WorldWideScience

Sample records for chrysanthemum cinerariifolium

  1. Agrobacterium-mediated inoculation of chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum morifolium) plants with chrysanthemum stunt viroid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabeshima, Tomoyuki; Doi, Motoaki; Hosokawa, Munetaka

    2016-08-01

    Agroinfiltration was tested as a method of inoculation of chrysanthemum plants with chrysanthemum stunt viroid (CSVd). Binary vectors harboring dimeric CSVd sequences in sense and antisense orientations were constructed, and Agrobacterium transfected with these binary vectors was infiltrated into chrysanthemum leaves. Northern blotting and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that local infection was established within 7 days and systemic infection within 20 days. CSVd polarities showed no difference in infectivity. This study showed that agroinfiltration of chrysanthemum plants is an easy, rapid, and cost-effective method for CSVd inoculation. PMID:27155239

  2. Complete Genome Sequences of Chrysanthemum Stunt Viroid from a Single Chrysanthemum Cultivar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hoseong; Jo, Yeonhwa; Yoon, Ju-Yeon; Choi, Seung-Kook

    2015-01-01

    The chrysanthemum stunt viroid (CSVd), a member of the genus Pospiviroid with a single circular RNA genome, infects many chrysanthemum species. Here, we report 25 complete genome sequences of CSVd in a single chrysanthemum cultivar, revealing 20 variants. PMID:26251489

  3. Morphological and Biochemical Diversity of Dalmatian Pyrethrum (Tanacetum cinerariifolium (Trevir. Sch. Bip.

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    Martina Grdiša

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Dalmatian pyrethrum (Tanacetum cinerariifolium /Trevir./ Sch. Bip. is a perennial herbaceous plant belonging to the Asteraceae family. It is endemic to the East coast of the Adriatic Sea and its natural habitat extends from Italy to northern Albania and up in the mountainous regions of Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina and Montenegro. Pyrethrum flowers yield an important insecticide, the pyrethrin. Pyrethrin is mainly concentrated in oil glands on the surface of the seed inside the tightly packed flower head, but they can also be found in the other plant parts, however in much lower concentrations. The pyrethrin exist as a combination of six insecticide active ingredients: pyrethrin I, cinerin I, jasmolin I, pyrethrin II, cinerin II and jasmolin II, with pyrethrin I and pyrethrin II present in higher concentrations. Pyrethrin is non-toxic to mammals and other worm-blooded animals, it is unstable in light, oxygen, water and at elevated temperatures and therefore highly biodegradable. Due to the fact it is environmentally safe it is leading insecticide in organic farming systems. The most scientific work concerning Dalmatian pyrethrum was focused on its morphological and biochemical traits that are relevant in breeding. Breeding programmes are primarily focused on increasing the yield of pyrethrin per unit area. Relative to dry flower weight, flower heads contain the majority of the pyrethrin. Croatian wild populations contain approximately 0.60 to 0.79 %, while clones in breeding programmes of Australia and Kenya contain up to 3.0 % of pyrethrin.

  4. A Current Overview of Two Viroids That Infect Chrysanthemums: Chrysanthemum stunt viroid and Chrysanthemum chlorotic mottle viroid

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    Won Kyong Cho

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The chrysanthemum (Dendranthema X grandiflorum belongs to the family Asteraceae and it is one of the most popular flowers in the world. Viroids are the smallest known plant pathogens. They consist of a circular, single-stranded RNA, which does not encode a protein. Chrysanthemums are a common host for two different viroids, the Chrysanthemum stunt viroid (CSVd and the Chrysanthemum chlorotic mottle viroid (CChMVd. These viroids are quite different from each other in structure and function. Here, we reviewed research associated with CSVd and CChMVd that covered disease symptoms, identification, host range, nucleotide sequences, phylogenetic relationships, structures, replication mechanisms, symptom determinants, detection methods, viroid elimination, and development of viroid resistant chrysanthemums, among other studies. We propose that the chrysanthemum and these two viroids represent convenient genetic resources for host–viroid interaction studies.

  5. 'Chrysanthemum petal' arrangements of silver nano wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Hui-Wang; Jiu, Jin-Ting; Sugahara, Tohru; Nagao, Shijo; Suganuma, Katsuaki; Uchida, Hiroshi

    2014-12-01

    Highly ordered 'Chrysanthemum petal' arrangements of silver nano wires were fabricated in a biodegradable polymer of polyvinyl alcohol using a simple one-step blending method without any template. The degree of the arrangement increased with the decreasing content of polyvinyl alcohol. The mechanism for the formation of these 'Chrysanthemum petal' arrangements was discussed specifically. These 'Chrysanthemum petal' arrangements will be helpful to increase the electrical conductivity of silver nano wires films. PMID:25397618

  6. Chrysanthemum biotechnology: discoveries from the recent literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teixeira da Silva Jaime A.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The in vitro propagation of chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum × grandiflorum (Ramat. Kitam., one of the world’s most important ornamentals, is a very well-studied topic and shows numerous strides each year. This mini-review condenses the knowledge that has been published on chrysanthemum biotechnology, especially in vitro culture in the wider plant science literature. In 2013 and 2014, important strides were made in molecular breeding, particularly anti-viral strategies, including through transgenics, and our understanding of flower genetics and flowering regulation.

  7. Identification and Quality Assessment of Chrysanthemum Buds by CE Fingerprinting

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    Xiaoping Xing

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple and efficient fingerprinting method for chrysanthemum buds was developed with the aim of establishing a quality control protocol based on biochemical makeup. Chrysanthemum bud samples were successively extracted by water and alcohol. The fingerprints of the chrysanthemum buds samples were obtained using capillary electrophoresis and electrochemical detection (CE-ED employing copper and carbon working electrodes to capture all of the chemical information. 10 batches of chrysanthemum buds were collected from different regions and various factories to establish the baseline fingerprint. The experimental data of 10 batches electropherogram buds by CE were analyzed by correlation coefficient and the included angle cosine methods. A standard chrysanthemum bud fingerprint including 24 common peaks was established, 12 from each electrode, which was successfully applied to identify and distinguish between chrysanthemum buds from 2 other chrysanthemum species. These results demonstrate that fingerprint analysis can be used as an important criterion for chrysanthemum buds quality control.

  8. A Novel bHLH Transcription Factor Involved in Regulating Anthocyanin Biosynthesis in Chrysanthemums (Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat.)

    OpenAIRE

    Li-li Xiang; Xiao-fen Liu; Xue Li; Xue-ren Yin; Donald Grierson; Fang Li; Kun-song Chen

    2015-01-01

    Chrysanthemums (Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat.) exhibit a variety of flower colors due to their differing abilities to accumulate anthocyanins. One MYB member, CmMYB6, has been verified as a transcription regulator of chrysanthemum genes involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis; however, the co-regulators for CmMYB6 remain unclear in chrysanthemum. Here, the expression pattern of CmbHLH2, which is clustered in the IIIf bHLH subgroup, was shown to be positively correlated with the anthocyanin con...

  9. Accumulation of Pathogenesis-related Type-5 Like Proteins in Phytoplasma infected Garland Chrysanthemum Chrysanthemum coronarium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bo-Xiong ZHONG; Yan-Wei SHEN

    2004-01-01

    Soluble proteins extracted from leaves, apical shoots, axillary shoots, and stems of garland chrysanthemum plants infected by onion yellows phytoplasma were analyzed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Computerized matching analysis revealed that at least six soluble proteins were accumulated specifically in phytoplasma-infected garland chrysanthemum. N-terminal amino acids sequences of these soluble proteins, determined by Edman degradation, shared high sequence similarities with those ofpathogenesis-related type-5 (PR-5) proteins such as tobacco thaumatin-like protein. Accumulation of these six proteins was also found in garland chrysanthemum plants infected by other phytoplasmas. These results demonstrate that phytoplasmal infection induces the accumulation of PR-5 like proteins in garland chrysanthemum plants.

  10. Two New Flavonoid Glycosides from Chrysanthemum morifolium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian ZHANG; An Wei DING; You Bin LI; Da Wei QIAN; Jin Ao DUAN; Zhi Qi YIN

    2006-01-01

    Two new flavonoid glycosides were isolated from the flowering heads of Chrysanthemum morifolium. Their structures were determined to be luteolin 4'-methoxy-7- O-(6"-O-acetyl)-β-D-glucopyranoside (1) and acacetin 7-O-(3"-O-acetyl)-β-D-glucopyranoside (2) by means of 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopic analysis, including 2D NMR technique.

  11. In vitro mutagenesis of chrysanthemum for breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A protocol of in vitro mutagenesis for chrysanthemum was established. The 50% lethal dose (LD50) is about 5.0 kR for calli irradiation. Various growth, developmental, morphological, colour and abnormal shape mutations were identified in M1V4 generation. (author)

  12. Chrysanthemum petal’ arrangements of silver nano wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highly ordered ‘Chrysanthemum petal’ arrangements of silver nano wires were fabricated in a biodegradable polymer of polyvinyl alcohol using a simple one-step blending method without any template. The degree of the arrangement increased with the decreasing content of polyvinyl alcohol. The mechanism for the formation of these ‘Chrysanthemum petal’ arrangements was discussed specifically. These ‘Chrysanthemum petal’ arrangements will be helpful to increase the electrical conductivity of silver nano wires films. (paper)

  13. Chrysanthemum stunt viroid disturbs the photoperiodic response for flowering of chrysanthemum plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosokawa, Munetaka; Ueda, Emi; Ohishi, Kazushi; Otake, Ayaka; Yazawa, Susumu

    2004-11-01

    Chrysanthemum ( Dendranthema grandiflorum Kitam.) is one of the qualitative short-day flowering plants. Therefore, the flowering of chrysanthemum can usually be controlled by photoperiod. However, it was noted that 'Piato' plants infected by the chrysanthemum stunt viroid (CSVd) flowered autonomously even under long-day conditions. In this study, CSVd-free and CSVd-infected plants were prepared by culturing different-sized dissected shoot apical meristems (SAMs) of 'Piato'. Using these CSVd-free and CSVd-infected plants, we clarified the relationship between CSVd infection and the autonomous flowering of 'Piato'. Under natural short-day conditions, the flowering of plants regenerated from SAMs containing leaf primordia (LPs) was 1 month earlier than plants regenerated from LP-free SAMs. CSVd was detected from these early flowering plants by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. On the other hand, CSVd was not detected in plants regenerated from LP-free SAMs. CSVd-infected and CSVd-free plants were grown under long-day conditions simulated by night-break lighting at 22:00 p.m. to 2:00 a.m. All CSVd-infected plants flowered autonomously even under long-day conditions; on the other hand, CSVd-free chrysanthemum plants maintained their vegetative growth. When the CSVd-free plants were inoculated with CSVd by grafting them to CSVd-infected rootstocks, they flowered autonomously even under night-break lighting. In this study, the results suggest that CSVd may control the qualitative development process, flowering, i.e. CSVd can induce the autonomous flowering of chrysanthemum. PMID:15549375

  14. THE EFFECTS OF TRADE UNCERTAINTY ON CHRYSANTHEMUM TRADE

    OpenAIRE

    Tsai, Hsin-Yeh; Woo, Rhung-Jieh

    2003-01-01

    The study analyzed the effects of trade uncertainty on chrysanthemum trade between Taiwan and Japan. An econometric model comprises trade uncertainty was established and policy simulations were performed to evaluate the impacts of reducing trade uncertainty.

  15. Genetic diversity, population structure and association analysis in cut chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pirui; Zhang, Fei; Chen, Sumei; Jiang, Jiafu; Wang, Haibin; Su, Jiangshuo; Fang, Weimin; Guan, Zhiyong; Chen, Fadi

    2016-06-01

    Characterizing the genetic diversity present in a working set of plant germplasm can contribute to its effective management and genetic improvement. The cut flower chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat.) is an economically important ornamental species. With the repeated germplasm exchange and intensive breeding activities, it remains a major task in genetic research. The purpose of the present study was to characterize the genetic diversity and the population structure of a worldwide collection of 159 varieties, and to apply an association mapping approach to identify DNA-based markers linked to five plant architecture traits and six inflorescence traits. The genotyping demonstrated that there was no lack of genetic diversity in the collection and that pair-wise kinship values were relatively low. The clustering based on a Bayesian model of population structure did not reflect known variation in either provenance or inflorescence type. A principal coordinate analysis was, however, able to discriminate most of the varieties according to both of these criteria. About 1 in 100 marker pairs exhibited a degree of linkage disequilibrium. The association analysis identified a number of markers putatively linked to one or more of the traits. Some of these associations were robust over two seasons. The findings provide an in-depth understanding of genetic diversity and population structure present in cut flower chrysanthemum varieties, and an insight into the genetic control of plant architecture and inflorescence-related traits. PMID:26780102

  16. Three-dimensional fluorescence characteristics of white chrysanthemum flowers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yunchang; Li, Yang; Cai, Hongxin; Li, Jing; Miao, Juan; Fu, Dexue; Su, Kun

    2014-09-01

    White chrysanthemum flower is one of the most popular plants found everywhere in China and used as herbs. In the present work, three-dimensional fluorescence technique was used to discriminate species of white chrysanthemum flowers. Parameters affecting extraction efficiency were investigated. Under the optimal conditions, the three-dimensional fluorescence characteristics of three types of white chrysanthemum flowers were obtained. It was found that there were two main fluorescence peaks with remarkable difference in fluorescence intensity, one was corresponding to flavonoids and another was attributed to chlorophyll-like compounds. There were remarkable differences among the contours of the three white chrysanthemum flowers. Further studies showed that the fluorescence intensity ratios of chlorophyll-like compounds to flavonoids had a certain relationship with the species; those for Huai, Hang and Huangshan white chrysanthemum flowers were 6.9-7.4, 18.9-21.4 and 73.6-84.5, respectively. All of the results suggest that three-dimensional fluorescence spectra can be used for the discrimination of white chrysanthemum flowers with the advantages of low cost, ease for operation and intuition.

  17. 以菊展促文化推进春节菊花市场发展%Culture and market promotion by Chrysanthemum Exhibition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭超超; 戴思兰

    2009-01-01

    Chrysanthemum exhibition is one of the most important ways of chrysanthemum demonstration, which may promote industrial production and culture dissemination, and is also a way to direct the chrysanthemum production toward the market. Based on the introduction of chrysanthemum exhibition and chrysanthemum culture,including chrysanthemum market survey in the Spring Festival, the authors proposed that Chrysanthemum Exhibition in Spring Festival can open a new market for extended use of chrysanthemum.Techniques to control the flowering of chrysanthemum were described in the paper.

  18. Study of Development Potential Chrysanthemum in Buleleng Regency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Gusti Made Arjana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the potential of agro-climate, technology of cultivation, harvest and post-harvest chrysanthemums. This study uses survey method, through the collection of primary data and secondary data. This research is located in the village of Pancasari, District Sukasada, Buleleng Bali Province. Descriptive survey conducted on 40 respondents chrysanthemum growers using the component identification of determinants of commodity production chrysanthemum include: site selection, infrastructure, crop production processes and post-harvest handling. The survey results showed that 100% of the farmers have chosen a suitable location with agro-climatic conditions required by the chrysanthemum plant, and 86.09% of the farmers have been using the means needed to support the process of crop production. In the process of production of 78% in accordance with the operational procedures. At the stage of harvest and post-harvest handling 80% have been implemented by farmers and some still use conventional methods of handling. Thus Pancasari village has a potential location for the cultivation of chrysanthemum as a mainstay commodity.

  19. Protection of Geographical Indication and Intangible Cultural Heritage of the Chrysanthemum Resources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zai; HU; Zhiguo; SUN; Wanzhen; XIONG; Limin; HUANG; Shuting; WANG

    2013-01-01

    We conduct an analysis on the current protection of geographical indication intellectual property and intangible cultural heritage of chrysanthemum resources. The following recommendations are explored and set forth: ( i) Collecting and sorting the intangible cultural heritage related to chrysanthemum,and declaring the provincial and national list; ( ii) Establishing the productive protection demonstration bases of intangible cultural heritage related to chrysanthemum; ( iii) Strengthening the declaration of geographical indication intellectual property protection of chrysanthemum; ( iv) Encouraging the use of special marks of geographical indication,and cultivating chrysanthemum brand; ( v) Establishing various kinds of national quality standards of geographical indication of chrysanthemum; ( vi) Implementing the double protection of intangible cultural heritage and geographical indication of traditional chrysanthemum.

  20. Clonal fidelity of chrysanthemum regenerated from long term cultures

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    Jevremović Slađana

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Morphological characteristics of flowers of long term regenerated chrysanthemum, cv. "White Spider", after ten years of micropropagation are investigated. Shoot cultures are established and maintained more than ten years by stem segment culture on MS medium supplemented with BAP and NAA (1.0, 0.1 mgL-1, respectively. Rooting of shoots (100 % has done on MS medium without hormones and it was very successful after ten years, as well as, after two or eight years of micropropagation. Acclimation of rooted chrysanthemum plantlets at greenhouse conditions was excellent and after appropriate photoperiod "in vitro" plants flowered 90.3 % and have the same flower color, shape and size as mother plants. Flower color changes of "in vitro" plants are observed during another flowering cycle one year after acclimatization. Observed variations of chrysanthemum flowers could be attributed to epigenetic factors.

  1. Study on the technique of inducing mutation breeding in chrysanthemum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Technique of mutation breeding in chrysanthemum was studied by means of 60Co-γ irradiation and tissue culture. The results showed that radiosensitivity varies greatly with different varieties of chrysanthemum; the suitable doses are 2∼3 krad for radical buds, cutting boughs and the whole plants, and 0.8∼1.0 krad for callus from cultures in vitro. Tissue culture has an advantage over cottage in isolation of mutant mosaics. Mutation rates of flowers of regenerated plants from in vitro culture of VM0, VM1, VM2 are 66.7%, 56.3% and 38.5% respectively, all of which are higher than that from irradiated plants. Practice of breeding 14 new chrysanthemum varieties proved that by combination technique of irradiation with tissue culture, a higher breeding efficiency and shorter period of breeding was achieved

  2. „IN VITRO” MULTIPLICATION OF CHRYSANTHEMUM MORIFOLIUM RAMAT.

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    SMARANDA VÂNTU

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The tissue-cultured shoot primordia have distinct characteristics of high stability of chromosome number, high ability of regeneration and rapid proliferation. Rapid propagation of Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat. “Prince de Monaco” and “Romica” was achieved through tissue culture technique. The procedure involved aseptic culture of shoot tips followed by rapid shoot multiplication, rooting and finally establishment of plantlets in soil. The agar solidified MS medium containing 2 mg/l BAP and 0,002 mg/l NAA was optimum for rapid mass production of plantlets. These can be rooted on MS medium in the absence of growth regulators. The indirect micropropagation of Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat. was achieved through callus cultures obtained from single-node stem segments excised from other two cultivars of Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat.: “Escorte” and “La Cagouille”, belonging to the collection of Botanical Garden from Iasi.

  3. An analysis of mind style in the short fiction Chrysanthemums

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵海燕

    2015-01-01

    The paper selected John Steinbeck's short fiction The Chrysanthemums and focused on the analysis of Steinbeck and Elisa' mind style.It is hoped that the present research will provide a new perspective for reader s and critics in appreciating and analyzing characters in shortfiction.

  4. An analysis of mind style in the short fiction Chrysanthemums

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵海燕

    2015-01-01

    The paper selected John Steinbeck’s short fiction The Chrysanthemums and focused on the analysis of Steinbeck and Elisa’ mind style.It is hoped that the present research will provide a new perspective for reader s and critics in appreciating and analyzing characters in short fiction.

  5. Systems design methodology to develop chrysanthemum growing systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blok, C.; Vermeulen, T.

    2012-01-01

    When chrysanthemum growers change soil for a soilless growing system they aim for labour cost reduction, quality and yield improvement and reduced emissions of nutrients. Because many attempts to come up with a viable soilless system failed, improvements and systemizations of the design process were

  6. Transcriptome sequencing and whole genome expression profiling of chrysanthemum under dehydration stress

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Yanjie; Gao, Shan; Yang, Yingjie; Huang, Mingyun; Cheng, Lina; Wei, Qian; Fei, Zhangjun; Gao, Junping; Hong, Bo

    2013-01-01

    Background Chrysanthemum is one of the most important ornamental crops in the world and drought stress seriously limits its production and distribution. In order to generate a functional genomics resource and obtain a deeper understanding of the molecular mechanisms regarding chrysanthemum responses to dehydration stress, we performed large-scale transcriptome sequencing of chrysanthemum plants under dehydration stress using the Illumina sequencing technology. Results Two cDNA libraries const...

  7. An isoform of eukaryotic initiation factor 4E from Chrysanthemum morifolium interacts with Chrysanthemum virus B coat protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiping Song

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E (eIF4E plays an important role in plant virus infection as well as the regulation of gene translation. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we describe the isolation of a cDNA encoding CmeIF(iso4E (GenBank accession no. JQ904592, an isoform of eIF4E from chrysanthemum, using RACE PCR. We used the CmeIF(iso4E cDNA for expression profiling and to analyze the interaction between CmeIF(iso4E and the Chrysanthemum virus B coat protein (CVBCP. Multiple sequence alignment and phylogenetic tree analysis showed that the sequence similarity of CmeIF(iso4E with other reported plant eIF(iso4E sequences varied between 69.12% and 89.18%, indicating that CmeIF(iso4E belongs to the eIF(iso4E subfamily of the eIF4E family. CmeIF(iso4E was present in all chrysanthemum organs, but was particularly abundant in the roots and flowers. Confocal microscopy showed that a transiently transfected CmeIF(iso4E-GFP fusion protein distributed throughout the whole cell in onion epidermis cells. A yeast two hybrid assay showed CVBCP interacted with CmeIF(iso4E but not with CmeIF4E. BiFC assay further demonstrated the interaction between CmeIF(iso4E and CVBCP. Luminescence assay showed that CVBCP increased the RLU of Luc-CVB, suggesting CVBCP might participate in the translation of viral proteins. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results inferred that CmeIF(iso4E as the cap-binding subunit eIF(iso4F may be involved in Chrysanthemum Virus B infection in chrysanthemum through its interaction with CVBCP in spatial.

  8. Chrysanthemum-like bismuth sulfide microcrystals: Synthesis, characterization, and properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jinghui; Gao, Guanhua; Yu, Runnan; Qiu, Guanzhou; Liu, Xiaohe

    2011-02-01

    Uniform chrysanthemum-like bismuth sulfide (Bi 2S 3) microcrystals assembled from nanosheet building blocks were successfully synthesized via a convenient hydrothermal synthetic route under mild conditions in which hydrated bismuth nitrate and L-cysteine were employed to supply Bi and S source and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid disodium salt (EDTA-Na 2) was employed as chelating agent. The influences of reaction temperatures and time on the morphologies of final products were investigated. The phase structures, morphologies, and properties of as-prepared products were investigated by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscope, and photoluminescence spectra. The possible growth mechanism for the formation of chrysanthemum-like Bi 2S 3 microcrystals was discussed on the basis of the experimental results.

  9. Customer Acceptance Survey On Chrysanthemum Mutant Developed By Nuclear Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chrysanthemum morifolium is an important temperate cut flower for Malaysian floriculture industry and the lack of new local-owned varieties has led to this mutation breeding research. The project was started in 2008 under bilateral cooperation between Nuclear Malaysia and JAEA (Japan Atomic Energy Agency). Through this project, 8 new varieties of chrysanthemum were successfully developed, in which 4 varieties were from red cultivar and another 4 from pink cultivar. A preliminary survey on public perception and acceptance of these mutants was conducted on 7 January 2014 at Agrotechnology and Biosciences Division, Malaysian Nuclear Agency. The main objective of this survey was to gather information from the public on overall appearance of these new varieties and their potential for commercialization. Approximately 60 participants were involved in this survey, which include staff of Nuclear Malaysia, university students, plant growers/collectors and hobbyists. (author)

  10. Interaction between greenhouse grown chrysanthemum and Frankliniella occidentalis

    OpenAIRE

    Nothnagl, Margit

    2006-01-01

    Growers of floricultural crops are still dependent on chemical insecticides because of low consumer tolerance to damaged produce. More knowledge of natural interactions between insects and their host plants would allow insect pests to be controlled in a more environmentally friendly and effective way. This thesis analysed the system of biological interaction between the pest Frankliniella occidentalis (Western Flower Thrips) and its host plant Chrysanthemum x morifolium. Mathematical predicti...

  11. Analysis of karyotype diversity of 40 Chinese chrysanthemum cultivars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan ZHANG; Ming-Li ZHU; Si-Lan DAI

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the genetic differences in Chinese large-flowered chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum×morifolium Ramat.) cultivars,we selected 40 typical and stable cultivars on which to carry out cytological studies using karyotype analysis.The results showed that 67.5% of these cultivars were hexaploid-based aneuploid and that the proportion of hexaploid decreased with passing time.Moreover,35% of the cultivars had 1-4 satellite chromosome(s).The probability of satellite chromosomes rose with increasing chromosome number.Most of the karyotypes were 2A and 2B.The probability of types 2A and 2C also increased with increasing ploidy of the cultivars.The mean of long-/short-arm ratio and the variation of long-/short-ann ratio were positively correlated (r2 =0.72).There was no obvious difference in the asymmetry coefficient of karyotypes,but the discrepancy in the variance of karyotype asymmetry index and relative length of chromosomes was quite distinct.In terms ofkaryotype parameters,the petal types of chrysanthemums were classified to five groups as flat,tubular,spoon,abnormal,and anemone.We did not observe any obvious orderliness among flower head types.Considering the relationship between karyotype parameters and phenotypic characters,variation of long-/short-arm ratio and asymmetry coefficient ofkaryotypes had the greatest relevance toward most phenotypic characters.The above results indicate that karyotype parameters possess great values for cultivar identification,classification,and genetic analysis in chrysanthemums.

  12. On Walter ’s Otherness in Odour of Chrysanthemums

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李嵩皎

    2015-01-01

    Odour of Chrysanthemums is one of the British writer D. H. Lawrence’s short stories. In the story, character’s understanding of each other reflects the idea of otherness. This paper tries to analyze both Walter’s mother and Elizabeth’s understanding of Walter Bates. Then it points out that they did not really understand him, nor did they understand his otherness. Their failure to understand his otherness is a reason to the unhappy marriage to some extent.

  13. The aspects regarding Chrysanthemum vitro- and exvitroplantlets anatomical structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana PETRUS-VANCEA

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was consecrate to observe the histoanatomical structure of roots stems and leafs of Chrysanthemum vitroplantlets, in their vitroculture period and of exvitroplantlets, at 30 days from their septic medium transfer. The registered observations were compared with those realized at similar organs level of greenhouse plants (control lot. The noted differences between vitroplantlets anatomical structure and that greenhouse plants had, in special, ontogenetic bases.

  14. „IN VITRO” MULTIPLICATION OF CHRYSANTHEMUM MORIFOLIUM RAMAT.

    OpenAIRE

    SMARANDA VÂNTU

    2005-01-01

    The tissue-cultured shoot primordia have distinct characteristics of high stability of chromosome number, high ability of regeneration and rapid proliferation. Rapid propagation of Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat. “Prince de Monaco” and “Romica” was achieved through tissue culture technique. The procedure involved aseptic culture of shoot tips followed by rapid shoot multiplication, rooting and finally establishment of plantlets in soil. The agar solidified MS medium containing 2 mg/l BAP and ...

  15. Development Of New Chrysanthemum Mutants For Malaysian Floriculture Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This five-year project was in collaboration with Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) under the Bilateral Cooperative Research Program and was partly funded by Ministry of Agriculture and Agro-Based Industry (MOA) under Agriculture R&D Fund. The main objective was to produce new chrysanthemum varieties with good horticultural traits especially for cut flower production. In this project, tissue culture samples of chrysanthemum (red and pink varieties) were sent to JAEA for ion beam irradiations. Plant regeneration and multiplication were carried out at Nuclear Malaysia whilst field screenings for morphological characteristics were done at MARDI Cameron Highlands. Through this project, a number of stable chrysanthemum mutants with various new features have been generated and of these, 8 mutants were selected based on their uniqueness and/or suitability for cut flower production. In preparation for future commercialization process, five of these mutants have been filed for plant variety protection with Department of Agriculture Malaysia and a similar process in Japan is also under consideration. In addition, molecular marker work to fingerprint these mutants has also been initiated and future research may also include development of markers for selected horticultural traits and isolation of unique mutant genes. (author)

  16. Sporulation capacity and longevity of Puccinia horiana teliospores in infected chrysanthemum leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    PUCCINIA HORIANA is a quarantine-significant fungal pathogen and causal agent of Chrysanthemum white rust, first discovered in the U.S. in 1977. The disease was eradicated and for many years successfully controlled by fungicides and strict regulatory measures. However, recently Chrysanthemum white r...

  17. Fungi colonizing diseased plants of chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum x grandiflorum /Ramat./ Kitam grown under covers in Sandomierz region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Kopacki

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Chrysanthemum is one of the most important ornamental plants growing under covers in Poland but it is often infected by soil fungi. Investigations were carried out in 1999-2001 (summer and autumn in 9 horticultural farms in Sandomierz district. Plants with symptoms of stem and root rot, leaves yellows and wilt were noticed on the investigated plantations. The results of mycological analysis showed that chrysanthemum plants were colonized by Fusarium spp., Cylindrocarpon spp., Rhizoctonia spp., Sclerotinia spp. and Alternaria spp. Among isolated fungi Fusarium oxysporum, Fusarium avenaceum and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum were predominating pathogenic species. Cv. Snowdon was colonized by pathogens most frequently, while the population of pathogenic fungi from cv. Royalys was the lowest.

  18. Genetic engineering of novel bluer-colored chrysanthemums produced by accumulation of delphinidin-based anthocyanins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noda, Naonobu; Aida, Ryutaro; Kishimoto, Sanae; Ishiguro, Kanako; Fukuchi-Mizutani, Masako; Tanaka, Yoshikazu; Ohmiya, Akemi

    2013-10-01

    Chrysanthemums (Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat.) have no purple-, violet- or blue-flowered cultivars because they lack delphinidin-based anthocyanins. This deficiency is due to the absence of the flavonoid 3',5'-hydroxylase gene (F3'5'H), which encodes the key enzyme for delphinidin biosynthesis. In F3'5'H-transformed chrysanthemums, unpredictable and unstable expression levels have hampered successful production of delphinidin and reduced desired changes in flower color. With the aim of achieving delphinidin production in chrysanthemum petals, we found that anthocyanin biosynthetic gene promoters combined with a translational enhancer increased expression of some F3'5'H genes and accompanying delphinidin-based anthocyanin accumulation in transgenic chrysanthemums. Dramatic accumulation of delphinidin (up to 95%) was achieved by simple overexpression of Campanula F3'5'H controlled by a petal-specific flavanone 3-hydroxylase promoter from chrysanthemum combined with the 5'-untranslated region of the alcohol dehydrogenase gene as a translational enhancer. The flower colors of transgenic lines producing delphinidin-based anthocyanins changed from a red-purple to a purple-violet hue in the Royal Horticultural Society Colour Charts. This result represents a promising step toward molecular breeding of blue chrysanthemums. PMID:23926063

  19. Growth and Flowering Responses of Cut Chrysanthemum Grown under Restricted Root Volume to Irrigation Frequency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viyachai Taweesak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Influences of irrigation frequency on the growth and flowering of chrysanthemum grown under restricted root volume were tested. Chrysanthemum cuttings (Chrysanthemum morifolium “Reagan White” were grown in seedling tray which contained coconut peat in volumes of 73 and 140 cm3. Plants were irrigated with drip irrigation at irrigation frequencies of 4 (266 mL, 6 (400 mL, and 8 (533 mL times/day to observe their growth and flowering performances. There was interaction between irrigation frequency and substrate volume on plant height of chrysanthemum. Plants grown in 140 cm3 substrates and irrigated 6 times/day produced the tallest plant of 109.25 cm. Plants irrigated 6 and 8 times/day had significantly higher level of phosphorus content in their leaves than those plants irrigated 4 times/day. The total leaf area, number of internodes, leaf length, and leaf width of chrysanthemums grown in 140 cm3 substrate were significantly higher than those grown in 73 cm3 substrate. The numbers of flowers were affected by both irrigation frequencies and substrate volumes. Chrysanthemums irrigated 8 times/day had an average of 19.56 flowers while those irrigated 4 times/day had an average of 16.63 flowers. Increasing irrigation frequency can improve the growth and flowering of chrysanthemums in small substrate volumes.

  20. Exposure to pesticides : Pt. III Application to chrysanthemums in greenhouses

    OpenAIRE

    Vreede, J.A.F. de; Haan, M. de; Brouwer, D.H.; Hemmen, J.J. van; W.L.A.M. de Kort

    1994-01-01

    During 20 applications with a spray pistol of methomyl to chrysanthemums, inhalation exposure as well as potential and actual dermal exposure were monitored. Inhalation exposure during mixing, loading and application averaged 5.1 microgram/hour. Dermal exposure of the hands during mixing and loading, and application was 13.1 mg/hour, and 0.8 mg/hour respectively. The potential exposure of the remaining parts of the body was 1.7 mg/hour, showing exposure mainly of the front torso (23%) and the...

  1. The effect of gamma irradiation on the growth and flowering of stem chrysanthemum (chrysanthemum morifolium ramat.) cv. pink fiji

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rooted shoot cuttings have been irradiated by gamma rays with 0, 10, 15, 20 and 25 Gy doses, and then planted in green house on Gadog, Ciawi. Plant growth from each doses proved to be varied, both in height and flowering process. Plants with dose 15 Gy and higher had shown late flowering time and dwarfing. The optimal dose for chrysanthemum cv. Pink Fiji irradiation is suggested to be 10-15 Gy. The highest mutation frequency shown on flower color is yellow, followed by orange, white, dark pink and light pink. (author)

  2. Characterisation of Chrysanthemum morifolium cv. Reagan Red Mutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ion beam mutagenesis technology has been successfully used as a means to develop new plant varieties with novel traits. A research project through a bilateral cooperation program between Nuclear Malaysia and JAEA (Japan Atomic Energy Agency) was initiated to cater the need for new commercially potential chrysanthemum varieties for floriculture industry. Chrysanthemum morifolium cv. Reagan Red was irradiated with 320 MeV 12C6+ ion beam using TIARA AVF Cyclotron at Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Japan. A number of potential mutants were successfully obtained in the initial screenings of irradiated plant population at MARDI Cameron Highlands and Nuclear Malaysia's controlled glass house. Through subsequent screenings and propagations, 13 stable mutants were selected to undergo another field trial at MARDI Cameron Highlands. The objective was to morphologically characterize each mutant in accordance to Department of Agriculture Malaysia's standard test for distinctness, uniformity and stability (DUS). Details of these mutants are required prior to plant variety registration process. This paper explains all processes involved in screening, evaluation and morphological characterization of the mutants as well as the initial process taken in registering these new cultivars. (author)

  3. In vitro study of antioxidant activity and phenolic content of Chrysanthemum balsamita varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedec, Daniela; Filip, Lorena; Vlase, Laurian; Bele, Constantin; Sevastre, Bogdan; Raita, Oana; Olah, Neli-Kinga; Hanganu, Daniela

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of our study was to identify the phenolic substances of two varieties of Chrysanthemum balsamita (balsamita and tanacetoides) and to measure the overall antioxidant activity. The phenolic compounds were determined by HPLC. The evaluation of the polyphenolic content was performed by colorimetric analysis. The antioxidant activity was measured by three in vitro assay models: the DPPH, the silver nanoparticles antioxidant capacity (SNPAC) and EPR radical detection. Using HPLC-MS analysis, phenolic acids, flavonoids and flavonoid aglycone were detected. The highest antioxidant activity was showed by Chrysanthemum balsamita var. balsamita, while the lowest for the Chrysanthemum balsamita var. tanacetoides extract, in accord with the polyphenolic content. The results show that Chrysanthemum balsamita var. balsamita might be a source of antioxidant flavonoids, especially rutin and isoquercitrin. PMID:27592486

  4. Effect of Gamma Irradiation on Botrytis cinerea Causing Gray Mold and Cut Chrysanthemum Flowers

    OpenAIRE

    Eun-Hee Chu; Eun-Jung Shin; Hae-Jun Park; Rae-Dong Jeong

    2015-01-01

    Gray mold caused by Botrytis cinerea is one of the most important postharvest fungal pathogens of cut flowers. Here, gamma irradiation, an alternative for phytosanitary purposes, and sodium dichloroisocyanurate (NaDCC) were used to control B. cinerea in a cut chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat.) cultivar, ‘Baekma’, one of the cultivars susceptible to B. cinerea. Spore germination and mycelium growth of B. cinerea were inhibited by gamma irradiation in an inversely dose-dependent ma...

  5. Impedance measurement of gamma-irradiated chrysanthemum head

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electrical conductivity or impedance can be used to determine the changes occurred at membrane level of the plant tissues, during the senescence process or after a stress condition. Chrysanthemum cut inflorescences were irradiated with a single dose of 750 Gy in a Gammacell 220. The experiment was constituted by four groups: control, non-irradiated samples; irradiated samples; non-irradiated and 2% sucrose supplied samples, and irradiated and 2% sucrose supplied samples. The measurements were carried out during the flower vase-life with a Digital Spectral Analyzer. The radiation inhibited the development of the flowers, which could be avoided by the sucrose. An increase in the inflorescence head impendance was detected soon after the irradiation, indicating that the dose of 750 Gy caused changes at membrane level. (author). 8 refs., 1 fig

  6. Induction of somatic mutation in chrysanthemum cultivar 'Anupam'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rooted cuttings of chrysanthemum cv. 'Anupam' were irradiated with 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5 Krad of gamma rays. Significant reduction in survival, plant height, branch, leaf and flower head number and leaf size were recorded after irradiation. Radio sensitivity was determined on the basis of different cytomorphological parameters. Different types of morphological abnormalities in leaves and flower and chromosomal abnormalities during root tip mitosis were observed and the total abnormalities increased with increase in exposure to gamma rays. Significant delay in flower bud initiation, first colour showing and full bloom were recorded in the treated population. Somatic mutations in flower colour could be induced in vM1 as chimera and a total of three flower colour mutant, i.e., lighter, white and striped were isolated and established in pure form as new cultivars which are of direct use for floriculture industry. (author). 17 refs., 6 figs. , 2 tabs

  7. Karyomorphological Studies on Chinese Pot Chrysanthemum Cultivars with Large Inflorescences

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Chang; CHEN Su-mei; CHEN Fa-di; LI Zhen; FANG Wei-min

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we reported the karyotypes of 30 Chinese large flowered pot chrysanthemum cultivars, differing with respect to flower type, petal type, and flower colour. The interphase nuclei and prophase chromosomes of all the cultivars are, respectively, of the complex chromocentre and the interstitial type. Somatic chromosome number varies from 49 to 62, mostly falling in the range 51-56 or 58. Most of the cultivars are chromosomal mosaics, with three showing 2n=6x=54, and two 2n+1=6x+1=55. At mitotic metaphase, most of the chromosomes are of the metacentric or submetacentric type, with a small number of acrocentrics and telocentrics. B chromosome (s) are present in about 22% of the entireties. The asymmetry index of the chromosomes ranges between 61 and 66%. The karyotypes can be categorized as reversely symmetrical types "2A" or "2B".

  8. InIdentification and characterization of pathotypes in Puccinia horiana, a rust pathogen of Chrysanthemum x morifolium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Backer, de M.; Alaei, H.; Bockstaele, van E.; Roldan-Ruiz, I.; Lee, van der T.; Maes, M.; Heungens, K.

    2011-01-01

    Puccinia horiana is the causal agent of chrysanthemum white rust or Japanese rust. This microcyclic autoecious rust has a quarantine status and can cause major damage in the commercial production of Chrysanthemum x morifolium. Given the international and often trans-continental production of plantin

  9. The importance of apical domination and the size of foliar surface in the acclimatisation process of Chrysanthemum exvitroplantlets

    OpenAIRE

    Adriana PETRUS-VANCEA

    2006-01-01

    In this experiment it was studied the effects of apical domination and foliar surface in Chrysanthemum exvitroplantlets surviving to normal condition of life. I found that the survivor of Chrysanthemum exvitroplantlets has depended of harming rate at which they were exposed.

  10. The importance of apical domination and the size of foliar surface in the acclimatisation process of Chrysanthemum exvitroplantlets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana PETRUS-VANCEA

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available In this experiment it was studied the effects of apical domination and foliar surface in Chrysanthemum exvitroplantlets surviving to normal condition of life. I found that the survivor of Chrysanthemum exvitroplantlets has depended of harming rate at which they were exposed.

  11. Comparative Analysis of the Chrysanthemum Leaf Transcript Profiling in Response to Salt Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yin-Huan; Wang, Tong; Wang, Ke; Liang, Qian-Yu; Bai, Zhen-Yu; Liu, Qing-Lin; Pan, Yuan-Zhi; Jiang, Bei-Bei; Zhang, Lei

    2016-01-01

    Salt stress has some remarkable influence on chrysanthemum growth and productivity. To understand the molecular mechanisms associated with salt stress and identify genes of potential importance in cultivated chrysanthemum, we carried out transcriptome sequencing of chrysanthemum. Two cDNA libraries were generated from the control and salt-treated samples (Sample_0510_control and Sample_0510_treat) of leaves. By using the Illumina Solexa RNA sequencing technology, 94 million high quality sequencing reads and 161,522 unigenes were generated and then we annotated unigenes through comparing these sequences to diverse protein databases. A total of 126,646 differentially expressed transcripts (DETs) were identified in leaf. Plant hormones, amino acid metabolism, photosynthesis and secondary metabolism were all changed under salt stress after the complete list of GO term and KEGG enrichment analysis. The hormone biosynthesis changing and oxidative hurt decreasing appeared to be significantly related to salt tolerance of chrysanthemum. Important protein kinases and major transcription factor families involved in abiotic stress were differentially expressed, such as MAPKs, CDPKs, MYB, WRKY, AP2 and HD-zip. In general, these results can help us to confirm the molecular regulation mechanism and also provide us a comprehensive resource of chrysanthemum under salt stress. PMID:27447718

  12. Early field observations on the effect of gamma and ion beam irradiations on Chrysanthemum morifolium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Chrysanthemum is one of the main temperate cut flowers in Malaysian floriculture industry and also a good model for mutagenesis study in vegetatively propagated ornamental plants. Selection of desired mutants in vegetatively propagated plants must be made directly in the field especially for characteristics of plant morphology and flower colour. For chrysanthemum, greenhouse screenings need to be carried out to investigate the phenotypic changes of the plants after irradiation with physical mutagens. This paper discusses early effects of acute gamma and ion beam irradiations on the vegetative growth of in vitro irradiated chrysanthemum in both low and high lands. Data on the number of leaves, plant height and inter node length of the irradiated plants was recorded and statistically analysed. (author)

  13. Studies on flower pigments of chrysanthemum mutants: Nero and Wonder groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two groups of chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflora Tzvelev) representing the five cultivars were analysed to define their content of pigments in the inflorescence with the spectrophotometric method. It was observed that respective cultivars obtained as a result of the ionising radiation differed in their quality and quantity of flavonoids and carotenoids in the inflorescence as compared with original cultivars they originated from. Each of the chrysanthemum cultivars studied showed its own permanent repetitive profile of the occurrence of specific pigments, which gives a possibility of showing the distinctness of the cultivars analysed and their identification

  14. Air-borne contact dermatitis due to Chrysanthemum with true cross sensitivity to Parthenium hysterophorus and Xanthium strumarium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasricha J

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available A 60-year old man living in Srinagar (Jammu and Kashmir had air-borne contact dermatitis for last 10 years. He had never traveled to any other part of the country where Parthenium hysterophorus or Xanthium strumarium are prevalent but he used to cultivate chrysanthemums. Patch tests with standardized extracts of various plants revealed the strongest reaction with Chrysanthemum, while the reactions with Xanthium strumarium and Parthenium hysterophorus were also positive but milder. This seems to be a case of primary sensitivity to Chrysanthemum with cross sensitivity to Xanthium strumarium and Parthenium hysterophorus.

  15. Evidence for a wounding-induced xylem occlusion in stems of cut chrysanthemum flowers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doorn, van W.G.; Cruz, P.

    2000-01-01

    A temperature-dependent xylem occlusion was found in cut chrysanthemum stems (Dendranthema grandiflora, cv. Viking) which were placed for 24 h in air at 5oC prior to vase life evaluation. The response was inhibited by a 5-h treatment, prior to placement in air, with aqueous solutions at low initial

  16. Industrial Dehumanization——Viewed from the husband and wife relationship in "Odour of Chrysanthemums"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何苗

    2007-01-01

    Lawrence is regarded as one of most accomplished short story writers in twentieth century, with "Odour of Chrysanthemums" one of his early works. Through the death of a miner, the text shows how humanity was ruined by industrial civilization. This essay is intended to unveil the destructive force by analyzing the relationship between the husband and wife.

  17. Wounding-induced xylem occlusion in stems of cut chrysanthemum flowers : roles of peroxidase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doorn, van W.G.; Vaslier, N.

    2002-01-01

    A wounding-induced xylem occlusion, resulting in severe leaf wilting, occurs in stems of cut chrysanthemum flowers (Dendranthema grandiflora), cv. Vyking. The blockage develops after about 1 h in flowers held in air at 20 °C. It is initially located in the lowermost 2 cm of the stem and upon prolong

  18. Genotypic differences in metabolomic changes during storage induced-degreening of chrysanthemum disk florets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geest, van Geert; Choi, Young Hae; Arens, Paul; Post, Aike; Liu, Ying; Meeteren, van Uulke

    2016-01-01

    Selecting chrysanthemum cultivars with long storability and vase life is a major challenge for breeders. The rate of degreening of disk florets during the postharvest phase is an important determinant of vase life. There is large genotypic variation in susceptibility to disk floret degreening. Ou

  19. Identification of Floral Scent in Chrysanthemum Cultivars and Wild Relatives by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hainan Sun

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to identify the major volatile compounds and their relative concentrations in flowers of different chrysanthemum cultivars and their wild relatives. The volatile organic components of fresh flowers were analyzed using a headspace solid-phase microextraction coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. In total, 193 volatile organic components were detected; the major scent components were monoterpenoids and oxygenated monoterpenoids, which accounted for 68.59%–99.93% of the total volatiles in all tested materials except for Chrysanthemum indicum collected from Huangshan, in which they accounted for only 37.45% of total volatiles. The major volatile compounds were camphor, α-pinene, chrysanthenone, safranal, myrcene, eucalyptol, 2,4,5,6,7,7ab-hexahydro-1H-indene, verbenone, β-phellandrene and camphene. In a hierarchical cluster analysis, 39 accessions of Chrysanthemum and its relatives formed six clusters based on their floral volatile compounds. In a principal component analysis, only spider type flowers were located closely on the score plot. The results of this study provide a basis for breeding chrysanthemum cultivars which desirable floral scents.

  20. Effects of growth conditions on external quality of cut chrysanthemum; analysis and simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carvalho, S.M.P.

    2003-01-01

    For many years the emphasis in floricultural research laid with quantity rather than quality. Nowadays, since the prices are often determined on the basis of visual quality aspects, the so-called external quality, chrysanthemum growers aim to provide a high and constant product qualit

  1. Effect of Gamma Irradiation on Botrytis cinerea Causing Gray Mold and Cut Chrysanthemum Flowers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun-Hee Chu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Gray mold caused by Botrytis cinerea is one of the most important postharvest fungal pathogens of cut flowers. Here, gamma irradiation, an alternative for phytosanitary purposes, and sodium dichloroisocyanurate (NaDCC were used to control B. cinerea in a cut chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat. cultivar, ‘Baekma’, one of the cultivars susceptible to B. cinerea. Spore germination and mycelium growth of B. cinerea were inhibited by gamma irradiation in an inversely dose-dependent manner. A dose of 4 kGy completely inhibited the mycelium growth of B. cinerea. A significant change in flower quality (physical properties on chrysanthemum was shown from gamma irradiation at over 0.2 kGy (p<0.05. Therefore, in this study, the integration of gamma ray (below 0.2 kGy and NaDCC, an eco-friendly form of chlorine, was investigated to control the disease with low dose of gamma irradiation dose. Interestingly, the gamma irradiated flowers showed more disease severity than the non-irradiated flowers. The combined treatment of gamma irradiation and NaDCC does not affect the severity of the fungal disease, whereas only 70 ppm of NaDCC treatment showed a significantly reduced severity. These results suggest that only chlorination treatment can be applied to control B. cinerea in cut chrysanthemum flowers.

  2. Isolation, identification and activity of natural antioxidants from costmary (Chrysanthemum balsamita) cultivated in Lithuania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pukalskas, A.; Venskutonis, P.R.; Dijkgraaf, I.; Beek, van T.A.

    2010-01-01

    The sweet, minty-lemony leaves of costmary (Chrysanthemum balsamita) are used for salads and tea, and as flavourings in meats, sausages, cakes and ale. In this study, the extracts isolated from costmary aerial parts were investigated as antioxidants in rapeseed oil and as free radical-scavengers in

  3. Role of sink-source relationships in chrysanthemum flower size and total biomass production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carvalho, S.M.P.; Heuvelink, E.; Harbinson, J.; Kooten, van O.

    2006-01-01

    The present work was aimed at understanding and quantifying the effect of sink-source relationships on flower size, using chrysanthemum as a model system. Sink/source ratio was manipulated by flower bud removal (leaving one, two or four flowers, and a control), axillary shoot removal, and varying da

  4. Effect of colour of light on the opening of inflorescence buds and post-harvest longevity of pot chrysanthemums (Chrysanthemum × grandiflorum (Ramat. Kitam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Jerzy

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The pot cultivar of Chrysanthemum × grandiflorum 'Leticia Time Yellow' was cultivated and stored in a growth room under fluorescent light of white, blue, green, yellow and red colour. Quantum irradiance was 30 μmol · m-2 × s-1. The colour of light exerted a significant influence on the opening of closed inflorescence buds and on post-harvest longevity of pot chrysanthemums grown earlier in an unheated plastic tunnel. Under florescent lamps emitting blue light at a wavelength of 400-580 nm, inflorescence buds opened and coloured the earliest. The number of developed flower heads was the greatest under blue and white light. Flower heads developing in blue light were bigger than flower heads developing in white and green light. In red light at a wavelength of 600-700 nm, plants flowered latest and they produced the smallest flower heads. Post-harvest longevity was preserved longest in chrysanthemums kept under blue, white and green light. In red and yellow light, the flowers were overblown earliest.

  5. Violet/blue chrysanthemums--metabolic engineering of the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway results in novel petal colors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brugliera, Filippa; Tao, Guo-Qing; Tems, Ursula; Kalc, Gianna; Mouradova, Ekaterina; Price, Kym; Stevenson, Kim; Nakamura, Noriko; Stacey, Iolanda; Katsumoto, Yukihisa; Tanaka, Yoshikazu; Mason, John G

    2013-10-01

    Chrysanthemums (Chrysanthemum×morifolium Ramat.) are an important cut-flower and potted plant crop in the horticultural industry world wide. Chrysanthemums express the flavonoid 3'-hydroxylase (F3'H) gene and thus accumulate anthocyanins derived from cyanidin in their inflorescences which appear pink/red. Delphinidin-based anthocyanins are lacking due to the deficiency of a flavonoid 3', 5'-hydroxylase (F3'5'H), and so violet/blue chrysanthemum flower colors are not found. In this study, together with optimization of transgene expression and selection of the host cultivars and gene source, F3'5'H genes have been successfully utilized to produce transgenic bluish chrysanthemums that accumulate delphinidin-based anthocyanins. HPLC analysis and feeding experiments with a delphinidin precursor identified 16 cultivars of chrysanthemums out of 75 that were predicted to turn bluish upon delphinidin accumulation. A selection of eight cultivars were successfully transformed with F3'5'H genes under the control of different promoters. A pansy F3'5'H gene under the control of a chalcone synthase promoter fragment from rose resulted in the effective diversion of the anthocyanin pathway to produce delphinidin in transgenic chrysanthemum flower petals. The resultant petal color was bluish, with 40% of total anthocyanidins attributed to delphinidin. Increased delphinidin levels (up to 80%) were further achieved by hairpin RNA interference-mediated silencing of the endogenous F3'H gene. The resulting petal colors were novel bluish hues, not possible by hybridization breeding. This is the first report of the production of anthocyanins derived from delphinidin in chrysanthemum petals leading to novel flower color. PMID:23926066

  6. Air-borne contact dermatitis due to Chrysanthemum with true cross sensitivity to Parthenium hysterophorus and Xanthium strumarium

    OpenAIRE

    Pasricha J; Nandakishore Th

    1992-01-01

    A 60-year old man living in Srinagar (Jammu and Kashmir) had air-borne contact dermatitis for last 10 years. He had never traveled to any other part of the country where Parthenium hysterophorus or Xanthium strumarium are prevalent but he used to cultivate chrysanthemums. Patch tests with standardized extracts of various plants revealed the strongest reaction with Chrysanthemum, while the reactions with Xanthium strumarium and Parthenium hysterophorus were also positive but milder. This seems...

  7. Flower colour modification of chrysanthemum by suppression of F3'H and overexpression of the exogenous Senecio cruentus F3'5'H gene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang He

    Full Text Available Chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum × morifolium is one of the most important ornamental plants in the world. They are typically used as cut flowers or potted plants. Chrysanthemum can exhibit red, purple, pink, yellow and white flowers, but lack bright red and blue flowers. In this study, we identified two chrysanthemum cultivars, C × morifolium 'LPi' and C × morifolium 'LPu', that only accumulate flavonoids in their ligulate flowers. Next, we isolated seven anthocyanin biosynthesis genes, namely CmCHS, CmF3H, CmF3'H, CmDFR, CmANS, CmCHI and Cm3GT in these cultivars. RT-PCR and qRT-PCR analyses showed that CmF3'H was the most important enzyme required for cyanidin biosynthsis. To rebuild the delphinidin pathway, we downregulated CmF3'H using RNAi and overexpressed the Senecio cruentus F3'5'H (PCFH gene in chrysanthemum. The resultant chrysanthemum demonstrated a significantly increased content of cyanidin and brighter red flower petals but did not accumulate delphinidin. These results indicated that CmF3'H in chrysanthemum is important for anthocyanin accumulation, and Senecio cruentus F3'5'H only exhibited F3'H activity in chrysanthemum but did not rebuild the delphinidin pathway to form blue flower chrysanthemum.

  8. Flower colour modification of chrysanthemum by suppression of F3'H and overexpression of the exogenous Senecio cruentus F3'5'H gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Huang; Ke, Hu; Keting, Han; Qiaoyan, Xiang; Silan, Dai

    2013-01-01

    Chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum × morifolium) is one of the most important ornamental plants in the world. They are typically used as cut flowers or potted plants. Chrysanthemum can exhibit red, purple, pink, yellow and white flowers, but lack bright red and blue flowers. In this study, we identified two chrysanthemum cultivars, C × morifolium 'LPi' and C × morifolium 'LPu', that only accumulate flavonoids in their ligulate flowers. Next, we isolated seven anthocyanin biosynthesis genes, namely CmCHS, CmF3H, CmF3'H, CmDFR, CmANS, CmCHI and Cm3GT in these cultivars. RT-PCR and qRT-PCR analyses showed that CmF3'H was the most important enzyme required for cyanidin biosynthsis. To rebuild the delphinidin pathway, we downregulated CmF3'H using RNAi and overexpressed the Senecio cruentus F3'5'H (PCFH) gene in chrysanthemum. The resultant chrysanthemum demonstrated a significantly increased content of cyanidin and brighter red flower petals but did not accumulate delphinidin. These results indicated that CmF3'H in chrysanthemum is important for anthocyanin accumulation, and Senecio cruentus F3'5'H only exhibited F3'H activity in chrysanthemum but did not rebuild the delphinidin pathway to form blue flower chrysanthemum. PMID:24250783

  9. Effect of temperature and light on foliar absorption of P and Rb by Chrysanthemum and Pilea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szczepan Marczyński

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Young plants of Pilea cadierei Gagnep Guillaum and Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat. 'Giant # 4 Indianapolis White' were grown in Hoagland's solution in growth chambers. Their leaves were treated with rubidium phosphate double labelled with 33P and 86Rb. Light intensity, period of pretreatment in light or dark, daylength, and air temperature had different influences on foliar uptake of each ion, as did plant species and leaf surface. With all variables tested, uptake and translocation of Rb was much greater than of P. Absorption of both P and Rb through the lower surface was as much as 8 times greater than through upper surface, especially with Pilea. Light had a greater effect upon uptake of both P and Rb by Chrysanthemum than by Pilea, but did not influence uptake as much as previously reported.

  10. Detection of genetic variability in Chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflora T. using ISSR primers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Lalitha Kameswari, Hameedunnisabegum, M. Pratap, and G.Anuradha

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The genetic diversity of 37 genotypes of Chrysanthemum was characterized using inter simple sequence repeats (ISSR technique. A total of 46 primers were screened, of which 10 polymorphic and informative patterns were selected to determine genetic relationships. Among 114 amplified DNA fragments obtained, 107 bands were polymorphic, accounting for 93.86% polymorphism. The percentage of polymorphism exhibited by different ISSR primers ranged from 71.43% (ISSR-825 to 100% (ISSR-808, 810, 812, 840 and 842. The similarity coefficient values ranged from 0.275 to 0.775 with a mean similarity matrix of 0.525. Among the 37 genotypes studied, the closest relationship was scored between Geetanjali and Red Stone with similarity level of 77.5% while, the most distantly related genotypes were Autumn Joy and Flirtation with the lowest similarity index of 0.275. The UPGMA dendrogram revealed that the chrysanthemum genotypes were grouped into ten clusters.

  11. Effect of growth conditions on post harvest rehydration ability of cut chrysanthemum flowers

    OpenAIRE

    Meeteren, van, U.; Gelder, van, R.E.; Ieperen, van, H.J.

    2005-01-01

    Different batches of cut chrysanthemum flowers showed substantial variability in restoring their fresh weight after a moderate water loss. Cutting height strongly affected the rehydration ability of cut flowers, and the hydraulic conductance of the stem and its restoration after air aspiration. Within a batch of flowers, rehydration ability is negatively related with the hydraulic conductance. Rehydration ability of the flowering stems of all experimenst was highly correlated with the restora...

  12. Mutation induction in chrysanthemums by gamma-rays treatment of rooted cuttings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Guzowski

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Rooted cuttings of two Chrysanthemum hortorum cultivars, yellow flowered Luyona and purplish-red flowered Woking, were irradiated with following dosages of 60Co gamma-rays: 1.5; ,2.0; 2.5; 3.0 kR. Among the MV2 plants six clones from the cultivar Woking shoved mutational changes, and two of them were selected as possible new cultivars. No mutants were obtained from the cultivar Luyona.

  13. Mutation induction in chrysanthemums by gamma-rays treatment of rooted cuttings

    OpenAIRE

    W. Guzowski; S. Muszyński

    2015-01-01

    Rooted cuttings of two Chrysanthemum hortorum cultivars, yellow flowered Luyona and purplish-red flowered Woking, were irradiated with following dosages of 60Co gamma-rays: 1.5; ,2.0; 2.5; 3.0 kR. Among the MV2 plants six clones from the cultivar Woking shoved mutational changes, and two of them were selected as possible new cultivars. No mutants were obtained from the cultivar Luyona.

  14. Structural characteristics of Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat (Romica cultivar)regenerated in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Smaranda Vantu; Ramona Gales

    2009-01-01

    The micropropagation of Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat (Romica cultivar), belonging to the collection of Anastasie F�tu Botanical Garden from Iasi (Romania) was achieved through tissue culture technique and involved callus induction followed by shoot multiplication, rooting and establishment of plantlets in soil. The purpose of this study was to determine the range of variation in certain structural characters of the vegetative organs of in vitro regenerated plants at Chrysanthemu...

  15. Effect of the Introduction of Chrysanthemum on the Nutritional and Sensory Properties of Cabernet Sauvignon Red Wine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Liu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we propose a new wine technology where dried chrysanthemum is introduced during the process of fermentation of wine. This technology sets an example of a blend between exotic wine culture and traditional Chinese tea culture. The influence on the chemical and sensory properties of wine due to the addition of different amounts of chrysanthemum at different fermentation periods was studied. In all the wine with added chrysanthemum the content of both polyphenols and flavones obviously increased. The wine of T1 and T2 had a higher content of polyphenols and flavones than others, due to thermomaceration, whereas those in the wine of T2 were the highest, due to the technique of squeezing juice. The sensory quality of T3, without the techniques of thermomaceration and squeezing juice, was optimal, with characteristics such as a ruby color, fuller aroma, and a lighter flowery texture. Therefore, T3 was defined as the optimum of chrysanthemum adding procedures. With the increase of chrysanthemum addition, both flavones content and polyphenols content of the obtained wine first increased, and then decreased.

  16. A multiplex RT-PCR for simultaneous detection and identification of five viruses and two viroids infecting chrysanthemum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiting; Liu, Xingliang; Ge, Beibei; Li, Mingjun; Hong, Bo

    2015-05-01

    Pathogens causing significant economic losses in chrysanthemum include tomato aspermy virus (TAV), chrysanthemum virus B (CVB), cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), tobacco mosaic virus (TMV), potato virus Y (PVY), chrysanthemum stunt viroid (CSVd) and chrysanthemum chlorotic mottle viroid (CChMVd). A multiplex reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) method, using specific primer sets for each virus or viroid, was developed for simultaneous detection and differentiation of TAV, CVB, CMV, TMV, PVY, CChMVd, and CSVd. The RT-PCR method was validated by testing chrysanthemum samples collected from different regions of China. In this study, CVB, TAV, TMV, PVY, CSVd, CMV, and CChMVd were detected, respectively, in 24.7 %, 17.5 %, 4.4 %, 4.4 %, 2.9 %, 2.5 %, and 1.5 % of the samples tested. These results indicate that CVB and TAV (24.7 % and 17.5 %) are common, whereas CMV, TMV, CChMVd, CSVd, and PVY (all below 5 %) are less frequently encountered. This new multiplex RT-PCR method has potential to be used routinely in large-scale virus and viroid surveys. PMID:25698104

  17. Next-generation sequencing of the Chrysanthemum nankingense (Asteraceae transcriptome permits large-scale unigene assembly and SSR marker discovery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haibin Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Simple sequence repeats (SSRs are ubiquitous in eukaryotic genomes. Chrysanthemum is one of the largest genera in the Asteraceae family. Only few Chrysanthemum expressed sequence tag (EST sequences have been acquired to date, so the number of available EST-SSR markers is very low. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Illumina paired-end sequencing technology produced over 53 million sequencing reads from C. nankingense mRNA. The subsequent de novo assembly yielded 70,895 unigenes, of which 45,789 (64.59% unigenes showed similarity to the sequences in NCBI database. Out of 45,789 sequences, 107 have hits to the Chrysanthemum Nr protein database; 679 and 277 sequences have hits to the database of Helianthus and Lactuca species, respectively. MISA software identified a large number of putative EST-SSRs, allowing 1,788 primer pairs to be designed from the de novo transcriptome sequence and a further 363 from archival EST sequence. Among 100 primer pairs randomly chosen, 81 markers have amplicons and 20 are polymorphic for genotypes analysis in Chrysanthemum. The results showed that most (but not all of the assays were transferable across species and that they exposed a significant amount of allelic diversity. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: SSR markers acquired by transcriptome sequencing are potentially useful for marker-assisted breeding and genetic analysis in the genus Chrysanthemum and its related genera.

  18. Morphological Characteristics, Phenolic and Terpenoid Profiles in Garden Chrysanthemum Grown in Different Nutritional Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Cerasela MIRCEA (ARSENE

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Chrysanthemum indicum L. (Dendranthema indicum (L. Des Moul became useful as herbs and curatives in different parts of the world. In the current study, the chemical profile of outdoor cultivated Chrysanthemum indicum ‘Avalone Red’ was investigated for polyphenolic acid derivatives, flavonoids, alantolactone and ursolic acid using thin layer chromatography (TLC. Total phenolic content was determined through a classical method and semiquantitative analyses of alantolactone were performed through the HPLC method. Morphological and yield parameters and the chemical profile of plants were registered in two different nutritional statuses (local and enriched soil conditions. The results indicate that the studied cultivar is a potent source of phenolics and that the fertilisation increases the plant biosynthetic capacity for polyphenols (159.74 mg/100 g in leaves and 79.82 mg/100 g in flowers, in unfertilised plants, and 388.54 mg/100 g and 144.86 mg/100 g in leaves and flowers of fertilised plants, respectively, expressed as gallic acid equivalent value. The studied cultivar contains hyperoside (and other derivatives and four main polyphenol carboxylic acids (including chlorogenic acid. Ursolic acid was not detected. The high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC analyses confirmed the presence of alantolactone identified in TLC chromatogram. Moreover, the fertilised plant samples contain only traces of alantolactone compared to the unfertilised plants. Alantolactone is present in a small amount (less than 0.1 mg % but its presence alerts to the potential allergenic effect of the plant. Besides their ornamental value, chrysanthemums can have a wide array of uses due to their high amounts of bioactive compounds.

  19. Spectral effects of supplementary lighting on the secondary metabolites in roses, chrysanthemums, and campanulas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ouzounis, Theoharis; Fretté, Xavier; Rosenqvist, Eva; Ottosen, Carl-Otto

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the effect of the light spectrum on photosynthesis, growth, and secondary metabolites Rosa hybrida ‘Scarlet’, Chrysanthemum morifolium ‘Coral Charm’, and Campanula portenschlagiana ‘BluOne’ were grown at 24/18 ◦C day/night temperature under purpose-built LED arrays yielding...... the stomatal conductance though net photosynthesis was unaffected, indicating excess stomatal conductance in some treatments. With higher blue light ratio all phenolic acids and flavonoids increased. In view of the roles of these secondary metabolites as antioxidants, anti-pathogens, and light...

  20. Process-based modeling of the control of beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua, with baculoviruses in greenhouse chrysanthemum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bianchi, F.J.J.A.

    2001-01-01

    This thesis describes the development of a process-based simulation model for the population dynamics of beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua , and baculoviruses in greenhouse chrysanthemum. The model (BACSIM) has been validated for two baculoviruses with clear differences in biological characteristics,

  1. The effect of temperature on photosynthetic induction under fluctuating light in Chrysanthemum morifolium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ozturk, Isik; Ottosen, Carl-Otto; Ritz, Christian

    2013-01-01

    The photosynthetic response was investigated on Chrysanthemum morifolium under dynamic light conditions in the 20-35 A degrees C temperature range to evaluate the effect of climatic variables on photosynthetic induction. The plant material was grown under uniform, controlled conditions and its ga...

  2. Effect of light intensity, plant density and flower bud removal on the flower size and number in cut chrysanthemum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carvalho, S.M.P.; Heuvelink, E.; Kooten, van O.

    2002-01-01

    Flower size and number of flowers per plant are important external quality aspects in cut chrysanthemum. The present work is conducted in a glasshouse and aims at investigating how these quality aspects can be predicted. To evaluate individual flower size, different levels of supplementary lighting

  3. Mutation Breeding of Chrysanthemum by Gamma Field Irradiation and In Vitro Culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this work is to clarify the effect of chronic (gamma field) and acute (gamma room) radiation and in vitro culture on mutation induction of flower color in chrysanthemum. The combination of both methods yielded a mutation rate 10 times higher than the conventional chronic cutting method, and also produced non-chimeric mutants. Somaclonal variation often occurred in plants regenerated from callus, but no significant variation appeared in callus regenerants from non-irradiated plants. Therefore, proper mutagenic treatment on cultured materials is indispensable for effective mutation induction. The chronic culture method clearly yielded the widest color spectrum in chrysanthemum, while the acute culture method resulted in a relatively low mutation rate and a limited flower color spectrum. Flower color mutation could be more readily induced in plants regenerated from petals and buds, than from leaves. In this respect, it is supposed that the gene loci fully expressed on floral organs may be unstable for mutation by mutagenesis or culture, but could perhaps induce mutation in a desired direction. A possible reason why the chronic culture methods showed higher frequencies than the acute, is discussed. Nine out of 10 registered mutant varieties were derived from chronic irradiation, and only one from acute. The combined method of chronic irradiation with floral organ cultures proved to be of particularly great practical use in mutation breeding, not only of flower species but of other species as well. (author)

  4. Effects of 60Co γ-rays irradiation on seed growth of ground-cover chrysanthemum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The seeds of ground-cover chrysanthemum were used to study the effects of different doses of 60Co γ-rays irradiation(10-50 Gy) on seed germination and physiological characteristics. The results showed that the rate of seed germination and seedling survival decreased significantly with the irradiation doses. With the increase of irradiation dose to above 20 Gy, the content of malondialdehyde (MDA) and activity of peroxidase (POD) in seedlings significantly increased. The similar trends were found in the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione reductase (GR). Catalase (CAT) activity increased at doses lower than 20 Gy, and then decreased at the higher doses, whereas ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activity did not alter except for 40 Gy. It is concluded that the suitable irradiation dose of mutation breeding is 20 Gy for the seeds of ground-cover chrysanthemum. Although 60Co γ-rays irradiation resulted in damage of membrane lipid peroxidation in the survival seedlings, the increased activity of CAT and POD could protect them against the damage. (authors)

  5. Mutation breeding of chrysanthemum by gamma field irradiation and in vitro culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose was to clarify the effect of chronic (gamma field) and acute (gamma room) radiations and in vitro culture on mutation induction of flower color in chrysanthemum. The combined methods of irradiation and in vitro culture yielded a mutation rate 10 times higher than the conventional chronic cutting method, and also produced non chimeric mutants. Somaclonal variation often occurred in plants regenerated from callus, but no significant variation appeared in callus regenerators from non-irradiated plants. Therefore, proper mutagenic treatment on cultured materials is indispensable to effective mutation induction. The chronic culture method clearly yielded the widest color spectrum in chrysanthemum, while the acute culture method resulted in a relatively low mutation rate and a limited flower color spectrum. Flower color mutation could be more readily induced in plants regenerated from petals and buds, than from leaves. In this respect, it is supposed that the gene loci fully expressed on floral organs may be unstable for mutation by mutagenesis or culture, but could perhaps induce mutation in a desired direction. A possible reason why the chronic culture methods showed higher frequencies than the acute, had been discussed. Nine out of ten registered mutant varieties were derived from chronic irradiation, and only one from acute. The combined method of chronic irradiation with floral organ cultures proved to be of particularly great practical use in mutation breeding, not only of flower species but of other species as well. (author)

  6. Identification and Functional Analysis of Three MAX2 Orthologs in Chrysanthemum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lili Dong; Abdurazak Ishak; Jing Yu; Ruiyan Zhao; Liangjun Zhao

    2013-01-01

    MORE AXILLARY BRANCHING 2 (MAX2),initially identified in Arabidopsis thaliana,is a key regulatory gene in strigolactone signal transduction.Three orthologs of MAX2 were cloned from Dendranthema grandiflorum (DgMAX2a,b,and c).Each of the genes has an open reading frame of 2,049 bp and encodes 682 amino acid proteins.The predicted amino acid sequences of the three DgMAX2s are most closely related to the MAX2 orthologs identified in petunia (PhMAX2A and PhMAX2B),and display the highest amino acid sequence similarity with PhMAX2A compared to other MAX2s.Expression analysis revealed that DgMAX2s are predominantly expressed in the stem and axillary buds.On a cellular level,we localized the DgMAX2a::GFP fusion protein to the nucleus in onion epidermal cells,which is consistent with the nuclear localization of MAX2 in Arabidopsis.The chrysanthemum DgMAX2a is able to restore the max2-1 mutant branching to wild-type (WT) Arabidopsis,suggesting that it is a functional MAX2 ortholog.These results suggest that DgMAX2s may be candidate genes for reducing the shoot branching of chrysanthemum.

