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Sample records for chrysanthemum chlorotic mottle

  1. Chlorotic mottle of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jayasinghe, W.U.

    1982-01-01

    For the past years there have been outbreaks of a disease of bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in Colombia called bean chlorotic mottle. The etiology of bean chlorotic mottle was not known, but the disease was generally believed to be incited by the same whitefly-transmitted virus that causes variegatio

  2. Chlorotic mottle of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jayasinghe, W.U.

    1982-01-01

    For the past years there have been outbreaks of a disease of bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in Colombia called bean chlorotic mottle. The etiology of bean chlorotic mottle was not known, but the disease was generally believed to be incited by the same whitefly-transmitted virus

  3. Spectroscopy on the assembly of cowpea chlorotic mottle virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruese, J.

    1979-01-01

    This thesis describes the characterization of cowpea chlorotic mottle virus (CCMV) by using spectroscopic techniques. In chapter one and two the main properties of CCMV, which belongs to the bromoviruses, are summarized. The application of spectroscopic techniques in the study of other viruses is re

  4. Characterization of cowpea chlorotic mottle virus and its assembly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verduin, B.J.M.

    1978-01-01

    This thesis decribes the conditions for isolation of cowpea chlorotic mottle virus (CCMV), its ribonucleic acid (RNA) and the coat protein, the characterization of the virus and its constituents (chapter 3, 4 and 5) and the dissociation and assembly behaviour of the virus (chapter 6 and 7).The aim o

  5. Structural transitions in Cowpea chlorotic mottle virus (CCMV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liepold, Lars O.; Revis, Jennifer; Allen, Mark; Oltrogge, Luke; Young, Mark; Douglas, Trevor

    2005-12-01

    Viral capsids act as molecular containers for the encapsulation of genomic nucleic acid. These protein cages can also be used as constrained reaction vessels for packaging and entrapment of synthetic cargos. The icosahedral Cowpea chlorotic mottle virus (CCMV) is an excellent model for understanding the encapsulation and packaging of both genomic and synthetic materials. High-resolution structural information of the CCMV capsid has been invaluable for evaluating structure-function relationships in the assembled capsid but does not allow insight into the capsid dynamics. The dynamic nature of the CCMV capsid might play an important role in the biological function of the virus. The CCMV capsid undergoes a pH and metal ion dependent reversible structural transition where 60 separate pores in the capsid open or close, exposing the interior of the protein cage to the bulk medium. In addition, the highly basic N-terminal domain of the capsid, which is disordered in the crystal structure, plays a significant role in packaging the viral cargo. Interestingly, in limited proteolysis and mass spectrometry experiments the N-terminal domain is the first part of the subunit to be cleaved, confirming its dynamic nature. Based on our fundamental understanding of the capsid dynamics in CCMV, we have utilized these aspects to direct packaging of a range of synthetic materials including drugs and inorganic nanoparticles.

  6. Saturation-transfer ESR spectroscopy on maleimide spin-labeled cowpea chlorotic mottle virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vriend, G.; Schilthuis, J. G.; Verduin, B. J. M.; Hemminga, M. A.

    1984-07-01

    One of the two SH groups of the coat protein of Cowpea chlorotic mottle virus (CCMV) was spin-labeled with 3-maleimido-2,2,5,5-tetramethyl-l-pyrrolodinyloxyl. Both electron spin resonance and saturation-transfer electron spin resonance spectra were recorded of intact CCMV and CCMV in which the protein subunits are cross-linked with glutaraldehyde. From an analysis of these spectra it follows that the spin label performs a local anisotropic motion with respect to the protein to which it is attached. It is also concluded that no internal protein mobility is present on the ST-ESR timescale.

  7. Versatile post-functionalization of the external shell of cowpea chlorotic mottle virus by using click chemistry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hommersom, C.A.; Matt, B.D.; van der Ham, A.M.; Cornelissen, Jeroen Johannes Lambertus Maria; Katsonis, Nathalie Hélène

    2014-01-01

    We present the modification of the outer protein shell of cowpea chlorotic mottle virus (CCMV) with linear and strained alkyne groups. These functionalized protein capsids constitute valuable platforms for post-functionalization via click chemistry. After modification, the integrity of the capsid an

  8. Structural rigidity in the capsid assembly of cowpea chlorotic mottle virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hespenheide, B. M.; Jacobs, D. J.; Thorpe, M. F.

    2004-11-01

    The cowpea chlorotic mottle virus (CCMV) has a protein cage, or capsid, which encloses its genetic material. The structure of the capsid consists of 180 copies of a single protein that self-assemble inside a cell to form a complete capsid with icosahedral symmetry. The icosahedral surface can be naturally divided into pentagonal and hexagonal faces, and the formation of either of these faces has been proposed to be the first step in the capsid assembly process. We have used the software FIRST to analyse the rigidity of pentameric and hexameric substructures of the complete capsid to explore the viability of certain capsid assembly pathways. FIRST uses the 3D pebble game to determine structural rigidity, and a brief description of this algorithm, as applied to body-bar networks, is given here. We find that the pentameric substructure, which corresponds to a pentagonal face on the icosahedral surface, provides the best structural properties for nucleating the capsid assembly process, consistent with experimental observations.

  9. Structural rigidity in the capsid assembly of cowpea chlorotic mottle virus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hespenheide, B M [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Arizona State University, PO Box 871504, Tempe, AZ 85287-1504 (United States); Jacobs, D J [Department of Physics and Astronomy, California State University, 18111 Nordhoff Street, Northridge, CA 91330-8268 (United States); Thorpe, M F [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Arizona State University, PO Box 871504, Tempe, AZ 85287-1504 (United States)

    2004-11-10

    The cowpea chlorotic mottle virus (CCMV) has a protein cage, or capsid, which encloses its genetic material. The structure of the capsid consists of 180 copies of a single protein that self-assemble inside a cell to form a complete capsid with icosahedral symmetry. The icosahedral surface can be naturally divided into pentagonal and hexagonal faces, and the formation of either of these faces has been proposed to be the first step in the capsid assembly process. We have used the software FIRST to analyse the rigidity of pentameric and hexameric substructures of the complete capsid to explore the viability of certain capsid assembly pathways. FIRST uses the 3D pebble game to determine structural rigidity, and a brief description of this algorithm, as applied to body-bar networks, is given here. We find that the pentameric substructure, which corresponds to a pentagonal face on the icosahedral surface, provides the best structural properties for nucleating the capsid assembly process, consistent with experimental observations.

  10. The 3.2 Angstrom Resolution Structure of the Polymorphic Cowpea Chlorotic Mottle Virus Ribonucleoprotein Particle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speir, Jeffrey Alan

    Structural studies of the polymorphic cowpea chlorotic mottle virus have resulted in high resolution structures for two distinct icosahedral ribonucleoprotein particle conformations dependent upon whether acidic or basic pH conditions prevail. CCMV is stable below pH 6.5, however metal-free particles maintain a 10% increase in hydrodynamic volume at pH >=q 7.5. Identification of this swollen' form of CCMV, which can easily be disrupted with 1M NaCl, led to the first reassembly of an icosahedral virus in vitro from purified viral protein and RNA to form infectious particles, and its assembly has been the subject of biochemical and biophysical investigations for over twenty-five years. Under well defined conditions of pH, ionic strength and divalent metal ion concentration, CCMV capsid protein or capsid protein and RNA will reassemble to form icosahedral particles of various sizes, sheets, tubes, rosettes, and a variety of laminar structures which resemble virion structures from non-related virus families. Analysis of native particles at 3.2A resolution and swollen particles at 28A resolution has suggested that the chemical basis for the formation of polymorphic icosahedral and anisometric structures is: (i) hexamers formed of beta-barrel subunits stabilized by an unusual hexameric parallel beta structure made up of their N-termini, (ii) the location of protein-RNA interactions, (iii) divalent metal cation binding sites that regulate quasi-symmetrical subunit associations, (iv) charge repulsion across the same interfaces when lacking divalent metal ions at basic pH, which induces the formation of sixty 20A diameter portals for RNA release, and (v) a novel, C-terminal-based, subunit dimer assembly unit. The use of C- and N-terminal arms in CCMV has not been observed in other icosahedral RNA virus structures determined at near atomic resolution, however, their detailed interactions and roles in stabilizing the quaternary organization of CCMV are related to that found

  11. Conformation of the RNA-binding N-terminus of the coat protein of cowpea chlorotic mottle virus : a nuclear magnetic resonance and optical spectroscopy study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graaf, van der M.

    1992-01-01

    The objective of the study described in this thesis was to obtain information about protein-RNA interactions in cowpea chlorotic mottle virus (CCMV). CCMV consists of RNA and a protective protein coat, composed of 180 identical coat proteins. The positively charged N-terminal arm of the

  12. Molecular and biological characterization of Tomato chlorotic mottle virus suggests that recombination underlies the evolution and diversity of Brazilian tomato begomoviruses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ribeiro, S.G.; Martin, D.P.; Lacorte, C.; Simoes, I.C.; Orlandini, D.R.S.; Inoue-Nagata, A.K.

    2007-01-01

    Tomato chlorotic mottle virus (ToCMoV) is an emerging begomovirus species widely distributed throughout tomato-growing regions of Brazil. ToCMoV appears to have expanded its geographic range recently, invading tomato-growing areas that were free of begomovirus infection before 2004. We have

  13. Insight into the three-dimensional structure of maize chlorotic mottle virus revealed by Cryo-EM single particle analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chun-Yan; Zhang, Qin-Fen; Gao, Yuan-Zhu; Zhou, Xue-Ping; Ji, Gang; Huang, Xiao-Jun; Hong, Jian; Zhang, Chuan-Xi

    2015-11-01

    Maize chlorotic mottle virus (MCMV) is the only member of the Machlomovirus genus in the family Tombusviridae. Here, we obtained the Cryo-EM structure of MCMV by single particle analysis with most local resolution at approximately 4 Å. The Cα backbone was built based on residues with bulky side chains. The resolved C-terminus of the capsid protein subunit and obvious openings at the 2-fold axis demonstrated the compactness of the asymmetric unit, which indicates an important role in the stability of MCMV. The Asp116 residue from each subunit around the 5-fold and 3-fold axes contributed to the negative charges in the centers of the pentamers and hexamers, which might serve as a solid barrier against the leakage of genomic RNA. Finally, the loops most exposed on the surface were analyzed and are proposed to be potential functional sites related to MCMV transmission.

  14. Structural transitions and energy landscape for Cowpea Chlorotic Mottle Virus capsid mechanics from nanomanipulation in vitro and in silico

    CERN Document Server

    Kononova, Olga; Brasch, Melanie; Cornelissen, Jeroen; Dima, Ruxandra I; Marx, Kenneth A; Wuite, Gijs J L; Roos, Wouter H; Barsegov, Valeri

    2015-01-01

    Physical properties of capsids of plant and animal viruses are important factors in capsid self-assembly, survival of viruses in the extracellular environment, and their cell infectivity. Virus shells can have applications as nanocontainers and delivery vehicles in biotechnology and medicine. Combined AFM experiments and computational modeling on sub-second timescales of the indentation nanomechanics of Cowpea Chlorotic Mottle Virus (CCMV) capsid show that the capsid's physical properties are dynamic and local characteristics of the structure, which depend on the magnitude and geometry of mechanical input. Surprisingly, under large deformations the CCMV capsid transitions to the collapsed state without substantial local structural alterations. The enthalpy change in this deformation state dH = 11.5 - 12.8 MJ/mol is mostly due to large-amplitude out-of-plane excitations, which contribute to the capsid bending, and the entropy change TdS = 5.1 - 5.8 MJ/mol is mostly due to coherent in-plane rearrangements of pr...

  15. Structural Transitions and Energy Landscape for Cowpea Chlorotic Mottle Virus Capsid Mechanics from Nanomanipulation in Vitro and in Silico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kononova, Olga; Snijder, Joost; Brasch, Melanie; Cornelissen, Jeroen; Dima, Ruxandra I.; Marx, Kenneth A.; Wuite, Gijs J. L.; Roos, Wouter H.; Barsegov, Valeri

    2013-10-01

    Physical properties of capsids of plant and animal viruses are important factors in capsid self-assembly, survival of viruses in the extracellular environment, and their cell infectivity. Virus shells can have applications as nanocontainers and delivery vehicles in biotechnology and medicine. Combined AFM experiments and computational modeling on sub-second timescales of the indentation nanomechanics of Cowpea Chlorotic Mottle Virus (CCMV) capsid show that the capsid's physical properties are dynamic and local characteristics of the structure, which depend on the magnitude and geometry of mechanical input. Surprisingly, under large deformations the CCMV capsid transitions to the collapsed state without substantial local structural alterations. The enthalpy change in this deformation state dH = 11.5 - 12.8 MJ/mol is mostly due to large-amplitude out-of-plane excitations, which contribute to the capsid bending, and the entropy change TdS = 5.1 - 5.8 MJ/mol is mostly due to coherent in-plane rearrangements of protein chains, which result in the capsid stiffening. Dynamic coupling of these modes defines the extent of elasticity and reversibility of capsid mechanical deformation. This emerging picture illuminates how unique physico-chemical properties of protein nanoshells help define their structure and morphology, and determine their viruses' biological function.

  16. Analysis of anisotropic spin-label motion in saturation-transfer ESR spectra of spin-labeled cowpea chlorotic mottle virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemminga, M. A.; Faber, A. J.

