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Sample records for chrysanthemum chlorotic mottle

  1. Characterization of cowpea chlorotic mottle virus and its assembly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verduin, B.J.M.

    1978-01-01

    This thesis decribes the conditions for isolation of cowpea chlorotic mottle virus (CCMV), its ribonucleic acid (RNA) and the coat protein, the characterization of the virus and its constituents (chapter 3, 4 and 5) and the dissociation and assembly behaviour of the virus (chapter 6 and

  2. Spectroscopy on the assembly of cowpea chlorotic mottle virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruese, J.

    1979-01-01

    This thesis describes the characterization of cowpea chlorotic mottle virus (CCMV) by using spectroscopic techniques. In chapter one and two the main properties of CCMV, which belongs to the bromoviruses, are summarized. The application of spectroscopic techniques in the study of other viruses is

  3. Structural transitions in Cowpea chlorotic mottle virus (CCMV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liepold, Lars O.; Revis, Jennifer; Allen, Mark; Oltrogge, Luke; Young, Mark; Douglas, Trevor

    2005-12-01

    Viral capsids act as molecular containers for the encapsulation of genomic nucleic acid. These protein cages can also be used as constrained reaction vessels for packaging and entrapment of synthetic cargos. The icosahedral Cowpea chlorotic mottle virus (CCMV) is an excellent model for understanding the encapsulation and packaging of both genomic and synthetic materials. High-resolution structural information of the CCMV capsid has been invaluable for evaluating structure-function relationships in the assembled capsid but does not allow insight into the capsid dynamics. The dynamic nature of the CCMV capsid might play an important role in the biological function of the virus. The CCMV capsid undergoes a pH and metal ion dependent reversible structural transition where 60 separate pores in the capsid open or close, exposing the interior of the protein cage to the bulk medium. In addition, the highly basic N-terminal domain of the capsid, which is disordered in the crystal structure, plays a significant role in packaging the viral cargo. Interestingly, in limited proteolysis and mass spectrometry experiments the N-terminal domain is the first part of the subunit to be cleaved, confirming its dynamic nature. Based on our fundamental understanding of the capsid dynamics in CCMV, we have utilized these aspects to direct packaging of a range of synthetic materials including drugs and inorganic nanoparticles.

  4. Feasibility of Cowpea chlorotic mottle virus-like particles as scaffold for epitope presentations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hassani-Mehraban, A.; Creutzburg, S.; Heereveld, van L.; Kormelink, R.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Within the last decade Virus-Like Particles (VLPs) have increasingly received attention from scientists for their use as a carrier of (peptide) molecules or as scaffold to present epitopes for use in subunit vaccines. To test the feasibility of Cowpea chlorotic mottle virus (CCMV) particles as a

  5. Molecular interactions during the assembly of cowpea chlorotic mottle virus studied by magnetic resonance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vriend, G.

    1983-01-01

    This thesis describes the application of 1 H- and 13 C- NMR, EPR, ST-EPR and calculational methods to study cowpea chlorotic mottle virus. This virus consists of RNA encapsidated by 180 identical protein subunits, arranged icosahedrally. The

  6. Metal-ion-induced formation and stabilization of protein cages based on the cowpea chlorotic mottle virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Minten, Inge J.; Wilke, Koos D.M.; Hendriks, Linda J.A.; van Hest, Jan C.M.; Nolte, Roeland J.M.; Cornelissen, Jeroen Johannes Lambertus Maria

    2011-01-01

    The cowpea chlorotic mottle virus (CCMV) is a versatile building block for the construction of nanoreactors and functional materials. Upon RNA removal, the capsid can be reversibly assembled and disassembed by adjusting the pH. At pH 5.0 the capsid is in the native assembled conformation, while at

  7. Versatile post-functionalization of the external shell of cowpea chlorotic mottle virus by using click chemistry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hommersom, C.A.; Matt, B.D.; van der Ham, A.M.; Cornelissen, Jeroen Johannes Lambertus Maria; Katsonis, Nathalie Hélène

    2014-01-01

    We present the modification of the outer protein shell of cowpea chlorotic mottle virus (CCMV) with linear and strained alkyne groups. These functionalized protein capsids constitute valuable platforms for post-functionalization via click chemistry. After modification, the integrity of the capsid

  8. Passion Fruit Chlorotic Mottle Virus: Molecular Characterization of a New Divergent Geminivirus in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontenele, Rafaela S; Abreu, Rayane A; Lamas, Natalia S; Alves-Freitas, Dione M T; Vidal, Andreza H; Poppiel, Raul R; Melo, Fernando L; Lacorte, Cristiano; Martin, Darren P; Campos, Magnolia A; Varsani, Arvind; Ribeiro, Simone G

    2018-04-02

    Brazil is one of the major passion fruit producers worldwide. Viral diseases are among the most important constraints for passion fruit production. Here we identify and characterize a new passion fruit infecting-virus belonging to the family Geminiviridae : passion fruit chlorotic mottle virus (PCMoV). PCMoV is a divergent geminivirus unlike previously characterized passion fruit-infecting geminiviruses that belonged to the genus Begomovirus . Among the presently known geminiviruses, it is most closely related to, and shares ~62% genome-wide identity with citrus chlorotic dwarf associated virus (CCDaV) and camelia chlorotic dwarf associated virus (CaCDaV). The 3743 nt PCMoV genome encodes a capsid protein (CP) and replication-associated protein (Rep) that respectively share 56 and 60% amino acid identity with those encoded by CaCDaV. The CPs of PCMoV, CCDaV, and CaCDaV cluster with those of begomovirus whereas their Reps with those of becurtoviruses. Hence, these viruses likely represent a lineage of recombinant begomo-like and becurto-like ancestral viruses. Furthermore, PCMoV, CCDaV, and CaCDaV genomes are ~12-30% larger than monopartite geminiviruses and this is primarily due to the encoded movement protein (MP; 891-921 nt) and this MP is most closely related to that encoded by the DNA-B component of bipartite begomoviruses. Hence, PCMoV, CCDaV, and CaCDaV lineage of viruses may represent molecules in an intermediary step in the evolution of bipartite begomoviruses (~5.3 kb) from monopartite geminiviruses (~2.7-3 kb). An infectious clone of PCMoV systemically infected Nicotiana benthamina , Arabidopsis thaliana , and Passiflora edulis .

  9. Structural rigidity in the capsid assembly of cowpea chlorotic mottle virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hespenheide, B M; Jacobs, D J; Thorpe, M F

    2004-01-01

    The cowpea chlorotic mottle virus (CCMV) has a protein cage, or capsid, which encloses its genetic material. The structure of the capsid consists of 180 copies of a single protein that self-assemble inside a cell to form a complete capsid with icosahedral symmetry. The icosahedral surface can be naturally divided into pentagonal and hexagonal faces, and the formation of either of these faces has been proposed to be the first step in the capsid assembly process. We have used the software FIRST to analyse the rigidity of pentameric and hexameric substructures of the complete capsid to explore the viability of certain capsid assembly pathways. FIRST uses the 3D pebble game to determine structural rigidity, and a brief description of this algorithm, as applied to body-bar networks, is given here. We find that the pentameric substructure, which corresponds to a pentagonal face on the icosahedral surface, provides the best structural properties for nucleating the capsid assembly process, consistent with experimental observations

  10. Structural rigidity in the capsid assembly of cowpea chlorotic mottle virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hespenheide, B. M.; Jacobs, D. J.; Thorpe, M. F.

    2004-11-01

    The cowpea chlorotic mottle virus (CCMV) has a protein cage, or capsid, which encloses its genetic material. The structure of the capsid consists of 180 copies of a single protein that self-assemble inside a cell to form a complete capsid with icosahedral symmetry. The icosahedral surface can be naturally divided into pentagonal and hexagonal faces, and the formation of either of these faces has been proposed to be the first step in the capsid assembly process. We have used the software FIRST to analyse the rigidity of pentameric and hexameric substructures of the complete capsid to explore the viability of certain capsid assembly pathways. FIRST uses the 3D pebble game to determine structural rigidity, and a brief description of this algorithm, as applied to body-bar networks, is given here. We find that the pentameric substructure, which corresponds to a pentagonal face on the icosahedral surface, provides the best structural properties for nucleating the capsid assembly process, consistent with experimental observations.

  11. Structural rigidity in the capsid assembly of cowpea chlorotic mottle virus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hespenheide, B M [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Arizona State University, PO Box 871504, Tempe, AZ 85287-1504 (United States); Jacobs, D J [Department of Physics and Astronomy, California State University, 18111 Nordhoff Street, Northridge, CA 91330-8268 (United States); Thorpe, M F [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Arizona State University, PO Box 871504, Tempe, AZ 85287-1504 (United States)

    2004-11-10

    The cowpea chlorotic mottle virus (CCMV) has a protein cage, or capsid, which encloses its genetic material. The structure of the capsid consists of 180 copies of a single protein that self-assemble inside a cell to form a complete capsid with icosahedral symmetry. The icosahedral surface can be naturally divided into pentagonal and hexagonal faces, and the formation of either of these faces has been proposed to be the first step in the capsid assembly process. We have used the software FIRST to analyse the rigidity of pentameric and hexameric substructures of the complete capsid to explore the viability of certain capsid assembly pathways. FIRST uses the 3D pebble game to determine structural rigidity, and a brief description of this algorithm, as applied to body-bar networks, is given here. We find that the pentameric substructure, which corresponds to a pentagonal face on the icosahedral surface, provides the best structural properties for nucleating the capsid assembly process, consistent with experimental observations.

  12. Molecular diversity among viroids infecting chrysanthemum in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adkar-Purushothama, C R; Chennappa, G; Poornachandra Rao, K; Sreenivasa, M Y; Maheshwar, P K; Nagendra Prasad, M N; Sano, T

    2017-08-01

    Association of Chrysanthemum stunt viroid (CSVd) and Chrysanthemum chlorotic mottle viroid (CChMVd) with the Chrysanthemum plants exhibiting severe stunting, distinct yellow leaf mottling, and chlorosis was detected in the main chrysanthemum-growing regions of India. Sequence analysis of 90 cDNA clones obtained for CSVd and CChMVd, representing the chrysanthemum-growing regions of India, revealed the high degree of sequence variation throughout the genome under natural conditions. Additionally, all the analyzed CChMVd clones revealed the presence of UUUC in the tetraloop, a signature of symptomatic variants in susceptible cultivars. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that Indian CSVd is closely related to European isolates from ornamentals, whereas CChMVd clustered along with the isolates reported from the East Asian countries.

  13. The 3.2 Angstrom Resolution Structure of the Polymorphic Cowpea Chlorotic Mottle Virus Ribonucleoprotein Particle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speir, Jeffrey Alan

    Structural studies of the polymorphic cowpea chlorotic mottle virus have resulted in high resolution structures for two distinct icosahedral ribonucleoprotein particle conformations dependent upon whether acidic or basic pH conditions prevail. CCMV is stable below pH 6.5, however metal-free particles maintain a 10% increase in hydrodynamic volume at pH >=q 7.5. Identification of this swollen' form of CCMV, which can easily be disrupted with 1M NaCl, led to the first reassembly of an icosahedral virus in vitro from purified viral protein and RNA to form infectious particles, and its assembly has been the subject of biochemical and biophysical investigations for over twenty-five years. Under well defined conditions of pH, ionic strength and divalent metal ion concentration, CCMV capsid protein or capsid protein and RNA will reassemble to form icosahedral particles of various sizes, sheets, tubes, rosettes, and a variety of laminar structures which resemble virion structures from non-related virus families. Analysis of native particles at 3.2A resolution and swollen particles at 28A resolution has suggested that the chemical basis for the formation of polymorphic icosahedral and anisometric structures is: (i) hexamers formed of beta-barrel subunits stabilized by an unusual hexameric parallel beta structure made up of their N-termini, (ii) the location of protein-RNA interactions, (iii) divalent metal cation binding sites that regulate quasi-symmetrical subunit associations, (iv) charge repulsion across the same interfaces when lacking divalent metal ions at basic pH, which induces the formation of sixty 20A diameter portals for RNA release, and (v) a novel, C-terminal-based, subunit dimer assembly unit. The use of C- and N-terminal arms in CCMV has not been observed in other icosahedral RNA virus structures determined at near atomic resolution, however, their detailed interactions and roles in stabilizing the quaternary organization of CCMV are related to that found

  14. Structural Transitions and Energy Landscape for Cowpea Chlorotic Mottle Virus Capsid Mechanics from Nanomanipulation in Vitro and in Silico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kononova, Olga; Snijder, Joost; Brasch, Melanie; Cornelissen, Jeroen; Dima, Ruxandra I.; Marx, Kenneth A.; Wuite, Gijs J. L.; Roos, Wouter H.; Barsegov, Valeri

    2013-10-01

    Physical properties of capsids of plant and animal viruses are important factors in capsid self-assembly, survival of viruses in the extracellular environment, and their cell infectivity. Virus shells can have applications as nanocontainers and delivery vehicles in biotechnology and medicine. Combined AFM experiments and computational modeling on sub-second timescales of the indentation nanomechanics of Cowpea Chlorotic Mottle Virus (CCMV) capsid show that the capsid's physical properties are dynamic and local characteristics of the structure, which depend on the magnitude and geometry of mechanical input. Surprisingly, under large deformations the CCMV capsid transitions to the collapsed state without substantial local structural alterations. The enthalpy change in this deformation state dH = 11.5 - 12.8 MJ/mol is mostly due to large-amplitude out-of-plane excitations, which contribute to the capsid bending, and the entropy change TdS = 5.1 - 5.8 MJ/mol is mostly due to coherent in-plane rearrangements of protein chains, which result in the capsid stiffening. Dynamic coupling of these modes defines the extent of elasticity and reversibility of capsid mechanical deformation. This emerging picture illuminates how unique physico-chemical properties of protein nanoshells help define their structure and morphology, and determine their viruses' biological function.

  15. Classification of cryo electron microscopy images, noisy tomographic images recorded with unknown projection directions, by simultaneously estimating reconstructions and application to an assembly mutant of Cowpea Chlorotic Mottle Virus and portals of the bacteriophage P22

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Junghoon; Zheng, Yili; Yin, Zhye; Doerschuk, Peter C.; Johnson, John E.

    2010-08-01

    Cryo electron microscopy is frequently used on biological specimens that show a mixture of different types of object. Because the electron beam rapidly destroys the specimen, the beam current is minimized which leads to noisy images (SNR substantially less than 1) and only one projection image per object (with an unknown projection direction) is collected. For situations where the objects can reasonably be described as coming from a finite set of classes, an approach based on joint maximum likelihood estimation of the reconstruction of each class and then use of the reconstructions to label the class of each image is described and demonstrated on two challenging problems: an assembly mutant of Cowpea Chlorotic Mottle Virus and portals of the bacteriophage P22.

  16. Occurrence of pepper mild mottle virus in greenhousegrown pepper ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Severe systemic viral symptoms were observed on the leaves of infected pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) plants cultivated in Antalya located in the Mediterranean coast of Turkey, in 2008. The symptoms on the diseased pepper plants included, mosaic, mottle, chlorosis coupled with stunting, chlorotic spots, distortion of the ...

  17. Characterization of a Nepovirus causing a leaf mottling disease in Petunia hybrida

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report describes the complete genome sequence and characterization of a new virus infecting petunia. Icosahedral virus-like particles were isolated from Petunia hybrida cuttings with interveinal chlorotic mottling. The virus was transmitted by mechanical inoculation from infected to healthy P. ...

  18. Rapid plant regeneration of chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-05-04

    May 4, 2009 ... demand for chrysanthemum, it has become one of the first commercial targets for ... frequency of multiple shoot regeneration response was. 95 and 91%, for nodal ..... Dordrecht, The Netherlands, pp. 91-101. Prasad RN ...

  19. Chrysanthemum morifolium L.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-02-21

    Feb 21, 2011 ... Efficient plant regeneration system has been developed from the nodal segments of chrysanthemum. (Chrysanthemum morifolium L). Nodal segments, after being sterilized with 1.0% mercuric chloride for three minutes, were inoculated in Murashige and Skoog (MS) media with varied concentrations of ...

  20. Nutritional disorders in chrysanthemums

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roorda van Eysinga, J.P.N.L.; Smilde, K.W.

    1980-01-01

    This book is a guide to diagnosing nutritional disorders in chrysanthemums. Deficiencies and toxicities are included, fifteen in all. Colour plates and descriptions are given for nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, magnesium, calcium, sulphur, boron, copper, manganese, iron and zinc deficiency and for

  1. Economic significance of viroids in ornamental crops (Book Chapter)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The economic significance of viroids in ornamental crops is less obvious than in food crops. Most serious direct impact is known for chrysanthemum stunt viroid in chrysanthemum and, to a lesser extent, for chrysanthemum chlorotic mottle viroid in the same crop. However, the majority of viroid infect...

  2. Agrobacterium-mediated inoculation of chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum morifolium) plants with chrysanthemum stunt viroid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabeshima, Tomoyuki; Doi, Motoaki; Hosokawa, Munetaka

    2016-08-01

    Agroinfiltration was tested as a method of inoculation of chrysanthemum plants with chrysanthemum stunt viroid (CSVd). Binary vectors harboring dimeric CSVd sequences in sense and antisense orientations were constructed, and Agrobacterium transfected with these binary vectors was infiltrated into chrysanthemum leaves. Northern blotting and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that local infection was established within 7 days and systemic infection within 20 days. CSVd polarities showed no difference in infectivity. This study showed that agroinfiltration of chrysanthemum plants is an easy, rapid, and cost-effective method for CSVd inoculation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Image mottle in abdominal CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ende, J F; Huda, W; Ros, P R; Litwiller, A L

    1999-04-01

    To investigate image mottle in conventional CT images of the abdomen as a function of radiographic technique factors and patient size. Water-filled phantoms simulating the abdomens of adult (32 cm in diameter) and pediatric (16 cm in diameter) patients were used to investigate image mottle in CT as a function of x-ray tube potential and mAs. CT images from 39 consecutive patients with noncontrast liver scans and 49 patients with iodine contrast scans were analyzed retrospectively. Measurements were made of the mean liver parenchyma Hounsfield unit value and the corresponding image mottle. For a given water phantom and x-ray tube potential, image mottle was proportional to the mAs-0.5. Increasing the phantom diameter from 16 cm (pediatric) to 32 cm increased the mottle by a factor of 2.4, and increasing the x-ray tube potential from 80 kVp to 140 kVp reduced the mottle by a factor of 2.5. All patients were scanned at 120 kVp, with no correlation between patient size and the x-ray tube mAs. The mean mottle level was 7.8 +/- 2.2 and 10.0 +/- 2.5 for the noncontrast and contrast studies, respectively. An increase in patient diameter of 3 cm would require approximately 65% more mAs to maintain the same level of image mottle. The mottle in abdominal CT images may be controlled by adjusting radiographic technique factors, which should be adjusted to take into account the size of the patient undergoing the examination.

  4. Identification of Chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum morifolium Self-Incompatibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available There has been a heated argument over self-incompatibilityof chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum morifolium among chrysanthemum breeders. In order to solve the argument, we investigated pistil receptivity, seed set, and compatible index of 24 chrysanthemum cultivars. It was found that the 24 cultivars averagely had 3.7–36.3 pollen grains germinating on stigmas at 24 hours after self-pollination through the fluorescence microscope using aniline blue staining method. However, only 10 of them produced self-pollinated seeds, and their seed sets and compatible indexes were 0.03–56.50% and 0.04–87.50, respectively. The cultivar “Q10-33-1” had the highest seed set (56.50% and compatible index (87.50, but ten of its progeny had a wide range of separation in seed set (0–37.23% and compatible index (0–68.65. The results indicated that most of chrysanthemum cultivars were self-incompatible, while a small proportion of cultivars were self-compatible. In addition, there is a comprehensive separation of self-incompatibility among progeny from the same self-pollinated self-compatible chrysanthemum cultivar. Therefore, it is better to emasculate inflorescences during chrysanthemum hybridization breeding when no information concerning its self-incompatibility characteristics is available. However, if it is self-incompatible and propagated by vegetative methods, it is unnecessary to carry out emasculation when it is used as a female plant during hybridization breeding.

  5. Axillary bud development in chrysanthemum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruiter, de H.A.

    1996-01-01


    Each chrysanthemum cutting originates from an axillary bud. For an improvement of the cultivation of cuttings or more specific their quality, it is necessary that the development of an axillary bud can be controlled as good as possible. Axillary bud development can be distinguished into

  6. First report of Maize chlorotic mottle virus and maize (corn) lethal necrosis in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    In September 2011, high incidence of a new maize (Zea mays L.) disease was reported at lower elevations (1900 masl) in the Longisa division of Bomet County, Southern Rift Valley of Kenya. Later the disease was noted in Bomet Central division, spreading into the neighboring Chepalungu and Narok South...

  7. Identification of Cherry green ring mottle virus on Sweet Cherry Trees in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    In-Sook Cho

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available During the 2012 growing season, 154 leaf samples were collected from sweet cherry trees in Hwaseong, Pyeongtaek, Gyeongju, Kimcheon, Daegu, Yeongju and Eumseong and tested for the presence of Cherry green ring mottle virus (CGRMV. PCR products of the expected size (807 bp were obtained from 6 samples. The PCR products were cloned and sequenced. The nucleotide sequences of the clones showed over 88% identities to published coat protein sequences of CGRMV isolates in the GenBank database. The sequences of CGRMV isolates, CGR-KO 1−6 shared 98.8 to 99.8% nucleotide and 99.6 to 100% amino acid similarities. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the Korean CGRMV isolates belong to the group II of CGRMV coat protein genes. The CGRMV infected sweet cherry trees were also tested for Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus (ACLSV, Apple mosaic virus (ApMV, Cherry necrotic rusty mottle virus (CNRMV, Cherry mottle leaf virus (CMLV, Cherry rasp leaf virus (CRLV, Cherry leafroll virus (CLRV, Cherry virus A (CVA, Little cherry virus 1 (LChV1, Prune dwarf virus (PDV and Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV by RT-PCR. All of the tested trees were also infected with ACLSV.

  8. Chrysanthemum biotechnology: discoveries from the recent literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teixeira da Silva Jaime A.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The in vitro propagation of chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum × grandiflorum (Ramat. Kitam., one of the world’s most important ornamentals, is a very well-studied topic and shows numerous strides each year. This mini-review condenses the knowledge that has been published on chrysanthemum biotechnology, especially in vitro culture in the wider plant science literature. In 2013 and 2014, important strides were made in molecular breeding, particularly anti-viral strategies, including through transgenics, and our understanding of flower genetics and flowering regulation.

  9. Preliminary X-ray data analysis of crystalline hibiscus chlorotic ringspot virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Ao; Speir, Jeffrey A.; Yuan, Y. Adam; Johnson, John E.; Wong, Sek-Man

    2009-01-01

    Hibiscus chlorotic ringspot virus is a positive-sense monopartite single-stranded RNA virus that belongs to the Carmovirus genus of the Tombusviridae family. Authentic virus harvested from infected host kenaf leaves was purified and virus crystals were grown in multiple conditions. One of the crystals diffracted to 3.2 Å resolution and allowed the collection of a partial data set. Hibiscus chlorotic ringspot virus (HCRSV) is a positive-sense monopartite single-stranded RNA virus that belongs to the Carmovirus genus of the Tombusviridae family, which includes carnation mottle virus (CarMV). The HCRSV virion has a 30 nm diameter icosahedral capsid with T = 3 quasi-symmetry containing 180 copies of a 38 kDa coat protein (CP) and encapsidates a full-length 3.9 kb genomic RNA. Authentic virus was harvested from infected host kenaf leaves and was purified by saturated ammonium sulfate precipitation, sucrose density-gradient centrifugation and anion-exchange chromatography. Virus crystals were grown in multiple conditions; one of the crystals diffracted to 3.2 Å resolution and allowed the collection of a partial data set. The crystal belonged to space group R32, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 336.4, c = 798.5 Å. Packing considerations and rotation-function analysis determined that there were three particles per unit cell, all of which have the same orientation and fixed positions, and resulted in tenfold noncrystallography symmetry for real-space averaging. The crystals used for the structure determination of southern bean mosaic virus (SBMV) have nearly identical characteristics. Together, these findings will greatly aid the high-resolution structure determination of HCRSV

  10. Identification and Quality Assessment of Chrysanthemum Buds by CE Fingerprinting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoping Xing

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple and efficient fingerprinting method for chrysanthemum buds was developed with the aim of establishing a quality control protocol based on biochemical makeup. Chrysanthemum bud samples were successively extracted by water and alcohol. The fingerprints of the chrysanthemum buds samples were obtained using capillary electrophoresis and electrochemical detection (CE-ED employing copper and carbon working electrodes to capture all of the chemical information. 10 batches of chrysanthemum buds were collected from different regions and various factories to establish the baseline fingerprint. The experimental data of 10 batches electropherogram buds by CE were analyzed by correlation coefficient and the included angle cosine methods. A standard chrysanthemum bud fingerprint including 24 common peaks was established, 12 from each electrode, which was successfully applied to identify and distinguish between chrysanthemum buds from 2 other chrysanthemum species. These results demonstrate that fingerprint analysis can be used as an important criterion for chrysanthemum buds quality control.

  11. Variation between cut chrysanthemum cultivars in response to suboptimal temperature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ploeg, van der A.; Kularathne, R.J.K.N.; Carvalho, S.M.P.; Heuvelink, E.

    2007-01-01

    To breed for more energy-efficient cut chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat.) cultivars it is important to know the variation of the temperature response existing in modern cultivars. In a greenhouse experiment with 25 chrysanthemum cultivars, a significant variation was observed in

  12. Chrysanthemum WRKY gene DgWRKY5 enhances tolerance to salt stress in transgenic chrysanthemum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Qian-Yu; Wu, Yin-Huan; Wang, Ke; Bai, Zhen-Yu; Liu, Qing-Lin; Pan, Yuan-Zhi; Zhang, Lei; Jiang, Bei-Bei

    2017-07-06

    WRKY transcription factors play important roles in plant growth development, resistance and substance metabolism regulation. However, the exact function of the response to salt stress in plants with specific WRKY transcription factors remains unclear. In this research, we isolated a new WRKY transcription factor DgWRKY5 from chrysanthemum. DgWRKY5 contains two WRKY domains of WKKYGQK and two C 2 H 2 zinc fingers. The expression of DgWRKY5 in chrysanthemum was up-regulated under various treatments. Meanwhile, we observed higher expression levels in the leaves contrasted with other tissues. Under salt stress, the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD) and catalase (CAT) enzymes in transgenic chrysanthemum were significantly higher than those in WT, whereas the accumulation of H 2 O 2 , O 2 - and malondialdehyde (MDA) was reduced in transgenic chrysanthemum. Several parameters including root length, root length, fresh weight, chlorophyll content and leaf gas exchange parameters in transgenic chrysanthemum were much better compared with WT under salt stress. Moreover, the expression of stress-related genes DgAPX, DgCAT, DgNCED3A, DgNCED3B, DgCuZnSOD, DgP5CS, DgCSD1 and DgCSD2 was up-regulated in DgWRKY5 transgenic chrysanthemum compared with that in WT. These results suggested that DgWRKY5 could function as a positive regulator of salt stress in chrysanthemum.

  13. Preliminary X-ray Data Analysis of Crystalline Hibiscus Chlorotic Ringspot Virus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, A.; Speir, J; Yuan, Y; Johnson, J; Wong, S

    2009-01-01

    Hibiscus chlorotic ringspot virus (HCRSV) is a positive-sense monopartite single-stranded RNA virus that belongs to the Carmovirus genus of the Tombusviridae family, which includes carnation mottle virus (CarMV). The HCRSV virion has a 30 nm diameter icosahedral capsid with T = 3 quasi-symmetry containing 180 copies of a 38 kDa coat protein (CP) and encapsidates a full-length 3.9 kb genomic RNA. Authentic virus was harvested from infected host kenaf leaves and was purified by saturated ammonium sulfate precipitation, sucrose density-gradient centrifugation and anion-exchange chromatography. Virus crystals were grown in multiple conditions; one of the crystals diffracted to 3Synchrotron .2 A resolution and allowed the collection of a partial data set. The crystal belonged to space group R32, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 336.4, c = 798.5 . Packing considerations and rotation-function analysis determined that there were three particles per unit cell, all of which have the same orientation and fixed positions, and resulted in tenfold noncrystallography symmetry for real-space averaging. The crystals used for the structure determination of southern bean mosaic virus (SBMV) have nearly identical characteristics. Together, these findings will greatly aid the high-resolution structure determination of HCRSV.

  14. potential for biological control of rice yellow mottle virus vectors

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    Insect pests and disease infestations are the primary constraints in rice (Oryza sativa) production .... Asia. Of all the rice diseases, the one caused by the rice yellow mottle virus (RYMV), first reported ..... yellow mottle virus in Central Africa.

  15. Menkes' disease in Mottled mice and man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamer, C.J.A. van den; Prins, H.W.; Nooijen, J.L.

    1979-01-01

    Biochemically the defect of the Brindled allelic mutant of the Mottled mouse and of Menkes' disease in man are very similar if not identical. A modification of a normal Cu-binding protein or an unrestrained synthesis of a Cu-binding protein that normally is present only in small amounts is proposed as the basis of this disease

  16. Deep Sequencing Data and Infectivity Assays Indicate that Chickpea Chlorotic Dwarf Virus is the Etiological Agent of the “Hard Fruit Syndrome” of Watermelon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takoua Zaagueri

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Chickpea chlorotic dwarf virus (CpCDV, a polyphagous mastrevirus, family Geminiviridae, has been recently linked to the onset of the “hard fruit syndrome” of watermelon, first described in Tunisia, that makes fruits unmarketable due to the presence of white hard portions in the flesh, chlorotic mottling on the rind, and an unpleasant taste. To investigate the etiological agent of this disease, total RNA extracted from symptomatic watermelon fruits was subjected to small RNA sequencing through next generation sequencing (NGS techniques. Data obtained showed the presence of CpCDV and two other viral species. However, following validation through polymerase chain reaction (PCR, CpCDV was the only viral species consistently detected in all samples. Watermelon seedlings were then challenged by an agroinfectious CpCDV clone; several plants proved to be CpCDV-infected, and were able to produce fruits. CpCDV infected and replicated in watermelon fruits and leaves, leading to abnormality in fruits and in seed production, similar to those described in field. These results indicate that CpCDV is the etiological agent of the “hard fruit syndrome” of watermelon.

  17. Tomato chlorotic spot virus Identified in Marsdenia floribunda in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ornamental crops including hoya, annual vinca and portulaca have recently been identified with Tomato chlorotic spot virus (TCSV) infections in Florida. Observations of Marsdenia floribunda, commonly known as Madagascar jasmine, in September 2016 revealed TCSV-like symptoms. Testing of these sympt...

  18. Identification of a maize chlorotic dwarf virus silencing suppressor protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maize chlorotic dwarf virus (MCDV), a member of the genus Waikavirus, family Secoviridae, has a 11784 nt (+)ssRNA genome that encodes a 389 kDa proteolytically processed polyprotein. We show that an N-terminal 78kDa polyprotein (R78) has silencing suppressor activity, that it is cleaved by the viral...

  19. Gene expression profiles responses to aphid feeding in chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum morifolium).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Xiaolong; Shao, Yafeng; Jiang, Jiafu; Ren, Liping; Chen, Fadi; Fang, Weimin; Guan, Zhiyong; Chen, Sumei

    2014-12-02

    Chrysanthemum is an important ornamental plant all over the world. It is easily attacked by aphid, Macrosiphoniella sanbourni. The molecular mechanisms of plant defense responses to aphid are only partially understood. Here, we investigate the gene expression changes in response to aphid feeding in chrysanthemum leaf by RNA-Seq technology. Three libraries were generated from pooled leaf tissues of Chrysanthemum morifolium 'nannongxunzhang' that were collected at different time points with (Y) or without (CK) aphid infestations and mock puncture treatment (Z), and sequenced using an Illumina HiSeqTM 2000 platform. A total of 7,363,292, 7,215,860 and 7,319,841 clean reads were obtained in library CK, Y and Z, respectively. The proportion of clean reads was >97.29% in each library. Approximately 76.35% of the clean reads were mapped to a reference gene database including all known chrysanthemum unigene sequences. 1,157, 527 and 340 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified in the comparison of CK-VS-Y, CK-VS-Z and Z-VS-Y, respectively. These DEGs were involved in phytohormone signaling, cell wall biosynthesis, photosynthesis, reactive oxygen species (ROS) pathway and transcription factor regulatory networks, and so on. Changes in gene expression induced by aphid feeding are shown to be multifaceted. There are various forms of crosstalk between different pathways those genes belonging to, which would allow plants to fine-tune its defense responses.

  20. Selective depletion of organic matter in mottled podzol horizons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buurman, P.; Schellekens, J.; Fritze, H.; Nierop, K.G.J.

    2007-01-01

    Abstract: Some well-drained podzols on quartz sands in the Netherlands and neighbouring Belgium and Germany show mottling in all horizons due to selective removal of organic matter. Phospholipid analysis and morphology of the mottles suggests that this removal is due to activity of fungi.

  1. Selective depletion of organic matter in mottled podzol horizons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buurman, P.; Schellekens, J.F.P.; Fritze, H.; Nierop, K.G.J.

    2007-01-01

    Some well-drained podzols on quartz sands in the Netherlands and neighbouring Belgium and Germany show mottling in all horizons due to selective removal of organic matter. Phospholipid analysis and morphology of the mottles suggests that this removal is due to a combination of bacteria, fungi, and

  2. Induced mutation altering flower colour in Chrysanthemum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Datta, S K [National Botanical Research Institute, Lucknow (India)

    1989-01-01

    Full text: 'Flirt' is a double Korean type, small flowered Chrysanthemum of red colour. Rooted cuttings were treated with 1.5-2.5 krad gamma rays. A chimeral flower colour mutant was detected after 1.5 krad treatment. After purification through repeated cuttings a mutant clone was developed and released as commercial cultivar 'Man Bhawan'. It produces bi-coloured flower-heads: yellow and red at full bloom stage becoming completely yellow later on. By chromatography, 6 pigment spots could be identified in the variety 'Flirt' but only 5 in the mutant, violet (hRf 69.83) being absent. Spectrophotometric analysis of petal extracts showed presence of three peaks in both 'Flirt' and 'Man Bhawan' at full bloom stage but only two in 'Man Bhawan' at fading stage. (author)

  3. Analysis of inheritance mode in chrysanthemum using EST-derived SSR markers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Park, Sang Kun; Arens, Paul; Esselink, Danny; Lim, Jin Hee; Shin, Hak Ki

    2015-01-01

    To study the inheritance mode of hexaploid chrysanthemum (random or preferential chromosome pairing), a segregation analysis was carried out using SSR markers derived from chrysanthemum ESTs in the public domain. A total of 248 EST-SSR primer pairs were screened in chrysanthemum cultivars

  4. Atoms for peace: a success story of mutation breeding in Florist chrysanthemum at Indian Agricultural Research Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasad, K.V.; Kumar, Surendra; Kumar, Sanjay; Raju, D.V.S.; Swarup, Kishan; Singh, Ompal

    2009-01-01

    Florist chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum morifolium) is the single largest beneficiary of mutation breeding efforts across the world. Nearly 267 mutants that are documented in Mutant Variety Database of IAEA belong to chrysanthemum. Conventional breeding in chrysanthemum is hampered due to excessive length of the ray florets preventing their pollination besides self-incompatibility. Mutation breeding therefore is more amenable to induce variability. (author)

  5. Impact of Electrostatic Assist on Halftone Mottle in Shrink Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akshay V. Joshi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Gravure printing delivers intricate print quality and exhibit better feasibility for printing long run packaging jobs. PVC and PETG are widely used shrink films printed by gravure process. The variation in ink transfer from gravure cells on to the substrate results in print mottle. The variation is inevitable and requires close monitoring with tight control on process parameters to deliver good dot fidelity. The electrostatic assist in gravure improves the ink transfer efficiency but is greatly influenced by ESA parameters such as air gap (distance between charge bar and impression roller and voltage. Moreover, it is imperative to study the combined effect of ESA and gravure process parameters such as line screen, viscosity and speed for the minimization of half-tone mottle in shrink films. A general full factorial design was performed for the above mentioned parameters to evaluate half-tone mottle. The significant levels of both the main and interactions were studied by ANOVA approach. The statistical analysis revealed the significance of all the process parameters with viscosity, line screen and voltage being the major contributors in minimization of half-tone mottle. The optimized setting showed reduction in halftone mottle by 33% and 32% for PVC and PET-G respectively. The developed regression model was tested that showed more than 95% predictability. Furthermore, the uniformity of dot was measured by image to non-image area (ratio distribution. The result showed reduction in halftone mottle with uniform dot distribution.

  6. Detection of sweet potato virus C, sweet potato virus 2 and sweet potato feathery mottle virus in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varanda, Carla M R; Santos, Susana J; Oliveira, Mônica D M; Clara, Maria Ivone E; Félix, Maria Rosário F

    2015-06-01

    Field sweet potato plants showing virus-like symptoms, as stunting, leaf distortion, mosaic and chlorosis, were collected in southwest Portugal and tested for the presence of four potyviruses, sweet potato virus C (SPVC), sweet potato virus 2 (SPV2), sweet potato feathery mottle virus (SPFMV), sweet potato virus G (SPVG), and the crinivirus sweet potato chlorotic stunt virus (SPCSV). DsRNA fractions were extracted from symptomatic leaves and used as templates in single and multiplex RT-PCR assays using previously described specific primers for each analyzed virus. The amplified reaction products for SPVC, SPV2 and SPFMV were of expected size, and direct sequencing of PCR products revealed that they correspond to the coat protein gene (CP) and showed 98%, 99% and 99% identity, respectively, to those viruses. Comparison of the CP genomic and amino acid sequences of the Portuguese viral isolates recovered here with those of ten other sequences of isolates obtained in different countries retrieved from the GenBank showed very few differences. The application of the RT-PCR assays revealed for the first time the presence of SPVC and SPFMV in the sweet potato crop in Portugal, the absence of SPVG and SPCSV in tested plants, as well as the occurrence of triple virus infections under field conditions.

  7. Clonal fidelity of chrysanthemum regenerated from long term cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jevremović Slađana

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Morphological characteristics of flowers of long term regenerated chrysanthemum, cv. "White Spider", after ten years of micropropagation are investigated. Shoot cultures are established and maintained more than ten years by stem segment culture on MS medium supplemented with BAP and NAA (1.0, 0.1 mgL-1, respectively. Rooting of shoots (100 % has done on MS medium without hormones and it was very successful after ten years, as well as, after two or eight years of micropropagation. Acclimation of rooted chrysanthemum plantlets at greenhouse conditions was excellent and after appropriate photoperiod "in vitro" plants flowered 90.3 % and have the same flower color, shape and size as mother plants. Flower color changes of "in vitro" plants are observed during another flowering cycle one year after acclimatization. Observed variations of chrysanthemum flowers could be attributed to epigenetic factors.

  8. Quantifying changes and influences on mottled duck density in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Beth; Haukos, David A.; Walther, Patrick

    2018-01-01

    Understanding the relative influence of environmental and intrinsic effects on populations is important for managing and conserving harvested species, especially those species inhabiting changing environments. Additionally, climate change can increase the uncertainty associated with management of species in these changing environments, making understanding factors affecting their populations even more important. Coastal ecosystems are particularly threatened by climate change; the combined effects of increasing severe weather events, sea level rise, and drought will likely have non-linear effects on coastal marsh wildlife species and their associated habitats. A species of conservation concern that persists in these coastal areas is the mottled duck (Anas fulvigula). Mottled ducks in the western Gulf Coast are approximately 50% below target abundance numbers established by the Gulf Coast Joint Venture for Texas and Louisiana, USA. Although evidence for declines in mottled duck abundance is apparent, specific causes of the decrease remain unknown. Our goals were to determine where the largest declines in mottled duck population were occurring along the system of Texas Gulf Coast National Wildlife Refuges and quantify the relative contribution of environmental and intrinsic effects on changes to relative population density. We modeled aerial survey data of mottled duck density along the Texas Gulf Coast from 1986–2015 to quantify effects of extreme weather events on an index to mottled duck density using the United States Climate Extremes Index and Palmer Drought Severity Index. Our results indicate that decreases in abundance are best described by an increase in days with extreme 1-day precipitation from June to November (hurricane season) and an increase in drought severity. Better understanding those portions of the life cycle affected by environmental conditions, and how to manage mottled duck habitat in conjunction with these events will likely be key to

  9. In-vitro mutation and multiplication of chrysanthemum cultivars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahloowalia, B.S.

    1992-01-01

    Chrysanthemum is an important ornamental, grown as a cut and potted flower. No other flower rivals its volume of production and sale. As a result, growers are always on the look out for new or improved blooms which will maintain their market share. New and novel types of chrysanthemum were obtained for flower shape and size, and for plant height, by combining in-vitro radiation and micropropagation. This technique promises a rapid and efficinet method for obtaining new cultivars of vegetatively propagated plants. (author)

  10. Chrysanthemum WRKY gene CmWRKY17 negatively regulates salt stress tolerance in transgenic chrysanthemum and Arabidopsis plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peiling; Song, Aiping; Gao, Chunyan; Wang, Linxiao; Wang, Yinjie; Sun, Jing; Jiang, Jiafu; Chen, Fadi; Chen, Sumei

    2015-08-01

    CmWRKY17 was induced by salinity in chrysanthemum, and it might negatively regulate salt stress in transgenic plants as a transcriptional repressor. WRKY transcription factors play roles as positive or negative regulators in response to various stresses in plants. In this study, CmWRKY17 was isolated from chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum morifolium). The gene encodes a 227-amino acid protein and belongs to the group II WRKY family, but has an atypical WRKY domain with the sequence WKKYGEK. Our data indicated that CmWRKY17 was localized to the nucleus in onion epidermal cells. CmWRKY17 showed no transcriptional activation in yeast; furthermore, luminescence assay clearly suggested that CmWRKY17 functions as a transcriptional repressor. DNA-binding assay showed that CmWRKY17 can bind to W-box. The expression of CmWRKY17 was induced by salinity in chrysanthemum, and a higher expression level was observed in the stem and leaf compared with that in the root, disk florets, and ray florets. Overexpression of CmWRKY17 in chrysanthemum and Arabidopsis increased the sensitivity to salinity stress. The activities of superoxide dismutase and peroxidase and proline content in the leaf were significantly lower in transgenic chrysanthemum than those in the wild type under salinity stress, whereas electrical conductivity was increased in transgenic plants. Expression of the stress-related genes AtRD29, AtDREB2B, AtSOS1, AtSOS2, AtSOS3, and AtNHX1 was reduced in the CmWRKY17 transgenic Arabidopsis compared with that in the wild-type Col-0. Collectively, these data suggest that CmWRKY17 may increase the salinity sensitivity in plants as a transcriptional repressor.

  11. Systems design methodology to develop chrysanthemum growing systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blok, C.; Vermeulen, T.

    2012-01-01

    When chrysanthemum growers change soil for a soilless growing system they aim for labour cost reduction, quality and yield improvement and reduced emissions of nutrients. Because many attempts to come up with a viable soilless system failed, improvements and systemizations of the design process were

  12. Polyploidy levels of Chinese large-flower chrysanthemum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2012-04-17

    Apr 17, 2012 ... color, and is regarded as one of two flower spectacle in the world (Chen, 2001). However, their genetic backgrounds as well as genetic relationships are lack of knowledge. Large-flower chrysanthemum has been cultivated for more than 1, 600 years (Zhao et al., 2009). It experienced long-term arti-.

  13. Man bhawan - new chrysanthemum cultivar induced by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Datta, S.K.

    1987-01-01

    Attempts were made to find out the biochemical difference between two gamma ray induced chrysanthemum cultivars, 'Flirt' and 'Man Bhawan' by thin layer chromatographic and spectrophotometric analysis of pigments. The analysis were done from florets extracts of original cv., 'Flirt' and mutant 'Man Bhawan' at full bloom stage and also at fading of 'Man Bhawan'. (author)

  14. Functional anatomy of the water transport system in cut chrysanthemum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijsse, J.

    2001-01-01

    Cut flowers show a wide variance of keepability. The market demands more and more a guaranteed quality. Therefore, methods must be developed to predict vase life of cut flowers. Chrysanthemum ( Dendranthema x grandiflorum Tzvelev) and some other cut flowers suffer from

  15. An isoform of eukaryotic initiation factor 4E from Chrysanthemum morifolium interacts with Chrysanthemum virus B coat protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiping Song

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E (eIF4E plays an important role in plant virus infection as well as the regulation of gene translation. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we describe the isolation of a cDNA encoding CmeIF(iso4E (GenBank accession no. JQ904592, an isoform of eIF4E from chrysanthemum, using RACE PCR. We used the CmeIF(iso4E cDNA for expression profiling and to analyze the interaction between CmeIF(iso4E and the Chrysanthemum virus B coat protein (CVBCP. Multiple sequence alignment and phylogenetic tree analysis showed that the sequence similarity of CmeIF(iso4E with other reported plant eIF(iso4E sequences varied between 69.12% and 89.18%, indicating that CmeIF(iso4E belongs to the eIF(iso4E subfamily of the eIF4E family. CmeIF(iso4E was present in all chrysanthemum organs, but was particularly abundant in the roots and flowers. Confocal microscopy showed that a transiently transfected CmeIF(iso4E-GFP fusion protein distributed throughout the whole cell in onion epidermis cells. A yeast two hybrid assay showed CVBCP interacted with CmeIF(iso4E but not with CmeIF4E. BiFC assay further demonstrated the interaction between CmeIF(iso4E and CVBCP. Luminescence assay showed that CVBCP increased the RLU of Luc-CVB, suggesting CVBCP might participate in the translation of viral proteins. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results inferred that CmeIF(iso4E as the cap-binding subunit eIF(iso4F may be involved in Chrysanthemum Virus B infection in chrysanthemum through its interaction with CVBCP in spatial.

  16. Prevalence of Rice Yellow Mottle Virus (RYMV) on Rice Plants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Incidence of Rice yellow mottle virus (RYMV) on rice plants (ofada) grown in two local government areas (LGAs) of Ogun State had been evaluated during a two year field survey. Six month old rice plants were observed for symptom expression and leaf samples collected for serological indexing. Of the 60 leaf ...

  17. Detection and distribution of sweetpotato feathery mottle virus in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Owner

    the evolution as well as the distribution of the feathery mottle virus was followed. Thus, the individuals tested have a high viral ... insured by bees. However, under natural conditions, few flowers are observed as well as incompatibility phenomena that are responsible for a weak seeds production. This plant is grown annually ...

  18. Bean Pod Mottle Virus (BPMV) (Genus Comovirus ): A Limiting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The reactions of twenty soybean varieties to infection with Bean Pod Mottle Virus (BPMV) (Genus Comovirus) disease were studied for 2 consecutive years in the Department of Crop Science University of Nigeria, Nsukka Farm (Latitude 060 25N; Longitude 070 24N; attitude 447.26 m above sea level). Factorial arrangement ...

  19. LABORATORY CULTURE METHODS FOR THE MOTTLED SCULPIN (COTTUS BAIRDI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish from the family Cottidae (Sculpin Family) are being researched to determine their sensitivity to various metals in freshwater systems. The ability to culture them in the lab would facilitate species sensitivity comparisons. We collected adult mottled sculpins (C. bairdi) f...

  20. Occurrence of pepper mild mottle virus in greenhouse- grown ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-06-08

    Jun 8, 2011 ... Pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV) is one of the most ... Figure 1. Map of the West Mediterranean region of Turkey showing areas in which the surveys were conducted. showing virus-like symptoms were taken from symptomatic pepper .... SM, Maniloff J, Mayo MA, McGeoch D, Pringle CR, Wickner RB (eds).

  1. Cooking and Eating Quality of Rice Yellow Mottle Virus Resistant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cooking and Eating Quantity of Rice Yellow Mottle 195 varieties often out compete introduced varieties on local markets; even though the former have lower yield potential. Breeding work incorporating grain quality was started in 1972 with the aim of developing varieties which combine high grain yield and grain quality ...

  2. Detection of Chrysanthemum stunt viroid (CSV) by nucleic acid spot hybridization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bothma, G C

    1985-01-01

    Chrysanthemum stunt viroid (CSV) was extracted from Chrysanthemum stunt viroid-infected Chrysanthemum plants. The CSV was then purified to homogenicity from this extract by one cycle of non-denaturating vertical slab gel electrophoresis and was followed by one cycle of denaturating vertical slab gel electrophoresis. No pure circular CSV was obtained. The 3' terminal of purified ASBV was polyadenylated using poly (A) polymerase. The polyadenylated ASBV was used as a template to synthesise radioactively labelled single stranded ASBV cDNA using reverse transcriptase. The radioactively labelled recombinant DNA was hybridised to crude extracts from avocado leaves and chrysanthemum leaves. Autoradiography was employed to detect cDNA-RNA hybrids.

  3. Customer Acceptance Survey On Chrysanthemum Mutant Developed By Nuclear Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shakinah Salleh; Zaiton Ahmad; Affrida Hassan; Shuhaimi Shamsudin; Nurul Hidayah Mahmud; Salim Othman; Mohamed Najli Mohamed Yasin

    2014-01-01

    Chrysanthemum morifolium is an important temperate cut flower for Malaysian floriculture industry and the lack of new local-owned varieties has led to this mutation breeding research. The project was started in 2008 under bilateral cooperation between Nuclear Malaysia and JAEA (Japan Atomic Energy Agency). Through this project, 8 new varieties of chrysanthemum were successfully developed, in which 4 varieties were from red cultivar and another 4 from pink cultivar. A preliminary survey on public perception and acceptance of these mutants was conducted on 7 January 2014 at Agrotechnology and Biosciences Division, Malaysian Nuclear Agency. The main objective of this survey was to gather information from the public on overall appearance of these new varieties and their potential for commercialization. Approximately 60 participants were involved in this survey, which include staff of Nuclear Malaysia, university students, plant growers/collectors and hobbyists. (author)

  4. Development Of New Chrysanthemum Mutants For Malaysian Floriculture Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaiton Ahmad; Affrida Abu Hassan; Shakinah Salleh; Nurul Hidayah Mahmud; Shuhaimi Shamsudin; Mohamed Najli Mohamed Yasin

    2014-01-01

    This five-year project was in collaboration with Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) under the Bilateral Cooperative Research Program and was partly funded by Ministry of Agriculture and Agro-Based Industry (MOA) under Agriculture R&D Fund. The main objective was to produce new chrysanthemum varieties with good horticultural traits especially for cut flower production. In this project, tissue culture samples of chrysanthemum (red and pink varieties) were sent to JAEA for ion beam irradiations. Plant regeneration and multiplication were carried out at Nuclear Malaysia whilst field screenings for morphological characteristics were done at MARDI Cameron Highlands. Through this project, a number of stable chrysanthemum mutants with various new features have been generated and of these, 8 mutants were selected based on their uniqueness and/or suitability for cut flower production. In preparation for future commercialization process, five of these mutants have been filed for plant variety protection with Department of Agriculture Malaysia and a similar process in Japan is also under consideration. In addition, molecular marker work to fingerprint these mutants has also been initiated and future research may also include development of markers for selected horticultural traits and isolation of unique mutant genes. (author)

  5. Identification of Common Epitopes on a Conserved Region of NSs Proteins Among Tospoviruses of Watermelon silver mottle virus Serogroup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tsung-Chi; Huang, Ching-Wen; Kuo, Yan-Wen; Liu, Fang-Lin; Yuan, Chao-Hsiu Hsuan; Hsu, Hei-Ti; Yeh, Shyi-Dong

    2006-12-01

    ABSTRACT The NSs protein of Watermelon silver mottle virus (WSMoV) was expressed by a Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV) vector in squash. The expressed NSs protein with a histidine tag and an additional NIa protease cleavage sequence was isolated by Ni(2+)-NTA resins as a free-form protein and further eluted after sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis for production of rabbit antiserum and mouse monoclonal antibodies (MAbs). The rabbit antiserum strongly reacted with the NSs crude antigen of WSMoV and weakly reacted with that of a high-temperature-recovered gloxinia isolate (HT-1) of Capsicum chlorosis virus (CaCV), but not with that of Calla lily chlorotic spot virus (CCSV). In contrast, the MAbs reacted strongly with all crude NSs antigens of WSMoV, CaCV, and CCSV. Various deletions of the NSs open reading frame were constructed and expressed by ZYMV vector. Results indicate that all three MAbs target the 89- to 125-amino-acid (aa) region of WSMoV NSs protein. Two indispensable residues of cysteine and lysine were essential for MAbs recognition. Sequence comparison of the deduced MAbs-recognized region with the reported tospoviral NSs proteins revealed the presence of a consensus sequence VRKPGVKNTGCKFTMHNQIFNPN (denoted WNSscon), at the 98- to 120-aa position of NSs proteins, sharing 86 to 100% identities among those of WSMoV, CaCV, CCSV, and Peanut bud necrosis virus. A synthetic WNSscon peptide reacted with the MAbs and verified that the epitopes are present in the 98- to 120-aa region of WSMoV NSs protein. The WSMoV sero-group-specific NSs MAbs provide a means for reliable identification of tospoviruses in this large serogroup.

  6. Effects of planting date and plant density on crop growth of cut chrysanthemum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, J.H.; Heuvelink, E.; Challa, H.

    2002-01-01

    The effects of planting date (season) and plant density (32, 48 or 64 plants m-2) on growth of cut chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum (Indicum group)) were investigated in six greenhouse experiments, applying the expolinear growth equation. Final plant fresh and dry mass and number of flowers per plant

  7. Sporulation capacity and longevity of Puccinia horiana teliospores in infected chrysanthemum leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    PUCCINIA HORIANA is a quarantine-significant fungal pathogen and causal agent of Chrysanthemum white rust, first discovered in the U.S. in 1977. The disease was eradicated and for many years successfully controlled by fungicides and strict regulatory measures. However, recently Chrysanthemum white r...

  8. Effect of the different timing of AMF inoculation on plant growth and flower quality of chrysanthemum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sohn, B.K.; Kim, K.Y.; Chung, S.J.; Kim, W.S.; Park, S.M.; Kang, J.G.; Rim, Y.S.; Cho, J.S.; Kim, T.H.; Lee, J.H.

    2003-01-01

    Plant growth and flower quality of an ornamental plant (Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat) var. Baekgwang in response to the different timing of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) inoculation were examined. To evaluate the effects of AMF inoculation timing on growth of chrysanthemum cuttings, AMF was

  9. Temperature affects Chrysanthemum flower characteristics differently during three phases of the cultivation period

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carvalho, S.M.P.; Abi-Tarabay, H.; Heuvelink, E.

    2005-01-01

    The sensitivity to temperature of the number of flowers per plant including flower buds (NFPP), flower size, position and colour was investigated in cut chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum morifolium cv. `Reagan Improved¿). Plants were grown either in a glasshouse at constant 24 h mean temperatures

  10. El virus de la mancha clorótica del tomate: Tomato chlorotic spot virus (TCSV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomato chlorotic spot virus has emerged as a major pathogen of vegetables in Puerto Rico, the Caribbean and Florida. This virus is transmitted by thrips making management difficult. Growers must be aware of the distribution, host range, insect vectors, symptoms, modes of transmission to successfully...

  11. Genetic engineering of novel bluer-colored chrysanthemums produced by accumulation of delphinidin-based anthocyanins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noda, Naonobu; Aida, Ryutaro; Kishimoto, Sanae; Ishiguro, Kanako; Fukuchi-Mizutani, Masako; Tanaka, Yoshikazu; Ohmiya, Akemi

    2013-10-01

    Chrysanthemums (Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat.) have no purple-, violet- or blue-flowered cultivars because they lack delphinidin-based anthocyanins. This deficiency is due to the absence of the flavonoid 3',5'-hydroxylase gene (F3'5'H), which encodes the key enzyme for delphinidin biosynthesis. In F3'5'H-transformed chrysanthemums, unpredictable and unstable expression levels have hampered successful production of delphinidin and reduced desired changes in flower color. With the aim of achieving delphinidin production in chrysanthemum petals, we found that anthocyanin biosynthetic gene promoters combined with a translational enhancer increased expression of some F3'5'H genes and accompanying delphinidin-based anthocyanin accumulation in transgenic chrysanthemums. Dramatic accumulation of delphinidin (up to 95%) was achieved by simple overexpression of Campanula F3'5'H controlled by a petal-specific flavanone 3-hydroxylase promoter from chrysanthemum combined with the 5'-untranslated region of the alcohol dehydrogenase gene as a translational enhancer. The flower colors of transgenic lines producing delphinidin-based anthocyanins changed from a red-purple to a purple-violet hue in the Royal Horticultural Society Colour Charts. This result represents a promising step toward molecular breeding of blue chrysanthemums.

  12. A rapid identification of four medicinal chrysanthemum varieties with near infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Bangxing; Yan, Hui; Chen, Cunwu; Yao, Houjun; Dai, Jun; Chen, Naifu

    2014-07-01

    For genuine medicinal material in Chinese herbs; the efficient, rapid, and precise identification is the focus and difficulty in the filed studying Chinese herbal medicines. Chrysanthemum morifolium as herbs has a long planting history in China, culturing high quality ones and different varieties. Different chrysanthemum varieties differ in quality, chemical composition, functions, and application. Therefore, chrysanthemum varieties in the market demands precise identification to provide reference for reasonable and correct application as genuine medicinal material. A total of 244 batches of chrysanthemum samples were randomly divided into calibration set (160 batches) and prediction set (84 batches). The near infrared diffuses reflectance spectra of chrysanthemum varieties were preprocessed by first order derivative (D1) and autoscaling and was built model with partial least squares (PLS). In this study of four chrysanthemum varieties identification, the accuracy rates in calibration sets of Boju, Chuju, Hangju, and Gongju are respectively 100, 100, 98.65, and 96.67%; while the accuracy rates in prediction sets are 100% except for 99.1% of Hangju. The research results demonstrate that the qualitative analysis can be conducted by machine learning combined with near infrared spectroscopy (NIR), which provides a new method for rapid and noninvasive identification of chrysanthemum varieties.

  13. Growth and Flowering Responses of Cut Chrysanthemum Grown under Restricted Root Volume to Irrigation Frequency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viyachai Taweesak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Influences of irrigation frequency on the growth and flowering of chrysanthemum grown under restricted root volume were tested. Chrysanthemum cuttings (Chrysanthemum morifolium “Reagan White” were grown in seedling tray which contained coconut peat in volumes of 73 and 140 cm3. Plants were irrigated with drip irrigation at irrigation frequencies of 4 (266 mL, 6 (400 mL, and 8 (533 mL times/day to observe their growth and flowering performances. There was interaction between irrigation frequency and substrate volume on plant height of chrysanthemum. Plants grown in 140 cm3 substrates and irrigated 6 times/day produced the tallest plant of 109.25 cm. Plants irrigated 6 and 8 times/day had significantly higher level of phosphorus content in their leaves than those plants irrigated 4 times/day. The total leaf area, number of internodes, leaf length, and leaf width of chrysanthemums grown in 140 cm3 substrate were significantly higher than those grown in 73 cm3 substrate. The numbers of flowers were affected by both irrigation frequencies and substrate volumes. Chrysanthemums irrigated 8 times/day had an average of 19.56 flowers while those irrigated 4 times/day had an average of 16.63 flowers. Increasing irrigation frequency can improve the growth and flowering of chrysanthemums in small substrate volumes.

  14. The effect of gamma irradiation on the growth and flowering of stem chrysanthemum (chrysanthemum morifolium ramat.) cv. pink fiji

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ita Dwimahyani

    2007-01-01

    Rooted shoot cuttings have been irradiated by gamma rays with 0, 10, 15, 20 and 25 Gy doses, and then planted in green house on Gadog, Ciawi. Plant growth from each doses proved to be varied, both in height and flowering process. Plants with dose 15 Gy and higher had shown late flowering time and dwarfing. The optimal dose for chrysanthemum cv. Pink Fiji irradiation is suggested to be 10-15 Gy. The highest mutation frequency shown on flower color is yellow, followed by orange, white, dark pink and light pink. (author)

  15. First Report of Carnation vein mottle virus Infecting Dianthus amurensis in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomato mottle mosaic virus (ToMMV), a tentative member in genus Tobamovirus, was first reported from a greenhouse tomato sample collected in Mexico in 2013 (1). In August 2013, foliar mottle, shrinking and necrosis were observed on pepper plants in several vegetable greenhouses of Lhasa, Tibet Auton...

  16. Influence of the surface roughness of coated and uncoated papers on the digital print mottle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Jurič

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Many factors influence the occurrence of print mottle in prints. In printing process three main components are involved: printing press, substrate and toner. They can be considered as separate components, but in most cases their interaction influences the quality of the print. The goal of this work was to examine the influence of surface roughness of different types of paper (coated and uncoated on print mottle of electrophotographic digital prints. We set up a hypothesis that print mottle will be more apparent on rougher surfaces. In the experimental part we printed four different substrates with different surface properties on electrophotographic printing press. Morphology of the papers surface was analysed using atomic force microscopy (AFM from which surface properties were calculated. For print mottle characterization Gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM method was used. Based on the measurements and results we can conclude, contrary to the initial hypothesis, that uncoated papers with rougher surfaces produce smaller print mottle values.

  17. Effects of types of media and NPK fertilizer on the rooting capacity of chrysanthemum cuttings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Budiarto, K.; Sulyo, Y.; Dwi, E.; Maaswinkel, R.H.M.

    2006-01-01

    Physiological status of chrysanthemum cuttings during rooting process highly influences plant growth and flower production. Amongst other aspects, rooting capacity of the cuttings is the most important. Rooting capacity is influenced by environmental conditions such as growing medium and nutrition.

  18. In vitro study of antioxidant activity and phenolic content of Chrysanthemum balsamita varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedec, Daniela; Filip, Lorena; Vlase, Laurian; Bele, Constantin; Sevastre, Bogdan; Raita, Oana; Olah, Neli-Kinga; Hanganu, Daniela

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of our study was to identify the phenolic substances of two varieties of Chrysanthemum balsamita (balsamita and tanacetoides) and to measure the overall antioxidant activity. The phenolic compounds were determined by HPLC. The evaluation of the polyphenolic content was performed by colorimetric analysis. The antioxidant activity was measured by three in vitro assay models: the DPPH, the silver nanoparticles antioxidant capacity (SNPAC) and EPR radical detection. Using HPLC-MS analysis, phenolic acids, flavonoids and flavonoid aglycone were detected. The highest antioxidant activity was showed by Chrysanthemum balsamita var. balsamita, while the lowest for the Chrysanthemum balsamita var. tanacetoides extract, in accord with the polyphenolic content. The results show that Chrysanthemum balsamita var. balsamita might be a source of antioxidant flavonoids, especially rutin and isoquercitrin.

  19. Transcriptome sequencing and whole genome expression profiling of chrysanthemum under dehydration stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Chrysanthemum is one of the most important ornamental crops in the world and drought stress seriously limits its production and distribution. In order to generate a functional genomics resource and obtain a deeper understanding of the molecular mechanisms regarding chrysanthemum responses to dehydration stress, we performed large-scale transcriptome sequencing of chrysanthemum plants under dehydration stress using the Illumina sequencing technology. Results Two cDNA libraries constructed from mRNAs of control and dehydration-treated seedlings were sequenced by Illumina technology. A total of more than 100 million reads were generated and de novo assembled into 98,180 unique transcripts which were further extensively annotated by comparing their sequencing to different protein databases. Biochemical pathways were predicted from these transcript sequences. Furthermore, we performed gene expression profiling analysis upon dehydration treatment in chrysanthemum and identified 8,558 dehydration-responsive unique transcripts, including 307 transcription factors and 229 protein kinases and many well-known stress responsive genes. Gene ontology (GO) term enrichment and biochemical pathway analyses showed that dehydration stress caused changes in hormone response, secondary and amino acid metabolism, and light and photoperiod response. These findings suggest that drought tolerance of chrysanthemum plants may be related to the regulation of hormone biosynthesis and signaling, reduction of oxidative damage, stabilization of cell proteins and structures, and maintenance of energy and carbon supply. Conclusions Our transcriptome sequences can provide a valuable resource for chrysanthemum breeding and research and novel insights into chrysanthemum responses to dehydration stress and offer candidate genes or markers that can be used to guide future studies attempting to breed drought tolerant chrysanthemum cultivars. PMID:24074255

  20. Construction of Infectious cDNA Clone of a Chrysanthemum stunt viroid Korean Isolate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju-Yeon Yoon

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Chrysanthemum stunt viroid (CSVd, a noncoding infectious RNA molecule, causes seriously economic losses of chrysanthemum for 3 or 4 years after its first infection. Monomeric cDNA clones of CSVd isolate SK1 (CSVd-SK1 were constructed in the plasmids pGEM-T easy vector and pUC19 vector. Linear positive-sense transcripts synthesized in vitro from the full-length monomeric cDNA clones of CSVd-SK1 could infect systemically tomato seedlings and chrysanthemum plants, suggesting that the linear CSVd RNA transcribed from the cDNA clones could be replicated as efficiently as circular CSVd in host species. However, direct inoculation of plasmid cDNA clones containing full-length monomeric cDNA of CSVd-SK1 failed to infect tomato and chrysanthemum and linear negative-sense transcripts from the plasmid DNAs were not infectious in the two plant species. The cDNA sequences of progeny viroid in systemically infected tomato and chrysanthemum showed a few substitutions at a specific nucleotide position, but there were no deletions and insertions in the sequences of the CSVd progeny from tomato and chrysanthemum plants.