  7. Mutation Breeding of various spray chrysanthemum cultivars by gamma-ray irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was carried out to analyze mutation rate and spectrum of chrysanthemum by gamma-ray irradiation. Five flower types, 16 cultivars including 'Geumsu', 'Hwiparam', 'Ilwol', 'Magic', 'Moonlight', 'Noblewine', 'Pinky', 'Progy', 'Sangtte', 'Waterfog', 'Whitneypangpang', 'Yelloweye', 'Yellowpangpang', 'Yesmiso', 'Yesmorning', and 'Yestogether' were irradiated as 30, 50, and 70 Gy dose during 24 hours. As a result, mutation rate was identified as the highest in single type among five flower types, but there was a little difference according to cultivars. Mutation rate was increased in proportion to irradiation dose in anemone, pompon, and spider type cultivars, but there wasn't clear in single and semi-double type cultivars. Mutation spectrum was identified as the highest in the cultivar 'Noblewine'. The most sensitive cultivars to radiation were revealed as 'Noblewine' and 'Yesmorning' and the least were Moonlight', 'Waterfog', and 'Yellowpangpang'. Consequently, there was much difference in radio-sensitivity according to cultivars of chrysanthemum and flower type was correlated a little with mutation rate

  8. Simultaneous determination of flavonoids and anthraquinones in chrysanthemum by capillary electrophoresis with amperometry detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yin Yan Zhang; Zi Cheng Li; Jin Kun Zhu; Zhi Yong Yang; Qing Jiang Wang; Pin Gang He; Yu Zhi Fang

    2010-01-01

    A high-performance capillary electrophoresis with amperometry detection method(CE-AD)has been developed for the analysis of flavonoids and anthraquinones(emodin,kaempferol,apigenin,luteolin and rhein)in chrysanthemum.Under optimum conditions,these five analytes were base-line separated within 17 min using a borate-phosphate running buffer(1.5 × 10-2mol/L borate-3 × 10-2 mol/L phosphate running buffer,pH 9.0)at a working potential of+0.90 V(vs.SCE)and a separation voltage of 19 kV.The linear relationship between concentration and current response was obtained with detection limits(S/N = 3)ranging from 1.0 × 10-7 to 2.1 × 10-7 g/mL for all analytes.This proposed method was successfully used in the analysis of four kinds of chrysanthemum with relatively simple extraction procedures,the assay results were satisfactory.

  9. [Effects of crop rotation and bio-organic manure on soil microbial characteristics of Chrysanthemum cropping system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xin; Zhu, Wei; Du, Chao; Shi, Ya-dong; Wang, Jian-fei

    2015-06-01

    We conducted a field experiment to evaluate the effects of rotation system and bio-organic manure on soil microbial characteristics of Chrysanthemum cropping system. Taking Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat and wheat as experimental plants, treatments under Chrysanthemum continuous cropping system (M1), conventional Chrysanthemum-wheat rotation system (M2), and Chrysanthemum-wheat rotation system receiving bio-organic manure application of 200 kg · 667 m(-2) (M3) were designed. Soil chemical properties, soil microbial biomass carbon (MBC) and nitrogen (MBN), and the amounts of different types of soil microorganisms were determined. Results showed that compared with M1, treatments of M2 and M3 significantly increased soil pH, organic matter, available N, P, and K, MBC, MBN, and the amounts of bacteria, fungi and actinomycetes, but decreased the ratio of MBC/MBN, and the relative percentage of fungi in the total amount of microorganisms. Treatment of M3 had the highest contents of soil organic matter, available N, available P, available K, MBC, MBN, and the amounts of bacteria, fungi and actinomycetes, with the values being 15.62 g · kg(-1), 64.75 mg · kg(-1), 83.26 mg · kg(-1), 96.72 mg · kg(-1), 217.40 mg · kg(-1), 38.41 mg · kg(-1), 22.31 x 10(6) cfu · g(-1), 56.36 x 10(3) cfu · g(-1), 15.90 x 10(5) cfu · g(-1), respectively. We concluded that rational crop rotation and bio-organic manure application could weaken soil acidification, improve soil fertility and microbial community structure, increase the efficiency of nutrition supply, and have a positive effect on reducing the obstacles of continuous cropping. PMID:26572032

  10. Host specificity, but not high-temperature tolerance, is associated with recent outbreaks of Verticillium dahliae in chrysanthemum in the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Ispahani, S.K.; Goud, J.C.; Termorshuizen, A.J.; Morton, A.; Barbara, D J

    2008-01-01

    Two hypotheses which might explain a recent increase in the incidence of verticillium wilt of chrysanthemums in glasshouses in the Netherlands were investigated, viz whether selection for increased resistance to elevated temperatures has occurred due to frequent steaming of soils in the glasshouses, or whether the strains of Verticillium dahliae occurring in chrysanthemum glasshouses are particularly virulent towards this host. Following artificial inoculation, five isolates of V. dahliae fro...

  11. Comparative analysis of chrysanthemum transcriptome in response to three RNA viruses: Cucumber mosaic virus, Tomato spotted wilt virus and Potato virus X.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hoseong; Jo, Yeonhwa; Lian, Sen; Jo, Kyoung-Min; Chu, Hyosub; Yoon, Ju-Yeon; Choi, Seung-Kook; Kim, Kook-Hyung; Cho, Won Kyong

    2015-06-01

    The chrysanthemum is one of popular flowers in the world and a host for several viruses. So far, molecular interaction studies between the chrysanthemum and viruses are limited. In this study, we carried out a transcriptome analysis of chrysanthemum in response to three different viruses including Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) and Potato virus X (PVX). A chrysanthemum 135K microarray derived from expressed sequence tags was successfully applied for the expression profiles of the chrysanthemum at early stage of virus infection. Finally, we identified a total of 125, 70 and 124 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) for CMV, TSWV and PVX, respectively. Many DEGs were virus specific; however, 33 DEGs were commonly regulated by three viruses. Gene ontology (GO) enrichment analysis identified a total of 132 GO terms, and of them, six GO terms related stress response and MCM complex were commonly identified for three viruses. Several genes functioning in stress response such as chitin response and ethylene mediated signaling pathway were up-regulated indicating their involvement in establishment of host immune system. In particular, TSWV infection significantly down-regulated genes related to DNA metabolic process including DNA replication, chromatin organization, histone modification and cytokinesis, and they are mostly targeted to nucleosome and MCM complex. Taken together, our comparative transcriptome analysis revealed several genes related to hormone mediated viral stress response and DNA modification. The identified chrysanthemums genes could be good candidates for further functional study associated with resistant to various plant viruses. PMID:25904110

  12. Preliminary Assessment about Genetic Diversity, the Stability of Potential Mutants from Two Varieties of Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat. (Bronze Doa and Purple Farm) via Gamma Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to evidence the efficiency of irradiation by gamma ray from 60Co source on chrysanthemum artificial seeds, through that select a number of potential mutants from two varieties of Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat artificial seeds (Bronze and purple chrysanthemum). The experimental result showed that LD50 for the Bronze Doa variety was 50 Gy and Purple Farm variety was 100 Gy. Irradiated in vitro artificial seeds were transferred into fresh MS medium and placed in the growth room with three replications at each of dose. The completed in vitro plants were transplanted into ex vitro condition in green house. After 30 days in the greenhouse, survival rate of plantlets were and growth in 20 Gy and 40 Gy for Purple chrysanthemum, while the number of survival Bronze chrysanthemum plantlets were reduced gradually toward the increasing of gamma doses. In this study, on farm, through screening 18 phenotypic mutants of both chrysanthemums were recorded and collected including 6 potential mutants that selected for next research based on their phenotypic differences to the originals, their aesthetic and low mosaic. These 6 potential mutants together with their original varieties were micro-propagated to induce the potential mutant lines for estimation on farm of mutant characteristic segregation rates. (author)

  13. [Effects of controlled-release fertilizer on chrysanthemum leaf chlorophyll fluorescence characteristics and ornamental quality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xu-xu; Zheng, Cheng-shu; Sun, Xia; Ma, Hai-yan

    2011-07-01

    Taking cut flower chrysanthemum 'Baima' as test material, a pot experiment was conducted to study the effects of controlled-release fertilizer on the leaf chlorophyll fluorescence parameters, chlorophyll and nutrient contents, and ornamental quality of chrysanthemum. Under no fertilization, the maximal photochemical efficiency of PS II in dark (F(v)/F(m)), potential photochemical efficiency of PS II (F(v)/F(0)), and quantum yield of PS II electron transport (phi(PS II)) decreased significantly, compared with those under fertilization. With the application of conventional compound fertilizers CCFA (N:P:K=20:8:10) and CCFB (N:P:K= 14:14:14), the F(v)/F(m), F(v)/F(0) and phi(PS II) had a slight increase in early period (30-60 d) but a remarkable decrease in mid and later periods (75 - 120 d), compared with those under the application of controlled-release fertilizers CRFA (N:P:K = 20:8:10) and CRFB (N:P:K= 14:14:14). Under the application of CRFA, the F(v)/F(m), phi(PS II), and photochemical quenching (q(P)) had somewhat increase, as compared with the application of CRFB. The non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) under the application of CRFA and CRFB decreased significantly, compared with that under the application of CCFA and CCFB and the control. The chlorophyll content had a similar change trend with F(v)/F(m), F(v)/F(0), and phi(PS II). The leaf N, P, and K contents, flower stalk length and stalk diameter, flower diameter, and flower fresh and dry mass at harvest stage all increased under the application of CRFA and CRFB, compared with those under the application of CCFA and CCFB and the control, and the flower fresh and dry mass was significantly higher under the application of CRFA than of CRFB. This study showed that controlled-release fertilizer could improve the ornamental quality of chrysanthemum via improving the leaf chlorophyll content, photochemical transduction rate, and nutrient uptake, and CRFA had better effects than CRFB. PMID:22007449

  14. Effect of various sucker sizes and planting times on growth and flower yield of chrysanthemum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Small and large sized suckers of Chrysanthemum morifolium were planted on four different dates, i.e. 18th February, 18th April, 17th June and 16th August to find out their effect on growth and flower yield. Plants resulting from small sized suckers produced significantly higher number of primary and secondary branches and leaves plant/sup -1/. However, plant height, leaf area, number of suckers produced, biomass (fresh plant weight) and flower yield plant/sup -1/ were not affected by the sucker sizes. As the planting was delayed, plant growth and flower yield was reduced. Early plantings resulted in increased plant height, more number of branches and leaves plant/sup -1/, greater biomass, and higher flower yields but reduced leaf area as compared to late plantings. (author)

  15. Induction of in vivo mutation in chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflora Tzvelev) cv. Pink Repin breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mutation induction was used with the objective of obtaining mutants for flower colour of chrysanthemum, cv. Repin (pink colour). Rooted cuttings were irradiated with 20 Gy of gamma rays and before the selection the cutting back method was used to advance the generations. The frequency of colour mutants observed was 5.8%. Among the mutants obtainedthe white and dark-pink-coloured ones were evaluated in yield trial and post-harvest. The results indicated that these mutants mantained the same agronomical characteristics showed by the control, with the exception of plant height in the white mutant that was shorter. Due to commercial interest of the producers, these mutants were multiplied and released as new cultivars. The white flower colour mutant was named Cristiane and the dark-pink, Ingrid. This was the first example of cultivars from an ornamental plant released by mutation breeding in Brazil. (author)

  16. Biological efficacy of the chemical chrysanthemums protection with the use of fine and coarse droplets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislaw PARAFINIUK

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Studies of three years (2007-2009 were conducted at Czesławice in south- east of Poland .The objects of research were the plants of the one cultivar of chrysanthemum: Dark Tripoli. The following agents were used for protection: Dithane NeoTec 75 WG, Sumilex 500 SC, Amistar 250 SC. The treatment was carried out with the use of two types of nozzles: standard RS-MM 110 03 and ejector type ID 120 03 C. Observation was carried out once a year: in October. The number and health status of plants were determined and diseased plants were collected for analysis. The percentage of plants with disease symptoms was estimated for each plot. The best health status and yield were noticed for Amistar 250 SC.

  17. Saccharose action on chrysanthemum cut inflorescences, Dendranthema grandiflorum Kitamura, after exposition to gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the last years the Brazilian floriculture expanded and it is expected to achieve a prominent role in near future. The national territory has many favorable regions, with adequate climate for the development of commercially important cultures. Flower exportation is not expressive yet, but the country has conditions to become a great exotic tropical plants exporter. On the other hand, developed countries, as USA and Japan, have a rigorous phyto sanitary inspection to prevent the introduction of new plagues and diseases through fresh products. Ionizing radiation is considered a reliable disinfestation method to control numerous fruit and flower plagues. The aim of of this work was to verify the tolerance of some Compositae family flowers to ionizing radiation and the effects to sucrose action in protecting the flowers against the gamma-radiation induced damages. This was done by measuring biochemical and physiological parameters as a function of time after irradiation. The chrysanthemum flowers were sensitive to gamma radiation, but when the inflorescences were supplied after irradiation with preservative solution containing 2% sucrose, protection against the damaging effects of radiation was achieved. The dose of 750 Gy, considered appropriate for disinfestation purpose, did not modify the protein and lipid levels, nor plasma, tonoplast and mitochondria membrane ATPase or mitochondria cytochrome-c oxidase activities. The ethylene and carbonic gas rate production increased soon after the irradiation, but decreased one day later. The decrease of the microsomal membrane fluidity and the increase of the chrysanthemum were the most sensitive parameters to measure the irradiation treatment changes. The sucrose supply was able to maintain the irradiated flowers membrane fluidity level close to the unirradiated control. Rhodante manglesii Lindl and Helichrysum bracteatum Andr. were tolerant up to 1 KGy, thus being adequate to be disinfected by gamma radiation. (author)

  18. Pattern of cross-sensitivity between 4 Compositae plants, Parthenium hysterophorus, Xanthium strumarium, Helianthus annuus and Chrysanthemum coronarium, in Indian patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandakishore, T; Pasricha, J S

    1994-03-01

    To assess the pattern of cross-sensitivity between 4 members of the Compositae family, namely Parthenium hysterophorus L., Xanthium strumarium L., Helanthus annuus L. and Chrysanthemum coronarium L., 63 patients clinically diagnosed to have airborne contact dermatitis, and 51 controls having well-defined patterns of contact dermatitis caused by agents other than plants, were patch tested with measured amounts of standardized aqueous extracts of these plants. Positive reactions were obtained in 62 patients and 13 controls with Parthenium hysterophorus, in 47 patients and 9 controls with Xanthium strumarium, in 7 patients and 2 controls with Helianthus annuus, and in 13 of the 57 patients and one out of 28 controls tested with Chrysanthemum coronarium. 2 patients were allergic to all 4 of the plants; 14 patients to 3 plants, namely Parthenium, Xanthium and Chrysanthemum in 9 cases and Parthenium, Xanthium and Helianthus in 5 cases; 32 patients to 2 plants, namely Parthenium and Xanthium in 30 cases, and Parthenium and Chrysanthemum, and Xanthium and Chrysanthemum in 1 case each; 15 patients were allergic to 1 plant only, that being Parthenium. All the 47 patients allergic to Xanthium, 13 patients allergic to Chrysanthemum and 7 patients allergic to Helianthus were positive with some other plant as well. There was 1 patient who was allergic to Xanthium and Chrysanthemum but not to Parthenium. The titre of contact hypersensitivity (TCH) determined in the patients allergic to Parthenium, Xanthium and Helianthus showed values that varied widely with each plant in different patients, and there was no parallelism between the TCH with various plants.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8187516

  19. Safety Evaluation of Chrysanthemum indicum L. Flower Oil by Assessing Acute Oral Toxicity, Micronucleus Abnormalities, and Mutagenicity

    OpenAIRE

    Hwang, Eun-Sun; Kim, Gun-Hee

    2013-01-01

    Chrysanthemum indicum is widely used to treat immune-related and infectious disorders in East Asia. C. indicum flower oil contains 1,8-cineole, germacrene D, camphor, α-cadinol, camphene, pinocarvone, β-caryophyllene, 3-cyclohexen-1-ol, and γ-curcumene. We evaluated the safety of C. indicum flower oil by conducting acute oral toxicity, bone marrow micronucleus, and bacterial reverse mutation tests. Mortality, clinical signs and gross findings of mice were measured for 15 days after the oral s...

  20. Comparative analyses of light-induced anthocyanin accumulation and gene expression between the ray florets and leaves in chrysanthemum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Yan; Yang, Li-Wen; Li, Meng-Ling; Dai, Si-Lan

    2016-06-01

    Light is one of the key environmental factors that affect anthocyanin biosynthesis. However, the underlying molecular mechanism remains unclear, and many problems regarding phenotypic change and corresponding gene regulation have not been solved. In the present study, comparative analyses of light-induced anthocyanin accumulation and gene expression between the ray florets and leaves were performed in Chrysanthemum × morifolium 'Purple Reagan'. After contrasting the variations in the flower color phenotype and relative pigment content, as well as expression patterns of structural and regulator genes responsible for anthocyanin biosynthesis and photoreceptor between different plant organs under light and dark conditions, we concluded that (1) both the capitulum and foliage are key organs responding to light for chrysanthemum coloration; (2) compared with flavones, shading makes a greater decrease on the anthocyanins accumulation; (3) most of the structural and regulatory genes in the light-induced anthocyanin pathway specifically express in the ray florets; and (4) CmCHS, CmF3H, CmF3'H, CmANS, CmDFR, Cm3GT, CmMYB5-1, CmMYB6, CmMYB7-1, CmbHLH24, CmCOP1 and CmHY5 are key genes for light-induced anthocyanin biosynthesis in chrysanthemum ray florets, while on the transcriptional level, the expressions of CmPHYA, CmPHYB, CmCRY1a, CmCRY1b and CmCRY2 are insignificantly changed. Moreover, the inferred comprehensive effect of multiple signals on the accumulation of anthocyanins and transmission channel of light signal that exist between the leaves and ray florets were further discussed. These results further our understanding of the relationship between the gene expression and light-induced anthocyanin biosynthesis, and lay foundations for the promotion of the molecular breeding of novel flower colors in chrysanthemums. PMID:26990403

  1. Effect of light intensity, plant density and flower bud removal on the flower size and number in cut chrysanthemum

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho, S.M.P.; Heuvelink, E.; Kooten, van, J.

    2002-01-01

    Flower size and number of flowers per plant are important external quality aspects in cut chrysanthemum. The present work is conducted in a glasshouse and aims at investigating how these quality aspects can be predicted. To evaluate individual flower size, different levels of supplementary lighting (control and assimilation light), plant density (32, 48 and 64 plants m-2) and lateral flower bud removal (leaving 1 flower, 4 flowers and control) were applied. To analyse the effect of assimilate...

  2. Involvement of CmWRKY10 in Drought Tolerance of Chrysanthemum through the ABA-Signaling Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffar, Muhammad Abuzar; Song, Aiping; Faheem, Muhammad; Chen, Sumei; Jiang, Jiafu; Liu, Chen; Fan, Qingqing; Chen, Fadi

    2016-01-01

    Drought is one of the important abiotic factors that adversely affects plant growth and production. The WRKY transcription factor plays a pivotal role in plant growth and development, as well as in the elevation of many abiotic stresses. Among three major groups of the WRKY family, the group IIe WRKY has been the least studied in floral crops. Here, we report functional aspects of group IIe WRKY member, i.e., CmWRKY10 in chrysanthemum involved in drought tolerance. The transactivation assay showed that CmWRKY10 had transcriptional activity in yeast cells and subcellular localization demonstrated that it was localized in nucleus. Our previous study showed that CmWRKY10 could be induced by drought in chrysanthemum. Moreover, the overexpression of CmWRKY10 in transgenic chrysanthemum plants improved tolerance to drought stress compared to wild-type (WT). High expression of DREB1A, DREB2A, CuZnSOD, NCED3A, and NCED3B transcripts in overexpressed plants provided strong evidence that drought tolerance mechanism was associated with abscisic acid (ABA) pathway. In addition, lower accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and higher enzymatic activity of peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and catalase in CmWRKY10 overexpressed lines than that of WT demonstrates its role in drought tolerance. Together, these findings reveal that CmWRKY10 works as a positive regulator in drought stress by regulating stress-related genes. PMID:27187353

  3. Involvement of CmWRKY10 in Drought Tolerance of Chrysanthemum through the ABA-Signaling Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Abuzar Jaffar

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Drought is one of the important abiotic factors that adversely affects plant growth and production. The WRKY transcription factor plays a pivotal role in plant growth and development, as well as in the elevation of many abiotic stresses. Among three major groups of the WRKY family, the group IIe WRKY has been the least studied in floral crops. Here, we report functional aspects of group IIe WRKY member, i.e., CmWRKY10 in chrysanthemum involved in drought tolerance. The transactivation assay showed that CmWRKY10 had transcriptional activity in yeast cells and subcellular localization demonstrated that it was localized in nucleus. Our previous study showed that CmWRKY10 could be induced by drought in chrysanthemum. Moreover, the overexpression of CmWRKY10 in transgenic chrysanthemum plants improved tolerance to drought stress compared to wild-type (WT. High expression of DREB1A, DREB2A, CuZnSOD, NCED3A, and NCED3B transcripts in overexpressed plants provided strong evidence that drought tolerance mechanism was associated with abscisic acid (ABA pathway. In addition, lower accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS and higher enzymatic activity of peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and catalase in CmWRKY10 overexpressed lines than that of WT demonstrates its role in drought tolerance. Together, these findings reveal that CmWRKY10 works as a positive regulator in drought stress by regulating stress-related genes.

  4. Characterization of odor-active compounds of various Chrysanthemum essential oils by gas chromatography-olfactometry, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and their correlation with sensory attributes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Zuobing; Fan, Binbin; Niu, Yunwei; Wu, Minling; Liu, Junhua; Ma, Shengtao

    2016-01-15

    Volatiles of five kinds of Chrysanthemum essential oils with different manufactures were characterized by descriptive sensory analysis, gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O), gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and statistics analysis. Six sensory attributes (floral, woody, grassy, fruity, sour and minty) were selected to assess Chrysanthemum essential oils. A total of 38 volatile compounds were detected and quantified using standard substances by GC-O and GC-MS. Terpenes constituted the largest chemical group among the volatiles of the essential oils. Then partial least squares regression (PLSR) was used to elucidate the relationship between sensory attributes and aroma compounds. The result showed that α-pinene, β-thujene, α-terpinolen, β-cubebene, caryophyllene, (Z)β-farnesene, (-)-spathulenol, linalool, camphor, camphene, 4-terpineol, Z-citral and 4-isopropyltoluene were typical aroma compounds covaried with characteristic aroma of Chrysanthemum essential oils. PMID:26735711

  5. Cyto-palynological, biochemical and molecular characterization of original and induced mutants of garden chrysanthemum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A large number of new somatic flower color/type mutants have been evolved by induced mutations in different ornamentals. Few reports are available on the systematic work being done on comparative analysis of the original and the mutant cultivars. Attempt has been made for the comparative analysis of original cultivars and their respective induced mutants on cyto-palynological, biochemical and molecular characters for better and clear understanding of the exact mechanism involved in the origin and evolution of flower color mutations. Proper characterization and identification of new mutant cultivars is extremely important to protect plant breeder's rights for commercial exploitation. Chrysanthemum original varieties and their gamma ray induced mutants were selected as the materials for the present analysis. Critical cytological analysis with special reference to chromosome number, chromosomal aberrations, ICV, INV and DNA content showed no differences. The karyotypes were reasonably symmetrical. No mutant specific chromosomal aberrations could be detected. Thin layer chromatographic and spectrophotometric analysis of floret pigments indicated that somatic flower color changes in chrysanthemum are due to both qualitative and/or quantitative changes in pigments as a result of mutation induced by gamma rays in pigment biosynthesis pathway. Significant increase in pollen grain sterility was found in all the mutants. The pollen grains of all the cultivars and their mutants are basically 3(-4) zonocolporate with tectate spinose exine having perforations. No appreciable variation in pollen apertural character was noticed in any of the mutants. Significant changes in pollen exine surface pattern were found in 4 mutant varieties. The changes are inconsistent and do not correspond to the intensity of radiation. The similarity among the cultivars and mutants varied from 0.17 to 0.90 using RAPD analyses. Cultivars with different flower colors could be clearly distinguished. But

  6. Ethanol Induced Toxicity and Lipid Peroxidation in Pregnant Mice: Protective Effects of Butanolic Extract from Leaves of Chrysanthemum fontanesii, Vitamin E and C

    OpenAIRE

    Amel Amrani; Nassima Boubekri; Ouahiba Benaissa; Djamila Zama; Fadila Benayache; Samir Benayache

    2014-01-01

    Background: The objective of the present study was to investigate the ability of butanolic extract from leaves of Chrysanthemum fontanesii, vitamin E and C to modulate ethanol-Induced toxicity and oxidation damage in maternal and fetal tissues of mice. Butanolic extract from leaves of Chrysanthemum fontanesii (200 mg/Kg per day), vitamin E (100mg/Kg per day) and C (8.3mg/Kg per day) were administered by gavage to groups of pregnant mice from the 6 th to 17 th day of gestation. A number of ani...

  7. Effect of polyacrylamide on morphology and electromagnetic properties of chrysanthemum-like ZnO particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Through hydrothermal process, the chrysanthemum-like ZnO particles are prepared with zinc acetate dihydrate (Zn(CH3COO)2·2H2O) and sodium hydroxide (NaOH) used as main resources under the different concentrations of surfactant polyacrylamide (PAM). The microstructure, morphology and the electromagnetic properties of the as-prepared products are characterized by high-resolution transmissïon electron microscopy (HRTEM), field emission environment scanning electron microscope (FEESEM) and microwave vector network analyzer, respectively. The experimental results indicate that the as-prepared products are ZnO single crystalline with hexagona wurtzite structure, that the values of slenderness ratio Ld are different in different PAM concentrations, and that the good magnetic loss property is found in the ZnO products, and the average magnetic loss tangent tan δu increases with PAM concentration increasing, while the dielectric loss tangent tan δe decreases. (cross-disciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  8. Antioxidant Activity, Antitumor Effect, and Antiaging Property of Proanthocyanidins Extracted from Kunlun Chrysanthemum Flowers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siqun Jing

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate the antioxidant activity, antitumor effect, and antiaging property of proanthocyanidins from Kunlun Chrysanthemum flowers (PKCF grown in Xinjiang. In vitro antioxidant experiments results showed that the total antioxidant activity and the scavenging capacity of hydroxyl radicals (•OH and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH• radicals increased in a concentration-dependent manner and were stronger than those of vitamin C. To investigate the antioxidant activity of PKCF in vivo, we used serum, liver, and kidney from mouse for the measurement of superoxide dismutase (SOD, malondialdehyde (MDA, and total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC. Results indicated that PKCF had antioxidative effect in vivo which significantly improved the activity of SOD and T-AOC and decreased MDA content. To investigate the antitumor activity of PKCF, we used H22 cells, HeLa cells, and Eca-109 cells with Vero cells as control. Inhibition ratio and IC50 values were measured by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT assay; PKCF showed great inhibitory activity on H22 cells and HeLa cells. We also used fruit flies as a model for analyzing the anti-aging property of PKCF. Results showed that PKCF has antiaging effect on Drosophila. Results of the present study demonstrated that PKCF could be a promising agent that may find applications in health care, medicine, and cosmetics.

  9. Formation flavonoid secondary metabolites in callus culture of Chrysanthemum cinerariefolium as alternative provision medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purwianingsih, Widi; Febri, Santika; Kusdianti

    2016-02-01

    Increasing need of medicine ingredients require the discovery of other methods that can be used as an alternative. One method that can be used as an alternative is tissue culture. Quercetin is a flavonoid secondary metabolites that have been known to be useful as antiviral, anti-asthma and anti-cancer potential. The purpose of this study was to produce flavonoids, especially quercetin in callus culture Chrysanthemum cinerariefolium. Pieces of leaves of plantlets C. cinerariefolium used as explants for formation of callus tissue. To grow the callus, Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium used with addition of various concentrations of growth regulators 2.4-D, and kinetin. For multiplication, callus subcultured on similar medium. Callus that had formed, especially brown callus, further analyzed using Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrum (GCMS). Before analyzed callus was extracted in 95% ethanol. The result showed that callus potentially generate secondary metabolite are brown and friable. Based on these parameters, the best callus produced from leaf explants grown on MS medium with the addition of 4 mg / L 2,4-D and 0 mg / L kinetin. The callus contain secondary metabolites such as some of the flavonoid quercetin precursors such as acetic acid and tetrahydroxychalcone, and some other secondary metabolites.

  10. Genetic and serological characterization of chrysanthemum stem necrosis virus, a member of the genus Tospovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Pei-Ru; Chien, Wan-Chu; Okuda, Mitsuru; Takeshita, Minoru; Yeh, Shyi-Dong; Wang, Yun-Chi; Chen, Tsung-Chi

    2015-02-01

    Chrysanthemum stem necrosis virus (CSNV) is a member of a tentative tospovirus species. In this study, the complete genomic sequence of the Japanese CSNV isolate TcCh07A was determined. The L RNA is 8960 nt long and encodes the 331.0-kDa RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. The M RNA is 4828 nt long and encodes the 34.1-kDa movement protein (NSm) and the 127.7-kDa glycoprotein precursor (Gn/Gc). The S RNA is 2949 nt long and encodes the 52.4-kDa silencing suppressor protein (NSs) and the 29.3-kDa nucleocapsid (N) protein. The N protein of CSNV-TcCh07A was purified from virus-infected plant tissues and used for production of a rabbit polyclonal antiserum (RAs) and a monoclonal antibody (MAb). Results of serological tests by indirect ELISA and western blotting using the prepared RAs and MAb and a previously produced RAs against the N protein of tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) indicated that CSNV-TcCh07A, TSWV, tomato chlorotic spot virus, groundnut ringspot virus, alstroemeria necrotic streak virus and impatiens necrotic spot virus are serologically related. PMID:25427981

  11. Ni (II) adsorption onto Chrysanthemum indicum: Influencing factors, isotherms, kinetics, and thermodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilvanathan, Sowmya; Shanthakumar, S

    2016-10-01

    The study explores the adsorption potential of Chrysanthemum indicum biomass for nickel ion removal from aqueous solution. C. indicum flowers in raw (CIF-I) and biochar (CIF-II) forms were used as adsorbents in this study. Batch experiments were conducted to ascertain the optimum conditions of solution pH, adsorbent dosage, contact time, and temperature for varying initial Ni(II) ion concentrations. Surface area, surface morphology, and functionality of the adsorbents were characterized by Brunauer, Emmett, and Teller (BET) surface analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Adsorption kinetics were modeled using pseudo-first order, pseudo-second order, Elovich, intraparticle diffusion, Bangham's, and Boyd's plot. The equilibrium data were modeled using Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin, and Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) isotherm models. Experimental data provided the best fit to pseudo-second-order kinetic model and Langmuir isotherm model for the adsorption of Ni(II) ion on both CIF-I and CIF-II with maximum adsorption capacities of 23.97 and 44.02 mg g(-1), respectively. Thermodynamic analysis of the data proved the process to be spontaneous and endothermic in nature. Desorption studies were conducted to evaluate the possibility of reusing the adsorbents. Findings of the present study provide substantial evidence for the use of C. indicum flower as an eco-friendly and potential adsorbent for the removal of Ni(II) ions from aqueous solution. PMID:27185382

  12. The influence of light color on the rooting of 'Horim Golden' Chrysanthemum cuttings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Borowski

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The influence of three different colors of light; blue, green and red, compared with white light as the control, on the rooting of Chrysanthemum cuttings, is presented in this paper. The mother plants and cuttings were irradiated during rooting with different colors of light. This was shown to have had visible influence on the morphological differentiation of cuttings. It also affected the carbohydrate content in them. The rooting of the cuttings reflected this influence. The cuttings obtained from plants grown under white (control or red light were characterized by well-developed root systems in terms of the number, length and mass of the roots. The cuttings from the plants grown under green light were the worst. The influence of the color of the light on the speed with which the first roots were formed was the reverse. The cuttings from the plants irradiated with green light rooted the quickest, next in order were those from plants irradiated with blue, red and white light. Irradiating cuttings with differently colored light during rooting only had an effect on the number of roots formed. This number was high, close to that of control cuttings, in cuttings exposed to red light, decidedly lower in those exposed to blue and, in particular, green light.

  13. Regeneration of Haploid Plantlet through Anther Culture of Chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflorum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rayhanul Kabir KHANDAKAR MD

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available To observe the possibility of producing haploid plants of Chrysanthemum, anthers of three Korean cultivars ‘Yes Morning’, ‘Hi-Maya’, and pot cultivar ‘Peace Pink’ were cultured. Callus induction among cultivars differed little, but equally good results were obtained with the basal MS medium supplemented with 1 mg/L of 2,4-D, 2 mg/L of BA, 250 mg/L of casein hydrolysate, 45 g/L of sucrose; solidified by 2.75 g/L gelrite. A pretreatment of anthers in media at 4 °C for 48h enhanced the callus induction. Calli were allowed to differentiate on basal MS medium supplemented with 2 mg/L of BA, 0.1 mg/L of NAA, 30 g/L of sucrose; solidified by 2.75 g/L gelrite.  Shoot formation from calli in that media slightly differed among cultivars. Multiple shoots elongated from calli were shifted to basal MS medium supplemented with 0.1 mg/L of NAA, 30 g/L of sucrose; solidified by 3 g/L gelrite for rooting. The plantlets with sufficient roots thus obtained were acclimatized and transferred to the soil. Fifty regenerated plantlets from each cultivar were randomly selected for ploidy observation by chromosome counting and haploid plantlet was detected for the garden cultivar ‘Yes morning’.

  14. Position of the axillary bud and mutation induction in Chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflora Tzvelev) plant lets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mutagenic treatment of multicellular meristems from vegetatively propagated plants generally results in the formation of chimeric plants. Mutated sectors can be increased and stabilized through the cutting-back method. The objective of the present research was to study the influence of application of this method in the M1V2 population, originated from six different axillary buds from the M1V1 chrysanthemum branches. For this purpose, rooted plants of the cultivar Ingrid (dark ping) were irradiated with 20 Gy of gamma-rays and the prune was carried out 40 days after planting. Frequency and spectrum of flower color mutants were evaluated. No mutants were observed in the control population. In the M1V1 population, 22.1% of the total plants were mutants (white color, dark bronze, pale pink, yellow, wine, variegated and cream). Among them, 1.8% were periclinal chimeras (with only one different color from the original) and the others showed mutated sectors. No differences were observed in mutation frequency and size of mutated sector among six M1V1 populations. The wine colored mutant was selected, multiplied and evaluated in a yield trial. This mutant named Magali was multiplied and was released as a new cultivar. (author)

  15. Low Temperature Treatment Affects Concentration and Distribution of Chrysanthemum Stunt Viroid in Argyranthemum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhibo; Lee, YeonKyeong; Sivertsen, Astrid; Skjeseth, Gry; Haugslien, Sissel; Clarke, Jihong Liu; Wang, Qiao-Chun; Blystad, Dag-Ragnar

    2016-01-01

    Chrysanthemum stunt viroid (CSVd) can infect Argyranthemum and cause serious economic loss. Low temperature treatment combined with meristem culture has been applied to eradicate viroids from their hosts, but without success in eliminating CSVd from diseased Argyranthemum. The objectives of this work were to investigate (1) the effect of low temperature treatment combined with meristem culture on elimination of CSVd, (2) the effect of low temperature treatment on CSVd distribution pattern in shoot apical meristem (SAM), and (3) CSVd distribution in flowers and stems of two infected Argyranthemum cultivars. After treatment with low temperature combined with meristem tip culture, two CSVd-free plants were found in 'Border Dark Red', but none in 'Yellow Empire'. With the help of in situ hybridization, we found that CSVd distribution patterns in the SAM showed no changes in diseased 'Yellow Empire' following 5°C treatment, compared with non-treated plants. However, the CSVd-free area in SAM was enlarged in diseased 'Border Dark Red' following prolonged 5°C treatment. Localization of CSVd in the flowers and stems of infected 'Border Dark Red' and 'Yellow Empire' indicated that seeds could not transmit CSVd in these two cultivars, and CSVd existed in phloem. Results obtained in the study contributed to better understanding of the distribution of CSVd in systemically infected plants and the combination of low temperature treatment and meristem tip culture for production of viroid-free plants. PMID:26973607

  16. Chrysanthemum boreale Makino essential oil induces keratinocyte proliferation and skin regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Do Yoon; Won, Kyung-Jong; Yoon, Mi-So; Hwang, Dae Il; Yoon, Seok Won; Park, Joo-Hoon; Kim, Bokyung; Lee, Hwan Myung

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the effect of essential oil from the flower of Chrysanthemum boreale Makino (CBMEO) on growth of human keratinocytes (HaCaTs) and explored a possible mechanism for this response. CBMEO was extracted using the steam distillation method. CBMEO contained a total of 33 compounds. CBMEO stimulated HaCaT proliferation (EC50, 0.028 μg/mL) and also induced phosphorylation of Akt and ERK1/2 in HaCaTs (EC50, 0.007 and 0.005 μg/mL, for phosphorylated Akt and ERK1/2, respectively). Moreover, CBMEO promoted wound closure in the dorsal side skin of rat tail. This study demonstrated that CBMEO can stimulate growth of human skin keratinocytes, probably through the Akt and ERK1/2 pathways. Therefore, CBMEO may be helpful in skin regeneration and wound healing in human skin, and may also be a possible cosmetic material for skin beauty. PMID:25167931

  17. Change in Auxin and Cytokinin Levels Coincides with Altered Expression of Branching Genes during Axillary Bud Outgrowth in Chrysanthemum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dierck, Robrecht; De Keyser, Ellen; De Riek, Jan; Dhooghe, Emmy; Van Huylenbroeck, Johan; Prinsen, Els; Van Der Straeten, Dominique

    2016-01-01

    In the production and breeding of Chrysanthemum sp., shoot branching is an important quality aspect as the outgrowth of axillary buds determines the final plant shape. Bud outgrowth is mainly controlled by apical dominance and the crosstalk between the plant hormones auxin, cytokinin and strigolactone. In this work the hormonal and genetic regulation of axillary bud outgrowth was studied in two differently branching cut flower Chrysanthemum morifolium (Ramat) genotypes. C17 is a split-type which forms an inflorescence meristem after a certain vegetative period, while C18 remains vegetative under long day conditions. Plant growth of both genotypes was monitored during 5 subsequent weeks starting one week before flower initiation occurred in C17. Axillary bud outgrowth was measured weekly and samples of shoot apex, stem and axillary buds were taken during the first two weeks. We combined auxin and cytokinin measurements by UPLC-MS/MS with RT-qPCR expression analysis of genes involved in shoot branching regulation pathways in chrysanthemum. These included bud development genes (CmBRC1, CmDRM1, CmSTM, CmLsL), auxin pathway genes (CmPIN1, CmTIR3, CmTIR1, CmAXR1, CmAXR6, CmAXR2, CmIAA16, CmIAA12), cytokinin pathway genes (CmIPT3, CmHK3, CmRR1) and strigolactone genes (CmMAX1 and CmMAX2). Genotype C17 showed a release from apical dominance after floral transition coinciding with decreased auxin and increased cytokinin levels in the subapical axillary buds. As opposed to C17, C18 maintained strong apical dominance with vegetative growth throughout the experiment. Here high auxin levels and decreasing cytokinin levels in axillary buds and stem were measured. A differential expression of several branching genes accompanied the different hormonal change and bud outgrowth in C17 and C18. This was clear for the strigolactone biosynthesis gene CmMAX1, the transcription factor CmBRC1 and the dormancy associated gene CmDRM1, that all showed a decreased expression in C17 at floral

  18. Repellent effects of pongam oil on settlement and oviposition of the common greenhouse whitefly Trialeurodes vaporariorum on chrysanthemum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ROMAN PAVELA; GERHARD HERDA

    2007-01-01

    The repellent activities, including host deterrence and anti-oviposion, of pongam oil against the adults of the common greenhouse whitefly Trialeurodes vaporariorum Westwood in greenhouses were tested. Chrysanthemum plants treated with different concentrations (0.5%-2.0%) of water-suspended pongam oil showed relatively longlasting host deterrent and anti-oviposition effects on the adults of greenhouse whitefly. Although the repellent effect declined in time and concentration, strong effects on the reduction of oviposition were found, which lasts, dependent on concentration at least 12 days after application.

  19. Enhancement of flowering and branching phenotype in chrysanthemum by expression of ipt under the control of a 0.821 kb fragment of the LEACO1 gene promoter

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Khodakovskaya, M.; Vaňková, Radomíra; Malbeck, Jiří; Li, A.; Li, Y.; McAvoy, R.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 28, č. 9 (2009), s. 1351-1362. ISSN 0721-7714 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : ipt Gene * Cytokinins * Transgenic chrysanthemum Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.301, year: 2009

  20. Soluções de manutenção na pós-colheita de Chrysanthemum morifolium cv. Dragon Chrysanthemum morifolium cv. Dragon postharvest maintenance solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poliana Cristina Spricigo

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available O desenvolvimento e uso de técnicas que prolonguem a durabilidade das flores, mantendo a qualidade do produto, é imprescindível para redução de perdas pós-colheita. Objetivou-se, neste trabalho, avaliar soluções de manutenção, associadas ou não a sacarose, na manutenção da qualidade pós-colheita de hastes de crisântemos. O experimento foi conduzido sob delineamento inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial, com cinco tratamentos e três repetições, com 2 hastes florais cada uma. Os tratamentos utilizaram água destilada; 8-HQC a 100 mg L-1; 8-HQC a 100 mg L-1 + sacarose a 50 g L-1, 8-HQC a 200 mg L-1; 8-HQC a 200 mg L-1 + sacarose a 50 g L-1. Foram feitas avaliações físicas: coloração, massa fresca e conteúdo relativo de água (CRA; avaliações químicas: açúcares redutores e pigmentos; e avaliações qualitativas: turgescência, cor das flores, e número de botões, flores entreabertas e abertas. A combinação de 8-HQC 200 mg L-1 + sacarose a 50 g L-1 foi a que apresentou melhor desempenho para a manutenção da qualidade das hastes florais, favorecendo a abertura de botões e a turgescência das lígulas. A sacarose contribuiu para uma melhor manutenção de substâncias de reserva na haste, que tiveram a sua vida de vaso estendida.The development and use of techniques that extend the life vase of the flowers, maintaining the quality of the product, is essential for reducing postharvest losses. The objective of this work was to evaluate different solutions for maintenance, associated or not to sucrose, in maintaining the postharvest quality of chrysanthemum stems. The treatments used distilled water, 8-HQC to 100 mg L-1, 8-HQC to 100 mg L-1 + sucrose 50 g L-1, 8-HQC to 200 mg L-1, 8-HQC to 200 mg L-1 + sucrose 50 g L-1. Physical assessments were made: color, fresh mass and relative water content; chemical evaluations: reducing sugars and pigments, and qualitative assessments: turgidity, color of the flowers, and

  1. Development of SSR Markers and Assessment of Genetic Diversity in Medicinal Chrysanthemum morifolium Cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Shangguo; He, Renfeng; Lu, Jiangjie; Jiang, Mengying; Shen, Xiaoxia; Jiang, Yan; Wang, Zhi'an; Wang, Huizhong

    2016-01-01

    Chrysanthemum morifolium, is a well-known flowering plant worldwide, and has a high commercial, floricultural, and medicinal value. In this study, simple-sequence repeat (SSR) markers were generated from EST datasets and were applied to assess the genetic diversity among 32 cultivars. A total of 218 in silico SSR loci were identified from 7300 C. morifolium ESTs retrieved from GenBank. Of all SSR loci, 61.47% of them (134) were hexa-nucleotide repeats, followed by tri-nucleotide repeats (17.89%), di-nucleotide repeats (12.39%), tetra-nucleotide repeats (4.13%), and penta-nucleotide repeats (4.13%). In this study, 17 novel EST-SSR markers were verified. Along with 38 SSR markers reported previously, 55 C. morifolium SSR markers were selected for further genetic diversity analysis. PCR amplification of these EST-SSRs produced 1319 fragments, 1306 of which showed polymorphism. The average polymorphism information content of the SSR primer pairs was 0.972 (0.938–0.993), which showed high genetic diversity among C. morifolium cultivars. Based on SSR markers, 32 C. morifolium cultivars were separated into two main groups by partitioning of the clusters using the unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean dendrogram, which was further supported by a principal coordinate analysis plot. Phylogenetic relationship among C. morifolium cultivars as revealed by SSR markers was highly consistent with the classification of medicinal C. morifolium populations according to their origin and ecological distribution. Our results demonstrated that SSR markers were highly reproducible and informative, and could be used to evaluate genetic diversity and relationships among medicinal C. morifolium cultivars. PMID:27379163

  2. IN VITRO REGENERATION OF THREE CHRYSANTHEMUM (Dendrathema grandiflora VARIETIES “VIA” ORGANOGENESIS AND SOMATIC EMBRYOGENESIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Hodson de Jaramillo

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Chrysanthemum (Dendrathema grandiflora has a high demand in the Colombian and international cut flower markets.Since commercial production of this ornamental species is strongly affected by fungal diseases such as chrysanthemumwhite rust (Puccinia horiana, high doses of fungicides are being used posing increased environmental and commercialcosts. Assessment of in vitro regeneration systems from leaf discs was a first step in developing a plant genetic transformationprotocol to obtain fungi-resistant plants. Leaf discs of White Albatross, Yellow Albatross, and Escapade varieties wereestablished in vitro on MS medium supplemented with NAA (0 - 4.83 μM and BAP (0 - 13.32 μM alone and incombination. Leaf discs were also cultured on MumB medium containing 2,4-D (0 - 4.52 μM for 7, 14, and 21 days priorto their transferral to a 2,4-D free MumB medium. Regenerated shoots were individualized, rooted, and hardened. Resultsshow that MS with 4.83 μM NAA + 4.44 μM BAP and 4.83 μM NAA + 13.32 μM BAP induce organogenesis, and MumBwith 2.26 μM 2,4-D induces somatic embryogenesis on all three varieties, with exposition periods to 2,4-D of 14 days forWhite Albatross and 21 days for Yellow Albatross and Escapade. Shoot development from somatic embryos was observedin the three varieties when cultured on a 2,4-D free MumB medium. Spontaneous rooting was recorded in 85% of the shootsthus facilitating hardening and successful transfer to soil.

  3. ELIMINATION OF CVB ( FROM A RANGE OF CHRYSANTHEMUM VARIETIES BY APICAL MERISTEM CULTURE FOLLOWING ANTIVIRAL AGENT AND HEAT TREATMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KURNIAWAN BUDIARTO

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available CVB elimination for retaining healthy protocols from infected chrysanthemum plant wasinvestigated through combined treatment of meristem culture with synthetic antiviral ribavirinor thermotherapy under conditions. The biological materials used for the experimentconstituted of six commercial varieties: Dewi Sartika, Saraswati, Yellow Fiji, White Puma,Yellow Puma and White Reagent. Tissue culture initiation was conducted through plantletestablishment using MS supplemented with IAA. Ribavirin was added in media with theconcentration of 40 mg/l on cv. Dewi Sartika, Saraswati and Yellow Fiji. Parallel with this step,heat treatment with different durations (1, 2, and 3 weeks was also conducted on the plantletson White Puma, Yellow Puma and White Reagent. Meristem culture was done followingthe chemo- and thermotherapy. The experiment resumed the failure of single treatment ofmeristem culture in eliminating CVB from the infected chrysanthemum plantlets. Under heattreatment, percentage of virus-free plantlets increased along with the duration ofthermotherapy, though the survival rate of plantlets decreased in lengthened heat treatment.The best results regarding virus free plant percentage were obtained when meristem culture wasapplied following ribavirin or three weeks of heat treatment.

  4. Heterologous expression of the AtDREB1A gene in chrysanthemum increases drought and salt stress tolerance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HONG; Bo; TONG; Zheng; MA; Nan; LI; Jianke; KASUGA; Mie; YAMAGUCHI-SHINOZAKI; Kazuko; GAO; Junping

    2006-01-01

    DNA cassette containing an AtDREB1A cDNA and a nos terminator, driven by a cauliflower mosaic 35S promoter, or a stress-inducible rd29A promoter, was transformed into the ground cover chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflorum) 'Fall Color' genome. Compared with wild type plants, severe growth retardation was observed in 35S:DREB1A plants, but not in rd29A:DREB1A plants. RT-PCR analysis revealed that, under stress conditions, the DREB1A gene was over-expressed constitutively in 35S:DREB1A plants, but was over-expressed inductively in rd29A:DREB1A plants. The transgenic plants exhibited tolerance to drought and salt stress, and the tolerance was significantly stronger in rd29A:DREB1A plants than tn 35S:DREB1A plants. Proline content and SOD activity were increased inductively in rd29A:DREB1A plants than in 35S:DREB1A plants under stress conditions. These results indicate that heterologous AtDREB1A can confer drought and salt tolerance in transgenic chrysanthemum, and improvement of the stress tolerance may be related to enhancement of proline content and SOD activity.

  5. The Effects of Gamma Irradiation on the Growth and Propagation of In-Vitro Chrysanthemum Shoot Explants (cv. Yellow Puma)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study on the effect of gamma irradiation on in-vitro shoot growth of chrysanthemum cv. Yellow Puma has been carried out. The aim of the study was to observe genetic variability of shoot growth caused by gamma irradiation. Shoot explants with four leaves were irradiated by gamma with dose of 10, 15 and 20 Gy with 3 replications at each of dose. The irradiated shoot explants were then transferred into fresh MS solid medium and placed in a growth room. Observation was performed on number of leaves and branches on M1V0 generation, while plantlets height and number of branches were observed a M1V1 generation. Number of survival plantlets and multiplication rate on three subsequent subcultures were observed as well. Results showed that gamma rays with dose of 20 Gy inhibited growth of leaves as much as 50% compared to control (shoots without irradiation), and branches 73.7% in three weeks. Observation on multiplication rate at M1V1 generation showed that gamma irradiation with dose of 10 Gy promoted multiplication rate as much as 10% higher than control. It can be concluded that in vitro mutagenesis using gamma irradiation with dose of 10 to 15 Gy can be used for inducing genetic variability of chrysanthemum cv. Yellow Puma. (author)

  6. Study of the Health Beverage of Honeysuckle and Chrysanthemum%金银双花饮料的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王兆丹; 汪开拓; 韩林; 唐华丽

    2012-01-01

    A healthy beverage which has the clearing and moistening effect of the throat is made by honeysuckle,white chrysanthemum,mint,and licorice.The optimal formula is studied by orthogonal experiment.The result showed that the best composition of the drink was 85% mix extract(include 26% honeysuckle juice,12% chrysanthemum juice,10% mint juice,10% licorice),with 10% sugar and 0.4% citric acid.%以金银花、白菊花、薄荷、甘草为主要原料研制一种具有清咽利喉功能的饮料,采用正交试验确定混合提取液最佳配比和饮料风味的最佳配方。试验结果表明:混合提取液适宜配比为金银花提取液为26%、白菊花提取液为12%、薄荷提取液为10%、甘草提取液为10%;饮料最佳风味配方为混合提取液含量为85%、白砂糖10%、柠檬酸0.4%。

  7. The Effects of Gamma Irradiation on the Growth and Propagation of In-Vitro Chrysanthemum Shoot Explants (cv. Yellow Puma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Dwimahyani

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The study on the effect of gamma irradiation on in-vitro shoot growth of chrysanthemum cv. Yellow Puma has been carried out. The aim of the study was to observe genetic variability of shoot growth caused by gamma irradiation. Shoot explants with four leaves were irradiated by gamma with dose of 10, 15 and 20 Gy with 3 replications at each of dose. The irradiated shoot explants were then transferred into fresh MS solid medium and placed in a growth room. Observation was performed on number of leaves and branches on M1V0 generation, while plantlets height and number of branches were observed a M1V1 generation. Number of survival plantlets and multiplication rate on three subsequent subcultures were observed as well. Results showed that gamma rays with dose of 20 Gy inhibited growth of leaves as much as 50% compared to control (shoots without irradiation, and branches 73.7% in three weeks. Observation on multiplication rate at M1V1 generation showed that gamma irradiation with dose of 10 Gy promoted multiplication rate as much as 10% higher than control. It can be concluded that in vitro mutagenesis using gamma iradiation with dose of 10 to 15 Gy can be used for inducing genetic variability of chrysanthemum cv. Yellow Puma.

  8. 苦瓜汁、菊花茶复合茶饮料的研制%Preparation of Compound Beverage with Bitter Gourd Juice and Chrysanthemum Tea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡月英; 王妨; 钱健; 陈文学

    2012-01-01

    研究苦瓜菊花清凉饮料的生产工艺,采用VC和氯化锌等复合护色剂对苦瓜进行护色,用氯化钠和柠檬酸进行脱苦;以菊花浸提时间、温度、固液比为主要因素,对菊花的浸提工艺进行了优化,最后进行苦瓜菊花汁饮料的配方优化。结果表明,采用苦瓜汁8%、菊花茶#60%、白砂糖8%、柠檬酸0.12%等配比,可制得营养丰富、口感适宜、清暑止渴、品质优良的苦瓜菊花清凉茶饮料。%With bitter melon and chrysanthemum as the raw materials to study the process of bitter melon and chrysanthemum cool drinks, Firstly, this experiment adopted combined color fixative (Vc and ZnC12) for protecting color of bitter melon, NaCI and citric acid for debitterizing. Secondly, optimize the lixiviating process of chrysanthemum with time, temperature and solid-to-liquid ratio as the major factors. Finally, the formula of bitter melon and chrysanthemum cool drinks has been optimized. The results showed that, the process conditions with bitter melon juice 8 %; chrysanthemum juice 60 %; sugar 8 % and citric acid 0.12 %, can make the cool tea in good nutrition, mouthfeel, flavor and quality.

  9. Ethanol Induced Toxicity and Lipid Peroxidation in Pregnant Mice: Protective Effects of Butanolic Extract from Leaves of Chrysanthemum fontanesii, Vitamin E and C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amel Amrani

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The objective of the present study was to investigate the ability of butanolic extract from leaves of Chrysanthemum fontanesii, vitamin E and C to modulate ethanol-Induced toxicity and oxidation damage in maternal and fetal tissues of mice. Butanolic extract from leaves of Chrysanthemum fontanesii (200 mg/Kg per day, vitamin E (100mg/Kg per day and C (8.3mg/Kg per day were administered by gavage to groups of pregnant mice from the 6 th to 17 th day of gestation. A number of animals received plant extract, vitamin E and C, also treated with an oral administration of ethanol (0.02ml/g of 25% v/v absolute ethanol in water per day in same conditions. On day 18 of gestation, pregnant mice were killed, fetus, placenta, fetal liver, liver, kidneys and brain were removed, homogenised and used for determination of lipid peroxidation (LPO using TBARS method. Embryotoxicity was assessed by counting the number of live and dead fetus and growth retardation. Results: Severe alterations in all biomarkers were observed after injury with ETOH. ETOH produced significant decreases in fetal weight and significant increases in embryolethality and lipid peroxidation relative to control values. Treatment with Chrysanthemum fontanesii extract, vitamin C and vitamin E resulted in markedly decreased embryolethality and fetal growth retardation, while increased fetal weight were observed. Conclusion: The butanolic extract from leaves of Chrysanthemum fontanesii, vitamin E and C protected against ethanol induce fetal and maternal toxicity as revealed by the decrease in the extent of lipid peroxidation. So that butanolic extract from leaves of Chrysanthemum fontanesii posses in vivo antioxidant properties.

  10. The Northern Area Potted Three Chrysanthemum Plastic Greenhouse Shading Cultivation Technology Researches%北方地区塑料大棚遮光栽培三本菊提早开花技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶福民; 于春雷; 张文洋

    2013-01-01

    Through the researches on the plastic greenhouse shading cultivation and a series of maintenance technology, making the potted three chrysanthemum in the northern area flowing earlier than the others, has the very high economic significance.

  11. Characterization of new variety of Chrysanthemum by using ISSR markers Caracterização de novas cultivares de crisântemo com o uso de marcadores ISSR

    OpenAIRE

    SK Palai; Gyana Ranjan Rout

    2011-01-01

    Chrysanthemum is the important cut flower after rose among the ornamental plants traded in the global flower market. It is propagated vegetatively and also has a strong sporophytic self-incompatibility system as shown by all members of Asteraceae family. Morphologically, the petal numbers and flower colours present maximum variation when compared to existing varieties. Twenty Inter Simple Sequence Repeat primers were used to detect the new variety of Chrysanthemum developed through spontaneou...

  12. 枸杞菊花复合饮料的研制%Development of Wolfberry and Chrysanthemum Compound Beverage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张志艳; 王佳丽; 李志; 阮美娟; 张焱; 杜依登

    2014-01-01

    探讨以枸杞、菊花等药食同源材料制备一种新型明目复合饮料的最佳配方。以枸杞子、菊花、茯苓、石斛、决明子、桑叶、罗汉果、淡竹叶等为原料,添加适量酸和糖,在单因素实验的基础上通过正交试验确定复合饮料中各组分最佳添加量比例。复合浸提液配比为枸杞∶菊花∶决明子∶石斛∶罗汉果∶茯苓∶山药∶桑叶∶淡竹叶为20∶4∶12∶10∶1∶16∶16∶4∶4;饮料最佳配方为:复合原液50%、糖10%、酸0.15%。所制复合饮料呈亮黄色,香气协调、柔和,酸甜适中,口感浑厚。%We explore the best formula of a novel compound beverage, which was prepared by food and medicine homologous material, such as wolfberry and chrysanthemum. The optimal add amount of each component was determined by orthogonal on the basis of single factor experiments with wolfberry, chrysanthemum, Poria, Dendrobium, cassia, mulberry, Mangosteen, light bamboo as raw materials. The composite extract ratio of wolfberry, Chrysanthemum, Cassia, Dendrobium, Mangosteen, Poria, yam, Mulberry and short bamboo was 20∶4∶12∶10∶1∶16∶16∶4∶4. The best formula of beverage was composite liquid 50%, sugar 10%, acid 0.15%. Beverage of prepared were bright yellow, coordinate and soft aroma, moderate sweet and sour, vigorous taste.

  13. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles by Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat. extract and their application in clinical ultrasound gel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Y

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Yan He,1 Zhiyun Du,1,2 Huibin Lv,1 Qianfa Jia,1 Zhikai Tang,1 Xi Zheng,1,3 Kun Zhang,1 Fenghua Zhao11Institute of Natural Medicine and Green Chemistry, School of Chemical Engineering and Light Industry, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou, People’s Republic of China; 2State Key Laboratory of Natural and Biomimetic Drugs, Peking University, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; 3Susan Lehman Cullman Laboratory for Cancer Research, Department of Chemical Biology, Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, NJ, USAAbstract: Eco-friendly green synthesis with plant extracts plays a very important role in nanotechnology, without any harmful chemicals. In this report, the synthesis of water-soluble silver nanoparticles was developed by treating silver ions with Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat. extract at room temperature. The effect of the extract on the formation of silver nanoparticles was characterized by ultraviolet and visible absorption spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The ultraviolet and visible absorption spectroscopy results show a strong resonance centered on the surface of silver nanoparticles (AgNP at 430 nm. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy spectral study demonstrates Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat. extract acted as the reducing and stabilizing agent during the synthesis. The X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed that the synthesized AgNP are single crystallines, corresponding with the result of transmission electron microscopy. Water-soluble AgNP, with an approximate size of 20 nm–50 nm were also observed in the transmission electron microscopy image. The bactericidal properties of the synthesized AgNP were investigated using the agar-dilution method and the growth-inhibition test. The results show the AgNP had potent bactericidal activity on Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli, as

  14. Cloning of the chrysanthemum UEP1 promoter and comparative expression in florets and leaves of Dendranthema grandiflora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annadana, S; Beekwilder, M J; Kuipers, G; Visser, P B; Outchkourov, N; Pereira, A; Udayakumar, M; De Jong, J; Jongsma, M A

    2002-08-01

    To attain high transgene expression in petal tissue of ray florets of chrysanthemum an endogenous ubiquitin extension protein (UEP1) promoter was cloned and tested with the beta-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene. Expression levels were compared with four heterologous promoters: chalcone synthase (chs-A) and zinc finger transcription factor (EPF2-5) from petunia, eceriferum (CER6) from Arabidopsis and multicystatin (PMC) from potato. The comparison of the expression levels of the different constructs in ray florets, disc florets, and leaves is presented. The highest mean expression in petal tissue of ray and disc florets was conferred by the UEP1 promoter, followed by CER6 and EPF2-5. The UEP1 promoter in ray florets confers over 50-fold enhancement in expression as compared to CaMV 35S-based promoters. PMID:12212845

  15. Morphological Difference and DNA Diversity Between Flower-colour Sport and Original Cultivar of Chrysanthemum with Small Flowers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIN Helan; FENG Jiuying

    2011-01-01

    A total of 58 morphological characteristics were measured on flower-colour sport and original cultivar according to Disticness, Uniformity, Stability' (DUS) Test for New Plant Cultivar of Chrysanthemum published by Ministry of Agriculture of China The results showed that five characteristics such as the surface colour, the back color of ray floret among them were siginificantly different, their MS (mo by AFLP showed that rphological s GS (genetic imilarity) was 91.4%, and MD (morphological difference) was 8.62%. DNA polymorphic analysis similarity) was 98.6%, and GD (genetic polymorphic diversity) was 2.81%. Five distinct bands which may include the flower-colour sport genes or be the molecular marker linkaged flower-color characteristics were amplified.

  16. Effects of Chrysanthemum coronarium Extract on Fermentation Characteristics and Biohydrogenation of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in vitro Batch Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Li-fang; MA Yan-fen; GAO Min; LU De-xun

    2011-01-01

    IntroductionCis-9,trans-11 CLA has been shown to be potentially healthpromoting CLA in many animal models.The C18∶1 trans-11 fatty acid (VA) is also desirable as a product flowing from the rumen,because the flow from the rumen of VA play a more important role than CLA in determining CLA concentration in animal tissues.The factors which affect CLA content in milk have been studied mainly in dairy cows and most factors are basically dietary factors,especially fat source(e.g.,plant oils,fish oil,et al.).Recently some researches showed that some plants or plant extracts could increase cis-9,trans-11 -CLA content in milk.The purpose of this experiment was to evaluate the effects of Chrysanthemum coronarium extract on in vitro Biohydrogenation of polyunsaturated fatty acids and fermentation characteristics of mixed rumen microorganisms.

  17. Karyomorphology of six taxa in Chrysanthemum sensu lato (Anthemideae) in Egypt and their genetic relationships by Giemsa C-banding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Magdy Hussein ABD EL-TWAB; Ahmad Mohammad M. MEKAWY; Mohammad Saad EL-KATATNY

    2012-01-01

    Giemsa C-banding was applied to the chromosome complements of six diploid species belonging to six genera in Chrysanthemum sensu lato (Anthemideae) distributed in Egypt.Four types of C-banding distribution were observed in the taxa as follows:(i) negative C-banding in Anacyclus monanthos (L.) Thell.; (ii) all bands in terminal regions in Achilleafragrantissima (Forssk.) Sch.Bip,which showed 32 bands on 18 chromosomes; (iii)all eight bands at centromeric regions on eight chromosomes in Matricaria recutita L.; and (iv) bands at terminal and centromeric regions in Brocchia cinerea Vis.(12 terminal and six centromeric bands on 12 chromosomes),Cotula barbata DC.(four terminal,six centromeric,and eight short arm bands on 16 chromosomes),and Glebionis coronaria (L.) Cass.ex Spach.(eight terminal on the short arms and four large bands in centromeric regions on 12chromosomes).

  18. Chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflora Tzvelev) cross-mutant differences in the composition of genoms and content of pigments in the inflorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study investigated thirteen radiomutants of chrysanthemum, 'Lady Amber', 'Lady Apricot', 'Lady Bronze', 'Lady Orange', 'Lady Pink', 'Lady Rosy', 'Lady Salmon', 'Lady White' 'Lady Vitroflora', 'Lady Yellow', 'Bronze Wonder', 'Red Wonder', 'Mini Nero', derived from three original cultivars - 'Richmond', 'Lilac Wonder' and 'Red Nero'. The research aimed at defining the cross-cultivar differences of the mutants obtained. The genoms were analyzed with the RAPD-PCR method. The complete genom DNA isolated from the plants researched was amplified with the PCR reaction. Twenty 10-nucletide primers were tested and there were obtained profiles of bands in agarose gel stained with ethidium bromide. Eight primers (OPB 04, OPB 18, OPF 06, OPM 09, OPM 18, RAD 01, RAD 09, RAD 12) showed a cross-cultivar polymorphism, which again justified the application of the RAPD markers to define cross-cultivar differences of the chrysanthemum researched; the technique especially useful to distinguish the cultivars in their vegetative stage when the plant similarity is very high. To define the composition of pigments in fresh petals of the cultivars investigated, flavonoids and carotenoids were extracted with acetone and a 1% hydrochloric acid in methanol. The spectra of pigments obtained were measured with the UV-VIS Shimadzu - 1601 PC spectrophotometer from 190 to 800 nm. The results showed differences in the quantity and quality of pigments in the inflorescence in the cultivars investigated. The spectra of individual cultivars differed in their maximum absorption spectra at the specific wave length pigment and in their value of absorbance responsible for a varied concentration of pigments. (author)

  19. The effect of sucrose and 8-hydroxyquinoline sulphate (8-HQS on keeping qualities of bud-cut Chrysanthemum flowers and the level of reducing sugars in the florets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Łukaszewska

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Chrysanthemums harvested as buds of 50-60 mm in diameter and held in the solutions of sucrose and 8-HQS had inflorescences of quality equal to those opened on the plant and better than flowers placed in water. Exogenous sucrose prolonged vase-life of cv. 'Bronze Bornholm' but did not affect cv. 'Crimson Robe'. No difference was observed in the quality of flowers placed in different sucrose concentrations. All the solutions which improved keeping qualities of cut chrysanthemums caused considerable increase in the flower fresh and dry matter. Also an increase in reducing sugars was found in flowers of both cultivars he1d in the solutions of sucrose and 8-HQS.

  20. Ethylene glycol-mediated synthesis of nanoporous anatase TiO{sub 2} rods and rutile TiO{sub 2} self-assembly chrysanthemums

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Quanjun [State Key Laboratory of Superhard Materials, Jilin University, Qianwei Road, Changchun 130012 (China); Liu Bingbing [State Key Laboratory of Superhard Materials, Jilin University, Qianwei Road, Changchun 130012 (China)], E-mail: liubb@jlu.edu.cn; Li Yingai; Liu Ran; Li Xianglin; Li Dongmei; Yu Shidan; Liu Dedi; Wang Peng; Li Bing; Zou Bo; Cui Tian; Zou Guangtian [State Key Laboratory of Superhard Materials, Jilin University, Qianwei Road, Changchun 130012 (China)

    2009-03-05

    Nanoporous anatase TiO{sub 2} rods and rutile TiO{sub 2} chrysanthemums were successfully synthesized via a simple ethylene glycol-mediated synthesis route. Their morphologies, phase compositions and components were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Raman and IR, respectively. The results show that a self-assembly growth takes place in the calcination under vacuum, which makes the titanium glycolate rods transform into rutile TiO{sub 2}/C chrysanthemums rather than anatase TiO{sub 2} rods. It also indicates that the carbon plays an important role in the phase transition process which promotes the phase transition to rutile TiO{sub 2} at a lower temperature (400 deg. C). It provides a new approach to prepare nanoporous rutile TiO{sub 2} nanomaterials under low temperature.

  1. Ethylene glycol-mediated synthesis of nanoporous anatase TiO2 rods and rutile TiO2 self-assembly chrysanthemums

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanoporous anatase TiO2 rods and rutile TiO2 chrysanthemums were successfully synthesized via a simple ethylene glycol-mediated synthesis route. Their morphologies, phase compositions and components were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Raman and IR, respectively. The results show that a self-assembly growth takes place in the calcination under vacuum, which makes the titanium glycolate rods transform into rutile TiO2/C chrysanthemums rather than anatase TiO2 rods. It also indicates that the carbon plays an important role in the phase transition process which promotes the phase transition to rutile TiO2 at a lower temperature (400 deg. C). It provides a new approach to prepare nanoporous rutile TiO2 nanomaterials under low temperature

  2. The Effects of Fungicide, Soil Fumigant, Bio-Organic Fertilizer and Their Combined Application on Chrysanthemum Fusarium Wilt Controlling, Soil Enzyme Activities and Microbial Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shuang; Chen, Xi; Deng, Shiping; Dong, Xuena; Song, Aiping; Yao, Jianjun; Fang, Weimin; Chen, Fadi

    2016-01-01

    Sustained monoculture often leads to a decline in soil quality, in particular to the build-up of pathogen populations, a problem that is conventionally addressed by the use of either fungicide and/or soil fumigation. This practice is no longer considered to be either environmentally sustainable or safe. While the application of organic fertilizer is seen as a means of combating declining soil fertility, it has also been suggested as providing some control over certain soil-borne plant pathogens. Here, a greenhouse comparison was made of the Fusarium wilt control efficacy of various treatments given to a soil in which chrysanthemum had been produced continuously for many years. The treatments comprised the fungicide carbendazim (MBC), the soil fumigant dazomet (DAZ), the incorporation of a Paenibacillus polymyxa SQR21 (P. polymyxa SQR21, fungal antagonist) enhanced bio-organic fertilizer (BOF), and applications of BOF combined with either MBC or DAZ. Data suggest that all the treatments evaluated show good control over Fusarium wilt. The MBC and DAZ treatments were effective in suppressing the disease, but led to significant decrease in urease activity and no enhancement of catalase activity in the rhizosphere soils. BOF including treatments showed significant enhancement in soil enzyme activities and microbial communities compared to the MBC and DAZ, evidenced by differences in bacterial/fungi (B/F) ratios, Shannon-Wiener indexes and urease, catalase and sucrase activities in the rhizosphere soil of chrysanthemum. Of all the treatments evaluated, DAZ/BOF application not only greatly suppressed Fusarium wilt and enhanced soil enzyme activities and microbial communities but also promoted the quality of chrysanthemum obviously. Our findings suggest that combined BOF with DAZ could more effectively control Fusarium wilt disease of chrysanthemum. PMID:27110753

  3. Effect of different irrigation thresholds on growth and yield of garland chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum coronarium L.) in greenhouse%不同灌水下限对温室茼蒿生长和产量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨文斌; 郝仲勇; 王凤新; 苏利茂; 要晋峰; 麻军; 胡佳林

    2011-01-01

    该文采用15 cm深处土水势为茼蒿的控制灌水下限,研究在模拟微喷条件下控制灌水下限对温室茼蒿生长和产量的影响.共设6个处理,灌水下限分别是-10 kPa(T1),-15 kPa(T2),-20 kPa(T3),-25 kPa(T4),-30 kPa(T5)和-40 kPa(T6).结果表明,不同的灌水下限对茼蒿产量的影响显著,灌水下限为控制在-15 kPa是产量最高,分别比其他处理增加了0.5%,18.7%,62.6%,73.4%,71.7%,在整个生育期灌水量为195 mm,比与其产量相近的T1处理节水56.4%.T2处理的株高和生长速率在生长后期与T1无差异.灌水下限低于-25 kPa,水分亏缺严重,影响出苗,不利于茼蒿生长.以-15 kPa土水势作为控制灌水下限,有利于茼蒿生长,可以达到高产、节水的目的.%An experiment was conducted to study the effect of different irrigation thresholds on yield and growth of garland chrysanthemum under simulated micro-spray irrigation in greenhouse.The experiment included six treatments,which controlled soil water potential (SWP) at 15cm depth with -10 kPa (T1),-15 kPa (T2), -20 kPa (T3), -25 kPa (T4),-30 kPa (T5) and -40 kPa (T6), respectively.The results showed that effect of different irrigation threshold on the crop yield was significant.Treatment T2 had the highest yield and compared with T1, T3, T4, T5 and T6, its yield increased by 0.5%, 18.7%, 62.6%, 73.4%, 71.7%, respectively.Irrigation amount ofT2 was 195 mm throughout the growth period, saving 56.4% than that ofT1.The plant height and growth rate ofT2 had no difference from T1.When the irrigation threshold was lower than -25 kPa in SWP, garland chrysanthemum would be under severe water stress,negatively affecting seedling emergence and restraining its growth.The SWP of- 15 kPa was recommended as the best irrigation threshold for garland chrysanthemum, because of both high-yield and water-saving.

