura do crisântemo a adultos de Orius insidiosus (Say, 1832) (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae) em laboratório Selectivity of pesticides used on chrysanthemum crop to adults of Orius insidiosus (Say, 1832) (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae)

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandre Augusto de Morais; Geraldo Andrade Carvalho; Jair Campos Moraes; Maurício Sekiguchi Godoy; Luciano Veiga Cosme

    2003-01-01

    Objetivou-se avaliar a seletividade de produtos fitossanitários utilizados na cultura do crisântemo a adultos de Orius insidiosus (Say). Os bioensaios foram conduzidos a 25±1oC, UR 70±10% e fotofase de 12h, em Lavras, MG. Os inseticidas avaliados foram abamectina (0,0009 g i.a./100 ml), cartap (0,06 g i.a./100 ml), ciromazina (0,011 g i.a./100 ml), fenpropatrina (0,009 g i.a./100 ml) e imidaclopride (0,042 g i.a./100 ml). As pulverizações foram realizadas por meio de torre de Potter calibrada...

  18. Spectral effects of light-emitting diodes on photosynthetic characteristics and secondary metabolism in greenhouse plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ouzounis, Theoharis

    2014-01-01

    , photo-synthetic performance, and secondary metabolism of different plants. As model plants we used rose (Rosa hybrida), chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum morifolium), campanula (Campanula portenschlagiana), orchid (Phalaenopsis), and lettuce (Lactuca sativa). In our first experiment, by growing roses...... fluorescence measurements. In all three experiments, we also addressed the effects of supplementary blue and red LED lighting on phytochemicals. With increasing amount of blue light, roses, chrysanthemums, and campanulas increased their phenolic amount; Phalaenopsis cultivars increased their pigment content......; lettuce plants increased both their phenolic and pigment content. The effects were not observed in the same way in all plants, highlighting the fact that plant responses to blue and red LED lighting are species and/or cultivar dependent. LED-based systems are a promising alternative choice for greenhouse...

  19. STUDY ON ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY IN FLOWERCULTURE IN GREENHOUSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A POPESCU

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the economic efficiency in flowerculture in the greenhouses belonging to a private company next to the capital. The firm owns 2.45 ha greenhouses where it cultivates Fresia Species, Chrysanthemum Species and Alstroemeria Species. The average production was 1,200 thou Fresia flowers, 405 thou Chrysanthemum flowers and 610 thou Alstroemeria flowers/ha. All the three flower species assure a high economic efficiency, but Fresia is the most profitable one. It assures the highest profit per flower USD 0.023, the highest profit per hectar USD 28,576 and the highest profit rate 44 %. Then, in order are coming Alstroemeria and Chrysanthemum. These three species could represent the subject of a profitable productive activity for any floriculturist who would like to get secure incomes all over the year.

  20. Qualitative parameters of non-traditional types of vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Kudrnáčová

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this study was to determine selected quality indicators of non-traditional types of leafy vegetables. Mizuna (Brassica rapa japonica, Chinese mustard (Brassica juncea, edible chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum coronarium and arugula (Eruca sativa belonged among the selected species of vegetables. During the one-year experiment, spring and autumn sowing was carried out for these species of vegetables. The measured quality parameters were the content of nitrates and ascorbic acid. Sampling was done in the morning and in the laboratory, the samples were further processed according to the type of determination. To determine the content of nitrates and ascorbic acid, leaves were removed from plants. The filtrate from the leaves was then prepared. Determination of nitrates and ascorbic acid was carried out using a special test strip and device Rqflex plus 10. The results of measurement of both sowing varieties were compared. Total nitrate content was higher up to 22% in plants sown in the autumn except edible chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum coronarium. The highest content was recorded in arugula (Eruca sativa, which was recently implemented to the studies of the European Union and for which there were set the limits of nitrates. Overall, the nitrate content ranged from 221 to 334 ppm in spring varieties and from 249 to 384 mg/kg in autumn varieties. Ascorbic acid content was very high in Chinese mustard (Brassica juncea, edible chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum coronarium and arugula (Eruca sativa in both spring and autumn varieties. Values of ascorbic acid ranged from 839 in autumn sowing up to 2909 mg/kg in spring sowing. These non-traditional types of leafy vegetables could be included among the other importants sources of vitamin C in the future.  

  1. Drug: D05659 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D05659 Crude, Drug Pyrethrum extract (USP); Chrysanthemum cinerariaefolium extract ...LENTS P03A ECTOPARASITICIDES, INCL. SCABICIDES P03AC Pyrethrines, incl. synthetic compounds P03AC01 Pyrethrum D05659 Pyrethrum extract (USP) CAS: 89997-63-7 PubChem: 47207320 ...

  2. First report of the blaVIM gene in environmental isolates of Buttiauxella sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitondo-Silva, André; Martins, Vinicius Vicente; Stehling, Eliana Guedes

    2015-04-01

    Several works have demonstrated the presence of metallo-β-lactamases (MBLs) in clinical bacteria. However, in environmental isolates, few works have reported on these enzymes. In this study, we report for the first time two environmental isolates of Buttiauxella sp. recovered from chrysanthemum plantations in Brazil containing blaVIM gene and producing MBLs.

  3. Development of plant mutation techniques using ion beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Si Yong; Park, In Sook; Song, Hi Sup; Kim, Dong Sub; Kim, Soo Yeon

    2006-06-15

    It has been reported that ion beam with high liner energy transfer (LET) show relative high biological effectiveness (RBE) and more effective for induced plant mutation than low LET radiation i.e., X-rays, gamma rays and electrons. This study was conducted to induce mutation of in vitro cultured orchid and Chrysanthemum using proton beam of the MC-50 cyclotron (50 MeV) at the Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Science. In vitro cultured stems of chrysanthemum(cv. Migok) and protocom-like bodies(PLBs) of Dendrobium orchid (cv. Kingianum) placed in the plastic petridish (5.5cm in diameter) with agar medium were irradiated by the proton beam with various dose ranges of 10, 25, 50, 100 Gy under the condition of 5nA beam current. Those irradiated plants were transferred to subculture media and then investigated growth characteristics. Shoot growth of chrysanthemum and orchid was decreased by increase of irradiation dose. In particular, new shoot formation was hardly founded over 50Gy in chrysanthemum and 100 Gy in orchid. Some leaf mutants were observed at the 25 Gy and 50 Gy irradiated PLBs of the orchid. The dry seeds of hot pepper, rapeseed, rice and perilla also were irradiated with proton beam of MC-50 cyclotron and then measured germination rate and early growth of M1 plants compared with gamma ray irradiation.

  4. Public tolerance to defoliation and flower distortion in a public horticulture garden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadof, Clifford S; Sclar, D Casey

    2002-04-01

    Surveys of visitor and grower perception of live potted plant quality were conducted in various locations in a large public display garden. Canna lily, Canna x generalis L.H.Bailey, was used to examine effects of defoliation by Japanese beetle, Popillia japonica Newman, on public perception. Chrysanthemums, Chrysanthemum x morifolium Ramat., were used to identify visitor and grower tolerance to flower distortion caused by western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande), on single and multiple flowered plants. On average, the maximum amount of defoliation or flower distortion tolerated by any respondent was low (< or = 10% for canna and < or = 25% for chrysanthemum). The level of acceptable injury was influenced by factors intrinsic to both the respondents and the plants themselves. Tolerance to injury was negatively associated with the risk aversion of the respondents. Visitors were less tolerant of injury on plants they considered for purchase than those that they would view at the garden. Similarly, grower tolerance was lower than that of visitors because producing substandard plants could put their professional reputation at risk. Factors that distracted visitor attention (e.g., presence of flowers and higher levels of background injury) increased their tolerance to plant injury. Visitors tolerated greater levels of flower distortion on multiple flowering chrysanthemum than on those with single flowers. We suggest that tolerance to insect pests can be increased by designing plantings that distract viewers from injured plant parts.

  5. Should we reconsider the Use of Deionized Water as Control Vase Solution ?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meeteren, van U.; Gelder, van H.; Ieperen, van W.; Slootweg, G.

    2001-01-01

    In Bouvardia ‘Van Zijverden’ flowers held in deionized water leaf wilting started from day 6 of vase life, while flowers placed in tap water did not show any leaf wilting for the 14 days of the experiment. Fresh weight of chrysanthemum ‘Cassa’ flowers started to decrease after three days in deionize

  6. On the Change in Eliza

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵荣

    2001-01-01

    @@ The short novel "The Chrysanthemums"(菊花)is one of the well-written works by John Steinbeck, a very famous American novelist in the 20thcentury. He has written many other novels such as "The Pearl" , "The Century Dow" ,"Of Mice and Man" , "The Grapes of Wrath" .

  7. The Potential Research of Catch Crop in Decrease Soil Nitrate Under Greenhouse Vegetable Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YIN Xing

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to clarify the impact of catch crops on greenhouse vegetable soil nitrate, explore the mechanism of barrier and controll soil nitrogen leaching losses in greenhouse, and provide a theoretical basis for control nitrogen leaching and prevention of groundwater pollution, this study selected the traditional greenhouse vegetable rotation system in North China plain as research subjects, using field situ remediation technologies on deep-root planting catch crops in the vegetable fallow period by sweet corn, Achyranthes bidentata and white Chrysanthemum. The results showed that: nitrogen content and nitrogen uptake of sweet corn and sweet corn with Achyranthes bidentata intercropping were the highest, respectively 20.11 t·hm-2, 19.62 t·hm-2 and 240.34 kg·hm-2, 287.56 kg·hm-2, significantly higher than white Chrysanthemum. The density of root length and root dry weight decreased with soil depth in the profiles, root length density was demonstrated in order as: intercropping sweet corn> sweet corn> white Chrysanthemum> intercropping Achyranthes bidentata blume. The reduction of NO3--N of sweet corn reached 907.87 kg·hm-2 in soil profile 0~200 cm, significantly higher than sweet corn and hyssop intercropping and white Chrysanthemums. In the interim period of vegetable crop rotation, planting catch crops could effectively reduce nitrate accumulation in the soil, control the soil profile nitrate leaching down.

  8. Management strategies for greenhouse growers in a competitive environment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trip, G.; Renkema, J.A.; Huirne, R.B.M.

    1996-01-01

    A study among 26 Dutch chrysanthemum firms was performed between November 1993 and November 1994 to (a) assess the relative economic performance of each firm and (b) compare three strategies used by growers in getting high economic results. These strategies, related to the theory of Porter (1985), a

  9. 77 FR 56202 - Product Cancellation Order for Certain Pesticide Registrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-12

    ... Pyriproxyfen. Spray. 005481-00434 Tre-Hold for Citrus Ethyl 1- naphthaleneacetate. 010088-00086 Flying Insect d... o)-1,2-ethanediyl dichloride). 047000-00085 Chem-Tech Dy-Sect d-trans-Chrysanthemum Spray... Success Spinosad. CA020016 GF120 Fruit Fly Spinosad. Bait. CA040020 Kerb Propyzamide. CA040021...

  10. European Science Notes. Volume 40, Number 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-04-01

    Development, A.H. Cobb. The Influence of Bentazone on Stomatal Movement , A.H. Cobb. The Effect of Herbicides on Plant Growth and Development...for Sodium Chloride Tolerance in Chrysanthemums, K.C. Short. Metabolic Studies of Chloroplast Symbiosis, A.H. Cobb. Biochemical Indications of

  11. La Artesania Mexicana (Mexican Handicrafts).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Bettina

    This booklet contains instructions in English and Spanish for making eleven typical Mexican craft articles. The instructions are accompanied by pen-and-ink drawings. The objects are (1) "La Rosa" (The Rose); (2) "El Crisantemo" (The Chrysanthemum); (3) "La Amapola" (The Poppy); (4) "Ojos de Dios" (God's Eyes); (5) "Ojitos con dos caras" (Two-Sided…

  12. Wound-induced and bacteria-induced xylem blockage in roses, Astilbe and Viburnum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loubaud, M.; Doorn, van W.G.

    2004-01-01

    We previously concluded that the xylem blockage that prevents water uptake into several cut flowers is mainly due to the presence of bacteria, whilst in chrysanthemum and Bouvardia we observed a xylem occlusion that was mainly due to a wound-reaction of the plant. We have further tested which of the

  13. Oxygenated phosphine fumigation for control of light brown apple moth, Epiphyas postvittana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), eggs on cut-flowers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Light brown apple moth, Epiphyas postvittana, eggs were subjected to oxygenated phosphine fumigation treatments on cut flowers to determine efficacy and safety. Five cut flower species: roses, lilies, tulips, gerbera daisy, and pompon chrysanthemums, were fumigated in separate groups with 2500 ppm ...

  14. Analysis of Volatile oil from Flos Chrysanthemi by GC-MS%菊花挥发油成分的GC-MS分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭昌洪; 黄爱华; 许汉香

    2012-01-01

    目的:对菊花的挥发油成分进行分析,为菊花的综合利用提供指导.方法:采用水蒸气蒸馏法提取菊花挥发油,经乙酸乙酯萃取处理,以GC-MS法分析其化学成分.结果:在菊花的挥发油中检测出74个化合物,确认了其中24个.结论:菊花挥发油中主要成分中,1-甲基-5-亚甲基-8-异丙基-1,6-环癸二烯(15.777%)含量最高,有7个化合物为以往文献中未曾报道.%Objective; To analyze the constituents of volatile oil from Chrysanthemum to provide guidance for comprehensive utilization of Chrysanthemum. Method: The volatile oil from Chrysanthemum was extracted by steam distillation followed by ethyl acetate extraction. The chemical compositions were analyzed by GC-MS method. Result: Seventy-four compounds of volatile oil from Chrysanthemum were detected, among them, 24 ones were confirmed. Conclusion; Among the constituents in volatile oil from Chrysanthemum, l-methyl-methylene-8-isopropyl-l ,6-ring-5-decadiene (15.777% ) is the main component, and 7 other compounds have not bepn reported in the literature before.

  15. Nondestructive, stereological estimation of canopy surface area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wulfsohn, Dvora-Laio; Sciortino, Marco; Aaslyng, Jesper M.;

    2010-01-01

    We describe a stereological procedure to estimate the total leaf surface area of a plant canopy in vivo, and address the problem of how to predict the variance of the corresponding estimator. The procedure involves three nested systematic uniform random sampling stages: (i) selection of plants from...... is high. Using a grid intensity of 1.76 cm2/point we estimated plant and canopy surface areas with accuracies similar to or better than those obtained using image analysis and a commercial leaf area meter. For canopy surface areas of approximately 1 m2 (10 plants), the fractionator leaf approach...... a canopy using the smooth fractionator, (ii) sampling of leaves from the selected plants using the fractionator, and (iii) area estimation of the sampled leaves using point counting. We apply this procedure to estimate the total area of a chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum morifolium L.) canopy and evaluate both...

  16. Growth response of container-grown plants in potting media amended with lignite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamp, M.

    1983-01-01

    A peat-vermiculite (50/50 v/v) potting medium was amended with 25 or 33% lignite by volume to determine if this could be used as a major media component for the culture of several greenhouse crops. Lignite-amended media did not alter the growth parameters of Pelargonium at 25 and 33% lignite. With 25% lignite Philodendron selloum grew as well as controls but at 33% growth was reduced and the leaves exhibited some phytotoxocity. Ficus benjamina, Ardisia humilis, poinsettias and Chrysanthemum morifolium responded poorly to lignite-amended media and leaf phytotoxicity was observed on plants with reduced growth. Leaf phytotoxicity in Chrysanthemum and Philodendron was not related to an excess of minor element content in the leaves. 3 references.

  17. Extraction and Purification of Depigmenting Agents from Chinese Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Depigmenting agents were solvent-extracted and purified by preparative and analytical HPLC from three Chinese plants; Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat( Xizang Caijuhua), Rhodiola sachalinensis, and Terminalia chebula Retzius. Four fractions obtained from the ethyl ether layer of C. m. Rama and two fractions from the ethyl acetate layer of Rhodiola salientness show depigmenting effects. At δ 200, the ethyl acetate layers of Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat, Rhodiola sachalinensis and the methanol extract of Terminalia chebula Retzius, can inhibit the melanin production of mouse B16 melanoma cells by 92%, 60% and 90%, respectively, whereas 46% inhibition was observed by commercially available depigmenting agents(arbutin). These results show the potential of these three Chinese plants as a novel resource for depigmenting agents in the cosmetic industry.

  18. Efficacy of Some Botanical Extracts against Trogoderma granarium in Wheat Grains with Toxicity Evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    In an attempt to find alternative control methods for stored products insects, extracts of seven plant species (Cassia senna, Caesalpinia gilliesii, Thespesia populnea var. acutiloba, Chrysanthemum frutescens, Euonymus japonicus, Bauhinia purpurea, and Cassia fistula) were evaluated under laboratory conditions for their ability to protect wheat (Triticum spp.) grains against Trogoderma granarium insect. Moreover, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis was carried to identify t...

  19. Effect of alternative prey on development and consumption of Orius insidiosus (Say) (Hemiptera, Anthocoridae) and oviposition behavior on chrysantemum cultivars; Efeito da presa alternativa no desenvolvimento e consumo de Orius insidiosus (Say) (Hemiptera, Anthocoridae) e comportamento de oviposicao em cultivares de crisantemo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soglia, Maria da Conceicao M. [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Cruz das Almas, BA (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Agrarias e Ambientais], e-mail: mcsoglia@yahoo.com.br; Bueno, Vanda Helena Paes; Carvalho, Livia Mendes [Universidade Federal de Lavras (UFLA), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Entomologia], e-mail: vhpbueno@ufla.br

    2007-10-15

    This work aimed to evaluate the development time and the consumption of Orius insidiosus (Say, 1832) feeding on Aphis gossypii Glover, 1877 as well as its oviposition behavior on two chrysanthemum cut cultivars. The trials were conducted in climatic chamber at 25 {+-} 1 deg C, RH 70 {+-} 10% and 12h photo phase. Nymphs of the predator, less than 24h old, were kept individually in petri dishes (5cm) with 20 nymphs of A. gossypii (first, second and third instar) on leaf disc (4 cm) of each cultivar ('White Reagan' and 'Yellow Snowdon') in a layer of agar-water (1%). Petiole of each chrysanthemum cultivar as oviposition substrate was evaluated and the females were feeding on eggs of Anagasta kuehniella (Zeller, 1879). The predator complete its development feeding on A. gossypii kept in both cultivars. The duration of nymphal phase of O. insidiosus were 21.1 and 18.3 days on 'White Reagan' and 'Yellow Snowdon', respectively. The consumption of the females of O. insidiosus was higher (P<0.01) on A. gossypii in 'White Reagan' (2.63 nymphs) compared to the consumption in 'Yellow Snowdon' (0.7 nymphs). Females of O. insidiosus oviposited in petiole of both cultivars with 22.5 and 23.3 eggs/female on 'White Reagan' and 'Yellow Snowdon', respectively. Release of O. insidiosus on chrysanthemum crops could be important to decrease the A. gossypii population, as the predator completes its development having this aphid as prey, and the chrysanthemum cultivars offer conditions to colonization and establishment of O. insidiosus. (author)

  20. Studies in plant pathogenic fungi—II. On some powdery mildews (Erysiphales) recently recorded from the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Noordeloos, M.E.; Loerakker, W.M.

    1989-01-01

    Full descriptions and notes on their pathogenous properties are given of the anamorphs of four powdery mildews recently recorded as new from the Netherlands. Two are described as new species, viz. Oidium longipes on Solarium melongena and O. limnanthis on Limnanthes alba. Oidium lycopersicum Cooke & Massee is redescribed on account of the study of the holotype and recently collected material, and an Oidium sp. occurring on Chrysanthemum morifolium is critically compared with the existing desc...

  1. Epithermal Neutron Activation Analysis of the Asian Herbal Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baljinnyam, N.; Jugder, B.; Norov, N.; Frontasyeva, M. V.; Ostrovnaya, T. M.; Pavlov, S. S.

    2011-06-01

    Asian medicinal herbs Chrysanthemum (Spiraea aquilegifolia Pall.) and Red Sandalwood (Pterocarpus Santalinus) are widely used in folk and Ayurvedic medicine for healing and preventing some diseases. The modern medical science has proved that the Chrysanthemum (Spiraea aquilegifolia Pall.) possesses the following functions: reducing blood press, dispelling cancer cell, coronary artery's expanding and bacteriostating and Red Sandalwood (Pterocarpus Santalinus) is recommended against headache, toothache, skin diseases, vomiting and sometimes it is taken for treatment of diabetes. Species of Chrysanthemums were collected in the north-eastern and central Mongolia, and the Red Sandalwood powder was imported from India. Samples of Chrysanthemums (branches, flowers and leaves) (0.5 g) and red sandalwood powder (0.5 g) were subjected to the multi-element instrumental neutron activation analysis using epithermal neutrons (ENAA) at the IBR-2 reactor, Frank Laboratory of Neutron Physics (FLNP) JINR, Dubna. A total of 41 elements (Na, Mg, Al, Cl, K, Ca, Sc, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Zn, As, Se, Br, Rb, Sr, Zr, Mo, Cd, Cs, Ba, La, Hf, Ta, W, Sb, Au, Hg, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Tb, Dy, Yb, Th, U, Lu) were determined. For the first time such a large group of elements was determined in the herbal plants used in Mongolia. The quality control of the analytical results was provided by using certified reference material Bowen Cabbage. The results obtained are compared to the "Reference plant» data (B. Markert, 1992) and interpreted in terms of excess of such elements as Se, Cr, Ca, Fe, Ni, Mo, and rare earth elements.

  2. The impression on Bian Yukuan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆定纲

    2006-01-01

    He is a famous Chinese magic artist,a well reputed entrepreneur in exploiting the cultural market,a pioneer in reforming literary troupe system,and a cultural emissary who have made a great contribution to promote cultural exchanges between China and foreign countries.This man is Bian Yukuan, the winner of 2004 Gold Chrysanthemum Long-Life Achieve- ment Awards.the establisher and president of Malaysia Inter- national Cultural Exchange Co.,Ltd.

  3. Application of Two-spotted Spider Mite Tetranychus urticae for Plant-pest Interaction Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Cazaux, Marc; Navarro, Marie; Bruinsma, Kristie A; Zhurov, Vladimir; Negrave, Tara; Van Leeuwen, Thomas; Grbic, Vojislava; Grbic, Miodrag

    2014-01-01

    The two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae, is a ubiquitous polyphagous arthropod herbivore that feeds on a remarkably broad array of species, with more than 150 of economic value. It is a major pest of greenhouse crops, especially in Solanaceae and Cucurbitaceae (e.g., tomatoes, eggplants, peppers, cucumbers, zucchini) and greenhouse ornamentals (e.g., roses, chrysanthemum, carnations), annual field crops (such as maize, cotton, soybean, and sugar beet), and in perennial cultures (alfa...

  4. Production of lignocellulolytic enzymes from floriculture residues using Pleurotus ostreatus

    OpenAIRE

    Quevedo-Hidalgo, Balkys; Pontificia Universidad Javeriana; Narváez-Rincón, Paulo Cesar; Pedroza-Rodríguez, Aura Marina; Velásquez-Lozano, Mario Enrique

    2014-01-01

    Floriculture is a vital agro-industrial sector in the Colombian economy; the export of flowers positively impacts employment and the balance of trade. However, this industry could negatively impact the environment if its waste products are not handled properly. These flower residues, rich in lignin, hemicellulose and cellulose, could be a cost-effective raw material to produce enzymes. Here, we evaluate the production of lignocellulolytic enzymes by degradation of Chrysanthemum and Rosa resid...

  5. The Pigment Aztec Marigold and the Muskmelon Interplanting Cultivation Technique Studies%色素万寿菊与香瓜套作丰产栽培技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄前晶

    2011-01-01

    通过菊瓜“3+1+3”立体丰产栽培方式,获得色素万寿菊平均产量5842.5kg/667m2,比对照增产28%,香瓜产量2100kg/667m2,菊瓜套作纯效益5883.6元/667m2,达到了菊瓜双赢的效果。%Through the "3+1+3" three-dimensional high-yield cultivation mode of the chrysanthemum and melon, the average output of 3 842.5 kg/667m2 for pigment aztec marigold was obtained by 28% yield increase. Muskmelon output reached 2 1(30 kg/667m2. The pure benefit for Chrysanthemum and melon interplant is 3 883.6 Yuan /667m2. This cultivation technique is both good for the chrysanthemum and melon.

  6. In vitro inhibitory effects of plant-based foods and their combinations on intestinal α-glucosidase and pancreatic α-amylase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adisakwattana Sirichai

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plant-based foods have been used in traditional health systems to treat diabetes mellitus. The successful prevention of the onset of diabetes consists in controlling postprandial hyperglycemia by the inhibition of α-glucosidase and pancreatic α-amylase activities, resulting in aggressive delay of carbohydrate digestion to absorbable monosaccharide. In this study, five plant-based foods were investigated for intestinal α-glucosidase and pancreatic α-amylase. The combined inhibitory effects of plant-based foods were also evaluated. Preliminary phytochemical analysis of plant-based foods was performed in order to determine the total phenolic and flavonoid content. Methods The dried plants of Hibiscus sabdariffa (Roselle, Chrysanthemum indicum (chrysanthemum, Morus alba (mulberry, Aegle marmelos (bael, and Clitoria ternatea (butterfly pea were extracted with distilled water and dried using spray drying process. The dried extracts were determined for the total phenolic and flavonoid content by using Folin-Ciocateu’s reagent and AlCl3 assay, respectively. The dried extract of plant-based food was further quantified with respect to intestinal α-glucosidase (maltase and sucrase inhibition and pancreatic α-amylase inhibition by glucose oxidase method and dinitrosalicylic (DNS reagent, respectively. Results The phytochemical analysis revealed that the total phenolic content of the dried extracts were in the range of 230.3-460.0 mg gallic acid equivalent/g dried extract. The dried extracts contained flavonoid in the range of 50.3-114.8 mg quercetin equivalent/g dried extract. It was noted that the IC50 values of chrysanthemum, mulberry and butterfly pea extracts were 4.24±0.12 mg/ml, 0.59±0.06 mg/ml, and 3.15±0.19 mg/ml, respectively. In addition, the IC50 values of chrysanthemum, mulberry and butterfly pea extracts against intestinal sucrase were 3.85±0.41 mg/ml, 0.94±0.11 mg/ml, and 4.41±0.15 mg/ml, respectively

  7. Disinfestation of agricultural products with electron beams and their radiation tolerance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayashi, Toru [National Food Research Inst., Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    Some agricultural products contaminated with insect pests are fumigated with methyl bromide for quarantine purposes. However, the use of methyl bromide is preferably restricted because of its ozone depleting effect. Therefore, establishing alternative quarantine techniques is highly desirable; one such technique is exposure to ionizing radiation. Few data are available on the effects of radiation on insect pests other than fruit flies and stored-product insects and on the radiation tolerance of host commodities. Radiation technology as an alternative to methyl bromide fumigation will be used to inactivate not only insects but also mites, spider mites, thrips, nematodes, scales, mealybugs and thrips contaminating fruits, grains, cut flowers, vegetables, timbers, seedlings and seeds. In order to collect data on the effects of irradiation on pests and host commodities, IAEA and FAO have conducted an international project, `FAO/IAEA Coordinated Research Programme on Irradiation as a Quarantine Treatment of Mites, Nematodes and Insects other than Fruit Fly` since 1992. The project determines the minimum doses necessary to inactivate pests and the maximum doses host commodities tolerate. All pests except nematodes can be inactivated at doses 400Gy or lower. Various varieties of cut flowers and herbs are tolerant to 400Gy of radiation, although some flowers and herbs such as chrysanthemum, rose, lily, calla, anthurium, sweet pea, iris, dill, basil and arugula are intolerant to 200Gy of radiation. Japanese research project on treatment of cut flowers with electron beams carried out mainly by Yokohama Plant Protection Station greatly contributes to these conclusions. Aqueous solution (2%) of sucrose, glucose, fructose or maltose prevents radiation-induced detrimental effects of radiation on chrysanthemums. Sugars reduce radiation-induced physiological deterioration of chrysanthemums. (author)

  8. 中草药配合治疗牙周炎疗效观察%Analyse Disinfection and Maintenance Method for Dental High-speed Air Turbine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李慧宏; 杭清

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Apply Herbs such as honeysuckle and wild chrysanthemum to treat Periodontitis. Methods: Divide 192 of Periodontitis patients into 2 groups: test group (96 patients) and control group (96 patients). Test group patients drunk honeysuckle and wild chrysanthemum tea after the treatment, which including scaling gum, cleaning perio-dontal pocket and applying medicine in the infection part. And gave same treatments to control group patients, with no herb tea. Results: The effective rate from test group is 96.9%. The effective rate of control group is 81.2%. There were significant difference between two groups by chi square test ( P < 0. 005 ). Conclusion: Honeysuckle and wild chrysanthemum have good effect towards Periodontitis treatment.%目的:探讨用中草药金银花、野菊花配合治疗牙周炎疗效.方法:将192例牙周炎患者随机分两组:治疗组96例,对照组96例.治疗组龈下刮治、牙周袋冲洗和局部上药后,配合金银花、野菊花每天开水泡服等治疗.对照组龈下刮治,牙周袋冲洗和局部上药等治疗.两组给予相同的护理措施.比较两组疗效.结果:治疗组有效率96.9%.对照组有效率81.2%.两组比较有统计学意义(P <0.005).结论:金银花、野菊花配合治疗牙周炎疗效显著.

  9. Radiation degradation of alginate and some results of biological effect of degraded alginate on plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hien, N.Q.; Hai, L.; Luan, L.Q.; Hanh, T.T. [Nuclear Research Institute, Dalat (Viet Nam); Nagasawa, Naotsugu; Yoshii, Fumio; Makuuchi, Keizo; Kume, Tamikazu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    2000-03-01

    Radiation degradation yields (Gd) of alginate in aqueous solution with different concentration were determined by viscometry method. The relationship between Gd and the alginate concentration was found out as: Gd=33.5 x C{sup -0.68}, with C% (w/v) and dry alginate referred to C=100%. An empirical equation for preparing degraded alginate with the desired low viscometry average molecular weight (Mv) by radiation was proposed. Alginate extracted directly horn seaweed'Sagassum, degraded by radiation was used for field experiments and results of the biological effect on plants (tea, carrot, chrysanthemum) were presented. (author)

  10. [The incidence of occupationally-induced allergic skin diseases in a large flower market].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausen, B M; Oestmann, G

    1988-01-01

    150 questionnaires as well as epicutaneous tests in 56 individuals from a total of 675 persons cultivating and selling ornamental plants at the largest German flower market revealed that half of those investigated were suffering from allergic contact dermatitis. The leading plant species with sensitizing properties was found to be the chrysanthemum, followed by tulips and Alstroemeria cultivars. Allergic reactions to daffodils and primulas were rarely observed. Most of the reactions obtained with other Compositae species such as arnica, marguerite, sunflower, tansy and yarrow must be interpreted as cross-reactions due to the fact that cross-reactivity predominates within the sesquiterpene lactone constituents of the various Compositae species.

  11. 小说《菊花》环境、细节及夫妻话轮的寓意评析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔桂英

    2011-01-01

    《菊花》(The Chrysanthemums)是美国20世纪著名的现实主义小说家约翰.斯坦贝克(John Steinbeck)的一篇杰作。小说创作于1938年,背景是美国加州的一个山谷丘陵地带的牧场,故事中的女主人伊莉莎在院子精心培植菊花,丈夫亨利谈完生意后来提议晚上外出吃饭。亨利走后,

  12. Scientific Opinion on the assessment of the risk of solanaceous pospiviroids for the EU territory and the identification and evaluation of risk management options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, R.; Candresse, T.; Dormannsné Simon, E.

    2011-01-01

    (PSTVd). The risk assessment included PSTVd, Citrus exocortis viroid, Columnea latent viroid, Mexican papita viroid, Tomato apical stunt viroid, Tomato chlorotic dwarf viroid, Tomato planta macho viroid, Chrysanthemum stunt viroid and Pepper chat fruit viroid. Four entry pathways were identified, three...... involving plant propagation material, with moderate probability of entry, and one involving plant products for human consumption, with low probability of entry. The probability of establishment was considered very high. Spread was considered likely within a crop and moderately likely between crop species...

  13. A supplementary description of Brevipalpus californicus (Acari: Trombidiformes: Tenuipalpidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Raissi Ardali

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The false spider mite Brevipalpus californicus from the family Tenuipalpidae was collected from Caucasian alnus, White willow, Persian raspberry and a wild Chrysanthemum bush in Mazandaran province. This species is reported as a new record to the false spider mites-fauna of Iran here. Reviewing literatures revealed that it was briefly described in the original paper without any measures. So, a completed description is presented based on the Iranian specimens and different body segments are drawn for B. californicus. In addition, the above plants are new host records for B. californicus.

  14. Reduction of radiation injury of fresh agricultural products by saccharide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayashi, Toru; Todoroki, Setsuko [National Food Research Inst., Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1998-02-01

    To establish irradiation technologies as one of alternative technology of methyl bromide fumigation, radiation sensitivities for each kind of fresh agricultural products and reduction of radiation injury were investigated. Fresh vegetables and flowers such as cabbage, sprouts, asparagus, lettuce, chrysanthemum, carnation, rose, etc. were used and irradiated with 750 Gy {gamma}-ray. Flowers received radiation injury were soaked into various kinds of solutions for one night, then they were irradiated with 500 Gy {gamma}-ray. They showed different radiation sensitivities. Cruciferae plant showed radioresistance and Compositae plant radiosensitivity. A keeping quality agent for cut flowers indicated protection effect on radiation injury. (S.Y.)

  15. The Garden of Festival of Pure Brightness on the River-The ancient Disneyland in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正>The annual chrysanthemum festival was held as scheduled in Kaifeng on October 28th, 1998. There was all in bloom and was full of tourists in this city that day.It was also the time to open the Garden of Festival of Pure Brightness on the River. Huge crowd of tourists seemed to be driven by a sort of great charm and moved into this fascinating place. All of them wanted to get the wonderful feeling that once they enter into this garden place, the place will take them back thousands of years in time.

  16. HOTEL INFORMATION SHANGHAI

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Radisson Plaza Xing Guo Hotel Shanghai Hairy Crab Feast Fall brings a breeze to the world. Having crabs with wine while chrysanthemums bloom is one of the season's most delicious highlights. This fall, the Li Palace Chinese Restaurant on the 4th floor of Radisson Plaza Xing Guo Hotel Shanghai, one of the top class Chinese restaurants in Shanghai, is prepared to serve you only the very best quality fresh water crabs from the Yangcheng Lake, which are juicier, bigger and better than ever before. From juicy...

  17. Effect of different pastures on CLA content in milk and sheep cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Piredda

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available It is known that milk composition included conjugated linoleic acid (CLA is affected by animal feeding system (Cabiddu et al., 2001. In Sardinia dairy sheep feeding is mainly based on pastures. Most of them are characterised by self-regenerating species, like annual ryegrass (Lolium rigidum Gaudin and burr medic (Medicago polymorpha L.. Non conventional species belonging to the Compositae family such as (Chrysanthemum coronarium L. seem interesting for sheep feeding when other herbages decrease in quality (late spring- early summer...

  18. Relation between parthenolideinduced cytotoxicity and COX—2 expression in nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LinYL; OngCN

    2002-01-01

    To investigate the potential anti-tumor effects and its relative its relative mechanism of active component in chrysanthemum,on human nasopharyngeal carcinoma(NPC).Parthenolide(PN) was used as tested substance and exposed to NPC cell lines,CNE1 and CNE2.Cell toxicity indexes and cyclooxygenase-2(COX-2) expression were determined.Results showed that in CNE1 cells,with high level COX-2,there were significant cytotoxicities after PN-treated.However,there were not inducible effects on CNE2 cells with low level COX-2.It was indicated that PN could induce cytotoxicity in NPC cell,which correlated with its intracellular COX-2 expression.

  19. Occupational allergy caused by flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, N W; Vermeulen, A M; Gerth van Wijk, R; de Groot, H

    1998-02-01

    We describe 14 consecutive patients with complaints due to the handling of flowers. The symptoms varied from allergic rhinoconjunctivitis and asthma to urticaria. Most patients had professions in the flower industry. Skin prick tests (SPT) were performed with home-made pollen extracts from 17 different flowers known to be the most commonly grown and sold in The Netherlands RAST against mugwort, chrysanthemum, and solidago was performed. The diagnosis of atopy against flowers was based on work-related symptoms due to the handling of flowers, positive SPT with flower extracts, and positive RAST. The concordance between SPT and case history was 74%, and that between SPT and RAST was 77% Extensive cross-sensitization was seen to pollen of several members of the Compositae family (e.g., Matricaria, chrysanthemum, solidago) and to pollen of the Amaryllidaceae family (Alstroemeria and Narcissus). Homemade flower extracts can be used to confirm IgE-mediated flower allergy. Mugwort can be used as a screening test for possible flower allergy. For most patients, the allergy led to a change of profession.