  1. Persistence of Only a Minute Viable Population in Chlorotic Microcystis aeruginosa PCC 7806 Cultures Obtained by Nutrient Limitation.

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    Diogo de Abreu Meireles

    Full Text Available Cultures from the cyanobacterial strain Microcystis aeruginosa PCC 7806 submitted to nutrient limitation become chlorotic. When returned to nutrient rich conditions these cultures regain their green colour. The aim of this study was to verify whether the cells in these cultures could be considered resting stages allowing the survival of periods of nutrient starvation as has been reported for Synechococcus PCC 7942. The experiments with Microcystis were carried out in parallel with Synechococcus cultures to rule out the possibility that any results obtained with Microcystis were due to our particular experimental conditions. The results of the experiments with Synechococcus PCC 7942 cultures were comparable to the reported in the literature. For Microcystis PCC 7806 a different response was observed. Analysis of chlorotic Microcystis cultures by flow cytometry showed that the phenotype of the cells in the population was not homogenous: the amount of nucleic acids was about the same in all cells but only around one percent of the population emitted red autofluorescence indicating the presence of chlorophyll. Monitoring of the reversion of chlorosis by flow cytometry showed that the re-greening was most likely the result of the division of the small population of red autofluorescent cells originally present in the chlorotic cultures. This assumption was confirmed by analysing the integrity of the DNA and the membrane permeability of the cells of chlorotic cultures. Most of the DNA of these cultures was degraded and only the autofluorescent population of the chlorotic cultures showed membrane integrity. Thus, contrary to what has been reported for other cyanobacterial genera, most of the cells in chlorotic Microcystis cultures are not resting stages but dead. It is interesting to note that the red autofluorescent cells of green and chlorotic cultures obtained in double strength ASM-1 medium differ with respect to metabolism: levels of emission of

  2. Persistence of Only a Minute Viable Population in Chlorotic Microcystis aeruginosa PCC 7806 Cultures Obtained by Nutrient Limitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meireles, Diogo de Abreu; Schripsema, Jan; Arnholdt, Andrea Cristina Vetö; Dagnino, Denise

    2015-01-01

    Cultures from the cyanobacterial strain Microcystis aeruginosa PCC 7806 submitted to nutrient limitation become chlorotic. When returned to nutrient rich conditions these cultures regain their green colour. The aim of this study was to verify whether the cells in these cultures could be considered resting stages allowing the survival of periods of nutrient starvation as has been reported for Synechococcus PCC 7942. The experiments with Microcystis were carried out in parallel with Synechococcus cultures to rule out the possibility that any results obtained with Microcystis were due to our particular experimental conditions. The results of the experiments with Synechococcus PCC 7942 cultures were comparable to the reported in the literature. For Microcystis PCC 7806 a different response was observed. Analysis of chlorotic Microcystis cultures by flow cytometry showed that the phenotype of the cells in the population was not homogenous: the amount of nucleic acids was about the same in all cells but only around one percent of the population emitted red autofluorescence indicating the presence of chlorophyll. Monitoring of the reversion of chlorosis by flow cytometry showed that the re-greening was most likely the result of the division of the small population of red autofluorescent cells originally present in the chlorotic cultures. This assumption was confirmed by analysing the integrity of the DNA and the membrane permeability of the cells of chlorotic cultures. Most of the DNA of these cultures was degraded and only the autofluorescent population of the chlorotic cultures showed membrane integrity. Thus, contrary to what has been reported for other cyanobacterial genera, most of the cells in chlorotic Microcystis cultures are not resting stages but dead. It is interesting to note that the red autofluorescent cells of green and chlorotic cultures obtained in double strength ASM-1 medium differ with respect to metabolism: levels of emission of red autofluorescence

  3. Influence of greenhouse climate and plant density on external quality of chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflorum (Ramat.)Kitamura) : First steps towards a quality model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carvalho, S.M.P.; Heuvelink, E.

    2001-01-01

    The effects of greenhouse climate and plant density on external quality of chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflorum syn. Chrysanthemum morifolium) are reviewed. The external quality aspects analysed in this paper are stem morphology (length, diameter and "strength"), leaf morphology (number and

  4. Induction of somatic mutation in chrysanthemum cultivar 'Anupam'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerji, B.K.; Datta, S.K.

    1990-01-01

    Rooted cuttings of chrysanthemum cv. 'Anupam' were irradiated with 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5 Krad of gamma rays. Significant reduction in survival, plant height, branch, leaf and flower head number and leaf size were recorded after irradiation. Radio sensitivity was determined on the basis of different cytomorphological parameters. Different types of morphological abnormalities in leaves and flower and chromosomal abnormalities during root tip mitosis were observed and the total abnormalities increased with increase in exposure to gamma rays. Significant delay in flower bud initiation, first colour showing and full bloom were recorded in the treated population. Somatic mutations in flower colour could be induced in vM 1 as chimera and a total of three flower colour mutant, i.e., lighter, white and striped were isolated and established in pure form as new cultivars which are of direct use for floriculture industry. (author). 17 refs., 6 figs. , 2 tabs

  5. Interaction Effects between Light Level and Plant Density on Plant Growth, Development and External Quality in Year-around Cut Chrysanthemum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, J.H.; Heuvelink, E.; Bakker, M.J.

    2009-01-01

    Aims of this study are to analyze growth pattern and development Of Cut chrysanthemum and test simple regression models in relation to light level and plant density. Cut chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum morifolium), cv. Reagan Improved, was grown at four different plant densities of 16, 32, 64 or 80

  6. Overexpression of DgWRKY4 Enhances Salt Tolerance in Chrysanthemum Seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke Wang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available High salinity seriously affects the production of chrysanthemum, so improving the salt tolerance of chrysanthemum becomes the focus and purpose of our research. The WRKY transcription factor (TF family is highly associated with a number of processes of abiotic stress responses. We isolated DgWRKY4 from Dendranthema grandiflorum, and a protein encoded by this new gene contains two highly conserved WRKY domains and two C2H2 zinc-finger motifs. Then, we functionally characterized that DgWRKY4 was induced by salt, and DgWRKY4 overexpression in chrysanthemum resulted in increased tolerance to high salt stress compared to wild-type (WT. Under salt stress, the transgenic chrysanthemum accumulated less malondialdehyde, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, and superoxide anion (O2− than WT, accompanied by more proline, soluble sugar, and activities of antioxidant enzymes than WT; in addition, a stronger photosynthetic capacity and a series of up-regulated stress-related genes were also found in transgenic chrysanthemum. All results demonstrated that DgWRKY4 is a positive regulatory gene responding to salt stress, via advancing photosynthetic capacity, promoting the operation of reactive oxygen species-scavenging system, maintaining membrane stability, enhancing the osmotic adjustment, and up-regulating transcript levels of stress-related genes. So, DgWRKY4 can serve as a new candidate gene for salt-tolerant plant breeding.

  7. Genetic variability and evolutionary implications of RNA silencing suppressor genes in RNA1 of sweet potato chlorotic stunt virus isolates infecting sweetpotato and related wild species.

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    Arthur K Tugume

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The bipartite single-stranded RNA genome of Sweet potato chlorotic stunt virus (SPCSV, genus Crinivirus; Closteroviridae encodes a Class 1 RNase III (RNase3, a putative hydrophobic protein (p7 and a 22-kDa protein (p22 from genes located in RNA1. RNase3 and p22 suppress RNA silencing, the basal antiviral defence mechanism in plants. RNase3 is sufficient to render sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas virus-susceptible and predisposes it to development of severe diseases following infection with unrelated virus. The incidence, strains and gene content of SPCSV infecting wild plant species have not been studied. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Thirty SPCSV isolates were characterized from 10 wild Ipomoea species, Hewittia sublobata or Lepistemon owariensis (family Convolvulaceae in Uganda and compared with 34 local SPCSV isolates infecting sweetpotatoes. All isolates belonged to the East African (EA strain of SPCSV and contained RNase3 and p7, but p22 was not detected in six isolates. The three genes showed only limited genetic variability and the proteins were under purifying selection. SPCSV isolates lacking p22 synergized with Sweet potato feathery mottle virus (SPFMV, genus potyvirus; Potyviridae and caused severe symptoms in co-infected sweetpotato plants. One SPCSV isolate enhanced accumulation of SPFMV, but no severe symptoms developed. A new whitefly-transmitted virus (KML33b encoding an RNase3 homolog (<56% identity to SPCSV RNase3 able to suppresses sense-mediated RNA silencing was detected in I. sinensis. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: SPCSV isolates infecting wild species and sweetpotato in Uganda were genetically undifferentiated, suggesting inter-species transmission of SPCSV. Most isolates in Uganda contained p22, unlike SPCSV isolates characterized from other countries and continents. Enhanced accumulation of SPFMV and increased disease severity were found to be uncoupled phenotypic outcomes of RNase3-mediated viral synergism in

  8. Catalase activity of a crude enzyme preparation from iron-chlorotic barley (Hordeum vulgaris) seedlings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotaka, S; Krueger, A P; Andriese, P C

    1964-12-19

    An attempt is made to investigate the effect of Fe-EDTA on catalase activity of the enzyme preparation from iron-chlorotic barley. It has been observed that the addition of iron in the form of iron-potassium-ethylene-tetraacetate to cell-free extracts prepared from barley seedlings which had developed chlorosis produced a marked increase in the catalase activity of the extracts. Results are presented which indicate that the pattern of increase in catalase activity is related to the extent of chlorosis. 7 references, 3 figures.

  9. Developing relationships between environmental variables and stem elongation in chrysanthemum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobson, B.M.; Willits, D.H.

    1998-01-01

    The main objective of this research was to model the relationships between the environmental variables and stem elongation in chrysanthemum with the end-goal of producing a model appropriate for use in the dynamic control of a greenhouse environment. The plants used were Dendranthema grandiflora cv. 'Spice'. The model developed uses Richards' growth equation (Richards, 1969) as its base. Adaptations were made to Richards' growth equation to explicitly include the effects of day and night temperature, daily PPF (photosynthetic photon flux), end-of-day red to far-red ratio, and position of the internode on the stem on internode elongation. The model fit the observed final length data reasonably well (R2 = 0.89). Sensitivity analyses indicated that increasing day temperature had a positive effect on internode length while increasing night temperature had a negative effect, with night temperature having a considerably larger effect than the effect of day temperature. The analyses suggests that both high and low end-of-day red to far-red ratios will produce increased lengths and that increasing daily PPF will produce decreased lengths. The analyses also suggests that internodes which develop later on the plant will generally have larger lengths as reflected by the measured data

  10. Extraction, purification and elicitor activities of polysaccharides from Chrysanthemum indicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Ningning; Tian, Wei; Zheng, Dongfang; Zhang, Xinyi; Qin, Pinyan

    2016-01-01

    Polysaccharides isolated from Chrysanthemum indicum were studied for their pathogen-derived resistance against Sclerotium rolfsii sacc in Atractylodis maceocephalae koidz. The total sugar content and monosaccharide analysis were determined by phenol-sulfuric acid method and gas chromatography, and infrared spectroscopy performed for simple structure information. The activities of CAT and POD as protective enzymes in A. maceocephalae leaves were evaluated. The purified polysaccharides exhibited strong CAT and POD activities in inoculated with S. rolfsii in A. macrocephala leaves, attained the maximum value 568.3 Ug(-1)min(-1) and 604.4 Ug(-1)min(-1)respectively. Whereas, when compared with the control plants, 20mg/ml purified polysaccharides exhibited the strongest CAT and POD activities. Notably, the treatments of A. macepcephalae seedlings with C. indicum polysaccharides (CIP) decreased disease index development caused by S. rolfsii. The disease index after 10 days was significantly reduced when the seedlings treated with 20mg/ml CIP, 4.41 compared to the control plants 32.00. Given together, these results indicated that purified polysaccharides derived from C. indicum may be useful as a natural inducer. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Chrysanthemum cutting productivity and rooting ability are improved by grafting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Chen, Sumei; Liu, Ruixia; Jiang, Jiafu; Chen, Fadi; Fang, Weimin

    2013-01-01

    Chrysanthemum has been commercially propagated by rooting of cuttings, whereas the quality will decline over multiple collections from a single plant. Therefore, we compared the vigour, rooting ability, and some physiological parameters between cuttings harvested from nongrafted "Jinba" (non-grafted cuttings) with those collected from grafted "Jinba" plants onto Artemisia scoparia as a rootstock (grafted cuttings). The yield, length, node number, stem diameter, fresh weight, and dry weight of the grafted cuttings were superior to the non-grafted cuttings. Also grafted cuttings "Jinba" rooted 1 day earlier, but showing enhanced rooting quality including number, length, diameter, and dry weight of roots, where compared to the non-grafted. The physiological parameters that indicated contents of soluble protein, peroxidase activity, soluble sugar, and starch, ratios of soluble sugar/nitrogen ratio, and carbohydrate/nitrogen (C/N), as well as contents of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and abscisic acid (ABA), and IAA/ABA ratio were significantly increased in the grafted cuttings. This suggested their important parts in mediating rooting ability. Results from this study showed that grafting improved productivity and rooting ability related to an altered physiology, which provide a means to meet the increasing demand.

  12. PRODUKSI ANTISERUM DAN KAJIAN SEROLOGI CHRYSANTHEMUM B CARLAVIRUS (CVB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I G.R.M. Temaja, G. Suastika S.H. Hidayat & U. Kartosuwondo .

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Antiserum production and serological assay of Chrysanthemum B Carlavirus (CVB. Virus identification based on spesific reaction between antigen and antibody  in serological assay has been widely applied as a tool for plant virus detection. The aims of this research is  to produce  antiserum of the CVB by  guinea pig immunization using  purified CVB of Cianjur isolate. The antiserum   was used further  for  the  serological test. Serological methods for detection of CVB were I-ELISA, TBIA, western blot and ISEM. The result showed that  guinea pig immunization  using 150 µg of purified virus was able to produce 10.75 ml of antiserum. The antiserum produced had high sensitivity for detection of CVB when examined by I-ELISA and TBIA. Besides its low cost, TBIA allows the samples to be blotted on the nitrocellulose membranes in the field and storage of the membranes for later processing in the laboratory. This feature makes it the metode of  choice for large-scale CVB surveying.

  13. Evaluation of Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum L. and Florists Daisy (Chrysanthemum morifolium L. Intercropping and Its Effects on Insect Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamia Vojodi Mehrabani

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Intercropping is a common method of crop production in many regions of the world mainly due to the resources efficiency and yeid promotion. To study the agronomic traits of Chrysanthemum morifolium intercropped with fenugreek, an experiment was conducted as RCBD with seven treatments; (T1: fenugreek sole cropping (T2: Chrysanthemum sole cropping  (T3: 50 percentage Chrysanthemum and 50 percentage fenugreek intercropping,  (T4: 35 percentage Chrysanthemum and 65 percentage fenugreek, (T5: 35 percentage fenugreek and 75 percentage intercropping Chrysanthemum, (T6 25 percentage Chrysanthemum and 75 percentage fenugreek intercropping and  (T7 75 percentage Chrysanthemum and 25 percentage fenugreek. The results revealed the positive effects of intercropping on flower and shoot number, fresh weight of the plant and root and flower dry weight in Chrysanthemum. The greatest plant fresh weight (289.1 g and root fresh weight (41.3 g was belonged to T7 treatment. The highest shoot number was recorded in T5, T6 and T7 treatments. For the flower dry weight, T5 (31.03 g and T7 (30.9 g hold the greatest data. The highest recorded flower number in Chrysanthemum was attained by T5 treatment. The highest data for fenugreek growth characteristic was belonged to fenugreek monocropping (pod number per plants, plant fresh and dry weight and root fresh and dry weight. Land Equality Ratio for all the intercropping patterns was greater than 1, showing the higher effecincy and profitability of intercropping compared to sole cropping. The results as well indicated that the most number of pests and natural enemies were shown in sole and inter-cropping treatments, respectively.

  14. Blood lead exposure concentrations in mottled ducks (Anas fulvigula) on the upper Texas coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, Stephen K.; Conway, Warren C.; Haukos, David A.; Moon, Jena A.; Comer, Christopher E.; Hung, I-Kuai

    2015-01-01

    The mottled duck (Anas fulvigula) is a non-migratory waterfowl species dependent upon coastal marsh systems, including those on the Texas Chenier Plain National Wildlife Refuge (NWR) Complex, and considered a regional indicator species of marsh habitat quality. Research from the early 1970s, 1990s, and early-2000s indicated that mottled ducks continued to exhibit elevated wing-bone lead (Pb) concentrations, decades after implementation of non-toxic shot regulations. However, wing-bone concentrations reflect lifetime accumulation of Pb, whereas blood Pb concentrations reflect more recent exposure. To identify current potentially relevant temporal windows of Pb exposure, we collected 260 blood samples from mottled ducks during summer (n=124) and winter (n=136) from 2010–2012 on the Texas Chenier Plain NWR Complex. We quantified baseline blood Pb concentrations for all ages of mottled ducks, and hypothesized that blood lead concentrations would remain elevated above background levels (200 µg L–1) despite the 1983 and 1991 lead shot bans. Blood Pb concentrations ranged from below detection limits to >12,000 µg L–1, where >200 µg L–1 was associated with exposure levels above background concentrations. Male mottled ducks had the greatest blood Pb concentrations (30 times greater than females) with concentrations greater during winter than summer. Likewise, the proportion of exposed (>200 µg L–1) females increased from 14%–47% from summer to winter, respectively. Regardless of sex, adult mottled duck blood Pb concentrations were five times greater than juveniles, particularly during winter. We identified five plausible models that influenced blood Pb levels where year, site, and interactions among age*sex*season and between age*season were included in the top-ranked models. Frequency of exposure was greatest during winter, increasing from 12% in summer to 55% in winter, indicating that a temporal exposure window to environmental Pb exists between nesting

  15. First report of tomato chlorotic spot virus in sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum) and purslane (Portulaca oleracea) in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomato chlorotic spot virus (TCSV) has been recently detected in tomato, pepper, hoya and vinca in Florida. Observations of additional crops in 2016 and 2017 revealed TCSV-like symptoms. Testing of these symptomatic plants identified three new hosts of TCSV in Florida: sweet basil (Ocimum basilicu...

  16. Reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification for species-specific detection of tomato chlorotic spot orthotospovirus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomato chlorotic spot virus (TCSV) is an emerging tospovirus that can cause severe disease on tomato plants. There are at least four tospoviruses infecting tomato, and mixed infection of various viruses in a field crop is quite common. With similarity in the symptomatology and cross serological reac...

  17. Growth of nutrient-replete Microcystis PCC 7806 cultures is inhibited by an extracellular signal produced by chlorotic cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagnino, Denise; de Abreu Meireles, Diogo; de Aquino Almeida, João Carlos

    2006-01-01

    The frequency of cyanobacterial blooms has been increasing all over the world. These blooms are often toxic and have become a serious health problem. The aim of this work was to search for population density control mechanisms that could inhibit the proliferation of the toxic bloom-forming genus Microcystis. Microcystis PCC 7806 cultured for long periods in liquid ASM-1 medium loses its characteristic green colour. When a medium of chlorotic cultures is added to a nutrient-replete culture, cell density increase is drastically reduced when compared with controls. Inhibition of cell proliferation occurs in Microcystis cultures from any growth stage and was not strain-specific, but other genera tested showed no response. Investigations on the mechanism of growth inhibition showed that cultures treated with the conditioned medium acquired a pale colour, with pigment concentration similar to that found in chlorotic cultures. Ultrastructural examination showed that the conditioned medium induced thylakoid membrane disorganization, typical of chlorotic cells, in nutrient-replete cultures. An active extract was obtained and investigations showed that activity was retained after heating and after addition of an apolar solvent. This indicates that activity of the conditioned medium from chlorotic cells results from non-protein, apolar compound(s).

  18. Air-borne contact dermatitis due to Chrysanthemum with true cross sensitivity to Parthenium hysterophorus and Xanthium strumarium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasricha J

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available A 60-year old man living in Srinagar (Jammu and Kashmir had air-borne contact dermatitis for last 10 years. He had never traveled to any other part of the country where Parthenium hysterophorus or Xanthium strumarium are prevalent but he used to cultivate chrysanthemums. Patch tests with standardized extracts of various plants revealed the strongest reaction with Chrysanthemum, while the reactions with Xanthium strumarium and Parthenium hysterophorus were also positive but milder. This seems to be a case of primary sensitivity to Chrysanthemum with cross sensitivity to Xanthium strumarium and Parthenium hysterophorus.

  19. Effects of Application of NTA and EDTA on Accumulation of Soil Heavy Metals in Chrysanthemum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Weiyang

    2018-02-01

    In order to find out the effect of non-bio chelating agent EDTA and bio-chelating agent NTA on soil heavy metal pollution, the effects of different ratio of chelating agent NTA and EDTA on soil heavy metals (Pb, Cu and Cd ), the effects of chelating on content of chlorophyll and vitamin C and the degree of soil nutrient loss were evaluated. The results showed: that the contents of Pb and Cd were the highest in the roots of Chrysanthemum in the treatment (EDTA / NTA = 2: 1). The treatment (EDTA / NTA = 1: 1) was the best chelating agent ratio for the synergistic effect, which can significantly promoted the Chrysanthemum on heavy metal Cu uptake and transport to aboveground. Chrysanthemum were inhibited by all chelating agents treatments, while the content of chlorophyll and vitamin C of the Chrysanthemum physiological indexes were reduced. In the treatment (EDTA = 1), chlorophyll SPAD, vitamin C content reached a minimum of 36 and 38mg · 100g-1, respectively. The nutrient element TN in the leachate were gradually decreased with the time, and the tenth day was significantly lower than the leaching rate of the first day (p treatment (EDTA = 1) >treatment (EDTA / NTA = 2: 1) >treatment (EDTA / NTA = 1: 2)> treatment (NTA = 1). Treatment (EDTA / NTA = 2: 1) was recommended for the chelating agent ratio with the better physiological parameters, the more heavy metal extraction and the less nitrogen and phosphorus loss

  20. Genotypic differences in metabolomic changes during storage induced-degreening of chrysanthemum disk florets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geest, van Geert; Choi, Young Hae; Arens, Paul; Post, Aike; Liu, Ying; Meeteren, van Uulke

    2016-01-01

    Selecting chrysanthemum cultivars with long storability and vase life is a major challenge for breeders. The rate of degreening of disk florets during the postharvest phase is an important determinant of vase life. There is large genotypic variation in susceptibility to disk floret degreening.

  1. Disentangling hexaploid genetics : towards DNA-informed breeding for postharvest performance in chrysanthemum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geest, van Geert

    2017-01-01

    DNA-informed selection can strongly improve the process of plant breeding. It requires the detection of DNA polymorphisms, calculation of genetic linkage, access to reliable phenotypes and methods to detect genetic loci associated with phenotypic traits of interest. Cultivated chrysanthemum is an

  2. Identification of Floral Scent in Chrysanthemum Cultivars and Wild Relatives by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hainan Sun

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to identify the major volatile compounds and their relative concentrations in flowers of different chrysanthemum cultivars and their wild relatives. The volatile organic components of fresh flowers were analyzed using a headspace solid-phase microextraction coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. In total, 193 volatile organic components were detected; the major scent components were monoterpenoids and oxygenated monoterpenoids, which accounted for 68.59%–99.93% of the total volatiles in all tested materials except for Chrysanthemum indicum collected from Huangshan, in which they accounted for only 37.45% of total volatiles. The major volatile compounds were camphor, α-pinene, chrysanthenone, safranal, myrcene, eucalyptol, 2,4,5,6,7,7ab-hexahydro-1H-indene, verbenone, β-phellandrene and camphene. In a hierarchical cluster analysis, 39 accessions of Chrysanthemum and its relatives formed six clusters based on their floral volatile compounds. In a principal component analysis, only spider type flowers were located closely on the score plot. The results of this study provide a basis for breeding chrysanthemum cultivars which desirable floral scents.

  3. Isolation, identification and activity of natural antioxidants from costmary (Chrysanthemum balsamita) cultivated in Lithuania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pukalskas, A.; Venskutonis, P.R.; Dijkgraaf, I.; Beek, van T.A.

    2010-01-01

    The sweet, minty-lemony leaves of costmary (Chrysanthemum balsamita) are used for salads and tea, and as flavourings in meats, sausages, cakes and ale. In this study, the extracts isolated from costmary aerial parts were investigated as antioxidants in rapeseed oil and as free radical-scavengers in

  4. Flowering and vegetative propagation of pyrethrum (Chrysanthemum cinerariaefolium Vis.) in vivo and in vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roest, S.

    1976-01-01

    The influence of climatic conditions was investigated on flowering behaviour of pyrethrum ( Chrysanthemum cinerariaefolium Vis.). At low temperatures high numbers of plants initiated high numbers of flower heads. Both the development of the initiated flower heads and the

  5. Effect of growth conditions on post harvest rehydration ability of cut chrysanthemum flowers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meeteren, van U.; Gelder, van H.; Ieperen, van W.

    2005-01-01

    Different batches of cut chrysanthemum flowers showed substantial variability in restoring their fresh weight after a moderate water loss. Cutting height strongly affected the rehydration ability of cut flowers, and the hydraulic conductance of the stem and its restoration after air aspiration.

  6. Effects of growth conditions on external quality of cut chrysanthemum; analysis and simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carvalho, S.M.P.

    2003-01-01

    For many years the emphasis in floricultural research laid with quantity rather than quality. Nowadays, since the prices are often determined on the basis of visual quality aspects, the so-called external quality, chrysanthemum growers aim to provide a high and constant product quality throughout

  7. Evaluation of antioxidant activity of chrysanthemum extracts and tea beverages by gold nanoparticles-based assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Quanjun; Liu, Haifang; Yuan, Zhiliang; Wei, Dongwei; Ye, Yongzhong

    2012-04-01

    A gold nanoparticles-based (GNPs-based) assay was developed for evaluating antioxidant activity of chrysanthemum extracts and tea beverages. Briefly, a GNPs growth system consisted of designated concentrations of hydrogen tetrachloroaurate, cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide, sodium citrate, and phosphate buffer was designed, followed by the addition of 1 mL different level of test samples. After a 10-min reaction at 45°C, GNPs was formed in the reduction of metallic ions to zero valence gold by chrysanthemum extracts or tea beverages. And the resultant solution exhibited a characteristic surface plasmon resonance band of GNPs centered at about 545 nm, responsible for its vivid light pink or wine red color. The optical properties of GNPs formed correlate well with antioxidant activity of test samples. As a result, the antioxidant functional evaluation of chrysanthemum extracts and beverages could be performed by this GNPs-based assay with a spectrophotometer or in visual analysis to a certain extent. Our present method based on the sample-mediated generation and growth of GNPs is rapid, convenient, inexpensive, and also demonstrates a new possibility for the application of nanotechnology in food science. Moreover, this present work provides some useful information for in-depth research of involving chrysanthemum. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. EFFECTS OF IRRIGATION FREQUENCY AND LEAF DETACHMENT ON CHRYSANTHEMUM GROWN IN TWO TYPES OF PLASTIC HOUSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Budiarto

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Chrysanthemum is one of important ornamentals in Indonesia and it ranks in the first quantity of cut flower marketed every year. In most cases, the low productivity is still a constraint for the traditional growers to make production process profitable. Several problems revealed in chrysanthemum production were investigated. The study dealt with the effect of two types of plastic house constructions, irrigation frequency, and leaf detachment on the growth and development of chrysanthemum. The experiment was conducted at Segunung, Indonesian Ornamental Plants Research Institute during the dry season of 2005. A nested design with six replications was used. The results showed that plants grown in wood-constructed plastic house had better growth performance and flower quality than those under bamboo plastic house. Longer stem and higher plant fresh weight with more flowers and longer life span were also observed on chrysanthemum irrigated four times per week than those irrigated twice per week. Leaf removal often practiced by the growers is no longer recommended, since the number of leaves on the plant influenced all parameters observed. The more leaves were detached, the more negative impacts on plant growth were found.

  9. A study of back-trap mottle in coated papers using electron probe microanalysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eby, T.; Whalen-Shaw, M.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper methodology is been developed for analyzing both the surface and cross-sectional distributions for coating components using electron probe microanalysis and image analysis technology. Actual light and dark areas of print mottle are physically separated and analyzed to provide an unequivocal relationship between the distribution of coating components and the physical structure of the coating in areas of print mottle. Areas of low ink density were found to have higher surface latex concentration, greater mean coating thickness, and greater mean rawstock roughness. Furthermore, the difference in surface concentration of CaCO 3 within areas of, low and high ink density was established as a new and additional probable cause of back-trap mottle

  10. New research on the origin of mottled clay in Quaternary basins in the coastal area of south China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Chen, Zhen; Gao, Quanzhou; Chen, Guoneng

    2018-06-01

    Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) mottled clay occurs widely in Late Quaternary basins in south China coastal areas. Current research attributes its origin to exposure weathering of Late Pleistocene marine/fluvial deposits during the LGM. However, field data suggest that this is not the case as there is no gradual transition in lithology, grain size, structure and material composition among these layers. Instead, the mottled clay possesses sedimentary characteristics of exotic dust. In this study, three typical drill cores in the Pearl River Delta were studied using grain size analysis, diffuse reflection spectroscopy (DRS) and geochemical analysis to ascertain the clay's sedimentary characteristics and origin. Grain size distribution patterns and parameters of the mottled clay were similar to those of a typical loess, indicating aeolian origin. In DRS curves, the peak height of hematite > goethite, indicating that the mottled clay had not experienced strong hydration and constitutes a continental product. This conforms to a typical loess but differs from the underlying marine/fluvial deposits. The chemical composition of the mottled clay was homogeneous in the vertical and planar directions. Upper continental crust (UCC) normalized curves of major and trace elements of the mottled clay were close to the average UCC and were consistent with typical aeolian deposits. The spatial and temporal distribution characteristics and relationship with the underlying layer suggest that the mottled clay was a loess-like deposit during the LGM and its mottled structure originated from strong modification of oxidation during the postglacial period after homogeneous dust had accumulated.

  11. KARAKTER MOLEKULER CHRYSANTHEMUM B CARLAVIRUS (CVB ISOLAT KRISAN (DENDRANTHEMA GRANDIFLORA KITAM DI INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I G. R. M. Temaja, G. Suastika, S.H. Hidayat dan U. Kartosuwondo .

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Molecular characterstics of Chrysanthemum B Carlavirus (CVB isolated from chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflora Kitam in Indonesia. Chrysanthemum B Carlavirus (CVB belongs to Carlavirus genus which type species is Carnation latent virus (CLV. Since CVB is considered a new plant virus in chrysanthemum plantation in Indonesia, a study on its molecular characters is required. The objectives of the study are: 1 to determine molecular characters of CVB; 2 to study genetic diversity among CVB isolates collected from different geographic regions in Indonesia. The research activities cover virus purifications, electron microscope observation, coat protein analysis by SDS PAGE, and nucleic acid analysis. The result of virus purification demonstrated a high purity level with ratio value of A260/A280 =1.22. The total pure virus produced from 200 g of fresh material is 6.250 mg. Purified virus preparation yielded rather straight rod and flexuous virus particles of about 685 nm long and 12 nm wide. Coat protein analysis with sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE showed specific protein band of approximately 34 kDa. Specific DNA fragment of 739 bp was successfully amplified from chrysanthemum infected by CVB Cianjur, Medan, Malang and Bali isolates. CVB isolated from Cianjur, Medan, Malang and Bali have similarity 85-99%. Based on analysis using PAUP 4.10 program, Cianjur, Medan, Malang and Bali isolates belong to the same group with CVB isolates originated from India (Chattisgarh and Jammu isolates. Cianjur isolate has close relationship to Medan isolate, however Bali isolate showed a close relationship with Malang isolate.

  12. Influence of microscopic mottle on the definition of small image details

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selin, K; Reichmann, S [Sahlgrenska Sjukhuset, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    1979-01-01

    By a special technique of enlarging films a microscopic mottle caused by quantum fluctuations was demonstrated. It was found to affect depiction of small details in such a way as to suggest that it would be of importance for determining resolution capacity, especially in high-speed radiography. Thus, the modulation transfer function appears not to be the only factor determining radiographic resolution. The resolution of high-speed screens may be improved if the film speed is reduced, which leads to a diminished microscopic mottle.

  13. First Report of Cowpea Mild Mottle Carlavirus on Yardlong Bean (Vigna unguiculata subsp. sesquipedalis in Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgloris Marys

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Yardlong bean (Vigna unguiculata subsp. sesquipedalis plants with virus-like systemic mottling and leaf distortion were observed in both experimental and commercial fields in Aragua State, Venezuela. Symptomatic leaves were shown to contain carlavirus-like particles. RT-PCR analysis with carlavirus-specific primers was positive in all tested samples. Nucleotide sequences of the obtained amplicons showed 84%–74% similarity to corresponding sequences of Cowpea mild mottle virus (CPMMV isolates deposited in the GenBank database. This is the first report of CPMMV in Venezuela and is thought to be the first report of CPMMV infecting yardlong bean.

  14. Screening of Potential Inhibitor against Coat Protein of Apple Chlorotic Leaf Spot Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purohit, Rituraj; Kumar, Sachin; Hallan, Vipin

    2018-06-01

    In this study, we analyzed Coat protein (CP) of Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus (ACLSV), an important latent virus on Apple. Incidence of the virus is upto 60% in various apple cultivars, affecting yield losses of the order of 10-40% (depending upon the cultivar). CP plays an important role as the sole building block of the viral capsid. Homology approach was used to model 193 amino acid sequence of the coat protein. We used various servers such as ConSurf, TargetS, OSML, COACH, COFACTOR for the prediction of active site residues in coat protein. Virtual screening strategy was employed to search potential inhibitors for CP. Top twenty screened molecules considered for drugability, and toxicity analysis and one potential molecule was further analyzed by docking analysis. Here, we reported a potent molecule which could inhibit the formation of viron assembly by targeting the CP protein of virus.

  15. Flower colour modification of chrysanthemum by suppression of F3'H and overexpression of the exogenous Senecio cruentus F3'5'H gene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang He

    Full Text Available Chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum × morifolium is one of the most important ornamental plants in the world. They are typically used as cut flowers or potted plants. Chrysanthemum can exhibit red, purple, pink, yellow and white flowers, but lack bright red and blue flowers. In this study, we identified two chrysanthemum cultivars, C × morifolium 'LPi' and C × morifolium 'LPu', that only accumulate flavonoids in their ligulate flowers. Next, we isolated seven anthocyanin biosynthesis genes, namely CmCHS, CmF3H, CmF3'H, CmDFR, CmANS, CmCHI and Cm3GT in these cultivars. RT-PCR and qRT-PCR analyses showed that CmF3'H was the most important enzyme required for cyanidin biosynthsis. To rebuild the delphinidin pathway, we downregulated CmF3'H using RNAi and overexpressed the Senecio cruentus F3'5'H (PCFH gene in chrysanthemum. The resultant chrysanthemum demonstrated a significantly increased content of cyanidin and brighter red flower petals but did not accumulate delphinidin. These results indicated that CmF3'H in chrysanthemum is important for anthocyanin accumulation, and Senecio cruentus F3'5'H only exhibited F3'H activity in chrysanthemum but did not rebuild the delphinidin pathway to form blue flower chrysanthemum.

  16. Flower colour modification of chrysanthemum by suppression of F3'H and overexpression of the exogenous Senecio cruentus F3'5'H gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Huang; Ke, Hu; Keting, Han; Qiaoyan, Xiang; Silan, Dai

    2013-01-01

    Chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum × morifolium) is one of the most important ornamental plants in the world. They are typically used as cut flowers or potted plants. Chrysanthemum can exhibit red, purple, pink, yellow and white flowers, but lack bright red and blue flowers. In this study, we identified two chrysanthemum cultivars, C × morifolium 'LPi' and C × morifolium 'LPu', that only accumulate flavonoids in their ligulate flowers. Next, we isolated seven anthocyanin biosynthesis genes, namely CmCHS, CmF3H, CmF3'H, CmDFR, CmANS, CmCHI and Cm3GT in these cultivars. RT-PCR and qRT-PCR analyses showed that CmF3'H was the most important enzyme required for cyanidin biosynthsis. To rebuild the delphinidin pathway, we downregulated CmF3'H using RNAi and overexpressed the Senecio cruentus F3'5'H (PCFH) gene in chrysanthemum. The resultant chrysanthemum demonstrated a significantly increased content of cyanidin and brighter red flower petals but did not accumulate delphinidin. These results indicated that CmF3'H in chrysanthemum is important for anthocyanin accumulation, and Senecio cruentus F3'5'H only exhibited F3'H activity in chrysanthemum but did not rebuild the delphinidin pathway to form blue flower chrysanthemum.

  17. Mechanosensory based orienting behaviors in fluvial and lacustrine populations of mottled sculpin (Cottus bairdi)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheryl Coombs; Gary D. Grossman

    2006-01-01

    We compared prey-orienting and rheotactic behaviors in a fluvial (Coweeta Creek) and lacustrine (Lake Michigan) population of mottled sculpin. Blinded sculpin from both populations exhibited unconditioned, mechanosensory based rheotaxis to low velocity flows. Whereas Lake Michigan sculpin generally showed increasing levels of positive rheotaxis to increasing velocities...

  18. Complete genome sequence of a tomato infecting tomato mottle mosaic virus in New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Complete genome sequence of an emerging isolate of tomato mottle mosaic virus (ToMMV) infecting experimental nicotianan benthamiana plants in up-state New York was obtained using small RNA deep sequencing. ToMMV_NY-13 shared 99% sequence identity to ToMMV isolates from Mexico and Florida. Broader d...

  19. Kodak film type SO-394-4-1 mottling and hypersensitization test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, M. S.

    1972-01-01

    A number of tests were conducted to show the effects of various environmental conditions in terms of mottling and hypersensitization on Kodak Film type SO-394-4-1. The first two weeks of environmental testing is described, along with the test plan and matrix.

  20. An individual-based simulation model for mottled sculpin (Cottus bairdi) in a southern Appalachian stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenda Rashleigh; Gary D. Grossman

    2005-01-01

    We describe and analyze a spatially explicit, individual-based model for the local population dynamics of mottled sculpin (Cottus bairdi). The model simulated daily growth, mortality, movement and spawning of individuals within a reach of stream. Juvenile and adult growth was based on consumption bioenergetics of benthic macroinvertebrate prey;...

  1. Rice yellow mottle virus is transmitted by cows, donkeys, and grass rats in irrigated rice crops

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sarra, S.; Peters, D.

    2003-01-01

    Rice yellow mottle virus (RYMV), endemic in Africa, is believed to be spread by chrysomelid beetles, although the infections in a field often cannot be explained by the prevailing number of beetles. We show that the grass rat Arvicanthis niloticus, domestic cows (Bos spp.), and donkeys (Asinus spp.)

  2. EFFECTS OF TYPES OF MEDIA AND NPK FERTILIZER ON THE ROOTING CAPACITY OF CHRYSANTHEMUM CUTTINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Budiarto

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Physiological status of chrysanthemum cuttings during rooting process highly influences plant growth and flower production. Amongst other aspects, rooting capacity of the cuttings is the most important. Rooting capacity is influenced by environmental conditions such as growing medium and nutrition. The study was aimed to analyze the effects of different types of media, fertilizer concentration, and frequency of fertilizer application on the rooting capacity of chrysanthemum cuttings. The experiment was conducted at the Segunung Experimental Station of the Indonesian Ornamental Crops Research Institute from February to May 2005. The treatments consisted of four different rooting media, i.e. carbonized rice husk, coco peat, perlite, and mixture of perlite and vermiculite (1:1 v/v; two concentrations of NPK (25:7:7 fertilizers, i.e. 1.75 and 2.5 g 1-l; and four frequencies of fertilizer application, i.e. every 1 day, 2 days, 3 days, and 4 days. The experiment was designed in a completely randomized block with four replications. Parameters observed were rooting capacity and cutting performances such as cutting height, cutting diameter, number of leaves, number of visible roots, and root length at 16 days after planting. The results showed that chrysanthemum cuttings rooted in carbonized rice husk had better performance than those rooted in coco peat, vermiculite, and mixture of perlite + vermiculite. Higher concentration of fertilizer solution up to 2.5 g l-1 also gave significant effect on the root formation and further root growth of cuttings. However, the rooting capacity of cuttings was not affected by the frequency of fertilizer application. This study implied that carbonized rice husk growing medium supplemented with NPK (2.5 g l-l every 4 days during rooting period is the choice for traditional chrysanthemum growers to increase the perform-ance and quality of the cut flowers.

  3. Investigation of Differences in Fertility among Progenies from Self-Pollinated Chrysanthemum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Wang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Most chrysanthemum cultivars are self-incompatible, so it is very difficult to create pure lines that are important in chrysanthemum breeding and theoretical studies. In our previous study, we obtained a self-compatible chrysanthemum cultivar and its self-pollinated seed set was 56.50%. It was interesting that the seed set of its ten progenies ranged from 0% to 37.23%. Examination of the factors causing the differences in the seed set will lead to an improved understanding of chrysanthemum self-incompatibility, and provide valuable information for creating pure lines. Pollen morphology, pollen germination percentage, pistil receptivity and embryo development were investigated using the in vitro culture method, the paraffin section technique, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Moreover, RNA sequencing and bioinformatics were applied to analyzing the transcriptomic profiles of mature stigmas and anthers. It was found that the self-pollinated seed set of “Q10-33-1①”,”Q10-33-1③”,”Q10-33-1④” and “Q10-33-1⑩” were 37.23%, 26.77%, 7.97% and 0%, respectively. The differences in fertility among four progenies were mainly attributable to differences in pollen germination percentage and pistil receptivity. Failure of the seed set in “Q10-33-1⑩” was possibly due to self-incompatibility. In the transcriptomic files, 22 potential stigma S genes and 8 potential pollen S genes were found out.

  4. Generation of blue chrysanthemums by anthocyanin B-ring hydroxylation and glucosylation and its coloration mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noda, Naonobu; Yoshioka, Satoshi; Kishimoto, Sanae; Nakayama, Masayoshi; Douzono, Mitsuru; Tanaka, Yoshikazu; Aida, Ryutaro

    2017-07-01

    Various colored cultivars of ornamental flowers have been bred by hybridization and mutation breeding; however, the generation of blue flowers for major cut flower plants, such as roses, chrysanthemums, and carnations, has not been achieved by conventional breeding or genetic engineering. Most blue-hued flowers contain delphinidin-based anthocyanins; therefore, delphinidin-producing carnation, rose, and chrysanthemum flowers have been generated by overexpression of the gene encoding flavonoid 3',5'-hydroxylase (F3'5'H), the key enzyme for delphinidin biosynthesis. Even so, the flowers are purple/violet rather than blue. To generate true blue flowers, blue pigments, such as polyacylated anthocyanins and metal complexes, must be introduced by metabolic engineering; however, introducing and controlling multiple transgenes in plants are complicated processes. We succeeded in generating blue chrysanthemum flowers by introduction of butterfly pea UDP (uridine diphosphate)-glucose:anthocyanin 3',5'- O -glucosyltransferase gene, in addition to the expression of the Canterbury bells F3'5'H . Newly synthesized 3',5'-diglucosylated delphinidin-based anthocyanins exhibited a violet color under the weakly acidic pH conditions of flower petal juice and showed a blue color only through intermolecular association, termed "copigmentation," with flavone glucosides in planta. Thus, we achieved the development of blue color by a two-step modification of the anthocyanin structure. This simple method is a promising approach to generate blue flowers in various ornamental plants by metabolic engineering.

  5. Production and quality of three varieties of chrysanthemum grown in pots with different NPK rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joice Crescencio Heidemann

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Chrysanthemum can be grown for cutting or as a pot plant year-round, providing a constant production flow. In Brazil, little is known about mineral nutrition and fertilization for this crop. Thus, the objective of this work was to evaluate the production and quality of chrysanthemum varieties cultivated in pots with different NPK rates. The experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design with the NPK rates (10-10-10 of 3 g L-1, 6 g L-1 and 9 g L-1 and chrysanthemum varieties Sheena, Calabria and Indianapolis. Pots of 1.2 L capacity were filled with substrate and placed three cuttings per pot kept in a fog chamber under long days. After 21 days, apical pruning was done and started the short-day period. After flowering induction, short days were suspended. It was realized analysis of variance and it was noticed that stem length and EC were affected by NPK rates. It was observed an inverse relation between the increase in NPK rate and cultivation cycle, resulting in precocity of flowering for all varieties. Plants cultivated under 9 g L-1 rate did not present toxicity symptoms, suggesting that this dose was more adequate for the production of pot plants for all three varieties.

  6. Metabolism of organic acids, nitrogen and amino acids in chlorotic leaves of 'Honeycrisp' apple (Malus domestica Borkh) with excessive accumulation of carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huicong; Ma, Fangfang; Cheng, Lailiang

    2010-07-01

    Metabolite profiles and activities of key enzymes in the metabolism of organic acids, nitrogen and amino acids were compared between chlorotic leaves and normal leaves of 'Honeycrisp' apple to understand how accumulation of non-structural carbohydrates affects the metabolism of organic acids, nitrogen and amino acids. Excessive accumulation of non-structural carbohydrates and much lower CO(2) assimilation were found in chlorotic leaves than in normal leaves, confirming feedback inhibition of photosynthesis in chlorotic leaves. Dark respiration and activities of several key enzymes in glycolysis and tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, ATP-phosphofructokinase, pyruvate kinase, citrate synthase, aconitase and isocitrate dehydrogenase were significantly higher in chlorotic leaves than in normal leaves. However, concentrations of most organic acids including phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP), pyruvate, oxaloacetate, 2-oxoglutarate, malate and fumarate, and activities of key enzymes involved in the anapleurotic pathway including PEP carboxylase, NAD-malate dehydrogenase and NAD-malic enzyme were significantly lower in chlorotic leaves than in normal leaves. Concentrations of soluble proteins and most free amino acids were significantly lower in chlorotic leaves than in normal leaves. Activities of key enzymes in nitrogen assimilation and amino acid synthesis, including nitrate reductase, glutamine synthetase, ferredoxin and NADH-dependent glutamate synthase, and glutamate pyruvate transaminase were significantly lower in chlorotic leaves than in normal leaves. It was concluded that, in response to excessive accumulation of non-structural carbohydrates, glycolysis and TCA cycle were up-regulated to "consume" the excess carbon available, whereas the anapleurotic pathway, nitrogen assimilation and amino acid synthesis were down-regulated to reduce the overall rate of amino acid and protein synthesis.

  7. Inhibition of water uptake after dry storage of cut flowers: Role of aspired air and wound-induced processes in Chrysanthemum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meeteren, van U.; Arévalo-Galarza, L.; Doorn, van W.G.

    2006-01-01

    We investigated the relative role of aspired air and a plant-induced reaction in the vascular occlusion of dry-stored cv. Cassa chrysanthemum flowers (Chrysanthemum × morifolium Ramat). Measurements of hydraulic capacity showed that the air that is aspired directly after cutting (into the opened

  8. A temperature response function for development of the chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum x morifolium Ramat. Uma função de resposta do desenvolvimento à temperatura em crisântemo (Chrysanthemum x morifolium Ramat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nereu Augusto Streck

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Developmental models can help growers to decide management practices, and to predict flowering and harvest time. Currently, a double exponential function is proposed as a generalized temperature response function for chrysanthemum. This function is not the most appropriate because its parameters lack biological meaning. The objective of this study was to develop a nonlinear temperature response function of chrysanthemum development that has parameters with biological meaning. The proposed function is a beta function with three parameters, the cardinal temperatures (minimum, optimum, and maximum temperatures for development, which were defined as 0, 22, and 35ºC. Published data of temperature response of development of three cultivars, which are independent data sets, were used to test the performance of the double exponential function and the beta function. Results showed that the beta function is better than the double exponential function to describe the temperature response of chrysanthemum development.Modelos de desenvolvimento podem ajudar os produtores no manejo e no planejamento da época de florescimento e colheita. Atualmente, a resposta térmica do desenvolvimento do crisântemo é modelada por uma função exponencial dupla, a qual não é completamente adequada porque os seus parâmetros não têm interpretação biológica. O objetivo deste estudo foi desenvolver uma função de resposta do desenvolvimento à temperatura em crisântemo que tenha parâmetros com interpretação biológica. A função proposta é uma função beta com três parâmetros, que são as temperaturas cardinais (temperaturas mínima, ótima e máxima de desenvolvimento, definidas como 0, 22 e 35ºC. Dados independentes da resposta do desenvolvimento à temperatura em três cultivares de crisântemo publicados na literatura foram usados para testar as duas funções de resposta. Os resultados mostraram que a função beta é melhor do que a fun

  9. Next-Generation Sequencing of the Chrysanthemum nankingense (Asteraceae) Transcriptome Permits Large-Scale Unigene Assembly and SSR Marker Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haibin; Jiang, Jiafu; Chen, Sumei; Qi, Xiangyu; Peng, Hui; Li, Pirui; Song, Aiping; Guan, Zhiyong; Fang, Weimin; Liao, Yuan; Chen, Fadi

    2013-01-01

    Background Simple sequence repeats (SSRs) are ubiquitous in eukaryotic genomes. Chrysanthemum is one of the largest genera in the Asteraceae family. Only few Chrysanthemum expressed sequence tag (EST) sequences have been acquired to date, so the number of available EST-SSR markers is very low. Methodology/Principal Findings Illumina paired-end sequencing technology produced over 53 million sequencing reads from C. nankingense mRNA. The subsequent de novo assembly yielded 70,895 unigenes, of which 45,789 (64.59%) unigenes showed similarity to the sequences in NCBI database. Out of 45,789 sequences, 107 have hits to the Chrysanthemum Nr protein database; 679 and 277 sequences have hits to the database of Helianthus and Lactuca species, respectively. MISA software identified a large number of putative EST-SSRs, allowing 1,788 primer pairs to be designed from the de novo transcriptome sequence and a further 363 from archival EST sequence. Among 100 primer pairs randomly chosen, 81 markers have amplicons and 20 are polymorphic for genotypes analysis in Chrysanthemum. The results showed that most (but not all) of the assays were transferable across species and that they exposed a significant amount of allelic diversity. Conclusions/Significance SSR markers acquired by transcriptome sequencing are potentially useful for marker-assisted breeding and genetic analysis in the genus Chrysanthemum and its related genera. PMID:23626799

  10. Effect of the Introduction of Chrysanthemum on the Nutritional and Sensory Properties of Cabernet Sauvignon Red Wine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Liu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we propose a new wine technology where dried chrysanthemum is introduced during the process of fermentation of wine. This technology sets an example of a blend between exotic wine culture and traditional Chinese tea culture. The influence on the chemical and sensory properties of wine due to the addition of different amounts of chrysanthemum at different fermentation periods was studied. In all the wine with added chrysanthemum the content of both polyphenols and flavones obviously increased. The wine of T1 and T2 had a higher content of polyphenols and flavones than others, due to thermomaceration, whereas those in the wine of T2 were the highest, due to the technique of squeezing juice. The sensory quality of T3, without the techniques of thermomaceration and squeezing juice, was optimal, with characteristics such as a ruby color, fuller aroma, and a lighter flowery texture. Therefore, T3 was defined as the optimum of chrysanthemum adding procedures. With the increase of chrysanthemum addition, both flavones content and polyphenols content of the obtained wine first increased, and then decreased.

  11. Quality assessment of Chrysanthemum indicum Flower by simultaneous quantification of six major ingredients using a single reference standard combined with HPLC fingerprint analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiao He

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Chrysanthemum indicum Flower is usually consumed as functional food. This paper described an improved total quality assessment method for Chrysanthemum indicum Flower by simultaneous quantitation using a single standard to determine multi-components method combined with high performance liquid chromatography fingerprint analysis. Six main components of Chrysanthemum indicum Flower including two flavonoids and four phenolic acids were simultaneously quantified using linarin as the internal reference standard. The method was fully validated with respect to linearity, precision, accuracy, robustness and stability. The validated method was successfully applied to the analysis of thirty three batches of Chrysanthemum indicum Flower samples. Under the same chromatographic conditions, fingerprint analysis in combination with Similarity analysis and principal component analysis was performed to identify the samples from different regions. In general, an effective assessment using a single standard to determinate multi-components method combined with fingerprint analysis make the reliable qualitation and quantitation analysis of Chrysanthemum indicum Flower available.

  12. Hibiscus chlorotic ringspot virus coat protein upregulates sulfur metabolism genes for enhanced pathogen defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Ruimin; Ng, Florence Kai Lin; Liu, Peng; Wong, Sek-Man

    2012-12-01

    In both Hibiscus chlorotic ringspot virus (HCRSV)-infected and HCRSV coat protein (CP) agroinfiltrated plant leaves, we showed that sulfur metabolism pathway related genes-namely, sulfite oxidase (SO), sulfite reductase, and adenosine 5'-phosphosulfate kinase-were upregulated. It led us to examine a plausible relationship between sulfur-enhanced resistance (SED) and HCRSV infection. We broadened an established method to include different concentrations of sulfur (0S, 1S, 2S, and 3S) to correlate them to symptom development of HCRSV-infected plants. We treated plants with glutathione and its inhibitor to verify the SED effect. Disease resistance was induced through elevated glutathione contents during HCRSV infection. The upregulation of SO was related to suppression of symptom development induced by sulfur treatment. In this study, we established that HCRSV-CP interacts with SO which, in turn, triggers SED and leads to enhanced plant resistance. Thus, we have discovered a new function of SO in the SED pathway. This is the first report to demonstrate that the interaction of a viral protein and host protein trigger SED in plants. It will be interesting if such interaction applies generally to other host-pathogen interactions that will lead to enhanced pathogen defense.

  13. Evaluation of different iron compounds in chlorotic Italian lemon trees (Citrus lemon).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Patricio Rivera; Castro Meza, Blanca I; de la Garza Requena, Francisco R; Flores, Guillermo Mendoza; Etchevers Barra, Jorge D

    2007-05-01

    The severe deficiency of iron or ferric chlorosis is a serious problem of most citrus trees established in calcareous soils, as a result of the low availability of iron in these soils and the poor uptake and limited transport of this nutrient in trees. The objective of this study was to evaluate the response of chlorotic Italian lemon trees (Citrus lemon) to the application of iron compounds to roots and stems. On comparing the effects of aqueous solutions of ferric citrate, ferrous sulphate and FeEDDHA chelate, applied to 20% of the roots grown in soil and sand, of trees that were planted in pots containing calcareous soil, it was observed that the chelate fully corrected ferric chlorosis, while citrate and sulphate did not solve the problem. EDDHA induced the root uptake of iron as well as the movement of the nutrient up to the leaves. With the use of injections of ferric solutions into the secondary stem of adult trees, ferric citrate corrected chlorosis but ferrous sulphate did not. The citrate ion expanded the mobility of iron within the plant, from the injection points up to the leaves, whereas the sulphate ion did not sufficiently improve the movement of iron towards the leaf mesophyll.

  14. Application of plant growth regulators mitigates chlorotic foliar injury by the black pecan aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottrell, Ted E; Wood, Bruce W; Ni, Xinzhi

    2010-11-01

    Black pecan aphid, Melanocallis caryaefoliae (Davis) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), feeding elicits localized chlorotic injury to pecan foliage [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) K Koch] and apparent acceleration of leaf senescence and defoliation. The ability of certain plant growth regulators (PGRs) (forchlorfenuron, gibberellic acid and aviglycine) to prevent M. caryaefoliae from triggering pecan leaf chlorosis and senescence-like processes was evaluated on two dates in both 2006 and 2007. Treatments were applied to orchard foliage and used in laboratory leaf-disc bioassays to assess possible reduction in aphid-elicited chlorosis and concomitant effects on aphid mortality and development. Foliage pretreated with forchlorfenuron + gibberellic acid prior to being challenged with aphids resulted in significantly less aphid-elicited chlorosis than did control or aviglycine-treated leaf discs. No PGR affected aphid mortality; however, development time was increased by forchlorfenuron + gibberellic acid in 2006 and by aviglycine + gibberellic acid on one date in 2007. Certain PGRs possess the potential for usage on pecan to protect foliar canopies from M. caryaefoliae via changes in the susceptibility of the host leaf to senescence-like factors being introduced by feeding aphids. This protective effect on host foliage and the associated suppressive effect on development of feeding aphids might also be relevant to pest management programs on other aphid-crop systems in which aphid-elicited chlorosis and senescence-like processes can limit profitability. Published 2010 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Complete nucleotide sequence of watermelon chlorotic stunt virus originating from Oman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Akhtar J; Akhtar, Sohail; Briddon, Rob W; Ammara, Um; Al-Matrooshi, Abdulrahman M; Mansoor, Shahid

    2012-07-01

    Watermelon chlorotic stunt virus (WmCSV) is a bipartite begomovirus (genus Begomovirus, family Geminiviridae) that causes economic losses to cucurbits, particularly watermelon, across the Middle East and North Africa. Recently squash (Cucurbita moschata) grown in an experimental field in Oman was found to display symptoms such as leaf curling, yellowing and stunting, typical of a begomovirus infection. Sequence analysis of the virus isolated from squash showed 97.6-99.9% nucleotide sequence identity to previously described WmCSV isolates for the DNA A component and 93-98% identity for the DNA B component. Agrobacterium-mediated inoculation to Nicotiana benthamiana resulted in the development of symptoms fifteen days post inoculation. This is the first bipartite begomovirus identified in Oman. Overall the Oman isolate showed the highest levels of sequence identity to a WmCSV isolate originating from Iran, which was confirmed by phylogenetic analysis. This suggests that WmCSV present in Oman has been introduced from Iran. The significance of this finding is discussed.

  16. λ-Carrageenan Suppresses Tomato Chlorotic Dwarf Viroid (TCDVd Replication and Symptom Expression in Tomatoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jatinder S. Sangha

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The effect of carrageenans on tomato chlorotic dwarf viroid (TCDVd replication and symptom expression was studied. Three-week-old tomato plants were spray-treated with iota(ɩ-, lambda(λ-, and kappa(κ-carrageenan at 1 g·L−1 and inoculated with TCDVd after 48 h. The λ-carrageenan significantly suppressed viroid symptom expression after eight weeks of inoculation, only 28% plants showed distinctive bunchy-top symptoms as compared to the 82% in the control group. Viroid concentration was reduced in the infected shoot cuttings incubated in λ-carrageenan amended growth medium. Proteome analysis revealed that 16 tomato proteins were differentially expressed in the λ-carrageenan treated plants. Jasmonic acid related genes, allene oxide synthase (AOS and lipoxygenase (LOX, were up-regulated in λ-carrageenan treatment during viroid infection. Taken together, our results suggest that λ-carrageenan induced tomato defense against TCDVd, which was partly jasmonic acid (JA dependent, and that it could be explored in plant protection against viroid infection.

  17. Chickpea chlorotic stunt virus: A New Polerovirus Infecting Cool-Season Food Legumes in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, A D; Menzel, W; Lesemann, D-E; Varrelmann, M; Vetten, H J

    2006-05-01

    ABSTRACT Serological analysis of diseased chickpea and faba bean plantings with yellowing and stunting symptoms suggested the occurrence of an unknown or uncommon member of the family Luteoviridae in Ethiopia. Degenerate primers were used for reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction amplification of the viral coat protein (CP) coding region from both chickpea and faba bean samples. Cloning and sequencing of the amplicons yielded nearly identical (96%) nucleotide sequences of a previously unrecognized species of the family Luteoviridae, with a CP amino acid sequence most closely related (identity of approximately 78%) to that of Groundnut rosette assistor virus. The complete genome (5,900 nts) of a faba bean isolate comprised six major open reading frames characteristic of polero-viruses. Of the four aphid species tested, only Aphis craccivora transmitted the virus in a persistent manner. The host range of the virus was confined to a few species of the family Fabaceae. A rabbit antiserum raised against virion preparations cross-reacted unexpectedly with Beet western yellows virus-like viruses. This necessitated the production of murine monoclonal antibodies which, in combination with the polyclonal antiserum, permitted both sensitive and specific detection of the virus in field samples by triple-antibody sandwich, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Because of the characteristic field and greenhouse symptoms in chickpea, the name Chickpea chlorotic stunt virus is proposed for this new member of the genus Polerovirus (family Luteoviridae).

  18. Breeding biology of Mottled Ducks on agricultural lands in southwestern Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durham, R.S.; Afton, A.D.

    2006-01-01

    Breeding biology of Anas fulvigula maculosa (Mottled Ducks) has been described in coastal marsh and associated habitats, but little information is available for agricultural habitats in Louisiana. We located nests to determine nest-initiation dates and clutch sizes during the primary breeding season (February-May) in 1999 (n = 29) and 2000 (n = 37) on agricultural lands in southwestern Louisiana. In 1999, 60% of located nests were initiated between 22 March and 10 April, whereas in 2000, only 22% of nests were initiated during the same time period. Average clutch size was 0.9 eggs smaller in 2000 than in 1999. Annual differences in reproductive parameters corresponded with extremely dry conditions caused by low rainfall before the laying period in 2000. Flooded rice fields appear to be important loafing and feeding habitat of Mottled Ducks nesting in agricultural lands, especially during drought periods when other wetland types are not available or where natural wetlands have been eliminated.

  19. Generation of expressed sequence tags for discovery of genes responsible for floral traits of Chrysanthemum morifolium by next-generation sequencing technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Katsutomo; Mitsuda, Nobutaka; Nashima, Kenji; Kishimoto, Kyutaro; Katayose, Yuichi; Kanamori, Hiroyuki; Ohmiya, Akemi

    2017-09-04

    Chrysanthemum morifolium is one of the most economically valuable ornamental plants worldwide. Chrysanthemum is an allohexaploid plant with a large genome that is commercially propagated by vegetative reproduction. New cultivars with different floral traits, such as color, morphology, and scent, have been generated mainly by classical cross-breeding and mutation breeding. However, only limited genetic resources and their genome information are available for the generation of new floral traits. To obtain useful information about molecular bases for floral traits of chrysanthemums, we read expressed sequence tags (ESTs) of chrysanthemums by high-throughput sequencing using the 454 pyrosequencing technology. We constructed normalized cDNA libraries, consisting of full-length, 3'-UTR, and 5'-UTR cDNAs derived from various tissues of chrysanthemums. These libraries produced a total number of 3,772,677 high-quality reads, which were assembled into 213,204 contigs. By comparing the data obtained with those of full genome-sequenced species, we confirmed that our chrysanthemum contig set contained the majority of all expressed genes, which was sufficient for further molecular analysis in chrysanthemums. We confirmed that our chrysanthemum EST set (contigs) contained a number of contigs that encoded transcription factors and enzymes involved in pigment and aroma compound metabolism that was comparable to that of other species. This information can serve as an informative resource for identifying genes involved in various biological processes in chrysanthemums. Moreover, the findings of our study will contribute to a better understanding of the floral characteristics of chrysanthemums including the myriad cultivars at the molecular level.

  20. Survey of Cherry necrotic rusty mottle virus and Cherry green ring mottle virus incidence in Korea by Duplex RT-PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung-Yeol Lee

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of Cherry necrotic rusty mottle virus (CNRMV and Cherry green ring mottle virus (CGRMV have recently been occurred in Korea, posing a problem for sweet cherry cultivation. Since infected trees have symptomless leaves or ring-like spots on the pericarp, it is difficult to identify a viral infection. In this study, the incidence of CNRMV and CGRMV in sweet cherry in Gyeongbuk province was surveyed using a newly developed duplex reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR method that can detect both viruses in a single reaction. CNRMV and CGRMV co-infection rates were 29.6%, 53.6%, and 17.6%, respectively, in samples collected from three different sites (Daegu, Gyeongju and Gyeongsan in Gyeongbuk province during 2012 and 2013. This duplex RT-PCR method offers a simple, rapid, and effective way of identifying CNRMV and CGRMV simultaneously in sweet cherry trees, which can aid in the management of viral infections that could undermine yield.