  4. 菊花EST-SSR分析及标记开发%EST-SSR Analysis and Marker Development for Chrysanthemum morifolium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万志兵; 陈燕; 闫莹莹; 陈黎

    2013-01-01

    为了开发菊花的分子标记,对7 087条菊花EST进行拼接,得到275个contigs,发现50个SSR位点;在拼接的contigs中SSR平均密度为每2 854.3 bp含有1个SSR.三核苷酸重复基元的SSR类型最多,占总数的50.00%;在二碱基重复中,最主要的优势重复基元是AC和AG;三碱基中CAT和CCA为优势重复基元;四碱基、五碱基重复类型中,(TTTN)n和(ATTTN)n重复基元为对应优势基元;这些优势重复基元中富含碱基A和T,菊花EST序列中高度变异的微卫星(长度>20 bp)约占2.00%.根据得到的菊花EST-SSR,共设计出428对引物,并选取了28对SSR引物对黄山贡菊基因组DNA进行PCR扩增,其中有27对引物扩增成功.%7087 EST of Chrysanthemum morifolium were assembled in order to provide molecular markers, and 275 contigs were obtained. There were 50 microsatellites (SSRs) were detected and averagely there was one SSR locus detected from 2 854. 3 bp of contigs. Trinucleotide repeats were the most abundant repeats (50. 00% ) a-mong these SSR types. As for the composition of microsatellites, AC, AG repeats were the richest motif in dinucle-otide repeats, and CAT, CCA repeats were the most frequent motifs in trinucleotide repeats, whereas (TTTN) n and (ATTTN ) n repeats were dominant in tetra- and penta-nucleotide repeats, respectively. All the dominant repeat motifs for different type of SSRs were rich in A and T alkali bases. In EST of C. morifolium, microsatellites longer than 20 bp accounted for about 00% of the detected SSRs. 428 pairs of primers were designed using Primer 5. 0 and Oligo 6. 0 according to these EST sequences containing SSR. 28 pairs of primers were randomly selected for PCR test with genomic DNA of Huangshan variety of Chrysanthemum morifolium, and 27 primer pairs succeeded in amplification, with successful ratio of 96. 4%.

  5. Studies on the In Vitro Antiproliferative, Antimicrobial, Antioxidant, and Acetylcholinesterase Inhibition Activities Associated with Chrysanthemum coronarium Essential Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanaa K. Bardaweel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The essential oil of the Jordanian Chrysanthemum coronarium L. (garland was isolated by hydrodistillation from dried flowerheads material. The oil was essayed for its in vitro scavenging activity using the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH method. The results demonstrate that the oil exhibits moderate radical scavenging activity relative to the strong antioxidant ascorbic acid. In addition, cholinesterase inhibitory activity of C. coronarium essential oil was evaluated for the first time. Applying Ellman’s colorimetric method, interesting cholinesterase inhibitory activity, which is not dose dependent, was evident for the oil. Furthermore, antimicrobial activities of the oil against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria were evaluated. While it fails to inhibit Gram-negative bacteria growth, the antibacterial effects demonstrated by the oil were more pronounced against the Gram-positive strains. Moreover, the examined oil was assessed for its in vitro antiproliferative properties where it demonstrated variable activities towards different human cancer cell lines, of which the colon cancer was the most sensitive to the oil treatment.

  6. Genetic signatures from amplification profiles characterize DNA mutation in somatic and radiation-induced sports of chrysanthemum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflora Tzvelev.) cultivars 'Dark Charm', 'Salmon Charm', 'Coral Charm' and 'Dark Bronze Charm' are either radiation-induced mutants or spontaneous sports of 'Charm' and constitute a family or series of plants that primarily differ in flower color. These cultivars, which were difficult to differentiate genetically by DNA amplification fingerprinting (DAF), were easily identified by using arbitrary signatures from amplification profiles (ASAP). Genomic DNA was first amplified with three standard octamer arbitrary primers, all of which produced monomorphic profiles. Products from each of these DNA fingerprints were subsequently reamplified using four minihairpin decamer primers. The 12 primer combinations produced signatures containing approximately 37% polymorphic character loci, which were used to estimate genetic relationships between cultivars. Forty-six (32%) unique amplification products were associated with individual cultivars. The number of ASAP polymorphisms detected provided an estimate of the mutation rate in the mutant cultivars, ranging from 0.03% to 1.6% of nucleotide changes within an average of 18 kb of arbitrary amplified DAF sequence. The ASAP technique permits the clear genetic identification of somatic mutants and radiation-induced sports that are genetically highly homogeneous and should facilitate marker assisted breeding and protection of plant breeders rights of varieties or cultivars

  7. Rosette growth of shoots in chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflora Tzvelev) as a result of in vitro propagation of plants and gamma irradiation used for mutation induction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosette growth of chrysanthemum shoots in 'Mrs. R.C. Puling' was observed after in vitro propagation with explants obtained from vernalised and non-vernalised stock plants. The phenomenon was also observed as a result of the exposure of leaf explants to gamma radiation used for in vitro regeneration of plants in mutation induction. The higher the irradiation dose, the more considerable the rosette growth. Following the 4th pinching of shoot tips, only elongating growth of plants was observed

  8. Using the quantum yields of photosystem II and the rate of net photosynthesis to monitor high irradiance and temperature stress in chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflora)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wakjera, Eshetu Janka; Körner, Oliver; Rosenqvist, Eva;

    2015-01-01

    control regime may be optimised by monitoring plant responses, and may be promptly adjusted when plant performance is affected by extreme microclimatic conditions, such as high irradiance or temperature. To determine the stress indicators of plants based on their physiological responses, net...... in the NPQ determined the PSII operating efficiency, with no major change in the fraction of open PSII centres (qL) (indicating a QA redox state). We conclude that 1) chrysanthemum plants cope with excess irradiance by non-radiative dissipation or a reversible stress response, with the effect on the...

  9. Contribution à l’étude morphologique, chimique et thérapeutique pour l’espèce Chrysanthemum balsamita L.

    OpenAIRE

    Marculescu, Angela; Tamas, M.

    2014-01-01

    Note portant sur l’auteur Note portant sur l’auteur Introduction Chrysanthemum balsamita L. (Famille Asteraceae, sous-famille Tubuliflorae) balsamite, (menthe-coq, menthe de la Sainte-Vierge) originaire de l’Asie de Sud-Ouest, a été amenée en Europe dès l’Antiquité. En Roumanie Ch. b. est cultivée dans les jardins paysans et dans les cimetières comme plante ornementale mais aussi comme plante aromatique et guérissante. Dans la médicine traditionnelle roumaine, la balsamite a été utilisée sous...

  10. Rapid adjustment in chrysanthemum carbohydrate turnover and growth activity to a change in time-of-day application of light and daylength

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Katrine Heinsvig; Poiré, Richard; Ottosen, Carl-Otto;

    2012-01-01

    with an onset of a daily starch turnover by a shift to short days. These results confirm findings from model species on the complex relationship between carbohydrate metabolism, source–sink relations and growth rate and they shed new light on the dynamic processes during acclimation towards altered...... diurnally-regulated parameters related to growth. In this study, chrysanthemum plants were exposed to a change in the time-of-day application of light followed by short days or long days with a night interruption of light. We observed a clear shift in the diel cycle of sucrose turnover and relative leaf...

  11. 10种提取液对菊花花瓣中类胡萝卜素提取效率的影响%Analysis on Efficiency of Ten Extracts for Carotenoid Content in Petals of Chrysanthemum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    车越; 王普; 孙卫; 戴思兰

    2011-01-01

    类胡萝卜素是菊花中一类重要的呈色物质,高效提取类胡萝卜素对于分离和鉴定色素组成以及研究菊花的呈色机理十分重要.分别采用丙酮、甲醇、无水乙醇、无水乙醚、石油醚、丙酮∶石油醚不同体积比(1∶1、1∶2、1∶4、2∶1、4∶1 )10种提取液,提取菊花品种光辉及Reagan Orange舌状花中的的类胡萝卜素,用紫外-可见光分光光度计测定提取液中类胡萝卜素的相对含量.结果发现,不同提取液中菊花类胡萝卜素的提取量不同;醇类为菊花中类胡萝卜素较适合的提取液.结果还表明,菊花中含氧类胡萝卜素含量较高.%Carotenoid is an important kind of coloring material in chrysanthemum, and extracting this component efficiently is very important for the isolation and identification of pigment composition and the coloring mechanism of chrysanthemum. 10 different extraction solutions were used, including petroleum ether, methanol, anhydrous ethyl alcohol, anhydrous ether, acetone, acetone : petroleum ether in different ratios (1:1; 1:2; 1:4; 2:1; 4:1) to extract carotenoids in the petals of chrysanthemum 'Brilliant' and 'Reagan Orange'. The relative content of total carotenoids was calculated from UV-VIS spectrometer. The results showed that the quantity of extracts varied in 10 extracts of chrysanthemum; Alcohol was more suitable for extracting the carotenoids of chrysanthemum; It also indicated that most of the carotenoids in chrysanthemum was oxygenated compounds and it could lay the foundation for the study of compounds and content of carotenoid in chrysanthemum.

  12. Inhibitory Effects of Chrysanthemum boreale Essential Oil on Biofilm Formation and Virulence Factor Expression of Streptococcus mutans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Beom-Su; Park, Sun-Ju; Kim, Myung-Kon; Kim, Young-Hoi; Lee, Sang-Bong; Lee, Kwang-Hee; Choi, Na-Young; Lee, Young-Rae; Lee, Young-Eun; You, Yong-Ouk

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the antibacterial activity of essential oil extracted from Chrysanthemum boreale (C. boreale) on Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans). To investigate anticariogenic properties, and bacterial growth, acid production, biofilm formation, bacterial adherence of S. mutans were evaluated. Then gene expression of several virulence factors was also evaluated. C. boreale essential oil exhibited significant inhibition of bacterial growth, adherence capacity, and acid production of S. mutans at concentrations 0.1-0.5 mg/mL and 0.25-0.5 mg/mL, respectively. The safranin staining and scanning electron microscopy results showed that the biofilm formation was also inhibited. The result of live/dead staining showed the bactericidal effect. Furthermore, real-time PCR analysis showed that the gene expression of some virulence factors such as gtfB, gtfC, gtfD, gbpB, spaP, brpA, relA, and vicR of S. mutans was significantly decreased in a dose dependent manner. In GC and GC-MS analysis, seventy-two compounds were identified in the oil, representing 85.42% of the total oil. The major components were camphor (20.89%), β-caryophyllene (5.71%), α-thujone (5.46%), piperitone (5.27%), epi-sesquiphellandrene (5.16%), α-pinene (4.97%), 1,8-cineole (4.52%), β-pinene (4.45%), and camphene (4.19%). These results suggest that C. boreale essential oil may inhibit growth, adhesion, acid tolerance, and biofilm formation of S. mutans through the partial inhibition of several of these virulence factors. PMID:25763094

  13. Roles of DgBRC1 in regulation of lateral branching in chrysanthemum (Dendranthema ×grandiflora cv. Jinba.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoli Chen

    Full Text Available The diverse plasticity of plant architecture is largely determined by shoot branching. Shoot branching is an event regulated by multiple environmental, developmental and hormonal stimuli through triggering lateral bud response. After perceiving these signals, the lateral buds will respond and make a decision on whether to grow out. TCP transcriptional factors, BRC1/TB1/FC1, were previously proven to be involved in local inhibition of shoot branching in Arabidopsis, pea, tomato, maize and rice. To investigate the function of BRC1, we isolated the BRC1 homolog from chrysanthemum. There were two transcripts of DgBRC1 coming from two alleles in one locus, both of which complemented the multiple branches phenotype of Arabidopsis brc1-1, indicating that both are functionally conserved. DgBRC1 was mainly expressed in dormant axillary buds, and down-regulated at the bud activation stage, and up-regulated by higher planting densities. DgBRC1 transcripts could respond to apical auxin supply and polar auxin transport. Moreover, we found that the acropetal cytokinin stream promoted branch outgrowth whether or not apical auxin was present. Basipetal cytokinin promoted outgrowth of branches in the absence of apical auxin, while strengthening the inhibitory effects on lower buds in the presence of apical auxin. The influence of auxin and strigolactons (SLs on the production of cytokinin was investigated, we found that auxin locally down-regulated biosynthesis of cytokinin in nodes, SLs also down-regulated the biosynthesis of cytokinin, the interactions among these phytohormones need further investigation.

  14. Roles of DgBRC1 in regulation of lateral branching in chrysanthemum (Dendranthema ×grandiflora cv. Jinba).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaoli; Zhou, Xiaoyang; Xi, Lin; Li, Junxiang; Zhao, Ruiyan; Ma, Nan; Zhao, Liangjun

    2013-01-01

    The diverse plasticity of plant architecture is largely determined by shoot branching. Shoot branching is an event regulated by multiple environmental, developmental and hormonal stimuli through triggering lateral bud response. After perceiving these signals, the lateral buds will respond and make a decision on whether to grow out. TCP transcriptional factors, BRC1/TB1/FC1, were previously proven to be involved in local inhibition of shoot branching in Arabidopsis, pea, tomato, maize and rice. To investigate the function of BRC1, we isolated the BRC1 homolog from chrysanthemum. There were two transcripts of DgBRC1 coming from two alleles in one locus, both of which complemented the multiple branches phenotype of Arabidopsis brc1-1, indicating that both are functionally conserved. DgBRC1 was mainly expressed in dormant axillary buds, and down-regulated at the bud activation stage, and up-regulated by higher planting densities. DgBRC1 transcripts could respond to apical auxin supply and polar auxin transport. Moreover, we found that the acropetal cytokinin stream promoted branch outgrowth whether or not apical auxin was present. Basipetal cytokinin promoted outgrowth of branches in the absence of apical auxin, while strengthening the inhibitory effects on lower buds in the presence of apical auxin. The influence of auxin and strigolactons (SLs) on the production of cytokinin was investigated, we found that auxin locally down-regulated biosynthesis of cytokinin in nodes, SLs also down-regulated the biosynthesis of cytokinin, the interactions among these phytohormones need further investigation. PMID:23613914

  15. Effect of Plant Growth Regulators on a Shoot and Root Formation from the Leaf and Flower Culture of a Standard-type Chrysanthemum 'Jinba'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study we investigated the conditions of a higher frequency for regenerated plants from different explants of a standard-type chrysanthemum 'Jinba'. In vitro culture was initiated on an MS medium containing 3% sucrose, 0.8% agar, and 5 μM benzyl adenine (BA) with naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) by using surface-sterilized leaf and flower tissues from greenhouse-grown plants. Direct shoot regeneration from the leaf and flower explants was obtained 21 to 28 days after the initial culture. Among the seven combinations of the growth regulators used for the culture, the most efficient condition for the shoot and root formation from the leaf tissue was obtained when the MS basic medium was supplemented with 0.5 mg L-¹ BA and 1.0 mg L-¹ NAA, and 0.1 mg L-¹ BA and 0.5 mg L-¹ NAA, while the culture using floret tissues was most efficient on the medium supplemented with 0.5 mg L-¹ BA and 0.5 mg L-¹ NAA, and 0.1 mg L-¹ BA and 1.0 mg L-¹ NAA. These results will provide valuable information to help set up an efficient system for a tissue culture of chrysanthemum cv. Jinba to improve one or some of its negative traits in combination with a radiation mutagenesis approach

  16. Development and application of creation technology of new crops by radiation. Induction effect of mutation of flower color of chrysanthemum by 12C5+ ion beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dose-effect of cultured explant of chrysanthemum by 12C5+ ion beam irradiation and mutation of flower color induced by redifferentiation individuals were studied. The inductive effect of mutation by ion beam was compared with that of γ-ray. Damage of cultured explant by ion beam irradiation was observed at first at 5 Gy. LD50, LD75 and LD100 were shown by 10 Gy, 20 Gy and 30 Gy dose, respectively. Callus formation and individuals redifferentiation were obtained in explant by dose to 20 Gy. 5-15 Gy seemed to be suitable dose of 12C5+ ion beam to explant of chrysanthemum. On damage by γ-ray, LD50 and LD100 were observed by 45 Gy and 80 Gy, respectively. On the basis of LD50, the biological effect of ion beam was about 4.5 times as large as that of γ-ray. In the case of ''Taihei'', the stock seed, more large amount of multi color variant was induced by ion-beam, especially, it was remarkable such a case as flower used as explant. Ion beam 12C5+ irradiation induced mutation to multicolors. Both irradiations induced mutation more to flower than to leaf. (S.Y.)

  17. Expression profile analysis of genes involved in horizontal gravitropism bending growth in the creeping shoots of ground-cover chrysanthemum by suppression subtractive hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Shengjun; Chen, Yu; Jiang, Jiafu; Chen, Sumei; Guan, Zhiyong; Fang, Weimin; Chen, Fadi

    2013-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms underlying gravitropic bending of shoots are poorly understood and how genes related with this growing progress is still unclear. To identify genes related to asymmetric growth in the creeping shoots of chrysanthemum, suppression subtractive hybridization was used to visualize differential gene expression in the upper and lower halves of creeping shoots of ground-cover chrysanthemum under gravistimulation. Sequencing of 43 selected clones produced 41 unigenes (40 singletons and 1 unigenes), which were classifiable into 9 functional categories. A notable frequency of genes involve in cell wall biosynthesis up-regulated during gravistimulation in the upper side or lower side were found, such as beta tubulin (TUB), subtilisin-like protease (SBT), Glutathione S-transferase (GST), and expensing-like protein (EXP), lipid transfer proteins (LTPs), glycine-rich protein (GRP) and membrane proteins. Our findings also highlighted the function of some metal transporter during asymmetric growth, including the boron transporter (BT) and ZIP transporter (ZT), which were thought primarily for maintaining the integrity of cell walls and played important roles in cellulose biosynthesis. CmTUB (beta tubulin) was cloned, and the expression profile and phylogeny was examined, because the cytoskeleton of plant cells involved in the plant gravitropic bending growth is well known. PMID:23065216

  18. Management of Chimera and In Vitro Mutagenesis for Development of New Flower Color/Shape and Chlorophyll Variegated Mutants in Chrysanthemum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mutation breeding is an established method for crop improvement and has played a major role in the development of many new flower color/shape mutant varieties in ornamentals. The main bottleneck with vegetatively propagated plants is that the mutation appears as a chimera after treatment with physical and/or chemical mutagens. A small sector of a mutated branch or flower cannot be isolated using the available conventional propagation techniques. A novel technique has been standardized for the management of such chimeric tissues through direct shoot regeneration from chrysanthemum florets. This direct novel regeneration protocol has been successfully used not only for the isolation of chimeric mutant tissues developed through sports, but also to develop a series of new flower color/shape mutants through induced mutagenesis. Gamma radiation and tissue culture techniques have been optimized to regenerate plants from stem internodes, stem nodes, shoot tips and ray florets for in vitro management of chimera and for in vitro mutagenesis. Chimera isolation has practical importance not only for chrysanthemum but for breeding of other ornamentals also. The present technique will open up a new way for isolating new flower color/shape ornamental cultivars through retrieval of mutated cells. (author)

  19. Rational use of electrical energy in artificial light in the production of chrysanthemum seedlings in greenhouse; Uso racional de energia eletrica em iluminacao artificial na producao de mudas de crisantemo em ambiente protegido

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David, Eduardo [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (FEA/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Agricola], e-mail: eduardo.david@gr.unicamp.br; Rossi, Luiz Antonio [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (DEA/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Agricola], e-mail: rossi@agr.unicamp.br

    2008-07-01

    The type of artificial illumination employed for chrysanthemum cultivation in greenhouses to induce photo period effect will determine its growing rate as well as the energy consumption. Incandescent filament is currently employed for artificial illumination in chrysanthemum nursery to induce photo period effect. Nowadays new illumination technology is being tested aiming energy consumption reduction. The application of illumination based on electrical discharge in sodium or mercury vapor, as well as tubular or integrated compact fluorescent bulbs in chrysanthemum cultivation is identified as the objective of this research work. The experimental part of this work was carried out in a commercial greenhouse model employing five chrysanthemum variety as Papiro, Lindy White, Mona Lisa Rose, Euro Speedy and Stateman during winter and summer period. Parameters employed to the study variety behavior included: production per area, fresh matter weight, presence of flower sprouts and moisture content. The parameters known as electrical variables, like consumption, demand and power factor, together with the treatment energy efficiency index were used to analyze the employed illumination technologies and light bulbs type. Results showed differences between weight of fresh flowers and moisture content for the flowers variety under consideration. Productivity per unit area was noticed to be larger for discharge technology when compared with filament bulbs, for both varieties being tested. The lowest flower sprout occurrence was associated to the discharge technology with the exception of the variety Stateman produced with incandescent bulbs of 100 W in the winter plot. The unique exception related to discharge technology was associated to the White 23 W Integrated Compact Fluorescent bulb yielding 2.4% of flower sprouts compared with 0% of other bulb types associated to the production of the variety Euro Speedy. It was noticed from the results that the yellow integrated compact

  20. Scientific Opinion on the risk to plant health posed by Chrysanthemum stunt viroid for the EU territory, with identification and evaluation of risk reduction options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Plant Health (PLH

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The Panel on Plant Health conducted a pest risk assessment for Chrysanthemum stunt viroid (CSVd and identified and evaluated risk reduction options, particularly those listed in Council Directive 2000/29/EC. Three entry pathways were identified, with plants for planting being the most important and rated as moderately likely. CSVd is recorded in some EU Member States with a limited distribution and is regulated on chrysanthemum; host plants are widely cultivated in greenhouses and outdoors. Therefore, establishment is very likely. Short-distance spread within a crop is likely, whereas short-distance spread between different species is unlikely to moderately likely. For vegetatively propagated species, in the absence of an efficient certification system, long-distance spread is very likely and a major impact would be expected on chrysanthemum, with associated yield and quality losses. However, under the existing certification scheme for chrysanthemum plant propagation material, the probability of spread through infected cuttings is largely reduced and the direct consequences of viroid outbreaks are expected to be minor. Minimal impact is predicted for other ornamental hosts and a minor impact for solanaceous vegetable crops. The indirect effects of CSVd are considered to be limited, with the exception of eradication. Risk reduction options addressing the sanitary status of the propagation material are likely to be the most effective and feasible. These include the current EU measures, as well as a statutory certification system with associated statutory import requirements or, failing that, but potentially less effective, the use of voluntary industry standards. It is difficult to disentangle the benefits of the current legislation from those of the industry-developed chrysanthemum certification system. The high efficacy of current measures is supported by the absence or limited presence of CSVd in the EU and by the limited number of

  1. Comparison of antioxidant activities of different parts from snow chrysanthemum (Coreopsis tinctoria Nutt.) and identification of their natural antioxidants using high performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detection and mass spectrometry and 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-sulfonic acid)diammonium salt-based assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, L X; Hu, D J; Lam, S C; Ge, L; Wu, D; Zhao, J; Long, Z R; Yang, W J; Fan, B; Li, S P

    2016-01-01

    Snow chrysanthemum (Coreopsis tinctoria Nutt.), a world-widely well-known flower tea material, has attracted more and more attention because of its beneficial health effects such as antioxidant activity and special flavor. In this study, a high performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detection and mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-MS) and 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-sulfonic acid)diammonium salt (ABTS) based assay was employed for comparison and identification of antioxidants in different samples of snow chrysanthemum. The results showed that snow chrysanthemum flowers possessed the highest while stems presented the lowest antioxidant capacities. Fourteen detected peaks with antioxidant activity were temporarily identified as 3,4',5,6,7-pentahydroxyflavanone-O-hexoside, chlorogenic acid, 2R-3',4',8-trihydroxyflavanone-7-O-glucoside, flavanomarein, flavanocorepsin, flavanokanin, quercetagitin-7-O-glucoside, 3',5,5',7-tetrahydroxyflavanone-O-hexoside, marein, maritimein, 1,3-dicaffeoylquinic acid, coreopsin, okanin and acetyl-marein by comparing their UV spectra, retention times and MS data with standards or literature data. Antioxidants existed in snow chrysanthemum are quite different from those reported in Chrysanthemum morifolium, a well-known traditional beverage in China, which indicated that snow chrysanthemum may be a promising herbal tea material with obvious antioxidant activity. PMID:26521095

  2. 5种切花菊内生真菌的分离鉴定与分布情况研究%Research on Isolation, Identification and Distribution of Endophytic Fungi from Five Cut Chrysanthemums

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马龑; 赵大克; 郑丽

    2014-01-01

    研究了5个常见切花菊品种内生真菌的分离鉴定与分布情况,以寻找切花菊自身抗性真菌并为今后开展生物防治提供基础资料。找到了切花菊各部位材料的表面灭菌处理最优方法,发现切花菊内生真菌在分离中出现幼嫩部位内生真菌分离数量明显高于成熟部位,并且根分布最多,叶次之,茎最少。5个切花菊的内生真菌中,镰刀菌属( Fusarium)和枝孢属( Cladosporium)为优势菌群。5个切花菊品种内生真菌的分布存在一定相似度,但不同品种还是存在自己特有的内生真菌,说明切花菊的内生真菌分布有一定多样性。%The isolation, identification and distribution of endophytic fungi from five common cut chrysanthemum cultivars were studied to find out their own resistant fungi and provide fundamental data for the future studies on biological control.The optimal method for surface sterilization treatment of various parts of cut chrysanthemum materials was found.It was found that the quantity of isolated endophytic fungi from the tender part of cut chrysanthemums was obviously higher than that from the mature part, and the distribution of endophytic fungi in different parts showed the following order:root>leaf>stem.Among endophytic fungi from five cut chrysanthemums, Fusarium and Cladosporium were dominant fungal community.Five cut chrysanthemum cultivars were some-what similar in the distribution of endophytic fungi, but different cultivars also had their own unique endophytic fungi, indicating that the distribution of endophytic fungi in cut chrysanthemums had a certain diversity.

  3. Effect of Mn-doping on the growth mechanism and electromagnetic properties of chrysanthemum-like ZnO nanowire clusters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Jun-Feng; You Tian-Gui; Zhang Zhi-Yong; Tian Jiang-Xiao; Yun Jiang-Ni; Zhao Wu

    2011-01-01

    Chrysanthemum-like ZnO nanowire clusters with different Mn-doping concentrations are prepared by a hydrothermal process. The microstructure, morphology and electromagnetic properties are characterized by x-ray diffractometer high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), a field emission environment scanning electron microscope (FEESEM)and a microwave vector network analyser respectively.The experimental results indicate that the asprepared products are Mn-doped ZnO single crystalline with a hexagonal wurtzite structure, that the growth habit changes due to Mn-doping and that a good magnetic loss property is found in the Mn-doped ZnO products, and theaverage magnetic loss tangent tan6m is up to 0.170099 for 3% Mn-doping, while the dielectric loss tangent tanSe is weakened, owing to the fact that ions Mn2+ enter the crystal lattice of ZnO.

  4. 地被菊在园林设计中的应用研究%Application of Ground- Cover Chrysanthemum with Small Inflorescences to Gardens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨俊; 卢明明; 孙莺沙

    2012-01-01

    指出了地被菊作为一类植株低矮、抗逆性强、花色丰富、花期较长、开花繁密的菊花新品种群,是非常优良的地被植物,适宜在城市景观绿化中推广使用。分析了其形态特征,探讨了地被菊对环境的适应性,及在园林设计中的应用。%Ground - cover chrysanthemum is a new kind of ornamental plants. Its horticultural properties are also good. It has lower plant height, rich color, longer blossom period, numerous flowers per plant and strong resistance of stress such as cold, heat, drought, salt, air pollution etc. Therefore, it is suitable to be applied to gardens.

  5. Effects of Hydroabsorbent Mixed Slow Release Fertilizers on Growth and Nutrients Uptake of Edible Chrysanthemum%保水缓释肥料对食用菊花生长及养分吸收的影响研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李传章; 高丽娟; 黄景; 孙钦平; 许俊香; 刘本生; 李吉进

    2012-01-01

    The aim was to provide the basis on the application of hydroabsorbent mixed slow-released fertilizer in Chrysanthemum. A pot experiment was conducted to study and compare the effects of hydroabsorbent mixed slow-released fertilizer and slow-release fertilizer on Chrysanthemum' s growth, yields and nitrogen effects. Four treatments were set up, which were control (CK), hydroabsorbent (B), slow-release fertilizer (H) and hydroabsorbent mixed slow-released fertilizer (BH). The results showed that, compared with H treatment, the hydroabsorbent mixed slow released fertilizer significantly boosted the growth of Chrysanthemum, and including plant height increased about 8 cm, chlorophyll content increased by over 4%, biomass increased by more than 25%. The contents of N, P and K of chrysanthemum treated with BH were significant more than those treated with H, and nitrogen use efficiency improved more than 23%. Meanwhile, the hydroabsorbent mixed slow-released fertilizer could significantly reduce soil nitrate content, thereby reducing the risk of nitrogen leaching loss. Therefore, the hydroabsorbent mixed slow-released fertilizer had a significant effectiveness for Chrysanthemum, and was better than slow-release fertilizer.%为了给菊花生产提供保水缓释肥施用的参考依据,利用温室盆栽试验,研究和比较了保水缓释肥料和普通缓释肥料对食用菊花生长发育、产量及其氮素效应的影响.试验设计了不施肥(CK)、单施保水剂(B)、单施缓释肥(H)和保水缓释肥(BH)4个处理.试验结果表明,与缓释肥处理相比,保水缓释肥料显著促进了菊花的生长,其中株高增加约8 cm、叶绿素含量提高4%以上,生物量提高25%以上;保水缓释肥处理植株氮、磷、钾含量比缓释肥处理显著增加,提高氮素利用率23个百分点以上;同时保水缓释肥能显著降低土壤硝态氮的含量,从而降低氮素淋洗流失的风险.因此,保水缓释肥对菊花肥效显著,优于缓释肥.

  6. Avaliação do enraizamento de estacas de crisântemo (Chrysanthemum morifolium L. cv. white Reagan 606 tratadas com ácido indolbutírico (IBA Rooting evaluation in Chrysanthemum morifolium cv. white Reagan 606 stem cuttings as affected by indolbutyric acid (IBA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.L. Cuquel

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito de doses crescentes do ácido indolbutírico (IBA e de diferentes tempos de imersão no enraizamento de estacas de Chrysanthemum morifolium cv. White Reagan 606. O fator doses foi aplicado em quatro níveis: 0, 500, 1000 e 1500 ppm de IBA e o fator tempo em três níveis: 5s, 1h e 2h. O delineamento utilizado foi o de blocos completos casualizados com parcelas subdivididas, onde as dosagens de IBA foram aplicadas como tratamento principal. O experimento foi instalado em caixas de isopor, em casa de vegetação sob nebulização, tendo vermiculita como substrato. O momento adequado para o transplante foi avaliado através da leitura de uma repetição adicional utilizada como controle. Obteve-se enraizamento em todas as combinações de tratamento, mesma na ausência de IBA. De maneira geral o tratamento rápido tende a ser mais facilmente eficiente quando combinado com as maiores dosagens, enquanto os tratamentos mais demorados com as menores dosagens.The effect of rising concentrations of indolbutyric acid (IBA solutions was evaluated with different exposition times in stem cuttings of Chrysanthemum morifolium cv. White Reagan 606. The applied concentrations were 0,500,1000 and 1500 ppm of IBA during 5s, 1h and 2h, in a randomized complete split-plot block design, with IBA concentrations as main treatment. The experiment was installed in styrofoam trays in a green-house with a mist device and vermiculite as substrate. Transplanting time was determined by an additional block. All treatments induced rooting even in the absence of IBA. In a general sense the fastest treatments tended to be the more efficient when combined with higher concentrations.

  7. Analysis of different technologies of artificial illumination for production of chrysanthemum in protecting environment; Analise de diferentes tecnologias de iluminacao artificial para producao de crisantemos em ambiente protegido

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David, Eduardo; Rossi, Luiz Antonio [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (FEAGRI/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Agricola. Dept. de Engenharia Agricola], Emails: eduardo.david@gr.unicamp.br, rossi@agr.unicamp.br

    2006-07-01

    In protecting environment chrysanthemum's production, the artificial illumination type used to induce the photo period, affects the growing and development of plants, as well the electric power consumed in this process of production. The most useful illumination type is by filament. Today, new artificial illumination technologies have been studied to reduce the electric power consumption. This work has been development in a commercial greenhouse with four varieties. The preliminary results have showed that the utilization of discharge lamps does not affect significantly the flower's development considering the weight and presence of flower bud. In the analyzed period, the reduction on power electricity consumption was 60,13% on the sodium-vapor lamp, 41,66% on the mercury-vapor lamp, 60,52% on the fluorescent tube lamp and 50,32% on the compact fluorescent-integrated lamp in comparison with the incandescent lamp that nowadays it is used. It shows the high intensity discharge technology (HID technology) has saved more electricity than the incandescent lamp. (author)

  8. Insecticidal Effect of Chrysanthemum coronarium L. Flowers on the Pest Spodoptera littoralis Boisd and its Parasitoid Microplitis rufiventris Kok. with Identifying the Chemical Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shonouda, Mourad L.; Osman, Salah; Salama, Osama; Ayoub, Amal

    The flower extract of Chrysanthemum coronarium L. and their fractions have shown insecticidal effect on the cotton leaf worm Spodoptera littoralis. The third instar larvae fed for two days on treated leaves were more susceptible to plant extracts and to their ethyl acetate and chloroform fractions. The active lowest concentration (5%) of the flower fractions showed no significant effect on the percent reduction of emerged adult parasitoids, Microplitis rufiventris Kok. GC/MS analysis revealed that the major constituents in ethyl acetate fraction were 3-dihydro-methylene-2- (3H) furanone (17.8%), jasmolin I (15.6%), carveol 1 (13.6%), phosphoric acid, tributyl ester (11.4%) and cinerin II (11.1%), while those of chloroform fraction were 5-hydroxy-3 methyl-1H-pyrazole (42.7%) and carveol 1(24.8%). The medicinal plant C. coronarium seems to be a promising plant for application in integrated pest management due to its safety to the surrounding environment.

  9. Influence of temperature and rooting-promoter on the formation of root-primodia and on the rooting of chrysanthemum cuttings under storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to promote rooting for direct planting cuttings in a lighting cultivation of chrysanthemum, we clarified the effects of light, temperature and term of storage of the cuttings, and analyzed ways of using rooting promoters as a pre-treatment of cuttings for root-primodia formation and rooting. Light as a pre-treatment had little effect, so it seemed to be not necessary for the formation of root primodia. The formation of the root-primodia was most hastened at 25 degrees C; inversely, it was slowed down at low temperatures, that is, the root-primodia were formed in four days at 25 degrees C, five days at 20 degrees C, and seven days at 15 degrees C. With the use of rooting promoters as a pre-treatment for the rooting of cuttings, the root-primodia were formed faster when the whole of cuttings were dipped in 40 mg/L solution of indelebutyric acid (IBA) than when the base of cuttings were dipped or sprayed 400 mg/L solution of IBA. It was appropriate that cuttings were dipped in IBA then put in in plastic-pots (7.5cm) vertically, packed in polyethylene-bags and stored in a corrugated carton box

  10. Simultaneous determination of 70 pesticide residues in leek, leaf lettuce and garland chrysanthemum using modified QuEChERS method with multi-walled carbon nanotubes as reversed-dispersive solid-phase extraction materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yongtao; Zou, Nan; Song, Le; Li, Yanjie; Qin, Yuhong; Liu, Shaowen; Li, Xuesheng; Pan, Canping

    2015-11-15

    Leek, leaf lettuce and garland chrysanthemum are troublesome vegetables containing large amount of pigments which may bring serious matrix interferences in mass spectrometry analysis. Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) have a good effect for the cleanup of troublesome matrix. So the study was designed to develop a multi-residue method for the determination of 70 pesticide residues in leek, leaf lettuce and garland chrysanthemum based on a modified QuEChERS procedure using MWCNTs as reversed-dispersive solid phase extraction (r-DSPE) materials to remove the interferences of pigments. PSA and GCB were used as comparison. LC-MS/MS was used to identify and quantify the residue levels of multi-pesticides. The clean-up performance of MWCNTs was demonstrated to be obviously superior to GCB and PSA. This method was validated on leek, leaf lettuce and garland chrysanthemum spiked at the concentration of 10, 50 and 100μgkg(-1) with five replicates. The recoveries of 70 pesticides ranged from 74% to 119%, with relative standard deviations (RSDs) lower than 14.2%. Good linearity (R(2)≥0.9903) was obtained at the range of 10-1000μg/L for all pesticides in the selected matrices. The limit of quantification (LOQs) and limit of detection (LODs) of the 70 pesticides for the selected matrices ranged from 0.3 to 7.9μgkg(-1) and from 0.1 to 2.4μgkg(-1) respectively. The method was successfully applied to the routine monitoring of pesticide residues in market samples. PMID:26513135

  11. In vitro isolation, purification, rapid bulking and field establishment of a promising radio-mutant Pusa Anmol from spray Chrysanthemum cv. Ajay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Promising novel coloured radio mutants in the form of chimers observed in the irradiated population of chrysanthemum cultivar Ajay (pink coloured spray cultivar) were isolated, purified, proliferated and the micro-plantlets are successfully established in the field as a new mutant variety-Pusa Anmol. Chimeral flower buds with a spectrum of colours appeared when irradiated at 15 and 20 Gy, whereas plant mortality (95%) and negative mutants with abnormalities were higher at 30 Gy. The chimeral portion on florets ranged from 50-100%. The irradiated plants of cv.Ajay produced a wide range of novel chimers (10-19%) with yellow to yellowish pink florets when irradiated at 15Gy. Complete mutants in the form of yellowish pink flower in a flower bunch and complete branch with brick brown color were noticed at 20Gy. A large number of flowers with altered morphology with spoon or flute or cup or quill shape florets were also noticed. The florets with partial chimeras were rejected and only complete chimeral florets or the florets form complete mutants with novel colour were cultured in vitro to isolate the novel mutants. MS medium fortified with 10 mg/l Kinetin + 0.50 mg/l NAA was found to be the best. The florets with limited callus were sub cultured on the same medium where maximum number of florets (82%) regenerated producing as many as 34.40 shoots per explant. A proliferation rate of 5-6 times was achieved using MS medium+3.0 mg/l BAP+0.01 mg/l NAA. Rhizogenesis was achieved (80-90%) when cultured on 1/2 MS + 0.5 mg/l NAA + 60g sucrose. The yellowish pink coloured mutant is successfully established in the field, evaluated for three consecutive years and is identified for release as Pusa Anmol. The new mutant is also photo/ thermo intensive and flowers twice or thrice in a year along with its parent cultivar. (author)

  12. [Effects of two controlled-release fertilizers with different proportions of N, P and K on the nutrient uptake and growth of Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Li-Xiang; Wang, Jian-Hua; Sun, Yin-Shi; Li, Yu-Peng; Sun, Li-Wen; Zhang, Chun-Ling

    2009-07-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to study the effects of two controlled-release fertilizers CRFA (4% resin-coated, N: P2O5: K2O = 14: 14: 14) and CRFB (4% resin-coated, N: P2O5: K2O = 20: 8:10) on the nutrient uptake and growth of Chrysanthemum morifolium, with common compound fertilizer CCF (N: P2O5: K2O = 15: 15: 15) as the control. Six treatments were installed, i. e., CCF1 (CCF, 6 g N x pot(-1)), CCF2 (CCF, 3 g N x pot(-1)), CRFA1 (CRFA, 6 g x pot(-1)), CRFA2 (CRFA, 3 g x pot(-1)), CRFB1 (CRFB, 6 g x pot(-1)), and CRFB (CRFB, 3 g x pot(-1)). On the 30th day of applying common compound fertilizer CCF1 and CCF2, soil available N, P and K contents were 163.29 and 145.26 mg x kg(-1), 180.39 and 163.13 mg x kg(-1), and 300.08 and 213.15 mg x kg(-1), respectively, and decreased rapidly since then. In treatments CRFA1, CRFB1, CRFA2, and CRFB, soil available N content increased slowly, and reached the peak on the 60th day after fertilizing, being 129.51, 138.65, 118.36, and 126.31 mg x kg(-1), respectively. Soil available P content had the same variation trend. Its maximum concentration was 169.54 and 133.46 mg x kg(-1) in treatments CRFA1 and CRFA2 on the 30th day after fertilizing, and 137.13 and 84.68 mg x kg(-1) in treatments CRFB1 and CRFB2 on the 60th day after fertilizing, and decreased slowly then. The agronomic traits such as leaf area, leaf area index, branch number, flowering rate, flower number, and flower diameter, etc., in treatments CRFA and CRFB were obviously better than those of the control, and CRFB was better than CRFA, suggesting that CRFB more matched the nutrient demand of C. morifolium. Under the conditions of present experiment, applying CRFB2 obtained the highest yield. PMID:19899469

  13. A Process Research of Healthy and Refreshing Beverages Made of Herba houttuyniae, Folium llicis, and Chrysanthemum morifolium%鱼腥草、苦丁茶、杭白菊复合保健饮料工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴敏; 罗爱平; 赵贵丽; 周国君; 徐筱菁

    2012-01-01

    An experiment was carried out to optimize the protocol of herba houttuyniae juice processing using herba houttuyniae as major ingredient, and Folium llicis and Chrysanthemum morifolium as auxiliary materials herein. The findings showed that Folium /feisLatifoliae and Chrysanthemum morifolium, could effectively affect the flavor of its drinks. The procedure was as following: cutting the Herba houttuyniae into 1 to 2 cm pieces, dipping them in the 0. 2% salt-water, protecting color and steaming, pulping with protect color liquid in the proportion of 1:0. 8, which could increase juice yield to 140 mL per 100 g fresh Herba houttuyniae and produce the yellow liquid product. The best formula of compound beverages contained 100 mL Herba houttuyniae juice,0.12g xanthan gum, 0. 08 g sucrose fatty acid ester, 30 g sweeteners (sucrose: lactose1 xylitol = 10: 3:2) , 0.94ml acidity ( containing 2. 6% citric acid, 1.0% tartaric acid and 1.0% vitamin C) , 21 mL Folium llicis, 5.3 mL Chrysanthemum morifolium.%以鱼腥草为主料,辅以苦丁茶、杭白菊,探讨鱼腥草、苦丁茶和杭白菊清凉复合保健饮料的最佳工艺配方.结果表明:将鱼腥草切成1 ~2cm小段,经0.2%盐水浸渍、护色、汽蒸,与护色液按1∶0.8打浆,每100g鲜鱼腥草出汁率可提高达140 mL,汁液色泽呈理想的浅黄色.复合饮料最佳配方为:鱼腥草汁的用量100 mL,黄原胶0.12g,蔗糖脂肪酸酯0.08g,甜味剂309(蔗糖∶乳糖∶木耱醇=10∶3∶2),酸味剂0.94 mL(含柠檬酸2.6%、酒石酸1.0%,抗坏血酸1.0%),苦丁茶汁21 mL,菊花汁5.3mL.苦丁茶、杭白菊能有效改善鱼腥草饮料的风味.

  14. 杭白菊挥发油口含片中有效成分樟脑、龙脑的含量测定%Determination of Camphor and Borneol in Oral Tablets of Chrysanthemum morifolium Essential Oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈婷; 王建平; 殷红; 王玮; 陶锋

    2012-01-01

    Objective :To establish an GC method for the determination of camphor and borneol in oral tablets of Chrysanthemum morifolium essential oil in p - cyclodextrin inclusion. Methods: The camphor and borneol in inclusion tablets were extracted by refluxed. The contents of two effective components were analyzed by gas chromatography with CBP20 -M25 -025 capillary column. N - octanol was used as internal standard substance for camphor and borneol. Results; A good separation was obtained. The standard curves for camphor and bomeol were linear over the range of 14.00~224.0 μg · mL-1 and 19.69 ~ 315. Oμg · mL-1 Respectively. The average recovery for camphor and borneol was higher than 94.2%. The precisions for them were both less than 0.77%. Conclusion: The method is accurate and sensitive for the determination of camphor and borneol in inclusion tablets of Chrysanthemum morifolium essential oil with good quality controlling of oral tablet product,providing scientific evidence for the development of Chrysanthemum morifolium and reasonable clinical application of essential oil.%目的:建立杭白菊挥发油β-环糊精包合物口含片中樟脑、龙脑的浓度测定的GC方法并测定含量.方法:用加热回流法提取片剂包合物中的有效成分,采用毛细管气相色谱法,以正辛醇为内标,测定其中樟脑与龙脑的含量.结果:该方法樟脑、龙脑分离良好,线性范围分别为14.00~ 224.0μg·mL-1及19.69 ~ 315.0μg·mE-1,加样回收率均高94.2%,精密度RSD小于0.77%.结论:本法能准确、灵敏地同时测定杭白菊挥发油β-环糊精包合物口含片中樟脑、龙脑的含量,可以作为口含片的产品质量控制方法,为杭白菊产品的深度开发与挥发油制剂的质量标准制定提供科学依据.

  15. Espectroscopía NIR como Técnica Exploratoria Rápida para Detección de Amarillamiento Hojas Crisantemo (Dendranthema grandiflora var. Zembla / NIR Spectroscopy as Quick Exploratory Technique for Detection of Chrysanthemum Leaf Yellowing (Dendranthema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Pérez Naranjo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Resumen. El diagnóstico seguro de enfermedades en lasplantas depende de técnicas costosas, que requieren de tiempo y entrenamiento especializado. Esta investigación evaluó el uso de espectroscopia infrarroja cercana NIR (por sus siglas en ingles near-infrared para la detección rápida del “amarillamiento de hojas de crisantemo”, una enfermedad de etiología incierta que genera pérdidas económicas importantes. En este experimento se tomaron espectros infrarrojos en hojas con niveles de amarillamiento diferentes según la clasificación empleada por los agricultores (asintomáticas, síntomas intermedios y hojasdeformadas con síntomas avanzados. Mediante un análisis de componentes principales y con los valores de los espectros de esas muestras, se desarrolló un modelo de clasificación de hojas. Ese modelo aplicado en espectros de hojas tomados al azar separó adecuadamente el grupo de espectros NIR de hojas asintomáticas de un grupo indiferenciado de espectros obtenidos de hojas consíntomas intermedios o avanzados. Los resultados sugieren que para esta enfermedad es posible desarrollar un modelo de detección en muestras problema. Para ello, se requerirá incorporar al modelo un mayor número de muestras en rangos de enfermedad bien definidos. Estos resultados permiten vislumbrar las posibilidades del uso de esta técnica no destructiva, para detección temprana de los síntomas del amarillamiento foliar en crisantemo y como herramienta para el diseño de estrategias oportunas y efectivas demanejo de esta y otras enfermedades en las plantas. / Abstract. The safe diagnostic of plant diseases depends on expensive techniques which require time and specialized training. This study evaluated the use of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIR for the rapid detection of “chrysanthemum leaf yellowing”, a disease of unknown etiology causing important economic losses in Antioquia’s chrysanthemum main producing areas

  16. Historical and Cultural Origin and Textual Research of Chrysanthemum morifolium Cultivated in Macheng%麻城福白菊的历史文化渊源及本草考证

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗光军; 陈科力

    2011-01-01

    麻城市种植的药用菊花(Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat.)品质优良,产量在全国占有较大的份额,并以麻城福白菊(C.morifolium cv.Fubaiju)注册了国家地理标志证明商标,但该品牌还不为国人所熟知.笔者从历史文化渊源和本草考证的角度证实,湖北麻城大别山地区是具有悠久历史的传统菊花产地之一,关于麻城菊花食用和种植历史最明确的记载,可以在麻城县志中追溯到明末清初,而关于麻城菊花采收和食用的文化习俗,甚至可以追溯到更为久远的春秋战国时期.%The Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat. cultivated in Macheng region had excellent quality and contributed to a large proportion of total yield in China. The National Geographic Symbol Certification Mark, name of C. morifolium cv.Fubai-ju, had been registered. However, the C. morifolium cv. Fubaiju brand had not been well known. According to the historical and cultural origin and textual research on Chinese medicine, the presented paper verified that the Dabie Mountain area in Macheng city of Hubei was a traditional production area of C. morifolium with long history. The clear record about C. morifolium cultivated and used as food in Macheng could be traced back to Late Ming Dynasty to Early Qing Dynasty in Macheng local chronicles. And the cultural consuetude about C. morifolium collection and recipe in Macheng could even be traced back to old Spring and Autumn Period.

  17. 从语境顺应看《菊与刀》中的耻感文化%A TENTATIVE APPROACH TO SHAME CULTURE IN THE CHRYSANTHEMUM AND THE SWORD FROM THE PERSPECTIVE OF CONTEXTUAL ADAPTABILITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    褚倩雯

    2011-01-01

    本尼迪克特在她的《菊与刀》中指出日本文化是不同于欧美"罪感文化"的"耻感文化"。Verschueren认为,人们使用语言的过程实际上是一个不断选择语言的过程。本文在顺应论理论框架下对《菊与刀》中的"耻感文化"进行了语境顺应性的分析。通过分析耻感文化背景下的日本人在交际过程中是如何对交际语境进行动态顺应并作出相应的语言选择,进一步探讨了语言的选择与文化语境的密切关系。%In The Chrysanthemum and the Sword,Benedict declares that the national culture of Japan is a "shame culture" rather than a "guilt culture".In Verschueren's Adaptation Theory,it is believed that language use must be constituted by continuous choice making.Based on the theoretic framework of Adaptation Theory,this paper makes an analysis of contextual adaptability of shame culture advocated in The Chrysanthemum and the Sword.Based on an analysis of shame culture and its influences on the Japanese's selection of language use,this paper makes a further discussion of the relationship between language choice-making and cultural context.

  18. Cloning and Expression of CmCO and CmFT of Floral Development Genes in Chrysanthemum%菊花花发育基因CmCO和CmFT的克隆与表达分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田素波; 林桂玉; 郑成淑; 孙霞; 任洪艳; 温立柱

    2011-01-01

    利用同源序列法结合RACE技术从菊花'神马'品种[Chrysanthemum morfIorium(Ramat.)Kitam.'Jinba']中分离了开花时间相关的CO(CONSTANS)和FT(FLOWERINGLOCUST)同源基因,并命名为CmCO(基因登录号JF488070)和CmFT(基因登录号JF488071).CmCO和CmFT分别编码382和174个氨基酸.蛋白比对发现,CmCO蛋白包含具有典型的CO同源蛋白结构,包含B-box1,B-box2,CCT结构域及COOH区域.CmFT所推测的氨基酸序列包含FT类蛋白保守基序和两个关键性氨基酸残基.同源性分析表明,CmCO与草莓(Fragaria×ananassa)FaCO同源性最高,为65.8%,与豌豆(Pisumsativum)PsCOL、拟南芥(Arabidopsis thaliana)AtCO同源性分别为62.0%和55.6%.CmFT与向日葵(Helianthus annuus)HaFT2基因同源性最高,为93.7%,与葡萄(Vitis vinifera)VvFT和拟南芥AtFT的同源性分别为85.1%和74.0%.进化树聚类分析表明,CmCO和CmFT蛋白分别与向日葵HaCO和HaFT2 遗传距离最近.RT-PCR表明,长日照下的菊花叶片中几乎检测不到CmCO和CmFT,而在短日照下,CmCO在花芽分化启动期(Ⅰ)表达,总苞鳞片分化前期(Ⅱ)有所下降随后又迅速升高;CmFT在CmCO之后表达,之后持续高表达.选择小花原基分化前期(Ⅳ)对菊花叶片、花芽和茎等不同组织器官CmCO.和CmnFT表达进行分析,结果表明,CmCO在叶片中表达量最高,花芽次之,茎最低;CmFT在花芽中表达量最高,叶片次之,茎最低.由此推测CmCO和CmFT的表达与光周期诱导菊花成花密切相关.%The genes of CO (CONSTANS) and FT (FLOWERING LOCUS T), which related to flowering time were isolated from Chrysanthemum morflorium (Ramat.) Kitam. ' Jinba' by RT-PCR and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE), and named it CmCO (GenBank accession No. JF488070) and CmFT (GenBank accession No. JF488071) respectively. CmCO and CmFTencoded 382 and 174 aminoacids respectively. Alignment analysis showed that CmCO protein had typical structures of CO homologous protein, including B-boxl, B-box2

  19. Effect of Different Concentrations of Garland Chrysanthemum Organ Water Extract on Seed Germination Characteristics of Watermelon%不同浓度茼蒿器官水浸提液对西瓜种子发芽特性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范淑英; 肖旭峰; 熊春晖; 倪晓春; 吴才君

    2011-01-01

    采用0.001、0.01、0.1 g·mL-1的干茼蒿根、茎叶、花水浸提液处理西瓜种子,测定其发芽势、发芽率及胚根鲜质量,研究茼蒿水浸提液对西瓜种子的化感抑制率.结果表明:不同浓度茼蒿器官(根、茎叶、花)水浸提液对西瓜种子萌发有较强的抑制作用,随处理浓度升高,抑制作用越强,发芽势、发芽率、胚根鲜质量均低于对照,因此,茼蒿水浸提液浓度在0.001~0.1 g·mL-1对西瓜种子萌发存在明显的化感作用.%In order to study the effects of different concentrations of garland chrysanthemum organ water extract on seed germination characteristics of watermelon ( Citrullus lanatus ), 0.001, 0.01 and 0.1 g · mL-1 organ water extracts from garland chrysanthemum root, stem and leaf, flower were used to treat watermelon seeds and to test seed germination characteristics.The results showed that different concentrations of garland chrysanthemum root, stem and leaf, flower water extracts could inhibit seed germination of watermelon.The inhibitory effect increased along with the concentration rise.The germinability, germination percentage, radicle quality were all lower than the control.Therefore, 0.001-0.1 g · mL-1 garland chrysanthemum organ water extracts has distinct allelopathy effect on watermelon germination.

  20. Produtividade e longevidade de crisântemos, cultivados em hidroponia, em resposta a doses de cálcio Chrysanthemum productivity and longevity in a hydroponic system in response to calcium doses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício Soares Barbosa

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Para verificar a resposta de diferentes variedades de crisântemos a doses de cálcio um experimento foi conduzido em casa de vegetação sob sistema hidropônico de três fases e cascalho como substrato. Utilizou-se o delineamento em blocos casualizados com parcelas subdivididas, sendo as doses de cálcio (1,0; 2,5; 4,0; 5,5 mmol L-1 dispostas nas parcelas e três variedades (Blush Hawai, Calabria e Dark Flamengo nas subparcelas, com 3 repetições. Para as diferentes doses de cálcio, utilizou-se solução nutritiva completa. Foram avaliados o peso da matéria fresca da folha, caule, inflorescência e parte aérea, ciclo, comprimento de haste e número e longevidade das inflorecencias, expressa pelo número de dias da colheita ao descarte das mesmas (murcha e perda de coloração das flores. As variedades Calabria e Blush Hawai apresentaram-se mais precoces e mais produtivas. Houve aumento linear na longevidade das três variedades com o aumento das concentrações de cálcio na solução nutritiva. O melhor desenvolvimento e crescimento das variedades de crisântemos foi obtido quando utilizada a solução nutritiva com 4,0 mmol L-1 de cálcio.To verify the response of different varieties of chrysanthemum to doses of calcium an experiment was conducted in a green house using a three-phase hydroponic system on a gravel substrate. It was set up in a completely random blocks with split-plot design, using four calcium doses (1.0; 2.5; 4.0; 5.5 mmol L-1 in the plots disposed and three chrysanthemum varieties (Blush Hawai, Calabria and Dark Flamengo in the subplots. Three repetitions were used with 96 plants by repetition. Complete nutrient solutions were used with the different calcium doses. The following factors were evaluated: fresh matter weight of leaf, stem, inflorescence and shoot; cycle; number of inflorescences, stem length and the longevity, expressed in the number of days from harvest to disposal of the inflorescences (withered and

  1. Simultaneous determination of multiplex trace elements in chrysanthemum by ICP-Mass%电感耦合等离子体质谱法(ICP-Mass)同时测定菊花中多种微量元素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林新花; 洪瑞申

    2012-01-01

    用原子吸收光谱法(AAS)和电感耦合等离子体质谱法(ICP - Mass)分别测定菊花中微量元素锌、铜、铁,采用的定量分析方法是标准曲线法.并对两种仪器分析方法所得结果进行了比较.结果表明,随锌、铜、铁变量,AAS法和ICP - Mass法均有较好的线性关系,且测定的结果相近.两种方法最低检出限量分别为,AAS法铁0.4mg/L、铜0.4mg/L、锌0 08mg/L;ICP - Mass法铁0.0008mg/L、铜0.0008mg/L、锌0.0008mg/L.与AAS法技术相比,ICP - Mass技术将ICP的高温电离特性与四极杆质谱计的灵敏快速扫描的优点相结合,ICP - MS技术提供了最低的检出限,最宽的动态线性范围,且谱线简单、干扰少,分析精密度高,所以ICP - Mass法的准确度更高.ICP - Mass法可以同时测定菊花中的多种微量元素,分析周期短,提高了样品的分析效率.显示该方法快速、准确、简便等的优点.而AAS法一次只能分析单个元素.%Trace element Zn, Cu and Fe content in chrysanthemum were determined by both atomic absorption spec-trometry (AAS) and inductively coupled plasma mass - spectrography ( ICP - Mass). Three elements content in chrysanthemum was determined by standard curve method. The results obtained from two instrumental analysis methods were compared. The results show that the linear calibration curves for AAS and ICP - Mass were good, the measurement results by both methods were near. The lowest detection limits of Fe, Cu and Zn were 0. 4mg/L, 0. 4mg/L and 0, 08mg/L respectively by AAS. The lowest detection of limits of Fe, Gu, Zn were 0. 0008mg/L, 0. 0008mg/L and 0. 0008mg/L respectively by ICP - Mass, ICP - Mass was unique technology in which high - temperature ionization of ICP was combined with advantages of sensitive, quick and scanning of quadrupole mass spectrometer. ICP - Mass provided the lowest detection limit, the widest dynamic range linear. The analysis line of ICP -Mass was simple so that interference was low. The

  2. EVALUACIÓN DE DOS TRATAMIENTOS FOTOPERIÓDICOS EN CRISANTEMO (Dendranthema grandiflorum (Ramat. Kitam., BAJO CONDICIONES DEL INTERTRÓPICO ANDINO ALTO EVALUATION OF TWO PHOTOPERIOD TREATMENTS IN CHRYSANTHEMUM (Dendranthema grandiflorum ((Ramat. Kitam., UNDER CONDITIONS OF HIGH ANDEAN INTERTROPIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fáber de Jesús Chica Toro

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available En la floricultura colombiana, cerca del 14 % de los costos de producción del crisantemo o pompón (Dendranthema grandiflorum (Ramat. Kitam., está representado por la luz complementaria requerida para controlar su floración. Con el fin de encontrar un protocolo que hiciera uso de un menor suministro de luz, en este trabajo se compararon los efectos de dos esquemas de complemento lumínico nocturno sobre algunas características precosecha y poscosecha en dos variedades comerciales tipo spider de crisantemo: Super White y Super Yellow. El esquema testigo de suplemento lumínico nocturno consistió en aportar la adición durante 28 días para la variedad Super Yellow, y 26 para la variedad Super White. La propuesta alternativa de adición lumínica nocturna consistió en interrumpir el estímulo durante una noche completa cada dos días. Tal disminución del estímulo lumínico, en aproximadamente un 30 %, no afectó el crecimiento ni las características poscosecha de las variedades evaluadas.In Colombian floriculture, nearly 14% of the production costs of chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflorum (Ramat. Kitam. consists of the additional lighting required to control its flowering. In order to find a protocol that consumes a lower amount of electricity, this study compared the effects of two supplementary noctural lighting schemes on several preharvest and postharvest characteristics in two commercial varieties of chrysanthemum: Super White and Super Yellow. The control nocturnal lighting scheme consisted of providing the supplemental lighting during 28 days for the Super Yellow variety and during 26 days for the Super White variety. The alternative nocturnal lighting scheme consisted of interrupting the stimulus during one complete night every two days. This approximately 30% reduction in light stimulation did not affect either growth or postharvest characteristics of the varieties evaluated.

  3. Preparation of A Compound Beverage with Inulin of Jerusalem Artichok, Hawthorn and Chrysanthemum%菊芋菊糖、山楂、菊花复合饮料的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李伟; 朱畅

    2016-01-01

    The hot water was used to extract inulin. Through orthogonal test the optimal conditions of extract in-ulin were:the ratio of sample to water was 1∶25 (g/g),temperature 90℃,time 60 min. Under these conditions, the extract ratio was 79.98 %. Inulin of jerusalem artichoke ,hawthorn and chrysanthemum were used as the main materials,added white granulate sugar,honey and other accessories. A discussion was carried out on the key technologies,through single factor and orthogonal experimental design ,the sensory score was investigated an indicator to determine the optimum formula of the compound beverage. The results showed that the mixing proportion of hawthorn extract and chrysanthemum extract was 2∶3(mL/mL),inulin 2%,white granulate sugar 4%,honey 3%,the best stabilizer was sodium alginate 0.05%and CMC-Na 0.1%. The compound beverage is nutritions and good for health,can be developed with good color, flavor and taste.%采用热水浸提法对菊糖进行提取,通过正交试验确定了提取菊糖的最佳条件为:料水比1∶25(g/g),温度90℃,提取时间60 min,菊糖提取率为79.98%。以菊芋菊糖、山楂、菊花为主要原料,添加白砂糖、蜂蜜等辅料。针对其关键技术进行了探讨,采用单因素和正交试验设计,以产品感官评价为指标,确定菊芋菊糖、山楂、菊花复合饮料的最佳工艺配方。结果表明:山楂和菊花提取液比为2∶3(mL/mL)、菊芋菊糖2%、白砂糖4%、蜂蜜3%、最佳稳定剂为0.05%海藻酸钠和0.1%CMC-Na。该复合饮料具有营养、保健的功能,色泽、香味、口感俱佳。

  4. The Protective Effects of the Supercritical-Carbon Dioxide Fluid Extract of Chrysanthemum indicum against Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Acute Lung Injury in Mice via Modulating Toll-Like Receptor 4 Signaling Pathway

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    Xiao-Li Wu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The supercritical-carbon dioxide fluid extract of Chrysanthemum indicum Linné. (CFE has been demonstrated to be effective in suppressing inflammation. The aim of this study is to investigate the preventive action and underlying mechanisms of CFE on acute lung injury (ALI induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS in mice. ALI was induced by intratracheal instillation of LPS into lung, and dexamethasone was used as a positive control. Results revealed that pretreatment with CFE abated LPS-induced lung histopathologic changes, reduced the wet/dry ratio and proinflammatory cytokines productions (TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6, inhibited inflammatory cells migrations and protein leakages, suppressed the levels of MPO and MDA, and upregulated the abilities of antioxidative enzymes (SOD, CAT, and GPx. Furthermore, the pretreatment with CFE downregulated the activations of NF-κB and the expressions of TLR4/MyD88. These results suggested that CFE exerted potential protective effects against LPS-induced ALI in mice and was a potential therapeutic drug for ALI. Its mechanisms were at least partially associated with the modulations of TLR4 signaling pathways.

  5. Technical and economic feasibility of the use of discharge lamps in replacement of filament for induction of photoperiod in chrysanthemum seedlings production; Viabilidade tecnico-economica do uso de lampadas de descarga em substituicao as de filamento para inducao de fotoperiodo na producao de mudas de crisantemos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossi, Luiz A.; David, Eduardo [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (FEAGRI/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Agricola], E-mail: rossi@feagri.unicamp.br; Pagliardi, Odail [Faculdade Municipal Prof. Franco Montoro (FMPFM), Mogi Guacu, SP (Brazil); Sarubbi, Juliana [Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (CESNORS/UFSM), Palmeira das Missoes, RS (Brazil). Centro de Educacao Superior Norte-RS

    2010-07-01

    Due to its physiological characteristics, the seedlings of chrysanthemums require supplemental light to prevent bud formation, that is done at night. This article examines the technical and economic valuation to replace the current technology of artificial lighting used by producers (incandescent bulbs) for the purpose of inducing photoperiod in a protected environment for cutting-discharge lamps, with the goal of reducing the consumption electricity used in the process. The analysis showed that the integrated compact fluorescent yellow lamp 23W is the technically and economically feasible for such replacement. (author)

  6. Characterization of new variety of Chrysanthemum by using ISSR markers Caracterização de novas cultivares de crisântemo com o uso de marcadores ISSR

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    SK Palai

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Chrysanthemum is the important cut flower after rose among the ornamental plants traded in the global flower market. It is propagated vegetatively and also has a strong sporophytic self-incompatibility system as shown by all members of Asteraceae family. Morphologically, the petal numbers and flower colours present maximum variation when compared to existing varieties. Twenty Inter Simple Sequence Repeat primers were used to detect the new variety of Chrysanthemum developed through spontaneous sporting. The results indicate that the rate of polymorphism showed significant differences as compared to other existing varieties. The average number of amplification products per primer was eight. The size of ISSR amplified fragments varied from 0.25 - 2.4 Kbp. Therefore, ISSR marker is a useful technique for the rapid and easy assessment of genetic variation among the variants. Morphological traits of new variants showed variation as compared to other parents. The 1st flower bud appearance and the height of 1st bud of the variant were less as compared to original mother variety. The new variants can be propagated in large scale commercially through in vitro technique.Entre as plantas ornamentais comercializados no mercado mundial, o crisântemo é a flor de corte de maior importância sendo superado apenas pela rosa. Ele é propagado vegetativamente e também tem um forte sistema de auto-incompatibilidade esporofítica como mostrado por todos os membros da família Asteraceae. Morfologicamente, os números de pétalas e as cores das flores apresentam variação máxima em relação às cultivares existentes. Empregou-se vinte primers ISSR (Inter Simple Sequence Repeat para caracterizar a nova cultivar de crisântemo desenvolvida por mutação expontânea. Os resultados indicam que a taxa de polimorfismo mostrou diferenças significativas em comparação com outras cultivares existentes. Foi de oito o número médio de produtos de amplificação por

  7. The promoter of the carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase 4a-5 gene of Chrysanthemum morifolium (CmCCD4a-5) drives petal-specific transcription of a conjugated gene in the developing flower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, Ayano; Takahashi, Shigekazu; Nakayama, Katsumi; Satoh, Hiroyuki

    2013-09-15

    Carotenoids comprise one of the major groups of pigments in flowers. Because carotenoids are physiologically indispensable pigments for all photosynthetic plants, their catabolism must be discretely regulated in photosynthetic organs and non-photosynthetic organs such as petals or fruits. In the chrysanthemum, carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase 4a (CmCCD4a), which is dominantly expressed in petals, cleaves carotenoid, leading to a white flower. CmCCD4a-5 was recently identified as a new member of the CmCCD4a family, but its detailed expression profile in plant tissues has not yet been established. In this study, we sequenced a 1094-bp region upstream of CmCCD4a-5 and assessed its petal-specific promoter activity. To evaluate the activity of this gene, we constructed two types of transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana that possessed, respectively, a fusion gene of a 1090-bp or 505-bp segment of the upstream region plus the β-d-glucuronidase (GUS) gene (1090bUR::GUS and 505bUR::GUS). GUS activity in the 505bUR::GUS strain was observed mainly in the anthers/pollen in flower buds, whereas GUS activity of the 1090bUR::GUS strain was observed in immature petals of the flower buds. Among the cis-acting elements located between positions -505 and -1090, no elements that have previously been reported to enhance the expression in petals or to suppress it in anthers/pollen were detected by PLACE analysis, indicating the existence of unknown cis-element(s). A semiquantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed that CmCCD4a-5 transcription was prominent in petals but was undetectable in roots, stems and leaves. PMID:23643306

  8. Solarização do solo para o controle de Pythium e plantas daninhas em cultura de crisântemo Soil solarization for Pithium and weed control in chrysanthemum crop

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    W. Bettiol

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available A solarização, durante dois meses, de um solo naturalmente infestado com Pythium, promoveu o controle do patógeno, de modo semelhante à aplicação de metalaxyl + mancozeb, na cultura de crisântemo. A incidência média de plantas mortas foi de 2,3% nas parcelas solarizadas; 1,0% no solo solarizado que recebeu metade da dose dos fungicidas; 9,0% com a aplicação da dose completa dos fungicidas (1 g de metalaxyl + 4,8 g de mancozeb/m² e 38,9%, na testemunha não tratada. A solarização também promoveu o controle de plantas daninhas, avaliado através do peso da matéria seca das plantas emergentes aos 21 dias após o transplante das mudas, semelhantemente ao herbicida oxidiazon.Two months solarization of a soil naturally infested with Pythium sp. promoted a level of control similar to what was obtained with the application of methalaxyl + mancozeb for the chrysanthemum crop. The average rate of dead plants was 9.0% with the application of fungicides (1 g of methalaxyl + 4.8 g of mancozeb/ m²; 2.3% in solarized plots; 1.0% in solarized plots which received half the dosages of the fungicides and 38.9% in control plots. Similar control of weeds was obtained in solarized plots and plots treated with the herbicide oxidiazon.

  9. Analysis of the Particularity of Japanese Culture from The Chrysanthemum and the Sword%从《菊与刀》探析日本文化的特殊性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孥少伟

    2012-01-01

    美国女人类学家本尼迪克特在其文化名著《菊与刀》中把日本社会的文化定义为一种"耻感文化",把西方社会的文化定义为"罪感文化"。两者主要的区别在于"罪感文化"强调自律,"耻感文化"强调他律。实际上这是由于东西方文化对"罪"的概念认识的不同,而造成的理解误区。把日本文化定性为"耻感文化",否定了日本人的罪感意识。确切地说日本文化兼具"耻"与"罪"文化的双重性。%American female anthropologist Benedict defines Japanese social culture as a "shame culture" and West social culture as a "guilty culture" in her masterpiece Chrysanthemum and the Sword. Their main differences are that "shame culture" emphasizes autonomy, while "guilty culture" stresses heteronomy. In fact, this is a misunderstanding caused by the differences of understanding the definition of "guilt" between Eastern and Western culture. If we define Japanese culture as "shame culture" , we deny the guilty consciousness of the Japanese. To be precise, Japanese culture has the duality of "shame" and "guilt".