  20. The Double Nine Festival

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1993-01-01

    THE Double Nine Festival,which falls on theninth day of the ninth lunar month,is anancient tradition among Han Chinese.TheBook of Changes,a famous classic in ancient China,designates the number 9 as yang(the masculine orpositive principle in nature).Thus Double Nine isknown as Chongyang in Chinese,meaning doubleyang.In The Western Capital Miscellancy,Ge Hong(281-341)of the Eastern Jin Dynasty described onetraditional custom of the Western Han Dynasty (206B.C.-A.D.24):″Wearing medicinal comel (Cornusofficinalis),eating double yang cake and drinking chry-santhemum wine on the ninth day of the ninth lunarmonth all help to prolong life.″Therefore the DoubleNine Festival is also celebrated as a festival for the old.People often wear medicinal cornel and climb to ahigh place to drink chrysanthemum wine.The customcomes from a legend:Huan Jing was a student ofnecromancer Fei Changfang in the Eastern Han Dy-nasty (25-220). One day Fei warned Huan that thelatter’s family was in danger of suffering a diaster ont

  1. Antioxidant activities of aqueous extracts from 12 Chinese edible flowers in vitro and in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feng; Miao, Miao; Xia, Hui; Yang, Li-Gang; Wang, Shao-Kang; Sun, Gui-Ju

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The antioxidant function of edible flowers have attracted increasing interest. However, information is lacking on the impact of edible flowers on oxidative injury including hypoxia-re-oxygenation and hyperlipidemia. The antioxidant activities of aqueous extracts from 12 Chinese edible flowers were assessed in four different antioxidant models, including total antioxidant capacity (TAC), oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), scavenging hydroxyl radical capacity (SHRC) and scavenging superoxide anion radical capacity (SSARC). Subsequently, the potential antioxidant effects on rat cardiac microvascular endothelial cells (rCMEC) treated with hypoxia-re-oxygenation and hyperlipidemia rats induced by high-fat diet were also evaluated. The highest TAC, ORAC, SHRC and SSARC were Lonicera japonica Thunb., Rosa rugosa Thunb., Chrysanthemum indicum L. and Rosa rugosa Thunb., respectively. Most aqueous extracts of edible flowers exhibited good antioxidant effects on injury of rCMEC induced by hypoxia-re-oxygenation. In addition, the aqueous extracts of Lonicera japonica Thunb., Carthamus tinctorius L., Magnolia officinalis Rehd. et Wils., Rosmarinus officinalis L. and Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat. could suppress the build-up of oxidative stress by increasing serum superoxide dismutase, glutathion peroxidase, and reducing malonaldehyde concentration in hyperlipidemia rats. These findings provided scientific support for screening edible flowers as natural antioxidants and preventative treatments for oxidative stress-related diseases.

  2. Phylogenetic Relationship of Dendranthema (DC.) Des Moul. Revealed by Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Si-Lan DAI; Wen-Kui WANG; Mao-Xue LI; Ying-Xiu XU

    2005-01-01

    Phylogenetic relationships of the different species in the genus Dendranthema (DC.) Des Moul. were estimated based on chromosome fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) with 18S-26S rDNA of Arabidopsis and genomic DNA of Dendranthema as probes. The results revealed that there was no positive correlation between the number of nuclear organization region (NOR) loci and the ploidy of Dendranthema.The exact cytogenetic information of NORs about 14 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) indicated that D.vestitum (Hemsl.) Ling et Shih was closer to the cultivars than other putative species, whereas D. zawadskii (Herb.) Tzvel. was the most distinct. The ambiguously distributed signals of genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) with genomic DNA of lower ploidy species as probes suggested that different genomes among Dendranthema were mixed. The result also indicated the limitation of GISH in studies on the phylogenetic relationships of the different species in this genus Dendranthema and on the origin of cultivated chrysanthemums. Based on these results and previous research, the origin of Chinese cultivated chrysanthemum is discussed.

  3. Colorimetric analysis of edible flower of Dendranthema grandiflorum processed by ionizing radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koike, Amanda C. Ramos; Rodrigues, Flavio Thihara; Fanaro, Gustavo Bernardes; Villavicencio, Anna Lucia C.H., E-mail: amandaramosk@gmail.com [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Edible flowers can be used to add flavor, color, taste and visual appeal to culinary preparations as salads, soups, desserts and drinks. There are many edible flowers rich in minerals, vitamins, pollen, nectar and other essential nutrients that are important for human nutrition. Food irradiation is a viable technology for disinfestation of insect, to increase extending the shelf life of perishable products and improving the hygienic quality of food. The irradiation technology is a good alternative method to replace chemical fumigation of pest insects present in foods and flowers. The purpose of this study was evaluate the color of Dendranthema grandiflorum exposed low-dose ionizing radiation: 0.3 kGy, 0.4 kGy, 0.5 kGy, 0.6 kGy, 0.7 kGy, and 0.8 kGy of {sup 60}Co using colorimeter (Konica Minolta Chroma Meter CR-400), were used samples of chrysanthemum in yellow, white and red. The petals of the flowers were used for the chromaticity value. The samples of irradiated chrysanthemum (white, yellow and red) processed with 0.3 to 0.6 kGy haven't shown significantly difference when compared to the control sample, the dose of 0.3 kGy, dose it is necessary to sterilize. (author)

  4. Effect of the hydroalcoholic extracts from plants on Colorado beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say.. Note II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MORAR G.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Twenty eight products, obtained from plant extracts, were used to fight against Colorado bug, on theterms of ecological agriculture. It was noticed that: 1. Vegetal extract may serve as an alternative to fightingagainst Colorado bug in potato cultivars, especially at those which are designated to obtain an ecological crop;2. The best result in fighting against Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say. were obtained with extract fromChrysanthemum cinerariaefolium Trev., Chrysanthemum balsamita var canfora and Ruta corsica, all in usedconcentration of 20%.The treatment efficiency against larvae of 99,01 %, 93,06 % and 96,83 %, efficiencywhich are comparable with those obtained with the help of synthesis insecticide; 3. The lowest result wereobtained with extracts from Artemisia absinthium L., Taracxacum officinale L. and Tagetes erecta L., efficiencyof 7,14 % and 72,22 %; 4. The extracts from Artemisia absinthium L., Taracxacum officinale L. and Tageteserecta have repulsive effect for adults, these avoiding for punting on plants treated with these extracts.

  5. [Determination of trace elements in new food sources by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li E; Ding, Li; Qi, Min; Han, Xiu Li; Zhang, Hong-Quan

    2007-07-01

    Samples were digested by HNO3 + HClO4. Flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry (FAAS) was successfully used to determine copper, zinc and iron in new resource food. Under our experimental conditions, the recovery ratio was 94.66%-108.80%; the precision was 0.71%-4.78%. This method of measuring elements is convenient, rapid and accurate. The results showed that there are profitable elements, such as copper, zinc and iron in new resourse food in Henan province. By F test and SNK test, the content sequence of metal elements was found as follows: copper, Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat = Silkworm pupa > flowers of Pueraria lobata Ohwin = Wheat germ = Codonopsis lanceolata = roots of Pueraria lobata Ohwi > Opuntia dillenii Haw. Zinc, Opuntia dillenii Haw > Silkworm pupa = flowers of Pueraria lobata Ohwi = roots of Pueraria lobata Ohwi = Wheat germ = Codonopsis lanceolata = Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat. Iron, Silkworm pupa = C hrysanthemum morifolium Ramat = roots of Pueraria lobata Ohwi > flowers of Pueraria lobata Ohwi = Wheat germ = Codonopis lanceolata = Opuntia dillenii Haw.

  6. Reducing plant uptake of PAHs by cationic surfactant-enhanced soil retention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu Li, E-mail: ll19840106@zju.edu.c [Department of Environmental Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310028 (China); Zhu Lizhong, E-mail: zlz@zju.edu.c [Department of Environmental Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310028 (China); Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Environmental Remediation and Ecological Health, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310029 (China)

    2009-06-15

    Reducing the transfer of contaminants from soils to plants is a promising approach to produce safe agricultural products grown on contaminated soils. In this study, 0-400 mg/kg cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTMAB) and dodecylpyridinium bromide (DDPB) were separately utilized to enhance the sorption of PAHs onto soils, thereby reducing the transfer of PAHs from soil to soil solution and subsequently to plants. Concentrations of phenanthrene and pyrene in vegetables grown in contaminated soils treated with the cationic surfactants were lower than those grown in the surfactant-free control. The maximum reductions of phenanthrene and pyrene were 66% and 51% for chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum coronarium L.), 62% and 71% for cabbage (Brassica campestris L.), and 34% and 53% for lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), respectively. Considering the impacts of cationic surfactants on plant growth and soil microbial activity, CTMAB was more appropriate to employ, and the most effective dose was 100-200 mg/kg. - Cationic surfactants could enhance the retention of PAHs in soil, and reduce PAH transfer to and accumulation in vegetables.

  7. Pharmacologically tested aldose reductase inhibitors isolated from plant sources—A concise report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    D.K.Patel; R.Kumar; K.Sairam; S.Hemalatha

    2012-01-01

    Aldose reductase (AR),a cytosolic,monomeric oxidoreductase,is a key enzyme in the polyol pathway which controls the conversion of glucose to sorbitol.The accumulation of sorbitol by the activation of AR enzymes in lens,retina,and sciatic nerves leads to the cause of diabetic defects resulting in various secondary complications,viz.retinopathy,neuropathy,nephropathy and Alzheimer's disease.Thus,reduction of the polyol pathway flux by AR inhibitors could be a potential therapeutic opening in the treatment and prevention of diabetic complications.At present,the AR inhibitors belong to two different chemical classes.One is the hydantoin derivatives,such as Sorbinil,Dilantin,and Minalrestat,and the other is the carboxylic acid derivatives,such as Epalrestat,Alrestatin,and Tolrestat.However,it is known that most of these synthethic compounds have unacceptable side-effects.Well known medicinal plants like Chrysanthemum indicum,Chrysanthemum morifolium,Prunus mume,Myrcia multiflora,Centella asiatica,and Salacia reticulata,Salacia oblonga,and Salacia chinensis exhibited potent AR inhibitory activity.The present review summarizes the list of plant material,and their isolated phytoconstituents which have been tested for their AR inhibitory activity.This litreature review covers the period to 2011,and a total of 72 plants are listed.

  8. Tolerance of Chrysantemum maximum to heavy metals: The potential for its use in the revegetation of tailings heaps

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ma.del Carmen A; González-Chávez; Rogelio Carrillo-González

    2013-01-01

    To find if ornamental plants are applicable to the remediation of metal-polluted areas,the tolerance of chrysanthemum plants (Chysanthemum maximum) var.Shasta to different metals under hydroponic conditions was studied.Their responses as influenced by the mycorrhizal fungus Glomus mosseae (Nicol.& Gerd.) Gerdemann & Trappe BEG25 on substrates containing mine residues were also investigated.Our results showed that chrysanthemum is a metal-tolerant plant under hydroponic conditions,plants behaving as Pb-excluders,whereas Cd,Cu and Ni were accumulated in roots.Low accumulation in flowers was observed for Cd and Cu but it was concentration-dependent.Ni and Pb were not translocated to flowers.Shoot biomass was not significantly affected by the different rates of mine residue addition for both mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal plants.Mycorrhizal plants accumulated less Pb and Cu in both shoots and roots than non-mycorrhizal plants.Chysanthemum could be a prospective plant for revegetation of tailings and the use of inoculation may decrease plant metal accumulation in polluted soils.

  9. Oxygenated Phosphine Fumigation for Control of Light Brown Apple Moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) Eggs on Cut-Flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Samuel S; Liu, Yong-Biao; Simmons, Gregory S

    2015-08-01

    Light brown apple moth, Epiphyas postvittana (Walker), eggs were subjected to oxygenated phosphine fumigation treatments under 70% oxygen on cut flowers to determine efficacy and safety. Five cut flower species: roses, lilies, tulips, gerbera daisy, and pompon chrysanthemums, were fumigated in separate groups with 2,500 ppm phosphine for 72 h at 5°C. Egg mortality and postharvest quality of cut flowers were determined after fumigation. Egg mortalities of 99.7-100% were achieved among the cut flower species. The treatment was safe to all cut flowers except gerbera daisy. A 96-h fumigation treatment with 2,200 ppm phosphine of eggs on chrysanthemums cut flowers also did not achieve complete control of light brown apple moth eggs. A simulation of fumigation in hermetically sealed fumigation chambers with gerbera daisy showed significant accumulations of carbon dioxide and ethylene by the end of 72-h sealing. However, oxygenated phosphine fumigations with carbon dioxide and ethylene absorbents did not reduce the injury to gerbera daisy, indicating that it is likely that phosphine may directly cause the injury to gerbera daisy cut flowers. The study demonstrated that oxygenated phosphine fumigation is effective against light brown apple moth eggs. However, it may not be able to achieve the probit9 quarantine level of control and the treatment was safe to most of the cut flower species.

  10. Plantas cultivadas e invasoras como habitat para predadores do gênero Orius(Wolff (Heteroptera: anthocoridae Crops and weeds as host plants Orius species (Heteroptera: anthocoridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Cláudio Paterno Silveira

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi registrar as espécies de Orius associadas a plantas cultivadas e invasoras presentes em uma localidade de Minas Gerais e três de São Paulo, nos anos de 1999 e 2000. As coletas foram realizadas através de batidas das plantas no interior de sacos plásticos para desalojar os insetos. Posteriormente, as espécies foram separadas em laboratório. O predador Orius insidiosus (Say foi coletado nas culturas de milho (Zea mays L., milheto (Pennisetum glaucum (L. R.Br., sorgo (Sorghum spp., feijão (Phaseolus vulgaris L., girassol (Helianthus annuus L., alfafa (Medicago sativa L., soja [Glycine max (L. Merr.], crisântemo (Chrysanthemum spp., tango (Solidago canadensis L. e cartamus (Carthamus tinctorius L. e nas plantas invasoras picão-preto (Bidens pilosa L., caruru (Amaranthus sp., losna-branca (Parthenium hysterophorus L. e apaga-fogo (Alternanthera ficoidea L.. Orius thyestes Herring foi encontrado nas plantas invasoras picão-preto, caruru e apaga-fogo. Orius perpunctatus (Reuter e Orius sp. foram coletados principalmente nas plantas invasoras picão-preto, caruru e apaga-fogo e no milho. Constatou-se que muitas dessas plantas são reservatórios naturais para esses predadores, em termos de habitat, abrigo, presas e pólen.The aim of this research was to record the Orius species present on some crops and weeds in areas located in the southeast region in Brazil, during 1999 and 2000. The insect collections were made through the tapping method to dislodge the insects from the plant into a plastic bag. The identifications of the specimens was done in the laboratory. Orius insidiosus (Say was collected on the following crops: corn (Zea mays L., pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum (L. R.Br., sorghum (Sorghum spp., bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L., sunflower (Helianthus annuus L., alfalfa (Medicago sativa L., soybean (Glycine max (L. Merr., chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum spp., tango (Solidago canadensis L. and carthamus

  11. 清热解毒酸奶加工工艺的研究%Research on the Processing Technology of Heat-clearing and Detoxifying Yoghurt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾鲁彦; 李志成; 鲁周民

    2015-01-01

    Heat-clearing and Detoxifying Yoghurt was taken from fresh milk as main raw material , with mung bean juice, wild chrysanthemum juice, honeysuckle juice and sugar used as auxiliary materials. Orthogonal test results showed that 4 kinds of supplementary materials dosage effect on fermentation results in order of mung bean juice > wild chrysanthemum juice > sucrose > honeysuckle juice. The best formula was mung bean juice 20 %, the wild chrysanthemum juice 8%, honeysuckle juice 4%and 8%of sucrose added. Sterilization cooling access accounted for 4%of the total volume of fermentation ,after fermentation and ripening the acidity of yogurt products in about 80 °T, the viable count≥107 CFU/mL. By taking this procedure, the yoghurt would have refreshing taste and pleasant flavor. Also , the procedure was qualified with national standards , the yoghurt would be able to produce in factory.%以鲜牛乳为主料,绿豆浆、野菊花汁、金银花汁、蔗糖为辅料,研究了新型清热解毒酸奶加工工艺.正交优化试验结果表明4种辅料添加量对发酵结果的影响顺序依次为绿豆浆>野菊花汁>蔗糖>金银花汁. 辅料最优添加量(占原料总量)分别为绿豆浆20%、野菊花汁8%、金银花汁4%、蔗糖8%,灭菌冷却后接入占总体积4%的发酵剂,经发酵及后熟所得酸奶产品酸度在80 °T左右,活菌数≥107 CFU/mL.采用此工艺加工的酸奶口感清爽、风味良好,符合国家酸奶产品标准,可用于工厂化生产.

  12. Studies on the Mixed Beverage from Corn and Pumpkin%玉米南瓜复合饮料的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何凤林

    2016-01-01

    Abstrat:The formulation and process parameters were discussed in this paper by studying the influence of the ratio of corn juice /pumpkin juice /chrysanthemum juice,citric acid,sugar and stabilizers on the mixed beverage and the influence of homogenization conditions on homogeneous effect,by using fresh sweet corn, fresh pumpkins and chrysanthemums as the main material.The results showed that:the best formula of mixed beverage was as follows:the ratio of corn juice /pumpkin juice /chrysanthemum juice of 4 ∶4 ∶2 ,white sugar added in an amount of 4%,citric acid added in an amount of 0.05%,compound stabilizers added in an amount of xanthan gum +CMC +sodium alginate =0.25% +0.25% +0.2%;homogenizing pressure was 40MPa,and homogenization time was 5min.%试验以新鲜甜玉米、新鲜南瓜和菊花为主要材料,将玉米和南瓜打浆榨汁,菊花提取取汁后,研究玉米汁/南瓜汁/菊花汁的配比、柠檬酸、白砂糖和稳定剂对复合饮料感官的影响,以及均质条件对饮料均质效果的影响,得出复合饮料的最佳调配配方和工艺参数。复合饮料的最佳配方为:玉米汁/南瓜汁/菊花汁的配比为4∶4∶2,白砂糖添加量为4%,柠檬酸添加量为0.05%,复合稳定剂的添加量为黄原胶+羧甲基纤维素钠+海藻酸钠=0.1%+0.1%+0.05%,得到综合感官评分为70分;均质压力为40MPa,均质时间为5min。

  13. 落叶经济林黄花梨林下套种油茶试验初报%Interplanting Camellia oleifera under Deciduous forest of Huanghua Pear

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余红英

    2014-01-01

    采用2 a生油茶嫁接苗在黄花梨盛果期(树龄15 a)林下进行不同方式套种(株间、行间、交叉点套种)造林对比试验,对造林后6 a油茶生长状况、结实量和黄花梨产量、质量进行调查。结果表明,以交叉点套种油茶单株效果最好,平均冠幅达141.0 cm,平均保存率91.5%,油茶籽产量达3.86 kg·株-1;交叉点套种和行间套种油茶对黄花梨产量的影响较小,单株产量、优质果率与对照(不套种)差异不显著;株间套种油茶对黄花梨产量的影响较大,单株产量比对照低20.4%,优质果率比对照低23.3%。%Different interplanting methods (inter-plant, inter-row and intersection) using 2 aCamellia oleifera grafted seedling interplanted with 15 a Huanghua pear tree were carried out, then the growth and coning quantity of 6 a plants ofC. oleifera, the production and quality of Huanghua pear were investigated. The results showed that: intersection planting was best for oil-tea, average crown breadth was upto 141.0 cm, the average survival rate was 91.5%, and the average yield ofC. oleifera seeds was 3.86 kg per plant; there was little effect on production of chrysanthemum pear by intersection and inter-row planting; while, inter-planting had great effect on production of chrysanthemum pear, the production per plant and high grade fruit rate of chrysanthemum pear were lower 20.4% and 23.3% than control, respectively.

  14. Mutation induction by ion beams in plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Atsushi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    2001-03-01

    The effect of ion beams such as C, He, and Ne ions was investigated on the mutation induction in plants with the expectation that ion beams of high linear energy transfer (LET) can frequently produce large DNA alternation such as inversion, translocation and large deletion rather than point mutation. Mutation frequency was investigated using Arabidopsis visible phenotype loci and was 8 to 33 fold higher for 220 MeV carbon ions than for electrons. Mutation spectrum was investigated on the flower color of chrysanthemum cv to find that flower mutants induced by ion beams show complex and stripe types rather than single color. Polymerase chain reaction analysis was performed to investigate DNA alteration of mutations. In conclusion, the characteristics of ion beams for the mutation induction are 1) high frequency, 2) broad mutation spectrum, and 3) novel mutants. (S. Ohno)

  15. Whack-A-Mole Model: Towards unified description of biological effect caused by radiation-exposure

    CERN Document Server

    Manabe, Yuichiro; Tsunoyama, Yuichi; Nakajima, Hiroo; Nakamura, Issei; Bando, Masako

    2014-01-01

    We present a novel model to estimate biological effects caused by artificial radiation exposure, Whack-a-mole (WAM) model. It is important to take account of the recovery effects during the time course of the cellular reactions. The inclusion of the dose-rate dependence is essential in the risk estimation of low dose radiation, while nearly all the existing theoretical models relies on the total dose dependence only. By analyzing the experimental data of the relation between the radiation dose and the induced mutation frequency of 5 organisms, mouse, drosophila, chrysanthemum, maize and tradescantia, we found that all the data can be reproduced by WAM model. Most remarkably, a scaling function, which is derived from WAM model, consistently accounts for the observed mutation frequencies of 5 organisms. This is the first rationale to account for the dose rate dependence as well as to give a unified understanding of a general feature of organisms.

  16. Arsenic speciation in Chinese Herbal Medicines and human health implication for inorganic arsenic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao-Juan; Zhao, Quan-Li; Sun, Guo-Xin; Williams, Paul; Lu, Xiu-Jun; Cai, Jing-Zhu; Liu, Wen-Ju

    2013-01-01

    Rice and drinking water are recognized as the dominant sources of arsenic (As) for human intake, while little is known about As accumulation and speciation in Chinese Herbal Medicines (CHMs), which have been available for many hundreds of years for the treatment of diseases in both eastern and western cultures. Inorganic arsenic was the predominant species in all of CHMs samples. The levels of inorganic arsenic in CHMs from fields and markets or pharmacies ranged from 63 to 550 ng/g with a mean of 208 ng/g and 94 to 8683 ng/g with a mean of 1092 ng/g, respectively. The highest concentration was found in the Chrysanthemum from pharmacies. It indicates that the risk of inorganic As in CHMs to human health is higher in medicines from markets or pharmacies than that collected directly from fields. Some CHMs may make a considerable contribution to the human intake of inorganic arsenic.

  17. Occupational allergic contact dermatitis caused by decorative plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamminpää, A; Estlander, T; Jolanki, R; Kanerva, L

    1996-05-01

    12 cases of occupational allergic contact dermatitis caused by decorative plants were diagnosed in a 14-year period. The patients were middle-aged, and their average exposure time was 13 years. The plant families and plants causing occupational contact dermatitis were Compositae (5 patients; chrysanthemum, elecampane, gerbera, feverfew), Alstroemeriaceae (5 patients, Alstroemeria), Liliaceae (4 patients; tulip, hyacinth), Amaryllidaceae (2 patients; narcissus) and Caryophyllaceae (2 patients; carnation, cauzeflower). The known chemical allergens causing dermatitis were tuliposide-A and sesquiterpene lactones, such as alantolactones and parthenolide, in the Liliaceae and Compositae families. 7 of the 12 patients were able to continue their work; 5 were not because of severe relapses of skin symptoms. The plant allergen and extract series currently available are of great help in the diagnosis.

  18. A handheld support system to facilitate stereological measurements and mapping of branching structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gardi, Jonathan Eyal; Wulfsohn, Dvoralai; Nyengaard, Jens Randel

    2007-01-01

    ‘BranchSampler' is a system for computer-assisted manual stereology written for handheld devices running Windows CE. The system has been designed specifically to streamline data collection and optimize sampling of tree-like branching structures, with particular aims of reducing user errors, savin...... in a specific generation (3) mapping fruit (apple) tree yield in an orchard, and (4) estimating the total leaf surface area of chrysanthemum plants in a greenhouse.......‘BranchSampler' is a system for computer-assisted manual stereology written for handheld devices running Windows CE. The system has been designed specifically to streamline data collection and optimize sampling of tree-like branching structures, with particular aims of reducing user errors, saving...

  19. THE SUBSECTION FOR SIGHTLESS PEOPLE IN “ANASTASIE FĂTU” BOTANIC GARDEN, “ALEXANDRU IOAN CUZA” UNIVERSITY OF IASI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    STĂNESCU IRINA-ELENA

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The Subsection for Sightless People belongs to the Ornamental Section and started in the autumn of 1991. In 2008 we tried to reorganize this subsection, first of all by enriching the collection of species exposed to the visitors, introducing a new model of labels and using especial props for the plants. Many species from Lamiaceae family have been chosen, characterized by a high level of essential oils, volatile phenolic compounds, alkaloids, balsams, tannins, liberating strong-scented odors, which facilitate their recognition by the sightless persons. At the same time, a lot of Asteraceae species are displayed, while in the autumn the sightless people enjoy the numerous chrysanthemum varieties from the Botanic Garden’s collection. All of the specimens bear labels with information in Latin and Braille System.

  20. Study on Tonghaosu and Its Analogs:Isolation, Structure Identification and Synthesis of Antifeedant B-ring-homo-tonghaosu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN,Li(陈立); YIN,Biao-Lin(尹标林); XU,Han-Hong(徐汉虹); CHIU,Ming-Hua(邱明华); WU,Yu-Lin(吴毓林)

    2004-01-01

    The methanolic extract from a Chinese endemic Chrysanthemum plant, Dendranthema indicum var. aromaticum, was found to show high antifeeding activity against Pieris brassicae L., and by bioassay-guided separation, the active component, B-ring-homo-tonghaosu, 2-(2',4'-hexadiynylidene)-1,6-dioxaspiro-[4,5]-dec-3-ene (2) was isolated. Its structure was elucidated by comparing its spectroscopic data with those of 2 reported in the literatures. Furthermore new convenient total synthesis methods of B-ring-homo-tonghaosu were also developed to confirm its structure and make its further application in crop protection available. In addition, extensive comparison of spectroscopic data showed that the structure of compound 21 reported in literature should be revised to 2.

  1. Evaluation of antibacterial activity and synergistic effect between antibiotic and the essential oils of some medicinal plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fadila Moussaoui; Tajelmolk Alaoui

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To demonstrate the in vitro antibacterial properties of five essential oils against ten bacterial strains and study the synergistic effect of the combination of essential oils with standard antibiotics.Methods:Origanum compactum,Chrysanthemum coronarium,Thymus willdenowii Boiss,Melissa officinalis and Origanum majorana L.were used alone and combined used with standard antibiotics to evaluate their antimicrobial activities.The disk diffusion method was employed.Results:The results showed that the combined application of the essential oils of the plants with antibiotics led to a synergistic effect in some cases,but antagonistic effect was also observed in some bacteria.Conclusions:This study shows that the combination of essential oils of the five plants with antibiotics may be useful in the fight against emerging microbial drug resistance.

  2. Evaluation of antibacterial activity and synergistic effect between antibiotic and the essential oils of some medicinal plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fadila Moussaoui; Tajelmolk Alaoui

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To demonstrate the in vitro antibacterial properties of five essential oils against ten bacterial strains and study the synergistic effect of the combination of essential oils with standard antibiotics. Methods: Origanum compactum, Chrysanthemum coronarium, Thymus willdenowii Boiss, Melissa officinalis and Origanum majorana L. were used alone and combined used with standard antibiotics to evaluate their antimicrobial activities. The disk diffusion method was employed. Results: The results showed that the combined application of the essential oils of the plants with antibiotics led to a synergistic effect in some cases, but antagonistic effect was also observed in some bacteria. Conclusions: This study shows that the combination of essential oils of the five plants with antibiotics may be useful in the fight against emerging microbial drug resistance.

  3. Effects of fluorides on metabolism and visible injury in cut-flower crops and citrus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woltz, S.S.; Waters, W.E.; Leonard, C.D.

    1971-01-01

    Fluoride taken up by gladiolus roots caused foliar damage only when soil pH was low and F/sup -/ containing superphosphate was applied in relatively excessive amounts. This damage to leaves occurred more to leaf interior than to margins and tips as in F/sup -/ fumigation. Fluoride in leaves was found to move passively with the transpirational stream of water and accumulated at the terminus of translocation. Rose and gladiolus cut-flowers were damaged by low concentrations of F/sup -/ in vase water whereas the chrysanthemum was less affected. De novo chlorophyll synthesis in Vigna sinensis seedling leaves was inhibited by F/sup -/ absorbed by detached seedling tops. Yield of Valencia orange fruit was depressed by air-borne F/sup -/. Valencia leaves (a) were reduced in size, (b) had decreased photosynthetic rates and (c) had decreased chlorophyll content in response to increasing levels of airborne F/sup -/. 11 references, 6 tables.

  4. Effects of electron beam irradiation on cut flowers and mites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dohino, Toshiyuki; Tanabe, Kazuo [Yokohama Plant Protection Station (Japan)

    1994-08-01

    Two spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae KOCH were irradiated with electron beams (2.5MeV) to develop an alternative quarantine treatment for imported cut flowers. The tolerance of eggs increased with age (1-5-day-old). Immature stages (larva-teleiochrysalis) irradiated at 0.4-0.8kGy increased tolerance with their development. Mated mature females irradiated at 0.4kGy or higher did not produce viable eggs, although temporary recovery was observed at 0.2kGy. Adult males were sterilized at 0.4kGy because non-irradiated virgin females mated with yielded female progeny malformed and sterilized. Various effects of electron beam irradiation were observed when nine species of cut flowers were irradiated in 5MeV Dynamitron accelerator. Chrysanthemum and rose were most sensitive among cut flowers. (author).

  5. Phytotoxic effect of SO2, NO2 and lead ions on the vegetative organs of decorative plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О. P. Pryimak

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Influence of acid gases and lead ions on the vegetative organs of decorative plants has been studied in a model experiment. The morphometric indices of stem and assimilative apparatus are considered. Changes of the plants height and assimilating area are described. The damage of plants’ sprouts was found. The phytotoxic effect of SO2, NO2 and lead ions on the growth and development of the above-ground organs was determined. The Tagetes patula L. is a resistant to the action of acid gases and lead ions. Calendula officinalis L., Salvia splendens L. and Chrysanthemum leucanthemum L. were determined to be most sensitive to the influence of by SO2, NO2 and Pb2+ respectively.

  6. Utilization of {gamma}-irradiation technique on plant mutation breeding and plant growth regulation in Tokyo Metropolitan Isotope Research Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suda, Hirokatsu [Tokyo Metropolitan Isotope Research Center (Japan)

    1997-03-01

    During about 30-years, we have developed {gamma}-irradiation technique and breeding back pruning method for the study of mutation breeding of ornamental plants. As a result, we have made a wide variety of new mutant lines in chrysanthemum, narcissus, begonia rex, begonia iron cross, winter daphne, zelkova, sweet-scented oleander, abelia, kobus, and have obtained 7 plant patents. By the use of {gamma}-irradiation to plant mutation breeding, we often observed that plants irradiated by low dose of {gamma}-rays showed superior or inferior growth than the of non-irradiated plants. Now, we established the irradiation conditions of {gamma}-rays for mutation breeding and growth of regulation in narcissus, tulip, Enkianthus perulatus Schneid., komatsuna, moyashi, african violet. In most cases, irradiation dose rate is suggested to be a more important factor to induce plant growth regulators than irradiation dose. (author)

  7. Whack-A-Mole Model: Towards a Unified Description of Biological Effects Caused by Radiation Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manabe, Yuichiro; Wada, Takahiro; Tsunoyama, Yuichi; Nakajima, Hiroo; Nakamura, Issei; Bando, Masako

    2015-04-01

    We present a novel model to for estimating biological effects caused by artificial radiation exposure, i.e., the Whack-A-Mole (WAM) model. It is important to take into account the recovery effects during the time course of cellular reactions. The inclusion of dose-rate dependence is essential in the risk estimation of low-dose radiation, while nearly all the existing theoretical models rely on the total dose dependence only. By analyzing experimental data of the relationship between the radiation dose and the induced mutation frequency of five organisms, namely, mouse, Drosophila, chrysanthemum, maize, Tradescantia, we found that all the data can be reproduced by the WAM model. Most remarkably, a scaling function, which is derived from the WAM model, consistently accounts for the observed mutation frequencies of the five organisms. This is the first rationale to account for the dose rate dependence as well as to provide a unified understanding of a general feature of organisms.

  8. The Analysis of Elisa’s Mind Journey from the Prospective of Feminism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李娜

    2013-01-01

    John Steinbeck(1902-1968) is a famous American novelist. The Chrysanthemums was considered to be one of his finest short stories which has become progressively more influential in gender studies during the following decades. As the protagonist, Elisa unfolds herself in front of the readers about her rebellion and submission to the reigning patriarchal ideology. In the paper, I try to present Elisa's mind journey in a male-dominating society, using gender studies analysis. The theme of this story is to de-scribe women’s position in a male-centered and controlled culture. In order to give a most justifiable analysis of the theme of this short story, I base my study of Elisa's mind journey on the prospective of gender studies.

  9. Supplemental food that supports both predator and pest: a risk for biological control?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leman, Ada; Messelink, Gerben J

    2015-04-01

    Supplemental food sources to support natural enemies in crops are increasingly being tested and used. This is particularly interesting for generalist predators that can reproduce on these food sources. However, a potential risk for pest control could occur when herbivores also benefit from supplemental food sources. In order to optimize biological control, it may be important to select food sources that support predator populations more than herbivore populations. In this study we evaluated the nutritional quality of four types of supplemental food for the generalist predatory mites Amblyseius swirskii Athias-Henriot and Amblydromalus (Typhlodromalus) limonicus (Garman and McGregor), both important thrips predators, and for the herbivore western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis Pergande, by assessing oviposition rates. These tests showed that application of corn pollen, cattail pollen or sterilized eggs of Ephestia kuehniella Zeller to chrysanthemum leaves resulted in three times higher oviposition rates of thrips compared to leaves without additional food. None of the tested food sources promoted predatory mites or western flower thrips exclusively. Decapsulated cysts of Artemia franciscana Kellogg were not suitable, whereas cattail pollen was very suitable for both predatory mites and western flower thrips. In addition, we found that the rate of thrips predation by A. swirskii can be reduced by 50 %, when pollen is present. Nevertheless, application of pollen or Ephestia eggs to a chrysanthemum crop still strongly enhanced the biological control of thrips with A. swirskii, both at low and high release densities of predatory mites through the strong numerical response of the predators. Despite these positive results, application in a crop should be approached with caution, as the results may strongly depend on the initial predator-prey ratio, the nutritional quality of the supplemental food source, the species of predatory mites, the distribution of the

  10. Development of radiation-induced mutation techniques and functional genomics studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dong Sub; Kang, Si Yong; Kim, Jin Baek [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); and others

    2012-01-15

    This project has been performed to develop plant genetic resources using radiation (gamma-rays, ion-beam, space environments), to conduct functional genomics studies with mutant resources, and to develop new radiation plant breeding techniques using various radiation sources during 3 years. In the first section, we developed flower genetic resources, functional crop resources, and bio-industrial plant resources. In the second section, we cloned several mutated genes and studied mechanisms of gene expression and genetic diversity of mutations induced by gamma-rays. In the third section, we developed new plant breeding techniques using gamma-phytotron, heavy ion-beam, and space environments. Based on these results, a total of 8 cultivars containing Chrysanthemum, Hibiscus, kenaf, rice, and soybean were applied for plant variety protection (PVP) and a total of 4 cultivars were registered for PVP. Also, license agreement for the dwarf type Hibiscus mutant 'Ggoma' was conducted with Supro co. and the manufacturing technology for natural antioxidant pear-grape vinegar was transferred into Enzenic co. Also, 8 gene sequences, such as F3'H and LDOX genes associated with flower color in Chrysanthemum and EPSPS gene from Korean lawn grass, were registered in the database of National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI). In the future study, we will develop new radiation mutation breeding techniques through the mutation spectrum induced by various radiation sources, the studies for mechanism of the cellular response to radiation, and the comparative{center_dot}structural{center_dot}functional genomics studies for useful traits.

  11. Scientific Opinion on the risk to plant health posed by Puccinia horiana Hennings for the EU territory, with the identification and evaluation of risk reduction options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Plant Health (PLH

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Panel on Plant Health conducted a pest risk assessment for Puccinia horiana Hennings (the causal agent of chrysanthemum white rust for the EU territory, identified risk management options and evaluated their effectiveness. The assessment was conducted taking into account current EU legislation. The Panel also provided an opinion on the effectiveness of the present EU requirements against this organism, listed in Council Directive 2000/29/EC. Two major pathways for entry were identified: plant material of susceptible hosts for propagation purposes and cut flowers of Chrysanthemum × morifolium. The probability of further entry of the pest was considered unlikely, as the existing certification schemes for propagation material should reduce the risk of importing infected cuttings. For cut flowers, pest transfer to susceptible hosts is associated with the potentially incorrect disposal of cut flower waste within the vicinity of places of production, which is considered a rare event. The probability of establishment and further spread were both considered very likely. The current overall impact in the risk assessment area was considered minor, with medium uncertainty, mainly because standard protective actions are taken in most EU production areas. Risk reduction options to reduce the probability of entry and spread and mitigate the impact were analysed. Council Directive 2000/29/EC addresses mainly the sanitary status of the propagation material. The Directive cannot prevent the entry, establishment and spread, or mitigate the impact, of the pathogen. Were the current regulation to be removed, the frequency of introduction would probably increase. This poses a risk because, although the pest is widespread in the risk assessment area, not all Member States are infested and not all pest pathotypes are present. If a statutory certification system, with associated import requirements for propagation material of host plants, were introduced, this

  12. Sensitization of Xanthophylls-Chlorophyllin Mixtures on Titania Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indriana Kartini

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Co-sensitization of natural dyes on TiO2 for dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC was proposed between chlorophyllin (C and xanthophylls (X at various volume ratios of C/X. Chlorophyllin is chlorophyll derivative providing -COOH groups essential for binding to TiO2. The chlorophyll was extracted from dried spinach (amaranthus viridis leaves in a mixture of methanol-acetone (70%:30%. Chlorophyll extract dye was obtained after partition of the crude extracts in diethyl ether solution. Then, it was hydrolyzed under alkaline condition to get chlorophyllin. Xanthophyll was extracted from fresh petal of chrysanthemum (chrysanthemum indicum flowers. Blending of chlorophyllin and xanthophyll was carried out at various volume ratios of C to X (1:0, 5:1, 1:1, 1:5, 0:1. Titania solar cells were constructed in sandwich system of conducting glass-titania/dyes as the photoanode and conducting glass-platinum as the photocathode. Electrolyte solution containing I-/I3- was inserted between the electrodes by capillary action. All dye extracts and blending solutions were analyzed by UV-Vis spectrophotometer. It is shown that the absorption spectra of blending dyes are complimentary in the visible region resulted in a panchromatic response of the dyes. From the cyclic voltammogram of the dyes and blended-dyes, it is found that the energy level of xanthophyll is the lowest. The I-V test at 100 mw/cm2 irradiation confirmed that the energy conversion efficiency (h of the blended dyes of xanthophyll and chlorophyllin-sensitized solar cell resulted in significant improvement than those of the single dye. Beneficially, the mixed dyes can be adsorbed from solution blend using single dipping step.