    A saturation-transfer ESR study is carried out on maleimide spin-labeled cowpea chlorotic mottle virus dissolved in various glycerol-water systems. The saturation-transfer ESR spectra were analyzed by comparing them with reference spectra of isotropically reorienting spin labels. The results are interpreted in terms of the overall motion of the virus particle, described by an isotropic rotational correlation time τR, and a local anisotropic spin-label motion with rotational correlation times τ| and τ⊥.

  17. Structural Transitions and Energy Landscape for Cowpea Chlorotic Mottle Virus Capsid Mechanics from Nanomanipulation in Vitro and in Silico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kononova, Olga; Snijder, Joost; Brasch, Melanie; Cornelissen, Jeroen; Dima, Ruxandra I.; Marx, Kenneth A.; Wuite, Gijs J.L.; Roos, Wouter H.; Barsegov, Valeri

    2013-01-01

    Physical properties of capsids of plant and animal viruses are important factors in capsid self-assembly, survival of viruses in the extracellular environment, and their cell infectivity. Combined AFM experiments and computational modeling on subsecond timescales of the indentation nanomechanics of Cowpea Chlorotic Mottle Virus capsid show that the capsid’s physical properties are dynamic and local characteristics of the structure, which change with the depth of indentation and depend on the magnitude and geometry of mechanical input. Under large deformations, the Cowpea Chlorotic Mottle Virus capsid transitions to the collapsed state without substantial local structural alterations. The enthalpy change in this deformation state ΔHind = 11.5–12.8 MJ/mol is mostly due to large-amplitude out-of-plane excitations, which contribute to the capsid bending; the entropy change TΔSind = 5.1–5.8 MJ/mol is due to coherent in-plane rearrangements of protein chains, which mediate the capsid stiffening. Direct coupling of these modes defines the extent of (ir)reversibility of capsid indentation dynamics correlated with its (in)elastic mechanical response to the compressive force. This emerging picture illuminates how unique physico-chemical properties of protein nanoshells help define their structure and morphology, and determine their viruses’ biological function. PMID:24138865

  18. Classification of cryo electron microscopy images, noisy tomographic images recorded with unknown projection directions, by simultaneously estimating reconstructions and application to an assembly mutant of Cowpea Chlorotic Mottle Virus and portals of the bacteriophage P22

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Junghoon; Zheng, Yili; Yin, Zhye; Doerschuk, Peter C.; Johnson, John E.

    2010-08-01

    Cryo electron microscopy is frequently used on biological specimens that show a mixture of different types of object. Because the electron beam rapidly destroys the specimen, the beam current is minimized which leads to noisy images (SNR substantially less than 1) and only one projection image per object (with an unknown projection direction) is collected. For situations where the objects can reasonably be described as coming from a finite set of classes, an approach based on joint maximum likelihood estimation of the reconstruction of each class and then use of the reconstructions to label the class of each image is described and demonstrated on two challenging problems: an assembly mutant of Cowpea Chlorotic Mottle Virus and portals of the bacteriophage P22.

  19. 玉米褪绿斑驳病毒实时荧光RT-PCR检测方法研究%Detection of Maize chlorotic mottle virus by real-time fluorescent RT-PCR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闻伟刚; 张建成; 崔俊霞; 张颖

    2011-01-01

    Maize chlorotic mottle virus ( MCMV) is a quarantine pests issued by Chinese government. In this study, accord to the conservative sequences of the coat protein genes of different MCMV isolates, a real - time fluorescent RT - PCR method was established based on specific primers and TaqMan probe. Specific studies have shown that for the two MCMV strains from different sources, a typical amplification curve can be obtained, and not for the Wheat streak mosaic virus, Maize rough dwarf virus and Maize dwarf mosaic virus. Sensitivity comparison found that the detection limit can reach 10 ~5 dilution, which is 100 times higher than the regular RT - PCR method. Thus, the real - time fluorescent RT - PCR is a rapid, sensitive and highly specific method for the detection of MCMV.%玉米褪绿斑驳病毒(Maize chlorotic mottle virus,MCMV)是我国对外公布的检疫性有害生物.本研究根据该病毒外壳蛋白基因的保守序列,设计得到特异性引物及Taqman荧光探针,建立了MCMV的实时荧光RT-PCR方法,并对其灵敏度与特异性进行了研究.该方法针对2个不同来源的毒株均能得到典型扩增曲线,而没有从小麦线条花叶病毒、玉米粗缩病毒和玉米矮花叶病毒的RNA得到扩增曲线,表明引物与荧光探针具有良好的特异性.针对玉米褪绿斑驳病毒RNA不同稀释度样品,实时荧光RT-PCR检测低限达到10-5稀释度,检测灵敏度要比普通RT-PCR高出100倍.因此,本研究建立的MCMV实时荧光方法具有特异性强、灵敏度高和快速有效的优点.

  20. Development and comparison of three PCR methods for detecting Maize chlorotic mottle virus%玉米褪绿斑驳病毒3种PCR检测方法的建立与比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张露茜; 刘战民; 夏雪影; 胡培龙; 于翠; 杨翠云

    2016-01-01

    RT-PCR,TaqMan real-time RT-PCR and SYBR Green Ⅰ real-time RT-PCR approaches were developed for detection of Maize chlorotic mottle virus(MCMV),and their sensitivity in detection of MCMV was compared.Results showed that the sensitivities of TaqMan real-time RT-PCR and SYBR Green Ⅰ real-time RT-PCR methods were ten to one hundred times higher than that of conventional RT-PCR,in particular the TaqMan real-rime RT-PCR,which displays the highest sensitivity with a detectable limit of 1.61 fg.%以带有玉米褪绿斑驳病毒(MCMV)的玉米叶片为材料,研究建立了MCMV的普通RT-PCR、TaqMan实时荧光RT-PCR和SYBR GreenⅠ实时荧光RT-PCR检测方法,并比较了3种方法的灵敏度.结果表明:TaqMan实时荧光RT-PCR的检测灵敏度最高,最低检出量可达1.61 fg,SYBR Green Ⅰ实时荧光RT-PCR略逊之,普通RT-PCR的检测灵敏度则相对较低,与前两者相差10~100倍.

  1. Complete genome sequence of arracacha mottle virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orílio, Anelise F; Lucinda, Natalia; Dusi, André N; Nagata, Tatsuya; Inoue-Nagata, Alice K

    2013-01-01

    Arracacha mottle virus (AMoV) is the only potyvirus reported to infect arracacha (Arracacia xanthorrhiza) in Brazil. Here, the complete genome sequence of an isolate of AMoV was determined to be 9,630 nucleotides in length, excluding the 3' poly-A tail, and encoding a polyprotein of 3,135 amino acids and a putative P3N-PIPO protein. Its genomic organization is typical of a member of the genus Potyvirus, containing all conserved motifs. Its full genome sequence shared 56.2 % nucleotide identity with sunflower chlorotic mottle virus and verbena virus Y, the most closely related viruses.

  2. Mottled Enamel

    OpenAIRE

    Sri Candiana Harahap

    2008-01-01

    Mottled enamel (enamel fluorosis, dental fluorosis) adalah salah satu bentuk dari hipoplasia enamel yaitu berupa berkurangnya jumlah matriks pembentuk enamel akibat adanya gangguan pada ameloblas selama tahap formatif perkembangan gigi, yang terjadi baik pada gigi desidui maupun gigi permanen. Penyebab terjadinya mottled enamel adalah fluorosis yaitu masuknya fluor dengan konsentrasi yang tinggi kedalam tubuh baik secara sistemik dan, atau lokal hingga mencapai > Ippm F. Gam...

  3. Biological and molecular detection of Hibiscus chlorotic ringspot virus infecting Hibiscus rosa-sinensis in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza POURRAHIM

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available During 2011, ten leaf samples of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis with virus-like symptoms including diffuse mottling, numerous chlorotic spots and chlorotic ring spots, were collected from Guilan province, North Iran. The results of mechanical inoculation of sap from these leaves onto different indicator hosts showed local lesions (chlorotic or necrotic on Gompherena globosa, Chenopodium amaranticolor, C. quinoa and Gossypium hirsutum, while Hibiscus cannabinus (kenaf showed systemic chlorotic ring spot symptoms. Purified preparations of the isolated virus contained isometric particles approximately 28–30 nm in diameter. A specific band of about 1.3 kb was amplified from all symptomatic leaves using Hibiscus chlorotic ringspot virus (HCRSV specific primers. Comparative sequence analysis revealed that the IRN.HCRSV (JX865593 isolate shared the greatest nucleotide sequence identity (96.5% with NC-003608 (Singapore and the least nt sequence identity (91.5% with DQ392986 (Taiwan isolates. The phylogenetic tree showed at least two subgroups for HCRSV isolates in which the Iranian isolate was grouped with Singapore HCSRV (NC-003608. This is the first report of HCRSV in H. rosa-sinensis in Iran.

  4. Identification of Chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum morifolium Self-Incompatibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available There has been a heated argument over self-incompatibilityof chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum morifolium among chrysanthemum breeders. In order to solve the argument, we investigated pistil receptivity, seed set, and compatible index of 24 chrysanthemum cultivars. It was found that the 24 cultivars averagely had 3.7–36.3 pollen grains germinating on stigmas at 24 hours after self-pollination through the fluorescence microscope using aniline blue staining method. However, only 10 of them produced self-pollinated seeds, and their seed sets and compatible indexes were 0.03–56.50% and 0.04–87.50, respectively. The cultivar “Q10-33-1” had the highest seed set (56.50% and compatible index (87.50, but ten of its progeny had a wide range of separation in seed set (0–37.23% and compatible index (0–68.65. The results indicated that most of chrysanthemum cultivars were self-incompatible, while a small proportion of cultivars were self-compatible. In addition, there is a comprehensive separation of self-incompatibility among progeny from the same self-pollinated self-compatible chrysanthemum cultivar. Therefore, it is better to emasculate inflorescences during chrysanthemum hybridization breeding when no information concerning its self-incompatibility characteristics is available. However, if it is self-incompatible and propagated by vegetative methods, it is unnecessary to carry out emasculation when it is used as a female plant during hybridization breeding.

  5. Characterization of a new isolate of pepper chlorotic spot virus from Yunnan province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Kuanyu; Chen, Tsung-Chi; Yeh, Shyi-Dong; Rahman, Md Siddiqur; Su, Xiaoxia; Wu, Kuo; Li, Ting; Zhang, Zhongkai; Dong, Jiahong

    2017-05-19

    A new isolate, 14YV733, of pepper chlorotic spot virus (PCSV) from chili peppers in Yunnan province of China was identified. The typical tospoviral particles of 80-120 nm in diameter were observed by electron microscopy. The virus caused systemic symptoms in several solanaceous plants and the Brassica rapa L. Chinensis group with mechanical inoculation. The sap from infected leaves reacted positively to a rabbit antibody to the N protein of watermelon silver mottle virus (WSMoV) in immunoblotting. The S, M, and L RNAs of PCSV-14YV733 are 3310 nts, 4711 nts, and 8913 nts long, respectively. This is the first report of complete sequences of PCSV in mainland China. Phylogenetic analysis of all tospoviral proteins indicated that PCSV-14YV733 is closely related to members of the WSMoV serogroup.

  6. Molecular variability analyses of Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus capsid protein

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    T Rana; V Chandel; Y Kumar; R Ram; V Hallan; A A Zaidi

    2010-12-01

    The complete sequences of the coat protein (CP) gene of 26 isolates of Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus (ACLSV) from India were determined. The isolates were obtained from various pome (apple, pear and quince) and stone (plum, peach, apricot, almond and wild Himalayan cherry) fruit trees. Other previously characterized ACLSV isolates and Trichoviruses were used for comparative analysis. Indian ACLSV isolates among themselves and with isolates from elsewhere in the world shared 91–100% and 70–98% sequence identities at the amino acid and nucleotide levels, respectively. The highest degree of variability was observed in the middle portion with 9 amino acid substitutions in contrast to the N-terminal and C-terminal ends, which were maximally conserved with only 4 amino acid substitutions. In phylogenetic analysis no reasonable correlation between host species and/or geographic origin of the isolates was observed. Alignment with capsid protein genes of other Trichoviruses revealed the TaTao ACLSV peach isolate to be phylogenetically closest to Peach mosaic virus, Apricot pseudo chlorotic leaf spot virus and Cherry mottle leaf virus. Recombination analysis (RDP3 ver.2.6) done for all the available ACLSV complete CP sequences of the world and Indian isolates indicate no significant evidence of recombination. However, one recombination event among Indian ACLSV-CP isolates was detected. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of complete CP sequence variability study from India and also the first evidence of homologous recombination in ACLSV.

  7. First report of Maize chlorotic mottle virus and maize (corn) lethal necrosis in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    In September 2011, high incidence of a new maize (Zea mays L.) disease was reported at lower elevations (1900 masl) in the Longisa division of Bomet County, Southern Rift Valley of Kenya. Later the disease was noted in Bomet Central division, spreading into the neighboring Chepalungu and Narok South...

  8. Identification of Cherry green ring mottle virus on Sweet Cherry Trees in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    In-Sook Cho

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available During the 2012 growing season, 154 leaf samples were collected from sweet cherry trees in Hwaseong, Pyeongtaek, Gyeongju, Kimcheon, Daegu, Yeongju and Eumseong and tested for the presence of Cherry green ring mottle virus (CGRMV. PCR products of the expected size (807 bp were obtained from 6 samples. The PCR products were cloned and sequenced. The nucleotide sequences of the clones showed over 88% identities to published coat protein sequences of CGRMV isolates in the GenBank database. The sequences of CGRMV isolates, CGR-KO 1−6 shared 98.8 to 99.8% nucleotide and 99.6 to 100% amino acid similarities. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the Korean CGRMV isolates belong to the group II of CGRMV coat protein genes. The CGRMV infected sweet cherry trees were also tested for Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus (ACLSV, Apple mosaic virus (ApMV, Cherry necrotic rusty mottle virus (CNRMV, Cherry mottle leaf virus (CMLV, Cherry rasp leaf virus (CRLV, Cherry leafroll virus (CLRV, Cherry virus A (CVA, Little cherry virus 1 (LChV1, Prune dwarf virus (PDV and Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV by RT-PCR. All of the tested trees were also infected with ACLSV.