  10. Produtividade de crisântemo em função de níveis de irrigação Chrysanthemum yield as affected by various irrigation depths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana de L Rego

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available O crisântemo (Dendranthema grandiflora, Tzevelev. é uma das principais flores comercializadas no Brasil e no mundo. Apesar de sua importância, no Brasil o manejo da irrigação em crisântemo é caracterizado pelo empirismo, necessitando-se de maiores estudos quanto ao uso de água pela cultura. Este trabalho teve como objetivo estudar os efeitos de níveis de irrigação sobre o crisântemo cultivado em ambiente protegido. O experimento foi conduzido, de 06/08-27/10/03, na Fazenda Venezuela, no município de Guaramiranga-CE, em ambiente protegido de 9 x 30 m. O delineamento experimental foi blocos ao acaso, com quatro tratamentos (níveis de irrigação correspondentes a 50; 75; 100 e 125% da evaporação no tanque classe "A", ECA, e quatro repetições, totalizando dezesseis parcelas. O ciclo da cultura foi de 82 dias e as lâminas totais aplicadas foram: 192,2; 246,4; 300,9 e 355,4 mm para os tratamentos 50, 75, 100 e 125% da ECA, respectivamente. Não houve diferença significativa para número de hastes por pacote e de pacotes por m² e, tampouco, para produtividade (Tabela 1. Entre tratamentos, o número de hastes por pacote variou de 21 (75, 100 e 125% ECA a 22 (50% ECA, o número de pacotes por m², entre 3,63 (100% ECA e 4,28 (75% ECA e, a produtividade, entre 3,94 (125% ECA e 4,36 kg m-2 (75% ECA. À medida que se aumentou a lâmina d'água, diminuiu-se linearmente a eficiência do uso da água. A irrigação utilizando-se lâmina de água correspondente a 125% da ECA apresentou significativamente a menor eficiência no uso da água (0,0107 pacotes m-2 mm-1, enquanto os tratamentos em que a irrigação correspondeu a 50 e 75% da ECA foram os mais eficientes (0,0210 e 0,0174 pacotes m-2 mm-1, respectivamente.Chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflora, Tzevelev. is one of the most important flowers traded both in Brazil and in the world. In spite of that, chrysanthemum irrigation management in Brazil is characterized by empiricism

  11. 基于IPA分析法的游客旅游满意度研究--以开封菊花文化节为例%A Study on Tourist Satisfaction Based on IPA Methods in Kaifeng Chrysanthemum Cultural Festival

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阮文佳; 袁箐

    2015-01-01

    节事活动是旅游业的重要组成部分,目前中国节事活动呈现出一片繁荣的景象。运用IPA(Important-Performance Analysis)分析法,以开封菊花文化节为例,从参与者的角度对开封节事活动的发展进行实证研究,结果显示:①参与者认为在影响节事满意度的感知项中,服务、价格、治安状况及节事活动文化内涵是最为重要的,而参与者对市民态度、节事活动特色、氛围及城市到达交通最为满意;②参与者对节事活动特征项的重要性感知高于满意度感知;③将17个特征项定位于IPA分析图中,并根据4个象限(继续保持、重点改进、勿需优先以及表现过度)的分布情况,对开封节事活动的发展提出建议。%AbstractFestival and special events are an important part of the tourism industry. Nowadays,festival and special events in China develop prosperously. This paper takes Kaifeng Chrysanthemum Cultural Festi-val for example and uses IPA (Important-Performance Analysis) to make an empirical study on the devel-opment of festival activities in Kaifeng from the perspective of participants. The results show that(1) par-ticipants felt that services,prices,law and order situation and the cultural connotation of festival activities are the most important items among the perception items,and the attitude of the natives,features and atmo-sphere of festival activities and city traffic are of the most satisfaction;(2) participants' perception of im-portance is higher than their perception of satisfaction;(3) 17 items are located in the IPA analysis dia-gram,and some suggestions are put forward on the development of festival activities in Kaifeng according to the distribution of four quadrants.

  12. PHOSPHORUS ACCUMULATION IN CHRYSANTHEMUM (Dendranthema grandiflorum T., Var. SALMON REAGAN IN THE WINTER MARCHA DE ACÚMULO DE FÓSFORO EM CRISÂNTEMO (Dendranthema grandiflorum T., Var. SALMON REAGAN NO INVERNO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosângela Vera

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available

    The objective of this study was to evaluate P accumulation in cut chrysanthemum, var. Salmon Reagan, at different phenologic phases, in the winter. The experiment was carried out in greenhouse environment, in Goiás State, Brazil. The population density was 80 seedlings.m-2. The experimental design was completely randomized, with plots split in time,  and  four replications. The plant portion factor (stem, leaf, inflorescence and whole plant was applied to plots, and the development phases (45, 60, 75, 90, 105, and 120 days applied to sub-plots. The plant nutrition was 133 g.m-2 of thermophosphate Yoorin and 150 g.m-2 of fertilizer formula 5:25:15, which was added to the circulating nutritive solution of calcium nitrate (20 g.m-2, during all the evaluated period, alternated with potassium sulfate (30 g.m-2 and potassium nitrate (30 g.m-2, each fifteen days. It was concluded that P demand by chrysanthemum, during the growing cycle, ranges according to the plant age and the organ studied, having been more accentuated in the stems and between 90 and 120 days after sowing.

    KEY-WORDS: Plant; nutrient; fertilization.

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o acúmulo de fósforo nos diferentes estágios fenológicos da cultura de crisântemo, var. Salmon Reagan, no período de inverno. O experimento foi desenvolvido em condições de

  13. Desenvolvimento de plantas de crisântemo cultivadas em vaso em resposta a níveis de condutividade elétrica Development of chrysanthemum plants cultivated in flower pot in response to electrical conductivity levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poliana R. D' Almeida Mota

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Na floricultura, a competição por mercados é intensa e o diferencial de produtividade consiste no manejo nutricional adequado, por promover grande impacto sobre a qualidade, a produtividade e a longevidade das inflorescências e da planta. O presente trabalho teve o objetivo de avaliar os efeitos de níveis de condutividade elétrica (CE no desenvolvimento de plantas de crisântemo (Dendranthema grandiflora Tzvelev. em vaso sob cultivo protegido. O experimento foi conduzido no município de Paranapanema - SP. Usou-se o delineamento experimental de blocos casualizados com quatro repetições e parcelas divididas. As parcelas foram constituídas pelas épocas de amostragem, e as subparcelas, pelos diferentes níveis de CE, determinados na solução aplicada via água de irrigação: 1,42; 1,65; 1,89; 2,13 e 2,36 dS m-1 (fase vegetativa; 1,71; 1,97; 2,28; 2,57 e 2,85 dS m-1 (fase de botão. Determinaram-se, semanalmente, a altura da planta e o diâmetro do buquê, e a cada 14 dias, a área foliar e a fitomassa seca da parte aérea da planta. O tratamento, correspondente à aplicação de solução com CE de 2,13 dS m-1 na fase vegetativa e 2,57 dS m-1 na fase de botão, proporcionou melhor aspecto visual das plantas, além de apresentar maior valor de fitomassa seca da parte aérea, maior área foliar e melhores formação e coloração.In floriculture market, the competition is intense and the productivity differential consists in an appropriated nutritional management which provides a large impact in quality, productivity and longevity of the flowers and plants. This present work aimed to evaluate the effects of electrical conductivity (EC levels in chrysanthemum plant (Dendranthema grandiflora Tzvelev. development. These plants were planted in pots and cultivated in a greenhouse. The experiment was carried out in Paranapanema city, São Paulo State. The experimental design was made in randomized blocks with four repetitions and split plots

  14. Utilização agrícola de lodo industrial como fonte de zinco na cultura do crisântemo Agricultural use of industrial sludge as a source of Zn for chrysanthemum cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano F. Lopes

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available A utilização de lodo industrial inorgânico em substratos comerciais ou como fonte de nutrientes, é prática bem recente. O lodo produzido pela indústria de galvanoplastia-zincagem apresenta elevados teores de nutrientes como Zn, Fe, e Ca que, dependendo das doses utilizadas em solos e substratos, podem causar toxidez às plantas. No presente experimento foi utilizado um substrato comercial onde foram adicionadas doses crescentes do lodo industrial de galvanoplastia-zincagem para o cultivo de crisântemo, variedade Rage, em cultivo protegido. As doses do lodo industrial utilizadas foram de 0,0; 0,38; 0,75; 1,50; 3,0; 6,0; 9,0 e 12,0 g L-1 de substrato. Após 12 semanas de cultivo foram avaliadas as seguintes variáveis: pH e condutividade elétrica do substrato, teor de Zn na parte aérea da planta e no substrato, altura da planta (ALT, massa seca da parte aérea (MSPA, massa seca das inflorescências (MSF e massa seca do sistema radicular (MSR. A adição do lodo industrial no substrato, na dose de 0,38 g L-1, promoveu um pequeno incremento de ALT, MSPA e MSR. Este comportamento indica que o lodo industrial pode fornecer nutrientes à cultura. Nas doses superiores a 3 g L-1 ocorreu acentuada queda da produção devido ao desbalanço nutricional associado à fitotoxidez de Zn e elevada condutividade elétrica do substrato.The use of inorganic industrial sludge as a source of nutrients in growing media is a recent practice. The sludge produced by the zinc-galvanic industry has a high concentration of plant nutrients such as Zn, Fe and Ca that, depending on the doses used in soils and growing media, could be toxic to the plants. In the present experiment a commercial organic substrate was used by adding increasing doses of an industrial sludge produced by a zinc-galvanic industry. Doses of industrial sludge (0.0; 0.38; 0.75; 1.50; 3.0; 6.0; 9.0 and 12.0 g L-1 of the growing media were applied to the chrysanthemum cv. Rage, cultivated in a

  15. 野菊花总黄酮的提取及萃取精制研究%Process for Leaching and Extracting Total Flavonoids from Buds of the Chrysanthemum indicum L

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈菡; 罗能镇; 沈剑; 相咸高; 何潮洪; 徐义明; 陈新志

    2013-01-01

      用乙醇水溶液从野菊花中提取总黄酮,再用液-液萃取法进行萃取精制。提取阶段考察了乙醇浓度、液固比、温度、提取时间和提取次数对提取得率的影响,萃取阶段则考察了萃取剂种类、原料液浓度、相比和萃取次数对萃取率和萃取物纯度的影响。通过工艺优化,建立了一条从野菊花中提取总黄酮的工艺路线,即取40~50目的野菊花粉,加入70%的乙醇水溶液,液固比为20:1 mL⋅g−1,在60℃下搅拌回流提取1 h,将提取液蒸干得野菊花浸膏;将野菊花浸膏重新溶解制成15 g⋅L−1的水溶液作为原料液,加入水饱和的正丁醇作为萃取剂,相比为1,在25℃下振荡萃取1 h,萃取3次,所得萃取物的总黄酮纯度为32.4%。在多次萃取时还发现,第2、3次萃取物的总黄酮纯度较高(大于60%),可作为进一步分离提纯黄酮单体的原料。%  In this study, ethanol-water solution was used to leach flavonoids from the flower buds of Chrysanthemum indicum L, and the crude leaching-out products were purified by liquid-liquid extraction. In the leaching process, the influences of ethanol concentration, ratio of solid to liquid, temperature, leaching time and leaching times on yield of the total flavonoids were investigated; while in the liquid-liquid extraction process, a suitable extractant was chosen and the influences of feed concentration, phase ratio and extraction times on the yield of the total flavonoids and purity were studied. It turns out that the suitable conditions are as follows: 1) leaching process:ethanol-water (7:3, v/v) as leaching solution, temperature of 60℃, ratio of solid to liquid of 20:1 mL⋅g−1, leaching time of 1 hour, leaching times of one;2) extraction process:temperature of 25℃, extractant of water-saturated n-butanol, feed concentration of 15 g⋅L−1, phase ratio of 1 and extraction times of three. Under the above conditions

  16. The cDNA Cloning and Analysis of Sequence Information and Quantitative Express of Chrysanthemum Rhythms Clock Output Gene CmGI (GIGANTEA)%菊花节律钟输出基因CmGI(GIGANTEA)的 cDNA 全长克隆、序列信息及定量表达分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙霞; 王秀峰; 郑成淑; 邢世岩; 束怀瑞

    2012-01-01

    chrysanthemum rhythms clock output gene GIGANTEA was cloned, and the bioinformatics of the sequence and the relative quantitative expression of mRNA were analyzed. [Method] Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) combined with 5'RACE, and 3'RACE technology were used to clone the full length cDNA of chrysanthemum rhythms clock output gene CmGI, analysts of sequence of nucleotides and code of protein was made by using the software of bioinformatics. Protein structure prediction of 3D modeling was made by using the online modeling software. The relative quantitative expression analysis of CmGl was conducted by real-time quantitative fluorescence PCR technology and 2-AACt method. [Result] The cDNA sequence of GIGANTEA was cloned from chrysanthemum 'Jniba', the full-length cDNA was 3 461 bp, open reading frame (ORF ) was 3 453 bp, and encoded 1 150 amino acids. Sequence analysis showed that the genetic code of protein was homologous with plant rhythms clock output gene GIGANTEA, named CmGl gene. The sequence was submitted to GenBank, and the registration number is JQ043439. Sequence alignment displayed that it was a similarity of 76% and 75% with GIGANTEA of Vitis vinifera, Ricinus communis, respectively. The phylogenetic tree showed that chrysanthemum CmGI and Arabidopsis thaliana GIGANTEA are closest in molecular evolution distance, followed by Brassica rapa GIGANTEA. It was speculated that CmGI protein has six transmembrane spiral across a cell membrane many times. They are transcription factors, located in the nucleus and it is a non-secretory protein. They do not have a signal peptide. CmGI 3D structure modeling projections show that the protein core structure accords with the transcription factors and the function of the common DNA combining domain HTH and HLH. Fluorescent relative quantitative analysis shows that the expression patterns of chrysanthemum CmGI are circadian rhythms expression. At different flower bud differentiation stage, the CmGI gene in the leaf blade mRNA level is

  17. Agrobacterium-mediated gene transfer to Chrysanthemum.

    OpenAIRE

    Wordragen, van, M.F.

    1991-01-01

    Genetic manipulation of plants is a technique that enables us to add to the plant genome, in a precise and well controlled manner, one or a few new genes, coding for desirable traits. In contrast to this, the conventional method for the introduction of new properties in plants, by cross breeding, is a random process in which two complete genomes are mixed and the desired phenotype has to be regained by repeated back crossing with the cultivated parent line. Despite these differences, both pro...

  18. Temperature integration and DIF in cut chrysanthemum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korner, O.; Challa, H.

    2003-01-01

    To reduce energy consumption in greenhouses, temperature integration can be used. However, the temperature integration principle considers only average temperatures and does not comply with the DIF concept (difference between mean day temperature and mean night temperature). With DIF, stem elongatio

  19. Agrobacterium-mediated gene transfer to Chrysanthemum.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wordragen, van M.F.

    1991-01-01

    Genetic manipulation of plants is a technique that enables us to add to the plant genome, in a precise and well controlled manner, one or a few new genes, coding for desirable traits. In contrast to this, the conventional method for the introduction of new properties in plants, by cross breeding, is

  20. Ácido giberélico e dia curto interrompido em crisântemo de corte (Dendranthema grandiflora, Tzvelev., "Gompier Chá" Gibberellic acid and short day interrupted in cut chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflora, Tzvelev., 'Gompier Chá'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Antônio Bellé

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Algumas cultivares de crisântemo, como a "Gompier Chá", apresentam menor crescimento quando cultivadas no período de inverno. A utilização do ácido giberélico (GA3 e o manejo do fotoperíodo com dia curto interrompido podem ser alternativas para estimular o crescimentodas plantas. Assim, foi realizado um experimento com objetivo de avaliar a resposta do GA3 e do dia curto (DC interrompido por dias longos (DL na qualidade de hastes de crisântemo de corte "Gompier Chá", cultivado no inverno no Rio Grande do Sul. O experimento foi conduzido na Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, no período de maio a agosto de 2001. Os tratamentos foram diferentes concentrações de ácido giberélico (50, 100, 200, 300, 500 e 500mg L-1 aplicadas seis, três, duas, duas, uma e duas vezes, respectivamente, e o uso de dia curto interrompido (32DL+9DC+12DL+DC até a colheita. Os tratamentos que proporcionaram a formação de hastes de melhor qualidade foram as dosagens de 100mg L-1 aplicado três vezes e 200mg L-1 aplicado duas vezes. O esquema de dia curto interrompido usado foi ineficiente para a qualidade da cultivar "Gompier Chá", já o uso de ácido giberélico possibilitou melhoria no comprimento dos pedúnculos e na altura das plantas em cultivo de inverno no Rio Grande do Sul.Some chrysanthemum"s cultivars, as the 'Gompier Chá', have problems of small growth during winter crop. The spraying whit gibberellic acid (GA3 and the control photoperiod with interrupted short day can be options for to stimulate growth. Thus, an experiment was carried out with the objective of evaluating the stems quality of cut chrysanthemum 'Gompier Chá' response of GA3 and short day (DC interrupted by long day (DL, during winter time in Rio Grande do Sul. The experiment was conducted at the Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, in 2001, from May to August. The treatments consisted of different gibberellic acid concentration (50, 100, 200, 300, 500 e 500mg L-1 sprayed six

  1. Pontas de pulverização e eletrificação das gotas na deposição da calda em plantas de crisântemo Nozzles and droplets with electric charge on spray deposition in chrysanthemum plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Elisei Serra

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a deposição das gotas de pulverização, dotadas de carga elétrica (eletrostática, em comparação à técnica de pulverização convencional em crisântemo, com uso de diferentes pontas de pulverização. O experimento foi conduzido em delineamento inteiramente ao acaso, com oito tratamentos: combinação das pontas TXVK-3, AXI 110015, AXI 12002 TWIN e AXI 11003, com duas técnicas de pulverização (com e sem eletrostática, e quatro repetições. Cada repetição foi representada por 12 plantas, às quais foram afixados papéis do tipo mata-borrão na superfície abaxial e adaxial dos folíolos, e em duas posições da planta: ápice e base. Um corante marcador (Rodamina B foi pulverizado na proporção de 5 g por 100 L d'água em cada um dos tratamentos. Os depósitos do marcador foram quantificados por fluorometria. As pontas com gotas de menor diâmetro mediano volumétrico (TXVK-3 e AXI 110015 apresentaram maiores depósitos na superfície abaxial da folha, quando se utilizou a pulverização eletrostática. Esse fato não foi observado, quando foram pulverizadas gotas com maior diâmetro mediano volumétrico e desprovidas de carga elétrica, nas diferentes partes da planta.The aim of this work was to evaluate the spray deposition with electric charge (electrostatic, compared to conventional application technique (without electric charge, on chrysanthemum plants using different spray nozzle types. The experiment was carried out entirely at random, with eight treatments: TXVK-3, AXI 110015, AXI 12002 TWIN and AXI 11003 spray nozzles were combined in two spraying techniques (with and without electrostatic and four replications. Each replicate was represented by 12 chrysanthemum plants. Blotting paper was placed on the abaxial and adaxial surfaces of two leaves, in different positions of the plants: top and bottom. A tracer dye (Rodamina B was applied in the ratio 5 g 100 L-1 water, in each one of

  2. 菊花叶绿素a/b结合蛋白基因CmLhcb1及其启动子的克隆和表达分析%Cloning of Chlorophyll a/b Binding Protein CmLhcb1 and Promoter from Chrysanthemum morifolium and Expression Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩霜; 刘瑞霞; 张兆和; 陈素梅; 蒋甲福; 房伟民; 廖园; 陈发棣

    2013-01-01

    The cDNA of cut chrysanthemum ‘Gongzi' was used to clone homologous gene cab,which had 798 bp ORF and 266 amino acid.After blast analysis,we confirmed that the gene was ranked as Lhcb1,and was named as CmLhcb1.Using the cDNA of ‘Puma Sunny' chrysanthemum to homologously clone gene Lhcb1,we got the same amino sequence with that of ‘Gongzi'.The expression of CmLhcb1 was the higher in leaf than that in stem,flower and root.Low light and GA3 treatment increased CmLhcb1 expression.Paclobutrazol treatment inhibited CmLhcb1 expression.The circadian clock regulated the expression of CmLhcb1.The gene expression in day was enormously higher than that in night.The promoter sequence 715 bp of‘Gongzi' cut chrysanthemum and 716 bp of‘Puma Sunny' were cloned using high-efficiency TAIL-PCR (hiTAIL-PCR),and many biologic and abiotic stress responsive elements related to light,GA,ABA,water,SA and virus were found by PLACE Databank.The promoter was light responsive,and it had the GTl-box and Z-box element.%以切花菊品种‘公子’cDNA为模板克隆出叶绿素a/b结合蛋白同源基因cab,其开放阅读框为798 bp,编码266个氨基酸.经多物种间比对分析,确认其属于cab基因家族的Lhcb1类,命名为CmLhcb1.同源克隆菊花品种‘清露’Lhcb1基因,氨基酸序列与‘公子’完全相同.CmLhcb1在叶片中的表达量比在茎、花和根中高,弱光和GA3处理使CmLhcb1表达上调,多效唑处理后CmLhcb1表达量受到抑制.CmLhcb1的表达受昼夜节律调节,白天表达量显著高于夜间.通过high-efficiency TAIL-PCR(hiTAIL-PCR)方法克隆到‘公子’切花菊CmLhcb1起始密码子上游序列715bp和‘清露’起始密码子上游序列716 bp,序列经PLACE数据库的比对分析,发现有很多与非生物和生物胁迫相关的元件,主要与光照、GA、ABA、水分、水杨酸和病毒相关,CmLhcb1启动子是光诱导型启动子,具有GT1-box和Z-box.

  3. Avaliação de seletividade de produtos fitossanitários utilizados na cultura do crisântemo a adultos de Orius insidiosus (Say, 1832 (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae em laboratório Selectivity of pesticides used on chrysanthemum crop to adults of Orius insidiosus (Say, 1832 (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Augusto Morais

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar a seletividade de produtos fitossanitários utilizados na cultura do crisântemo a adultos de Orius insidiosus (Say. Os bioensaios foram conduzidos a 25±1oC, UR 70±10% e fotofase de 12h, em Lavras, MG. Os inseticidas avaliados foram abamectina (0,0009 g i.a./100 ml, cartap (0,06 g i.a./100 ml, ciromazina (0,011 g i.a./100 ml, fenpropatrina (0,009 g i.a./100 ml e imidaclopride (0,042 g i.a./100 ml. As pulverizações foram realizadas por meio de torre de Potter calibrada a 15 lb/pol2, com volume de 1,5±0,5 mg de calda/cm2, sobre casais de O. insidiosus. Avaliou-se a ação dos produtos sobre a mortalidade, oviposição, fertilidade e capacidade predatória dos adultos. Abamectina, fenpropatrina e imidaclopride foram altamente tóxicos aos adultos de O. insidiosus, e ciromazina e cartap apresentaram moderada toxicidade. Ciromazina e cartap apresentam possibilidades de serem recomendados em programas de manejo integrado de pragas na cultura do crisântemo.The goal of this research was to evaluate the selectivity of products used in the chrysanthemum crop to adults of Orius insidiosus (Say. The experiments were kept under controlled conditions at 25±1oC, RH 70±10% and L/D 12:12 h, in Lavras, MG, Brazil. The insecticides evaluated were abamectin (0.0009 g a.i./100 ml, cartap (0.06 g a.i./100 ml, cyromazine (0.011 g a.i./100 ml, fenpropathrin (0.009 g a.i./100 ml and imidacloprid (0.042 g a.i./100 ml. The sprays were done using Potter's tower calibrated to 15 lb/pol2, applying volume of 1.5±0.5 mg of solution/cm2. The applications were realized directly in the pairs of O. insidiosus. It was evaluated the action of the products on mortality, oviposition, fertility and the adult's predatory capacity. Abamectin, fenpropathrin and imidacloprid were highly harmful to the adults of O. insidiosus. Cyromazine and cartap were moderately toxic. Cyromazine and cartap presented possibilities of being recommended in integrated pest

  4. Manutenção da qualidade e aumento da longevidade floral de crisântemo cv. White polaris Keeping quality and prolonging the postharvest longevity of spray chrysanthemum cv. White polaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Julio Flórez-Roncancio

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available 0 objetivo do trabalho foi determinar o melhor tratamento pós-colheita para manutenção floral e aumento da longevidade de crisântemo de maço do tipo pompom (Dendranthema grandiflorum (Ramat. S. Kitamura cv. White Polaris. Estabeleceu-se como ponto de colheita o momento em que as hastes apresentavam três inflorescências apicais com as pétalas externas em ângulo de 45° em relação à horizontal. Durante o ensaio em laboratório, as hastes, colhidas em estufa de produção comercial, após totalmente imersas em água de torneira, à sombra, durante três horas, foram cortadas sob água na base do caule entre 50 e 60 cm. As hastes foram distribuídas nos diferentes tratamentos de "pulsing" durante 24 horas, com luz contínua de 1.500 lux, 60 a 90% de umidade relativa do ar e temperatura ambiente de 25 ± 2°C. No primeiro experimento, testou-se a eficiência de 8-hidroxiquinolina (8-HQ e tiabendazole (TBZ como germicidas de manutenção da qualidade na solução de "pulsing"; testaram-se, também, dois reguladores de crescimento, a saber: ácido giberélico (GA3, 6-benzilaminopurina (6-BA ou a mistura dos dois, com o objetivo de preservar a cor e a turgidez da folhagem. Os melhores resultados foram com 8-HQ (0,69 mol/m³ e GA3 (0,058 mo1/m³. No segundo experimento, avaliaram-se os seguintes inibidores de etileno: tiossulfato de prata (STS, nitrato de prata (AgNO3 e cloreto de cobalto (COC1(2. A melhor resposta foi obtida com AgNO3 (2,9 e 4,4 mo1/m³.Cut flowers of spray chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflorum (Ramat. S. Kitamura cv. White Polaris were harvested and treated in pulsing solutions. The flowers were harvested in commercial greenhouses and transported to the laboratory where the whole stem and inflorescence were immersed in tap water at darkness, during 3 hours. The flowers were selected for uniformity in terms of development; the stems were trimmed to equal length (50 to 60 cm and tagged to allow recording morphological

  5. QUALIDADE DE CRISÂNTEMOS (Dendranthema grandiflora TZVELEV PRODUZIDOS EM DIFERENTES REGIÕES DO ESTADO DE SÃO PAULO: GRUPO POLARIS QUALITY OF CHRYSANTHEMUM (Dendranthema grandiflora TZVELEV CULTIVATED IN DIFFERENT REGIONS OF THE SÃO PAULO STATE: POLARIS GROUP

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    Rosiris Bergemann de Aguiar Silveira

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Escolheu-se o crisântemo, por ser a principal flor de corte comercializada no Estado de São Paulo, para iniciar um processo de melhoria de qualidade com conseqüente padronização para a floricultura brasileira, tanto para a produção de consumo interno quanto para aquela destinada à exportação. Através da avaliação da qualidade de inflorescências de crisântemos do grupo Polaris produzidos em diferentes regiões, e comparação com os padrões existentes, pretendeu-se chegar a um padrão nacional para crisântemos de corte. Os parâmetros analisados foram: comprimento de haste; peso da matéria fresca da haste floral; número de inflorescências abertas e por abrir; localização e número de ramificações; rigidez de haste; defeitos de formação; presença de resíduos químicos e incidência de pragas e moléstias. Os dados obtidos permitiram concluir que comprimento, peso da matéria fresca e rigidez de haste foram os parâmetros que mais se aproximaram dos padrões existentes; número de inflorescências, localização e número de ramificações e presença de hastes tortas indicaram a necessidade de maiores cuidados nas operações de desbotoamento e elevação da rede de sustentação; presença de resíduos químicos e de pragas e moléstias mostraram os piores resultados, requerendo estudos visando a adequada aplicação de defensivos agrícolas para o efetivo controle das pragas e moléstias, não deixando resíduos químicos . Com esses resultados, verificou-se não ser possível elaborar, de imediato, um padrão nacional para crisântemos de corte.Chrysanthemum is the major cut flower commercialized in the São Paulo State, Brazil. This study aimed for the standardization of chrysantemum flowers in order to set new parameters of quality for trading, in both domestic and international markets. Chrysanthemum inflorescences from three regions were evaluated for four seasons, and compared to current standards. The evaluated

  6. The accumulation of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium in cut chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflorum cv. JospithovenAcúmulo de nitrogênio, fósforo e potássio em crisântemo de corte (Dendranthema grandiflorum cv. Jospithoven

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    Eliana Paula Fernandes

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the accumulation of NPK in cut chrysanthemum, cv. Jospithoven, at different phenologic phases, in the summer. The experiment was carried out in greenhouse environment, in Goiás State, Brazil. The population density was 80 seedlings m-2. The experimental design was completely randomized, with plots split in time, and four replications. The plant portion factor (stem, leaf, inflorescence and whole plant was applied to plots, and the development phases (45, 60, 75, 90, 105, and 120 days applied to sub-plots. The plant nutrition was 133 g m-2 of thermophosphate Yoorin and 150 g m-2 of fertilizer formula 5-25-15, which was added to the circulating nutritive solution of calcium nitrate (20 g m-2, during all the evaluated period, alternated with potassium sulfate (30 g m-2 and potassium nitrate (30 g m-2, each fifteen days. It was concluded that NPK demand by chrysanthemum var. Jospithoven, during the growing cycle, ranges according to the plant age and the organ studied, having been more accentuatedin the leaves and 105 days after sowing. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o acúmulo de NPK nos diferentes estádios fenológicos da cultura de crisântemo, cv. Jospithoven, no período de verão. O experimento foi desenvolvido em condições de ambiente protegido, no município de Santo Antônio de Goiás, GO. A densidade de plantio foi de 80 mudas m-2. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado, com parcelas subdivididas no tempo e quatro repetições. O fator aplicado nas parcelas foi representado pelas partes da planta (haste, folha, inflorescência e planta inteira e aquele aplicado nas sub-parcelas, pelos estádios de seu desenvolvimento (45, 60, 75, 90, 105 e 120 dias de idade. A adubação de plantio foi de 133 g m-2 de Yorim, acrescidos de 150 g m-2 da formulação química 5-25-15, à qual foi adicionada uma solução nutritiva circulante de nitrato de cálcio (20 g m-2 durante todo o

  7. Elaboração e validação de escala diagramática para avaliação da severidade da ferrugem branca do crisântemo Elaboration and validation of diagrammatic key to evaluate white rust severity in Chrysanthemum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Angélica G. Barbosa

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available A ferrugem branca, causada pelo fungo Puccinia horiana, é considerada a principal doença do crisântemo no Brasil, induzindo severas perdas aos produtores. Apesar da importância, inexistem estudos epidemiológicos no país, e para que estes estudos sejam realizados, é necessário o desenvolvimento de métodos padronizados de quantificação da severidade da doença no campo. Visando atender a essa demanda, foi elaborada uma escala diagramática com os níveis de 1, 3, 6, 10, 18 e 30% de área foliar lesionada, testando-se a acurácia, a precisão e a reprodutibilidade das estimativas de severidade da ferrugem branca com e sem a sua utilização. Na validação da escala diagramática, 50 folhas com diferentes níveis de severidade da doença, mensurados previamente com o programa AutoCADâ, foram avaliadas por 10 pessoas sem e com a utilização da escala diagramática. Foram realizadas duas avaliações com a utilização da escala, com intervalo de sete dias, onde seqüências diferentes das mesmas folhas foram estimadas visualmente pelos mesmos avaliadores. A acurácia e a precisão de cada avaliador foi determinada por regressão linear simples, entre a severidade real e a estimada. Sem o auxílio da escala, todos os avaliadores superestimaram consistentemente a severidade, indicando a presença de desvios positivos constantes para todos os níveis de severidade da doença. As avaliações realizadas com a escala diagramática foram mais acuradas nas estimativas da maioria dos avaliadores e mais precisas para todos os avaliadores, além de proporcionar boa repetibilidade e elevada reprodutibilidade entre avaliações de diferentes avaliadores. A escala diagramática mostrou-se adequada para avaliação da severidade da ferrugem branca do crisântemo.White rust, caused by Puccinia horiana, is considered the major disease of Chrysanthemum in Brazil, which results in severe losses for the growers. Despite of its economic importance, very

  8. Viabilidade técnico-econômica do uso de diferentes tecnologias de iluminação para indução de fotoperíodo na produção de mudas de crisântemo Technical and economical viability of distinct illumination technologies applied to photoperiod induction in chrysanthemum production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz A. Rossi

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Em função de suas características fisiológicas, as mudas de crisântemo necessitam de luz suplementar para evitar formação de botão floral. Isto é feito no período noturno. O presente trabalho visou a analisar a viabilidade técnico-econômica de substituir-se a atual tecnologia de iluminação artificial utilizada pelos produtores (lâmpadas incandescentes para efeito de indução de fotoperíodo em ambiente protegido, pela tecnologia de lâmpadas de descarga, com o objetivo de reduzir o consumo de energia elétrica utilizada no processo. As lâmpadas de descarga possuem maior vida útil e apresentam menor consumo de energia quando comparadas às lâmpadas incandescentes. Os resultados das análises permitem concluir que a lâmpada fluorescente compacta integrada amarela, de 23 W, é a que apresenta viabilidade técnica e econômica para tal substituição.Physiological characteristics of chrysanthemum nurseries require extra light supply to prevent buds production. That extra illumination is carried during night period. This research aimed to analyze the technical and economical viability associated to the substitution of conventional incandescent lamps used by the producers to discharge lamps to induce photoperiod, aiming electricity cost reduction in protected environment. Discharge lamps are more efficient, exhibit lower consumption and longer life when compared to the incandescent ones. The results of the analysis allow concluding that the yellow fluorescent compact integrated 23 W lamp turned to be technical and economically viable for the proposed substitution.

  9. The relationship between analgesic effect of total flavonoids of Chuzhou chrysanthemum and nitric oxide and prostaglandin E2%滁菊总黄酮的镇痛作用及与一氧化氮和前列腺素E2的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张蓓蓓; 陈志武; 罗胜勇; 马征

    2014-01-01

    目的研究滁菊总黄酮( TFCC)的镇痛作用及其可能机制。方法镇痛作用采用小鼠扭体法、温浴法、福尔马林法、热板法进行检测;血清和脑组织中一氧化氮( NO)和前列腺素E2( PGE2)含量分别采用Griess法和紫外分光光度法测定。结果灌胃给药TFCC 100、200 mg/kg可明显减少小鼠扭体反应数,降低小鼠福尔马林致痛作用第Ⅱ时相疼痛反应评分值,延长小鼠热板舔足反应潜伏期和热水缩尾反应潜伏期;小鼠侧脑室给药TFCC 5、10 mg/kg可明显抑制小鼠扭体反应。灌胃给药TFCC 100、200 mg/kg可明显提高小鼠血清和脑组织中NO含量,但可降低PGE2含量。结论 TFCC具有明显镇痛作用,其镇痛机制可能与促进 NO 释放和抑制PGE2生成有关。%Objective To study the analgesic effect of total flavone of Chuzhou chrysanthemum ( TFCC ) and its mechanism. Methods Writhing test, warm bath method, formalin method, the hot plate test were used to examine analgesic effect on mice, and serum and brain tissue nitric oxide( NO) and prostaglandin E2 ( PGE2 ) contents were determinated the Griess method and ultraviolet spectrophotometry. Results Intragastrical administration of TFCC 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg could significantly reduce the writhing number in mice,II-phase pain in formaldehyde induced pain in mice, and prolonged the mice hot plate licking foot response latency and hot shrinkage tail reaction time. Intracerebroventricular injection TFCC 5 mg/kg and 10 mg/kg could significantly inhibit the writhing number in mice. TFCC 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg significantly increased mice serum and brain NO contents, and reduced PGE2 contents. Conclusion TFCC has obvious analgesic effect, and its analgesic mechanism may be related to the promation of NO release and the inhibition of PGE2 .

  10. Application of controlled-released urea combined with conventional urea on physiological indices, yield and quality of Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat.%控释尿素与普通尿素配施对菊花生理指标及产量和质量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祝丽香; 王建华; 高先涛

    2012-01-01

    2009和2010年采取田间实验方法研究控释尿素和普通尿素不同施用方式对菊花生长发育及产量和品质的影响。结果表明,孕蕾期菊花叶片可溶性蛋白质和叶绿素含量、硝酸还原酶活性、根系活力明显高于生长旺盛期和开花期,且施用尿素高于对照。控释尿素、控释尿素与普通尿素混合一次性基施可促进菊花生长发育前期干物质积累,分次施用有利于后期干物质积累。施用尿素增加单株花序数、百朵花序鲜重,对花序直径影响较少。两种尿素分别分次施用菊花产量明显高于一次性基施,控释尿素与普通尿素等量混合分次施用产量高于其它处理。与普通尿素单施相比,控释尿素提高了菊花总黄酮、蛋白质和可溶性糖含量,其中以控释尿素与普通尿素等量混合分次施用的最高。综合菊花产量和品质指标,在本实验条件下,控释尿素与普通尿素等量混合分次施用的效果最佳。%Nitrogen is one of the most important nutrients and plays a vital role in crop growth and yield production, rational nitrogen fertilization is essential to achieve an optimal yield and the desired product quality. Field experiments were conducted from 2009 to 2010 to compare the effects of controlled-release urea and conventional urea on the growth, yield and quality of Chrysanthemum morifolium. The results show that the physiological indices, including soluble protein content, chlorophyll content, nitrate reductase and root activities, are highest at the pregnant stage, and the indices in the treatments applied two kind of urea are higher than those of the control. The controlled-release urea and conventional urea applied as single basal application can improve growth and dry matter accumulation at the early stages of C. morifolium, while split fertilizations are more favorable to these in the later stages. The amounts of inflorescence number per plant and 100-inforescence flesh

  11. Infrared thermometry for early detection of drought stress in Chrysanthemum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, M.; Metselaar, K.

    2006-01-01

    Strict legislation on the release of water and nutrients into the subsoil exists in the Netherlands. Therefore, on-line monitoring and control systems are being developed to tune the supply of water and nutrients to the plants¿ demand for optimal control of production and reduction of system losses.

  12. From sword to chrysanthemum: Japan's culture of anti-miltarism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The end of the Cold War and the phenomenal increase in Japan's economic and technological power put Japan today in the position to become, if it chooses, a military as well as economic superpower. The diminution of the Soviet threat and the increasing US preoccupation with domestic problems give Japan a latitude for independent action it has not had since the end of World War II. At the same time the US-Japanese security alliance, which has enabled Japan to adopt a minimalist approach to defense and national security, is being weakened by ideologically charged trade and other economic frictions and a growing American perception of Japan as a threat to its interests. Moreover, in the long run Japan faces the prospect of having to deal with other rising regional powers, most notably the People's Republic of China. This changing international security environment thus raises question whether Japan, having become an economic rival of the United States, may not in the future become a military competitor as well; whether, after having adopted a pacifist stance for half a century, Japan may choose to unsheathe its sword once again

  13. Development of new varieties of chrysanthemum by mutagenesis in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: At present, the industry of flower cultivation in Mexico has been demanding new varieties produced locally. There are 6,000 hectares dedicated to the cultivation of flowers for domestic use, however the export is very low. The main production area is located in Villa Guerrero, a small town near Mexico City, where 80% of the total national production is grown. In addition, approximately 10 hectares of greenhouses are dedicated to the production of flowers for export, mainly in the Peninsula de Baja California and the Altiplano Central (Central Plateau). Unfortunately, the production of flowers in Mexico has been affected by two factors: the first, stock plants must be imported from Holland, France and the United States; and the second, there are some government restrictions on their import. Due to these factors, producers are behind in recent innovations related to new varieties. An alternative to solve this problem would be meristem in vitro culture. Plantlets from two varieties 'Polaris Yellow' pompom type and 'Dramatic' margarita type, were obtained through the meristems tip culture in the MS culture medium, to which kinetin 1.0 mg/l and NAA 0.05 mg/l were added. In preliminary studies, the plant material was irradiated with doses between 10 to 60 Gy and it was possible to determine that doses higher than 35 Gy were lethal for both varieties. In this experiment, plantlets were irradiated with seven doses (7.5, 10, 15, 17.5, 20, 22.5 Gy) of 60Co gamma rays. They were then subcultured using three types of explants: bud, leaf and internode. The best variety for production of direct organogenesis was Polaris Yellow in a range of doses between 7.5 and 15 Gy, the buds being the best explant, while the internordes and leaves were not so suitable. In contrary, the leaf was considered to be the best explant for the induction of indirect organogenesis in the variety Dramatic, in a range of doses between 10 and 20 Gy. It was possible to obtain some mutants for color, size and shape of flowers from these materials and it is expected that in the near future they will rise to new varieties. (author)

  14. Stomatal characteristics and desiccation response of leaves of cut chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum morifolium) flowers grown at high air humidity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aliniaeifard, S.; Meeteren, Van Uulke

    2016-01-01

    Although it is well known that, as a short-term response, stomata close at low relative humidity (RH) (high Vapour Pressure Deficit) and open at high RH (low Vapour Pressure Deficit), effects of long-term exposure to different Vapour Pressure Deficits (VPD's) have only been studied in a few econo

  15. 杭菊栽培品种小黄菊鲜花和制成品香气组成分析%Analysis on chemical components of essential oils from fresh flowers and manufactured goods of Chrysanthemum cultivar Dendrathema grandiflorum‘Xiao Huang'Ju in Tongxiang City of Zhejiang Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王梦馨; 沈学根; 周建松; 崔林; 韩宝瑜

    2014-01-01

    The essential oils of fresh flowers and manufactured goods of Chrysanthemum cultivar Dendrathema grandiflorum‘Xiao Huang'Ju were extracted by the simultaneous distillation extraction method , then detected by gas chromatography coupled of mass spectrum .The results were as follows:(1) Seventy-six and eighty-eight components were respectively identified from the fresh flowers and manufactured goods of ‘Xiao Huang'Ju, with monterpenes , sesquiterpenes and their oxygenous derivatives being the major chemical components ;(2) Sixty-two mutual chemical components were identified , with eucalyptol , camphor , verbenol acetate , hexamethyl-benzene and so on at high content level.(3) The compounds in essential oils of the fresh flowers which were at least ten times greater than those in essential oils of manufactured goods were camphene ,β-phellandrene,α-phellandrene, (E)-ocimene, (Z)-ocimene, bicyclo[2.2.2]oct-5-en-2-one, allo-ocimene, D-verbenone, safranal, hexamethyl-benzene;(4) Fourteen components were only identified from the essential oils of fresh flowers , such asα-thujenal ,α-fenchene , copaene and so on.(5) The relative contents of 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one, α-zingiberene, β-sesquiphellandrene, α-citral, palmitic acid,α-curcumene, (E)-limonene oxide,α-bisabol and so on in essential oils of manufactured goods were much more than those of fresh flower . ( 6 ) Twenty-six specific components were only identified from the manufactured goods, including thymol, benzeneacetaldehyde, α-terpineol, γ-cadinene and so on.The results revealed the chemical characteristics of aroma of ‘Xiao Huang'Ju, which can be used as the reference during its cultivating, processing and tasting .%以SDE法提取小黄菊鲜花和制成品的香精油,用GC-MS进行定性定量分析,发现:(1)从鲜花和制成品中分别检出76和88种化合物,主要成分是单萜、倍半萜及含氧衍生物;(2)鲜花和制成品中共有成分62种,其中含量较

  16. Cyto-palynological, Biochemical and Molecular Characterization of Original and Induced Mutants of Garden Chrysanthemum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A large number of new somatic flower color/type mutants have been evolved by induced mutations in different ornamental plants. Few reports are available on the systematic work being done on the comparative analysis of the original and mutant cultivars. This paper reports the result of comparative analysis on cyto-palynological, biochemical and molecular characters of original and mutant cultivars for a better understanding of the exact mechanism involved in the origin and evolution of flower color mutations. Cultivar identification and cultivar relatedness are important issues for horticultural breeders. Proper characterization and identification of new mutant cultivars is extremely important to protect plant breeder's rights for commercial exploitation. (author)

  17. Evaluation of conditions for adventitious chrysanthemum planted regeneration from leaf and stem tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Direct plant regeneration obtained from leaf and stem explants of four out of five hrysanthemum (Dendrathema grandiflora) varieties, using the Murashigue and Skoog medium supplemented with six hormonal constitutions, showed large cultivars differences in shoot regeneration frequency. The combination of 4 and 2 mg I 1 of IAA and K respectively was the optimum medium (MS2) for plantlet regeneration of Tikara meanwhile 2 and 0.5 mg I 1 of BAP and SAA (MS6) respectively for Harmann, using in both cases leaf and stem explant types. Under the initial experimental conditions there were obtained 453 total plantlets from 100 established leaf explants of Tikara whereas applying the optimal experimental condition here determined allowed to regenerate from stem explants 1200 normal plantlets. In the case of Harmann, we initially regenerated 79 and with the improved procedure 114. These results were mainly due to a combination of factors: varietal potentiality, medium composition, plant tissue utilized as explant and the form the explants were placed on the culture medium. The variegate phenotype of the mutant TV1 was expressed only in plantlets regenerated from stem explants 1

  18. Anthocyanin and Carotenoid Contents in Different Cultivars of Chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflorum Ramat. Flower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Ha Park

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The flowers of twenty-three cultivars of Dendranthema grandiflorum Ramat. were investigated to determine anthocyanin and carotenoid levels and to confirm the effects of the pigments on the flower colors using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC and electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS. The cultivars contained the anthocyanins cyanidin 3-glucoside (C3g and cyanidin 3-(3ʺ-malonoyl glucoside (C3mg and the following carotenoids: lutein, zeaxanthin, β-cryptoxanthin, 13-cis-β-carotene, α-carotene, trans-β-carotene, and 9-cis-β-carotene. The cultivar “Magic” showed the greatest accumulation of total and individual anthocyanins, including C3g and C3gm. On the other hand, the highest level of lutein and zeaxanthin was noted in the cultivar “Il Weol”. The cultivar “Anastasia” contained the highest amount of carotenoids such as trans-β-carotene, 9-cis-β-carotene, and 13-cis-β-carotene. The highest accumulation of β-cryptoxanthin and α-carotene was noted in the cultivar “Anastasia” and “Il Weol”. Our results suggested that ‘Magic”, “Angel” and “Relance’ had high amounts of anthocyanins and showed a wide range of red and purple colors in their petals, whereas “Il Weol’, “Popcorn Ball’ and “Anastasia” produced higher carotenoid contents and displayed yellow or green petal colors. Interestingly, “Green Pang Pang”, which contained a high level of anthocyanins and a medium level of carotenoids, showed the deep green colored petals. “Kastelli”, had high level of carotenoids as well as a medium level of anthocyanins and showed orange and red colored petals. It was concluded that each pigment is responsible for the petal’s colors and the compositions of the pigments affect their flower colors and that the cultivars could be a good source for pharmaceutical, floriculture, and pigment industries.

  19. Mutation breeding of Chrysanthemum morifolium Ram. using in vivo and in vitro adventitious bud techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During experiments, which are being carried out to study the factors which control the process of adventitious bud formation in vivo on detached leaves of Chrysantemum morifolium RAM, adventitious shoots were produced from leaves, irradiated with 500 rad of X-rays. The most important but disadvantageous result was that the majority of the adventitious shoots proved to be of a chimeral nature and obviously developed from more than one cell. An in vitro adventitious bud technique was developed using different types of explants. Pedicel segments regenerated the highest number of adventitious shoots and, moreover, they developed faster as compared to explants of young flower heads or leaves. The mutants produced by irradiating the various explants were almost exclusively of a solid (non-chimeral) nature. In addition, histological observations suggest that single epidermal cells are involved in the initiation of the adventitious shoot apices. The optimum dose for mutant production is approximately 800 rad X-rays. Rather often, more than one phenotypically identical mutant was found, which was always derived from the same explant. They could for instance originate from a multi-apical meristem formed by a single mutated cell

  20. Deconstructing Delphinium: Violence and Flowers in Rousseau's "Emile" and Henke's "Chrysanthemum"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinard, Timothy

    2012-01-01

    This article is an attempt to contribute to the conversation about "go[ing] beyond all kinds of binary thinking" (Lenz Taguchi, "Going beyond the theory/practice divide in early childhood education: introducing an intra-active pedagogy," 2010, p. 50), especially the binary which positions "adults" and "children" as being powerful and powerless,…

  1. A Chrysanthemum in the Garden: A Christian Kindergarten in the Empire of Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishida, Yukiyo

    2015-01-01

    This is a study of the contribution of Christian missionaries to kindergarten education in the Empire of Japan. The study concerns an American Missionary woman, Annie L. Howe (1852-1943) and her kindergarten in Kobe, Japan. Annie L. Howe had a great impact on the history of early childhood education and is still remembered as the "Mother of…

  2. Ion-mediated flow changes suppressed by minimal clacium presence in xylem sap in Chrysanthemum and prunus laurocerasus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ieperen, van W.; Gelder, van H.

    2006-01-01

    After the discovery of ion-mediated changes in xylem hydraulic resistance a few years ago, a number of research papers were published that related ion-mediated flow changes in the xylem to various aspects of whole plant functioning and evolutionary diversification of vascular cells. Ion-mediated cha

  3. Effects of Chrysanthemum coronarium Extract on Fermentation Characteristics and Biohydrogenation of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in vitro Batch Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Li-fang; MA Yan-fen; GAO Min; LU De-xun

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Cis-9,trans-11 CLA has been shown to be potentially health-promoting CLA in many animal models.The C18:1 trans-11 fatty acid(VA) is also desirable as a product flowing from the rumen,because the flow from the rumen of VA play a more important role than CLA in determining CLA concentration in animal tissues.

  4. Non-invasive plant growth measurements for detection of blue-light dose response of stem elongation in Chrysanthemum morifolium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Katrine Heinsvig

    2012-01-01

    Quantitative and qualitative imaging of plant growth and development in response to environmental factors under greenhouse conditions visualises plant performance on-site and may increase our knowledge of how rapid plants change their growth pattern in relation to environmental stimuli. In the...... present study a non-invasive plant growth sensor (PlantEye, Phenospex B.V, Heerlen, NL) was tested in analysing changes in diurnal stem elongation patterns and plant height in response to the spectral quality of the light environment. Plants were grown in four different LED supplemental lighting...... treatments with 0%, 12.5%, 18.5% and 22.5% blue light under greenhouse conditions in winter (18 h day/4 h night). The non-invasive measurements were carried out automatically every four hour with three repetitions, and supported by manual measurements of plant height every third day. A strong linear relation...

  5. The Geometric Growth Model of the Chrysanthemum Stone%菊花石生长几何模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵珊茸; 谭劲; 王文魁

    1998-01-01

    通过与DLA模型类比,建立起一个菊花石生长几何模型,分析了菊花石生长过程中的"间距分叉"现象及花瓣间距H的演变规律及速率,并对比分析了菊花石实际形貌与生长模型形态的异同和原因.

  6. 菊花褐斑病发生规律及防治研究%A Study on Occurrence and Control of Chrysanthemum Brown Rot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王芳; 黄碧龙; 王艳

    2001-01-01

    对于菊花褐斑病的发生规律及有效防治药剂进行了研究.病原菌以菌丝体和分生孢子器在病残体上越冬,分生孢子借风雨和水传播,再侵染频繁,温度在24℃~28℃、高湿有利于病害的发生发展.药剂防治试验表明:各药剂间防效差异显著,以50%甲基托布津(800倍)和65%代森锌(600倍)最佳.

  7. Detection and Characteristic Analysis EST-SNP in Chrysanthemum%菊花EST-SNP的发掘与特征分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万志兵; 王言言; 陈黎

    2013-01-01

    下载GenBank数据库中已公布的菊花EST序列7 087条,利用GS De nove Assembler软件进行叠连群构建,EST序列构建275个叠连群,长度共计142 713 bp,发现候选SNP位点214个,SNP平均出现频率为0.15%,共有52个contigs含有SNP位点,每个contig含有4.12个SNP位点,一个contig含有的SNP位点数最多的是40个,40.39%的contigs只含有1个SNP位点;不同叠连群所含SNP位点的数量差异较大,且转换类型明显高于颠换类型;Contigs的总长度是142 713 bp,平均666.9 bp含有1个SNP位点.另外,还应用Primer Premier 5.0,按照引物设计要求,共设计出1 322对EST-SNP引物.

  8. 小菊花色芽变品种的AFLP分析%AFLP analysis on the flower-color sprout of chrysanthemum with small inflorescences

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦贺兰; 贾宗锴; 张西西

    2010-01-01

    采用AFLP(Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism)技术对小菊花色芽变品种与原始品种的DNA进行差异性分析,旨在建立芽变品系形态学以外的分子水平鉴定技术.在引用13对引物中,每对引物平均扩增出13.5条多态性带,分子量在110~800 bp之间.3对引物组合(第8对E-ACG/M-CAT、第10对E-AGG/M-CTC、第11对E-AGG/M-CTG)产生5条清晰特异性条带可以将二者区分,这些特异性片段可能包含引起花色芽变的基因序列,经计算,二者遗传相似系数为0.986,遗传物质多态性为2.81%.

  9. High temperature stress monitoring and detection using chlorophyll a fluorescence and infrared thermography in chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflora)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wakjera, Eshetu Janka; Körner, Oliver; Rosenqvist, Eva;

    2013-01-01

    Modern highly insulated greenhouses are more energy efficient than conventional types. Furthermore applying dynamic greenhouse climate control regimes will increase energy efficiency relatively more in modern structures. However, this combination may result in higher air and crop temperatures. Too...... mol−1 and with a photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) of 800 μmol m−2 s−1, net photosynthesis (Pn) reached its maximum at 35 °C. The thermal index (IG), calculated from the leaf temperature and the temperature of a dry and wet reference leaf, showed a strong correlation with gs. We conclude...... that 1) chlorophyll a fluorescence and a combination of fluorescence parameters can be used as early stress indicators as well as to detect the temperature limit of PSII damage, and 2) the strong relation between gs and IG enables gs to be estimated non-invasively, which is an important first step...

  10. 滁菊挥发油的成分分析及其在卷烟中的应用%Chemical Components of Chrysanthemum morifolium (Ramat) Tzvel.cv.Chuju Volatile Oil and its Applications in Cigarette Flavoring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐秀娟; 王甜; 何保江; 李国栋; 秦广雍; 屈展; 胡军; 卓浩廉

    2015-01-01

    为开发天然烟用香原料,分别采用减压水蒸气蒸馏、亚临界萃取和分子蒸馏技术制备出三种滁菊净油,通过GC/MS分析了滁菊挥发油的化学成分,并进行了卷烟加香实验.结果表明:滁菊净油中共鉴定出79种化学成分,包括有机酸类8种、酮类14种、醇类18种、烯烃类25种、酯类7种,以及其他成分,净油中含量较高的为龙脑、β-芹子烯、β-倍半水芹烯、(E)-β金合欢烯、蒿酮、马兜铃烯环氧化物等;评吸结果表明滁菊净油能够改善香气质,增加香气量,降低杂气,使得烟气细腻柔和,是一种理想的天然烟用香原料.

  11. Solarização do solo para o controle de Pythium e plantas daninhas em cultura de crisântemo Soil solarization for Pithium and weed control in chrysanthemum crop

    OpenAIRE

    W. Bettiol; R. Ghini; J.A.H. Galvão; S.S. Zocchi

    1994-01-01

    A solarização, durante dois meses, de um solo naturalmente infestado com Pythium, promoveu o controle do patógeno, de modo semelhante à aplicação de metalaxyl + mancozeb, na cultura de crisântemo. A incidência média de plantas mortas foi de 2,3% nas parcelas solarizadas; 1,0% no solo solarizado que recebeu metade da dose dos fungicidas; 9,0% com a aplicação da dose completa dos fungicidas (1 g de metalaxyl + 4,8 g de mancozeb/m²) e 38,9%, na testemunha não tratada. A solarização também promov...

  12. Study on salt stress tolerance of Chrysanthemum morifolium ‘ Hangbaiju' and ‘ Huangju' and F1 seedlings%药用杭白菊和黄菊及其杂交F1代耐盐特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王康才; 黄莺; 汤兴利; 李丹霞

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To study the salt stress tolerance of Hongxinju, Huangju and F, seedlings from orthogonal and reciprocal cross under different salt treatments. Grope for transmissibility of salt tolerance between parents and F, seedlings, and relativity between flavone, chlorogenic acid contents and salt tolerance. Method: The materials were put in 5 different concentrations of Hoagland nutrient solution (0,40, 80, 120, 160 mmol · L-1 ) containing NaCl, keeping grads while raising the consistency of NaCl day by day. The injured leaf area per plant, proline, betaine, MDA, flavones and chlorogenic acid contents were measured and analyzed after treatment. Result: As NaCl concentration was below 120 mmol · L-1, the salt tolerance of Hongxinju was higher than that of Huangju, the salt tolerance of Hongxinju X Huangju higher than that of parents, the salt tolerance of Huangju x Hongxinju was at the level of parents. As NaCl concentration between 120 to 160 mmol · L-1, the salt tolerance of Huangju was higher than that of Hongxinju, the salt tolerance of Huangju x Hongxinju higher than that of parents and the salt tolerance of Hongxinju x Huangju was at the level of parents. Conclusion; Salt tolerance of F1 is more influenced by female parent, relativity showed between flavonoids, chlorogenic acid contents and salt tolerance.%目的:比较不同浓度NaCl处理下药用菊花红心菊和黄菊,以及二者通过正交与反交获得的F1代植株的耐盐性,分析其耐盐性的遗传机制以及耐盐性与黄酮、绿原酸等主要活性成分的相关性.方法:将材料置于加入5种不同浓度(0,40,80,120,160 mmol·L-1)NaCl的Hoagland培养液中进行胁迫处理,每日增加NaCl浓度并保证浓度梯度,一段时间后测定受伤害叶面积比率、脯氨酸、甜菜碱、丙二醛、黄酮、绿原酸的含量并分析.结果:NaCl浓度在120 mmol·L-1以下时,红心菊耐盐性高于黄菊,红心菊×黄菊耐盐性高于亲本,黄菊×红心菊表现介于亲本之间;NaCl浓度在120~ 160 mmol·L-1时,黄菊耐盐性高于红心菊,黄菊×红心菊耐盐性高于亲本而红心菊×黄菊表现介于亲本之间.结论:F1代遗传性受母本影响较多,黄酮、绿原酸含量与植株耐盐性表现出一定相关性.

  13. CORRELATION BETWEEN FLORAL TRAITS OF CHRYSANTHEMUM (DENDRANTHEMA MORIFOLIUM) AND INSECT VISITORS%菊花花部特征及花冠精油组分与访花昆虫的相关性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王伟; 戴华国; 陈发棣; 郭维明

    2008-01-01

    菊花(Dendranthema morifolium)是异花授粉植物,具有自交不亲和特性.其自然授粉的主要媒介为蜂类和蝶类.我们对19个菊花品种的花色、花朵繁密度、花冠直径、管状花花盘直径、株高以及花冠精油组分与访花蜂数和访花蝶数的相关性进行了研究.结果表明,黄花色系较吸引西方蜜蜂(Apis mellifera)访花;菊花的花朵繁密度、花冠直径、管状花花盘直径均与访花蜂数有显著相关性,而株高与访花蜂数无相关性.大红蛱蝶(Vanessaindica)青睐红色花,其访花蝶数与花朵繁密度、管状花花盘直径均有显著相关性,而花冠直径和株高与访花蝶数无相关性.经气相色谱-质谱(GC-MS)分析得知,不同菊花品种花冠精油的组分不同,其主要成分均为单萜和倍半萜类及其含氧衍生物;并且不同品种含有某些特定的花冠精油组分,其中樟脑萜(r=-0.909,p<0.05)和6,10,14-三甲基-2-十五酮(r=0.882,p<0.05)与访花蜂数呈一定的相关性,α-萜品醇(r=0.979,p<0.01)、顺柠檬烯氧化物(r=0.979,p<0.01)、金合欢烯氧化物(r=0.979,p<0.01)、p-mentha-6,8-dien-2-ol,cis-(r=0.973,p<0.01)、P-menth-1-en-8-ol(r=0.962,p<0.01)和4-萜品烯醇(r=0.957,p<0.05)与访花蝶数呈一定相关性.

  14. Produtividade e longevidade de crisântemos, cultivados em hidroponia, em resposta a doses de cálcio Chrysanthemum productivity and longevity in a hydroponic system in response to calcium doses

    OpenAIRE

    Maurício Soares Barbosa; José Geraldo Barbosa; Fernando Luiz Finger; Telma Pontes; Mariana Rubim Raimundo; Thiago Costa Ferreira

    2010-01-01

    Para verificar a resposta de diferentes variedades de crisântemos a doses de cálcio um experimento foi conduzido em casa de vegetação sob sistema hidropônico de três fases e cascalho como substrato. Utilizou-se o delineamento em blocos casualizados com parcelas subdivididas, sendo as doses de cálcio (1,0; 2,5; 4,0; 5,5 mmol L-1) dispostas nas parcelas e três variedades (Blush Hawai, Calabria e Dark Flamengo) nas subparcelas, com 3 repetições. Para as diferentes doses de cálcio, utilizou-se so...

  15. Manutenção da qualidade e aumento da longevidade floral de crisântemo cv. White polaris Keeping quality and prolonging the postharvest longevity of spray chrysanthemum cv. White polaris

    OpenAIRE

    Victor Julio Flórez-Roncancio; Carlos Eduardo Ferreira de Castro; Maria Esmeralda Soares Payão Demattê

    1996-01-01

    0 objetivo do trabalho foi determinar o melhor tratamento pós-colheita para manutenção floral e aumento da longevidade de crisântemo de maço do tipo pompom (Dendranthema grandiflorum (Ramat.) S. Kitamura) cv. White Polaris. Estabeleceu-se como ponto de colheita o momento em que as hastes apresentavam três inflorescências apicais com as pétalas externas em ângulo de 45° em relação à horizontal. Durante o ensaio em laboratório, as hastes, colhidas em estufa de produção comercial, após total...

  16. The Dynamic Changes in Cold Tolerance of Ground-cover Chrysanthemum Growing in the Open Field during the Overwintering%地被菊露地越冬期间耐寒力的动态变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    景雄; 白永霞; 沈漫; 冷平生

    2015-01-01

    以露地栽培的地被菊(Dendranthema×grandiflorum Kitamura)‘紫勋章’品种为植物试材,对其秋冬季期间的叶片、脚芽、根进行测定分析,并对各生理指标间的相关性进行分析.结果表明,露地越冬期间,地被菊‘紫勋章’根系活力随温度缓慢下降;叶片和脚芽的相对含水量及根的含水量随温度降低而下降:叶片和脚芽的SOD、CAT、POD酶活性受降温影响较明显,变化趋势不同,推测这3种酶可能在‘紫勋章’耐寒力形成中交替发挥作用,而根的酶活性则受低温影响较小.随着温度的降低,‘紫勋章’叶片可溶性糖含量显著增加,可溶性蛋白和脯氨酸含量总体呈下降趋势:脚芽和根的渗透调节物质含量总体呈升降趋势.相关性分析表明,地被菊‘紫勋章’耐寒力与相对含水量、SOD、可溶性蛋白、可溶性糖、根系活力密切相关.叶片、脚芽和根系的形态观测结果也表明,地被菊越冬成活与否主要取决于根系耐寒力的强弱.

  17. 不同激素浓度对食用菊花组织培养的影响%Effects of Different Plant Hormone Concentrations to Tissue Culture Stem of Edible Chrysanthemum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘玉堂; 赵宪争; 杨迎霞; 岳东霞; 尉万聪

    2014-01-01

    以盆栽食用菊花的茎尖为外植体,通过调节激素浓度诱导愈伤形成、芽体萌发、继代增殖以及生根壮苗,快速扩繁食用菊花组培苗.研究结果表明:愈伤分化和芽诱导的最适培养基为MS+1 mg/L6-BA+ 0.1 mg/L NAA,芽的诱导率可达到55%;不定芽增殖的最适培养基为MS+1 mg/L 6-BA+ 0.3 mg/LNAA+ 0.1 mg/L KT,平均每株芽数4.9个;生根的最适培养基为1/2MS+ 0.1 mg/L NAA,根数最多可达11根.

  18. Plantas medicinales utilizadas en la salud infantil

    OpenAIRE

    Souza, ADZ.; Ceolin, T.; Vargas, NRC.; Heck, RM.; Vasconcellos, CL.; Borges, AM.; Mendieta, MC.

    2011-01-01

    Identificar las plantas medicinales utilizadas en la salud infantil por familias de agricultores de base ecológica de la región Sur de Río Grande do Sul, Brasil. El enfoque de investigación es cualitativo, exploratorio y descriptivo, con datos recogidos de enero a mayo de 2009. Los sujetos fueron ocho familias de agricultores, residentes en los municipios de Pelotas, Morro Redondo, Canguçu y Arroio do Padre. Seis plantas fueron citadas (Chrysanthemun cinerariifolium, Foeniculum vulgare, Acca ...

  19. Methodological aspects of mutation breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors discuss the development of the in vitro adventitious bud technique for Chrysanthemum morifolium, Solanum tuberosum, Begonia x hieemalis, Dianthus caryophyllus, Muscari, Euphorbia pulcherrima, and Forsythia intermedia. (G.T.H.)

  20. Host plant effects on development and reproduction of the glassy-winged sharpshooter, Homalodisca vitripennis (Homoptera: Cicadellidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Development, survivorship, longevity, reproduction and life table parameters of the glassy-winged sharpshooter, Homalodisca vitripennis (Germar), were examined in the laboratory using three host plants, sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.), Chrysanthemum morifolium L. and euonymus (Euonymus japonica Thu...

  1. Quantitative determination of seven chemical constituents and chemo-type differentiation of chamomiles using high-performance thin-layer chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matricaria recutita L. (German Chamomile), Anthemis nobilis L. (Roman Chamomile) and Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat are commonly used chamomiles. High performance thin layer chromatographic (HPTLC) method was developed for estimation of six flavonoids (rutin, luteolin-7-O-ß-glucoside, chamaemeloside...

  2. Pyretrum : et naturlig insekticid og mulig middel mot lakselus

    OpenAIRE

    Boxaspen, Karin

    1990-01-01

    Pyrethrum is the name of a petroleum extract from the flower of the chrysanthemum Chrysanthemum cinerariaefolium. This extract has been used commercially by the industrialised world as an insecticide for more than 150 years and even references as far back as Ming dynasty around year 70 AD have been found. The flower has been grown several places (Dalmatia, Japan, South America) but it has been proven that the content of the active constituents called pyrethrins are at its peak ...

  3. STUDY ON ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY IN FLOWERCULTURE IN GREENHOUSES

    OpenAIRE

    Popescu, A.

    2003-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the economic efficiency in flowerculture in the greenhouses belonging to a private company next to the capital. The firm owns 2.45 ha greenhouses where it cultivates Fresia Species, Chrysanthemum Species and Alstroemeria Species. The average production was 1,200 thou Fresia flowers, 405 thou Chrysanthemum flowers and 610 thou Alstroemeria flowers/ha. All the three flower species assure a high economic efficiency, but Fresia is the most profitable one. It assures t...

  4. PRELIMINARY STUDIES ON ARTIFICIAL TECHNIQUES OF REARING LARVA OF SUNFLOWER MOTH Homoeosoma nebulellum ( Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)%向日葵螟幼虫人工饲养技术初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵艳平; 孟瑞霞; 白全江; 贾永红

    2012-01-01

    Rearing techniques of sunflower moth larva on artificial diet, 50% and 100% flowering garland chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum coronanum Mill. ) were studied in laboratory. The results showed that the larvae of sunflower moth could develop well on three diets; moreover, the first instar larvae could develop well on garland chrysanthemum head with flowering 50% and 100% , and larvae could be reared on head of garland chrysanthemum in laboratory.%本文初步研究了利用人工饲料及苘蒿(Chrysanthemum coronarium Mill.)饲养向日葵螟(Homoeosoma nebulellum)幼虫的方法,结果表明:在人工饲料、管状小花开花50%及100%的茼蒿花头三种不同的基质饲养葵螟幼虫,其幼虫存活率、化蛹率及成虫羽化率基本一致,均可正常发育;开花50%和100%的茼蒿花头,一龄幼虫都可钻蛀危害,可以利用苘蒿花头在室内饲养葵螟幼虫.

  5. Avaliação de seletividade de produtos fitossanitários utilizados na cultura do crisântemo a adultos de Orius insidiosus (Say, 1832) (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae) em laboratório Selectivity of pesticides used on chrysanthemum crop to adults of Orius insidiosus (Say, 1832) (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae)

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandre Augusto Morais; Geraldo Andrade Carvalho; Jair Campos Moraes; Maurício Sekiguchi Godoy; Luciano Veiga Cosme

    2003-01-01

    Objetivou-se avaliar a seletividade de produtos fitossanitários utilizados na cultura do crisântemo a adultos de Orius insidiosus (Say). Os bioensaios foram conduzidos a 25±1oC, UR 70±10% e fotofase de 12h, em Lavras, MG. Os inseticidas avaliados foram abamectina (0,0009 g i.a./100 ml), cartap (0,06 g i.a./100 ml), ciromazina (0,011 g i.a./100 ml), fenpropatrina (0,009 g i.a./100 ml) e imidaclopride (0,042 g i.a./100 ml). As pulverizações foram realizadas por meio de torre de Potter calibrada...

  6. Strategii de PR în retorica electorala din Parlamentarele -2014, Republica Moldova vs „revoluția crizantemelor”, octombrie 2015 (PR strategies in the electoral rhetoric during the parliamentary elections in 2014, Republic of Moldova vs „the chrysanthemums revolution”, october 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurelia PERU-BALAN

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article the author approaches the trends of the electoral rhetoric during the parliamentary elections that were held on 30th of November. The article determines which are the most used campaign issues with a mobilizing effect on the voters; among these – the external path of the Republic of Moldova. During the last five years, the right and center-right wing parties have chosen the EU integration, the left-wing parties – the Eurasian Union. The contribution also analyzes the most relevant special events organized by the political parties’ staffs in order to create an image well covered by the media and favorable for the political actors.

  7. 离体条件下5-氮杂胞嘧啶核苷对菊花DNA甲基化和表型性状的影响%The Effect of 5-azacytidine to the DNA Methylation and Morphogenesis Character of Chrysanthemum During in Vitro Growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王子成; 聂丽娟; 何艳霞

    2009-01-01

    采用离体处理的方法,初步研究了5-氮杂胞嘧啶核苷(5-azaC)对菊花的影响.结果表明,500 μmol·L~(-1)以上时有致死效应,100μmol·L~(-1)以上时能抑制离体材料的生长发育,而各浓度对菊花的丛生芽均具有抑制作用,且这种抑制作用具有时间累加效应和剂量累计效应.10 μmol·L~(-1)以下时使菊花开花时间有不同程度的提早,这一效应具有稳定性,并可通过营养繁殖进行遗传.MSAP技术分析表明,处理材料基因组DNA甲基化水平明显降低,在去处理后的继代过程中仍有部分位点保持低甲基化状态.

  8. Pontas de pulverização e eletrificação das gotas na deposição da calda em plantas de crisântemo Nozzles and droplets with electric charge on spray deposition in chrysanthemum plants

    OpenAIRE

    Marina Elisei Serra; Aldemir Chaim; Carlos Gilberto Raetano

    2008-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a deposição das gotas de pulverização, dotadas de carga elétrica (eletrostática), em comparação à técnica de pulverização convencional em crisântemo, com uso de diferentes pontas de pulverização. O experimento foi conduzido em delineamento inteiramente ao acaso, com oito tratamentos: combinação das pontas TXVK-3, AXI 110015, AXI 12002 TWIN e AXI 11003, com duas técnicas de pulverização (com e sem eletrostática), e quatro repetições. Cada repetição foi rep...

  9. Crescimento, duração do ciclo e produção de inflorescências de crisântemo multiflora sob diferentes números de despontes e tamanhos de vasos Growth, duration of the growing stages and inflorescence production of chrysanthemum under different prunings and size of pot

    OpenAIRE

    Betânia Brum; Valdecir José dos Santos; Marcelo Antonio Rodrigues; Rogério Antônio Bellé; Sidinei José Lopes

    2007-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o comportamento vegetativo e reprodutivo e a duração do ciclo de duas cultivares de crisântemo multiflora, em ambiente protegido, quando submetidos a diferentes números de despontes e tamanhos de vasos. O experimento foi conduzido no período de 30 de abril a 12 de dezembro de 2003, em casa-de-vegetação do Departamento de Fitotecnia da UFSM, Santa Maria, RS, Brasil. As duas cultivares foram conduzidas em três tamanhos de vasos: número 11, 15 e 20. A anális...