  13. A petal-specific InMYB1 promoter from Japanese morning glory: a useful tool for molecular breeding of floricultural crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azuma, Mirai; Morimoto, Reina; Hirose, Mana; Morita, Yasumasa; Hoshino, Atsushi; Iida, Shigeru; Oshima, Yoshimi; Mitsuda, Nobutaka; Ohme-Takagi, Masaru; Shiratake, Katsuhiro

    2016-01-01

    Production of novel transgenic floricultural crops with altered petal properties requires transgenes that confer a useful trait and petal-specific promoters. Several promoters have been shown to control transgenes in petals. However, all suffer from inherent drawbacks such as low petal specificity and restricted activity during the flowering stage. In addition, the promoters were not examined for their ability to confer petal-specific expression in a wide range of plant species. Here, we report the promoter of InMYB1 from Japanese morning glory as a novel petal-specific promoter for molecular breeding of floricultural crops. First, we produced stable InMYB1_1kb::GUS transgenic Arabidopsis and Eustoma plants and characterized spatial and temporal expression patterns under the control of the InMYB1 promoter by histochemical β-glucuronidase (GUS) staining. GUS staining patterns were observed only in petals. This result showed that the InMYB1 promoter functions as a petal-specific promoter. Second, we transiently introduced the InMYB1_1 kb::GUS construct into Eustoma, chrysanthemum, carnation, Japanese gentian, stock, rose, dendrobium and lily petals by particle bombardment. GUS staining spots were observed in Eustoma, chrysanthemum, carnation, Japanese gentian and stock. These results showed that the InMYB1 promoter functions in most dicots. Third, to show the InMYB1 promoter utility in molecular breeding, a MIXTA-like gene function was suppressed or enhanced under the control of InMYB1 promoter in Arabidopsis. The transgenic plant showed a conspicuous morphological change only in the form of wrinkled petals. Based on these results, the InMYB1 promoter can be used as a petal-specific promoter in molecular breeding of floricultural crops.

  14. Light acclimation maintains the redox state of the PS II electron acceptor Q(A) within a narrow range over a broad range of light intensities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenqvist, E

    2001-01-01

    Chrysanthemum inducum-hybrid 'Coral Charm', Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. 'Cairo Red' and Spathiphyllum wallisii Regel 'Petit' were grown in natural light in a greenhouse at three levels of irradiance using permanent shade screens. Light acclimation of photosynthesis was characterized using modulated chlorophyll a fluorescence of intact leaves. A close correlation was found between the degree of reduction of the primary electron acceptor Q(A) of Photosystem II (PS II) approximated as the fluorescence parameter 1-q(P), and light acclimation. The action range of 1-q(P) was 0-0.4 from darkness to full irradiance around noon, within the respective light treatments in the greenhouse, indicating that most PS II reaction centres were kept open. In general, the index for electron transport (ETR) measured by chlorophyll fluorescence was higher for high-light (HL) than intermediate-(IL) and low-light (LL) grown plants. However, HL Chrysanthemum showed 40% higher ETR than HL Hibiscus at light saturation, despite identical redox states of Q(A). The light acclimation of the non-radiative dissipation of excess energy in the antenna, NPQ, varied considerably between the species. However, when normalized against q(P), a strong negative correlation was found between thermal dissipation and ETR measured by chlorophyll fluorescence. To be able to accommodate a high flux of electrons through PS II, the plants with the highest light-saturated ETR had the lowest NPQ/q(P). The possibility of using chlorophyll fluorescence for quantification of the energy balance between energy input and utilization in PS II in intact leaves is discussed.

  15. Screening of anti-halitosis Chinese herbal compounds%抗口臭中药复方的筛选

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李金陆; 杨圣辉; 连增林

    2012-01-01

    Objective To screen out effective and safe anti-halitosis traditional Chinese herbs (TCBs) , in order to develop anti-halitosis products for oral care. Method The Hallimeter was used to detect the metabolic gases containing sulfides produced by halitosis relative bacteria pre- or post-loading with 9 TCBs. The screening was performed in two steps in which single and compound herbs were tested successively to identify the effective herbal prescriptions. Result The effects of smoked plum and clove showed stronger effect on inhibiting metabolic gas production, while chrysanthemum was more effective on inhibiting metabolic production of sulfide even at a level below effective concentration. Conclusion Smoked plum, Clove and Chrysanthemum can effectively inhibit halitosis relative bacteria metabolism. The anti-halitosis effect of these herbs need be further confirmed in clinical study.%目的 筛选有效、安全的抗口臭中药处方,为抗口臭护理用品提供研发实验依据.方法 选用9味可食性中药用口臭主要相关菌种的敏感试验及硫化物检测仪( Hallimeter)检测含硫代谢产物.按单味中药及复合配方两步筛选,确定有效处方.结果 9味中药敏感试验证实乌梅、丁香抑菌作用强于其它中药,菊花降低硫化物较强,特别在无抑菌浓度作用下仍有减低硫化物作用.结论 乌梅、丁香、菊花配方有较强抗口臭作用,待进一步临床证实.

  16. To Doubt Undoubted Issues:An Explanation of the Im-ages in"Shengshengman"by Li Qingzhao%于无疑处生疑--李清照《声声慢》之意象解读

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    俞佳

    2013-01-01

    "Shengshengman" written by Li Qingzhao is included in the fourth version of Zhangjiakou Publishing House. A variety of images are presented in the poem, while there is no detailed explanation of them in textbooks and reference books. Here the writer tries to explain some images such as "light wine", "wild geese heading north", "chrysanthemum" and "Chinese parasol tree bathing in the autumn rain"in the poem. There is still some doubt here. The writer will focus on the implied meaning of"light wine", whether"the wild geese"only refers to"his deep mourn-ing for the dead" and the meaning of "the accumulation of chrysanthemum".%李清照的《声声慢》被选入了苏教版高中语文必修四中,词中出现了大量的意象,但教参和课本似乎并未作出详细的解读,笔者试对李词中的“淡酒”、“北雁”、“黄花”、“秋雨梧桐”等意象重新作了一次解读,提出了几点疑义:譬如“淡酒”意象的解释,“北雁”是否仅有“怀旧悼亡之情”,“黄花堆积”的含义何在等等。

  17. Roof Greening Resistance Research and Analysis in Guiyang City%城市小区屋顶绿化抗逆性研究与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江钟

    2016-01-01

    通过贵阳小区屋顶绿化实验设计,对13种贵阳常见的屋顶绿化植物进行干旱和水淹的胁迫实验,对植物在不同胁迫下的生长状况进行了记录,同时测定了土壤含水量和叶绿素含量等指标的数据,并利用excel和spss软件对实验数据进行分析。实验结果表明,这13种植物的抗旱性的强弱顺序为:佛甲草>盆垂草>景天>紫藤>尖叶石竹>月季>合欢>黄馨>蔷薇>木香>红叶李>紫薇>菊花;耐涝性的强弱顺序为:盆垂草>佛甲草>紫藤>景天>尖叶石竹>紫薇>合欢>红叶李>黄馨>蔷薇>木香>月季>菊花。从实验结果可知,这13种植物的抗逆性存在较大的差异,其中佛甲草、盆垂草、景天的抗逆性最强;而菊花的抗逆性最弱。%By Guiyang area roof greening design of experiment, the 13 kinds of the common roof greening plants in Guiyang drought and flooding experiment, the stress on the growth of plants under different stress conditions for the record, at the same time measured the indexes of soil water content and chlorophyll content of data, and use the excel and SPSS software to analyze the experimental data. Experimental results show that the 13 kinds of plant drought resistance of the strength of the order:Buddha a grass>basin vertical grass>>view day wisteria>leaves China pink rose>>meadow>shin wong>>Rosa combination>gongxieli ziwei>>chrysanthemum;Basin of waterlogging resistance of the pecking order is: the vertical grass > fo a grass > wisteria > > view days leaves carnation ziwei > >meadow > gongxieli > shin wong > > Rosa combination > chrysanthemum > Chinese rose. From the experiment result shows that there are many differences between the 13 kinds of plant resistance, the Buddha a grass, grass, basin the strongest days of the resistance;And the resistance of chrysanthemum is the most weak.

  18. Seleções para resistência e suscetibilidade, detecção e monitoramento da resistência de Tetranychus urticae ao acaricida clorfenapir Selections for resistance and susceptibility, detection and monitoring of resistance to the acaricide chlorfenapyr in Tetranychus urticae koch (Acari: Tetranychidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário Eidi Sato

    2007-01-01

    frequency in commercial fields of six crops in the State of São Paulo (SP. Selections for resistance and susceptibility to chlorfenapyr were performed in a population of T. urticae collected in 2002 from a commercial chrysanthemum field in Holambra county, SP. After six selections for resistance and five selections for susceptibility, susceptible (S and resistant (R strains of T. urticae to chlorfenapyr were obtained. The resistance ratio (R/S at the LC50 reached values of 571-fold. A discriminating concentration of 37.4 mg L-1 of active ingredient (A.I. was established for monitoring chorfenapyr resistance in T. urticae. Twenty one mite populations were collected from different crops (papaya, strawberry, bean, tomato, chrysanthemum, rose, in various counties in the State of São Paulo. Bean-leaf-disc arenas were infested with T. urticae mites and submitted to chlorfenapyr spraying at the discriminating concentration, using a Potter tower. The results showed significant differences among populations in their responses to chlorfenapyr. Populations with frequencies of resistance from 0,0 to 65.4% were detected. The highest frequencies of resistance were observed in populations obtained from chrysanthemum in Holambra.

  19. Establishment of motion sickness model in narrow space and study of traditional Chinese medicine on prevention and treatment%狭小空间晕动病模型的建立及其防治中药的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张天龙; 陈琳; 闫菁华; 豆婧婧; 冯碹; 郝保华

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To build the mice motion sickness model in narrow space, and choose the Chinese medition of effective prevention and treatment. Methods: We choosed the Kunming mice and L9(34) orthogonal table, and frequency, time, temperature, level of crowding as factors, put pole climbing time and physiological index of stool, urine, piloerection and trembling as the evaluation index. And then we detected the plasma levels of ATCH and p-EP. We built motion sickness model, to evaluate the efficacy of ten kinds of Chinese medicines. Results: The best process was as follows: oscillation frequency of 280r/min, oscillation time of 40min, experimental temperature of 30℃, crowding level of 452.16 cm3 every. The index of ginger, cloves, chrysanthemums were significantly lower than the model group and drug group(P<0.05). Conclusion: Oscillator is an effective narrow space motion sickness model; ginger, clove and chrysanthemum have the better anti-halo effect.%目的:建立狭小空间小鼠晕动病模型,筛选有效防治晕动病的中药.方法:以振荡器为模型,采用L9(34)正交表,以频率、时间、温度、拥挤程度为因素,小鼠爬杆时间及粪便、尿液、立毛、颤抖等生理指标为评价标准,建立晕动病模型,结合小鼠血浆促肾上腺皮质激素(ACTH)和β-内啡肽(β-EP)的变化验证其效果,以此模型评价10种中药药效.结果:温度30℃,以280r/min的频率、452.16cm2/只的拥挤程度持续40min可达到最佳的模型效果.生姜、丁香、菊花等实验组小鼠的爬杆时间和生理指标均低于模型对照组和阳性对照组,且差异显著(P<0.05).结论:振荡器可作为狭小空间晕动病的理想模型;生姜、丁香、菊花具有较好的防治晕动病效果.

  20. Quantum dot transport in soil, plants, and insects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Salim, Najeh [Industrial Research Ltd, P.O. Box 31310, Lower Hutt 5040 (New Zealand); Barraclough, Emma; Burgess, Elisabeth [New Zealand Institute for Plant and Food Research Ltd, Private Bag 92169, Victoria Street West, Auckland 1142 (New Zealand); Clothier, Brent, E-mail: brent.clothier@plantandfood.co.nz [New Zealand Institute for Plant and Food Research Ltd, Private Bag 11600, Manawatu Mail Centre, Palmerston North 4442 (New Zealand); Deurer, Markus; Green, Steve [New Zealand Institute for Plant and Food Research Ltd, Private Bag 11600, Manawatu Mail Centre, Palmerston North 4442 (New Zealand); Malone, Louise [New Zealand Institute for Plant and Food Research Ltd, Private Bag 92169, Victoria Street West, Auckland 1142 (New Zealand); Weir, Graham [Industrial Research Ltd, P.O. Box 31310, Lower Hutt 5040 (New Zealand)

    2011-08-01

    Environmental risk assessment of nanomaterials requires information not only on their toxicity to non-target organisms, but also on their potential exposure pathways. Here we report on the transport and fate of quantum dots (QDs) in the total environment: from soils, through their uptake into plants, to their passage through insects following ingestion. Our QDs are nanoparticles with an average particle size of 6.5 nm. Breakthrough curves obtained with CdTe/mercaptopropionic acid QDs applied to columns of top soil from a New Zealand organic apple orchard, a Hastings silt loam, showed there to be preferential flow through the soil's macropores. Yet the effluent recovery of QDs was just 60%, even after several pore volumes, indicating that about 40% of the influent QDs were filtered and retained by the soil column via some unknown exchange/adsorption/sequestration mechanism. Glycine-, mercaptosuccinic acid-, cysteine-, and amine-conjugated CdSe/ZnS QDs were visibly transported to a limited extent in the vasculature of ryegrass (Lolium perenne), onion (Allium cepa) and chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum sp.) plants when cut stems were placed in aqueous QD solutions. However, they were not seen to be taken up at all by rooted whole plants of ryegrass, onion, or Arabidopsis thaliana placed in these solutions. Leafroller (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) larvae fed with these QDs for two or four days, showed fluorescence along the entire gut, in their frass (larval feces), and, at a lower intensity, in their haemolymph. Fluorescent QDs were also observed and elevated cadmium levels detected inside the bodies of adult moths that had been fed QDs as larvae. These results suggest that exposure scenarios for QDs in the total environment could be quite complex and variable in each environmental domain. - Research highlights: {yields} Quantum dots are transported rapidly through soil but half were retained. {yields} Intact roots of plants did not take up quantum dots. Excised plants

  1. Study on Low Temperature Adaptability and Landscape Application Prospect of Lotus corniculatus and Perennials%百脉根等宿根地被低温适应性及园林应用前景研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓娇; 李瑞娟; 额尔德尼; 王颉; 赵霞

    2012-01-01

    [目的]探究百脉根等8种宿根地被的低温适应能力,为引种工作及园林应用提供理论参考依据.[方法]以百脉根等8种宿根地被为研究试材,采用自然低温处理结合形态观察的方法,对其抗低温能力进行研究.[结果]通过对供试植株连续2年露地越冬情况的观测,百脉根、紫花地丁、地被菊、百里香露地越冬存活率均高达90%以上,越冬表现良好、观赏性状优良.[结论]百脉根、地被菊、百里香、紫花地丁等地被材料,适合在本地区大面积应用,园林应用前景广阔.其中,紫花地丁萌芽早、花期早、花色鲜艳、抗寒性强,可以填补早春观花地被的空白.%[ Objective ] To explore the low temperature adaptability of eight perennials, so as to provide theoretical basis for their introduction to landscaping. [ Method ] Lotus corniculatus and other seven perennial materials were collected as samples to study their cold resistance by natural low temperature treatment and morphological observation. [Result] After the two-year observation of wintering of the tested plants, Lotus corniculatus, ground cover Chrysanthemum, Thymus mongolicus and Viola philippica had broad application prospects in the garden with better ornamental characters and overwinter performance, their wintering survival rates were all above 90% . [ Conclusion ] Lotus corniculatus, ground cover Chrysanthemum, Thymus mongolicus and Viola philippica were suitable to be popularized in large areas, among which Viola philippica can fill the blank of flowering plants in early spring with the characteristics of earlier germination, earlier flowering, bright color and strong cold stress tolerance.

  2. Whitefly species (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae on wild and cultivated plants in the horticultural region of Rosario, Santa Fe, Argentina Especies de moscas blancas (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae sobre plantas silvestres y cultivadas en la región hortícola de Rosario, Santa Fe, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo G. Gonsebatt

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Whiteflies of economic importance are polyphagous, being able to develop on a large number of cultivated and spontaneous plants. We recorded the whitefly species on vegetable and flower crops and the wild plants associated, under greenhouse and field conditions, for two years. We observed two species: Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood and the Bemisia tabaci complex (Gennadius. T vaporariorum was recorded on 24 plant species (11 families, 12 and 8 of which are new hosts in Argentina and in the world, respectively. The B. tabaci complex was recorded only on flower production systems, on 19 plant species (11 families, 14 and 7 of which are new hosts in Argentina and in the world, respectively. The crops Glycine max (L. and Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat., the wild species Amaranthus blitum L., Amaranthus quitensis Kunth, Conyza bonariensis (L., Galinsoga parviflora Cav., Sonchus oleraceus L. and Wedelia glauca (Ortega O. Hoffm. ex Hicken were hosts of both species. The only parasitoid recorded was Eretmocerus californicus near corni Haldeman (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae from T. vaporariorum. This study, which is the first systematic survey of host plants in the region, intends to provide a better knowledge of the range of whiteflies host plants in Argentina.Las moscas blancas de importancia económica son polífagas y capaces de desarrollarse sobre numerosas plantas cultivadas y espontáneas. Registramos las especies de moscas blancas sobre cultivos hortícolas y de flores, y sobre las plantas silvestres asociadas. Observamos dos especies: Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood y el complejo Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius. T. vaporariorum fue registrada sobre 24 especies de plantas (11 familias, 12 y 8 de las cuales son hospedantes nuevos para Argentina y a nivel mundial, respectivamente. El complejo B. tabaci fue registrado solo en sistemas de producción de flores, sobre 19 especies de plantas (11 familias, 14 y 7 de las cuales son nuevos hospedantes para

  3. Improved photovoltaic efficiency on TiO{sub 2}/In{sub 2}S{sub 3} double layered electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, A-Young; Senthil, T.S.; Kwak, Byeong Sub; Kang, Misook, E-mail: mskang@ynu.ac.kr

    2015-01-15

    To enhance the photovoltaic efficiency of TiO{sub 2} multilayer, a scattering layer of In{sub 2}S{sub 3} particle is designed in dye-sensitized solar cell system. The SEM image of In{sub 2}S{sub 3} powder shows micro-sized 3D chrysanthemum-like shapes are formed by aggregation of wedge like nanosheets. The efficiency of the dye-sensitized solar cells assembled with In{sub 2}S{sub 3} scattering layer is higher than the DSSC assembled with double layered TiO{sub 2} electrode. The short-circuit current density increases approximately 21.65% over TiO{sub 2}/1.0 wt.% In{sub 2}S{sub 3}-DSSC and the incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency in the maximum peak also enhances about 17% compared to the DSSC assembled with double layered TiO{sub 2} electrode. Eventually, the maximum conversion efficiency obtained for TiO{sub 2}/1.0 wt.% In{sub 2}S{sub 3}-DSSC is 5.80%. This result indicates that the double layered TiO{sub 2}/In{sub 2}S{sub 3} electrode acts as a scattering layer of incident light path and that an increasing array of current density is obtained with more photons, which thus improves the quantum efficiency. - Highlights: • In{sub 2}S{sub 3} powder showed micro-sized 3D chrysanthemum-like shape. • In{sub 2}S{sub 3}-DSSCs exhibited the higher efficiencies than on the double layered TiO{sub 2}-DSSC. • The efficiency of TiO{sub 2}/1.0 wt.% In{sub 2}S{sub 3}-DSSC was approximately 5.80%. • TiO{sub 2}/1.0 wt.% In{sub 2}S{sub 3}-DSSC showed the slower recombination time than TiO{sub 2}/TiO{sub 2}-DSSC. • Electrons donated from dye-LUMO easily transferred to the conduction band of In{sub 2}S{sub 3}.

  4. Efficacy of some botanical extracts against Trogoderma granarium in wheat grains with toxicity evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derbalah, Aly S

    2012-01-01

    In an attempt to find alternative control methods for stored products insects, extracts of seven plant species (Cassia senna, Caesalpinia gilliesii, Thespesia populnea var. acutiloba, Chrysanthemum frutescens, Euonymus japonicus, Bauhinia purpurea, and Cassia fistula) were evaluated under laboratory conditions for their ability to protect wheat (Triticum spp.) grains against Trogoderma granarium insect. Moreover, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis was carried to identify the chemical components of the most effective plant extract against T. granarium. Furthermore, the safety of the most effective plant extract was evaluated with respect to biochemical and histological changes in treated rats relative to control. The results revealed that, the tested botanical extracts showed high efficiency against T. granarium with respect to mortality and progeny of the adults. C. senna was the most effective botanical extract against T. granarium. The GC-MS analysis of the most effective plant extract showed the presence of different bioactive compounds that is known by its insecticidal activity. The most effective plant extract showed no toxicity on treated rats relative to control with respect to biochemical and histological changes. The results suggest the ability of using these plant extracts for wheat grains protection as a safe alternative to insecticides.

  5. Formaldehyde removal by common indoor plant species and various growing media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydogan, Ahu; Montoya, Lupita D.

    2011-05-01

    Three porous materials (growstone, expanded clay and activated carbon) were evaluated as hydroponic growing media and for their individual ability to remove the indoor volatile organic compound formaldehyde under three conditions: growing medium alone, dry medium in a pot, and wet medium in a pot. The total percent-reduction of formaldehyde by each growing media was evaluated over a 10-h period. In all cases, activated carbon achieved the highest removal under the three conditions studied with average percent reductions measured at about 98%. Four common interior plants: Hedera helix (English ivy), Chrysanthemum morifolium (pot mum), Dieffenbachia compacta (dump cane) and Epipremnum aureum (golden pathos) growing in growstone were then tested for their ability to remove formaldehyde. The removal capacity of the aerial plant parts (AP), the root zone (RZ) and the entire plant (EP) growing in growstone were determined by exposing the relevant parts to gaseous formaldehyde (˜2000 μg m -3) in a closed chamber over a 24-h period. The removal efficiency between species and plant parts were compared by determining the time interval required to decrease about 2/3 of the total formaldehyde concentration reduction, T 2/3. The T 2/3 measured were 23, 30, 34 and 56 min for EP of C. morifolium, E. aureum, D. compacta and H. helix, respectively. The formaldehyde removal by the root zone was found to be more rapid than the removal by the aerial plant parts.

  6. Facile fabrication of hierarchical ZnO microstructures assisted with PAMPSA and enhancement of green emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qiang; Cun, Tangxiang; Zuo, Wenbin; Liu, Jianping

    2015-03-01

    We report the fabrication of hierarchically microstructured flower-like ZnO by a facile and single-step procedure involving poly(2-acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propanesulfonic acid) (PAMPSA) assisted aqueous chemical method. The shapes and sizes can be controlled just by varying the concentrations of the water-soluble polymer. When a suitable PAMPAS concentration was utilized, uniform well-defined and mono-dispersed chrysanthemum-like ZnO microstructures based on nanorod building blocks were obtained. The formation mechanism of the hierarchical structure was presented. The structured studies using XRD, HRTEM and SAED reveal these ZnO nanorods are composed of a single phase nature with wurtzite structure and grow along with the c-axis. FTIR spectrum indicated the incorporation of a trace of PAMPSA into ZnO crystals. HRTEM, Raman and XPS analyses showed that the hierarchical ZnO microstructures contain high concentration of oxygen vacancies which enable them exhibiting a significant intense deep-level emission centered at green luminescence in its photoluminescence spectra. They also show enhanced photocatalytic efficiency in degradation of methylene blue. It is hoped that the present work may provide a simple method to fabricate ZnO hierarchical microstructures and a positive relationship among polar plane, oxygen vacancy and green emission.

  7. Effect of radiation-degraded chitosan on growth promotion of flower plant in tissue culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luan, Le Quang; Ha, Vo Thi Thu; Hai, Le; Hien, Nguyen Quoc [Vietnam Atomic Energy Commission, Nuclear Research Institute, Dalat (Viet Nam); Nagasawa, Naotsugu; Yoshii, Fumio; Kume, Tamikazu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    2002-03-01

    Radiation is a useful tool for degradation of polysaccharides, such as starch, carrageenan, alginate and chitin/chitosan. The viscosity molecular weight (Mw) of chitosan with 80% degree of deacetylation was reduced to 1.5 x 10{sup 5} by irradiation of 50kGy in solid phase. The solution of 10% of chitosan with Mw ca. 15 x 10{sup 5} was then irradiated at doses ranging 10-250kGy for further degradation and the products were supplemented into cultural media for testing of plant growth promotion effect. The results indicated that irradiated chitosan showed a strong growth-promotion effect on the increase of the length of shoot, the length of root and fresh biomass for flower plants namely Limonium latifolium, Eustoma grandiflorum and Chrysanthemum morifolium in tissue culture. The growth-promotion effect was obtained by the treatments with 50ppm of chitosan irradiated at the doses of 75-100kGy in 10% solution. The suitable concentrations of chitosan irradiated at 100kGy are ca. 100ppm for C. morifolium, 30ppm for E. grandiflorum and 40ppm for L. latifolium. In addition, our study also indicated that the survival ratio of transferred flower plantlets treated with irradiated chitosan was improved after acclimatizing for 30 days in the greenhouse. Accordingly, it is concluded that degraded chitosan obtained by radiation degradation technique is effective as a plant growth promoter as well as irradiated alginate. (author)

  8. Microstructures and transformation characteristics of thin films of TiNiCu shape memory alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程秀兰; 徐东; 蔡炳初; 王莉; 陈鉴; 李刚; 徐实

    2002-01-01

    Both sputtering conditions and crystallizing temperatures have great influence on the microstructures and phase transformation characteristics for Ti51Ni44Cu5.By means of the resistance-temperature measurement,X-ray diffraction and atomic fore microscopic study,the results indicate that the transformation temperatures of the thin films increase and the "rock candy" martensitic relief is more easily obtained with promoting the sputtering Ar pressure,sputtering power,or crystallizing temperature.However,when sputtering Ar pressure,sputtering power,or crystallizing temperature are lower,a kind of "chrysanthemum" relief,which is related with Ti-rich GP zones,is much easier to be observed.The reason is that during crystallization process,both of the inherent compressive stresses introduced under the condition of higher sputtering pressure or higher crystallizing temperature are helpful to the transition from GP zones to Ti2(NiCu) precipitates and the increase of the transformation temperatures.The addition of copper to substitute for 5% nickel in mole fraction can reduce the transformation hysteresis width to about 10~15 ℃.

  9. Traditional Chinese Medicine, Food Therapy, and Hypertension Control: A Narrative Review of Chinese Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Ping

    2016-01-01

    Despite the lack of English literature about Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) food therapy, there is abundant Chinese literature about the application of food therapy for hypertension control. This paper summarizes basic concepts of TCM, the principles of food therapy and its application for hypertension control according to Chinese literature. In TCM, food is conceptualized according to both nutritional and functional aspects, and can be used to treat illnesses. Four principles of TCM food therapy including light eating, balancing the "hot" and "cold" nature of food, the harmony of the five flavors of food, and consistency between dietary intake and different health conditions, can be used to facilitate hypertension control. Based on a statistical analysis of antihypertensive foods recommended in 20 books on the application of food therapy for hypertension control, the 38 most frequently recommended are celery, tomato, banana, hawthorn, garlic, onion, seaweed, apple, corn, green beans, persimmon, laver, kiwi, watermelon, eggplant, carrots, mushroom, peanut, soy products, sea cucumber, buckwheat, garland chrysanthemum, spinach, honey, dairy products, vinegar, black fungus, jellyfish, green onion, shepherd's purse, soybean, potato, pear, winter melon, bitter melon, oat, pea, and tea. Food therapy emphasizes the therapeutic effects of food, considering its nature, taste, and function on human balanced health, which leads to optimal blood pressure control. Current literature suggests that food therapy is effective in blood pressure control and can be incorporated into blood pressure self-management in the Chinese population.

  10. The Investigation on Application Status of Cover Plants and Ecological Adaptability for Introduced Cover Plant in Suqian%宿迁市地被植物应用现状及新引种地被的生态适应性调查研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李素华; 许晶晶; 金青; 苏苑苑; 袁笑; 周燕

    2011-01-01

    对宿迁市地被植物的应用种类、季相变化及新引种的地被植物的覆盖度、越冬和越夏能力进行调查分析,结果表明:宿迁园林中共应用地被植物89种,以观叶灌木和宿根现叶类居多;夏季季相色彩最为丰富,但红色系花卉比例较大;在覆盖度、越冬和越夏能力评价中综合表现较好的为亮绿忍冬、地被石竹、大花六道木、水果兰、大滨菊,综合表现较差的为细茎针茅、紫露草.%The types of applications, seasonal color of ground cover plants,the coverage, winter and summer hardiness were investigated. Re-sulls showed that 89 kinds of cover plants were applied in gardens of Suqian, the foliage bush and the foliage perennial plants held great majority. The color of summer was richest, but the red series had higher proportion: according to the coverage and winter and summer cold resistance, Lonicera nilida' Maigrun' ,Dianthus plumarius, Abelia grandiflora, Teucrium fruticans, Chrysanthemum maximum were better, Stipa te-nuissima, Tradescantia albiftora were differential.

  11. Biodegradation of 2-hydroxyquinoxaline (2-HQ) by Bacillus sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, G V Subba; Reddy, B R; Tlou, M G

    2014-08-15

    An aerobic Gram +ve bacterial strain capable of utilizing 2-Hydroxyquinoxaline (2-HQ) as sole source of carbon and energy was isolated from Chrysanthemum indicum Indian agricultural soil and named as HQ2. On the basis of morphology, physico-biochemical characteristics and 16S rRNA sequence analysis, strain HQ2 was identified as Bacillus sp. The generation time of Bacillus sp. in log phase during growth on 2-HQ is 0.79 h or 47.4 min. The optimal conditions for 2-HQ degradation by Bacillus sp. were inoculum density of 1.0 OD, pH of 6-8, temperature of 37-45 °C and 2-HQ concentration of 500 ppm. Among the additional carbon and nitrogen sources, carbon sources did not influence the degradation rate of 2-HQ, but nitrogen sources-yeast extract marginally enhanced the rate of degradation of 2-HQ. GC-MS analysis of the culture Bacillus sp. grown on 2-HQ indicated the formation of dimers from 2 molecules of 2-hydroxyquinoxaline. The formation of dimer for degradation of 2-HQ by the culture appears to be the first report to our scientific knowledge.

  12. Uso agrícola de esgoto tratado em lagoas de estabilização:experiências do Pprosab* em Lins – SP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Mendonça Campos

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A Pilot Plant to treat the effluent from SABESP´s Wastewater Treatment Plant (Stabilization Pond System located at Lins was built within a six-hectare area adjacent to the Treatment Plant. The study focused on agricultural applications of the final treated effluent. Additional unit operations for wastewater treatment were constructed – namely hypochlorite disinfection, UV light disinfection and ozonation units. The final effluent from the Pilot Plant was applied in crop irrigation – namely coffee, corn and bean crops and the feeding system was by drop irrigation. Additionally, a fraction of the final treated effluent fed a hydrophonic system installed in vases, in which chrysanthemum and Gypsophila were cultivated. A third feeding line supplied a fish tank in which Oreochromis Niloticus were grown. A number of physical, chemical and biological variables were utilized for quality control of effluent streams at the various treatment stages, to monitor the cultivated crops and the soil, as well as agricultural parameters to identify growth characteristics. For all the cases under study there were conventional mode crops in parallel, acting as controls or references. The results obtained showed that the pond effluent, besides the hydraulic capacity itself, contained nutrients that are adequate for agricultural purposes, with significant savings associated. Additionally, such applications in irrigation avoid the eutrophication of natural water bodies

  13. Production of 3-Oxo-2-(2'-pentenyl)-cyclopentane-1-octanoic Acid in the Fungus Aspergillus oryzae: A Step Towards Heterologous Production of Pyrethrins in Fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Maged E; Pahirulzaman, Khomaizon A K; Lazarus, Colin M

    2016-03-01

    Pyrethrins are natural insecticides, which accumulate to high concentrations in pyrethrum (Chrysanthemum cinerariaefolium) flowers. Synthetic pyrethroids are more stable, more efficacious and cheaper, but contemporary requirements for safe and environmentally friendly pesticides encourage a return to the use of natural pyrethrins, and this would be favoured by development of an efficient route to their production by microbial fermentation. The biosynthesis of pyrethrins involves ester linkage between an acid moiety (chrysanthemoyl or pyrethroyl, synthesised via the mevalonic acid pathway from glucose), and an alcohol (pyrethrolone). Pyrethrolone is generated from 3-oxo-2-(2'-pentenyl)-cyclopentane-1-octanoic acid, which originates from α-linolenic acid via the jasmonic acid biosynthetic cascade. The first four genes in this cascade, encoding lipoxygenase 2, allene-oxide synthase, allene-oxide cyclase 2 and 12-oxophytodienoic acid reductase 3, were amplified from an Arabidopsis thaliana cDNA library, cloned in a purpose-built fungal multigene expression vector and expressed in Aspergillus oryzae. HPLC-MS analysis of the transgenic fungus homogenate gave good evidence for the presence of 3-oxo-2-(2'-pentenyl)-cyclopentane-1-octanoic acid.

  14. Investigation of the Optimal Parameters in Hydrothermal Method for the Synthesis of ZnO Nanorods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Chung Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated a two-step method to deposit the ZnO-based nanostructure films, including nanorods and nanoflowers. In the first step, sputtering method was used to deposit the ZnO films on SiO2/Si substrates as the seed layer. In the second step, Zn(NO32–6H2O and C6H12N4 were used as precursors and hydrothermal process was used as the method to synthesize the ZnO films. After that, the ZnO films were measured by an X-ray diffraction pattern and a FESEM to analyze their crystallization and morphology. We had found that the ZnO films had three different morphologies synthesized on ZnO/SiO2/Si substrates, including irregular-plate structure films, nanorod films, and beautiful chrysanthemum-like clusters (nanoflower films. We would prove that the face direction of ZnO/SiO2/Si substrates in the hydrothermal bottle and deposition time were two important factors to influence the synthesized results of the ZnO films.

  15. Characterization of a New Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus Isolates Found in Hippeastrum hybridum (Hort. Plants in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berniak Hanna

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Two Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV isolates H1 and H2 found in Hippeastrum hybridum plants were characterized based on biological, serological, and molecular properties. Virus isolates showed differences in symptom expression – H1 isolate displayed severe necrotic spots and patterns, whereas mild mosaic symptoms were observed on H2-infected H. hybridum plants. Both TSWV isolates showed comparable reactivity with TSWV-specific antibodies and they induced similar symptoms on herbaceous indicator plants, but some differences between these isolates were detected at the nucleotide sequence level of genomic S and M ssRNAs segment fragments. The nucleotide sequences encoding nucleocapsid (N and nonstructural (NSs and NSm proteins showed 98.2%, 97.5%, and 96.5% identity, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis of N and NSs sequences conducted for tested isolates and 31 TSWV isolates included for comparison revealed that H1 and H2 isolates fell into the same cluster and they were grouped together with isolates found previously in different vegetables, ornamentals, and weeds. When NSm ORF was analyzed, the tested isolates formed a separate cluster: H1 isolate showed the highest affinity with TSWV isolates infecting chrysanthemum and pepper plants, whereas H2 isolate was most closely related to other virus isolates found in sweet pepper and tomatoes. These results indicate that both isolates were reassortants between different virus isolates, and represented two novel genetic patterns of TSWV.

  16. 一个女人的悲歌--对约翰·斯坦贝克小说《菊花》的解读

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苑海涛

    2014-01-01

    《菊花》(The Chrysanthemums)是约翰·斯坦贝克(John Steinbeck)最出色的短篇小说之一。本文首先讨论了故事的大背景,然后就主角艾丽莎·艾伦相对家庭内外的男人的弱势地位进行分析。通过常被以前研究者忽略的细节、在背景环境下对情节的再研究,以及从包括艾丽莎家庭内外的因素的多角度评价她的境遇,本文更精确地探究艾丽莎的内心世界,衡量《菊花》对社会的意义,呼吁给予女性平等和认可以及加强两性间沟通。

  17. The effect of medicinal plants of Islamabad and Murree region of Pakistan on insulin secretion from INS-1 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Zakir; Waheed, Abdul; Qureshi, Rizwana Aleem; Burdi, Dadu Khan; Verspohl, Eugen J; Khan, Naeema; Hasan, Mashooda

    2004-01-01

    In vitro testing of the extracts of medicinal plants collected from Islamabad and the Murree region on insulin secretagogue activity was carried out. Dried ethanol extracts of all plants (ZH1-ZH19) were dissolved in ethanol and DMSO, and tested at various concentrations (between 1 and 40 microg/mL) for insulin release from INS-1 cells in the presence of 5.5 mM glucose. Glibenclamide was used as a control. Promising insulin secretagogue activity in various plant extracts at 1, 10, 20 and 40 microg/mL was found, while in some cases a decrease in insulin secretion was also observed. Artemisia roxburghiana, Salvia coccinia and Monstera deliciosa showed insulin secretagogue activity at 1 microg/mL (p Bauhinia variegata and Bergenia himalacia showed effects at 20 microg/mL (p < 0.05), and Taraxacum officinale and Viburnum foetens at 40 microg/mL (p < 0.05). Insulin secretagogue activity could not be detected in the extracts of Adhatoda vasica, Cassia fistula, Chrysanthemum leucanthemum, Morus alba, Plectranthus rugosus, Peganum harmala and Olea ferruginea. The results suggest that medicinal plants of Islamabad and the Murree region of Pakistan may be potential natural resources for antidiabetic compounds.