  9. Watermelon chlorotic stunt virus (WmCSV): a serious disease threatening watermelon production in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Musa, A; Anfoka, G; Al-Abdulat, A; Misbeh, S; Haj Ahmed, F; Otri, I

    2011-08-01

    The incidence of watermelon chlorotic stunt disease and the molecular characterization of the Jordanian isolate of Watermelon chlorotic stunt virus (WmCSV-[JO]) are described in this study. Symptomatic leaf samples obtained from watermelon (Citrullus lanatus Thunb.), melon (Cucumis melo L.), squash (Cucurbita pepo), cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.), and bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria) plants were tested for WmCSV-[JO] infection by PCR. The virus could be detected in 8 melon and 87 watermelon samples obtained from Ghor Assafi (southern part of Jordan Valley). Three samples collected from Mafraq (eastern part of Jordan) were found mixed infected with WmCSV-[JO] and Squash leaf curl virus. The full-length DNA-A and DNA-B genomes of WmCSV-[JO] were amplified, and sequences were deposited in the GenBank under accession numbers EU561237 and EU561236, respectively. Sequence analysis reveals that WmCSV-[JO] is closely related to other virus isolates from Israel (WmCSV-[IL]), Yemen (WmCSV-[YE]), Iran (WmCSV-[IR]), Lebanon (WmCSV-[LB]), and Sudan (WmCSV-[SD]). DNA-A of WmCSV-[JO] showed highest nucleotide identity (99.42%) with WmCSV-[IL], while DNA-B had highest nucleotide identity (95.52%) with WmCSV-[YE]. Data of this study demonstrate that digestion of DNA-B genome of WmCSV isolates with ApaI enzyme can discriminate between these isolates at the molecular level. Infectious clones of WmCSV-[JO] were constructed and agroinoculated to Nicotiana benthamiana plants. Inoculated plants developed mild disease symptoms 4 weeks post inoculation, while watermelon plants biolistically inoculated with WmCSV-[JO] developed characteristic mottling, yellowing and severe leaf curling symptoms 3 weeks post inoculation.

  10. Chrysanthemum biotechnology: discoveries from the recent literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teixeira da Silva Jaime A.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The in vitro propagation of chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum × grandiflorum (Ramat. Kitam., one of the world’s most important ornamentals, is a very well-studied topic and shows numerous strides each year. This mini-review condenses the knowledge that has been published on chrysanthemum biotechnology, especially in vitro culture in the wider plant science literature. In 2013 and 2014, important strides were made in molecular breeding, particularly anti-viral strategies, including through transgenics, and our understanding of flower genetics and flowering regulation.

  11. Tomato chlorotic leaf distortion virus, a new bipartite begomovirus infecting Solanum lycopersicum and Capsicum chinense in Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambrano, Karla; Geraud-Pouey, Francis; Chirinos, Doris; Romay, Gustavo; Marys, Edgloris

    2011-12-01

    Virus isolate T217L was obtained from a diseased tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plant showing leaf deformation and chlorotic mottle symptoms near Maracaibo in the state of Zulia, Venezuela. Full-length DNA-A and DNA-B molecules of T217L were cloned and sequenced. The genome organization of T217L was identical to the bipartite genomes of other begomoviruses described from the Americas. Characteristic disease symptoms were reproduced in S. lycopersicum and Capsicum annum plants inoculated using the cloned viral DNA-A and DNA-B components, confirming disease aetiology. A sequence analysis of DNA-A showed that the T217L isolate has the highest sequence identity (84%) with sida yellow mosaic Yucatan virus (SiYMYuV), sida golden mosaic Honduras virus (SiGMHV) and bean dwarf mosaic virus (BDMV) isolates. This is less than the 89% identity in the DNA-A component that has been defined as the threshold value for the demarcation of species in the genus Begomovirus. The molecular data show that isolate T217L belongs to a novel tentative begomovirus species, for which the name tomato chlorotic leaf distortion virus is proposed. TCLDV was also detected in symptomatic C. chinense plants growing near the T217L-infected plant.

  12. Aphid resistance in florist's chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat.) induced by sea anemone equistatin overexpression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valizadeh, M.; Deraison, C.; Kazemitabar, S.K.; Rahbé, Y.; Jongsma, M.A.

    2013-01-01

    Florist's chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat.) belongs to the Asteraceae family and represents the second most important floricultural crop in the world. Most genotypes are sensitive to aphids and infestations can lower quality and cause transmission of viruses. The protease inhibitor Sea

  13. Identification and Quality Assessment of Chrysanthemum Buds by CE Fingerprinting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoping Xing

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple and efficient fingerprinting method for chrysanthemum buds was developed with the aim of establishing a quality control protocol based on biochemical makeup. Chrysanthemum bud samples were successively extracted by water and alcohol. The fingerprints of the chrysanthemum buds samples were obtained using capillary electrophoresis and electrochemical detection (CE-ED employing copper and carbon working electrodes to capture all of the chemical information. 10 batches of chrysanthemum buds were collected from different regions and various factories to establish the baseline fingerprint. The experimental data of 10 batches electropherogram buds by CE were analyzed by correlation coefficient and the included angle cosine methods. A standard chrysanthemum bud fingerprint including 24 common peaks was established, 12 from each electrode, which was successfully applied to identify and distinguish between chrysanthemum buds from 2 other chrysanthemum species. These results demonstrate that fingerprint analysis can be used as an important criterion for chrysanthemum buds quality control.

  14. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Mottled duck

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rorabaugh, James C.; Zwank, Phillip J.

    1983-01-01

    The mottled duck is a mallard-like resident species of the Gulf of Mexico coast, from the marshes of Pearl River on the Lou i si ana-Ht ss t ss ipp i border to the Al varado Lagoon near Veracruz, Mexico (Bell rose 1976). The highest densities of nesting mottl ed ducks are found in brackish to fresh coastal marshes (H. Bateman, Louisiana Department of Wildl ife and Fisheries, Baton Rouge; pers , comm.). Mottled ducks also inhabit prairie land near prairie potholes in Texas and flooded rice fields in Texas (Engel ing 1950) and Louisiana (Linscombe 1972).

  15. Preliminary X-ray Data Analysis of Crystalline Hibiscus Chlorotic Ringspot Virus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, A.; Speir, J; Yuan, Y; Johnson, J; Wong, S

    2009-01-01

    Hibiscus chlorotic ringspot virus (HCRSV) is a positive-sense monopartite single-stranded RNA virus that belongs to the Carmovirus genus of the Tombusviridae family, which includes carnation mottle virus (CarMV). The HCRSV virion has a 30 nm diameter icosahedral capsid with T = 3 quasi-symmetry containing 180 copies of a 38 kDa coat protein (CP) and encapsidates a full-length 3.9 kb genomic RNA. Authentic virus was harvested from infected host kenaf leaves and was purified by saturated ammonium sulfate precipitation, sucrose density-gradient centrifugation and anion-exchange chromatography. Virus crystals were grown in multiple conditions; one of the crystals diffracted to 3Synchrotron .2 A resolution and allowed the collection of a partial data set. The crystal belonged to space group R32, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 336.4, c = 798.5 . Packing considerations and rotation-function analysis determined that there were three particles per unit cell, all of which have the same orientation and fixed positions, and resulted in tenfold noncrystallography symmetry for real-space averaging. The crystals used for the structure determination of southern bean mosaic virus (SBMV) have nearly identical characteristics. Together, these findings will greatly aid the high-resolution structure determination of HCRSV.

  16. Brugmansia suaveolens mottle virus, a novel potyvirus causing leaf mottling of Brugmansia suaveolens in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucinda, N; Nagata, T; Inoue-Nagata, A K; Salaroli, R B; Kitajima, E W

    2008-01-01

    A potyvirus was isolated from Brugmansia suaveolens showing leaf mottling and tentatively named Brugmansia suaveolens mottle virus (BsMoV). The virus (isolate Bs-Campinas) could infect some solanaceous plants and two Chenopodium species, and was transmitted by aphids. Symptomatic leaves contained flexuous particles and cylindrical inclusions. RT-PCR amplification using potyvirus universal primers produced a DNA fragment of 1851 nt (3' terminal genomic region), which shared 71% nucleotide identity with Pepper mottle virus, the best-matched potyvirus sequence. Since this identity value is below the threshold currently used to discriminate Potyvirus species, Brugmansia suaveolens mottle virus most likely represents a new Potyvirus species.

  17. High Latitude Mottling on Jupiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    The familiar banded appearance of Jupiter at low and middle latitudes gradually gives way to a more mottled appearance at high latitudes in this striking true color image taken Dec. 13, 2000, by NASA's Cassini spacecraft.The intricate structures seen in the polar region are clouds of different chemical composition, height and thickness. Clouds are organized by winds, and the mottled appearance in the polar regions suggests more vortex-type motion and winds of less vigor at higher latitudes.The cause of this difference is not understood. One possible contributor is that the horizontal component of the Coriolis force, which arises from the planet's rotation and is responsible for curving the trajectories of ocean currents and winds on Earth, has its greatest effect at high latitudes and vanishes at the equator. This tends to create small, intense vortices at high latitudes on Jupiter. Another possibility may lie in that fact that Jupiter overall emits nearly as much of its own heat as it absorbs from the Sun, and this internal heat flux is very likely greater at the poles. This condition could lead to enhanced convection at the poles and more vortex-type structures. Further analysis of Cassini images, including analysis of sequences taken over a span of time, should help us understand the cause of equator-to-pole differences in cloud organization and evolution.By the time this picture was taken, Cassini had reached close enough to Jupiter to allow the spacecraft to return images with more detail than what's possible with the planetary camera on NASA's Earth-orbiting Hubble Space Telescope. The resolution here is 114 kilometers (71 miles) per pixel. This contrast-enhanced, edge-sharpened frame was composited from images take at different wavelengths with Cassini's narrow-angle camera, from a distance of 19 million kilometers (11.8 million miles). The spacecraft was in almost a direct line between the Sun and Jupiter, so the solar illumination on Jupiter is almost full

  18. Accumulation of Pathogenesis-related Type-5 Like Proteins in Phytoplasma infected Garland Chrysanthemum Chrysanthemum coronarium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bo-Xiong ZHONG; Yan-Wei SHEN

    2004-01-01

    Soluble proteins extracted from leaves, apical shoots, axillary shoots, and stems of garland chrysanthemum plants infected by onion yellows phytoplasma were analyzed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Computerized matching analysis revealed that at least six soluble proteins were accumulated specifically in phytoplasma-infected garland chrysanthemum. N-terminal amino acids sequences of these soluble proteins, determined by Edman degradation, shared high sequence similarities with those ofpathogenesis-related type-5 (PR-5) proteins such as tobacco thaumatin-like protein. Accumulation of these six proteins was also found in garland chrysanthemum plants infected by other phytoplasmas. These results demonstrate that phytoplasmal infection induces the accumulation of PR-5 like proteins in garland chrysanthemum plants.

  19. Aphid resistance in florist's chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat.) induced by sea anemone equistatin overexpression

    OpenAIRE

    VALIZADEH, M.; Deraison, C.; Kazemitabar, S.K.; Rahbé, Y.; Jongsma, M.A.

    2013-01-01

    Florist's chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat.) belongs to the Asteraceae family and represents the second most important floricultural crop in the world. Most genotypes are sensitive to aphids and infestations can lower quality and cause transmission of viruses. The protease inhibitor Sea Anemone Equistatin (SAE) carries three domains responsible for the inhibition of both cysteine and aspartic proteases. Artificial diet bioassays showed that SAE is readily toxic when ingested by t...

  20. Detection of a novel tospovirus in chrysanthemum.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeven, J.T.J.; Roenhorst, J.W.; Cortes, I.; Peters, D.

    1996-01-01

    Up to 1994, tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) was the only tospovirus species reported in chrysanthemum (Dendranthema morifolium) in the Netherlands. Since then, however, occasionally an aberrant tospovirus was found in this ornamental. The virus evoked symptoms similar to those caused by TSWV, i.e.

  1. Two New Flavonoid Glycosides from Chrysanthemum morifolium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian ZHANG; An Wei DING; You Bin LI; Da Wei QIAN; Jin Ao DUAN; Zhi Qi YIN

    2006-01-01

    Two new flavonoid glycosides were isolated from the flowering heads of Chrysanthemum morifolium. Their structures were determined to be luteolin 4'-methoxy-7- O-(6"-O-acetyl)-β-D-glucopyranoside (1) and acacetin 7-O-(3"-O-acetyl)-β-D-glucopyranoside (2) by means of 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopic analysis, including 2D NMR technique.

  2. Full-length sequence analysis of a distinct isolate of Bidens mottle virus infecting sunflower in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, J Y; Hu, Chung-Chi; Chen, C C; Chang, C H; Deng, T C

    2009-01-01

    The full-length genome of a potyvirus, previously known as sunflower chlorotic spot virus isolate SF-1 (SCSV-SF-1) which causes novel symptoms on sunflowers (Helianthus annuus), was sequenced and analyzed. The genome of SCSV-SF-1 is 9,741 nucleotides long, encoding a polyprotein of 3,071 amino acids containing the consensus motifs of potyviruses. Sequence comparison revealed that the 3'-terminus of SCSV-SF-1 shared over 96% similarities with isolates of Bidens mottle virus (BiMoV). However, SCSV-SF-1 has a very narrow host range, excluding the diagnostic host species for BiMoV, Bidens pilosa and Zinnia elegans. Therefore, SCSV-SF-1 is a distinct isolate of BiMoV. This is the first report of the full-length nucleotide sequence of BiMoV infecting sunflower in Taiwan.