  10. 华南栖霞组菊花石假象内正延性玉髓的成因及其地质意义①%Length-Slow Chalcedony in Chrysanthemum Stone of Chihsia Formation, South China and Its Geological Implications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    正延性玉髓常被视为干旱蒸发沉积环境的标志.正延性玉髓亦广泛分布于华南地区栖霞组菊花石(目前绝大多数为天青石假象)内.本文在天青石后期矿物交代序列识别的基础上,通过对菊花石内各期次碳酸盐交代矿物的电子探针分析,发现菊花石内正延性玉髓形成于富含硫酸根离子和镁离子的成岩介质条件中.结合已有的正延性玉髓研究报道和栖霞组的沉积、成岩作用环境特征分析,认为华南地区栖霞组菊花石内正延性玉髓的形成环境与高蒸发沉积环境或高盐度成岩环境无关.因此,仅根据正延性玉髓的出现不足以确定沉积或成岩环境的盐度条件.

  11. STUDY ON ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY IN FLOWERCULTURE IN GREENHOUSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A POPESCU

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the economic efficiency in flowerculture in the greenhouses belonging to a private company next to the capital. The firm owns 2.45 ha greenhouses where it cultivates Fresia Species, Chrysanthemum Species and Alstroemeria Species. The average production was 1,200 thou Fresia flowers, 405 thou Chrysanthemum flowers and 610 thou Alstroemeria flowers/ha. All the three flower species assure a high economic efficiency, but Fresia is the most profitable one. It assures the highest profit per flower USD 0.023, the highest profit per hectar USD 28,576 and the highest profit rate 44 %. Then, in order are coming Alstroemeria and Chrysanthemum. These three species could represent the subject of a profitable productive activity for any floriculturist who would like to get secure incomes all over the year.

  12. Qualitative parameters of non-traditional types of vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Kudrnáčová

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this study was to determine selected quality indicators of non-traditional types of leafy vegetables. Mizuna (Brassica rapa japonica, Chinese mustard (Brassica juncea, edible chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum coronarium and arugula (Eruca sativa belonged among the selected species of vegetables. During the one-year experiment, spring and autumn sowing was carried out for these species of vegetables. The measured quality parameters were the content of nitrates and ascorbic acid. Sampling was done in the morning and in the laboratory, the samples were further processed according to the type of determination. To determine the content of nitrates and ascorbic acid, leaves were removed from plants. The filtrate from the leaves was then prepared. Determination of nitrates and ascorbic acid was carried out using a special test strip and device Rqflex plus 10. The results of measurement of both sowing varieties were compared. Total nitrate content was higher up to 22% in plants sown in the autumn except edible chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum coronarium. The highest content was recorded in arugula (Eruca sativa, which was recently implemented to the studies of the European Union and for which there were set the limits of nitrates. Overall, the nitrate content ranged from 221 to 334 ppm in spring varieties and from 249 to 384 mg/kg in autumn varieties. Ascorbic acid content was very high in Chinese mustard (Brassica juncea, edible chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum coronarium and arugula (Eruca sativa in both spring and autumn varieties. Values of ascorbic acid ranged from 839 in autumn sowing up to 2909 mg/kg in spring sowing. These non-traditional types of leafy vegetables could be included among the other importants sources of vitamin C in the future.  

  13. Scientific Opinion on the assessment of the risk of solanaceous pospiviroids for the EU territory and the identification and evaluation of risk management options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, R.; Candresse, T.; Dormannsné Simon, E.;

    2011-01-01

    (PSTVd). The risk assessment included PSTVd, Citrus exocortis viroid, Columnea latent viroid, Mexican papita viroid, Tomato apical stunt viroid, Tomato chlorotic dwarf viroid, Tomato planta macho viroid, Chrysanthemum stunt viroid and Pepper chat fruit viroid. Four entry pathways were identified, three...

  14. 75 FR 17716 - Notice of Receipt of Requests to Voluntarily Cancel Certain Pesticide Registrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-07

    ... effective date of the cancellation action. EPA's existing stocks policy (56 FR 29362) provides that: ``If a... Concentrate 000192-00182 Dexol Dog &Cat Methyl nonyl ketone Repellent 000192-00184 Dexol Hornet Phenothrin... 6E Propargite 000498-00116 Chase-MM Flying d-trans-Chrysanthemum Insect Killer monocarboxylic...

  15. Composition of essential oil of costmary [Balsamita major (L.) Desf.] at different growth phases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bylaite, E.; Venskutonis, R.; Roozen, J.P.; Posthumus, M.A.

    2000-01-01

    The essential oils from leaves and flowers of costmary, Balsamita major (L.) Desf. (syn. Chrysanthemum balsamita L.), were analyzed at various phases of plant growth. The highest contents of oil both in leaves and in flowers were determined before full blooming, 1.15 and 1.34øw/w), respectively. Sev

  16. Management strategies for greenhouse growers in a competitive environment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trip, G.; Renkema, J.A.; Huirne, R.B.M.

    1996-01-01

    A study among 26 Dutch chrysanthemum firms was performed between November 1993 and November 1994 to (a) assess the relative economic performance of each firm and (b) compare three strategies used by growers in getting high economic results. These strategies, related to the theory of Porter (1985), a

  17. Daily Temperature Integration: a Simulation Study to quantify Energy Consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Körner, O.; Bakker, M.J.; Heuvelink, E.

    2004-01-01

    A combined greenhouse climate and control model was used to study energy consumption in year-round cut chrysanthemum. Temperature was either controlled for energy saving with temperature integration within 24h using the margin between heating and ventilation temperature b as control (TI) or the temp

  18. Interspecific hybridization and polyploidization as tools in ornamental plant breeding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuyl, van J.M.; Kim, K.B.

    2003-01-01

    Interspecific hybridisation and polyploidy are recognized as the most impor-tant sources of evolution and domestication of flowering plants. In ornamental plant breeding these phenomena go hand in hand and can be observed in the breeding his-tory of many ornamental crops (Rosa, Chrysanthemum, Gladio

  19. La Artesania Mexicana (Mexican Handicrafts).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Bettina

    This booklet contains instructions in English and Spanish for making eleven typical Mexican craft articles. The instructions are accompanied by pen-and-ink drawings. The objects are (1) "La Rosa" (The Rose); (2) "El Crisantemo" (The Chrysanthemum); (3) "La Amapola" (The Poppy); (4) "Ojos de Dios" (God's Eyes); (5) "Ojitos con dos caras" (Two-Sided…

  20. Longevity of Puccinia horiana teliospores under various environmental conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puccinia horiana Henn. is a quarantine-significant fungal pathogen and causal agent of chrysanthemum white rust (CWR). The pathogen and disease were first discovered in the United States in 1977 and quickly eradicated. During the early 1990s, CWR re-emerged on several instances, but in each instance...

  1. Wound-induced and bacteria-induced xylem blockage in roses, Astilbe and Viburnum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loubaud, M.; Doorn, van W.G.

    2004-01-01

    We previously concluded that the xylem blockage that prevents water uptake into several cut flowers is mainly due to the presence of bacteria, whilst in chrysanthemum and Bouvardia we observed a xylem occlusion that was mainly due to a wound-reaction of the plant. We have further tested which of the

  2. Partical replacement of the rooting procedure of Chrysanthenum merifolium cuttings by pre-rooting storage in the dark.

    OpenAIRE

    Pol, van der, J.P.

    1988-01-01

    Part of the rooting procedure of Chrysanthemum morifolium 'Pink Boston' and 'Refour' cuttings can be replaced by pre-rooting storage in the dark. Pre-rooting storage of 7 days at temperatures between 9° and 21°C was adequate. Longer periods of dark storage resulted in increase of root growth but also in severe senescence of the basal leaves.

  3. The Cowpea mosaic virus movement protein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carvalho, C.M.

    2003-01-01

    For many years the emphasis in floricultural research laid with quantity rather than quality. Nowadays, since the prices are often determined on the basis of visual quality aspects, the so-called external quality, chrysanthemum growers aim to provide a high and constant product qualit

  4. 神奈川県大磯町で見つかる局方生薬の基原植物

    OpenAIRE

    石井, 竹夫||イシイ, タケオ||Ishii, Takeo

    2012-01-01

    Geographic distribution of original plants of Japanese Pharamacopoeia (JP; Sixteenth Edition) crude drugs was surveyed in Oiso town in Kanagawa Prefecture. In hilly country, Mallototus japonicas, Akebia quinata, Pharbitis nill, Foeniculum vulgare, Plantago asiatica, Atractylodes japonica, Pinellia ternate, Artemisia capillaries, Trichosanthes kirilowii var. japonicum, Chrysanthemum morifolium, Magnolia kobus, Phellodendron amurense, Lycium chinense, Pueraria lobata, Geranium nepalense, Cimici...

  5. 微波协助提取在中药饮片含量测定中的应用(6)——微波法与药典法测定野菊花中蒙花苷含量比较%Determination of Microwave-Assisted Extraction of Chinese Cut Crude Drugs (6) Comparison of the Determination of Linarin from Chrysanthemum indicum Between Microwave-Assisted Extraction and Chinese Pharmacopeia Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方婧; 杨洪军; 付梅红; 安琪; 张贝贝; 王祝举; 杨岚; 张东

    2012-01-01

    目的:建立微波协助提取法提取野菊花中有效成分蒙花苷含量测定方法,比较微波协助提取法与药典法提取蒙花苷优势.方法:采用Dikma Diamonsil C18色谱柱(4.6 mm×150 mm,5μm),流动相甲醇-水-冰醋酸(26:23:1),检测波长334nm,柱温30℃,流速1 mL· min-1.结果:微波提取时间15 min,提取温度100℃,提取溶剂50%乙醇.蒙花苷在0.04~1.2μg呈良好线性关系(r =0.9999),平均回收率100.13% (n =6).结论:微波提取法较药典法提取蒙花苷更简便快速、准确,为一种符合环保绿色理念的含量测定方法,可用于检测野菊花饮片中蒙花苷含量.%Objective; To establish a microwave-assisted extraction method for the extraction of the linarin from Chrysanthemun indicum. Comparison of the determination of linarin from C. indicum between microwave-assisted extraction and Chinese pharmacopeia method was made. Method; Dikma Diamonsil C18 column (4.6 mm X 150 mm, 5 μm) was used. The mobile phase cousisted of methanol-water-acetic acid (26: 23: 1 ) . The temperature of column was kept at 30 ℃. The flow rate was 1. 0 mL -min-1 and the detection wavelength was at 334 nm. Result; Microwave extractive time was 15 min, the temperature was 100 X. , the extraction solvent was 50% ethanol. The calibration curve was in good linearity within the range from 0. 04 to 1. 2μg (r -0.999 9). The average recovery was 100. 13% (n=6). Conclusion; The method is simple, rapid, as well as precise and reliable, and can be used for the determination of linarin from C. indicum.

  6. Effectiveness of electron irradiation as a quarantine treatment of cut flowers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of electron beams on spider mite (Tetranychus urticae) and flour beetle (Tribolium freemani) were slightly smaller than those of gamma-rays. 'Soft-electrons' (low-energy electrons) at an energy of 170 keV inactivated eggs, larvae, pupae, and adults of the flour beetle. Electron beams at doses up to 400 Gy killed or sterilized all the pests for cut flowers tested; spider mite (Tetranychus urticae), mealybug (Pseudococcus comstocki), leaf miner (Liriomyza trifolii), thrips (Thrips palmi, Thrips tabaci), cutworm (Spodoptera litura), and aphid (Myzus persicae). Carnation, alstromeria, gladiolus, tulip, statice, stock, dendrobium, prairie gentian, oncidium, campanula, gloriosa, fern, gypsophila, freesia, lobelia, triteleia, and gerbera were resistant to radiation, while chrysanthemum, rose, lily, calla, antherium, sweet pea, and iris were sensitive. Radiation-induced deterioration of chrysanthemum could be prevented by post-irradiation treatment with commercial preservative solutions or sugar solutions. (author)

  7. Nondestructive, stereological estimation of canopy surface area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wulfsohn, Dvora-Laio; Sciortino, Marco; Aaslyng, Jesper M.; García-Fiñana, Marta

    2010-01-01

    We describe a stereological procedure to estimate the total leaf surface area of a plant canopy in vivo, and address the problem of how to predict the variance of the corresponding estimator. The procedure involves three nested systematic uniform random sampling stages: (i) selection of plants from...... a canopy using the smooth fractionator, (ii) sampling of leaves from the selected plants using the fractionator, and (iii) area estimation of the sampled leaves using point counting. We apply this procedure to estimate the total area of a chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum morifolium L.) canopy and...... counting is high. Using a grid intensity of 1.76 cm2/point we estimated plant and canopy surface areas with accuracies similar to or better than those obtained using image analysis and a commercial leaf area meter. For canopy surface areas of approximately 1 m2 (10 plants), the fractionator leaf approach...

  8. Extraction and Purification of Depigmenting Agents from Chinese Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Depigmenting agents were solvent-extracted and purified by preparative and analytical HPLC from three Chinese plants; Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat( Xizang Caijuhua), Rhodiola sachalinensis, and Terminalia chebula Retzius. Four fractions obtained from the ethyl ether layer of C. m. Rama and two fractions from the ethyl acetate layer of Rhodiola salientness show depigmenting effects. At δ 200, the ethyl acetate layers of Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat, Rhodiola sachalinensis and the methanol extract of Terminalia chebula Retzius, can inhibit the melanin production of mouse B16 melanoma cells by 92%, 60% and 90%, respectively, whereas 46% inhibition was observed by commercially available depigmenting agents(arbutin). These results show the potential of these three Chinese plants as a novel resource for depigmenting agents in the cosmetic industry.

  9. Anti-fungal activity of irradiated chitosan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anti-fungal activity of chitosan induced by irradiation has been investigated. Commercial chitosan samples of 8B (80% deacetylation) and l0B (99% deacetylation) were irradiated by γ-ray in dry condition. Highly deacethylated chitosan (10B) at low dose irradiation (75 kGy) was effective for inhibition of fungal growth. The sensitivities of Exobasidium vexans, Septoria chrysanthemum and Gibberella fujikuroi for the irradiated chitosan were different and the necessary concentrations of chitosan were 550, 350 and 250 μg/ml, respectively. For the plant growth, low deacethylation (chitosan 8B) and high dose (500 kGy) was effective and the growth of chrysanthemum was promoted by spraying the irradiated chitosan. (author)

  10. A Report on 36 Years of Practical Work on Crop Improvement through Induced Mutagenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Induced mutagenesis work was conducted from 1971 to July 2007, using both physical and chemical mutagens for improvement of a wide range of crops viz. vegetables, medicinal, pulse, oil-bearing, and ornamental crops. All classical and advanced methods were extensively used for the success of induced mutagenesis for the development of new and novel cultivars of economic importance. Being deeply engaged for the last 30 years on improvement of ornamentals through Gamma-ray induced mutagenesis, I have produced a large number of new and promising varieties in different ornamentals. A good number of ornamental mutant varieties have already been commercialized. A novel technique has been developed for management of floral chimeric sector in chrysanthemum through direct regeneration of mutated individual florets. A series of in vitro experiments were conducted and solid mutants developed through direct regeneration. In vitro mutagenesis has been successfully used for development of a salt-resistant strain in chrysanthemum, supported by biochemical analysis and field trials. (author)

  11. Reduction of radiation injury of fresh agricultural products by saccharose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dynamic of sugar in organs of chrysanthemum was studied by 14C-sugar. The radioactivity of 14C-sugar supplied from the solution showed the maximum value in the leaf and then transported to the flower. An exogenous sugar was storage in the leaf, used as substrate of respiration and out put as 14CO2. On the irradiated chrysanthemum, its transport was injured and 14CO2 content was larger than that of non-irradiated them. The effect of irradiation and sugar treatment on the lipid composition and flow of biofilm of each organ of the leaf, stem and flower were studied. The results made clear that addition of sugar controlled decrease of flow (reduce of membrane activity). (S.Y.)

  12. Study of Chinese porcelain sherds of Old Goa, India: Indicators of trade contacts

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tripati, S.; Pande, R.; Rao, V.G.

    . The decoration on the blue and white and polychrome wares included plants such as peony, prunus, chrysanthemum, pine, lotus, birds and butterflies, dragons, deer 3 and other animals. A study of these motifs provides an insight into the socio-cultural life... ceramics was at the capitals and small principalities. Recently, the joint explorations carried out by the Indian and Japan scholars along the port sites of Kottapatnam, Krishnapatnam, Motupalli of Andhra Pradesh; Kayal, Kulashakarapattinam...

  13. Short term non-chemical approach to Tuta absoluta and thrips : CATT shows promise against quarantine pests

    OpenAIRE

    M. Arkesteijn; Y. Qiu

    2015-01-01

    Pests such as insects, mites and nematodes don’t just cause damage, in the case of quarantine pests they can also limit exports. In cooperation with the sector, entomologist Yutong Qiu tested the possibility of using Controlled Atmosphere Temperature Treatment (CATT) in the post harvest phase to control these pests in a non-chemical way. Within the short term this approach is expected to successfully control Tuta absoluta in tomatoes and thrips in chrysanthemums and peppers.

  14. Epithermal Neutron Activation Analysis of the Asian Herbal Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baljinnyam, N.; Jugder, B.; Norov, N.; Frontasyeva, M. V.; Ostrovnaya, T. M.; Pavlov, S. S.

    2011-06-01

    Asian medicinal herbs Chrysanthemum (Spiraea aquilegifolia Pall.) and Red Sandalwood (Pterocarpus Santalinus) are widely used in folk and Ayurvedic medicine for healing and preventing some diseases. The modern medical science has proved that the Chrysanthemum (Spiraea aquilegifolia Pall.) possesses the following functions: reducing blood press, dispelling cancer cell, coronary artery's expanding and bacteriostating and Red Sandalwood (Pterocarpus Santalinus) is recommended against headache, toothache, skin diseases, vomiting and sometimes it is taken for treatment of diabetes. Species of Chrysanthemums were collected in the north-eastern and central Mongolia, and the Red Sandalwood powder was imported from India. Samples of Chrysanthemums (branches, flowers and leaves) (0.5 g) and red sandalwood powder (0.5 g) were subjected to the multi-element instrumental neutron activation analysis using epithermal neutrons (ENAA) at the IBR-2 reactor, Frank Laboratory of Neutron Physics (FLNP) JINR, Dubna. A total of 41 elements (Na, Mg, Al, Cl, K, Ca, Sc, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Zn, As, Se, Br, Rb, Sr, Zr, Mo, Cd, Cs, Ba, La, Hf, Ta, W, Sb, Au, Hg, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Tb, Dy, Yb, Th, U, Lu) were determined. For the first time such a large group of elements was determined in the herbal plants used in Mongolia. The quality control of the analytical results was provided by using certified reference material Bowen Cabbage. The results obtained are compared to the "Reference plant» data (B. Markert, 1992) and interpreted in terms of excess of such elements as Se, Cr, Ca, Fe, Ni, Mo, and rare earth elements.

  15. FT-Raman study of the (sub)picosecond dynamics in genomic DNA from plant tissues

    OpenAIRE

    Cristina M. Muntean; Bratu, Ioan

    2009-01-01

    In this paper the Raman total half bandwidths of eight genomic DNAs from leaf tissues [potato (Solanum tuberosum L.), sword fern (Nephrolepis exaltata L.), scopolia (Scopolia carniolica Jacq.), redwood (Sequoia sempervirens D. Don. Endl.), orchids (Cymbidium × hybrida), chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflora Ramat.) and common sundew (Drosera rotundifolia L.)] have been measured. The dependencies of the total half bandwidths and of the global relaxation times, on DNA molecular subgroup struc...

  16. BRIQUETTES – A COST EFFECTIVE, SUSTAINABLE, ECOFRIENDLY, ENERGY SOURCE FOR RURAL COMMUNITY

    OpenAIRE

    Dipti Giri; Adiba Sheikh; Shanta Satyanarayan; Sanjeev Satyanarayan

    2015-01-01

    Briquetting of biomass can address the problem of energy crisis. The main objective of this study was to compare the heat value of the different types of biomass briquettes prepared differently. Many agricultural residues like cotton stalk, Leguminous plants (dried), coconut shell and fiber, teak leaves, guava leaves, chrysanthemum stalks, gum waste, dried and hardened guava, lady’s finger, Bamboo leaves, ordinary grass and cow dung etc. were densified using binder materials like cla...

  17. Interspecific hybridization and polyploidization as tools in ornamental plant breeding

    OpenAIRE

    Tuyl, van, J.M.; Kim, K. B.

    2003-01-01

    Interspecific hybridisation and polyploidy are recognized as the most impor-tant sources of evolution and domestication of flowering plants. In ornamental plant breeding these phenomena go hand in hand and can be observed in the breeding his-tory of many ornamental crops (Rosa, Chrysanthemum, Gladiolus, Alstroemeria, Lil-ium, orchids etc). With lily as model crop techniques developed for overcoming pre- and post-fertilisation barriers are reviewed. For overcoming F1-sterility mitotic and meio...

  18. FT-Raman signatures of genomic DNA from plant tissues

    OpenAIRE

    Cristina M. Muntean; Adela HALMAGYI; Puia, Mircea D.; Pavel, Ioana

    2009-01-01

    The vibrational spectra of eight genomic DNAs from leaf tissues (sword fern (Nephrolepis exaltata L.), chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflora Ramat.), redwood (Sequoia sempervirens D. Don. Endl.), orchids (Cymbidium × hybrida), common sundew (Drosera rotundifolia L.), potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) and scopolia (Scopolia carniolica Jacq.)) have been analyzed using FT-Raman spectroscopy, in the wavenumber range 500–1800 cm–1.FT-Raman signatures, spectroscopic assignments and structural interpr...

  19. Effect of alternative prey on development and consumption of Orius insidiosus (Say) (Hemiptera, Anthocoridae) and oviposition behavior on chrysantemum cultivars; Efeito da presa alternativa no desenvolvimento e consumo de Orius insidiosus (Say) (Hemiptera, Anthocoridae) e comportamento de oviposicao em cultivares de crisantemo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soglia, Maria da Conceicao M. [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Cruz das Almas, BA (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Agrarias e Ambientais], e-mail: mcsoglia@yahoo.com.br; Bueno, Vanda Helena Paes; Carvalho, Livia Mendes [Universidade Federal de Lavras (UFLA), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Entomologia], e-mail: vhpbueno@ufla.br

    2007-10-15

    This work aimed to evaluate the development time and the consumption of Orius insidiosus (Say, 1832) feeding on Aphis gossypii Glover, 1877 as well as its oviposition behavior on two chrysanthemum cut cultivars. The trials were conducted in climatic chamber at 25 {+-} 1 deg C, RH 70 {+-} 10% and 12h photo phase. Nymphs of the predator, less than 24h old, were kept individually in petri dishes (5cm) with 20 nymphs of A. gossypii (first, second and third instar) on leaf disc (4 cm) of each cultivar ('White Reagan' and 'Yellow Snowdon') in a layer of agar-water (1%). Petiole of each chrysanthemum cultivar as oviposition substrate was evaluated and the females were feeding on eggs of Anagasta kuehniella (Zeller, 1879). The predator complete its development feeding on A. gossypii kept in both cultivars. The duration of nymphal phase of O. insidiosus were 21.1 and 18.3 days on 'White Reagan' and 'Yellow Snowdon', respectively. The consumption of the females of O. insidiosus was higher (P<0.01) on A. gossypii in 'White Reagan' (2.63 nymphs) compared to the consumption in 'Yellow Snowdon' (0.7 nymphs). Females of O. insidiosus oviposited in petiole of both cultivars with 22.5 and 23.3 eggs/female on 'White Reagan' and 'Yellow Snowdon', respectively. Release of O. insidiosus on chrysanthemum crops could be important to decrease the A. gossypii population, as the predator completes its development having this aphid as prey, and the chrysanthemum cultivars offer conditions to colonization and establishment of O. insidiosus. (author)

  20. Effect of alternative prey on development and consumption of Orius insidiosus (Say) (Hemiptera, Anthocoridae) and oviposition behavior on chrysantemum cultivars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work aimed to evaluate the development time and the consumption of Orius insidiosus (Say, 1832) feeding on Aphis gossypii Glover, 1877 as well as its oviposition behavior on two chrysanthemum cut cultivars. The trials were conducted in climatic chamber at 25 ± 1 deg C, RH 70 ± 10% and 12h photo phase. Nymphs of the predator, less than 24h old, were kept individually in petri dishes (5cm) with 20 nymphs of A. gossypii (first, second and third instar) on leaf disc (4 cm) of each cultivar ('White Reagan' and 'Yellow Snowdon') in a layer of agar-water (1%). Petiole of each chrysanthemum cultivar as oviposition substrate was evaluated and the females were feeding on eggs of Anagasta kuehniella (Zeller, 1879). The predator complete its development feeding on A. gossypii kept in both cultivars. The duration of nymphal phase of O. insidiosus were 21.1 and 18.3 days on 'White Reagan' and 'Yellow Snowdon', respectively. The consumption of the females of O. insidiosus was higher (P<0.01) on A. gossypii in 'White Reagan' (2.63 nymphs) compared to the consumption in 'Yellow Snowdon' (0.7 nymphs). Females of O. insidiosus oviposited in petiole of both cultivars with 22.5 and 23.3 eggs/female on 'White Reagan' and 'Yellow Snowdon', respectively. Release of O. insidiosus on chrysanthemum crops could be important to decrease the A. gossypii population, as the predator completes its development having this aphid as prey, and the chrysanthemum cultivars offer conditions to colonization and establishment of O. insidiosus. (author)

  1. Induced mutation and in vitro culture techniques for the genetic improvement of ornamentals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mutation breeding using cobalt-60 (60Co) gamma radiation coupled with tissue culture techniques is undertaken for genetic improvement of foliage ornamentals (Dracaena sp. and Murraya exotica L.) and cutflowers (Chrysanthemum morifolium and orchids; Vanda sanderiana, Dendrobium Pattaya Beauty and Phalenopsis schilleriana). Gamma radiation (10-30 Gy) induced chlorophyll mutations and several morphological changes in D. sanderiana. For D. godseffiana, irradiated cuttings resulted in reduction of leaf size and chlorophyll mutations. Reduction in height was observed in the M2 generation of Murraya exotica L. irradiated at doses ranging from 10 to 30 Gy. The dwarf Murraya mutant was multiplied through the use of seeds and presently 116 plants are commercially available and are ''test marketed'' to the public. Tissue culture technique was used to induce mutation and as a means of micropropagation in two ornamental crops (orchids and chrysanthemum). Effects of different doses of gamma radiation on callus induction from nodal sections of chrysanthemum grown in Murashige and Skoog's (MS) with naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) and benzyl adenine (BA) were studied. Micropropagation of irradiated and unirradiated chrysanthemum using MS basal medium is presently being studied. Whorling and changes in leaf color were observed at 10 Gy and doubling of leaf growth at the node at 20 Gy for vegetatively generated V3 plant. In orchids, irradiation of immature embryo with gamma rays ranging from 5 to 10 Gy increased the percentage of germination in Dendrobium Pattaya Beauty and P. schilleriana. Protocorms of Vanda sanderiana irradiated at 10 Gy and grown in Knudson C medium developed into plantlets that are bigger and more vigorous than those irradiated at 20 GY and from the control plant. A decrease in seedling height was observed with increasing dose of gamma radiation. (Author)

  2. Predator-prey coevolution: Australian native bees avoid their spider predators.

    OpenAIRE

    Heiling, A M; Herberstein, M E

    2004-01-01

    Australian crab spiders Thomisus spectabilis manipulate visual flower signals to lure introduced Apis mellifera. We gave Australian native bees, Austroplebia australis, the choice between two white daisies, Chrysanthemum frutescens, one of them occupied by a crab spider. The colour contrast between flowers and spiders affected the behaviour of native bees. Native bees approached spider-occupied flowers more frequently. However, native bees avoided flowers occupied by spiders and landed on vac...

  3. Microbiological Quality of Various Medicinal Herbal Teas and Coffee Substitutes

    OpenAIRE

    V.H. Tournas; E.J. Katsoudas

    2008-01-01

    Various herbal teas including German chamomile, Chrysanthemum Vascuflow herb tea, hop, jasmine and orange flowers, sweet marjoram, spearmint and thyme leaves, and papaya-mint tea as well as coffee substitutes (Bambu instant Swiss, Teeccino chocolate-mint, and Teeccino Mediterranean Espresso) were analyzed for fungal contamination and the presence of aerobic mesophilic bacteria (APC). The results of this investigation showed that fungal counts reached levels as high as 5.8 × 105 colony forming...

  4. Evaluación de la degradación de residuos de floricultura para la obtención de azúcares con el uso de tres hongos lignocelulolíticos

    OpenAIRE

    Quevedo Hidalgo, Balkys Esmeralda

    2011-01-01

    En Colombia, la floricultura es un sector agro-industrial importante, que genera residuos de flores que aún no se han valorizado, a pesar de que las cantidades producidas luego del corte y post-cosecha, en cultivos como crisantemo (Chrysanthemum, Dendranthema grandiflora) y rosa (Rosa spp.), son muy grandes. En este trabajo se estudió por primera vez la degradación de estos residuos usando los hongos de podredumbre blanca Pleurotus ostreatus, Trametes versicolor y Phanerochaete...

  5. Toxicity of subacute oral administration of cypermethrin in rats with special reference to histopathological changes

    OpenAIRE

    Grewal Gagandeep; Verma Pawan; Dhar Vir Ji; Srivastava Anil

    2009-01-01

    Pyrethrins are obtained from the flowers of Chrysanthemum cinerarifolium. These are strong insecticides with low mammalian toxicity. The toxic effects of pyrethroid cypermethrin were studied using various biochemical parameters along with histopathological changes in a 30-day study in Wistar rats. The rats were divided into two groups. Rats of the test group were given sublethal doses of cypermethrin (14.5 mg/kg) by gavage once daily for 30 days and the control rats were given an equal volume...

  6. Isolation of antibacterial compounds from Quercus dilatata L. through bioassay guided fractionation

    OpenAIRE

    Jamil Maryam; ul Haq Ihsan; Mirza Bushra; Qayyum Mazhar

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Four medicinal plants (Chrozophora hierosolymitana Spreng, Chrysanthemum leucanthemum L., Ephedra gerardiana Wall. ex Stapf, and Quercus dilatata L.) used by indigenous healers to treat various infectious diseases were selected for the present study. The major objective of the present study was isolation and characterization of antimicrobial components from the crude plant extracts using bioassay guided fractionation. Methods Seven methanolic extracts of the four plants we...

  7. Epithermal Neutron Activation Analysis of the Asian Herbal Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asian medicinal herbs Chrysanthemum (Spiraea aquilegifolia Pall.) and Red Sandalwood (Pterocarpus Santalinus) are widely used in folk and Ayurvedic medicine for healing and preventing some diseases. The modern medical science has proved that the Chrysanthemum (Spiraea aquilegifolia Pall.) possesses the following functions: reducing blood press, dispelling cancer cell, coronary artery's expanding and bacteriostating and Red Sandalwood (Pterocarpus Santalinus) is recommended against headache, toothache, skin diseases, vomiting and sometimes it is taken for treatment of diabetes. Species of Chrysanthemums were collected in the north-eastern and central Mongolia, and the Red Sandalwood powder was imported from India. Samples of Chrysanthemums (branches, flowers and leaves)(0.5 g) and red sandalwood powder (0.5 g) were subjected to the multi-element instrumental neutron activation analysis using epithermal neutrons (ENAA) at the IBR-2 reactor, Frank Laboratory of Neutron Physics (FLNP) JINR, Dubna. A total of 41 elements (Na, Mg, Al, Cl, K, Ca, Sc, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Zn, As, Se, Br, Rb, Sr, Zr, Mo, Cd, Cs, Ba, La, Hf, Ta, W, Sb, Au, Hg, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Tb, Dy, Yb, Th, U, Lu) were determined. For the first time such a large group of elements was determined in the herbal plants used in Mongolia. The quality control of the analytical results was provided by using certified reference material Bowen Cabbage. The results obtained are compared to the ''Reference plant? data (B. Markert, 1992) and interpreted in terms of excess of such elements as Se, Cr, Ca, Fe, Ni, Mo, and rare earth elements.

  8. Efficacy of Some Botanical Extracts against Trogoderma granarium in Wheat Grains with Toxicity Evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Aly S. Derbalah

    2012-01-01

    In an attempt to find alternative control methods for stored products insects, extracts of seven plant species (Cassia senna, Caesalpinia gilliesii, Thespesia populnea var. acutiloba, Chrysanthemum frutescens, Euonymus japonicus, Bauhinia purpurea, and Cassia fistula) were evaluated under laboratory conditions for their ability to protect wheat (Triticum spp.) grains against Trogoderma granarium insect. Moreover, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis was carried to identify th...

  9. The impression on Bian Yukuan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆定纲

    2006-01-01

    He is a famous Chinese magic artist,a well reputed entrepreneur in exploiting the cultural market,a pioneer in reforming literary troupe system,and a cultural emissary who have made a great contribution to promote cultural exchanges between China and foreign countries.This man is Bian Yukuan, the winner of 2004 Gold Chrysanthemum Long-Life Achieve- ment Awards.the establisher and president of Malaysia Inter- national Cultural Exchange Co.,Ltd.

  10. Trace-chitosan-wrapped multi-walled carbon nanotubes as a new sorbent in dispersive micro solid-phase extraction to determine phenolic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Wan; Hu, Shuai-Shuai; Ye, Li-Hong; Cao, Jun; Xu, Jing-Jing; Pang, Xiao-Qing

    2015-04-17

    This report describes the use of trace-chitosan-wrapped multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CS-MWCNTs) as a sorbent material in dispersive micro solid-phase extraction (DMSPE), which was combined with ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry to analyze phenolic compounds in chrysanthemum tea and a chrysanthemum beverage. In this study, for the first time, CS-MWCNTs were used as a sorbent for this microextraction mode. Moreover, the proposed method exhibits the advantages of simplicity, rapidity, small sample amount and ease of operation. Furthermore, all of the important parameters that affect the extraction efficiency, such as the sorbent, pH, extraction time and type of elution solvent, were investigated and optimized in the DMSPE. Under the optimized extraction condition, the limit of detection, which was calculated based on a signal-to-noise ratio of 3, was 0.22-16.19ngmL(-1). Satisfactory recovery values of 89-106% were obtained for the tested samples. The results show that the developed method was successfully applied to determine the content of chlorogenic acid and flavonoids in complex chrysanthemum samples. PMID:25748543

  11. In vitro inhibitory effects of plant-based foods and their combinations on intestinal α-glucosidase and pancreatic α-amylase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adisakwattana Sirichai

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plant-based foods have been used in traditional health systems to treat diabetes mellitus. The successful prevention of the onset of diabetes consists in controlling postprandial hyperglycemia by the inhibition of α-glucosidase and pancreatic α-amylase activities, resulting in aggressive delay of carbohydrate digestion to absorbable monosaccharide. In this study, five plant-based foods were investigated for intestinal α-glucosidase and pancreatic α-amylase. The combined inhibitory effects of plant-based foods were also evaluated. Preliminary phytochemical analysis of plant-based foods was performed in order to determine the total phenolic and flavonoid content. Methods The dried plants of Hibiscus sabdariffa (Roselle, Chrysanthemum indicum (chrysanthemum, Morus alba (mulberry, Aegle marmelos (bael, and Clitoria ternatea (butterfly pea were extracted with distilled water and dried using spray drying process. The dried extracts were determined for the total phenolic and flavonoid content by using Folin-Ciocateu’s reagent and AlCl3 assay, respectively. The dried extract of plant-based food was further quantified with respect to intestinal α-glucosidase (maltase and sucrase inhibition and pancreatic α-amylase inhibition by glucose oxidase method and dinitrosalicylic (DNS reagent, respectively. Results The phytochemical analysis revealed that the total phenolic content of the dried extracts were in the range of 230.3-460.0 mg gallic acid equivalent/g dried extract. The dried extracts contained flavonoid in the range of 50.3-114.8 mg quercetin equivalent/g dried extract. It was noted that the IC50 values of chrysanthemum, mulberry and butterfly pea extracts were 4.24±0.12 mg/ml, 0.59±0.06 mg/ml, and 3.15±0.19 mg/ml, respectively. In addition, the IC50 values of chrysanthemum, mulberry and butterfly pea extracts against intestinal sucrase were 3.85±0.41 mg/ml, 0.94±0.11 mg/ml, and 4.41±0.15 mg/ml, respectively

  12. Disinfestation of agricultural products with electron beams and their radiation tolerance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some agricultural products contaminated with insect pests are fumigated with methyl bromide for quarantine purposes. However, the use of methyl bromide is preferably restricted because of its ozone depleting effect. Therefore, establishing alternative quarantine techniques is highly desirable; one such technique is exposure to ionizing radiation. Few data are available on the effects of radiation on insect pests other than fruit flies and stored-product insects and on the radiation tolerance of host commodities. Radiation technology as an alternative to methyl bromide fumigation will be used to inactivate not only insects but also mites, spider mites, thrips, nematodes, scales, mealybugs and thrips contaminating fruits, grains, cut flowers, vegetables, timbers, seedlings and seeds. In order to collect data on the effects of irradiation on pests and host commodities, IAEA and FAO have conducted an international project, 'FAO/IAEA Coordinated Research Programme on Irradiation as a Quarantine Treatment of Mites, Nematodes and Insects other than Fruit Fly' since 1992. The project determines the minimum doses necessary to inactivate pests and the maximum doses host commodities tolerate. All pests except nematodes can be inactivated at doses 400Gy or lower. Various varieties of cut flowers and herbs are tolerant to 400Gy of radiation, although some flowers and herbs such as chrysanthemum, rose, lily, calla, anthurium, sweet pea, iris, dill, basil and arugula are intolerant to 200Gy of radiation. Japanese research project on treatment of cut flowers with electron beams carried out mainly by Yokohama Plant Protection Station greatly contributes to these conclusions. Aqueous solution (2%) of sucrose, glucose, fructose or maltose prevents radiation-induced detrimental effects of radiation on chrysanthemums. Sugars reduce radiation-induced physiological deterioration of chrysanthemums. (author)

  13. Role of combined use of classical induced mutation breeding and biotechnology in development of new flower colour/form in ornamentals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In floriculture trade there is always demand and necessity of new and novel ornamental varieties. Flower colour is one of the most important component of novelties. Induced somatic mutation techniques by using ionizing radiations and other mutagens have successfully produced quite a large number of new promising varieties (50 Nos.) in different ornamental (Bougainvillea, Chrysanthemum, Hibiscus, Rose, Tuberose, Lantana depressa etc.) plants by bringing about genetic changes at Floriculture Section, National Botanical Research Institute, India. For inducing novelties in flower colour of different plants the technique of selection of proper type/state of plant material for experiment, suitable dose, detection of mutation at right stage of development, isolation and multiplication of chimeric tissue have been standardised. The capability of the technique is well understood from significant number of new varieties developed via direct mutation breeding in already adapted, modern genotypes and enriched the germplasm. The mutations in flower lour/shape were detected as chimera in M1v1, M1v2, M1v3 generations. The mutation frequency varied with the cultivar and exposure of gamma rays. The main bottleneck of mutation breeding is that the mutation appears as chimera. When the entire branch is mutated, mutants can be isolated through conventional propagation techniques while small sectorial mutation in the floret cannot be isolated using existing conventional techniques. Therefore, many new flower colour/shape mutants are lost due to the lack of a suitable propagation technique. By applying biotechnological technique on the same mutagen treated gamma rays population a novel tissue culture technique hasbeen standardised to regenerate plants directly from such mutated sectors (ray florets) of Chrysanthemum. A number of somatic flower colour/shape mutants have been developed in Chrysanthemum by using this in vitro technique. Combination of classical mutation breeding and

  14. Bee Pollen-Induced Anaphylaxis: A Case Report and Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jeong Hee; Jang, Young Sook; Oh, Jae Won; Kim, Cheol Hong; Hyun, In Gyu

    2015-09-01

    Bee pollen is pollen granules packed by honey bees and is widely consumed as natural healthy supplements. Bee pollen-induced anaphylaxis has rarely been reported, and its allergenic components have never been studied. A 40-year-old male came to the emergency room with generalized urticaria, facial edema, dyspnea, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, and diarrhea 1 hour after ingesting one tablespoon of bee pollen. Oxygen saturation was 91%. His symptoms resolved after injection of epinephrine, chlorpheniramine, and dexamethasone. He had seasonal allergic rhinitis in autumn. Microscopic examination of the bee pollen revealed Japanese hop, chrysanthemum, ragweed, and dandelion pollens. Skin-prick with bee pollen extracts showed positive reactions at 0.1 mg/mL (A/H ratio > 3+). Serum specific IgE to ragweed was 25.2, chrysanthemum 20.6, and dandelion 11.4 kU/L; however, Japanese hop, honey-bee venom and yellow-jacket venom were negative (UniCAP®, Thermo Fisher Scientific, Uppsala, Sweden). Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) confirmed serum specific IgE to bee-pollen extracts, and an ELISA inhibition assay for evaluation of cross-allergenicity of bee pollen and other weed pollens showed more than 90% of inhibition with chrysanthemum and dandelion and ~40% inhibition with ragweed at a concentration of 1 μg/mL. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and IgE-immunoblot analysis revealed 9 protein bands (11, 14, 17, 28, 34, 45, 52, 72, and 90 kDa) and strong IgE binding at 28-34 kDa, 45 and 52 kDa. In conclusion, healthcare providers should be aware of the potential risk of severe allergic reactions upon ingestion of bee pollen, especially in patients with pollen allergy. PMID:25749764

  15. Transfer of radiocesium from soil to cut flowers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concentration and transfer factor of radiocesium, which was derived from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident, from soil to cut flowers was determined. Field experiment was performed in Gray Lowland soil located in Fukushima Prefecture from May to October of 2011 and seven species of plants, gypsophila paniculata, sunflower, chrysanthemum, gentian, lily, dahlia and eustoma, were cultivated. Concentration of radiocesium (134+137Cs) in the soil was 1800 - 4400 Bq kg-1 and the range of the transfer factor in the plants was 0.008-0.066, which was within one order of magnitude. (author)

  16. Papel de la codorniz en la agroecología de malas hierbas (I). Consumo de semillas

    OpenAIRE

    Guerrero Herrero, Lucía; López Navarro, Pablo; González Redondo, Pedro; Urbano Fuentes-Guerra, José María

    2015-01-01

    La codorniz (Coturnix coturnix) es un ave granívora frecuente en los campos de cultivo de España, que puede tener un papel relevante en la predación y dispersión de semillas de malas hierbas. Se ha realizado un estudio con semillas de 7 especies de malas hierbas (géneros Chrysanthemum, Centaurea, Sinapis, Lolium, Malva, Phalaris, Rumex) y 30 individuos de codorniz. Los resultados obtenidos permiten concluir que: a) la codorniz consume semillas de las siete especies estudiadas; b) la codorniz ...

  17. [The incidence of occupationally-induced allergic skin diseases in a large flower market].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausen, B M; Oestmann, G

    1988-01-01

    150 questionnaires as well as epicutaneous tests in 56 individuals from a total of 675 persons cultivating and selling ornamental plants at the largest German flower market revealed that half of those investigated were suffering from allergic contact dermatitis. The leading plant species with sensitizing properties was found to be the chrysanthemum, followed by tulips and Alstroemeria cultivars. Allergic reactions to daffodils and primulas were rarely observed. Most of the reactions obtained with other Compositae species such as arnica, marguerite, sunflower, tansy and yarrow must be interpreted as cross-reactions due to the fact that cross-reactivity predominates within the sesquiterpene lactone constituents of the various Compositae species. PMID:2971519

  18. Radiation degradation of alginate and some results of biological effect of degraded alginate on plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation degradation yields (Gd) of alginate in aqueous solution with different concentration were determined by viscometry method. The relationship between Gd and the alginate concentration was found out as: Gd=33.5 x C-0.68, with C% (w/v) and dry alginate referred to C=100%. An empirical equation for preparing degraded alginate with the desired low viscometry average molecular weight (Mv) by radiation was proposed. Alginate extracted directly horn seaweed'Sagassum, degraded by radiation was used for field experiments and results of the biological effect on plants (tea, carrot, chrysanthemum) were presented. (author)

  19. 天然甘味料,Steviosideの一般薬理試験

    OpenAIRE

    倉橋, 寿; 山口, 由理子; 都筑, 新太郎; 前橋, 浩

    1982-01-01

    Stevioside is a kind of diterpen glycoside which is two or three hundred times as sweet as suger, and is contained about 7% in the dried leaves of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni in Chrysanthemum family. It has been used as wild sweetening in Paraguay for a long time. Many researchers have been engaged in studying about the method of cultivation and extraction of sweetening since it was introduced to Japan in 1971. In the field of dentistry, it is noticed as substitute sweetening for suger which ca...

  20. Letter from Jaffrey, New Hampshire: business is kabooming

    OpenAIRE

    Jane Harrigan

    2002-01-01

    Begin with a glittering silver chrysanthemum, 1,000 feet wide, exploding over the Washington Monument on the Fourth of July. Proceed to Boston, where, with each cymbal crash of the "American Symphony," the pistils of giant red flowers strobe 1,000 feet above the Charles River. Take your pick of 700 other fireworks displays from Miami to Minnesota to Montreal. If you could follow a string of colored stars from all these productions back to their source, the trail would end at a tan, brick, and...

  1. Effect of different pastures on CLA content in milk and sheep cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Piredda

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available It is known that milk composition included conjugated linoleic acid (CLA is affected by animal feeding system (Cabiddu et al., 2001. In Sardinia dairy sheep feeding is mainly based on pastures. Most of them are characterised by self-regenerating species, like annual ryegrass (Lolium rigidum Gaudin and burr medic (Medicago polymorpha L.. Non conventional species belonging to the Compositae family such as (Chrysanthemum coronarium L. seem interesting for sheep feeding when other herbages decrease in quality (late spring- early summer...

  2. Germination under Extreme Hypobaric and Hypoxic Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Hirofumi

    Is the agriculture on Mars without a pressured greenhouse dome possible? In order to inves-tigate a possibility of plant cultivation for the space agriculture on Mars, germination rate for six species of plant, Jute, Chrysanthemum, Komatsuna, Cucumber, Okra, and Eggplant under extreme hypobaric and hypoxic condition was measured. Oxygen partial pressure was 1kPa which was equal to 1/100 of normal earth atmosphere. Seeds of Jute and Cucumber were able to germinate in six species. In the case of Jute, germination rate under the oxygen partial pressure of 1kPa was very high, 70

  3. Radiation degradation of alginate and some results of biological effect of degraded alginate on plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hien, N.Q.; Hai, L.; Luan, L.Q.; Hanh, T.T. [Nuclear Research Institute, Dalat (Viet Nam); Nagasawa, Naotsugu; Yoshii, Fumio; Makuuchi, Keizo; Kume, Tamikazu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    2000-03-01

    Radiation degradation yields (Gd) of alginate in aqueous solution with different concentration were determined by viscometry method. The relationship between Gd and the alginate concentration was found out as: Gd=33.5 x C{sup -0.68}, with C% (w/v) and dry alginate referred to C=100%. An empirical equation for preparing degraded alginate with the desired low viscometry average molecular weight (Mv) by radiation was proposed. Alginate extracted directly horn seaweed'Sagassum, degraded by radiation was used for field experiments and results of the biological effect on plants (tea, carrot, chrysanthemum) were presented. (author)

  4. Plant viability and phenotype evolution in DDW presence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Deuterium depleted water (DDW) is a newly available tool for decreasing deuterium concentration in organisms. Relatively few things are known about the plant viability and organogenesis evolution in the presence of 2D. The experiments were conducted both in vitro and ex vitro. Chrysanthemum and tobacco genotypes were chosen as biologic materials. Our main purpose was to study the plants evolution in such conditions. The first stages of plant's life cycle were developed in vitro in controlled environment. The last periods run in normal conditions (in a growth chamber). The in vitro technology was used to deliver throughout growth media different amount of deuterium: low (30 ppm, V5) and high (150 ppm V1). The other variants were a mixture between boiled water/DDW: V2 (3/1), V3 (2/2) and V4 (1/3). For in vitro culture Murashige-Skoog (1962) growth media was prepared in above mentioned liquid mixtures. The growth of ex vitro potted plants took place as described previously. In vitro, the development of Chrysanthemum and tobacco neo - plantlets was favorable on low 2D concentration media. In comparison to Control the Chrysanthemum shoot growth was significantly repressed (d=1.76 cm; p>0.01) but the leaf area was much larger on plantlets developed on 30 ppm 2D media (d=0.37cm2; p>0.01). Immediately after the initiation of in vitro culture the tobacco explants revealed a higher biological activity. In ex vitro conditions the 'Chrysanthemum DDW plants' recovered their growth rate and after 50 days this parameter was significantly higher than in control plants (d=8.5 cm; p>0.01). The leaf area explosively increased from 0.427 cm2 to 2476.9 cm2 covered by a statistically significant difference. The same behavior was observed in tobacco plants. A large variability was detected among ex vitro plants, especially in the tobacco descendants. The molecular analysis did not revealed significant differences among the experimental variants. Our experiments in vitro and ex

  5. A supplementary description of Brevipalpus californicus (Acari: Trombidiformes: Tenuipalpidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Raissi Ardali

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The false spider mite Brevipalpus californicus from the family Tenuipalpidae was collected from Caucasian alnus, White willow, Persian raspberry and a wild Chrysanthemum bush in Mazandaran province. This species is reported as a new record to the false spider mites-fauna of Iran here. Reviewing literatures revealed that it was briefly described in the original paper without any measures. So, a completed description is presented based on the Iranian specimens and different body segments are drawn for B. californicus. In addition, the above plants are new host records for B. californicus.

  6. Chelating Ligand-Mediated Hydrothermal Synthesis of Samarium Orthovanadate with Decavanadate as Vanadium Source

    OpenAIRE

    Quanguo Li; Wenli Zuo; Feng Li

    2013-01-01

    A new ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid- (EDTA-) mediated hydrothermal route to prepare chrysanthemum-shaped samarium orthovanadate (SmVO4) nanocrystals with decavanadate (K6V10O28 ·9H2O) as vanadium source has been developed. The present hydrothermal approach is simple and reproducible and employs a relatively mild reaction temperature. The EDTA, pH value, and temperature of the reaction systems play important roles in determining the morphologies and growth process of the SmVO4 products. The ...

  7. Colorimetric analysis of edible flower of Dendranthema grandiflorum processed by ionizing radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koike, Amanda C. Ramos; Rodrigues, Flavio Thihara; Fanaro, Gustavo Bernardes; Villavicencio, Anna Lucia C.H., E-mail: amandaramosk@gmail.com [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Edible flowers can be used to add flavor, color, taste and visual appeal to culinary preparations as salads, soups, desserts and drinks. There are many edible flowers rich in minerals, vitamins, pollen, nectar and other essential nutrients that are important for human nutrition. Food irradiation is a viable technology for disinfestation of insect, to increase extending the shelf life of perishable products and improving the hygienic quality of food. The irradiation technology is a good alternative method to replace chemical fumigation of pest insects present in foods and flowers. The purpose of this study was evaluate the color of Dendranthema grandiflorum exposed low-dose ionizing radiation: 0.3 kGy, 0.4 kGy, 0.5 kGy, 0.6 kGy, 0.7 kGy, and 0.8 kGy of {sup 60}Co using colorimeter (Konica Minolta Chroma Meter CR-400), were used samples of chrysanthemum in yellow, white and red. The petals of the flowers were used for the chromaticity value. The samples of irradiated chrysanthemum (white, yellow and red) processed with 0.3 to 0.6 kGy haven't shown significantly difference when compared to the control sample, the dose of 0.3 kGy, dose it is necessary to sterilize. (author)

  8. Advancement of mutation breeding on ornamental plants in Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Along with the increasing demand of ornamental plants in Indonesia and the change of consumers preference, Indonesian breeders have released 102 varieties in the last 5 year. However, the resulted varieties were not enough to substitute the imported varieties. A breeding method for a new variety was carried out through induced mutation. Many researches have been conducted in Indonesia, but these activities have not been comprehensively designed to create the potential genotypes that ready to be released as new superior varieties. Commonly, these activities were still in the stage of basic researches about the type and the most effective dose or lethal dose (LD50), the sensitivity of both the plants cultured in-vitro and in-vivo to mutagen; and genetic or phenotypic diversity due to the mutagen treatments. Chrysanthemum and rose were the most of the ornamental plants that had been conducted. Some mutants have been released as new national superior varieties namely Julikara, Rosanda and Rosmarun (mini rose); Rosma (cut rose) and Mustika Kania (chrysanthemum). (author)

  9. Synergistic repellent activity of plant essential oils against Aedes aegypti on rabbit Skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koech Peter Kiplang'at

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Mosquito-borne diseases are the major causes of mortality particularly in tropics. Due to drug and insecticide resistance, personal protection by use of skin repellents has become a common approach of control. The purpose of the study is to determine if synergy exists between Ocimum basilicum, Azadirachta indica and Eucalyptus citriodora oils. Kinga Mosquito repelling Wax® and Vaseline Pure Petroleum Jelly® were included as positive and negative test control respectively. The results showed that Chrysanthemum cinerariefolium extract had no paralytic effect at 0.002% and 0.005% with mean repellency of 81.58 and 85.94 respectively. Similar observation was shown by 10% Azadirachta indica oil and Kinga with a mean repellency 85.79 and 80.53 respectively. Azadirachta indica oil was then reinforced by addition of Sweet basil oil and Lemon eucalyptus oil. A combination that provides complete protection and displayed mosquito paralysis was obtained. The developed formulation can replace Kinga® and alternative to Chrysanthemum cinerariefolium extract.

  10. Colorimetric analysis of edible flower of Dendranthema grandiflorum processed by ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edible flowers can be used to add flavor, color, taste and visual appeal to culinary preparations as salads, soups, desserts and drinks. There are many edible flowers rich in minerals, vitamins, pollen, nectar and other essential nutrients that are important for human nutrition. Food irradiation is a viable technology for disinfestation of insect, to increase extending the shelf life of perishable products and improving the hygienic quality of food. The irradiation technology is a good alternative method to replace chemical fumigation of pest insects present in foods and flowers. The purpose of this study was evaluate the color of Dendranthema grandiflorum exposed low-dose ionizing radiation: 0.3 kGy, 0.4 kGy, 0.5 kGy, 0.6 kGy, 0.7 kGy, and 0.8 kGy of 60Co using colorimeter (Konica Minolta Chroma Meter CR-400), were used samples of chrysanthemum in yellow, white and red. The petals of the flowers were used for the chromaticity value. The samples of irradiated chrysanthemum (white, yellow and red) processed with 0.3 to 0.6 kGy haven't shown significantly difference when compared to the control sample, the dose of 0.3 kGy, dose it is necessary to sterilize. (author)

  11. Occupational allergy caused by flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, N W; Vermeulen, A M; Gerth van Wijk, R; de Groot, H

    1998-02-01

    We describe 14 consecutive patients with complaints due to the handling of flowers. The symptoms varied from allergic rhinoconjunctivitis and asthma to urticaria. Most patients had professions in the flower industry. Skin prick tests (SPT) were performed with home-made pollen extracts from 17 different flowers known to be the most commonly grown and sold in The Netherlands RAST against mugwort, chrysanthemum, and solidago was performed. The diagnosis of atopy against flowers was based on work-related symptoms due to the handling of flowers, positive SPT with flower extracts, and positive RAST. The concordance between SPT and case history was 74%, and that between SPT and RAST was 77% Extensive cross-sensitization was seen to pollen of several members of the Compositae family (e.g., Matricaria, chrysanthemum, solidago) and to pollen of the Amaryllidaceae family (Alstroemeria and Narcissus). Homemade flower extracts can be used to confirm IgE-mediated flower allergy. Mugwort can be used as a screening test for possible flower allergy. For most patients, the allergy led to a change of profession. PMID:9534922

  12. Development of radiation-induced mutation techniques and functional genomics studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This project has been performed to develop plant genetic resources using radiation (gamma-rays, ion-beam, space environments), to conduct functional genomics studies with mutant resources, and to develop new radiation plant breeding techniques using various radiation sources during 3 years. In the first section, we developed flower genetic resources, functional crop resources, and bio-industrial plant resources. In the second section, we cloned several mutated genes and studied mechanisms of gene expression and genetic diversity of mutations induced by gamma-rays. In the third section, we developed new plant breeding techniques using gamma-phytotron, heavy ion-beam, and space environments. Based on these results, a total of 8 cultivars containing Chrysanthemum, Hibiscus, kenaf, rice, and soybean were applied for plant variety protection (PVP) and a total of 4 cultivars were registered for PVP. Also, license agreement for the dwarf type Hibiscus mutant 'Ggoma' was conducted with Supro co. and the manufacturing technology for natural antioxidant pear-grape vinegar was transferred into Enzenic co. Also, 8 gene sequences, such as F3'H and LDOX genes associated with flower color in Chrysanthemum and EPSPS gene from Korean lawn grass, were registered in the database of National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI). In the future study, we will develop new radiation mutation breeding techniques through the mutation spectrum induced by various radiation sources, the studies for mechanism of the cellular response to radiation, and the comparative·structural·functional genomics studies for useful traits

  13. Pharmacologically tested aldose reductase inhibitors isolated from plant sources—A concise report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    D.K.Patel; R.Kumar; K.Sairam; S.Hemalatha

    2012-01-01

    Aldose reductase (AR),a cytosolic,monomeric oxidoreductase,is a key enzyme in the polyol pathway which controls the conversion of glucose to sorbitol.The accumulation of sorbitol by the activation of AR enzymes in lens,retina,and sciatic nerves leads to the cause of diabetic defects resulting in various secondary complications,viz.retinopathy,neuropathy,nephropathy and Alzheimer's disease.Thus,reduction of the polyol pathway flux by AR inhibitors could be a potential therapeutic opening in the treatment and prevention of diabetic complications.At present,the AR inhibitors belong to two different chemical classes.One is the hydantoin derivatives,such as Sorbinil,Dilantin,and Minalrestat,and the other is the carboxylic acid derivatives,such as Epalrestat,Alrestatin,and Tolrestat.However,it is known that most of these synthethic compounds have unacceptable side-effects.Well known medicinal plants like Chrysanthemum indicum,Chrysanthemum morifolium,Prunus mume,Myrcia multiflora,Centella asiatica,and Salacia reticulata,Salacia oblonga,and Salacia chinensis exhibited potent AR inhibitory activity.The present review summarizes the list of plant material,and their isolated phytoconstituents which have been tested for their AR inhibitory activity.This litreature review covers the period to 2011,and a total of 72 plants are listed.

  14. Phylogenetic Relationship of Dendranthema (DC.) Des Moul. Revealed by Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Si-Lan DAI; Wen-Kui WANG; Mao-Xue LI; Ying-Xiu XU

    2005-01-01

    Phylogenetic relationships of the different species in the genus Dendranthema (DC.) Des Moul. were estimated based on chromosome fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) with 18S-26S rDNA of Arabidopsis and genomic DNA of Dendranthema as probes. The results revealed that there was no positive correlation between the number of nuclear organization region (NOR) loci and the ploidy of Dendranthema.The exact cytogenetic information of NORs about 14 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) indicated that D.vestitum (Hemsl.) Ling et Shih was closer to the cultivars than other putative species, whereas D. zawadskii (Herb.) Tzvel. was the most distinct. The ambiguously distributed signals of genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) with genomic DNA of lower ploidy species as probes suggested that different genomes among Dendranthema were mixed. The result also indicated the limitation of GISH in studies on the phylogenetic relationships of the different species in this genus Dendranthema and on the origin of cultivated chrysanthemums. Based on these results and previous research, the origin of Chinese cultivated chrysanthemum is discussed.

  15. Biological effect of radiation-degraded alginate on flower plants in tissue culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Q Luan; Nguyen, Q Hien; Nagasawa, Naotsugu; Kume, Tamikazu; Yoshii, Fumio; Nakanishi, Tomoko M

    2003-12-01

    Alginate with a weight-average molecular mass (Mw) of approx. 9.04 x 10(5) Da was irradiated at 10-200 kGy in 4% (w/v) aqueous solution. The degraded alginate product was used to study its effectiveness as a growth promoter for plants in tissue culture. Alginate irradiated at 75 kGy with an Mw of approx. 1.43 x 10(4) Da had the highest positive effect in the growth of flower plants, namely limonium, lisianthus and chrysanthemum. Treatment of plants with irradiated alginate at concentrations of 30-200 mg/l increased the shoot multiplication rate from 17.5 to 40.5% compared with control. In plantlet culture, 100 mg/l irradiated alginate supplementation enhanced shoot height (9.7-23.2%), root length (9.7-39.4%) and fresh biomass (8.1-19.4%) of chrysanthemum, lisianthus and limonium compared with that of the untreated control. The survival ratios of the transferred flower plantlets treated with irradiated alginate were almost the same as the control value under greenhouse conditions. However, better growth was attained for the treated plantlets. PMID:12901723

  16. Tolerance of Chrysantemum maximum to heavy metals: The potential for its use in the revegetation of tailings heaps

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ma.del Carmen A; González-Chávez; Rogelio Carrillo-González

    2013-01-01

    To find if ornamental plants are applicable to the remediation of metal-polluted areas,the tolerance of chrysanthemum plants (Chysanthemum maximum) var.Shasta to different metals under hydroponic conditions was studied.Their responses as influenced by the mycorrhizal fungus Glomus mosseae (Nicol.& Gerd.) Gerdemann & Trappe BEG25 on substrates containing mine residues were also investigated.Our results showed that chrysanthemum is a metal-tolerant plant under hydroponic conditions,plants behaving as Pb-excluders,whereas Cd,Cu and Ni were accumulated in roots.Low accumulation in flowers was observed for Cd and Cu but it was concentration-dependent.Ni and Pb were not translocated to flowers.Shoot biomass was not significantly affected by the different rates of mine residue addition for both mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal plants.Mycorrhizal plants accumulated less Pb and Cu in both shoots and roots than non-mycorrhizal plants.Chysanthemum could be a prospective plant for revegetation of tailings and the use of inoculation may decrease plant metal accumulation in polluted soils.

  17. Arsenic speciation in Chinese Herbal Medicines and human health implication for inorganic arsenic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rice and drinking water are recognized as the dominant sources of arsenic (As) for human intake, while little is known about As accumulation and speciation in Chinese Herbal Medicines (CHMs), which have been available for many hundreds of years for the treatment of diseases in both eastern and western cultures. Inorganic arsenic was the predominant species in all of CHMs samples. The levels of inorganic arsenic in CHMs from fields and markets or pharmacies ranged from 63 to 550 ng/g with a mean of 208 ng/g and 94 to 8683 ng/g with a mean of 1092 ng/g, respectively. The highest concentration was found in the Chrysanthemum from pharmacies. It indicates that the risk of inorganic As in CHMs to human health is higher in medicines from markets or pharmacies than that collected directly from fields. Some CHMs may make a considerable contribution to the human intake of inorganic arsenic. - Highlights: ► Arsenic speciation was extracted using 1% HNO3 in microwave. ► Inorganic arsenic was the predominant species in all of CHMs samples. ► The highest concentration of inorganic arsenic was found in the Chrysanthemum. - Inorganic arsenic was the predominant species in all of CHMs samples.

  18. Chemical characteristics of different parts of Coreopsis tinctoria in China using microwave-assisted extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography followed by chemometric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Shing-Chung; Liu, Xin; Chen, Xian-Qiang; Hu, De-Jun; Zhao, Jing; Long, Ze-Rong; Fan, Bing; Li, Shao-Ping

    2016-08-01

    Coreopsis tinctoria, also called "snow chrysanthemum" in China, is a flower tea material that has been reported to possess excellent pharmacological properties such as antioxidant and antidiabetic activities. The chemical characteristics of different parts (flowers, buds, seeds, stems, and leaves) of C. tinctoria were investigated based on microwave-assisted extraction and the simultaneous determination of 13 major active compounds by high-performance liquid chromatography, including taxifolin-7-O-glucoside, chlorogenic acid, (R/S)-flavanomarein, isocoreopsin, quercetagetin-7-O-glucoside, isookanin, 5,7,3',5'-tetrahydroxyflavanone-7-O-glucoside, marein, 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid, coreopsin, okanin, 5,7,3',5'-tetrahydroxyflavanone, and N(1) ,N(5) ,N(10) ,N(14) -tetra-p-coumaroylspermine. Chemometric analysis based on the contents of investigated compounds from 13 samples showed that C. tinctoria and the related flower tea materials, Chrysanthemum morifolium cv "Hangju" and "Gongju," were in different clusters, and different parts (flowers, buds, seeds, stems, and leaves) of C. tinctoria were obviously different. This study is helpful for the quality control and pharmacological evaluation of different parts from C. tinctoria and its related products. PMID:27291468

  19. A report on 36 years practical work on crop improvement through induced mutagenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Physical and/or chemical mutagens cause random changes in the nuclear DNA or cytoplasmic organelles, resulting in gene, chromosomal or genomic mutations. The author will share his life time experience and achievement on induced mutagenesis. The author initiated induced mutagenesis work in 1971 till July 2007 and used both physical (X-ray and Gamma rays) and chemical (EMS, MMS, Colchicine) mutagens for improvement of vegetables (Trichosanthes anguina L, T. cucumarina , Cucurbita maxima L, Cephalandra indica, Luffa acutangula Roxb., Lagenaria ciceraria), medicinal (Trigonella foenum-graecum L, Mentha citrate Ehrh), pulse (Winged Bean (Psophocarpus tetragonolobus L. D.C.), oil bearing (Jatropha curcas L, Rosa damascene, Cymbopogon flexuosus (Nees) Wats) and ornamental (Bougainvillea, Chrysanthemum, Dahlia, Gladiolus, Hibiscus, Lantana depressa Naud, Rose, Tuberose, Narcissus etc.) crops. All classical and advanced mutagenesis methods have been extensively used for the development of new and novel cultivars of economic importance. Early flowering, late flowering, dwarf, yellow fruit color, crinkled leaf, short thick fruit, increased branching, increased pod and seed number, seed size, seed color (green, brown, chocolate color) high fruit-, seed-, oil- and punicic acidyielding mutants have been developed in T. anguina, T. fornum-graecum, Winged Bean and in J.curcas containing 'curcas oil', an efficient substitute fuel for diesel engines. Induction of flower color and chlorophyll variegated mutants in L. depressa proved the efficiency of mutation technique for domestication of wild relatives. Author was deeply engaged for the last 30 years for improvement of ornamentals and has been most successful to produce quite a large number of new promising mutant varieties in different ornamentals. Colchicine has been successfully used to develop new flower color in chrysanthemum and rose and high yielding strains in T. anguina. A novel direct in vitro regeneration technique has

  20. Studies on the Mixed Beverage from Corn and Pumpkin%玉米南瓜复合饮料的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何凤林

    2016-01-01

    Abstrat:The formulation and process parameters were discussed in this paper by studying the influence of the ratio of corn juice /pumpkin juice /chrysanthemum juice,citric acid,sugar and stabilizers on the mixed beverage and the influence of homogenization conditions on homogeneous effect,by using fresh sweet corn, fresh pumpkins and chrysanthemums as the main material.The results showed that:the best formula of mixed beverage was as follows:the ratio of corn juice /pumpkin juice /chrysanthemum juice of 4 ∶4 ∶2 ,white sugar added in an amount of 4%,citric acid added in an amount of 0.05%,compound stabilizers added in an amount of xanthan gum +CMC +sodium alginate =0.25% +0.25% +0.2%;homogenizing pressure was 40MPa,and homogenization time was 5min.%试验以新鲜甜玉米、新鲜南瓜和菊花为主要材料,将玉米和南瓜打浆榨汁,菊花提取取汁后,研究玉米汁/南瓜汁/菊花汁的配比、柠檬酸、白砂糖和稳定剂对复合饮料感官的影响,以及均质条件对饮料均质效果的影响,得出复合饮料的最佳调配配方和工艺参数。复合饮料的最佳配方为:玉米汁/南瓜汁/菊花汁的配比为4∶4∶2,白砂糖添加量为4%,柠檬酸添加量为0.05%,复合稳定剂的添加量为黄原胶+羧甲基纤维素钠+海藻酸钠=0.1%+0.1%+0.05%,得到综合感官评分为70分;均质压力为40MPa,均质时间为5min。

  1. Spectral effects of light-emitting diodes on photosynthetic characteristics and secondary metabolism in greenhouse plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ouzounis, Theoharis

    2014-01-01

    In greenhouse cultivation, the spectral environment of plants is dependent on the use of growth lamps. In this thesis, distinct blue and red LED light combinations as well as different blue light ratios and intensities were applied to investigate the impact of supplemental LED lighting on growth...... in different application times and intensities did not affect fresh and dry weight of green and red leaf lettuce, but led to more compact plants. Stomatal con-ductance increased with blue light with the effect being more prominent in red lettuce. Red leaf lettuce also proved to be more responsive to...... chlorophyll fluorescence measurements. In all three experiments, we also addressed the effects of supplementary blue and red LED lighting on phytochemicals. With increasing amount of blue light, roses, chrysanthemums, and campanulas increased their phenolic amount; Phalaenopsis cultivars increased their...

  2. Phytotoxic effect of SO2, NO2 and lead ions on the vegetative organs of decorative plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О. P. Pryimak

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Influence of acid gases and lead ions on the vegetative organs of decorative plants has been studied in a model experiment. The morphometric indices of stem and assimilative apparatus are considered. Changes of the plants height and assimilating area are described. The damage of plants’ sprouts was found. The phytotoxic effect of SO2, NO2 and lead ions on the growth and development of the above-ground organs was determined. The Tagetes patula L. is a resistant to the action of acid gases and lead ions. Calendula officinalis L., Salvia splendens L. and Chrysanthemum leucanthemum L. were determined to be most sensitive to the influence of by SO2, NO2 and Pb2+ respectively.

  3. Mutation Breeding Newsletter. No. 39

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This newsletter contains brief articles on the use of radiation to induce mutations in plants; radiation-induced mutants in Chrysanthemum; disrupting the association between oil and protein content in soybean seeds; mutation studies on bougainvillea; a new pepper cultivar; and the use of mutation induction to improve the quality of yam beans. A short review of the seminar on the use of mutation and related biotechnology for crop improvement in the Middle East and Mediterranean regions, and a description of a Co-ordinated Research Programme on the application of DNA-based marker mutations for the improvement of cereals and other sexually reproduced crop species are also included. Two tables are given: these are based on the ''FAO/IAEA Mutant Varieties Database'' and show the number of mutated varieties and the number of officially released mutant varieties in particular crops/species. Refs and tabs

  4. Mutation induction by ion beams in plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of ion beams such as C, He, and Ne ions was investigated on the mutation induction in plants with the expectation that ion beams of high linear energy transfer (LET) can frequently produce large DNA alternation such as inversion, translocation and large deletion rather than point mutation. Mutation frequency was investigated using Arabidopsis visible phenotype loci and was 8 to 33 fold higher for 220 MeV carbon ions than for electrons. Mutation spectrum was investigated on the flower color of chrysanthemum cv to find that flower mutants induced by ion beams show complex and stripe types rather than single color. Polymerase chain reaction analysis was performed to investigate DNA alteration of mutations. In conclusion, the characteristics of ion beams for the mutation induction are 1) high frequency, 2) broad mutation spectrum, and 3) novel mutants. (S. Ohno)

  5. Effects of cryogenic treatment on mechanical properties of extruded Mg-Gd-Y-Zr(Mn) alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIONG Chuang-xian; ZHANG Xin-ming; DENG Yun-lai; XIAO Yang; DENG Zhen-zhen; CHEN Bu-xiang

    2007-01-01

    The influence of cryogenic treatment on the mechanical properties of the extruded Mg-Gd-Y-Zr(Mn) alloys was investigated by the tensile tests, scanning electron microscopy(SEM), transmission electron microscopy(TEM), and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). The results show that the mechanical properties of both alloys are improved greatly during the in situ tensile test by soaking the samples in liquid nitrogen for 10 min. The ultimate tensile strength, yield tensile strength and elongation of cryogenic treated magnesium alloy added with zirconium or manganese are largely elevated. And remarkable microstructure change is observed in both alloys by cryogenic treatment. There are a large number of twins, rod-like, tree-like and chrysanthemum-like precipitated phases in the microstructures and the fracture surfaces exhibit the characteristics of ductile rupture when they are observed at room temperature.