  18. 42. The Report of Antimutagenicity and Mutagenicity of 7 Kinds Natrual Edible Plants and Vegetables

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: With improvement of living standard, environmental quality become more and more seriously damaged. While the SOS bacterioplage induction methed is nearly a high-speed and reliable method to detect genetic toxins. The SOS syndronous test make an improvement on the above method. On the one hand, we are reducing the environmental pollution, on the other hand, we are attempt to find antimugens and some ways against cancer. Using the natrual edible plants against mutage and cancer is one of the important topic on preventing carcinogenic factors. The study examed 7 kinds natrual edible plants and vegetables. Method: We adopted the test of the Antimutagenicity and mutagenicity with S9 (rat liver microsomal enzymes system) and without S9 and repeat test. Result: The results showed all samples had no mutagenicity. Scallion seed, sweet potato and pomegranate peel were antimutagens against Mitomicy(MMC) with S9 and without S9. They are well worth of devoloping and using further. Pea seedling, crowndaisy chrysanthemum. alon and romaine had no antimutagenicity with and without S9. The people can eat usually.

  19. Anti-Adipogenic Effects of Ethanol Extracts Prepared from Selected Medicinal Herbs in 3T3-L1 Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Min-Jun; Song, Ji-Hye; Shon, Myung-Soo; Kim, Hae Ok; Kwon, O Jun; Roh, Seong-Soo; Kim, Choon Young; Kim, Gyo-Nam

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is a major risk factor for various metabolic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, hypertension, and type 2 diabetes mellitus. In this study, we prepared ethanol extracts from Agastache rugosa (ARE), Chrysanthemum zawadskii (CZE), Mentha arvensis (MAE), Perilla frutescens (PFE), Leonurus sibiricus (LSE), Gardenia jasminoides (GJE), and Lycopus coreanus (LCE). The anti-oxidant and anti-adipogenic effects were evaluated. The IC50 values for ascorbic acid and LCE against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radicals were 246.2 μg/mL and 166.2 μg/mL, respectively, followed by ARE (186.6 μg/mL), CZE (198.6 μg/mL), MAE (337.1 μg/mL), PFE (415.3 μg/mL), LSE (548.2 μg/mL), and GJE (626.3 μg/mL). In non-toxic concentration ranges, CZE had a strong inhibitory effect against 3T3-L1 adipogenes (84.5%) than those of the other extracts. Furthermore, the anti-adipogenic effect of CZE is largely limited in the early stage of adipogenesis, and we revealed that the inhibitory role of CZE in adipogenesis is required for the activation of Wnt signaling. Our results provide scientific evidence that the anti-adipogenic effect of CZE can be applied as an ingredient for the development of functional foods and nutri-cosmetics for obesity prevention. PMID:27752499

  20. Optimization of spray deposition and Tetranychus urticae control with air assisted and electrostatic sprayer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Tourino Rezende de Cerqueira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Improved spray deposition can be attained by electrostatically charging spray droplets, which increases the attraction of droplets to plants and decreases operator exposure to pesticide and losses to the environment. However, this technique alone is not sufficient to achieve desirable penetration of the spray solution into the crop canopy; thus, air assistance can be added to the electrostatic spraying to further improve spray deposition. This study was conducted to compare different spraying technologies on spray deposition and two-spotted spider mite control in cut chrysanthemum. Treatments included in the study were: conventional TJ 8003 double flat fan nozzles, conventional TXVK-3 hollow cone nozzles, semi-stationary motorized jet launched spray with electrostatic spray system (ESS and air assistance (AA, and semi-stationary motorized jet launched spray with AA only (no ESS. To evaluate the effect of these spraying technologies on the control of two-spotted spider mite, a control treatment was included that did not receive an acaricide application. The AA spraying technology, with or without ESS, optimized spray deposition and provided satisfactory two-spotted spider mite control up to 4 days after application.

  1. Ação de Inseticidas Botânicos sobre a Preferência Alimentar e sobre Posturas de Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae em Milho

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Mazzonetto

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho objetivou comparar o efeito de diferentes extratos de origem vegetal na preferência alimentar e na postura da lagarta do cartucho Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith em folhas de milho. Extratos aquosos a 10% p/v de Chenopodium ambrosioides (Linnaeus (Erva de Santa Maria, Corymbia citriodora (Hill & Johnson (Eucalipto Cheiroso, Chrysanthemum leucanthemum (Linnaeus (Crisântemo e Azadirachta indica (A. Juss (Nim foram aplicados em discos de folhas de milho e oferecidos às lagartas em testes com e sem chance de escolha. A atratividade das lagartas pelos discos com os extratos não diferiu da testemunha no teste com chance de escolha, porém os extratos de Nim e Crisântemo apresentaram efeito fagodeterrente a S. frugiperda. Nos testes sem chance de escolha, o tratamento que mais repeliu as lagartas foi utilizando extrato de Nim, representando possível alternativa para o controle das lagartas desta espécie. Nenhum dos extratos aquosos das espécies vegetais testadas apresentou efeito ovicida.

  2. Repellency of Aphidius gifuensis and Pachyneuron aphidis to various odour sources%烟蚜茧蜂和蚜虫宽缘金小蜂对不同味源的趋避性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张英; 杨硕媛; 赵进龙; 谷星慧; 任伟; 高艳飞; 吴伟

    2012-01-01

    用“Y”型嗅觉仪观测了烟蚜茧蜂和蚜虫宽缘金小蜂对几种非寄主植物材料的趋避性.结果表明,烟蚜茧蜂对茼蒿叶的选择呈显著负趋性;蚜虫宽缘金小蜂对花椒叶、茴香叶的选择表现出明显的负趋性,但葱叶对其具有引诱作用;烟蚜茧蜂和蚜虫宽缘金小蜂混合组对薄荷叶、鱼腥草叶、紫金泽兰叶、番茄叶和姜叶的选择也表现出明显的负趋性.%Repellency of Aphidius gifuensis and Pachyneuron aphidis to several kinds of non-host plant materials was investigated with "Y" olfactometer. Results showed that Aphidius gifuensis had significant negative tropism to Chrysanthemum leaves. Pachyneuron aphidis had negative tropism to Zanthoxylum bungeanum leaves and Foeniculum vulgare leaves , but was attracted to Allium fistulosum leaves. The mixed group of Aphidius gifuensis and Pachyneuron aphidis showed negative tropism to Mentha haplocalyx leaves, Houttuynia cordata leaves, Eupatorium adenophorum leaves, Lycopersicon leaves and Ginger leaves.

  3. Study on Technology of Compound Juice of Raspberry%树莓复合果汁的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张志军; 魏雪生; 李淑芳

    2011-01-01

    A compound beverage using raspberry as main material was studied by orthogonal tests and the optimal formula of the beverage was determined as raspberry juice 80 mL, hawthorn juice 10 mL, wolfberry juice 10 mL,chrysanthemum paste 0.1 g, honeysuckle paste 0.1 g, chinese rose 0.3 g, granulated sugar 10 g, honey 3 g, xylooligosaccharides 1.5 g. The results indicated the compounded functional raspberry beverage had delicious flavour of acid and sweet, bright colour, particular flavour, uniform microstructure, lower heat and rich nutrition.%以树莓为主要原料,研制一种树莓复合饮料,通过正交试验确定最佳的饮料配方为:树莓汁80 mL、山楂汁10 mL、枸杞汁10 mL;菊花膏0.1 g、金银花膏0.1 g、月季花膏0.3 g;砂糖10 g、蜂蜜3 g、低聚木糖1.5 g,所制果汁饮料酸甜适口,色泽鲜艳、风味独特、组织状态均匀,且热量低、营养丰富.

  4. Educational utilization of outstanding spherulitic rhyolite occurred in Cheongsong, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Y. D.; Woo, H.

    2015-12-01

    Cheongsong is located in the central eastern area of South Korea. Unique spherulitic rhyolites occur in this region as dykes formed about 48 to 50 million years ago. Composed of quartz and feldspar these spherulitic rhyolites show various flowerlike shapes, such as chrysanthemum, dandelion, rose, carnation, sunflower, dahlia and so on, so they are called 'flower stones'. The spherulite indicates that it was undercooled caused by very fast cooling at a shallow depth near the surface and the variety of shapes resulted from the difference of crystallizing conditions. According to the condition, minerals start to crystallize homogeneously or heterogeneously and develop as rounded or fibrous shapes, representing beautiful patterns when combined. These spherulitic structures are very rare not only in Korea but also globally, being valuable for research and preservation because of their rarity, beauty and diversity. Cheongsong therefore applies to the UGG (UNESCO Global Geopark) in an attempt to popularize the flower stones and use them as education materials which can also be incorporated in other valuable sites. The exhibition center provides diverse types of flower stones in which visitors could learn about rhyolitic volcanism, crystallization and spherulite and can experience the process of changing a rough stone into a flower stone. A geotrail course has also been created, showing each type of flower stone on the outcrop and providing educational programs about geological mechanisms of the stones with a trained guide.

  5. The Possibilities of Slovakian Pyrethrum Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Štefan Tóth

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses possibilities for pyrethrum Chrysanthemum cinerariaefolium(Trevir. Vis. production in southern regions of Slovakia, with an emphasis on target marketing,management constraints and further research. Pyrethrum is not a traditionalcrop in Slovakia but prospects have opened up for its cultivation. The high yields andquality of some suitable pyrethrum ecotypes provide the grounds for effective field productionunder favorable conditions. Pyrethrum yielding 1.275 t of dried flowers per hectareand having at least 1.5% pyrethrum content can be a profitable and highly lucrativecrop with an economic result ranging from 413 to 1071 € per ha. A SWOT analysisrevealed that pyrethrum production in Slovakia could take a course of an offensivestrategy. However, intensive production of this commodity needs further development.Prospects for this non-traditional crop in Slovakia are also promising in terms of developmentof farming systems in which plant protection products of botanical origin wouldbe welcome. Improved processing and stabilization of extract would further increasethe possibilities.

  6. Selection of Antagonistic Fungi to Species of Pathogens on Camellia oleifera%油茶病原菌拮抗菌筛选

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢东升; 产帅; 代兵

    2012-01-01

    通过拮抗实验,研究了59个野菊内生真菌菌株对油茶炭疽病及油茶稍枯病病原菌的拮抗性.结果表明:89.8%供试真菌菌株对油茶病原菌孢子萌发或菌丝生长有抑制作用.拮抗菌株在代谢过程中能产生抑制病原菌生长发育的抑菌物质,这些物质存在于菌丝内或分泌于菌丝外.筛选得到2个油荼病原菌强拮抗菌株,大茎点霉菌Y11和Y29.%Through antagonistic test,the antagonistic characteristics of 59 endophytic fungus strains from Chrysanthemum indicum to two species of pathogens on Camellia oleifera were studied. The results showed that 89. 8% strains of the endophytic fungi tested can inhibit the spore bourgeon and hypha growth of the pathogen on Camellia oleifera. The antagonistic fungus strains could produce some substances,existed in hypha cells or excreted out of mycelium, to restrain fungi. Two strains of endophytic fungi,Yll and Y29,having strong antagonistic characteristic were gained by selection.

  7. The effects on photosynthetic CO{sub 2} assimilation to long-term elevation of atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration: An assessment of the response of Trifolium Repens L. cv. Blanca grown at F.A.C.E.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, C.E.

    1994-11-01

    Understanding how photosynthetic capacity acclimates to elevated CO{sub 2} concentrations is vital in predicting the response of important grassland species such as Trifolium repens. Previous studies of acclimatization have been carried out in artificial experimental conditions, such as acrylic greenhouses or controlled environment chambers. The advent of FACE technology has enabled a large area of crop to be fumigated in the field, providing more realistic growing conditions. Pure stands of Trifolium repens L. cv. Blanca grown at either 355 or 600{mu}mol mol{sup -1} CO{sub 2} were examined, and their photosynthetic response to elevated Ca determined via gas exchange studies. Rates of photosynthesis of young, fully expanded leaves were increased between 21 and 36% when grown and measured at elevated CO{sub 2}. This increase in A corresponded to a decrease in g{sub S} of between 18 and 52%. No acclimation effect was observed in the most frequently cut stands, whilst the response of stands clipped only 4 times per year was more variable. When down regulation of V{sub cmax} did occur, this was not nearly as marked as that which occurred in 3 other temperate species (Chrysanthemum leucanthemum, Ranunculus friesianus, Plantago lanceolata (L.) J. & C. Presl.), at similar growth regimes. No acclimation of stomatal frequency, SI or pore length was found to occur in the enriched clover stands.

  8. In vitro efficacies of oils, silicas and plant preparations against the poultry red mite Dermanyssus gallinae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, Veronika; Perler, Erika; Heckendorn, Felix

    2009-06-01

    The aim of this study was to test the effectiveness of physically acting substances (oils and silicas) and plant preparations for the control of the poultry red mite Dermanyssus gallinae (De Geer 1778). Reproduction and survival of fed D. gallinae females were evaluated in vitro for a total of 168 h using the "area under the survival curve" (AUC) to compare survival of the mites between treatments. Four oils (two plant oils, one petroleum spray oil and diesel), one soap, three silicas (one synthetic amorphous silica, one diatomaceous earth (DE) and one DE with 2% pyrethrum extract) and seven plant preparations (derived from Chrysanthemum cineariaefolium, Allium sativum, Tanacetum vulgare, Yucca schidigera, Quillaja saponaria, Dryopteris filix-mas, and Thuja occidentalis) were tested at various concentrations. All the oils, diesel and soap significantly reduced D. gallinae survival. All silicas tested inhibited reproduction. DE significantly reduced mite survival, but amorphous silica was less effective in vitro. Except for pure A. sativum juice and the highest concentration of C. cineariaefolium extract, the plant preparations tested resulted in statistically insignificant control of D. gallinae.

  9. Effects of Beverages on Alcohol Metabolism: Potential Health Benefits and Harmful Impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Wang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Nonalcoholic beverages are usually consumed accompanying alcoholic drinks, and their effects on alcohol metabolism are unclear in vivo. In this study, the effects of 20 nonalcoholic beverages on alcohol metabolism and liver injury caused by alcohol were evaluated in mice. Kunming mice were orally fed with alcohol (52%, v/v and beverages. The concentrations of ethanol and acetaldehyde in blood as well as the activities of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH in liver were assessed to indicate alcohol metabolism. The levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST and alanine transaminase (ALT in serum as well as the levels of malonaldehyde (MDA and superoxide dismutase (SOD in liver were measured to reflect the alcohol-induced liver injury. The results showed that the treatment of soda water, green tea and honey chrysanthemum tea could accelerate ethanol metabolism and prevent liver injuries caused by alcohol when companied with excessive alcohol drinking. They might be potential dietary supplements for the alleviation of harmful effects from excessive alcohol consumption. On the contrary, some beverages such as fresh orange juice and red bull are not advised to drink when companied with alcohol consumption due to their adverse effects on ethanol induced liver injury.

  10. HEALTH AND NUTRITION FROM ORNAMENTALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Yashaswini

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Ornamental plants are grown for decorative purposes in gardens and landscape design projects, as house plants, for cut flowers and specimen display. Ornamentals and flower crops are not only grown for the display of aesthetic features, but also have some nutritive and medicinal properties. There has been renewed interest in utilizing garden environments as thera¬peutic entities to enhance the process of healing that occurs in healthcare environments. By minimizing the stress response, therapeutic gardens can promote re¬covery from illness or preserve health. From centuries roses have been valued for their culinary, medicinal, cosmetic and aromatic properties. Flower crops like Hibiscus, Plumbago, Periwinckle, and Lotus are highly valued for their medicinal use as in cosmetics, skin disorders, cancer etc. ornamental tree species like Palash, Amaltas, Bauhinia, Asoca, Kadamba are used in traditional Ayurvedic of medicines. Many of the flower crops such as nasturtium, hibiscus, rose, cosmos, and chrysanthemum are rich in minerals and vitamins, used as edible flowers. Some of the flowers like rose, jasmine, lavender and tuberose are used for extraction of essential oils. They are having soothing and curative properties and are used in aromatherapy. An attempt was made to collect the reviews on the therapeutic properties of these ornamentals.

  11. Avocado sunblotch viroid: primary sequence and proposed secondary structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symons, R H

    1981-01-01

    The sequence of the 247 nucleotide residues of the single strand circular RNA of avocado sunblotch viroid (ASBV) was determined using partial enzymic cleavage methods on overlapping viroid fragments obtained by partial ribonuclease digestion followed by 32p-labelling in vitro at their 5'-ends. ASBV is much smaller than potato spindle tuber viroid (PSTV; 359 residues) and chrysanthemum stunt viroid (CSV; 356 residues). A secondary structure model for ASBV is proposed and contains 67% of its residues base paired. In contrast to the extensive (69%) sequence homology of CSV with PSTV, only 18% of the ASBV sequence is homologous to PSTV and CSV. There are eight potential polypeptide translation products with chain lengths from 4 to 63 amino acid residues coded for by the plus (infectious) strand and four potential translation products (2 to 60 residues) coded for by the minus strand. An improved method is described for the synthesis of gamma-32p-ATP of high specific activity. PMID:7322921

  12. A novel ion-beam-mutation effect application in identification of gene involved in bacterial antagonism to fungal infection of ornamental crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahadtanapuk, S.; Teraarusiri, W.; Nanakorn, W.; Yu, L. D.; Thongkumkoon, P.; Anuntalabhochai, S.

    2014-05-01

    This work is on a novel application of ion beam effect on biological mutation. Bacillus licheniformis (B. licheniformis) is a common soil bacterium with an antagonistic effect on Curcuma alismatifolia Gagnep. and Chrysanthemum indicum Linn. In an attempt to control fungal diseases of local crops by utilizing B. licheniformis, we carried out gene analysis of the bacterium to understand the bacterial antagonistic mechanism. The bacterial cells were bombarded to induce mutations using nitrogen ion beam. After ion bombardment, DNA analysis revealed that the modified polymorphism fragment present in the wild type was missing in a bacterial mutant which lost the antifungal activity. The fragments conserved in the wild type but lost in the mutant bacteria was identified to code for the thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) gene. The gene analysis showed that the TrxR gene from B. licheniformis had the expression of the antagonism to fungi in a synchronous time evolution with the fungus inhibition when the bacteria were co-cultivated with the fungi. The collective results indicate the TrxR gene responsible for the antagonism of bacteria B. licheniformis to fungal infection.

  13. A novel ion-beam-mutation effect application in identification of gene involved in bacterial antagonism to fungal infection of ornamental crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahadtanapuk, S. [Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Phayao, Maeka, Muang, Phayao 56000 (Thailand); Teraarusiri, W. [Central Laboratory, University of Phayao, Maeka, Muang, Phayao 56000 (Thailand); Nanakorn, W. [The Crown Property Bureau, 173 Nakhonratchasrima Road, Dusit, Bangkok 10300 (Thailand); Yu, L.D., E-mail: yuld@thep-center.org [Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Thailand Center of Excellence in Physics, Commission on Higher Education, 328 Si Ayutthaya Road, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand); Thongkumkoon, P. [Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Anuntalabhochai, S., E-mail: soanu.1@gmail.com [Molecular Biology Laboratory, Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand)

    2014-05-01

    Highlights: • Ion beam bombardment induced mutation in bacterial B. licheniformis. • A mutant lost antifungal activity. • DNA fingerprint of the mutant was analyzed. • The lost gene was indentified to code for TrxR gene. • TrxR gene from B. licheniformis expressed the flower antagonism to fungi. - Abstract: This work is on a novel application of ion beam effect on biological mutation. Bacillus licheniformis (B. licheniformis) is a common soil bacterium with an antagonistic effect on Curcuma alismatifolia Gagnep. and Chrysanthemum indicum Linn. In an attempt to control fungal diseases of local crops by utilizing B. licheniformis, we carried out gene analysis of the bacterium to understand the bacterial antagonistic mechanism. The bacterial cells were bombarded to induce mutations using nitrogen ion beam. After ion bombardment, DNA analysis revealed that the modified polymorphism fragment present in the wild type was missing in a bacterial mutant which lost the antifungal activity. The fragments conserved in the wild type but lost in the mutant bacteria was identified to code for the thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) gene. The gene analysis showed that the TrxR gene from B. licheniformis had the expression of the antagonism to fungi in a synchronous time evolution with the fungus inhibition when the bacteria were co-cultivated with the fungi. The collective results indicate the TrxR gene responsible for the antagonism of bacteria B. licheniformis to fungal infection.

  14. Efficacité de quelques séquences d’herbicides contre les mauvaises herbes du pois chiche et de la féverole conduits en semis direct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badr HAJJAJ

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the efficacy of 18 sequences of pre and post emergence herbicides on weeds of no till faba bean and chickpea and their impact on crops grain yield, two trials were conducted during 2014-2015 growing season at Sidi El Aidi INRA research station and at a farmer’s farm in Ouled Said (Settat. Dominant species of weed flora in chickpea in Sidi El Aidi were: Bromus rigidus, Lolium rigidum, Avena sterilis, Cichorium endivia, Centaurea diluta, Emex spinosa and Papaver rhoeas. Dominant species of weed flora in faba bean at Ouled Said were: Avena sterilis, Plantago afra, Chrysanthemum coronarium, Centaurea diluta, Sonchus oleraceus and Silybum marianum. The obtained results showed that herbicides react differently on weed and crops. Treatments which showed good weed control and better selectivity provided the best crop yield. “Pendimethalin (1258,5 g/ha + Bentazon (960 g/ha” and “Acetochlor (2100 g/ha + Bentazon (960 g/ha” provided good weed control and good selectivity in horse bean crop. “Pendimethalin (1258,5 g/ha + Bentazon (960 g/ha” needs to be more tested on chickpea before its recommendation on this crop.

  15. Microbiological Quality of Various Medicinal Herbal Teas and Coffee Substitutes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.H. Tournas

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Various herbal teas including German chamomile, Chrysanthemum Vascuflow herb tea, hop, jasmine and orange flowers, sweet marjoram, spearmint and thyme leaves, and papaya-mint tea as well as coffee substitutes (Bambu instant Swiss, Teeccino chocolate-mint, and Teeccino Mediterranean Espresso were analyzed for fungal contamination and the presence of aerobic mesophilic bacteria (APC. The results of this investigation showed that fungal counts reached levels as high as 5.8 × 105 colony forming units (cfu per gram. German chamomile harbored the highest fungal contamination. The most common fungi found in herbal teas were Aspergillus niger, Penicillium spp., Eurotium rubrum, E. chevalieri, A. flavus, Fusarium spp., Alternaria alternata, and yeasts. Among the coffee substitutes, only the chocolate-mint coffee was contaminated with low numbers (<1.0 × 103 cfu g−1 of E. rubrum, Ulocladium spp. and Phoma spp., and with yeasts (<100–6.8 × 103 cfu g−1. Aerobic mesophilic bacteria were recovered from 100% of the herbal tea, chocolate-mint and Mediterranean Espresso, and from 50% of the Bambu instant Swiss coffee samples. The highest APC counts of 1.2 × 107 cfu g−1 were observed in spearmint leaves.

  16. Effect of different forage species supplemented with two carbohydrate sources on short and medium chain fatty acids in sheep milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Piredda

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Sixty four Sarda dairy sheep fed with diets based on fresh forage were allocated to eight groups to evaluate the effect of corn or beet pulp based supplementation on milk fatty acid composition. Four forage species were compared: annual ryegrass (RY, Lolium rigidum Gaudin, sulla (SU, Hedysarum coronarium L., burr medic (BM, Medicago polymorpha L., and garland, a daisy forb, (CH, Chrysanthemum coronarium L.. The supplements were iso-nitrogenous but differed in carbohydrate composition consisting either of 60% (DM of corn (concentrate C or 40% sugar beet pulp (concentrate BP. The supplementation was iso-energetic (500 and 530 g/d, respectively. Overall during winter period (growing stage of the forages SU and RY groups showed higher levels of atherogenicity index and C16:0. In winter period BP outperformed C for palmitic acid. In spring AI showed a trend similar to that of winter. Moreover C concentrate gave a better level of AI and myristic acid than BP. This study confirms that forage species and, to a lesser extent, carbohydrate source in the supplement markedly affect mediumchain FA profile and hence atherogenicity index in sheep milk.

  17. 多头切花菊新品种‘荷襄’的选育及栽培技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓波

    2014-01-01

    Hexiang belonged to long anemone cut-flower chrysanthemum with elegant, exquisite, pure and fresh, cuttlefish compact equilibrium, etc. It was put on record by non-main crop varieties recorded office of Liaoning seed management bureau in 2014. The variety was suitable for protected cultivation in Liaoning province. The breeding process, variety characteristics and cultivation techniques were introduced for extension production.%“荷襄”具有株形美观,花型独特优美,花色清新,花枝紧凑均衡等特点,2014年通过辽宁省种子管理局非主要农作物品种备案办公室备案。该品种为多头托桂型切花菊,适宜辽宁地区保护地栽培。针对该品种的选育、品种特性及栽培技术要点进行介绍,为其推广生产提供依据。

  18. Isolation of antibacterial compounds from Quercus dilatata L. through bioassay guided fractionation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamil Maryam

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Four medicinal plants (Chrozophora hierosolymitana Spreng, Chrysanthemum leucanthemum L., Ephedra gerardiana Wall. ex Stapf, and Quercus dilatata L. used by indigenous healers to treat various infectious diseases were selected for the present study. The major objective of the present study was isolation and characterization of antimicrobial components from the crude plant extracts using bioassay guided fractionation. Methods Seven methanolic extracts of the four plants were screened to identify any antimicrobial agents present in them. The active crude plant extract was fractionated first by solvent partitioning and then by HPLC. Characterization of the active fractions was done by using spectrophotometer. Results All the seven methanolic extracts showed low antifungal activity, however, when these extracts were tested for antibacterial activity, significant activity was exhibited by two extracts. The extract of aerial parts of Q. dilatata was most active and therefore, was selected for further analysis. Initially fractionation was done by solvent-solvent partitioning and out of six partitioned fractions, ethanol fraction was selected on the basis of results of antibacterial activity and phytochemical analysis. Further, fractionation was carried out by RP- HPLC and purified active subfractions were characterized by comparing their absorption spectra with that of the known natural products isolated from the plants of Quercus genus. Discussion and conclusion The results suggest that this is the first report of the isolated antibacterial compounds from this genus.

  19. Efficacy of Some Botanical Extracts against Trogoderma granarium in Wheat Grains with Toxicity Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aly S. Derbalah

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In an attempt to find alternative control methods for stored products insects, extracts of seven plant species (Cassia senna, Caesalpinia gilliesii, Thespesia populnea var. acutiloba, Chrysanthemum frutescens, Euonymus japonicus, Bauhinia purpurea, and Cassia fistula were evaluated under laboratory conditions for their ability to protect wheat (Triticum spp. grains against Trogoderma granarium insect. Moreover, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS analysis was carried to identify the chemical components of the most effective plant extract against T. granarium. Furthermore, the safety of the most effective plant extract was evaluated with respect to biochemical and histological changes in treated rats relative to control. The results revealed that, the tested botanical extracts showed high efficiency against T. granarium with respect to mortality and progeny of the adults. C. senna was the most effective botanical extract against T. granarium. The GC-MS analysis of the most effective plant extract showed the presence of different bioactive compounds that is known by its insecticidal activity. The most effective plant extract showed no toxicity on treated rats relative to control with respect to biochemical and histological changes. The results suggest the ability of using these plant extracts for wheat grains protection as a safe alternative to insecticides.

  20. Organic amendments increase phylogenetic diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in acid soil contaminated by trace elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montiel-Rozas, María Del Mar; López-García, Álvaro; Kjøller, Rasmus; Madejón, Engracia; Rosendahl, Søren

    2016-08-01

    In 1998, a toxic mine spill polluted a 55-km(2) area in a basin southward to Doñana National Park (Spain). Subsequent attempts to restore those trace element-contaminated soils have involved physical, chemical, or biological methodologies. In this study, the restoration approach included application of different types and doses of organic amendments: biosolid compost (BC) and leonardite (LEO). Twelve years after the last addition, molecular analyses of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungal communities associated with target plants (Lamarckia aurea and Chrysanthemum coronarium) as well as analyses of trace element concentrations both in soil and in plants were performed. The results showed an improved soil quality reflected by an increase in soil pH and a decrease in trace element availability as a result of the amendments and dosages. Additionally, the phylogenetic diversity of the AM fungal community increased, reaching the maximum diversity at the highest dose of BC. Trace element concentration was considered the predominant soil factor determining the AM fungal community composition. Thereby, the studied AM fungal community reflects a community adapted to different levels of contamination as a result of the amendments. The study highlights the long-term effect of the amendments in stabilizing the soil system.

  1. Effects of Beverages on Alcohol Metabolism: Potential Health Benefits and Harmful Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fang; Zhang, Yu-Jie; Zhou, Yue; Li, Ya; Zhou, Tong; Zheng, Jie; Zhang, Jiao-Jiao; Li, Sha; Xu, Dong-Ping; Li, Hua-Bin

    2016-01-01

    Nonalcoholic beverages are usually consumed accompanying alcoholic drinks, and their effects on alcohol metabolism are unclear in vivo. In this study, the effects of 20 nonalcoholic beverages on alcohol metabolism and liver injury caused by alcohol were evaluated in mice. Kunming mice were orally fed with alcohol (52%, v/v) and beverages. The concentrations of ethanol and acetaldehyde in blood as well as the activities of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) in liver were assessed to indicate alcohol metabolism. The levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT) in serum as well as the levels of malonaldehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in liver were measured to reflect the alcohol-induced liver injury. The results showed that the treatment of soda water, green tea and honey chrysanthemum tea could accelerate ethanol metabolism and prevent liver injuries caused by alcohol when companied with excessive alcohol drinking. They might be potential dietary supplements for the alleviation of harmful effects from excessive alcohol consumption. On the contrary, some beverages such as fresh orange juice and red bull are not advised to drink when companied with alcohol consumption due to their adverse effects on ethanol induced liver injury. PMID:27005619

  2. Rapid Identification and Comparison of Compounds with Antioxidant Activity in Coreopsis tinctoria Herbal Tea by High-Performance Thin-Layer Chromatography Coupled with DPPH Bioautography and Densitometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Shing-Chung; Lam, Sio-Fong; Zhao, Jing; Li, Shao-Ping

    2016-09-01

    A simple and efficient method based on high-performance thin-layer chromatography coupled with 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) bioautography (HPTLC-DPPH) was established for the screening and comparison of antioxidants in different parts of Coreopsis tinctoria herbal tea from different origins and other related herbal tea materials, which used Chrysanthemum morifolium cv. "Gongju" and "Hangju" in this study. Scanning densitometry after DPPH derivatization was applied for the determination of antioxidant capacities of isolated compounds in each sample. It is considered that ethanol extracts of C. tinctoria had stronger antioxidant activity and more characteristic bands than those of 2 compared samples, C. morifolium cv. "Gongju" and "Hangju." Chemometric analysis results showed that the combination of hierarchical clustering analysis and principal component analysis based on determined antioxidant capacities could be used for the discrimination of different parts of C. tinctoria and C. morifolium. Results showed that 7 compounds made up the major contributions of antioxidant activity in C. tinctoria, including okanin, isookanin, marein, flavanomarein, 5,7,3',5'-tetrahydroxyflavanone-7-O-glucoside, 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid, and chlorogenic acid. Therefore, 7 compounds were identified as major antioxidant biomarkers for quality control of C. tinctoria. Results demonstrated that the established method could be applied for the identification of C. tinctoria, and were beneficial for the bioactivity-based quality control of C. tinctoria.

  3. Steviol glycoside safety: are highly purified steviol glycoside sweeteners food allergens?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, Jonathan D; Carakostas, Michael C; Taylor, Steve L

    2015-01-01

    Steviol glycoside sweeteners are extracted from the plant Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni), a member of the Asteraceae (Compositae) family. Many plants from this family can induce hypersensitivity reactions via multiple routes of exposure (e.g., ragweed, goldenrod, chrysanthemum, echinacea, chamomile, lettuce, sunflower and chicory). Based on this common taxonomy, some popular media reports and resources have issued food warnings alleging the potential for stevia allergy. To determine if such allergy warnings are warranted on stevia-based sweeteners, a comprehensive literature search was conducted to identify all available data related to allergic responses following the consumption of stevia extracts or highly purified steviol glycosides. Hypersensitivity reactions to stevia in any form are rare. The few cases documented in the peer-reviewed literature were reported prior to the introduction of high-purity products to the market in 2008 when many global regulatory authorities began to affirm the safety of steviol glycosides. Neither stevia manufacturers nor food allergy networks have reported significant numbers of any adverse events related to ingestion of stevia-based sweeteners, and there have been no reports of stevia-related allergy in the literature since 2008. Therefore, there is little substantiated scientific evidence to support warning statements to consumers about allergy to highly purified stevia extracts.

  4. Preparation and properties of flower-like CuO nanostructures%花状氧化铜纳米结构的制备及其性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨慧; 刘志宏

    2009-01-01

    Three kinds of CuO nanomorphologies with chrysanthemum-like, anemone-like and cauliflower-like structure have been prepared by a hydrothermal method in presence of hexamethylenetetramine (HMTA) in water, ethanol, and glycol solution, respectively. The phases and morphologies of the as-prepared products were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The polarity of the reaction medium and reaction temperature have the effect on the morphology of CuO. The catalysises of CuO with the different morphologies for ammonium perchlorate (AP) decomposition were investigated by thermal analysis.%在六次甲基四胺存在下,通过水热法分别在水、乙醇和乙二醇反应介质中制备了菊花状、银莲花状和花椰菜状三种不同形貌的氧化铜纳米结构.利用X射线衍射(XRD)和扫描电子显微镜(SEM)对产物的物相及形貌进行了表征.结果表明,反应介质的极性和反应温度对氧化铜的形貌有一定影响.用热分析法考察了不同形貌的纳米CuO对高氯酸铵热分解的催化作用.

  5. New Experimental Hosts of Tobacco streak virus and Absence of True Seed Transmission in Leguminous Hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vemana, K; Jain, R K

    2010-10-01

    Of 70 plant species tested, 50 species were susceptible to Tobacco streak virus (TSV) on sap inoculation. Both localized (necrotic and chlorotic spots) and systemic (necrotic spots, axillary shoot proliferation, stunting, total necrosis and wilt) symptoms are observed by majority of plant species. Eleven new experimental hosts were identified viz., Amaranthus blitum var. oleracea (Chaulai sag), Celosia cristata (Cocks comb), Beta vulgaris var. bengalensis (Palak/Indian spinach), Calendula officinalis (Pot marigold), Chrysanthemum indicum, Cosmos sulphurens (Yellow cosmos), Citrullus lunatus (Watermelon), Lagenaria siceraria (Bottle gourd), Coriandrum sativum (Coriander), Hibiscus subderiffa var. subderiffa (Roselle) and Portulaca oleraceae (Little hogweed). Detected groundnut seed infection with TSV for the first time by Direct antigen coated immunosorbent assay (DAC-ELISA) using whole seed. The seed infection ranged from 18.9 to 28.9% among the seeds collected from naturally infected and sap inoculated groundnut varieties (JL 24, TMV 2, Prasuna, Kadiri 6, Kadiri 9, Anantha and Kadiri 7 Bold) belonging to spanish and virginia types. Further, TSV was detected both in pod shell and seed testa and none of the samples showed the presence of TSV either in cotyledon or embryo. Grow-out and bio-assay tests proved the absence of seed transmission in groundnut and other legume crops. Hence, TSV isolate was not a true seed transmission case under Indian conditions in legumes.

  6. 干旱胁迫下外源喷施 ABA 对地被菊生理特性的影响%Effect of Application of ABA on Physiological Characteristics of Chry santhemum Under Drought Stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李杨; 毛洪玉; 马磊; 谭霖

    2015-01-01

    为探讨外源ABA的化学调控作用,研究了干旱胁迫条件下喷施不同浓度外源激素脱落酸(ABA )对地被菊幼苗生理特性的影响。结果表明:喷施ABA后,地被菊幼苗蒸腾速率(Tr)、气孔导度(Gs)明显下降。外源ABA延缓了叶片相对含水量和叶绿素含量的下降,提高丙二醛和可溶性糖等渗透调节物质的水平,提高了植物的抗旱能力。浓度为100 mg·L ‐1 ABA的处理效果最佳。%In order to explore the chemical control effect of exogenous ABA ,the effect of different concentrations of exogenous ABA on physiological property of Chrysanthemum seedling under drought stress was analyzed . The results showed that after spraying exogenous ABA ,transpiration rate and stomatal conductance decreased , exogenous ABA slowed the decline of leaf relative water content and chlorophyll content ,increased the content of osmotic regulation substances ,such as MDA and soluble sugar ,and improved the resistance to drought .100 mg·L‐1 exogenous ABA performed the best .