  3. Structural Transitions and Energy Landscape for Cowpea Chlorotic Mottle Virus Capsid Mechanics from Nanomanipulation in Vitro and in Silico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kononova, Olga; Snijder, Joost; Brasch, Melanie; Cornelissen, Jeroen; Dima, Ruxandra I.; Marx, Kenneth A.; Wuite, Gijs J. L.; Roos, Wouter H.; Barsegov, Valeri

    2013-01-01

    Physical properties of capsids of plant and animal viruses are important factors in capsid self-assembly, survival of viruses in the extracellular environment, and their cell infectivity. Combined AFM experiments and computational modeling on subsecond timescales of the indentation nanomechanics of

  4. Genetic and serological characterization of chrysanthemum stem necrosis virus, a member of the genus Tospovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Pei-Ru; Chien, Wan-Chu; Okuda, Mitsuru; Takeshita, Minoru; Yeh, Shyi-Dong; Wang, Yun-Chi; Chen, Tsung-Chi

    2015-02-01

    Chrysanthemum stem necrosis virus (CSNV) is a member of a tentative tospovirus species. In this study, the complete genomic sequence of the Japanese CSNV isolate TcCh07A was determined. The L RNA is 8960 nt long and encodes the 331.0-kDa RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. The M RNA is 4828 nt long and encodes the 34.1-kDa movement protein (NSm) and the 127.7-kDa glycoprotein precursor (Gn/Gc). The S RNA is 2949 nt long and encodes the 52.4-kDa silencing suppressor protein (NSs) and the 29.3-kDa nucleocapsid (N) protein. The N protein of CSNV-TcCh07A was purified from virus-infected plant tissues and used for production of a rabbit polyclonal antiserum (RAs) and a monoclonal antibody (MAb). Results of serological tests by indirect ELISA and western blotting using the prepared RAs and MAb and a previously produced RAs against the N protein of tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) indicated that CSNV-TcCh07A, TSWV, tomato chlorotic spot virus, groundnut ringspot virus, alstroemeria necrotic streak virus and impatiens necrotic spot virus are serologically related.

  5. Agrobacterium-mediated Genetic Transformation of Chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat.) with an Aphidicidal Gene, gcs (Gamma-cadinene Synthase)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valizadeh, Mahmood; Kazemitabar, S.K.; Jongsma, M.A.

    2012-01-01

    Florist’s chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat.) belongs to the Asteraceae family and represents the second most important floricultural crop in the world. Unfortunately most genotypes are sensitive to aphids. Internode explants of 1581 and 4043 genotypes were incubated with A. tumefaciens

  6. Structured heterogeneity in a marine terrace chronosequence: Upland mottling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Marjorie S.; Stonestrom, David A.; Lawrence, Corey R.; Bullen, Thomas D.; Fitzpatrick, John; Kyker-Snowman, Emily; Manning, Jane; Mnich, Meagan

    2016-01-01

    Soil mottles generally are interpreted as a product of reducing conditions during periods of water saturation. The upland soils of the Santa Cruz, CA, marine terrace chronosequence display an evolving sequence of reticulate mottling from the youngest soil (65 ka) without mottles to the oldest soil (225 ka) with well-developed mottles. The mottles consist of an interconnected network of clay and C-enriched regions (gray, 2.5Y 6/1) bordered by leached parent material (white, 2.5Y 8/1) within a diminishing matrix of oxidized parent material (orange, 7.5YR 5/8). The mottles develop in soils that formed from relatively uniform nearshore sediments and occur below the depth of soil bioturbation. To explore how a presumably wetland feature occurs in an unsaturated upland soil, physical and chemical characteristics of mottle separates (orange, gray, and white) were compared through the deep time represented by the soil chronosequence. Mineralogical, isotopic, and surface-area differences among mottle separates indicate that rhizogenic centimeter-scale mass transfer acting across millennia is an integral part of weathering, pedogenesis, and C and nutrient transfer. Elemental analysis, electron microscopy, and Fe-isotope systematics indicate that mottle development is driven by deep roots together with their fungal and microbial symbionts. Taken together, these data suggest that deep soil horizons on old stable landforms can develop reticulate mottling as the long-term imprint of rhizospheric processes. The processes of rhizogenic mottle formation appear to regulate pedogenesis, nutrients, and C sequestration at depth in unsaturated zones.

  7. Selective depletion of organic matter in mottled podzol horizons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buurman, P.; Schellekens, J.; Fritze, H.; Nierop, K.G.J.

    2007-01-01

    Abstract: Some well-drained podzols on quartz sands in the Netherlands and neighbouring Belgium and Germany show mottling in all horizons due to selective removal of organic matter. Phospholipid analysis and morphology of the mottles suggests that this removal is due to activity of fungi. Investigat

  8. Xylem hydraulic conductivity related to conduit dimensions along chrysanthemum stems.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijsse, J.; Heijden, van der G.W.A.M.; Ieperen, van W.; Keijzer, C.J.; Meeteren, van U.

    2001-01-01

    The stem xylem conduit dimensions and hydraulic conductivity of chrysanthemum plants (Dendranthemaxgrandiflorum Tzvelev cv. Cassa) were analysed and quantified. Simple exponential relations describe conduit length distribution, height dependency of conduit length distribution, and height dependency

  9. Characterization of ploidy levels in Chrysanthemum L. by flow cytometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yue-ping Ma; Jiang-xue Wei; Zhi-yang Yu; Bing Qin; Si-lan Dai

    2015-01-01

    Analyzing the ploidy levels of plants is important for identifying species, selecting parental lines, identifying the relationships between species, and determining evolutionary patterns. The genus Chrysanthemum is widely distributed throughout the world and exhibits different ploidy levels. We used flow cytometry to analyze the ploidy levels of nine species of Chrysanthemum L. collected from different regions and geographical locations in China. Three diploids from Henan and Wuhan provinces corresponded to Chrysanthe-mum lavandulifolium and two species of C. nankingense, while three tetraploids from various regions corresponded to C. indicum and two species of C. chanetii. Two hexaploids corresponding to C. vestitum were collected at Funiu moun-tain (Henan province), and C. zawadskii was collected at Huangshan mountain (Anhui province). We found that OTTO extraction buffer was suitable for extracting nuclei from most species, apart from C. zawadskii. Flow cytometry proved to be a simple, rapid, and highly accurate method for identifying ploidy levels in Chrysanthemum species.

  10. Reference Gene Selection for RT-qPCR Analysis of Flower Development in Chrysanthemum morifolium and Chrysanthemum lavandulifolium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuai eQi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR is a popular and powerful tool used to understand the molecular mechanisms of flower development. However, the accuracy of this approach depends on the stability of reference genes. The capitulum of chrysanthemums is very special, which is consist of ray florets and disc florets. There are obvious differences between the two types of florets in symmetry, gender, histological structure and function. Furthermore, the ray florets have various shapes. The objective of present study was to identify the stable reference genes in Chrysanthemum morifolium and Chrysanthemum lavandulifolium during the process of flower development. In this study, nine candidate reference genes were selected and evaluated for their expression stability acrosssamples during the process of flower development, and their stability was validated by four different algorithms (Bestkeeper, NormFinder, GeNorm and Ref-finder. SAND(SAND family protein was found to be the most stably expressed gene in all samples or different tissues during the process of C. lavandulifolium development. Both SAND and PGK (phosphoglycerate kinase performed most stable in Chinese large-flowered chrysanthemum cultivars, and PGK was the best in potted chrysanthemums. There were differences in best reference genes among varieties as the genetic background of them were complex. These studies provide guidance for selecting reference genes for analyzing the expression pattern of floral development genes in chrysanthemums.

  11. Insect Vectors of Rice Yellow Mottle Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augustin Koudamiloro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rice yellow mottle virus (RYMV is the major viral constraint to rice production in Africa. RYMV was first identified in 1966 in Kenya and then later in most African countries where rice is grown. Several studies have been conducted so far on its evolution, pathogenicity, resistance genes, and especially its dissemination by insects. Many of these studies showed that, among RYMV vectors, insects especially leaf-feeders found in rice fields are the major source of virus transmission. Many studies have shown that the virus is vectored by several insect species in a process of a first ingestion of leaf material and subsequent transmission in following feedings. About forty insect species were identified as vectors of RYMV since 1970 up to now. They were essentially the beetles, grasshoppers, and the leafhoppers. For this review, we presented the chronology of their identification. Also, the biology, ecology, host range, distribution, and caused damage of these insects were briefly summarized.

  12. 以菊展促文化推进春节菊花市场发展%Culture and market promotion by Chrysanthemum Exhibition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭超超; 戴思兰

    2009-01-01

    Chrysanthemum exhibition is one of the most important ways of chrysanthemum demonstration, which may promote industrial production and culture dissemination, and is also a way to direct the chrysanthemum production toward the market. Based on the introduction of chrysanthemum exhibition and chrysanthemum culture,including chrysanthemum market survey in the Spring Festival, the authors proposed that Chrysanthemum Exhibition in Spring Festival can open a new market for extended use of chrysanthemum.Techniques to control the flowering of chrysanthemum were described in the paper.

  13. Biological characteristics of tomato mild mottle potyvirus isolated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biological characteristics of tomato mild mottle potyvirus isolated from tomato and thorn ... (Datura stramonium) and tomato (Lycopersicon lycopersicum (L.) Karst. ... Solanum demissum L., while the PVY isolate infected Chenopodium quinoa ...

  14. Study of Development Potential Chrysanthemum in Buleleng Regency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Gusti Made Arjana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the potential of agro-climate, technology of cultivation, harvest and post-harvest chrysanthemums. This study uses survey method, through the collection of primary data and secondary data. This research is located in the village of Pancasari, District Sukasada, Buleleng Bali Province. Descriptive survey conducted on 40 respondents chrysanthemum growers using the component identification of determinants of commodity production chrysanthemum include: site selection, infrastructure, crop production processes and post-harvest handling. The survey results showed that 100% of the farmers have chosen a suitable location with agro-climatic conditions required by the chrysanthemum plant, and 86.09% of the farmers have been using the means needed to support the process of crop production. In the process of production of 78% in accordance with the operational procedures. At the stage of harvest and post-harvest handling 80% have been implemented by farmers and some still use conventional methods of handling. Thus Pancasari village has a potential location for the cultivation of chrysanthemum as a mainstay commodity.

  15. Impact of Electrostatic Assist on Halftone Mottle in Shrink Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akshay V. Joshi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Gravure printing delivers intricate print quality and exhibit better feasibility for printing long run packaging jobs. PVC and PETG are widely used shrink films printed by gravure process. The variation in ink transfer from gravure cells on to the substrate results in print mottle. The variation is inevitable and requires close monitoring with tight control on process parameters to deliver good dot fidelity. The electrostatic assist in gravure improves the ink transfer efficiency but is greatly influenced by ESA parameters such as air gap (distance between charge bar and impression roller and voltage. Moreover, it is imperative to study the combined effect of ESA and gravure process parameters such as line screen, viscosity and speed for the minimization of half-tone mottle in shrink films. A general full factorial design was performed for the above mentioned parameters to evaluate half-tone mottle. The significant levels of both the main and interactions were studied by ANOVA approach. The statistical analysis revealed the significance of all the process parameters with viscosity, line screen and voltage being the major contributors in minimization of half-tone mottle. The optimized setting showed reduction in halftone mottle by 33% and 32% for PVC and PET-G respectively. The developed regression model was tested that showed more than 95% predictability. Furthermore, the uniformity of dot was measured by image to non-image area (ratio distribution. The result showed reduction in halftone mottle with uniform dot distribution.

  16. Protection of Geographical Indication and Intangible Cultural Heritage of the Chrysanthemum Resources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zai; HU; Zhiguo; SUN; Wanzhen; XIONG; Limin; HUANG; Shuting; WANG

    2013-01-01

    We conduct an analysis on the current protection of geographical indication intellectual property and intangible cultural heritage of chrysanthemum resources. The following recommendations are explored and set forth: ( i) Collecting and sorting the intangible cultural heritage related to chrysanthemum,and declaring the provincial and national list; ( ii) Establishing the productive protection demonstration bases of intangible cultural heritage related to chrysanthemum; ( iii) Strengthening the declaration of geographical indication intellectual property protection of chrysanthemum; ( iv) Encouraging the use of special marks of geographical indication,and cultivating chrysanthemum brand; ( v) Establishing various kinds of national quality standards of geographical indication of chrysanthemum; ( vi) Implementing the double protection of intangible cultural heritage and geographical indication of traditional chrysanthemum.

  17. Clonal fidelity of chrysanthemum regenerated from long term cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jevremović Slađana

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Morphological characteristics of flowers of long term regenerated chrysanthemum, cv. "White Spider", after ten years of micropropagation are investigated. Shoot cultures are established and maintained more than ten years by stem segment culture on MS medium supplemented with BAP and NAA (1.0, 0.1 mgL-1, respectively. Rooting of shoots (100 % has done on MS medium without hormones and it was very successful after ten years, as well as, after two or eight years of micropropagation. Acclimation of rooted chrysanthemum plantlets at greenhouse conditions was excellent and after appropriate photoperiod "in vitro" plants flowered 90.3 % and have the same flower color, shape and size as mother plants. Flower color changes of "in vitro" plants are observed during another flowering cycle one year after acclimatization. Observed variations of chrysanthemum flowers could be attributed to epigenetic factors.