  1. Duckling survival, fecundity, and habitat selection of mottled duck broods on the upper Texas Gulf Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigby, Elizabeth A.; Haukos, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Mottled ducks (Anas fulvigula) on the western Gulf Coast have exhibited a steep population decline since the mid 1990s. Low rates of breeding incidence and nest success have been implicated in this decline, but duckling survival and the habitat needs of broods have not been previously investigated in this region. We fitted mottled duck ducklings and adult females with radio transmitters and tracked broods to estimate duckling survival and brood habitat selection on the upper Texas Gulf Coast. Duckling survival to 30 days was high (range among models 0.354–0.567) compared to other dabbling duck species. Estimated fecundity was low, (range among models 0.398–0.634) however, indicating that overall reproductive output is low. Within coastal marsh, broods selected home ranges with more water cover and less upland and fresh marsh landcover than was available in the study area. Within coastal marsh home ranges, broods selected for water cover relative to other landcover types, and there was some evidence that broods avoided unvegetated landcover. Although high quality brood habitat is undeniably important, management efforts to increase mottled duck population growth on the western Gulf Coast may best be spent on increasing nesting habitat quality to increase nest success and breeding incidence.

  2. Nest-site selection and success of mottled ducks on agricultural lands in southwest Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durham, R.S.; Afton, A.D.

    2003-01-01

    Listing of the mottled duck (Anas fulvigula maculosa) as a priority species in the Gulf Coast Joint Venture of the North American Waterfowl Management Plan, coupled with recent declines of rice (Oryza sativa) acreage, led us to investigate the nesting ecology of this species on agricultural lands in southwest Louisiana. We examined nest-site selection at macro- and microhabitat levels, nest success, causes of nest failures, and habitat features influencing nest success. We found that female mottled ducks preferred to nest in permanent pastures with knolls (53% of nests) and idle fields (22% of nests). Vegetation height was greater at nests than at random points within the same macrohabitat patch. Successful nests were associated with greater numbers of plant species, located farther from water, and associated with higher vegetation density values than were unsuccessful nests. We determined that mammalian predators caused most nest failures (77% of 52 unsuccessful nests). Our results suggest that nest success of mottled ducks on agricultural lands in southwest Louisiana could be improved by 1) locating large permanent pastures and idle fields near rice fields and other available wetlands, 2) managing plant communities in these upland areas to favor dense stands of perennial bunch grasses, tall composites, dewberry (Rubus trivialis), and other native grasses and forbs, and 3) managing cattle-stocking rates and the duration and timing of grazing to promote tall, dense stands of these plant taxa during the nesting season (March-June).

  3. Plant growth retardation and conserved miRNAs are correlated to Hibiscus chlorotic ringspot virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Ruimin; Wan, Zi Yi; Wong, Sek-Man

    2013-01-01

    Virus infection may cause a multiplicity of symptoms in their host including discoloration, distortion and growth retardation. Hibiscus chlorotic ringspot virus (HCRSV) infection was studied using kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.), a non-wood fiber-producing crop in this study. Infection by HCRSV reduced the fiber yield and concomitant economic value of kenaf. We investigated kenaf growth retardation and fluctuations of four selected miRNAs after HCRSV infection. Vegetative growth (including plant height, leaf size and root development) was severely retarded. From the transverse and radial sections of the mock and HCRSV-infected kenaf stem, the vascular bundles of HCRSV-infected plants were severely disrupted. In addition, four conserved plant developmental and defence related microRNAs (miRNAs) (miR165, miR167, miR168 and miR171) and their respective target genes phabulosa (PHB), auxin response factor 8 (ARF8), argonaute 1 (AGO1) and scarecrow-like protein 1 (SCL1) displayed variation in expression levels after HCRSV infection. Compared with the mock inoculated kenaf plants, miR171 and miR168 and their targets SCL1 and AGO1 showed greater fluctuations after HCRSV infection. As HCRSV upregulates plant SO transcript in kenaf and upregulated AGO1 in HCRSV-infected plants, the expression level of AGO1 transcript was further investigated under sulfite oxidase (SO) overexpression or silencing condition. Interestingly, the four selected miRNAs were also up- or down-regulated upon overexpression or silencing of SO. Plant growth retardation and fluctuation of four conserved miRNAs are correlated to HCRSV infection.

  4. Nucleotide sequence of a chickpea chlorotic stunt virus relative that infects pea and faba bean in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Cui-Ji; Xiang, Hai-Ying; Zhuo, Tao; Li, Da-Wei; Yu, Jia-Lin; Han, Cheng-Gui

    2012-07-01

    We determined the genome sequence of a new polerovirus that infects field pea and faba bean in China. Its entire nucleotide sequence (6021 nt) was most closely related (83.3% identity) to that of an Ethiopian isolate of chickpea chlorotic stunt virus (CpCSV-Eth). With the exception of the coat protein (encoded by ORF3), amino acid sequence identities of all gene products of this virus to those of CpCSV-Eth and other poleroviruses were Polerovirus, and the name pea mild chlorosis virus is proposed.

  5. A simulation study on the interactive effects of radiation and plant density on growth of cut chrysanthemum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, J.H.; Heuvelink, E.; Challa, H.

    2002-01-01

    In the present study, we used a photosynthesis-driven crop growth model to determine acceptable plant densities for cut chrysanthemum throughout the year at different intensities of supplementary light. Dry matter partitioning between leaves, stems, and flowers was simulated as a function of crop

  6. Cloning of the chrysanthemum UEP1 promoter and comparative expression in leaves and ray and disc florets of Dendranthema grandiflora

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Annadana, S.; Beekwilder, M.J.; Kuipers, G.; Visser, P.B.; Outchkourov, N.; Pereira, A.; Udayakumar, M.; Jongsma, M.A.

    2002-01-01

    To attain high transgene expression in petal tissue of ray florets of chrysanthemum an endogenous ubiquitin extension protein (UEP1) promoter was cloned and tested with the β-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene. Expression levels were compared with four heterologous promoters: chalcone synthase

  7. Characterization of Apricot pseudo-chlorotic leaf spot virus, A Novel Trichovirus Isolated from Stone Fruit Trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberti, D; Marais, A; Svanella-Dumas, L; Dulucq, M J; Alioto, D; Ragozzino, A; Rodoni, B; Candresse, T

    2005-04-01

    ABSTRACT A trichovirus closely related to Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus (ACLSV) was detected in symptomatic apricot and Japanese plum from Italy. The Sus2 isolate of this agent cross-reacted with anti-ACLSV polyclonal reagents but was not detected by broad-specificity anti- ACLSV monoclonal antibodies. It had particles with typical trichovirus morphology but, contrary to ACLSV, was unable to infect Chenopodium quinoa and C. amaranticolor. The sequence of its genome (7,494 nucleotides [nt], missing only approximately 30 to 40 nt of the 5' terminal sequence) and the partial sequence of another isolate were determined. The new virus has a genomic organization similar to that of ACLSV, with three open reading frames coding for a replication-associated protein (RNA-dependent RNA polymerase), a movement protein, and a capsid protein, respectively. However, it had only approximately 65 to 67% nucleotide identity with sequenced isolates of ACLSV. The differences in serology, host range, genome sequence, and phylogenetic reconstructions for all viral proteins support the idea that this agent should be considered a new virus, for which the name Apricot pseudo-chlorotic leaf spot virus (APCLSV) is proposed. APCLSV shows substantial sequence variability and has been recovered from various Prunus sources coming from seven countries, an indication that it is likely to have a wide geographical distribution.

  8. Chlorotic feeding injury by the black pecan aphid (hemiptera: aphididae) to pecan foliage promotes aphid settling and nymphal development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottrell, Ted E; Wood, Bruce W; Ni, Xinzhi

    2009-04-01

    The nature of the interaction between the black pecan aphid, Melanocallis caryaefoliae (Davis) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), and the chlorosis it causes to foliage of its pecan [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch)] host is poorly understood. Laboratory experiments were conducted on the settling behavior of the black pecan aphid, when provided chlorotic pecan leaf discs resulting from previous black pecan aphid feeding and nonchlorotic leaf discs, under a normal photoperiod and constant dark. Additionally, aphid development from the first instar to the adult stage was examined when nymphs were either allowed to feed on the same leaf disc or moved daily to a new, nondamaged, same age leaf disc. After 24 h, a significantly higher percentage of black pecan aphids settled on chlorotic than on nonchlorotic leaf discs, regardless of photoperiod. When starting from the first instar, nymphs that were prevented from inducing leaf chlorosis by moving daily to new, same-age leaf discs took approximately 5 d longer to complete development, had a shorter body length, and had higher mortality than when aphids remained on the same leaf disc. These results show that black pecan aphid-induced leaf chlorosis plays an important role in the interaction of the black pecan aphid with its pecan host.

  9. Molecular characterization of a divergent strain of calla lily chlorotic spot virus infecting celtuce (Lactuca sativa var. augustana) in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaodong; Wu, Xiaoyun; Li, Wenbin; Cheng, Xiaofei

    2018-05-01

    Through sequencing and assembly of small RNAs, an orthotospovirus was identified from a celtuce plant (Lactuca sativa var. augustana) showing vein clearing and chlorotic spots in the Zhejiang province of China. The S, M, and L RNAs of this orthotospovirus were determined to be 3146, 4734, and 8934 nt, respectively, and shared 30.4-72.5%, 43.4-80.8%, and 29.84-82.9% nucleotide sequence identities with that of known orthotospoviruses. The full length nucleoprotein (N) of this orthotospovirus shared highest amino acid sequence identity (90.25%) with that of calla lily chlorotic spot virus isolated from calla lily (CCSV-calla) [China: Taiwan: 2001] and tobacco (CCSV-LJ1) [China: Lijiang: 2014]. Phylogenetic analyses showed that this orthotospovirus is phylogenetically associated with CCSV isolates and clustered with CCSV, tomato zonate spot virus (TZSV), and tomato necrotic spot-associated virus (TNSaV) in a separate sub-branch. These results suggest that this orthotospovirus is a divergent isolate of CCSV and was thus named CCSV-Cel [China: Zhejiang: 2017].

  10. Factors affecting fat content in mottled ducks on the Upper Texas Gulf Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearns, Brian; Haukos, David A.; Walther, Patrick; Conway, Warren C.

    2014-01-01

    Body condition, or an individual's ability to address metabolic needs, is an important measure of organism health. For waterfowl, body condition, usually some measure of fat, provides a useful proxy for assessing energy budgets during different life history periods and potentially is a measure of response to ecosystem changes. The mottled duck (Anas fulvigula) is relatively poorly studied in respect to these dynamics and presents a unique case because its non-migratory life-history strategy releases it from metabolic costs experienced by many related migratory waterfowl species. Additionally, as a species in decline and of conservation concern in many parts of its range, traditional methods of fat content estimation that involve destructive sampling are less viable. The goal of this study was to produce an equation for estimating fat content in mottled ducks using birds (n = 24) donated at hunter-check stations or collected by law enforcement efforts on the Texas Chenier Plain National Wildlife Refuge Complex from 2005 - 2007. Morphometric measurements were taken, and ether extraction and fat removal was used to estimate percent body fat content and abdominal fat mass, respectively. A hierarchical simple linear regression modeling approach was used to determine external morphometrics that best predicted abdominal fat content. A ratio model based on body mass and a length metric (keel and wing chord length possessed equal model support) provided the best relationship with abdominal fat in sampled individuals. We then applied the regression equation to historical check station data to examine fluctuations in fat content over time; fat content or condition varied relatively little with the exception of years characterized by major disturbances. The mottled duck condition model created here can be used to better monitor population status and health without destructively sampling individuals.

  11. Effects of 60Co γ-rays irradiation on seed growth of ground-cover chrysanthemum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ge Weiya; Wang Tiantian; Yang Shuhua; Zhao Ying; Ge Hong; Chen Lin

    2011-01-01

    The seeds of ground-cover chrysanthemum were used to study the effects of different doses of 60 Co γ-rays irradiation(10-50 Gy) on seed germination and physiological characteristics. The results showed that the rate of seed germination and seedling survival decreased significantly with the irradiation doses. With the increase of irradiation dose to above 20 Gy, the content of malondialdehyde (MDA) and activity of peroxidase (POD) in seedlings significantly increased. The similar trends were found in the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione reductase (GR). Catalase (CAT) activity increased at doses lower than 20 Gy, and then decreased at the higher doses, whereas ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activity did not alter except for 40 Gy. It is concluded that the suitable irradiation dose of mutation breeding is 20 Gy for the seeds of ground-cover chrysanthemum. Although 60 Co γ-rays irradiation resulted in damage of membrane lipid peroxidation in the survival seedlings, the increased activity of CAT and POD could protect them against the damage. (authors)

  12. Effect of ion beam irradiation on morphological and flowering characteristics of chrysanthemum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shakinah Salleh; Zaiton Ahmad; Affrida Abu Hassan; Thohiroh Lee Abdullah

    2012-01-01

    Chrysanthemum morifolium is an important temperate cut flower for Malaysian floriculture industry and the lack of new local owned varieties led to this mutation breeding research. The objective of this study was to compare the effectiveness of ion beam irradiation in generating mutations on ray florets and nodal explants of Chrysanthemum morifolium cv. Reagan Red. Ion beams has become a new physical mutagens for mutation breeding. The ray florets and nodal explants were irradiated with ion beam at doses 0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 3.0, 5.0, 8.0, 10, 15, 20 and 30 Gy. The 50 % of in vitro shoot regeneration (RD 50 ) for ray florets explants was 2.0 Gy and for nodal explants was 4.0 Gy. Thus, relative biological effectiveness (RBE) for ray florets was found 2.0 times higher than the nodal explants. The regenerated plant lets were planted in the greenhouse at MARDI, Cameron Highlands for morphological screening. Overall performance of survival plant lets derived from in vitro nodal and ray florets explants was recorded. The characters studied include plant morphology and flowering characteristic. The ray florets explants were found to be more sensitive to ion beam irradiation and generated more mutations as compared to nodal explants. (author)

  13. Biosynthesized Silver Nanoparticles Used in Preservative Solutions for Chrysanthemum cv. Puma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis M. Carrillo-López

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of pulse solutions containing antimicrobials has been reported, but more research is necessary. To increase vase life and to study their effect on opening inflorescences, silver nanoparticles were used in vase solutions for cv. Puma Chrysanthemum stems. The nanoparticles were synthesized biologically using Chenopodium ambrosioides L. applied at concentrations of 0.01, 0.05, 0.1, 0.5, 1, and 5 mM and compared with a control. Treatments were replicated five times. The stems were cut to 50 cm and observed until the end of their vase life. Low concentrations of silver nanoparticles promoted inflorescence opening and leaf yellowing, while the control leaves remained green, but there was a lower degree of inflorescence opening. High concentrations of silver nanoparticles (0.5, 1, and 5 mM caused senescence due to low water uptake through the stems. Statistical differences in inflorescence opening and diameter, bacterial growth (CFU mL−1 in vase solutions, fresh weight, water uptake, and vase life were found among treatments. Longer vase life and less weight loss were observed in the stems exposed to low concentrations of silver nanoparticles. Low concentrations of silver nanoparticles promoted inflorescence opening and increased vase life of Chrysanthemum cv. Puma.

  14. Evaluation of potential phytoremediation of chrysanthemum in soil with excess copper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janine Farias Menegaes

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Minimizing the harmful effects of copper (Cu in the soil, using plants are slow and gradual, requiring the identification of species with fitorremediativa fitness for this process. Thus, the present work had as objective to evaluate the cultivation of chrysanthemum cv. Dark Fiji in soil added with Cu as promising phytoremediation. The experiment was conducted in the period from July to December 2014, in the greenhouse of the Floriculture UFSM. In a completely randomized experimental design, with five treatments composed of doses of Cu added to the soil, in the amounts of 250, 500, 750 and 1,000 mg kg-1 and control (without addition, with five replications. In two crop cycles both with duration of 104 days from the production of seedlings to harvest. Chrysanthemum cuttings were obtained from cuttings collected in the garden clonal itself, with 8 cm long, rooted in commercial substrate and transplanted into containers containing soil. They evaluated phytotechnical parameters and translocation factors of aerial part of bioaccumulation and bioconcentration factor of Cu in plant roots and metal extraction rate. It was observed that at all doses of Cu added to the soil, the plants showed low plant development and floriferous affecting its aesthetic quality in both crop cycles. The high accumulation of Cu in the roots is indicative of growing tolerance, cv. Dark Fiji in areas with excess of this, with phytoremediation potential.

  15. Economic viability of potted chrysanthemums production in Atibaia, São Paulo state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caio Shigueaki Shiroto

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The segment of flower production in Brazil has shown remarkable development in recent years. The chrysanthemum is a product of extensive sales throughout Brazil and the diversity of types and colors, resistance to transport, excellent durability, and its easy adaptation to different regions make it as one of the main products in the various markets. This study aimed to evaluate the cost and economic viability of commercial production of potted chrysanthemums in the Atibaia, São Paulo State. For the total cost of production (6,413 vases/month expenses cuttings accounted for 36.4% of inputs and 26.4% of the EOC (effective operational cost, followed by labor, with 16% of the TOC (total operational cost achieving a profitability index 27.7%. It was found, based on cash flow, an IRR (internal rate of return of 10.27% IRR (internal rate of return already for the 6th productive year, showing attractive results for this segment considering the improving producer profitability is proportional to better production indicators. Note that to get a higher return activity, more efficient managements are required, resulting in lower losses and higher operating earnings, being necessary to take into account the cost management and production system are also essential to success in cultivation.

  16. Simultaneous determination of flavonoids in chrysanthemum by capillary zone electrophoresis with running buffer modifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shan; Dong, Shuqing; Chi, Langzhu; He, Pingang; Wang, Qingjiang; Fang, Yuzhi

    2008-08-15

    Despite the separation efficiency of capillary electrophoresis (CE) is much higher than other chromatographic methods, it is sometimes difficult to perfectly separate the complex ingredients in biological samples. One possible and simple way to develop the separation effect in CE is to add some modifiers in the running buffer. In this paper, the suitable running buffer modifiers were explored to simultaneously separate and detect six typical flavonoids (apigenin, luteolin, kaempferol, quercetin, (+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin) which are the main active ingredients in chrysanthemum by capillary zone electrophoresis with amperometric detection (CZE-AD). It was found that when beta-cyclodextrin (beta-CD) and the mixture of methanol and ethanol were used as running buffer modifiers, a baseline separation of the six analytes could be accomplished in less than 20 min and the detection limits were as low as 10(-7) or 10(-8)gm l(-1). Other factors affecting the CZE separation, such as working potential, pH value and ionic strength of running buffer, separation voltage and sample injection time were extensively investigated. Under the optimum conditions, a successful practical application on the determination of chrysanthemum samples confirmed the validity and practicability of this method.

  17. In vitro irradiation treatment - an effective method of breeding for chrysanthemum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dao Thanh Bang; Nguyen Hong Nhung; Nguyen Phuong Doai; Le Thi Lieu; Nguyen Pham Hung

    2011-01-01

    Recently, mutation induction is one of the an effective tool for crop breeding improvement. However, challenge for breeders is how to find suitable method for vegetative crop. Strong point of in vitro mutation breeding is reduce breeding process, easy to remove chimeric mutant after several cycle multiplication tissue culture. Based on optimal media of callus formation, regeneration and root media in chrysanthemum.The experiment of of irradiation treatment was carried out at the range doses 10, 20, 30, 50 and 70 Gy for callus of bud. From generation of M1V4, promising mutants was selected mostly in the dose of 30 Gy and bring back to in vitro for fixation and multiplication of mutant lines. Selection and evaluation of mutant lines was carried at M1V8. From CN43, crystal yellow and Taiwan purple origin varieties we received three mutants VCM1, VCM2 and VCM3 respectively. All mutant varieties have been certified as regional varieties according to decision of Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development. The result of research show that combination between in vitro irradiation and tissue culture is effective solution for chrysanthemum breeding in particular and vegetative crop in general. (author)

  18. SSR marker development and intraspecific genetic divergence exploration of Chrysanthemum indicum based on transcriptome analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Zhengzhou; Ma, Xinye; Wei, Min; Zhao, Tong; Zhan, Ruoting; Chen, Weiwen

    2018-04-25

    Chrysanthemum indicum L., an important ancestral species of the flowering plant chrysanthemum, can be used as medicine and for functional food development. Due to the lack of hereditary information for this species and the difficulty of germplasm identification, we herein provide new genetic insight from the perspective of intraspecific transcriptome comparison and present single sequence repeat (SSR) molecular marker recognition technology. Through the study of a diploid germplasm (DIWNT) and a tetraploid germplasm (DIWT), the following outcome were obtained. (1) A significant difference in Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) annotations for specific homologous genes was observed using the OrthoMCL method for the identification of homologous gene families between the two cytotypes. Ka/Ks analysis of common, single-copy homologous family members also revealed a greater difference among genes that experienced positive selection than among those experiencing positive selection. (2) Of more practical value, 2575 SSR markers were predicted and partly verified. We used TaxonGap as a visual tool to inspect genotype uniqueness and screen for high-performance molecular loci; we recommend four primers of 65 randomly selected primers with a combined identification success rate of 88.6% as priorities for further development of DNA fingerprinting of C. indicum germplasm. The SSR technology based on next-generation sequencing was proved to be successful in the identification of C. indicum germplasms. And the information on the intraspecfic genetic divergence generated by transcriptome comparison deepened the understanding of this complex species' nature.

  19. Development of a rapid diagnostic assay for the detection of tomato chlorotic dwarf viroid based on isothermal reverse-transcription-recombinase polymerase amplification

    Science.gov (United States)

    A molecular diagnostic assay utilizing reverse transcription-recombinase polymerase amplification (RT-RPA) at an isothermal constant temperature of 39 °C and target-specific primers and probe were developed for the rapid, sensitive, and specific detection of tomato chlorotic dwarf viroid (TCDVd) in ...

  20. Powdery mildew of Chrysanthemum × morifolium: phylogeny and taxonomy in the context of Golovinomyces species on Asteraceae hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, Michael; Braun, Uwe; Götz, Monika; Meeboon, Jamjan; Takamatsu, Susumu

    2017-01-01

    The taxonomic history of the common powdery mildew of Chrysanthemum × morifolium (chrysanthemum, florist's daisy), originally described in Germany as Oidium chrysanthemi, is discussed. The position of O. chrysanthemi was investigated on the basis of morphological traits and molecular phylogenetic analyses. Based on the results of this study, this species, which is closely related to Golovinomyces artemisae, was reassessed and reallocated to Golovinomyces. The phylogenetic analysis and taxonomic reassessment of the chrysanthemum powdery mildew is supplemented by a morphological description, a summary of its worldwide distribution data, and a brief discussion of the introduction of this fungus to North America. G. chrysanthemi differs from true G. artemisiae in that it has much longer conidiophores, is not constricted at the base, and has much larger and most importantly longer conidia. The close affinity of Golovinomyces to Artemisia and Chrysanthemum species signifies a coevolutionary event between the powdery mildews concerned and their host species in the subtribe Artemisiinae (Asteraceae tribe Anthemideae). This conclusion is fully supported by the current phylogeny and taxonomy of the host plant genera and the coevolution that occurred with the host and pathogen. The following powdery mildew species, which are associated with hosts belonging to the tribe Anthemideae of the Asteraceae, are epitypified: Alphitomorpha depressa β artemisiae (≡ Alphitomorpha artemisiae), Erysiphe artemisiae, and Oidium chrysanthemi. Erysiphe macrocarpa is neotypified. Their sequences were retrieved from the epitype collections and have been added to the phylogenetic tree. Golovinomyces orontii, an additional powdery mildew species on Chrysanthemum ×morifolium, is reported. This species is rarely found as a spontaneous infection and was obtained from inoculation experiments.

  1. SEED AND POLLEN TTRANSMISSION OF A NEW UNIDENTIFIED MOTTLE DISORDER OF MAIZE IN INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Wakman

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A new unidentified mottle disorder of maize Indonesia was found at the Research Institute for Maize and Other Cereals (RIMOC, Maros, South Sulawesi in 1995. Attempts to identify the disorder were made by mechanical inoculation, insect vector (Rhopalosiphum maidis and Peregrinus maidis transmission, seed and pollen transmission, electron microscopy, and serological test. Fifty seeds from each of 22 ears of Arjuna maize plants showing the disorder were planted and symptoms on the seedlings were recorder at 1, 2, and 3 weeks after planting. The percentage of seedlings showing the disorder ranged from 40 to 100. Pollen of affected Arjuna was then used to pollinate four sweet corn female flowers. Hybrid seeds (50 per ear of the crosses were planted and symptoms were recorded at 1, 2, and 3 weeks after planting. The results showed that percentage of seedlings showing the disorder ranged from 22 to 84. Electron microscopy and ELISA tests on 15 viruses and one phytospiroplasma antiserum however, gave negative results. Therefore, maize disorder at Maros was not identical to any known viral disease of maize. It could be a genetical disorder and has been given the name maize mottle.

  2. Structure of Cowpea mottle virus: a consensus in the genus Carmovirus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ke Jiyuan; Schmidt, Timothy; Chase, Elaine; Bozarth, Robert F.; Smith, Thomas J.

    2004-01-01

    Cowpea mottle virus (CPMoV) is a T = 3 virus that belongs to Carmovirus genus of the Tombusviridae family. Here, we report the crystal structure of CPMoV determined to a resolution of 7.0 A. The structures and sequences of three Carmoviruses, CPMoV, Turnip crinkle virus (TCV), and Carnation mottle virus (CarMV) have been compared to TBSV from the Tombusvirus genus. CPMoV, TCV, and CarMV all have a deletion in βC strand in the S domain relative to TBSV that may be distinctive to the genus. Although CPMoV has an elongated C-terminus like TBSV, it does not interact with the icosahedrally related P domain as observed in TBSV. In CPMoV, the termini of A and B interact with the icosahedrally related shell domains of A and C, respectively, to form a chain of interactions around the 5-fold axes. The C subunit terminus does not, however, interact with the B subunit because of quasi-equivalent differences in the P domain orientations

  3. Comparative analysis of chrysanthemum transcriptome in response to three RNA viruses: Cucumber mosaic virus, Tomato spotted wilt virus and Potato virus X.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hoseong; Jo, Yeonhwa; Lian, Sen; Jo, Kyoung-Min; Chu, Hyosub; Yoon, Ju-Yeon; Choi, Seung-Kook; Kim, Kook-Hyung; Cho, Won Kyong

    2015-06-01

    The chrysanthemum is one of popular flowers in the world and a host for several viruses. So far, molecular interaction studies between the chrysanthemum and viruses are limited. In this study, we carried out a transcriptome analysis of chrysanthemum in response to three different viruses including Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) and Potato virus X (PVX). A chrysanthemum 135K microarray derived from expressed sequence tags was successfully applied for the expression profiles of the chrysanthemum at early stage of virus infection. Finally, we identified a total of 125, 70 and 124 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) for CMV, TSWV and PVX, respectively. Many DEGs were virus specific; however, 33 DEGs were commonly regulated by three viruses. Gene ontology (GO) enrichment analysis identified a total of 132 GO terms, and of them, six GO terms related stress response and MCM complex were commonly identified for three viruses. Several genes functioning in stress response such as chitin response and ethylene mediated signaling pathway were up-regulated indicating their involvement in establishment of host immune system. In particular, TSWV infection significantly down-regulated genes related to DNA metabolic process including DNA replication, chromatin organization, histone modification and cytokinesis, and they are mostly targeted to nucleosome and MCM complex. Taken together, our comparative transcriptome analysis revealed several genes related to hormone mediated viral stress response and DNA modification. The identified chrysanthemums genes could be good candidates for further functional study associated with resistant to various plant viruses.

  4. Preliminary Assessment about Genetic Diversity, the Stability of Potential Mutants from Two Varieties of Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat. (Bronze Doa and Purple Farm) via Gamma Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Tuong Mien; Le Ngoc Trieu; Le Tien Thanh; Pham Van Nhi; Huynh Thi Trung

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evidence the efficiency of irradiation by gamma ray from 60 Co source on chrysanthemum artificial seeds, through that select a number of potential mutants from two varieties of Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat artificial seeds (Bronze and purple chrysanthemum). The experimental result showed that LD 50 for the Bronze Doa variety was 50 Gy and Purple Farm variety was 100 Gy. Irradiated in vitro artificial seeds were transferred into fresh MS medium and placed in the growth room with three replications at each of dose. The completed in vitro plants were transplanted into ex vitro condition in green house. After 30 days in the greenhouse, survival rate of plantlets were and growth in 20 Gy and 40 Gy for Purple chrysanthemum, while the number of survival Bronze chrysanthemum plantlets were reduced gradually toward the increasing of gamma doses. In this study, on farm, through screening 18 phenotypic mutants of both chrysanthemums were recorded and collected including 6 potential mutants that selected for next research based on their phenotypic differences to the originals, their aesthetic and low mosaic. These 6 potential mutants together with their original varieties were micro-propagated to induce the potential mutant lines for estimation on farm of mutant characteristic segregation rates. (author)

  5. Characterization of apple stem grooving virus and apple chlorotic leaf spot virus identified in a crab apple tree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongqiang; Deng, Congliang; Bian, Yong; Zhao, Xiaoli; Zhou, Qi

    2017-04-01

    Apple stem grooving virus (ASGV), apple chlorotic leaf spot virus (ACLSV), and prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV) were identified in a crab apple tree by small RNA deep sequencing. The complete genome sequence of ACLSV isolate BJ (ACLSV-BJ) was 7554 nucleotides and shared 67.0%-83.0% nucleotide sequence identity with other ACLSV isolates. A phylogenetic tree based on the complete genome sequence of all available ACLSV isolates showed that ACLSV-BJ clustered with the isolates SY01 from hawthorn, MO5 from apple, and JB, KMS and YH from pear. The complete nucleotide sequence of ASGV-BJ was 6509 nucleotides (nt) long and shared 78.2%-80.7% nucleotide sequence identity with other isolates. ASGV-BJ and the isolate ASGV_kfp clustered together in the phylogenetic tree as an independent clade. Recombination analysis showed that isolate ASGV-BJ was a naturally occurring recombinant.

  6. Inheritance and molecular mapping of an allele providing resistance to Cowpea mild mottle virus-like symptoms in soybean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damage to soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] from Cowpea mild mottle virus-like (CPMMV-L) symptoms (family: Betaflexiviridae, genus: Carlavirus) has been of increasing concern in Argentina, Brazil, Mexico, and Puerto Rico. Soybean cultivars and lines differing in their reaction to the virus have been ...

  7. Detection of cucumber green mottle mosaic virus-infected watermelon seeds using short wave infrared (SWIR) hyperspectral imaging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    The cucurbit diseases caused by cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV) have led to a serious problem to growers and seed producers because it is difficult to prevent spreading through causal agent of seeds. Conventional detection methods for infected seed such as a biological, serological, and m...

  8. Induction of in vivo mutation in chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflora Tzvelev) cv. Pink Repin breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neto, Augusto Tulmann; Latado, Rodrigo Rocha

    1997-01-01

    Mutation induction was used with the objective of obtaining mutants for flower colour of chrysanthemum, cv. Repin (pink colour). Rooted cuttings were irradiated with 20 Gy of gamma rays and before the selection the cutting back method was used to advance the generations. The frequency of colour mutants observed was 5.8%. Among the mutants obtainedthe white and dark-pink-coloured ones were evaluated in yield trial and post-harvest. The results indicated that these mutants mantained the same agronomical characteristics showed by the control, with the exception of plant height in the white mutant that was shorter. Due to commercial interest of the producers, these mutants were multiplied and released as new cultivars. The white flower colour mutant was named Cristiane and the dark-pink, Ingrid. This was the first example of cultivars from an ornamental plant released by mutation breeding in Brazil. (author)

  9. The relationship between carbohydrate content and gamma irradiation during rooting of chrysanthemum cuttings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noh, Seol Ah; Kim, Jin Kyu

    2003-01-01

    The effect of gamma radiation on carbohydrate metabolism was studied in chrysanthemum cuttings. Total water-soluble carbohydrate, glucose, fructose, sucrose, and starch contents were measured in leaves and stems. Differences in the accumulation of carbohydrate associated with inhibition or stimulation in response to gamma irradiation. Sucrose levels increased significantly in leaves and stems until the 15th day, reaching maximum values on that day. Glucose contents declined rapidly until the 10th day and increased later, reaching maximum values on the 15th day. Fructose levels gradually increased, reaching maximum values at the 10th day, and then decreased again. Differences in the components of soluble carbohydrates were evident between rooting durations and doses. Soluble sugars were in the highest contents in the 20 Gy irradiated group. However, irradiation dose higher than 20 Gy resulted in an inhibitory effect

  10. Saccharose action on chrysanthemum cut inflorescences, Dendranthema grandiflorum Kitamura, after exposition to gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, Olivia Kimiko

    1998-01-01

    During the last years the Brazilian floriculture expanded and it is expected to achieve a prominent role in near future. The national territory has many favorable regions, with adequate climate for the development of commercially important cultures. Flower exportation is not expressive yet, but the country has conditions to become a great exotic tropical plants exporter. On the other hand, developed countries, as USA and Japan, have a rigorous phyto sanitary inspection to prevent the introduction of new plagues and diseases through fresh products. Ionizing radiation is considered a reliable disinfestation method to control numerous fruit and flower plagues. The aim of of this work was to verify the tolerance of some Compositae family flowers to ionizing radiation and the effects to sucrose action in protecting the flowers against the gamma-radiation induced damages. This was done by measuring biochemical and physiological parameters as a function of time after irradiation. The chrysanthemum flowers were sensitive to gamma radiation, but when the inflorescences were supplied after irradiation with preservative solution containing 2% sucrose, protection against the damaging effects of radiation was achieved. The dose of 750 Gy, considered appropriate for disinfestation purpose, did not modify the protein and lipid levels, nor plasma, tonoplast and mitochondria membrane ATPase or mitochondria cytochrome-c oxidase activities. The ethylene and carbonic gas rate production increased soon after the irradiation, but decreased one day later. The decrease of the microsomal membrane fluidity and the increase of the chrysanthemum were the most sensitive parameters to measure the irradiation treatment changes. The sucrose supply was able to maintain the irradiated flowers membrane fluidity level close to the unirradiated control. Rhodante manglesii Lindl and Helichrysum bracteatum Andr. were tolerant up to 1 KGy, thus being adequate to be disinfected by gamma radiation. (author)

  11. Use of sewage sludge and coconut coir mix as a peat substitute for potted chrysanthemum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenani, A.B.; Lim, F.Y.; Thohirah, L.A.; Fauziah, C.I.

    2003-07-01

    Recent central processing of domestic wastewater in Malaysia has initiated investigations into the disposal/utilization of the sewage sludge produced. We had conducted an experiment to investigate the feasibility of using dewatered sewage sludge and coconut coir as a peat substitute in a potting medium for chrysanthemum. The experiment involved 9 treatments with sewage sludge (SS) and coconut coir (CC) mixed in different ratios (v/v) to replace peat in the standard potting medium of 3:2:1 (soil: peat: sand).The potting medium contained the following treatments, T1: peat + recommended rates of Agroblend (Ag), a slow release fertilizer, and Grofas (Gf), a foliar fertilizer (commonly used medium and fertilization), T2: [1SS:1CC] + Ag, T3: [1SS:1CC] + half recommended rates of Agroblend and Grofas (1/2Ag + 1/2Gf), T4: [2SS:1CC] + Ag, T5: [2SS:1CC] + 1/2Ag + 1/2Gf, T6: [3SS:1CC] + Ag, T7: [3SS:1CC] + 1/2Ag + 1/2Gf, T8: [4SS:1CC] + Ag, and T9: [4SS:1CC] + 1/2Ag + 1/2Gf; laid-out in a randomized complete block design with 5 replications. Results of the study show that in general the media with sludge and coconut coir mixtures produced better plant growth and higher total number of flowers than peat. However, the higher ratio of SS:CC, (4SS:1CC) produced poorer plant growth and less number of flowers. Increase in sewage sludge in the medium resulted in increase in foliar contents of heavy metals. This study demonstrates that sewage sludge and coconut coir mixture in the ratio of 1:1 may best substitute peat in the potting medium for chrysanthemum with only Agroblend fertilizer application. (author)

  12. Investigation of the effects of monochromatic lights combination on Phalaenopsis orchid and chrysanthemum in vitro plant growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Tien Thanh; Nguyen Tuong Mien; Huynh Thi Trung; Vu Thi Trac; Pham Van Nhi

    2016-01-01

    Eleven independent monochromatic light combination systems were established using super blue and red light LEDs. These are adjustable for mixing ratio of red and blue lights, the intensity and time for illumination. A fluorescent light illumination system was included as control. These were used to implement experiments for investigation effects of monochromatic lights combination in in vitro plantlet fully-forming stage on in vitro plantlet fully-forming and on the development of plant in nursery of chrysanthemum and Phalaenopsis orchid. Results from these experiments showed that illumination with intensity of 750 lx and light mixture of 20% blue-80% red is suitable for Phalaenopsis orchid; illumination with intensity of 1100 lx and light mixture of 90% red light-10% blue light is suitable for chrysanthemum. (author)

  13. Meiosis and ISSR analysis on genetic variation of {sup 60}Co {gamma}-rays irradiated variants of cut chrysanthemum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lili, Xing; Fadi, Chen; Hengbin, Miao [College of Horticulture, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, Jiangsu (China)

    2009-08-15

    Cytology and ISSR technology were used to analyze genetic variations of {sup 60}Co {gamma}-rays induced variants of cut chrysanthemum 'Changzi', for further exploring the mechanism of irradiation and providing theoretical basis for breeding of chrysanthemum. The results showed that, meiotic abnormality ratio of lagging chromosome and chromosome bridge in variants were significantly higher than those in the control at anaphase I and II. The abnormality ratio was also raised with irradiation doses increasing. The highest ratio of two abnormal phenomena at anaphase I was 9.0%, 11.3%, and at anaphase II 15.5%, 8.6%, respectively. Polymorphic bands of 112 were amplified by 21 ISSR primers and the polymorphism rate was 71.3%, which proved that DNA changed in different degrees. These variants were divided into 5 groups by UPGMA based on Jaccard coefficient. It was observed that the clustering result related to their characters of flower shape and color variations. (authors)

  14. Meiosis and ISSR analysis on genetic variation of 60Co γ-rays irradiated variants of cut chrysanthemum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xing Lili; Chen Fadi; Miao Hengbin

    2009-01-01

    Cytology and ISSR technology were used to analyze genetic variations of 60 Co γ-rays induced variants of cut chrysanthemum 'Changzi', for further exploring the mechanism of irradiation and providing theoretical basis for breeding of chrysanthemum. The results showed that, meiotic abnormality ratio of lagging chromosome and chromosome bridge in variants were significantly higher than those in the control at anaphase I and II. The abnormality ratio was also raised with irradiation doses increasing. The highest ratio of two abnormal phenomena at anaphase I was 9.0%, 11.3%, and at anaphase II 15.5%, 8.6%, respectively. Polymorphic bands of 112 were amplified by 21 ISSR primers and the polymorphism rate was 71.3%, which proved that DNA changed in different degrees. These variants were divided into 5 groups by UPGMA based on Jaccard coefficient. It was observed that the clustering result related to their characters of flower shape and color variations. (authors)

  15. Infeksi Cucumber mosaic virus dan Chilli veinal mottle virus pada Cabai di Kabupaten Rejang Lebong, Bengkulu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mimi Sutrawati

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Mosaic disease caused by Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV and Chilli veinal mottle Virus (ChiVMV has been distributed widely in chilli in Indonesia and considered as important disease. A research was conducted to investigate the spread and incidence of CMV and ChiVMV in Rejang Lebong, Bengkulu and to identify its insect vector. Symptomatic and asymptomatic leaf samples were collected systematically from several chillipepper fields for further detection by DAS-ELISA (Double antibody sandwich-enzyme linked immunosorbant assay using specific antibody for CMV and ChiVMV. The result showed that infection of both CMV and ChiVMV was found with disease incidence reached 20-50%, whereas infection only by ChiVMV or CMV were 50-80% and 20-50%, respectively. One species of aphid, i.e. Aphis gossypii was found from the fields.Key words: Aphis gossypii, CMV, ChiVMV, disease incidence

  16. Changes induced by the Pepper mild mottle tobamovirus on the chloroplast proteome of Nicotiana benthamiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineda, M; Sajnani, C; Barón, M

    2010-01-01

    We have analyzed the chloroplast proteome of Nicotiana benthamiana using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry followed by a database search. In order to improve the resolution of the two-dimensional electrophoresis gels, we have made separate maps for the low and the high pH range. At least 200 spots were detected. We identified 72 polypeptides, some being isoforms of different multiprotein families. In addition, changes in this chloroplast proteome induced by the infection with the Spanish strain of the Pepper mild mottle virus were investigated. Viral infection induced the down-regulation of several chloroplastidic proteins involved in both the photosynthetic electron-transport chain and the Benson-Calvin cycle.

  17. Classification of cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV) infected watermelon seeds using Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hoonsoo; Lim, Hyoun-Sub; Cho, Byoung-Kwan

    2016-05-01

    The Cucumber Green Mottle Mosaic Virus (CGMMV) is a globally distributed plant virus. CGMMV-infected plants exhibit severe mosaic symptoms, discoloration, and deformation. Therefore, rapid and early detection of CGMMV infected seeds is very important for preventing disease damage and yield losses. Raman spectroscopy was investigated in this study as a potential tool for rapid, accurate, and nondestructive detection of infected seeds. Raman spectra of healthy and infected seeds were acquired in the 400 cm-1 to 1800 cm-1 wavenumber range and an algorithm based on partial least-squares discriminant analysis was developed to classify infected and healthy seeds. The classification model's accuracies for calibration and prediction data sets were 100% and 86%, respectively. Results showed that the Raman spectroscopic technique has good potential for nondestructive detection of virus-infected seeds.

  18. Evidence for Non-Transmission of Rice Yellow Mottle Virus (RYMV through Rice Seed

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    Sy, AA.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available An indexing of the organs (radicle and plumule and components (husk, endosperm and embryo of rice seeds using Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA was carried out to detect Rice yellow mottle virus (RYMV and establish the exact location of the virus in the rice seed. RYMV was detected only in the husk (seed coat but not in the endosperm, plumule, radicle, nor embryo. None of the seedlings raised from the seeds expressed RYMV symptoms. No virus particle was detected by the ELISA test in the leaves of the screenhouse-reared plants obtained from seeds of infected plants. The results indicate that RYMV is apparently not transmitted through rice seed probably because the virus is seed-borne in the husk (seed coat of mature rice seeds.

  19. Pattern of cross-sensitivity between 4 Compositae plants, Parthenium hysterophorus, Xanthium strumarium, Helianthus annuus and Chrysanthemum coronarium, in Indian patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandakishore, T; Pasricha, J S

    1994-03-01

    To assess the pattern of cross-sensitivity between 4 members of the Compositae family, namely Parthenium hysterophorus L., Xanthium strumarium L., Helanthus annuus L. and Chrysanthemum coronarium L., 63 patients clinically diagnosed to have airborne contact dermatitis, and 51 controls having well-defined patterns of contact dermatitis caused by agents other than plants, were patch tested with measured amounts of standardized aqueous extracts of these plants. Positive reactions were obtained in 62 patients and 13 controls with Parthenium hysterophorus, in 47 patients and 9 controls with Xanthium strumarium, in 7 patients and 2 controls with Helianthus annuus, and in 13 of the 57 patients and one out of 28 controls tested with Chrysanthemum coronarium. 2 patients were allergic to all 4 of the plants; 14 patients to 3 plants, namely Parthenium, Xanthium and Chrysanthemum in 9 cases and Parthenium, Xanthium and Helianthus in 5 cases; 32 patients to 2 plants, namely Parthenium and Xanthium in 30 cases, and Parthenium and Chrysanthemum, and Xanthium and Chrysanthemum in 1 case each; 15 patients were allergic to 1 plant only, that being Parthenium. All the 47 patients allergic to Xanthium, 13 patients allergic to Chrysanthemum and 7 patients allergic to Helianthus were positive with some other plant as well. There was 1 patient who was allergic to Xanthium and Chrysanthemum but not to Parthenium. The titre of contact hypersensitivity (TCH) determined in the patients allergic to Parthenium, Xanthium and Helianthus showed values that varied widely with each plant in different patients, and there was no parallelism between the TCH with various plants.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. Colorimetric detection of Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus using unmodified gold nanoparticles as colorimetric probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lin; Liu, Zhanmin; Xia, Xueying; Yang, Cuiyun; Huang, Junyi; Wan, Sibao

    2017-05-01

    Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV)causes a severe mosaic symptom of watermelon and cucumber, and can be transmitted via infected cucumber seeds, leaves and soil. It remains a challenge to detect this virus to prevent its introduction and infection and spread in fields. For this purpose, a simple and sensitive label-free colorimetric detection method for CGMMV has been developed with unmodified gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) as colorimetric probes. The method is based on the finding that the presence of RT-PCR target products of CGMMV and species-specific probes results in color change of AuNPs from red to blue after NaCl induction. Normally, species-specific probes attach to the surface of AuNPs and thereby increasing their resistance to NaCl-induced aggregation. The concentration of sodium, probes in the reaction system and evaluation of specificity and sensitivity of a novel assay, visual detection of Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus using unmodified AuNPs has been carried out with simple preparation of samples in our study. Through this assay, as low as 30pg/μL of CGMMV RNA was thus detected visually, by the naked eye, without the need for any sophisticated, expensive instrumentation and biochemical reagents. The specificity was 100% and exhibited good reproducibility in our assays. The results note that this assay is highly species-specific, simple, low-cost, and visual for easy detection of CGMMV in plant tissues. Therefore, visual assay is a potentially useful tool for middle or small-scales corporations and entry-exit inspection and quarantine bureau to detect CGMMV in cucumber seeds or plant tissues. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Transcriptome analysis of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) fruits in response to Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV) infection

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Xiaodong; An, Mengnan; Xia, Zihao; Bai, Xiaojiao; Wu, Yuanhua

    2017-01-01

    Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV) belongs to the Tobamovirus genus and is a major global plant virus on cucurbit plants. It causes severe disease symptoms on infected watermelon plants (Citrullus lanatus), particularly inducing fruit decay. However, little is known about the molecular mechanism of CGMMV-induced watermelon fruit decay. For this study, comparative analysis of transcriptome profiles of CGMMV-inoculated and mock-inoculated watermelon fruits were conducted via RNA-Seq. A ...

  2. Multiple loci condition seed transmission of soybean mosaic virus (SMV) and SMV-induced seed coat mottling in soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domier, Leslie L; Hobbs, Houston A; McCoppin, Nancy K; Bowen, Charles R; Steinlage, Todd A; Chang, Sungyul; Wang, Yi; Hartman, Glen L

    2011-06-01

    Infection of soybean plants with Soybean mosaic virus (SMV), which is transmitted by aphids and through seed, can cause significant reductions in seed production and quality. Because seedborne infections are the primary sources of inoculum for SMV infections in North America, host-plant resistance to seed transmission can limit the pool of plants that can serve as sources of inoculum. To examine the inheritance of SMV seed transmission in soybean, crosses were made between plant introductions (PIs) with high (PI88799), moderate (PI60279), and low (PI548391) rates of transmission of SMV through seed. In four F(2) populations, SMV seed transmission segregated as if conditioned by two or more genes. Consequently, a recombinant inbred line population was derived from a cross between PIs 88799 and 548391 and evaluated for segregation of SMV seed transmission, seed coat mottling, and simple sequence repeat markers. Chromosomal regions on linkage groups C1 and C2 were significantly associated with both transmission of isolate SMV 413 through seed and SMV-induced seed coat mottling, and explained ≈42.8 and 46.4% of the variability in these two traits, respectively. Chromosomal regions associated with seed transmission and seed coat mottling contained homologues of Arabidopsis genes DCL3 and RDR6, which encode enzymes involved in RNA-mediated transcriptional and posttranscriptional gene silencing.

  3. Serological and molecular detection of Bean leaf roll and Chickpea chlorotic stunt luteoviruses in chickpea from Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajiyusef Tara

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L. is an important legume crop and widely cultivated in northwestern provinces of Iran. During a survey in the 2015 growing season a total of 170 selected chickpea plants with general yellowing symptoms including stunting and leaf bronzing were collected. Serological Elisa and tissue blot immunoassay (TIBA tests revealed the presence of Bean leaf roll virus (BLRV and Chickpea chlorotic stunt virus (CpCSV as the predominant viruses in the region. Some serologically positive samples of BLRV and CpCSV were selected and rechecked by RT-PCR. The results of amplified PCR products using a specific pair of primers towards the Cp gene region of the viruses were approximately 413 bp for CpCSV and 391 bp for BLRV. Results obtained from sequence comparison of BLRV (IR-F-Lor-5 isolate form two subgroups with eight other BLRV isolates from GeneBank indicating a high homology of 96% with isolates from Argentina, Germany, Tunisia, USA, Spain, and Colombia. An isolate from Norabad (Iran (IR-Nor had 98% homology with HQ840727 Libyan isolate. CpCSV sequence comparison with six other GeneBank isolates indicated 98% homology with isolates from Tunisia and Azerbaijan. The overall results of this research revealed the CpCSV and BLRV (luteoviruses associated with the yellowing disease syndrome of chickpea crops in the surveyed region.

  4. Characterization of a Syrian Chickpea chlorotic stunt virus strain and production of polyclonal antibodies for its detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaseen ALNAASAN

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis with two primer sets of luteoviruses was used to characterize an isolate of Chickpea chlorotic stunt virus (CpCSv, genus Polerovirus, family Luteoviridae (SC402-08 collected from Lattakia, Syria, during the 2007‒2008 chickpea growing season. Sequence analysis revealed that the coat protein gene of the isolate shared nucleotide sequence identities ranging from 97 to 98% with the CpCSv isolates from Egypt, morocco and Syria. The capsid protein was separated as a protein of approximately 20 kDa in sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and was visually detected by its reaction with CpCSV monoclonal antibody in Western blot. SC402-08 isolate of CpCSV was purified from faba bean-infected plants, and yielded 112–182 μg of purified virions kg-1 of infected tissue. The purified preparation was injected into a white rabbit, and an antiserum was obtained and used to detect CpCSv in infected tissues by tissue-blot immunoassay. The antiserum obtained was able to detect CpCSv by the immunoassay up to a dilution of 1:1,024,000.

  5. Present status of some virus diseases affecting legume crops in Tunisia, and partial characterization of Chickpea chlorotic stunt virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asma NAJAR

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Field surveys were conducted in Tunisia during the 2005‒2006, 2006‒2007 and 2009‒2010 growing seasons to identify viruses which produce yellowing, reddening and/or stunting symptoms of chickpea, faba bean and pea crops. Tissue blot immunoassay (TBIA results showed that Chickpea chlorotic stunt virus (CpCSV was the most common virus, followed by Faba bean necrotic yellows virus, Bean leafroll virus and Beet western yellows virus. The coat protein (CP gene nucleotide sequence of seven CpCSV isolates collected from different regions of Tunisia was compared with sequences of five other isolates in the NCBI database. A homology tree of the CP nucleotide sequences was prepared and CpCSV isolates were grouped into two clusters. The first group contained two Tunisian CpCSV chickpea isolates collected from Bizerte and Kef; sequenced regions showed a high nucleotiode homology (95% to that of the Ethiopian and Sudanese CpCSV isolates. The second group included five Tunisian isolates: two from chickpea, two from pea and one from faba bean, which showed a high homology (96% when compared with the Moroccan, Egyptian and Syrian CpCSV isolates.

  6. Effect of infection by chlorotic spot virus on 14CO2 fixation in leaves of groundnut Arachis hypogea L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sreenivasulu, P.; Nayudu, M.V.

    1980-01-01

    Photosynthetic incorporation of 14 CO 2 into leaves of groundnut infected by chlorotic spot virus (GCSV) was slightly more at stages 2 and 5 less at stage 4 as compared to control. 14 C incorporation into the alcohol soluble fraction of infected leaves followed the same trend as total 14 CO 2 fixation but in the alcohol-insoluble fraction the same was less at all the sampled stages. 14 C in the alcohol-soluble fraction of fed leaves of both types (stage 5) decreased with time along with simultaneous increase in alcohol-insoluble fraction. The proportion of 14 C incorporated into organic acids, amino acids and sugars was same in both the samples at stage 2, greater into organic and amino acids and less into sugars at stages 4 and 5, and at 12 and 24 hr time periods of stage 5 of virus infected leaves when compared to healthy ones. 14 C incorporated into total sugars and organic acids of infected leaves followed that of total 14 C fixation, and varied in individual sugars and organic acids. 14 C in sugars of both type of leaves decreased with time and with simultaneous increase in organic and amino acids. 14 C incorporated into virus infected leaf proteins was more when compared to healthy leaves. (auth.)

  7. Antioxidant Activity, Antitumor Effect, and Antiaging Property of Proanthocyanidins Extracted from Kunlun Chrysanthemum Flowers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siqun Jing

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate the antioxidant activity, antitumor effect, and antiaging property of proanthocyanidins from Kunlun Chrysanthemum flowers (PKCF grown in Xinjiang. In vitro antioxidant experiments results showed that the total antioxidant activity and the scavenging capacity of hydroxyl radicals (•OH and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH• radicals increased in a concentration-dependent manner and were stronger than those of vitamin C. To investigate the antioxidant activity of PKCF in vivo, we used serum, liver, and kidney from mouse for the measurement of superoxide dismutase (SOD, malondialdehyde (MDA, and total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC. Results indicated that PKCF had antioxidative effect in vivo which significantly improved the activity of SOD and T-AOC and decreased MDA content. To investigate the antitumor activity of PKCF, we used H22 cells, HeLa cells, and Eca-109 cells with Vero cells as control. Inhibition ratio and IC50 values were measured by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT assay; PKCF showed great inhibitory activity on H22 cells and HeLa cells. We also used fruit flies as a model for analyzing the anti-aging property of PKCF. Results showed that PKCF has antiaging effect on Drosophila. Results of the present study demonstrated that PKCF could be a promising agent that may find applications in health care, medicine, and cosmetics.

  8. Effect of polyacrylamide on morphology and electromagnetic properties of chrysanthemum-like ZnO particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jun-Feng, Yan; Zhi-Yong, Zhang; Tian-Gui, You; Wu, Zhao; Jiang-Ni, Yun; Fu-Chun, Zhang

    2009-01-01

    Through hydrothermal process, the chrysanthemum-like ZnO particles are prepared with zinc acetate dihydrate (Zn(CH 3 COO) 2 ·2H 2 O) and sodium hydroxide (NaOH) used as main resources under the different concentrations of surfactant polyacrylamide (PAM). The microstructure, morphology and the electromagnetic properties of the as-prepared products are characterized by high-resolution transmissïon electron microscopy (HRTEM), field emission environment scanning electron microscope (FEESEM) and microwave vector network analyzer, respectively. The experimental results indicate that the as-prepared products are ZnO single crystalline with hexagona wurtzite structure, that the values of slenderness ratio L d are different in different PAM concentrations, and that the good magnetic loss property is found in the ZnO products, and the average magnetic loss tangent tan δ u increases with PAM concentration increasing, while the dielectric loss tangent tan δ e decreases. (cross-disciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  9. Morphological, Genome and Gene Expression Changes in Newly Induced Autopolyploid Chrysanthemum lavandulifolium (Fisch. ex Trautv. Makino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ri Gao

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Autopolyploidy is widespread in higher plants and plays an important role in the process of evolution. The present study successfully induced autotetraploidys from Chrysanthemum lavandulifolium by colchicine. The plant morphology, genomic, transcriptomic, and epigenetic changes between tetraploid and diploid plants were investigated. Ligulate flower, tubular flower and leaves of tetraploid plants were greater than those of the diploid plants. Compared with diploid plants, the genome changed as a consequence of polyploidization in tetraploid plants, namely, 1.1% lost fragments and 1.6% novel fragments occurred. In addition, DNA methylation increased after genome doubling in tetraploid plants. Among 485 common transcript-derived fragments (TDFs, which existed in tetraploid and diploid progenitors, 62 fragments were detected as differentially expressed TDFs, 6.8% of TDFs exhibited up-regulated gene expression in the tetraploid plants and 6.0% exhibited down-regulation. The present study provides a reference for further studying the autopolyploidization role in the evolution of C. lavandulifolium. In conclusion, the autopolyploid C. lavandulifolium showed a global change in morphology, genome and gene expression compared with corresponding diploid.

  10. Effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on growth and nitrogen uptake of Chrysanthemum morifolium under salt stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanhong; Wang, Minqiang; Li, Yan; Wu, Aiping; Huang, Juying

    2018-01-01

    Soil salinity is a common and serious environmental problem worldwide. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are considered as bio-ameliorators of soil salinity tolerance in plants. However, few studies have addressed the possible benefits of AMF inoculation for medicinal plants under saline conditions. In this study, we examined the effects of colonization with two AMF, Funneliformis mosseae and Diversispora versiformis, alone and in combination, on the growth and nutrient uptake of the medicinal plant Chrysanthemum morifolium (Hangbaiju) in a greenhouse salt stress experiment. After 6 weeks of a non-saline pretreatment, Hangbaiju plants with and without AMF were grown for five months under salinity levels that were achieved using 0, 50 and 200 mM NaCl. Root length, shoot and root dry weight, total dry weight, and root N concentration were higher in the mycorrhizal plants than in the non-mycorrhizal plants under conditions of moderate salinity, especially with D. versiformis colonization. As salinity increased, mycorrhizal colonization and mycorrhizal dependence decreased. The enhancement of root N uptake is probably the main mechanism underlying salt tolerance in mycorrhizal plants. These results suggest that the symbiotic associations between the fungus D. versiformis and C. morifolium plants may be useful in biotechnological practice.

  11. Low temperature treatment affects concentration and distribution of chrysanthemum stunt viroid in Argyranthemum

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    Zhibo eZhang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Chrysanthemum stunt viroid (CSVd can infect Argyranthemum and cause serious economic loss. Low temperature treatment combined with meristem culture has been applied to eradicate viroids from their hosts, but without success in eliminating CSVd from diseased Argyranthemum. The objectives of this work were to investigate 1 the effect of low temperature treatment combined with meristem culture on elimination of CSVd, 2 the effect of low temperature treatment on CSVd distribution pattern in shoot apical meristem (SAM, and 3 CSVd distribution in flowers and stems of two infected Argyranthemum cultivars. After treatment with low temperature combined with meristem tip culture, two CSVd-free plants were found in ‘Border Dark Red’, but none in ‘Yellow Empire’. With the help of in situ hybridization, we found that CSVd distribution patterns in the SAM showed no changes in diseased ‘Yellow Empire’ following 5oC treatment, compared with non-treated plants. However, the CSVd-free area in SAM was enlarged in diseased ‘Border Dark Red’ following prolonged 5oC treatment. Localization of CSVd in the flowers and stems of infected ‘Border Dark Red’ and ‘Yellow Empire’ indicated that seeds could not transmit CSVd in these two cultivars, and CSVd existed in phloem. Results obtained in the study contributed to better understanding of the distribution of CSVd in systemically infected plants and the combination of low temperature treatment and meristem tip culture for production of viroid-free plants.

  12. In-vitro induction of mutations in Chrysanthemum using x- and gamma-radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jerzy, M.

    1990-01-01

    Full text: Spontaneous and induced mutations occur frequently in the hexaploid and very heterozygous Chrysanthemum. Alterations in flower colours can thus be obtained for an outstanding cultivar produced by cross-breeding. Whole families of mutants have been reported for cultivars like 'Westland', 'Indianapolis', 'Horim' and 'Bravo'. The mutation-breeding programme in Poland started in 1986 with the use of in vitro techniques to obtain early cultivars flowering in unheated plastic greenhouses. One of the successful examples was the irradiation of cv. 'Richmond'. Leaves from plants regenerated through shoot tip culture were treated with 15 Gy x- and gamma-rays. Each treatment comprised 400 leaf explants on MS medium with IAA 2 mg/l and BA 0,6 mg/l. After 6 weeks, regenerated adventitious shoots were transferred to the rooting medium with HAA 0,02 mg/l. Rooted plantlets were used as stock plants for the production of shoot cuttings to be subjected to mutant selection. Many plants with drastically changed flower colours were obtained. The violet-pink colour, which is typical for 'Richmond' flowers changed to 13 different colours: white, yellow, golden, pink, salmon, lilac, violet, purple, orange, apricot, amber, bronze and red. Eleven colours occurred as a result of x-ray treatment, eight colours after gamma irradiation. Chimeras were not observed. Among irradiated plants there were also inflorescences with all-ligulate florets scrolled up into tubes. (author)

  13. Characterization of sida golden mottle virus isolated from Sida santaremensis Monteiro in Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Aqeel, H A; Iqbal, Zafar; Polston, J E

    2018-06-21

    The genome of sida golden mottle virus (SiGMoV) (GU997691 and GU997692) isolated from Sida santaremensis Monteiro in Manatee County, Florida, was sequenced and characterized. SiGMoV was determined to be a bipartite virus belonging to the genus Begomovirus with a genome organization typical of the New World viruses in the genus. SiGMoV DNA-A had the highest identity scores (89%) and showed the closest evolutionary relationships to sida golden mosaic Buckup virus (SiGMBuV) (JX162591 and HQ008338). However, SiGMoV DNA-B had the highest identity scores (93%) and showed the closest evolutionary relationship to corchorus yellow spot virus (DQ875869), SiGMBuV (JX162592) and sida golden mosaic Florida virus (SiGMFlV) (HE806443). There was extensive recombination in the SiGMoV DNA-A and much less in DNA-B. Full-length clones of SiGMoV were infectious and were able to infect and cause symptoms in several plant species.

  14. Genetic variation of eggplant mottled dwarf virus from annual and perennial plant hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappi, Polyxeni G; Maliogka, Varvara I; Amoutzias, Gregory D; Katis, Nikolaos I

    2016-03-01

    The genetic diversity of eggplant mottled dwarf virus (EMDV), a member of the family Rhabdoviridae, was studied using isolates collected from different herbaceous and woody plant species and remote geographic areas. Sequences corresponding to the N, X, P, Y, M and G ORFs as well as the untranslated regions (UTRs) between ORFs were determined from all isolates. Low genetic diversity was found in almost all genomic regions studied except for the X ORF and the UTRs, which were more variable, while interestingly, an EMDV isolate from caper possessed a truncated G gene sequence. Furthermore, low d N /d S ratios, indicative of purifying selection, were calculated for all genes. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the EMDV isolates clustered in three distinct subgroups based on their geographical origin, with the exception of one subgroup that consisted of isolates from northern Greece and Cyprus. Overall, the level of genetic diversity of EMDV differed between seed- and asexually propagated plants in our collection, and this could be related to the mode of transmission.

  15. Short communication. First report of Eggplant mottled dwarf virus in China rose in southern Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Parrella

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Eggplant mottled dwarf virus (EMDV, genus Nucleorhabdovirus, family Rhabdoviridae is transmitted in nature by leafhoppers and its natural host range includes vegetable crops (eggplant, tomato, potato, pepper, ornamentals (pittosporum, honeysuckle, pelargonium and wild plants (caper, Solanum nigrum. The prevalence of infections is generally very low. EMDV has been demonstrated to be the causal agent of a vein yellowing disease of China rose (Hibiscus rosa-sinensis in southern Italy. In this work, four locations from Málaga and Granada provinces (southern Spain were surveyed in 2011 to study the prevalence of EMDV infections in China rose by serological and molecular methods. Overall, EMDV was detected in 77.3% of the samples (33 out of 45 samples tested. Mechanical transmission tests and immunoelectron microscopy confirmed the presence of EMDV. The possible causes of such a high and unexpected prevalence are discussed. The use of molecular hibridization with an EMDV specific riboprobe is proposed for early screening of vegetative propagated China rose plants to avoid dissemination of infected material.

  16. Complete mitochondrial genome of the mottled skate: Raja pulchra (Rajiformes, Rajidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Dageum; Kim, Sung; Kim, Choong-Gon; Myoung, Jung-Goo; Lee, Youn-Ho

    2016-05-01

    The complete sequence of mitochondrial DNA of a mottled skate, Raja pulchra was sequenced as being circular molecules of 16,907 bp including 2 rRNA, 22 tRNA, 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), and an AT-rich control region. The organization of the PCGs is the same as those found in other Rajidae species. The nucleotide of L-strand is composed of 29.8% A, 28.0% C, 27.9% T, and 14.3% G with a bias toward A + T slightly. Twelve of 13 PCGs are initiated by the ATG codon while COX1 starts with GTG. Only ND4 harbors the incomplete termination codon, TA. All tRNA genes have a typical clover-leaf structure of mitochondrial tRNA with the exception of [Formula: see text] which has a reduced DHU arm. This mitogenome will provide essential information for better phylogenetic resolution and precision of the family Rajidae and the genus Raja as well as for establishment of a fish stock recovery plan of the species.