  7. Whitefly species (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae on wild and cultivated plants in the horticultural region of Rosario, Santa Fe, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo G. GONSEBATT

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Las moscas blancas de importancia económica son polífagas y capaces de desarrollarse sobre numerosas plantas cultivadas y espontáneas. Registramos las especies de moscas blancas sobre cultivos hortícolas y de flores, y sobre las plantas silvestres asociadas. Observamos dos especies: Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood y el complejo Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius. T. vaporariorum fue registrada sobre 24 especies de plantas (11 familias, 12 y 8 de las cuales son hospedantes nuevos para Argentina y a nivel mundial, respectivamente. El complejo B. tabaci fue registrado solo en sistemas de producción de flores, sobre 19 especies de plantas (11 familias, 14 y 7 de las cuales son nuevos hospedantes para Argentina y a nivel mundial, respectivamente. Los cultivos Glycine max (L. y Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat., las especies silvestres Amaranthus blitum L., Amaranthus quitensis Kunth, Conyza bonariensis (L., Galinsoga parviflora Cav., Sonchus oleraceus L. y Wedelia glauca (Ortega O. Hoffm. ex Hicken fueron hospedantes de ambas especies. El único parasitoide registrado fue Eretmocerus californicus cercano a corni Haldeman (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae sobre T. vaporariorum. Este estudio que constituye el primer relevamiento sistemático de plantas hospedantes en la región, aporta un mayor conocimiento sobre el rango de plantas hospedantes de las moscas blancas en Argentina.

  8. 雪莲果复合饮料的研制%Research of the Yacon Composite Beverage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔欣欣; 张娜; 张菊新

    2015-01-01

    Yacon is a fresh,delicious,of low sugar and low calorie fruit. In this paper,through single factor test and orthogonal test,a yacon composite beverage was made using yacon,kiwifruit,chrysanthemum and xylosic alcohol. The chemical color protection technology of yacon and product formulation was researched. The optimal technology of yacon color protection is sodium sulfite 0.3%,citric acid 0.3 %,ascorbic acid 0.4 %,the color protection time 6min. The ratio of yacon juice,kiwifruit pulp and chrysanthemum juice is 6∶3∶4. The optimal product formulation is mixed juice 40 %,mixture of sucrose and xylosic alcohol(5∶1)6 %,citric acid 0.15 %,malic acid 0.05%,CMC 0.10%, guar gum 0.03%,pectin 0.06%. This yacon composite beverage is delicious,nourishing,of low sugar and low calorie. It can offer an important practical guidance to explore resource of agricultural commodities like yacon.%雪莲果是一种风味清爽、低糖、低热量水果。本文通过单因素实验和正交试验,以雪莲果、猕猴桃、菊花、木糖醇为主要原料,研制雪莲果复合饮料。重点研究雪莲果化学护色工艺以及产品配方。结果表明,雪莲果最佳护色工艺:亚硫酸钠0.3%,柠檬酸0.3%,抗坏血酸0.4%,护色时间6min。三种原汁最佳配比为,雪莲果汁∶猕猴桃浆∶菊花汁为6∶3∶4。产品最优配方为:复合原料汁40%,蔗糖和木糖醇(5∶1)总量6%,柠檬酸0.15%,苹果酸0.05%,羧甲基纤维素钠0.10%,瓜儿豆胶0.03%,果胶0.06%。产品具有风味清爽优美,营养丰富,低糖,低热量等特点,为雪莲果农产品的开发利用提供一条新途径。

  9. Evaluation of plant aqueous extracts, added into the soil, on Meloidogyne javanica (Treub, 1885 Chitwood, 1949 / Avaliação de extratos aquosos de várias espécies vegetais, aplicados ao solo, sobre Meloidogyne javanica (Treub, 1885 Chitwood, 1949

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Grassi de Freitas

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The use of plant extracts with nematicidal properties to control plant nematodes can be a useful alternative to small farmers, regarding its low cost and non-toxic effects. The effect of the addition into the soil of aqueous extracts of 20 plant species on Meloidogyne javanica in plants of tomato was studied at greenhouse conditions. These were divided into two groups and evaluated in two separate experiments.The soil in the 2.0 L pots was infested with 5,000 eggs and, in the same day, it was applied 20 mL of aqueous extracts of the 20 plant species (Chrysanthemum parthenium, Arctium lappa, Cymbopogon citratus, Bacharis trimera, Equisetum sp., Melia azedarach, Mentha sp., Ricinus communis, Ocimum basilicum, Momordica charantia, Ruta graveolens, Coleus barbatus, Symphitum officinalis, Polygonum acre, Canavalia ensiformis, Foeniculum vulgare, Petiveria alliacea, Ageratum conyzoides, Mucuna pruriens and Azadirachta indica. Distilled water was used as control. Sixty days later, were evaluated for plant height, the fresh weight of shoot and root and the numbers of galls and eggs per root system. The extracts of Mentha sp., Arctium lappa and Ricinus communis reduced the number of galls of M. javanica in 75.6%; 65.7% and 54.4%; and the number of eggs in 81.7%, 75.9% and 56.6%, respectively.O uso de extratos vegetais com propriedades nematicidas no controle de fitonematóides representa mais uma alternativa para os pequenos produtores, com valor prático e econômico, e sem riscos de contaminação do ambiente. A adição ao solo dos extratos aquosos de 20 espécies de plantas foi avaliada sobre a população de Meloidogyne javanica em plantas de tomateiro, em casa de vegetação. Estas foram divididas em dois grupos e avaliadas em dois experimentos separados. No mesmo dia em que se infestou o solo com 5.000 ovos do nematóide, adicionou-se 20 mL dos extratos aquosos obtidos de folhas de artemísia (Chrysanthemum parthenium, bardana (Arctium lappa

  10. Phylogeny of Eupatorium adenophorum Spreng in Asteracea Basing on Chloroplast Sequences%基于叶绿体序列分析紫茎泽兰在菊科的系统发育

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭秀芳; 杜向红; 牛善策; 聂小军; 张迎新; 万方浩; 宋卫宁

    2011-01-01

    In order to analyze the taxonomic status of Eupatorium adenophorum Spreng in Asteracea,the chloroplast rpl16 , psbA-trnH and trnL-F of Eupatorium adenophorum Spreng were amplified and sequenced. All the sequences were analyzed basing on sequence alignment with other chloroplast genes of Asteracea species in GenBank. Phylogenetic analysis was conducted with Mega 4. 0 software. Phylogenetic relationships were estimated by neighbor-joining method. The results indicated that,The Composite plants can be classified as two classes in the phylogenetic systematic. The class contained Chrysanthemum indicum and Leucanthemum vulgare was far related to Eupatorium adenophorum Spreng; Eupatorium adenophorum Spreng had the closest taxonomic status with other plants of the genus Eupatorium and Guizotia abyssinica, and it was much closer than that between Helianthus annuus and Parthenium argentatum and the relation between Eupatorium adenophorum Spreng and Lactuca sativa, Leucanthemum vulgare and Chrysanthemum indicum was far. So our molecular evidences indicate that Eupatorium adenophorum Spreng belongs to the genus Eupatorium; The sequences of the combined dataset (rpl16 + psbA-trnH + trnL-F)ranged from 2 140 bp to 2 203 bp in length. The sequences were aligned and final sequences were 2 399 bp in length,including 381 variable sites and 190 parsim-info sites. Analyses of three separate and combined datasets provided a good amount of informative characters and resolved the systematical relationships of Eupatorium adenophorum Spreng well.%为研究紫茎泽兰(Eupatorium adentophorum spreng)在菊科的系统发育,利用通用引物对紫茎泽兰叶绿体DNA的rpl16内含子及psbA-trnH与trnL-F两个基因间隔区进行PCR扩增并测序,将其序列分别与GenBank中部分菊科(Asteraceae)植物的基因序列进行比对分析.应用Mega 4.0软件进行分子遗传进化分析,采用邻接法构建系统进化树.结果表明,菊科植物在系统分类上呈现出两大类

  11. Soaking curve and effect of temperature on the germination of daisy seeds Curva de embebição e efeito da temperatura na germinação de sementes de margarida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério G Pêgo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The soaking curve and the effect of temperature on the germination of daisy seeds (Chrysanthemum leucanthemum were characterized in this study. To determine the soaking curve, four samples of 0.5 g of seeds were soaked in germitest paper moistened with distilled water and maintained in germinator at 25ºC. The seeds were weighed in periods of 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, 24, 36, 48, 60, 72, 84 and 96 hours using a precision digital balance of 0.0001 g. A triphasic pattern germination curve was adjusted, allowing the determination of the beginning and duration of the phase II of the germination process. The germination test was carried out with four replications of 50 seeds disposed in "Gerbox" boxes and placed in germinators at the temperatures of 20, 25, 30 or 20-30ºC. A completely randomized experimental design was used with four replications of 50 seeds. The data were submitted to the analysis of variance and the averages were compared by the Tukey test, at 5% of probability. For analysis of accumulated seed germination, regressions were adjusted based on period of experiment. The seeds presented a triphasic pattern of germination and the phases I and II lasted 12 and 48 hours, respectively. The best temperature for the germination of the seeds is 25ºC. The temperature of 30ºC promoted the thermoinhibition of germination and increased the dead and dormant seeds and abnormal seedlings.A curva de embebição e o efeito da temperatura sobre a germinação de sementes de margarida (Chrysanthemum leucanthemum foram caracterizados. Para determinar a curva de embebição, quatro amostras de 0,5 g de sementes foram embebidas em papel germitest umedecido com água destilada e mantidas em germinador a 25ºC. As sementes foram pesadas em períodos de 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, 24, 36, 48, 60, 72, 84 e 96 horas, com auxílio de balança de precisão digital de 0,0001 g. Foi ajustada uma curva trifásica padrão de germinação, permitindo a determinação do início e a dura

  12. 小菊品种‘钟山金桂’与亚菊属细裂亚菊F1回交后代的性状遗传表现%Genetic Presentation of BC1 Between ‘Zhongshanjingui' and ‘Zhongshanjingui' x Ajania przewalskii

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱文莹; 刘新春; 房伟民; 管志勇; 陈素梅; 蒋甲福; 陈发棣

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] Genetic presentation of BC1 between 'Zhongshanjingui' and 'Zhongshanjingui' ×Ajania przewalskii. Was studied in order to obtain new germplasm with higher ornamental and cold tolerance. [Method] Backcross hybridizations were made between Dendranthema morifolium variety 'Zhongshanjingui' (as female) and 'Zhongshanjingui' Xajania przewalskⅡ (as male). The backcross hybrids were obtained and their hybridity was confirmed by a combination of morphological, cytological analysis and resistance comparison. [Result] A total of 17 backcross hybrids were obtained. The hybrids differentiated obviously from their parents in many morphological characters and all hybrid lines bloomed normally. There happened three flower types, I.e. standard anemone type, mid-anemone type and non-anemone type, and most were anemone type. Some hybeids' inflorescence diameter was greater than 'Zhongshanjingui', the flower color was the same as 'Zhongshanjingui'. Compared with the male parent, the ornamental value was greatly improved. The chromosome number of 'Zhongshanjingui' and 'Zhongshanjingui' ×Ajania przewalskⅡ were 54 and 45, respectively. Their backcross hybrids chromosome number was between 41-54. In comparison of cold resistance, almost all the hybrids showed higher tolerance than 'Zhongshanjingui', which illustrated the backcross hybrids preserved the cold tolerance of Ajania przewalskii. [ Conclusion ] By using backcross between intergeneric hybrid F1 and its chrysanthemum parent, not only the intergeneric hybrid's ornamental vatue can be improved, but new germplasm of chrysanthemum also can be created.%[目的]对菊属栽培菊‘钟山金桂’与亚菊属细裂亚菊F1回交后代的性状遗传表现进行研究,获得观赏性和抗性改良的优异属间新种质.[方法]以‘钟山金桂’×细裂亚菊F1为父本,‘钟山金桂’为轮回亲本开展回交试验.对获得的回交后代进行细胞学鉴定,对BC1代的形态性状观测,对经过越冬

  13. 不同蔬菜对保加利亚乳杆菌生长的影响%Effect of different vegetables on the growth of Lactobacillus bulgaricus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    康婕; 吕嘉枥; 刘洋

    2013-01-01

    为了说明发酵蔬菜制品中的浆水菜在发酵过程中发酵菌对原料蔬菜的选择性,以保加利亚乳杆菌(Lactobacillus bulgaricus)为菌种,以48种常见蔬菜为原料,按照浆水菜制作工艺,实验研究了菌体在添加不同蔬菜中的生长的情况.结果表明,添加白萝卜、黄瓜、山药、番茄、胡萝卜、小白菜、小青菜、油麦菜、芹菜、冬瓜等蔬菜的,保加利亚乳杆菌生长的很好,菌体浓度均可达到108cfu/mL以上;添加土豆、菠菜、海带、黄豆芽、油菜、芥菜、苦菊、芥蓝、茴香、菜花、莴笋、茄子、南瓜、西葫芦、苜蓿等蔬菜的,保加利亚乳杆菌有生长,菌体浓度在107 cfu/mL左右;添加平菇、空心菜、生菜、大葱、蒜苔、青椒、大白菜、西兰花、茼蒿、韭菜、香椿、地瓜、紫薯、莲藕、娃娃菜、荷兰豆、苦瓜、紫甘蓝、丝瓜、冬笋、豇豆、香菜、洋葱等蔬菜的保加利亚乳杆菌没有生长.%Effect of adding 48 kinds of common vegetables as raw materials on the growth Lactobacillus bulgaricus were examined,by which production processes in accordance with jiangshui in order to illustrate the selectivity of the bacteria on raw vegetables.The test results showed that white radish,cucumber,yams,tomatoes,carrots,cabbage,green cabbage,lettuce,celery,melon could promote the growth of Lactobacillus bulgaricus obviously and the number of the viable cells reached 108cfu/mL above.Potatoes,spinach,seaweed,bean sprouts,rapeseed,mustard greens,bitter chrysanthemum,kale,fennel,cauliflower,lettuce,eggplant,pumpkin,zucchini,alfalfa on the growth of Lactobacillus bulgaricus were not obvious,the number of the viable cells reached 107cfu/mL,mushroom,spinach,lettuce,green onions,garlic,green peppers,cabbage,broccoli,garland chrysanthemum,leeks,cedar,and sweet potatoes,purple sweet potato,lotus root,baby vegetables,snow peas,bitter gourd,purple cabbage,loofah,bamboo shoots,cowpea,parsley,onion have

  14. Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals Pollution in 9 Small Vegetable Varieties of Guizhou Province%贵州省9个小品种蔬菜重金属污染风险评估

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡胜; 袁旭; 庞宏宇; 李俊; 罗华兰; 刘芳

    2016-01-01

    By collecting 9 kinds of vegetable samples from different regions of Guizhou province,to explore the Pb,Cd,Hg,As pollu-tion of 9 vegetable varieties,analysis health risks of four kinds of heavy metals to human body.The results showed that the heavy metal Hg,Pb,Cd and As of the short species vegetables in Guizhou province were lower than 3%,and the risk was lower;To a certain ex-tent,four kinds of heavy metal pollution cross contamination,the poluttion of Coriandrum sativum L.,Chrysanthemum coronarium L. and Allium schoenoprasum is relatively serious,effect of Cucurbita moschata (Duch.ex Lam.)Duch.ex Poiret and Luffa cylindrica (L.)Roem.is relatively less contaminated by heavy metals;By clustering analysis and calculated exposure risk index shows,Corian-drum sativum L.,Chrysanthemum coronarium L.and Allium schoenoprasum have greater risk than other vegetables,but the average content did not exceed the MRL value,the overall risk is smaller,the value of,Cd,and HQ of 9 kinds of vegetables,Hg,Pb and As, health risks can be accepted.%通过采集贵州省各地区9种小品种蔬菜样品,探究小品种蔬菜重金属 Pb、Cd、Hg、As 的污染状况,以及4种重金属对人体的健康风险。结果表明:贵州省小品种蔬菜的重金属 Hg、Pb、Cd、As 超标率均低于3%,风险较低;在一定程度上存在综合污染,其中芫荽、茼蒿和细香葱重金属综合污染相对严重,南瓜和丝瓜则受到重金属综合污染的影响比较小;由聚类分析和计算暴露风险指数值可知,细香葱、芫荽、茼蒿相对于其他几种小品种蔬菜风险较高,但平均含量均未超过 MRL 值,总体风险较小,9种小品种蔬菜的 As、Cd、Hg 和 Pb 的 HQ 蔬菜值〈1,健康风险可以接受。

  15. Efeito da presa alternativa no desenvolvimento e consumo de Orius insidiosus (Say (Hemiptera, Anthocoridae e comportamento de oviposição em cultivares de crisântemo Effect of alternative prey on development and consumption of Orius insidiosus (Say (Hemiptera, Anthocoridae and oviposition behavior on chrysantemum cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria da Conceição M. Soglia

    2007-12-01

    . The consumption of the females of O. insidiosus was higher (P<0.01 on A. gossypii in "White Reagan" (2.63 nymphs compared to the consumption in "Yellow Snowdon" (0.7 nymphs. Females of O. insidiosus oviposited in petiole of both cultivars with 22.5 and 23.3 eggs/female on "White Reagan" and "Yellow Snowdon", respectively. Release of O. insidiosus on chrysanthemum crops could be important to decrease the A. gossypii population, as the predator completes its development having this aphid as prey, and the chrysanthemum cultivars offer conditions to colonization and establishment of O. insidiosus.

  16. Study on Numberical Classification of Plant Community in Xuefeng Mountain(Huaihua Area)%雪峰山(怀化段)植物群落的数量分类研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁莉

    2012-01-01

    对雪峰山(怀化段)的植物群落采用数学模糊聚类分析,结果表明:(1)模糊聚类分析方法是一种理想的植物群落分类方法,可得到比较客观、合理的分类结果;(2)雪峰山(怀化段)的植物群落大致可分为4种类型,分别是:①马尾松—映山红+白栎—白茅+鹅观草群丛;②杉木—苎麻+茶—香石竹+蓼群丛;③杜仲—香樟—柴胡+野菊花群丛;④野百合+早熟禾群丛。%Plant community in Xuefeng Mountain(Huaihua Area)was analyzed by fuzzy classification,The resulted show that(1) The method of fuzzy classification based on fuzzy mathematics was a ideal categorizing method of plant community,Lt could get objective and reasonable categorizing resules;(2)the plant communities in Xuefeng Mountain(Huaihua Area) could be divided into about four types:①Ass.Pinus massoniana-Rhododendron simsii+Quercus fabri-Imperata spp.+Roegneria kamoji;②Ass.Cuninghamia lanceolata-Boehmeria nivea+Camellia sinensis-Dianthus caryophyllus+Polygonum spp.;③ Ass.Eucommia ulmoides-Cinnamomum camphora-Bupleurum chinense+Chrysanthemum indicum;④Ass.Lilium brownie+Poa annua.

  17. Insecticide Rotation Programs with Entomopathogenic Organisms for Suppression of Western Flower Thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) Adult Populations under Greenhouse Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivett, Jessica M; Cloyd, Raymond A; Bello, Nora M

    2015-08-01

    Western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande), is one of the most destructive insect pests of greenhouse production systems with the ability to develop resistance to a wide variety of insecticides. A common resistance management strategy is rotating insecticides with different modes of action. By incorporating entomopathogenic organisms (fungi and bacteria), which have discrete modes of action compared to standard insecticides, greenhouse producers may preserve the effectiveness of insecticides used for suppression of western flower thrips populations. The objective of this study was to determine how different rotation programs that include entomopathogenic organisms (Beauveria bassiana, Isaria fumosoroseus, Metarhizium anisopliae, and Chromobacterium subtsugae) and commonly used standard insecticides (spinosad, chlorfenapyr, abamectin, and pyridalyl) may impact the population dynamics of western flower thrips adult populations by means of suppression. Eight-week rotation programs were applied to chrysanthemum, Dendranthema x morifolium plants and weekly counts of western flower thrips adults captured on yellow sticky cards were recorded as a means to evaluate the impact of the rotation programs. A final quality assessment of damage caused by western flower thrips feeding on foliage and flowers was also recorded. Furthermore, a cost comparison of each rotation program was conducted. Overall, insecticide rotation programs that incorporated entomopathogenic organisms were not significantly different than the standard insecticide rotation programs without entomopathogenic organisms in suppressing western flower thrips adult populations. However, there were no significant differences among any of the rotation programs compared to the water control. Moreover, there was no differential effect of the rotation programs on foliage and flower quality. Cost savings of up to 34% (in US dollars) are possible when including entomopathogenic organisms in the

  18. Preference of a polyphagous mirid bug, Apolygus lucorum (Meyer-Dür) for flowering host plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Hongsheng; Lu, Yanhui; Wyckhuys, Kris A G; Wu, Kongming

    2013-01-01

    Apolygus lucorum (Meyer-Dür) (Hemiptera: Miridae) is one of the most important herbivores in a broad range of cultivated plants, including cotton, cereals, vegetables, and fruit crops in China. In this manuscript, we report on a 6-year long study in which (adult) A. lucorum abundance was recorded on 174 plant species from 39 families from early July to mid-September. Through the study period per year, the proportion of flowering plants exploited by adult A. lucorum was significantly greater than that of non-flowering plants. For a given plant species, A. lucorum adults reached peak abundance at the flowering stage, when the plant had the greatest attraction to the adults. More specifically, mean adult abundance on 26 species of major host plants and their relative standard attraction were 10.3-28.9 times and 9.3-19.5 times higher at flowering stage than during non-flowering periods, respectively. Among all the tested species, A. lucorum adults switched food plants according to the succession of flowering plant species. In early July, A. lucorum adults preferred some plant species in bloom, such as Vigna radiata, Gossypium hirsutum, Helianthus annuus and Chrysanthemum coronarium; since late July, adults dispersed into other flowering hosts (e.g. Ricinus communis, Impatiens balsamina, Humulus scandens, Ocimum basilicum, Agastache rugosus and Coriandrum sativum); in early September, they largely migrated to flowering Artemisia spp. (e.g. A. argyi, A. lavandulaefolia, A. annua and A. scoparia). Our findings underscore the important role of flowering plays in the population dynamics and inter-plant migration of this mirid bug. Also, our work helps understand evolutionary aspects of host plant use in polyphagous insects such as A. lucorum, and provides baseline information for the development of sustainable management strategies of this key agricultural pest.

  19. Larvicidal activity of selected plant hydrodistillate extracts against the house mosquito, Culex pipiens, a West Nile virus vector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetin, Huseyin; Yanikoglu, Atila; Cilek, James E

    2011-04-01

    The larvicidal activity of hydrodistillate extracts from Chrysanthemum coronarium L., Hypericum scabrum L., Pistacia terebinthus L. subsp. palaestina (Boiss.) Engler, and Vitex agnus castus L. was investigated against the West Nile vector, Culex pipiens L. (Diptera: Culicidae). Yield and identification of the major essential oils from each distillation was determined by GC-MS analyses. The major essential oil component for each plant species was as follows: α-pinene for P. terebinthus palaestina, and H. scabrum (45.3% and 42.3%, respectively), trans-β-caryophyllene for V. agnus castus (22.1%), and borneol for C. coronarium (20.9%). A series of distillate concentrations from these plants (that ranged from 1 ppm to 500 ppm, depending on plant species) were assessed against late third to early fourth C. pipiens larvae at 1, 6, and 24 h posttreatment. In general, larval mortality to water treated with a distillate increased as concentration and exposure time increased. H. scabrum and P. terebinthus palaestina were most effective against the mosquito larvae and both produced 100% mortality at 250 ppm at 24-h continuous exposure compared with the other plant species. Larval toxicity of the distillates at 24 h (LC(50) from most toxic to less toxic) was as follows: P. terebinthus palaestina (59.2 ppm) > H. scabrum (82.2 ppm) > V. agnus castus (83.3 ppm) > C. coronarium (311.2 ppm). But when LC(90) values were compared, relative toxicity ranking changed as follows: H. scabrum (185.9 ppm) > V. agnus castus (220.7 ppm) > P. terebinthus palaestina (260.7 ppm) > C. coronarium (496.3 ppm). Extracts of native Turkish plants continue to provide a wealth of potential sources for biologically active agents that may be applied against arthropod pests of man and animals.

  20. Ecological studies of plants for the control of environmental pollution. IV. Growth of various plant species as influenced by soil applied cadmium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, J.W.; Kim, B.W.

    1975-03-01

    The relations of the growth response of plants, i.e. 4 species of crops, 12 species of roadside trees and 5 species of horticultural plants to cadmium (Cd) were studied in pot cultures. Growth in dry weight of corn, soybeans, barley, and wheat plants was decreased with an increase in Cd concentration. Damage to corn plants caused by Cd treatment was more or less recovered when it was grown in soil with calcium, but the other three crops did not recover. Although crop plants used here absorbed a small amount of Cd through the roots, the Cd content in the shoots was directly proportionate to the concentration of Cd added to the soil. Additions of calcium and sulfur to soil were sufficient to change the soil pH. The chlorosis on leaves caused by Cd treatment was observed in 2 species such as Euonymus japonica and Rhododendron yedoense out of 5 species of the horticultural plants, especially at 50 ppm of Cd. Euonymus japonica had symptoms of chlorosis and defoliation, and at higher concentrations the symptoms were more severe. At 200 ppm of Cd little damage was observed in Pinus koraiensis and Ginkgo biloba, but severe chlorosis was observed in Robinia pseudoacacia and Sabina chinensis, Buxus koreana, Abies holophylla and Platanus orientalis. Nevertheless, those plants that had serious damage at 200 ppm of Cd showed weakened symptoms by adding calcium to the soil. There were many Cd tolerant species out of the plants used in this experiment, such as Crassula falcata, Chrysanthemum morifolium, Hibiscus syriacus, Ligustrum ovalifolium, Liriodendron tulipeferia, and Lespedeza crytobotrys.

  1. Protective effect of linarin against D-galactosamine and lipopolysaccharide-induced fulminant hepatic failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seok-Joo; Cho, Hong-Ik; Kim, So-Jin; Park, Jin-Hyun; Kim, Joon-Sung; Kim, Young Ho; Lee, Sang Kook; Kwak, Jong-Hwan; Lee, Sun-Mee

    2014-09-01

    Linarin was isolated from Chrysanthemum indicum L. Fulminant hepatic failure is a serious clinical syndrome that results in massive inflammation and hepatocyte death. Apoptosis is an important cellular pathological process in d-galactosamine (GalN)/lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced liver injury, and regulation of liver apoptosis might be an effective therapeutic method for fulminant hepatic failure. This study examined the cytoprotective mechanisms of linarin against GalN/LPS-induced hepatic failure. Mice were given an oral administration of linarin (12.5, 25 and 50mg/kg) 1h before receiving GalN (800 mg/kg)/LPS (40 μg/kg). Linarin treatment reversed the lethality induced by GalN/LPS. After 6h of GalN/LPS injection, the serum levels of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin-6 and interferon-γ were significantly elevated. GalN/LPS increased toll-like receptor 4 and interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase protein expression. These increases were attenuated by linarin. Linarin attenuated the increased expression of Fas-associated death domain and caspase-8 induced by GalN/LPS, reduced the cytosolic release of cytochrome c and caspase-3 cleavage induced by GalN/LPS, and reduced the pro-apoptotic Bim phosphorylation induced by GalN/LPS. However, linarin increased the level of anti-apoptotic Bcl-xL and phosphorylation of STAT3. Our results suggest that linarin alleviates GalN/LPS-induced liver injury by suppressing TNF-α-mediated apoptotic pathways.

  2. Larvicidal activity of medicinal plant extracts against Anopheles subpictus & Culex tritaeniorhynchus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamaraj, C.; Bagavan, A.; Elango, G.; Zahir, A. Abduz; Rajakumar, G.; Marimuthu, S.; Santhoshkumar, T.; Rahuman, A. Abdul

    2011-01-01

    Background & objectives: Mosquitoes transmit serious human diseases, causing millions of deaths every year and the development of resistance to chemical insecticides resulting in rebounding vectorial capacity. Plants may be alternative sources of mosquito control agents. The present study assessed the role of larvicidal activities of hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, acetone, and methanol dried leaf and bark extracts of Annona squamosa L., Chrysanthemum indicum L., and Tridax procumbens L. against the fourth instar larvae of malaria vector, Anopheles subpictus Grassi and Japanese encephalitis vector, Culex tritaeniorhynchus Giles (Diptera: Culicidae). Methods: Larvicidal activities of three medicinal plant extracts were studied in the range of 4.69 to 1000 mg/l in the laboratory bioassays against early 4th instar larvae of An. subpictus and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus. The mortality data were subjected to probit analysis to determine the lethal concentrations (LC50 and LC90) to kill 50 and 90 per cent of the treated larvae of the respective species. Results: All plant extracts showed moderate effects after 24 h of exposure; however, the highest toxic effect of bark methanol extract of A. squamosa, leaf ethyl acetate extract of C. indicum and leaf acetone extract of T. procumbens against the larvae of An. subpictus (LC50 = 93.80, 39.98 and 51.57 mg/l) and bark methanol extract of A. squamosa, leaf methanol extract of C. indicum and leaf ethyl acetate extract of T. procumbens against the larvae of Cx. tritaeniorhynchus (LC50 =104.94, 42.29 and 69.16 mg/l) respectively. Interpretation & Conclusions: Our data suggest that the bark ethyl acetate and methanol extract of A. squamosa, leaf ethyl acetate and methanol extract of C. indicum, acetone and ethyl acetate extract of T. procumbens have the potential to be used as an ecofriendly approach for the control of the An. subpictus, and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus. PMID:21808141

  3. Use of radiation for plant breeding in Japan: results and future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaguchi, I. [National Institute of Agricultural Resource, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1998-12-31

    In 1966, as the first breeds by radiation mutation in Japan, `Reimei`, a rice variety with increased lodging resistance by short culm mutation and Raiden`, an early variety by mutation of soybean obtained by extreme late variety with nematoda resistance were bred and registered in the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry. Since these characteristics of `short culm` and early maturing` have a comparatively high mutation rate and ease of selection, among seed propagation crops many kinds of those varieties improved to have either of these characteristics or both of them at the same time by mutation breeding are bred. In Japan, varieties bred by use of mutation breeding count 107 (as of April 1998). Among crops, that with the most varieties is chrysanthemum, which has 20 varieties and the next is rice with 15 varieties. The other 38 varieties of crops such as grains, beans, industrial crops, vegetables, flowering plants, flowering trees and fruit trees, mutation breeding varieties are widely bred. Among mutagens used, gamma ray holds 80%. The recent development in the research of DNA recombination is amazing and plant bodies which have introduced useful genes which other plants have are being obtained. Radiation mutation breeding, however, has the advantages of breeding new varieties by improving only one or two characteristics of excellent races. Radiation mutation breeding and DNA recombination technologies, therefore, may need to be utilized separately according to respective purposes. In the future, for radiation mutation breeding, mutants with quality characteristics which others do not have, corresponding to the diverse demand on agricultural products must come to be required. On the other hand, by the crops like banana for which ordinary breeding is almost impossible, the expectation for radiation mutation breeding will be more and more heightened. In addition, the accumulation of studies on controlling the direction of mutation which has been regarded

  4. Application of Two-spotted Spider Mite Tetranychus urticae for Plant-pest Interaction Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negrave, Tara; Van Leeuwen, Thomas; Grbic, Vojislava; Grbic, Miodrag

    2014-01-01

    The two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae, is a ubiquitous polyphagous arthropod herbivore that feeds on a remarkably broad array of species, with more than 150 of economic value. It is a major pest of greenhouse crops, especially in Solanaceae and Cucurbitaceae (e.g., tomatoes, eggplants, peppers, cucumbers, zucchini) and greenhouse ornamentals (e.g., roses, chrysanthemum, carnations), annual field crops (such as maize, cotton, soybean, and sugar beet), and in perennial cultures (alfalfa, strawberries, grapes, citruses, and plums)1,2. In addition to the extreme polyphagy that makes it an important agricultural pest, T. urticae has a tendency to develop resistance to a wide array of insecticides and acaricides that are used for its control3-7. T. urticae is an excellent experimental organism, as it has a rapid life cycle (7 days at 27 °C) and can be easily maintained at high density in the laboratory. Methods to assay gene expression (including in situ hybridization and antibody staining) and to inactivate expression of spider mite endogenous genes using RNA interference have been developed8-10. Recently, the whole genome sequence of T. urticae has been reported, creating an opportunity to develop this pest herbivore as a model organism with equivalent genomic resources that already exist in some of its host plants (Arabidopsis thaliana and the tomato Solanum lycopersicum)11. Together, these model organisms could provide insights into molecular bases of plant-pest interactions. Here, an efficient method for quick and easy collection of a large number of adult female mites, their application on an experimental plant host, and the assessment of the plant damage due to spider mite feeding are described. The presented protocol enables fast and efficient collection of hundreds of individuals at any developmental stage (eggs, larvae, nymphs, adult males, and females) that can be used for subsequent experimental application. PMID:25046103

  5. Seek the Source of Symbolization of Longevous Plants in Ancient Silk Patterns%古代丝绸纹样中长寿植物的象征探源

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周慧

    2013-01-01

    针对中国古代丝绸纹样中十分常见的一种寓意手法——象征,阐述了象征中的“形”与“义”.对众多表达长寿主题的精致华美的丝绸植物纹样题材如桃、松、菊、芝进行了象征根源探析,通过分析这四种植物自身的特性和相关神话传说,解读它们作为长寿文化象征的内涵.希望当今艺术设计者结合现代艺术设计理念,将传统元素应用于设计作品之中,以提升作品的文化内涵.%In allusion to a very common moral technique in ancient Chinese silk patterns-symbolization,this paper describes "form" and "meaning" in symbolization; seeks the source of symbolization of many exquisite silk plant pattern themes expressing longevity such as peach,pine,chrysanthemum and glossy ganoderma; interprets their connotations as a symbol of longevity culture by analyzing characteristics of these four plants and related tales of legendia; and expects current art designers to apply traditional elements into their design work in combination with modern art design concepts so as to improve the cultural connotation of works.

  6. Prospect of indegenous plant extracts in tea pest management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.S.A. Mamun

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Tea is a popular beverage made from the leaves of evergreen shrub or tree Camellia sinensis, under the family Theaceae. Tea plant is subjected to the attack of insects, mites, nematodes and some plant pathogenic diseases. Tea production is greatly hindered due to thesemaladies. About 10-15% crop loss occurred by these pests per annum. In severe cases, it would be 100%. To combat these problems different groups of pesticides have been used in the tea fields since 1960. As tea is a consumable commodity, the effect of residue of pesticides in made tea is harmful to human health. In this context, biopesticides are being considered as environmentally safe, selective, biodegradable, economical and renewable alternatives for use in IPM programmes. Biopesticides are natural plant products and may be grown by the planters with minimum cost and extracted by indigenous methods.Biopesticides are secondary metabolites, which include alkaloids, terpenoids, phenolics, and minor secondary chemicals. It is estimated that as many as 2121 plant species have been reported to posses’ pest control properties. Botanicals like neem, ghora-neem, mahogoni,karanja, adathoda, sweet flag, tobacco, derris, annona, smart weed, bar weed, datura, calotropis, bidens, lantana, chrysanthemum, artemisia, marigold, clerodendrum, wild sunflower and many others may be grown by planters with minimum expense and extracted by indigenous methods. These botanical materials can be used as an alternative to chemical pesticides. These botanical extracts will help in controlling major pests of tea such as Helopeltis, red spider mite, aphids, thrips, jassid, flushworm, termites, nematodes etc. Thepresent note reviews the information of most widely available indigenous plants that may be used for the control of insect pests of tea as a component of IPM.