  18. Complete nucleotide sequence of a virus associated with rusty mottle disease of sweet cherry (Prunus avium).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villamor, D V; Druffel, K L; Eastwell, K C

    2013-08-01

    Cherry rusty mottle is a disease of sweet cherries first described in 1940 in western North America. Because of the graft-transmissible nature of the disease, a viral nature of the disease was assumed. Here, the complete genomic nucleotide sequences of virus isolates from two trees expressing cherry rusty mottle disease symptoms are characterized; the virus is designated cherry rusty mottle associated virus (CRMaV). The biological and molecular characteristics of this virus in comparison to those of cherry necrotic rusty mottle virus (CNRMV) and cherry green ring mottle virus (CGRMV) are described. CRMaV was subsequently detected in additional sweet cherry trees expressing symptoms of cherry rusty mottle disease.

  19. An analysis of mind style in the short fiction Chrysanthemums

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵海燕

    2015-01-01

    The paper selected John Steinbeck's short fiction The Chrysanthemums and focused on the analysis of Steinbeck and Elisa' mind style.It is hoped that the present research will provide a new perspective for reader s and critics in appreciating and analyzing characters in shortfiction.

  20. Nitrogen, salinity, substrates and growth of gloxinia and chrysanthemum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arnold Bik, R.A.

    1970-01-01

    The study was on the harmful effect of salinity on N utilization in the flower crops gloxinia (a salt-sensitive mesophytic semi-shade plant) and chrysanthemum (a salt- tolerant sun plant). For solid substrates (trials 2 and 3) the specific conductivity of the saturation extract (EC. in mmho per cm a

  1. An analysis of mind style in the short fiction Chrysanthemums

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵海燕

    2015-01-01

    The paper selected John Steinbeck’s short fiction The Chrysanthemums and focused on the analysis of Steinbeck and Elisa’ mind style.It is hoped that the present research will provide a new perspective for reader s and critics in appreciating and analyzing characters in short fiction.

  2. Functional anatomy of the water transport system in cut chrysanthemum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijsse, J.

    2001-01-01

    Cut flowers show a wide variance of keepability. The market demands more and more a guaranteed quality. Therefore, methods must be developed to predict vase life of cut flowers. Chrysanthemum ( Dendranthema x grandiflorum Tzvelev) and some other cut flowers suffer from unpredicted early leaf wilting

  3. Functional anatomy of the water transport system in cut chrysanthemum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijsse, J.

    2001-01-01

    Cut flowers show a wide variance of keepability. The market demands more and more a guaranteed quality. Therefore, methods must be developed to predict vase life of cut flowers. Chrysanthemum ( Dendranthema x grandiflorum Tzvelev) and some other cut flowers suffer from

  4. The complete nucleotide sequence of chrysanthemum stem necrosis virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dullemans, A.M.; Verhoeven, J.Th.J.; Kormelink, R.J.M.; Vlugt, van der R.A.A.

    2015-01-01

    The complete genome sequence of chrysanthemum stem necrosis virus (CSNV) was determined using Roche 454 next-generation sequencing. CSNV is a tentative member of the genus Tospovirus within the family Bunyaviridae, whose members are arthropod-borne. This is the first report of the entire RNA genome

  5. Analysis and Simulation of Growth and Yield of Cut Chrysanthemum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, J.H.

    2002-01-01

    Key words : chrysanthemum, crop growth, development, explanatory model, expolinear growth, dry mass, dry matter partitioning, fresh mass, leaf area index, light interception, light use efficiency, plant density, season, simulation, validation, year-round. Seasonal var

  6. Exposure to pesticides : Pt. III Application to chrysanthemums in greenhouses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vreede, J.A.F. de; Haan, M. de; Brouwer, D.H.; Hemmen, J.J. van; Kort, W.L.A.M. de

    1994-01-01

    During 20 applications with a spray pistol of methomyl to chrysanthemums, inhalation exposure as well as potential and actual dermal exposure were monitored. Inhalation exposure during mixing, loading and application averaged 5.1 microgram/hour. Dermal exposure of the hands during mixing and

  7. A New Compound from the Bud of Chrysanthemum indicum L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    A new bicyclic spiroketone was isolated from the bud of Chrysanthemum indicum L.The chemical structure was elucidated as (1R, 9S, 10S)-10-hydroxyl-8 (2', 4'-diynehexylidene)-9-isovaleryloxy-2, 7-dioxaspiro [5, 4] decane based on the X-ray crystallography.

  8. Temporal evolution of mottles observed in H_alpha

    CERN Document Server

    Bostanci, Z F; Erdogan, Nurol Al

    2007-01-01

    In April 2002, H_alpha observations of the solar chromosphere with high spatial and spectral resolution were obtained with the Gottingen Fabry-Perot Spectrometer mounted in the Vacuum Tower Telescope (VTT) at the Observatorio del Teide/Tenerife. In this work, we analyze a short time sequence of a quiet region with chains of mottles. Some physical parameters of dark mottles are determined by using Beckers' cloud model which takes the source function, the Doppler width, and the velocity to be constant within the cloud along the line of sight. Here, we present the results of our study.

  9. An isoform of eukaryotic initiation factor 4E from Chrysanthemum morifolium interacts with Chrysanthemum virus B coat protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiping Song

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E (eIF4E plays an important role in plant virus infection as well as the regulation of gene translation. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we describe the isolation of a cDNA encoding CmeIF(iso4E (GenBank accession no. JQ904592, an isoform of eIF4E from chrysanthemum, using RACE PCR. We used the CmeIF(iso4E cDNA for expression profiling and to analyze the interaction between CmeIF(iso4E and the Chrysanthemum virus B coat protein (CVBCP. Multiple sequence alignment and phylogenetic tree analysis showed that the sequence similarity of CmeIF(iso4E with other reported plant eIF(iso4E sequences varied between 69.12% and 89.18%, indicating that CmeIF(iso4E belongs to the eIF(iso4E subfamily of the eIF4E family. CmeIF(iso4E was present in all chrysanthemum organs, but was particularly abundant in the roots and flowers. Confocal microscopy showed that a transiently transfected CmeIF(iso4E-GFP fusion protein distributed throughout the whole cell in onion epidermis cells. A yeast two hybrid assay showed CVBCP interacted with CmeIF(iso4E but not with CmeIF4E. BiFC assay further demonstrated the interaction between CmeIF(iso4E and CVBCP. Luminescence assay showed that CVBCP increased the RLU of Luc-CVB, suggesting CVBCP might participate in the translation of viral proteins. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results inferred that CmeIF(iso4E as the cap-binding subunit eIF(iso4F may be involved in Chrysanthemum Virus B infection in chrysanthemum through its interaction with CVBCP in spatial.

  10. On Walter ’s Otherness in Odour of Chrysanthemums

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李嵩皎

    2015-01-01

    Odour of Chrysanthemums is one of the British writer D. H. Lawrence’s short stories. In the story, character’s understanding of each other reflects the idea of otherness. This paper tries to analyze both Walter’s mother and Elizabeth’s understanding of Walter Bates. Then it points out that they did not really understand him, nor did they understand his otherness. Their failure to understand his otherness is a reason to the unhappy marriage to some extent.

  11. First report of the natural occurrence of tomato chlorotic spot virus in peanuts in Haiti

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomato chlorotic spot virus (TCSV) was identified in peanut in Haiti. This is the first report of TCSV naturally infecting peanut. Genetic diversity of TCSV was characterized. This report provides an overview of this emerging virus for growers, extension workers, crop consultants and research and...

  12. Using Maize chlorotic dwarf virus to explore future frontiers in plant virology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maize chlorotic dwarf virus (MCDV) causes a chlorosis and stunting disease of corn throughout the Midwest United States. It is a waikavirus transmitted by the leafhopper Graminella nigrifrons. Although waikaviruses are economically important viruses in corn and rice, little is known about the viru...

  13. Towards protease inhibitor mediated resistance to western flower thrips in chrysanthemum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Annadana, S.

    2001-01-01

    Dendranthema grandiflora (chrysanthemum) is a cutflower grown across the world, with an acreage similar to roses. Frankliniella occidentalis (Western flower thrips, WFT) is a major pest against a large number of crops, including chrysanthemum, in both field and glasshouse cultivation. Aiming at WFT

  14. Effects of planting date and plant density on crop growth of cut chrysanthemum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, J.H.; Heuvelink, E.; Challa, H.

    2002-01-01

    The effects of planting date (season) and plant density (32, 48 or 64 plants m-2) on growth of cut chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum (Indicum group)) were investigated in six greenhouse experiments, applying the expolinear growth equation. Final plant fresh and dry mass and number of flowers per plant de

  15. Mixed Infections of Four Viruses, the Incidence and Phylogenetic Relationships of Sweet Potato Chlorotic Fleck Virus (Betaflexiviridae) Isolates in Wild Species and Sweetpotatoes in Uganda and Evidence of Distinct Isolates in East Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tugume, Arthur K.; Mukasa, Settumba B.; Valkonen, Jari P. T.

    2016-01-01

    Viruses infecting wild flora may have a significant negative impact on nearby crops, and vice-versa. Only limited information is available on wild species able to host economically important viruses that infect sweetpotatoes (Ipomoea batatas). In this study, Sweet potato chlorotic fleck virus (SPCFV; Carlavirus, Betaflexiviridae) and Sweet potato chlorotic stunt virus (SPCSV; Crinivirus, Closteroviridae) were surveyed in wild plants of family Convolvulaceae (genera Astripomoea, Ipomoea, Hewittia and Lepistemon) in Uganda. Plants belonging to 26 wild species, including annuals, biannuals and perennials from four agro-ecological zones, were observed for virus-like symptoms in 2004 and 2007 and sampled for virus testing. SPCFV was detected in 84 (2.9%) of 2864 plants tested from 17 species. SPCSV was detected in 66 (5.4%) of the 1224 plants from 12 species sampled in 2007. Some SPCSV-infected plants were also infected with Sweet potato feathery mottle virus (SPFMV; Potyvirus, Potyviridae; 1.3%), Sweet potato mild mottle virus (SPMMV; Ipomovirus, Potyviridae; 0.5%) or both (0.4%), but none of these three viruses were detected in SPCFV-infected plants. Co-infection of SPFMV with SPMMV was detected in 1.2% of plants sampled. Virus-like symptoms were observed in 367 wild plants (12.8%), of which 42 plants (11.4%) were negative for the viruses tested. Almost all (92.4%) the 419 sweetpotato plants sampled from fields close to the tested wild plants displayed virus-like symptoms, and 87.1% were infected with one or more of the four viruses. Phylogenetic and evolutionary analyses of the 3′-proximal genomic region of SPCFV, including the silencing suppressor (NaBP)- and coat protein (CP)-coding regions implicated strong purifying selection on the CP and NaBP, and that the SPCFV strains from East Africa are distinguishable from those from other continents. However, the strains from wild species and sweetpotato were indistinguishable, suggesting reciprocal movement of SPCFV

  16. Growth and Flowering Responses of Cut Chrysanthemum Grown under Restricted Root Volume to Irrigation Frequency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viyachai Taweesak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Influences of irrigation frequency on the growth and flowering of chrysanthemum grown under restricted root volume were tested. Chrysanthemum cuttings (Chrysanthemum morifolium “Reagan White” were grown in seedling tray which contained coconut peat in volumes of 73 and 140 cm3. Plants were irrigated with drip irrigation at irrigation frequencies of 4 (266 mL, 6 (400 mL, and 8 (533 mL times/day to observe their growth and flowering performances. There was interaction between irrigation frequency and substrate volume on plant height of chrysanthemum. Plants grown in 140 cm3 substrates and irrigated 6 times/day produced the tallest plant of 109.25 cm. Plants irrigated 6 and 8 times/day had significantly higher level of phosphorus content in their leaves than those plants irrigated 4 times/day. The total leaf area, number of internodes, leaf length, and leaf width of chrysanthemums grown in 140 cm3 substrate were significantly higher than those grown in 73 cm3 substrate. The numbers of flowers were affected by both irrigation frequencies and substrate volumes. Chrysanthemums irrigated 8 times/day had an average of 19.56 flowers while those irrigated 4 times/day had an average of 16.63 flowers. Increasing irrigation frequency can improve the growth and flowering of chrysanthemums in small substrate volumes.

  17. Genetic engineering of novel bluer-colored chrysanthemums produced by accumulation of delphinidin-based anthocyanins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noda, Naonobu; Aida, Ryutaro; Kishimoto, Sanae; Ishiguro, Kanako; Fukuchi-Mizutani, Masako; Tanaka, Yoshikazu; Ohmiya, Akemi

    2013-10-01

    Chrysanthemums (Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat.) have no purple-, violet- or blue-flowered cultivars because they lack delphinidin-based anthocyanins. This deficiency is due to the absence of the flavonoid 3',5'-hydroxylase gene (F3'5'H), which encodes the key enzyme for delphinidin biosynthesis. In F3'5'H-transformed chrysanthemums, unpredictable and unstable expression levels have hampered successful production of delphinidin and reduced desired changes in flower color. With the aim of achieving delphinidin production in chrysanthemum petals, we found that anthocyanin biosynthetic gene promoters combined with a translational enhancer increased expression of some F3'5'H genes and accompanying delphinidin-based anthocyanin accumulation in transgenic chrysanthemums. Dramatic accumulation of delphinidin (up to 95%) was achieved by simple overexpression of Campanula F3'5'H controlled by a petal-specific flavanone 3-hydroxylase promoter from chrysanthemum combined with the 5'-untranslated region of the alcohol dehydrogenase gene as a translational enhancer. The flower colors of transgenic lines producing delphinidin-based anthocyanins changed from a red-purple to a purple-violet hue in the Royal Horticultural Society Colour Charts. This result represents a promising step toward molecular breeding of blue chrysanthemums.