  6. Evaluation of antibacterial activity and synergistic effect between antibiotic and the essential oils of some medicinal plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fadila Moussaoui; Tajelmolk Alaoui

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To demonstrate the in vitro antibacterial properties of five essential oils against ten bacterial strains and study the synergistic effect of the combination of essential oils with standard antibiotics. Methods: Origanum compactum, Chrysanthemum coronarium, Thymus willdenowii Boiss, Melissa officinalis and Origanum majorana L. were used alone and combined used with standard antibiotics to evaluate their antimicrobial activities. The disk diffusion method was employed. Results: The results showed that the combined application of the essential oils of the plants with antibiotics led to a synergistic effect in some cases, but antagonistic effect was also observed in some bacteria. Conclusions: This study shows that the combination of essential oils of the five plants with antibiotics may be useful in the fight against emerging microbial drug resistance.

  7. Mutation induction by ion beams in plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Atsushi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    2001-03-01

    The effect of ion beams such as C, He, and Ne ions was investigated on the mutation induction in plants with the expectation that ion beams of high linear energy transfer (LET) can frequently produce large DNA alternation such as inversion, translocation and large deletion rather than point mutation. Mutation frequency was investigated using Arabidopsis visible phenotype loci and was 8 to 33 fold higher for 220 MeV carbon ions than for electrons. Mutation spectrum was investigated on the flower color of chrysanthemum cv to find that flower mutants induced by ion beams show complex and stripe types rather than single color. Polymerase chain reaction analysis was performed to investigate DNA alteration of mutations. In conclusion, the characteristics of ion beams for the mutation induction are 1) high frequency, 2) broad mutation spectrum, and 3) novel mutants. (S. Ohno)

  8. Occupational allergic contact dermatitis caused by decorative plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamminpää, A; Estlander, T; Jolanki, R; Kanerva, L

    1996-05-01

    12 cases of occupational allergic contact dermatitis caused by decorative plants were diagnosed in a 14-year period. The patients were middle-aged, and their average exposure time was 13 years. The plant families and plants causing occupational contact dermatitis were Compositae (5 patients; chrysanthemum, elecampane, gerbera, feverfew), Alstroemeriaceae (5 patients, Alstroemeria), Liliaceae (4 patients; tulip, hyacinth), Amaryllidaceae (2 patients; narcissus) and Caryophyllaceae (2 patients; carnation, cauzeflower). The known chemical allergens causing dermatitis were tuliposide-A and sesquiterpene lactones, such as alantolactones and parthenolide, in the Liliaceae and Compositae families. 7 of the 12 patients were able to continue their work; 5 were not because of severe relapses of skin symptoms. The plant allergen and extract series currently available are of great help in the diagnosis. PMID:8807225

  9. BRIQUETTES – A COST EFFECTIVE, SUSTAINABLE, ECOFRIENDLY, ENERGY SOURCE FOR RURAL COMMUNITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipti Giri

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Briquetting of biomass can address the problem of energy crisis. The main objective of this study was to compare the heat value of the different types of biomass briquettes prepared differently. Many agricultural residues like cotton stalk, Leguminous plants (dried, coconut shell and fiber, teak leaves, guava leaves, chrysanthemum stalks, gum waste, dried and hardened guava, lady’s finger, Bamboo leaves, ordinary grass and cow dung etc. were densified using binder materials like clay, cow dung, waste wheat flour and Tamarind seed paste. Briquettes were prepared manually and were sun dried. Briquettes were prepared by two methods, one by pre-charring the raw material and mixing with a binder material, while in second method, raw biomass were directly mixed with binder material.

  10. Induction of mutations in dendrathema grandiflora using gamma rays and ethyl methanesulfonate. 1. Characterization of a variegated (EV1) mutant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation and chemical compounds have been utilized to induce mutations. In the case of chrysanthemum, the incorporation of genes or the conventional induction of mutations are practical strategies to obtain new varieties. Leaf segments of D. grandiflora were exposed to gamma rays (1 to 3 kr) and to a 0.2 % v/v solution of EMS (30 to 120 min). A variegated mutant (EV1) was selected for further study. Its ability to induce shoots from leaf explants dropped from 100 % (wild type) to 26 % and the mean number of shoots per explant from 3 (wild type) to 1.25. The variegated phenotype was observed in 100 %, 50 % and 0 % of the regenerated plantlets from axillary shoots, stem segments and leaf segments of the mutant respectively. It is important indicate that using wild type stem tissue we were able to obtain up to 15 plantlets per explant compared to 4 obtained with leaf tissue

  11. The evolution of the Solanum tuberosum L. neoplantles cultivated in vitro on cuture media supplimented with bioactive magneto-fluidic nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca BACIU

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available During the last decades the bioactive magnetofluid nanocomposites proved both their unique performances and their high potential. Everywhere nanotechnologies gain ground being economic systems having a controlled period of the induced effect, of the planed biodegradation and of the used quantities. Nanotechnologies are applied in biology. They are of beneficed effects in plant and animal protection. The bioactive magnetofluid nanocomposites used for plants are applied in the vegetation phase by means of spraying. The nanocomposites are also elements of the culture media for the inducing of the calus and the regeneration of plants belonging to the species Chrysanthemum, Lilium regale, Mamillaria, Triticale and Solanum tuberosum L. TiO2 nanocrystals are used for the sterilization of the spaces where cereals are kept and for destroying the fungi from the seeds. The goal of the experiments was to test the reaction of different types of explants when cultivated in vitro on media supplemented with bioactive magnetofluid nanocomposites.

  12. Effectiveness of electron beam irradiation in the control of some soilborne pathogens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electron beam (EB) irradiation was tested against Botrytis cinerea, Pythium ultimum and Phytophthora citricola the most dangerous pathogens causing stem and root rot of seedlings, cuttings and older plants. In the laboratory trials cultures of 3 species were irradiated with doses 0 (control), 1.5, 3.0, 4.5 and 6.0 kGy whereas peat was treated with 10, 15 and 25 kGy. P. citricola was the most sensitive species for irradiation. In greenhouse trials 15 kGy irradiation of peat protected chrysanthemum cuttings against B. cinerea and P. ultimum as well as rhododendron young plants against P. citricola. Irradiation of peat did not influence the growth and development of the tested plants. (authors)

  13. The Analysis of Elisa’s Mind Journey from the Prospective of Feminism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李娜

    2013-01-01

    John Steinbeck(1902-1968) is a famous American novelist. The Chrysanthemums was considered to be one of his finest short stories which has become progressively more influential in gender studies during the following decades. As the protagonist, Elisa unfolds herself in front of the readers about her rebellion and submission to the reigning patriarchal ideology. In the paper, I try to present Elisa's mind journey in a male-dominating society, using gender studies analysis. The theme of this story is to de-scribe women’s position in a male-centered and controlled culture. In order to give a most justifiable analysis of the theme of this short story, I base my study of Elisa's mind journey on the prospective of gender studies.

  14. [Research advance in medicinal plants from genus Coreopsis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuan; Mourboul, Ablise; Li, Zhi-Yuan

    2013-08-01

    There are about 100 species in the genus Coreopsis which distributed in the America, south of Africa and Hawaiian Islands, and 7 species are distributed in China. The inflorescences of Coreopsis tinctoria Nutt. is the Uigur herb 'Snow chrysanthemum' which is named 'Shemuju' with the effects of heat-cleaning, detoxicating, dampness-dissipating and dysentery-curing in the Xinhua Herbal Scheme. The chemical constituents from Coreopsis plants mainly contain flavonoids, phenylpropanoids, sesquiterpenes, and sterols, which show anti-inflammatory activities in modern pharmaceutical research. This article presents an overview of the chemical constituents and pharmaceutical activities, prospects of development and exploitation of Coreopsis plants, hopefully to provide a basis for further research and development of Coreopsis plants. PMID:24228578

  15. Effects of fluorides on metabolism and visible injury in cut-flower crops and citrus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woltz, S.S.; Waters, W.E.; Leonard, C.D.

    1971-01-01

    Fluoride taken up by gladiolus roots caused foliar damage only when soil pH was low and F/sup -/ containing superphosphate was applied in relatively excessive amounts. This damage to leaves occurred more to leaf interior than to margins and tips as in F/sup -/ fumigation. Fluoride in leaves was found to move passively with the transpirational stream of water and accumulated at the terminus of translocation. Rose and gladiolus cut-flowers were damaged by low concentrations of F/sup -/ in vase water whereas the chrysanthemum was less affected. De novo chlorophyll synthesis in Vigna sinensis seedling leaves was inhibited by F/sup -/ absorbed by detached seedling tops. Yield of Valencia orange fruit was depressed by air-borne F/sup -/. Valencia leaves (a) were reduced in size, (b) had decreased photosynthetic rates and (c) had decreased chlorophyll content in response to increasing levels of airborne F/sup -/. 11 references, 6 tables.

  16. Scientific Opinion on the risk to plant health posed by Puccinia horiana Hennings for the EU territory, with the identification and evaluation of risk reduction options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Plant Health (PLH

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Panel on Plant Health conducted a pest risk assessment for Puccinia horiana Hennings (the causal agent of chrysanthemum white rust for the EU territory, identified risk management options and evaluated their effectiveness. The assessment was conducted taking into account current EU legislation. The Panel also provided an opinion on the effectiveness of the present EU requirements against this organism, listed in Council Directive 2000/29/EC. Two major pathways for entry were identified: plant material of susceptible hosts for propagation purposes and cut flowers of Chrysanthemum × morifolium. The probability of further entry of the pest was considered unlikely, as the existing certification schemes for propagation material should reduce the risk of importing infected cuttings. For cut flowers, pest transfer to susceptible hosts is associated with the potentially incorrect disposal of cut flower waste within the vicinity of places of production, which is considered a rare event. The probability of establishment and further spread were both considered very likely. The current overall impact in the risk assessment area was considered minor, with medium uncertainty, mainly because standard protective actions are taken in most EU production areas. Risk reduction options to reduce the probability of entry and spread and mitigate the impact were analysed. Council Directive 2000/29/EC addresses mainly the sanitary status of the propagation material. The Directive cannot prevent the entry, establishment and spread, or mitigate the impact, of the pathogen. Were the current regulation to be removed, the frequency of introduction would probably increase. This poses a risk because, although the pest is widespread in the risk assessment area, not all Member States are infested and not all pest pathotypes are present. If a statutory certification system, with associated import requirements for propagation material of host plants, were introduced, this

  17. A petal-specific InMYB1 promoter from Japanese morning glory: a useful tool for molecular breeding of floricultural crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azuma, Mirai; Morimoto, Reina; Hirose, Mana; Morita, Yasumasa; Hoshino, Atsushi; Iida, Shigeru; Oshima, Yoshimi; Mitsuda, Nobutaka; Ohme-Takagi, Masaru; Shiratake, Katsuhiro

    2016-01-01

    Production of novel transgenic floricultural crops with altered petal properties requires transgenes that confer a useful trait and petal-specific promoters. Several promoters have been shown to control transgenes in petals. However, all suffer from inherent drawbacks such as low petal specificity and restricted activity during the flowering stage. In addition, the promoters were not examined for their ability to confer petal-specific expression in a wide range of plant species. Here, we report the promoter of InMYB1 from Japanese morning glory as a novel petal-specific promoter for molecular breeding of floricultural crops. First, we produced stable InMYB1_1kb::GUS transgenic Arabidopsis and Eustoma plants and characterized spatial and temporal expression patterns under the control of the InMYB1 promoter by histochemical β-glucuronidase (GUS) staining. GUS staining patterns were observed only in petals. This result showed that the InMYB1 promoter functions as a petal-specific promoter. Second, we transiently introduced the InMYB1_1 kb::GUS construct into Eustoma, chrysanthemum, carnation, Japanese gentian, stock, rose, dendrobium and lily petals by particle bombardment. GUS staining spots were observed in Eustoma, chrysanthemum, carnation, Japanese gentian and stock. These results showed that the InMYB1 promoter functions in most dicots. Third, to show the InMYB1 promoter utility in molecular breeding, a MIXTA-like gene function was suppressed or enhanced under the control of InMYB1 promoter in Arabidopsis. The transgenic plant showed a conspicuous morphological change only in the form of wrinkled petals. Based on these results, the InMYB1 promoter can be used as a petal-specific promoter in molecular breeding of floricultural crops. PMID:25923400

  18. Control of insect pests with electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effects of electron beams with an energy of 2.5 MeV on insect pests were slightly smaller than those of gamma-rays. Electron beams at 400 Gy inactivated all the pests for cut flowers tested; spider mite (Tetraychus urticae), mealybug (Pseudococcus comstocki), leaf miner (Liriomyza trifolii), thrips (Thrips palmi, and Thrips tabaci), cutworm (Spodoptera litura) and aphid (Myzus persicae). Carnation, alstromeria, gladiolus, tulip, statice, stock, dendrobium, prairie gentian, oncidium, campanula, gloriosa, fern, gypsophila, freesia, lobelia, triteleia and gerbera were tolerant to electron beams at 400-600 Gy, while chrysanthemum, rose, lily, calla, antherium, sweet pea and iris were intolerant. Radiation-induced deterioration of chrysanthemum could be prevented by post-irradiation treatment with commercial preservative solutions or sugar solutions. Soft-electrons at 60 keV effectively inactivated eggs, larvae and pupae of red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum) and Indian meal moth (Plodia interpunctella) and eggs of adzuki bean weevil (Callosobruchus chinensis) at a dose of 1 kGy. The adults of T. castaneum and P. interpunctella were inactivated by electron treatment at 5.0 kGy and 7.5 kGy, respectively. Adults of C. chinensis survived at 7.5 kGy, but were inactivated having lost ability to walk at 2.5 kGy. Soft-electrons at 60 keV could not completely inactivate the larvae of C. chinensis and smaller larvae (2nd instar) of maize weevil (Stiophilus zeamais) inside beans and grains, because the electrons with low penetration did not reach the larvae due to the shield of beans or grains. However, soft-electrons at 60 keV inactivated eggs, larger larvae (4th instar) and pupae of S. zeamais in rice grains, which indicated that S. zeamais was exposed to electrons even inside the grains. (author)

  19. Research on mutation generation in higher plants with heavy ions at NIRS-HIMAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ion beams have much higher linear energy transfer and relative biological effectiveness than those of gamma rays. In this study, the influence of heavy ion beam irradiation at National Institute of Radiological Sciences-Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba (NIRS-HIMAC) on the growth, survival and mutagenesis in carnation, chrysanthemum and petunia was examined. The relations between three plant species and median growth doses of three kinds of ion beams, 500 Mev/u argon, 400 Mev/u neon and 290 Mev/u carbon, have been clarified. This is useful for the optimum use of the NIRS-HIMAC ion beams in plant breeding. Efficient induction of mutants with desired characteristics has great impact on both basic and applied research. Preliminary research to examine the effect of material pre-treatment was conducted in chrysanthemum var. 'Ferris Aura. 'The frequency of flower color-mutants in plant group regenerated from tissues irradiated after pigment-induction was higher than in the group with non-pigment induction. This result suggested the pigment-induction specifically increases the efficiency to obtain flower color mutants. Carnations have several pigments and the pigment color changes by glucose addition to the pigment molecule. New acylglucose-dependent glucosyltransferase, vanillyl-glucose: anthocyanin 5-O-glucosyltransferase (VA5GT), that is discovered by Matsuba et. al played a vital role to change red pigment into dark pink in carnation. The red mutant obtained by the irradiation of HIMAC ion beams on carnation var. 'Komachi' lacks this enzyme. (author)

  20. Quantum dot transport in soil, plants, and insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Salim, Najeh; Barraclough, Emma; Burgess, Elisabeth; Clothier, Brent; Deurer, Markus; Green, Steve; Malone, Louise; Weir, Graham

    2011-08-01

    Environmental risk assessment of nanomaterials requires information not only on their toxicity to non-target organisms, but also on their potential exposure pathways. Here we report on the transport and fate of quantum dots (QDs) in the total environment: from soils, through their uptake into plants, to their passage through insects following ingestion. Our QDs are nanoparticles with an average particle size of 6.5 nm. Breakthrough curves obtained with CdTe/mercaptopropionic acid QDs applied to columns of top soil from a New Zealand organic apple orchard, a Hastings silt loam, showed there to be preferential flow through the soil's macropores. Yet the effluent recovery of QDs was just 60%, even after several pore volumes, indicating that about 40% of the influent QDs were filtered and retained by the soil column via some unknown exchange/adsorption/sequestration mechanism. Glycine-, mercaptosuccinic acid-, cysteine-, and amine-conjugated CdSe/ZnS QDs were visibly transported to a limited extent in the vasculature of ryegrass (Lolium perenne), onion (Allium cepa) and chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum sp.) plants when cut stems were placed in aqueous QD solutions. However, they were not seen to be taken up at all by rooted whole plants of ryegrass, onion, or Arabidopsis thaliana placed in these solutions. Leafroller (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) larvae fed with these QDs for two or four days, showed fluorescence along the entire gut, in their frass (larval feces), and, at a lower intensity, in their haemolymph. Fluorescent QDs were also observed and elevated cadmium levels detected inside the bodies of adult moths that had been fed QDs as larvae. These results suggest that exposure scenarios for QDs in the total environment could be quite complex and variable in each environmental domain. PMID:21632093

  1. Fecundidade e longevidade de Aphis gossypii Glover, 1877 (Hemiptera, Aphididae em diferentes temperaturas e cultivares comerciais de crisântemo (Dendranthema grandiflora Tzvelev

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soglia Maria C. de M.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Fecundity and longevity of Aphis gossypii Glover, 1877 (Hemiptera, Aphididae at different temperatures and commercial chrysanthemum cultivars (Dendranthema grandiflora Tzvelev. The aphid A. gossypii is one of the main pests in a number of crops both under field and protected conditions. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the fecundity and longevity of A. gossypii under different temperatures and commercial chrysanthemum cultivars (Yellow Snowdon, White Reagan and Dark Splendid Reagan with different trichomes densities (11.3; 16.6 and 21.6 trichome/mm² of the leaf, respectively The trials were carried out in climatic chambers, at four temperatures (15, 20, 25 and 30 ±1 °C, 70 ± 10% RH and photophase 10h. The reproductive period significantly decreased with increase of temperature in the three cultivars. In Yellow Snowdon cultivar average duration of the reproductive period was 14.3 days at 25 °C. The maximum fecundity was obtained at the temperature of 25 ºC with 3,1; 2,8 and 3,6 nymphs/female/day in the Yellow Snowdon, White Reagan and Dark S. Reagan cultivars, respectively. The total fecundity was reduced by extreme temperatures (15 and 30 °C, and was obtained at 25 °C with 35,9 nymphs/female. Females maintained in Yellow Snowdon cultivar significantly showed superiority (30,7 nymphs/female in total fecundity in relation to White Reagan (22,1 nymphs/female and Dark S. Reagan (22,9 nymphs/female. The Yellow Snowdon cultivar (with a lower trichome density had a significant influence in daily and total capacity of nymphs production, showing a higher fecundity of A. gossypii females. The aphid's longevity was affected by cultivars and temperature, and this longevity decreased whit increase of temperature. The results showed that there was an interaction between the temperature and host plant on reproductive parameters of A. gossypii.

  2. Development of radiation-induced mutation techniques and functional genomics studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dong Sub; Kang, Si Yong; Kim, Jin Baek [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); and others

    2012-01-15

    This project has been performed to develop plant genetic resources using radiation (gamma-rays, ion-beam, space environments), to conduct functional genomics studies with mutant resources, and to develop new radiation plant breeding techniques using various radiation sources during 3 years. In the first section, we developed flower genetic resources, functional crop resources, and bio-industrial plant resources. In the second section, we cloned several mutated genes and studied mechanisms of gene expression and genetic diversity of mutations induced by gamma-rays. In the third section, we developed new plant breeding techniques using gamma-phytotron, heavy ion-beam, and space environments. Based on these results, a total of 8 cultivars containing Chrysanthemum, Hibiscus, kenaf, rice, and soybean were applied for plant variety protection (PVP) and a total of 4 cultivars were registered for PVP. Also, license agreement for the dwarf type Hibiscus mutant 'Ggoma' was conducted with Supro co. and the manufacturing technology for natural antioxidant pear-grape vinegar was transferred into Enzenic co. Also, 8 gene sequences, such as F3'H and LDOX genes associated with flower color in Chrysanthemum and EPSPS gene from Korean lawn grass, were registered in the database of National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI). In the future study, we will develop new radiation mutation breeding techniques through the mutation spectrum induced by various radiation sources, the studies for mechanism of the cellular response to radiation, and the comparative{center_dot}structural{center_dot}functional genomics studies for useful traits.

  3. Effectiveness of gamma-ray chronic irradiation on in vitro mutagenesis in crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effects of chronic or acute irradiations were compared using in vitro culture on inducing the mutation in model crops. In chrysanthemum, combined method with irradiation and in vitro culture can solve the problem of chimera formation in induced mutants, and provided 10 times greater mutation frequency than usual plant irradiation. The chronic culture method showed the widest color spectrum, whereas, the acute culture indicated a relatively low mutation rate and a very limited flower color spectrum in chrysanthemum. Flower color mutation of the regenerators could be induced more from petals and buds than from leaves. These facts are supposed that the gene loci fully expressed on floral organs may be unstable for mutation by mutagenesis or culture. It may be likely to control a direction of desired mutation on using explants with specific gene loci activated. In sugarcane, the chronic culture method extended quantitative characteristics of regenerated clonal lines toward not only the negative but positive direction. On the other hand, the acute culture method showed lower quantitative mutation as the irradiation dose rose. In chronic irradiation, regenerated mutant lines in sugarcane indicate generally little decrease in chromosome number and wider variations with relatively less damage. In acute irradiation, regenerated mutant lines show remarkable decrease of chromosome numbers in sugarcane mutant lines as the irradiation dose rose. There is close positive correlation between chromosome number and biomass of each mutant line. The chromosome number estimation is a proper indicator to monitor damage of adopted irradiation methods. Possible reason why the chronic culture methods indicate higher frequency and wider spectrum on mutation is demonstrated. . Problems solved and prospect of chronic irradiation and in vitro techniques are discussed. (Author)

  4. Seleções para resistência e suscetibilidade, detecção e monitoramento da resistência de Tetranychus urticae ao acaricida clorfenapir Selections for resistance and susceptibility, detection and monitoring of resistance to the acaricide chlorfenapyr in Tetranychus urticae koch (Acari: Tetranychidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário Eidi Sato

    2007-01-01

    frequency in commercial fields of six crops in the State of São Paulo (SP. Selections for resistance and susceptibility to chlorfenapyr were performed in a population of T. urticae collected in 2002 from a commercial chrysanthemum field in Holambra county, SP. After six selections for resistance and five selections for susceptibility, susceptible (S and resistant (R strains of T. urticae to chlorfenapyr were obtained. The resistance ratio (R/S at the LC50 reached values of 571-fold. A discriminating concentration of 37.4 mg L-1 of active ingredient (A.I. was established for monitoring chorfenapyr resistance in T. urticae. Twenty one mite populations were collected from different crops (papaya, strawberry, bean, tomato, chrysanthemum, rose, in various counties in the State of São Paulo. Bean-leaf-disc arenas were infested with T. urticae mites and submitted to chlorfenapyr spraying at the discriminating concentration, using a Potter tower. The results showed significant differences among populations in their responses to chlorfenapyr. Populations with frequencies of resistance from 0,0 to 65.4% were detected. The highest frequencies of resistance were observed in populations obtained from chrysanthemum in Holambra.

  5. Compositae dermatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Mirjana

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Compositae dermatitis is an allergic contact dermatitis caused by plant species of the Compositae family. The first report of a cutaneous reaction to the Chrysanthemum genus was made by Howe JS in 1887. In 1895 Maiden JH reported about skin lesions among men working with Tagetes minute Case reports of contact allergic-ragweed dermatitis appeared in the American literature as early as 1919. The North American feverfew - Parthenium Hysterophorus was brought to India from America in 1956 and it caused thousands of cases of so-called parthenium dermatitis. Ragweed and parthenium dermatitis became prototypes for the classic, so-called 'airborne' Compositae dermatitis, that affects primarily exposed skin surfaces, and produces a universal erythroderma. Epidemiology The frequency of contact allergy to Compositae in Europe is higher than previously believed. It occurs most frequently in middle-aged and elderly persons, but also in all age groups During the two past decades a more equal sex ratio has been established. The prevalence varies from 0.7-1.4% in the general population, up to 4.5% among occupationally exposed persons. Compositae allergy is among the top ten contact sensitivities in Europe. In North Europe plants were the cause of 4.4% cases of occupational allergic contact dermatitis. Etiology and pathogenesis Among cultivated Compositae plants, Chrysanthemum is considered to be a major sensitizer in Europe (60%. Among the edible types, it is lettuce - Lactuca sativa and endive Cichorium endivia (20-30%, and wild-growing feverfew - Tanacetum parthenium (70-90%, tansy - Tanacetum vulgare (54%, and dandelion - Taraxacum officinale (65%. Sesquiterpene lactones are the main sensitizers of the Compositae family. Other components thiophenes and acetylenes are said to elicit only phytophotodermatitis, but recent studies have demonstrated that some thiophenes and benzofuran derivates possess not only phototoxic activity, but also

  6. Quantum dot transport in soil, plants, and insects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental risk assessment of nanomaterials requires information not only on their toxicity to non-target organisms, but also on their potential exposure pathways. Here we report on the transport and fate of quantum dots (QDs) in the total environment: from soils, through their uptake into plants, to their passage through insects following ingestion. Our QDs are nanoparticles with an average particle size of 6.5 nm. Breakthrough curves obtained with CdTe/mercaptopropionic acid QDs applied to columns of top soil from a New Zealand organic apple orchard, a Hastings silt loam, showed there to be preferential flow through the soil's macropores. Yet the effluent recovery of QDs was just 60%, even after several pore volumes, indicating that about 40% of the influent QDs were filtered and retained by the soil column via some unknown exchange/adsorption/sequestration mechanism. Glycine-, mercaptosuccinic acid-, cysteine-, and amine-conjugated CdSe/ZnS QDs were visibly transported to a limited extent in the vasculature of ryegrass (Lolium perenne), onion (Allium cepa) and chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum sp.) plants when cut stems were placed in aqueous QD solutions. However, they were not seen to be taken up at all by rooted whole plants of ryegrass, onion, or Arabidopsis thaliana placed in these solutions. Leafroller (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) larvae fed with these QDs for two or four days, showed fluorescence along the entire gut, in their frass (larval feces), and, at a lower intensity, in their haemolymph. Fluorescent QDs were also observed and elevated cadmium levels detected inside the bodies of adult moths that had been fed QDs as larvae. These results suggest that exposure scenarios for QDs in the total environment could be quite complex and variable in each environmental domain. - Research highlights: → Quantum dots are transported rapidly through soil but half were retained. → Intact roots of plants did not take up quantum dots. Excised plants did slightly.

  7. Quantum dot transport in soil, plants, and insects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Salim, Najeh [Industrial Research Ltd, P.O. Box 31310, Lower Hutt 5040 (New Zealand); Barraclough, Emma; Burgess, Elisabeth [New Zealand Institute for Plant and Food Research Ltd, Private Bag 92169, Victoria Street West, Auckland 1142 (New Zealand); Clothier, Brent, E-mail: brent.clothier@plantandfood.co.nz [New Zealand Institute for Plant and Food Research Ltd, Private Bag 11600, Manawatu Mail Centre, Palmerston North 4442 (New Zealand); Deurer, Markus; Green, Steve [New Zealand Institute for Plant and Food Research Ltd, Private Bag 11600, Manawatu Mail Centre, Palmerston North 4442 (New Zealand); Malone, Louise [New Zealand Institute for Plant and Food Research Ltd, Private Bag 92169, Victoria Street West, Auckland 1142 (New Zealand); Weir, Graham [Industrial Research Ltd, P.O. Box 31310, Lower Hutt 5040 (New Zealand)

    2011-08-01

    Environmental risk assessment of nanomaterials requires information not only on their toxicity to non-target organisms, but also on their potential exposure pathways. Here we report on the transport and fate of quantum dots (QDs) in the total environment: from soils, through their uptake into plants, to their passage through insects following ingestion. Our QDs are nanoparticles with an average particle size of 6.5 nm. Breakthrough curves obtained with CdTe/mercaptopropionic acid QDs applied to columns of top soil from a New Zealand organic apple orchard, a Hastings silt loam, showed there to be preferential flow through the soil's macropores. Yet the effluent recovery of QDs was just 60%, even after several pore volumes, indicating that about 40% of the influent QDs were filtered and retained by the soil column via some unknown exchange/adsorption/sequestration mechanism. Glycine-, mercaptosuccinic acid-, cysteine-, and amine-conjugated CdSe/ZnS QDs were visibly transported to a limited extent in the vasculature of ryegrass (Lolium perenne), onion (Allium cepa) and chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum sp.) plants when cut stems were placed in aqueous QD solutions. However, they were not seen to be taken up at all by rooted whole plants of ryegrass, onion, or Arabidopsis thaliana placed in these solutions. Leafroller (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) larvae fed with these QDs for two or four days, showed fluorescence along the entire gut, in their frass (larval feces), and, at a lower intensity, in their haemolymph. Fluorescent QDs were also observed and elevated cadmium levels detected inside the bodies of adult moths that had been fed QDs as larvae. These results suggest that exposure scenarios for QDs in the total environment could be quite complex and variable in each environmental domain. - Research highlights: {yields} Quantum dots are transported rapidly through soil but half were retained. {yields} Intact roots of plants did not take up quantum dots. Excised plants

  8. 山药茶多酚复合保健饮料的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋长兴; 焦云鹏; 赵希荣; 熊清平

    2013-01-01

    利用山药、茶多酚、梨为原料制备山药保健饮料,以复合饮料的感官评分为综合评价指标,对影响饮料品质的几种组分的配方、主料水比、菊花提取液用量、稳定剂配比、甜酸比等因素进行优化研究。结果表明,当山药、梨与茶多酚的质量比为5∶3∶2,菊花提取液量添加量为0.5%,海藻酸钠和羧甲级纤维素钠质量比为0.15∶0.45,柠檬酸、苹果酸与乳酸质量比为0.15∶0.1∶0.1,糖酸比为8∶0.35时,产品营养丰富、口感优良、风味独特。%In the present study, we investigate the processing of compound health beverage made of yam, pear, chrysanthemum and tea polyphenols. And enzymic hydrolysising process and formula of product are optimized by using single-factor and orthogonal test. As a result, the optimal conditions are determined as followings: ratio of yam, pear and tea polyphenols is 5∶3∶2, concentration of chrysanthemum is 0.5%, ratio of SAA and CMC, citric, tartaric, and malic, and sugar-acid ratio is 0.15∶0.45, 0.15∶0.1∶0.1 and 8∶0.35, respectively. Under these conditions, the product obtained has improved qualities of color, nutrition, flavor and taste.

  9. 向日葵S-腺苷甲硫氨酸合成酶基因克隆与分析%Molecular Cloning and Bioinformatic Analysis of S-adenosylmethionine Synthetase Gene from Helianthus annuus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周向红; 王萍

    2011-01-01

    To investigate contributions of S-adenosylmethionine synthetase ( SAMS) to tolerance to drought and salt in Helianthus annuus,we cloned one SAMS gene (designated as HaSAMSl ) using RT-PCR from H. Annus. The primers were designed according to results of computer-assisted cloning. Total RNAs were isolated from the leaves of H. Annum treated by salt. The HaSAMSl gene contained a complete coding sequence of 1173 bp,encoding the protein of 390 amino acids. HaSAMSl contained signature motifs of SAMS family, but had no membrane spanning domain and signal peptide. The HaSAMSl shared high amino acid sequence identity with the SAMSs from other organisms. The amino acid sequence of HaSAMSl showed 86. 8% - 96. 9% identity with the SAMSs from Chrysanthemum coronarium ,Arabidopsis thaliana and other higher plants. The cloning of HaSAMSl laid a foundation for further investigation of tolerance mechanism to drought and salt in H. Annuus.%为了研究S-腺苷甲硫氨酸合成酶(S-adenosylmethionine synthetase,SAMS)在向日葵(Helianthus annuus)抗旱和耐盐过程中的作用,先根据计算机辅助克隆结果设计引物,抽提盐胁迫向日葵叶片的总RNA,然后采用RT-PCR扩增技术克隆了向日葵的1个SAMS基因(命名为HaSAMS1),HaSAMS1基因的编码序列长1 173bp,编码390个氨基酸残基.HaSAMS1没有跨膜结构域,没有信号肽,含有SAMS蛋白的特征序列.HaSAMS1与其他物种的SAMS具有较高的序列相似性,与茼蒿(Chrysanthemum coronarium)和拟南芥(Arabidopsis thaliana)等高等植物SAMS的氨基酸序列一致性介于86.8% ~96.9%.HaSAMS1基因的克隆为进一步研究向日葵抗旱和耐盐机理奠定了基础.

  10. In vitro efficacies of oils, silicas and plant preparations against the poultry red mite Dermanyssus gallinae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, Veronika; Perler, Erika; Heckendorn, Felix

    2009-06-01

    The aim of this study was to test the effectiveness of physically acting substances (oils and silicas) and plant preparations for the control of the poultry red mite Dermanyssus gallinae (De Geer 1778). Reproduction and survival of fed D. gallinae females were evaluated in vitro for a total of 168 h using the "area under the survival curve" (AUC) to compare survival of the mites between treatments. Four oils (two plant oils, one petroleum spray oil and diesel), one soap, three silicas (one synthetic amorphous silica, one diatomaceous earth (DE) and one DE with 2% pyrethrum extract) and seven plant preparations (derived from Chrysanthemum cineariaefolium, Allium sativum, Tanacetum vulgare, Yucca schidigera, Quillaja saponaria, Dryopteris filix-mas, and Thuja occidentalis) were tested at various concentrations. All the oils, diesel and soap significantly reduced D. gallinae survival. All silicas tested inhibited reproduction. DE significantly reduced mite survival, but amorphous silica was less effective in vitro. Except for pure A. sativum juice and the highest concentration of C. cineariaefolium extract, the plant preparations tested resulted in statistically insignificant control of D. gallinae. PMID:19229641

  11. Plantas cultivadas e invasoras como habitat para predadores do gênero Orius(Wolff (Heteroptera: anthocoridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silveira Luís Cláudio Paterno

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi registrar as espécies de Orius associadas a plantas cultivadas e invasoras presentes em uma localidade de Minas Gerais e três de São Paulo, nos anos de 1999 e 2000. As coletas foram realizadas através de batidas das plantas no interior de sacos plásticos para desalojar os insetos. Posteriormente, as espécies foram separadas em laboratório. O predador Orius insidiosus (Say foi coletado nas culturas de milho (Zea mays L., milheto (Pennisetum glaucum (L. R.Br., sorgo (Sorghum spp., feijão (Phaseolus vulgaris L., girassol (Helianthus annuus L., alfafa (Medicago sativa L., soja [Glycine max (L. Merr.], crisântemo (Chrysanthemum spp., tango (Solidago canadensis L. e cartamus (Carthamus tinctorius L. e nas plantas invasoras picão-preto (Bidens pilosa L., caruru (Amaranthus sp., losna-branca (Parthenium hysterophorus L. e apaga-fogo (Alternanthera ficoidea L.. Orius thyestes Herring foi encontrado nas plantas invasoras picão-preto, caruru e apaga-fogo. Orius perpunctatus (Reuter e Orius sp. foram coletados principalmente nas plantas invasoras picão-preto, caruru e apaga-fogo e no milho. Constatou-se que muitas dessas plantas são reservatórios naturais para esses predadores, em termos de habitat, abrigo, presas e pólen.

  12. HEALTH AND NUTRITION FROM ORNAMENTALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Yashaswini

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Ornamental plants are grown for decorative purposes in gardens and landscape design projects, as house plants, for cut flowers and specimen display. Ornamentals and flower crops are not only grown for the display of aesthetic features, but also have some nutritive and medicinal properties. There has been renewed interest in utilizing garden environments as thera¬peutic entities to enhance the process of healing that occurs in healthcare environments. By minimizing the stress response, therapeutic gardens can promote re¬covery from illness or preserve health. From centuries roses have been valued for their culinary, medicinal, cosmetic and aromatic properties. Flower crops like Hibiscus, Plumbago, Periwinckle, and Lotus are highly valued for their medicinal use as in cosmetics, skin disorders, cancer etc. ornamental tree species like Palash, Amaltas, Bauhinia, Asoca, Kadamba are used in traditional Ayurvedic of medicines. Many of the flower crops such as nasturtium, hibiscus, rose, cosmos, and chrysanthemum are rich in minerals and vitamins, used as edible flowers. Some of the flowers like rose, jasmine, lavender and tuberose are used for extraction of essential oils. They are having soothing and curative properties and are used in aromatherapy. An attempt was made to collect the reviews on the therapeutic properties of these ornamentals.

  13. Establishment of Ion Beam Technology for Breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have begun to investigate the characteristics of ion beams for inducing mutation from a molecular to a phenotypic level. Mutation induction rates were investigated using known visible Arabidopsis mutant phenotypes, such as glabra (gl) and transparent testa (tt). These observations indicated that mutation frequencies induced by carbon ions were twenty-fold higher than those induced by electrons. Molecular analyses showed that half of the mutants induced by ion beams possessed large DNA alterations, while the rest had point-like mutations. The common feature of mutations induced by ion beams is the deletion of several bases. It is possible that ion beams induce a limited number of large and irreparable DNA lesions, resulting in the production of null mutations that show a new mutant phenotype. Novel mutants, such as those that are UV-B resistant, have serrated petals and sepals, or lack anthocyanins, have been induced by 220 MeV carbon ions in Arabidopsis. The mutated genes were found to encode novel and key proteins for each process. In chrysanthemum and carnation, several kinds of flower-color and flower-form mutants that have never been produced by Gamma-rays or X-rays were induced by carbon ions. These observations indicate that the characteristics of mutations induced by ion beams are high frequency and broad spectrum, and produce novel mutants. Many breeding programmes are using mutants induced by ion beams and successfully producing useful new crop varieties. (author)

  14. Establishment of ion beam breeding technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have first begun to investigate the characteristics of ion beams for inducing mutation from at molecular level to phenotypic level. Mutation induction rates were investigated using visible known Arabidopsis mutant phenotypes such as glabra(gl) and transparent testa(tt), indicating that mutation frequencies induced by carbon ions were 17-fold higher than those by electrons. Molecular analysis showed that half of mutants induced by ion beams possessed large DNA alterations, while the rest had point-like mutations. Both mutations induced by ion beams have common feature that deletion of several bases are predominantly induced. It is plausible that ion beams induce limited number of large and irreparable DNA damage, resulting in effectively producing null mutation that shows new mutant phenotype. On the other hands, novel mutants such as UV-B resistant, serrated petals and sepals, anthocyaninless, etc. have been induced by 220 MeV carbon ions in Arabidopsis. Those genes were also found to encode novel and key proteins for each mechanism. In chrysanthemum and carnation, several kinds of flower-color and flower-form mutants that have never produced by gamma rays or X rays were also induced by carbon ions. It is, therefore, indicated that the characteristics of ion beams for the mutation induction are high mutation frequency, broad mutation spectrum, and producing novel mutants. From these basic researches, recently a lot of practical studies on mutation breeding are being actively carried out and successfully producing useful new varieties. (author)

  15. Studies on biological effects of ion beams on lethality, molecular nature of mutation, mutation rate, and spectrum of mutation phenotype for mutation breeding in higher plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently, heavy ions or ion beams have been used to generate new mutants or varieties, especially in higher plants. It has been found that ion beams show high relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of growth inhibition, lethality, and so on, but the characteristics of ion beams on mutation have not been clearly elucidated. To understand the effect of ion beams on mutation induction, mutation rates were investigated using visible known Arabidopsis mutant phenotypes, indicating that mutation frequencies induced by carbon ions were 20-fold higher than by electrons. In chrysanthemum and carnation, flower-color and flower-form mutants, which are hardly produced by gamma rays or X rays, were induced by ion beams. Novel mutants and their responsible genes, such as UV-B resistant, serrated petals and sepals, anthocyaninless, etc. were induced by ion beams. These results indicated that the characteristics of ion beams for mutation induction are high mutation frequency and broad mutation spectrum and therefore, efficient induction of novel mutants. On the other hand, PCR and sequencing analyses showed that half of all mutants induced by ion beams possessed large DNA alterations, while the rest had point-like mutations. Both mutations induced by ion beams had a common feature that deletion of several bases were predominantly induced. It is plausible that ion beams induce a limited amount of large and irreparable DNA damage, resulting in production of a null mutation that shows a new mutant phenotype. (author)

  16. A novel ion-beam-mutation effect application in identification of gene involved in bacterial antagonism to fungal infection of ornamental crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahadtanapuk, S. [Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Phayao, Maeka, Muang, Phayao 56000 (Thailand); Teraarusiri, W. [Central Laboratory, University of Phayao, Maeka, Muang, Phayao 56000 (Thailand); Nanakorn, W. [The Crown Property Bureau, 173 Nakhonratchasrima Road, Dusit, Bangkok 10300 (Thailand); Yu, L.D., E-mail: yuld@thep-center.org [Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Thailand Center of Excellence in Physics, Commission on Higher Education, 328 Si Ayutthaya Road, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand); Thongkumkoon, P. [Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Anuntalabhochai, S., E-mail: soanu.1@gmail.com [Molecular Biology Laboratory, Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand)

    2014-05-01

    Highlights: • Ion beam bombardment induced mutation in bacterial B. licheniformis. • A mutant lost antifungal activity. • DNA fingerprint of the mutant was analyzed. • The lost gene was indentified to code for TrxR gene. • TrxR gene from B. licheniformis expressed the flower antagonism to fungi. - Abstract: This work is on a novel application of ion beam effect on biological mutation. Bacillus licheniformis (B. licheniformis) is a common soil bacterium with an antagonistic effect on Curcuma alismatifolia Gagnep. and Chrysanthemum indicum Linn. In an attempt to control fungal diseases of local crops by utilizing B. licheniformis, we carried out gene analysis of the bacterium to understand the bacterial antagonistic mechanism. The bacterial cells were bombarded to induce mutations using nitrogen ion beam. After ion bombardment, DNA analysis revealed that the modified polymorphism fragment present in the wild type was missing in a bacterial mutant which lost the antifungal activity. The fragments conserved in the wild type but lost in the mutant bacteria was identified to code for the thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) gene. The gene analysis showed that the TrxR gene from B. licheniformis had the expression of the antagonism to fungi in a synchronous time evolution with the fungus inhibition when the bacteria were co-cultivated with the fungi. The collective results indicate the TrxR gene responsible for the antagonism of bacteria B. licheniformis to fungal infection.

  17. Formaldehyde removal by common indoor plant species and various growing media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydogan, Ahu; Montoya, Lupita D.

    2011-05-01

    Three porous materials (growstone, expanded clay and activated carbon) were evaluated as hydroponic growing media and for their individual ability to remove the indoor volatile organic compound formaldehyde under three conditions: growing medium alone, dry medium in a pot, and wet medium in a pot. The total percent-reduction of formaldehyde by each growing media was evaluated over a 10-h period. In all cases, activated carbon achieved the highest removal under the three conditions studied with average percent reductions measured at about 98%. Four common interior plants: Hedera helix (English ivy), Chrysanthemum morifolium (pot mum), Dieffenbachia compacta (dump cane) and Epipremnum aureum (golden pathos) growing in growstone were then tested for their ability to remove formaldehyde. The removal capacity of the aerial plant parts (AP), the root zone (RZ) and the entire plant (EP) growing in growstone were determined by exposing the relevant parts to gaseous formaldehyde (˜2000 μg m -3) in a closed chamber over a 24-h period. The removal efficiency between species and plant parts were compared by determining the time interval required to decrease about 2/3 of the total formaldehyde concentration reduction, T 2/3. The T 2/3 measured were 23, 30, 34 and 56 min for EP of C. morifolium, E. aureum, D. compacta and H. helix, respectively. The formaldehyde removal by the root zone was found to be more rapid than the removal by the aerial plant parts.

  18. Investigation of the Optimal Parameters in Hydrothermal Method for the Synthesis of ZnO Nanorods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Chung Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated a two-step method to deposit the ZnO-based nanostructure films, including nanorods and nanoflowers. In the first step, sputtering method was used to deposit the ZnO films on SiO2/Si substrates as the seed layer. In the second step, Zn(NO32–6H2O and C6H12N4 were used as precursors and hydrothermal process was used as the method to synthesize the ZnO films. After that, the ZnO films were measured by an X-ray diffraction pattern and a FESEM to analyze their crystallization and morphology. We had found that the ZnO films had three different morphologies synthesized on ZnO/SiO2/Si substrates, including irregular-plate structure films, nanorod films, and beautiful chrysanthemum-like clusters (nanoflower films. We would prove that the face direction of ZnO/SiO2/Si substrates in the hydrothermal bottle and deposition time were two important factors to influence the synthesized results of the ZnO films.

  19. Steviol glycoside safety: are highly purified steviol glycoside sweeteners food allergens?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, Jonathan D; Carakostas, Michael C; Taylor, Steve L

    2015-01-01

    Steviol glycoside sweeteners are extracted from the plant Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni), a member of the Asteraceae (Compositae) family. Many plants from this family can induce hypersensitivity reactions via multiple routes of exposure (e.g., ragweed, goldenrod, chrysanthemum, echinacea, chamomile, lettuce, sunflower and chicory). Based on this common taxonomy, some popular media reports and resources have issued food warnings alleging the potential for stevia allergy. To determine if such allergy warnings are warranted on stevia-based sweeteners, a comprehensive literature search was conducted to identify all available data related to allergic responses following the consumption of stevia extracts or highly purified steviol glycosides. Hypersensitivity reactions to stevia in any form are rare. The few cases documented in the peer-reviewed literature were reported prior to the introduction of high-purity products to the market in 2008 when many global regulatory authorities began to affirm the safety of steviol glycosides. Neither stevia manufacturers nor food allergy networks have reported significant numbers of any adverse events related to ingestion of stevia-based sweeteners, and there have been no reports of stevia-related allergy in the literature since 2008. Therefore, there is little substantiated scientific evidence to support warning statements to consumers about allergy to highly purified stevia extracts. PMID:25449199

  20. Effects of Beverages on Alcohol Metabolism: Potential Health Benefits and Harmful Impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Wang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Nonalcoholic beverages are usually consumed accompanying alcoholic drinks, and their effects on alcohol metabolism are unclear in vivo. In this study, the effects of 20 nonalcoholic beverages on alcohol metabolism and liver injury caused by alcohol were evaluated in mice. Kunming mice were orally fed with alcohol (52%, v/v and beverages. The concentrations of ethanol and acetaldehyde in blood as well as the activities of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH in liver were assessed to indicate alcohol metabolism. The levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST and alanine transaminase (ALT in serum as well as the levels of malonaldehyde (MDA and superoxide dismutase (SOD in liver were measured to reflect the alcohol-induced liver injury. The results showed that the treatment of soda water, green tea and honey chrysanthemum tea could accelerate ethanol metabolism and prevent liver injuries caused by alcohol when companied with excessive alcohol drinking. They might be potential dietary supplements for the alleviation of harmful effects from excessive alcohol consumption. On the contrary, some beverages such as fresh orange juice and red bull are not advised to drink when companied with alcohol consumption due to their adverse effects on ethanol induced liver injury.

  1. Environmentally friendly ionic liquid-in-water microemulsions for extraction of hydrophilic and lipophilic components from Flos Chrysanthemi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jue; Cao, Jun; Gao, Wen; Qi, Lian-Wen; Li, Ping

    2013-10-21

    Ionic liquids (ILs) have numerous chemical applications as environmentally green solvents that are extending into microemulsion applications. In this work, a novel benign IL-in-water microemulsion system modified by an IL surfactant has been proposed for simultaneous extraction of hydrophilic and lipophilic constituents from Flos Chrysanthemi (Chrysanthemum morifolium). Constituents were analyzed by rapid-resolution liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. A mixture-design approach was used to optimize the IL surfactant and the IL oil phase in the microemulsion system. Microemulsions consisting of 6.0% 1-dodecyl-3-methylimidazolium hydrogen sulfate, 0.1% 1-vinyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate and 93.9% water offered the acceptable extract efficiency that are comparable to or even better than conventional volatile organic solvents. This assay was fully validated with respect to the linearity of response (r(2) > 0.999 over two orders of magnitude), precision (intra-RSD microemulsion method provided an environmentally friendly alternative for efficient extraction of compounds from Flos Chrysanthemi and could be extended to complex environmental and pharmaceutical samples. PMID:23928686

  2. Utilization of bio-resources through nuclear technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear technology such as gamma-ray, eb and ion beams is widely use for the utilization of bio-resources. Irradiation using gamma ray from 60Co and electron beam is commercially used for the sterilization and modification of materials. Polysaccharides such as chitosan, sodium alginate, carrageenan, cellulose, pectin were easily degraded by irradiation and induced various kinds of biological activities, i.e. anti-bacterial activity, elicitor activity, plant growth promotion, suppression of environmental stress on plants. Some carbohydrate derivatives, carboxymethylcellulose (CMC), carboxymethyl-starch and carboxymethyl-chitin/chitosan, can be crosslinked under certain radiation condition and produced the biodegradable hydrogel for medical and agricultural uses. Ion beams have also been applied for mutation breeding for medical and agricultural use. Ion beams have also been applied for mutation breeding and the production of positron-emitting isotopes such as 11C, 13N, etc. It was succeeded to induce several kinds of flower-color and flower-form mutants in chrysanthemum and carnation by ion beams that have never produced by gamma-ray. The positron emitting tracer imaging system (PETIS) has been developed to obtain a dynamic image of plant transport in situ. (Author)

  3. Educational utilization of outstanding spherulitic rhyolite occurred in Cheongsong, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Y. D.; Woo, H.

    2015-12-01

    Cheongsong is located in the central eastern area of South Korea. Unique spherulitic rhyolites occur in this region as dykes formed about 48 to 50 million years ago. Composed of quartz and feldspar these spherulitic rhyolites show various flowerlike shapes, such as chrysanthemum, dandelion, rose, carnation, sunflower, dahlia and so on, so they are called 'flower stones'. The spherulite indicates that it was undercooled caused by very fast cooling at a shallow depth near the surface and the variety of shapes resulted from the difference of crystallizing conditions. According to the condition, minerals start to crystallize homogeneously or heterogeneously and develop as rounded or fibrous shapes, representing beautiful patterns when combined. These spherulitic structures are very rare not only in Korea but also globally, being valuable for research and preservation because of their rarity, beauty and diversity. Cheongsong therefore applies to the UGG (UNESCO Global Geopark) in an attempt to popularize the flower stones and use them as education materials which can also be incorporated in other valuable sites. The exhibition center provides diverse types of flower stones in which visitors could learn about rhyolitic volcanism, crystallization and spherulite and can experience the process of changing a rough stone into a flower stone. A geotrail course has also been created, showing each type of flower stone on the outcrop and providing educational programs about geological mechanisms of the stones with a trained guide.

  4. Irradiation service for the vegetatively propagated crop breeding at the institute of radiation breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The entrusted irradiation for vegetatively propagating crops reached about 200 cases since 1962. As to the results, 109 cases which were able to be tracked by questionnaire and others were examined. When the number of cases for each crop was investigated, arbor crops and herbaceous crops were half and half, and in the arbor crops, fruit trees were overwhelmingly many, while in the herbaceous crops, potatoes were more than half, and the number of cases for rush also was many. As the rare examples, there were butterbur, medicinal plants and sugarcane. As the registered practical varieties, there were one case of rush and one case of Chinese mat grass, but in the arbor crops, there was none. The purpose has been mostly the breeding of new varieties, but there were the inactivation of viruses and the effect of insecticide. The aims of breeding have been early growth, high yield, disease resistance, dwarfness and so on. As the mutation actually obtained, the skin color of fruits, the flower color of rose and chrysanthemum, the short vines of potatoes, the quality of rush and so on. The clients were mostly public experiment stations. The method of irradiation and the problems for the future are reported. (Kako, I.)

  5. A novel ion-beam-mutation effect application in identification of gene involved in bacterial antagonism to fungal infection of ornamental crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahadtanapuk, S.; Teraarusiri, W.; Nanakorn, W.; Yu, L. D.; Thongkumkoon, P.; Anuntalabhochai, S.

    2014-05-01

    This work is on a novel application of ion beam effect on biological mutation. Bacillus licheniformis (B. licheniformis) is a common soil bacterium with an antagonistic effect on Curcuma alismatifolia Gagnep. and Chrysanthemum indicum Linn. In an attempt to control fungal diseases of local crops by utilizing B. licheniformis, we carried out gene analysis of the bacterium to understand the bacterial antagonistic mechanism. The bacterial cells were bombarded to induce mutations using nitrogen ion beam. After ion bombardment, DNA analysis revealed that the modified polymorphism fragment present in the wild type was missing in a bacterial mutant which lost the antifungal activity. The fragments conserved in the wild type but lost in the mutant bacteria was identified to code for the thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) gene. The gene analysis showed that the TrxR gene from B. licheniformis had the expression of the antagonism to fungi in a synchronous time evolution with the fungus inhibition when the bacteria were co-cultivated with the fungi. The collective results indicate the TrxR gene responsible for the antagonism of bacteria B. licheniformis to fungal infection.

  6. A novel ion-beam-mutation effect application in identification of gene involved in bacterial antagonism to fungal infection of ornamental crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Ion beam bombardment induced mutation in bacterial B. licheniformis. • A mutant lost antifungal activity. • DNA fingerprint of the mutant was analyzed. • The lost gene was indentified to code for TrxR gene. • TrxR gene from B. licheniformis expressed the flower antagonism to fungi. - Abstract: This work is on a novel application of ion beam effect on biological mutation. Bacillus licheniformis (B. licheniformis) is a common soil bacterium with an antagonistic effect on Curcuma alismatifolia Gagnep. and Chrysanthemum indicum Linn. In an attempt to control fungal diseases of local crops by utilizing B. licheniformis, we carried out gene analysis of the bacterium to understand the bacterial antagonistic mechanism. The bacterial cells were bombarded to induce mutations using nitrogen ion beam. After ion bombardment, DNA analysis revealed that the modified polymorphism fragment present in the wild type was missing in a bacterial mutant which lost the antifungal activity. The fragments conserved in the wild type but lost in the mutant bacteria was identified to code for the thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) gene. The gene analysis showed that the TrxR gene from B. licheniformis had the expression of the antagonism to fungi in a synchronous time evolution with the fungus inhibition when the bacteria were co-cultivated with the fungi. The collective results indicate the TrxR gene responsible for the antagonism of bacteria B. licheniformis to fungal infection

  7. Isolation of antibacterial compounds from Quercus dilatata L. through bioassay guided fractionation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamil Maryam

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Four medicinal plants (Chrozophora hierosolymitana Spreng, Chrysanthemum leucanthemum L., Ephedra gerardiana Wall. ex Stapf, and Quercus dilatata L. used by indigenous healers to treat various infectious diseases were selected for the present study. The major objective of the present study was isolation and characterization of antimicrobial components from the crude plant extracts using bioassay guided fractionation. Methods Seven methanolic extracts of the four plants were screened to identify any antimicrobial agents present in them. The active crude plant extract was fractionated first by solvent partitioning and then by HPLC. Characterization of the active fractions was done by using spectrophotometer. Results All the seven methanolic extracts showed low antifungal activity, however, when these extracts were tested for antibacterial activity, significant activity was exhibited by two extracts. The extract of aerial parts of Q. dilatata was most active and therefore, was selected for further analysis. Initially fractionation was done by solvent-solvent partitioning and out of six partitioned fractions, ethanol fraction was selected on the basis of results of antibacterial activity and phytochemical analysis. Further, fractionation was carried out by RP- HPLC and purified active subfractions were characterized by comparing their absorption spectra with that of the known natural products isolated from the plants of Quercus genus. Discussion and conclusion The results suggest that this is the first report of the isolated antibacterial compounds from this genus.

  8. Microbiological Quality of Various Medicinal Herbal Teas and Coffee Substitutes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.H. Tournas

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Various herbal teas including German chamomile, Chrysanthemum Vascuflow herb tea, hop, jasmine and orange flowers, sweet marjoram, spearmint and thyme leaves, and papaya-mint tea as well as coffee substitutes (Bambu instant Swiss, Teeccino chocolate-mint, and Teeccino Mediterranean Espresso were analyzed for fungal contamination and the presence of aerobic mesophilic bacteria (APC. The results of this investigation showed that fungal counts reached levels as high as 5.8 × 105 colony forming units (cfu per gram. German chamomile harbored the highest fungal contamination. The most common fungi found in herbal teas were Aspergillus niger, Penicillium spp., Eurotium rubrum, E. chevalieri, A. flavus, Fusarium spp., Alternaria alternata, and yeasts. Among the coffee substitutes, only the chocolate-mint coffee was contaminated with low numbers (<1.0 × 103 cfu g−1 of E. rubrum, Ulocladium spp. and Phoma spp., and with yeasts (<100–6.8 × 103 cfu g−1. Aerobic mesophilic bacteria were recovered from 100% of the herbal tea, chocolate-mint and Mediterranean Espresso, and from 50% of the Bambu instant Swiss coffee samples. The highest APC counts of 1.2 × 107 cfu g−1 were observed in spearmint leaves.

  9. Mutation breedings in ornamental plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several methods of obtaining somatic mutant plants by γ-ray irradiation on pieces of tissues as in vitro adventitious bud technique or small cutting methods with repeated pruning are described. 1) The irradiation to the adventitious buds in the small pieces of organ cultured in vitro and to the small cuttings are employed. Culture beds of agar or of Japanese Kanuma soil were used in vitro culture. In these experiments, Japanese Kanuma soil bed in in vitro culture worked well for root development and transplant of the induced mutants. 2) Combination with in vitro culture and repeated pruning technique were used for isolation and fixation of solid somatic mutant from small sectorial mutation induced by irradiation. This method was successful for begonia, chrysanthemum, aberia and winter daphne. 3) These data indicates that most of the induced mutant plants were non-chimeric, while a few others were chimeric. Among the new varieties, ''Gin-Sei'', ''Ryoku-Ha'', ''Big-Cross'', ''Kaede-Iron'', ''Mei-Fu-Hana-Tsukubane-Utsugi'' and ''Daphne-γ-3'' are non-chimeric, and ''Mini-Mini-Iron'' and ''Orange-Iron'' are chimeric. Moreover, these new varieties have remarkably differed in size and in color pattern from original variety. From the experimental results of somatic mutation, it is indicated that plant tissue culture have enormous potential in radiation breeding and in rapid propagation of the somatic mutant. (author)

  10. 42. The Report of Antimutagenicity and Mutagenicity of 7 Kinds Natrual Edible Plants and Vegetables

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: With improvement of living standard, environmental quality become more and more seriously damaged. While the SOS bacterioplage induction methed is nearly a high-speed and reliable method to detect genetic toxins. The SOS syndronous test make an improvement on the above method. On the one hand, we are reducing the environmental pollution, on the other hand, we are attempt to find antimugens and some ways against cancer. Using the natrual edible plants against mutage and cancer is one of the important topic on preventing carcinogenic factors. The study examed 7 kinds natrual edible plants and vegetables. Method: We adopted the test of the Antimutagenicity and mutagenicity with S9 (rat liver microsomal enzymes system) and without S9 and repeat test. Result: The results showed all samples had no mutagenicity. Scallion seed, sweet potato and pomegranate peel were antimutagens against Mitomicy(MMC) with S9 and without S9. They are well worth of devoloping and using further. Pea seedling, crowndaisy chrysanthemum. alon and romaine had no antimutagenicity with and without S9. The people can eat usually.

  11. Antioxidant effects of 14 Chinese traditional medicinal herbs against human low-density lipoprotein oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hsin-Hung; Charles, Albert Linton; Hsieh, Chang-Wei; Lee, Ya-Chi; Ciou, Jhih-Ying

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between the antioxidant activities and inhibitory effect of 14 Chinese medicinal herbs against oxidized low-density lipoprotein (LDL) formation was evaluated. Prolongation of the lag phase of LDL oxidation depended on the concentration of the herbs. The concentration of each herb that was able to prolong the lag time by about two-fold was calculated and expressed as doubling-time concentration. The lower the doubling-time concentration, the stronger the inhibitory effect exhibited toward LDL oxidation. Among them, Chrysanthemi Flos (Chrysanthemum morifolium ramat; gān jú huā), Crataegi Fructus (Crataegus pinnatifida Bge. var. major N.E.Br.; shān zhā), and Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn.; luò shén) showed significant inhibitory effects. Correlation coefficients between doubling-time concentration and radical-scavenging activities were high; the total phenolic content was also high. In conclusion, phenolic compounds contributed not only to antioxidant activities, but also to the inhibitory effect against LDL oxidation. Chrysanthemi Flos, Crataegi Fructus, and H. sabdariffa, with lower doubling-time concentrations, could be potent phytochemical agents to reduce LDL oxidation and prevent the progression of atherosclerosis. PMID:26151009

  12. ПОИСК ПУТЕЙ ИСПОЛЬЗОВАНИЯ ХРИЗАНТЕМЫ КОРЕЙСКОЙ В КОСМЕТОЛОГИИ

    OpenAIRE

    Кодониди, Е.; Кодониди, М.; Степанова, Э.

    2011-01-01

    Представлен краткий обзор исследований по разработке состава крем-геля с экстрактом хризантемы корейской. Рассмотрены перспективы его использования в косметологии.The short review of researches on working out of structure of cream-gel with an extract of a chrysanthemum Korean is presented. Prospects of its use in cosmetology are considered.

  13. New Experimental Hosts of Tobacco streak virus and Absence of True Seed Transmission in Leguminous Hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vemana, K; Jain, R K

    2010-10-01

    Of 70 plant species tested, 50 species were susceptible to Tobacco streak virus (TSV) on sap inoculation. Both localized (necrotic and chlorotic spots) and systemic (necrotic spots, axillary shoot proliferation, stunting, total necrosis and wilt) symptoms are observed by majority of plant species. Eleven new experimental hosts were identified viz., Amaranthus blitum var. oleracea (Chaulai sag), Celosia cristata (Cocks comb), Beta vulgaris var. bengalensis (Palak/Indian spinach), Calendula officinalis (Pot marigold), Chrysanthemum indicum, Cosmos sulphurens (Yellow cosmos), Citrullus lunatus (Watermelon), Lagenaria siceraria (Bottle gourd), Coriandrum sativum (Coriander), Hibiscus subderiffa var. subderiffa (Roselle) and Portulaca oleraceae (Little hogweed). Detected groundnut seed infection with TSV for the first time by Direct antigen coated immunosorbent assay (DAC-ELISA) using whole seed. The seed infection ranged from 18.9 to 28.9% among the seeds collected from naturally infected and sap inoculated groundnut varieties (JL 24, TMV 2, Prasuna, Kadiri 6, Kadiri 9, Anantha and Kadiri 7 Bold) belonging to spanish and virginia types. Further, TSV was detected both in pod shell and seed testa and none of the samples showed the presence of TSV either in cotyledon or embryo. Grow-out and bio-assay tests proved the absence of seed transmission in groundnut and other legume crops. Hence, TSV isolate was not a true seed transmission case under Indian conditions in legumes. PMID:23637490

  14. Ação de Inseticidas Botânicos sobre a Preferência Alimentar e sobre Posturas de Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae em Milho

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Mazzonetto

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho objetivou comparar o efeito de diferentes extratos de origem vegetal na preferência alimentar e na postura da lagarta do cartucho Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith em folhas de milho. Extratos aquosos a 10% p/v de Chenopodium ambrosioides (Linnaeus (Erva de Santa Maria, Corymbia citriodora (Hill & Johnson (Eucalipto Cheiroso, Chrysanthemum leucanthemum (Linnaeus (Crisântemo e Azadirachta indica (A. Juss (Nim foram aplicados em discos de folhas de milho e oferecidos às lagartas em testes com e sem chance de escolha. A atratividade das lagartas pelos discos com os extratos não diferiu da testemunha no teste com chance de escolha, porém os extratos de Nim e Crisântemo apresentaram efeito fagodeterrente a S. frugiperda. Nos testes sem chance de escolha, o tratamento que mais repeliu as lagartas foi utilizando extrato de Nim, representando possível alternativa para o controle das lagartas desta espécie. Nenhum dos extratos aquosos das espécies vegetais testadas apresentou efeito ovicida.

  15. Effects of Beverages on Alcohol Metabolism: Potential Health Benefits and Harmful Impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fang; Zhang, Yu-Jie; Zhou, Yue; Li, Ya; Zhou, Tong; Zheng, Jie; Zhang, Jiao-Jiao; Li, Sha; Xu, Dong-Ping; Li, Hua-Bin

    2016-01-01

    Nonalcoholic beverages are usually consumed accompanying alcoholic drinks, and their effects on alcohol metabolism are unclear in vivo. In this study, the effects of 20 nonalcoholic beverages on alcohol metabolism and liver injury caused by alcohol were evaluated in mice. Kunming mice were orally fed with alcohol (52%, v/v) and beverages. The concentrations of ethanol and acetaldehyde in blood as well as the activities of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) in liver were assessed to indicate alcohol metabolism. The levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT) in serum as well as the levels of malonaldehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in liver were measured to reflect the alcohol-induced liver injury. The results showed that the treatment of soda water, green tea and honey chrysanthemum tea could accelerate ethanol metabolism and prevent liver injuries caused by alcohol when companied with excessive alcohol drinking. They might be potential dietary supplements for the alleviation of harmful effects from excessive alcohol consumption. On the contrary, some beverages such as fresh orange juice and red bull are not advised to drink when companied with alcohol consumption due to their adverse effects on ethanol induced liver injury. PMID:27005619

  16. The effects of temperature and humidity on the growth of tin whisker and hillock from Sn5Nd alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Cai-Fu [Shenyang National Laboratory for Materials Science, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China); Liu, Zhi-Quan, E-mail: zqliu@imr.ac.cn [Shenyang National Laboratory for Materials Science, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China); Shang, Jian-Ku [Shenyang National Laboratory for Materials Science, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China)

    2013-02-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Tin whiskers and hillocks grow from Sn5Nd alloy due to oxidation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Temperature and humidity can affect the oxidation and the growth diversities. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Growth models of whiskers and hillocks were proposed upon microstructural study. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The proposed models can explain the characteristics of whiskers and hillocks. - Abstract: The effects of exposure time, temperature and humidity on the growth of tin whisker and hillock from Sn5Nd alloy were investigated via scanning electron microscopy. It was found that tin whiskers grew from NdSn{sub 3} compound, while hillocks grew from the tin matrix around the NdSn{sub 3} compound, which was induced by the oxidation of NdSn{sub 3} compound by oxygen and water vapor in the ambient. More tin whiskers and/or hillocks were extruded from the substrate with longer exposure time, higher temperature and higher humidity. This resulted in the formation of various morphologies of tin extrusions at different storage conditions, including thread-like, spiral, flute-like, claw-like, sprout-like, chrysanthemum-like and rod-like whiskers, as well as hillocks. Tin whisker was extruded from the crack of the surface Nd(OH){sub 3} layer which serves as the mold of tin whisker growth. And the proposed growth models of tin whisker and hillock on Sn-Nd alloy can explain the diversity of the whisker morphology.

  17. The effects of temperature and humidity on the growth of tin whisker and hillock from Sn5Nd alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Tin whiskers and hillocks grow from Sn5Nd alloy due to oxidation. ► Temperature and humidity can affect the oxidation and the growth diversities. ► Growth models of whiskers and hillocks were proposed upon microstructural study. ► The proposed models can explain the characteristics of whiskers and hillocks. - Abstract: The effects of exposure time, temperature and humidity on the growth of tin whisker and hillock from Sn5Nd alloy were investigated via scanning electron microscopy. It was found that tin whiskers grew from NdSn3 compound, while hillocks grew from the tin matrix around the NdSn3 compound, which was induced by the oxidation of NdSn3 compound by oxygen and water vapor in the ambient. More tin whiskers and/or hillocks were extruded from the substrate with longer exposure time, higher temperature and higher humidity. This resulted in the formation of various morphologies of tin extrusions at different storage conditions, including thread-like, spiral, flute-like, claw-like, sprout-like, chrysanthemum-like and rod-like whiskers, as well as hillocks. Tin whisker was extruded from the crack of the surface Nd(OH)3 layer which serves as the mold of tin whisker growth. And the proposed growth models of tin whisker and hillock on Sn–Nd alloy can explain the diversity of the whisker morphology.