  17. Development of real-time PCR assay for genetic identification of the mottled skate, Beringraja pulchra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, In Kwan; Lee, Hae Young; Kim, Min-Hee; Jo, Hyun-Su; Choi, Dong-Ho; Kang, Pil-Won; Lee, Yang-Han; Cho, Nam-Soo; Park, Ki-Won; Chae, Ho Zoon

    2015-10-01

    The mottled skate, Beringraja pulchra is one of the commercially important fishes in the market today. However, B. pulchra identification methods have not been well developed. The current study reports a novel real-time PCR method based on TaqMan technology developed for the genetic identification of B. pulchra. The mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI) nucleotide sequences of 29 B. pulchra, 157 skates and rays reported in GenBank DNA database were comparatively analyzed and the COI sequences specific to B. pulchra was identified. Based on this information, a system of specific primers and Minor Groove Binding (MGB) TaqMan probe were designed. The assay successfully discriminated in 29 specimens of B. pulchra and 27 commercial samples with unknown species identity. For B. pulchra DNA, an average Threshold Cycle (Ct) value of 19.1±0.1 was obtained. Among 27 commercial samples, two samples showed average Ct values 19.1±0.0 and 26.7±0.1, respectively and were confirmed to be B. pulchra based on sequencing. The other samples tested showed undetectable or extremely weak signals for the target fragment, which was also consistent with the sequencing results. These results reveal that the method developed is a rapid and efficient tool to identify B. pulchra and might prevent fraud or mislabeling during the distribution of B. pulchra products. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Characterization of petunia flower mottle virus (PetFMV), a new potyvirus infecting Petunia x hybrida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldhoff, A; Wetzel, T; Peters, D; Kellner, R; Krczal, G

    1998-01-01

    With the introduction of cutting-grown Petunia x hybrida plants on the European market, a new potyvirus which showed no serological reaction with antisera against any other potyviruses infecting petunias was discovered. Infected leaves contained flexuous rod-shaped virus particles of 750-800 nm in length and inclusion bodies (pinwheel structures) typical for potyviruses in ultrathin leaf sections. The purified coat protein with a Mr of approximately 36 kDa could be detected in Western immunoblots with a specific antibody to the coat protein of the petunia-infecting virus. The 3' end of the viral genome encompassing the 3' non-coding region, the coat protein gene, and part of the NIb gene was amplified from infected leaf material by IC/PCR using degenerate and specific primers. Sequences of PCR-generated cDNA clones were compared to other known sequences of potyviruses. Maximum homology of 56% was found in the 3' non-coding region between the petunia isolate and other potyviruses. A maximum homology of 69% was found between the amino acid sequence of the coat protein of the petunia isolate and corresponding sequences of other potyviruses. These data indicate that the petunia-infecting virus is a previously undescribed potyvirus and the name petunia flower mottle virus (PetFMV) is suggested.

  19. Interspecific hybridization contributes to high genetic diversity and apparent effective population size in an endemic population of mottled ducks (Anas fulvigula maculosa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Jeffrey L.; Sonsthagen, Sarah A.; Lavretsky, Philip; Rezsutek, Michael; Johnson, William P.; McCracken, Kevin G.

    2014-01-01

    Under drift-mutation equilibrium, genetic diversity is expected to be correlated with effective population size (Ne). Changes in population size and gene flow are two important processes that can cause populations to deviate from this expected relationship. In this study, we used DNA sequences from six independent loci to examine the influence of these processes on standing genetic diversity in endemic mottled ducks (Anas fulvigula) and geographically widespread mallards (A. platyrhynchos), two species known to hybridize. Mottled ducks have an estimated census size that is about two orders-of-magnitude smaller than that of mallards, yet these two species have similar levels of genetic diversity, especially at nuclear DNA. Coalescent analyses suggest that a population expansion in the mallard at least partly explains this discrepancy, but the mottled duck harbors higher genetic diversity and apparent N e than expected for its census size even after accounting for a population decline. Incorporating gene flow into the model, however, reduced the estimated Ne of mottled ducks to 33 % of the equilibrium Ne and yielded an estimated Ne consistent with census size. We also examined the utility of these loci to distinguish among mallards, mottled ducks, and their hybrids. Most putatively pure individuals were correctly assigned to species, but the power for detecting hybrids was low. Although hybridization with mallards potentially poses a conservation threat to mottled ducks by creating a risk of extinction by hybridization, introgression of mallard alleles has helped maintain high genetic diversity in mottled ducks and might be important for the adaptability and survival of this species.

  20. Conclusive evidence for hexasomic inheritance in chrysanthemum based on analysis of a 183 k SNP array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Geest, Geert; Voorrips, Roeland E; Esselink, Danny; Post, Aike; Visser, Richard Gf; Arens, Paul

    2017-08-07

    Cultivated chrysanthemum is an outcrossing hexaploid (2n = 6× = 54) with a disputed mode of inheritance. In this paper, we present a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) selection pipeline that was used to design an Affymetrix Axiom array with 183 k SNPs from RNA sequencing data (1). With this array, we genotyped four bi-parental populations (with sizes of 405, 53, 76 and 37 offspring plants respectively), and a cultivar panel of 63 genotypes. Further, we present a method for dosage scoring in hexaploids from signal intensities of the array based on mixture models (2) and validation of selection steps in the SNP selection pipeline (3). The resulting genotypic data is used to draw conclusions on the mode of inheritance in chrysanthemum (4), and to make an inference on allelic expression bias (5). With use of the mixture model approach, we successfully called the dosage of 73,936 out of 183,130 SNPs (40.4%) that segregated in any of the bi-parental populations. To investigate the mode of inheritance, we analysed markers that segregated in the large bi-parental population (n = 405). Analysis of segregation of duplex x nulliplex SNPs resulted in evidence for genome-wide hexasomic inheritance. This evidence was substantiated by the absence of strong linkage between markers in repulsion, which indicated absence of full disomic inheritance. We present the success rate of SNP discovery out of RNA sequencing data as affected by different selection steps, among which SNP coverage over genotypes and use of different types of sequence read mapping software. Genomic dosage highly correlated with relative allele coverage from the RNA sequencing data, indicating that most alleles are expressed according to their genomic dosage. The large population, genotyped with a very large number of markers, is a unique framework for extensive genetic analyses in hexaploid chrysanthemum. As starting point, we show conclusive evidence for genome-wide hexasomic inheritance.

  1. Soluções de manutenção na pós-colheita de Chrysanthemum morifolium cv. Dragon Chrysanthemum morifolium cv. Dragon postharvest maintenance solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poliana Cristina Spricigo

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available O desenvolvimento e uso de técnicas que prolonguem a durabilidade das flores, mantendo a qualidade do produto, é imprescindível para redução de perdas pós-colheita. Objetivou-se, neste trabalho, avaliar soluções de manutenção, associadas ou não a sacarose, na manutenção da qualidade pós-colheita de hastes de crisântemos. O experimento foi conduzido sob delineamento inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial, com cinco tratamentos e três repetições, com 2 hastes florais cada uma. Os tratamentos utilizaram água destilada; 8-HQC a 100 mg L-1; 8-HQC a 100 mg L-1 + sacarose a 50 g L-1, 8-HQC a 200 mg L-1; 8-HQC a 200 mg L-1 + sacarose a 50 g L-1. Foram feitas avaliações físicas: coloração, massa fresca e conteúdo relativo de água (CRA; avaliações químicas: açúcares redutores e pigmentos; e avaliações qualitativas: turgescência, cor das flores, e número de botões, flores entreabertas e abertas. A combinação de 8-HQC 200 mg L-1 + sacarose a 50 g L-1 foi a que apresentou melhor desempenho para a manutenção da qualidade das hastes florais, favorecendo a abertura de botões e a turgescência das lígulas. A sacarose contribuiu para uma melhor manutenção de substâncias de reserva na haste, que tiveram a sua vida de vaso estendida.The development and use of techniques that extend the life vase of the flowers, maintaining the quality of the product, is essential for reducing postharvest losses. The objective of this work was to evaluate different solutions for maintenance, associated or not to sucrose, in maintaining the postharvest quality of chrysanthemum stems. The treatments used distilled water, 8-HQC to 100 mg L-1, 8-HQC to 100 mg L-1 + sucrose 50 g L-1, 8-HQC to 200 mg L-1, 8-HQC to 200 mg L-1 + sucrose 50 g L-1. Physical assessments were made: color, fresh mass and relative water content; chemical evaluations: reducing sugars and pigments, and qualitative assessments: turgidity, color of the flowers, and

  2. Phylogenetic analysis of Melon chlorotic leaf curl virus from Guatemala: Another emergent species in the Squash leaf curl virus clade

    KAUST Repository

    Brown, J.K.

    2011-06-01

    The genome of a new bipartite begomovirus Melon chlorotic leaf curl virus from Guatemala (MCLCuV-GT) was cloned and the genome sequence was determined. The virus causes distinct symptoms on melons that were not previously observed in melon crops in Guatemala or elsewhere. Phylogenetic analysis of MCLCuV-GT and begomoviruses infecting cucurbits and other host plant species indicated that its closest relative was MCLCuV from Costa Rica (MCLCuV-CR). The DNA-A components of two isolates shared 88.8% nucleotide identity, making them strains of the same species. Further, both MCLCuV-GT and MCLCuV-CR grouped with other Western Hemisphere cucurbit-infecting species in the SLCV-clade making them the most southerly cucurbit-infecting members of the clade to date. Although the common region of the cognate components of MCLCuV-GT and MCLCuV-CR, shared similar to 96.3% nucleotide identity. While DNA-A and DNA-B components of MCLCuV-GT were less than 86% nucleotide identity with the respective DNAA and DNA-B common regions of MCLCuV-CR. The late viral genes of the two strains shared the least nt identity (<88%) while their early genes shared the highest nt identity (>90%). The collective evidence suggests that these two strains of MCLCuV are evolutionarily divergent owing in part to recombination, but also due to the accumulation of a substantial number of mutations. In addition they are differentially host-adapted, as has been documented for other cucurbit-infecting, bean-adapted, species in the SLCV clade. (C) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. IN VITRO REGENERATION OF THREE CHRYSANTHEMUM (Dendrathema grandiflora VARIETIES “VIA” ORGANOGENESIS AND SOMATIC EMBRYOGENESIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Hodson de Jaramillo

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Chrysanthemum (Dendrathema grandiflora has a high demand in the Colombian and international cut flower markets.Since commercial production of this ornamental species is strongly affected by fungal diseases such as chrysanthemumwhite rust (Puccinia horiana, high doses of fungicides are being used posing increased environmental and commercialcosts. Assessment of in vitro regeneration systems from leaf discs was a first step in developing a plant genetic transformationprotocol to obtain fungi-resistant plants. Leaf discs of White Albatross, Yellow Albatross, and Escapade varieties wereestablished in vitro on MS medium supplemented with NAA (0 - 4.83 μM and BAP (0 - 13.32 μM alone and incombination. Leaf discs were also cultured on MumB medium containing 2,4-D (0 - 4.52 μM for 7, 14, and 21 days priorto their transferral to a 2,4-D free MumB medium. Regenerated shoots were individualized, rooted, and hardened. Resultsshow that MS with 4.83 μM NAA + 4.44 μM BAP and 4.83 μM NAA + 13.32 μM BAP induce organogenesis, and MumBwith 2.26 μM 2,4-D induces somatic embryogenesis on all three varieties, with exposition periods to 2,4-D of 14 days forWhite Albatross and 21 days for Yellow Albatross and Escapade. Shoot development from somatic embryos was observedin the three varieties when cultured on a 2,4-D free MumB medium. Spontaneous rooting was recorded in 85% of the shootsthus facilitating hardening and successful transfer to soil.

  4. Development of SSR Markers and Assessment of Genetic Diversity in Medicinal Chrysanthemum morifolium Cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Shangguo; He, Renfeng; Lu, Jiangjie; Jiang, Mengying; Shen, Xiaoxia; Jiang, Yan; Wang, Zhi'an; Wang, Huizhong

    2016-01-01

    Chrysanthemum morifolium, is a well-known flowering plant worldwide, and has a high commercial, floricultural, and medicinal value. In this study, simple-sequence repeat (SSR) markers were generated from EST datasets and were applied to assess the genetic diversity among 32 cultivars. A total of 218 in silico SSR loci were identified from 7300 C. morifolium ESTs retrieved from GenBank. Of all SSR loci, 61.47% of them (134) were hexa-nucleotide repeats, followed by tri-nucleotide repeats (17.89%), di-nucleotide repeats (12.39%), tetra-nucleotide repeats (4.13%), and penta-nucleotide repeats (4.13%). In this study, 17 novel EST-SSR markers were verified. Along with 38 SSR markers reported previously, 55 C. morifolium SSR markers were selected for further genetic diversity analysis. PCR amplification of these EST-SSRs produced 1319 fragments, 1306 of which showed polymorphism. The average polymorphism information content of the SSR primer pairs was 0.972 (0.938-0.993), which showed high genetic diversity among C. morifolium cultivars. Based on SSR markers, 32 C. morifolium cultivars were separated into two main groups by partitioning of the clusters using the unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean dendrogram, which was further supported by a principal coordinate analysis plot. Phylogenetic relationship among C. morifolium cultivars as revealed by SSR markers was highly consistent with the classification of medicinal C. morifolium populations according to their origin and ecological distribution. Our results demonstrated that SSR markers were highly reproducible and informative, and could be used to evaluate genetic diversity and relationships among medicinal C. morifolium cultivars.

  5. Cladosporium cladosporioides and Cladosporium pseudocladosporioides as potential new fungal antagonists of Puccinia horiana Henn., the causal agent of chrysanthemum white rust.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Eduardo Torres

    Full Text Available Puccinia horiana Hennings, the causal agent of chrysanthemum white rust, is a worldwide quarantine organism and one of the most important fungal pathogens of Chrysanthemum × morifolium cultivars, which are used for cut flowers and as potted plants in commercial production regions of the world. It was previously reported to be controlled by Lecanicillium lecanii, Cladosporium sphaerospermum, C. uredinicola and Aphanocladium album, due to their antagonistic and hyperparasitic effects. We report novel antagonist species on Puccinia horiana. Fungi isolated from rust pustules in a commercial greenhouse from Villa Guerrero, México, were identified as Cladosporium cladosporioides and Cladosporium pseudocladosporioides based upon molecular analysis and morphological characters. The antagonism of C. cladosporioides and C. pseudocladosporioides on chrysanthemum white rust was studied using light and electron microscopy in vitro at the host/parasite interface. Cladosporium cladosporioides and C. pseudocladosporioides grew towards the white rust teliospores and colonized the sporogenous cells, but no direct penetration of teliospores was observed; however, the structure and cytoplasm of teliospores were altered. The two Cladosporium spp. were able to grow on media containing laminarin, but not when chitin was used as the sole carbon source; these results suggest that they are able to produce glucanases. Results from the study indicate that both Cladosporium species had potential as biological control agents of chrysanthemum white rust.

  6. Quantitative and Qualitative Analysis of Flavonoids and Phenolic Acids in Snow Chrysanthemum (Coreopsis tinctoria Nutt.) by HPLC-DAD and UPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yinjun; Sun, Xinguang; Liu, Jinjun; Kang, Liping; Chen, Sibao; Ma, Baiping; Guo, Baolin

    2016-09-30

    A simple, accurate and reliable high performance liquid chromatography coupled with photodiode array detection (HPLC-DAD) method was developed and then successfully applied for simultaneous quantitative analysis of eight compounds, including chlorogenic acid ( 1 ), ( R / S )-flavanomarein ( 2 ), butin-7- O -β-d-glucopyranoside ( 3 ), isookanin ( 4 ), taxifolin ( 5 ), 5,7,3',5'-tetrahydroxyflavanone-7- O -β-d-glucopyranoside ( 6 ), marein ( 7 ) and okanin ( 8 ), in 23 batches of snow chrysanthemum of different seed provenance and from various habitats. The results showed total contents of the eight compounds in the samples with seed provenance from Keliyang (Xinjiang, China), are higher than in samples from the other five provenances by 52.47%, 15.53%, 19.78%, 21.17% and 5.06%, respectively, which demonstrated that provenance has a great influence on the constituents in snow chrysanthemum. Meanwhile, an ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization and quadrupole time-of-flight-mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS) was also employed to rapidly separate and identify flavonoids and phenolic acids in snow chrysanthemum from Keliyang. As a result, a total of 30 constituents, including 26 flavonoids and four phenolic acids, were identified or tentatively identified based on the exact mass information, the fragmentation characteristics, and retention times of eight reference standards. This work may provide an efficient approach to comprehensively evaluate the quality of snow chrysanthemum.

  7. Obstruction of Water Uptake in cut Chrysanthemum Stems after Dry Storage: Role of Wound-induced Increase in Enzyme Activities and Air Emboli

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meeteren, van U.; Arevalo-Galarza, L.

    2009-01-01

    Hydraulic conductance of cut chrysanthemum stems was lowered by the aspiration of air as well as by a wound-induced plant response. By measuring the hydraulic conductance of stem segments in which air could be introduced into and/or removed from the xylem vessels at various times after harvest, we

  8. Quantitative and Qualitative Analysis of Flavonoids and Phenolic Acids in Snow Chrysanthemum (Coreopsis tinctoria Nutt. by HPLC-DAD and UPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinjun Yang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A simple, accurate and reliable high performance liquid chromatography coupled with photodiode array detection (HPLC-DAD method was developed and then successfully applied for simultaneous quantitative analysis of eight compounds, including chlorogenic acid (1, (R/S-flavanomarein (2, butin-7-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (3, isookanin (4, taxifolin (5, 5,7,3′,5′-tetrahydroxyflavanone-7-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (6, marein (7 and okanin (8, in 23 batches of snow chrysanthemum of different seed provenance and from various habitats. The results showed total contents of the eight compounds in the samples with seed provenance from Keliyang (Xinjiang, China, are higher than in samples from the other five provenances by 52.47%, 15.53%, 19.78%, 21.17% and 5.06%, respectively, which demonstrated that provenance has a great influence on the constituents in snow chrysanthemum. Meanwhile, an ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization and quadrupole time-of-flight-mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS was also employed to rapidly separate and identify flavonoids and phenolic acids in snow chrysanthemum from Keliyang. As a result, a total of 30 constituents, including 26 flavonoids and four phenolic acids, were identified or tentatively identified based on the exact mass information, the fragmentation characteristics, and retention times of eight reference standards. This work may provide an efficient approach to comprehensively evaluate the quality of snow chrysanthemum.

  9. Enhancement of flowering and branching phenotype in chrysanthemum by expression of ipt under the control of a 0.821 kb fragment of the LEACO1 gene promoter

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Khodakovskaya, M.; Vaňková, Radomíra; Malbeck, Jiří; Li, A.; Li, Y.; McAvoy, R.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 28, č. 9 (2009), s. 1351-1362 ISSN 0721-7714 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : ipt Gene * Cytokinins * Transgenic chrysanthemum Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.301, year: 2009

  10. Characterization of active-site residues of the NIa protease from tobacco vein mottling virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, D C; Kim, D H; Lee, J S; Kang, B H; Han, J; Kim, W; Song, B D; Choi, K Y

    2000-10-31

    Nuclear inclusion a (NIa) protease of tobacco vein mottling virus is responsible for the processing of the viral polyprotein into functional proteins. In order to identify the active-site residues of the TVMV NIa protease, the putative active-site residues, His-46, Asp-81 and Cys-151, were mutated individually to generate H46R, H46A, D81E, D81N, C151S, and C151A, and their mutational effects on the proteolytic activities were examined. Proteolytic activity was completely abolished by the mutations of H46R, H46A, D81N, and C151A, suggesting that the three residues are crucial for catalysis. The mutation of D81E decreased kcat marginally by about 4.7-fold and increased Km by about 8-fold, suggesting that the aspartic acid at position 81 is important for substrate binding but can be substituted by glutamate without any significant decrease in catalysis. The replacement of Cys-151 by Ser to mimic the catalytic triad of chymotrypsin-like serine protease resulted in the drastic decrease in kcat by about 1,260-fold. This result might be due to the difference of the active-site geometry between the NIa protease and chymotrypsin. The protease exhibited a bell-shaped pH-dependent profile with a maximum activity approximately at pH 8.3 and with the abrupt changes at the respective pKa values of approximately 6.6 and 9.2, implying the involvement of a histidine residue in catalysis. Taken together, these results demonstrate that the three residues, His-46, Asp-81, and Cys-151, play a crucial role in catalysis of the TVMV NIa protease.

  11. The giant mottled eel, Anguilla marmorata, uses blue-shifted rod photoreceptors during upstream migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feng-Yu; Fu, Wen-Chun; Wang, I-Li; Yan, Hong Young; Wang, Tzi-Yuan

    2014-01-01

    Catadromous fishes migrate between ocean and freshwater during particular phases of their life cycle. The dramatic environmental changes shape their physiological features, e.g. visual sensitivity, olfactory ability, and salinity tolerance. Anguilla marmorata, a catadromous eel, migrates upstream on dark nights, following the lunar cycle. Such behavior may be correlated with ontogenetic changes in sensory systems. Therefore, this study was designed to identify changes in spectral sensitivity and opsin gene expression of A. marmorata during upstream migration. Microspectrophotometry analysis revealed that the tropical eel possesses a duplex retina with rod and cone photoreceptors. The λmax of rod cells are 493, 489, and 489 nm in glass, yellow, and wild eels, while those of cone cells are 508, and 517 nm in yellow, and wild eels, respectively. Unlike European and American eels, Asian eels exhibited a blue-shifted pattern of rod photoreceptors during upstream migration. Quantitative gene expression analyses of four cloned opsin genes (Rh1f, Rh1d, Rh2, and SWS2) revealed that Rh1f expression is dominant at all three stages, while Rh1d is expressed only in older yellow eel. Furthermore, sequence comparison and protein modeling studies implied that a blue shift in Rh1d opsin may be induced by two known (N83, S292) and four putative (S124, V189, V286, I290) tuning sites adjacent to the retinal binding sites. Finally, expression of blue-shifted Rh1d opsin resulted in a spectral shift in rod photoreceptors. Our observations indicate that the giant mottled eel is color-blind, and its blue-shifted scotopic vision may influence its upstream migration behavior and habitat choice.

  12. The giant mottled eel, Anguilla marmorata, uses blue-shifted rod photoreceptors during upstream migration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng-Yu Wang

    Full Text Available Catadromous fishes migrate between ocean and freshwater during particular phases of their life cycle. The dramatic environmental changes shape their physiological features, e.g. visual sensitivity, olfactory ability, and salinity tolerance. Anguilla marmorata, a catadromous eel, migrates upstream on dark nights, following the lunar cycle. Such behavior may be correlated with ontogenetic changes in sensory systems. Therefore, this study was designed to identify changes in spectral sensitivity and opsin gene expression of A. marmorata during upstream migration. Microspectrophotometry analysis revealed that the tropical eel possesses a duplex retina with rod and cone photoreceptors. The λmax of rod cells are 493, 489, and 489 nm in glass, yellow, and wild eels, while those of cone cells are 508, and 517 nm in yellow, and wild eels, respectively. Unlike European and American eels, Asian eels exhibited a blue-shifted pattern of rod photoreceptors during upstream migration. Quantitative gene expression analyses of four cloned opsin genes (Rh1f, Rh1d, Rh2, and SWS2 revealed that Rh1f expression is dominant at all three stages, while Rh1d is expressed only in older yellow eel. Furthermore, sequence comparison and protein modeling studies implied that a blue shift in Rh1d opsin may be induced by two known (N83, S292 and four putative (S124, V189, V286, I290 tuning sites adjacent to the retinal binding sites. Finally, expression of blue-shifted Rh1d opsin resulted in a spectral shift in rod photoreceptors. Our observations indicate that the giant mottled eel is color-blind, and its blue-shifted scotopic vision may influence its upstream migration behavior and habitat choice.

  13. Monoclonal antibody-based serological methods for detection of Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Yajuan

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV, a member of the genus Tobamovirus, can be transmitted by seeds and infects many cucurbit species, causing serious yield losses in cucumber and watermelon plants. In this paper, five serological methods including antigen-coated plate enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ACP-ELISA, triple antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (TAS-ELISA, Dot-immunobinding assay (DBIA, direct tissue blot immunoassay (DTBIA and immunocapture reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (IC-RT-PCR were described for detection and diagnosis of CGMMV. Results Using the purified CGMMV particles as immunogens, six murine monoclonal antibodies (MAbs were produced. Five serological methods were established using the MAb 4H1 and detection sensitivity was compared using purified preparations and infected-plant tissue extracts. The detection sensitivity of ACP-ELISA was 0.16 ng of purified CGMMV, whereas TAS-ELISA was more sensitive than ACP-ELISA with a minimum detection of 0.04 ng of purified CGMMV. The sensitivities of TAS-ELISA and DBIA were similar for detecting CGMMV in infected-plant tissue extracts, and were four times higher than ACP-ELISA. The IC-RT-PCR was the most sensitive method, which could detect as little as 0.1 pg of purified virus. The detection sensitivity of IC-RT-PCR for CGMMV-infected plant tissues was about 400 times higher than that of TAS-ELISA and DBIA. Conclusions The established ACP-ELISA, TAS-ELISA, DBIA and DTBIA are suitable for routine CGMMV detection of large-scale samples in the field survey, while IC-RT-PCR is more sensitive and suitable for acquiring information about the viral genome.

  14. Electron-beam irradiation as a quarantine treatment against red mite on exported cut flower of Chrysanthemum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doan Thi The; Nguyen Thi Ly; Vo Thi Kim Lang; Cao Van Chung

    2016-01-01

    Utilization of phytosanitary irradiation as a potential treatment to disinfest agricultural commodities in trade has expanded rapidly in the recent years. In this study, red mites (Tetranychus sp) isolated from cut Chrysanthemums were treated by electron beam irradiation at doses of 100, 200, 300 and 400 Gy. After irradiation, they were kept at room temperature to determine the effects of electron beam irradiation on red mite at different developmental stages (eggs, nymphs and adults) and the reproduction of female adults. The results showed that the pattern of tolerance to irradiation in red mite was eggs < 2nd instars < adults, in which the adults were the most tolerance stage. The number of eggs laid by the irradiated female mites and the hatching rate significantly decreased when the irradiation dose increased. The hatching rate of eggs at 300 Gy was 4.25% and no larvae F_1 survived during observation time. It could be concluded that 300 Gy is the effective quarantine dose for red mite infesting on cut chrysanthemums. (author)

  15. Identification of early flowering mutants from the cut chrysanthemum variety 'Jinba' and research on the physiological characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai Haiyan; Wen Lizhu; Zheng Chengshu; Sun Xia; Li Yingying

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the morphological characteristics the early flower mutants induced by EMS from the cut chrysanthemum variety 'Jinba' were characterized, and ISSR-PCR was used for molecular identification of mutants. The photosynthetic characteristics, stomatal and vascular bundle cross-section for the mutants were also measured. The florescence of mutants appeared about 59 days earlier than that of controls. The plant height, leaves and flower diameter were all smaller than those of controls, but they grew well. From the PCR amplification, the differences between the mutants and the control were in the present or absent of the amplified bands. The photosynthetic characteristics, such as the net photosynthetic rate (Pn), stomatal conductance (Gs), transpiration rate (Tr) and intercellular CO_2 concentration were all significantly lower than the controls. The number of mutant's stomata significantly reduced, and some stomatas appeared variation. The vascular bundles including primary phloem and primary xylem displayed difference in the size and shape. All these work lays a foundation for breeding the early flowering of excellent chrysanthemum and further characterization of the early flowering genes. (authors)

  16. CmWRKY1 Enhances the Dehydration Tolerance of Chrysanthemum through the Regulation of ABA-Associated Genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingqing Fan

    Full Text Available WRKY transcription factors serve as antagonistic or synergistic regulators in a variety of abiotic stress responses in plants. Here, we show that CmWRKY1, a member of the group IIb WRKY family isolated from Chrysanthemum morifolium, exhibits no transcriptional activation in yeast cells. The subcellular localization examination showed that CmWRKY1 localizes to the nucleus in vivo. Furthermore, CmWRKY1-overexpressing transgenic lines exhibit enhanced dehydration tolerance in response to polyethylene glycol (PEG treatment compared with wild-type plants. We further confirmed that the transgenic plants exhibit suppressed expression levels of genes negatively regulated by ABA, such as PP2C, ABI1 and ABI2, and activated expression levels of genes positively regulated by ABA, such as PYL2, SnRK2.2, ABF4, MYB2, RAB18, and DREB1A. Taken together, our results indicate that CmWRKY1 plays an important role in the response to drought in chrysanthemum through an ABA-mediated pathway.

  17. Comparison of physiologic effects caused by X-rays and Ems, in the cultivation in vitro of chrysanthemum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez M, Marina; Zamudio R, Carmen

    1994-01-01

    In the world environment, Colombia occupies the second place like exporter of flowers; inside the national exports market the third line is constituted, among others for this market. In 1993, the total value of the exports of Colombian flowers reached the sum of 381.9 million dollars and the North American market represents the main destination with a 79.45 of participation. In this work, the induction of mutations through physical and chemical treatments, supplemented with the propagation in vitro was carried out. In the physical treatment dose of 5, 10, and 15 Gy of Rays X was used, while for the chemical treatment EMS, (Methanesulphonate of Ethyl) was used in dose of 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5. As material donor, young leaves of chrysanthemum were used, Escapade variety, of which explants of homogeneous size were taken to be cultivated in vitro between MS with different hormonal concentrations. The propagation in vitro was taken until obtaining plants, which later on were transferred to in alive conditions. The objective of this study was to compare the physiologic effects, caused by the mutagenic treatments, at tripes and plants level, obtained by means of chrysanthemum cultivation in vitro, Escapade variety

  18. Effect of Silver Nanoparticles and Sodium Silicate on Vase Life and Quality of Cut Chrysanthemum Dendranthema grandiflorum L. (Flower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kazemipour

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Dendranthema grandiflorum L. is one of the widely cultivated flowers around the world for producing of cut flowers. Nanometer-sized silver particles are used in various applications as an anti-microbial compound. This experiment was carried out to study the effects of silver nanoparticles (0, 5, 10 and 20 mg/L and sodium silicate (0, 50, 100 and 150 mg/L on longevity and quality of cut chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflorum L. flowers. A factorial experiment was conducted based on randomized complete block design with 16 treatments, 3 replications, 48 plots and 192 cut flowers. The cut flowers were pulsed for 24 h with pulse solutions and then transported to 300 mg L-1 8-hidroxy quinoline sulfate and 3% sucrose. The characteristics such as vase life, loss of fresh weight, number of bacterial colonies in stem, lipid peroxidation, and activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD were measured. Results showed that all treatments had positive effects on the vase life of flowers. Pulse solution with 10 mg/L silver nanoparticles and 100 mg/L sodium silicate and interaction between them, increased vase life compared to the control (3.21, 4.46 and 8.50 days, respectively. In addition, the flowers pulsed with silver nanoparticles and sodium silicate exhibited higher activity of SOD, compared to control. The present study showed that using proper concentrations of silver nanoparticles and sodium silicate can enhance the vase life of cut chrysanthemum flowers.

  19. Genesis of a mottled horizon by Fe-depletion within a laterite cover in the Amazon Basin.

    OpenAIRE

    Rosolen , Vania; Lamotte , Mathieu; Boulet , René; Trichet , Jean; Rouer , Olivier; José Melfi , Adolpho

    2002-01-01

    A mottled horizon in a laterite cover (without any duricrust) was studied by microscopy and quantitative chemical microanalysis. Apart from the voids, light red spots consisting of Fe-rich particles (≈2 μm) are set in clayey plasma. Dark red spots consisted of concentrations of Fe-rich particles. These patterns are inherited. On the border of structural or biological voids, where Fe-depletion features are systematic, gray or yellow spots result from dissolution of the Fe-rich particles and im...

  20. Rice Yellow Mottle Virus stress responsive genes from susceptible and tolerant rice genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siré Christelle

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The effects of viral infection involve concomitant plant gene variations and cellular changes. A simple system is required to assess the complexity of host responses to viral infection. The genome of the Rice yellow mottle virus (RYMV is a single-stranded RNA with a simple organisation. It is the most well-known monocotyledon virus model. Several studies on its biology, structure and phylogeography have provided a suitable background for further genetic studies. 12 rice chromosome sequences are now available and provide strong support for genomic studies, particularly physical mapping and gene identification. Results The present data, obtained through the cDNA-AFLP technique, demonstrate differential responses to RYMV of two different rice cultivars, i.e. susceptible IR64 (Oryza sativa indica, and partially resistant Azucena (O. s. japonica. This RNA profiling provides a new original dataset that will enable us to gain greater insight into the RYMV/rice interaction and the specificity of the host response. Using the SIM4 subroutine, we took the intron/exon structure of the gene into account and mapped 281 RYMV stress responsive (RSR transcripts on 12 rice chromosomes corresponding to 234 RSR genes. We also mapped previously identified deregulated proteins and genes involved in partial resistance and thus constructed the first global physical map of the RYMV/rice interaction. RSR transcripts on rice chromosomes 4 and 10 were found to be not randomly distributed. Seven genes were identified in the susceptible and partially resistant cultivars, and transcripts were colocalized for these seven genes in both cultivars. During virus infection, many concomitant plant gene expression changes may be associated with host changes caused by the infection process, general stress or defence responses. We noted that some genes (e.g. ABC transporters were regulated throughout the kinetics of infection and differentiated susceptible and

  1. The First Report of KRT5 Mutation Underlying Acantholytic Dowling-Degos Disease with Mottled Hypopigmentation in an Indian Family

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Shyam; Pasternack, Sandra M.; Rütten, Arno; Ruzicka, Thomas; Betz, Regina C.; Hanneken, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    Galli Galli disease (GGD) is the name given to a rare form of acantholytic Dowling-Degos disease. (DDD), the latter itself being a rare condition. We believe we are describing for the first time in Indian dermatologic literature a case of GGD in a family where 25 persons have DDD and have been able to document a KRT5 mutation in four members of the family. Whereas reticulate pigmentation is a hallmark of DDD there are rare reports of mottled pigmentation with multiple asymptomatic hypopigmented macules scattered diffusely along with the pigmentation. All the cases described here show a mottled pigmentation comprising hypo and hyperpigmented asymptomatic macules. After the clinical diagnosis was made by one of the authors (SV) in India, the German authors repeated histological examination and successfully demonstrated a heterozygous nonsense mutation, c.C10T (p.Gln4X), in exon 1 of the KRT5 gene, from various centers in Munich, Bonn, Dusseldorf and Friedrichschafen in Germany. PMID:25284854

  2. Spawning Characteristics and Artificial Hatching of Female Mottled Skate, Beringraja pulchra in the West Coast of Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hee-Woong; Jo, Yeong-Rok; Kang, Duk-Yong; Jeong, Gyeong-Suk; Jo, Hyun-Su

    2013-09-01

    The gonadsomatic index (GSI) of mottled skate was the highest in April, GSI and HSI showed a reverse phase for its reproductive cycle. The fish had one pair of egg capsules, having 1 to 7 fertilized eggs, and spawned all the year round. When surveying the reproductive characteristics of females over 63 ㎝ in disc width, we found the spawning peak was between April to June, and the appearance ratio of egg capsules was the highest in May (32.1%). The eggs were hatched at 8°C, 13°C, 18°C, water temperature (12.8 to 24.2°C), and the best hatching temperature was 18°C. The number of fish hatched was 4 to 5 fish/egg capsules, and the hatching rate was 100%. The sex ratios of hatching larvae were 45.5% female and 54.5% male. Therefore this study will provide fundamental data and information for artificial reproduction of the mottled skate.

  3. Mottled Neuherberg (Mo sup(N)), a new male-lethal coat colour mutation of the house mouse (Mus musculus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schroeder, J.H.

    1975-01-01

    A new semidominant X-chromosomal mutation, Mottled Neuherberg (Mo sup(N)), which causes coat colour variegation is described. Mo sup(N) arose in the second postirradiation generation after 2 x 200 R of X-rays (24 hours apart) to oocytes of X/O mice. Heterozygous Mo sup(N) females have irregular patches of fully and lightly coloured fur over the whole coat with curly vibrissae. Their viability is reduced, about 3% of the heterozygotes dying prenatally and 6 to 28% dying postnatally before weaning. Survivors are fertile without externally visible abnormalities. Hemizygous Mo sup(N) males die in utero after implantation. The recombination frequency between Mo sup(N) and tabby (Ta) was 3.65 +- 3.16% (with 95% -confidence limits). Therefore, it is suggested that Mo sup(N) is a new allele of the mottled (Mo) locus of the house mouse. Mo sup(N)-bearing ova seem to have a lower chance of becoming fertilized by wild-type spermatozoa than by Ta-bearing spermatozoa. (orig.) [de

  4. Improvement of Chrysanthemum var 'Taipei' Through In Vitro Induced Mutation with Chronic and Acute Gamma Rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamseejan, Siranut; Jompuk, Peeranuch; Deeseepan, Surin

    2003-01-01

    The project on chrysanthemum improvement by using radiation and in vitro culture technique was initiated. In vitro cultures of Taihei variety were irradiated with chronic gamma rays of 62.8 and 112 Gy. The irradiated shoots were multiplied three times from single-node cutting. M 1 V 4 shoots and control were rooted, transferred to soil in the greenhouse and finally transplanted in the field in September 2000. Mutation investigation was done at flowering time. Changes in flower color, form and size were observed only on the irradiated plants. The flower color mutation frequency among the plants treated with 62.8 and 112 Gy was 7.5% and 9.3%, respectively. Sixteen variants were selected from M 1 V 4 plants treated with gamma-ray of 62.8% Gy, and fourteen variants were selected from M 1 V 4 population treated with gamma-ray of 112 Gy. Shoots obtained from selected plants were cultured in vitro and then planted in the field in October 2001. By culturing purple florets from selected tall plant resulting from 62.8 Gy treatment, a new dwarf mutant was obtained. In another experiment involving culturing floret rays of a large orange flower mutant treated with gamma-ray of 112 Gy, a new small yellow flower mutant was produced. The experiment on in vitro culture acute irradiation was carried out using two different methods of irradiation. The first method, applying acute irradiation treatment with 20 and 30 Gy, resulted in color mutation frequency of 1.3% and 1.8% respectively. Another experiment on in vitro culture irradiation with acute 30 Gy delivered as split dose at first 20 Gy and then 10 Gy after 53 days, resulted in flower color mutant frequency of 8.6%. In the same way, acute 40 Gy treatment was delivered as split dose, at first 20 Gy and then followed by 20 Gy after 53 days this resulted in flower color mutation frequency of 10.9%. Investigation and evaluation of the mutant flowers were carried out with the help of ornamental growers from Chiang Rai and Chiang Mai

  5. Molecular, serological and biological variation among chickpea chlorotic stunt virus isolates from five countries of North Africa and West Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, A D; Menzel, W; Varrelmann, M; Vetten, H Josef

    2009-01-01

    Chickpea chlorotic stunt virus (CpCSV), a proposed new member of the genus Polerovirus (family Luteoviridae), has been reported only from Ethiopia. In attempts to determine the geographical distribution and variability of CpCSV, a pair of degenerate primers derived from conserved domains of the luteovirus coat protein (CP) gene was used for RT-PCR analysis of various legume samples originating from five countries and containing unidentified luteoviruses. Sequencing of the amplicons provided evidence for the occurrence of CpCSV also in Egypt, Morocco, Sudan, and Syria. Phylogenetic analysis of the CP nucleotide sequences of 18 samples from the five countries revealed the existence of two geographic groups of CpCSV isolates differing in CP sequences by 8-10%. Group I included isolates from Ethiopia and Sudan, while group II comprised those from Egypt, Morocco and Syria. For distinguishing these two groups, a simple RFLP test using HindIII and/or PvuII for cleavage of CP-gene-derived PCR products was developed. In ELISA and immunoelectron microscopy, however, isolates from these two groups could not be distinguished with rabbit antisera raised against a group-I isolate from Ethiopia (CpCSV-Eth) and a group-II isolate from Syria (CpCSV-Sy). Since none of the ten monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) that had been produced earlier against CpCSV-Eth reacted with group-II isolates, further MAbs were produced. Of the seven MAbs raised against CpCSV-Sy, two reacted only with CpCSV-Sy and two others with both CpCSV-Sy and -Eth. This indicated that there are group I- and II-specific and common (species-specific) epitopes on the CpCSV CP and that the corresponding MAbs are suitable for specific detection and discrimination of CpCSV isolates. Moreover, CpCSV-Sy (group II) caused more severe stunting and yellowing in faba bean than CpCSV-Eth (group I). In conclusion, our data indicate the existence of a geographically associated variation in the molecular, serological and presumably

  6. Generation of an infectious clone of a new Korean isolate of apple chlorotic leaf spot virus (ACLSV) driven by dual 35S and T7 promoters in a versatile binary vector

    Science.gov (United States)

    The full-length sequence of a new isolate of Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus (ACLSV) from Korea was divergent, but most closely related to the Japanese isolate A4, at 84% nucleotide identity. The full-length cDNA of the Korean isolate of ACLSV was cloned into a binary vector downstream of the bacter...

  7. First report of tomato chlorotic spot virus in non-solanaceous weeds erect spiderling (Boerhavia erecta) and asian spiderflower (Cleome viscosa), and sweet chili pepper (Capsicum chinense) in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomato chlorotic spot virus (TCSV) has recently been detected in tomato, bell pepper, jimsonweed and lettuce in Puerto Rico. Observations of weeds and additional crops in 2015 and 2016 revealed TCSV-like symptoms. Testing of these symptomatic plants identified three new hosts of TCSV in Puerto Ric...

  8. New Korean isolates of Pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV) differ in symptom severity and subcellular localization of the 126 kDa protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two isolates of Pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV) were selected from a nationwide survey of pepper fields in South Korea in 2014 and 2015, in which Cucumber mosaic virus was also detected; the two PMMoV isolates, Sangcheong 47 (S-47, KX399390) and Jeongsong 76 (J-76, KX399389), share ~99% nucleotide ...

  9. Rapid green synthesis of silver nanoparticles from Chrysanthemum indicum L and its antibacterial and cytotoxic effects: an in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arokiyaraj S

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Selvaraj Arokiyaraj,1 Mariadhas Valan Arasu,2 Savariar Vincent,3 Nyayirukannaian Udaya Prakash,4 Seong Ho Choi,5 Young-Kyoon Oh,1 Ki Choon Choi,2 Kyoung Hoon Kim1,61Department of Animal Nutrition and Physiology, National Institute of Animal Science, Rural Development Administration, Suwon, Republic of Korea; 2Grassland and Forage Division, National Institute of Animal Science, Rural Development Administration, Seonghwan-Eup, Cheonan-Si, Chungnam, Republic of Korea; 3Center for Environmental Research and Development, Loyola College, Chennai, India; 4Research and Development, Vel Tech Dr RR and Dr SR Technical University, Chennai, India; 5Department of Animal Science, Chungbuk National University, Chungbuk, Republic of Korea; 6Department of Animal Science, Seoul National University, Pyeongchang, Republic of KoreaAbstract: The present work reports a simple, cost-effective, and ecofriendly method for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs using Chrysanthemum indicum and its antibacterial and cytotoxic effects. The formation of AgNPs was confirmed by color change, and it was further characterized by ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy (435 nm. The phytochemical screening of C. indicum revealed the presence of flavonoids, terpenoids, and glycosides, suggesting that these compounds act as reducing and stabilizing agents. The crystalline nature of the synthesized particles was confirmed by X-ray diffraction, as they exhibited face-centered cubic symmetry. The size and morphology of the particles were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, which showed spherical shapes and sizes that ranged between 37.71–71.99 nm. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy documented the presence of silver. The antimicrobial effect of the synthesized AgNPs revealed a significant effect against the bacteria Klebsiella pneumonia, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Additionally, cytotoxic assays showed no toxicity of AgNPs toward 3T3 mouse embryo

  10. Biofortified red mottled beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. in a maize and bean diet provide more bioavailable iron than standard red mottled beans: Studies in poultry (Gallus gallus and an in vitro digestion/Caco-2 model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glahn Raymond P

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Our objective was to compare the capacities of biofortified and standard colored beans to deliver iron (Fe for hemoglobin synthesis. Two isolines of large-seeded, red mottled Andean beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L., one standard ("Low Fe" and the other biofortified ("High Fe" in Fe (49 and 71 μg Fe/g, respectively were used. This commercial class of red mottled beans is the preferred varietal type for most of the Caribbean and Eastern and Southern Africa where almost three quarters of a million hectares are grown. Therefore it is important to know the affect of biofortification of these beans on diets that simulate human feeding studies. Methods Maize-based diets containing the beans were formulated to meet the nutrient requirements for broiler except for Fe (Fe concentrations in the 2 diets were 42.9 ± 1.2 and 54.6 ± 0.9 mg/kg. One day old chicks (Gallus gallus were allocated to the experimental diets (n = 12. For 4 wk, hemoglobin, feed-consumption and body-weights were measured. Results Hemoglobin maintenance efficiencies (HME (means ± SEM were different between groups on days 14 and 21 of the experiment (P In-vitro analysis showed lower iron bioavailability in cells exposed to standard ("Low Fe" bean based diet. Conclusions We conclude that the in-vivo results support the in-vitro observations; biofortified colored beans contain more bioavailable-iron than standard colored beans. In addition, biofortified beans seems to be a promising vehicle for increasing intakes of bioavailable Fe in human populations that consume these beans as a dietary staple. This justifies further work on the large-seeded Andean beans which are the staple of a large-region of Africa where iron-deficiency anemia is a primary cause of infant death and poor health status.

  11. The Effects of Fungicide, Soil Fumigant, Bio-Organic Fertilizer and Their Combined Application on Chrysanthemum Fusarium Wilt Controlling, Soil Enzyme Activities and Microbial Properties

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    Shuang Zhao

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Sustained monoculture often leads to a decline in soil quality, in particular to the build-up of pathogen populations, a problem that is conventionally addressed by the use of either fungicide and/or soil fumigation. This practice is no longer considered to be either environmentally sustainable or safe. While the application of organic fertilizer is seen as a means of combating declining soil fertility, it has also been suggested as providing some control over certain soil-borne plant pathogens. Here, a greenhouse comparison was made of the Fusarium wilt control efficacy of various treatments given to a soil in which chrysanthemum had been produced continuously for many years. The treatments comprised the fungicide carbendazim (MBC, the soil fumigant dazomet (DAZ, the incorporation of a Paenibacillus polymyxa SQR21 (P. polymyxa SQR21, fungal antagonist enhanced bio-organic fertilizer (BOF, and applications of BOF combined with either MBC or DAZ. Data suggest that all the treatments evaluated show good control over Fusarium wilt. The MBC and DAZ treatments were effective in suppressing the disease, but led to significant decrease in urease activity and no enhancement of catalase activity in the rhizosphere soils. BOF including treatments showed significant enhancement in soil enzyme activities and microbial communities compared to the MBC and DAZ, evidenced by differences in bacterial/fungi (B/F ratios, Shannon–Wiener indexes and urease, catalase and sucrase activities in the rhizosphere soil of chrysanthemum. Of all the treatments evaluated, DAZ/BOF application not only greatly suppressed Fusarium wilt and enhanced soil enzyme activities and microbial communities but also promoted the quality of chrysanthemum obviously. Our findings suggest that combined BOF with DAZ could more effectively control Fusarium wilt disease of chrysanthemum.

  12. A note on outbreak of cowpea mild mottle virus (CPMMV) in common bean in the River Nile State, Sudan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamed, A. A.; Elkhair, J.; Elfaha, A.

    2010-01-01

    An outbreak of a devastating virus disease occurred in common ben (phaseolus vulgaris) in Berber area, the River Nile State, during the 2004/2005 cropping season, with symptoms of stunting and yellowing. The disease incidence reached a level of more than 85% in all visited fields. One hundred fifty symptomatic samples, collected from different fields at Hudeiba, Berber and Shendi were blotted on nitrocellulose membranes and tested for the presence of different viruses, using the tissue blot immunoassay (TBIA) technique. The results of the serological tests revealed that 95% of the samples were positive for cowpea mild mottle virus (CPMMV). Among the common bean genotypes screened for resistance to CPMMV, only RO/2/1 and Giza 3 were resistant to the disease.(Author)

  13. METODE PENAPISAN CABAI (CAPSICUM ANNUUM L. UNTUK KETAHANAN TERHADAP CHILLI VEINAL MOTTLE VIRUS (Chi VMV DAN CUCUMBER MOSAIC VIRUS (CMV

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    Latifah, Sri Hendrastuti Hidayat, dan Sriani Sujiprihati .

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Screening Method for Chilli Veinal Mottle Virus  (Chi VMV and Cucumber Mosaic Virus  (CMV Resistance in Chillipepper.  ChiVMV and CMV have been reported as the causal agents of main diseases in chillipepper in Indonesia and other Asian countries.  Mix infection of this two viruses was commonly occurred in the field, causing severe disease .  The use of resistance varieties has been proposed for dealing with the yield losses causing by  the viruses.  Breeding program is undergoing for development of chillipepper varieties resistant to ChiVMV and CMV.  Methodology for routine screening activity of chillipepper for resistance to both ChiVMV and CMV needs to be established. This research was conducted in Cikabayan Glass House and Plant Virology Laboratory, Plant Protection Department, Bogor Agricultural University from May 2006 to June 2007. Aim of the research was to develop screening method for simultaneous infection by the two viruses, ChiVMV and CMV.  Inoculation of ChiVMV and CMV was done by single inoculation or repetitive inoculation methods.  In both methods, ChiVMV and CMV were inoculated in different sequences, either ChiVMV or CMV first.  The result showed that incubation period was shorter when CMV was inoculated in advance both in single and repetitive inoculation method.  Mosaic, mottle and malformation type symptom was observed in infected plants. Based on disease incidence, infection of ChiVMV was higher compared to CMV in repetitive inoculation as well as in single inoculation.  Repetitive inoculation methods with virus sequence ChiVMV-CMV-ChiVMV-CMV  was selected for resistance evaluation of chillipepper genotypes.

  14. Studies on the O-specific polysaccharide of the lipopolysaccharide from the Pseudomonas mediterranea strain C5P1rad1, a bacterium pathogenic of tomato and chrysanthemum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zdorovenko, Evelina L; Cimmino, Alessio; Marchi, Guido; Shashkov, Alexander S; Fiori, Mario; Knirel, Yuriy A; Evidente, Antonio

    2017-08-07

    An O-specific polysaccharide (OPS) was isolated from the lipopolysaccharide of Pseudomonas mediterranea strain C5P1rad1, the causal agents of tomato pith necrosis and Chrysanthemum stem rot, and studied by one- and two-dimensional 1 H and 13 C NMR spectroscopy. The following structure of the trisaccharide repeating unit of the OPS was established, which, to our knowledge, is unique among the known bacterial polysaccharide structures: →4)-β-d-ManpNAc3NAcA-(1 → 4)-β-d-ManpNAc3NAcA-(1 → 3)-α-d-QuipNAc4NAc-(1→ where QuiNAc4NAc and ManNAc3NAcA indicate 2,4-diacetamido-2,4,6-trideoxyglucose and 2,3-diacetamido-2,3-dideoxymannuronic acid, respectively. Pre-treatment of leaves with LPS or OPS preparations at 250 and 50 μg mL -1 did not inhibit development of a hypersensitivity reaction induced by P. mediterranea C5P1rad1 on tobacco, tomato and chrysanthemum plants. The same preparations at 250 μg mL -1 partially prevented elicitation of the hypersensitivity reaction by Pseudomonas syringae KVPT7RC on chrysanthemum but not tobacco and tomato. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering spectra revealing the inter-cultivar differences for Chinese ornamental Flos Chrysanthemum: a new promising method for plant taxonomy

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    Heng Zhang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Flos Chrysanthemi, as a part of Chinese culture for a long history, is valuable for not only environmental decoration but also the medicine and food additive. Due to their voluminously various breeds and extensive distributions worldwide, it is burdensome to make recognition and classification among numerous cultivars with conventional methods which still rest on the level of morphologic observation and description. As a fingerprint spectrum for parsing molecular information, surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS could be a suitable candidate technique to characterize and distinguish the inter-cultivar differences at molecular level. Results SERS spectra were used to analyze the inter-cultivar differences among 26 cultivars of Chinese ornamental Flos Chrysanthemum. The characteristic peaks distribution patterns were abstracted from SERS spectra and varied from cultivars to cultivars. For the bands distributed in the pattern map, the similarities in general showed their commonality while in the finer scales, the deviations and especially the particular bands owned by few cultivars revealed their individualities. Since the Raman peaks could characterize specific chemical components, those diversity of patterns could indicate the inter-cultivar differences at the chemical level in fact. Conclusion In this paper, SERS technique is feasible for distinguishing the inter-cultivar differences among Flos Chrysanthemum. The Raman spectral library was built with SERS characteristic peak distribution patterns. A new method was proposed for Flos Chrysanthemum recognition and taxonomy.

  16. Rapid Genetic and Epigenetic Alterations under Intergeneric Genomic Shock in Newly Synthesized Chrysanthemum morifolium × Leucanthemum paludosum Hybrids (Asteraceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haibin; Jiang, Jiafu; Chen, Sumei; Qi, Xiangyu; Fang, Weimin; Guan, Zhiyong; Teng, Nianjun; Liao, Yuan; Chen, Fadi

    2014-01-01

    The Asteraceae family is at the forefront of the evolution due to frequent hybridization. Hybridization is associated with the induction of widespread genetic and epigenetic changes and has played an important role in the evolution of many plant taxa. We attempted the intergeneric cross Chrysanthemum morifolium × Leucanthemum paludosum. To obtain the success in cross, we have to turn to ovule rescue. DNA profiling of the amphihaploid and amphidiploid was investigated using amplified fragment length polymorphism, sequence-related amplified polymorphism, start codon targeted polymorphism, and methylation-sensitive amplification polymorphism (MSAP). Hybridization induced rapid changes at the genetic and the epigenetic levels. The genetic changes mainly involved loss of parental fragments and gaining of novel fragments, and some eliminated sequences possibly from the noncoding region of L. paludosum. The MSAP analysis indicated that the level of DNA methylation was lower in the amphiploid (∼45%) than in the parental lines (51.5–50.6%), whereas it increased after amphidiploid formation. Events associated with intergeneric genomic shock were a feature of C. morifolium × L. paludosum hybrid, given that the genetic relationship between the parental species is relatively distant. Our results provide genetic and epigenetic evidence for understanding genomic shock in wide crosses between species in Asteraceae and suggest a need to expand our current evolutionary framework to encompass a genetic/epigenetic dimension when seeking to understand wide crosses. PMID:24407856

  17. Rapid genetic and epigenetic alterations under intergeneric genomic shock in newly synthesized Chrysanthemum morifolium x Leucanthemum paludosum hybrids (Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haibin; Jiang, Jiafu; Chen, Sumei; Qi, Xiangyu; Fang, Weimin; Guan, Zhiyong; Teng, Nianjun; Liao, Yuan; Chen, Fadi

    2014-01-01

    The Asteraceae family is at the forefront of the evolution due to frequent hybridization. Hybridization is associated with the induction of widespread genetic and epigenetic changes and has played an important role in the evolution of many plant taxa. We attempted the intergeneric cross Chrysanthemum morifolium × Leucanthemum paludosum. To obtain the success in cross, we have to turn to ovule rescue. DNA profiling of the amphihaploid and amphidiploid was investigated using amplified fragment length polymorphism, sequence-related amplified polymorphism, start codon targeted polymorphism, and methylation-sensitive amplification polymorphism (MSAP). Hybridization induced rapid changes at the genetic and the epigenetic levels. The genetic changes mainly involved loss of parental fragments and gaining of novel fragments, and some eliminated sequences possibly from the noncoding region of L. paludosum. The MSAP analysis indicated that the level of DNA methylation was lower in the amphiploid (∼45%) than in the parental lines (51.5-50.6%), whereas it increased after amphidiploid formation. Events associated with intergeneric genomic shock were a feature of C. morifolium × L. paludosum hybrid, given that the genetic relationship between the parental species is relatively distant. Our results provide genetic and epigenetic evidence for understanding genomic shock in wide crosses between species in Asteraceae and suggest a need to expand our current evolutionary framework to encompass a genetic/epigenetic dimension when seeking to understand wide crosses.

  18. Aqueous Extract of Chrysanthemum morifolium Enhances the Antimelanogenic and Antioxidative Activities of the Mixture of Soy Peptide and Collagen Peptide

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    Min Gui

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The possible synergistic effect between the aqueous extract of Chrysanthemum morifolium (菊花 Jú Huā (AECM and the peptide mixture (PM containing soy peptide and collagen peptide was investigated in an ultraviolet (UV irradiation–induced skin damage mouse model. The irradiated mice were treated with the PM or PM+AECM (containing PM and AECM, respectively. Both PM and PM+AECM groups displayed an apparent photoprotective effect on the UV-irradiated skin damage of mice. Histological evaluation demonstrated that the epidermal hyperplasia and melanocytes in the basal epidermal layer of the UV-irradiated skin in mice decreased when treated with either PM or PM+AECM. Further study showed that soy peptide, collagen peptide, and AECM also inhibited the activities of mushroom tyrosinase with IC50 values of 82.3, 28.2, and 1.6 μg/ml, respectively. Additionally, PM+AECM reduced melanogenesis by 46.2% at the concentration of 10 mg/ml in B16 mouse melanoma cells. Meanwhile, the UV-induced increase of antioxidative indicators, including glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px, superoxide dismutase (SOD, and malondialdehyde (MDA, was reduced significantly after treatment with 1.83 g/kg/dbw of PM+AECM. This evidence supported the synergistic antioxidative effect of AECM with PM. These results demonstrated that oral intake of PM and AECM had synergistic antimelanogenic and antioxidative effects in UV-irradiated mice.

  19. Genetic signatures from amplification profiles characterize DNA mutation in somatic and radiation-induced sports of chrysanthemum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trigiano, R.N.; Scott, M.C.; Caetano-Anolles, G.

    1998-01-01

    The chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflora Tzvelev.) cultivars 'Dark Charm', 'Salmon Charm', 'Coral Charm' and 'Dark Bronze Charm' are either radiation-induced mutants or spontaneous sports of 'Charm' and constitute a family or series of plants that primarily differ in flower color. These cultivars, which were difficult to differentiate genetically by DNA amplification fingerprinting (DAF), were easily identified by using arbitrary signatures from amplification profiles (ASAP). Genomic DNA was first amplified with three standard octamer arbitrary primers, all of which produced monomorphic profiles. Products from each of these DNA fingerprints were subsequently reamplified using four minihairpin decamer primers. The 12 primer combinations produced signatures containing approximately 37% polymorphic character loci, which were used to estimate genetic relationships between cultivars. Forty-six (32%) unique amplification products were associated with individual cultivars. The number of ASAP polymorphisms detected provided an estimate of the mutation rate in the mutant cultivars, ranging from 0.03% to 1.6% of nucleotide changes within an average of 18 kb of arbitrary amplified DAF sequence. The ASAP technique permits the clear genetic identification of somatic mutants and radiation-induced sports that are genetically highly homogeneous and should facilitate marker assisted breeding and protection of plant breeders rights of varieties or cultivars

  20. Dual Effect of Chrysanthemum indicum Extract to Stimulate Osteoblast Differentiation and Inhibit Osteoclast Formation and Resorption In Vitro

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    Jong Min Baek

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The risk of bone-related diseases increases due to the imbalance between bone resorption and bone formation by osteoclasts and osteoblasts, respectively. The goal in the development of antiosteoporotic treatments is an agent that will improve bone through simultaneous osteoblast stimulation and osteoclast inhibition without undesirable side effects. To achieve this goal, numerous studies have been performed to identify novel approaches using natural oriental herbs to treat bone metabolic diseases. In the present study, we investigated the effect of Chrysanthemum indicum extract (CIE on the differentiation of osteoclastic and osteoblastic cells. CIE inhibited the formation of TRAP-positive mature osteoclasts and of filamentous-actin rings and disrupted the bone-resorbing activity of mature osteoclasts in a dose-dependent manner. CIE strongly inhibited Akt, GSK3β, and IκB phosphorylation in RANKL-stimulated bone marrow macrophages and did not show any effects on MAP kinases, including p38, ERK, and JNK. Interestingly, CIE also enhanced primary osteoblast differentiation via upregulation of the expression of alkaline phosphatase and the level of extracellular calcium concentrations during the early and terminal stages of differentiation, respectively. Our results revealed that CIE could have a potential therapeutic role in bone-related disorders through its dual effects on osteoclast and osteoblast differentiation.

  1. Rapid Development of Microsatellite Markers with 454 Pyrosequencing in a Vulnerable Fish, the Mottled Skate, Raja pulchra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jung-Ha; Park, Jung-Youn; Jo, Hyun-Su

    2012-01-01

    The mottled skate, Raja pulchra, is an economically valuable fish. However, due to a severe population decline, it is listed as a vulnerable species by the International Union for Conservation of Nature. To analyze its genetic structure and diversity, microsatellite markers were developed using 454 pyrosequencing. A total of 17,033 reads containing dinucleotide microsatellite repeat units (mean, 487 base pairs) were identified from 453,549 reads. Among 32 loci containing more than nine repeat units, 20 primer sets (62%) produced strong PCR products, of which 14 were polymorphic. In an analysis of 60 individuals from two R. pulchra populations, the number of alleles per locus ranged from 1–10, and the mean allelic richness was 4.7. No linkage disequilibrium was found between any pair of loci, indicating that the markers were independent. The Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium test showed significant deviation in two of the 28 single-loci after sequential Bonferroni’s correction. Using 11 primer sets, cross-species amplification was demonstrated in nine related species from four families within two classes. Among the 11 loci amplified from three other Rajidae family species; three loci were polymorphic. A monomorphic locus was amplified in all three Rajidae family species and the Dasyatidae family. Two Rajidae polymorphic loci amplified monomorphic target DNAs in four species belonging to the Carcharhiniformes class, and another was polymorphic in two Carcharhiniformes species. PMID:22837688

  2. Rapid development of microsatellite markers with 454 pyrosequencing in a vulnerable fish, the mottled skate, Raja pulchra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jung-Ha; Park, Jung-Youn; Jo, Hyun-Su

    2012-01-01

    The mottled skate, Raja pulchra, is an economically valuable fish. However, due to a severe population decline, it is listed as a vulnerable species by the International Union for Conservation of Nature. To analyze its genetic structure and diversity, microsatellite markers were developed using 454 pyrosequencing. A total of 17,033 reads containing dinucleotide microsatellite repeat units (mean, 487 base pairs) were identified from 453,549 reads. Among 32 loci containing more than nine repeat units, 20 primer sets (62%) produced strong PCR products, of which 14 were polymorphic. In an analysis of 60 individuals from two R. pulchra populations, the number of alleles per locus ranged from 1-10, and the mean allelic richness was 4.7. No linkage disequilibrium was found between any pair of loci, indicating that the markers were independent. The Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium test showed significant deviation in two of the 28 single-loci after sequential Bonferroni's correction. Using 11 primer sets, cross-species amplification was demonstrated in nine related species from four families within two classes. Among the 11 loci amplified from three other Rajidae family species; three loci were polymorphic. A monomorphic locus was amplified in all three Rajidae family species and the Dasyatidae family. Two Rajidae polymorphic loci amplified monomorphic target DNAs in four species belonging to the Carcharhiniformes class, and another was polymorphic in two Carcharhiniformes species.

  3. The 42-kDa coat protein of Andean potato mottle virus acts as a transcriptional activator in yeast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidal M.S.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Interactions of viral proteins play an important role in the virus life cycle, especially in capsid assembly. Andean potato mottle comovirus (APMoV is a plant RNA virus with a virion formed by two coat proteins (CP42 and CP22. Both APMoV coat protein open reading frames were cloned into pGBT9 and pGAD10, two-hybrid system vectors. HF7c yeast cells transformed with the p9CP42 construct grew on yeast dropout selection media lacking tryptophan and histidine. Clones also exhibited ß-galactosidase activity in both qualitative and quantitative assays. These results suggest that CP42 protein contains an amino acid motif able to activate transcription of His3 and lacZ reporter genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Several deletions of the CP42 gene were cloned into the pGBT9 vector to locate the region involved in this activation. CP42 constructions lacking 12 residues from the C-terminal region and another one with 267 residues deleted from the N-terminus are still able to activate transcription of reporter genes. However, transcription activation was not observed with construction p9CP42deltaC57, which does not contain the last 57 amino acid residues. These results demonstrate that a transcription activation domain is present at the C-terminus of CP42 between residues 267 and 374.

  4. Transcriptome analysis of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) fruits in response to Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV) infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaodong; An, Mengnan; Xia, Zihao; Bai, Xiaojiao; Wu, Yuanhua

    2017-12-01

    Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV) belongs to the Tobamovirus genus and is a major global plant virus on cucurbit plants. It causes severe disease symptoms on infected watermelon plants (Citrullus lanatus), particularly inducing fruit decay. However, little is known about the molecular mechanism of CGMMV-induced watermelon fruit decay. For this study, comparative analysis of transcriptome profiles of CGMMV-inoculated and mock-inoculated watermelon fruits were conducted via RNA-Seq. A total of 1,621 differently expressed genes (DEGs) were identified in CGMMV-inoculated watermelon, among which 1,052 were up-regulated and 569 were down-regulated. Functional annotation analysis showed that several DEGs were involved in carbohydrate metabolism, hormone biosynthesis and signaling transduction, secondary metabolites biosynthesis, and plant-pathogen interactions. We furthermore found that some DEGs were related to cell wall components and photosynthesis, which may directly be involve in the development of the symptoms associated with diseased watermelons. To confirm the RNA-Seq data, 15 DEGs were selected for gene expression analysis by qRT-PCR. The results showed a strong correlation between these two sets of data. Our study identified many candidate genes for further functional studies during CGMMV-watermelon interactions, and will furthermore help to clarify the understanding of pathogenic mechanism underlying CGMMV infection in cucurbit plants.