  18. An Analysis of Symbolism in the Novel The Chrysanthemums

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乔璨

    2013-01-01

      The Chrysanthemums is the masterpiece of John Steinbeck, which is considered to be"one of the greatest short stories ever". The story tells the life experiences of an 35-year-old woman named Elisa. In this novel, the most outstanding writing tech⁃nique is the use of symbolism. Based on the analysis of the story, this paper aims to analyze how symbols are used to reflect the theme of this novel, which will be of great help o have a better understanding of the theme and the charm of the story.

  19. Identification of Watermelon silver mottle virus infecting watermelon in Yunnan%云南西瓜银灰斑驳病毒病害的鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹跃艳; 卢训; 李婷婷; 李红祥; 郭淼; 赵丽玲; 张晓云; 丁铭

    2016-01-01

    应用DAS-ELISA和RT-PCR方法从褪绿和银色斑驳的西瓜叶片中检测到病毒分离物(WSMoV-YN),感病样品能与WSMoV/GBNV复合抗血清(Agdia)呈阳性反应.获得WSMoV N蛋白的多克隆抗体,抗体能与WSMoV血清组成员CaCV和TZSV反应,但不能与INSV、TSWV、HCRV和GYSV反应.为明确引起该病害的病毒种类,采用Tospovirus通用引物对样品的总RNA进行RT-PCR扩增,获得长度为3 554 nt的S RNA全序列,经Blastn比对分析与WSMoV中国台湾分离物同源性最高,为95.8%,其N和NSs蛋白氨基酸序列同源性分别为99%和97.6%.构建系统进化树发现,西瓜银灰斑驳病毒云南分离物(WSMoV-YN)与其他WSMoV聚为一支.确定引起云南西瓜病害的病毒为WSMoV.%Using DAS-ELISA and RT-PCR,a viral isolate (WSMoV-YN) was detected in watermelon showing chlorotic and silver mottle.Diseased samples were positive for antibodies to Watermelon silver mottle virus (WSMoV) and Groundnut bud necrosis virus (GBNV) (Agdia,USA).The polyclonal antiserum of N protein were obtained and could react with Capsicum chlorosis virus (CaCV) and Tomato zonate spot virus (TZSV),the members of Watermelon silver mottle virus (WSMoV) serogroup,but not react with Impatiens necrotic spot virus (INSV),Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV),Hippeastrum chlorotic ringspot virus (HCRV) and Groundnut yellow spot virus (GYSV).To further confirm the presence of WSMoV,the samples were examined by RTPCR using tospovirus universal primer pairs.Full-length sequence of WSMoV-YN S RNA with a length of 3 554 nt was obtained and sequence alignment indicated that WSMoV-YN shares 95.8% identity with WSMoV isolates from Taiwan,China (NC_003843) at the nucleotide level.The nucleocapsid protein (N) and non-structual (NSs) shared 99% and 97.6% amion acid identity with the Taiwan (China) isolates,respectively.Taken together,our results suggested that the WSMoV-YN formed a distinct cluster with the other WSMoV isolates.

  20. Full-genome sequence of hibiscus chlorotic ringspot virus from Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luria, Neta; Reingold, Victoria; Lachman, Oded; Dombrovsky, Aviv

    2013-12-12

    Hibiscus rosa-sinensis is one of the most prevalent ornamental plants grown in private and public gardens. Hibiscus chlorotic ringspot virus (HCRSV) is a member of the Carmovirus genus, with a positive single-strand RNA that putatively encodes seven proteins. The complete genome of the first Israeli isolate of HCRSV, HCRSV-IL, comprises 3,908 nucleotides and shows 93% nucleotide sequence identity to the Singapore isolate and 87% identity to the Taiwanese isolate.

  1. BIOMETRIC AND PHYSIOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF CHRYSANTHEMUM (CHRYSANTHEMUM INDICUM L. PLANTS GROWN AT DIFFERENT RATES OF NITROGEN FERTILIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V IVANOVA

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available A trial with large the flowered chrysanthemum cultivar Dark Westland was carried out in an unheated greenhouse. Three rates of nitrogen fertilization were studied: 0, 100 and 140 kgN/ha, as well as two modes of plant formation – single- and two-stemmed plants. Parameters of the biometric characteristics, leaf gasexchange and leaf pigment content were determined. The best results about growth and decorative behaviour were achieved at nitrogen fertilization level of 100 kgN/ha. It was established that nitrogen fertilization in rates of 100 and 140 kgN/ha enhances photosynthetic rate in both modes of plant formation.

  2. First Report of Carnation vein mottle virus Infecting Dianthus amurensis in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomato mottle mosaic virus (ToMMV), a tentative member in genus Tobamovirus, was first reported from a greenhouse tomato sample collected in Mexico in 2013 (1). In August 2013, foliar mottle, shrinking and necrosis were observed on pepper plants in several vegetable greenhouses of Lhasa, Tibet Auton...

  3. Characterization and ecological aspects of rice yellow mottle virus in Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, W.

    1974-01-01

    Rice yellow mottle virus(RYMV)is the causal pathogen of yellow mottle of rice in the area around Kisumu near Lake Victoria in Kenya. Affected plants show a yellow or orange discolouration of the leaves, reduced tillering and stunting of the plants, and sterility of the flowers. The results

  4. Prevalence of dental mottling in school-aged lifetime residents of 16 Texas communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, W J; Segreto, V; Collins, E

    1985-01-01

    The severity of dental mottling in 2,592 school-aged, lifetime residents of 16 Texas communities was investigated in 1980-81 to identify factors associated with mottling and to construct a prediction model for the prevalence of mottling. The communities were selected to obtain a wide range of levels of fluoride in the drinking water. The children within each of the communities were contacted through their schools and received a dental examination to assess the severity of mottling. Information on demographic, dental health practice, and other candidate predictor variables was obtained from a questionnaire completed by a parent. A number of water quality measurements were also recorded for each community. White and Spanish-surname children had about the same prevalence of mottling while Blacks had a higher prevalence, odds ratio (OR) = 2.3, 95% confidence interval = 1.4, 3.7. Children from homes which had air conditioning had a lower prevalence of mottling (OR = .6, (0.4, 0.8)). The use of fluoride toothpaste or drops and the number of fluoride treatments were almost identical among those who did and did not develop moderate mottling. In addition to fluoride, total dissolved solids and zinc were water quality variables associated with mottling. PMID:4061713

  5. Effects of types of media and NPK fertilizer on the rooting capacity of chrysanthemum cuttings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Budiarto, K.; Sulyo, Y.; Dwi, E.; Maaswinkel, R.H.M.

    2006-01-01

    Physiological status of chrysanthemum cuttings during rooting process highly influences plant growth and flower production. Amongst other aspects, rooting capacity of the cuttings is the most important. Rooting capacity is influenced by environmental conditions such as growing medium and nutrition.

  6. Foliar and floral pyrethrins ofChrysanthemum cinerariaefolium are not induced by leaf damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, I T; Karb, M J; Callahan, P

    1993-09-01

    Pyrethrins are a class of potent insecticides produced byChrysanthemum cinerariaefolium. Simulated herbivory does not affect concentrations of pyrethrins in damaged and undamaged expanding and fully expanded leaves, or flowers of greenhouse or field-grown plants.

  7. Effects of types of media and NPK fertilizer on the rooting capacity of chrysanthemum cuttings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Budiarto, K.; Sulyo, Y.; Dwi, E.; Maaswinkel, R.H.M.

    2006-01-01

    Physiological status of chrysanthemum cuttings during rooting process highly influences plant growth and flower production. Amongst other aspects, rooting capacity of the cuttings is the most important. Rooting capacity is influenced by environmental conditions such as growing medium and nutrition.

  8. Quantitative assessment of factors contributing to mottling of colored tablets II: formulation variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, N A; March, G A

    1976-02-01

    The effects of several formulation variables were quantified with respect to factors affecting tablet mottling. Tablet mottling occurred with several commonly used binders and could not be prevented by using highly viscous binding solutions. However, mottling was reduced initially by increasing granule strength. Tablet diluents and dye-adsorbent materials had a profound effect on mottling, not by preventing dye migration but by affecting granule fragmentation on compression and the extent to which the dye-deficient material at the center of the granule was revealed. The lake form of FD&C Blue No. 1 was found to bleed in the presence of diluents that raised the pH of the granulating fluid above 6.4. Anionic impurities in the diluents also caused leaching of free dye and, consequently, increased tablet mottling. The conclusions from this study and previous papers were drawn together to give general principles for the production of uniformly colored tablets by aqueous granulation techniques.

  9. Influence of the surface roughness of coated and uncoated papers on the digital print mottle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Jurič

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Many factors influence the occurrence of print mottle in prints. In printing process three main components are involved: printing press, substrate and toner. They can be considered as separate components, but in most cases their interaction influences the quality of the print. The goal of this work was to examine the influence of surface roughness of different types of paper (coated and uncoated on print mottle of electrophotographic digital prints. We set up a hypothesis that print mottle will be more apparent on rougher surfaces. In the experimental part we printed four different substrates with different surface properties on electrophotographic printing press. Morphology of the papers surface was analysed using atomic force microscopy (AFM from which surface properties were calculated. For print mottle characterization Gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM method was used. Based on the measurements and results we can conclude, contrary to the initial hypothesis, that uncoated papers with rougher surfaces produce smaller print mottle values.

  10. Statistical Modelling of Print half-tone mottle in PET-G and PVC Shrink Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akshay V Joshi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available PVC and PET-G (Glycol modified polyethylene terephthalate have the highest consumption in the shrink sleeve market due to its high shrink abilities and cost effectiveness. The reproductions of fine tone details on these films are challenging as the occurrence of graininess and image-noise results in print defect such as print half-tone mottle. The presence of print half-tone mottle is visually disturbing leading to wastage of ink, substrate and time. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of gravure process parameters viz. ink viscosity, press speed, impression hardness and line screen and develop statistical model for print half-tone mottle in shrink films. The base line for print half-tone mottle was determined by conducting production runs on press with a defined set of process parameters and the target was set to minimize it from the baseline. The half-tone area was scanned and processed through SFDA algorithm to calculate print half-tone mottle. The design of experiments (DOE was generated for above-mentioned process parameters and was analysed by analysis of variance (ANOVA to find the significant factor affecting the print half-tone mottle. The analysis revealed line screen, viscosity and hardness as significant factors in minimizing print half-tone mottle. The results showed minimization of print half-tone mottle by 28% for both PVC and PET-G films. Furthermore, regression model was developed and validated for print half-tone mottle and a correlation coefficient (R2 of 0.8696 and 0.879 was achieved for PET-G and PVC respectively. The proposed model is helpful in determining the impact of gravure process parameters and prediction of print half-tone mottle in shrink films.

  11. Transcriptome-Wide Identification and Expression Profiling Analysis of Chrysanthemum Trihelix Transcription Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiping Song

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Trihelix transcription factors are thought to feature a typical DNA-binding trihelix (helix-loop-helix-loop-helix domain that binds specifically to the GT motif, a light-responsive DNA element. Members of the trihelix family are known to function in a number of processes in plants. Here, we characterize 20 trihelix family genes in the important ornamental plant chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum morifolium. Based on transcriptomic data, 20 distinct sequences distributed across four of five groups revealed by a phylogenetic tree were isolated and amplified. The phylogenetic analysis also identified four pairs of orthologous proteins shared by Arabidopsis and chrysanthemum and five pairs of paralogous proteins in chrysanthemum. Conserved motifs in the trihelix proteins shared by Arabidopsis and chrysanthemum were analyzed using MEME, and further bioinformatic analysis revealed that 16 CmTHs can be targeted by 20 miRNA families and that miR414 can target 9 CmTHs. qPCR results displayed that most chrysanthemum trihelix genes were highly expressed in inflorescences, while 20 CmTH genes were in response to phytohormone treatments and abiotic stresses. This work improves our understanding of the various functions of trihelix gene family members in response to hormonal stimuli and stress.

  12. Influence of greenhouse climate and plant density on external quality of chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflorum (Ramat.)Kitamura) : First steps towards a quality model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carvalho, S.M.P.; Heuvelink, E.

    2001-01-01

    The effects of greenhouse climate and plant density on external quality of chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflorum syn. Chrysanthemum morifolium) are reviewed. The external quality aspects analysed in this paper are stem morphology (length, diameter and "strength"), leaf morphology (number and

  13. Development of reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay as a simple detection method of Chrysanthemum stem necrosis virus in chrysanthemum and tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Ryoji; Fukuta, Shiro; Matsumoto, Yuho; Hasegawa, Toru; Kojima, Hiroko; Hotta, Makiko; Miyake, Noriyuki

    2016-10-01

    For a simple and rapid detection of Chrysanthemum stem necrosis virus (CSNV) from chrysanthemum and tomato, a reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) assay was developed. A primer set designed to the genome sequences of CSNV worked most efficiently at 63°C and could detect CSNV RNA within 12min by fluorescence monitoring using an isothermal DNA amplification and fluorescence detection device. The result of a specificity test using seven other viruses and one viroid-infectable chrysanthemum or tomato showed that the assay could amplify CSNV specifically, and a sensitivity comparison showed that the RT-LAMP assay was as sensitive as the reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. The RT-LAMP assay using crude RNA, extracted simply, could detect CSNV. Overall, the RT-LAMP assay was found to be a simple, specific, convenient, and time-saving method for CSNV detection.