  7. Sesquiterpene lactones from the Yugoslavian wild growing plant families Asteraceae and Apiaceae (REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MILUTIN STEFANOVIC

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available 1. Introduction 2. Results 3. Asteraceae 3.1. Genus Artemisia L. 3.1.1. Artemisia annua L. 3.1.2. Artemisia vulgaris L. 3.1.3. Artemisia absinthium L. (warmwood 3.1.4. Artemisia scoparia W. et K. 3.1.5. Artemisia camprestris L. 3.2. Genus Ambrosia L. 3.2.1. Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. (the common rag weed 3.3. Genus Tanacetum L. (syn. Chrysanthemum L. 3.3.1. Tanacetum parthenium L. (feverfew 3.3.2. Tanacetum serotinum L. 3.3.3. Tanacetum vulgare L. (tansy 3.3.4. Tanacetum macrophyllum Willd. 3.3.5. Tanacetum corymbosum L. 3.4. Genus Telekia Baumg. 3.4.1. Telekia speciosa (Schreb. Baumg. 3.5. Genus Inula L. 3.5.1. Inula helenium L. 3.5.2. Inula spiraeifolia L. 3.6. Genus Eupatorium L. 3.6.1. Eupatorium cannabinum L. 3.7. Genus Achillea L. 3.7.1. Achillea abrotanoides Vis. 3.7.2. Achillea millefolium subsp. pannonica 3.7.3. Achillea crithmifolia W. et K. 3.7.4. Achillea clypeolata Sibth. et Sm. 3.7.5. Achillea serbica Nyman 3.7.6. Achillea depressa Janka 3.8. Genus Anthemis L. 3.8.1. Anthemis carpatica Willd. 3.8.2. Anthemis cretica L. subsp. cretica 3.9. Genus Centaurea L. 3.9.1. Centaurea derventana Vis. et Panc. 3.9.2. Centaurea kosaninii Hayek 3.9.3. Centaurea solstitialis L. 4. Apiaceae 4.1. Genus Laserpitium L. 4.1.1. Laserpitium siler L. 4.1.2. Laserpitium marginatum L. 4.1.3. Laserpitium latifolium L. 4.1.4. Laserpitium alpinum W. K. 4.2. Genus Angelica L. 4.2.1. Angelica silvestris L. 4.3. Genus Peucedanum L. 4.3.1. Peucedanum austriacum (Jacq. Koch

  8. Parental use of the term "Hot Qi" to describe symptoms in their children in Hong Kong: a cross sectional survey "Hot Qi" in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan Danny

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Chinese term "Hot Qi" is often used by parents to describe symptoms in their children. The current study was carried out to estimate the prevalence of using the Chinese term "Hot Qi" to describe symptoms in children by their parents and the symptomatology of "Hot Qi". Method A cross sectional survey by face-to-face interview with a semi-structured questionnaire was carried out in a public hospital and a private clinic in Hong Kong. The parental use of the term "Hot Qi", the symptoms of "Hot Qi" and the remedies used for "Hot Qi" were asked. Results 1060 pairs of children and parents were interviewed. 903 (85.1% of parents claimed that they had employed the term "Hot Qi" to describe their children's symptoms. Age of children and place of birth of parents were the predictors of parents using the term "Hot Qi". Eye discharge (37.2%, sore throat (33.9%, halitosis(32.8%, constipation(31.0%, and irritable (21.2% were the top five symptoms of "Hot Qi" in children. The top five remedies for "Hot Qi" were the increased consumption of water (86.8%, fruit (72.5%, soup (70.5%, and the use of herbal beverages "five-flower- tea" (a combination of several flowers such as Chrysanthemum morifolii, Lonicera japonica, Bombax malabaricum, Sophora japonica, and Plumeria rubra (57.6% or selfheal fruit spike (Prunella vulgaris (42.4%. Conclusion "Hot Qi" is often used by Chinese parents to describe symptoms in their children in Hong Kong. Place of birth of parents and age of the children are main factors for parents to apply the term "Hot Qi" to describe symptoms of their children. The common symptoms of "Hot Qi" suggest infections or allergy.

  9. 甜叶菊苷类提取工艺研究%Study on extraction process of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni by orthogonal design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何巧丽; 李柯翱; 季志红; 田树革

    2016-01-01

    Objective To optimize the extraction process of Rebaudioside A and Stevioside in Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni extracts by single-factor experimental conditions and orthogonal design method.Methods By investigating solid-liquid ratio,extraction temperature,extraction time and effects of extraction times on the contents of sweet leaf chrysanthemum stevioside (St)and rebaudioside A (rebaudioside A,RA),design orthogonal test,put RA content as evaluation indexes to optimize a extraction procedure of Stevia rebaudiana reflux extraction.Results The best conditions:solid-liquid ratio (m/v)was 1 g∶20 mL,extraction temperature was 80℃,extraction time was 1 h,extraction times was 2 times.Conclusion The extraction process is stable and feasible,and the extraction efficient is high.%目的:优化甜叶菊苷类的提取工艺条件。方法通过考察料液比、提取温度、提取时间和提取次数对甜叶菊中甜菊苷(Stevioside,St)和莱鲍迪苷 A(Rebaudioside A,RA)含量的影响,设计正交试验,以 RA 含量为评价指标,优选出甜叶菊回流提取的最佳提取工艺。结果最佳条件:料液比(m/v)为 l g∶20 mL、提取温度为80℃、提取时间为1 h、提取次数为2次。结论经过重复性实验验证,该提取工艺稳定可行。

  10. Lauric acid in crown daisy root exudate potently regulates root-knot nematode chemotaxis and disrupts Mi-flp-18 expression to block infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Linlin; Li, Xiaolin; Huang, Li; Gao, Ying; Zhong, Lina; Zheng, Yuanyuan; Zuo, Yuanmei

    2014-01-01

    Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) crops can be severely damaged due to parasitism by the root-knot nematode (RKN) Meloidogyne incognita, but are protected when intercropped with crown daisy (Chrysanthemum coronarium L.). Root exudate may be the determining factor for this protection. An experiment using pots linked by a tube and Petri dish experiments were undertaken to confirm that tomato-crown daisy intercropping root exudate decreased the number of nematodes and alleviated nematode damage, and to determine crown daisy root exudate-regulated nematode chemotaxis. Following a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry assay, it was found that the intercropping protection was derived from the potent bioactivity of a specific root exudate component of crown daisy, namely lauric acid. The Mi-flp-18 gene, encoding an FMRFamide-like peptide neuromodulator, regulated nematode chemotaxis and infection by RNA interference. Moreover, it was shown that lauric acid acts as both a lethal trap and a repellent for M. incognita by specifically regulating Mi-flp-18 expression in a concentration-dependent manner. Low concentrations of lauric acid (0.5-2.0mM) attract M. incognita and consequently cause death, while high concentrations (4.0mM) repel M. incognita. This study elucidates how lauric acid in crown daisy root exudate regulates nematode chemotaxis and disrupts Mi-flp-18 expression to alleviate nematode damage, and presents a general methodology for studying signalling systems affected by plant root exudates in the rhizosphere. This could lead to the development of economical and feasible strategies for controlling plant-parasitic nematodes, and provide an alternative to the use of pesticides in farming systems.

  11. Shoot regeneration from stem and leaf explant of Dendrathema grandiflorum%菊花茎叶外植体再生体系的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高亦珂; 丁国勋; 张启翔; 赵勃

    2001-01-01

    Adventitious shoots were regenerated from leaf and stem explantsof three chrysanthemum cultivars. The optimum medium for both explant types in ‘Aihuang’ and ‘Yulong’ containd Murashige & Skoog basal medium supplemented with NAA 0.1mg/L+6-BA 1mg/L and NAA 0.2mg/L+6-BA 2mg/L, in ‘Jinbei Dahong’ contained Murashige & Skoog basal medium supplemented with NAA 1mg/L+6-BA 5mg/L. Generally, stem explants were superior to leaf explants. There were large cultivar difference in shoot regeneration frequency with three cultivars failing to respond over a wide range of hormone combination.%以地被菊‘矮黄’、‘玉龙’和传统菊花‘金背大红’的叶盘和茎段为外植体进行再生培养.实验结果表明,不同品种对相同激素水平的反应是不同的:传统的大菊‘金背大红’的愈伤诱导率和分化率都远远低于两种地被菊;在相同条件下以茎段为外植体诱导愈伤率高于叶盘,但是叶盘的直接分化率高于茎段.‘玉龙’和‘矮黄’的最适再生培养基组成为MS+NAA0.1mg/L+6-BA1mg/L和MS+NAA0.2mg/L+6-BA2mg/L,‘金背大红’为MS+NAA1mg/L+6-BA5mg/L.

  12. Preference of a polyphagous mirid bug, Apolygus lucorum (Meyer-Dur for flowering host plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongsheng Pan

    Full Text Available Apolygus lucorum (Meyer-Dür (Hemiptera: Miridae is one of the most important herbivores in a broad range of cultivated plants, including cotton, cereals, vegetables, and fruit crops in China. In this manuscript, we report on a 6-year long study in which (adult A. lucorum abundance was recorded on 174 plant species from 39 families from early July to mid-September. Through the study period per year, the proportion of flowering plants exploited by adult A. lucorum was significantly greater than that of non-flowering plants. For a given plant species, A. lucorum adults reached peak abundance at the flowering stage, when the plant had the greatest attraction to the adults. More specifically, mean adult abundance on 26 species of major host plants and their relative standard attraction were 10.3-28.9 times and 9.3-19.5 times higher at flowering stage than during non-flowering periods, respectively. Among all the tested species, A. lucorum adults switched food plants according to the succession of flowering plant species. In early July, A. lucorum adults preferred some plant species in bloom, such as Vigna radiata, Gossypium hirsutum, Helianthus annuus and Chrysanthemum coronarium; since late July, adults dispersed into other flowering hosts (e.g. Ricinus communis, Impatiens balsamina, Humulus scandens, Ocimum basilicum, Agastache rugosus and Coriandrum sativum; in early September, they largely migrated to flowering Artemisia spp. (e.g. A. argyi, A. lavandulaefolia, A. annua and A. scoparia. Our findings underscore the important role of flowering plays in the population dynamics and inter-plant migration of this mirid bug. Also, our work helps understand evolutionary aspects of host plant use in polyphagous insects such as A. lucorum, and provides baseline information for the development of sustainable management strategies of this key agricultural pest.

  13. Preference of a Polyphagous Mirid Bug, Apolygus lucorum (Meyer-Dür) for Flowering Host Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Hongsheng; Lu, Yanhui; Wyckhuys, Kris A. G.; Wu, Kongming

    2013-01-01

    Apolygus lucorum (Meyer-Dür) (Hemiptera: Miridae) is one of the most important herbivores in a broad range of cultivated plants, including cotton, cereals, vegetables, and fruit crops in China. In this manuscript, we report on a 6-year long study in which (adult) A. lucorum abundance was recorded on 174 plant species from 39 families from early July to mid-September. Through the study period per year, the proportion of flowering plants exploited by adult A. lucorum was significantly greater than that of non-flowering plants. For a given plant species, A. lucorum adults reached peak abundance at the flowering stage, when the plant had the greatest attraction to the adults. More specifically, mean adult abundance on 26 species of major host plants and their relative standard attraction were 10.3–28.9 times and 9.3–19.5 times higher at flowering stage than during non-flowering periods, respectively. Among all the tested species, A. lucorum adults switched food plants according to the succession of flowering plant species. In early July, A. lucorum adults preferred some plant species in bloom, such as Vigna radiata, Gossypium hirsutum, Helianthus annuus and Chrysanthemum coronarium; since late July, adults dispersed into other flowering hosts (e.g. Ricinus communis, Impatiens balsamina, Humulus scandens, Ocimum basilicum, Agastache rugosus and Coriandrum sativum); in early September, they largely migrated to flowering Artemisia spp. (e.g. A. argyi, A. lavandulaefolia, A. annua and A. scoparia). Our findings underscore the important role of flowering plays in the population dynamics and inter-plant migration of this mirid bug. Also, our work helps understand evolutionary aspects of host plant use in polyphagous insects such as A. lucorum, and provides baseline information for the development of sustainable management strategies of this key agricultural pest. PMID:23874835

  14. 女性的觉醒与现实的藩篱--评两则短篇小说中女权意识的建构%The Awakening of Feminism Versus The Barrier of Reality---On the Construction of Feminist Awareness in Two Short Stories

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦丹丹

    2016-01-01

    In view of the historical background of American feminist movement in the early 20th century, the present thesis centers on the construction of feminist awareness in The Jilting of Granny Weatherall and The Chrysanthemums. The female characters portrayed in these two short stories demonstrate visible traits of “New Women” in varying degrees. They are dauntless enough to proclaim independence and crave self-actualization. However, due to the incompleteness of the first wave of feminist movement, they find themselves ultimately powerless to assert themselves in a patriarchal society. Internalization of male discourse, unquestioning obedience toward theocracy and the ultimate denunciation of their feminist pursuits constitute a truer description of women’ s life in that historic period.%结合20世纪初美国女权运动的历史背景,评析两则短篇小说中女权意识的建构。《被遗弃的韦瑟罗尔奶奶》和《菊花》中女主人公体现了不同程度的新女性特质,她们勇于张扬女性的独立人格,追求女性的自我实现。然而,由于第一次女权运动的不彻底性,她们所具备的女权意识相对薄弱,难以抵御强大的社会阻力。对男权话语的内化、父权制下神权的迷信以及对女权理想的最终背离,强烈书写了当时美国中产阶级女性更为真实的生命体验。

  15. Application of two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae for plant-pest interaction studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazaux, Marc; Navarro, Marie; Bruinsma, Kristie A; Zhurov, Vladimir; Negrave, Tara; Van Leeuwen, Thomas; Grbic, Vojislava; Grbic, Miodrag

    2014-01-01

    The two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae, is a ubiquitous polyphagous arthropod herbivore that feeds on a remarkably broad array of species, with more than 150 of economic value. It is a major pest of greenhouse crops, especially in Solanaceae and Cucurbitaceae (e.g., tomatoes, eggplants, peppers, cucumbers, zucchini) and greenhouse ornamentals (e.g., roses, chrysanthemum, carnations), annual field crops (such as maize, cotton, soybean, and sugar beet), and in perennial cultures (alfalfa, strawberries, grapes, citruses, and plums)1,2. In addition to the extreme polyphagy that makes it an important agricultural pest, T. urticae has a tendency to develop resistance to a wide array of insecticides and acaricides that are used for its control3-7. T. urticae is an excellent experimental organism, as it has a rapid life cycle (7 days at 27 °C) and can be easily maintained at high density in the laboratory. Methods to assay gene expression (including in situ hybridization and antibody staining) and to inactivate expression of spider mite endogenous genes using RNA interference have been developed8-10. Recently, the whole genome sequence of T. urticae has been reported, creating an opportunity to develop this pest herbivore as a model organism with equivalent genomic resources that already exist in some of its host plants (Arabidopsis thaliana and the tomato Solanum lycopersicum)11. Together, these model organisms could provide insights into molecular bases of plant-pest interactions. Here, an efficient method for quick and easy collection of a large number of adult female mites, their application on an experimental plant host, and the assessment of the plant damage due to spider mite feeding are described. The presented protocol enables fast and efficient collection of hundreds of individuals at any developmental stage (eggs, larvae, nymphs, adult males, and females) that can be used for subsequent experimental application.

  16. New approaches for effective mutation induction in gamma field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagatomi, Shigeki [National Institute of Agrobiological Resources, Institute of Radiation Breeding, Omiya, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2001-03-01

    The purpose of the report is to clarify the effects of chronic irradiation using in vitro culture on inducing the mutation of two model plants. Culture technique combined with irradiation can overcome the problem of chimera formation and provided 10 times greater mutation efficiency than conventional method. Proper mutagenic treatment using cultured materials is indispensable to effective mutation induction. The chronic culture method showed the widest color spectrum in chrysanthemum and extended toward not only the negative but positive direction. However, the acute culture methods indicated a relatively low mutation rate and a very limited flower color spectrum. Flower color mutation of the regenerations could be induced more from petals and buds than from leaves. These facts is supposed that the gene loci fully expressed on floral organs may be unstable for mutation by mutagenesis or culture. It may be likely to control a direction of desired mutation. One possible reason why the chronic culture methods showed higher frequencies is that most of the cells composing the tissue and organs continually irradiated into a cell division which was highly sensitive and more mutable to irradiation. Under these conditions, many mutated sectors may accumulate in the cells of the growing organs. Regenerated mutant lines show remarkable decrease of chromosome numbers by irradiation. It is a proper indicator to monitor radiation damage. In this study, the six flower color mutant varieties registered were derived from chronic irradiation. The combined method of chronic irradiation with floral organ cultures proved to be of particularly great practical use in mutation breeding for not only flower species but any other species. (author)

  17. Achievements and perspectives in biochemistry concerning anthocyanin modification for blue flower coloration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Nobuhiro; Nakayama, Toru

    2015-01-01

    Genetic engineering of roses and other plants of floricultural importance to give them a truly blue petal color is arguably one of the holy grails of plant biotechnology. Toward this goal, bluish carnations and roses were previously engineered by establishing an exclusive accumulation of delphinidin (Dp)-type anthocyanins in their petals via the heterologous expression of a flavonoid 3',5'-hydroxylase gene. Very recently, purple-blue varieties of chrysanthemums were also genetically engineered via a similar biochemical strategy. Although the floral colors of these transgenic plants still lack a true blue color, the basis for the future molecular breeding of truly blue flowers is via the engineering of anthocyanin pathways. Anthocyanins with multiple aromatic acyl groups (often referred to as polyacylated anthocyanins) in the 3'- or 7-position tend to display a more stable blue color than non-acylated anthocyanins. The 7-polyacylation process during the biosynthesis of purple-blue anthocyanins in delphinium (Delphinium grandiflorum) was found to occur in vacuoles using acyl-glucose as both the glucosyl and acyl donor. Glucosyltransferases and acyltransferases involved in anthocyanin 7-polyacylation in delphinium are vacuolar acyl-glucose-dependent enzymes belonging to the glycoside hydrolase family 1 and serine carboxypeptidae-like protein family, respectively. The 7-polyacylation proceeds through the alternate glucosylation and p-hydroxybenzoylation catalyzed by these enzymes. p-Hydroxybenzoyl-glucose serves as the p-hydroxybenzoyl and glucosyl donor to produce anthocyanins modified with a p-hydroxybenzoyl-glucose concatemer at the 7-position. This novel finding has provided a potential breakthrough for the genetic engineering of truly blue flowers, where polyacylated Dp-type anthocyanins are accumulated exclusively in the petals.

  18. Clinical cross-reactivity between Artemisia vulgaris and Matricaria chamomilla (chamomile).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Torre Morín, F; Sánchez Machín, I; García Robaina, J C; Fernández-Caldas, E; Sánchez Triviño, M

    2001-01-01

    Artemisia vulgaris is a common weed and an important source of allergens on the subtropical island of Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain. It pollinates mainly from July to September, although, due to some local climatic conditions, it may flower throughout the year. Cross-reactivity with hazelnut, kiwi, birch, several Compositae (Ambrosia, Chrysanthemum, Matricaria, Solidago) and grass allergens has been suggested. Few studies have addressed the issue of in vivo cross-reactivity between A. vulgaris and Matricaria chamomilla. The objective of this study was to perform conjunctival and bronchial challenges with A. vulgaris and M. chamomilla and oral challenge with chamomile in 24 patients with asthma and/or rhinitis sensitized primarily to A. vulgaris. Skin prick tests with M. chamomilla were positive in 21 patients. Eighteen patients had a positive conjunctival provocation test with a A. vulgaris pollen extract and 13 patients had a positive conjunctival provocation test with a M. chamomilla pollen extract. Bronchial provocation tests with A. vulgaris were positive in 15 patients and with M. chamomilla pollen in another 16 individuals. Oral provocation tests, conducted with a commercial chamomile infusion were positive in 13 patients. Nine of these individuals were skin test positive to food allergens and 17 to others pollens of the Compositae family. This study confirms a high degree of in vivo cross-reactivity between A. vulgaris and M. chamomilla. Sensitization to A. vulgaris seems to be a primary risk factor for experiencing symptoms after the ingestion of chamomile infusions. Based on the results of bronchial provocation tests, M. chamomilla pollen could be a relevant inhalant allergen.

  19. Detecção e monitoramento da resistência do tripes Frankliniella occidentalis ao inseticida espinosade Detection and monitoring of resistance to the insecticide spinosad in the thrips Frankliniella occidentalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Soller Rais

    2013-01-01

    pests in greenhouses, especially on ornamental plants and vegetables. Among the problems faced by farmers are the difficulties in the control of this pest with the use of insecticides because of its preference for the inner parts of the flowers and the evolution of resistance to agrochemicals. The objective of this research was to characterize the spinosad resistance in F. occidentalis and to assess the frequency of resistant insects in commercial chrysanthemum fields from several counties in the state of São Paulo (SP. Selections for resistance to spinosad were performed under laboratory conditions, using a population of F. occidentalis collected in 2007 in a commercial chrysanthemum field in Campinas (SP. In the course of seven selections for resistance, the LC50 of spinosad increased from 8.41 mg a.i. L-1 to 1,111 mg a.i. L-1. Comparing the resistant (R and the susceptible (S strains, the resistance ratio (LC50 R / LC50 S reached values up to 280-folds. A discriminating concentration of 98 mg a.i. L-1 was established for monitoring the spinosad resistance in F. occidentalis. The survey was conducted by collecting 19 populations of thrips in commercial chrysanthemum fields in the state of São Paulo. The bioassays were conducted with second ínstar nymphs of F. occidentalis, placed in bean leaf disc arenas. The spinosad was sprayed at the discriminating concentration on the nymphs of thrips, using a Potter spray tower. The results indicated high variability in the susceptibility to spinosad among F. occidentalis populations. Populations with up to 40.7% of resistant insects were found. This is the first report on spinosad resistance in F. occidentalis in Brazil.

  20. Detecção e monitoramento da resistência do tripes Frankliniella occidentalis ao inseticida espinosade Detection and monitoring of resistance to the insecticide spinosad in the thrips Frankliniella occidentalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Soller Rais

    2013-03-01

    pests in greenhouses, especially on ornamental plants and vegetables. Among the problems faced by farmers are the difficulties in the control of this pest with the use of insecticides because of its preference for the inner parts of the flowers and the evolution of resistance to agrochemicals. The objective of this research was to characterize the spinosad resistance in F. occidentalis and to assess the frequency of resistant insects in commercial chrysanthemum fields from several counties in the state of São Paulo (SP. Selections for resistance to spinosad were performed under laboratory conditions, using a population of F. occidentalis collected in 2007 in a commercial chrysanthemum field in Campinas (SP. In the course of seven selections for resistance, the LC50 of spinosad increased from 8.41 mg a.i. L-1 to 1,111 mg a.i. L-1. Comparing the resistant (R and the susceptible (S strains, the resistance ratio (LC50 R / LC50 S reached values up to 280-folds. A discriminating concentration of 98 mg a.i. L-1 was established for monitoring the spinosad resistance in F. occidentalis. The survey was conducted by collecting 19 populations of thrips in commercial chrysanthemum fields in the state of São Paulo. The bioassays were conducted with second ínstar nymphs of F. occidentalis, placed in bean leaf disc arenas. The spinosad was sprayed at the discriminating concentration on the nymphs of thrips, using a Potter spray tower. The results indicated high variability in the susceptibility to spinosad among F. occidentalis populations. Populations with up to 40.7% of resistant insects were found. This is the first report on spinosad resistance in F. occidentalis in Brazil.

  1. 陶渊明《饮酒》诗中自我生命意识的表现及其背叛%The Expression of Self-consciousness of Life and Its Betrayal in Tao Yuanming' s Poem of Drinking Wine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林满平

    2011-01-01

    陶渊明的《饮酒》诗是其诗文中的精彩之作,文本表现的是他归隐田园、怡情自然的自足自得。其间透露出强烈的自我生命意识,由归鸟、美酒、秋菊、青松四个鲜明的意象构成了其追求生命意识自我实现的完整结构。在自我生命意识的觉醒中,源于对身份的焦虑,陶渊明的选择背叛了自我的初衷,在环境的压力下,他作出了一种道德的选择,通过这种道德的选择造就了自己。诗歌文本在背叛道德选择的同时背叛了陶渊明的自我生命意识。%The poem Drinking Wine by Tao Yuanming is one of his most splendid poems. Expressing the poet' s self-content and self-complacence in his seclusion and returning to the country life while enjoying the nature, the poem has revealed a strong self-consciousness of life. Such four distinct imageries as the returning birds," the good wine, the chrysanthemum and the green pine have constructed a complete structure which is his pursuit for the self-actualization of life consciousness. Due to his anxiety for the status, Tao Yuanming' s choice has betrayed the self' s original intention during the awakening of his self-consciousness of life. Thanks to the pressure from the environment, he has eventually made a moral choice by which he became who he was. The text of the poem has betrayed both Tao Yuanming' s moral choice and his self-consciousness of life.

  2. FAAS Determination of Trace Amount of Iron in Huaiqing Chinese Medicines with Cloud Point Extraction%浊点萃取-火焰原子吸收光谱法测定怀药中微量铁

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李英杰; 侯广顺

    2012-01-01

    在pH4.0介质中,以二乙基二硫代氨基甲酸钠(DDTC)为螯合剂,铁与DDTC生成疏水性螯合物,加入Triton X-114表面活性剂用浊点萃取分离富集怀药中微量铁。表面活性剂相用0.01mol·L-1盐酸溶液定容至0.6mL后,所得溶液直接用火焰原子吸收光谱法进行测定。对影响浊点萃取的因素和共存离子的干扰进行了试验并予以优化。铁的检出限(3σ)为0.4μg·L-1。应用此法测定了怀药(怀山药、怀地黄、怀牛膝、怀菊花)中铁的含量,用标准加入法进行方法的回收试验,测得回收率在90.7%~111.2%之间,测定值的相对标准偏差(n=6)在2.5%~4.5%之间。%Trace amount of Fe was separated and enriched from the sample solution buffered at pH 4.0 in the form of hydrophobic coordination complex with DDTC by cloud point extraction using Triton X-114 as surfactant. The surfactant phase was diluted and made up to 0. 6 mL with 0. 01 mol·L-1 HCl and the content of Fe was determined by FAAS. Influential factors to cloud point extraction, and interferences of co-existing ions were studied and optimized. Detection limit (3σ) of the method was found to be 0. 4μg·L-1. The proposed method was applied to the determination of Fe in samples of Huaiqing Chinese medicines (Huaiqing Chinese yam, radices rehmanniae, achyranthes and chrysanthemum), and values of recovery obtained by standard addition method were in the range of 90. 7%--111.2% with RSD's (n=6) in the range of 2. 5%--4. 5%.

  3. Introdução e avaliação de gladíolos em ambiente de cerrado no Estado de Roraima. = The introduction and evaluation of gladiolus under Savannah (Cerrado conditions in The State of Roraima.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rejane Lanius Boyle

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available As plantas ornamentais de corte comercializadas no Estado de Roraima são importadas de outros Estados do Brasil ou do exterior, como por exemplo: rosas, gladíolos, crisântemos, antúrios, violetas e gérberas. Considerando a potencialidade do Estado de Roraima para o cultivo de plantas ornamentais, objetivou com este trabalho introduzir e avaliar o comportamento de três acessos de gladíolos em condições de casa de vegetação no ambiente de cerrado do Estado deRoraima. O experimento foi instalado entre os meses de setembro a novembro de 2007. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos inteiramente casualizados, com três tratamentos e nove repetições. Os tratamentos foram três acessos de gladíolos, sendo: 1- Trader Horn; 2- White Friendship e 3- Peter Pears. As variáveis avaliadas foram: índice de germinação, altura da planta, número de dias entre a germinação e a emissão da inflorescência, número de flores por espiga e número de flores abertas por espiga para fins de corte. Os acessos Trader Horn, White Friendship e Peter Pears desenvolveram-se até a floração, tendo apresentado um ciclo comercial médio de 73 dias e oito flores por inflorescência, apresentando características de padrão comercial. = The ornamental plants of cutting marketed in the state of Roraima are imported from other states in Brazil orcountries, for example: roses, gladiolus, chrysanthemums, anthuriums, gerberas and violets. Considering the potential of thestate of Roraima to the cultivation of ornamental plants, this work objectived to introduce and evaluate the performance of threeacesses of gladiolus overhead covered in Savannah the State of Roraima. The experiment was conducted between September and November 2007. The experimental design was of randomized blocks with three treatments and nine replications. The treatments were three species of gladioli, which: 1- Trader Horn; 2 - White Friendship and 3 - Peter Pears. The variables were

  4. 顶空萃取-气相色谱-质谱法测定一种儿童专用防痱止痒水的挥发性成分%Analysis of Volatile Flavor Components in One Type of Remove Philippine and Itching Water by Headspace Extraction-GC/MS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李红; 熊爽; 田福林; 赵海波

    2011-01-01

    采用顶空萃取-气相色谱/质谱法分析鉴定防痱止痒水的挥发性成分。结果表明:共检测出35种挥发性成分,主要成分为乙醇和酞酸二乙酯,其它成分主要包括醇、烯、酯、甘菊环等。检出的物质中,α-蒎烯、β-蒎烯、莰烯、桉叶醇、樟脑、α-萜品醇、龙脑、醋酸异龙脑酯、石竹烯为野菊花挥发油的有效成分;苯甲酸甲酯、苯甲酸苄酯、丁香酚为金银花挥发油的有效成分;广藿香醇为广藿香提取物的主要成分。α-蒎烯、β-月桂烯、β-蒎烯、莰烯、薄荷醇、丁香酚等成分都具有较强的驱避蚊虫的作用。%The volatile components in one type of remove philippine and itching water were analyzed by headspace extraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry(HS-GC/MS).The results showed that HS-GC/MS is effective in the analysis of remove philippine and itching water.35 components are separated and identified.The main components are ethyl alcohol and diethyl phthalate acid,the others are alcohols,terpenes,esters and azulenes.alpha.-Pinene,beta.-pinene,camphene,eucalyptol,camphor,p-menth-1-en-8-ol,borneol,isobornyl acetate,caryophyllene are the effective components of the volatile oil in chrysanthemum indicum L.Benzoic acid methyl ester,benzyl benzoate,eugenol are the effective components of the volatile oil in flos lonicerae.Patchouli alcohol is the effective components of the volatile oil in pogostemon cablin(blanco) benth.alpha.-Pinene,beta.-myrcene,beta.-pinene,camphene,menthol,eugenol are all effictive repellent.

  5. Scientific Opinion on the pest categorisation of the tospoviruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Plant Health

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available

    The European Commission requested EFSA’s Panel on Plant Health to perform the pest categorisation for the 24 viruses of the Tospovirus genus for the EU territory. The following tospoviruses were analysed: Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV, Impatiens necrotic spot virus (INSV, Iris yellow spot virus (IYSV, Polygonum ringspot virus (PolRSV, Groundnut ringspot virus (GRSV, Tomato chlorotic spot virus (TCSV, Alstroemeria necrotic streak virus (ANSV, Chrysanthemum stem necrosis virus (CSNV, Melon severe mosaic virus (MSMV, Tomato yellow (fruit ring virus (TYRV, Tomato zonate spot virus (TZSV, Groundnut yellow spot virus (GYSV, Groundnut chlorotic fan-spot virus (GCFSV, Groundnut bud necrosis virus (GBNV, Zucchini lethal chlorosis virus (ZLCV, Capsicum chlorosis virus (CaCV, Watermelon bud necrosis virus (WBNV, Watermelon silver mottle virus (WSMoV, Tomato necrotic ringspot virus (TNRV, Calla lily chlorotic spot virus (CCSV, Melon yellow spot virus (MYSV, Soybean vein necrosis associated virus (SVNaV, Bean necrotic mosaic virus (BeNMV and Pepper necrotic spot virus (PNSV. In reaching its conclusions, the Panel considered four parameters to be of critical importance in the risk assessment area: (i the presence of a tospovirus, (ii the existence of host plants, (iii the existence of thrips vector species and (iv the potential for damage to crops grown in Europe. Based on its analysis, the Panel concluded that the 24 viruses analysed could be allocated to four different risk groups. Seven viruses (GRSV, TCSV, ANSV, CSNV, MSMV, TYRV, TZSV for which both thrips species vectors and natural or experimental hosts crops are present in the EU territory were considered by the Panel to represent the highest risk to the EU territory. In

  6. Evaluation of selected wild plants flowering season 1991 - 2009 (1991 - 2000 & 2001 - 2009)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajkova, L.; Nekovar, J.; Novak, M.; Richterova, D.

    2009-09-01

    The subsequent wild plants are observed by volunteer observers at CHMI phenological network: CALTHA palustris L., ANEMONE nemorosa L., HEPATICA nobilis Mill., RANUNCULUS acer L., FRAGARIA vesca L., TRIFOLIUM repens L., HYPERICUM perforatum L., CHAMAENERION angustifolium L. Holub, VACCINIUM myrtillus L., LAMIUM album L., CHRYSANTHEMUM leucanthemum L., TUSSILAGO farfara L., PETASITES albus (L.) Gaert., PETASITES hybridus (L.) G. M. Sch., CONVALLARIA majalis L., GALANTHUS nivalis L., DACTYLIS glomerata L., ALOPECURUS pratensis L. and others. Some of them start to blossom in early spring, some others in the summer. Part of them belong to very important allergens, part of them have medicinal effects. Phenophases first leaves (FL - BBCH11), inflorescence emergence (IE - BBCH 51), beginning and end of flowering (BF - BBCH 61, EF - BBCH 69) are observed by these species. Statistical parameters (average, median, lower quartile, upper quartile, minimum, maximum, standard deviation, variation range and variation coefficient) of phenophase onset are computed from all of phenological stations in Czechia for the period 1991 - 2009. The phenophase onset and phenophase duration depend not only on genetic base but also on external effects such as weather. We have compiled dynamics of temperature to phenophase onset according CHMI meteorological stations for the same period 1991 - 2009 (especially sums of active temperatures above biological minimum 5°C and progression of extreme temperatures). We have also compared results between two periods (1991 - 2000, 2001 - 2009). Phenological stations are at different altitude. At this case study were used results from 4 phenological stations at altitude ( 500 m asl). GALANTHUS nivalis L. Station: Lednice (165 m n. m.) Period: 1991 - 2000 Statistical parameter/phenophase BBCH 61 BBCH 69 Average 62 94 Median 60 97 Lower quartile 57 86 Upper quartile 66 101 Minimum 51 70 Maximum 79 116 Variation range 28 46 Standard deviation 8,6 12

  7. ICP-AES法测定云南8种花茶及其茶水中10种微量元素含量%Determination of ten trace elements in eight herbal flowers and their infusions from Yunnan province,China by ICP-AES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    安丽霞; 安彩霞; 朱芳坤

    2014-01-01

    利用微波消解样品,采用电感耦合等离子体-原子发射光谱法测定了康乃馨、金银花、菊花、勿忘我、金盏花、桃花、玫瑰、薰衣草等8种云南花茶及其茶水中K、Ca、Mg、Cu、Zn、Fe、Mn、Cd、Cr、Pb等10种微量元素的含量.结果表明:该方法的加标回收率在94.96%~105.81%之间,RSD值在0.41%~2.57%之间,具有较好的准确度和精密度;8种花茶中K、Ca、Mg、Cu、Zn、Fe、Mn含量较高,Cr、Cd和Pb含量普遍较低;不同种类花茶中,各元素的溶出率存在较大差异;茶水中K和Ca的含量较高,其他元素含量相对较低.结果可为进一步合理开发花茶药用价值提供科学依据.%Ten contents of mineral elements such as K,Ca,Mg,Cu,Zn,Fe,Mn,Cd,Cr and Pb in eight herbal flowers (Dianthus caryophyllus,Lonicera japonica T.,Prunus persica,Chrysanthemum morifolium R.,Lavandula angustifolia M., Dianthus caryophyllus,Calendula officinalis L. and Rosa rugosa T.) and their infusions collected from Yunnan province,China,were determined by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry after microwave digestion.The results showed that the recovery rates were between 94.96 % and 105.81%,and the relative standard deviations were found below 3.0 %.There was significant differences existed in all element concentrations among different varieties of herbal flowers and their infusions.On the whole,the concentrations of K,Ca,Mg,Cu,Zn,Fe,Mn were relatively high,but those of Cd,Cr and Pb were low in the herbal flowers.The contents of K and Ca were higher than those of other elements in the herbal infusions.The experiment could provide an accurate and credible evidence for the reasonable medicinal use and deeper exploitation of these herbal flowers.

  8. The Archetype of Eden Temptation in "The Chrysanthemums" and Steinbeck's Concept in Composition%《菊花》伊甸诱惑的原型和斯坦贝克的创作观

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪小山

    2011-01-01

    斯坦贝克在创作中常常使用原型意象,由于他谙熟圣经,圣经原型频繁出现在其作品中。伊甸园、夏娃、撒旦和智慧果作为圣经中的著名原型,出现在短篇小说《菊花》中。不同于弥尔顿《失乐园》塑造的关于夏娃、亚当和撒旦的史诗,《菊花》中的菊花园有伊甸园的影子,夏娃和撒旦分别以爱丽莎和补锅人体现出来;代表着精神追求,对欣赏菊花美的认可是智慧果的象征。小说体现了斯坦贝克的非目的论创作观,作者借此谴责现实生活中践踏美、忽视精神生活的现象,对爱丽莎这类独自面对精神追求的人们的孤独境遇深表同情。%John Steinbeck is a frequent user of archetypes in his works. And his intimate knowledge of the Bible adds to the biblical images in his composition. The well-known images of the Garden of Eden, Eve, Satan and the fruit of knowledge of good and evil are found in his short story "The Chrysanthemums", respectively symbolized by the chrysanthemums garden, Elisa, the repairer and the approval of spiritual pursuit. This is different from John Milton's portrait of Adam, Eve and Satan in Paradise Lost. As an embodiment of Steinbeck's non-teleological thinking, "The'Chrysanthemums" is used to condemn the phenomenon of the destruction of beauty and the neglect of mental pursuit. Besides, Steinbeck shows great sympathy for those lonely Elisas who seek their spiritual Eden in a solitary way.