  5. Occurrence of Squash yellow mild mottle virus and Pepper golden mosaic virus in Potential New Hosts in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Ruth M; Moreira, Lisela; Rojas, María R; Gilbertson, Robert L; Hernández, Eduardo; Mora, Floribeth; Ramírez, Pilar

    2013-09-01

    Leaf samples of Solanum lycopersicum, Capsicum annuum, Cucurbita moschata, Cucurbita pepo, Sechium edule and Erythrina spp. were collected. All samples were positive for begomoviruses using polymerase chain reaction and degenerate primers. A sequence of ∼1,100 bp was obtained from the genomic component DNA-A of 14 samples. In addition, one sequence of ∼580 bp corresponding to the coat protein (AV1) was obtained from a chayote (S. edule) leaf sample. The presence of Squash yellow mild mottle virus (SYMMoV) and Pepper golden mosaic virus (PepGMV) were confirmed. The host range reported for SYMMoV includes species of the Cucurbitaceae, Caricaceae and Fabaceae families. This report extends the host range of SYMMoV to include the Solanaceae family, and extends the host range of PepGMV to include C. moschata, C. pepo and the Fabaceae Erythrina spp. This is the first report of a begomovirus (PepGMV) infecting chayote in the Western Hemisphere.

  6. Occurrence of Squash yellow mild mottle virus and Pepper golden mosaic virus in Potential New Hosts in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth M. Castro

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Leaf samples of Solanum lycopersicum, Capsicum annuum, Cucurbita moschata, Cucurbita pepo, Sechium edule and Erythrina spp. were collected. All samples were positive for begomoviruses using polymerase chain reaction and degenerate primers. A sequence of ∼1,100 bp was obtained from the genomic component DNA-A of 14 samples. In addition, one sequence of ∼580 bp corresponding to the coat protein (AV1 was obtained from a chayote (S. edule leaf sample. The presence of Squash yellow mild mottle virus (SYMMoV and Pepper golden mosaic virus (PepGMV were confirmed. The host range reported for SYMMoV includes species of the Cucurbitaceae, Caricaceae and Fabaceae families. This report extends the host range of SYMMoV to include the Solanaceae family, and extends the host range of PepGMV to include C. moschata, C. pepo and the Fabaceae Erythrina spp. This is the first report of a begomovirus (PepGMV infecting chayote in the Western Hemisphere.

  7. Management of chimera and in vitro mutagenesis for development of new flower color/shape and chlorophyll variegated mutants in chrysanthemum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Datta, S.K. [CSIR, Madhyamgram Experimental Farm, Bose Institute, Kolkata (India)], E-mail: subodhskdatta@rediffmail.com; Chakrabarty, D [Floriculture Laboratory, National Botanical Research Institute, Lucknow (India)

    2008-07-01

    Induced mutagenesis has played a major role in the development of many new flower color/shape mutant varieties in ornamentals. The main bottleneck with vegetatively propagated plants is that the mutation appears as a chimera whether developed through bud sport or through induced mutation. The size of the mutant sector varies from a narrow streak on a petal to the entire flower and from a portion of a branch to the entire branch. When a portion of a branch or entire branch is mutated, the mutant tissue can be isolated; on the other hand, a small sector of a mutated branch or flower cannot be isolated using the available conventional propagation techniques. A novel technique has been standardized in our laboratory for the management of chimeric tissues through direct shoot regeneration from chrysanthemum florets. 'Kasturba Gandhi', a large white flowered chrysanthemum, developed few chimeric yellow florets due to spontaneous mutation. Using in vitro protocol new yellow florets were established in pure form. In vitro mutagenesis experiments were conducted treating ray florets of chrysanthemum cultivars using gamma rays. Induced chimeric yellow, white, light yellow, light mauve and dark mauve floret color sectors and chlorophyll variegation in leaves of cv. 'Maghi' (with mauve floret and green leaves) have been established in pure form. Gamma ray induced sectorial yellow florets of cv. 'Lilith' (white floret) and yellow ray florets in both the cvs. 'Purnima' (with white florets) and 'Colchi Bahar' (with red florets) have been isolated in pure form through in vitro management. Induced sectorial flower color/shape mutations in cvs. 'Puja', 'Lalima', 'Flirt', 'Maghi' and 'Sunil' have been isolated in pure form through in vitro culture. Gamma radiation procedure and tissue culture techniques have been optimized to regenerate plants from stem internodes, stem node, shoot tip and ray florets. Present technique has opened a new way for isolating new flower color

  8. Rosette growth of shoots in chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflora Tzvelev) as a result of in vitro propagation of plants and gamma irradiation used for mutation induction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jerzy, M.; Zalewska, M.; Lema, J.

    1999-01-01

    Rosette growth of chrysanthemum shoots in 'Mrs. R.C. Puling' was observed after in vitro propagation with explants obtained from vernalised and non-vernalised stock plants. The phenomenon was also observed as a result of the exposure of leaf explants to gamma radiation used for in vitro regeneration of plants in mutation induction. The higher the irradiation dose, the more considerable the rosette growth. Following the 4th pinching of shoot tips, only elongating growth of plants was observed

  9. Reconocimiento y dispersión de hongos causantes del "picamento" (Rayspeck en crisantemo (Chrysanthemum morifolium ram en condiciones de invernadero

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Arturo Baquero

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available The recongnition of the fungi causing ray speck and their dispersion in chrysantemum (Chrysanthemum morifolium RAM cv. Polaris, was carried out under greenhouse conditions. Three speciea were identified: Alternaria alternata (FR Keiasler, Alternaria zinniae Ellis, Stemphylium botryosum, Wallroth lPleospora herbarum Raben Horst. The analysis ofthe disease dispersion was based on a random deaign with three repetitions. The number of coloniea, the temperature and relative humidity were evaluated in four different placea of the culture. The temperature was found to be the most important factor afecting the production and releaSe of conidia. The sporulation reached ita peak at noon (21°C.

  10. Detection of Cucurbit chlorotic yellows virus from Bemisia tabaci captured on sticky traps using reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) and simple template preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuda, Mitsuru; Okuda, Shiori; Iwai, Hisashi

    2015-09-01

    Cucurbit chlorotic yellows virus (CCYV) of the genus Crinivirus within the family Closteroviridae is an emerging infectious agent of cucurbits leading to severe disease and significant economic losses. Effective detection and identification methods for this virus are urgently required. In this study, a reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) assay was developed to detect CCYV from its vector Bemisia tabaci. LAMP primer sets to detect CCYV were evaluated for their sensitivity and specificity, and a primer set designed from the HSP70h gene with corresponding loop primers were selected. The RT-LAMP assay was applied to detect CCYV from viruliferous B. tabaci trapped on sticky traps. A simple extraction procedure using RNAsecure™ was developed for template preparation. CCYV was detected in all of the B. tabaci 0, 1, 7 and 14 days after they were trapped. Although the rise of turbidity was delayed in reactions using RNA from B. tabaci trapped for 7 and 14 days compared with those from 0 and 1 day, the DNA amplification was sufficient to detect CCYV in all of the samples. These findings therefore present a simple template preparation method and an effective RT-LAMP assay, which can be easily and rapidly performed to monitor CCYV-viruliferous B. tabaci in the field. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Biología del Trips Frankliniella Occidentalis (Pegande (Thysanoptera: thripidae sobre Crisantemo Chrysanthemum morifolium l. bajo condiciones de laboratorio Developmentaland reproductive biology of Frankliniella Occidentslis (Pegande (Thysanoptera: thripidae on Chrysanthemum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cardenas Estrella

    1989-12-01

    Full Text Available La especie Frankliniella occidentalis (Pegande se encontró causando daño a flores de crisantemo en una empresa de la
    Sabana de Bogotá. Se estudió su biología bajo condiciones de laboratorio (24,31 ± 2,50C y 66,36 ± 12% H.R.. El rango de
    duración en días de su ciclo de vida fue: huevo 4-5, ninfa de primer instar 3-4, ninfa de segundo instar 5-8, prepupa 4-6, pupa 3-5 y los adultos alcanzaron una longevidad entre 60 y 121 días. Esta especie presentó partenogénesis de tipo arrenotoquia; de las hembras fecundadas se obtuvo una generación
    de 87,5% hembras y 12% machos. La fecundidad por partenogénesis fue de 325,7 huevos por hembra y la sexual de
    303,1 huevos por hembra.F. occidentelis (Pegande was found to be an important pest in chrysanthemum green houses at the Bogotá Plateau.
    We studied its biology under lab conditions (24 ± 2.50C and 66 ± 12% R.H.. Its life cycle was egg 4-5 days, first instar nymph 3-4 days, second instar nymph 5-3 day prepupa 4-6 days, pupa 3-5 days and the adults had a longevity between 60 and 121
    days. Females reproduce by parthenogenesis (Arrhenotoky in the absence of males. Fertilized females produced 87.5% females and 12% males. Fecundity of parthenogenetic females was 325.7 eggs per female. Fecundity of sexually reproduced females was 303.1 eggs per female.

  12. Inhibitory Effects of Chrysanthemum boreale Essential Oil on Biofilm Formation and Virulence Factor Expression of Streptococcus mutans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Beom-Su; Park, Sun-Ju; Kim, Myung-Kon; Kim, Young-Hoi; Lee, Sang-Bong; Lee, Kwang-Hee; Lee, Young-Rae; Lee, Young-Eun; You, Yong-Ouk

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the antibacterial activity of essential oil extracted from Chrysanthemum boreale (C. boreale) on Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans). To investigate anticariogenic properties, and bacterial growth, acid production, biofilm formation, bacterial adherence of S. mutans were evaluated. Then gene expression of several virulence factors was also evaluated. C. boreale essential oil exhibited significant inhibition of bacterial growth, adherence capacity, and acid production of S. mutans at concentrations 0.1–0.5 mg/mL and 0.25–0.5 mg/mL, respectively. The safranin staining and scanning electron microscopy results showed that the biofilm formation was also inhibited. The result of live/dead staining showed the bactericidal effect. Furthermore, real-time PCR analysis showed that the gene expression of some virulence factors such as gtfB, gtfC, gtfD, gbpB, spaP, brpA, relA, and vicR of S. mutans was significantly decreased in a dose dependent manner. In GC and GC-MS analysis, seventy-two compounds were identified in the oil, representing 85.42% of the total oil. The major components were camphor (20.89%), β-caryophyllene (5.71%), α-thujone (5.46%), piperitone (5.27%), epi-sesquiphellandrene (5.16%), α-pinene (4.97%), 1,8-cineole (4.52%), β-pinene (4.45%), and camphene (4.19%). These results suggest that C. boreale essential oil may inhibit growth, adhesion, acid tolerance, and biofilm formation of S. mutans through the partial inhibition of several of these virulence factors. PMID:25763094

  13. Essential oils and crude extracts from Chrysanthemum trifurcatum leaves, stems and roots: chemical composition and antibacterial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassi, Ahlem Ben; Skhiri, Fethia Harzallah; Chraief, Imed; Bourgougnon, Nathalie; Hammami, Mohamed; Aouni, Mahjoub

    2014-01-01

    The essential oils from the leaves, stems and roots of Chrysanthemum trifurcatum (Desf.) Batt. and Trab. var. macrocephalum (viv.) were obtained by hydrodistillation and their chemical compositions were analysed by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), in order to get insight into similarities and differences as to their active composition. A total of fifty compounds were identified, constituting 97.84%, 99.02% and 98.20% of total oil composition of the leaves, stems and roots, respectively. Monoterpene hydrocarbons were shown to be the main group of constituents of the leaves and stems parts in the ratio of 67.88% and 51.29%, respectively. But, the major group in the roots oil was found to be sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (70.30%). The main compounds in leaves oil were limonene (26.83%), γ-terpinene (19.68%), α-pinene (9.7%) and α-terpenyl acetate (7.16%). The stems oil, contains mainly limonene (32.91%), 4-terpenyl acetate (16.33%) and γ-terpinene (5.93%), whereas the main compounds in roots oil were α-calacorene (25.98%), α-cedrene (16.55%), β-bourbobene (14.91%), elemol (7.45%) and 2-hexenal (6.88%). The crude organic extracts of leaves, stems and roots, obtained by maceration with solvents of increasing polarity: petroleum ether, ethyl acetate and methanol, contained tannins, flavonoids and alkaloids. Meanwhile, essential oils and organic extracts were tested for antibacterial activities against eight Gram-positive and Gram-negative strains, using a microdilution method. The oil and methanolic extact from C. trifurcatum leaves showed a great potential of antibacterial effect against Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus epidermidis, with an IC50 range of 31.25-62.5 µg/ml.

  14. Digestion of chrysanthemum stunt viroid by leaf extracts of Capsicum chinense indicates strong RNA-digesting activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iraklis, Boubourakas; Kanda, Hiroko; Nabeshima, Tomoyuki; Onda, Mayu; Ota, Nao; Koeda, Sota; Hosokawa, Munetaka

    2016-08-01

    CSVd could not infect Nicotiana benthamiana when the plants were pretreated with crude leaf extract of Capsicum chinense 'Sy-2'. C. chinense leaves were revealed to contain strong RNA-digesting activity. Several studies have identified active antiviral and antiviroid agents in plants. Capsicum plants are known to contain antiviral agents, but the mechanism of their activity has not been determined. We aimed to elucidate the mechanism of Capsicum extract's antiviroid activity. Chrysanthemum stunt viroid (CSVd) was inoculated into Nicotiana benthamiana plants before or after treating the plants with a leaf extract of Capsicum chinense 'Sy-2'. CSVd infection was determined using quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) 3 weeks after inoculation. When Capsicum extract was sprayed or painted onto N. benthamiana before inoculation, it was effective in preventing infection by CSVd. To evaluate CSVd digestion activity in leaf extracts, CSVd was mixed with leaf extracts of Mirabilis, Phytolacca, Pelargonium and Capsicum. CSVd-digesting activities were examined by quantifying undigested CSVd using qRT-PCR, and RNA gel blotting permitted visualization of the digested CSVd. Only Capsicum leaf extract digested CSVd, and in the Capsicum treatment, small digested CSVd products were detected by RNA gel blot analysis. When the digesting experiment was performed for various cultivars and species of Capsicum, only cultivars of C. chinense showed strong CSVd-digesting activity. Our observations indicated that Capsicum extract contains strong RNA-digesting activity, leading to the conclusion that this activity is the main mechanism for protection from infection by CSVd through spraying or painting before inoculation. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a strong RNA-digesting activity by a plant extract.

  15. Inhibitory Effects of Chrysanthemum boreale Essential Oil on Biofilm Formation and Virulence Factor Expression of Streptococcus mutans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beom-Su Kim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the antibacterial activity of essential oil extracted from Chrysanthemum boreale (C. boreale on Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans. To investigate anticariogenic properties, and bacterial growth, acid production, biofilm formation, bacterial adherence of S. mutans were evaluated. Then gene expression of several virulence factors was also evaluated. C. boreale essential oil exhibited significant inhibition of bacterial growth, adherence capacity, and acid production of S. mutans at concentrations 0.1–0.5 mg/mL and 0.25–0.5 mg/mL, respectively. The safranin staining and scanning electron microscopy results showed that the biofilm formation was also inhibited. The result of live/dead staining showed the bactericidal effect. Furthermore, real-time PCR analysis showed that the gene expression of some virulence factors such as gtfB, gtfC, gtfD, gbpB, spaP, brpA, relA, and vicR of S. mutans was significantly decreased in a dose dependent manner. In GC and GC-MS analysis, seventy-two compounds were identified in the oil, representing 85.42% of the total oil. The major components were camphor (20.89%, β-caryophyllene (5.71%, α-thujone (5.46%, piperitone (5.27%, epi-sesquiphellandrene (5.16%, α-pinene (4.97%, 1,8-cineole (4.52%, β-pinene (4.45%, and camphene (4.19%. These results suggest that C. boreale essential oil may inhibit growth, adhesion, acid tolerance, and biofilm formation of S. mutans through the partial inhibition of several of these virulence factors.

  16. Two Novel Motifs of Watermelon Silver Mottle Virus NSs Protein Are Responsible for RNA Silencing Suppression and Pathogenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chung-Hao; Hsiao, Weng-Rong; Huang, Ching-Wen; Chen, Kuan-Chun; Lin, Shih-Shun; Chen, Tsung-Chi; Raja, Joseph A J; Wu, Hui-Wen; Yeh, Shyi-Dong

    2015-01-01

    The NSs protein of Watermelon silver mottle virus (WSMoV) is the RNA silencing suppressor and pathogenicity determinant. In this study, serial deletion and point-mutation mutagenesis of conserved regions (CR) of NSs protein were performed, and the silencing suppression function was analyzed through agroinfiltration in Nicotiana benthamiana plants. We found two amino acid (aa) residues, H113 and Y398, are novel functional residues for RNA silencing suppression. Our further analyses demonstrated that H113 at the common epitope (CE) ((109)KFTMHNQ(117)), which is highly conserved in Asia type tospoviruses, and the benzene ring of Y398 at the C-terminal β-sheet motif ((397)IYFL(400)) affect NSs mRNA stability and protein stability, respectively, and are thus critical for NSs RNA silencing suppression. Additionally, protein expression of other six deleted (ΔCR1-ΔCR6) and five point-mutated (Y15A, Y27A, G180A, R181A and R212A) mutants were hampered and their silencing suppression ability was abolished. The accumulation of the mutant mRNAs and proteins, except Y398A, could be rescued or enhanced by co-infiltration with potyviral suppressor HC-Pro. When assayed with the attenuated Zucchini yellow mosaic virus vector in squash plants, the recombinants carrying individual seven point-mutated NSs proteins displayed symptoms much milder than the recombinant carrying the wild type NSs protein, suggesting that these aa residues also affect viral pathogenicity by suppressing the host silencing mechanism.

  17. Effect of Plant Growth Regulators on a Shoot and Root Formation from the Leaf and Flower Culture of a Standard-type Chrysanthemum 'Jinba'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.S.; Lee, G.J.; Chung, S.J.; Kim, J.B.; Kim, D.S.; Kang, S.Y.

    2008-01-01

    In this study we investigated the conditions of a higher frequency for regenerated plants from different explants of a standard-type chrysanthemum 'Jinba'. In vitro culture was initiated on an MS medium containing 3% sucrose, 0.8% agar, and 5 μM benzyl adenine (BA) with naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) by using surface-sterilized leaf and flower tissues from greenhouse-grown plants. Direct shoot regeneration from the leaf and flower explants was obtained 21 to 28 days after the initial culture. Among the seven combinations of the growth regulators used for the culture, the most efficient condition for the shoot and root formation from the leaf tissue was obtained when the MS basic medium was supplemented with 0.5 mg L-¹ BA and 1.0 mg L-¹ NAA, and 0.1 mg L-¹ BA and 0.5 mg L-¹ NAA, while the culture using floret tissues was most efficient on the medium supplemented with 0.5 mg L-¹ BA and 0.5 mg L-¹ NAA, and 0.1 mg L-¹ BA and 1.0 mg L-¹ NAA. These results will provide valuable information to help set up an efficient system for a tissue culture of chrysanthemum cv. Jinba to improve one or some of its negative traits in combination with a radiation mutagenesis approach

  18. Characterization of in vitro haploid and doubled haploid Chrysanthemum morifolium plants via unfertilized ovule culture for phenotypical traits and DNA methylation pattern.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haibin eWang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Chrysanthemum is one of important ornamental species in the world. Its highly heterozygous state complicates molecular analysis, so it is of interest to derive haploid forms. A total of 2,579 non-fertilized chrysanthemum ovules pollinated by Argyranthemum frutescens were cultured in vitro to isolate haploid progeny. One single regenerant emerged from each of three of the 105 calli produced. Chromosome counts and microsatellite fingerprinting showed that only one of the regenerants was a true haploid. Nine doubled haploid derivatives were subsequently generated by colchicine treatment of 80 in vitro cultured haploid nodal segments. Morphological screening showed that the haploid plant was shorter than the doubled haploids, and developed smaller leaves, flowers and stomata. An in vitro pollen germination test showed that few of the haploid's pollen were able to germinate and those which did so were abnormal. Both the haploid and the doubled haploids produced yellow flowers, whereas those of the maternal parental cultivar were mauve. Methylation-sensitive amplification polymorphism (MSAP profiling was further used to detect alterations in cytosine methylation caused by the haploidization and/or the chromosome doubling processes. While 52.2% of the resulting amplified fragments were cytosine methylated in the maternal parent's genome, the corresponding proportions for the haploid's and doubled haploids' genomes were, respectively, 47.0% and 51.7%, demonstrating a reduction in global cytosine methylation caused by haploidization and a partial recovery following chromosome doubling.

  19. The effect of chrysanthemum leaf trichome density and prey spatial distribution on predation of Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae) by Phytoseiulus persimilis (Acari: Phytoseiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skirvin, D J; Stavrinides, M C; Skirvin, D J

    2003-08-01

    The effect of plant architecture, in terms of leaf hairiness, and prey spatial arrangement, on predation rate of eggs of the spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch, by the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot was examined on cut stems of chrysanthemums. Three levels of leaf hairiness (trichome density) were obtained using two different chrysanthemum cultivars and two ages within one of the cultivars. The number of prey consumed by P. persimilis was inversely related to trichome density. At low prey densities (less than ten eggs per stem), prey consumption did not differ in a biologically meaningful way between treatments. The effect of prey spatial arrangement on the predation rate of P. persimilis was also examined. Predation rates were higher in prey patches on leaves adjacent to the release point of P. persimilis, but significantly greater numbers of prey were consumed in higher density prey patches compared to low density patches. The predators exhibited non-random searching behaviour, spending more time on leaves closest to the release point. The implications of these findings for biological control and predator-prey dynamics are discussed.

  20. Combined effect of gamma irradiation methods and in vitro explant sources on mutation induction of flower color in Chrysanthemum morifoliun Ramat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagatomi, Shigeki; Miyahira, Eiken; Degi, Konosuke

    1997-01-01

    Effective radiation breeding method was searched by establishing an effective exposure method to induce a mutation involved in flower color of chrysanthemum and clarifying the effects of its combined use with cultured explants. A chrysanthemum 'Taihei', a variety suitable for cut-flower use was used as the subject, which was irradiated at a dose ranging from 0.25-1.5 Gy/day for 20 days. The floral petals, buds and leaves were used as the explants for callus induction culture. The flower color was evaluated using Japanese Standard Color chart for Horticultural Plants. The color spectrum of the adaxial surface of a petal was recorded by spectro-photometer TC-1800 MK-2. Thus, six mutants of flower color were registered as new varieties. Either of these mutants was derived from chronic irradiation. Three varieties from petal culture, two from bud one and one from cutting culture were obtained, showing that the combined method of chronic irradiation and organ culture is useful in practice for mutation breeding of flower species. Further, this method is applicable for production of non-chimeric mutants, enhancement of the mutation rate and widening the mutation spectra in vegetatively propagated plants. (M.N.)

  1. Rational use of electrical energy in artificial light in the production of chrysanthemum seedlings in greenhouse; Uso racional de energia eletrica em iluminacao artificial na producao de mudas de crisantemo em ambiente protegido

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David, Eduardo [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (FEA/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Agricola], e-mail: eduardo.david@gr.unicamp.br; Rossi, Luiz Antonio [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (DEA/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Agricola], e-mail: rossi@agr.unicamp.br

    2008-07-01

    The type of artificial illumination employed for chrysanthemum cultivation in greenhouses to induce photo period effect will determine its growing rate as well as the energy consumption. Incandescent filament is currently employed for artificial illumination in chrysanthemum nursery to induce photo period effect. Nowadays new illumination technology is being tested aiming energy consumption reduction. The application of illumination based on electrical discharge in sodium or mercury vapor, as well as tubular or integrated compact fluorescent bulbs in chrysanthemum cultivation is identified as the objective of this research work. The experimental part of this work was carried out in a commercial greenhouse model employing five chrysanthemum variety as Papiro, Lindy White, Mona Lisa Rose, Euro Speedy and Stateman during winter and summer period. Parameters employed to the study variety behavior included: production per area, fresh matter weight, presence of flower sprouts and moisture content. The parameters known as electrical variables, like consumption, demand and power factor, together with the treatment energy efficiency index were used to analyze the employed illumination technologies and light bulbs type. Results showed differences between weight of fresh flowers and moisture content for the flowers variety under consideration. Productivity per unit area was noticed to be larger for discharge technology when compared with filament bulbs, for both varieties being tested. The lowest flower sprout occurrence was associated to the discharge technology with the exception of the variety Stateman produced with incandescent bulbs of 100 W in the winter plot. The unique exception related to discharge technology was associated to the White 23 W Integrated Compact Fluorescent bulb yielding 2.4% of flower sprouts compared with 0% of other bulb types associated to the production of the variety Euro Speedy. It was noticed from the results that the yellow integrated compact

  2. Hibiscus Chlorotic Ringspot Virus Coat Protein Is Essential for Cell-to-Cell and Long-Distance Movement but Not for Viral RNA Replication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Shengniao; Gil-Salas, Francisco M.; Tewary, Sunil Kumar; Samales, Ashwin Kuppusamy; Johnson, John; Swaminathan, Kunchithapadam; Wong, Sek-Man

    2014-01-01

    Hibiscus chlorotic ringspot virus (HCRSV) is a member of the genus Carmovirus in the family Tombusviridae. In order to study its coat protein (CP) functions on virus replication and movement in kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.), two HCRSV mutants, designated as p2590 (A to G) in which the first start codon ATG was replaced with GTG and p2776 (C to G) in which proline 63 was replaced with alanine, were constructed. In vitro transcripts of p2590 (A to G) were able to replicate to a similar level as wild type without CP expression in kenaf protoplasts. However, its cell-to-cell movement was not detected in the inoculated kenaf cotyledons. Structurally the proline 63 in subunit C acts as a kink for β-annulus formation during virion assembly. Progeny of transcripts derived from p2776 (C to G) was able to move from cell-to-cell in inoculated cotyledons but its long-distance movement was not detected. Virions were not observed in partially purified mutant virus samples isolated from 2776 (C to G) inoculated cotyledons. Removal of the N-terminal 77 amino acids of HCRSV CP by trypsin digestion of purified wild type HCRSV virions resulted in only T = 1 empty virus-like particles. Taken together, HCRSV CP is dispensable for viral RNA replication but essential for cell-to-cell movement, and virion is required for the virus systemic movement. The proline 63 is crucial for HCRSV virion assembly in kenaf plants and the N-terminal 77 amino acids including the β-annulus domain is required in T = 3 assembly in vitro. PMID:25402344

  3. Hibiscus chlorotic ringspot virus coat protein is essential for cell-to-cell and long-distance movement but not for viral RNA replication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengniao Niu

    Full Text Available Hibiscus chlorotic ringspot virus (HCRSV is a member of the genus Carmovirus in the family Tombusviridae. In order to study its coat protein (CP functions on virus replication and movement in kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L., two HCRSV mutants, designated as p2590 (A to G in which the first start codon ATG was replaced with GTG and p2776 (C to G in which proline 63 was replaced with alanine, were constructed. In vitro transcripts of p2590 (A to G were able to replicate to a similar level as wild type without CP expression in kenaf protoplasts. However, its cell-to-cell movement was not detected in the inoculated kenaf cotyledons. Structurally the proline 63 in subunit C acts as a kink for β-annulus formation during virion assembly. Progeny of transcripts derived from p2776 (C to G was able to move from cell-to-cell in inoculated cotyledons but its long-distance movement was not detected. Virions were not observed in partially purified mutant virus samples isolated from 2776 (C to G inoculated cotyledons. Removal of the N-terminal 77 amino acids of HCRSV CP by trypsin digestion of purified wild type HCRSV virions resulted in only T = 1 empty virus-like particles. Taken together, HCRSV CP is dispensable for viral RNA replication but essential for cell-to-cell movement, and virion is required for the virus systemic movement. The proline 63 is crucial for HCRSV virion assembly in kenaf plants and the N-terminal 77 amino acids including the β-annulus domain is required in T = 3 assembly in vitro.

  4. Comparison of antioxidant activities of different parts from snow chrysanthemum (Coreopsis tinctoria Nutt.) and identification of their natural antioxidants using high performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detection and mass spectrometry and 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-sulfonic acid)diammonium salt-based assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, L X; Hu, D J; Lam, S C; Ge, L; Wu, D; Zhao, J; Long, Z R; Yang, W J; Fan, B; Li, S P

    2016-01-08

    Snow chrysanthemum (Coreopsis tinctoria Nutt.), a world-widely well-known flower tea material, has attracted more and more attention because of its beneficial health effects such as antioxidant activity and special flavor. In this study, a high performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detection and mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-MS) and 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-sulfonic acid)diammonium salt (ABTS) based assay was employed for comparison and identification of antioxidants in different samples of snow chrysanthemum. The results showed that snow chrysanthemum flowers possessed the highest while stems presented the lowest antioxidant capacities. Fourteen detected peaks with antioxidant activity were temporarily identified as 3,4',5,6,7-pentahydroxyflavanone-O-hexoside, chlorogenic acid, 2R-3',4',8-trihydroxyflavanone-7-O-glucoside, flavanomarein, flavanocorepsin, flavanokanin, quercetagitin-7-O-glucoside, 3',5,5',7-tetrahydroxyflavanone-O-hexoside, marein, maritimein, 1,3-dicaffeoylquinic acid, coreopsin, okanin and acetyl-marein by comparing their UV spectra, retention times and MS data with standards or literature data. Antioxidants existed in snow chrysanthemum are quite different from those reported in Chrysanthemum morifolium, a well-known traditional beverage in China, which indicated that snow chrysanthemum may be a promising herbal tea material with obvious antioxidant activity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. The 96th Amino Acid of the Coat Protein of Cucumber Green Mottle Mosaic Virus Affects Virus Infectivity

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    Zhenwei Zhang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV is one of the most devastating viruses infecting members of the family Cucurbitaceae. The assembly initiation site of CGMMV is located in the coding region of the coat protein, which is not only involved in virion assembly but is also a key factor determining the long-distance movement of the virus. To understand the effect of assembly initiation site and the adjacent region on CGMMV infectivity, we created a GTT deletion mutation in the GAGGTTG assembly initiation site of the infectious clone of CGMMV, which we termed V97 (deletion mutation at residue 97 of coat protein, followed by the construction of the V94A and T104A mutants. We observed that these three mutations caused mosaic after Agrobacterium-mediated transformation in Nicotiana benthamiana, albeit with a significant delay compared to the wild type clone. The mutants also had a common spontaneous E96K mutation in the coat protein. These results indicated that the initial assembly site and the sequence of the adjacent region affected the infectivity of the virus and that E96 might play an essential role in this process. We constructed two single point mutants—E96A and E96K—and three double mutants—V94A-E96K, V97-E96K and T104A-E96K—to further understand the role of E96 in CGMMV pathogenesis. After inoculation in N. benthamiana, E96A showed delayed systemic symptoms, but the E96K and three double mutants exhibited typical symptoms of mosaic at seven days post-infection. Then, sap from CGMMV-infected N. benthamiana leaves was mechanically inoculated on watermelon plants. We confirmed that E96 affected CGMMV infection using double antibody sandwich-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (DAS-ELISA, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR, and sequencing, which further confirmed the successful infection of the related mutants, and that E96K can compensate the effect of the V94, V97, and T104 mutations on virus infectivity. In

  6. Cryptic genetic diversity in the mottled rabbitfish Siganus fuscescens with mitochondrial introgression at a contact zone in the South China Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravago-Gotanco, Rachel; de la Cruz, Talna Lorena; Pante, Ma Josefa; Borsa, Philippe

    2018-01-01

    The taxonomy of the mottled rabbitfish Siganus fuscescens species complex has long been challenging. In this study, we analyzed microsatellite genotypes, mitochondrial lineages, and morphometric data from 373 S. fuscescens individuals sampled from the northern Philippines and Hong Kong (South China Sea, Philippine Sea and Sulu Sea basins), to examine putative species boundaries in samples comprising three co-occurring mitochondrial lineages previously reported to characterize S. fuscescens (Clade A and Clade B) or S. canaliculatus (Clade C). We report the existence of two cryptic species within S. fuscescens in the northeast region of the South China Sea and northern Philippine Sea, supported by genetic and morphological differences. Individual-based assignment methods recovered concordant groupings of individuals into two nuclear genotype clusters (Cluster 1, Cluster 2) with (1) limited gene flow, if any, between them (FST = 0.241; P South China Sea. Mitonuclear discordance due to introgression obscures phylogenetic relationships for recently-diverged lineages, and cautions against the use of mitochondrial markers alone for species identification within the mottled rabbitfish species complex in the South China Sea region.

  7. Rapid adjustment in chrysanthemum carbohydrate turnover and growth activity to a change in time-of-day application of light and daylength

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Katrine Heinsvig; Poiré, Richard; Ottosen, Carl-Otto

    2012-01-01

    diurnally-regulated parameters related to growth. In this study, chrysanthemum plants were exposed to a change in the time-of-day application of light followed by short days or long days with a night interruption of light. We observed a clear shift in the diel cycle of sucrose turnover and relative leaf......Abstract. Diel (24 h) rhythms are believed to be of great importance to plant growth and carbohydrate metabolism in fluctuating environments. However, it is unclear how plants that have evolved to experience regular day–night patterns will respond to irregular light environments that disturb...... expansion, indicating a resetting of these activities with a temporal trigger in the early morning. The starch pool was relatively stable in long-day plants and marginally affected by the change in the time-of-day application in light followed by long days with a night interruption. This was in contrast...

  8. High temperature stress monitoring and detection using chlorophyll a fluorescence and infrared thermography in chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflora)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wakjera, Eshetu Janka; Körner, Oliver; Rosenqvist, Eva

    2013-01-01

    Modern highly insulated greenhouses are more energy efficient than conventional types. Furthermore applying dynamic greenhouse climate control regimes will increase energy efficiency relatively more in modern structures. However, this combination may result in higher air and crop temperatures. Too...... high temperature affects the plant photosynthetic responses, resulting in a lower rate of photosynthesis. To predict and analyse physiological responses as stress indicators, two independent experiments were conducted, to detect the effect of high temperature on photosynthesis: analysing photosystem II...... (PSII) and stomatal conductance (gs). A combination of chlorophyll a fluorescence, gas exchange measurements and infrared thermography was applied using Chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflora Tzvelev) ‘Coral Charm’ as a model species. Increasing temperature had a highly significant effect on PSII when...

  9. Pesticide knowledge and practice among horticultural workers in the Lâm Đồng region, Vietnam: A case study of chrysanthemum and strawberries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houbraken, Michael; Bauweraerts, Ingvar; Fevery, Davina; Van Labeke, Marie-Christine; Spanoghe, Pieter

    2016-04-15

    In Vietnam, large amounts of pesticides are being used in agriculture. Next to benefits for agriculture, pesticides impose a huge threat to the environment when they are used in the wrong way. The objective of this work was to determine the level of knowledge and awareness of the smallholder farmers towards the use of pesticides in Vietnam, Dà Lat region. Based on the collected data, an occupational and environmental risk assessment was performed. The results indicate that the majority of the pesticide operators in the strawberry and chrysanthemum crops have a rather high education. Pesticide knowledge, on the other hand, is usually gained through experience with pests and diseases. Only 30% of the farmers consulted a pesticide specialist or government stewardship for information on (new) pesticide products. Pesticide usage is rather high with application frequencies up to once every three days during the wet season. Pesticide packages are stored to be incinerated (51%) or to be thrown away with the garbage/taken to the landfill (37%). Only a small percentage disposes the packages into the local river (2%). The use of personal protection equipment is well established. Occupational risk assessment showed that the re-entry worker is exposed to a high risk. While a general awareness of the hazard of pesticides to human health and the environment is present, practical implementation of this awareness, however, is still limited in strawberry and chrysanthemum crop. The environmental risk evaluation indicated plant protection products of which the use should be limited. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Complete nucleotide sequences and construction of full-length infectious cDNA clones of Cucumber green mottle virus (CGMMV) in a versatile newly developed binary vector including both 35S and T7 promoters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seed-transmitted viruses have caused significant damage to watermelon crops in Korea in recent years, with Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV) infection widespread as a result of infected seed lots. To determine the likely origin of CGMMV infection, we collected CGMMV isolates from watermelon...

  11. Quantitative determination of phenolic compounds by UHPLC-UV-MS and use of partial least-square discriminant analysis to differentiate chemo-types of Chamomile/Chrysanthemum flower heads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avula, Bharathi; Wang, Yan-Hong; Wang, Mei; Avonto, Cristina; Zhao, Jianping; Smillie, Troy J; Rua, Diego; Khan, Ikhlas A

    2014-01-01

    A new rapid UHPLC-UV-QTOF/MS method has been developed for the simultaneous analysis of nine phenolic compounds [(Z)-2-β-d-glucopyranosyloxy-4-methoxycinnamic acid (cis-GMCA), chlorogenic acid, (E)-2-β-d-glucopyranosyloxy-4-methoxycinnamic acid (trans-GMCA), quercetagetin-7-O-β-d-glucopyranoside, luteolin-7-O-β-d-glucoside, apigenin-7-O-β-d-glucoside, chamaemeloside, apigenin 7-O-(6″-O-acetyl-β-d-glucopyranoside), apigenin] and one polyacetylene (tonghaosu) from the flower heads of Chamomile/Chrysanthemum samples. The chromatographic separation was achieved using a reversed phase C18 column with a mobile phase of water and acetonitrile, both containing 0.05% formic acid. The ten compounds were completely separated within 15min at a flow rate of 0.25mL/min with a 2μL injection volume. The different chemo-types of Chamomiles/Chrysanthemum displayed variations in the presence of chemical constituents. German Chamomile samples confirmed the presence of cis-GMCA, trans-GMCA, apigenin-7-O-β-d-glucoside and tonghaosu as major constituents whereas Roman chamomile samples confirmed the presence of chamamaeloside and apigenin as major compounds. The Chrysanthemum morifolium samples showed the presence of luteolin-7-O-β-d-glucose as the major compound. The method was applied for the analysis of various commercial products including capsules, tea bags, body and hair care products. LC-mass spectrometry with electrospray ionization (ESI) interface method is described for the evaluation of ten compounds in plant samples and commercial products. This method involved the detection of [M+Na](+) and [M+H](+) ions in the positive mode. Partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) was used to visualize commercial samples quality and may be of value for discriminating between chamomile types and Chrysanthemum with regards to the relative content of individual constituents. The results indicated that the method is suitable as a quality control test for various

  12. Generation of an Infectious Clone of a New Korean Isolate of Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus Driven by Dual 35S and T7 Promoters in a Versatile Binary Vector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ik-Hyun Kim

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The full-length sequence of a new isolate of Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus (ACLSV from Korea was divergent, but most closely related to the Japanese isolate A4, at 84% nucleotide identity. The full-length cDNA of the Korean isolate of ACLSV was cloned into a binary vector downstream of the bacteriophage T7 RNA promoter and the Cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter. Chenopodium quinoa was successfully infected using in vitro transcripts synthesized using the T7 promoter, detected at 20 days post inoculation (dpi, but did not produce obvious symptoms. Nicotiana occidentalis and C. quinoa were inoculated through agroinfiltration. At 32 dpi the infection rate was evaluated; no C. quinoa plants were infected by agroinfiltration, but infection of N. occidentalis was obtained.

  13. The effects of foliar fertilization with iron sulfate in chlorotic leaves are limited to the treated area. A study with peach trees (Prunus persica L. Batsch grown in the field and sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. grown in hydroponics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamdi eEl-Jendoubi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Crop Fe deficiency is a worldwide problem. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of foliar Fe applications in two species grown in different environments: peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch trees grown in the field and sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. cv. ‘Orbis’ grown in hydroponics. The distal half of Fe-deficient, chlorotic leaves was treated with Fe sulfate by dipping and using a brush in peach trees and sugar beet plants, respectively. The re-greening of the distal (Fe-treated and basal (untreated leaf areas was monitored, and the nutrient and photosynthetic pigment composition of the two areas were also determined. Leaves were also studied using chlorophyll fluorescence imaging, low temperature-scanning electron microscopy microanalysis, scanning transmission ion microscopy-particle induced X-ray emission and Perls Fe staining. The distal, Fe-treated leaf parts of both species showed a significant increase in Fe concentrations (across the whole leaf volume and marked re-greening, with significant increases in the concentrations of all photosynthetic pigments, as well as decreases in de-epoxidation of xanthophyll cycle carotenoids and increases in photochemical efficiency. In the basal, untreated leaf parts, Fe concentrations increased slightly, but little re-greening occurred. No changes in the concentrations of other nutrients were found. Foliar Fe fertilization was effective in re-greening treated leaf areas both in peach trees and sugar beet plants. Results indicate that the effects of foliar Fe-sulfate fertilization in Fe-deficient, chlorotic leaves were minor outside the leaf surface treated, indicating that Fe mobility within the leaf is a major constraint for full fertilizer effectiveness in crops where Fe-deficiency is established and leaf chlorosis occurs.

  14. The effects of foliar fertilization with iron sulfate in chlorotic leaves are limited to the treated area. A study with peach trees (Prunus persica L. Batsch) grown in the field and sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) grown in hydroponics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Jendoubi, Hamdi; Vázquez, Saúl; Calatayud, Angeles; Vavpetič, Primož; Vogel-Mikuš, Katarina; Pelicon, Primož; Abadía, Javier; Abadía, Anunciación; Morales, Fermín

    2014-01-01

    Crop Fe deficiency is a worldwide problem. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of foliar Fe applications in two species grown in different environments: peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) trees grown in the field and sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. cv. "Orbis") grown in hydroponics. The distal half of Fe-deficient, chlorotic leaves was treated with Fe sulfate by dipping and using a brush in peach trees and sugar beet plants, respectively. The re-greening of the distal (Fe-treated) and basal (untreated) leaf areas was monitored, and the nutrient and photosynthetic pigment composition of the two areas were also determined. Leaves were also studied using chlorophyll fluorescence imaging, low temperature-scanning electron microscopy microanalysis, scanning transmission ion microscopy-particle induced X-ray emission and Perls Fe staining. The distal, Fe-treated leaf parts of both species showed a significant increase in Fe concentrations (across the whole leaf volume) and marked re-greening, with significant increases in the concentrations of all photosynthetic pigments, as well as decreases in de-epoxidation of xanthophyll cycle carotenoids and increases in photochemical efficiency. In the basal, untreated leaf parts, Fe concentrations increased slightly, but little re-greening occurred. No changes in the concentrations of other nutrients were found. Foliar Fe fertilization was effective in re-greening treated leaf areas both in peach trees and sugar beet plants. Results indicate that the effects of foliar Fe-sulfate fertilization in Fe-deficient, chlorotic leaves were minor outside the leaf surface treated, indicating that Fe mobility within the leaf is a major constraint for full fertilizer effectiveness in crops where Fe-deficiency is established and leaf chlorosis occurs.

  15. Avaliação do enraizamento de estacas de crisântemo (Chrysanthemum morifolium L. cv. white Reagan 606 tratadas com ácido indolbutírico (IBA Rooting evaluation in Chrysanthemum morifolium cv. white Reagan 606 stem cuttings as affected by indolbutyric acid (IBA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.L. Cuquel

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito de doses crescentes do ácido indolbutírico (IBA e de diferentes tempos de imersão no enraizamento de estacas de Chrysanthemum morifolium cv. White Reagan 606. O fator doses foi aplicado em quatro níveis: 0, 500, 1000 e 1500 ppm de IBA e o fator tempo em três níveis: 5s, 1h e 2h. O delineamento utilizado foi o de blocos completos casualizados com parcelas subdivididas, onde as dosagens de IBA foram aplicadas como tratamento principal. O experimento foi instalado em caixas de isopor, em casa de vegetação sob nebulização, tendo vermiculita como substrato. O momento adequado para o transplante foi avaliado através da leitura de uma repetição adicional utilizada como controle. Obteve-se enraizamento em todas as combinações de tratamento, mesma na ausência de IBA. De maneira geral o tratamento rápido tende a ser mais facilmente eficiente quando combinado com as maiores dosagens, enquanto os tratamentos mais demorados com as menores dosagens.The effect of rising concentrations of indolbutyric acid (IBA solutions was evaluated with different exposition times in stem cuttings of Chrysanthemum morifolium cv. White Reagan 606. The applied concentrations were 0,500,1000 and 1500 ppm of IBA during 5s, 1h and 2h, in a randomized complete split-plot block design, with IBA concentrations as main treatment. The experiment was installed in styrofoam trays in a green-house with a mist device and vermiculite as substrate. Transplanting time was determined by an additional block. All treatments induced rooting even in the absence of IBA. In a general sense the fastest treatments tended to be the more efficient when combined with higher concentrations.

  16. High-level HIV-1 Nef transient expression in Nicotiana benthamiana using the P19 gene silencing suppressor protein of Artichoke Mottled Crinckle Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianco Linda

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In recent years, different HIV antigens have been successfully expressed in plants by either stable transformation or transient expression systems. Among HIV proteins, Nef is considered a promising target for the formulation of a multi-component vaccine due to its implication in the first steps of viral infection. Attempts to express Nef as a single protein product (not fused to a stabilizing protein in transgenic plants resulted in disappointingly low yields (about 0.5% of total soluble protein. In this work we describe a transient expression system based on co-agroinfiltration of plant virus gene silencing suppressor proteins in Nicotiana benthamiana, followed by a two-step affinity purification protocol of plant-derived Nef. Results The effect of three gene silencing viral suppressor proteins (P25 of Potato Virus X, P19 of either Artichoke Mottled Crinckle virus and Tomato Bushy Stunt virus on Nef transient expression yield was evaluated. The P19 protein of Artichoke Mottled Crinckle virus (AMCV-P19 gave the highest expression yield in vacuum co-agroinfiltration experiments reaching 1.3% of total soluble protein, a level almost three times higher than that previously reported in stable transgenic plants. The high yield observed in the co-agroinfiltrated plants was correlated to a remarkable decrease of Nef-specific small interfering RNAs (siRNAs indicating an effective modulation of RNA silencing mechanisms by AMCV-P19. Interestingly, we also showed that expression levels in top leaves of vacuum co-agroinfiltrated plants were noticeably reduced compared to bottom leaves. Moreover, purification of Nef from agroinfiltrated tissue was achieved by a two-step immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography protocol with yields of 250 ng/g of fresh tissue. Conclusion We demonstrated that expression level of HIV-1 Nef in plant can be improved using a transient expression system enhanced by the AMCV-P19 gene silencing suppressor

  17. Differences in the fragrances of pollen, leaves, and floral parts of garland (Chrysanthemum coronarium) and composition of the essential oils from flowerheads and leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flamini, Guido; Cioni, Pier Luigi; Morelli, Ivano

    2003-04-09

    Headspace analyses of pollen, whole flowerheads, ligulate and tubular florets, flower buds, involucral bracts, and leaves have been performed on the food plant Chrysanthemum coronarium L. (Asteraceae). The analyses permitted differences in the pattern of volatiles emitted by the different floral parts to be observed and the site and phenological stage of emission of these chemicals to be verified. Camphor and cis-chrysanthenyl acetate were emitted mainly by ligulate and tubular florets; the production of myrcene and (Z)-ocimene was higher in the flower buds, whereas beta-caryophyllene, (E,E)-alpha-farnesene, and (E)-beta-farnesene seemed attributable mainly to the involucral bracts. The leaves showed a quite different volatile profile, with (Z)-ocimene as the main constituent. Pollen showed a completely different composition of its volatiles, with perilla aldehyde, cis-chrysanthenyl acetate, and camphor among the principal compounds; many carbonylic compounds and linear hydrocarbons have been detected exclusively in pollen. Furthermore, the essential oils obtained from flowerheads and leaves have been studied. These samples showed mainly quantitative differences. Camphor (22.1%) and cis-chrysanthenyl acetate (19.9%) were the main constituents of the oil from flowers, whereas the oil from the leaves contained mainly (Z)-ocimene (45.4%) and myrcene (28.2%).

  18. Preliminary Assessment About Genetic Diversity, The Stability Of Potential Mutants From Two Varieties Of Chrysanthemum Morifolium Ramat. (Bronze DOA And Purple Farm) Via Gamma Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Tuong Mien; Le Ngoc Trieu; Le Tien Thanh; Pham Van Nhi; Huynh Thi Trung

    2014-01-01

    The objects of radiation breeding were chosen, collected and in vitro propagated. The suitable modalities for acute and chronic irradiation the materials were determined. Two acute and one chronic irradiation series were executed. Thus, the irradiated materials were achieved to screening for the mutants. In this study, on farm, through screening 18 phenotypic mutants of both chrysanthemums were recorded and collected including 6 potential mutants that selected for next research based on their phenotypic differences to the originals, their aesthetic and low mosaic. These 6 potential mutants together with their original varieties were micro-propagated to induce the potential mutant lines for estimation on farm of mutant characteristic segregation rates. Six potential mutant lines of E2a, E2c, E28, E29, I7, I8 are morphologically and genetically different to their original varieties, possess the identification markers and aestheticism. They were morphologically stable on farm through 3 series of growing on farm at M1V3, M1V5 and M1V7 generations. In the genetic respect, they possessed the high stabilities through in vitro generations. All of these criteria show that, these mutant lines were already to be registered as temporary cultivars/varieties. (author)

  19. Analysis of different technologies of artificial illumination for production of chrysanthemum in protecting environment; Analise de diferentes tecnologias de iluminacao artificial para producao de crisantemos em ambiente protegido

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David, Eduardo; Rossi, Luiz Antonio [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (FEAGRI/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Agricola. Dept. de Engenharia Agricola], Emails: eduardo.david@gr.unicamp.br, rossi@agr.unicamp.br

    2006-07-01

    In protecting environment chrysanthemum's production, the artificial illumination type used to induce the photo period, affects the growing and development of plants, as well the electric power consumed in this process of production. The most useful illumination type is by filament. Today, new artificial illumination technologies have been studied to reduce the electric power consumption. This work has been development in a commercial greenhouse with four varieties. The preliminary results have showed that the utilization of discharge lamps does not affect significantly the flower's development considering the weight and presence of flower bud. In the analyzed period, the reduction on power electricity consumption was 60,13% on the sodium-vapor lamp, 41,66% on the mercury-vapor lamp, 60,52% on the fluorescent tube lamp and 50,32% on the compact fluorescent-integrated lamp in comparison with the incandescent lamp that nowadays it is used. It shows the high intensity discharge technology (HID technology) has saved more electricity than the incandescent lamp. (author)

  20. Influence of temperature and rooting-promoter on the formation of root-primodia and on the rooting of chrysanthemum cuttings under storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishio, J.; Fukuda, M.

    1998-01-01

    In order to promote rooting for direct planting cuttings in a lighting cultivation of chrysanthemum, we clarified the effects of light, temperature and term of storage of the cuttings, and analyzed ways of using rooting promoters as a pre-treatment of cuttings for root-primodia formation and rooting. Light as a pre-treatment had little effect, so it seemed to be not necessary for the formation of root primodia. The formation of the root-primodia was most hastened at 25 degrees C; inversely, it was slowed down at low temperatures, that is, the root-primodia were formed in four days at 25 degrees C, five days at 20 degrees C, and seven days at 15 degrees C. With the use of rooting promoters as a pre-treatment for the rooting of cuttings, the root-primodia were formed faster when the whole of cuttings were dipped in 40 mg/L solution of indelebutyric acid (IBA) than when the base of cuttings were dipped or sprayed 400 mg/L solution of IBA. It was appropriate that cuttings were dipped in IBA then put in in plastic-pots (7.5cm) vertically, packed in polyethylene-bags and stored in a corrugated carton box

  1. Rapid detection of Piper yellow mottle virus and Cucumber mosaic virus infecting black pepper (Piper nigrum) by loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, A I; Siljo, A; Deeshma, K P

    2013-10-01

    The loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for Piper yellow mottle virus and the reverse transcription (RT) LAMP assay for Cucumber mosaic virus each consisted of a set of five primers designed against the conserved sequences in the viral genome. Both RNA and DNA isolated from black pepper were used as a template for the assay. The results were assessed visually by checking turbidity, green fluorescence and pellet formation in the reaction tube and also by gel electrophoresis. The assay successfully detected both viruses in infected plants whereas no cross-reactions were recorded with healthy plants. Optimum conditions for successful amplification were determined in terms of the concentrations of magnesium sulphate and betaine, temperature, and duration. The detection limit for both LAMP and RT-LAMP was up to 100 times that for conventional PCR and up to one-hundredth of that for real-time PCR. The optimal conditions arrived at were validated by testing field samples of infected vines of three species from different regions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Complex postglacial recolonization inferred from population genetic structure of mottled sculpin Cottus bairdii in tributaries of eastern Lake Michigan, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homola, J J; Ruetz, C R; Kohler, S L; Thum, R A

    2016-11-01

    This study used analyses of the genetic structure of a non-game fish species, the mottled sculpin Cottus bairdii to hypothesize probable recolonization routes used by cottids and possibly other Laurentian Great Lakes fishes following glacial recession. Based on samples from 16 small streams in five major Lake Michigan, U.S.A., tributary basins, significant interpopulation differentiation was documented (overall F ST = 0·235). Differentiation was complex, however, with unexpectedly high genetic similarity among basins as well as occasionally strong differentiation within basins, despite relatively close geographic proximity of populations. Genetic dissimilarities were identified between eastern and western populations within river basins, with similarities existing between eastern and western populations across basins. Given such patterns, recolonization is hypothesized to have occurred on three occasions from more than one glacial refugium, with a secondary vicariant event resulting from reduction in the water level of ancestral Lake Michigan. By studying the phylogeography of a small, non-game fish species, this study provides insight into recolonization dynamics of the region that could be difficult to infer from game species that are often broadly dispersed by humans. © 2016 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  3. Occurrence of Pepper Mild Mottle Virus (PMMoV) in Groundwater from a Karst Aquifer System in the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosiles-González, Gabriela; Ávila-Torres, Gerardo; Moreno-Valenzuela, Oscar A; Acosta-González, Gilberto; Leal-Bautista, Rosa María; Grimaldo-Hernández, Cinthya D; Brown, Judith K; Chaidez-Quiroz, Cristóbal; Betancourt, Walter Q; Gerba, Charles P; Hernández-Zepeda, Cecilia

    2017-12-01

    The Yucatan Peninsula of Mexico hosts a karst aquifer system that is the only source of freshwater for the area; however, it is vulnerable to human-mediated contamination. Pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV) is one of the most abundant RNA viruses associated with human feces, making it a viable indicator for tracking fecal pollution in aquatic environments, including groundwater. In this study, groundwater samples collected from a karst aquifer from fresh and brackish water locations were analyzed for fecal indicator bacteria, somatic and male F+ specific coliphages, and PMMoV during the rainy and dry seasons. Total coliform bacteria were detected at all sites, whereas Escherichia coli were found at relatively low levels water type (p > 0.05). Physicochemical and indicator bacteria were not correlated with PMMoV concentrations. The abundance and prevalence of PMMoV in the karst aquifer may reflect its environmental persistence and its potential as a fecal indicator in this karst aquifer system.

  4. 'Get an early check - Chrysanthemum tea': An outcome evaluation of a multimedia campaign promoting HIV testing among men who have sex with men in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, Nnm; Wong, Amh; Fang, Y; Wang, Z

    2018-05-01

    'Get an early check - chrysanthemum tea' was a multimedia campaign promoting HIV testing targeting Chinese-speaking men who have sex with men (MSM) in Hong Kong, China. It ran from October to December 2015. This study was carried out to investigate the level of campaign exposure among Chinese-speaking MSM in Hong Kong and the association between uptake of HIV testing in the last 6 months and campaign exposure. A cross-sectional survey was conducted 6 months after the campaign was launched. Participants were Hong Kong Chinese-speaking men aged ≥18 years who had had anal or oral sex with at least one man in their lifetime. A total of 153 eligible participants completed the anonymous self-administered questionnaire. Among the participants, 45.8% had been exposed to the campaign and 43.1% had taken up HIV testing in the last 6 months. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, exposure to the campaign [multivariate odds ratio (ORm) 2.55; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.25, 5.19] and having had anal intercourse with a nonregular sex partner (ORm 2.36; 95% CI 1.05, 5.31) in the last 6 months were significantly associated with uptake of HIV testing in the last 6 months. The campaign had relatively good reach in the target population and may have been useful to encourage them to take up HIV testing. Future campaigns promoting HIV testing among MSM in Hong Kong are still needed. Such programmes should consider making use of viral videos, having a longer project duration and developing culturally sensitive materials for non-Chinese-speaking MSM. © 2018 British HIV Association.

  5. Genomic and transcriptomic alterations following intergeneric hybridization and polyploidization in the Chrysanthemum nankingense×Tanacetum vulgare hybrid and allopolyploid (Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Xiangyu; Wang, Haibin; Song, Aiping; Jiang, Jiafu; Chen, Sumei; Chen, Fadi

    2018-01-01

    Allopolyploid formation involves two major events: interspecific hybridization and polyploidization. A number of species in the Asteraceae family are polyploids because of frequent hybridization. The effects of hybridization on genomics and transcriptomics in Chrysanthemum nankingense×Tanacetum vulgare hybrids have been reported. In this study, we obtained allopolyploids by applying a colchicine treatment to a synthesized C. nankingense × T. vulgare hybrid. Sequence-related amplified polymorphism (SRAP), methylation-sensitive amplification polymorphism (MSAP), and high-throughput RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) technologies were used to investigate the genomic, epigenetic, and transcriptomic alterations in both the hybrid and allopolyploids. The genomic alterations in the hybrid and allopolyploids mainly involved the loss of parental fragments and the gain of novel fragments. The DNA methylation level of the hybrid was reduced by hybridization but was restored somewhat after polyploidization. There were more significant differences in gene expression between the hybrid/allopolyploid and the paternal parent than between the hybrid/allopolyploid and the maternal parent. Most differentially expressed genes (DEGs) showed down-regulation in the hybrid/allopolyploid relative to the parents. Among the non-additive genes, transgressive patterns appeared to be dominant, especially repression patterns. Maternal expression dominance was observed specifically for down-regulated genes. Many methylase and methyltransferase genes showed differential expression between the hybrid and parents and between the allopolyploid and parents. Our data indicate that hybridization may be a major factor affecting genomic and transcriptomic changes in newly formed allopolyploids. The formation of allopolyploids may not simply be the sum of hybridization and polyploidization changes but also may be influenced by the interaction between these processes.

  6. Supercritical-Carbon Dioxide Fluid Extract from Chrysanthemum indicum Enhances Anti-Tumor Effect and Reduces Toxicity of Bleomycin in Tumor-Bearing Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Mei Yang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Bleomycin (BLM, a family of anti-tumor drugs, was reported to exhibit severe side effects limiting its usage in clinical treatment. Therefore, finding adjuvants that enhance the anti-tumor effect and reduce the detrimental effect of BLM is a prerequisite. Chrysanthemum indicum, an edible flower, possesses abundant bioactivities; the supercritical-carbon dioxide fluid extract from flowers and buds of C. indicum (CISCFE have strong anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, and lung protective effects. However, the role of CISCFE combined with BLM treatment on tumor-bearing mice remains unclear. The present study aimed to investigate the potential synergistic effect and the underlying mechanism of CISCFE combined with BLM in the treatment of hepatoma 22 (H22 tumor-bearing mice. The results suggested that the oral administration of CISCFE combined with BLM could markedly prolong the life span, attenuate the BLM-induced pulmonary fibrosis, suppress the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, activities of myeloperoxidase, and malondiadehyde. Moreover, CISCFE combined with BLM promoted the ascites cell apoptosis, the activities of caspases 3 and 8, and up-regulated the protein expression of p53 and down-regulated the transforming growth factor-β1 by activating the gene expression of miR-29b. Taken together, these results indicated that CISCFE could enhance the anti-cancer activity of BLM and reduce the BLM-induced pulmonary injury in H22 tumor-bearing mice, rendering it as a potential adjuvant drug with chemotherapy after further investigation in the future.

  7. Evaluation of a SUMO E2 conjugating enzyme involved in resistance to Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis in Solanum peruvianum, through a tomato mottle virus VIGS assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayra Janeth Esparza-Araiza

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis (Cmm causes bacterial wilt and canker of tomato. Currently, no Solanum lycopersicum resistant varieties are commercially available, but some degree of Cmm resistance has been identified in Solanum peruvianum. Previous research showed up-regulation of a SUMO E2 conjugating enzyme (SCEI transcript in resistant S. peruvianum compared to susceptible S. lycopersicum following infection by Cmm. In order to test the role of SCEI in resistance to Cmm, a fragment of the gene from S. peruvianum was cloned into a novel virus-induced gene-silencing (VIGS vector based on the geminivirus Tomato Mottle Virus (ToMoV. Using biolistic inoculation, the ToMoV-based VIGS vector was shown to be effective in S. peruvianum by silencing the magnesium chelatase gene, which resulted in leaf bleaching. The ToMoV_SCEI construct resulted in approx. 61% silencing of SCEI in leaves of S. peruvianum as determined by quantitative RT-PCR. VIGS of SCEI in S. peruvianum resulted in unilateral wilting (15 dpi and subsequent death (20 dpi of the entire plant after Cmm inoculation, whereas empty vector-treated plants only showed wilting in the Cmm-inoculated leaf. SCEI-silenced plants also showed higher Cmm colonization with an average of 4.5 times more damaged tissue compared to the empty vector control plants. SCEI appears to play an important role in the innate immunity of S. peruvianum against Cmm, perhaps through the regulation of WRKY transcription factors, which may lead to expression of proteins involved in salicylic acid-dependent defense responses.

  8. Identification of Cleavage Sites Recognized by the 3C-Like Cysteine Protease within the Two Polyproteins of Strawberry Mottle Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélène Sanfaçon

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Strawberry mottle virus (SMoV, family Secoviridae, order Picornavirales is one of several viruses found in association with strawberry decline disease in Eastern Canada. The SMoV genome consists of two positive-sense single-stranded RNAs, each encoding one large polyprotein. The RNA1 polyprotein (P1 includes the domains for a putative helicase, a VPg, a 3C-like cysteine protease and an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase at its C-terminus, and one or two protein domains at its N-terminus. The RNA2 polyprotein (P2 is predicted to contain the domains for a movement protein (MP and one or several coat proteins at its N-terminus, and one or more additional domains for proteins of unknown function at its C-terminus. The RNA1-encoded 3C-like protease is presumed to cleave the two polyproteins in cis (P1 and in trans (P2. Using in vitro processing assays, we systematically scanned the two polyproteins for cleavage sites recognized by this protease. We identified five cis-cleavage sites in P1, with cleavage between the putative helicase and VPg domains being the most efficient. The presence of six protein domains in the SMoV P1, including two upstream of the putative helicase domain, is a feature shared with nepoviruses but not with comoviruses. Results from trans-cleavage assays indicate that the RNA1-encoded 3C-like protease recognized a single cleavage site, which was between the predicted MP and coat protein domains in the P2 polyprotein. The cleavage site consensus sequence for the SMoV 3C-like protease is AxE (E or Q/(G or S.

  9. Different virus-derived siRNAs profiles between leaves and fruits in Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus-infected Lagenaria siceraria

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    Junmin Li

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available RNA silencing is an evolutionarily conserved antiviral mechanism, through which virus-derived small interfering RNAs (vsiRNAs playing roles in host antiviral defence are produced in virus-infected plant. Deep sequencing technology has revolutionized the study on the interaction between virus and plant host through the analysis of vsiRNAs profile. However, comparison of vsiRNA profiles in different tissues from a same host plant has been rarely reported. In this study, the profiles of virus-derived small interfering RNAs (vsiRNAs from leaves and fruits of Lagenaria siceraria plants infected with Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV were comprehensively characterized and compared. Many more vsiRNAs were present in infected leaves than in fruits. vsiRNAs from both leaves and fruits were mostly 21- and 22-nt in size as previously described in other virus-infected plants. Interestingly, vsiRNAs were predominantly produced from the viral positive strand RNAs in infected leaves, whereas in infected fruits they were derived equally from the positive and negative strands. Many leaf-specific positive vsiRNAs with lengths of 21-nt (2,058 or 22-nt (3,996 were identified but only six (21-nt and one (22-nt positive vsiRNAs were found to be specific to fruits. vsiRNAs hotspots were only present in the 5’-terminal and 3’-terminal of viral positive strand in fruits, while multiple hotspots were identified in leaves. Differences in GC content and 5'-terminal nucleotide of vsiRNAs were also observed in the two organs. To our knowledge, this provides the first high-resolution comparison of vsiRNA profiles between different tissues of the same host plant.