  14. Mottled Mice and Non-Mammalian Models of Menkes Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenartowicz, Małgorzata; Krzeptowski, Wojciech; Lipiński, Paweł; Grzmil, Paweł; Starzyński, Rafał; Pierzchała, Olga; Møller, Lisbeth Birk

    2015-01-01

    Menkes disease is a multi-systemic copper metabolism disorder caused by mutations in the X-linked ATP7A gene and characterized by progressive neurodegeneration and severe connective tissue defects. The ATP7A protein is a copper (Cu)-transporting ATPase expressed in all tissues and plays a critical role in the maintenance of copper homeostasis in cells of the whole body. ATP7A participates in copper absorption in the small intestine and in copper transport to the central nervous system (CNS) across the blood-brain-barrier (BBB) and blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier (BCSFB). Cu is essential for synaptogenesis and axonal development. In cells, ATP7A participates in the incorporation of copper into Cu-dependent enzymes during the course of its maturation in the secretory pathway. There is a high degree of homology (>80%) between the human ATP7A and murine Atp7a genes. Mice with mutations in the Atp7a gene, called mottled mutants, are well-established and excellent models of Menkes disease. Mottled mutants closely recapitulate the Menkes phenotype and are invaluable for studying Cu-metabolism. They provide useful models for exploring and testing new forms of therapy in Menkes disease. Recently, non-mammalian models of Menkes disease, Drosophila melanogaster and Danio rerio mutants were used in experiments which would be technically difficult to carry out in mammals.

  15. Cocksfoot mottle sobemovirus establishes infection through the phloem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsus, Maarja; Uffert, Gabriela; Sõmera, Merike; Paves, Heiti; Olspert, Allan; Islamov, Bulat; Truve, Erkki

    2012-06-01

    Cocksfoot mottle virus (CfMV) localization in oat plants was analyzed during three weeks post infection by immunohistochemical staining to follow its spread through different tissues. In early stages of infection, the virus was first detectable in phloem parenchyma and bundle sheath cells of inoculated leaves. Bundle sheath and phloem parenchyma were also the cell types where the virus was first detected in stems and systemic leaves of infected plants. In later stages of infection, CfMV spread also into the mesophyll surrounding vascular bundles and was seldom detected in xylem parenchyma of inoculated leaves. In systemic leaves, CfMV was not detected from xylem. Moreover, sometimes it was found from phloem only. In straw and roots, CfMV was detected both from phloem and xylem. According to our observations, CfMV predominantly moves through phloem, which makes the systemic movement of CfMV different from that of another monocot-infecting sobemovirus, Rice yellow mottle virus (RYMV). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Mottled mice and non-mammalian models of Menkes disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    malgorzata elenartowicz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Menkes disease is a multi-systemic copper metabolism disorder caused by mutations in the X-linked ATP7A gene and characterised by progressive neurodegeneration and severe connective tissue defects. The ATP7A protein is a Copper (Cu-transporting ATPase expressed in all tissues and plays a critical role in the maintenance of copper homeostasis in cells of the whole body. ATP7A participates in copper absorption in the small intestine and in copper transport to the CNS across the blood-brain-barrier and blood–cerebrospinal fluid- barrier. Cu is essential for synaptogenesis and axonal development. In cells, ATP7A participates in the incorporation of copper into Cu-dependent enzymes during the course of its maturation in the secretory pathway. There is a high degree of homology (>80% between the human ATP7A and murine Atp7a genes. Mice with mutations in the Atp7a gene, called mottled mutants, are well-established and excellent models of Menkes disease. Mottled mutants closely recapitulate the Menkes phenotype and are invaluable for studying Cu-metabolism. They provide useful models for exploring and testing new forms of therapy in Menkes disease. Recently, non-mammalian models of Menkes disease, Drosophila melanogaster and Danio rerio mutants were used in experiments which would be technically difficult to carry out in mammals.

  17. Interaction Effects between Light Level and Plant Density on Plant Growth, Development and External Quality in Year-around Cut Chrysanthemum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, J.H.; Heuvelink, E.; Bakker, M.J.

    2009-01-01

    Aims of this study are to analyze growth pattern and development Of Cut chrysanthemum and test simple regression models in relation to light level and plant density. Cut chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum morifolium), cv. Reagan Improved, was grown at four different plant densities of 16, 32, 64 or 80

  18. First genome analysis and molecular characterization of Chickpea chlorotic dwarf virus Egyptian isolate infecting squash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahmy, Inas Farouk; Taha, Omnia; El-Ashry, Abdel Nasser

    2015-06-01

    This study aims to identifying and characterizing some molecular properties of geminiviruses co-infection in squash field crop cultivated in Egypt. Squash crops observed to be heavily infected with several insect vectors, also severe chlorosis and stunting was observed. Electron microscopic analysis has revealed geminate capsid particles which indicate the infection of Geminiviruses, especially SqLCV which represent an economic problem to squash filed crop in Egypt. We have investigated possible mixed infections with different plant viruses associated with chlorotic stunt diseases and or other genus groups of geminiviruses. The main objective of this study is to investigate the recombination events, possible recombinants and variants among these genera in the same family differing in vector transmission. This is the first report of the molecular characterization, phylogenetic analysis and putative recombination events of the full length genome of the Chickpea Chlorotic Dwarf Mastrevirus in Egypt. And the first report of co-infection with another begomovirus infecting squash plants. A full length clone of both viruses were isolated and characterized at the molecular level. The complete nucleotide sequence of DNA-A was determined (2,572 bp) and submitted to the genbank under accession no. KF692356. The isolate from Egypt has about 97.8 % homology with the Chickpea chlorotic dwarf virus (CpCDV) isolate from Syria DNA-A isolate FR687959, a 83.2 % homology with the Sudan isolate AM933134 and a 82.7 % homology with Pakistan isolate FR687960. To best of our knowledge this is the first report of complete genome of CpCDV that infect squash plants in Egypt and worldwide.

  19. Carnation mottle virus, an important viral agent infecting carnation cut-flower crops in Mahallat of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safari, M; Koohi Habibi, M; Mosahebi, G; Dizadji, A

    2009-01-01

    One of the most important cut-flower crops grown worldwide on commercial scale is Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.). It's the main production of Mahallat where is one of the most important ornamental plants production centers of Iran. Infection of carnation with pathogens Like viral agents causes economic losses in carnation cut-flower crop. One of the viral agents of this flower is Carnation mottle virus (CarMV) which is the type member of genus Carmovirus and belongs to the Tombusviridae family. It is naturally transmitted by grafting and contacting between plants. Although its infection lead to mild symptims, it weakens the plant to infection by other pathogens. The carnation greenhouses of Mahallat were visited during 2008 January to April and 100 samples with mild mosaic symptom were collected and tested by DAS-ELISA using CarMV specific polyclonal antibody. The results showed that 75% of samples wrere infected with this virus. Mechanical inocubation of Chenopodium quinoa, C. amaranticolor and Spinacea oleracea with extracted crude sap of CarMV infected carnation Leaves in phosphate buffer (pH, 7) resulted in appearance of chlorotic and necrotic local lesions on inoculated leaves 4-7 days after incubation. The virus was partially purified using C. amaranticolor locally symptomatic leaves. Total soluble proteins were extracted from healthy and CarMV infected C. amaranticolor plants and beside partially purified preparation electrophoresed through 15% poly acrylamide get according to SDS-PAGE standard procedure. Protein bands were electroblotted onto nitrocelluse membrane and incubated with CarMV polyclonal during western immunoblot analysis according to standard method. The result revealed a distinc protein band with Mr of 35.5 kDa in total protein preparation of infected plant and viral partial pure preparation, without any reaction in those of healthy plant. RT-PCR carried out using total RNA extracted from infected plant by Rneasy Plant Mini Kit (Qiagen

  20. Genetic variability and evolutionary implications of RNA silencing suppressor genes in RNA1 of sweet potato chlorotic stunt virus isolates infecting sweetpotato and related wild species.

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    Arthur K Tugume

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The bipartite single-stranded RNA genome of Sweet potato chlorotic stunt virus (SPCSV, genus Crinivirus; Closteroviridae encodes a Class 1 RNase III (RNase3, a putative hydrophobic protein (p7 and a 22-kDa protein (p22 from genes located in RNA1. RNase3 and p22 suppress RNA silencing, the basal antiviral defence mechanism in plants. RNase3 is sufficient to render sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas virus-susceptible and predisposes it to development of severe diseases following infection with unrelated virus. The incidence, strains and gene content of SPCSV infecting wild plant species have not been studied. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Thirty SPCSV isolates were characterized from 10 wild Ipomoea species, Hewittia sublobata or Lepistemon owariensis (family Convolvulaceae in Uganda and compared with 34 local SPCSV isolates infecting sweetpotatoes. All isolates belonged to the East African (EA strain of SPCSV and contained RNase3 and p7, but p22 was not detected in six isolates. The three genes showed only limited genetic variability and the proteins were under purifying selection. SPCSV isolates lacking p22 synergized with Sweet potato feathery mottle virus (SPFMV, genus potyvirus; Potyviridae and caused severe symptoms in co-infected sweetpotato plants. One SPCSV isolate enhanced accumulation of SPFMV, but no severe symptoms developed. A new whitefly-transmitted virus (KML33b encoding an RNase3 homolog (<56% identity to SPCSV RNase3 able to suppresses sense-mediated RNA silencing was detected in I. sinensis. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: SPCSV isolates infecting wild species and sweetpotato in Uganda were genetically undifferentiated, suggesting inter-species transmission of SPCSV. Most isolates in Uganda contained p22, unlike SPCSV isolates characterized from other countries and continents. Enhanced accumulation of SPFMV and increased disease severity were found to be uncoupled phenotypic outcomes of RNase3-mediated viral synergism in

  1. Inheritance of tolerance to Cowpea Mild Mottle Virus in soybean

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    Carlos A Arrabal Arias

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Soybean stem necrosis is caused by Cowpea mild mottle virus (CPMMV and it has been recognized as an emerging and economically important disease in Brazil. No resistant, but only tolerant cultivars have been identified so far, and their genetic control is still unknown. To investigate the inheritance of soybean tolerance to CPMMV, two crosses between tolerant cultivars (BRS 133 x BRSMT Pintado, and between a susceptible (CD 206 and a tolerant cultivar (BRSMT Pintado were carried out to obtain F2 and F2:3 generations. Quantitative and qualitative analyses applied to the data from greenhouse evaluations showed that there are at least two distinct major genes determining tolerance to CPMMV, one in the soybean cultivar BRS 133 and another in the cultivar BRSMT Pintado, with predominance of additive genetic effects and heritability levels that allow for efficient selection based on early generation means

  2. A multiplex real-time PCR assay for the detection of Puccinia horiana and P. chrysanthemi on chrysanthemum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puccinia horiana, the cause of chrysanthemum white rust, is a regulated fungal plant pathogen in the United States, while Puccinia chrysanthemi, the cause of chrysanthemum brown rust, is a widespread but less destructive pathogen. Accurate identification of these pathogens is essential to correctly ...

  3. Identification and characterization of four chrysanthemum MADS-box genes, belonging to the APETALA1/FRUITFULL and SEPALLATA3 subfamilies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shchennikova, A.V.; Shulga, O.A.; Immink, R.; Skryabin, K.G.; Angenent, G.C.

    2004-01-01

    Four full-length MADS-box cDNAs from chrysanthemum, designated Chrysanthemum Dendrathema grandiflorum MADS (CDM) 8, CDM41, CDM111, and CDM44, have been isolated and further functionally characterized. Protein sequence alignment and expression patterns of the corresponding genes suggest that CDM8 and

  4. Mud volcano origin of the Mottled Zone, South Levant

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    Igor Novikov

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The Mottled Zone (MZ or Hatrurim Formation, which occurs near the Levantine Transform in the South Levant, has been studied during the last 150 years but its origin remains debatable. Mottled Zone Complex/Complexes (MZC/MZCs consist of brecciated carbonate and low-temperature calcium-hydrosilicate rocks, which include unusual high- and ultra-high-temperature low-pressure (HT-LP metamorphic mineral assemblages. The MZ has been regarded as a product of combustion of bituminous chalks of the Ghareb Fm. of Cretaceous (Maastrichtian age. In this paper we present detailed geographic, geomorphologic, structural and geological data from the MZCs of the South Levant, which show that the MZCs cannot be stratigraphically correlated with the Ghareb Fm., because MZC late Oligocene–late Pleistocene deposits occur within or unconformably, i.e., with stratigraphic hiatus, overlap both the late Cretaceous and, in places, Neogene stratigraphic units. We propose an alternative model for the formation of MZCs by tectonically induced mud volcanism during late Oligocene–late Pleistocene time. This model explains (i the presence of dikes and tube-like bodies, which consist of brecciated exotic clastic material derived from stratigraphically and hypsometrically lower horizons; (ii mineral assemblages of sanidinite facies metamorphism; (iii multi-stage character of HT-LP pyrometamorphism; and (iv multi-stage low-temperature hydrothermal alteration. High temperatures (up to 1500 °C mineral assemblages resulted from combustion of hydrocarbon gases of mud volcanoes. Mud volcanism was spatially and structurally related to neotectonic folds and deformation zones formed in response to opening of the Red Sea rift and propagation of the Levantine Transform Fault. Our model may significantly change the prospects for oil-and-gas deposits in the region.