  9. Determination of seven pyrethroids and six pyrethrins in water by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    ccanccapa, alexander; Masia, Ana; Pico, Yolanda

    2016-04-01

    Pyrethroids are the synthetic analogues of pyrethrins which were developed as pesticides from the extracts of dried and powdered flower heads of Chrysanthemum cinerariaefolium. They are increasingly used in agriculture due to their broad biological activity and slow development of pest resistance. Contamination of fresh-water ecosystems appears either because of the direct discharge of industrial and agricultural effluents or as a result of effluents from sewage treatment works; residues can thus accumulate in the surrounding biosphere [1, 2]. These substances, mostly determined by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) can be difficult to analyse due to their volatility and degradability. The purpose of this study is, as an alternative, to develop a fast and sensitive multi-residue method for the target analysis of 7 pyrethroids and the 6 natural pyrethrins currently used in water samples by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The compounds included in the study were acrinathrin, etofenprox, cyfluthrin, esfenvalerate, cyhalothrin, cypermethrin and flumethrin as pyrethroids and a commercial mix of pyrethrins containing Cinerin I, Jasmolin I, pyrethrin I, cinerin II, jasmolin II, pyrethrins II in different percentages. As a preliminary step, the ionization and fragmentation of the compounds were optimized injecting individual solutions of each analyte at 10 ppm in the system, using a gradient elution profile of water-methanol both with 10 mM ammonium formate. The ESI conditions were: capillary voltage 4000 V, nebulizer15 psi, source temperature 300◦C and gas flow 10 L min-1. [M+H]+, [M+Na]+ ,[M+NH3]+ ,[M+NH4+]+ were tested as precursor ions. The most intense signal was for ammonium adduct for all compounds. The optimal fragmentor range for product ions were between 20 to 80 ev and the collision energy ranged between 5 to 86 ev. The efficiency of the method was tested in water samples from Turia River without any known exposure to

  10. Dickeya species relatedness and clade structure determined by comparison of recA sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkinson, Neil; Stead, David; Bew, Janice; Heeney, John; Tsror Lahkim, Leah; Elphinstone, John

    2009-10-01

    Using sequences from the recA locus, we have produced a phylogeny of 188 Dickeya strains from culture collections and identified species relatedness and subspecies clade structure within the genus. Of the six recognized species, Dickeya paradisiaca, D. chrysanthemi and D. zeae were discriminated with long branch lengths. The clade containing the D. paradisiaca type strain included just one additional strain, isolated from banana in Colombia. Strains isolated from Chrysanthemum and Parthenium species made up most of the clade containing the D. chrysanthemi type strain, and the host range of this species was extended to include potato. The D. zeae clade had the largest number of sequevars and branched into two major sister clades that contained all of the Zea mays isolates, and were identified as phylotypes PI and PII. The host range was increased from six to 13 species, including potato. The recA sequence of an Australian sugar-cane strain was sufficiently distinct to rank as a new species-level branch. In contrast to these species, Dickeya dadantii, D. dianthicola and D. dieffenbachiae were distinguished with shorter branch lengths, indicating relatively closer relatedness. The recA sequence for the type strain of D. dadantii clustered separately from other strains of the species. However, sequence comparison of three additional loci revealed that the D. dadantii type strain grouped together with the six other D. dadantii strains that were sequenced. Analysis of all four loci indicated that the D. dadantii strains were most closely related to D. dieffenbachiae. Three further branches (DUC-1, -2 and -3) were associated with these three species, which all diverged from a common origin and can be considered as a species complex. The large clade containing the D. dianthicola type strain comprised 58 strains and had little sequence diversity. One sequevar accounted for the majority of these strains, which were isolated nearly exclusively from eight hosts from Europe

  11. Characterization on carbide of a novel steel for cold work roll during solidification process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, J.; Liu, L.G.; Li, Q.; Sun, Y.L. [State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Gao, Y.K. [Institute of Aeronautical Materials, Beijing 100095 (China); Ren, X.J. [School of Engineering, Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool L3 3AF (United Kingdom); Yang, Q.X., E-mail: qxyang@ysu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China)

    2013-05-15

    A novel steel for cold work roll was developed in this work. Its phase structures were determined by X-ray diffraction, and phase transformation temperatures during the cooling process were measured by Differential Scanning Calorimeter. The Fe–C isopleths of the steel were calculated by Thermo-Calc to preliminarily determine the characteristic temperatures of the different phases. Then the specimens were quenched at these characteristic temperatures. The typical microstructures were observed by Optical Microscopy and Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy with Energy Disperse Spectroscopy. The results show that α-Fe, MC, M{sub 2}C and M{sub 7}C{sub 3} precipitate when the specimen is cooled slowly to room temperature. According to the DSC curve and the Fe–C isopleths, the characteristic temperatures of the phase transformation and carbide precipitation are chosen as 1380 °C, 1240 °C, 1200 °C and 1150 °C respectively. Primary austenite precipitates at 1380 °C, then eutectic reaction occurs in residual liquid after quenching and the eutectic microstructures distribute along the crystal grain boundary. The eutectic MC is leaf-like and eutectic M{sub 2}C is fibrous-like. Both of them precipitate in ternary eutectic reaction simultaneously at 1240 °C, grow together in the form of dendrite along the crystal grain boundary. Secondary MC precipitates from the austenitic matrix at 1200 °C and nucleates at the position where eutectic MC located accompanied by the dissolving of eutectic carbides. The mixed secondary M{sub 2}C and M{sub 7}C{sub 3} precipitate at 1150 °C. The secondary M{sub 2}C is strip-like and honeycomb-like, while the M{sub 7}C{sub 3} is chrysanthemum-like and maze-like. - Highlights: • The solidification process was analyzed by Thermo-Calc, DSC, XRD and SEM observation. • Primary and secondary carbides precipitated during solidification were determined. • The three dimensional morphologies of all carbides was observed. • The

  12. Recent trends on crop genetic improvement using mutation techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Siyong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-04-15

    The radiation breeding technology has been significantly achieved on creation of mutation genetic resources of plants for commercial cultivation and genomic study since 1920s. According to the FAO-IAEA Mutant Variety Database, more than 2600 varieties have been released in the world. Induction of mutations with radiation has been the most frequently used by sources of X-ray and gamma ray, but in recent Japanese scientist have been used the heavy ion beam as a new radiation sources. And China has been made remarkable outcomes in the mutant creation using new space breeding technology since 1990s. In Korea, more about 40 varieties have been developed by using the mutation breeding method since the mid-1960s. Most of the released mutant varieties in Korea were food and oil seed crops, especially for improving agronomic traits such as yield, lodging tolerance, maturity, and functional compounds. Currently the mutation breeding program in Korea has assigned more resources to develop high functional crops and ornamental plants. These functional and ornamental plants are ideal systems for a mutation breeding. A research program for the development of potential varieties of flowering and ornamental crops as rose, chrysanthemum, lily, carnation, orchids, and wild flowers was started with financial support from the Bio green 21 project of Korean government. The potential outcomes from the program will be new highly valued-added varieties which will provide greater money gains to Korean farmers and lots of valued mutants used for a gene isolation of interest and reverse genetics or functional genomic. Scientific interest in mutation breeding has drastically be ed focused to the field of functional genomic. Scientific interest in mutation breeding has drastically be ed focused to the field of functional genomic after a completion of genome sequencing of some model plant species. A direct approach of discovering the function of a novel gene is to use a mutant which has altered

  13. 60味中药提取物抗菌活性的研究%Studies on Antibacterial Activity of Extracts from 60 Traditional Chinese Medicinals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    佟天天; 黄浩; 王义明; 罗国安

    2013-01-01

    目的:体外观察60味中药的240种提取物对9种常见病原菌的作用,并对其中抑菌效果明显的提取物进行最低抑菌浓度检测。方法:采用纸片扩散法对240种提取物进行初步的抗菌活性筛选,并采用液体培养基法(2倍稀释法)测定活性提取物的最低抑菌浓度(MIC)。结果:共有104种提取物对1种或多种细菌显示较强的抑制作用,其中丹参等11味中药的20种提取物对3种常见菌体现了强抑制作用(MIC <0.2 mg·mL-1)。结论:丹参、蛇床子、蓼蓝、蒲公英、桑叶、甘草、姜黄、紫草、半边莲、野菊花和密蒙花等11味中药的乙醇、丙酮、正己烷提取部位对枯草芽孢杆菌、蜡样芽孢杆菌和金黄色葡萄球菌有强抑制作用。%This study was aimed to screen antibacterial agents against 9 pathogenic bacteria from 240 extracts of 60 traditional Chinese medicinals ( TCM ) . And the minimum inhibitory concentration ( MIC ) test was applied on extracts with positive results. The disk diffusion was employed to screen the antibacterial activity preliminar-ily among 240 extracts. The MICs of active extracts were tested by liquid culture method (double dilution method). The results revealed that 104 extracts show antibacterial activity on one or more strains, 20 of them show strong inhibition on three commonly seen bacteria ( MIC < 0 . 2 mg/mL ) . It was concluded that ethanol , acetone and hexane extracts of 11 TCMs including Salvia miltiorrhiza, Cnidium monnieri, Polygonum tinctorium, Taraxacum mongolicum, Morus alba, Glycyrrhiza uralensis, Curcuma longa, Arnebia euchroma, Lobelia chinen-sis , Chrysanthemum indicum and Buddleja officinalis show strong inhibition on Bacillus subtilis , Bacillus cereus , Staphylococcus aureus .

  14. The oleaginous Botryococcus from the Triassic Yanchang Formation in Ordos Basin, Northwestern China: Morphology and its paleoenvironmental significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Li-ming; Yan, Kui; Meng, Fan-wei; Zhao, Min

    2010-05-01

    High abundance but rather low diversity algal fossils were found in the hydrocarbon source rocks of the Ch 7-2-Ch 7-3 section, Triassic Yanchang Formation in the Xifeng area of southwest Ordos Basin, which are mainly composed of prolific Leiosphaeridia and Botryococcus. Botryococcus colonies are of various forms; the majority is nubbly, with some of cluster and cotton shape. The nubbly colonies appear globular, cordiform, ternate petal, obtuse triangle, chrysanthemum shape and so on. Most Botryococcus are saffron or brown and are frequently covered with clay under transmission microscope, and shows strong yellow and light brown under fluorescence microscope. Botryococcus could live in freshwater and brackish water. The Botryococcus colonies that lived in fresh water are small with small single cells arranged radially, with undulant or indented edges. The Botryococcus colonies that lived in brackish water are bigger, with larger single cells arranged irregularly, with slippery contours. The most of Botryococcus are discovered from the organic-rich argillaceous sediment with abundant pyrites in the semi- and deep-lake facies, and shows they were preserved in low-energy reducing environments. Taphonomic characteristics of various microfossils and the present of Pediastrum in the phytoplankton flora indicate that they are in situ or near burial. The lake area of the Ordos Basin was gradually expanding and reaching its most extensive flood surface in the Ch 7 of Yanchang Formation interval during the Middle and Late Triassic, with warm climate, plentiful rainfall, and luxuriant vegetation, as determined by the environmental analysis with Botryococcus in Xifeng area. The presence of two ecological types of Botryococcus indicates that the salinity of lake water was fluctuating in the Ch 7 interval. The occurrence of symbiotic acritarchs and geochemical salinity indices show that the Ordos Lake was a typical fresh-water lake, which was gradually desalted, and its salinity

  15. Development of a New Type of Health Liquor%一种新型健康白酒的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李小丽; 韩英; 郭黎媛; 安丽娟; 靳吉寅; 李晓晓

    2014-01-01

    研究研制的一款新型健康白酒是以汾酒为基酒,以具有超强双歧功能因子的低聚木糖为功能糖源。将枸杞子、灵芝、甘草、菊花四种传统中药经科学配伍后采用现代数字化提取技术对其功能成分进行提取,提取液经负压蒸馏制备后作为调味液。最终酒体特点为酒体清亮透明,无色或微带黄色,绵软醇厚,酒体协调、丰满,余味悠长;对新品酒中功能性成分进行了检测,总黄酮(以芦丁计)含量为41mg/L、总皂苷(以人参皂苷Re计)含量为9.6mg/L、粗多糖(以葡萄糖计)含量为120mg/L,为新品酒的健康保健功能提供了理论依据。%This study developed a new health liquor , the base wine is Fen liquor, the function of sugar source is Xylooligosaccharide with superior bifidus factor. The functional components of four kinds of traditional Chinese drugs medlar, Ganoderma lucidum , licorice and chrysanthemum were extracted by modern digital technology, the liquid seasoning was prepared by vacuum distillation using extract. The final characteristic of wine is clear and transparent, colorless or slightly yellow, soft bodied, the wine coordination plump, long aftertaste;the functional ingredients of the new wine were detected, the content of flavonoids (rutin) is 41mg/L, the content of total saponins (ginsenosides Re) is 9.6mg/L, the content of polysaccharides (glucose) is120mg/L, these data provides theoretical basis for the new liquor health protection function.

  16. Toxicidade de produtos fitossanitários para adultos de Orius insidiosus (Say (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae Pesticide toxicity to adults of Orius insidiosus (Say (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Carlos Dias Rocha

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho foi estudar a toxicidade de abamectin, acephate, azoxystrobin, benomyl, chlorfenapyr, imibenconazole, iprodion, metalaxyl + mancozeb e triforine para adultos de Orius insidiosus (Say. Os produtos foram utilizados nas concentrações indicadas pelos fabricantes e/ou que estão em fase de pesquisa para o controle de pragas e doenças na cultura do crisântemo, sendo aplicados em adultos por meio de torre de Potter. Os bioensaios foram realizados em laboratório, sob temperatura de 25±2 ºC, umidade relativa de 70±10% e fotofase de 12 horas. A toxicidade dos produtos para adultos foi determinada pela porcentagem do efeito total (E%, levando-se em consideração a taxa de mortalidade e redução de oviposição, sendo, ainda, classificados segundo escala proposta por membros da IOBC. Abamectin, acephate e chlorfenapyr são tóxicos a adultos de O. insidiosus, provocando redução na sua sobrevivência. Fêmeas adultas de O. insidiosus tratadas com abamectin e acephate têm a viabilidade de seus ovos reduzida, enquanto a aplicação de abamectin e chlorfenapyr prolongam seu período de oviposição. Os fungicidas azoxystrobin, benomyl, imibenconazole, iprodione, metalaxyl + mancozeb e triforine têmbaixa toxicidade ao O. insidiosus.The aim of this work wasevaluate the toxicity of abamectin, acephate, azoxystrobin, benomyl, chlorfenapyr, imibenconazole, iprodione, metalaxyl + mancozeb and triforine on adults of Orius insidiosus (Say. These pesticides were used at the concentrations indicated by the manufacturers. All of them are in testing process for pest and diseases control on chrysanthemums crop, and were spraying on adults using a Potter's tower. The bioassays were carried out in laboratory, under controlled conditions at 25±2ºC, RH of 70±10% and 12-h photophase. The toxicity of the pesticides to adults was determined by the total effect (E, considering the mortality rate and oviposition reduction. Toxicity

  17. Discussion about the Natural Existence and Safety of Phthalic Acid Esters%邻苯二甲酸酯类化合物的天然存在及安全性问题的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙宝国; 孙金沅

    2011-01-01

    综述了相关文献中报道的邻苯二甲酸酯类化合物在天然产物中的存在情况.桂花、茶叶、茉莉、槐花、玫瑰、野菊花、桂皮、八角、柴胡、川艺、东紫苏、甜橙、海棠、猕猴桃、李子、南果梨、芹菜、木榄叶、蝴蝶果果根等常见植物的精油或挥发性物质中均含有邻苯二甲酸酯类化合物,包括邻苯二甲酸二乙酯、邻苯二甲酸二丁酯、邻苯二甲酸二异丁酯、邻苯二甲酸丁辛酯、邻苯二甲酸二(2-乙基)已酯、邻苯二甲酸环己基酯和邻苯二甲酸双十一酯等.对邻苯二甲酸酯类化合物在天然产物中的存在和其安全性问题进行了探讨.%The detection of Phthalatic Acid Esters (PAEs) in some natural plants was summarized. PAEs have been found in essential oils or volatile substances of several plants, for example: Osmanthus fragrans.Tea, Jasmine, Sophora japonica, Rose, Wild chrysanthemum, Cinnamon, Star anise, Bupleurum, Szechwan Lovage Rhizome, Elsholtzia bod-inieri, Sweet orange, Begonia, Kiwi, Plum, Nanguo pear, Celery, Gymnorrhiza leaves and roots of Cleidiocarpon cava-leriei. The PAEs, which have been found in plants, include Diethyl phthalate, Butyl nonyl phthalate, Dibutyl phthalate, Di-iso-butyl phthalate, Di-butyl-octyl-phthalate, Di-2-ethlhexyl phthalate, Dicyclohexyl phthalate, Di-undecyl phthalate ect. The natural existence and safety problem of PAEs were discussed based on the detection results of PAEs in natural plants.

  18. Mutant breeding of ornamental trees for creating variations with high value using Proton Beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, H. J.; Lim, J. H.; Woo, S. M.; Hwang, M. J.; Pyo, S. H.; Woo, J. S. [Phygen Co., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-04-15

    It is necessary to induce the improved strains of ornamental plants with more disease-resistant and useful for landscape or phytoremediation. Mutation breeding has played an important role in crop improvement, and more than 2,000 mutant cultivars have been released. For the induction of mutation, gamma rays and X-rays are widely used as a mutagen. Proton beam had higher energy than -ray and worked with localized strength, so that proton-beam radiation could be valuable tool to induce useful strains of ornamental plants. Proton ion beam irradiation was used to induce a useful mutant in rice, chrysanthemum, carnation, and so on in Japan. Also, proton ion beam was used to select a useful host strain, in polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB), a member of biodegradable plastic, could be overproduced in Korea. Therefore, we surmise that the effects of proton beam is different from those of gamma rays and X-rays, and we expect proton beam to be a new mutagen. This research was conducted to investigate the proton-beam radiation sensitivity and seed germination rate of the various ornamental plants like as Albizia julibrissin, Ficus religiosa, Rhus chinensis, Sorbaria sorbilfolia and Spiraea chinensis, to survey the quantitative characteristics of proton beam induced strains. To induce the variants of ornamental plants, seeds were irradiated at the dose of 0{approx}2kGy of proton beam at room temperature. Proton beam energy level was 45 MeV and was irradiated at dose of 0{approx}2kGy by MC-50 Cyclotron. After irradiation, to assess the effects of proton beam on radiation sensitivity and morphological changes of the plants and the seed germination rate were analysed. By the proton beam radiation, the germination rate decreased at the higher dose. The other hand, the germination rate of Rhus chinensis increased the dose higher, so that it need to investigate the germination rate over 2kGy radiation. The effects of mutation induction by proton beam irradiation on seeds in Lagerstroemia

  19. Biotransformation and metabolic profile of buddleoside with human intestinal microflora by ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography coupled to hybrid linear ion trap/orbitrap mass spectrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Jin-Hua; Duan, Jin-Ao; Jiang, Shu; Qian, Yi-Yun; Qian, Da-Wei

    2016-07-01

    Buddleoside (also known as linarin) as the major flavonoid in Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat., has been reported to possess a wide range of pharmacological activities. The human intestinal microbiota might have an important impact on drug metabolism and ultimately on the drug oral bioavailability. However, the interaction of the buddleoside with human intestinal bacteria remains unknown. In this study, the conversion of buddleoside by different bacteria from human feces was firstly investigated. A reliable, sensitive and rapid analytical method, ultra performance liquid chromatography was established and successfully applied to investigate the metabolites and metabolic profile of buddleoside by human intestinal bacteria. Among the isolated bacteria, four strains including Escherichia sp. 4, Escherichia sp. 34, Enterococcus sp. 45 and Bacillus sp. 46 showed more powerful conversion capability. Based on the accurate mass data and the characteristic MS(n) product ions, the parent and six metabolites were detected and tentatively identified compared with blank samples. The metabolites were produced by four main metabolic pathways including deglycosylation, acetylation, methylation and hydroxylation. Buddleoside could be firstly converted to its aglycon acacetin (M2) by the majority of the isolated intestinal bacteria. Subsequently, M2 was further metabolize to its methylated (M3), acetylated (M4), hydroxylated (M5) and hydrogenated product (M6). However, acacetin-7-glucosid (M1) was obtained only from the minor bacterial samples like Bacillus sp. 46. To further explain the metabolism of buddleoside, the β-d-glucosidase and α-l-rhamnosidase activities of four strains were analyzed. Bacillus sp. 46 could only produce α-l-rhamnosidase, while the other three strains showed two kinds of enzyme activities. Furthermore, the activities of α-l-rhamnosidase and β-d-glucosidase reached the highest level at 12-18h and 10-12h, respectively. The metabolic routes and metabolites

  20. Identification and Quantification of Common Adulterants of Saffron (Crocus sativus) by HPLC-DAD%西红花常见伪品的HPLC-DAD鉴别和掺伪量测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    安慧景; 张继; 孙兰; 南垚; 武佳; 周立东

    2012-01-01

    目的:建立HPLC-DAD方法,一次性鉴别西红花常见伪品红花、菊花,并测定其掺伪量.方法:采用高效液相色谱法,流动相为乙腈-0.3%磷酸水;波长范围200~410 nm;羟基红花黄色素A检测波长402 nm,绿原酸检测波长327 nm;梯度洗脱.结果:通过HPLC分析,确定羟基红花黄色素A、绿原酸分别为红花、菊花的特征成分,测定样品含量,可鉴别出样品中是否掺入了红花、菊花,并确定伪品掺入量.羟基红花黄色素A 0.005~0.25 mg·mL-1,绿原酸0.001~0.05 mg·mL-1范围内线性关系良好,方法回收率高,重复性好.结论:此方法能一次性鉴别西红花常见伪品红花、菊花,并测定其掺伪量,对其它药材的相关研究也有参考价值.%This study was aimed to develop a method to identify and quantify common adulterants of saffron by simultaneously determining specific constituents by HPLC-DAD. The separation was achieved using a C18 column and CH3CN-0.3%H3PO4 solution as a mobile phase with gradient elution. Hydroxysafflor yellow A and chloro-genic acid, used as specific constituents, were detected at 402 nm and 327 nm, respectively. By detecting specific constituents, we can find out if samples were adulterated with safflower and/or chrysanthemum and calculate the percentage. The method was validated in terms of linearity, precision, accuracy and recovery. And results were found to be satisfactory. This method is simple, sensitive and operational in the identification and quantification of common adulterants of saffron.

  1. 茶叶水浸液对部分肠道致病菌的抑菌作用%BACTERIOSTATIC ACTION OF TEA INFUSION ON SOME ENTEROPATHOGENIC BACTERIA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王韵阳; 张超英; 闫志勇

    2011-01-01

    Objective To study the bacteriostasis of infusions of different kinds of tea. Methods Incubating plate with foveolae was used to study the inhibition of tea infusions to Staphylococcus aureus, E. Coli, Salmonella typhimurium and Vibrio parahemolyticus. Results The primary infusions of ordinary green tea, black tea, chrysanthemum tea, Wulong tea, dark tea, black tea produced in Sri Lanka and brick tea showed bacteriostatic action on Vibrio parahemolyticus; that of ordinary green tea, black tea, Wulong tea, dark tea, black tea produced in Sri Lanka, and brick tea on Salmonella typhimurium; and ordinary green tea, black tea, Wulong tea, dark tea, black tea of Sri Lanka, and brick tea on Staphylococcus aureus. Conclusion Tea has a bacteriostatic action on enteropathogenic bacteria.%目的 了解普通绿茶、红茶、菊花茶、乌龙茶、黑茶、斯里兰卡红茶和砖茶水浸液对肠道致病菌的抑菌作用.方法 采用平板孔穴法检测茶叶水浸液对金黄色葡萄球菌、大肠杆菌、鼠伤寒沙门菌、副溶血性弧菌的抑制作用.结果 普通绿茶、红茶、菊花茶、乌龙茶、黑茶、斯里兰卡红茶和砖茶水浸液对副溶血性弧菌有抑菌作用;普通绿茶、黑茶、斯里兰卡红茶和砖茶水浸液对大肠杆菌有抑菌作用;普通绿茶、红茶、乌龙茶、黑茶、斯里兰卡红茶和砖茶水浸液对鼠伤寒沙门菌、金黄色葡萄球菌有抑菌作用.结论 茶叶对肠道致病菌有抑菌作用.

  2. Cloning and Bioinformatics Analysis of AP1 Gene from the Leaves of in vitro Plantlets in Tagetes patula L.%孔雀草试管苗叶片AP1基因的克隆及其生物信息学分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘敏; 赖钟雄

    2012-01-01

    In this experiment, the full-length cDNA of API gene was successfully cloned from the leaves of in vitro plantlets and the bioinformatics analysis for API gene was also conducted in Tagetes patula L. The full-length of API gene was 919 bp (The accession number was JX31O277 in GenBank), containing 92 bp 5'-UTR, 149 bp 3'-UTR, and 3'-end involved 25 bp poly (A) tails, the open reading frame had 678 bp, encoding 225 amino acids. AP1-1 protein was likely located in the cell nuclei, which was hydrophilic, without signal peptide and with 4 coil helix structures; The secondary structure was mainly constituted by the ot-helix and random coil, and there existed a leucine zipper structure and a MADS-box domain. This protein had likely 7 phosphorylation sites. The phylogenetic tree analysis indicated that this protein was highly genetic relationship with chrysanthemum lavandulifolium.%以孔雀草试管苗叶片为材料,成功克隆了孔雀草AP1基因的cDNA全长,并对其进行了生物信息学分析.AP1基因全长919 bp(GenBank登录号为JX310277),其中5'-UTR 92bp、3'-UTR 149bp、3'端poly (A)尾巴25 bp,开放阅读框为678 bp,编码225个氨基酸.AP1-1可能存在于细胞核中,为亲水蛋白,不含信号肽,共形成4个卷曲螺旋结构;二级结构主要有α螺旋和无规则卷曲构成,存在亮氨酸拉链结构和1个MADS-box 区.此蛋白可能发生磷酸化位点的位置有7个.从系统进化树分析表明,该蛋白与甘菊具有较高的亲缘关系.

  3. The Research of Health Care Beverage Process Technology%一种复合保健饮料的加工研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈琼; 周映红

    2011-01-01

    以醋、蛋为主要原料,加入枸杞、甘草、菊花等中草药提取液,采用复合酶解工艺,生产具有保健功能的复合饮料.对加工过程的酶解工艺、护色剂、稳定剂、甜味剂选择等进行了探讨.试验确定了酶解蛋白质的最佳条件,确定了葡糖酸内酯为最佳护色剂,添加量0.05mg/mL,确定了β-环糊精为最佳稳定剂,添加量0.1%;确定了甜菊糖苷为最佳甜味剂,添加量0.3g/L.通过正交实验和感官评定确定了该保健饮料的最佳配方:醋蛋酶解液20%,蜂蜜10%,中草药提取液1%,甜菊糖苷0.3g/L.%A functional beverage was produced using vinegar and egg, honey as main materials and Chinese medicinal herb extracts such as medlar, licorice, chrysanthemum using combinative enzyme. Hie condition of enzymatic hydrolysis, selection of color-protecting reagent, stabilizer and sweetener were also discussed. Hie result showed that the optimal condition of the protein's enzymatic hydrolysis. Cluconic acid lactone (0.05mg/mL) were used as color-protecting reagent, p-cyclodextrin (0.1%) were used as stabilizer. Stevioside (0.3g/L) were used as sweetener. Hie best formula of the beverage was determined by orthogonal design and sensory evaluation and the optimal vinegar egg concentration, honey concentration, Chinese medicinal herb extract concentration and stevioside concentration were 20% (v/v), 10% (v/v), 1% (v/v) and 0.3g/L respectively.

  4. EFFECT OF TOPDRESSING WITH DIGESTED PIG SLURRY ON AMMONIA VOLATILIZATION IN VEGETABLE FIELDS%追施猪粪沼液对菜地氨挥发的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    靳红梅; 常志州; 郭德杰; 吴华山

    2012-01-01

    氨挥发是肥料氮素损失的主要途径之一.以厌氧发酵后的猪粪沼液为研究对象,通过蔬菜大棚小区试验,分析其作为追肥表施于冬季菜地(水芹(Oenanthe clecumbens L.)和扬花萝卜(Raphanus sativus L.Var.Radiculus pets.);追施氮量分别为72 kg hm-2和54 kg hm-2)及夏季菜地(小白菜(Brassica chinensis L.)和大叶茼蒿(Chrysanthemum carinatum Schousb.);追施氮量分别为42 kg hm-2和63 kg hm-2)后的氨排放特征及其影响因子.研究结果表明:(1)施用猪粪沼液后菜地氨挥发激增,沼液中氮素以氨挥发形态损失较快,通常发生在施入后48 h内;(2)冬季芹菜地和萝卜地施用沼液后的累积氨排放量分别为8.68 kghm-2和9.90 kg hm-2,显著高于化肥处理(4.06 kg hm-2和5.59 kg hm-2);而夏季白菜地和茼蒿地则分别为10.40kg hm-2和11.61 kg hm-2,与化肥处理间差异不显著(9.81 kg hm-2和10.09 kg hm-2);(3)冬季菜地施用沼液后氨挥发损失率分别达到11.7%和17.7%,显著低于夏季菜地(23.3%和26.8%);(4)0 ~10 cm土层土壤温度、水分含量、可溶性有机碳含量、氮素水平及形态、微生物生物量及活性,均与菜地氨挥发有较高的关联度.沼液作为追肥施入农田后会因其自身氨挥发和激发效应而使氨排放增加,在施用过程中应特别注意温度的影响,同时应选择合适的施用方式.%Ammonia ( NH3) volatilization is a major pathway for gaseous nitrogen loss from fields applied with manure. To explore effects of topdressing of bio-digested manure slurry on ammonia volatilization, a field experiment was carried out in a vegetable greenhouse, applying bio-digested pig manure slurry ( DPS) on winter vegetable, cress ( Oenanthe clecumbens L. ) and radish ( Raphanus sativus L. Var. Radiculus pers. ) , and summer vegetable, pak choi ( Brassica chinensis L. ) and crown daisy ( Chrysanthemum carinatum Schousb. ). The topdressing rates of nitrogen were 72 kg hm ~ , 54 kg

  5. Qualidade de luz no cultivo in vitro de Dendranthema grandiflorum cv. Rage: características morfofisiológicas Quality of light on the in vitro culture of Dendranthema grandiflorum cv. Rage: morphophysiological characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francyane Tavares Braga

    2009-04-01

    expensive, which increases the necessity of studies involving the manipulation and control of the culture conditions to optimize the in vitro growth. The quality of light may modify the morphogenesis of the plants through many processes mediated by receivers, which absorb the light in the blue and red region of the spectrum, being therefore, a viable way to increase the quality of the micropopagated plants. This work aimed at evaluating the effect of the spectral alteration under conditions of natural light on the morphophysiology of micropropagated chrysanthemum [Dendranthema grandiflorum (Ramat. Kitam] plants. Nodal segments with one bud cultivated in vitro were used as explants. The medium used was MS with half of its salts concentration supplemented with 15g.L-1 sucrose. The incubation conditions were growth room (GR, this being the control treatment, greenhouse (GH without shadow protection and greenhouse with 50% shadow in the colors black, blue, and red. The evaluation was done 60 days after the implantation of the assay. For the leaf number, GR showed to be the most effective incubation form, with a higher number of leafs. The same occurred with the number of roots and shoots and the average length of roots. For the aerial part length, GR and GH with shadow protection in all three colors were more efficient. Considering the anatomical aspects for stomatal density, a greater number of stomatal/mm² was observed in GH without shadow protection and in GH with red shadow protection. For the polar and equatorial diameters of the stomata, GR without shadow protection, followed by GR with shadow protection in the colors blue and red, presented a bigger stomatal diameter. With the presented results, it is possible to recommend the use of natural light for the in vitro cultivation of chrysanthemum, however, the manipulation of the spectral quality is not recommended.

  6. 'BRS Tospodoro': a high lycopene processing tomato cultivar adapted to organic cropping systems and with multiple resistance to pathogens 'BRS Tospodoro': Cultivar de tomate para processamento com alto licopeno, adaptada aos sistemas de cultivo orgânico e com múltiplos genes de resistência a patógenos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo de B Giordano

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available 'BRS Tospodoro' is a high lycopene tomato cultivar, which combines multiple disease resistance genes and desirable processing traits. This cultivar was found to be suitable for both conventional and organic crop systems. 'BRS Tospodoro' was obtained via backcross breeding using 'Viradoro' as recurrent parent and the inbred line 'CNPH 1306' as the donor of the Pto gene (resistance to Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato race 0. 'BRS Tospodoro' has the Mi1-2 gene that controls resistance to root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne incognita, M. javanica, and M. arenaria as well as tolerance to populations of the aphid Macrosiphum euphorbiae (vector of Potyvirus species, and to whiteflies (Bemisia tabaci. 'BRS Tospodoro' has also the Sw-5b gene, which controls resistance to major Tospovirus species (Groundnut ringspotirus, Tomato chlorotic spot virus, Chrysanthemum stem necrosis virus, and Tomato spotted wilt virus. This cultivar is also resistant to Stemphylium solani and S. lycopersici (Sm gene, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici race 1 (I-1 gene and Verticillium dahlie race 1 (Ve gene. 'BRS Tospodoro' presents uniform fruit ripening, with the first harvest being done around 110 to 120 days after plant emergence. The fruits are firm, square-shaped, with an average weight of 46 g (in organic cropping to above 70 g (in conventional cropping. The soluble solids content is in the range between 4.6 and 4.8 ºBrix. The external fruit color is uniform (gene u and bright red (L* = 44.1; a* = 33.9; b* = 20.4. The average lycopene content of mature fruits is 104 µg/g. This cultivar has the jointless locus (j2, which facilitates both manual and mechanical harvesting. 'BRS Tospodoro' has determinate growth habit (locus sp with vigorous foliage, which provides good fruit protection from sunscald. 'BRS Tospodoro' can be cultivated in all the traditional processing tomato-producing areas of Brazil without the need of any technical adjustment. 'BRS Tospodoro' displayed

  7. Determinação do ponto de colheita e indução à abertura floral do crisântemo cultivar White Polaris em diferentes concentrações de sacarose Stage of harvest and flower opening induction at different sucrose concentrations in spray chrysánthemum cv. White Polaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Julio Flórez Roncancio

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Realizou-se pesquisa objetivando determinar o melhor entre quatro pontos de colheita da haste floral de crisântemos de maço do tipo pompom cv. White Polaris a concentração mais adequada de sacarose para tratamento de "pulsing" dessas hastes: estas foram colhidas em estufa de produção comercial, nos pontos preestabelecidos e transportadas para laboratório, onde foram totalmente imersas em água de torneira, à sombra, durante três horas. Selecionaram-se as hastes pela uniformidade do seu desenvolvimento e cortaram-nas sob água na base do caule, entre 50 e 60 cm, e identificadas, o que permitiu avaliar as mudanças morfológicas associadas às inflorescências individuais. As hastes foram distribuídas e mantidas nos diferentes tratamentos de "pulsing" durante 24 horas, à luz branca contínua de 1.500 lux, 60 a 90% de umidade relativa do ar e temperatura ambiente de 25 ± 2°C. Após o tratamento de "pulsing", as hastes foram transferidas para água destilada, permanecendo por 10 horas sob luz branca contínua, nas mesmas condições de laboratório citadas. A vida floral em vaso começou a ser avaliada na instalação do experimento, após o tratamento de "pulsing", e terminou quando as folhas e pétalas perderam a turgescência e o valor decorativo. As hastes colhidas em estádio de botão (25 e 50% de abertura das inflorescências apicais não alcançaram o ponto de abertura adequado em nenhuma das seis concentrações de sacarose (0 a 146,07 mol/m³; as concentrações de 116,9 146,1 mol/m³, porém, estimularam, em geral, a abertura de botões. Os pontos de colheita 1 e 2 (100 e 75% de abertura das inflorescências apicais respectivamente apresentaram bons resultados em todas as concentrações de sacarose.Flowers of spray chrysanthemum cv. White Polaris were cut at 4 stages and treated in pulsing solutions of distilled water plus 0 to 146.1 mol/m³ sucrose. The flowers were harvested in local commercial greenhouses, at various

  8. UJI REPELEN (DAYA TOLAK BEBERAPA EKSTRAK TUMBUHAN TERHADAP GIGITAN NYAMUK Aedes aegypti VEKTOR DEMAM BERDARAH DENGUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Boesri Boesri

    2015-10-01

    ­borne diseases. This research is a pure experiment, that is made some extract and  then its application as repellent for Ae. aegypti, and performed in the Laboratory. Preparation of extracts performed in the laboratory of Pharmacy, University of Gajah Mada, whereas for testing extract to Aedes aegypti conducted in laboratory of insecticide trials in Institute of Vector and Reservoir Control Research and Development. Repellent tests were conducted for some extract plant at 100% dosage and extract which can refuse mosquito bite above 80% per hour  are Zodia leaf extract is resist up to 2 hours as much as 88,2%, tobacco  leaf extract is resist for 3 hours as much as 84,9%, gondopuro leaf  extract for 1 hour resist as much as 83,3%, Serai Wangi leaf extract is resist for 2 hours as much as 85,1%. Clove leaf extract  is resist for 4 hours as much as 81,7%. Chrysanthemum extract for 1 hour resist as much as 89,6%. While the extracts of plant suren leaf, tuba root and lavender just able to resist a bite of Aedes aegypti mosquito under 80%.Keywords : extract, repellent, Aedes aegypti

  9. 50例患者静脉血RBC中检出一种Gram(+)真菌

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董历明; 王琬婷; 冯照强; 吉化春; 周璐; 孙斌斌; 李杨

    2013-01-01

    temperature is low, i.e., a rod-shaped chrysanthemum. At the same time visible platelets were of fungal invasion after movement speed, forming a film-shaped signet-ring shaped, by phagocytic leukocytes. Conclusion:Anemia in patients with venous blood to see the same class of fungi for normal human red blood cel s infected by a fungus, when accompanied by other protozoa and fungi pathogenic microorganism invasion induced by propagation speed, RBC HB loss accelerated, resulting in various types of anemia.