  10. Characterization of burdock mottle virus, a novel member of the genus Benyvirus, and the identification of benyvirus-related sequences in the plant and insect genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Hideki; Hirano, Shuichi; Chiba, Sotaro; Andika, Ida Bagus; Hirai, Makoto; Maeda, Takanori; Tamada, Tetsuo

    2013-10-01

    The complete nucleotide sequence of the burdock mottle virus (BdMoV) isolated from an edible burdock plant (Arctium lappa) in Japan has been determined. BdMoV has a bipartite genome, whose organization is similar to RNA1 and RNA2 of benyviruses, beet necrotic yellow vein virus (BNYVV), beet soil-borne mosaic virus (BSBMV), and rice stripe necrosis virus (RSNV). BdMoV RNA1 (7038 nt) contains a single open reading frame (ORF) encoding a 249-kDa polypeptide that consists of methyl-transferase, helicase, papain-like protease, AlkB-like, and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase domains. The AlkB-like domain sequence is not present in the proteins encoded by other known benyviruses, but is found in replication-associated proteins of viruses mainly belonging to the families Alfaflexiviridae and Betaflexiviridae. BdMoV RNA2 (4315 nt) contains six ORFs that are similar to those of benyviruses: these are coat protein (CP), CP readthrough, triple gene block movement and cysteine-rich proteins. Phylogenetic analyses showed that BdMoV is more closely related to BNYVV and BSBMV than to RSNV. Database searches showed that benyvirus replicase-related sequences are present in the chromosomes of a chickpea plant (Cicer arietinum) and a blood-sucking insect (Rhodnius prolixus). Some other benyvirus-related sequences are found in the transcriptome shotgun libraries of a few species of plants and a bark beetle. Our results show that BdMoV is a distinct species of the genus Benyvirus and that ancestral and extant benyviruses may have infected or currently infect a wide range of hosts, including plants and insects. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Genome sequence analysis of five Canadian isolates of strawberry mottle virus reveals extensive intra-species diversity and a longer RNA2 with increased coding capacity compared to a previously characterized European isolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhagwat, Basdeo; Dickison, Virginia; Ding, Xinlun; Walker, Melanie; Bernardy, Michael; Bouthillier, Michel; Creelman, Alexa; DeYoung, Robyn; Li, Yinzi; Nie, Xianzhou; Wang, Aiming; Xiang, Yu; Sanfaçon, Hélène

    2016-06-01

    In this study, we report the genome sequence of five isolates of strawberry mottle virus (family Secoviridae, order Picornavirales) from strawberry field samples with decline symptoms collected in Eastern Canada. The Canadian isolates differed from the previously characterized European isolate 1134 in that they had a longer RNA2, resulting in a 239-amino-acid extension of the C-terminal region of the polyprotein. Sequence analysis suggests that reassortment and recombination occurred among the isolates. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the Canadian isolates are diverse, grouping in two separate branches along with isolates from Europe and the Americas.

  12. Ocorrência generalizada do Lettuce mottle virus em três regiões produtoras de alface comercial do Estado de São Paulo Occurrence of Lettuce mottle virus on three lettuce producing areas from São Paulo State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renate Krause-Sakate

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Os sequivírus são vírus isométricos transmitidos por afídeos. Lettuce mottle virus (LeMoV, um provável sequivirus foi descrito no Brasil em 1982 e causa sintomas de mosaico semelhantes aos observados pelo Lettuce mosaic virus (LMV. Um levantamento para ocorrência do LeMoV nos campos de produção de alface de três diferentes regiões do Estado de São Paulo (Mogi das Cruzes, Campinas e Bauru foi realizado durante 2002 a 2005. RNA total foi extraído e utilizado na detecção, em RT-PCR, com oligonucleotídeos específicos para o LeMoV. Do total de 1362 amostras, 137 (10,05% foram positivas para o LeMoV. Infecção mista com o LMV foi verificada em 43 amostras (31,4%. Foi verificada a ocorrência do LeMoV nas três diferentes regiões analisadas, porém sua ocorrência foi baixa nas diferentes épocas do ano.Sequiviruses are isometric aphid-borne plant viruses. Lettuce mottle virus (LeMoV, a putative sequivirus was first described in Brazil on 1982 causing similar mosaic symptoms as Lettuce mosaic virus (LMV. A survey for the occurrence of LeMoV on open field conditions was carried out during 2002 to 2005 on Mogi das Cruzes, Campinas and Bauru in São Paulo state. Total RNA was extracted and used on RT-PCR with specific LeMoV primers. On 1362 samples tested, 137 (10,05% were positive for LeMoV. Mixed infections with LMV was observed on 43 samples (31,4%. The presence of LeMoV was observed in the three different regions, but with low incidence during the year.

  13. Chlorotic spots on Clerodendrum, a disease caused by a nuclear type of Brevipalpus (Acari:Tenuipalpidae transmitted virus Mancha clorótica do Clerodendrum, uma enfermidade causada por um vírus do tipo nuclear, transmitido pelo ácaro Brevipalpus phoenicis (Acari:Tenuipalpidae

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    Elliot Watanabe Kitajima

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Chlorotic spots have been observed in plants of Clerodendrum x speciosum growing in residential gardens and parks in Piracicaba, SP, Brazil. Thin sections of diseased tissues revealed characteristic cytopathic effects of the nuclear type of the Brevipalpus (Acari: Tenuipalpidae mite-transmitted viruses (BTrV. Brevipalpus mites, identified as B. phoenicis, infesting symptomatic C. x speciosum plants transmitted the pathogen to healthy C. x speciosum and to C. thomsonae, Gomphrena globosa, Hibiscus cannabinus, H. coccineus, H. schizopetalus, Salvia leucantha, Spathiphyllum wallasi and Tetragonia expansa causing chlorotic spots on their leaves. Mechanical inoculation using leaf extracts from infected C. x speciosum resulted in chlorotic spots on inoculated C. x speciosum, Chenopodium quinoa, C. amaranticolor, G. globosa, H. cannabinus, H. coccineus and T. expansa leaves. C. amaranticolor and C. quinoa kept at 28 - 30°C became systemically infected. The same cytopathic effects caused by the nuclear type of BTrV were seen in tissues from all infected test plants by electron microscopy. The virus was purified from systemically infected leaves of C. amaranticolor and C. quinoa. A polyclonal antiserum obtained from an immunized rabbit presented a strong reaction with the homologous antigen in ELISA tests. The results suggest that this chlorotic spot disease of C. x speciosum is caused by a new species of the nuclear type of BTrV, tentatively named Clerodendrum chlorotic spot virus (ClCSV.Manchas cloróticas e necróticas foram observadas em folhas de várias plantas de coração-sangrento (Clerodendrum x speciosum cultivadas em parques e jardins em Piracicaba, SP, associadas à infestação pelo ácaro tenuipalpídeo Brevipalpus phoenicis. Exames preliminares de secções de tecido das manchas cloróticas ao microscópio eletrônico revelaram a ocorrência de efeitos citopáticos característicos dos induzidos pelos vírus do tipo nuclear, transmitido

  14. Influencia de diferentes especies de fungo micorrizico arbuscular no desenvolvimento do crisântemo Influence of different species of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on chrysanthemum growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Parada Dias da Silveira

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de verificar o desenvolvimento e florescimento do crisântemo (Dendranthema grandiflora na presença de micorriza arbuscular, foi instalado, em casa de vegetação, um experimento, empregando-se os fungos Gigaspora margarita, Glomus leptotichum, Glomus macrocarpum e Scutellospora heterogama. Utilizou-se terra roxa estruturada, da Série Luiz de Queiroz, esterilizada (por autoclavagem e não esterilizada. No florescimento, colheram-se as plantas e determinaram-se a altura, a matéria seca da parte aérea, a matéria fresca da raiz, o teor de P e K na parte aérea, a colonização micorrízica e o número de esporos do fungo micorrízico. O desenvolvimento e o florescimento foram favorecidos pela inoculação de G. leptotichum e G.macrocarpum, quando as plantas foram cultivadas em solo esterilizado, superando o efeito dos fungos micorrízicos nativos. Entretanto, no solo não esterilizado, a inoculação dessas espécies de fungo não promoveu aumento no desenvolvimento da planta.A greenhouse experiment was conducted to verify the effect of arbuscular mycorrhiza on growth and flowering of chrysanthemum. Rooted plants were inoculated with Gigaspora margarita, Glomus leptotichum, Glomus macrocarpum e Scutellospora heterogama or non-inoculated. Plants were grown in a autoclave sterilized, and non-sterilized soil of the type "Terra Roxa Estruturada". At the flowering stage, plants were harvested and measured for plant height, shoot dry matter, root fresh matter, shoot P and K content, mycorrhizal root colonization and number of mycorrhizal fungi spores. Plants colonized with G.leptotichum and G. macrocarpum presented higher growth and flowering than control plants, in sterilized soil, overcoming the effect of native mycorrhizal fungi. However, there was no effect of introduced mycorrhizal fungi on non-sterilized soil.

  15. Crescimento e qualidade de crisântemo cultivado em vaso sob ambiente protegido Growth and quality of Chrysanthemum produced in greenhouse

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    Maryzélia F. de Farias

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available O crisântemo (Dendranthema grandiflora é uma planta ornamental com grande demanda pelo mercado consumidor. Apesar de haver poucas informações sobre a sua exigência hídrica, sabe-se que irrigações deficitárias ou excessivas prejudicam seu desenvolvimento, reduzindo a produtividade e a qualidade. Considerando-se a importância da qualidade para a venda dos produtos florícolas o objetivo desse trabalho foi identificar a tensão de água no substrato (potencial matricial com melhor crescimento e desenvolvimento do crisântemo, cultivar Rage, em vaso. Os tratamentos foram definidos por 6 níveis de tensão de água no substrato: -2; -3; -4; -6; -10 e -30 kPa. Concluiu-se que a melhor qualidade do crisântemo em vaso pode ser obtida com a tensão de -4 kPa e que, embora a tensão de -30 kPa tenha levado a uma drástica redução na qualidade comercial do crisântemo, a mesma pode ter um efeito benéfico na durabilidade pós- colheita.Chrysanthemum (Dendranhema grandiflora has a high commercial value in the ornamental plant market. There is little information about when and how much water to apply. In general the flower growers apply too much water reducing yield and quality. In this research we identified the best substrate water tension that could assure quality and high yield. Treatments were composed of six levels of water tension in the substrate: -2; -3; -4; -6; -10 and -30 kPa. Results showed that -4 kPa of substrate water tension resulted in the highest number of pots with quality A1, considered the highest level in the grower's scale. Post-harvest was also evaluated and plants irrigated when substrate water tension reached -30 kPa presented longer durability.

  16. Espectroscopía NIR como Técnica Exploratoria Rápida para Detección de Amarillamiento Hojas Crisantemo (Dendranthema grandiflora var. Zembla / NIR Spectroscopy as Quick Exploratory Technique for Detection of Chrysanthemum Leaf Yellowing (Dendranthema

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    Juan Carlos Pérez Naranjo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Resumen. El diagnóstico seguro de enfermedades en lasplantas depende de técnicas costosas, que requieren de tiempo y entrenamiento especializado. Esta investigación evaluó el uso de espectroscopia infrarroja cercana NIR (por sus siglas en ingles near-infrared para la detección rápida del “amarillamiento de hojas de crisantemo”, una enfermedad de etiología incierta que genera pérdidas económicas importantes. En este experimento se tomaron espectros infrarrojos en hojas con niveles de amarillamiento diferentes según la clasificación empleada por los agricultores (asintomáticas, síntomas intermedios y hojasdeformadas con síntomas avanzados. Mediante un análisis de componentes principales y con los valores de los espectros de esas muestras, se desarrolló un modelo de clasificación de hojas. Ese modelo aplicado en espectros de hojas tomados al azar separó adecuadamente el grupo de espectros NIR de hojas asintomáticas de un grupo indiferenciado de espectros obtenidos de hojas consíntomas intermedios o avanzados. Los resultados sugieren que para esta enfermedad es posible desarrollar un modelo de detección en muestras problema. Para ello, se requerirá incorporar al modelo un mayor número de muestras en rangos de enfermedad bien definidos. Estos resultados permiten vislumbrar las posibilidades del uso de esta técnica no destructiva, para detección temprana de los síntomas del amarillamiento foliar en crisantemo y como herramienta para el diseño de estrategias oportunas y efectivas demanejo de esta y otras enfermedades en las plantas. / Abstract. The safe diagnostic of plant diseases depends on expensive techniques which require time and specialized training. This study evaluated the use of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIR for the rapid detection of “chrysanthemum leaf yellowing”, a disease of unknown etiology causing important economic losses in Antioquia’s chrysanthemum main producing areas

  17. Saccharose action on chrysanthemum cut inflorescences, Dendranthema grandiflorum Kitamura, after exposition to gamma radiation; Acao da sacarose na manutencao de inflorescencias cortadas de crisantemo, Dendranthema grandiflorum Kitamura, apos exposicao a radiacao gama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kikuchi, Olivia Kimiko

    1998-07-01

    During the last years the Brazilian floriculture expanded and it is expected to achieve a prominent role in near future. The national territory has many favorable regions, with adequate climate for the development of commercially important cultures. Flower exportation is not expressive yet, but the country has conditions to become a great exotic tropical plants exporter. On the other hand, developed countries, as USA and Japan, have a rigorous phyto sanitary inspection to prevent the introduction of new plagues and diseases through fresh products. Ionizing radiation is considered a reliable disinfestation method to control numerous fruit and flower plagues. The aim of of this work was to verify the tolerance of some Compositae family flowers to ionizing radiation and the effects to sucrose action in protecting the flowers against the gamma-radiation induced damages. This was done by measuring biochemical and physiological parameters as a function of time after irradiation. The chrysanthemum flowers were sensitive to gamma radiation, but when the inflorescences were supplied after irradiation with preservative solution containing 2% sucrose, protection against the damaging effects of radiation was achieved. The dose of 750 Gy, considered appropriate for disinfestation purpose, did not modify the protein and lipid levels, nor plasma, tonoplast and mitochondria membrane ATPase or mitochondria cytochrome-c oxidase activities. The ethylene and carbonic gas rate production increased soon after the irradiation, but decreased one day later. The decrease of the microsomal membrane fluidity and the increase of the chrysanthemum were the most sensitive parameters to measure the irradiation treatment changes. The sucrose supply was able to maintain the irradiated flowers membrane fluidity level close to the unirradiated control. Rhodante manglesii Lindl and Helichrysum bracteatum Andr. were tolerant up to 1 KGy, thus being adequate to be disinfected by gamma radiation. (author)

  18. Cultivation of chrysanthemum without substrate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eveleens-Clark, B.A.; Blok, C.

    2014-01-01

    In The Netherlands there are 700 hectares of cut flowers in soil. Recent studies have shown that mineral fertilizers used can seep into the subsoil and eventually cause high levels of nitrogen and phosphate in the surrounding environment. Therefore the goal of this experiment was to find a system

  19. Ocorrência do vírus do mosqueado do morangueiro no estado de São Paulo Occurrence of the strawberry mottle virus in São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria B. Carvalho

    1961-01-01

    Full Text Available Verificou-se a ocorrência de estirpes do vírus do grupo denominado mosqueado («strawberry mottle» em plantações de morangueiro no Estado de São Paulo. Variedades antigas, como a Dr. Morère. acham-se totalmente infetatas. sendo portadoras sem sintomas. Alguns clones novos plantados apenas por poucos anos em campo, já se acham parcialmente infetados, indicando que há transmissão da moléstia sob condições naturais. Sintomas de palidez das nervuras, mosqueado, paralisação no crescimento e encrespamento são apresentados por plantas de Fragaria vesca infetadas pelos vírus dêsse grupo. Numerosas espécies de plantas-teste habituais foram inoculadas com diferentes isolados do vírus, por meio do vetor, mas os resultados foram geralmente negativos. Afídios virulíferos, colonizados sôbre plantas novas de Cassia accidentalis, Chenopodiam quinoa, Leonotis nepaetifolia e Leonurus sibiricus. induziram o aparecimento de sintomas. Não se conseguiu retransmitir o vírus dessas espécies para F. vesca, existindo, portanto, dúvidas sôbre a verdadeira identidade do vírus que infetava tais plantas. O vírus do mosqueado não foi aparentemente transmitido pela semente. Também não se mostrou transmissível mecânicamente para Frogaria vesca. O virus obtido por inoculação com o vetor em Chenopodium quinoa e que se supõe ser o do mosqueado, pôde se transmitido mecânicamente de C. quinoa para C. quinoa. mas não para F. vesca. O pulgão Pentatrichopus fragaefolii mostrou-se eficiente vetor do mosqueado, conseguindo-se obter em média mais de 50% de infecção em infestações com 1 afidio por planta. Aphis gossypii também transmitiu o vírus do mosqueado, mas com muito menor eficiência. Não se conseguiu transmitir o mosqueado com uma espécie de Cuscuta que ocorre comumeute em Campinas. Em testes de transmissão por enxertia de fôlhas, os resultados foram muito fracos devido ao mau pegamento. O pulgão Pentatrichopus fragaefolii

  20. The Significance of Wild Plants in the Evolutionary Ecology of Three Major Viruses Infecting Cultivated Sweetpotato in Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Tugume Kajungu, Arthur

    2010-01-01

    The studies presented in this thesis contribute to the understanding of evolutionary ecology of three major viruses threatening cultivated sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas Lam) in East Africa: Sweet potato feathery mottle virus (SPFMV; genus Potyvirus; Potyviridae), Sweet potato chlorotic stunt virus (SPCSV; genus Crinivirus; Closteroviridae) and Sweet potato mild mottle virus (SPMMV; genus Ipomovirus; Potyviridae). The viruses were serologically detected and the positive results confirmed b...

  1. Manejo da irrigação na cultura do crisântemo em vaso, cultivar rage, cultivado em ambiente protegido Irrigation schedule in pot chrysanthemum, cultivar rage, grown in greenhouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryzélia F. de Farias

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Dentre as dificuldades que os produtores têm encontrado ao adotarem o cultivo em ambiente protegido, destaca-se a falta de dados específicos sobre o uso racional da água e o desconhecimento da quantidade e do momento de irrigar. Esta pesquisa foi desenvolvida na propriedade de um produtor, no Distrito de Holambra II, região de Paranapanema - SP, em cultivos rotineiramente desenvolvidos pelo produtor, buscando melhor representatividade dos dados obtidos. O objetivo principal deste experimento foi identificar a tensão de água no solo que pudesse resultar em melhor qualidade comercial da cultivar de crisântemo "Rage", cultivado em vaso e mantido em ambiente protegido. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado, com duas repetições. Os tratamentos foram definidos por seis níveis de tensão de água: -2; -3; -4; -6; -10 e -30 kPa. Para cada tensão, foram calculadas a altura correspondente na coluna de mercúrio do tensiômetro, as lâminas e o tempo de irrigação. Os resultados obtidos demonstraram que a cultivar Rage obteve a maior porcentagem de vasos de alta qualidade (A1 no tratamento irrigado com a tensão de -4 kPa. O tratamento irrigado, quando atingia -30 kPa, resultou na menor porcentagem de vasos A1.The most important difficulty that the producers have been found to adopt the cultivation in plastic greenhouses is the lack of specific data on the rational use of the water and informations about when and how much water apply. This research was developed in a farm in Paranapanema - SP, Brazil, with tradition in pot chrysanthemum grow. The main objective was to identify the soil water tension that could result in better commercial quality of chrysanthemum Rage, cultivated in pot and maintained in greenhouse. The treatments were defined for six levels of substrate water tension: -2; -3; -4; -6; -10 and -30 kPa. The irrigation time was defined for each tension and also the equivalent height int the mercury column of

  2. EVALUACIÓN DE DOS TRATAMIENTOS FOTOPERIÓDICOS EN CRISANTEMO (Dendranthema grandiflorum (Ramat. Kitam., BAJO CONDICIONES DEL INTERTRÓPICO ANDINO ALTO EVALUATION OF TWO PHOTOPERIOD TREATMENTS IN CHRYSANTHEMUM (Dendranthema grandiflorum ((Ramat. Kitam., UNDER CONDITIONS OF HIGH ANDEAN INTERTROPIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fáber de Jesús Chica Toro

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available En la floricultura colombiana, cerca del 14 % de los costos de producción del crisantemo o pompón (Dendranthema grandiflorum (Ramat. Kitam., está representado por la luz complementaria requerida para controlar su floración. Con el fin de encontrar un protocolo que hiciera uso de un menor suministro de luz, en este trabajo se compararon los efectos de dos esquemas de complemento lumínico nocturno sobre algunas características precosecha y poscosecha en dos variedades comerciales tipo spider de crisantemo: Super White y Super Yellow. El esquema testigo de suplemento lumínico nocturno consistió en aportar la adición durante 28 días para la variedad Super Yellow, y 26 para la variedad Super White. La propuesta alternativa de adición lumínica nocturna consistió en interrumpir el estímulo durante una noche completa cada dos días. Tal disminución del estímulo lumínico, en aproximadamente un 30 %, no afectó el crecimiento ni las características poscosecha de las variedades evaluadas.In Colombian floriculture, nearly 14% of the production costs of chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflorum (Ramat. Kitam. consists of the additional lighting required to control its flowering. In order to find a protocol that consumes a lower amount of electricity, this study compared the effects of two supplementary noctural lighting schemes on several preharvest and postharvest characteristics in two commercial varieties of chrysanthemum: Super White and Super Yellow. The control nocturnal lighting scheme consisted of providing the supplemental lighting during 28 days for the Super Yellow variety and during 26 days for the Super White variety. The alternative nocturnal lighting scheme consisted of interrupting the stimulus during one complete night every two days. This approximately 30% reduction in light stimulation did not affect either growth or postharvest characteristics of the varieties evaluated.

  3. The Protective Effects of the Supercritical-Carbon Dioxide Fluid Extract of Chrysanthemum indicum against Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Acute Lung Injury in Mice via Modulating Toll-Like Receptor 4 Signaling Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Li Wu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The supercritical-carbon dioxide fluid extract of Chrysanthemum indicum Linné. (CFE has been demonstrated to be effective in suppressing inflammation. The aim of this study is to investigate the preventive action and underlying mechanisms of CFE on acute lung injury (ALI induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS in mice. ALI was induced by intratracheal instillation of LPS into lung, and dexamethasone was used as a positive control. Results revealed that pretreatment with CFE abated LPS-induced lung histopathologic changes, reduced the wet/dry ratio and proinflammatory cytokines productions (TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6, inhibited inflammatory cells migrations and protein leakages, suppressed the levels of MPO and MDA, and upregulated the abilities of antioxidative enzymes (SOD, CAT, and GPx. Furthermore, the pretreatment with CFE downregulated the activations of NF-κB and the expressions of TLR4/MyD88. These results suggested that CFE exerted potential protective effects against LPS-induced ALI in mice and was a potential therapeutic drug for ALI. Its mechanisms were at least partially associated with the modulations of TLR4 signaling pathways.

  4. Position of the axillary bud and mutation induction in Chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflora Tzvelev) plant lets; Posicao da gema axilar e a inducao de mutacao em mudas de crisantemo (Dendranthema grandiflora Tzvelev)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adames, Alvis Hernan; Latado, Rodrigo Rocha; Camargo, Nalza Maria; Tulmann Neto, Augusto [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Melhoramento de Plantas. E-mail: rrlatado@cena.usp.br

    1999-12-01

    Mutagenic treatment of multicellular meristems from vegetatively propagated plants generally results in the formation of chimeric plants. Mutated sectors can be increased and stabilized through the cutting-back method. The objective of the present research was to study the influence of application of this method in the M{sub 1}V{sub 2} population, originated from six different axillary buds from the M{sub 1}V{sub 1} chrysanthemum branches. For this purpose, rooted plants of the cultivar Ingrid (dark ping) were irradiated with 20 Gy of gamma-rays and the prune was carried out 40 days after planting. Frequency and spectrum of flower color mutants were evaluated. No mutants were observed in the control population. In the M{sub 1}V{sub 1} population, 22.1% of the total plants were mutants (white color, dark bronze, pale pink, yellow, wine, variegated and cream). Among them, 1.8% were periclinal chimeras (with only one different color from the original) and the others showed mutated sectors. No differences were observed in mutation frequency and size of mutated sector among six M{sub 1}V{sub 1} populations. The wine colored mutant was selected, multiplied and evaluated in a yield trial. This mutant named Magali was multiplied and was released as a new cultivar. (author)

  5. CORRELATION BETWEEN OZONE EXPOSURE AND VISIBLE FOLIAR INJURY IN PONDEROSA AND JEFFREY PINES. (R825433)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozone exposure was related to ozone-induced visible foliar injury in ponderosa and Jeffrey pines growing on the western slopes of the Sierra Nevada Mountains of California. Measurements of ozone exposure, chlorotic mottle and fascicle retention were collected during the years ...

  6. Photochemical smog effects in mixed conifer forests along a natural gradient of ozone and nitrogen deposition in the San Bernardino Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael Arbaugh; Andrzej Bytnerowicz; Nancy Grulke; Mark Fenn; Mark Poth; Patrick Temple; Paul Miller

    2003-01-01

    Toxic effects of photochemical smog on ponderosa and Jeffrey pines in the San Bernardino Mountains were discovered in the 1950s. It was revealed that ozone is the main cause of foliar injury manifested as chlorotic mottle and premature needle senescence. Various morphological, physiological and biochemical alterations in the affected plants have been reported over a...

  7. Role of Electrostatics in the assembly pathway of a single-stranded RNA virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garmann, R.F.; Comas-Garcia, M.; Koay, M.S.T.; Cornelissen, Jeroen Johannes Lambertus Maria; Knobler, C.M.; Gelbart, W.M.

    2014-01-01

    We have recently discovered (R. D. Cadena-Nava et al., J. Virol. 86:3318–3326, 2012, doi:10.1128/JVI.06566-11) that the in vitro packaging of RNA by the capsid protein (CP) of cowpea chlorotic mottle virus is optimal when there is a significant excess of CP, specifically that complete packaging of

  8. Solution scattering studies on a virus capsid protein as a building block for nanoscale assemblies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Comellas Aragones, M.; Comellas-Aragones, Marta; Sikkema, Friso D.; Delaittre, Guillaume; Terry, Ann E.; King, Stephen M.; Visser, Dirk; Heenan, Richard K.; Nolte, Roeland J.M.; Cornelissen, Jeroen Johannes Lambertus Maria; Feiters, Martin C.

    2011-01-01

    Self-assembled protein cages are versatile building blocks in the construction of biomolecular nanostructures. Because of the defined assembly behaviour the cowpea chlorotic mottle virus (CCMV) protein is often used for such applications. Here we report a detailed solution scattering study of the

  9. Exploiting Fluorescent Polymers To Probe the Self-Assembly of Virus-like Particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caden-Nava, Ruben D.; Hu, Yufang; Garmann, Rees F.

    2011-01-01

    , for example, poly(styrene sulfonate) (PSS), forming virus-like particles (VLPs). We have demonstrated recently that the VLPs formed from cowpea chlorotic mottle virus (CCMV) capsid protein increase in size (from T = 2 to T = 3 structures) upon increase in PSS molecular weight (from 400 kDa to 3.4MDa...

  10. Regional variation in otolith Sr:Ca ratios of African longfinned eel Anguilla mossambica and mottled eel Anguilla marmorata: a challenge to the classic tool for reconstructing migratory histories of fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Y-J; Jessop, B M; Weyl, O L F; Iizuka, Y; Lin, S-H; Tzeng, W-N; Sun, C-L

    2012-07-01

    Otolith Sr:Ca ratios of the African longfinned eel Anguilla mossambica and giant mottled eel Anguilla marmorata from nine freshwater sites in four rivers of South Africa were analysed to reconstruct their migratory life histories between freshwater and saltwater habitats. For A. mossambica, the Sr:Ca ratios in the otolith edge differed significantly among rivers and had large effect sizes, but did not differ among sites within a river. Otolith Sr:Ca ratios did not differ among rivers for A. marmorata. When rivers were pooled, the edge Sr:Ca ratios of A. mossambica were not significantly different from those of A. marmorata. According to the river-specific critical Sr:Ca ratio distinguishing freshwater from saltwater residence, most A. mossambica and A. marmorata had saltwater habitat experience after settlement in fresh water. This was primarily during their elver stage or early in the yellow eel stage. During the middle and late yellow eel stage, freshwater residency was preferred and only sporadic visits were made to saltwater habitats. The data also suggest that regional variations in otolith Sr:Ca ratios affect the critical Sr:Ca value and are a challenge for the reconstruction of migratory life histories that should be explicitly considered to avoid bias and uncertainty. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Fish Biology © 2012 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  11. Technical and economic feasibility of the use of discharge lamps in replacement of filament for induction of photoperiod in chrysanthemum seedlings production; Viabilidade tecnico-economica do uso de lampadas de descarga em substituicao as de filamento para inducao de fotoperiodo na producao de mudas de crisantemos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossi, Luiz A.; David, Eduardo [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (FEAGRI/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Agricola], E-mail: rossi@feagri.unicamp.br; Pagliardi, Odail [Faculdade Municipal Prof. Franco Montoro (FMPFM), Mogi Guacu, SP (Brazil); Sarubbi, Juliana [Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (CESNORS/UFSM), Palmeira das Missoes, RS (Brazil). Centro de Educacao Superior Norte-RS

    2010-07-01

    Due to its physiological characteristics, the seedlings of chrysanthemums require supplemental light to prevent bud formation, that is done at night. This article examines the technical and economic valuation to replace the current technology of artificial lighting used by producers (incandescent bulbs) for the purpose of inducing photoperiod in a protected environment for cutting-discharge lamps, with the goal of reducing the consumption electricity used in the process. The analysis showed that the integrated compact fluorescent yellow lamp 23W is the technically and economically feasible for such replacement. (author)

  12. Condutividade elétrica da solução nutritiva e acúmulo de macro e micronutrientes no cultivo de crisântemo Electrical conductivity of nutrient solution on growth and nutrient accumulation in chrysanthemum plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poliana Rocha D'Almeida Mota

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A análise de crescimento com base no acúmulo de fitomassa e na marcha de absorção de nutrientes são importantes para determinar as épocas da maior demanda nutricional, de modo a programar a fertirrigação. Assim, esta pesquisa tem como objetivo determinar o crescimento e o acúmulo de nutrientes em plantas de crisântemo desenvolvidas em diferentes níveis de condutividade elétrica (CE da solução nutritiva. Realizou-se experimento em casa de vegetação, utilizando o delineamento de blocos casualizados com cinco tratamentos e quatro repetições. Os tratamentos corresponderam aos níveis de CE da solução aplicada, com valores de 1,42; 1,65; 1,89; 2,13 e 2,36 dS m¹(fase vegetativa e 1,71; 1,97; 2,28; 2,57 e 2,85 dS m¹(fase de botão. Após o enraizamento das estacas, determinou-se a fitomassa seca da parte aérea e realizou-se a análise química dos macronutrientes e micronutrientes a cada quatorze dias. Os nutrientes tiveram a seguinte ordem de absorção: K>N>Ca>P>Mg>S (1425, 892, 184, 150, 110 e 59 mg planta¹ e Fe>Zn>B>Mn>Cu (2254, 2219, 1725, 1287,210 µg planta¹. Grande parte dos nutrientes tem seu teor aumentado com a elevação do nível da CE da solução, sem que haja efeito salino até a CE de 2,85 dS m¹The study of growth and uptake of nutrients is important to determine the times of increased demand in order to schedule the fertigation. The present research was developed with the objective of evaluating the effects of different levels of electrical conductivity on growth and accumulation of nutrients in chrysanthemum plants under greenhouse conditions. The electri- cal conductivity levels on the applied solution were 1. 42, 1. 65, 1. 89, 2. 13 and 2. 36 dS m¹(bud vegetative stage; 1. 71, 1. 97, 2. 28, 2. 57 and 2. 85 dS m¹(bud stage. The dry mass of the aerial portion of the plant and the contents of macronutrients and micronutrients were determined every 14 days. The nutrient accumulation in chrysanthemum plant

  13. Condutividade elétrica da solução nutritiva e acúmulo de macro e micronutrientes no cultivo de crisântemo Electrical conductivity of nutrient solution on growth and nutrient accumulation in chrysanthemum plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poliana Rocha D'Almeida Mota

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A análise de crescimento com base no acúmulo de fitomassa e na marcha de absorção de nutrientes são importantes para determinar as épocas da maior demanda nutricional, de modo a programar a fertirrigação. Assim, esta pesquisa tem como objetivo determinar o crescimento e o acúmulo de nutrientes em plantas de crisântemo desenvolvidas em diferentes níveis de condutividade elétrica (CE da solução nutritiva. Realizou-se experimento em casa de vegetação, utilizando o delineamento de blocos casualizados com cinco tratamentos e quatro repetições. Os tratamentos corresponderam aos níveis de CE da solução aplicada, com valores de 1,42; 1,65; 1,89; 2,13 e 2,36 dS m¹(fase vegetativa e 1,71; 1,97; 2,28; 2,57 e 2,85 dS m¹(fase de botão. Após o enraizamento das estacas, determinou-se a fitomassa seca da parte aérea e realizou-se a análise química dos macronutrientes e micronutrientes a cada quatorze dias. Os nutrientes tiveram a seguinte ordem de absorção: K>N>Ca>P>Mg>S (1425, 892, 184, 150, 110 e 59 mg planta¹ e Fe>Zn>B>Mn>Cu (2254, 2219, 1725, 1287,210 µg planta¹. Grande parte dos nutrientes tem seu teor aumentado com a elevação do nível da CE da solução, sem que haja efeito salino até a CE de 2,85 dS m¹The study of growth and uptake of nutrients is important to determine the times of increased demand in order to schedule the fertigation. The present research was developed with the objective of evaluating the effects of different levels of electrical conductivity on growth and accumulation of nutrients in chrysanthemum plants under greenhouse conditions. The electri- cal conductivity levels on the applied solution were 1. 42, 1. 65, 1. 89, 2. 13 and 2. 36 dS m¹(bud vegetative stage; 1. 71, 1. 97, 2. 28, 2. 57 and 2. 85 dS m¹(bud stage. The dry mass of the aerial portion of the plant and the contents of macronutrients and micronutrients were determined every 14 days. The nutrient accumulation in chrysanthemum plant

  14. Solarização do solo para o controle de Pythium e plantas daninhas em cultura de crisântemo Soil solarization for Pithium and weed control in chrysanthemum crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Bettiol

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available A solarização, durante dois meses, de um solo naturalmente infestado com Pythium, promoveu o controle do patógeno, de modo semelhante à aplicação de metalaxyl + mancozeb, na cultura de crisântemo. A incidência média de plantas mortas foi de 2,3% nas parcelas solarizadas; 1,0% no solo solarizado que recebeu metade da dose dos fungicidas; 9,0% com a aplicação da dose completa dos fungicidas (1 g de metalaxyl + 4,8 g de mancozeb/m² e 38,9%, na testemunha não tratada. A solarização também promoveu o controle de plantas daninhas, avaliado através do peso da matéria seca das plantas emergentes aos 21 dias após o transplante das mudas, semelhantemente ao herbicida oxidiazon.Two months solarization of a soil naturally infested with Pythium sp. promoted a level of control similar to what was obtained with the application of methalaxyl + mancozeb for the chrysanthemum crop. The average rate of dead plants was 9.0% with the application of fungicides (1 g of methalaxyl + 4.8 g of mancozeb/ m²; 2.3% in solarized plots; 1.0% in solarized plots which received half the dosages of the fungicides and 38.9% in control plots. Similar control of weeds was obtained in solarized plots and plots treated with the herbicide oxidiazon.

  15. Evaluation of the suitability of a plant virus, pepper mild mottle virus, as a surrogate of human enteric viruses for assessment of the efficacy of coagulation-rapid sand filtration to remove those viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirasaki, N; Matsushita, T; Matsui, Y; Yamashita, R

    2018-02-01

    Here, we evaluated the removal of three representative human enteric viruses - adenovirus (AdV) type 40, coxsackievirus (CV) B5, and hepatitis A virus (HAV) IB - and one surrogate of human caliciviruses - murine norovirus (MNV) type 1 - by coagulation-rapid sand filtration, using water samples from eight water sources for drinking water treatment plants in Japan. The removal ratios of a plant virus (pepper mild mottle virus; PMMoV) and two bacteriophages (MS2 and φX174) were compared with the removal ratios of human enteric viruses to assess the suitability of PMMoV, MS2, and φX174 as surrogates for human enteric viruses. The removal ratios of AdV, CV, HAV, and MNV, evaluated via the real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method, were 0.8-2.5-log 10 when commercially available polyaluminum chloride (PACl, basicity 1.5) and virgin silica sand were used as the coagulant and filter medium, respectively. The type of coagulant affected the virus removal efficiency, but the age of silica sand used in the rapid sand filtration did not. Coagulation-rapid sand filtration with non-sulfated, high-basicity PACls (basicity 2.1 or 2.5) removed viruses more efficiently than the other aluminum-based coagulants. The removal ratios of MS2 were sometimes higher than those of the three human enteric viruses and MNV, whereas the removal ratios of φX174 tended to be smaller than those of the three human enteric viruses and MNV. In contrast, the removal ratios of PMMoV were similar to and strongly correlated with those of the three human enteric viruses and MNV. Thus, PMMoV appears to be a suitable surrogate for human enteric viruses for the assessment of the efficacy of coagulation-rapid sand filtration to remove viruses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Rapid Development of Microsatellite Markers with 454 Pyrosequencing in a Vulnerable Fish, the Mottled Skate, Raja pulchra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung-Ha Kang

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The mottled skate, Raja pulchra, is an economically valuable fish. However, due to a severe population decline, it is listed as a vulnerable species by the International Union for Conservation of Nature. To analyze its genetic structure and diversity, microsatellite markers were developed using 454 pyrosequencing. A total of 17,033 reads containing dinucleotide microsatellite repeat units (mean, 487 base pairs were identified from 453,549 reads. Among 32 loci containing more than nine repeat units, 20 primer sets (62% produced strong PCR products, of which 14 were polymorphic. In an analysis of 60 individuals from two R. pulchra populations, the number of alleles per locus ranged from 1–10, and the mean allelic richness was 4.7. No linkage disequilibrium was found between any pair of loci, indicating that the markers were independent. The Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium test showed significant deviation in two of the 28 single-loci after sequential Bonferroni’s correction. Using 11 primer sets, cross-species amplification was demonstrated in nine related species from four families within two classes. Among the 11 loci amplified from three other Rajidae family species; three loci were polymorphic. A monomorphic locus was amplified in all three Rajidae family species and the Dasyatidae family. Two Rajidae polymorphic loci amplified monomorphic target DNAs in four species belonging to the Carcharhiniformes class, and another was polymorphic in two Carcharhiniformes species.

  17. "Mancha-cafe" em soja: seleção para resistência e interação entre genótipos e épocas de inoculação Seedcoat mottling in soybeans: selection for resistance and interaction between genotypes and inoculation date

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luiz Lourençao

    1996-01-01

    infectadas no estádio vegetativo. Esses resultados fortalecem a diretriz utilizada no programa de melhoramento da Seção de Leguminosas do IAC: a de eliminar plantas e/ou linhagens com incidência de "mancha-café".The soybean mosaic virus (SMV is widespread in all soybean production areas. The mottled brown seed is the most characteristic symptom under our conditions, so in Brazil the disease was called "mancha-café" (coffee-spot. The mottling was the main limiting factor to the seed production in the certification system. The present paper had two objetives: screenning lines with different levels of mottled seeds, and to verify the interaction between selected genotypes and inoculation dates. During 1987, 131 F4:5 experimental lines from the cross IAC78-2318 x Santa Rosa, both susceptible to SMV, were evaluated under field conditions in Campinas (SP, Brazil. In the next year, seventeen selected lines plus the cultivars Santa Rosa, representing the five levels of mottling were planted again under field conditions in randomized complete-block design, with six replications. The results showed that the screenning realized in the field was efficient to identify the lines with different levels of mottled seeds. It was also observed that this characteristic was not much influenced by environmental effects as indicated by the positive and high correlation between diseases notes of both years, as well as the low value of the coefficient of variation. An additional study was carried out under greenhouse conditions to evaluate genotypes in distinct growth stages when mechanically inoculated with the virus. It consisted of a factorial experiment, involving a non-inoculated control, three inoculation times, and five lines representing notes from 1 to 5, plus the cultivars Santa Rosa, IAC-Santa Rosa PC and IAC-Santa Rosa DF. The genotypes were sowed in plastic bags and at the maturity, the following evaluations were made: the mottled seed rate, seed production (g/3 plants, mass (g of

  18. Utilização agrícola de lodo industrial como fonte de zinco na cultura do crisântemo Agricultural use of industrial sludge as a source of Zn for chrysanthemum cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano F. Lopes

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available A utilização de lodo industrial inorgânico em substratos comerciais ou como fonte de nutrientes, é prática bem recente. O lodo produzido pela indústria de galvanoplastia-zincagem apresenta elevados teores de nutrientes como Zn, Fe, e Ca que, dependendo das doses utilizadas em solos e substratos, podem causar toxidez às plantas. No presente experimento foi utilizado um substrato comercial onde foram adicionadas doses crescentes do lodo industrial de galvanoplastia-zincagem para o cultivo de crisântemo, variedade Rage, em cultivo protegido. As doses do lodo industrial utilizadas foram de 0,0; 0,38; 0,75; 1,50; 3,0; 6,0; 9,0 e 12,0 g L-1 de substrato. Após 12 semanas de cultivo foram avaliadas as seguintes variáveis: pH e condutividade elétrica do substrato, teor de Zn na parte aérea da planta e no substrato, altura da planta (ALT, massa seca da parte aérea (MSPA, massa seca das inflorescências (MSF e massa seca do sistema radicular (MSR. A adição do lodo industrial no substrato, na dose de 0,38 g L-1, promoveu um pequeno incremento de ALT, MSPA e MSR. Este comportamento indica que o lodo industrial pode fornecer nutrientes à cultura. Nas doses superiores a 3 g L-1 ocorreu acentuada queda da produção devido ao desbalanço nutricional associado à fitotoxidez de Zn e elevada condutividade elétrica do substrato.The use of inorganic industrial sludge as a source of nutrients in growing media is a recent practice. The sludge produced by the zinc-galvanic industry has a high concentration of plant nutrients such as Zn, Fe and Ca that, depending on the doses used in soils and growing media, could be toxic to the plants. In the present experiment a commercial organic substrate was used by adding increasing doses of an industrial sludge produced by a zinc-galvanic industry. Doses of industrial sludge (0.0; 0.38; 0.75; 1.50; 3.0; 6.0; 9.0 and 12.0 g L-1 of the growing media were applied to the chrysanthemum cv. Rage, cultivated in a

  19. Flavonoids and volatiles in Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-06-21

    Jun 21, 2010 ... MAPK, mitogen-activated protein kinase; CB2, cannabinoid ... Ramat, a high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) ... Extraction of C. morifolium Ramat flower ... used for soluble solids determination and HPLC analysis of ..... tn+1 and tn, the retention time of alkane with 'n+1' and 'n' carbon atoms.

  20. Is a {mu}mol a {mu}mol? Growth and development of chrysanthemum cultivated under SON-T lighting and under LED-lighting; Is a {mu}mol a {mu}mol? Groei en ontwikkeling van chrysant geteeld onder SON-T belichting en onder LED verlichting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meinen, E.; Marcelis, L.F.M.; Steenhuizen, J.W.; Dueck, T.A.

    2009-12-15

    Description of an experiment that was conducted, comparing LED lamps and SON-T (high pressure sodium) lamps. In climate rooms with LED (96% red sodium lamps) or SON-T lamps (without daylight), chrysanthemums were cultivated at two light intensities. Although the air temperature was the same in both treatments, the leaf temperature was clearly higher in the case of SON-T as a result of heat radiation. In the case of LED a more round leaves were observed. Plants cultivated under SON-T light developed closed crops much quicker and required a shorter reaction time (10 to 14 days at high and low light intensity). Yet, the harvest weight of the branches was the same. The net leaf photosynthesis was lower in chrysanthemums cultivated under LED lighting compared to plants cultivated under SON-T lighting. This is probably due to long-term cultivation under a spectrum of almost exclusively red light. The differences between SON-T and LED with regard to light color and heat radiation have significant consequences for growth and development. [Dutch] Een experiment is uitgevoerd om LED lampen en SON-T (hogedruk natriumlampen) lampen te vergelijken. In klimaatkamers met LED (96% rood en 4% blauw) of SON-T lampen (zonder daglichttoetreding) werden chrysanten geteeld bij 2 lichtintensiteiten. Hoewel de luchttemperatuur identiek was bij beide behandelingen was de bladtemperatuur duidelijk hoger bij SON-T als gevolg van warmtestraling. Onder LED belichting werd meer 'bol blad' waargenomen. Planten geteeld onder SON-T belichting ontwikkelden sneller een gesloten gewas en hadden een kortere reactietijd (10 tot 14 dagen bij hoge en lage lichtintensiteit). Maar het oogstgewicht van de takken was gelijk. De netto actuele bladfotosynthese was lager bij chrysanten geteeld onder LED belichting vergeleken met planten geteeld onder SON-T belichting. Dit is waarschijnlijk toe te schrijven aan langdurige teelt onder een spectrum met vrijwel alleen rood licht. De verschillen tussen SON

  1. Avaliação de seletividade de produtos fitossanitários utilizados na cultura do crisântemo a adultos de Orius insidiosus (Say, 1832 (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae em laboratório Selectivity of pesticides used on chrysanthemum crop to adults of Orius insidiosus (Say, 1832 (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Augusto Morais

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar a seletividade de produtos fitossanitários utilizados na cultura do crisântemo a adultos de Orius insidiosus (Say. Os bioensaios foram conduzidos a 25±1oC, UR 70±10% e fotofase de 12h, em Lavras, MG. Os inseticidas avaliados foram abamectina (0,0009 g i.a./100 ml, cartap (0,06 g i.a./100 ml, ciromazina (0,011 g i.a./100 ml, fenpropatrina (0,009 g i.a./100 ml e imidaclopride (0,042 g i.a./100 ml. As pulverizações foram realizadas por meio de torre de Potter calibrada a 15 lb/pol2, com volume de 1,5±0,5 mg de calda/cm2, sobre casais de O. insidiosus. Avaliou-se a ação dos produtos sobre a mortalidade, oviposição, fertilidade e capacidade predatória dos adultos. Abamectina, fenpropatrina e imidaclopride foram altamente tóxicos aos adultos de O. insidiosus, e ciromazina e cartap apresentaram moderada toxicidade. Ciromazina e cartap apresentam possibilidades de serem recomendados em programas de manejo integrado de pragas na cultura do crisântemo.The goal of this research was to evaluate the selectivity of products used in the chrysanthemum crop to adults of Orius insidiosus (Say. The experiments were kept under controlled conditions at 25±1oC, RH 70±10% and L/D 12:12 h, in Lavras, MG, Brazil. The insecticides evaluated were abamectin (0.0009 g a.i./100 ml, cartap (0.06 g a.i./100 ml, cyromazine (0.011 g a.i./100 ml, fenpropathrin (0.009 g a.i./100 ml and imidacloprid (0.042 g a.i./100 ml. The sprays were done using Potter's tower calibrated to 15 lb/pol2, applying volume of 1.5±0.5 mg of solution/cm2. The applications were realized directly in the pairs of O. insidiosus. It was evaluated the action of the products on mortality, oviposition, fertility and the adult's predatory capacity. Abamectin, fenpropathrin and imidacloprid were highly harmful to the adults of O. insidiosus. Cyromazine and cartap were moderately toxic. Cyromazine and cartap presented possibilities of being recommended in integrated pest

  2. Cherry Necrotic Rusty Mottle and Cherry Green Ring Mottle Viruses in Czech Cherry Germplasm

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Špak, Josef; Přibylová, Jaroslava; Šafářová, D.; Lenz, Ondřej; Koloniuk, Igor; Navrátil, M.; Fránová, Jana; Špaková, Vlastimila; Paprštein, F.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 4 (2017), s. 195-200 ISSN 1212-2580 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LD14004 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : double-stranded-rna * 1st report * detection Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology OBOR OECD: Virology Impact factor: 0.742, year: 2016

  3. Seasonal recovery of chlorotic needles in Scotch pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerry K. Jones; Jerry K. Jones

    1971-01-01

    As part of a research project on Christmas trees being carried on by the USDA Forest Service's Northeastern Forest Experiment Station, the author made a cooperative study of how discolored needles recover their normal color in February and April. Though this does not solve the Christmas tree growers' problem, it does shed some light on the process involved in...

  4. Molecular variability analyses of Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The highest degree of variability was observed in the middle portion with 9 amino acid substitutions in contrast to the N-terminal and C-terminal ends, which were maximally conserved with only 4 amino acid substitutions. In phylogenetic analysis no reasonable correlation between host species and/or geographic origin of ...

  5. The perspective of sweetpotato chlorotic stunt virus in sweetpotato ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The virus is transmitted by the whitefly species, Bemisia tabaci and Trialeurodes abutilonea, in a semi-persistent fashion. ... yields being small, and the major effect of SPCSV in constraining the yields of sweetpotato is perhaps through preventing the cultivation of high yielding but SPVD-susceptible sweetpotato cultivars.

  6. Molecular variability analyses of Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Plant Virology Lab, Institute of Himalayan Bioresource Technology, Palampur 176 061, India ... to detect possible heterogeneity and evolution. 2. Materials and ..... of flower petals and buds. .... Recently, classification for ACLSV-CP based on.

  7. Control de Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (lib. de Bary en Crisantemo y Habichuela con diferentes aislamientos de Trichoderma y con fungicidas Control of Sclerotínía sclerotíorum (lib de Bary in Chrysanthemum and snap bean with different isolates of Tríchoderma and with fungicides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delgado de Kallman Liliana

    1990-12-01

    Full Text Available

    El trabajo consistió en seleccionar, incrementar, aplicar y evaluar la actividad antagónica de algunos aislamientos· del género Tríehoderma sobre el patógeno Scterotinía scterotiorum in vitro y en el campo en cultivos de crisantemo y habichuela, así como evaluar la eficiencia de algunos fungicidas en el control de las mismas enfermedades. Los aislamientos T10 de Tríchoderma víríde y T12 de Tríehoderma hamatúm se seleccionaron como los mejores antagonistas
    del patógeno por su mayor inhibición del crecimiento del micelio, sobre la formaéión de esclerociós y la mayor esporulación sobre el patógeno. Los aislamientos con mayor
    capacidad antagonista se evaluaron en el campo. Se evidenció la existencia de diferencias marcadas en el antagonismo entre los aislamientos de Tríehoderma utilizados. En los ensayos de campo se estableció que la
    enfermedad se presentó en el primero y segundo
    tercio de la planta, lo que indica que el control con fungicidas debe ir dirigido preferencialmente a esas partes de la planta. Se evalu6 además la eficiencia de las aplicaciones de los fungicidas Ferbam, Carbendazim y Vinclozolin y·se observo que en el ensayo de crisantemo bajo invernadero, el mejor control se logr6 cuando· se aplicó Carbendazim al suelo durante la primera semana de siembra combinado con cinco aspersiones sucesivas de Vinclozolin al follaje cada siete días a partir de la sexta semana. Al comparar el mejor tratamiento químico con el mejor antagonista biológico no se obtuvieron diferencias significativas entre ambos tipos de tratamíento.

    The objetive of this study was to select. increase and apply sorne isolates of Tríchoderma, and to evaluate their antagonistic activity against Sclerotínía sclerotíorum in vitro and in the field in chrysanthemum and snap beans. It was also intended to evaluate the efficiency of some fungicides in the control of those diseases. The isolates T10 of Tríchoderma v

  8. Viabilidade técnico-econômica do uso de diferentes tecnologias de iluminação para indução de fotoperíodo na produção de mudas de crisântemo Technical and economical viability of distinct illumination technologies applied to photoperiod induction in chrysanthemum production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz A. Rossi

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Em função de suas características fisiológicas, as mudas de crisântemo necessitam de luz suplementar para evitar formação de botão floral. Isto é feito no período noturno. O presente trabalho visou a analisar a viabilidade técnico-econômica de substituir-se a atual tecnologia de iluminação artificial utilizada pelos produtores (lâmpadas incandescentes para efeito de indução de fotoperíodo em ambiente protegido, pela tecnologia de lâmpadas de descarga, com o objetivo de reduzir o consumo de energia elétrica utilizada no processo. As lâmpadas de descarga possuem maior vida útil e apresentam menor consumo de energia quando comparadas às lâmpadas incandescentes. Os resultados das análises permitem concluir que a lâmpada fluorescente compacta integrada amarela, de 23 W, é a que apresenta viabilidade técnica e econômica para tal substituição.Physiological characteristics of chrysanthemum nurseries require extra light supply to prevent buds production. That extra illumination is carried during night period. This research aimed to analyze the technical and economical viability associated to the substitution of conventional incandescent lamps used by the producers to discharge lamps to induce photoperiod, aiming electricity cost reduction in protected environment. Discharge lamps are more efficient, exhibit lower consumption and longer life when compared to the incandescent ones. The results of the analysis allow concluding that the yellow fluorescent compact integrated 23 W lamp turned to be technical and economically viable for the proposed substitution.

  9. Scientific Opinion on the assessment of the risk of solanaceous pospiviroids for the EU territory and the identification and evaluation of risk management options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, R.; Candresse, T.; Dormannsné Simon, E.

    2011-01-01

    (PSTVd). The risk assessment included PSTVd, Citrus exocortis viroid, Columnea latent viroid, Mexican papita viroid, Tomato apical stunt viroid, Tomato chlorotic dwarf viroid, Tomato planta macho viroid, Chrysanthemum stunt viroid and Pepper chat fruit viroid. Four entry pathways were identified, three......, with exception of spread to potato, rated as unlikely. The probability of long distance spread within vegetatively propagated crops was estimated as likely/very likely. The direct consequences were expected to be major in potato and tomato, moderate in pepper, minimal/minor in other vegetables and minimal...

  10. Mesoporous Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} and CoO rate at C topotactically transformed from chrysanthemum-like Co(CO{sub 3}){sub 0.5}(OH).0.11H{sub 2}O and their lithium-storage properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiong, Shenglin; Zeng, Hua Chun [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, KAUST-NUS GCR Program, Faculty of Engineering, National University of Singapore, 10 Kent Ridge Crescent, Singapore (Singapore); Chen, Jun Song; Lou, Xiong Wen [School of Chemical and Biomedical Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 70 Nanyang Drive, Singapore (Singapore)

    2012-02-22

    In this work, a novel hydrothermal route is developed to synthesize cobalt carbonate hydroxide, Co(CO{sub 3}){sub 0.5}(OH).0.11H{sub 2}O. In this method, sodium chloride salt is utilized to organize single-crystalline nanowires into a chrysanthemum-like hierarchical assembly. The morphological evolution process of this organized product is investigated by examining different reaction intermediates during the synthesis. The growth and thus the final assembly of the Co(CO{sub 3}){sub 0.5}(OH).0.11H{sub 2}O can be finely tuned by selecting preparative parameters, such as the molar ratio of the starting chemicals, the additives, the reaction time and the temperature. Using the flower-like Co(CO{sub 3}){sub 0.5}(OH).0.11H{sub 2}O as a solid precursor, quasi-single-crystalline mesoporous Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanowire arrays are prepared via thermal decomposition in air. Furthermore, carbon can be added onto the spinel oxide by a chemical-vapor-deposition method using acetylene, which leads to the generation of carbon-sheathed CoO nanowire arrays (CoO rate at C). Through comparing and analyzing the crystal structures, the resultant products and their high crystallinity can be explained by a sequential topotactic transformation of the respective precursors. The electrochemical performances of the typical cobalt oxide products are also evaluated. It is demonstrated that tuning of the surface texture and the pore size of the Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} products is very important in lithium-ion-battery applications. The carbon-decorated CoO nanowire arrays exhibit an excellent cyclic performance with nearly 100% capacity retention in a testing range of 70 cycles. Therefore, this CoO rate at C nanocomposite can be considered to be an attractive candidate as an anode material for further investigation. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  11. Mottled Mice and Non-Mammalian Models of Menkes Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenartowicz, Małgorzata; Krzeptowski, Wojciech; Lipiński, Paweł

    2015-01-01

    Menkes disease is a multi-systemic copper metabolism disorder caused by mutations in the X-linked ATP7A gene and characterized by progressive neurodegeneration and severe connective tissue defects. The ATP7A protein is a copper (Cu)-transporting ATPase expressed in all tissues and plays a critica......-mammalian models of Menkes disease, Drosophila melanogaster and Danio rerio mutants were used in experiments which would be technically difficult to carry out in mammals....

  12. Cooking and Eating Quality of Rice Yellow Mottle Virus Resistant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted to evaluate the cooking and eating quality of mutant lines obtained from irradiating a local cultivar, Supa. Five early maturing mutant lines plus two controls, IR! 53234-27-1 and Supa were evaluated for their physical grain characteristics including length and shape of grain kernel, translucence and ...

  13. From sword to chrysanthemum: Japan's culture of anti-miltarism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, T.U.

    1993-01-01

    The end of the Cold War and the phenomenal increase in Japan's economic and technological power put Japan today in the position to become, if it chooses, a military as well as economic superpower. The diminution of the Soviet threat and the increasing US preoccupation with domestic problems give Japan a latitude for independent action it has not had since the end of World War II. At the same time the US-Japanese security alliance, which has enabled Japan to adopt a minimalist approach to defense and national security, is being weakened by ideologically charged trade and other economic frictions and a growing American perception of Japan as a threat to its interests. Moreover, in the long run Japan faces the prospect of having to deal with other rising regional powers, most notably the People's Republic of China. This changing international security environment thus raises question whether Japan, having become an economic rival of the United States, may not in the future become a military competitor as well; whether, after having adopted a pacifist stance for half a century, Japan may choose to unsheathe its sword once again

  14. Development of new varieties of chrysanthemum by mutagenesis in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez, G.Z.; Hernandez, M.A.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: At present, the industry of flower cultivation in Mexico has been demanding new varieties produced locally. There are 6,000 hectares dedicated to the cultivation of flowers for domestic use, however the export is very low. The main production area is located in Villa Guerrero, a small town near Mexico City, where 80% of the total national production is grown. In addition, approximately 10 hectares of greenhouses are dedicated to the production of flowers for export, mainly in the Peninsula de Baja California and the Altiplano Central (Central Plateau). Unfortunately, the production of flowers in Mexico has been affected by two factors: the first, stock plants must be imported from Holland, France and the United States; and the second, there are some government restrictions on their import. Due to these factors, producers are behind in recent innovations related to new varieties. An alternative to solve this problem would be meristem in vitro culture. Plantlets from two varieties 'Polaris Yellow' pompom type and 'Dramatic' margarita type, were obtained through the meristems tip culture in the MS culture medium, to which kinetin 1.0 mg/l and NAA 0.05 mg/l were added. In preliminary studies, the plant material was irradiated with doses between 10 to 60 Gy and it was possible to determine that doses higher than 35 Gy were lethal for both varieties. In this experiment, plantlets were irradiated with seven doses (7.5, 10, 15, 17.5, 20, 22.5 Gy) of 60 Co gamma rays. They were then subcultured using three types of explants: bud, leaf and internode. The best variety for production of direct organogenesis was Polaris Yellow in a range of doses between 7.5 and 15 Gy, the buds being the best explant, while the internordes and leaves were not so suitable. In contrary, the leaf was considered to be the best explant for the induction of indirect organogenesis in the variety Dramatic, in a range of doses between 10 and 20 Gy. It was possible to obtain some mutants for color, size and shape of flowers from these materials and it is expected that in the near future they will rise to new varieties. (author)

  15. Growth, physiology and flowering of chrysanthemum var. Punch as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Growth retardants have been proven to prevent excessive stem elongation and reduce internode length in plants by inhibiting the effect of cell division and enlargement of cell in plants. This study was aimed to evaluate the effect of concentrations of daminozide and maleic hydrazide on growth, physiology and flowering of ...

  16. 77 FR 46339 - Chrysanthemum White Rust Regulatory Status and Restrictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-03

    ... sanitation measures called for in our National Management Plan. The importation of CWR host plants for planting from a number of countries and localities is currently prohibited to prevent the introduction of... protocols in accordance with the CWR National Management Plan for Eradication.\\1\\ Currently, the regulations...

  17. Effects of thrips feeding on tospovirus transmission in chrysanthemum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wetering, van de F.

    1999-01-01

    The introduction and rapid spread of Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) in Western Europe since the 1980s led to a considerable increase of losses in different, mainly ornamental crops due to tomato spotted wilt tospovirus (TSWV) infections.

  18. Effect of gibberellic acid on the quality of chrysanthemum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-11-14

    Nov 14, 2011 ... Série produtor Rural, Ed. especial, Piracicaba: ESALQ- Divisão de Biblioteca e Documentação. pp. 81-84. Chang YS, Sung FH (2000). Effects of gibberellic acid and dormancy- breaking chemicals on flower development of Rhododendron pulchrum Sweet and R. scabrum Don. Amsterdam, Sci. Horticult.

  19. Stem diameter and height of chrysanthemum cv Yoko ono as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-09-26

    Sep 26, 2011 ... Booij R (1989). Effect of growth regulators on curd diameter of cauliflower. Sci. Hortic. 38: 23-32. Castro PRC (1998). Use of plant growth regulators in fruit production of vegetable crops and ornamental plants. Série produtor Rural, Ed. especial, Piracicaba: ESALQ- Divisão de Biblioteca e Documentação.

  20. Infrared thermometry for early detection of drought stress in Chrysanthemum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, M.; Metselaar, K.

    2006-01-01

    Strict legislation on the release of water and nutrients into the subsoil exists in the Netherlands. Therefore, on-line monitoring and control systems are being developed to tune the supply of water and nutrients to the plants¿ demand for optimal control of production and reduction of system losses.

  1. 77 FR 65840 - Chrysanthemum White Rust Regulatory Status and Restrictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-31

    ... Regulatory Status and Restrictions AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Advance... for our advance notice of proposed rulemaking that solicits public comment on whether and how we... importation of plant material that is a host of CWR. This action will allow interested persons additional time...

  2. Highly efficient enzyme encapsulation in a protein nanocage: towards enzyme catalysis in a cellular nanocompartment mimic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoonen, Lise; Nolte, Roeland J. M.; van Hest, Jan C. M.

    2016-07-01

    The study of enzyme behavior in small nanocompartments is crucial for the understanding of biocatalytic processes in the cellular environment. We have developed an enzymatic conjugation strategy to attach a model enzyme to the interior of a cowpea chlorotic mottle virus capsid. It is shown that with this methodology high encapsulation efficiencies can be achieved. Additionally, we demonstrate that the encapsulation does not affect the enzyme performance in terms of a decreased activity or a hampered substrate diffusion. Finally, it is shown that the encapsulated enzymes are protected against proteases. We believe that our strategy can be used to study enzyme kinetics in an environment that approaches physiological conditions.The study of enzyme behavior in small nanocompartments is crucial for the understanding of biocatalytic processes in the cellular environment. We have developed an enzymatic conjugation strategy to attach a model enzyme to the interior of a cowpea chlorotic mottle virus capsid. It is shown that with this methodology high encapsulation efficiencies can be achieved. Additionally, we demonstrate that the encapsulation does not affect the enzyme performance in terms of a decreased activity or a hampered substrate diffusion. Finally, it is shown that the encapsulated enzymes are protected against proteases. We believe that our strategy can be used to study enzyme kinetics in an environment that approaches physiological conditions. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental procedures for the cloning, expression, and purification of all proteins, as well as supplementary figures and calculations. See DOI: 10.1039/c6nr04181g

  3. Environ: E00683 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00683 Chrysanthemum lavandulaefolium capitulum Crude drug ... Chrysanthemum lavandula...efolium [TAX:146996] ... Asteraceae (daisy family) Chrysanthemum lavandulaefolium capitulum (dried) ...

  4. Determination of anisotropy constants of protein encapsulated iron oxide nanoparticles by electron magnetic resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Hongyan; Klem, Michael T.; Sebby, Karl B.; Singel, David J.; Young, Mark; Douglas, Trevor; Idzerda, Yves U.