  18. Effect of radiation-degraded chitosan on growth promotion of flower plant in tissue culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luan, Le Quang; Ha, Vo Thi Thu; Hai, Le; Hien, Nguyen Quoc [Vietnam Atomic Energy Commission, Nuclear Research Institute, Dalat (Viet Nam); Nagasawa, Naotsugu; Yoshii, Fumio; Kume, Tamikazu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    2002-03-01

    Radiation is a useful tool for degradation of polysaccharides, such as starch, carrageenan, alginate and chitin/chitosan. The viscosity molecular weight (Mw) of chitosan with 80% degree of deacetylation was reduced to 1.5 x 10{sup 5} by irradiation of 50kGy in solid phase. The solution of 10% of chitosan with Mw ca. 15 x 10{sup 5} was then irradiated at doses ranging 10-250kGy for further degradation and the products were supplemented into cultural media for testing of plant growth promotion effect. The results indicated that irradiated chitosan showed a strong growth-promotion effect on the increase of the length of shoot, the length of root and fresh biomass for flower plants namely Limonium latifolium, Eustoma grandiflorum and Chrysanthemum morifolium in tissue culture. The growth-promotion effect was obtained by the treatments with 50ppm of chitosan irradiated at the doses of 75-100kGy in 10% solution. The suitable concentrations of chitosan irradiated at 100kGy are ca. 100ppm for C. morifolium, 30ppm for E. grandiflorum and 40ppm for L. latifolium. In addition, our study also indicated that the survival ratio of transferred flower plantlets treated with irradiated chitosan was improved after acclimatizing for 30 days in the greenhouse. Accordingly, it is concluded that degraded chitosan obtained by radiation degradation technique is effective as a plant growth promoter as well as irradiated alginate. (author)

  19. The effect of medicinal plants of Islamabad and Murree region of Pakistan on insulin secretion from INS-1 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Zakir; Waheed, Abdul; Qureshi, Rizwana Aleem; Burdi, Dadu Khan; Verspohl, Eugen J; Khan, Naeema; Hasan, Mashooda

    2004-01-01

    In vitro testing of the extracts of medicinal plants collected from Islamabad and the Murree region on insulin secretagogue activity was carried out. Dried ethanol extracts of all plants (ZH1-ZH19) were dissolved in ethanol and DMSO, and tested at various concentrations (between 1 and 40 microg/mL) for insulin release from INS-1 cells in the presence of 5.5 mM glucose. Glibenclamide was used as a control. Promising insulin secretagogue activity in various plant extracts at 1, 10, 20 and 40 microg/mL was found, while in some cases a decrease in insulin secretion was also observed. Artemisia roxburghiana, Salvia coccinia and Monstera deliciosa showed insulin secretagogue activity at 1 microg/mL (p < 0.05) while Abies pindrow, Centaurea iberica and Euphorbia helioscopia were active at 10 microg/mL (p < 0.05). Extracts of Bauhinia variegata and Bergenia himalacia showed effects at 20 microg/mL (p < 0.05), and Taraxacum officinale and Viburnum foetens at 40 microg/mL (p < 0.05). Insulin secretagogue activity could not be detected in the extracts of Adhatoda vasica, Cassia fistula, Chrysanthemum leucanthemum, Morus alba, Plectranthus rugosus, Peganum harmala and Olea ferruginea. The results suggest that medicinal plants of Islamabad and the Murree region of Pakistan may be potential natural resources for antidiabetic compounds. PMID:14750205

  20. Use of Monoclonal Antibodies in an ELISA for Detecting an Invasive Pest Insect, Liriomyza trifolii (Diptera: Agromyzidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, W C; Shang, H W; Guo, W; Xu, D; Huang, T Y; Zhu, L X

    2015-04-01

    A monoclonal antibody was prepared by the hybridoma technology. It reacted only with the protein of Liriomyza trifolii (Burgess) and not with that of Chromatomyia horticola Goureau or Liriomyza sativae Blanchard in indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. It was effective even after being diluted more than 8.192×10(6)-fold. The detection sensitivity of the antibody was 31.3 µg/ml under controlled conditions. Positive reaction was achieved with all laboratory-reared L. trifolii samples, including larvae, pupae, and adults. An indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay system was successfully established to detect L. trifolii in the field. This antibody was successfully used to determine the L. trifolii collected in different locations, from different host plants, and in different seasons. More than 50% of leafminers collected on Brassica chinensis var chinensis, Apium graveolens (Miller) Persoon, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walpers, Phaseolus vulgaris L., Lactuca sativa L., and Chrysanthemum coronarium (L.) Cassini ex Spach were L. trifolii, indicating that those six plant species might be the preference host plants of L. trifolii. Population of L. trifolii peaked in September, October, or November in Hangzhou, Zhejiang. These results suggest a great potential of using this McAb for precisely identifying L. trifolii and monitoring the population dynamics of L. trifolii in the field. PMID:26470159

  1. Effect of different forage species supplemented with two carbohydrate sources on short and medium chain fatty acids in sheep milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Piredda

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Sixty four Sarda dairy sheep fed with diets based on fresh forage were allocated to eight groups to evaluate the effect of corn or beet pulp based supplementation on milk fatty acid composition. Four forage species were compared: annual ryegrass (RY, Lolium rigidum Gaudin, sulla (SU, Hedysarum coronarium L., burr medic (BM, Medicago polymorpha L., and garland, a daisy forb, (CH, Chrysanthemum coronarium L.. The supplements were iso-nitrogenous but differed in carbohydrate composition consisting either of 60% (DM of corn (concentrate C or 40% sugar beet pulp (concentrate BP. The supplementation was iso-energetic (500 and 530 g/d, respectively. Overall during winter period (growing stage of the forages SU and RY groups showed higher levels of atherogenicity index and C16:0. In winter period BP outperformed C for palmitic acid. In spring AI showed a trend similar to that of winter. Moreover C concentrate gave a better level of AI and myristic acid than BP. This study confirms that forage species and, to a lesser extent, carbohydrate source in the supplement markedly affect mediumchain FA profile and hence atherogenicity index in sheep milk.

  2. The Possibilities of Slovakian Pyrethrum Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Štefan Tóth

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses possibilities for pyrethrum Chrysanthemum cinerariaefolium(Trevir. Vis. production in southern regions of Slovakia, with an emphasis on target marketing,management constraints and further research. Pyrethrum is not a traditionalcrop in Slovakia but prospects have opened up for its cultivation. The high yields andquality of some suitable pyrethrum ecotypes provide the grounds for effective field productionunder favorable conditions. Pyrethrum yielding 1.275 t of dried flowers per hectareand having at least 1.5% pyrethrum content can be a profitable and highly lucrativecrop with an economic result ranging from 413 to 1071 € per ha. A SWOT analysisrevealed that pyrethrum production in Slovakia could take a course of an offensivestrategy. However, intensive production of this commodity needs further development.Prospects for this non-traditional crop in Slovakia are also promising in terms of developmentof farming systems in which plant protection products of botanical origin wouldbe welcome. Improved processing and stabilization of extract would further increasethe possibilities.

  3. Gamma irradiation as a quarantine treatment against mite (Tetranychidae) on cut flowers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cut flower, an important export commodity of Malaysia in international trade, is often subjected to infestation by various pests such as mites, scales and thrips. The use of low ionising radiation has been suggested as an alternative to methyl bromide fumigation, the current pest disinfestation treatment for cut flower but which is being phased out due to environmental concerns. The criterion for efficacy of radiation as a quarantine treatment will be the inability of treated mites to reproduce at a new location rather than causing immediate mortality. Irradiating red spider mite Tetranychus piercie at a dose of 300 and 400 Gy produced sterile female adults from irradiated protonymph and deutonymph respectively. A lower dose of 200 Gy induced sterility in female adults developed from the less immature stages of irradiated egg and larva. Deteriorating effects caused by irradiation treatment were reflected in immatures by their reduced emergence rate/mortality in subsequent developmental stages. A dose of 240 Gy prevented reproduction in female adult of T piercie by inducing sterility while a much higher dose of 5 kGy is required to produce instant mortality. Based on the results obtained gamma irradiation of dose range 300-400 Gy may be applied as a quarantine treatment against Tetranychus piercie. However, this dose range is only suitable for chrysanthemum (in 4% sucrose solution) but not roses, carnations and orchids which showed phytotoxic symptoms at dose range of 100-300 Gy

  4. Development and validation of an HPTLC method for apigenin 7-O-glucoside in chamomile flowers and its application for fingerprint discrimination of chamomile-like materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzelmeric, Etil; Vovk, Irena; Yesilada, Erdem

    2015-03-25

    Brewed tea of chamomile flowers (Matricaria recutita L.) (Asteraceae) has been extensively consumed for centuries due to either its pleasant taste or medicinal purposes. On the other hand, the major problem is difficulty in distinguishing the genuine specimen when supplying chamomile through nature-picking. Consequently flowers of other Asteraceae members resembling to chamomile in appearance may frequently be practiced by lay people or marketed in spice shops or bazaars. Evidently detection of such adulterations plays a vital role in terms of public health to avoid risk of toxicity (i.e. pyrazolidin alkaloids) and ineffective treatments (lack or insufficient concentration of the active constituents). This work presents either development and validation of a high performance thin-layer chromatographic (HPTLC) method for apigenin 7-O-glucoside which is one of the active markers in chamomile flowers or its application for the fingerprint discrimination of chamomile-like materials i.e. Anthemis spp., Bellis spp., Chrysanthemum sp. and Tanacetum sp. gathered by local people assuming as chamomile. Separation was performed on the silica gel 60 NH2 F254s HPTLC plates using the developing solvent system of ethyl acetate-formic acid-acetic acid-water (30:1.5:1.5:3, v/v/v/v). The proposed HPTLC method may also be a leading guide for the quality assessment of chamomile tea products on the market. PMID:25575175

  5. Microstructures and transformation characteristics of thin films of TiNiCu shape memory alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程秀兰; 徐东; 蔡炳初; 王莉; 陈鉴; 李刚; 徐实

    2002-01-01

    Both sputtering conditions and crystallizing temperatures have great influence on the microstructures and phase transformation characteristics for Ti51Ni44Cu5.By means of the resistance-temperature measurement,X-ray diffraction and atomic fore microscopic study,the results indicate that the transformation temperatures of the thin films increase and the "rock candy" martensitic relief is more easily obtained with promoting the sputtering Ar pressure,sputtering power,or crystallizing temperature.However,when sputtering Ar pressure,sputtering power,or crystallizing temperature are lower,a kind of "chrysanthemum" relief,which is related with Ti-rich GP zones,is much easier to be observed.The reason is that during crystallization process,both of the inherent compressive stresses introduced under the condition of higher sputtering pressure or higher crystallizing temperature are helpful to the transition from GP zones to Ti2(NiCu) precipitates and the increase of the transformation temperatures.The addition of copper to substitute for 5% nickel in mole fraction can reduce the transformation hysteresis width to about 10~15 ℃.

  6. The discovery and eradication of potato spindle tuber viroid in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rudra P

    2014-12-01

    In 1960s, potato spindle tuber was thought to be a viral disease. In 1971, the agent of the disease was characterised as a low-molecular weight infectious ribonucleic acid (RNA), which was named as 'viroid', specifically Potato spindle tuber viroid (PSTVd)). Since then, more than 30 plant diseases in horticultural and ornamental plants have been shown to be caused by different viroids globally. Viroids are single-stranded RNA, covalently closed circular molecule, without any protein coat. They are the smallest known plant pathogen containing RNA genome ranging from 246 nucleotides (Coconut cadang-cadang viroid) to 399 nucleotides (Chrysanthemum chlorotic mottle viroid). Some viroids are located in the plant cell nucleus (pospiviroids) and others in the chloroplast (avsunviroids). With the recognition of pathogenic nature of viroid, specific detection methodologies were developed, which enabled detection of PSTVd in seed-potato tubers prior to their planting in the field, and thus PSTVd was prevented from spreading the disease. As a result, PSTVd was eradicated from Canada in late 1980s. Viroids similar to PSTVd (Pospiviroid) have been discovered and they are detected in symptomless ornamental plants. Although, PSTVd has been eradicated from Canada, there is a strong possibility of viroid introduction from other plants besides potato and tomato and causing PSTVd like diseases. PMID:25674616

  7. Effect of nitrification inhibitors on yield and essential oil contents of japanese Mint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pyrethrum (Chrysanthemum cinerariefolium) flowers have been observed to have insecticidal properties and could be also used as indigenous nitrification-inhibitors for increasing N-use efficiency. During 1998 and 1999 a study was conducted to evaluate the relative performance of pyrethrum flower waste and Dicyandiamide (DCD) as nitrification inhibitors, applied with prilled urea (PU), to Japanese mint (Mentha arvensis L.). Application of the nitrification inhibitors with prilled urea significantly increased the growth and menthol contents of the crop, compared to that of prilled urea alone. Addition of Dicyandiamide (DCD) and pyrethrum flower waste gave 30 and 23% more herb-yield that prilled urea alone, the corresponding increase in oil-yield being 27 and 22%, respectively. Application of nitrogen enhanced the growth and menthol contents of crop to more than 300 kg N ha/sup -1/ with prilled urea. Both the materials improved the N-use efficiency by one and half time, as compared to PU at 1200 kg N ha/sup -1/. The results indicate that pyrethru nitrification inhibitor. (author)

  8. 托盘包装和无菌包装在冷鲜羊肉贮藏中的对比%Comparison of pallet packaging and aseptic packaging in chilled mutton storage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王永刚; 王长明

    2015-01-01

    The pallet packaging and aseptic packaging were taken to do experiment respectively. The total number of colonies, pH and TVB -N of mutton in the process of storage under 3 ± 1℃were measured to research the effect of natural preservatives combined with pallet packing or aseptic packaging on extending mutton preservation. The results showed that the effect of aseptic packaging was better than the pallet packaging. Combined with the leaf,wild chrysanthemum flowers,and plum extract,mutton could keep second freshness in 15 days.%分别采用托盘包装和无菌包装进行试验,通过测定在3±1℃下贮存过程中菌落总数、pH值及TVB-N,了解天然防腐剂结合托盘包装或无菌包装对延长羊肉保鲜的效果。结果表明:无菌包装的包装效果优于托盘包装,结合大青叶、野菊花、乌梅提取液可使冷鲜羊肉15d内保持在二级鲜度。

  9. Morphological Control of Anisotropic Self-Assemblies from Alternating Poly(p-dioxanone)-poly(ethylene glycol) Multiblock Copolymer Depending on the Combination Effect of Crystallization and Micellization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mei-Jia; Wang, Hao; Chen, Si-Chong; Chen, Cheng; Liu, Ya

    2015-06-30

    A novel and facile method was developed for morphological controlling of self-assemblies prepared by crystallization induced self-assembly of crystalline-coil copolymer depending on the combination effect of crystallization and micellization. The morphological evolution of the self-assemblies of alternating poly(p-dioxanone)-block-poly(ethylene glycol) (PPDO-PEG) multiblock copolymer prepared by different solvent mixing methods in aqueous solution were investigated. "Chrysanthemum"-like and "star anise"-like self-assemblies were obtained at different rates of solvent mixing. The results suggested gradually change in solvent quality (slowly dropping water into DMF solution) leaded to a hierarchical micellization-crystallization process of core-forming PPDO blocks, and flake-like particles were formed at the initial stage of crystallization. Meanwhile, crystallization induced micellization process occurred when solvent quality changed drastically. Shuttle-like particles, which have much smaller size than those of flake-like particles, were formed at the initial stage of crystallization when quickly injecting water into DMF solution of the copolymer. Therefore, owing to the different changing rate of solvent quality, which may result in different combination effect of crystallization and micellization during self-assembly of the copolymer, PPDO-PEG self-assemblies with different hierarchical morphology in nano scale could be obtained. PMID:26061590

  10. AGRO BOTANICAL ILLUSTRATION IN HAND FAN PAINTING AS A RESOURCE OF INFORMATION ON BREEDING AND PLANT INTRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsatsenko L. V.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses agro-botanical illustration of hand fans painting as an independent resource of visual information on the history of culture of introduction, distribution, species diversity and plant breeding. We have reviewed the history of the fan and the causes of widespread of fans and the respective painting plants. The article shows the different trends in the filing of a visual image in the fan art: from accurate, detailed drawing of the image, until smooth, blurred contours, made in the "boneless" or "acyclic" technique. On the example of pumpkins, lagenaria, soybeans, corn, flowers, namely asters and peonies we have shown various aspects of breeding and agronomic work for several centuries. The article uses the method of visual analysis as a tool for collection and analysis of data on breeding and introduction of a number of crops on the example of specific crops, particularly soybeans. The analysis includes a description of morphotypes, area of origin, distribution, physiology, individual characteristics, and insects found in the ecological niche. It is noted that visual analysis can be successfully applied in the study of varietal diversity of a number of flower crops: asters, peonies, chrysanthemums, and some fruits and vegetables

  11. Toxicity of subacute oral administration of cypermethrin in rats with special reference to histopathological changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grewal Gagandeep

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Pyrethrins are obtained from the flowers of Chrysanthemum cinerarifolium. These are strong insecticides with low mammalian toxicity. The toxic effects of pyrethroid cypermethrin were studied using various biochemical parameters along with histopathological changes in a 30-day study in Wistar rats. The rats were divided into two groups. Rats of the test group were given sublethal doses of cypermethrin (14.5 mg/kg by gavage once daily for 30 days and the control rats were given an equal volume of the vehicle. The animals were sacrificed on day 0, 10, 20 and 30 of the study. The results showed that cypermethrin caused a significant increase in the levels of serum aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, lactate dehydrogenase and plasma creatinine. It significantly lowered the levels of total proteins. The histopathological studies on various organs like liver, lungs, kidneys and heart were carried out. The changes in various biochemical parameters correlated well with the histopathological changes in various organs. In conclusion, the results of this study demonstrate that subacute oral administration of cypermethrin, even in low doses such as 1/10 LD 50 for 30 days induces toxic effects on different vital organs.

  12. Uso agrícola de esgoto tratado em lagoas de estabilização:experiências do Pprosab* em Lins – SP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Mendonça Campos

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A Pilot Plant to treat the effluent from SABESP´s Wastewater Treatment Plant (Stabilization Pond System located at Lins was built within a six-hectare area adjacent to the Treatment Plant. The study focused on agricultural applications of the final treated effluent. Additional unit operations for wastewater treatment were constructed – namely hypochlorite disinfection, UV light disinfection and ozonation units. The final effluent from the Pilot Plant was applied in crop irrigation – namely coffee, corn and bean crops and the feeding system was by drop irrigation. Additionally, a fraction of the final treated effluent fed a hydrophonic system installed in vases, in which chrysanthemum and Gypsophila were cultivated. A third feeding line supplied a fish tank in which Oreochromis Niloticus were grown. A number of physical, chemical and biological variables were utilized for quality control of effluent streams at the various treatment stages, to monitor the cultivated crops and the soil, as well as agricultural parameters to identify growth characteristics. For all the cases under study there were conventional mode crops in parallel, acting as controls or references. The results obtained showed that the pond effluent, besides the hydraulic capacity itself, contained nutrients that are adequate for agricultural purposes, with significant savings associated. Additionally, such applications in irrigation avoid the eutrophication of natural water bodies

  13. Evaluation of plant aqueous extracts, added into the soil, on Meloidogyne javanica (Treub, 1885 Chitwood, 1949 / Avaliação de extratos aquosos de várias espécies vegetais, aplicados ao solo, sobre Meloidogyne javanica (Treub, 1885 Chitwood, 1949

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Grassi de Freitas

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The use of plant extracts with nematicidal properties to control plant nematodes can be a useful alternative to small farmers, regarding its low cost and non-toxic effects. The effect of the addition into the soil of aqueous extracts of 20 plant species on Meloidogyne javanica in plants of tomato was studied at greenhouse conditions. These were divided into two groups and evaluated in two separate experiments.The soil in the 2.0 L pots was infested with 5,000 eggs and, in the same day, it was applied 20 mL of aqueous extracts of the 20 plant species (Chrysanthemum parthenium, Arctium lappa, Cymbopogon citratus, Bacharis trimera, Equisetum sp., Melia azedarach, Mentha sp., Ricinus communis, Ocimum basilicum, Momordica charantia, Ruta graveolens, Coleus barbatus, Symphitum officinalis, Polygonum acre, Canavalia ensiformis, Foeniculum vulgare, Petiveria alliacea, Ageratum conyzoides, Mucuna pruriens and Azadirachta indica. Distilled water was used as control. Sixty days later, were evaluated for plant height, the fresh weight of shoot and root and the numbers of galls and eggs per root system. The extracts of Mentha sp., Arctium lappa and Ricinus communis reduced the number of galls of M. javanica in 75.6%; 65.7% and 54.4%; and the number of eggs in 81.7%, 75.9% and 56.6%, respectively.O uso de extratos vegetais com propriedades nematicidas no controle de fitonematóides representa mais uma alternativa para os pequenos produtores, com valor prático e econômico, e sem riscos de contaminação do ambiente. A adição ao solo dos extratos aquosos de 20 espécies de plantas foi avaliada sobre a população de Meloidogyne javanica em plantas de tomateiro, em casa de vegetação. Estas foram divididas em dois grupos e avaliadas em dois experimentos separados. No mesmo dia em que se infestou o solo com 5.000 ovos do nematóide, adicionou-se 20 mL dos extratos aquosos obtidos de folhas de artemísia (Chrysanthemum parthenium, bardana (Arctium lappa

  14. Research of the Yacon Composite Beverage%雪莲果复合饮料的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔欣欣; 张娜; 张菊新

    2015-01-01

    雪莲果是一种风味清爽、低糖、低热量水果。本文通过单因素实验和正交试验,以雪莲果、猕猴桃、菊花、木糖醇为主要原料,研制雪莲果复合饮料。重点研究雪莲果化学护色工艺以及产品配方。结果表明,雪莲果最佳护色工艺:亚硫酸钠0.3%,柠檬酸0.3%,抗坏血酸0.4%,护色时间6min。三种原汁最佳配比为,雪莲果汁∶猕猴桃浆∶菊花汁为6∶3∶4。产品最优配方为:复合原料汁40%,蔗糖和木糖醇(5∶1)总量6%,柠檬酸0.15%,苹果酸0.05%,羧甲基纤维素钠0.10%,瓜儿豆胶0.03%,果胶0.06%。产品具有风味清爽优美,营养丰富,低糖,低热量等特点,为雪莲果农产品的开发利用提供一条新途径。%Yacon is a fresh,delicious,of low sugar and low calorie fruit. In this paper,through single factor test and orthogonal test,a yacon composite beverage was made using yacon,kiwifruit,chrysanthemum and xylosic alcohol. The chemical color protection technology of yacon and product formulation was researched. The optimal technology of yacon color protection is sodium sulfite 0.3%,citric acid 0.3 %,ascorbic acid 0.4 %,the color protection time 6min. The ratio of yacon juice,kiwifruit pulp and chrysanthemum juice is 6∶3∶4. The optimal product formulation is mixed juice 40 %,mixture of sucrose and xylosic alcohol(5∶1)6 %,citric acid 0.15 %,malic acid 0.05%,CMC 0.10%, guar gum 0.03%,pectin 0.06%. This yacon composite beverage is delicious,nourishing,of low sugar and low calorie. It can offer an important practical guidance to explore resource of agricultural commodities like yacon.

  15. Soaking curve and effect of temperature on the germination of daisy seeds Curva de embebição e efeito da temperatura na germinação de sementes de margarida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério G Pêgo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The soaking curve and the effect of temperature on the germination of daisy seeds (Chrysanthemum leucanthemum were characterized in this study. To determine the soaking curve, four samples of 0.5 g of seeds were soaked in germitest paper moistened with distilled water and maintained in germinator at 25ºC. The seeds were weighed in periods of 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, 24, 36, 48, 60, 72, 84 and 96 hours using a precision digital balance of 0.0001 g. A triphasic pattern germination curve was adjusted, allowing the determination of the beginning and duration of the phase II of the germination process. The germination test was carried out with four replications of 50 seeds disposed in "Gerbox" boxes and placed in germinators at the temperatures of 20, 25, 30 or 20-30ºC. A completely randomized experimental design was used with four replications of 50 seeds. The data were submitted to the analysis of variance and the averages were compared by the Tukey test, at 5% of probability. For analysis of accumulated seed germination, regressions were adjusted based on period of experiment. The seeds presented a triphasic pattern of germination and the phases I and II lasted 12 and 48 hours, respectively. The best temperature for the germination of the seeds is 25ºC. The temperature of 30ºC promoted the thermoinhibition of germination and increased the dead and dormant seeds and abnormal seedlings.A curva de embebição e o efeito da temperatura sobre a germinação de sementes de margarida (Chrysanthemum leucanthemum foram caracterizados. Para determinar a curva de embebição, quatro amostras de 0,5 g de sementes foram embebidas em papel germitest umedecido com água destilada e mantidas em germinador a 25ºC. As sementes foram pesadas em períodos de 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, 24, 36, 48, 60, 72, 84 e 96 horas, com auxílio de balança de precisão digital de 0,0001 g. Foi ajustada uma curva trifásica padrão de germinação, permitindo a determinação do início e a dura

  16. 小菊品种‘钟山金桂’与亚菊属细裂亚菊F1回交后代的性状遗传表现%Genetic Presentation of BC1 Between ‘Zhongshanjingui' and ‘Zhongshanjingui' x Ajania przewalskii

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱文莹; 刘新春; 房伟民; 管志勇; 陈素梅; 蒋甲福; 陈发棣

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] Genetic presentation of BC1 between 'Zhongshanjingui' and 'Zhongshanjingui' ×Ajania przewalskii. Was studied in order to obtain new germplasm with higher ornamental and cold tolerance. [Method] Backcross hybridizations were made between Dendranthema morifolium variety 'Zhongshanjingui' (as female) and 'Zhongshanjingui' Xajania przewalskⅡ (as male). The backcross hybrids were obtained and their hybridity was confirmed by a combination of morphological, cytological analysis and resistance comparison. [Result] A total of 17 backcross hybrids were obtained. The hybrids differentiated obviously from their parents in many morphological characters and all hybrid lines bloomed normally. There happened three flower types, I.e. standard anemone type, mid-anemone type and non-anemone type, and most were anemone type. Some hybeids' inflorescence diameter was greater than 'Zhongshanjingui', the flower color was the same as 'Zhongshanjingui'. Compared with the male parent, the ornamental value was greatly improved. The chromosome number of 'Zhongshanjingui' and 'Zhongshanjingui' ×Ajania przewalskⅡ were 54 and 45, respectively. Their backcross hybrids chromosome number was between 41-54. In comparison of cold resistance, almost all the hybrids showed higher tolerance than 'Zhongshanjingui', which illustrated the backcross hybrids preserved the cold tolerance of Ajania przewalskii. [ Conclusion ] By using backcross between intergeneric hybrid F1 and its chrysanthemum parent, not only the intergeneric hybrid's ornamental vatue can be improved, but new germplasm of chrysanthemum also can be created.%[目的]对菊属栽培菊‘钟山金桂’与亚菊属细裂亚菊F1回交后代的性状遗传表现进行研究,获得观赏性和抗性改良的优异属间新种质.[方法]以‘钟山金桂’×细裂亚菊F1为父本,‘钟山金桂’为轮回亲本开展回交试验.对获得的回交后代进行细胞学鉴定,对BC1代的形态性状观测,对经过越冬

  17. New approaches for effective mutation induction in gamma field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the report is to clarify the effects of chronic irradiation using in vitro culture on inducing the mutation of two model plants. Culture technique combined with irradiation can overcome the problem of chimera formation and provided 10 times greater mutation efficiency than conventional method. Proper mutagenic treatment using cultured materials is indispensable to effective mutation induction. The chronic culture method showed the widest color spectrum in chrysanthemum and extended toward not only the negative but positive direction. However, the acute culture methods indicated a relatively low mutation rate and a very limited flower color spectrum. Flower color mutation of the regenerations could be induced more from petals and buds than from leaves. These facts is supposed that the gene loci fully expressed on floral organs may be unstable for mutation by mutagenesis or culture. It may be likely to control a direction of desired mutation. One possible reason why the chronic culture methods showed higher frequencies is that most of the cells composing the tissue and organs continually irradiated into a cell division which was highly sensitive and more mutable to irradiation. Under these conditions, many mutated sectors may accumulate in the cells of the growing organs. Regenerated mutant lines show remarkable decrease of chromosome numbers by irradiation. It is a proper indicator to monitor radiation damage. In this study, the six flower color mutant varieties registered were derived from chronic irradiation. The combined method of chronic irradiation with floral organ cultures proved to be of particularly great practical use in mutation breeding for not only flower species but any other species. (author)

  18. Radiation techniques in crop and plant breeding. Multiplying the benefits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    World food production is based on growing a wide variety of fruits, vegetables, and crops developed through advances in science. Plant breeders have produced multiple varieties that grow well in various types of soils and under diverse climates in different regions of the world. Conventionally, this is done by sexual hybridization. This involves transferring pollen from one parent plant to another to obtain hybrids. The subsequent generations of these hybrids are grown to select plants which combine the desired characters of the parents. However, another method exists by which the genetic make-up of a given plant variety can be changed without crossing with another variety. With this method, a variety retains all its original attributes but is upgraded in one or two changed characteristics. This method is based on radiation-induced genetic changes, and its referred to as ''induced mutations''. During the past thirty years, more than 1800 mutant varieties of plants have been released, many, of which were induced with radiation. Plant tissue and cell culture (also called in vitro culture) in combination with radiation is a powerful technique to induce mutations, particularly for the improvement of vegetatively propagated crops. These crops include cassava, garlic, potato, sweet potato, yams, sugarcane, ornamentals such as chrysanthemum, carnation, roses, tulips, daffodil, and many fruits (e.g. apple, banana, plantain, citrus, date palm, grape, papaya, passion fruit, and kiwi fruit). In some of these plants, either there is no seed set (e.g. banana) or the seed progeny produces plants which do not have the right combination of the desired characteristics. These techniques are also useful in the improvement of forest trees having a long lifespan before they produce fruit and seed. This article briefly reviews advances in plant breeding techniques, with a view towards improving the transfer of technologies to more countries

  19. Lauric acid in crown daisy root exudate potently regulates root-knot nematode chemotaxis and disrupts Mi-flp-18 expression to block infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Linlin; Li, Xiaolin; Huang, Li; Gao, Ying; Zhong, Lina; Zheng, Yuanyuan; Zuo, Yuanmei

    2014-01-01

    Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) crops can be severely damaged due to parasitism by the root-knot nematode (RKN) Meloidogyne incognita, but are protected when intercropped with crown daisy (Chrysanthemum coronarium L.). Root exudate may be the determining factor for this protection. An experiment using pots linked by a tube and Petri dish experiments were undertaken to confirm that tomato-crown daisy intercropping root exudate decreased the number of nematodes and alleviated nematode damage, and to determine crown daisy root exudate-regulated nematode chemotaxis. Following a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry assay, it was found that the intercropping protection was derived from the potent bioactivity of a specific root exudate component of crown daisy, namely lauric acid. The Mi-flp-18 gene, encoding an FMRFamide-like peptide neuromodulator, regulated nematode chemotaxis and infection by RNA interference. Moreover, it was shown that lauric acid acts as both a lethal trap and a repellent for M. incognita by specifically regulating Mi-flp-18 expression in a concentration-dependent manner. Low concentrations of lauric acid (0.5-2.0mM) attract M. incognita and consequently cause death, while high concentrations (4.0mM) repel M. incognita. This study elucidates how lauric acid in crown daisy root exudate regulates nematode chemotaxis and disrupts Mi-flp-18 expression to alleviate nematode damage, and presents a general methodology for studying signalling systems affected by plant root exudates in the rhizosphere. This could lead to the development of economical and feasible strategies for controlling plant-parasitic nematodes, and provide an alternative to the use of pesticides in farming systems. PMID:24170741

  20. Arbitrarily amplified DNA: New molecular approaches to plant breeding, ecology and evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several DNA fingerprinting techniques that use arbitrary primers to characterize, scan and tag genomic DNA were optimized and used to study plants and microbial pathogens. The generated arbitrarily amplified DNA (AAD) profiles could be tailored in their complexity and polymorphic content, allowing analysis of closely related organisms, such as vegetatively-propagated horticultural crops or clonal fungal populations. AAD markers were used in cultivar and strain identification, map-based cloning, and marker-assisted breeding, sometimes as sequence-tagged sites. Phenetic analysis using parsimony, cluster, and numerical methods was applied successfully to the identification of genetic relationships in turfgrass species such as bermudagrass, woody plants such as dogwoods, and floricultural species such as petunia and chrysanthemum. AAD profiles were used to measure for the first time a genome-wide mutation rate, directly in a plant. Mutation rates in vegetatively propagated bermudagrass were comparable to those in human, mice, fruit flies, and worms. In combination with established tools used in molecular systematics (e.g. rDNA sequence analysis), AAD markers tracked the introduction of exotic dogwood anthracnose-causing fungi in North America. As part of a breeding effort to combat dogwood diseases, AAD was used in pseudo-testcross mapping of the tree at the intra-specific level. Markers were efficiently generated despite the close relatedness of parental dogwood material. Finally, DNA markers and tags were also generated in soybean, and were used to construct high density maps and walk towards defined genomic regions in the positional cloning of the supernodulation nts-1 symbiotic gene. (author)

  1. The Cytogenetical Effects of Some Natural and Syntetic Radioprotectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Some bioactive substances extracted from plants or obtained through synthesis, present a stimulatory or/and antimutagen activity (in vivo or in vitro experiments). A total extract from Spinacia oleracea or Brassica rapa HV Komatsuna leaves, were tested for their antimutagen or stimulatory effect at in vitro culture, in Chrysanthemum hortorum and Ipomoea batatas (stem fragments with a node, inoculated on an MS medium supplied with 1.08mg/l KIN and 1.0 mg/l IAA). The shooting process and shoot length is stimulated by Komatsuna 0.6 g/l leaves extract in I. batatas, while at Ch. hortorum the process is lower influenced by the two natural antimutagen extracts. The antimutagen effect of the Spinacia oleracea leaf total extract (600 mg/l) against X-rays (104Gy) was tested at in vitro culture of the Dendrobium phalenopsis somatic embryos. The Spinacia oleracea leaves total extract enhanced the embryogenesis processes, more obviously in the irradiated variants, in comparison with the control. The fatty oil total extract from Nigella sativa seeds (Ranunculaceae) presents a high radioprotective effect against the X-rays. The magnetic fluids present a stimulatory effect as well as an anticarcinogen and antimutagen effect. In the experiments performed in vivo in Nigella damascena, a magnetic fluid on petroleum basis or a complex magnetic fluid on oleic acid basis present in the time of seeds irradiation with X-rays (40 Gy), manifest a radioprotective effect (reduce the chromosomal aberrations and initiate a recovery phenomena). (author)

  2. On The Piano in a Factory%穹若下的普绪客——解读《钢的琴》

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何燕李

    2012-01-01

    Patriarchy build sexual politics to render male as the First Sex and female, the Second Sex. In order to distinguish the Second Sex, sexual politics build chora to accommodate the role, temperament and status of female. In the film The Piano in a Factory, Xiao Ju and Shu Xian encountered this kind of captivity. They acted as wild chrysanthemum, whose temperament was marked as the Second Sex. Although they got some fights as a new generation, they were still women. In chora, they became the ideal objects to support Chen Guilin' s First Sex: They can' t move away or stay away from the chora, since they are just the lucky or unlucky Pcyche.%为渲染男性的第一性,男权制构建了性/别政治,把女性列为第二性;为标记第二性,性,别政治设定了穹若,来囚禁女性的角色、气质和地位.电影《钢的琴》中的小菊和淑娴就遭遇了这种囚禁:角色为异类“野菊”:气质响应了第二性的“感召”;地位渗透着伪势群像。穹若下的她们,既不能越池,也无法规避,而只能携带第二性卑污,沦为幸与不幸的普绪客,去支撑男性的第一性和主体性。

  3. New approaches for effective mutation induction in gamma field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagatomi, Shigeki [National Institute of Agrobiological Resources, Institute of Radiation Breeding, Omiya, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2001-03-01

    The purpose of the report is to clarify the effects of chronic irradiation using in vitro culture on inducing the mutation of two model plants. Culture technique combined with irradiation can overcome the problem of chimera formation and provided 10 times greater mutation efficiency than conventional method. Proper mutagenic treatment using cultured materials is indispensable to effective mutation induction. The chronic culture method showed the widest color spectrum in chrysanthemum and extended toward not only the negative but positive direction. However, the acute culture methods indicated a relatively low mutation rate and a very limited flower color spectrum. Flower color mutation of the regenerations could be induced more from petals and buds than from leaves. These facts is supposed that the gene loci fully expressed on floral organs may be unstable for mutation by mutagenesis or culture. It may be likely to control a direction of desired mutation. One possible reason why the chronic culture methods showed higher frequencies is that most of the cells composing the tissue and organs continually irradiated into a cell division which was highly sensitive and more mutable to irradiation. Under these conditions, many mutated sectors may accumulate in the cells of the growing organs. Regenerated mutant lines show remarkable decrease of chromosome numbers by irradiation. It is a proper indicator to monitor radiation damage. In this study, the six flower color mutant varieties registered were derived from chronic irradiation. The combined method of chronic irradiation with floral organ cultures proved to be of particularly great practical use in mutation breeding for not only flower species but any other species. (author)

  4. Achievements and perspectives in biochemistry concerning anthocyanin modification for blue flower coloration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Nobuhiro; Nakayama, Toru

    2015-01-01

    Genetic engineering of roses and other plants of floricultural importance to give them a truly blue petal color is arguably one of the holy grails of plant biotechnology. Toward this goal, bluish carnations and roses were previously engineered by establishing an exclusive accumulation of delphinidin (Dp)-type anthocyanins in their petals via the heterologous expression of a flavonoid 3',5'-hydroxylase gene. Very recently, purple-blue varieties of chrysanthemums were also genetically engineered via a similar biochemical strategy. Although the floral colors of these transgenic plants still lack a true blue color, the basis for the future molecular breeding of truly blue flowers is via the engineering of anthocyanin pathways. Anthocyanins with multiple aromatic acyl groups (often referred to as polyacylated anthocyanins) in the 3'- or 7-position tend to display a more stable blue color than non-acylated anthocyanins. The 7-polyacylation process during the biosynthesis of purple-blue anthocyanins in delphinium (Delphinium grandiflorum) was found to occur in vacuoles using acyl-glucose as both the glucosyl and acyl donor. Glucosyltransferases and acyltransferases involved in anthocyanin 7-polyacylation in delphinium are vacuolar acyl-glucose-dependent enzymes belonging to the glycoside hydrolase family 1 and serine carboxypeptidae-like protein family, respectively. The 7-polyacylation proceeds through the alternate glucosylation and p-hydroxybenzoylation catalyzed by these enzymes. p-Hydroxybenzoyl-glucose serves as the p-hydroxybenzoyl and glucosyl donor to produce anthocyanins modified with a p-hydroxybenzoyl-glucose concatemer at the 7-position. This novel finding has provided a potential breakthrough for the genetic engineering of truly blue flowers, where polyacylated Dp-type anthocyanins are accumulated exclusively in the petals. PMID:25015943

  5. Energy saving in greenhouses can be obtained by energy balance-controlled screens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, N. E. (Univ. of Aarhus, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, Dept. of Horticulture, Aarslev (Denmark)), e-mail: niels.andersson@agrsci.dk

    2011-03-15

    The energy screens in two greenhouses, one clad with double acrylic and one with single glass, were controlled by an energy balance model. The parameters in the model were heat transmission coefficients, air temperature in the greenhouse and outdoors, irradiance and a single constant for the solar energy efficiency. The energy consumption, screen movements and daily light integral were compared with a glass greenhouse in which the energy screens were controlled by irradiance. In the greenhouse with light-controlled screens the set point for opening and closing of the screens was 5 Wm-2. The energy-saving screens controlled by the energy balance model opened later and closed earlier than in the greenhouse with light-controlled screens. When using the energy balance model the energy saving was 14% for the glass greenhouse and 41% for the double acrylic greenhouse compared with the glass greenhouse with light-controlled screens. The air temperature was on average similar in the three greenhouses, but when the screens were controlled by energy balance the daily light integral was approximately 10% lower and the number of hours the screens were closed was prolonged with 35% for the glass-covered greenhouse and 25% for the double acrylic-covered greenhouse compared with the greenhouse with light-controlled screens. Energy peaks in connection with operation of the screens were not reduced. During the experiment Begonia elatior, Dendranthema grandiflora (Chrysanthemum), Hedera helix, Helianthus annuus, Gerbera jamesonii and Kalanchoe blossfeldiana were grown in the greenhouses. There was a trend in prolongation of the production time when the plants were grown in the glass greenhouse with energy balance control of the screens. A lower number of flowers or inflorescences were observed for some of the plant species produced in the greenhouses with energy balance-controlled screens

  6. Prospect of indegenous plant extracts in tea pest management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.S.A. Mamun

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Tea is a popular beverage made from the leaves of evergreen shrub or tree Camellia sinensis, under the family Theaceae. Tea plant is subjected to the attack of insects, mites, nematodes and some plant pathogenic diseases. Tea production is greatly hindered due to thesemaladies. About 10-15% crop loss occurred by these pests per annum. In severe cases, it would be 100%. To combat these problems different groups of pesticides have been used in the tea fields since 1960. As tea is a consumable commodity, the effect of residue of pesticides in made tea is harmful to human health. In this context, biopesticides are being considered as environmentally safe, selective, biodegradable, economical and renewable alternatives for use in IPM programmes. Biopesticides are natural plant products and may be grown by the planters with minimum cost and extracted by indigenous methods.Biopesticides are secondary metabolites, which include alkaloids, terpenoids, phenolics, and minor secondary chemicals. It is estimated that as many as 2121 plant species have been reported to posses’ pest control properties. Botanicals like neem, ghora-neem, mahogoni,karanja, adathoda, sweet flag, tobacco, derris, annona, smart weed, bar weed, datura, calotropis, bidens, lantana, chrysanthemum, artemisia, marigold, clerodendrum, wild sunflower and many others may be grown by planters with minimum expense and extracted by indigenous methods. These botanical materials can be used as an alternative to chemical pesticides. These botanical extracts will help in controlling major pests of tea such as Helopeltis, red spider mite, aphids, thrips, jassid, flushworm, termites, nematodes etc. Thepresent note reviews the information of most widely available indigenous plants that may be used for the control of insect pests of tea as a component of IPM.

  7. 罗非鱼片脱腥技术比较研究%Comparative study on deodorization of tilapia meat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑元平; 廖飞宝

    2011-01-01

    It is hard for most customers to accept the unique unpleasant smell of fish. Deodorizations of tilapia meat by yeast,black tea, green tea, chrysanthemum tea, basil, white wine, vinegar, as well as activated carbon were investigated, and the optimum conditions of each method were determined by sensory evaluation as a criterion. The results showed that the fish smell can be removed to varying degrees by a variety of methods, and it generally got lighter with the longer time and the increase of processing aids in concentration. The optimum deodorizing condition was that using 1% white wine plus 3% basil and 1% vinegar to deal with the tilapia meat for 2h, which can completely remove the smell,and the fish tasted good,with special fragrant smell.%鱼类所特有的腥臭味让许多消费者难以接受,本文利用酵母、红茶、绿茶、菊花茶、紫苏、白酒、醋以及活性炭八种物质对罗非鱼片进行脱腥处理,以感官评定为标准,确定了各种脱腥方法的最佳工艺条件.,结果表明,各种脱腥方法都能在不同程度上去除鱼腥味,且一般随着时间的延长和浓度的增加而使腥味变淡,其中使用1%白酒加3%紫苏和l%白醋2h即可完全去除腥味,且口感好,有特殊香味,脱腥效果最好.

  8. Development of irradiation as a quarantine treatment of mites on cut foliage and ornamentals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cut flowers are an important export commodity of Malaysia in international trade, and are often subjected to infestation by various pests such as mites, scales, and thrips. The use of low ionizing radiation has been suggested as an alternative to methyl bromide fumigation, the current pest disinfestation treatment for cut flowers but which is being phased out due to environmental concerns. The criterion for efficacy of radiation as a quarantine treatment will be the inability of treated mites to reproduce at a new location rather than causing immediate mortality. Irradiating the red spider mite, Tetranychus piercie at a dose of 300 and 400 Gy produced sterile female adults from irradiated protonymphs and deutonymphs, respectively. A lower dose of 200 Gy induced sterility in female adults that developed from irradiated eggs and larvae. Deteriorating effects caused by irradiation treatment were reflected in immatures by their reduced emergence rate/mortality in subsequent developmental stages. A dose of 280 Gy prevented reproduction in female adults of Tetranychus piercie by inducing sterility, whereas a much higher dose of 5 kGy is required to produce acute mortality. A dose of 350 Gy was required to sterilize T. piercie deutonymphs. Based on the results obtained, gamma irradiation with dose in the range of 300-400 Gy may be applied as a quarantine treatment for Tetranychus piercie. Quality tests suggest this dose range is suitable for chrysanthemums (in 4% sucrose solution) but not roses, carnations, and orchids, which showed phytotoxic symptoms within the dose range of 100-400 Gy. (author)

  9. Use of radiation for plant breeding in Japan: results and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1966, as the first breeds by radiation mutation in Japan, 'Reimei', a rice variety with increased lodging resistance by short culm mutation and Raiden', an early variety by mutation of soybean obtained by extreme late variety with nematoda resistance were bred and registered in the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry. Since these characteristics of 'short culm' and early maturing' have a comparatively high mutation rate and ease of selection, among seed propagation crops many kinds of those varieties improved to have either of these characteristics or both of them at the same time by mutation breeding are bred. In Japan, varieties bred by use of mutation breeding count 107 (as of April 1998). Among crops, that with the most varieties is chrysanthemum, which has 20 varieties and the next is rice with 15 varieties. The other 38 varieties of crops such as grains, beans, industrial crops, vegetables, flowering plants, flowering trees and fruit trees, mutation breeding varieties are widely bred. Among mutagens used, gamma ray holds 80%. The recent development in the research of DNA recombination is amazing and plant bodies which have introduced useful genes which other plants have are being obtained. Radiation mutation breeding, however, has the advantages of breeding new varieties by improving only one or two characteristics of excellent races. Radiation mutation breeding and DNA recombination technologies, therefore, may need to be utilized separately according to respective purposes. In the future, for radiation mutation breeding, mutants with quality characteristics which others do not have, corresponding to the diverse demand on agricultural products must come to be required. On the other hand, by the crops like banana for which ordinary breeding is almost impossible, the expectation for radiation mutation breeding will be more and more heightened. In addition, the accumulation of studies on controlling the direction of mutation which has been regarded

  10. Subpicosecond surface dynamics in genomic DNA from in vitro-grown plant species: a SERS assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muntean, Cristina M; Bratu, Ioan; Leopold, Nicolae; Morari, Cristian; Buimaga-Iarinca, Luiza; Purcaru, Monica A P

    2015-09-01

    In this work the surface-enhanced Raman total half band widths of seven genomic DNAs from leaves of chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflora Ramat.), common sundew (Drosera rotundifolia L.), edelweiss (Leontopodium alpinum Cass), Epilobium hirsutum L., Hypericum richeri ssp. transsilvanicum (Čelak) Ciocârlan, rose (Rosa x hybrida L.) and redwood (Sequoia sempervirens D. Don. Endl.) have been measured. We have shown that surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) can be used to study the fast subpicosecond dynamics of DNA in the proximity of a metallic surface. The dependencies of the total half band widths and the global relaxation times, on the DNA molecular subgroup structure and on the type of genomic DNA, are reported. In our study, the full widths at half-maximum (FWHMs) for the SERS bands of genomic DNAs from different leaf tissues are typically in the wavenumber range from 15 to 55 cm(-1). Besides, it can be observed that molecular relaxation processes studied in this work have a global relaxation time smaller than 0.71 ps and larger than 0.19 ps. A comparison between different ranges of FT-Raman and SERS band parameters, respectively, corresponding to DNA extracted from leaf tissues is given. It is shown that the interaction between DNA and a metallic surface has the potential to lead to a shortening of the global relaxation times, as compared with molecular dynamics in solution. We have found that the surface dynamics of molecular subgroups in plant DNA is, in some cases, about two times faster than the solution dynamics of nucleic acids. This can be rationalized in a qualitative manner by invoking the complex landscape of the interaction energy between the molecule and the silver surface. PMID:25687823

  11. Xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity of the methanolic extracts of selected Jordanian medicinal plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad M Hudaib

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The search for novel xanthine oxidase (XO inhibitors with a higher therapeutic activity and fewer side effects are desired not only to treat gout but also to combat various other diseases associated with the XO activity. At present, the potential of developing successful natural products for the management of XO-related diseases is still largely unexplored. In the present study, we have screened the methanolic extracts of various Jordanian medicinal plants for their XO inhibitory activities using an optimized protocol. Materials and Methods: The methanolic extracts of 23 medicinal plants, belonging to 12 families, were tested in vitro, at 200 μg/ml concentrations, for their XO inhibitory potential. The dose-dependent inhibition profiles of the most active plants were further evaluated by estimating the IC 50 values of their corresponding extracts. Results: Six plants were found most active (% inhibition more than 39%. These plants are Salvia spinosa L. (IC 50 = 53.7 μg/ml, Anthemis palestina Boiss. (168.0 μg/ml, Chrysanthemum coronarium L. (199.5 μg/ml, Achillea biebersteinii Afansiev (360.0 μg/ml, Rosmarinus officinalis L. (650.0 μg/ml, and Ginkgo biloba L. (595.8 μg/ml. Moreover, four more plants, namely Lavandula angustifolia Mill. (28.7% inhibition, Helianthemum ledifolium (L. Mill. (28.4%, Majorana syriaca (L. Kostel. (25.1%, and Mentha spicata L. (22.5% showed a XO inhibitory activity in the range of 22-30%. Conclusion: The study showed that many of the tested plant species are potential sources of natural XO inhibitors that can be developed, upon further investigation, into successful herbal drugs for treatment of gout and other XO-related disorders.

  12. Parental use of the term "Hot Qi" to describe symptoms in their children in Hong Kong: a cross sectional survey "Hot Qi" in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan Danny

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Chinese term "Hot Qi" is often used by parents to describe symptoms in their children. The current study was carried out to estimate the prevalence of using the Chinese term "Hot Qi" to describe symptoms in children by their parents and the symptomatology of "Hot Qi". Method A cross sectional survey by face-to-face interview with a semi-structured questionnaire was carried out in a public hospital and a private clinic in Hong Kong. The parental use of the term "Hot Qi", the symptoms of "Hot Qi" and the remedies used for "Hot Qi" were asked. Results 1060 pairs of children and parents were interviewed. 903 (85.1% of parents claimed that they had employed the term "Hot Qi" to describe their children's symptoms. Age of children and place of birth of parents were the predictors of parents using the term "Hot Qi". Eye discharge (37.2%, sore throat (33.9%, halitosis(32.8%, constipation(31.0%, and irritable (21.2% were the top five symptoms of "Hot Qi" in children. The top five remedies for "Hot Qi" were the increased consumption of water (86.8%, fruit (72.5%, soup (70.5%, and the use of herbal beverages "five-flower- tea" (a combination of several flowers such as Chrysanthemum morifolii, Lonicera japonica, Bombax malabaricum, Sophora japonica, and Plumeria rubra (57.6% or selfheal fruit spike (Prunella vulgaris (42.4%. Conclusion "Hot Qi" is often used by Chinese parents to describe symptoms in their children in Hong Kong. Place of birth of parents and age of the children are main factors for parents to apply the term "Hot Qi" to describe symptoms of their children. The common symptoms of "Hot Qi" suggest infections or allergy.

  13. Use of gamma radiation in floriculture industry for development of new varieties through induced mutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear radiation (gamma rays) can create changes in genetic make up of plant material through mutation. Gamma ray induced mutation is now an established method for crop improvement. It is well known that the crops which are propagated vegetatively are very suitable for the application of mutation breeding methods. In floriculture industry there is always demand and necessity of new and novel ornamental varieties. Flower colour and shape are the most important components of novelties. Gamma rays have been most successfully use to produce quite a large number of new promising,varieties in different ornamental (Bougainvillea - 4, Perennial portulaca-6, Chrysanthemum-43, Hibiscus-1, Rose-16, Tuberose-2, Lantana depressa-3 etc.) plants by bringing about genetic changes at Floriculture Section, National Botanical Research. Institute, Lucknow, India. Research carried out covers radiosensitivity, selection of materials, methods of exposure to gamma rays, suitable dose of gamma rays, detection of mutants, isolation of mutants and commercial exploitation of mutants. A good number of mutant varieties have been well accepted in the floriculture industry. The mutant varieties are with new flower colour and shape. More than three decades of applied mutation breeding work has now established beyond doubt that mutation breeding will constitute an excellent supplement to the conventional methods for development of new varieties . Detection of somatic, mutations in flower colour/shape in different vegetative generations (M1V1, M1V2, M1V3 and even in later vegetative generations), mutation frequency and spectrum relationship with dose of gamma radiation have been precisely determined. Studies have clearly proved that mutation breeding technique can be exploited for the creation of new and novel ornamental cultivars of commercial importance by inducing genetic variation in already adapted, modern genotypes and can also enrich the germplasm of ornamental horticulture. (Author)

  14. Larvicidal activity of selected plant hydrodistillate extracts against the house mosquito, Culex pipiens, a West Nile virus vector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetin, Huseyin; Yanikoglu, Atila; Cilek, James E

    2011-04-01

    The larvicidal activity of hydrodistillate extracts from Chrysanthemum coronarium L., Hypericum scabrum L., Pistacia terebinthus L. subsp. palaestina (Boiss.) Engler, and Vitex agnus castus L. was investigated against the West Nile vector, Culex pipiens L. (Diptera: Culicidae). Yield and identification of the major essential oils from each distillation was determined by GC-MS analyses. The major essential oil component for each plant species was as follows: α-pinene for P. terebinthus palaestina, and H. scabrum (45.3% and 42.3%, respectively), trans-β-caryophyllene for V. agnus castus (22.1%), and borneol for C. coronarium (20.9%). A series of distillate concentrations from these plants (that ranged from 1 ppm to 500 ppm, depending on plant species) were assessed against late third to early fourth C. pipiens larvae at 1, 6, and 24 h posttreatment. In general, larval mortality to water treated with a distillate increased as concentration and exposure time increased. H. scabrum and P. terebinthus palaestina were most effective against the mosquito larvae and both produced 100% mortality at 250 ppm at 24-h continuous exposure compared with the other plant species. Larval toxicity of the distillates at 24 h (LC(50) from most toxic to less toxic) was as follows: P. terebinthus palaestina (59.2 ppm) > H. scabrum (82.2 ppm) > V. agnus castus (83.3 ppm) > C. coronarium (311.2 ppm). But when LC(90) values were compared, relative toxicity ranking changed as follows: H. scabrum (185.9 ppm) > V. agnus castus (220.7 ppm) > P. terebinthus palaestina (260.7 ppm) > C. coronarium (496.3 ppm). Extracts of native Turkish plants continue to provide a wealth of potential sources for biologically active agents that may be applied against arthropod pests of man and animals. PMID:21053014

  15. Ecological studies of plants for the control of environmental pollution. IV. Growth of various plant species as influenced by soil applied cadmium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, J.W.; Kim, B.W.

    1975-03-01

    The relations of the growth response of plants, i.e. 4 species of crops, 12 species of roadside trees and 5 species of horticultural plants to cadmium (Cd) were studied in pot cultures. Growth in dry weight of corn, soybeans, barley, and wheat plants was decreased with an increase in Cd concentration. Damage to corn plants caused by Cd treatment was more or less recovered when it was grown in soil with calcium, but the other three crops did not recover. Although crop plants used here absorbed a small amount of Cd through the roots, the Cd content in the shoots was directly proportionate to the concentration of Cd added to the soil. Additions of calcium and sulfur to soil were sufficient to change the soil pH. The chlorosis on leaves caused by Cd treatment was observed in 2 species such as Euonymus japonica and Rhododendron yedoense out of 5 species of the horticultural plants, especially at 50 ppm of Cd. Euonymus japonica had symptoms of chlorosis and defoliation, and at higher concentrations the symptoms were more severe. At 200 ppm of Cd little damage was observed in Pinus koraiensis and Ginkgo biloba, but severe chlorosis was observed in Robinia pseudoacacia and Sabina chinensis, Buxus koreana, Abies holophylla and Platanus orientalis. Nevertheless, those plants that had serious damage at 200 ppm of Cd showed weakened symptoms by adding calcium to the soil. There were many Cd tolerant species out of the plants used in this experiment, such as Crassula falcata, Chrysanthemum morifolium, Hibiscus syriacus, Ligustrum ovalifolium, Liriodendron tulipeferia, and Lespedeza crytobotrys.

  16. Prospects of induced mutations and biotechnology in vegetatively propagated crop improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear applications in food and agriculture have contributed greatly in enhancing agriculture production of seed and vegetatively propagated crops. As the human population grows continuously and climate changes furthermore, plant breeders are under pressure to adopt new technologies in genetic improvement of vegetative propagated crops for sustainable production. Plant tissue culture has a great potential in plant improvement, provided plants can be readily regenerated in large numbers. It provides the options to reduce costs in generating the useful traits and pre-breeding materials for plant breeders, as well as shortening the screening program. In vitro culture techniques together with nuclear technology is effective in generating genetic variability, selection of useful mutants and their multiplication in large numbers, especially in vegetative propagated crops. Shoot tips can be irradiated with an optimal radiation dose, induce direct shoot formation, and shoot multiplication. Excise individual shoots and put them for rooting and rooted plantlets are hardened in the greenhouse for further evaluations. Radiation treatment of somatic embryogenic cell suspension cultures is suitable for mutation induction, mutant selection, and plant regeneration. For example, bayoud disease resistant date palm mutant plants have been regenerated, which are already in the field. In banana, black sigatoka disease resistant mutant lines are in field trials for the final confirmation of the selected mutants before releasing to the farmers. A wide range of mutants of several ornamental plants including chrysanthemum, roses, orchids, gerbera, and curcuma have been isolated by physical mutagen treatment. Some of the selected traits of the mutant ornamental plants are flower colour, flower morphology, plant architecture, compact growth, flower type, and variegated leaves; many flower mutant varieties have been released to growers. (author)

  17. Preference of a polyphagous mirid bug, Apolygus lucorum (Meyer-Dur for flowering host plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongsheng Pan

    Full Text Available Apolygus lucorum (Meyer-Dür (Hemiptera: Miridae is one of the most important herbivores in a broad range of cultivated plants, including cotton, cereals, vegetables, and fruit crops in China. In this manuscript, we report on a 6-year long study in which (adult A. lucorum abundance was recorded on 174 plant species from 39 families from early July to mid-September. Through the study period per year, the proportion of flowering plants exploited by adult A. lucorum was significantly greater than that of non-flowering plants. For a given plant species, A. lucorum adults reached peak abundance at the flowering stage, when the plant had the greatest attraction to the adults. More specifically, mean adult abundance on 26 species of major host plants and their relative standard attraction were 10.3-28.9 times and 9.3-19.5 times higher at flowering stage than during non-flowering periods, respectively. Among all the tested species, A. lucorum adults switched food plants according to the succession of flowering plant species. In early July, A. lucorum adults preferred some plant species in bloom, such as Vigna radiata, Gossypium hirsutum, Helianthus annuus and Chrysanthemum coronarium; since late July, adults dispersed into other flowering hosts (e.g. Ricinus communis, Impatiens balsamina, Humulus scandens, Ocimum basilicum, Agastache rugosus and Coriandrum sativum; in early September, they largely migrated to flowering Artemisia spp. (e.g. A. argyi, A. lavandulaefolia, A. annua and A. scoparia. Our findings underscore the important role of flowering plays in the population dynamics and inter-plant migration of this mirid bug. Also, our work helps understand evolutionary aspects of host plant use in polyphagous insects such as A. lucorum, and provides baseline information for the development of sustainable management strategies of this key agricultural pest.

  18. Determination of spinetoram in leafy vegetable crops using liquid chromatography and confirmation via tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xue; Abd El-Aty, A M; Park, Ji-Yeon; Park, Jong-Hyouk; Cho, Soon-Kil; Shin, Ho-Chul; Shim, Jae-Han

    2011-10-01

    Spinetoram is a second-generation member of the spinosyn class, all members of which have been shown to be effective in insect control via a novel mode of action. Spinetoram is a mixture of 3'-O-ethyl-5, 6-dihydro spinosyn J (XDE-175-J) and 3'-O-ethyl spinosyn L (XDE-175-L). In order to establish a determination method for the analysis of spinetoram residues in crops, commercial product (5% suspension concentrate spinetoram) was applied to two leafy vegetables (Garland chrysanthemum and Aster scaber) on different spraying schedules. The analytical method used herein was based on a reversed-phase separation on a C(18) column, isocratic elution and UV detection. The analytes were confirmed via tandem mass spectrometry. The method was linear over a concentration range of 0.05-10 ppm with a correlation coefficient in excess of 0.9998. The recoveries of XDE-175-J and XDE-175-L from the two vegetables ranged between 86.04 and 98.87% at spiking levels of 1 and 5 ppm. The relative standard deviations were no more than 7% for all recovery tests conducted herein. The calculated limits of detection and quantification were 0.01 and 0.03 ppm for both XDE-175-J and XDE-175-L. The levels of residues in two vegetables treated under a fixed schedule in the greenhouse were 6.21-0.55 ppm (maximum residue limit (MRL) = 7 ppm). In sum, this method constitutes an easy and reliable technique for the determination of spinetoram in leafy vegetables. PMID:21287582

  19. Effect of Cr on Microstructure and Properties of a Series of AlTiCr x FeCoNiCu High-Entropy Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Anmin; Ma, Ding; Zheng, Qifeng

    2014-04-01

    A series of AlTiCr x FeCoNiCu ( x: molar ratio, x = 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5) high-entropy alloys (HEAs) were prepared by vacuum arc furnace. These alloys consist of α-phase, β-phase, and γ-phase. These phases are solid solutions. The structure of α-phase and γ-phase is face-centered cubic structure and that of β-phase is body-centered cubic (BCC) structure. There are four typical cast organizations in these alloys such as petal organization (α-phase), chrysanthemum organization (α-phase + β-phase), dendrite (β-phase), and inter-dendrite (γ-phase). The solidification mode of these alloys is affected by Chromium. If γ-phase is not considered, AlTiCr0.5FeCoNiCu and AlTiCrFeCoNiCu belong to hypoeutectic alloys; AlTiCr1.5FeCoNiCu, AlTiCr2.0FeCoNiCu, and AlTiCr2.5FeCoNiCu belong to hypereutectic alloys. The cast organizations of these alloys consist of pro-eutectic phase and eutectic structure (α + β). Compact eutectic structure and a certain amount of fine β-phase with uniform distribution are useful to improve the microhardness of the HEAs. More γ-phase and the microstructure with similar volume ratio values of α-phase and β-phase improve the compressive strength and toughness of these alloys. The compressive fracture of the series of AlTiCr x FeCoNiCu HEAs shows brittle characteristics, suggesting that these HEAs are brittle materials.

  20. [Comparative study on eight trace elements in twelve flower medicines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Ying-Feng; Han, Chun-Mei; Shao, Yun; Tao, Yan-Duo

    2009-07-01

    Eight trace elements such as Ca, Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn, K, Mg and Na in twelve kinds of flower medicines were determined by flame-atomic absorption spectrometry with air-acetylene flame. The flower medicines include Pueraria lobata Ohwi., Gomphrena globosa L., Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat., Prunus persica (L.) Batsch., Canna indica L., Pyrus bretschneideri Rehd P. spp, Rosa chinensis Jacq., Celosia cristata L., Sophora japonica L., Saussurea medusa Maxim. , Iris lactea var. chinensis (Fisch.) koidz. and Gentiana straminea Maxim.. All of the flowers were commonly used in Tibetan medicines. Three kinds of the flowers were bought in the market and the others were picked in Qinghai province. These flower medicines were selected, dried and powdered, 4.000 g was weighed accurately with analytical balance, and five portions were used for each kind of sample. The content of eight trace elements in these flower medicines was determined and the difference in the content was observed. The recovery rate obtained by the standard addition method was between 96.76% and 102.93%, and the RSD was between 1.13% and 3.46%, so the accuracy of the method was better and the precision of the method was good. The results of the experiment indicated that the contents of the eight trace elements were rich in the twelve kinds of flower medicines, and the content of three trace elements including K, Mg, Na were more than other trace elements in the twelve flower medicines. There were considerable differences in the content of the eight trace elements in different flower medicines and there were more trace elements in Saussure medusa Maxim., Iris lactea var. chinensis (Fisch.) koidz. Canna indica L. and Celosia cristata L. and less trace elements in Sophora japonica L. and Gentiana straminea Maxim.. The data of the experiment could provide an accurate and credible evidence for the reasonable medicinal use and deeper exploitation of these flower medicines. PMID:19798991

  1. 试析日本的耻文化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张婷婷

    2016-01-01

    本文围绕稻作文化及共同体制度影响下顺势而生的"耻文化"展开了论述.本尼迪克特女士在《菊与刀》中写到:"日本人将羞耻心作为原动力".也就是说,"耻文化"一直以来都在支配着日本人的行动.本文分析了日本"耻文化"的形成原因,列举出耻文化于日本家庭教育和学校教育中的具体表现. 为进一步透视日本文化思想内核,认清日本社会发展走向提供参考.%This paper talks about the Japanese shame culture which was formed under the influence of Japan's rice planting culture and Kyodo system. Mrs. Ruth Benedict says in her The Chrysanthemum and the Sword that "Japanese regard shame as their motivation". From this we see Japanese people attach great importance to shame. It is the sense of shame that controls their behaviors, and even life. This paper analyses the reasons for the formation of Japanese shame culture and its specific representations in many aspects. The author reports the proportions of various factors in Japanese consciousness by making a table based on research. Moreover, the author compares culture differences before and after the war and points out the changing tendencies of sense of shame in Japanese younger generations.

  2. Detecção e monitoramento da resistência do tripes Frankliniella occidentalis ao inseticida espinosade Detection and monitoring of resistance to the insecticide spinosad in the thrips Frankliniella occidentalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Soller Rais

    2013-01-01

    pests in greenhouses, especially on ornamental plants and vegetables. Among the problems faced by farmers are the difficulties in the control of this pest with the use of insecticides because of its preference for the inner parts of the flowers and the evolution of resistance to agrochemicals. The objective of this research was to characterize the spinosad resistance in F. occidentalis and to assess the frequency of resistant insects in commercial chrysanthemum fields from several counties in the state of São Paulo (SP. Selections for resistance to spinosad were performed under laboratory conditions, using a population of F. occidentalis collected in 2007 in a commercial chrysanthemum field in Campinas (SP. In the course of seven selections for resistance, the LC50 of spinosad increased from 8.41 mg a.i. L-1 to 1,111 mg a.i. L-1. Comparing the resistant (R and the susceptible (S strains, the resistance ratio (LC50 R / LC50 S reached values up to 280-folds. A discriminating concentration of 98 mg a.i. L-1 was established for monitoring the spinosad resistance in F. occidentalis. The survey was conducted by collecting 19 populations of thrips in commercial chrysanthemum fields in the state of São Paulo. The bioassays were conducted with second ínstar nymphs of F. occidentalis, placed in bean leaf disc arenas. The spinosad was sprayed at the discriminating concentration on the nymphs of thrips, using a Potter spray tower. The results indicated high variability in the susceptibility to spinosad among F. occidentalis populations. Populations with up to 40.7% of resistant insects were found. This is the first report on spinosad resistance in F. occidentalis in Brazil.

  3. Crop based climate regimes for energy saving in greenhouse cultivation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koerner, O.

    2003-06-16

    new approach to control relative humidity on the underlying processes (crop growth and development, plant water stress, calcium deficiencies and the major fungal diseases) by controlling relative humidity through maximum leaf wetness duration, minimum transpiration and transpiration integral was designed for cut chrysanthemum. This idea is based on earlier formulations to use set points for transpiration. In the current approach, general rules were formulated. From that, a control regime was designed. Simulations showed that with this humidity regime, yearly energy consumption could be reduced by 18 % (compared to a fixed setpoint of 80 % relative humidity). When the two climate control principles, modified temperature integration and process based humidity control, were merged, annual energy consumption was predicted to decrease by more than 33 % and cut chrysanthemum plant dry weight increased with 39 % in experiments compared to a normal climate regime. Cut chrysanthemum was used as a central crop. Here, short compact stems is one of the main quality aspects. This is commonly controlled with chemical growth retardants. An alternative is to control temperature according to the DIF concept (difference between average day and average night temperature). A negative DIF value decreases stem elongation. Therefore, temperature integration without DIF restriction was extensively compared to temperature integration with DIF restriction. Energy consumption with different settings was quantified. It was shown that an optimisation problem existed in spring and summer. For that purpose, a joined temperature integration and DIF regime over several days was designed and tested. The use of an average DIF over several days rather than a DIF within 24-hours was proposed. In times and climate regions when cold and warm days interchange, this approach can increase energy saving and decrease final plant stem length simultaneously. This however, was a compromise. An optimisation problem

  4. Mutant breeding of ornamental trees for creating variations with high value using Proton Beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, H. J.; Lim, J. H.; Woo, S. M.; Hwang, M. J.; Pyo, S. H.; Woo, J. S. [Phygen Co., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-04-15

    It is necessary to induce the improved strains of ornamental plants with more disease-resistant and useful for landscape or phytoremediation. Mutation breeding has played an important role in crop improvement, and more than 2,000 mutant cultivars have been released. For the induction of mutation, gamma rays and X-rays are widely used as a mutagen. Proton beam had higher energy than -ray and worked with localized strength, so that proton-beam radiation could be valuable tool to induce useful strains of ornamental plants. Proton ion beam irradiation was used to induce a useful mutant in rice, chrysanthemum, carnation, and so on in Japan. Also, proton ion beam was used to select a useful host strain, in polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB), a member of biodegradable plastic, could be overproduced in Korea. Therefore, we surmise that the effects of proton beam is different from those of gamma rays and X-rays, and we expect proton beam to be a new mutagen. This research was conducted to investigate the proton-beam radiation sensitivity and seed germination rate of the various ornamental plants like as Albizia julibrissin, Ficus religiosa, Rhus chinensis, Sorbaria sorbilfolia and Spiraea chinensis, to survey the quantitative characteristics of proton beam induced strains. To induce the variants of ornamental plants, seeds were irradiated at the dose of 0{approx}2kGy of proton beam at room temperature. Proton beam energy level was 45 MeV and was irradiated at dose of 0{approx}2kGy by MC-50 Cyclotron. After irradiation, to assess the effects of proton beam on radiation sensitivity and morphological changes of the plants and the seed germination rate were analysed. By the proton beam radiation, the germination rate decreased at the higher dose. The other hand, the germination rate of Rhus chinensis increased the dose higher, so that it need to investigate the germination rate over 2kGy radiation. The effects of mutation induction by proton beam irradiation on seeds in Lagerstroemia

  5. Sazonalidade do mercado de flores e plantas ornamentais no Estado de São Paulo: o caso da CEAGESP-SP Seasonality of the flowers and ornamental plants market in São Paulo state: the case of CEAGESP-SP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Wanderley da Costa Marques

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo teve como objetivo principal avaliar o comportamento sazonal dos volumes e preços praticados na floricultura, através do uso de periodogramas e metodologia de Box e Jenkins (1976. Para tal, viu-se a necessidade de seleção dos produtos e entreposto a serem trabalhados. Os produtos escolhidos foram: rosa, crisântemo e violeta. Quanto ao entreposto, dados referentes à década de 90 foram levantados na CEAGESP-SP (Companhia de Entrepostos e Armazéns Gerais de São Paulo. Os resultados deste trabalho apontaram períodos de pico para a movimentação e para os preços praticados dos produtos escolhidos naquele entreposto. Informações a respeito do período sazonal são de extrema importância para o sistema de comercialização de cada produto agrícola. Tal fato não é diferente com relação às flores e plantas ornamentais. Tanto produtores como consumidores podem se beneficiar a partir do conhecimento do comportamento mais sistemático que seus produtos de interesse revelam. Conhecendo os picos sazonais, o produtor pode organizar sua produção de forma a intercalar e aumentar seus picos de comercialização.This study evaluates the seasonal behavior of floriculture volumes and prices series covering most of the 1990s. The evaluation was accomplished using a periodogram and Box and Jenkins (1976 methodology. Three floral products were chosen for evaluation: rose, chrysanthemum, and violet. Data for the 1990’s were collected from CEAGESP-SP - Companhia de Entrepostos e Armazém Gerais de São Paulo, a floral products trade center. Study results show that traded volumes and prices peaked in particular seasons. Information regarding this seasonal period is of extreme importance to the flower and ornamental plant trading systems and allows producers to manage production to increase output at trading peaks.

  6. Determination of ten trace elements in eight herbal flowers and their infusions from Yunnan province,China by ICP-AES%ICP-AES法测定云南8种花茶及其茶水中10种微量元素含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    安丽霞; 安彩霞; 朱芳坤

    2014-01-01

    利用微波消解样品,采用电感耦合等离子体-原子发射光谱法测定了康乃馨、金银花、菊花、勿忘我、金盏花、桃花、玫瑰、薰衣草等8种云南花茶及其茶水中K、Ca、Mg、Cu、Zn、Fe、Mn、Cd、Cr、Pb等10种微量元素的含量.结果表明:该方法的加标回收率在94.96%~105.81%之间,RSD值在0.41%~2.57%之间,具有较好的准确度和精密度;8种花茶中K、Ca、Mg、Cu、Zn、Fe、Mn含量较高,Cr、Cd和Pb含量普遍较低;不同种类花茶中,各元素的溶出率存在较大差异;茶水中K和Ca的含量较高,其他元素含量相对较低.结果可为进一步合理开发花茶药用价值提供科学依据.%Ten contents of mineral elements such as K,Ca,Mg,Cu,Zn,Fe,Mn,Cd,Cr and Pb in eight herbal flowers (Dianthus caryophyllus,Lonicera japonica T.,Prunus persica,Chrysanthemum morifolium R.,Lavandula angustifolia M., Dianthus caryophyllus,Calendula officinalis L. and Rosa rugosa T.) and their infusions collected from Yunnan province,China,were determined by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry after microwave digestion.The results showed that the recovery rates were between 94.96 % and 105.81%,and the relative standard deviations were found below 3.0 %.There was significant differences existed in all element concentrations among different varieties of herbal flowers and their infusions.On the whole,the concentrations of K,Ca,Mg,Cu,Zn,Fe,Mn were relatively high,but those of Cd,Cr and Pb were low in the herbal flowers.The contents of K and Ca were higher than those of other elements in the herbal infusions.The experiment could provide an accurate and credible evidence for the reasonable medicinal use and deeper exploitation of these herbal flowers.