  10. 内蒙古库伦旗居民室内盆栽观赏植物研究%Potted Ornamental Plants Displayed Indoors by the Resident in Hure Banner,Inner Mongolia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张苹苹; 龙春林; 哈斯巴根

    2015-01-01

    对内蒙古库伦旗154户居民室内盆栽观赏植物进行调查,共记录观赏植物99种5变种4杂交种1无性系品种,隶属50科84属.其中,草本植物有62种,占总数的56.88%,木本植物有46种,占总数的42.20%.植物的原产地以亚洲、非洲、美洲为主;植物的观赏特性以观花植物和观叶植物为主;出现频率较高的植物有君子兰、香石竹、蟹爪兰、玉树、木立芦荟、天竺葵、月季花、仙人掌、令箭荷花、朱顶红、野菊、倒挂金钟、仙客来、三角霸王鞭等.从整体上看,户均拥有室内盆栽观赏植物的种类较少,当地居民户间对室内观赏植物种类的选择有显著差别,具有个性化和随意性特征.从当地居民室内盆栽观赏植物的多样性、出现频率、户均种类数看,该地区居民室内盆栽观赏植物的利用水平较低,应进行科学的引导,以推动该地区观赏植物的发展.%In order to study the situation of Hure ’s indoor potted ornamental plants in Inner Mongolia,household observation records and picture identification methods were used in the investigation. The ornamental plants from 154 households were documented.The results showed that there are 99 species,9 varieties and 1 form of indoor ornamental plants,which belong to 84 genera and 50 families. There were 62 species of herbaceous plant,which account for 56.88%,and 46 species of woody plant accounting for 44.20.These plants were mostly native to Asia,Africa,and America.The common indoor plants mainly were for flowering and foliage purposes,in which Clivia miniata ,Dianthus caryophyllus , Zygocactus truncactus ,Crassula ovata ,Aloe arborescens ,Pelargonium hortorum ,Rosa chinensis ,Opuntia stricta ,Nopalxochia ackermannii ,Hippeastrum rutilum ,Chrysanthemum indicum ,Fuchsia hybrid , Cyclamen persicum and Euphorbia trigona occurred at higher frequency;In general,the average ornamen-tal plant species were less.The significant

  11. Interception of Phytophthora syringae on Citrus fruits imported from California, USA%进境美国加州脐橙中丁香疫霉Phytophthora syringae截获

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗加凤; 刘跃庭; 廖芳; 胡晓红; 刘鹏; 黄国明

    2012-01-01

    Several brown rot fruits have been found from Californian fresh orange sample. Three isolates similar to Phytophthora syringae were obtained from these rot fruits. The colonies grew slowly on PDA and V8 juice agar (V8A). They were stellate, tiled and thin on V8A, but on PDA, the margin was chrysanthemum petaloid; mycelia dense, milk-white-colored. Sporangia and catenulate hyphal swellings formed in sterilizing water and soil extract water in 48h. The isolates were homothallic. Oospores were produced abundantly on PDA and V8A mixed with fresh Citrus fruit tissue or leaf of rhododendron. The isolates were wounded-inoculated on fresh Citrus fruits. Typical brown rot symptoms are apparent on inoculated fruits in 7d. DNA of hyphae was amplified with ITS1/ITS4 primers. In comparision with P. Syringae from NCBIGenBank databases, the sequences had 99% identity. All the results of tests showed that the isolates were Phytophthorasyringae.%从产自美国加利福尼亚州的新鲜脐橙样品中发现多个腐烂病果,通过分离培养得到3个疑似丁香疫霉Phytophthora syringae菌株,对3个菌株进行形态学研究、致病性测定和分子序列比对分析.结果表明病菌在V8A培养基上菌落稀疏、平铺,呈星状,菌丝紧贴培养基生长或埋于基质内生长;在PDA培养基上菌落呈菊花花瓣状,菌丝致密,乳白色;游动孢子囊和菌丝膨大体在无菌水和土壤浸出液中黑暗条件下48h后产生;菌株为同宗配合,卵孢子在带有新鲜脐橙果实组织或杜鹃叶片的V8A培养基中大量产生;创伤接种脐橙果实,7d后接种脐橙出现典型的褐腐症状;通用引物ITS 1/ITS4扩增测序,Blastn分析表明序列与GenBank中P.syringae序列相似性为99%.依据上述研究结果,将分离获得的3株菌鉴定为丁香疫霉Phytophthora syringae,系国内首次截获的一种植物检疫性真菌病害.

  12. Red de mercadeo y rentabilidad de flor de corte en el Valle de Mexicali, Baja California, México Marketing network and profitability of cut flower for Mexicali Valley, Baja California, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blancka Yesenia Samaniego-Gámez

    2012-06-01

    during 2004 with more than 122 million pesos, considering flower seed and cut flower production. Most of cut flowers produced in state of Baja California Norte is for export market, by this reason local market means an opportunity for introducing quality products at market prices from national companies. Mexicali city, by being near USA and together with its population economic wealth thanks to profitability of cotton and orchards production in Mexicali Valley, is one or the main producer region in the country. By this reason and thanks to great amount of flower shops located in the region the aim of describing marketing network and profitability for cut flower in Mexicali Valley is proposed. Market study and diagnose to make FODA analysis were developed, defining strategies in order to seize economic potential. Actual distribution networks and marketing system consist in moving cut flowers from production centers, Córdoba, Veracruz and Coatepec de Harinas district, state of Mexico, up to Mexicali Valley, Baja California, keeping quality and optimum vase life for final customer, also proper planning for production chain due not covered demand along year it is required, the population has economical potential and tradition to give flowers guaranteeing good profitability. Roses (Rosa gigantea and R. chinensis L., asian lilies (Lilium spp., chrysanthemum [Dendranthema x grandiflorum (Ramat Kitamura c. v. Polaris White], carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus, gerbera (Gerbera jamesonii H. Bolux ex Hook F. and oriental lilies (Lilium spp. are species with more consumers' interest.

  13. Evaluation of the riparian forest state program in Pitangueiras county, Parana / Avaliação do programa estadual “Mata Ciliar” no município de Pitangueiras, Paraná

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristovon Videira Ripol

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Riparian forest restoration is fundamental for maintenance of vegetable, animal and human life. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of a Riparian Forest state program in the enlargement of the riparian forests in Pitangueiras county, state of Paraná, in the period of 2004 to 2006. Concerning the riparian reforestation, it was ansewered the reasons that convinced the farmers to join the program, the main difficulties found in its execution, and their views on environmental preservation and law. The results by means of interviews with the farmers and county leaders. It was concluded that the reparian forest state program was efficient due to the partner ship between Pitangueiras City Hall, Government Department of Environment and Coffee Farmer Association. The installation of a native tree nursery in Pitangueiras offered plants to farmers at the opportune period for planting; the farmers have conscience about the necessity of planting riparing forests; and is necessary to do a public policy to include the farmers in the carbon credict projects created with the riparian forest restoration.O uso de extratos vegetais com propriedades nematicidas no controle de fitonematóides representa mais uma alternativa para os pequenos produtores, com valor prático e econômico, e sem riscos de contaminação do ambiente. A adição ao solo dos extratos aquosos de 20 espécies de plantas foi avaliada sobre a população de Meloidogyne javanica em plantas de tomateiro, em casa de vegetação. Estas foram divididas em dois grupos e avaliadas em dois experimentos separados. No mesmo dia em que se infestou o solo com 5.000 ovos do nematóide, adicionou-se 20 mL dos extratos aquosos obtidos de folhas de artemísia (Chrysanthemum parthenium, bardana (Arctium lappa, capim cidreira (Cymbopogon citratus, carqueja (Bacharis trimera, cavalinha (Equisetum sp., cinamomo (Melia azedarach, hortelã (Mentha sp., mamona (Ricinus communis, manjeric

  14. 真菌和原虫类微生物在白血病患者静脉血中检出

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董历明; 唐仁权; 王琬婷; 冯照强; 陈玉; 王亚鹏; 李杨

    2013-01-01

    Objective:In the present study, in order to find sensitive to drug treatment, we tested difference of fungi and protozoan in blood in various types of leukemia in patients. Methods:Under 22-36℃, 50-100μl blood of leukemia patients cultured in solution of 1640 and saline, and observed fungi and protozoa infected red cells growth condition under 100 × microscope after vaccination to 120 hours. Results:9 different types of leukemia patients are visible with the same kind of fungalⅠgrowth in venous blood, 4 of them accompanied growth with protozoa, 5 of them mixed growth with another fungal I . With high temperature, the fungusⅠinside red blood cellpropagation speeded, two split multiply, sprayed to the extracellular which moved speedily like spherical free monomer. Red blood celllost hemoglobin and formed shadow shaped, final y it induced anemia. With low temperature, fungalⅠformed rod-shaped chrysanthemum. After infected fungalⅠ, platelets moved faster, formed a film-shaped signet-ring shaped, final y were phagocytosed by leukocytes. Conclusion: 9 different types of leukemia patients were visible with the same kind of fungalⅠ growth in venous blood. When accompanied by other protozoa and fungi invasion, it induced juvenile white cells released into the blood, caused leukemia.%目的:检测各类白血病患者静脉血中感染的真菌和原虫的种类和区别,寻求敏感药物治疗。方法:白血病患者静脉血50-100μl滴加在1640和生理盐水混合液中培养,22-36度条件下,置100×显微镜下观察接种后至120小时的真菌和原虫生长感染红细胞状况。结果:9种不同类型白血病患者静脉血培养中镜下均可见同一种①真菌生长,其中4种可见原虫伴随生长,5种见另一种②真菌混合生长。当有混合微生物生长时,镜下观察,伴随温度的提高,①真菌在红细胞内繁殖速度加快,二分裂倍数增长,最后呈喷射状释放到红细胞体外,

  15. Tempestite of Early Triassic Feixianguan Formation in Shangsi Section,Guanyuan: Are they extreme climatic event under megamonsoon system?%广元上寺剖面下三叠统飞仙关组风暴岩:巨型季风体制下的极端气候事件?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾德勇; 时志强; 张华; 安红艳; 张慧娟

    2011-01-01

    早三叠世扬子地台位于特提斯东北缘,研究者根据大量地质证据和模拟实验证实该时期巨型季风强度最大,且控制了整个泛大陆和周边海域的气候循环.笔者于川西北广元上寺剖面下三叠统中发现一套保存完好的风暴岩,其发育于飞仙关组下部,风暴沉积特征明显,风暴侵蚀构造、风暴撕裂构造和层理构造发育;根据沉积构造、岩石性质等识别了Sa-Sb-Sc、Sb-Sd、Sa-Sc-Sd三种序列组合(Sa-滞留砾屑沉积,Sb-粒序层理,Sc-丘状交错层理,Sd-均质层理).早三叠世研究区处于有利于保存风暴沉积的浅海环境,风暴岩的形成、发展与特征对古气候研究有重要意义.我们认为上寺地区(乃至扬子地区)的风暴沉积,可能是最强盛的季风循环影响的结果;而P/T界线生物大量灭绝后缺乏潜穴生物的背景使风暴岩得以保存.%Early Triassic Yangtze platform was located in the northeastern margin of Tethys. Based upon the large amount of geological evidence and simulation experiments, researchers confirmed that the Triassic climate system was megamonsoon that controlled the climate of whole Pangaea and surrounding sea. However abundant outcrops of Triassic strata in our country, whether contained some information implying monsoon climate? We found a set of well-pre-served tempestite in the Lower Triassic at Shangsi Section, Guangyuan city, northwest Sichuan, which developed in the lower part of the Feixianguan Formation. The sedimentary characteristics of Lower Triassic Tempestite was significant, including storm-generated gravel, storm erosion structures, storm tear structures and bedding structures. Gravel was composed of micritic limestone, and might be divided into two types according to roundness. One contained brec-ciated, strip, axiolitic shape; the other presented flat-gravel shape. Storm erosion structures included pocket and chrysanthemum shape formed by drainage and channel mode, erosion

  16. 成人肾原发性神经母细胞瘤临床病理观察%Adult primary intrarenal neuroblastoma: a clinicopathological analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周伟

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨成人肾原发性神经母细胞瘤的临床病理特征.方法 对1例肾原发性神经母细胞瘤的临床表现、影像学、组织形态、免疫组化等进行分析并复习相关文献.结果 患者女性,54岁.间褐性肉眼血尿半年伴左腰痛2个月.CT示左肾癌伴左肾静脉癌栓,腹膜后淋巴结转移.术中见肿瘤位于左肾中下极.组织学上,瘤细胞弥漫性或片状分布,主要为不同分化阶段的神经母细胞,核分裂多见,有菊形团、神经管和神经毡结构;灶性分布未分化神经母细胞,成熟的神经节细胞、胶质细胞和Schwannian基质.免疫组化显示肿瘤细胞表达Vim,Synaptophysin,Chromogranin A,GFAP,NSE,S100,NF,而CK,CD99,EMA等阴性.结论 成人肾原发性神经母细胞瘤临床上罕见,与肾癌难鉴别,CT和患者尿中儿茶酚胺代谢产物的检查,对诊断有指导意义,确诊需病理检查.%Objective To explore the clinicopathological characteristics of adult primary intrarenal neuroblastoma. Methods The clinical manifestation, images, histopathological features, and immunohistochemical results were analyzed in one case of adult primary intrarenal neurlblastoma, and the related literatures were reviewed. Results A 54-year-old woman presented with intermittent gross hematuria and left flank pain for 2 mouths. CT revealed left renal carcinoma, left renal vein cancer embolus, and retropefitoneal lymph node metastasis. The tumor was located at the lower left kidney. Histologically, the tumor cells distributed diffusely or flakily, mainly neuroblasts at different developmental stages, with nuclear division, chrysanthemum-shaped mass, neural tube, and neuropil. Immunohistochemical assay showed Vim, GFAP, chromogranin A, NF,S100, and synaptophysin were positively expressed in the tumor cells but CK, CD99, and EMA were not.Conclusions Adult primary renal neuroblastoma is rare and is difficult to be distinguished from renal carcinoma clinically. CT scans and

  17. Posição da gema axilar e a indução de mutação em mudas de crisântemo (Dendranthema grandiflora Tzvelev Position of the axillary bud and mutation inducion in chrysanthemun (Dendranthema glandiflora Tzevelev plantets

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    Alvis Hernán Adames

    1999-10-01

    , originated from six different axillary buds from the M1V1 chrysanthemum branches. For this purpose, rooted plants of the cultivar ‘Ingrid’ (dark pink were irradiated with 20 Gy of gamma-rays and the prune was carried out 40 days after planting. Frequency and spectrum of flower color mutants were evaluated. No mutants were observed in the control population. In the M1V2 population, 22.1% of the total plants were mutants (white color, dark bronze, pale pink, yellow, wine, variegated and cream. Among them, 1.8% were periclinal chimeras (with only one different color from the original and the others showed mutated sectors. No differences were observed in mutation frequency and size of mutated sector among six M1V2 populations. The wine colored mutant was selected, multiplied and evaluated in a yield trial. This mutant named ‘Magali’ was multiplied and was released as a new cultivar.

  18. Study on Scavenging Nitrite and Disconnecting Nitrosamine Synthesis by Five Kinds of Scented Tea in vitro%5种花茶体外清除亚硝酸盐及阻断亚硝胺合成的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈晓銮; 张佩虹; 黄俊生; 林少宏

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The study aimed to study the dose effect relationship of 5 kind of the scented tea for scavenging the sodium nitrite and disconnecting the nitrosa mine, and provide the theoretical basis for advocating the scented tea as the health food so as to guide the people in buying and drinking the scented tea according to the its advantages. [Method] Under the simulated human gastric juice (Ph value of 3.0 and temperature of 37℃), the ability of the scavenging the sodium nitrite and disconnecting the nitrosa mine synthesis for 5 kinds of scented tea were studied and compared with the ascorbic acid (VC). [ Result] Among 5 kinds of scented tea, the scavenging and disconnecting effects of the os-manthus was the best, that of lilies, Kang Xianhua and marigold was the middle and that of chrysanthemum was the worst. The capability for scavenging the sodium nitrite of the osmanthus was 93. 88% and the capability for disconnecting the nitrosa mine synthesis was 82.68% , which was equal to the scavenging rate on the sodium nitrite and disconnecting rate on the nitrosa mine synthesis by 1.2 mg VC respectively. [ Conclusion ] The scented tea not only had the function of maintain beauty and keep young and played an important role on the human body.%[目的]研究5种花茶清除亚硝酸钠和阻断亚硝胺的剂量效应关系,为提倡花茶作为健康食品提供理论依据,进而指导人们根据花茶的优点进行选购及饮用.[方法]在模拟人体胃液(pH为3.0,温度为37℃)条件下,研究5种花茶浸泡液对亚硝酸盐的清除能力和对亚硝胺合成的阻断能力,并与抗坏血酸(VC)进行比较.[结果]5种花茶中,桂花对亚硝酸钠的清除和对亚硝胺合成的阻断效果最好,百合花、康仙花、金盏花居中,菊花最差.桂花浸泡液对亚硝酸钠的最大清除率可达93.88%,对亚硝胺合成的阻断率最大达82.68%,分别相当于1.2 mg VC对亚硝酸钠的清除率和对亚硝胺合成的阻断率.[结论

  19. Cloning and bioinformatics analysis of CDPK1 gene in Gossypium hirsutum and Sasussured involucrata from two different habitats%两种不同生境植物棉花与雪莲 CDPK1基因的克隆及生物信息学分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田晓涵; 刘玉玲; 李永梅; 李锦; 庞学兵; 祝建波; 朱新霞

    2016-01-01

    was the closest to Chrysanthemum boreale CDPK2.

  20. Surtos populacionais de Bemisia tabaci no estado de São Paulo Outbreaks of Bemisia tabaci in the São Paulo State, Brazil

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    André Luiz Lourenção

    1994-01-01

    : Aleyrodidae infesting vegetables and ornamental plants in some localities of São Paulo State, Brazil, has been observed. High densities of this insect were verified on tomato, broccoli, egg-plant and squash; in some cases, tomato and squash presented the whitefly-related disorders named tomato irregular repening and squash silverleaf. Weeds, mainly Sida rhombifolia L., Sonchus oleraceus L., Solanum viarum Dun. and Ipomoea acuminata Roem. & Schult., showed high whitefly colonization. At the Holambra county intensive colonizations were recorded on or-namental plants, mainly Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat. and Euphorbia pulcherrima Willd. (poinsettia. Daily insecticide applications did not reduce the insect infestations. Other crops, such as bean and cotton, were also infested. The disorders and type of infestations are similar to what has been observed in the U.S.A. In this country, the ability of certain populations of B. tabaci to induce the silverleaf disorder of squash and to colonize poinsettia intensely, among other characteristics, has been used to distinguish the "poinsettia strain" or "B strain". However, based on genomic and crossing/mating behavior studies, some investigators have considered that these two strains represent different species. In view of the similarity of the infestations and disorders that are occurring in the U.S.A., and more recently in São Paulo State, it is very likely that the "B strain" (or the new species has been introduced in Brazil.

  1. 中药离子导入配合穴位按摩对儿童弱视的图形视觉诱发电位的影响%The Chinese Herbs Iontophoresis plus Eye Point Massage for Change of Pattern Visual Evoked Potential in Amblyopia Children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何碧华; 谢祥勇; 韦丽娇; 唐勇华

    2013-01-01

    Objective To observe the efficacy of Chinese herbs iontophoresis plus eye point massage on the change of pattern visual evoked potential P-VEP ) in amblyopia children. Methods One hundred and seventeen amblyopia patients( 198 eyes ) were randomly divided into control group with 58 patients( 97 eyes:79 eyes with ametropic amblyopia ,4 eyes with strabismic amblyopia, 14 eyes with anisometropic amblyopia ) and Chinese herbs iontophoresis treatment group with 59 patients( 101 eyes:84 eyes with ametropic amblyopia,5 eyes with strabismic amblyopia, 12 eyes with anisometropic amblyopia ). The control group was given eyeglasses after mydriatic optometry with 1% atropine and treated with occlusion therapy and eyesight exercise. The treatment group was given self-made Chinese herbs( pericarpium citri reticulatae viride, Semen Cassiae, chrysanthemum, borneol, Olibanum, Spearmint, the fruit of Chinese wolfberry, flowers carthami, Angelica sinensis,butterflybush flower,the root of red-rooted salvia,the seed of Chinese dodder,prepared rehmannia root ) iontophoresis plus eye point massage besides the methods mentioned above. Both groups were treated continually for 6 months. Results Before treatment, three types of amblyopia showed no significant difference in the PI 00 wave amplitude ( P100-A ) and latencyv P100-L ) of P-VEP between two groups( P >0. 05 ). After treatment, the increase of P100-A in treatment group was significantly higher than that in control group( P <0.05 ),but P100-L shortened significantly compared with the controls( P <0.05 ). Conclusion Chinese herbs iontophoresis plus eye point massage for amblyopia children can make P-VEP-P100 wave latency shortened and amplitude increased, and it is an effective method for the treatment of amblyopia.%目的 观察中药离子导入配合眼周穴位按摩对儿童的图形视觉诱发电位(P-VEP)的影响.方法 弱视儿童117例(198只眼)按随机数字表法分为对照组58例(97只

  2. 外周性原始神经外胚层肿瘤的诊断及治疗%Diagnosis and treatment of peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫坤; 葛燕燕; 李向阳; 严士光; 丁友宏

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨外周性原始神经外胚层肿瘤(peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumors,pPNETs)的诊断及治疗。方法:回顾性分析我院收治的5例经病理证实的 pPNETs 患者的诊治过程,并复习文献。结果:本组病例均为软组织,1例位于颈部,1例位于肩部,1例位于腋窝,2例位于胸壁。CT 平扫显示肿物多呈不均匀的等、低密度,所有肿瘤增强后均可见不均匀强化。3例患者行 MRI,显示 T1WI 呈与肌肉类似的混杂信号, T2WI 表现为不均匀的高信号。2例患者行 B 超检查,显示肿物局部低密度影,内可见血流信号,未压迫周围血管。镜下可见肿瘤细胞形成典型的 Homer -Wright 菊形团。免疫组化显示肿瘤均表达 CD99和 VIM,NSE和 Syn 多数阳性,CK 阴性,并且不表达 LCA,部分低表达 S100。结论:pPNETs 是一种少见的小圆细胞恶性肿瘤。CT 及 MRI 检查可评估肿瘤可切除性。B 超可了解肿物的血供及与周围血管的位置关系。pPNETs 的确诊依靠病理及免疫组化,尤其是 Homer -Wright 菊形团及神经内分泌标记物对肿瘤的确诊有重要意义。手术是直接有效的治疗手段,术前新辅助化疗可以减少 pPNETs 局部淋巴结转移。%Objective:To explore the diagnosis and treatment of peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumors (pPNETs).Methods:Retrospectively analyze the patients'diagnosis and treatment with pPNETs.Results:All cases were soft tissue.1 case located in the neck,1 case in the shoulder,1 case in axillary,2 cases in the chest wall.CT scan showed density was uneven,and all tumors were visible uneven enhancement.3 cases did MRI which showed a mixed signal liked muscle's in T1WI and an uneven high signal in T2WI.2 cases did ultrasound B which showed low density shadow with blood flow signals in part of the mass and not oppression axillary vein.Microscopically,the tumor celles formed typical chrysanthemum form

  3. Etiology and epidemiology of Pythium root rot in hydroponic crops: current knowledge and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Clifford Sutton

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The etiology and epidemiology of Pythium root rot in hydroponically-grown crops are reviewed with emphasis on knowledge and concepts considered important for managing the disease in commercial greenhouses. Pythium root rot continually threatens the productivity of numerous kinds of crops in hydroponic systems around the world including cucumber, tomato, sweet pepper, spinach, lettuce, nasturtium, arugula, rose, and chrysanthemum. Principal causal agents include Pythium aphanidermatum, Pythium dissotocum, members of Pythium group F, and Pythium ultimum var. ultimum. Perspectives are given of sources of initial inoculum of Pythium spp. in hydroponic systems, of infection and colonization of roots by the pathogens, symptom development and inoculum production in host roots, and inoculum dispersal in nutrient solutions. Recent findings that a specific elicitor produced by P. aphanidermatum may trigger necrosis (browning of the roots and the transition from biotrophic to necrotrophic infection are considered. Effects on root rot epidemics of host factors (disease susceptibility, phenological growth stage, root exudates and phenolic substances, the root environment (rooting media, concentrations of dissolved oxygen and phenolic substances in the nutrient solution, microbial communities and temperature and human interferences (cropping practices and control measures are reviewed. Recent findings on predisposition of roots to Pythium attack by environmental stress factors are highlighted. The commonly minor impact on epidemics of measures to disinfest nutrient solution as it recirculates outside the crop is contrasted with the impact of treatments that suppress Pythium in the roots and root zone of the crop. New discoveries that infection of roots by P. aphanidermatum markedly slows the increase in leaf area and whole-plant carbon gain without significant effect on the efficiency of photosynthesis per unit area of leaf are noted. The platform of

  4. 两种漱口液对预防长期住院精神病患者口腔感染的效果比较%Effects of two types of mouthwashes on prevention of oral infection in long-term psychiatric patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈晓燕; 吴白莉; 陈奕苗; 卢彩云; 杜海霞

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To study the effects of different mouthwash methods on oral infection of long-term psychi-atric patients,in order to reduce oral infection of hospital psychiatric patients and improve their quality of life. METHODS A total of 100 long-term psychiatric patients in our hospital from Jan.2014 to Dec.2014 were selected for the study,50 cases from Jan.to Jun.2014 were selected as control group,and 50 cases from Jul.to Dec. 2014 were selected as observation group.Patients of control group used cetylpyridinium chloride gargle for mouth-wash daily,and patients of observation group used the self Qiju soup for mouthwash daily mix formulated by the medlar,chrysanthemum,honeysuckle,and wood butterfly.The effects between the two groups were compared, and the data were analyzed by SPSS 17.0.RESULTS Totally 12 cases of oral infection were occurred in control group,with the infection rate of 24.00%,while 4 cases in observation group,with the infection rate of 8.00%, which was significantly lower than that of control group.The rates of halitosis,mouth ulcers,and bleeding gums of observation group were 12.0%,10.0%,and 14.0%,,which were significantly lower than those of control group (P <0.05).CONCLUSION Self Qiju soup can effectively improve the oral hygiene of long-term psychiatric patients,reduce their oral infection rates,but can not impact the pathogens constituent ratio.%目的:研究不同漱口方法对长期住院精神病患者口腔感染的预防控制效果,以降低精神病患者院内口腔感染率,提高其生活质量。方法选取2014年1-12月医院收治100例长期住院精神病患者为研究对象,选择2014年1-6月50例患者为对照组,2014年7-12月 50例患者为观察组;对照组患者每日应用西吡氯铵含漱液漱口,观察组患者每日应用由枸杞子、杭白菊、金银花、木蝴蝶混合配制的自拟杞菊汤漱口,比较两组患者效果,数据采用 SPSS 17.0软件进行统

  5. Mineral fertilization and organic fertilization on chrysanthemun growth / Adubação mineral e orgânica no desenvolvimento de crisântemo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Bueno Demétrio

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to evaluated organic products in comparison with mineral fertilization in the growth of chrysanthemum crop. The experimental design was randomized blocks with seven treatments and nine replications. The treatments were T1 (100% of commercial substratum - CS+ mineral fertilization - AM1; T2 (100% of CS + AM2; T3 (100% of CS + AM3; T4 (100% of CS + AM4; T5 (70% of CS + 30% bovine manure; T6 (70% of CS + 30% of sheep manure; T7 (70% of CS + 30% poultry manure. The mineral fertilization was carried through fertigation with AM1 = (calcium nitrate 0,2g L-1, ammonium sulphate 0,4 g L-1, potassium nitrate 0,2 g L-1, magnesium sulphate 0,3 g L-1and mono ammonium 0,05 phosphate g L-1, in the dosage of 50 ml for pot, AM2 = ULTRAFLOR® (12% N, 6% P2O5, 12% K2O, applying 0,8g pot -1, monthly, AM3= Nutriverde® = 13% N, 13% P2O5, 15% K2O, 1% Here, 4% S, 1% Mg, 0.05% B, 0.005% Co, 0.05% Cu, 0.2% Faith, 0.005% Me, 0.1% Zn, applying 2,6 g L-1 (100 m L pot -1, fortnightly and AM4 =Ouro Verde® = 15% N, 15% P2O5, 20% K2O, applying 2,0 g pot -1, fortnightly. It was evaluated the number of secondary stems, plant height, stem diameter and the inflorescences diameter, leaf number and inflorescences number and aerial fresh mass weight. The formulated mineral fertilization (T1 or manure of bovine (T5 or poultry (T7 is recommended. Among the commercial products the Nutriverde® is suggested to be used.O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar a utilização de produtos orgânicos em comparação com adubação mineral no desenvolvimento do crisântemo. O delineamento experimental foi blocos ao acaso, composto por 7 tratamentos, 9 repetições: T1 (100% de substrato comercial-SC+ adubação mineral-AM1; T2 (100% SC + AM2; T3 (100% SC + AM3; T4 (100% SC + AM4; T5 (70% SC + 30% esterco bovino; T6 (70% SC + 30% de esterco de ovinos; T7 (70% SC + 30% esterco de aves. A adubação mineral foi realizada na forma de fertirrigação com AM1 = (nitrato de cálcio 0,2g L

  6. Effect of polymers associated with N and K fertilizer sources on Dendrathema grandiflorum growth and K, Ca and Mg relations

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    Sita Regiane Cristina Marcato

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of polymer used with different nitrogen and potassium sources on the growth and nutrition of chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiforum, var. "Virginal" and on chemical characteristics of substrate. Two substrates were evaluated: 1 composite with 50 % organic soil, 45 % sand, and 5 % composted tobacco; 2 plow layer soil (0-20 cm depth; red oxisol typical dystrophic. The experimental design was a factorial (4x2x2 and included four polymer rates (0, 1, 2, and 4 g kg-1of substrate, two nitrogen ((NH42SO4 and (H2N2CO, and two potassium (KCl and K2SO4 sources. Dry biomass, flower number, and concentration of K, Ca, and Mg were evaluated. Inverse relationships between polymer rates and plant biomass, macronutrient uptake were noticed, regardless substrate or nutrient source.O polímero agrícola tem um grande potencial de uso como condicionador de solo para produção de mudas. Contudo, pouco conhecimento existe sobre seu uso e interação com fertilizantes.Visando avaliar o efeito do polímero com diferentes fontes de abubações nitrogenadas e potássicas, no crescimento e nutrição do crisântemo (var. "Virginal" e características químicas dos substratos, um experimento foi montado. A instalação foi em casa de vegetação da Empresa CONSPIZZA HIDROSSEMEADURA Ltda., situada no município de Colombo-PR, no verão de 2001. Dois substratos foram testados: 1 composto de 50% de solo orgânico, 45% de areia e 5% de fumo compostado; 2 camada superficial (0-20cm de um LATOSSOLO VERMELHO Distrófico típico, do município de Ponta Grossa. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos ao acaso, com 5 repetições, em esquema fatorial 4x2x2, sendo 4 doses de polímero (0; 1; 2 e 4g kg-1 de substrato, 2 fontes nitrogenadas [(NH42SO4 e (H2N2CO] e duas fontes potássicas (KCl e K2SO4, respectivamente. Determinou-se massa seca de ramos, folhas e teores de K, Ca e Mg. Os substratos foram avaliados quanto aos teores de K

  7. Determination of Residues of Heavy Metal and Organochlorine Pesticides in Eight Famous Herbal Drugs in Zhejiang%“浙八味”药材重金属和有机氯农药残留分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄卫平; 唐红芳; 金锋; 阮征; 谭玉凤

    2013-01-01

    目的:对“浙八味”药材中9种有机氯农药残留量和铅(Pb)、镉(Cd)、铜(Cu)含量进行测定与分析,为其质量控制和安全用药提供可靠的依据.方法:农残分析以混合溶剂超声提取、浓硫酸磺化净化样品,HP-5弹性石英毛细管柱程序升温分离,微电子捕获检测器检测,峰面积外标法定量.重金属分析用灰化法处理样品,火焰原子吸收分光光度法进行测定.结果:延胡索、麦冬和杭白菊检出滴滴涕,含量分别为0.439、45.017及5.434 ng·g-1,杭白菊检出五氯硝基苯,含量为1.030 ng·g-1.其余药材均未检出有机氯农药残留.8种药材中铅的含量范围为.0.8281 ~ 1.7473 mg·kg-1,镉的含量范围为0.1169 ~0.2950 mg·kg-1,铜的含量范围为2.5195~8.2864mg·kg-1.结论:“浙八味”药材大部分未检出有机氯农药残留或含量较低,均在《药用植物及制剂进出口绿色行业标准》所规定的安全范围内.8种药材均检出一定量的有害重金属,但含量较低,符合《药用植物及制剂进出口绿色行业标准》的有关规定.%Objective: The content of nine kinds of organochlorine pesticides and lead (Pb ) , cadmium ( Cd ) and copper (Cu)in eight famous herbal drugs in Zhejiang were determined. The analysis would supply the reference for the quality control and the safety. Method:Organochlorine pesticides:the samples were traded with mixed solvent,then extracted by ultrasonic device and purified with sulfuric acid. Separtion was accomplished with heated HP - 5 fused - silica capillary column with micro -electron capture detector. The external standard was used. Heavy metal:samples were digested with dry ash method and the Pb,Cd and Cu were determined by Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry. Results: dichlo-rodiphenyl trichloroethane(DDT)was detected of Corydalis yanhusuo W. T. Wang, Ophiopogon japonicus( Thunb. ) Ker-Gawl. and Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat. The contents of DDT were 0.439ng · g-1

  8. DEVELOPMENT OF METHOD OF QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS OF BIRD CHERRY FRUIT FOR INCLUSION IN THE MONOGRAPH OF STATE PHARMACOPOEIA OF UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenchyk L.V.

    2016-06-01

    glass-backed silica gel F254Merck plates, size 20x10 cm. Test solutions from samples of dried raw material were prepared by extraction of 1% solution of hydrochloric acid in 95% ethanol with ultrasound for 60 minutes at 50º C. As mobile phase solvent mixture ethyl acetate - anhydrous acetic acid - formic acid - water ratio (100: 10: 10: 25 was selected. For preparation the reference solution 1 mg chrysanthemin was dissolved in 10 mL of 1% solution of hydrochloric acid in 95% ethanol. Fresh bird cherry fruits test solutions of the samples were crushed to mash (free of seeds, 10 mL of methanol was added and treated with ultrasound for 15 minutes. As mobile phase solvent mixture formic acid anhydrous-water-butanol ratio (16:19:65 was selected. Two reference solutions were used. First was prepared from 2 mg chrysanthemum dissolved in 5 mL of methanol and second was Pharmacopoeial Reference Standard SPU of bird cherry extract dissolved in 0.2 mL of methanol with ultrasound bath. Test solutions and the reference solutions were placed onto the chromatographic plates and placed into the chamber. When the chromatograms developed, the plates were taken out, then observed the spots in daylight. Results and discussion. In the chromatogram it was observed for all dry bird cherry fruits samples two pink-red color zones, one of which coincided for Rf and color of chrysanthemin, and the other one was slightly lower. The chromatogram for all samples of fresh raw material showed two pinkish-violet zones, one of which had Rf and color corresponded chrysanthemin, and the second one was slightly lower. Compared with bird cherry extract, it was observed two pinkish-violet zones, coincided with Rf and color of bird cherry (SPU extract zones. In accordance with the requirements of Ph. Eur. identification by TLC is obligatory. Division of anthocyanins of plant raw materials was observed sufficiently in our chosen solvent systems and methods of analysis that allows to recommend these systems

  9. 太行菊不同器官中绿原酸和4种黄酮类物质含量研究%Determination of Chlorogenic acid and Four flavonoids in Different Organs of Opisthopappus taihangensis (Ling) Shih

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘海芳; 魏东伟; 刘全军; 孙武勇; 叶永忠

    2013-01-01

    In this study,the content of chlorogenic acid,rutin,quercetin,luteolin and apigenin in Opisthopappus taihangensis (taihangensis) and Chrysanthemum indicum (indicum) were quantitatively determined by HPLC.ZORBAX Eclipse XDB-C18 column (4.6 × 150 mm,5 μm)was used for chromatographic separation with mobile phases consisted of methanol-0.01% phosphoric acid-water with gradient elution at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min.The detection wavelength was set at 254 nm and column temperature was 25 ℃.Moreover,the total phenolic content was determined by Folin-Ciocalteu method using gallic acid as the standard.The total flavonoid content was analyzed by aluminum nitrate colorimetric method using rutin as the standard.Using the above HPLC method,the linear relationship between peak area and concentration for chlorogenic acid,rutin,quercetin,luteolin and apigenin in the ranges of 5.94 ~ 178.2,4.36 ~ 130.8,8.96~ 268.8,4.08 ~ 122.4,and 2.98 ~ 25.33 mg/L was good,with the correlation coefficients(r) greater than 0.9993.The performance characteristics of precision,reproducibility,stability and recovery of the developed HPLC method fulfilled the analysis requirements.The total content of five compounds in leaves of taihangensis was higher than those in their flowers and stems,and also higher than the contents in corresponding organs of indicum.These results were consistent with the result of total flavonoids and polyphenols content analysis in taihangensis and indicum.Therefore,huge utilization potential was expected from the whole plant of taihangensis,especially their leaves and flowers.%为深入研究我国特有植物太行菊,采用高效液相色谱法(HPLC),以ZORBAX Eclipse XDB-C18 (4.6×150 mm,5μm)为分析柱,甲醇-0.01%磷酸水溶液梯度洗脱,流速1.0 mL/min,检测波长254 nm,柱温25℃;对太行菊和传统药用野菊不同器官的绿原酸、芦丁、槲皮素、木犀草素、芹菜素含量进行测定.此外,以芦丁为对照品,采用硝酸

  10. Discussion on Laws of Traditional Chinese Medical Treatment of H1N1 Influenza Based on Cohort Study%基于队列研究探讨中药复方治疗甲型H1N1流感用药规律

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周红; 陶兰亭; 徐慧聪; 江耀广; 邓屹琪; 罗翌; 卢传坚

    2011-01-01

    This article is aimed to disc