    2009-01-01

    Angle-dependent electron magnetic resonance was performed on 4.9, 8.0, and 19 nm iron oxide nanoparticles encapsulated within protein capsids and suspended in water. Measurements were taken at liquid nitrogen temperature after cooling in a 1 T field to partially align the particles. The angle dependence of the shifts in the resonance field for the iron oxide nanoparticles (synthesized within Listeria-Dps, horse spleen ferritin, and cowpea chlorotic mottle virus) all show evidence of a uniaxial anisotropy. Using a Boltzmann distribution for the particles' easy-axis direction, we are able to use the resonance field shifts to extract a value for the anisotropy energy, showing that the anisotropy energy density increases with decreasing particle size. This suggests that surface anisotropy plays a significant role in magnetic nanoparticles of this size

  5. Investigating the thermal dissociation of viral capsid by lattice model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jingzhi; Chevreuil, Maelenn; Combet, Sophie; Lansac, Yves; Tresset, Guillaume

    2017-11-01

    The dissociation of icosahedral viral capsids was investigated by a homogeneous and a heterogeneous lattice model. In thermal dissociation experiments with cowpea chlorotic mottle virus and probed by small-angle neutron scattering, we observed a slight shrinkage of viral capsids, which can be related to the strengthening of the hydrophobic interaction between subunits at increasing temperature. By considering the temperature dependence of hydrophobic interaction in the homogeneous lattice model, we were able to give a better estimate of the effective charge. In the heterogeneous lattice model, two sets of lattice sites represented different capsid subunits with asymmetric interaction strengths. In that case, the dissociation of capsids was found to shift from a sharp one-step transition to a gradual two-step transition by weakening the hydrophobic interaction between AB and CC subunits. We anticipate that such lattice models will shed further light on the statistical mechanics underlying virus assembly and disassembly.

  6. Determination of anisotropy constants of protein encapsulated iron oxide nanoparticles by electron magnetic resonance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Hongyan [Department of Physics, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717 (United States); Center for Bio-Inspired Nanomaterials, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717 (United States); Klem, Michael T.; Sebby, Karl B.; Singel, David J. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717 (United States); Center for Bio-Inspired Nanomaterials, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717 (United States); Young, Mark [Department of Plant Sciences and Plant Pathology, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717 (United States); Center for Bio-Inspired Nanomaterials, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717 (United States); Douglas, Trevor [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717 (United States); Center for Bio-Inspired Nanomaterials, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717 (United States); Idzerda, Yves U. [Department of Physics, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717 (United States); Center for Bio-Inspired Nanomaterials, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717 (United States)], E-mail: Idzerda@montana.edu

    2009-02-15

    Angle-dependent electron magnetic resonance was performed on 4.9, 8.0, and 19 nm iron oxide nanoparticles encapsulated within protein capsids and suspended in water. Measurements were taken at liquid nitrogen temperature after cooling in a 1 T field to partially align the particles. The angle dependence of the shifts in the resonance field for the iron oxide nanoparticles (synthesized within Listeria-Dps, horse spleen ferritin, and cowpea chlorotic mottle virus) all show evidence of a uniaxial anisotropy. Using a Boltzmann distribution for the particles' easy-axis direction, we are able to use the resonance field shifts to extract a value for the anisotropy energy, showing that the anisotropy energy density increases with decreasing particle size. This suggests that surface anisotropy plays a significant role in magnetic nanoparticles of this size.

  7. Packaging and structural phenotype of brome mosaic virus capsid protein with altered N-terminal β-hexamer structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wispelaere, Melissanne de; Chaturvedi, Sonali; Wilkens, Stephan; Rao, A.L.N.

    2011-01-01

    The first 45 amino acid region of brome mosaic virus (BMV) capsid protein (CP) contains RNA binding and structural domains that are implicated in the assembly of infectious virions. One such important structural domain encompassing amino acids 28 QPVIV 32 , highly conserved between BMV and cowpea chlorotic mottle virus (CCMV), exhibits a β-hexamer structure. In this study we report that alteration of the β-hexamer structure by mutating 28 QPVIV 32 to 28 AAAAA 32 had no effect either on symptom phenotype, local and systemic movement in Chenopodium quinoa and RNA profile of in vivo assembled virions. However, sensitivity to RNase and assembly phenotypes distinguished virions assembled with CP subunits having β-hexamer from those of wild type. A comparison of 3-D models obtained by cryo electron microscopy revealed overall similar structural features for wild type and mutant virions, with small but significant differences near the 3-fold axes of symmetry.

  8. A one-step multiplex RT-PCR assay for simultaneous detection of four viruses that infect peach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Y; Zhao, Z; Jiang, D; Wu, Z; Li, S

    2013-10-01

    A multiplex reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (mRT-PCR) assay was developed to enable the simultaneous detection and differentiation of four viruses that infect peach, namely Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus (ACLSV), Cherry green ring mottle virus (CGRMV), Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV) and Apricot pseudo-chlorotic leaf spot virus (APCLSV). In this study, four pairs of primers, one specific for each virus, were designed; the corresponding PCR products were 632, 439, 346 and 282 bp in length for ACLSV, CGRMV, PNRSV and APCLSV, respectively, and the fragments could be distinguished clearly by agarose gel electrophoresis. The sensitivity and specificity of the method were tested using individual RT-PCR and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and the identity of the RT-PCR amplification products was also confirmed by DNA sequencing. The results of RT-PCR and ELISA, along with batch detection using samples collected from peach orchards, revealed that this rapid and simple technique is an effective way to identify the four viruses simultaneously. The mRT-PCR assay described in this study was developed for the simultaneous detection of four peach viruses from infected peach samples is reliable and sensitive. In contrast to conventional uniplex RT-PCR, mRT-PCR is more efficient, reducing costs, time and handling when testing large numbers of samples. This rapid and simple method is useful for large-scale surveys of viruses that infect peach. © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  9. The Giant Mottled Eel, Anguilla marmorata, Uses Blue-Shifted Rod Photoreceptors during Upstream Migration

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Feng-Yu; Fu, Wen-Chun; Wang, I-Li; Yan, Hong Young; Wang, Tzi-Yuan

    2014-01-01

    Catadromous fishes migrate between ocean and freshwater during particular phases of their life cycle. The dramatic environmental changes shape their physiological features, e.g. visual sensitivity, olfactory ability, and salinity tolerance. Anguilla marmorata, a catadromous eel, migrates upstream on dark nights, following the lunar cycle. Such behavior may be correlated with ontogenetic changes in sensory systems. Therefore, this study was designed to identify changes in spectral sensitivity ...

  10. Reaction of rice cultivars to a virulent Rice Yellow Mottle Virus strain ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Isolates of RYMV were collected from three “hot-spots” in Uganda (Lira, Luweero and Iganga). The isolate from Iganga was most virulent on RYMV susceptible cultivar (IR64), and thus used to constitute study treatment evaluated in the study. Cultivars were potted and raised in a screenhouse experiment arranged in a ...

  11. Antioxidant Activity in the Blood and Testes of the Mottled Brown ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    IJAAAR

    generation of ROS or produce these toxic metabolites as an inadvertent ... sequestering transition metals (iron, copper) ... 0.154M NaCl (Physiological Saline). The .... dependent in the male quails. ... antioxidant defence mechanisms utilized by.

  12. evaluation of rice cultivars for resistance to rice yellow mottle virus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    2018-02-08

    Feb 8, 2018 ... La variété IR64 s'est avérée sensible à tous les isolats tandis que Tog5681 s'est montré résistant à .... samples ground in phosphate buffer at pH 7.2. (10 ml g-1 of leaf ..... Comparison of molecular and immunological typing of ...

  13. MORFOLOGI GALUR-GALUR HARAPAN KEDELAI TAHAN CPMMV (COWPEA MILD MOTTLE VIRUS SEBAGAI SUMBER BELAJAR BIOLOGI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tri Andri Setiawan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Learning resources can be used by students in the learning procces to obtaining the information and knowledge. One of the learning resources that is can be used students are morphological of CpMMV-resistant soybean promising lines. This reasearch was to introduce morphological soy plant from crosses of genotype cause variation in morphological characters can be used as a source of learning Biology. Identification was conducted at ILETRI on March-June 2015. Descriptive data analysis is carried out. The results showed the existence of variation of morphological characters derived from crosses of the genotype. Based on the study of the processes and results of the study, morphological of CpMMV-resistant soybean promising lines can be use as a source of learning Biology. Sumber belajar dapat digunakan siswa dalam proses belajar untuk memperoleh informasi dan pengetahuan. Salah satu sumber belajar yang dapat digunakan siswa yaitu morfologi galur-galur harapan kedelai tahan CpMMV. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengenalkan bahwa morfologi tanaman kedelai dari hasil persilangan genotipe menimbulkan variasi karakter morfologi yang dapat digunakan sebagai sumber belajar Biologi. Identifikasi dilakukan di BALITKABI pada bulan Maret—Juni 2015. Analisis data dilakukan secara deskriptif. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan adanya variasi karakter morfologi yang berasal dari persilangan genotipe. Berdasarkan kajian proses dan hasil penelitian, morfologi galur-galur harapan kedelai tahan CpMMV dapat dijadikan sebagai sumber belajar Biologi.

  14. Mottled Protoplanetary Disk Ionization by Magnetically Channeled T Tauri Star Energetic Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraschetti, F.; Drake, J. J.; Cohen, O.; Garraffo, C.

    2018-02-01

    The evolution of protoplanetary disks is believed to be driven largely by angular momentum transport resulting from magnetized disk winds and turbulent viscosity. The ionization of the disk that is essential for these processes has been thought to be due to host star coronal X-rays but could also arise from energetic particles produced by coronal flares, or traveling shock waves, and advected by the stellar wind. We have performed test-particle numerical simulations of energetic protons propagating into a realistic T Tauri stellar wind, including a superposed small-scale magnetostatic turbulence. The isotropic (Kolmogorov power spectrum) turbulent component is synthesized along the individual particle trajectories. We have investigated the energy range [0.1–10] GeV, consistent with expectations from Chandra X-ray observations of large flares on T Tauri stars and recent indications by the Herschel Space Observatory of a significant contribution of energetic particles to the disk ionization of young stars. In contrast with a previous theoretical study finding a dominance of energetic particles over X-rays in the ionization throughout the disk, we find that the disk ionization is likely dominated by X-rays over much of its area, except within narrow regions where particles are channeled onto the disk by the strongly tangled and turbulent magnetic field. The radial thickness of such regions is 5 stellar radii close to the star and broadens with increasing radial distance. This likely continues out to large distances from the star (10 au or greater), where particles can be copiously advected and diffused by the turbulent wind.

  15. pathogenecity of two strains of rice yellow mottle virus on aromatic

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mgina

    Valley), Arusha (Ndungu Plains) including parts of Shinyanga and Mwanza regions where the virus induces severe yield losses in farmers' fields. RYMV is a member of the genus. Sobemovirus. ... with contrasting ecological, geographical distribution within a ... importance in country's rice cropping systems. Existing in ...

  16. Identification of a sex pheromone of the chrysanthemum lace bug Corythucha marmorata (Hemiptera: Tingidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Kisaki; Shimizu, Nobuhiro

    2017-08-04

    Although the nymphs of Corythucha marmorata form clusters on the undersides of host plant leaves, as frequently observed for Hemiptera, the adults are scattered in the vicinity of the nymph population. By investigating the biological activities of volatile secretions from the adult, we found that the secretions activated male mounting behaviour. A chemical analysis revealed that borneol was a common component of the secretions from both sexes. The absolute configuration of the natural product was the (+)-enantiomer of borneol and the optical isomer was undetectable. Although (+)-borneol showed significant sex pheromone activity against males, the antipode (-)-borneol also induced sex pheromone activity, albeit only slightly. Males may not have a strict identification mechanism based on stereochemistry. To verify the origin of this sex pheromone, we analysed the components of the essential oil of the leaves of Solidago canadensis L. (Compositae: Asteraceae), a host plant; bornyl acetate was detected to be a major component. The plant-produced bornyl acetate had different stereochemistry from the sex pheromone. The results suggested that the adults do not utilise the secondary metabolites of plants but biosynthesise this sex pheromone themselves. This is the first report on sex pheromone identification in Tingidae.

  17. Identification of a sex pheromone of the chrysanthemum lace bug Corythucha marmorata (Hemiptera: Tingidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Watanabe, Kisaki; Shimizu, Nobuhiro

    2017-01-01

    Although the nymphs of Corythucha marmorata form clusters on the undersides of host plant leaves, as frequently observed for Hemiptera, the adults are scattered in the vicinity of the nymph population. By investigating the biological activities of volatile secretions from the adult, we found that the secretions activated male mounting behaviour. A chemical analysis revealed that borneol was a common component of the secretions from both sexes. The absolute configuration of the natural product...

  18. Photoperiodic responses of Kalanchoe and chrysanthemum to radiation by an infrared lamp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, C.H.; Lee, S.B.; Jeong, B.R.

    2012-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of a low intensity infrared radiation on the growth and photoperiodic responses of Kalanchoe blossfeldiana ‘Kaluna’ and ‘Taos’, and Dendranthema grandiflorum ‘Lemon Eye’ grown in growth chambers. In the first experiment, uniformly-rooted cuttings of ‘Kaluna’ and ‘Lemon Eye’ were selected and transplanted to 10 cm pots. After a week, pots were transferred from greenhouse to three environment-controlled growth chambers. All chambers were maintained at 25 ± 1 and 70% RH with an 8 hours photoperiod (760 μmol·m −2 ·s −1 ), provided by high pressure sodium and white fluorescent lamps. During the night period one chamber was left unlit (darkness), while the second and third ones were lit with an incandescent lamp (10 μmol·m −2 ·s −1 ) or an infrared lamp (15 μmol·m −2 ·s −1 ), respectively. Shoot length, root length, stem diameter, number of flowers, number of branches, fresh weight, and dry weight were measured after eight weeks. Flowering occurred on plants maintained in the unlit darkness and under an incandescent lamp during the night period, while only vegetative growth was observed under an infrared lamp. In the second experiment, cuttings of uniformly-rooted ‘Taos’ and ‘Lemon Eye’ were selected and transferred from the greenhouse to three environment-controlled growth chambers with the same environment setting as in the first experiment at a week after potting. During the night period one chamber was left unlit (darkness), the second and third ones were lit with an incandescent or an infrared heating lamp, both at a 0.3 μmol·m −2 ·s −1 PPFD level. After nine weeks, flowering in all treatments was observed, but was slightly delayed under an incandescent and an infrared heating lamp. Because both the incandescent lamp and the infrared lamp slightly delayed flowering in these two species, a more detailed experiment is necessary to find out at which intensity and light quality inhibits the flowering of these species. (author)

  19. An ultra-dense integrated linkage map for hexaploid chrysanthemum enables multi-allelic QTL analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geest, van Geert; Bourke, Peter M.; Voorrips, Roeland E.; Marasek-Ciolakowska, Agnieszka; Liao, Yanlin; Post, Aike; Meeteren, van Uulke; Visser, Richard G.F.; Maliepaard, Chris; Arens, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Key message: We constructed the first integrated genetic linkage map in a polysomic hexaploid. This enabled us to estimate inheritance of parental haplotypes in the offspring and detect multi-allelic QTL.Abstract: Construction and use of linkage maps are challenging in hexaploids with polysomic

  20. Anthocyanin and Carotenoid Contents in Different Cultivars of Chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflorum Ramat. Flower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Ha Park

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The flowers of twenty-three cultivars of Dendranthema grandiflorum Ramat. were investigated to determine anthocyanin and carotenoid levels and to confirm the effects of the pigments on the flower colors using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC and electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS. The cultivars contained the anthocyanins cyanidin 3-glucoside (C3g and cyanidin 3-(3ʺ-malonoyl glucoside (C3mg and the following carotenoids: lutein, zeaxanthin, β-cryptoxanthin, 13-cis-β-carotene, α-carotene, trans-β-carotene, and 9-cis-β-carotene. The cultivar “Magic” showed the greatest accumulation of total and individual anthocyanins, including C3g and C3gm. On the other hand, the highest level of lutein and zeaxanthin was noted in the cultivar “Il Weol”. The cultivar “Anastasia” contained the highest amount of carotenoids such as trans-β-carotene, 9-cis-β-carotene, and 13-cis-β-carotene. The highest accumulation of β-cryptoxanthin and α-carotene was noted in the cultivar “Anastasia” and “Il Weol”. Our results suggested that ‘Magic”, “Angel” and “Relance’ had high amounts of anthocyanins and showed a wide range of red and purple colors in their petals, whereas “Il Weol’, “Popcorn Ball’ and “Anastasia” produced higher carotenoid contents and displayed yellow or green petal colors. Interestingly, “Green Pang Pang”, which contained a high level of anthocyanins and a medium level of carotenoids, showed the deep green colored petals. “Kastelli”, had high level of carotenoids as well as a medium level of anthocyanins and showed orange and red colored petals. It was concluded that each pigment is responsible for the petal’s colors and the compositions of the pigments affect their flower colors and that the cultivars could be a good source for pharmaceutical, floriculture, and pigment industries.

  1. Chrysanthemum expressing a linalool synthase gene 'smells good', but 'tastes bad' to western flower thrips

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Ting; Stoopen, Geert; Thoen, Manus

    2013-01-01

    Herbivore-induced plant volatiles are often involved in direct and indirect plant defence against herbivores. Linalool is a common floral scent and found to be released from leaves by many plants after herbivore attack. In this study, a linalool/nerolidol synthase, FaNES1, was overexpressed...... less preferred by WFT. Considering the common occurrence of linalool and its glycosides in plant tissues, it suggests that plants may balance attractive fragrance with 'poor taste' using the same precursor compound....

  2. A Chrysanthemum in the Garden: A Christian Kindergarten in the Empire of Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishida, Yukiyo

    2015-01-01

    This is a study of the contribution of Christian missionaries to kindergarten education in the Empire of Japan. The study concerns an American Missionary woman, Annie L. Howe (1852-1943) and her kindergarten in Kobe, Japan. Annie L. Howe had a great impact on the history of early childhood education and is still remembered as the "Mother of…

  3. The effect of temperature on photosynthetic induction under fluctuating light in Chrysanthemum morifolium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Öztürk, Isik; Ottosen, Carl-Otto; Ritz, Christian

    2013-01-01

    for photosynthetic induction. Gas exchange measurements were used to investigate the rate of induction and the opening of stomata. It was determined that induction equilibrium for C. morifolium at varying temperatures under dynamic light conditions was reached within 15 to 45 minutes except at saturating light...... intensity. For the same photon irradiance, the momentary state of induction equilibrated was higher approximately at 30° C and it decreased as temperature increased. The interaction effect of irradiance and temperature on induction equilibrium was not significant. The rate of photosynthetic induction...... and the time that it reached its 90% value (t90) was influenced by irradiance significantly. The light history of a leaf had a significant effect on t90, which indicated that an equilibrium state of induction will not always be reached within the same time. The effect of temperature on photosynthetic induction...

  4. Uso de lombricompuestos en la producción comercial del Crisantemo Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gómez Zambrano Jairo

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Residues of crisantemos, clavel, statice and kikuyo grass alone or with cow dug and mixture of all they, were composted with aid of earthworm Eisenia fetida. These lombricomposts were tested versus soluble fertilization in the crisantemo crop. The best chemical and biological quality of the lombricomposts from flower residue were obtained with the admendment of cow dug, The bether yields and quality of crisantemo flower were obtained with lombricompost origined in flower residues with cow dug. The soluble fertilization was superior over the lombricomposts.

    Se hicieron lombricompuestos a partir de residuos de crisantemo, clavel, statice y kikuyo solos y con boñiga y una mezcla de tocios, con la lombriz Eisenia fetida. Tales lombricompuestos fueron comparados con el sistema de fetilización con solubles en el cultivo de crisantemos. La mejor calidad química y biológica de los lombricompuestos de los residuos de flores se logra con la adición de boñiga. Los mejores rendimientos y calidad de crisantemos se obtuvieron con los lombricompuestos de residuos de flores con boñiga, pero la fertilización con solubles fue superior a todos los lombricompuestos.

  5. Phylogenetic analysis of Melon chlorotic leaf curl virus from Guatemala: Another emergent species in the Squash leaf curl virus clade

    KAUST Repository

    Brown, J.K.; Mills-Lujan, K.; Idris, Ali

    2011-01-01

    divergent owing in part to recombination, but also due to the accumulation of a substantial number of mutations. In addition they are differentially host-adapted, as has been documented for other cucurbit-infecting, bean-adapted, species in the SLCV clade

  6. Pseudomonas oleovorans strain KBPF-004 culture supernatants reduced seed transmission of Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus and Pepper mild mottle virus, and remodeled aggregation of 126 kDa and subcellular localization......

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efforts to control viral diseases in crop production include several types of physical or chemical treatments; antiviral extracts from a number of plants have also been examined to inhibit plant viral infection. However, treatments utilizing naturally selected microorganisms with activity against pl...

  7. Rhabdochona (Rhabdochona) keralaensis sp nov (Rhabdochonidae) and some other nematodes in the Indian mottled eel Anguilla bengalensis bengalensis from India

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Moravec, František; Sheeba, S.; Kumar, A. B.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 1 (2012), 74-82 ISSN 1230-2821 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC522 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Rhabdochona * Anguilla * India Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 1.000, year: 2012

  8. Estimating differential reproductive success from nests of related individuals, with application to a study of the Mottled Sculpin, Cottus bairdi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beatrix Jones; Gary D. Grossman; Daniel C.I. Walsh; Brady A. Porter; John C. Avise; Anthony C. Flumera

    2007-01-01

    Understanding how variation in reproductive success is related to demography is a critical component in understanding the life history of an organism. Parentage analysis using molecular markers can be used to estimate the reproductive success of different groups of individuals in natural populations. Previous models have been developed for cases where offspring are...

  9. A rapid real-time PCR method to differentiate between mottled skate (Beringraja pulchra) and other skate and ray species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mi-Ra; Kwon, Kisung; Jung, Yoo-Kyung; Kang, Tae Sun

    2018-07-30

    Skates and rays are commercially important fish in South Korea, and among them, Beringraja pulchra has the highest economic value. However, the similar morphological traits among skates and rays are often exploited for seafood fraud. Here, we designed both Beringraja pulchra-specific and skate-universal primer sets, capable of detecting short sequences in the cytochrome oxidase subunit I gene, and developed highly sensitive and reliable quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) assays to differentiate between Beringraja pulchra and other skate and ray species. AΔCq method based on differences in the amplification efficiency was developed, validated, and then used to confirm the presence of Beringraja pulchra in twenty-six commercial skate products. The averageΔCq value obtained for other skate species (18.94 ± 3.46) was significantly higher than that of Beringraja pulchra (1.18 ± 0.15). For on-site applications, we developed an ultra-fast qPCR assay, allowing for completion of the entire analytical procedure within 30 min. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. A new species of Hysterothylacium (Nematoda: Anisakidae) from the giant mottled eel Anguilla marmorata in South Africa

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Moravec, František; Taraschewski, H.; Appelhoff, D.; Weyl, O.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 3 (2012), s. 174-180 ISSN 0440-6605 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP505/12/G112 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Hysterothylacium * Anguilla * South Africa Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 0.783, year: 2012 http://link.springer.com/article/10.2478%2Fs11687-012-0035-9

  11. Screening for sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.)) viruses and their elimination using thermotheraphy-meristem tip culture technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arkorful, E.

    2012-11-01

    Despite its high potential for food security, production of sweet potato is constrained by viruses which reduce yield by 90%. It is therefore essential to screen for, identify and eliminate these viruses in elite clones before dissemination to farmers. In this study, visual symptomatology and PCR-based techniques were used to identify sweet potato viruses. Visual symptomatology revealed virus associated symptoms ranging from vein clearing, interveinal chlorosis, chlorotic spots, upward curling on leaf edges, leaf narrowing and distortion, purpling, blistering, reduction of the leaf blades and general leaf yellowing in all 22 accessions grown on the field. Disease Incidence (DI) significantly (p≤0.05) varied between accessions with US003 having the lowest (20%) while ten accessions had 90% DI at the end of the study. Index of symptom severity of all plants (ISSap) ranged from 1.08±0.09 to 3.67 ±0.11 with VOTCR003 having the lowest suggesting that it is a moderately susceptible accession while VOTCR002 had the highest suggesting that it is susceptible to viral diseases. Contrarily, index of symptom severity of diseased plants (ISSdp) ranged from 2.00±0.25 to 3.75±0.32. The accession VOTCR002 had the highest ISSdp. Visual symptomatology showed that VOTCR002 had the highest DI, ISSap and ISSdp suggesting that it is highly susceptible to viral diseases. Ten severely infected accessions were tested for Sweet Potato leaf curl virus (SPLCV), Sweet Potato chlorotic stunt virus (SPCSV), Sweet potato feathery mottle virus (SPFMV) and Sweet Potato mild mottle virus (SPMMV) using PCR and RT-PCR techniques. RT-PCR did not amplify any of the virus genomes due to prolonged storage enzymes, In contrast, PCR detected SPLCV in 30% of the accessions. Plants infected with SPLCV were grown in the chamber at 35 degrees celsius for 4 weeks followed by meristem top culture. The regenerants were indexed after ten weeks for SPLCV. Fifty two percent (52.385 od the regenerants were

  12. Role of electrostatics in the assembly pathway of a single-stranded RNA virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garmann, Rees F; Comas-Garcia, Mauricio; Koay, Melissa S T; Cornelissen, Jeroen J L M; Knobler, Charles M; Gelbart, William M

    2014-09-01

    We have recently discovered (R. D. Cadena-Nava et al., J. Virol. 86:3318-3326, 2012, doi:10.1128/JVI.06566-11) that the in vitro packaging of RNA by the capsid protein (CP) of cowpea chlorotic mottle virus is optimal when there is a significant excess of CP, specifically that complete packaging of all of the RNA in solution requires sufficient CP to provide charge matching of the N-terminal positively charged arginine-rich motifs (ARMS) of the CPs with the negatively charged phosphate backbone of the RNA. We show here that packaging results from the initial formation of a charge-matched protocapsid consisting of RNA decorated by a disordered arrangement of CPs. This protocapsid reorganizes into the final, icosahedrally symmetric nucleocapsid by displacing the excess CPs from the RNA to the exterior surface of the emerging capsid through electrostatic attraction between the ARMs of the excess CP and the negative charge density of the capsid exterior. As a test of this scenario, we prepare CP mutants with extra and missing (relative to the wild type) cationic residues and show that a correspondingly smaller and larger excess, respectively, of CP is needed for complete packaging of RNA. Cowpea chlorotic mottle virus (CCMV) has long been studied as a model system for the assembly of single-stranded RNA viruses. While much is known about the electrostatic interactions within the CCMV virion, relatively little is known about these interactions during assembly, i.e., within intermediate states preceding the final nucleocapsid structure. Theoretical models and coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations suggest that viruses like CCMV assemble by the bulk adsorption of CPs onto the RNA driven by electrostatic attraction, followed by structural reorganization into the final capsid. Such a mechanism facilitates assembly by condensing the RNA for packaging while simultaneously concentrating the local density of CP for capsid nucleation. We provide experimental evidence of

  13. Alarm Pheromone Activity of Nymph-specific Geraniol in Chrysanthemum Lace Bug Corythucha marmorata against Adults and Nymphs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Kisaki; Shimizu, Nobuhiro

    2015-09-01

    The exotic insect pest Corythucha marmorata (Uhler) is increasingly spreading in Japan using the weed Solidago canadensis L. as a major host plant. The nymphs form colonies on the backs of leaves where they crowd together; however, aggregation does not occur in the adults. When an individual nymph is crushed using a needle tip and further the needle tip covered with the nymph's bodily fluids is moved slowly toward the center of the crowd, the surrounding nymphs display an escape behavior and their aggregation is disrupted. We detected geraniol as a nymph-specific volatile component. Bioassay results indicated that geraniol was effective as an alarm pheromone on second to fifth instar nymphs. Furthermore, we found that male and female adults responded sensitively to the alarm pheromone produced by nymphs. These results suggest that although the adult insects do not secrete geraniol, they can detect it produced by nymphs, thereby retaining the ability to escape from danger while suppressing the cost of geraniol production. The present study is the first to demonstrate that an alarm pheromone secreted by nymphs is also effective in adults among Tingidae.

  14. Estudio de la interacción salinidad x fitorregulador en "Chrysanthemum coronarium" L. cultivado en maceta

    OpenAIRE

    Pastor Pérez, Yolanda

    2009-01-01

    En la producción viverística de la regiones afectadas por la salinidad es frecuente regar con aguas salinas, lo que puede ocasionar problemas de crecimiento y desarrollo en las especies cultivadas, que repercuten negativamente en la calidad de la planta. Los síntomas más comunes de la salinidad en la producción de plantas ornamentales son la reducción del crecimiento, la manifestación de clorosis y necrosis foliares, y la caída de las hojas. Algunos autores han estudiado si la ...

  15. Non-invasive plant growth measurements for detection of blue-light dose response of stem elongation in Chrysanthemum morifolium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Katrine Heinsvig

    2012-01-01

    . In the present study a non-invasive plant growth sensor (PlantEye, Phenospex B.V, Heerlen, NL) was tested in analysing changes in diurnal stem elongation patterns and plant height in response to the spectral quality of the light environment. Plants were grown in four different LED supplemental lighting...... treatments with 0%, 12.5%, 18.5% and 22.5% blue light under greenhouse conditions in winter (18 h day/4 h night). The non-invasive measurements were carried out automatically every four hour with three repetitions, and supported by manual measurements of plant height every third day. A strong linear relation...... between the non-invasive measurements and manual measurements of plant height was achieved, and a blue-light dose-response showing a decrease in plant height in relation to an increase in blue light was demonstrated. However, the non-invasive plant growth sensor was not able to distinguish between diurnal...

  16. Silicon and Nitrate Differentially Modulate the Symbiotic Performances of Healthy and Virus-Infected Bradyrhizobium-nodulated Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), Yardlong Bean (V. unguiculata subsp. sesquipedalis) and Mung Bean (V. radiata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izaguirre-Mayoral, Maria Luisa; Brito, Miriam; Baral, Bikash; Garrido, Mario José

    2017-09-15

    The effects of 2 mM silicon (Si) and 10 mM KNO₃ (N)-prime signals for plant resistance to pathogens-were analyzed in healthy and Cowpea chlorotic mottle virus (CCMV) or Cowpea mild mottle virus (CMMV)-infected Bradyrhizobium -nodulated cowpea, yardlong bean and mung bean plants. In healthy plants of the three Vigna taxa, nodulation and growth were promoted in the order of Si + N > N > Si > controls. In the case of healthy cowpea and yardlong bean, the addition of Si and N decreased ureide and α-amino acids (AA) contents in the nodules and leaves in the order of Si + N> N > Si > controls. On the other hand, the addition of N arrested the deleterious effects of CCMV or CMMV infections on growth and nodulation in the three Vigna taxa. However, the addition of Si or Si + N hindered growth and nodulation in the CCMV- or CMMV-infected cowpea and yardlong bean, causing a massive accumulation of ureides in the leaves and nodules. Nevertheless, the AA content in leaves and nodules of CCMV- or CMMV-infected cowpea and yardlong bean was promoted by Si but reduced to minimum by Si + N. These results contrasted to the counteracting effects of Si or Si + N in the CCMV- and CMMV-infected mung bean via enhanced growth, nodulation and levels of ureide and AA in the leaves and nodules. Together, these observations suggest the fertilization with Si + N exclusively in virus-free cowpea and yardlong bean crops. However, Si + N fertilization must be encouraged in virus-endangered mung bean crops to enhance growth, nodulation and N-metabolism. It is noteworthy to see the enhanced nodulation of the three Vigna taxa in the presence of 10 mM KNO₃.

  17. Analysis of the solvent accessibility of cysteine residues on Maize rayado fino virus virus-like particles produced in Nicotiana benthamiana plants and cross-linking of peptides to VLPs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natilla, Angela; Hammond, Rosemarie W

    2013-02-14

    displayed on the surface of plant viruses such as, Brome mosaic virus, Carnation mottle virus, Cowpea chlorotic mottle virus, Tobacco mosaic virus, Turnip yellow mosaic virus, and MRFV.

  18. Evaluation of the anti-oxidant ethylene diurea (EDU) as a protectant against ozone effects on crops (Growth chamber trials)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Archambault, D.J.; Li, X. [Alberta Research Council, Vegreville, AB (Canada). Environmental Technologies

    2003-02-01

    A field study conducted during the summer of 2000 showed that when the antioxidant ethylene diurea (EDU) was applied to crops there was an increase in several parameters. The authors designed a series of controlled-environment trials to test the following: were the effects of EDU the result of EDU-mediated protection against ozone (O{sub 3}) or were they from the plant growth promoting effects of EDU independent of O{sub 3}. The three major objectives were: (1) to modify an existing gas exposure system to expose plants to O{sub 3} and to test the stability and reliability of the system, (2) to perform O{sub 3} exposure trials using wheat, barley, field pea and canola to observe the effects of O{sub 3}, and (3) to test whether the effects of EDU could be attributed to protection against O{sub 3} injury or to the plant growth promoting effects independent of O{sub 3}. The modification to the gas exposure system involved the installation of an O{sub 3} delivery system and a monitoring system. Stability of the system was tested using radish plants. The symptoms of O{sub 3} injury on radish leaves began after two weeks of exposure. It appeared as mottled bleached areas which became red. Mottled chlorotic areas appeared on wheat and barley, which led to complete chlorosis, necrosis and eventually abscission. After two weeks of exposure, field pea developed tendril curl, and canola plants displayed no visible signs of injury from O{sub 3} exposure. The results of the study indicated that the effects of EDU can be species- and cultivar-specific. 15 refs., 11 tabs., 8 figs.

  19. Oligonucleotide Length-Dependent Formation of Virus-Like Particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maassen, Stan J; de Ruiter, Mark V; Lindhoud, Saskia; Cornelissen, Jeroen J L M

    2018-05-23

    Understanding the assembly pathway of viruses can contribute to creating monodisperse virus-based materials. In this study, the cowpea chlorotic mottle virus (CCMV) is used to determine the interactions between the capsid proteins of viruses and their cargo. The assembly of the capsid proteins in the presence of different lengths of short, single-stranded (ss) DNA is studied at neutral pH, at which the protein-protein interactions are weak. Chromatography, electrophoresis, microscopy, and light scattering data show that the assembly efficiency and speed of the particles increase with increasing length of oligonucleotides. The minimal length required for assembly under the conditions used herein is 14 nucleotides. Assembly of particles containing such short strands of ssDNA can take almost a month. This slow assembly process enabled the study of intermediate states, which confirmed a low cooperative assembly for CCMV and allowed for further expansion of current assembly theories. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Preparation of (Ga1−xZnx)(N1−xOx) Photocatalysts from the Reaction of NH3 with Ga2O3/ZnO and ZnGa2O4: In Situ Time-Resolved XRD and XAFS Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, H.; Wen , W; Wang, Q; Hanson, J; Muckerman, J; Fujita, E; Frenkel, A; Rodriguez, J

    2009-01-01

    Hibiscus chlorotic ringspot virus (HCRSV) is a positive-sense monopartite single-stranded RNA virus that belongs to the Carmovirus genus of the Tombusviridae family, which includes carnation mottle virus (CarMV). The HCRSV virion has a 30 nm diameter icosahedral capsid with T = 3 quasi-symmetry containing 180 copies of a 38 kDa coat protein (CP) and encapsidates a full-length 3.9 kb genomic RNA. Authentic virus was harvested from infected host kenaf leaves and was purified by saturated ammonium sulfate precipitation, sucrose density-gradient centrifugation and anion-exchange chromatography. Virus crystals were grown in multiple conditions; one of the crystals diffracted to 3.2 A resolution Ad allowed the collection of a partial data set. The crystal belonged to space group R32, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 336.4, c = 798.5 A. Packing considerations and rotation-function analysis determined that there were three particles per unit cell, all of which have the same orientation and fixed positions, and resulted in tenfold noncrystallography symmetry for real-space averaging. The crystals used for the structure determination of southern bean mosaic virus (SBMV) have nearly identical characteristics. Together, these findings will greatly aid the high-resolution structure determination of HCRSV.

  1. Examining the Heterogeneous Genome Content of Multipartite Viruses BMV and CCMV by Native Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Waterbeemd, Michiel; Snijder, Joost; Tsvetkova, Irina B.; Dragnea, Bogdan G.; Cornelissen, Jeroen J.; Heck, Albert J. R.

    2016-06-01

    Since the concept was first introduced by Brian Chait and co-workers in 1991, mass spectrometry of proteins and protein complexes under non-denaturing conditions (native MS) has strongly developed, through parallel advances in instrumentation, sample preparation, and data analysis tools. However, the success rate of native MS analysis, particularly in heterogeneous mega-Dalton (MDa) protein complexes, still strongly depends on careful instrument modification. Here, we further explore these boundaries in native mass spectrometry, analyzing two related endogenous multipartite viruses: the Brome Mosaic Virus (BMV) and the Cowpea Chlorotic Mottle Virus (CCMV). Both CCMV and BMV are approximately 4.6 megadalton (MDa) in mass, of which approximately 1 MDA originates from the genomic content of the virion. Both viruses are produced as mixtures of three particles carrying different segments of the genome, varying by approximately 0.1 MDA in mass (~2%). This mixture of particles poses a challenging analytical problem for high-resolution native MS analysis, given the large mass scales involved. We attempt to unravel the particle heterogeneity using both Q-TOF and Orbitrap mass spectrometers extensively modified for analysis of very large assemblies. We show that manipulation of the charging behavior can provide assistance in assigning the correct charge states. Despite their challenging size and heterogeneity, we obtained native mass spectra with resolved series of charge states for both BMV and CCMV, demonstrating that native MS of endogenous multipartite virions is feasible.

  2. Improved cell disruption of Pichia pastoris utilizing aminopropyl magnesium phyllosilicate (AMP) clay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sun-Il; Wu, Yuanzheng; Kim, Ka-Lyun; Kim, Geun-Joong; Shin, Hyun-Jae

    2013-06-01

    An efficient method for Pichia cell disruption that employs an aminopropyl magnesium phyllosilicate (AMP) clay-assisted glass beads mill is presented. AMP clay is functionalized nanocomposite resembling the talc parent structure Si8Mg6O20(OH)4 that has been proven to permeate the bacterial membrane and cause cell lysis. The recombinant capsid protein of cowpea chlorotic mottle virus (CCMV) expressed in Pichia pastoris GS115 was used as demonstration system for their ability of self-assembly into icosahedral virus-like particles (VLPs). The total protein concentration reached 4.24 mg/ml after 4 min treatment by glass beads mill combined with 0.2 % AMP clay, which was 11.2 % higher compared to glass beads mill only and the time was half shortened. The stability of purified CCMV VLPs illustrated AMP clay had no influence on virus assembly process. Considering the tiny amount added and simple approach of AMP clay, it could be a reliable method for yeast cell disruption.

  3. Induced Förster resonance energy transfer by encapsulation of DNA-scaffold based probes inside a plant virus based protein cage

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ruiter, Mark V.; Overeem, Nico J.; Singhai, Gaurav; Cornelissen, Jeroen J. L. M.

    2018-05-01

    Insight into the assembly and disassembly of viruses can play a crucial role in developing cures for viral diseases. Specialized fluorescent probes can benefit the study of interactions within viruses, especially during cell studies. In this work, we developed a strategy based on Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) to study the assembly of viruses without labeling the exterior of viruses. Instead, we exploit their encapsulation of nucleic cargo, using three different fluorescent ATTO dyes linked to single-stranded DNA oligomers, which are hybridised to a longer DNA strand. FRET is induced upon assembly of the cowpea chlorotic mottle virus, which forms monodisperse icosahedral particles of about 22 nm, thereby increasing the FRET efficiency by a factor of 8. Additionally, encapsulation of the dyes in virus-like particles induces a two-step FRET. When the formed constructs are disassembled, this FRET signal is fully reduced to the value before encapsulation. This reversible behavior makes the system a good probe for studying viral assembly and disassembly. It, furthermore, shows that multi-component supramolecular materials are stabilized in the confinement of a protein cage.

  4. Comparative expression profiling of Nicotiana benthamiana leaves systemically infected with three fruit tree viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dardick, Christopher

    2007-08-01

    Plant viruses cause a wide array of disease symptoms and cytopathic effects. Although some of these changes are virus specific, many appear to be common even among diverse viruses. Currently, little is known about the underlying molecular determinants. To identify gene expression changes that are concomitant with virus symptoms, we performed comparative expression profiling experiments on Nicotiana benthamiana leaves infected with one of three different fruit tree viruses that produce distinct symptoms: Plum pox potyvirus (PPV; leaf distortion and mosaic), Tomato ringspot nepovirus (ToRSV; tissue necrosis and general chlorosis), and Prunus necrotic ringspot ilarvirus (PNRSV; subtle chlorotic mottling). The numbers of statistically significant genes identified were consistent with the severity of the observed symptoms: 1,082 (ToRSV), 744 (PPV), and 89 (PNRSV). In all, 56% of the gene expression changes found in PPV-infected leaves also were altered by ToRSV, 87% of which changed in the same direction. Both PPV- and ToRSV-infected leaves showed widespread repression of genes associated with plastid functions. PPV uniquely induced the expression of large numbers of cytosolic ribosomal genes whereas ToRSV repressed the expression of plastidic ribosomal genes. How these and other observed expression changes might be associated with symptom development are discussed.

  5. Packaging DNA Origami into Viral Protein Cages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linko, Veikko; Mikkilä, Joona; Kostiainen, Mauri A

    2018-01-01

    The DNA origami technique is a widely used method to create customized, complex, spatially well-defined two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) DNA nanostructures. These structures have huge potential to serve as smart drug-delivery vehicles and molecular devices in various nanomedical and biotechnological applications. However, so far only little is known about the behavior of these novel structures in living organisms or in cell culture/tissue models. Moreover, enhancing pharmacokinetic bioavailability and transfection properties of such structures still remains a challenge. One intriguing approach to overcome these issues is to coat DNA origami nanostructures with proteins or lipid membranes. Here, we show how cowpea chlorotic mottle virus (CCMV) capsid proteins (CPs) can be used for coating DNA origami nanostructures. We present a method for disassembling native CCMV particles and isolating the pure CP dimers, which can further bind and encapsulate a rectangular DNA origami shape. Owing to the highly programmable nature of DNA origami, packaging of DNA nanostructures into viral protein cages could find imminent uses in enhanced targeting and cellular delivery of various active nano-objects, such as enzymes and drug molecules.

  6. The current incidence of viral disease in korean sweet potatoes and development of multiplex rt-PCR assays for simultaneous detection of eight sweet potato viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Hae-Ryun; Kim, Mi-Kyeong; Shin, Jun-Chul; Lee, Ye-Ji; Seo, Jang-Kyun; Lee, Hyeong-Un; Jung, Mi-Nam; Kim, Sun-Hyung; Choi, Hong-Soo

    2014-12-01

    Sweet potato is grown extensively from tropical to temperate regions and is an important food crop worldwide. In this study, we established detection methods for 17 major sweet potato viruses using single and multiplex RT-PCR assays. To investigate the current incidence of viral diseases, we collected 154 samples of various sweet potato cultivars showing virus-like symptoms from 40 fields in 10 Korean regions, and analyzed them by RT-PCR using specific primers for each of the 17 viruses. Of the 17 possible viruses, we detected eight in our samples. Sweet potato feathery mottle virus (SPFMV) and sweet potato virus C (SPVC) were most commonly detected, infecting approximately 87% and 85% of samples, respectively. Furthermore, Sweet potato symptomless virus 1 (SPSMV-1), Sweet potato virus G (SPVG), Sweet potato leaf curl virus (SPLCV), Sweet potato virus 2 ( SPV2), Sweet potato chlorotic fleck virus (SPCFV), and Sweet potato latent virus (SPLV) were detected in 67%, 58%, 47%, 41%, 31%, and 20% of samples, respectively. This study presents the first documented occurrence of four viruses (SPVC, SPV2, SPCFV, and SPSMV-1) in Korea. Based on the results of our survey, we developed multiplex RT-PCR assays for simple and simultaneous detection of the eight sweet potato viruses we recorded.

  7. Control of sweet potato virus diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loebenstein, Gad

    2015-01-01

    Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) is ranked seventh in global food crop production and is the third most important root crop after potato and cassava. Sweet potatoes are vegetative propagated from vines, root slips (sprouts), or tubers. Therefore, virus diseases can be a major constrain, reducing yields markedly, often more than 50%. The main viruses worldwide are Sweet potato feathery mottle virus (SPFMV) and Sweet potato chlorotic stunt virus (SPCSV). Effects on yields by SPFMV or SPCSV alone are minor, or but in complex infection by the two or other viruses yield losses of 50%. The orthodox way of controlling viruses in vegetative propagated crops is by supplying the growers with virus-tested planting material. High-yielding plants are tested for freedom of viruses by PCR, serology, and grafting to sweet potato virus indicator plants. After this, meristem tips are taken from those plants that reacted negative. The meristems were grown into plants which were kept under insect-proof conditions and away from other sweet potato material for distribution to farmers after another cycle of reproduction. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. TensorCalculator: exploring the evolution of mechanical stress in the CCMV capsid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kononova, Olga; Maksudov, Farkhad; Marx, Kenneth A.; Barsegov, Valeri

    2018-01-01

    A new computational methodology for the accurate numerical calculation of the Cauchy stress tensor, stress invariants, principal stress components, von Mises and Tresca tensors is developed. The methodology is based on the atomic stress approach which permits the calculation of stress tensors, widely used in continuum mechanics modeling of materials properties, using the output from the MD simulations of discrete atomic and C_α -based coarse-grained structural models of biological particles. The methodology mapped into the software package TensorCalculator was successfully applied to the empty cowpea chlorotic mottle virus (CCMV) shell to explore the evolution of mechanical stress in this mechanically-tested specific example of a soft virus capsid. We found an inhomogeneous stress distribution in various portions of the CCMV structure and stress transfer from one portion of the virus structure to another, which also points to the importance of entropic effects, often ignored in finite element analysis and elastic network modeling. We formulate a criterion for elastic deformation using the first principal stress components. Furthermore, we show that von Mises and Tresca stress tensors can be used to predict the onset of a viral capsid’s mechanical failure, which leads to total structural collapse. TensorCalculator can be used to study stress evolution and dynamics of defects in viral capsids and other large-size protein assemblies.

  9. The Current Incidence of Viral Disease in Korean Sweet Potatoes and Development of Multiplex RT-PCR Assays for Simultaneous Detection of Eight Sweet Potato Viruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hae-Ryun Kwak

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Sweet potato is grown extensively from tropical to temperate regions and is an important food crop worldwide. In this study, we established detection methods for 17 major sweet potato viruses using single and multiplex RT-PCR assays. To investigate the current incidence of viral diseases, we collected 154 samples of various sweet potato cultivars showing virus-like symptoms from 40 fields in 10 Korean regions, and analyzed them by RT-PCR using specific primers for each of the 17 viruses. Of the 17 possible viruses, we detected eight in our samples. Sweet potato feathery mottle virus (SPFMV and sweet potato virus C (SPVC were most commonly detected, infecting approximately 87% and 85% of samples, respectively. Furthermore, Sweet potato symptomless virus 1 (SPSMV-1, Sweet potato virus G (SPVG, Sweet potato leaf curl virus (SPLCV, Sweet potato virus 2 ( SPV2, Sweet potato chlorotic fleck virus (SPCFV, and Sweet potato latent virus (SPLV were detected in 67%, 58%, 47%, 41%, 31%, and 20% of samples, respectively. This study presents the first documented occurrence of four viruses (SPVC, SPV2, SPCFV, and SPSMV-1 in Korea. Based on the results of our survey, we developed multiplex RT-PCR assays for simple and simultaneous detection of the eight sweet potato viruses we recorded.

  10. Modeling Virus Coinfection to Inform Management of Maize Lethal Necrosis in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilker, Frank M; Allen, Linda J S; Bokil, Vrushali A; Briggs, Cheryl J; Feng, Zhilan; Garrett, Karen A; Gross, Louis J; Hamelin, Frédéric M; Jeger, Michael J; Manore, Carrie A; Power, Alison G; Redinbaugh, Margaret G; Rúa, Megan A; Cunniffe, Nik J

    2017-10-01

    Maize lethal necrosis (MLN) has emerged as a serious threat to food security in sub-Saharan Africa. MLN is caused by coinfection with two viruses, Maize chlorotic mottle virus and a potyvirus, often Sugarcane mosaic virus. To better understand the dynamics of MLN and to provide insight into disease management, we modeled the spread of the viruses causing MLN within and between growing seasons. The model allows for transmission via vectors, soil, and seed, as well as exogenous sources of infection. Following model parameterization, we predict how management affects disease prevalence and crop performance over multiple seasons. Resource-rich farmers with large holdings can achieve good control by combining clean seed and insect control. However, crop rotation is often required to effect full control. Resource-poor farmers with smaller holdings must rely on rotation and roguing, and achieve more limited control. For both types of farmer, unless management is synchronized over large areas, exogenous sources of infection can thwart control. As well as providing practical guidance, our modeling framework is potentially informative for other cropping systems in which coinfection has devastating effects. Our work also emphasizes how mathematical modeling can inform management of an emerging disease even when epidemiological information remains scanty. [Formula: see text] Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). This is an open access article distributed under the CC BY-NC-ND 4.0 International license .

  11. 7 CFR 319.37-7 - Postentry quarantine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... species) (See Brugmansia spp.) Dendranthema spp. (chrysanthemum) See Chrysanthemum spp. Dianthus spp... Nipponanthemum nipponicum, for a period of 1 year after importation for an article of Dianthus spp. (carnation...

  12. Effect of Raspberry bushy dwarf virus, Raspberry leaf mottle virus, and Raspberry latent virus on plant growth and fruit crumbliness in ‘Meeker’ red Raspberry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raspberry crumbly fruit in red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.), widespread in the Pacific Northwest of the United States and British Columbia, Canada, is most commonly caused by a virus infection. Raspberry bushy dwarf virus (RBDV) has long been attributed as the causal agent of the disease. Recently, t...

  13. Using the quantum yields of photosystem II and the rate of net photosynthesis to moniter high irradiance and temperature stress in chrysanthemum (Dendrantherma grandiflora)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janka, Eshetu; Körner, Oliver; Rosenqvist, Eva

    2015-01-01

    and quantum yield of PSII remaining low until the temperature reaches 28 °C and 2) the integration of online measurements to monitor photosynthesis and PSII operating efficiency may be used to optimise dynamic greenhouse control regimes by detecting plant stress caused by extreme microclimatic conditions.......Under a dynamic greenhouse climate control regime, temperature is adjusted to optimise plant physiological responses to prevailing irradiance levels; thus, both temperature and irradiance are used by the plant to maximise the rate of photosynthesis, assuming other factors are not limiting...... irradiance, the maximum Pn and ETR were reached at 24 °C. Increased irradiance decreased the PSII operating efficiency and increased NPQ, while both high irradiance and temperature had a significant effect on the PSII operating efficiency at temperatures >28 °C. Under high irradiance and temperature, changes...

  14. EFECTO DEL ÁCIDO SALICÍLICO Y DIMETILSULFÓXIDO EN LA FLORACIÓN DE [Chrysanthemum morifolium(Ramat Kitamura] EN YUCATÁN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Villanueva-Couoh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Con el propósito de evaluar el efecto en la floración y crecimiento de la planta de crisantemo var. Polaris White, varias concentraciones de ácido salicílico (AS 10-6, 10-8 y 10-10 M y Dimetilsulfoxido (DMSO 10-4 M fueron asperjadas a los esquejes. Las cuatro aplicaciones al follaje se realizaron 16 días posteriores al trasplante (DPT, con intervalo de siete días. Se utilizó un diseño completamente al azar con cinco tratamientos y cinco repeticiones. Las plantas asperjadas con DMSO crecieron más (83.6 cm que las plantas asperjadas con 10-6 M (81.0 cm de AS y superaron al testigo (75.0 cm. El diámetro del tallo fue mayor en las plantas asperjadas con AS y DMSO que en las plantas testigo y el tratamiento 10-8 M fue en el que se obtuvieron los valores más altos (8.9 mm. El ácido salicílico (10-6, 10-8 y 10-10 M y el dimetilsulfóxido 10-4 M incrementaron de manera significativa el peso de materia fresca y seca de follaje y raíz, volumen de raíz y área foliar. La floración se alcanzó 113 DPT y también se obtuvo el mayor diámetro de la flor (13.6 y 12.6 cm con los tratamientos 10-8 y 10-10 M, respectivamente. Las concentraciones de N, P y K en hojas y tallos 113 DPT fueron estadísticamente diferentes y los tratamientos con AS y DMSO superaron al testigo. Las concentraciones de N y K fueron de bajas a deficientes pero las concentraciones de P fluctuaron entre suficientes y adecuadas.

  15. Photochemical smog effects in mixed conifer forests along a natural gradient of ozone and nitrogen deposition in the San Bernardino Mountains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbaugh, Michael; Bytnerowicz, Andrzej; Grulke, Nancy; Fenn, Mark; Poth, Mark; Temple, Patrick; Miller, Paul

    2003-06-01

    Toxic effects of photochemical smog on ponderosa and Jeffrey pines in the San Bernardino Mountains were discovered in the 1950s. It was revealed that ozone is the main cause of foliar injury manifested as chlorotic mottle and premature needle senescence. Various morphological, physiological and biochemical alterations in the affected plants have been reported over a period of about 40 years of multidisciplinary research. Recently, the focus of research has shifted from studying the effects of ozone to multiple pollutant effects. Recent studies have indicated that the combination of ozone and nitrogen may alter biomass allocation in pines towards that of deciduous trees, accelerate litter accumulation, and increase carbon sequestration rates in heavily polluted forests. Further study of the effects of multiple pollutants, and their long-term consequences on the mixed conifer ecosystem, cannot be adequately done using the original San Bernardino Mountains Air Pollution Gradient network. To correct deficiencies in the design, the new site network is being configured for long-term studies on multiple air pollutant concentrations and deposition, physiological and biochemical changes in trees, growth and composition of over-story species, biogeochemical cycling including carbon cycling and sequestration, water quality, and biodiversity of forest ecosystems. Eleven sites have been re-established. A comparison of 1974 stand composition with data from 2000 stand composition indicate that significant changes in species composition have occurred at some sites with less change at other sites. Moist, high-pollution sites have experienced the greatest amount of forest change, while dryer low-pollution sites have experienced the least amount of stand change. In general, ponderosa pine had the lowest basal area increases and the highest mortality across the San Bernardino Mountains.

  16. Ecophysiological and biochemical strategies of response to ozone in Mediterranean evergreen broadleaf species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nali, C.; Paoletti, E.; Marabottini, R.; Della Rocca, G.; Lorenzini, G.; Paolacci, A. R.; Ciaffi, M.; Badiani, M.

    Three Mediterranean shrubs, Phillyrea latifolia L. (phillyrea), Arbutus unedo L. (strawberry tree), and Laurus nobilis L. (laurel), differing in their morphological and ecological response to water shortage, were exposed for 90 days to 0 or 110 ppb of ozone (O 3), 5 h each day. This yielded an accumulated exposure over of a threshold of 40 ppb (AOT40) of 31.5 ppm h over the 3 months experiment. These species showed differing responses to O 3: laurel and phillyrea developed foliar chlorotic mottles on the adaxial surface of leaves, whereas strawberry tree leaves showed reddish interveinal stipple-like necrotic lesions. In all cases, however, foliar injury did not exceed 8% of the sampled leaf area. At the end of the exposure period, O 3-induced stomatal limitation caused significant decreases of net photosynthesis in strawberry tree and laurel, but not in phillyrea. The relative water content of the leaves was significantly decreased by O 3, especially in laurel and strawberry tree, suggesting the occurrence of drought stress. Electrical conductivity of leachates from foliar discs increased in response to the treatment, much more strongly in laurel and in strawberry tree than in phillyrea, suggesting an O 3-dependent alteration of the membrane retention capacity. At the end of the experimental period, the activity of superoxide dismutase and the content of reduced glutathione, but not that of reduced ascorbate, were significantly increased in the ozonated leaves of strawberry tree and phillyrea, but not in laurel. The evergreen broadleaves studied here maybe relatively tolerant to realistic O 3 levels, at least in terms of visible injury and gas exchange. Such tolerance might overlap with their level of tolerance to drought stress. High constitutive levels, and/or O 3-induced increases in antioxidants, might contribute to O 3 tolerance in these Mediterranean evergreen broadleaf species.

  17. Physiological responses of Pinus sylvestris to changing carbon dioxide and ozone concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holopainen, T. [Kuopio Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Ecology and Environmental Science; Palomaeki, V. [Joensuu Univ. (Finland). Faculty of Forestry; Helmisaari, H.S. [Finnish Forest Research Inst., Helsinki (Finland)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    The objective of this research is to study the effects of elevated ozone, carbon dioxide and their combination on ultrastructural, physiological and biochemical responses of Scots pine needles and how these effects are reflected to photosynthesis, carbohydrate and nutrient allocation and finally to shoot and root growth of trees. In addition the interactions of the studied trees and mycorrhizal fungi as well as insect herbivores are studied. The exposures have been running only for two growing periods and it seems necessary to continue the experiment over the third growing season in 1996. Since the analyses are partially incomplete, only preliminary conclusions are possible at the moment. The slightly increased shoot growth and needle width and increased amount of starch in chloroplasts point to the slight stimulating effect of elevated CO{sub 2} among the chamber treatments. Altogether the growth of the seedlings was best in the chamberless treatment indicating a negative chamber effect. The elevated ozone significantly increased the chlorotic mottling and overall yellowing of second year needles as well as caused increased density of chloroplast stroma and declined photosynthesis, all these responses being often related to ozone exposures. The ozone related responses appeared at both CO{sub 2} levels indicating no clear protection due to elevated CO{sub 2}. The ozone or carbon dioxide treatments were not able to significantly change nutrient concentrations, insect herbivory or carbon allocation among the secondary compounds of needles. A tendency of increased carbon allocation to fine roots due to ozone but not so clearly to CO{sub 2} was observed

  18. Physiological responses of Pinus sylvestris to changing carbon dioxide and ozone concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holopainen, T [Kuopio Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Ecology and Environmental Science; Palomaeki, V [Joensuu Univ. (Finland). Faculty of Forestry; Helmisaari, H S [Finnish Forest Research Inst., Helsinki (Finland); and others

    1997-12-31

    The objective of this research is to study the effects of elevated ozone, carbon dioxide and their combination on ultrastructural, physiological and biochemical responses of Scots pine needles and how these effects are reflected to photosynthesis, carbohydrate and nutrient allocation and finally to shoot and root growth of trees. In addition the interactions of the studied trees and mycorrhizal fungi as well as insect herbivores are studied. The exposures have been running only for two growing periods and it seems necessary to continue the experiment over the third growing season in 1996. Since the analyses are partially incomplete, only preliminary conclusions are possible at the moment. The slightly increased shoot growth and needle width and increased amount of starch in chloroplasts point to the slight stimulating effect of elevated CO{sub 2} among the chamber treatments. Altogether the growth of the seedlings was best in the chamberless treatment indicating a negative chamber effect. The elevated ozone significantly increased the chlorotic mottling and overall yellowing of second year needles as well as caused increased density of chloroplast stroma and declined photosynthesis, all these responses being often related to ozone exposures. The ozone related responses appeared at both CO{sub 2} levels indicating no clear protection due to elevated CO{sub 2}. The ozone or carbon dioxide treatments were not able to significantly change nutrient concentrations, insect herbivory or carbon allocation among the secondary compounds of needles. A tendency of increased carbon allocation to fine roots due to ozone but not so clearly to CO{sub 2} was observed

  19. Localization and subcellular association of Grapevine Pinot Gris Virus in grapevine leaf tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarquini, Giulia; Ermacora, Paolo; Bianchi, Gian Luca; De Amicis, Francesca; Pagliari, Laura; Martini, Marta; Loschi, Alberto; Saldarelli, Pasquale; Loi, Nazia; Musetti, Rita

    2018-05-01

    Despite the increasing impact of Grapevine Pinot gris disease (GPG-disease) worldwide, etiology about this disorder is still uncertain. The presence of the putative causal agent, the Grapevine Pinot Gris Virus (GPGV), has been reported in symptomatic grapevines (presenting stunting, chlorotic mottling, and leaf deformation) as well as in symptom-free plants. Moreover, information on virus localization in grapevine tissues and virus-plant interactions at the cytological level is missing at all. Ultrastructural and cytochemical investigations were undertaken to detect virus particles and the associated cytopathic effects in field-grown grapevine showing different symptom severity. Asymptomatic greenhouse-grown grapevines, which tested negative for GPGV by real time RT-PCR, were sampled as controls. Multiplex real-time RT-PCR and ELISA tests excluded the presence of viruses included in the Italian certification program both in field-grown and greenhouse-grown grapevines. Conversely, evidence was found for ubiquitous presence of Grapevine Rupestris Stem Pitting-associated Virus (GRSPaV), Hop Stunt Viroid (HSVd), and Grapevine Yellow Speckle Viroid 1 (GYSVd-1) in both plant groups. Moreover, in every field-grown grapevine, GPGV was detected by real-time RT-PCR. Ultrastructural observations and immunogold labelling assays showed filamentous flexuous viruses in the bundle sheath cells, often located inside membrane-bound organelles. No cytological differences were observed among field-grown grapevine samples showing different symptom severity. GPGV localization and associated ultrastructural modifications are reported and discussed, in the perspective of assisting management and control of the disease.

  20. Complete sequence and diversity of a maize-associated Polerovirus in East Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massawe, Deogracious P; Stewart, Lucy R; Kamatenesi, Jovia; Asiimwe, Theodore; Redinbaugh, Margaret G

    2018-06-01

    Since 2011-2012, Maize lethal necrosis (MLN) has emerged in East Africa, causing massive yield loss and propelling research to identify viruses and virus populations present in maize. As expected, next generation sequencing (NGS) has revealed diverse and abundant viruses from the family Potyviridae, primarily sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV), and maize chlorotic mottle virus (MCMV) (Tombusviridae), which are known to cause MLN by synergistic co-infection. In addition to these expected viruses, we identified a virus in the genus Polerovirus (family Luteoviridae) in 104/172 samples selected for MLN or other potential virus symptoms from Kenya, Uganda, Rwanda, and Tanzania. This polerovirus (MF974579) nucleotide sequence is 97% identical to maize-associated viruses recently reported in China, termed 'maize yellow mosaic virus' (MaYMV) and maize yellow dwarf virus (MaYMV; KU291101, KU291107, MYDV-RMV2; KT992824); and 99% identical to MaYMV (KY684356) infecting sugarcane and itch grass in Nigeria; 83% identical to a barley-associated polerovirus recently identified in Korea (BVG; KT962089); and 79% identical to the U.S. maize-infecting polerovirus maize yellow dwarf virus (MYDV-RMV; KT992824). Nucleotide sequences from ORF0 of 20 individual East African isolates collected from Kenya, Uganda, Rwanda, and Tanzania shared 98% or higher identity, and were detected in 104/172 (60.5%) of samples collected for virus-like symptoms, indicating extensive prevalence but limited diversity of this virus in East Africa. We refer to this virus as "MYDV-like polerovirus" until symptoms of the virus in maize are known.

  1. AcEST: DK949550 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 40 Definition tr|Q27K40|Q27K40_9TOMB P23 protein OS=Hibiscus chlorotic ringspot virus Align length 103 Score... alignments: (bits) Value tr|Q27K40|Q27K40_9TOMB P23 protein OS=Hibiscus chlorotic ringspo... 35 4.8 >tr|Q27...K40|Q27K40_9TOMB P23 protein OS=Hibiscus chlorotic ringspot virus PE=4 SV=1 Lengt

  2. Fungal Pathogen of Cladophora glomerata (Chlorophyta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bott, Thomas L.; Rogenmuser, Kurt

    1980-01-01

    A strain of Acremonium kiliense (Fungi Imperfecti) produced a water-soluble, dialyzable, heat-stable agent that rendered Cladophora glomerata (Chlorophyta) chlorotic and inhibited its growth. PMID:16345663

  3. Methodological aspects of mutation breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broertjes, C.; Roest, S.; Bokelmann, G.S.

    1980-01-01

    The authors discuss the development of the in vitro adventitious bud technique for Chrysanthemum morifolium, Solanum tuberosum, Begonia x hieemalis, Dianthus caryophyllus, Muscari, Euphorbia pulcherrima, and Forsythia intermedia. (G.T.H.)

  4. Molecular characterization and expression of DgZFP1, a gene ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-04-12

    Apr 12, 2010 ... Full Length Research Paper. Molecular characterization and ... stem mainly done by removing the auxiliary flower buds. But cultivars as potted ... DgZFP1 by using the first strand cDNA of chrysanthemum as a template.

  5. GC X GCTOFMS OF SYNTHETIC PYRETHROIDS IN FOODS SAMPLES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyrethrins are natural insecticides in the extract of chrysanthemum flowers1. Pyrethroids are synthetic forms of pyrethrins, and many are halogenated (F, Cl, Br). Synthetic pyrethroids have become popular replacements for organophosphorus pesticides, which have become increasin...

  6. Vondst van het schavertje Stenobothrus stigmaticus in Zeeland (Orthoptera)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwman, J.