  7. 陶渊明《饮酒》诗中自我生命意识的表现及其背叛%The Expression of Self-consciousness of Life and Its Betrayal in Tao Yuanming' s Poem of Drinking Wine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林满平

    2011-01-01

    陶渊明的《饮酒》诗是其诗文中的精彩之作,文本表现的是他归隐田园、怡情自然的自足自得。其间透露出强烈的自我生命意识,由归鸟、美酒、秋菊、青松四个鲜明的意象构成了其追求生命意识自我实现的完整结构。在自我生命意识的觉醒中,源于对身份的焦虑,陶渊明的选择背叛了自我的初衷,在环境的压力下,他作出了一种道德的选择,通过这种道德的选择造就了自己。诗歌文本在背叛道德选择的同时背叛了陶渊明的自我生命意识。%The poem Drinking Wine by Tao Yuanming is one of his most splendid poems. Expressing the poet' s self-content and self-complacence in his seclusion and returning to the country life while enjoying the nature, the poem has revealed a strong self-consciousness of life. Such four distinct imageries as the returning birds," the good wine, the chrysanthemum and the green pine have constructed a complete structure which is his pursuit for the self-actualization of life consciousness. Due to his anxiety for the status, Tao Yuanming' s choice has betrayed the self' s original intention during the awakening of his self-consciousness of life. Thanks to the pressure from the environment, he has eventually made a moral choice by which he became who he was. The text of the poem has betrayed both Tao Yuanming' s moral choice and his self-consciousness of life.

  8. 铅锌矿区植物对重金属吸收和富集特征研究%Absorption and Accumulation Characteristics of Heavy Metals by Plants in Lead-Zinc Mining Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛海立; 龙成梅; 陈贵春; 邹洪涛; 钟才宁

    2011-01-01

    A field survey on the content of heavy metals in soils and plants in lead-zinc mining area of Duyun Niujiaotang was carried out, and the absorption and accumulation characteristics of heavy metals between plants and soil were compared. Results showed that the soils and plants in the mining area were highly contaminated by Cd and Pb. Among 9 species of the collected herbaceous plants, the contents of Pb, Cd in the stem and leaf of Ficus tikaua Bur are the highest, with BCF 1.32 and 0.96 separately, and translation coefficient 2.64 and 2.96 separately. Buddleja Lindleyana Fortune and Chrysanthemum indicum L had low tolerance of Pb, Cu and Cd, with BCF less than 0.5 mostly, but the translation coefficient approximate or higher than 1. The above 4 plants have a better potential and practical use in phytoremediation as their favorable resistibility to Pb and Cd, and heavy metals content in the above plants don't reach the standard of the hyperaccumulator.%通过实地调查分析贵州都匀牛角塘铅锌矿区土壤中重金属Pb、Cu、Cd的含量,采集9种矿区常见优势植物,对比植物对Pb、Cu和Cd的吸收、转运和富集特征.结果表明,矿区土壤受Pb和Cd两种金属污染严重,植物体内Pb、Cd含量都超过正常范围;在调查的9种植物中,桑科的地果地上部分Pb、Cd的含量最高,富集系数1.32、0.96,转运系数分别达到2.64、2.96,表现出对Pb、Cd良好的转运和富集特征,可作为Pb、Cd污染土壤生态恢复的先锋物种;醉鱼草和野菊花体内三种元素含量不高,富集系数大都小于0.5,但转运系数值均接近或超过1,表现了良好的耐性,对污染土壤的植物修复具有潜在的应用价值.上述植物体内重金属含量均未能达到超富集植物的含量标准.

  9. 湘西铅锌矿区土壤和植物重金属污染现状%Investigation of Contaminated Soil and Plants by Heavy Metals in Xiangxi Pb-Zn Mining Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘灿; 邹冬生; 朱佳文

    2011-01-01

    调查了湖南湘西铅锌矿区植物组成,研究了尾矿区土壤及周围植物根部土壤的Pb、Zn和Cd含量和基本理化性质,分析了在这些区域自然定居的11种优势植物体内的3种重金属元素的耐性、富集特性.结果表明,矿区土壤极端贫瘠,土壤中Pb、Cd和Zn含量分别达2 789.00、159.83和2 892.00 mg/kg,重金属污染极为严重.该矿区的主要优势物种为禾本科和菊科植物,其中野菊花、狗尾巴草和五节芒3种植物地上部生物量较大且对某些重金属向地上部转运能力较强,对重金属污染土壤有一定的修复潜力;地枇杷的地上部Cd含量最大,达152 mg/kg,转运系数为1.03,是潜在的Cd超富集植物.%The ability of plant species to accumulate heavy metals was investigated in Xiangxi Pb-Zn mining area. The concentrations of Cd, Pb and Zn in roots and shoots of 11 dominant species and soil were analyzed. The result showed that the soil was serious lean and contaminated with a extremely high heavy metals concentration of Pb,Cd and Zn respectively due to the Pb-Zn mining tailings,which reached 2 789.00,159.83, 2 892.00 mg/kg. The dominant species were Gramineae and Compositae on the investigated field. The biomass of above-ground part and ability of heavy metals up to transport of Chrysanthemum indicum L. ,Setaira viridis(L. ) Beauv and Miscanthusf loridulus were higher than other plant species, and the contents of some heavy metals in stems and leaves of above-mentioned three species were higher than that in roots,which indicating that these species had certain potential ability to remediate contaminated soil. The Cd concentration in shoots of Ficus tikoua reached 152 mg/kg, and the transfer coefficient was 1.03, which exceeded the threshold of Cd hyperaccumulator.

  10. Scientific Opinion on the pest categorisation of the tospoviruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Plant Health

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available

    The European Commission requested EFSA’s Panel on Plant Health to perform the pest categorisation for the 24 viruses of the Tospovirus genus for the EU territory. The following tospoviruses were analysed: Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV, Impatiens necrotic spot virus (INSV, Iris yellow spot virus (IYSV, Polygonum ringspot virus (PolRSV, Groundnut ringspot virus (GRSV, Tomato chlorotic spot virus (TCSV, Alstroemeria necrotic streak virus (ANSV, Chrysanthemum stem necrosis virus (CSNV, Melon severe mosaic virus (MSMV, Tomato yellow (fruit ring virus (TYRV, Tomato zonate spot virus (TZSV, Groundnut yellow spot virus (GYSV, Groundnut chlorotic fan-spot virus (GCFSV, Groundnut bud necrosis virus (GBNV, Zucchini lethal chlorosis virus (ZLCV, Capsicum chlorosis virus (CaCV, Watermelon bud necrosis virus (WBNV, Watermelon silver mottle virus (WSMoV, Tomato necrotic ringspot virus (TNRV, Calla lily chlorotic spot virus (CCSV, Melon yellow spot virus (MYSV, Soybean vein necrosis associated virus (SVNaV, Bean necrotic mosaic virus (BeNMV and Pepper necrotic spot virus (PNSV. In reaching its conclusions, the Panel considered four parameters to be of critical importance in the risk assessment area: (i the presence of a tospovirus, (ii the existence of host plants, (iii the existence of thrips vector species and (iv the potential for damage to crops grown in Europe. Based on its analysis, the Panel concluded that the 24 viruses analysed could be allocated to four different risk groups. Seven viruses (GRSV, TCSV, ANSV, CSNV, MSMV, TYRV, TZSV for which both thrips species vectors and natural or experimental hosts crops are present in the EU territory were considered by the Panel to represent the highest risk to the EU territory. In

  11. 顶空萃取-气相色谱-质谱法测定一种儿童专用防痱止痒水的挥发性成分%Analysis of Volatile Flavor Components in One Type of Remove Philippine and Itching Water by Headspace Extraction-GC/MS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李红; 熊爽; 田福林; 赵海波

    2011-01-01

    采用顶空萃取-气相色谱/质谱法分析鉴定防痱止痒水的挥发性成分。结果表明:共检测出35种挥发性成分,主要成分为乙醇和酞酸二乙酯,其它成分主要包括醇、烯、酯、甘菊环等。检出的物质中,α-蒎烯、β-蒎烯、莰烯、桉叶醇、樟脑、α-萜品醇、龙脑、醋酸异龙脑酯、石竹烯为野菊花挥发油的有效成分;苯甲酸甲酯、苯甲酸苄酯、丁香酚为金银花挥发油的有效成分;广藿香醇为广藿香提取物的主要成分。α-蒎烯、β-月桂烯、β-蒎烯、莰烯、薄荷醇、丁香酚等成分都具有较强的驱避蚊虫的作用。%The volatile components in one type of remove philippine and itching water were analyzed by headspace extraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry(HS-GC/MS).The results showed that HS-GC/MS is effective in the analysis of remove philippine and itching water.35 components are separated and identified.The main components are ethyl alcohol and diethyl phthalate acid,the others are alcohols,terpenes,esters and azulenes.alpha.-Pinene,beta.-pinene,camphene,eucalyptol,camphor,p-menth-1-en-8-ol,borneol,isobornyl acetate,caryophyllene are the effective components of the volatile oil in chrysanthemum indicum L.Benzoic acid methyl ester,benzyl benzoate,eugenol are the effective components of the volatile oil in flos lonicerae.Patchouli alcohol is the effective components of the volatile oil in pogostemon cablin(blanco) benth.alpha.-Pinene,beta.-myrcene,beta.-pinene,camphene,menthol,eugenol are all effictive repellent.

  12. Evaluation of selected wild plants flowering season 1991 - 2009 (1991 - 2000 & 2001 - 2009)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajkova, L.; Nekovar, J.; Novak, M.; Richterova, D.

    2009-09-01

    The subsequent wild plants are observed by volunteer observers at CHMI phenological network: CALTHA palustris L., ANEMONE nemorosa L., HEPATICA nobilis Mill., RANUNCULUS acer L., FRAGARIA vesca L., TRIFOLIUM repens L., HYPERICUM perforatum L., CHAMAENERION angustifolium L. Holub, VACCINIUM myrtillus L., LAMIUM album L., CHRYSANTHEMUM leucanthemum L., TUSSILAGO farfara L., PETASITES albus (L.) Gaert., PETASITES hybridus (L.) G. M. Sch., CONVALLARIA majalis L., GALANTHUS nivalis L., DACTYLIS glomerata L., ALOPECURUS pratensis L. and others. Some of them start to blossom in early spring, some others in the summer. Part of them belong to very important allergens, part of them have medicinal effects. Phenophases first leaves (FL - BBCH11), inflorescence emergence (IE - BBCH 51), beginning and end of flowering (BF - BBCH 61, EF - BBCH 69) are observed by these species. Statistical parameters (average, median, lower quartile, upper quartile, minimum, maximum, standard deviation, variation range and variation coefficient) of phenophase onset are computed from all of phenological stations in Czechia for the period 1991 - 2009. The phenophase onset and phenophase duration depend not only on genetic base but also on external effects such as weather. We have compiled dynamics of temperature to phenophase onset according CHMI meteorological stations for the same period 1991 - 2009 (especially sums of active temperatures above biological minimum 5°C and progression of extreme temperatures). We have also compared results between two periods (1991 - 2000, 2001 - 2009). Phenological stations are at different altitude. At this case study were used results from 4 phenological stations at altitude ( 500 m asl). GALANTHUS nivalis L. Station: Lednice (165 m n. m.) Period: 1991 - 2000 Statistical parameter/phenophase BBCH 61 BBCH 69 Average 62 94 Median 60 97 Lower quartile 57 86 Upper quartile 66 101 Minimum 51 70 Maximum 79 116 Variation range 28 46 Standard deviation 8,6 12

  13. Lamp Distribution Design for Adjustment of Florescence in Floral Production%花卉生产中花期调节补光灯配光方案设计研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王峰; 李抒智; 马可军; 庄美琳

    2013-01-01

    [目的]介绍各种光源特性,筛选最佳大棚花卉生产补光灯配光方案。[方法]选用菊花切花生产为试材,采用白光复合光照,在大棚里配置高压钠灯、荧光节能灯、LED农业专用灯,根据3种灯具的光形特点和植物生长需求,进行实地测试,比较各种灯具的实际应用效果。[结果]结果表明,LED新型光源在整灯实际应用中节能效果明显优于其他两种灯具;LED方形灯具设计呈蝙蝠翼光形配光曲线最有利于温室实施有效布灯。[结论] LED农业专用补光灯优于目前最常用的钠灯,具有节能易布灯等特点,具有实际推广应用价值。%[Objective] The aim was to introduce characters of light sources and select the optimal lamp scheme for floral production in greenhouses. [Method] With chrysanthemum cuttings as materials, HPSL, energy-saving fluorescent lamp, and LED agricultural lamp were made use of to carry out field tests in order to compare practical effects according to light characters of different lamps and plant growth de-mands. [Result] The results show that LED lamp performed the best of the three in practical use. LED square lamp designed in bat-wing shape would be the most ben-eficial for lamp distribution in a greenhouse. [Conclusion] LED agricultural lamp is the most popular currently, for it is energy saving and easy for operation.

  14. The oleaginous Botryococcus from the Triassic Yanchang Formation in Ordos Basin, Northwestern China: Morphology and its paleoenvironmental significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Li-ming; Yan, Kui; Meng, Fan-wei; Zhao, Min

    2010-05-01

    High abundance but rather low diversity algal fossils were found in the hydrocarbon source rocks of the Ch 7-2-Ch 7-3 section, Triassic Yanchang Formation in the Xifeng area of southwest Ordos Basin, which are mainly composed of prolific Leiosphaeridia and Botryococcus. Botryococcus colonies are of various forms; the majority is nubbly, with some of cluster and cotton shape. The nubbly colonies appear globular, cordiform, ternate petal, obtuse triangle, chrysanthemum shape and so on. Most Botryococcus are saffron or brown and are frequently covered with clay under transmission microscope, and shows strong yellow and light brown under fluorescence microscope. Botryococcus could live in freshwater and brackish water. The Botryococcus colonies that lived in fresh water are small with small single cells arranged radially, with undulant or indented edges. The Botryococcus colonies that lived in brackish water are bigger, with larger single cells arranged irregularly, with slippery contours. The most of Botryococcus are discovered from the organic-rich argillaceous sediment with abundant pyrites in the semi- and deep-lake facies, and shows they were preserved in low-energy reducing environments. Taphonomic characteristics of various microfossils and the present of Pediastrum in the phytoplankton flora indicate that they are in situ or near burial. The lake area of the Ordos Basin was gradually expanding and reaching its most extensive flood surface in the Ch 7 of Yanchang Formation interval during the Middle and Late Triassic, with warm climate, plentiful rainfall, and luxuriant vegetation, as determined by the environmental analysis with Botryococcus in Xifeng area. The presence of two ecological types of Botryococcus indicates that the salinity of lake water was fluctuating in the Ch 7 interval. The occurrence of symbiotic acritarchs and geochemical salinity indices show that the Ordos Lake was a typical fresh-water lake, which was gradually desalted, and its salinity

  15. Identification and Quantification of Common Adulterants of Saffron (Crocus sativus) by HPLC-DAD%西红花常见伪品的HPLC-DAD鉴别和掺伪量测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    安慧景; 张继; 孙兰; 南垚; 武佳; 周立东

    2012-01-01

    目的:建立HPLC-DAD方法,一次性鉴别西红花常见伪品红花、菊花,并测定其掺伪量.方法:采用高效液相色谱法,流动相为乙腈-0.3%磷酸水;波长范围200~410 nm;羟基红花黄色素A检测波长402 nm,绿原酸检测波长327 nm;梯度洗脱.结果:通过HPLC分析,确定羟基红花黄色素A、绿原酸分别为红花、菊花的特征成分,测定样品含量,可鉴别出样品中是否掺入了红花、菊花,并确定伪品掺入量.羟基红花黄色素A 0.005~0.25 mg·mL-1,绿原酸0.001~0.05 mg·mL-1范围内线性关系良好,方法回收率高,重复性好.结论:此方法能一次性鉴别西红花常见伪品红花、菊花,并测定其掺伪量,对其它药材的相关研究也有参考价值.%This study was aimed to develop a method to identify and quantify common adulterants of saffron by simultaneously determining specific constituents by HPLC-DAD. The separation was achieved using a C18 column and CH3CN-0.3%H3PO4 solution as a mobile phase with gradient elution. Hydroxysafflor yellow A and chloro-genic acid, used as specific constituents, were detected at 402 nm and 327 nm, respectively. By detecting specific constituents, we can find out if samples were adulterated with safflower and/or chrysanthemum and calculate the percentage. The method was validated in terms of linearity, precision, accuracy and recovery. And results were found to be satisfactory. This method is simple, sensitive and operational in the identification and quantification of common adulterants of saffron.

  16. Results of the FAO/IAEA program on 'Irradiation as a Quarantine Treatment of Mites, Nematodes and Insects other than Fruit Fly'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The FAO/IAEA Program on 'Irradiation as a Quarantine Treatment of Mites, Nematodes and Insects other than Fruit Fly' has been implemented in 1992, and lasted up to the end of 1997. The Coordination Research Program put emphasis on the following aspects of research: (1) Determine criteria, e.g. inability to reproduce, for accepting irradiation as a quarantine treatment against quarantine pests; (2) Determine the effete of irradiation on the most resistant stage of these quarantine pests at the time of treatment; (3) Evaluate the quality of agricultural commodities irradiated at 2-3 times the dose(s) required to meet quarantine requirements; (4) Develop method(s) for identifying insects/other pests which were subjected to irradiation at a dose required for quarantine purposes. The followings are the most important achievements of the CRP: Generic dose for sterilization of both males and females of spider mites (Tetranychidae) was determined to be 320 Gy. With regard to insects other than fruit flies, it appears that a minimum dose of 300 Gy would cause either no adult emergence or sterility of most species of insects studied. Radiation doses required to cause complete mortality to various infective stages of plant parasitic nematodes is higher than 6 kGy. The minimum dose required to prevent gall development and reproduction of these nematodes is largely over 2 kGy, which is too high for most fresh plant materials. Thus, irradiation should be considered as an alternative to methyl bromide fumigation to control nematodes in non-perishable materials. While many fresh fruits and vegetables could tolerate radiation doses required for quarantine purposes, the response of various types of cut-flowers to irradiation varied widely. Some cut-flowers and ornamentals such as ferns, phoenix leaf, narcissus, tulips, carnation or red ginger were tolerant to radiation up to 700 Gy and more, others such as chrysanthemum, rose, lily, anthurium, dendrobium, gerbera did not tolerate

  17. Brief Analysis of Image and Emotions in Shen Guang-wen's Poem%浅析沈光文诗歌中的意象与情感

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余丹

    2012-01-01

    今年是沈光文诞辰四百周年,这位宁波乡贤曾投身抗清斗争,流落台湾后致力于传播中华传统文化,被誉为台湾"文献初祖";他同时也是台湾文学的拓荒者,现存诗百余首。他的诗歌中常以菊、竹、梅等植物意象表现孤高志节与流落荒岛的幽独之情,以鹤、雁、蝉等动物意象表现高蹈隐逸之思与对故园的深沉眷念,以夷齐、谢安、袁安等人物意象表现壮志未酬的忧愤与羁旅天涯的穷愁。这些传统意象所承载的意蕴与沈光文的孤臣心态高度契合,提高了其诗的审美价值和艺术感染力。%This year is the 400th anniversary of the birth of Shen Guang-wen who was a county sage of Ningbo.He once joined the fight against Qing Dynasty and devoted himself to the spread and carrying forward of China's traditional civilization,thus he was known as "the ancestor of literary" in Taiwan.He wrote more than one hundred poems and was regarded as the pioneer of Taiwan literature.The image and emotion in his poems can be classified in three categories: to express the loftiness and loneliness by plant images like chrysanthemum,bamboo and plum blossoms,etc;to show the feeling of seclusion and longing for motherland by animal images such as crane,wild goose,cicada,etc;to convey the feeling of worry,indignation and depression by characters such as Boyi and Shuqi,Xie An,Yuan An,etc.All those images and their implications perfectly match the emotion of Shen Guang-wen as a solitary minister which in the end enhanced the aesthetic value and artistic appeal of his poems.

  18. Mutant breeding of ornamental trees for creating variations with high value using Proton Beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is necessary to induce the improved strains of ornamental plants with more disease-resistant and useful for landscape or phytoremediation. Mutation breeding has played an important role in crop improvement, and more than 2,000 mutant cultivars have been released. For the induction of mutation, gamma rays and X-rays are widely used as a mutagen. Proton beam had higher energy than -ray and worked with localized strength, so that proton-beam radiation could be valuable tool to induce useful strains of ornamental plants. Proton ion beam irradiation was used to induce a useful mutant in rice, chrysanthemum, carnation, and so on in Japan. Also, proton ion beam was used to select a useful host strain, in polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB), a member of biodegradable plastic, could be overproduced in Korea. Therefore, we surmise that the effects of proton beam is different from those of gamma rays and X-rays, and we expect proton beam to be a new mutagen. This research was conducted to investigate the proton-beam radiation sensitivity and seed germination rate of the various ornamental plants like as Albizia julibrissin, Ficus religiosa, Rhus chinensis, Sorbaria sorbilfolia and Spiraea chinensis, to survey the quantitative characteristics of proton beam induced strains. To induce the variants of ornamental plants, seeds were irradiated at the dose of 0∼2kGy of proton beam at room temperature. Proton beam energy level was 45 MeV and was irradiated at dose of 0∼2kGy by MC-50 Cyclotron. After irradiation, to assess the effects of proton beam on radiation sensitivity and morphological changes of the plants and the seed germination rate were analysed. By the proton beam radiation, the germination rate decreased at the higher dose. The other hand, the germination rate of Rhus chinensis increased the dose higher, so that it need to investigate the germination rate over 2kGy radiation. The effects of mutation induction by proton beam irradiation on seeds in Lagerstroemia indica were

  19. Determination of seven pyrethroids and six pyrethrins in water by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    ccanccapa, alexander; Masia, Ana; Pico, Yolanda

    2016-04-01

    Pyrethroids are the synthetic analogues of pyrethrins which were developed as pesticides from the extracts of dried and powdered flower heads of Chrysanthemum cinerariaefolium. They are increasingly used in agriculture due to their broad biological activity and slow development of pest resistance. Contamination of fresh-water ecosystems appears either because of the direct discharge of industrial and agricultural effluents or as a result of effluents from sewage treatment works; residues can thus accumulate in the surrounding biosphere [1, 2]. These substances, mostly determined by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) can be difficult to analyse due to their volatility and degradability. The purpose of this study is, as an alternative, to develop a fast and sensitive multi-residue method for the target analysis of 7 pyrethroids and the 6 natural pyrethrins currently used in water samples by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The compounds included in the study were acrinathrin, etofenprox, cyfluthrin, esfenvalerate, cyhalothrin, cypermethrin and flumethrin as pyrethroids and a commercial mix of pyrethrins containing Cinerin I, Jasmolin I, pyrethrin I, cinerin II, jasmolin II, pyrethrins II in different percentages. As a preliminary step, the ionization and fragmentation of the compounds were optimized injecting individual solutions of each analyte at 10 ppm in the system, using a gradient elution profile of water-methanol both with 10 mM ammonium formate. The ESI conditions were: capillary voltage 4000 V, nebulizer15 psi, source temperature 300◦C and gas flow 10 L min‑1. [M+H]+, [M+Na]+ ,[M+NH3]+ ,[M+NH4+]+ were tested as precursor ions. The most intense signal was for ammonium adduct for all compounds. The optimal fragmentor range for product ions were between 20 to 80 ev and the collision energy ranged between 5 to 86 ev. The efficiency of the method was tested in water samples from Turia River without any known exposure to

  20. Toxicidade de produtos fitossanitários para adultos de Orius insidiosus (Say (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae Pesticide toxicity to adults of Orius insidiosus (Say (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Carlos Dias Rocha

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho foi estudar a toxicidade de abamectin, acephate, azoxystrobin, benomyl, chlorfenapyr, imibenconazole, iprodion, metalaxyl + mancozeb e triforine para adultos de Orius insidiosus (Say. Os produtos foram utilizados nas concentrações indicadas pelos fabricantes e/ou que estão em fase de pesquisa para o controle de pragas e doenças na cultura do crisântemo, sendo aplicados em adultos por meio de torre de Potter. Os bioensaios foram realizados em laboratório, sob temperatura de 25±2 ºC, umidade relativa de 70±10% e fotofase de 12 horas. A toxicidade dos produtos para adultos foi determinada pela porcentagem do efeito total (E%, levando-se em consideração a taxa de mortalidade e redução de oviposição, sendo, ainda, classificados segundo escala proposta por membros da IOBC. Abamectin, acephate e chlorfenapyr são tóxicos a adultos de O. insidiosus, provocando redução na sua sobrevivência. Fêmeas adultas de O. insidiosus tratadas com abamectin e acephate têm a viabilidade de seus ovos reduzida, enquanto a aplicação de abamectin e chlorfenapyr prolongam seu período de oviposição. Os fungicidas azoxystrobin, benomyl, imibenconazole, iprodione, metalaxyl + mancozeb e triforine têmbaixa toxicidade ao O. insidiosus.The aim of this work wasevaluate the toxicity of abamectin, acephate, azoxystrobin, benomyl, chlorfenapyr, imibenconazole, iprodione, metalaxyl + mancozeb and triforine on adults of Orius insidiosus (Say. These pesticides were used at the concentrations indicated by the manufacturers. All of them are in testing process for pest and diseases control on chrysanthemums crop, and were spraying on adults using a Potter's tower. The bioassays were carried out in laboratory, under controlled conditions at 25±2ºC, RH of 70±10% and 12-h photophase. The toxicity of the pesticides to adults was determined by the total effect (E, considering the mortality rate and oviposition reduction. Toxicity

  1. Biotransformation and metabolic profile of buddleoside with human intestinal microflora by ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography coupled to hybrid linear ion trap/orbitrap mass spectrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Jin-Hua; Duan, Jin-Ao; Jiang, Shu; Qian, Yi-Yun; Qian, Da-Wei

    2016-07-01

    Buddleoside (also known as linarin) as the major flavonoid in Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat., has been reported to possess a wide range of pharmacological activities. The human intestinal microbiota might have an important impact on drug metabolism and ultimately on the drug oral bioavailability. However, the interaction of the buddleoside with human intestinal bacteria remains unknown. In this study, the conversion of buddleoside by different bacteria from human feces was firstly investigated. A reliable, sensitive and rapid analytical method, ultra performance liquid chromatography was established and successfully applied to investigate the metabolites and metabolic profile of buddleoside by human intestinal bacteria. Among the isolated bacteria, four strains including Escherichia sp. 4, Escherichia sp. 34, Enterococcus sp. 45 and Bacillus sp. 46 showed more powerful conversion capability. Based on the accurate mass data and the characteristic MS(n) product ions, the parent and six metabolites were detected and tentatively identified compared with blank samples. The metabolites were produced by four main metabolic pathways including deglycosylation, acetylation, methylation and hydroxylation. Buddleoside could be firstly converted to its aglycon acacetin (M2) by the majority of the isolated intestinal bacteria. Subsequently, M2 was further metabolize to its methylated (M3), acetylated (M4), hydroxylated (M5) and hydrogenated product (M6). However, acacetin-7-glucosid (M1) was obtained only from the minor bacterial samples like Bacillus sp. 46. To further explain the metabolism of buddleoside, the β-d-glucosidase and α-l-rhamnosidase activities of four strains were analyzed. Bacillus sp. 46 could only produce α-l-rhamnosidase, while the other three strains showed two kinds of enzyme activities. Furthermore, the activities of α-l-rhamnosidase and β-d-glucosidase reached the highest level at 12-18h and 10-12h, respectively. The metabolic routes and metabolites

  2. 平凉市蔬菜农药残留对人体健康风险的评估%Assessment of Vegetable Pesticide Residues on Human Healthy Risk in Pingliang City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    涂国良; 张军钱; 任金萍

    2013-01-01

      The paper used the routine testing data from 2007 to 2011 and the standard of pesticide maximum residues and the safety index method to assess the human health risk. The results showed that the over standard rate in different kinds of vegetable pesticide residues samples was 2.5% , the main types of not banned pesticides had chlorothalonil, deltamethrin, armor cyanogen chrysanthemum ester, dichlorvos, dimethoate,and so on, which affected badly the safety of vegetables in Pingliang city . The safety index value of 6 kinds of vegetables was in between 0.003 and 0.057, and 12 kinds of vegetables was in between 0.003 and 0.057. The average safety index value of four quarters was in between 0.004 and 0.017, and the risk probability of 22 pesticides was in between 0 and 0.125. In the local, the risk of edible vegetables pesticide residues on human health was generally acceptable.%  选用平凉市2007—2011年例行检测数据资料,采用农药最大残留限量标准及安全指数法进行评价。结果表明,平凉市不同种类蔬菜农药残留样品的超标率达2.5%,百菌清、溴氰菊酯、甲氰菊酯、敌敌畏、乐果等非禁用农药是影响平凉市蔬菜安全的主要农药种类。6类蔬菜的安全指数值在0.003~0.057,12种蔬菜的安全指数值在0.002~0.107。4个季度蔬菜平均安全指数值在0.004~0.017之间,22种农药发生风险的概率在0~0.125。平凉市食用蔬菜农药残留对人体健康构成的风险总体上是可以接受的。

  3. Introdução e avaliação de gladíolos em ambiente de cerrado no Estado de Roraima. = The introduction and evaluation of gladiolus under Savannah (Cerrado conditions in The State of Roraima.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rejane Lanius Boyle

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available As plantas ornamentais de corte comercializadas no Estado de Roraima são importadas de outros Estados do Brasil ou do exterior, como por exemplo: rosas, gladíolos, crisântemos, antúrios, violetas e gérberas. Considerando a potencialidade do Estado de Roraima para o cultivo de plantas ornamentais, objetivou com este trabalho introduzir e avaliar o comportamento de três acessos de gladíolos em condições de casa de vegetação no ambiente de cerrado do Estado deRoraima. O experimento foi instalado entre os meses de setembro a novembro de 2007. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos inteiramente casualizados, com três tratamentos e nove repetições. Os tratamentos foram três acessos de gladíolos, sendo: 1- Trader Horn; 2- White Friendship e 3- Peter Pears. As variáveis avaliadas foram: índice de germinação, altura da planta, número de dias entre a germinação e a emissão da inflorescência, número de flores por espiga e número de flores abertas por espiga para fins de corte. Os acessos Trader Horn, White Friendship e Peter Pears desenvolveram-se até a floração, tendo apresentado um ciclo comercial médio de 73 dias e oito flores por inflorescência, apresentando características de padrão comercial. = The ornamental plants of cutting marketed in the state of Roraima are imported from other states in Brazil orcountries, for example: roses, gladiolus, chrysanthemums, anthuriums, gerberas and violets. Considering the potential of thestate of Roraima to the cultivation of ornamental plants, this work objectived to introduce and evaluate the performance of threeacesses of gladiolus overhead covered in Savannah the State of Roraima. The experiment was conducted between September and November 2007. The experimental design was of randomized blocks with three treatments and nine replications. The treatments were three species of gladioli, which: 1- Trader Horn; 2 - White Friendship and 3 - Peter Pears. The variables were

  4. 'BRS Tospodoro': a high lycopene processing tomato cultivar adapted to organic cropping systems and with multiple resistance to pathogens 'BRS Tospodoro': Cultivar de tomate para processamento com alto licopeno, adaptada aos sistemas de cultivo orgânico e com múltiplos genes de resistência a patógenos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo de B Giordano

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available 'BRS Tospodoro' is a high lycopene tomato cultivar, which combines multiple disease resistance genes and desirable processing traits. This cultivar was found to be suitable for both conventional and organic crop systems. 'BRS Tospodoro' was obtained via backcross breeding using 'Viradoro' as recurrent parent and the inbred line 'CNPH 1306' as the donor of the Pto gene (resistance to Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato race 0. 'BRS Tospodoro' has the Mi1-2 gene that controls resistance to root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne incognita, M. javanica, and M. arenaria as well as tolerance to populations of the aphid Macrosiphum euphorbiae (vector of Potyvirus species, and to whiteflies (Bemisia tabaci. 'BRS Tospodoro' has also the Sw-5b gene, which controls resistance to major Tospovirus species (Groundnut ringspotirus, Tomato chlorotic spot virus, Chrysanthemum stem necrosis virus, and Tomato spotted wilt virus. This cultivar is also resistant to Stemphylium solani and S. lycopersici (Sm gene, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici race 1 (I-1 gene and Verticillium dahlie race 1 (Ve gene. 'BRS Tospodoro' presents uniform fruit ripening, with the first harvest being done around 110 to 120 days after plant emergence. The fruits are firm, square-shaped, with an average weight of 46 g (in organic cropping to above 70 g (in conventional cropping. The soluble solids content is in the range between 4.6 and 4.8 ºBrix. The external fruit color is uniform (gene u and bright red (L* = 44.1; a* = 33.9; b* = 20.4. The average lycopene content of mature fruits is 104 µg/g. This cultivar has the jointless locus (j2, which facilitates both manual and mechanical harvesting. 'BRS Tospodoro' has determinate growth habit (locus sp with vigorous foliage, which provides good fruit protection from sunscald. 'BRS Tospodoro' can be cultivated in all the traditional processing tomato-producing areas of Brazil without the need of any technical adjustment. 'BRS Tospodoro' displayed

  5. Hipersensibilidade e necrose sistêmica em Nicotiana benthamiana transformada com o gene de resistência Sw-5 de tomateiro Hypersensitive response and systemic necrosis in Nicotiana benthamiana transformed with the Sw-5 resistance gene from tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Lau

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available O gene Sw-5 do tomateiro confere resistência a várias espécies de tospovírus e codifica uma proteína contendo domínios de ligação a nucleotídeos e repetições ricas em leucina. Tomateiros com Sw-5 exibem reações necróticas nas folhas inoculadas com tospovírus. Estas reações e a estrutura da proteína Sw-5 indicam que a resistência ocorre por meio do reconhecimento do patógeno e desencadeamento da resposta de hipersensibilidade. A capacidade de Sw-5 de conferir resistência a tospovírus em tabaco selvagem (Nicotiana benthamiana Domin. foi avaliada em plantas transgênicas. Uma construção com a seqüência aberta de leitura de Sw-5 e sua região 3’ não-traduzida sob controle do promotor 35S do CaMV foi utilizada para transformação de N. benthamiana via Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Plantas de progênies R1 foram inoculadas com um isolado de tospovírus e avaliadas quanto à ocorrência de reação de hipersensibilidade e resistência à infecção sistêmica. Em uma progênie com segregação 3:1 (resistente:suscetível, foi selecionada uma planta homozigota e sua progênie avaliada quanto ao espectro da resistência a tospovírus. Plantas com o transgene exibiram resposta de hipersensibilidade 48 h após a inoculação, sendo resistentes à infecção sistêmica. O fenótipo da resistência foi dependente do isolado viral e um isolado de Tomato chlorotic spot virus (TCSV causou necrose sistêmica em todas as plantas inoculadas, enquanto que isolados de Groundnut ringspot virus (GRSV e um isolado relacionado a Chrysanthemum stem necrosis virus (CSNV ficaram restritos ao sítio de infecção. Comparações do espectro da resistência obtido neste trabalho com aquele observado em outros membros da família Solanaceae indicam que as vias de transdução de sinais e as respostas de defesa ativadas por Sw-5 são conservadas dentro desta família e polimorfismos genéticos nas vias de transdução de sinais ou em componentes das

  6. 滁菊类黄酮3-羟化酶基因的克隆及分子特性%Cloning and Molecular Characterization off3'h Gene in Dendranthema morifolium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡华; 许雪峰; 诸立新; 孙艳辉; 代洪亮; 崔勇

    2012-01-01

    Dendranthema morifolium 'chuju', a traditional Chinese medicine resource unique to Chuzhou, Anhui, was used to clone flavonoid 3 ' -hydroxylase (f3 ' h) gene with a registration number of HQ256697 in NCBI by homology-based cloning strategy in this study. The results showed that a separate 381 bp DNA fragment was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) from three 'chuju' samples collected from different places. Sequence analysis showed that the amplified DNA fragments were closely homologous to the 3rd exon off3 'h gene in Chrysanthemum morifolium (GU249553) at a homology rate of 98.69% for nucleotide sequences. Five SNPs in the homology area were observed, and only 3 of them resulted in amino acid sequence variations. The homology rates of nucleotide and amino acid sequences between Dendranthema morifolium 'chuju' and Sorghum bicolor, Brassica napus, lpomoea nil Magenta, Malus domestica or lpomoea purpurea were 60%~98% and 68%~97%, respectively. The classification off3'h gene in different plants was significantly related to their genetic relationship. The f3'h gene of Dendranthema was more advanced than that ofother plants in system evolution.%以安徽滁州地区特有的药食两用植物资源——滁菊(Dendranthemamorifolium‘chuju’)为试材,采用同源基因克隆方法克隆滁菊类黄酮3’-羟化酶基因(flavonoid3’.hydroxylase,f3'h),NCBI注册号HQ256697。结果表明:采自不同地点的滁菊样品均能扩增出一条长381bp的f3’h基因片段,该片段与探针序列GU249553第3外显子对应区域的核苷酸序列同源性达98.69%,同源区域内有5个单核苷酸多态性位点(singlenucleotidepolymorphisms,SNP),其中3个SNPs导致氨基酸编码序列的改变。滁菊与葡萄属(Vitisvinifera)、高粱属(Sorghumbicolor)、芸苔属(Brassicanapus)、牵牛属(1pomoeanilMagenta)、苹果属(Malus×domestica)、番薯属(1

  7. Densidades de siembra de dos variedades comerciales de crisantemo, Chrysantemum morifolium Ramat en Piendamo (Cauca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Posada D. Adolfo

    1986-09-01

    Full Text Available The behavior and agricultural characteristics of two kinds of Chrysanthemum (White Marble and Yellow Polaris were evaluated in terms of yield and quality of the product. Two different kinds of planting systems were applied (single stem and pinched stem. The experimental design in randomized whole blocks for each variety and system including four density treatments (80, 90, 110 and 115 sterns per 1.05 m2 was repeated six times. The experimental unit was of 2.10 m2; 1.26 m2 were harvested. A strong discrepancy between the quantity and quality of the product was observed. The highest yields were obtained with densities of 110 and 115 stems per 1.05 m2. However, the experimental units dis not always met both requirements of a diameter greater than seven cm and three or more marketable flowers per stem. If maximizing production of acceptable bunches is taken as a decision variable, a density of 90 sterns per 1.05 m2 with a 3/3/2/2/2/3/3 arrangement with pinched stern for Yellow Polar is seems a better alternative. As for White Marble, it would be better to have 80 stems per 1.05 m2 with a 3/2/2/2/2/2/3 arrangement in the single stem, but the probability of acceptance is only 0.666. In addition, White Marble showed more susceptibility to dwarfism.Se evaluó el comportamiento y características agronómicas asociadas con el rendimiento y la calidad del producto en las variedades White Marble y Yellow Polaris, en los sistemas de tallo único y tallo despuntado. El diseño experimental de bloques completos al azar para cada variedad y sistema incluía cuatro tratamientos de densidad (80, 90, 110 Y 115 tallos por 1.05 m2, con seis repeticiones. La unidad experimental fue de 2.10 m2, cosechando 1. 26m2(1.05 x 1.20. Se observó marcado antagonismo entre la cantidad y la calidad del producto comercial. Los mayores rendimientos se obtuvieron con densidades de 110 y 115 tallos por 1.05 m2, pero no siempre la producción cumplía con los requisitos de di

  8. Evaluation of the riparian forest state program in Pitangueiras county, Parana / Avaliação do programa estadual “Mata Ciliar” no município de Pitangueiras, Paraná

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristovon Videira Ripol

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Riparian forest restoration is fundamental for maintenance of vegetable, animal and human life. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of a Riparian Forest state program in the enlargement of the riparian forests in Pitangueiras county, state of Paraná, in the period of 2004 to 2006. Concerning the riparian reforestation, it was ansewered the reasons that convinced the farmers to join the program, the main difficulties found in its execution, and their views on environmental preservation and law. The results by means of interviews with the farmers and county leaders. It was concluded that the reparian forest state program was efficient due to the partner ship between Pitangueiras City Hall, Government Department of Environment and Coffee Farmer Association. The installation of a native tree nursery in Pitangueiras offered plants to farmers at the opportune period for planting; the farmers have conscience about the necessity of planting riparing forests; and is necessary to do a public policy to include the farmers in the carbon credict projects created with the riparian forest restoration.O uso de extratos vegetais com propriedades nematicidas no controle de fitonematóides representa mais uma alternativa para os pequenos produtores, com valor prático e econômico, e sem riscos de contaminação do ambiente. A adição ao solo dos extratos aquosos de 20 espécies de plantas foi avaliada sobre a população de Meloidogyne javanica em plantas de tomateiro, em casa de vegetação. Estas foram divididas em dois grupos e avaliadas em dois experimentos separados. No mesmo dia em que se infestou o solo com 5.000 ovos do nematóide, adicionou-se 20 mL dos extratos aquosos obtidos de folhas de artemísia (Chrysanthemum parthenium, bardana (Arctium lappa, capim cidreira (Cymbopogon citratus, carqueja (Bacharis trimera, cavalinha (Equisetum sp., cinamomo (Melia azedarach, hortelã (Mentha sp., mamona (Ricinus communis, manjeric

  9. UJI REPELEN (DAYA TOLAK BEBERAPA EKSTRAK TUMBUHAN TERHADAP GIGITAN NYAMUK Aedes aegypti VEKTOR DEMAM BERDARAH DENGUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Boesri Boesri

    2015-10-01

    ­borne diseases. This research is a pure experiment, that is made some extract and  then its application as repellent for Ae. aegypti, and performed in the Laboratory. Preparation of extracts performed in the laboratory of Pharmacy, University of Gajah Mada, whereas for testing extract to Aedes aegypti conducted in laboratory of insecticide trials in Institute of Vector and Reservoir Control Research and Development. Repellent tests were conducted for some extract plant at 100% dosage and extract which can refuse mosquito bite above 80% per hour  are Zodia leaf extract is resist up to 2 hours as much as 88,2%, tobacco  leaf extract is resist for 3 hours as much as 84,9%, gondopuro leaf  extract for 1 hour resist as much as 83,3%, Serai Wangi leaf extract is resist for 2 hours as much as 85,1%. Clove leaf extract  is resist for 4 hours as much as 81,7%. Chrysanthemum extract for 1 hour resist as much as 89,6%. While the extracts of plant suren leaf, tuba root and lavender just able to resist a bite of Aedes aegypti mosquito under 80%.Keywords : extract, repellent, Aedes aegypti

  10. Interception of Phytophthora syringae on Citrus fruits imported from California, USA%进境美国加州脐橙中丁香疫霉Phytophthora syringae截获

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗加凤; 刘跃庭; 廖芳; 胡晓红; 刘鹏; 黄国明

    2012-01-01

    Several brown rot fruits have been found from Californian fresh orange sample. Three isolates similar to Phytophthora syringae were obtained from these rot fruits. The colonies grew slowly on PDA and V8 juice agar (V8A). They were stellate, tiled and thin on V8A, but on PDA, the margin was chrysanthemum petaloid; mycelia dense, milk-white-colored. Sporangia and catenulate hyphal swellings formed in sterilizing water and soil extract water in 48h. The isolates were homothallic. Oospores were produced abundantly on PDA and V8A mixed with fresh Citrus fruit tissue or leaf of rhododendron. The isolates were wounded-inoculated on fresh Citrus fruits. Typical brown rot symptoms are apparent on inoculated fruits in 7d. DNA of hyphae was amplified with ITS1/ITS4 primers. In comparision with P. Syringae from NCBIGenBank databases, the sequences had 99% identity. All the results of tests showed that the isolates were Phytophthorasyringae.%从产自美国加利福尼亚州的新鲜脐橙样品中发现多个腐烂病果,通过分离培养得到3个疑似丁香疫霉Phytophthora syringae菌株,对3个菌株进行形态学研究、致病性测定和分子序列比对分析.结果表明病菌在V8A培养基上菌落稀疏、平铺,呈星状,菌丝紧贴培养基生长或埋于基质内生长;在PDA培养基上菌落呈菊花花瓣状,菌丝致密,乳白色;游动孢子囊和菌丝膨大体在无菌水和土壤浸出液中黑暗条件下48h后产生;菌株为同宗配合,卵孢子在带有新鲜脐橙果实组织或杜鹃叶片的V8A培养基中大量产生;创伤接种脐橙果实,7d后接种脐橙出现典型的褐腐症状;通用引物ITS 1/ITS4扩增测序,Blastn分析表明序列与GenBank中P.syringae序列相似性为99%.依据上述研究结果,将分离获得的3株菌鉴定为丁香疫霉Phytophthora syringae,系国内首次截获的一种植物检疫性真菌病害.

  11. Red de mercadeo y rentabilidad de flor de corte en el Valle de Mexicali, Baja California, México Marketing network and profitability of cut flower for Mexicali Valley, Baja California, Mexico

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    Blancka Yesenia Samaniego-Gámez

    2012-06-01

    during 2004 with more than 122 million pesos, considering flower seed and cut flower production. Most of cut flowers produced in state of Baja California Norte is for export market, by this reason local market means an opportunity for introducing quality products at market prices from national companies. Mexicali city, by being near USA and together with its population economic wealth thanks to profitability of cotton and orchards production in Mexicali Valley, is one or the main producer region in the country. By this reason and thanks to great amount of flower shops located in the region the aim of describing marketing network and profitability for cut flower in Mexicali Valley is proposed. Market study and diagnose to make FODA analysis were developed, defining strategies in order to seize economic potential. Actual distribution networks and marketing system consist in moving cut flowers from production centers, Córdoba, Veracruz and Coatepec de Harinas district, state of Mexico, up to Mexicali Valley, Baja California, keeping quality and optimum vase life for final customer, also proper planning for production chain due not covered demand along year it is required, the population has economical potential and tradition to give flowers guaranteeing good profitability. Roses (Rosa gigantea and R. chinensis L., asian lilies (Lilium spp., chrysanthemum [Dendranthema x grandiflorum (Ramat Kitamura c. v. Polaris White], carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus, gerbera (Gerbera jamesonii H. Bolux ex Hook F. and oriental lilies (Lilium spp. are species with more consumers' interest.

  12. 小儿神经母细胞瘤的CT诊断与病理分析%CT diagnosis and pathological analysis of neuroblastoma in children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏一娟; 周悦; 郭华; 高剑波

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the CT features and pathologic and immuno his to chemical characteristics of pedi atric neuroblastoma. Methods:The CT finding of 28 surgically and pathologically proved cases of neuroblastoma in children were retrospectively reviewed and correlated with pathology. Results:23 tumors of all the cases were located in retroperito neal space,two cases in thoracic paraspinal segion and three in the neck. The size of tumors was usually large, 22 tumors were solitary, 23 tumors appeared heterogeneous, and 23 tumors contained calcification and cystic necrosis. 22 cases under went enhanced CT scan,and mild or moderate heterogeneous enhancement were observed inl4 cases. In 17 cases,the tumors invaded adjacent tissues or organs or metastasised. The common pathological features of 28 cases of neuroblastoma were as follows:the tumors were consisted of small round or oval cells with similar size,their nuclei were large and deeply stained, and mostly arranged like chrysanthemum petals. There was positive expression of neuroendocrine makers in all cases. Con clusion. The CT and pathologic manifestation have certain characteristic. These have great value lor accurate diagnosis of this disease.%目的:探讨小儿神经母细胞瘤的CT征象及病理、免疫组化特征.方法:回顾性分析经手术、病理证实的28例小儿神经母细胞瘤的CT表现,并与手术病理作对比分析.结果:28例神经母细胞瘤位于腹膜后23例,胸椎椎旁2例,颈部3例.肿瘤瘤体较大,其中22例为单发,6例多发,23例密度不均匀,23例肿瘤内可见钙化及囊变坏死区.22例增强扫描病例中14例呈轻中度不均匀强化,17例侵犯邻近组织、器官或发生转移.28例神经母细胞瘤的共同组织病理特点为肿瘤由大小较一致的小圆形或卵圆形细胞组成,核大且染色深,多呈菊花瓣样排列.所有病例均可见阳性表达的神经内分泌细胞标记物.结论:小儿神经母细胞瘤的CT及病理

  13. Tempestite of Early Triassic Feixianguan Formation in Shangsi Section,Guanyuan: Are they extreme climatic event under megamonsoon system?%广元上寺剖面下三叠统飞仙关组风暴岩:巨型季风体制下的极端气候事件?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾德勇; 时志强; 张华; 安红艳; 张慧娟

    2011-01-01

    早三叠世扬子地台位于特提斯东北缘,研究者根据大量地质证据和模拟实验证实该时期巨型季风强度最大,且控制了整个泛大陆和周边海域的气候循环.笔者于川西北广元上寺剖面下三叠统中发现一套保存完好的风暴岩,其发育于飞仙关组下部,风暴沉积特征明显,风暴侵蚀构造、风暴撕裂构造和层理构造发育;根据沉积构造、岩石性质等识别了Sa-Sb-Sc、Sb-Sd、Sa-Sc-Sd三种序列组合(Sa-滞留砾屑沉积,Sb-粒序层理,Sc-丘状交错层理,Sd-均质层理).早三叠世研究区处于有利于保存风暴沉积的浅海环境,风暴岩的形成、发展与特征对古气候研究有重要意义.我们认为上寺地区(乃至扬子地区)的风暴沉积,可能是最强盛的季风循环影响的结果;而P/T界线生物大量灭绝后缺乏潜穴生物的背景使风暴岩得以保存.%Early Triassic Yangtze platform was located in the northeastern margin of Tethys. Based upon the large amount of geological evidence and simulation experiments, researchers confirmed that the Triassic climate system was megamonsoon that controlled the climate of whole Pangaea and surrounding sea. However abundant outcrops of Triassic strata in our country, whether contained some information implying monsoon climate? We found a set of well-pre-served tempestite in the Lower Triassic at Shangsi Section, Guangyuan city, northwest Sichuan, which developed in the lower part of the Feixianguan Formation. The sedimentary characteristics of Lower Triassic Tempestite was significant, including storm-generated gravel, storm erosion structures, storm tear structures and bedding structures. Gravel was composed of micritic limestone, and might be divided into two types according to roundness. One contained brec-ciated, strip, axiolitic shape; the other presented flat-gravel shape. Storm erosion structures included pocket and chrysanthemum shape formed by drainage and channel mode, erosion

  14. Posição da gema axilar e a indução de mutação em mudas de crisântemo (Dendranthema grandiflora Tzvelev Position of the axillary bud and mutation inducion in chrysanthemun (Dendranthema glandiflora Tzevelev plantets

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    Alvis Hernán Adames

    1999-10-01

    , originated from six different axillary buds from the M1V1 chrysanthemum branches. For this purpose, rooted plants of the cultivar ‘Ingrid’ (dark pink were irradiated with 20 Gy of gamma-rays and the prune was carried out 40 days after planting. Frequency and spectrum of flower color mutants were evaluated. No mutants were observed in the control population. In the M1V2 population, 22.1% of the total plants were mutants (white color, dark bronze, pale pink, yellow, wine, variegated and cream. Among them, 1.8% were periclinal chimeras (with only one different color from the original and the others showed mutated sectors. No differences were observed in mutation frequency and size of mutated sector among six M1V2 populations. The wine colored mutant was selected, multiplied and evaluated in a yield trial. This mutant named ‘Magali’ was multiplied and was released as a new cultivar.

  15. Vegetation Degradation and Its Correlation with Rainfall Interception and Soil in Rocky Desertification Area of Northern Guangdong%粤北石漠化地区植被退化及其与降雨截留量和土壤的相关性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆冠尧; 魏兴琥; 李森; 熊彦; 雷俐

    2013-01-01

    在粤北石漠化地区运用面上调查、定位观测和模拟降雨试验相结合的方法,研究了石漠化地区植被退化特征及其与降雨截留量、土壤的相关性.结果表明:石漠化土地从轻度→中度→重度→极重度变化时,植物群落从草本+藤本+乔灌木→草本→苔藓变化,群落层片从4层→4层→2层→1层变化,平均高度从87.06 cm→63.32 cm→42.13cm→6.21 cm变化,物种减少比例从0%→14%→46%→86%变化,植物优势种从黄连木+苎麻+黄荆+三裂叶野葛→黄连木+青蒿+野菊→五节芒+野古草+牛筋草→苔藓变化,Margalef丰富度指数从2.33→2→1.25→0.33变化,Shannon-Wiener指数从2.96→2.31→1.94→0.42变化.植被退化特征与降雨和土壤理化性质都呈显著相关性.%We studied the vegetation degradation and its correlation with rainfall interception and soil in rocky desertification area of northern Guangdong with methods of site investigation, station-oriented observation and simulated test. The results showed that: In accordance to the light, middle, severe and extremely severe rocky desertificaiton, the plant community succession was from Herb + liana + shrub + Arbor to herb to bryophyta, the community's layer was from 4 layers to 4 layers to 2 layers to 1 layer; the average height was from 87. 06 cm to 63. 32 cm to 42. 13 cm to 6. 21 cm; proportion of species reduction was from 0% tol4% to 46% to 86%; the dominant species of plants were from Pistacia chinensis + Boehmeria nivea+Vitex negundo + Pueraria phaseoloides to Pistacia chinensis + Artemisia apiacea + Chrysanthemum, indicum to Miscanthus floridulu+Arundinella anomala + Eleusine indica to bryophyta; the Margalef index was from 2. 33 to 2 to 1. 25 to 0. 33; the Shannon-Wiener index was from 2. 96 to 2. 31 to 1. 94 to 0. 42. There is a significant correlation both between vegetation degradation and rainfall and between vegetation degradation and soil.

  16. Surtos populacionais de Bemisia tabaci no estado de São Paulo Outbreaks of Bemisia tabaci in the São Paulo State, Brazil

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    André Luiz Lourenção

    1994-01-01

    : Aleyrodidae infesting vegetables and ornamental plants in some localities of São Paulo State, Brazil, has been observed. High densities of this insect were verified on tomato, broccoli, egg-plant and squash; in some cases, tomato and squash presented the whitefly-related disorders named tomato irregular repening and squash silverleaf. Weeds, mainly Sida rhombifolia L., Sonchus oleraceus L., Solanum viarum Dun. and Ipomoea acuminata Roem. & Schult., showed high whitefly colonization. At the Holambra county intensive colonizations were recorded on or-namental plants, mainly Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat. and Euphorbia pulcherrima Willd. (poinsettia. Daily insecticide applications did not reduce the insect infestations. Other crops, such as bean and cotton, were also infested. The disorders and type of infestations are similar to what has been observed in the U.S.A. In this country, the ability of certain populations of B. tabaci to induce the silverleaf disorder of squash and to colonize poinsettia intensely, among other characteristics, has been used to distinguish the "poinsettia strain" or "B strain". However, based on genomic and crossing/mating behavior studies, some investigators have considered that these two strains represent different species. In view of the similarity of the infestations and disorders that are occurring in the U.S.A., and more recently in São Paulo State, it is very likely that the "B strain" (or the new species has been introduced in Brazil.

  17. Discussion on Laws of Traditional Chinese Medical Treatment of H1N1 Influenza Based on Cohort Study%基于队列研究探讨中药复方治疗甲型H1N1流感用药规律

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周红; 陶兰亭; 徐慧聪; 江耀广; 邓屹琪; 罗翌; 卢传坚

    2011-01-01

    This article is aimed to discuss laws of compound medicine application of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) in the treatment of influenza A (H1N1). Data of 4037 influenza A (H1N1) cases were collected in a multi center cohort study using compound TCM treatment during the influenza A (H1N1) outbreak in Guangzhou from De cember 2009 to April 2010. The laws of TCM compound medicine application were summarized based on syndrome differentiation. The result showed that 156 kinds of Chinese herbs were used. The medicinal effect is for heat-clear ing and detoxifying, relieving cough, phlegm and asthma, wind-cold dispersing, wind-heat dispersing, heat-clearing and fire-purging. It occupies 51.90% in the prescription. There were 28 kinds of TCM medicinals which were com monly used. The channel -tropism involved 12 channels. The main channels were the Lung meridian, Stomach meridian, Heart meridian, and liver meridian. The proportion of these medicinals occupies 78.71%. All medicinals cover seven kinds of tastes. The top three tastes were bitter, sweet and pungent. The proportion of them was 99.57%. The top ten of commonly used TCM medicinals (except for licorice) were campanulaceae, forsythia, honey suckle flower, mulberry leaves, reed rhizome, mint, chrysanthemum, bamboo leaf, arctium, and almonds. The most frequently used prescription in the group of expelling exogenous wind-heat was Yin-Qiao-San. And the prescription of expelling exogenous wind-cold was Jing-Fang-Bai-Du-San. The frequency of using Ma-Xing-Shi-Gan-Tang to remove toxic heat obstruction in the lungs was up to 100%. It is concluded that the efficacy, taste, channel-tropism, and compatibility of TCM medicinals used in the treatment of H1N1 flu were closely related to etiological factor and pathogenesis of Influenza A (H1N1).%目的:探讨治疗甲型H1N1流感中药复方遣药组方的用药规律.方法:收集2009年12月~2010年4月新型甲型H1N1流感暴发期间多中心队列研究过程使

  18. Mineral fertilization and organic fertilization on chrysanthemun growth / Adubação mineral e orgânica no desenvolvimento de crisântemo

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    Gilberto Bueno Demétrio

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to evaluated organic products in comparison with mineral fertilization in the growth of chrysanthemum crop. The experimental design was randomized blocks with seven treatments and nine replications. The treatments were T1 (100% of commercial substratum - CS+ mineral fertilization - AM1; T2 (100% of CS + AM2; T3 (100% of CS + AM3; T4 (100% of CS + AM4; T5 (70% of CS + 30% bovine manure; T6 (70% of CS + 30% of sheep manure; T7 (70% of CS + 30% poultry manure. The mineral fertilization was carried through fertigation with AM1 = (calcium nitrate 0,2g L-1, ammonium sulphate 0,4 g L-1, potassium nitrate 0,2 g L-1, magnesium sulphate 0,3 g L-1and mono ammonium 0,05 phosphate g L-1, in the dosage of 50 ml for pot, AM2 = ULTRAFLOR® (12% N, 6% P2O5, 12% K2O, applying 0,8g pot -1, monthly, AM3= Nutriverde® = 13% N, 13% P2O5, 15% K2O, 1% Here, 4% S, 1% Mg, 0.05% B, 0.005% Co, 0.05% Cu, 0.2% Faith, 0.005% Me, 0.1% Zn, applying 2,6 g L-1 (100 m L pot -1, fortnightly and AM4 =Ouro Verde® = 15% N, 15% P2O5, 20% K2O, applying 2,0 g pot -1, fortnightly. It was evaluated the number of secondary stems, plant height, stem diameter and the inflorescences diameter, leaf number and inflorescences number and aerial fresh mass weight. The formulated mineral fertilization (T1 or manure of bovine (T5 or poultry (T7 is recommended. Among the commercial products the Nutriverde® is suggested to be used.O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar a utilização de produtos orgânicos em comparação com adubação mineral no desenvolvimento do crisântemo. O delineamento experimental foi blocos ao acaso, composto por 7 tratamentos, 9 repetições: T1 (100% de substrato comercial-SC+ adubação mineral-AM1; T2 (100% SC + AM2; T3 (100% SC + AM3; T4 (100% SC + AM4; T5 (70% SC + 30% esterco bovino; T6 (70% SC + 30% de esterco de ovinos; T7 (70% SC + 30% esterco de aves. A adubação mineral foi realizada na forma de fertirrigação com AM1 = (nitrato de cálcio 0,2g L

  19. DEVELOPMENT OF METHOD OF QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS OF BIRD CHERRY FRUIT FOR INCLUSION IN THE MONOGRAPH OF STATE PHARMACOPOEIA OF UKRAINE

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    Lenchyk L.V.

    2016-06-01

    glass-backed silica gel F254Merck plates, size 20x10 cm. Test solutions from samples of dried raw material were prepared by extraction of 1% solution of hydrochloric acid in 95% ethanol with ultrasound for 60 minutes at 50º C. As mobile phase solvent mixture ethyl acetate - anhydrous acetic acid - formic acid - water ratio (100: 10: 10: 25 was selected. For preparation the reference solution 1 mg chrysanthemin was dissolved in 10 mL of 1% solution of hydrochloric acid in 95% ethanol. Fresh bird cherry fruits test solutions of the samples were crushed to mash (free of seeds, 10 mL of methanol was added and treated with ultrasound for 15 minutes. As mobile phase solvent mixture formic acid anhydrous-water-butanol ratio (16:19:65 was selected. Two reference solutions were used. First was prepared from 2 mg chrysanthemum dissolved in 5 mL of methanol and second was Pharmacopoeial Reference Standard SPU of bird cherry extract dissolved in 0.2 mL of methanol with ultrasound bath. Test solutions and the reference solutions were placed onto the chromatographic plates and placed into the chamber. When the chromatograms developed, the plates were taken out, then observed the spots in daylight. Results and discussion. In the chromatogram it was observed for all dry bird cherry fruits samples two pink-red color zones, one of which coincided for Rf and color of chrysanthemin, and the other one was slightly lower. The chromatogram for all samples of fresh raw material showed two pinkish-violet zones, one of which had Rf and color corresponded chrysanthemin, and the second one was slightly lower. Compared with bird cherry extract, it was observed two pinkish-violet zones, coincided with Rf and color of bird cherry (SPU extract zones. In accordance with the requirements of Ph. Eur. identification by TLC is obligatory. Division of anthocyanins of plant raw materials was observed sufficiently in our chosen solvent systems and methods of analysis that allows to recommend these systems

  20. Study on Development and Growth of Early Life Stages of Nibea albiflora Ricbardson%黄姑鱼(Nibea albi flora Richardson)早期生长发育研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    耿智; 徐冬冬; 史会来; 楼宝; 毛国民; 李三磊

    2012-01-01

    In order to study the embryonic development and morphological characteristics of Nibea albiflora, the process of embryonic development was continuously observed, described and recorded in the laboratory using microscope and digital video system from June to August, 2010. The results showed that the embryo of Nibea albiflora was buoyancy, round and transparent and the diameter of the egg was (0. 89 + 0. 028) mm. The oil was at the center of the egg and the diameter of the oil globule was about 0. 025 mm. The egg belonged to telolecithal egg and discoidal cleavage. The embryo began to break the membrane after 22 h 30 min post-fertilization at the temperature of 24 °C and the salinity of 27. The embryonic development was divided into 24 stages. In the postembryonic development stage, yolk-sac stage was 1~3 DAH (day after hatching); Larvae of 4 DAH began feeding, and the yolk-sac disappeared, entering pre-flexion stage; Larvae of 6 DAH entered the stage of exogenous nutrients, and the oil globule disappeared; Larvae of 16 DAH formed the caudal fin bone Tam, entering into flexion stage; Larvae of 21 DAH entered post-flexion stage, meanwhile the primordial of Dorsal fin , Anal fin, Pelvic fin formed; The fry of 26 DAH entered juvenile stage, and their bodies were covered with chrysanthemum-like melanin; After 31 DAH, the fry entered young stage, and scales were all around their bodies. The young fish was the same as adult in morphology. At the temperature of 25~27 ℃ and the salinity of 26~28, the total length correlated significantly with the age of fry. This study indicated that the growth of total length of juvenile had obviously increased, in order to decrease the cannibal rate, we should consider the size heterogeneity and prey availability.%为研究黄姑鱼胚胎发育特征和胚后发育的仔、稚、幼鱼发育阶段的形态学,2010-06-08在实验室利用显微镜和显微镜数码摄像显示系统对黄姑鱼胚胎发育过程进行连续

  1. Effect of polymers associated with N and K fertilizer sources on Dendrathema grandiflorum growth and K, Ca and Mg relations

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    Sita Regiane Cristina Marcato

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of polymer used with different nitrogen and potassium sources on the growth and nutrition of chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiforum, var. "Virginal" and on chemical characteristics of substrate. Two substrates were evaluated: 1 composite with 50 % organic soil, 45 % sand, and 5 % composted tobacco; 2 plow layer soil (0-20 cm depth; red oxisol typical dystrophic. The experimental design was a factorial (4x2x2 and included four polymer rates (0, 1, 2, and 4 g kg-1of substrate, two nitrogen ((NH42SO4 and (H2N2CO, and two potassium (KCl and K2SO4 sources. Dry biomass, flower number, and concentration of K, Ca, and Mg were evaluated. Inverse relationships between polymer rates and plant biomass, macronutrient uptake were noticed, regardless substrate or nutrient source.O polímero agrícola tem um grande potencial de uso como condicionador de solo para produção de mudas. Contudo, pouco conhecimento existe sobre seu uso e interação com fertilizantes.Visando avaliar o efeito do polímero com diferentes fontes de abubações nitrogenadas e potássicas, no crescimento e nutrição do crisântemo (var. "Virginal" e características químicas dos substratos, um experimento foi montado. A instalação foi em casa de vegetação da Empresa CONSPIZZA HIDROSSEMEADURA Ltda., situada no município de Colombo-PR, no verão de 2001. Dois substratos foram testados: 1 composto de 50% de solo orgânico, 45% de areia e 5% de fumo compostado; 2 camada superficial (0-20cm de um LATOSSOLO VERMELHO Distrófico típico, do município de Ponta Grossa. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos ao acaso, com 5 repetições, em esquema fatorial 4x2x2, sendo 4 doses de polímero (0; 1; 2 e 4g kg-1 de substrato, 2 fontes nitrogenadas [(NH42SO4 e (H2N2CO] e duas fontes potássicas (KCl e K2SO4, respectivamente. Determinou-se massa seca de ramos, folhas e teores de K, Ca e Mg. Os substratos foram avaliados quanto aos teores de K

  2. Clinical Observation on the Treatment of Hypertension with Syndrome Differentiation%辨证治疗高血压病临床观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李学勇

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To observe the clinical effect of syndrome differentiation in the treatment of hypertension. Methods:260 patients of hypertension were divided into 5 syndromes. The syndrome of ascendan hyperactivity of liver yang (98 cases) was treated by clearing liver-fire and suppressing hyperactive liver and subsiding,with Longdan Xiegan decoction and Tianma Gouteng yin. ( Composion:Getian 10 g,Gardenia 10 g,Skullcap 12 g,Gastrodia elata 20 g,Uncaria rhynchophylla 15 g,Raw abalone shell 20 g,Chuan cattle paint 20 g, Eucommia ulmoides oliv 15 g,Tuber fleeceflower stem 30 g,Glycyrrhizae 5 g). The syndrome of liver -kidney yin deficiency(102 cases) was treated by nourishing liver and kidney and suppressing hyperactive liver and subsiding, with Qiju dihuang pills( Composion: The fruit of Chinese woliberry 20 g,Radix rehmanniae preparata 25 g,Chinese yam 30 g,The peony bark 10 g,Chrysanthemum 15 g, Crude dragonbone 20 g,Raw oyster shell20 g,Eucommia ulmoides oliv 15 g,Chuan cattle paint 15 g,Parasitic loranthus 20 g,Glycyrrhi-zae 6 g). The syndrome of phlegm-dampness internal exuberance(20 cases) was treated by expelling phlegm and resolving dampness and upraising purity and descend turbidness,with modified Banxia Baizhu Tianma decoction (Composion: Processed rhizoma Pinelliae 12 g,Rhizoma atractylodis macrocephalae 15 g,Gastrodia elata 10 g,Rhizoma acori graminei 10 g, Poly gala tenuifolia 12 g,Radix curcumae 15 g,Pericarpium citri reticulatae 12 g,Bamboo shavings 15 g,Poria cocos 20 g,Semen coicis 15 g,Glycyrrhizae 6 g). The syndrome of static blood stasis in the interior( 15 cases) was treated by benifiting qi for nourishing blood and expelling blood stasis and dredging collaterals,with Xuefu Zhuyu decoction and Buyang Huanwu decoction. (Composion: Radix bupleuri 10 g, Astragalus mongholicus 20 g, Angelica sinensis 12 g,Iigusticum chuanxiong Hort 9 g,Peach seed 9 g,Red flower 9 g,Earthwarm 20 g,Chuan cattle paint 20 g,Teasel 20 g,Eucommia ulmoides oliv 12 g

  3. Mouse Model for Spontaneous Basal-Like Breast Cancer%自发Basal-like乳腺癌小鼠模型研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丹芳; 孙保存; 赵秀兰; 崔艳芬; 徐少艳; 董学易; 车娜

    2011-01-01

    rare cytoplasm, surrounded by well-developed cell matrices. There were undifferentiated or poorly differentiated cancer cells at the center of the solid cancer nest. Caryomitotic figures were seen, with the necrosis at their centers. In The cancer cells at the edge of the cancer nest, aciniform, chrysanthemum-like, or papillar cell differentiation occurred occasionally. Around the aciniform nest, a monostratified or multilamellar myoepithelium and a pyknotic matrix were observed. Accumulated pink excretions were seen in the uniformly differentiated cancer nest.Immunolhistochemistry revealed the absence of ER, PR, and HER2 expression, but the overexpression of cyclin D1, PCNA, p53, and CK5/6 were observed in the TA2 cancer. The EM observation showed MMTV viral particles in the tumor cells. The serum E2 and progesterone concentrations in the TA2 mice and the intratumoral expression of MMTV LTR mRNA all increased. The change was similar to that in the pregnant mice. Conclusion: The histomorphology, irnmunophenotype, and biological features of breast cancer in TA2 mice are similar to those in human basal-like breast cancer, which reflects the full process of tumorigenesis and progression of basal-like cancer. Therefore, the mouse model is feasible for use in the research of basal-like breast cancer. MMTV activation induced by the increases in E2 and progesterone levels plays a key role in the carcinogcncsis of basal-like breast cancer.

  4. Seasonal Customs of Jeollanam ̄do in South Korea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Geng Ruiqin

    2016-01-01

    festival some families may offer sacrifices to Chengzhu God as in other festivals, but not many offerings are required except for some rice and vegetable dishes. On the 15th day, the Baekjung Day, all kinds of fortune-telling activities prevail. All fieldwork stops and a day’s rest is taken. On this day people also prepare food to offer to the ancestors. The 15th day of the eight month, the Mid-Au-tumn Festival, is characterized by harvest and thanks-giving. Various activities can be seen in Je-ollanam-do, among which offering sacrifices and sweeping tombs are given priority, even more than during the Spring Festival. During the mid-autumn days everyone, rich or poor, makes Songbing, which is very much like a Chinese moon cake, and it is still the most representative festival food for the Mid-Autumn Festival Day. After finishing mak-ing the Songbing with newly harvested rice, people will carry them together with many fruits to offer sacrifices in the early morning and sweep tombs. Some people may go to the cemetery to pull weeds before sweeping tombs. At night, during the full moon, in order to liven up atmosphere, women will perform traditional dance . There is also a custom observed on the Mid-autumn day—married daugh-ters will meet with their own parents and relatives in a place located mid-way between the two homes. Sometimes, female neighbors may agree to meet with each other at a certain appointed place and bring food along to spend a pleasant day to-gether. The 9 th day of the ninth month is the Jungu Festival. It is no longer regarded as a particular festival, but it is still considered a lucky day. In the past, on this day, people would make wine, rice cakes and even medicine, out of chrysanthe-mums. Moreover, literati would appreciate poems as well as maple leaves, which were quite scenic. There are no special festivals during the 10 th lunar month, though this is considered a lucky month because many things forbidden in other months are permissible during