    2005-01-01

    Discovery of a population of the lesser mottled grasshopper Stenobothrus stigmaticus on the Dutch coast (Orthoptera) During an inventory of the nature reserve De Vroongronden between the towns of Renesse and Burg-Haamstede (province of Zeeland) the first population of the lesser mottled grasshopper

  7. A preliminary study on growth response of broiler finishers fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A preliminary study on growth response of broiler finishers fed processed mottle Mucuna beans ( Mucuna pruriens var. utilis ) ... They were fed diets (20% CP, 13 MJME/kg) incorporating 0%, 5% and 10% processed mottle “Mucuna” beans. A completely randomized design was used. Feed and water were supplied and ...

  8. Perfusion lung scintigraphy in primary pulmonary hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, Yoji; Nishimura, Tsunehiko; Kumita, Shin-ichirou; Hayashida, Kohei; Uehara, Toshiisa; Shimonagata, Tsuyoshi; Ohno, Akira

    1991-01-01

    Fifteen cases with primary pulmonary hypertension (PPH) were classified into two groups by using the perfusion lung scan pattern. Eight cases had multiple, small, ill-defined defects (mottled pattern), and remaining seven cases had no mottled pattern. These two groups were compared with mean pulmonary arterial pressure (mean PAP), right ventricular ejection fraction (RVEF), blood gas at room air (PaO 2 ), and alveolar-arterial O 2 difference (A-aDo 2 ). The cases with mottled pattern showed a significant increase in mean PAP. There were no significant differences in RVEF, PaO 2 , and A-aDo 2 , between the groups. The survival rate of the patients with mottled pattern was significantly lower than that without mottled pattern (p<0.05). We concluded that perfusion lung scan is very useful for evaluation of the prognosis in primary pulmonary hypertension. (author)

  9. Strategii de PR în retorica electorala din Parlamentarele -2014, Republica Moldova vs „revoluția crizantemelor”, octombrie 2015 (PR strategies in the electoral rhetoric during the parliamentary elections in 2014, Republic of Moldova vs „the chrysanthemums revolution”, october 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurelia PERU-BALAN

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article the author approaches the trends of the electoral rhetoric during the parliamentary elections that were held on 30th of November. The article determines which are the most used campaign issues with a mobilizing effect on the voters; among these – the external path of the Republic of Moldova. During the last five years, the right and center-right wing parties have chosen the EU integration, the left-wing parties – the Eurasian Union. The contribution also analyzes the most relevant special events organized by the political parties’ staffs in order to create an image well covered by the media and favorable for the political actors.

  10. Strategii de PR în retorica electorala din Parlamentarele -2014, Republica Moldova vs „revoluția crizantemelor”, octombrie 2015 (PR strategies in the electoral rhetoric during the parliamentary elections in 2014, Republic of Moldova vs „the chrysanthemums revolution”, october 2015)

    OpenAIRE

    Aurelia PERU-BALAN

    2015-01-01

    In this article the author approaches the trends of the electoral rhetoric during the parliamentary elections that were held on 30th of November. The article determines which are the most used campaign issues with a mobilizing effect on the voters; among these – the external path of the Republic of Moldova. During the last five years, the right and center-right wing parties have chosen the EU integration, the left-wing parties – the Eurasian Union. The contribution also analyzes the most rele...

  11. Avaliação de seletividade de produtos fitossanitários utilizados na cultura do crisântemo a adultos de Orius insidiosus (Say, 1832) (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae) em laboratório Selectivity of pesticides used on chrysanthemum crop to adults of Orius insidiosus (Say, 1832) (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae)

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandre Augusto Morais; Geraldo Andrade Carvalho; Jair Campos Moraes; Maurício Sekiguchi Godoy; Luciano Veiga Cosme

    2003-01-01

    Objetivou-se avaliar a seletividade de produtos fitossanitários utilizados na cultura do crisântemo a adultos de Orius insidiosus (Say). Os bioensaios foram conduzidos a 25±1oC, UR 70±10% e fotofase de 12h, em Lavras, MG. Os inseticidas avaliados foram abamectina (0,0009 g i.a./100 ml), cartap (0,06 g i.a./100 ml), ciromazina (0,011 g i.a./100 ml), fenpropatrina (0,009 g i.a./100 ml) e imidaclopride (0,042 g i.a./100 ml). As pulverizações foram realizadas por meio de torre de Potter calibrada...

  12. Susceptibility of peach GF 305 seedlings and selected herbaceous plants to plum pox virus isolates from western Slovakia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasa, M; Matisová, J; Hricovský, I; Kúdela, O

    1997-12-01

    The susceptibility of peach GF 305 seedlings and herbaceous plants to five plum pox virus (PPV) isolates from orchards of western Slovakia was investigated. PPV was isolated from diseased plum, apricot and peach trees, and transmitted by chip-budding to peach GF 305. The herbaceous plants were infected by mechanical inoculation. The transmission was analysed by symptomatology and double sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (DAS-ELISA). Infected peaches developed leaf distortion, tissue clearing along the veins and small chlorotic spots (isolate BOR-3). With exception of BOR-3, the PPV isolates transmitted from peach caused local chlorotic spots on Chenopodium foetidum. The character of symptoms changed when a sap from PPV-infected Nicotiana benthamiana was used as virus inoculum. From N. benthamiana, the PPV isolates could be transmitted to Pisum sativum, cv. Colmo (light green mosaic), N. clevelandii and N. clevelandii x N. glutinosa hybrid (latent infection or chlorotic spots).

  13. 78 FR 24471 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Endangered Status for the Sierra Nevada Yellow...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-25

    ... patterned with dark spots (Jennings and Hayes 1994, p. 74; Stebbins 2003, p. 233). These spots may be large...). Mountain yellow-legged frogs have smoother skin, generally with heavier spotting and mottling dorsally...

  14. A VARIA T OF RIFT VALLEY FEVER VIRU

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The clinical picture produced in mice. When inoculated .... have very pale mottled livers and the clinical picture in the ... unlikely to prove positive, attention was directed towards ..... selective intraperitoneal passage of liver or blood a viscero-.

  15. Anaesthesia and familial dysautonomia with congenital insensitivity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adele

    the HSANs are familial dysautonomia (Riley-Day syndrome or HSAN type III) and congenital ... sion, and excessive vagal reflexes. Central ... His skin was mottled, dry and pale. ... Eye protection is important since affected individuals lack tears,.

  16. Early diagenetic processes affecting nutrients in the pore waters of Central Indian Ocean cores

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nath, B.N.; Mudholkar, A.V.

    and unoxidized organic carbon are observed in the Arabian Sea core, while nitrification with intermediate low nitrate and high organic carbon are found in the mottled zones of the pelagic cores. Mobilization of iron-host oxyhydroxides and peaked profiles...

  17. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ladaf 2

    benefits to local farmers, enhances food palatability and in human diet (Tukru ... Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), and Pepper veinal mottle virus (PVMV) were detected. In tomato the .... the incorporated healthy (negative) control. Tomato mosaic ...

  18. Perfusion lung scintigraphy in primary pulmonary hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, Y.; Hayashida, K.; Uehara, T.; Shimonagata, T.; Nishimura, T.; Osaka Univ., Suita

    1993-01-01

    15 cases of primary pulmonary hypertension were classified into two groups by patterns of perfusion lung scintigraphy. Perfusion scintigrams showed multiple, small, ill-defined defects (mottled + ve) pattern in eight cases, and the remaining seven cases had a normal (mottled - ve) pattern. The mean pulmonary arterial pressure in patients with a mottled pattern (54 ± 10 mmHg) was higher than in those with a normal pattern (42 ± 9 mmHg, p < 0.05). There were no significant differences between the two groups in right ventricular ejection fraction, partial pressures of oxygen in the arterial blood or alveolo-arterial oxygen difference. All the patients with a mottled pattern died within 2 years following the lung scintigraphy. There was a significant difference in the survival curves between the two groups. (author)

  19. African Journal of Biotechnology - Vol 10, No 25 (2011)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Occurrence of pepper mild mottle virus in greenhousegrown pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) in the West Mediterranean region of Turkey · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. MA Sevik, 4976-4979 ...

  20. Evaluation des variétés de riz prometteuses pour la résistance à ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , (Rice yellow Mottle Virus ou RYMV), l'helminthosporiose (Helminthosporium oryzae ou Bipolaris oryzae) et la cécidomyie africaine des galles de riz (Orseolia oryzivora) sont les principales contraintes biotiques majeures qui causent plus de ...

  1. Improvement of some ornamental plants by induced somatic mutations at National Botanical Research Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, M.N.

    1980-01-01

    Research work on improvement of some ornamental plants by induced somatic mutations has been in progress at the National Botanical Research Institute, Lucknow, since 1964. The methods of treatments with gamma rays, detection, isolation and multiplication of induced somatic mutations have been given for Bougainvillea, Chrysanthemum, perennial Portulaca, rose and tuberose. During the last 15 years, a total of 38 new cultivars of different ornamentals evolved by gamna induced somatic mutations have been released. They include Bougainvillea 1; Chrysanthemum 28; perennial portulaca 6; rose 1 and tuberose 2. Descriptions of the original cultivars and their gamma induced mutants are given along with other pertinent details. (author)

  2. Induction of somatic mutations in some vegetatively Propagated ornamentals by gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, P.K.; Ghosh, P.; Dube, S.; Dhua, S.P.

    1974-01-01

    Attempts were made to produce mutations in some vegetatively propagated ornamentals by acute and chronic gamma irradiation. Rooted cutting of Chrysanthemums and dormant bulbs of Dahlias were exposed to 1.5, 2.5, 3.5 and 2.0, 3.0 kR of acute doses respectively. In chronic irradiation, potted plants of Bougainvillea, Hibiscus, Allamanda, Achania, Jasminum, Chrysanthemum were exposed to several dose rates at different isodose arcs in the gamma field. Isolated mutants are being vegetatively multiplied and some of them have already been stabilized as pure forms. (M.G.B.)

  3. Occupational dermatitis in Danish gardeners and greenhouse workers (III)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, Evy; Søgaard, Jes; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    1998-01-01

    . The Compositae mix detected 2x as many as the SL mix, and the overall detection rate with both was 76%, making aimed patch testing necessary. Chrysanthemum (Dendranthema), marguerite daisy (Argyranthemum frutescens) and lettuce (Lactuca sativa) were frequent sensitizers. Occupational type I allergy to Compositae...... comprised sensitization to Gerbera, chrysanthemum, lettuce, Senecio cruentus and Aster. Among 1657 respondents in the questionnaire part of the study, 824 had worked with Compositae, and 160 (19%) reported occupational Compositae-related symptoms of skin and mucous membranes. Possible risk factors...

  4. Spectral effects of light-emitting diodes on photosynthetic characteristics and secondary metabolism in greenhouse plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ouzounis, Theoharis

    2014-01-01

    , photo-synthetic performance, and secondary metabolism of different plants. As model plants we used rose (Rosa hybrida), chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum morifolium), campanula (Campanula portenschlagiana), orchid (Phalaenopsis), and lettuce (Lactuca sativa). In our first experiment, by growing roses......; lettuce plants increased both their phenolic and pigment content. The effects were not observed in the same way in all plants, highlighting the fact that plant responses to blue and red LED lighting are species and/or cultivar dependent. LED-based systems are a promising alternative choice for greenhouse...

  5. First report of Alfalfa mosaic virus infecting basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) plants collected from a field in Imperial County, CA in May, 2011 were found to exhibit yellowing, chlorotic sectors and spots on leaves, resulting in plants being unmarketable. Total nucleic acid was extracted from plants and tested by RT-PCR for the presence of Alfalfa...

  6. Cryotherapy by encapsulation-dehydration is effective for in vitro eradication of latent viruses from ‘Marubakaido’ apple rootstock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apple stem pitting virus (ASPV), Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus (ACLSV) and Apple stem grooving virus (ASGV) are several major viral pathogens of apple trees, responsible for substantial damage to the world's apple industry. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of encapsulation-dehydratio...

  7. Managing thrips and tospoviruses in tomato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomato spotted wilt virus and more recently emerged Tomato chlorotic spot virus and Groundnut ringspot virus are all transmitted by thrips, making managment complex. All three viruses and the thrips vector are major pests of tomato in Florida. Current management tools for these viruses and the th...

  8. First report of the cucurbit yellow vine disease caused by Serratia marcescens in watermelon and yellow squash in Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symptoms typical of cucurbit yellow vine disease (CYVD) were first observed in a 2 ha watermelon field in Crawford, Russell County, Alabama on 8 June 2010. Watermelon plants, cv. 'Jubilee,' exhibited a yellow or chlorotic appearance and some plants were completely wilted. On 24 June plant samples ...

  9. Evaluating the silencing suppressor activity of proteins encoded by maize rayado fino virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maize rayado fino virus (MRFV), the type member of the genus Marafivirus, family Tymoviridae, is transmitted in a persistent, circulative manner by leafhoppers of the genus Dalbulus. Symptoms of MRFV infection on leaves of its maize host are small chlorotic spots that coalesce into short stripes. T...

  10. Spatial-temporal modeling of forest gaps generated by colonization from below- and above-ground beetle species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, J.; Rasmussen, Jakob Gulddahl; Møller, Jesper

    Studies of forest declines are important, because they both reduce timber production and aect successional trajectories of landscapes and ecosystems. Of partic- ular interest is the decline of red pines which is characterized by expanding areas of dead and chlorotic trees in plantations throughou...

  11. Toxicity of aluminium to pinapple ( Ananas comosus ) grown on acid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The younger leaves of Al-stressed plants were small curled along the margin and frequently Chlorotic. The effect was less pronounced in Queen than in smooth Cayenne. Leaf analysis of Pineapple suckers showed reduction in Ca and P and increased AI value for plants exposed to excess of soluble AI. When the ...

  12. Detection of pathogens associated with psyllids and leafhoppers in Capsicum annuum L. in the Mexican States of Durango, Zacatecas, and Michoacán

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the fall of 2014, five to seventy-five percent of chili and bell peppers (Capsicum annuum L.) in commercial fields located in the Mexican states of Durango, Zacatecas, and Michoacán, had various symptoms of deformed, small, mosaic, curled, and chlorotic leaves, shortened internodes and plant dwar...

  13. First report of BLTVA phytoplasma in Capsicum annuum and Circulifer tenellus in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepper (Capsicum annuum) plants in Durango and Zacatecas, Mexico, in September and October, 2014, had small, chlorotic, curled leaves, plant stunting, and/or big bud symptoms characteristic of phytoplasma infection (Lee et al. 2004). Samples from symptomatic pepper fields included 33 collected near...

  14. Characterization of a new tymovirus from Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naranjilla (Solanum quitoense) is a solanaceous shrub cultivated in Ecuador for fresh fruit and juice production. A naranjilla plant exhibiting stunting and chlorotic spots was sampled near Quito, Ecuador. An infectious agent was transferred to indicator plants by mechanical inoculation, and subsequ...

  15. Kalanchoë blossfeldiana, a new host for Sonchus yellow net virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwen, I.; Schoen, C.D.; Balen, van E.; Vlugt, van der R.A.A.

    2002-01-01

    The agent causing chlorotic spots in Kalanchoë blossfeldiana `Isabella¿ was investigated. A virus isolated from this naturally infected kalanchoë was mechanically transmissible to several indicator plants. Observation of suspension preparations in the electron microscope revealed rhabdovirus-like

  16. Viruses of ornamentals emerging in Florida and the Caribbean region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomato chlorotic spot virus (TCSV) has been reported in common weeds including American black nightshade and jimsonweed in Florida and/or Puerto Rico. Experimental host range studies demonstrated that TCSV and/or GRSV can also infect ornamentals including petunia, brugmansia and garden impatiens. ...

  17. Serological and molecular detection and prevalence of Cucurbit ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    During the 2009 growing seasons, virus-like symptoms were noticed on cucurbit crops (melons (Cucumis melo L.) and watermelons [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum and Nakai)] grown in the Sistan region. The symptoms were widespread and included initial chlorotic lesions followed by yellowing of whole leaves and ...

  18. Bacterial brown leaf spot of citrus, a new disease caused by Burkholderia andropogonis

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new bacterial disease of citrus was recently identified in Florida and named as bacterial brown leaf spot (BBLS) of citrus. BBLS-infected citrus displayed flat, circular and brownish lesions with water-soaked margins surrounded by a chlorotic halo on leaves. Based on Biolog carbon source metabolic...

  19. Public tolerance to defoliation and flower distortion in a public horticulture garden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadof, Clifford S; Sclar, D Casey

    2002-04-01

    Surveys of visitor and grower perception of live potted plant quality were conducted in various locations in a large public display garden. Canna lily, Canna x generalis L.H.Bailey, was used to examine effects of defoliation by Japanese beetle, Popillia japonica Newman, on public perception. Chrysanthemums, Chrysanthemum x morifolium Ramat., were used to identify visitor and grower tolerance to flower distortion caused by western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande), on single and multiple flowered plants. On average, the maximum amount of defoliation or flower distortion tolerated by any respondent was low (< or = 10% for canna and < or = 25% for chrysanthemum). The level of acceptable injury was influenced by factors intrinsic to both the respondents and the plants themselves. Tolerance to injury was negatively associated with the risk aversion of the respondents. Visitors were less tolerant of injury on plants they considered for purchase than those that they would view at the garden. Similarly, grower tolerance was lower than that of visitors because producing substandard plants could put their professional reputation at risk. Factors that distracted visitor attention (e.g., presence of flowers and higher levels of background injury) increased their tolerance to plant injury. Visitors tolerated greater levels of flower distortion on multiple flowering chrysanthemum than on those with single flowers. We suggest that tolerance to insect pests can be increased by designing plantings that distract viewers from injured plant parts.

  20. Biochemical aspects of single-node cuttings of Ricinodendron ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NEHEMIE

    2013-03-06

    Mar 6, 2013 ... changes, basal single-node leafy cuttings were treated with different .... with local material and providing an internal irradiance of 20 to 32%. ..... higher in rooting cutting during the initiation phase). Phenolics ... Chrysanthemum cuttings as affected by nitrogen supply and cold- storage. Ann. Bot. 85:697-701.

  1. 75 FR 1775 - Notice of Receipt of Requests to Voluntarily Cancel Certain Pesticide Registrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-13

    ...-00487 Snake 1 d-trans- Chrysanthemum monocarboxylic ester of dl-2-allyl- 4-hydroxy-3-methyl- 2... Business Center, Suite 402, King Of Prussia, PA 19406. 072871 Missouri Aquaculture Association, P.O. Box...), Rutherford, NJ 07070. 084467 UPI-Aceto, LLC, 630 Freedom Business Center, Suite 402, King Of Prussia, PA...

  2. La Artesania Mexicana (Mexican Handicrafts).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Bettina

    This booklet contains instructions in English and Spanish for making eleven typical Mexican craft articles. The instructions are accompanied by pen-and-ink drawings. The objects are (1) "La Rosa" (The Rose); (2) "El Crisantemo" (The Chrysanthemum); (3) "La Amapola" (The Poppy); (4) "Ojos de Dios" (God's Eyes); (5) "Ojitos con dos caras" (Two-Sided…

  3. Wound-induced and bacteria-induced xylem blockage in roses, Astilbe and Viburnum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loubaud, M.; Doorn, van W.G.

    2004-01-01

    We previously concluded that the xylem blockage that prevents water uptake into several cut flowers is mainly due to the presence of bacteria, whilst in chrysanthemum and Bouvardia we observed a xylem occlusion that was mainly due to a wound-reaction of the plant. We have further tested which of

  4. Pyrethrum flowers and pyrethroid insecticides.

    OpenAIRE

    Casida, J E

    1980-01-01

    The natural pyrethrins from the daisy-like flower, Tanacetum or Chrysanthemum cinerariifolium, are nonpersistent insecticides of low toxicity to mammals. Synthetic analogs or pyrethroids, evolved from the natural compounds by successive isosteric modifications, are more potent and stable and are the newest important class of crop protection chemicals. They retain many of the favorable properties of the pyrethrins.

  5. More Supernova Surprises

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-24

    originated in South America. E veryone appreciates the beauty of dai- sies, chrysanthemums, and sunfl ow- ers, and many of us enjoy eating lettuce ...few fossils. On page 1621 of this issue, Barreda et al. ( 1) describe an unusually well-preserved new fossil that sheds light on the history of

  6. 78 FR 33325 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-04

    ... Inspection Service Title: Cut Flowers from Countries with Chrysanthemum White Rust. OMB Control Number: 0579... and Plant Health Inspection Service Title: Tuberculosis Testing for Imported Cattle from Mexico. OMB... and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) ability to compete in the global market of animal and...

  7. Partical replacement of the rooting procedure of Chrysanthenum merifolium cuttings by pre-rooting storage in the dark.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pol, van de P.A.

    1988-01-01

    Part of the rooting procedure of Chrysanthemum morifolium 'Pink Boston' and 'Refour' cuttings can be replaced by pre-rooting storage in the dark. Pre-rooting storage of 7 days at temperatures between 9° and 21°C was adequate. Longer periods of dark storage resulted in increase of root growth but

  8. Composition of essential oil of costmary [Balsamita major (L.) Desf.] at different growth phases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bylaite, E.; Venskutonis, R.; Roozen, J.P.; Posthumus, M.A.

    2000-01-01

    The essential oils from leaves and flowers of costmary, Balsamita major (L.) Desf. (syn. Chrysanthemum balsamita L.), were analyzed at various phases of plant growth. The highest contents of oil both in leaves and in flowers were determined before full blooming, 1.15 and 1.34øw/w), respectively.

  9. Journal of Genetics | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Genetics; Volume 91; Issue 2. Physical mapping of 5S and 45S rDNA in Chrysanthemum and related genera of the Anthemideae by FISH, and species relationships. Magdy Hussein Abd El-Twab Katsuhiko Kondo. Research Note Volume 91 Issue 2 August 2012 pp 245-249 ...

  10. Compilation of Annual Reports of the Navy ELF (Extremely Low Frequency) Communications System Ecological Monitoring Program (1983). Volume 2. Tabs F-J.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-07-01

    POSITAE C. rugosa *Arctiumn minus CON VOLULACEAE * .Centaurea maculosa , Convolviliis Cirsium arvense (several possible) C. discolor CRASSULACEAE C. hill...Heracleum lanatumn A. umbllatusHieraciumn aurantiacum - A. sp. I H. florentinumn A. sp. 2 H. pratense A. sp. 3 Hypericumn perforatumn Centaurea maculosa H...Hypericumn perforatumn Aster umbellatus Lychnis alba Aster sp. I Melilotus alba *Centaurea maculosa Oenethera biennis Chrysanthemum leucanthemnum Prunus

  11. The Potential Research of Catch Crop in Decrease Soil Nitrate Under Greenhouse Vegetable Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YIN Xing

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to clarify the impact of catch crops on greenhouse vegetable soil nitrate, explore the mechanism of barrier and controll soil nitrogen leaching losses in greenhouse, and provide a theoretical basis for control nitrogen leaching and prevention of groundwater pollution, this study selected the traditional greenhouse vegetable rotation system in North China plain as research subjects, using field situ remediation technologies on deep-root planting catch crops in the vegetable fallow period by sweet corn, Achyranthes bidentata and white Chrysanthemum. The results showed that: nitrogen content and nitrogen uptake of sweet corn and sweet corn with Achyranthes bidentata intercropping were the highest, respectively 20.11 t·hm-2, 19.62 t·hm-2 and 240.34 kg·hm-2, 287.56 kg·hm-2, significantly higher than white Chrysanthemum. The density of root length and root dry weight decreased with soil depth in the profiles, root length density was demonstrated in order as: intercropping sweet corn> sweet corn> white Chrysanthemum> intercropping Achyranthes bidentata blume. The reduction of NO3--N of sweet corn reached 907.87 kg·hm-2 in soil profile 0~200 cm, significantly higher than sweet corn and hyssop intercropping and white Chrysanthemums. In the interim period of vegetable crop rotation, planting catch crops could effectively reduce nitrate accumulation in the soil, control the soil profile nitrate leaching down.

  12. African Journal of Biotechnology - Vol 11, No 31 (2012)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Polyploidy levels of Chinese large-flower chrysanthemum determined by flow ... Segregation and expression of transgenes in the progenies of Bt transgenic rice ... Impact of crop residues on seed germination of native desert plants grown as ... Screening of root nodule bacteria for the production of polyhydroxyalkanoate ...

  13. Chrysant zonder gas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raaphorst, M.G.M.; Kempkes, F.L.K.; Knaap, van der E.; Veld, de Paul

    2015-01-01

    The most relevant options that can decrease the heat demand on Chrysanthemum are calculated on their saving potential. With the joint options, a gas consumption of less than 10 m3/m2.year can be realized. The main bottlenecks are the increased risk of fungal diseases and the low net present value of

  14. Development of plant mutation techniques using ion beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Si Yong; Park, In Sook; Song, Hi Sup; Kim, Dong Sub; Kim, Soo Yeon

    2006-06-15

    It has been reported that ion beam with high liner energy transfer (LET) show relative high biological effectiveness (RBE) and more effective for induced plant mutation than low LET radiation i.e., X-rays, gamma rays and electrons. This study was conducted to induce mutation of in vitro cultured orchid and Chrysanthemum using proton beam of the MC-50 cyclotron (50 MeV) at the Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Science. In vitro cultured stems of chrysanthemum(cv. Migok) and protocom-like bodies(PLBs) of Dendrobium orchid (cv. Kingianum) placed in the plastic petridish (5.5cm in diameter) with agar medium were irradiated by the proton beam with various dose ranges of 10, 25, 50, 100 Gy under the condition of 5nA beam current. Those irradiated plants were transferred to subculture media and then investigated growth characteristics. Shoot growth of chrysanthemum and orchid was decreased by increase of irradiation dose. In particular, new shoot formation was hardly founded over 50Gy in chrysanthemum and 100 Gy in orchid. Some leaf mutants were observed at the 25 Gy and 50 Gy irradiated PLBs of the orchid. The dry seeds of hot pepper, rapeseed, rice and perilla also were irradiated with proton beam of MC-50 cyclotron and then measured germination rate and early growth of M1 plants compared with gamma ray irradiation.

  15. Development of plant mutation techniques using ion beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Si Yong; Park, In Sook; Song, Hi Sup; Kim, Dong Sub; Kim, Soo Yeon

    2006-06-01

    It has been reported that ion beam with high liner energy transfer (LET) show relative high biological effectiveness (RBE) and more effective for induced plant mutation than low LET radiation i.e., X-rays, gamma rays and electrons. This study was conducted to induce mutation of in vitro cultured orchid and Chrysanthemum using proton beam of the MC-50 cyclotron (50 MeV) at the Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Science. In vitro cultured stems of chrysanthemum(cv. Migok) and protocom-like bodies(PLBs) of Dendrobium orchid (cv. Kingianum) placed in the plastic petridish (5.5cm in diameter) with agar medium were irradiated by the proton beam with various dose ranges of 10, 25, 50, 100 Gy under the condition of 5nA beam current. Those irradiated plants were transferred to subculture media and then investigated growth characteristics. Shoot growth of chrysanthemum and orchid was decreased by increase of irradiation dose. In particular, new shoot formation was hardly founded over 50Gy in chrysanthemum and 100 Gy in orchid. Some leaf mutants were observed at the 25 Gy and 50 Gy irradiated PLBs of the orchid. The dry seeds of hot pepper, rapeseed, rice and perilla also were irradiated with proton beam of MC-50 cyclotron and then measured germination rate and early growth of M1 plants compared with gamma ray irradiation

  16. Observations on antifertility and abortifacient herbal drugs | Shah ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Plur., Buddleja asiatica Lour, Chrysanthemum parthenium (L.) Bernh, Justacia adhatod L., Ricinus communis L., Zingiber officinale Roscol., Daucus crota L., Momordica charantia L., Plumbago zeylanica L., Sapindus mukorossi Gaertn., Plantago ovata Forssk, Tanacetum vulgare and Arctium lappa L. The most widely used ...

  17. Management strategies for greenhouse growers in a competitive environment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trip, G.; Renkema, J.A.; Huirne, R.B.M.

    1996-01-01

    A study among 26 Dutch chrysanthemum firms was performed between November 1993 and November 1994 to (a) assess the relative economic performance of each firm and (b) compare three strategies used by growers in getting high economic results. These strategies, related to the theory of Porter (1985),

  18. Biological and molecular characterization of a putative new sobemovirus infecting Imperata cylindrica and maize in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sérémé, Drissa; Lacombe, Séverine; Konaté, Moumouni; Pinel-Galzi, Agnès; Traoré, Valentin Stanislas Edgar; Hébrard, Eugénie; Traoré, Oumar; Brugidou, Christophe; Fargette, Denis; Konaté, Gnissa

    2008-01-01

    A new virus was isolated from both the grass Imperata cylindrica and maize plants that had yellow mottle symptoms in Burkina Faso, West Africa. The virus has isometric particles ca. 32 nm in diameter. The experimental host range was restricted to Rottboellia exaltata. Virions were isolated from leaves of systemically infected maize plants. Koch's postulates were completed by mechanically inoculating uninfected Imperata or maize with either purified virus or sap from infected Imperata plants. Virion preparations were used to produce a specific polyclonal antiserum, and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay test was set up. The full genome of the virus was sequenced, and it comprised 4,547 nucleotides. Phylogenetic studies indicated that the virus is closely related to rice yellow mottle virus, a sobemovirus that infects monocotyledons in Africa, and is more distantly related to cocksfoot mottle virus, another sobemovirus that infects monocotyledons. Although the virus can infect R. exaltata experimentally, it differs from Rottboellia yellow mottle virus, a member of a tentative species of the genus Sobemovirus that also infects monocotyledons in Africa. Particle morphology, serological properties, genomic organization, and phylogenetic analysis are all consistent with assignment of the new virus to the genus Sobemovirus. The name Imperata yellow mottle virus is proposed.

  19. Identification and Prevalence of Grapevine fanleaf virus in Khorasan-Razavi Vineyards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Gholampour

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Grapevine fanleaf virus (GFLV is one of the devastating viruses of grapevine cause severe crop loss in vineyards. GFLV is a member of the genus Nepovirus in the family Secoviridae. The GFLV genome consists of two positive-sense single-stranded RNAs. The genome has a poly (A tail at the 3´ terminus and a covalently linked VPg protein at the 5´ terminus. Each genomic RNA encodes a polyprotein from which functional proteins are released by proteolytic processing by the virus-specific protease. GFLV isolates differing in the type of leaf symptoms, ranging from fanleaf, yellow mosaic, vein banding and mottle in different grapevine varieties. GFLV is specifically transmitted from grapevine to grapevine by the ectoparasitic nematode species Xiphinema index. It is also transmitted by grafting, vegetative propagation or mechanical inoculation onto herbaceous plants. GFLV has restricted natural host range, grapevine is the dominant natural host of GFLV and, however, it has been reported on several weeds in Iran. It is thought that the old Persia, especially the region located between the Caspian Sea and the Black Sea, might be the origin of GFLV. Grapevine wide cultures in Khorasan-Razavi province, northeast of Iran, but little information is available for the incidence of GFLV in this region. In the present work, we are interested in the study of the Prevalence of the Grapevine fanleaf virus in Khorasan-Razavi province. Materials and Methods: To identify the distribution of GFLV in Khorasan-Razavi, 280 leaf samples were randomly collected during the growing season of 2011-2012. GFLV was detected in leaf samples by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA using specific antibodies raised against Iranian isolate of the virus (Zakiaghl and Izadpanah 2003. Chenopodium quinoa plants were used as systemic herbaceous host for the propagation of GFLV. The carborundum dusted seedlings were inoculated by extracts of ELISA positive samples in

  20. Somatically segregating clone of apomictic maize-tripsacum hybrid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yudin, B.F.; Lukina, L.A.

    1988-01-01

    The results of further study on clone AM-5, isolated in the progeny of γ-irradiated plants of the apomictic hybrid of maize with tripsacum (2n = 38) are reported. The variegated-leaf seedlings of the clone segregate somatically and produce variegated, mottled, green (phenotypically normal) plants in different ratios in the apomictic progenies. The variegated, and to a lesser degree, green segregants segregate further. The mottled apomictics as well as mottled branches of variegated seedlings maintain their phenotype on transplantation, however, these is a progressive enhancement of the characters of vegetative lethality. Lethals of two extra maize genomes to the AM-5 nucleus does not affect significantly the scope and nature of segregation. At the same time, the loss of tripsacum genome restores normal phenotype. Clone AM-5 is an example of hybrid apomictic form causing significant morphological variability, which is, nevertheless, not related with apomictic and reversion to the sexual process

  1. Complete genome analysis of a novel umbravirus-polerovirus combination isolated from Ixeridium dentatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Ran Hee; Lee, Seung-Won; Lim, Seungmo; Zhao, Fumei; Igori, Davaajargal; Baek, Dasom; Hong, Jin-Sung; Lee, Su-Heon; Moon, Jae Sun

    2017-12-01

    Two novel viruses, isolated in Bonghwa, Republic of Korea, from an Ixeridium dentatum plant with yellowing mottle symptoms, have been provisionally named Ixeridium yellow mottle-associated virus 1 (IxYMaV-1) and Ixeridium yellow mottle-associated virus 2 (IxYMaV-2). IxYMaV-1 has a genome of 6,017 nucleotides sharing a 56.4% sequence identity with that of cucurbit aphid-borne yellows virus (genus Polerovirus). The IxYMaV-2 genome of 4,196 nucleotides has a sequence identity of less than 48.3% with e other species classified within the genus Umbravirus. Genome properties and phylogenetic analysis suggested that IxYMaV-1 and -2 are representative isolates of new species classifiable within the genus Polerovirus and Umbravirus, respectively.

  2. Clinical comparison of high-speed rare-earth screen and par-speed screen for diagnostic efficacy and radiation dosage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, T.; Becker, J.A.; Olson, A.P.

    1982-01-01

    One hundred patients underwent excretory urography and a comparison was made of ten-minute, well-collimated images that were obtained with both par-speed and rare-earth screens, the latter being 6.5 times faster than the par-speed calcium tungstate screens. Radiation dose was greatly reduced with the rare-earth screens. There were fewer inferior examinations, even though fine detail was imaged poorly, and there was a slightly increased quantum mottle, which was only a minor problem at this low 65 kVp. Since quantum mottle increases with kVp, however, our results are not applicable to higher kVp examinations. Despite reduced detail and increased mottle, the overall image quality obtained with the rare-earth screen was superior to the image quality obtained with the par-speed screen

  3. Shell Colour Polymorphism in Bulla ampulla

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cedhagen, Tomas

    1999-01-01

    Colour patterns of Bulla ampulla shells collected from Africa eastward to Pacific Islands were studied. 1\\vo common colour morphs were found. The typical morph is commonest. It is closely and finely mottled or all over with pinkish-gray on a creamy or flesh~tinted ground, with darker clouds......, irregular, V-shaped, or as longitudinal bands. The colouration of the other common morph is more uniform. It is lacking the darker clouds or bands and the colour is more greyish. The entire shell surface is densely mottled all over with small brown spots on a grey or beige background. Both morphs seem...

  4. Survey on The Occurrence of Viruses Infecting Cucurbits in Yogyakarta and Central Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budi Setiadi Daryono

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Cucurbits are grown throughout the Java Island as dry season crops. Plants having mosaic, mottling, chlorosis and leaf distortion symptoms were frequently found in most of the cucurbit fields during the survey which conducted in Central Java including Sleman, Kulon Progo, and Klaten during July–September 2000 and 2001. Using double antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (DAS-ELISA; Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV, Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV and Kyuri green mottle mosaic virus (KGMMV were found infecting cucurbits. CMV was widespread, infecting 48.9% of the samples tested followed by CGMMV (12.8% and KGMMV (6.4%, while others samples (31.9% were not tested, double infections were common with 8.5 % of the samples being infected with two viruses (CGMMV and KGMMV and 34% with three viruses (CMV, CGMMV, and KGMMV. Severe mosaic and mottle symptoms were associated most often with single infection of CGMMV and KGMMV respectively. In addition, these are the first detections of CGMMV and KGMMV infecting cucurbit plants in Indonesia. Tanaman labu-labuan umumnya tumbuh sepanjang musim kemarau diPulau Jawa. Tanaman labu-labuan dengan gejala mosaik, klorosis, mottling dan bentuk daun serta buah yang berubah banyak dijumpai selama survei yang dilakukan di Kulon Progo, Sleman dan Klaten pada bulan Juli sampai September tahun 2000 dan 2001. Deteksi menggunakan metode double antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (DAS-ELISA telah berhasil mengetahui keberadaan dan infeksiCucumber mosaic virus(CMV,Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV dan Kyuri green mottle mosaic virus (KGMMV pada tanaman labu-labuan di tiga kabupaten tersebut. CMV menginfeksi tanaman labu-labuan tinggi yaitu 48,9% dari jumlah sampel tanaman yang dikoleksi, kemudian CGMMV (12,8% dan KGMMV(6,4%, sedangkan sebanyak 14 sampel tanaman (31,9%tidak dideteksi.Infeksi ganda banyak ditemukan dan 8,5 % sampel tanaman terinfeksi oleh dua jenis virus (CGMMV dan

  5. Cowpea Mosaic Virus-Encoded Protease Does Not Recognize Primary Translation Products of M RNAs from Other Comoviruses

    OpenAIRE

    Goldbach, Rob; Krijt, Jette

    1982-01-01

    The protease encoded by the large (B) RNA segment of cowpea mosaic virus was tested for its ability to recognize the in vitro translation products of the small (M) RNA segment from the comoviruses squash mosaic virus, red clover mottle virus, and cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPsMV, strains Dg and Ark), and from the nepovirus tomato black ring virus. Like M RNA from cowpea mosaic virus, the M RNAs from squash mosaic virus, red clover mottle virus, CPsMV-Dg, and CPsMV-Ark were all translated int...

  6. A rare case of unilateral diffuse melanocytic proliferation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guruprasad Ayachit

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A 67-year-old woman presented with metamorphopsia in the right eye. Leopard mottling was seen temporal to the fovea oculus dexter with corresponding hyper- and hypo-autofluorescent lesions on fundus autofluorescence. Spectral domain-optical coherence tomography revealed hyperreflective dots in the retinal pigment epithelium and choroid with subretinal fluid (SRF. Intravitreal bevacizumab was administered with which SRF resolved, albeit with increase in the areas of mottling. The patient was diagnosed to have metastatic ductal carcinoma of the right breast. It is important to bear in mind that the well-known entity of bilateral diffuse uveal melanocytic proliferation can rarely present unilaterally.

  7. Note on boron toxicity in oats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langille, W M; Mahoney, J F

    1959-01-01

    Boron was applied at the rate of 35 pounds per acre of borax to a field of oats. With the first noticeable growth there appeared a definite chlorotic condition of the oat seedlings on plots receiving boron treatments. Analysis of chlorotic tissue at 3 weeks after seeding indicated 110 ppm boron, while apparently healthy tissue contained 6.1 ppm boron at the same stage of growth. There was a rapid decline in the boron content of the oat tissue as the crop grew older. At maturity the oat tissue from the boron-treated plots contained an average of 14.15 ppm boron as compared with 4.10 boron from untreated areas. Boron toxicity had no harmful effect so far as yields were concerned, under the conditions of this experiment. 3 references.

  8. Virus Diseases Infecting Almond Germplasm in Lebanon

    OpenAIRE

    Adeeb Saad; Yusuf Abou-Jawdah; Zahi Kanaan-Atallah

    2000-01-01

    Cultivated and wild almond species were surveyed for virus diseases. Four viruses infected cultivated almonds (Prunus dulcis): Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV), Prune dwarf virus (PDV), Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus (ACLSV) and Apple mosaic virus (ApMV). Only ACLSV and ApMV were detected on wild almonds, (Prunus orientalis and P. korschinskii). The occurence of PNRSV or PDV on seeds used for the production of rootstocks, on seedlings in nurseries, and on mother plants reve...

  9. First report in Ghana of #Xanthomonas citri# pv. #mangiferaeindicae# causing mango bacterial canker on #Mangifera indica#

    OpenAIRE

    Pruvost, Olivier; Boyer, Claudine; Vital, Karine; Gagnevin, Lionel; De Bruno Austin, L.; Rey, Jean-Yves

    2011-01-01

    Bacterial canker of mango (or bacterial black spot), caused by Xanthomonas citri pv. mangiferaeindicae, is an economically important disease in tropical and subtropical producing areas (1). X. citri pv. mangiferaeindicae can cause severe infection in a wide range of mango cultivars and induces raised, angular, black leaf lesions, sometimes with a chlorotic halo. Several months after infection, leaf lesions dry and turn light brown or ash gray. Severe leaf infection may result in abscission. F...

  10. Kalanchoë blossfeldiana, a new host for Sonchus yellow net virus

    OpenAIRE

    Bouwen, I.; Schoen, C.D.; Balen, van, E.; Vlugt, van der, R.A.A.

    2002-01-01

    The agent causing chlorotic spots in Kalanchoë blossfeldiana `Isabella¿ was investigated. A virus isolated from this naturally infected kalanchoë was mechanically transmissible to several indicator plants. Observation of suspension preparations in the electron microscope revealed rhabdovirus-like particles. On the basis of symptoms on indicator plants, serology, electron microscopy, molecular characterisation and back inoculation to K. blossfeldiana 'Isabella', the causal agent was identified...

  11. Sour and duke cherry viruses in South-West Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo PÉREZ-SÁNCHEZ

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the phytosanitary status of sour and duke cherry genetic resources in the Iberian Peninsula, and the incidence and leaf symptoms induced by the Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV, Prune dwarf virus (PDV and Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus (ACLSV. Young leaf samples were taken from 204 sour and duke cherry trees belonging to ten cultivars, and were assayed by DAS-ELISA. Samples positive for any of the three viruses were also tested by RT-PCR. To associate the leaf symptoms with virus presence, 50 mature leaves from each infected tree were visually inspected during the summer. The ELISA and RT-PCR results indicated that 63% of the cherry trees were infected by at least one of these viruses. PNRSV occurred in all cultivars sampled and presented the highest infection rate (46%, followed by PDV (31% and ACLSV (6%. Many trees, (60 to 100%, were asymptomatic while harbouring single and mixed virus infections. The leaf symptoms associated with the viruses included chlorotic and dark brown necrotic ringspots on secondary veins and interveinal regions, for PNRSV, generalized chlorosis around the midveins, for PDV, chlorotic and reddish necrotic ringspots, for ACLSV, and generalized interveinal chlorosis, for mixed PNRSV and PDVinfections.

  12. Main viruses in sweet cherry plantations of Central-Western Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Pérez Sánchez

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Sweet cherry trees (Prunus avium L. are susceptible to a range of diseases, but there have been no studies to date about the viral infection of sweet cherry trees in Spain. To determine the phytosanitary status of Spanish sweet cherry plantations, the incidence and leaf symptoms induced by Prune dwarf (PDV, Prunus necrotic ringspot (PNRSV and Apple chlorotic leaf spot (ACLSV viruses were investigated during 2009. Young leaf samples were taken from 350 sweet cherry trees, corresponding to 17 cultivars, and were analysed by double antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (DAS-ELISA. To associate the leaf symptoms with the virus, 50 mature leaves from each infected tree were visually inspected during the summer. The ELISA results revealed that 72 % of sweet cherry trees were infected by at least one of the viruses. PDV occurred in all sampled cultivars and presented the highest infection rate, followed by ACLSV and PNRSV. A high number of trees showed asymptomatic, in both single and mixed infections. The leaf symptoms associated with the viruses involved generalized chlorosis around the midvein (PDV, chlorotic and dark brown necrotic ringspots on both secondary veins and intervein regions (PNRSV, chlorotic and reddish necrotic ringspots (ACLSV and generalized interveinal chlorosis (PDV-PNRSV.

  13. Chlorophyll fluorescence lifetime imaging provides new insight into the chlorosis induced by plant virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Rong; Jiang, Hongshan; Hu, Fan; Yan, Jin; Zhu, Shuifang

    2017-02-01

    Leaf chlorosis induced by plant virus infection has a short fluorescence lifetime, which reflects damaged photosynthetic complexes and degraded chloroplasts. Plant viruses often induce chlorosis and necrosis, which are intimately related to photosynthetic functions. Chlorophyll fluorescence lifetime measurement is a valuable noninvasive tool for analyzing photosynthetic processes and is a sensitive indicator of the environment surrounding the fluorescent molecules. In this study, our central goal was to explore the effect of viral infection on photosynthesis by employing chlorophyll fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM), steady-state fluorescence, non-photochemical quenching (NPQ), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and pigment analysis. The data indicated that the chlorophyll fluorescence lifetime of chlorotic leaves was significantly shorter than that of healthy control leaves, and the fitted short lifetime component of chlorophyll fluorescence of chlorotic leaves was dominant. This dominant short lifetime component may result from damage to the structure of thylakoid, which was confirmed by TEM. The NPQ value of chlorotic leaves was slightly higher than that of healthy green leaves, which can be explained by increased neoxanthin, lutein and violaxanthin content relative to chlorophyll a. The difference in NPQ is slight, but FLIM can provide simple and direct characterization of PSII structure and photosynthetic function. Therefore, this technique shows great potential as a simple and rapid method for studying mechanisms of plant virus infection.

  14. Controllable synthesis of hierarchical strontium molybdate by sonochemical method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Wanquan; Zhu, Wei [Department of Chemistry, University of Science and Technology of China (USTC), Hefei 230026 (China); Peng, Chao; Yang, Fan; Xuan, Shouhu; Gong, Xinglong [CAS Key Laboratory of Mechanical Behavior and Design of Materials, Department of Modern Mechanics, USTC, Hefei 230027 (China)

    2012-09-15

    Large-scale chrysanthemum-like strontium molybdate (SrMoO{sub 4}) with hierarchical structure has been successfully synthesized via a facile and fast ultrasound irradiation approach at room temperature. By varying the experimental conditions, SrMoO{sub 4} with different morphologies, such as spindles, peanuts, spheres, and rods, can be obtained. The products are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and selected-area electron diffraction (SAED). The influent parameters including concentration, pH value, and surfactants have been investigated. A possible growth mechanism is proposed and the shape evolution of the products is characterized. The as-prepared chrysanthemum-like SrMoO{sub 4} particles are used as the precursor for electrorheological fluid and their electrorheological property is investigated. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  15. Establishment Of Illumination System For Investigation Of Monochromatic Lights Combination Effects On In Vitro Plant Growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Tien Thanh; Le Ngoc Trieu; Nguyen Tuong Mien; Huynh Thi Trung; Phan Quoc Minh

    2014-01-01

    Super blue and red light LEDs and other electric, electronic components are used to design and establish 11 independent illumination systems, each system can arbitrarily control to operate at 55 molarities of illumination which are different from together in monochromatic lights combination and total illumination intensity based on the microcontrollers. Programs for loading to microcontrollers were created to base on theoretical calculation and experimental correction. The illumination cycles can be controlled by setting the timer. These 11 systems and another fluorescent light illumination were used to execute the experiment for investigation the effects of monochromatic lights combination on in vitro shoot proliferation stage in Chrysanthemum and Phalaenopsis orchid. Results from this experiment showed that illumination intensity of 400 lux is suitable for chrysanthemum, 750 lux is suitable for Phalaenopsis orchid and rate of 70% red light-30% blue light are suitable for both kinds of these plants. (author)

  16. Improvement of some vegetatively propagated ornamentals by gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, P.K.; Dube, S.; Ghosh, P.; Dhua, S.D.

    1977-01-01

    Studies were made to induce mutations in some vegetatively propagated ornamentals like, Chrysanthemum, Dahlia, Hibiscus, Acalpha, Iresine, etc. by acute as well as chronic gamma irradiation. In both the types of irradiation experiments, apart from growth reduction and various physiological anomalies in growth and leaf characters, a total of 27 somatic mutants have been isolated in Chrysanthemum, Dahlia, Hibiscus, Acalypha and Iresine. Some of the mutants have been established by perpetuation over 3-5 vegetative generations while few could not be maintained on account of initially small chimeric changes of failure of regeneration of the propagable materials. However, most of the mutants hold as practical improvements and will find place in ornamental improvement programme in the country. (author)

  17. Nondestructive, stereological estimation of canopy surface area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wulfsohn, Dvora-Laio; Sciortino, Marco; Aaslyng, Jesper M.

    2010-01-01

    We describe a stereological procedure to estimate the total leaf surface area of a plant canopy in vivo, and address the problem of how to predict the variance of the corresponding estimator. The procedure involves three nested systematic uniform random sampling stages: (i) selection of plants from...... a canopy using the smooth fractionator, (ii) sampling of leaves from the selected plants using the fractionator, and (iii) area estimation of the sampled leaves using point counting. We apply this procedure to estimate the total area of a chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum morifolium L.) canopy and evaluate both...... the time required and the precision of the estimator. Furthermore, we compare the precision of point counting for three different grid intensities with that of several standard leaf area measurement techniques. Results showed that the precision of the plant leaf area estimator based on point counting...

  18. Effectiveness of electron irradiation as a quarantine treatment of cut flowers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, T.; Todoriki, S.; Nakakita, H.; Dohino, T.; Tanabe, K.

    1999-01-01

    The effects of electron beams on spider mite (Tetranychus urticae) and flour beetle (Tribolium freemani) were slightly smaller than those of gamma-rays. 'Soft-electrons' (low-energy electrons) at an energy of 170 keV inactivated eggs, larvae, pupae, and adults of the flour beetle. Electron beams at doses up to 400 Gy killed or sterilized all the pests for cut flowers tested; spider mite (Tetranychus urticae), mealybug (Pseudococcus comstocki), leaf miner (Liriomyza trifolii), thrips (Thrips palmi, Thrips tabaci), cutworm (Spodoptera litura), and aphid (Myzus persicae). Carnation, alstromeria, gladiolus, tulip, statice, stock, dendrobium, prairie gentian, oncidium, campanula, gloriosa, fern, gypsophila, freesia, lobelia, triteleia, and gerbera were resistant to radiation, while chrysanthemum, rose, lily, calla, antherium, sweet pea, and iris were sensitive. Radiation-induced deterioration of chrysanthemum could be prevented by post-irradiation treatment with commercial preservative solutions or sugar solutions. (author)

  19. Radiation breeding researches in gamma field. Results of researches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morishita, Toshikazu

    2006-01-01

    Abstract of radiation breeding researches and outline of gamma field in IRB (Institute of Radiation Breeding) are described. The gamma field is a circular field of 100 m radius with 88.8TBqCo-60 source at the center. The field is surrounded by a shielding dike of 8 m in height. The effects of gamma irradiation on the growing plants, mutant by gamma radiation and plant molecular biological researches using mutant varieties obtained by the gamma field are explained. For examples, Japanese pear, chrysanthemum, Cytisus, Eustoma grandiflorum, Manila grass, tea and rose are reported. The mutant varieties in the gamma field, nine mutant varieties of flower colors in chrysanthemum, evergreen mutant lines in Manila grass, selection of self-compatible mutants in tea plant, and the plants of the gamma field recently are shown. (S.Y.)

  20. Induced mutation and in vitro culture techniques for the genetic improvement of ornamentals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lapade, Avelina G.; Veluz, Ana Maria S.; Marbella, Lucia J.; Rama, Manny G.

    2001-01-01

    Mutation breeding using cobalt-60 ( 60 Co) gamma radiation coupled with tissue culture techniques is undertaken for genetic improvement of foliage ornamentals (Dracaena sp. and Murraya exotica L.) and cutflowers (Chrysanthemum morifolium and orchids; Vanda sanderiana, Dendrobium Pattaya Beauty and Phalenopsis schilleriana). Gamma radiation (10-30 Gy) induced chlorophyll mutations and several morphological changes in D. sanderiana. For D. godseffiana, irradiated cuttings resulted in reduction of leaf size and chlorophyll mutations. Reduction in height was observed in the M 2 generation of Murraya exotica L. irradiated at doses ranging from 10 to 30 Gy. The dwarf Murraya mutant was multiplied through the use of seeds and presently 116 plants are commercially available and are ''test marketed'' to the public. Tissue culture technique was used to induce mutation and as a means of micropropagation in two ornamental crops (orchids and chrysanthemum). Effects of different doses of gamma radiation on callus induction from nodal sections of chrysanthemum grown in Murashige and Skoog's (MS) with naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) and benzyl adenine (BA) were studied. Micropropagation of irradiated and unirradiated chrysanthemum using MS basal medium is presently being studied. Whorling and changes in leaf color were observed at 10 Gy and doubling of leaf growth at the node at 20 Gy for vegetatively generated V 3 plant. In orchids, irradiation of immature embryo with gamma rays ranging from 5 to 10 Gy increased the percentage of germination in Dendrobium Pattaya Beauty and P. schilleriana. Protocorms of Vanda sanderiana irradiated at 10 Gy and grown in Knudson C medium developed into plantlets that are bigger and more vigorous than those irradiated at 20 GY and from the control plant. A decrease in seedling height was observed with increasing dose of gamma radiation. (Author)

  1. Compositae dermatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Jovanović Mirjana; Poljački Mirjana N.

    2003-01-01

    Introduction Compositae dermatitis is an allergic contact dermatitis caused by plant species of the Compositae family. The first report of a cutaneous reaction to the Chrysanthemum genus was made by Howe JS in 1887. In 1895 Maiden JH reported about skin lesions among men working with Tagetes minute Case reports of contact allergic-ragweed dermatitis appeared in the American literature as early as 1919. The North American feverfew - Parthenium Hysterophorus was brought to India from America in...

  2. China Report, Political, Sociological and Military Affairs PRC State Council Bulletin No. 18, 20 Aug 1984

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-03-14

    must actively develop all sorts of starch sugars, such as glucose and fructose . We must also develop natural sweet products, such as sweet...chrysanthemum and so on. Fructose syrup output should grow to 300,000 tons by 1990, and 2 million tons by 2000. - 16 - The starch industry: We must...Beverage industry: We should develop drinks like fruit juice, vegetable juice, fruit sodapop, soybean milk, fermented soybean milk, mineral water

  3. Epithermal Neutron Activation Analysis of the Asian Herbal Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baljinnyam, N.; Frontasyeva, M. V.; Ostrovnaya, T. M.; Pavlov, S. S.; Jugder, B.; Norov, N.

    2011-01-01

    Asian medicinal herbs Chrysanthemum (Spiraea aquilegifolia Pall.) and Red Sandalwood (Pterocarpus Santalinus) are widely used in folk and Ayurvedic medicine for healing and preventing some diseases. The modern medical science has proved that the Chrysanthemum (Spiraea aquilegifolia Pall.) possesses the following functions: reducing blood press, dispelling cancer cell, coronary artery's expanding and bacteriostating and Red Sandalwood (Pterocarpus Santalinus) is recommended against headache, toothache, skin diseases, vomiting and sometimes it is taken for treatment of diabetes. Species of Chrysanthemums were collected in the north-eastern and central Mongolia, and the Red Sandalwood powder was imported from India. Samples of Chrysanthemums (branches, flowers and leaves)(0.5 g) and red sandalwood powder (0.5 g) were subjected to the multi-element instrumental neutron activation analysis using epithermal neutrons (ENAA) at the IBR-2 reactor, Frank Laboratory of Neutron Physics (FLNP) JINR, Dubna. A total of 41 elements (Na, Mg, Al, Cl, K, Ca, Sc, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Zn, As, Se, Br, Rb, Sr, Zr, Mo, Cd, Cs, Ba, La, Hf, Ta, W, Sb, Au, Hg, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Tb, Dy, Yb, Th, U, Lu) were determined. For the first time such a large group of elements was determined in the herbal plants used in Mongolia. The quality control of the analytical results was provided by using certified reference material Bowen Cabbage. The results obtained are compared to the ''Reference plant? data (B. Markert, 1992) and interpreted in terms of excess of such elements as Se, Cr, Ca, Fe, Ni, Mo, and rare earth elements.

  4. Effect of alternative prey on development and consumption of Orius insidiosus (Say) (Hemiptera, Anthocoridae) and oviposition behavior on chrysantemum cultivars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soglia, Maria da Conceicao M.; Bueno, Vanda Helena Paes; Carvalho, Livia Mendes

    2007-01-01

    This work aimed to evaluate the development time and the consumption of Orius insidiosus (Say, 1832) feeding on Aphis gossypii Glover, 1877 as well as its oviposition behavior on two chrysanthemum cut cultivars. The trials were conducted in climatic chamber at 25 ± 1 deg C, RH 70 ± 10% and 12h photo phase. Nymphs of the predator, less than 24h old, were kept individually in petri dishes (5cm) with 20 nymphs of A. gossypii (first, second and third instar) on leaf disc (4 cm) of each cultivar ('White Reagan' and 'Yellow Snowdon') in a layer of agar-water (1%). Petiole of each chrysanthemum cultivar as oviposition substrate was evaluated and the females were feeding on eggs of Anagasta kuehniella (Zeller, 1879). The predator complete its development feeding on A. gossypii kept in both cultivars. The duration of nymphal phase of O. insidiosus were 21.1 and 18.3 days on 'White Reagan' and 'Yellow Snowdon', respectively. The consumption of the females of O. insidiosus was higher (P<0.01) on A. gossypii in 'White Reagan' (2.63 nymphs) compared to the consumption in 'Yellow Snowdon' (0.7 nymphs). Females of O. insidiosus oviposited in petiole of both cultivars with 22.5 and 23.3 eggs/female on 'White Reagan' and 'Yellow Snowdon', respectively. Release of O. insidiosus on chrysanthemum crops could be important to decrease the A. gossypii population, as the predator completes its development having this aphid as prey, and the chrysanthemum cultivars offer conditions to colonization and establishment of O. insidiosus. (author)

  5. Effect of alternative prey on development and consumption of Orius insidiosus (Say) (Hemiptera, Anthocoridae) and oviposition behavior on chrysantemum cultivars; Efeito da presa alternativa no desenvolvimento e consumo de Orius insidiosus (Say) (Hemiptera, Anthocoridae) e comportamento de oviposicao em cultivares de crisantemo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soglia, Maria da Conceicao M. [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Cruz das Almas, BA (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Agrarias e Ambientais], e-mail: mcsoglia@yahoo.com.br; Bueno, Vanda Helena Paes; Carvalho, Livia Mendes [Universidade Federal de Lavras (UFLA), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Entomologia], e-mail: vhpbueno@ufla.br

    2007-10-15

    This work aimed to evaluate the development time and the consumption of Orius insidiosus (Say, 1832) feeding on Aphis gossypii Glover, 1877 as well as its oviposition behavior on two chrysanthemum cut cultivars. The trials were conducted in climatic chamber at 25 {+-} 1 deg C, RH 70 {+-} 10% and 12h photo phase. Nymphs of the predator, less than 24h old, were kept individually in petri dishes (5cm) with 20 nymphs of A. gossypii (first, second and third instar) on leaf disc (4 cm) of each cultivar ('White Reagan' and 'Yellow Snowdon') in a layer of agar-water (1%). Petiole of each chrysanthemum cultivar as oviposition substrate was evaluated and the females were feeding on eggs of Anagasta kuehniella (Zeller, 1879). The predator complete its development feeding on A. gossypii kept in both cultivars. The duration of nymphal phase of O. insidiosus were 21.1 and 18.3 days on 'White Reagan' and 'Yellow Snowdon', respectively. The consumption of the females of O. insidiosus was higher (P<0.01) on A. gossypii in 'White Reagan' (2.63 nymphs) compared to the consumption in 'Yellow Snowdon' (0.7 nymphs). Females of O. insidiosus oviposited in petiole of both cultivars with 22.5 and 23.3 eggs/female on 'White Reagan' and 'Yellow Snowdon', respectively. Release of O. insidiosus on chrysanthemum crops could be important to decrease the A. gossypii population, as the predator completes its development having this aphid as prey, and the chrysanthemum cultivars offer conditions to colonization and establishment of O. insidiosus. (author)

  6. 1729-IJBCS-Article-Montcho David

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pr GATSING

    (Linares, 2002). Because of the history of O. glaberrima in Africa, the species is expected to be a rich genetic source for adaptability to. African environments as compared to O. sativa. In fact O. glaberrima can provide resistance to various indigenous biotic constraints: rice yellow mottle virus. (Thiémélé et al., 2010), bacterial ...

  7. First Report of Cherry virus A in Sweet Cherry Trees in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plants in the genus Prunus of the family Rosaceae are important ornamental and fruit trees in China (1). In June 2007, sweet cherry (Prunus avium) trees with mottling and mosaic symptoms were observed in a private garden near Kunming, Yunnan Province. Twenty-four samples were then collected from swe...

  8. Coat protein sequence shows that Cucumber mosaic virus isolate

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A viral disease was identified on geraniums (Pelargonium spp.) grown in a greenhouse at the Institute of Himalayan Bioresource Technology (IHBT), Palampur, exhibiting mild mottling and stunting. The causal virus (Cucumber mosaic virus, CMV) was identified and characterized on the basis of host range, aphid ...

  9. Description of a new species of Nerita

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schepman, M.M.

    1901-01-01

    Shell semiglobose, solid, nearly smooth, with slight radiating striae; colour dark yellowish-grey, with indistinct white spots, forming spiral rows, some of which alternate with black spots, giving to the shell a mottled appearance; whorls about 2 ½, spire scarcely exserted, more or less eroded,

  10. Characterization And Classification Of The Inland Valley Soils Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Six profiles located in the inland valley soils of central Cross River State were studied. The surface horizon colour of the first four were either dark Grey or dark brown. The last two profiles were grey. All subsurface horizons were either greyish or brownish and highly mottled. The structure of all the profiles were either blocky ...

  11. Relative abundance of sweetpotato whitefly in orange-fleshed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    effect on sweetpotato yield in Peru. Plant Diseases 87: 297-302. Karyeija, R.F., Gibson, R.W. and. Valkonen, J.P.T. 1998. The significance of sweetpotato feathery mottle virus in subsistence sweetpotato production in Africa. Plant Diseases. 82:4-15. Legg, J.P. 1996. Host-associated strains within Ugandan populations of the.

  12. Forest report 2017; Waldzustandsbericht 2017

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2017-07-01

    This forest report of Lower Saxony (Germany) contains the following topics: Forestry Environment Monitoring (defoliation results of all tree species), weather and climate, insects and fungi, site information for the Federal Forest Inventory in Lower Saxony, infiltrated substances, development of soil acidification on intensive monitoring areas in northwestern Germany, and substrate group mottled sandstone.

  13. effects of serial planting of seed yam tubers on virus incidence and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    FCT) were used in the study. Harvested seed yams were tested for Yam mosaic virus (YMV), Yam mild mottle .... free yam leaves were used for the negative control, while extracts from ..... Development of farmer based seed systems for healthy ...

  14. Virus-induced gene silencing in Medicago truncatula and Lathyrus odorata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønlund, Mette; Kjær, Gabriela Didina Constantin; Piednoir, Elodie

    2008-01-01

    Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) has become an important reverse genetics tool for functional genomics. VIGS vectors based on Pea early browning virus (PEBV, genus Tobravirus) and Bean pod mottle virus (genus Comovirus) are available for the legume species Pisum sativum and Glycine max, respec...

  15. Fulltext PDF

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    makes it the only star among the billions of stars in the sky available for detailed examination by telescopes. All other stars appear as blobs of light, or at best, with modern interferometry, as mottled discs. As a source of light and life to the entire solar system including our own planet, the sun serves as the 'Rosetta Stone' for.

  16. Arachis hypogaea L.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    IBUKUN

    Low yields are mainly due to numerous diseases caused by fungi, viruses, bacteria and ... Peanut clump virus (PCV), Peanut mottle virus (PeMoV), Peanut stripe virus (PStV), Tobacco ... Seed borne infection of the virus has been detected with incidences ... The experimental field has been used for the cultivation of maize.

  17. First report of Potato virus V and Peru tomato mosaic virus on tamarillo (Solanum betaceum) orchards of Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    In Ecuador, tamarillo (Solanum betaceum) represents an important cash crop for hundreds of small farmers. In 2013, leaves from tamarillo plants showing severe virus-like symptoms (mosaic, mottling and leaf deformation) were collected from old orchards in Pichincha and Tungurahua. Double-stranded RN...

  18. Virus incidence in orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.) seed production fields in the Willamette Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    A survey was conducted over the course of three years (2014-2016) for the presence of Barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV-MAV and BYDV-PAV), Cereal yellow dwarf virus (CYDV-RPV), and Cocksfoot mottle virus (CfMV) in orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata) fields in the Willamette Valley, Oregon. There was an ...

  19. 7 CFR 319.37-2 - Prohibited articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Y (tobacco veinal necrosis strain); potato purple top wilt agent; potato marginal flavescence agent... mottle leaf virus, cocoa yellow mosaic virus, cocoa necrosis virus, Crinipellis perniciosa (Stahel... (vascular streak die-back), Xyleborus spp. beetles and Acrocercops cramella (Snellen) (cocoa moth...

  20. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Guaiacum officinale L. (LIGNUM-VITAE) of Zygophyllaceae is a dense-crowned, squat, knobbly, rough and twisted medium-sized ev- ergreen tree with mottled bark. The wood is very hard and resinous. Leaves are compound. The leaflets are smooth, leathery, ovate-ellipti- cal and appear in two pairs. Flowers (about 1.5.