  5. Chlorotic curly stunt: a severe begomovirus disease of bottle gourd in northern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohrab, S S; Mandal, B; Ali, A; Varma, A

    2010-06-01

    Bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria) an important vegetable crop in India was observed to be affected by a chlorotic curly stunt disease (CCSD) during 2003-2006 in the vegetable growing areas of Delhi and adjoining state of Haryana. The affected plants are severely stunted and bear very small chlorotic and mildly curled leaves. Incidence of the disease varied from 4.7 to 36%. The disease could be easily transmitted by whitefly, Bemisia tabaci but not by sap. The causal virus was found to be a Begomovirus on the basis of whitefly transmission and sequence identity of putative coat protein (CP) and replication initiator protein (Rep) genes. The virus was transmitted to Cucumis sativus, Luffa acutangula, L. cylndrica, Lycopersicon esculentum, Nicotiana tabacum and Praecitrullus fistulosus but not to Citrullus lunatus, Cucumis melo, Cucurbita moschata and Vigna unguiculata. The N-terminal 60 amino acids of CP of the virus had 100% sequence identity with all the isolates of Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (ToLCNDV) and two isolates of Squash leaf curl China virus (SLCCV). The full length amino acid sequence of the CP and Rep genes had 100% similarity with ToLCNDV-Svr and -Luffa isolates. The phylogenetic analysis showed that the virus associated with CCSD of bottle gourd belongs to ToLCNDV cluster of the begomoviruses. This is the first record of emergence of a Begomovirus associated severe disease in bottle gourd in India.

  6. Comparative Analysis of the Chrysanthemum Leaf Transcript Profiling in Response to Salt Stress.

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    Yin-Huan Wu

    Full Text Available Salt stress has some remarkable influence on chrysanthemum growth and productivity. To understand the molecular mechanisms associated with salt stress and identify genes of potential importance in cultivated chrysanthemum, we carried out transcriptome sequencing of chrysanthemum. Two cDNA libraries were generated from the control and salt-treated samples (Sample_0510_control and Sample_0510_treat of leaves. By using the Illumina Solexa RNA sequencing technology, 94 million high quality sequencing reads and 161,522 unigenes were generated and then we annotated unigenes through comparing these sequences to diverse protein databases. A total of 126,646 differentially expressed transcripts (DETs were identified in leaf. Plant hormones, amino acid metabolism, photosynthesis and secondary metabolism were all changed under salt stress after the complete list of GO term and KEGG enrichment analysis. The hormone biosynthesis changing and oxidative hurt decreasing appeared to be significantly related to salt tolerance of chrysanthemum. Important protein kinases and major transcription factor families involved in abiotic stress were differentially expressed, such as MAPKs, CDPKs, MYB, WRKY, AP2 and HD-zip. In general, these results can help us to confirm the molecular regulation mechanism and also provide us a comprehensive resource of chrysanthemum under salt stress.

  7. Survival and recovery rates of mottled ducks banded in Texas and Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haukos, David A.

    2015-01-01

    The Western Gulf Coast population of the mottled duck (Anas fulvigula) is dependent on the Gulf coastal marsh to complete its entire life cycle. Band recovery data can be used to monitor mottled duck populations by estimating annual survival, indexing harvest rate, and assessing movements. Band returns from hunting seasons 1997–2013 were used to evaluate factors influencing annual survival, recovery rates, and movements of mottled ducks in Texas and Louisiana. For banding years of 1997–2013, 58,349 normal, wild mottled ducks were banded and released in Texas and Louisiana. Since 2002, 86% of mottled duck bandings have occurred on the Chenier Plain of Texas and Louisiana. Hunters shot, recovered, and reported 7,061birds with bands during this period. Direct recovery rates were greater for juveniles than adults but changed little since the 1970s. Estimates of annual survival did not differ between Texas and Louisiana, but did among years and between sex and age classes. Adult male and juvenile female mottled ducks had the greatest and lowest annual survival rates, respectively. Recovery of birds banded on the Chenier Plain was four times greater for birds banded in Texas and harvested in Louisiana than banded in Louisiana and harvested in Texas. Much of the current inference of results from banding mottled ducks is limited to the Chenier Plain. To monitor the entire Western Gulf Coast population of mottled ducks, managers can consider expanding operational banding operations with annual quotas, which would improve survival and recovery estimates and allow for inference beyond the Chenier Plain region.

  8. Mineral composition of two populations of leaves - green and iron chlorotic - of the same age all from the same tree

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Procopiou, J.; Wallace, A.

    1981-01-01

    Since carefully washed Fe chlorotic leaves often contain more total Fe on the dry weight basis than do green leaves, a population of leaves of the same age representing chlorotic leaves from each of two lemon trees and green leaves also of the same age and from the same two trees were analyzed individually for mineral elements to determine, especially, the frequency distribution of Fe in the various groups of leaves (n = 47, 48, 71, 48). The chlorotic leaves from one tree had mineral composition typical of lime-induced chlorosis. The chlorotic leaves for this tree were, on the average, higher in P, K, and Fe and lower in Ca than the green leaves. For the other tree the chlorotic leaves appeared to be truly Fe deficient; P was not higher in these leaves but the mean K and Ca showed the same pattern as in the first tree. Zinc was higher in the deficient leaves than in the green ones on this tree which can be expected for true Fe deficiency. Mean zinc levels were below the critical levels. Mean manganese was below the critical level for all groups. The coefficient of variation for each element in each group was usually around 30%. Maximum-minimum data indicated that many individual leaves did not fit the patterns just described. Correlation coefficients indicated that most major patterns were consistent in spite of the variability, although there were some differences. The frequency distribution for each of most elements was much like a normal curve with usually a three-fold range for each of the elements. Many of the Fe-deficient leaves had more Fe than some of the green leaves. Analysis of an individual leaf, therefore, cannot result in accurate description of lime-induced chlorosis.

  9. The Abundance and Diversity of Soil Fungi in Continuously Monocropped Chrysanthemum

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    Aiping Song

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Chrysanthemum is an important ornamental plant which is increasingly being monocropped. Monocropping is known to affect both fungal abundance and species diversity. Here, quantitative PCR allied with DGGE analysis was used to show that fungi were more abundant in the rhizosphere than in the bulk soil and that the fungal populations changed during the growth cycle of the chrysanthemum. The majority of amplified fragments appeared to derive from Fusarium species, and F. oxysporum and F. solani proved to be the major pathogenic species which are built up by monocropping.

  10. Chrysanthemum Cutting Productivity and Rooting Ability Are Improved by Grafting

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    Jing Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Chrysanthemum has been commercially propagated by rooting of cuttings, whereas the quality will decline over multiple collections from a single plant. Therefore, we compared the vigour, rooting ability, and some physiological parameters between cuttings harvested from nongrafted “Jinba” (non-grafted cuttings with those collected from grafted “Jinba” plants onto Artemisia scoparia as a rootstock (grafted cuttings. The yield, length, node number, stem diameter, fresh weight, and dry weight of the grafted cuttings were superior to the non-grafted cuttings. Also grafted cuttings “Jinba” rooted 1 day earlier, but showing enhanced rooting quality including number, length, diameter, and dry weight of roots, where compared to the non-grafted. The physiological parameters that indicated contents of soluble protein, peroxidase activity, soluble sugar, and starch, ratios of soluble sugar/nitrogen ratio, and carbohydrate/nitrogen (C/N, as well as contents of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA and abscisic acid (ABA, and IAA/ABA ratio were significantly increased in the grafted cuttings. This suggested their important parts in mediating rooting ability. Results from this study showed that grafting improved productivity and rooting ability related to an altered physiology, which provide a means to meet the increasing demand.

  11. STUDY ON CROSSING ABILITY OF ANNUAL CHRYSANTHEMUM GENOTYPES

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    Suneetha Kattera

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The experiment comprised of six genotypes viz., NAC-01-10, NAC-02-10, NAC-03-10, NAC-04-10, NAC-05-10, NAC-06-10 selected for petal colour and number of layers of petals to estimate pollen viability, in-vitro pollen germination, stigma receptivity and crossed seed set percentage to find out the crossing ability of genotypes. The present experiment was laid out at the experimental field of Horticulture Section, College of Agriculture, Nagpur, during 2010-11. Pollen viability of six genotypes of annual chrysanthemum showed a range of 69.69% to 86.66% viability, Percentage of germination on the day of anthesis ranged from 22.72% (NAC-06-10 to 66.66% (NAC-01-10. First day pollen pollinated on first day stigma showed 100% stigma receptivity in all six genotypes and the crossed seed set ranged from 61.60% (NAC-04-10 × NAC-05-10 to 92.00% (NAC-01-10 × NAC-04-10 among direct crosses whereas, the percentage ranged from 42.00% (NAC-04-10 × NAC-02-10 to 90.00% (NAC-05-10 × NAC-01-10 among the reciprocal crosses. All the six genotypes are highly suitable for their use as parents in crossing program.

  12. Cymbidium chlorotic mosaic virus, a new sobemovirus isolated from a spring orchid (Cymbidium goeringii) in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Hideki; Takemoto, Shogo; Maruyama, Kazuyuki; Chiba, Sotaro; Andika, Ida Bagus; Suzuki, Nobuhiro

    2015-08-01

    Cymbidium chlorotic mosaic virus (CyCMV), isolated from a spring orchid (Cymbidium goeringii), was characterized molecularly. CyCMV isometric virions comprise a single, positive-strand RNA genome of 4,083 nucleotides and 30-kDa coat protein. The virus genome contains five overlapping open reading frames with a genomic organization similar to that of sobemoviruses. BLAST searches and phylogenetic analysis revealed that CyCMV is most closely related to papaya lethal yellowing virus, a proposed dicot-infecting sobemovirus (58.8 % nucleotide sequence identity), but has a relatively distant relationship to monocot-infecting sobemoviruses, with only modest sequence identities. This suggests that CyCMV is a new monocot-infecting member of the floating genus Sobemovirus.

  13. Phylogeny of the genus Chrysanthemum L.: evidence from single-copy nuclear gene and chloroplast DNA sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ping-Li; Wan, Qian; Guo, Yan-Ping; Yang, Ji; Rao, Guang-Yuan

    2012-01-01

    Chrysanthemum L. (Asteraceae-Anthemideae) is a genus with rapid speciation. It comprises about 40 species, most of which are distributed in East Asia. Many of these are narrowly distributed and habitat-specific. Considerable variations in morphology and ploidy are found in this genus. Some species have been the subjects of many studies, but the relationships between Chrysanthemum and its allies and the phylogeny of this genus remain poorly understood. In the present study, 32 species/varieties from Chrysanthemum and 11 from the allied genera were analyzed using DNA sequences of the single-copy nuclear CDS gene and seven cpDNA loci (psbA-trnH, trnC-ycf6, ycf6-psbM, trnY-rpoB, rpS4-trnT, trnL-F, and rpL16). The cpDNA and nuclear CDS gene trees both suggest that 1) Chrysanthemum is not a monophyletic taxon, and the affinity between Chrysanthemum and Ajania is so close that these two genera should be incorporated taxonomically; 2) Phaeostigma is more closely related to the Chrysanthemum+Ajania than other generic allies. According to pollen morphology and to the present cpDNA and CDS data, Ajania purpurea is a member of Phaeostigma. Species differentiation in Chrysanthemum appears to be correlated with geographic and environmental conditions. The Chinese Chrysanthemum species can be divided into two groups, the C. zawadskii group and the C. indicum group. The former is distributed in northern China and the latter in southern China. Many polyploid species, such as C. argyrophyllum, may have originated from allopolyploidization involving divergent progenitors. Considering all the evidence from present and previous studies, we conclude that geographic and ecological factors as well as hybridization and polyploidy play important roles in the divergence and speciation of the genus Chrysanthemum.

  14. Phylogeny of the genus Chrysanthemum L.: evidence from single-copy nuclear gene and chloroplast DNA sequences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping-Li Liu

    Full Text Available Chrysanthemum L. (Asteraceae-Anthemideae is a genus with rapid speciation. It comprises about 40 species, most of which are distributed in East Asia. Many of these are narrowly distributed and habitat-specific. Considerable variations in morphology and ploidy are found in this genus. Some species have been the subjects of many studies, but the relationships between Chrysanthemum and its allies and the phylogeny of this genus remain poorly understood. In the present study, 32 species/varieties from Chrysanthemum and 11 from the allied genera were analyzed using DNA sequences of the single-copy nuclear CDS gene and seven cpDNA loci (psbA-trnH, trnC-ycf6, ycf6-psbM, trnY-rpoB, rpS4-trnT, trnL-F, and rpL16. The cpDNA and nuclear CDS gene trees both suggest that 1 Chrysanthemum is not a monophyletic taxon, and the affinity between Chrysanthemum and Ajania is so close that these two genera should be incorporated taxonomically; 2 Phaeostigma is more closely related to the Chrysanthemum+Ajania than other generic allies. According to pollen morphology and to the present cpDNA and CDS data, Ajania purpurea is a member of Phaeostigma. Species differentiation in Chrysanthemum appears to be correlated with geographic and environmental conditions. The Chinese Chrysanthemum species can be divided into two groups, the C. zawadskii group and the C. indicum group. The former is distributed in northern China and the latter in southern China. Many polyploid species, such as C. argyrophyllum, may have originated from allopolyploidization involving divergent progenitors. Considering all the evidence from present and previous studies, we conclude that geographic and ecological factors as well as hybridization and polyploidy play important roles in the divergence and speciation of the genus Chrysanthemum.

  15. [Effect of Crop Rotation and Biological Manure on Quality and Yield of "Chuju" Chrysanthemum morifolium and Continuous Cropping Soil Enzyme Activities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xin; Zhu, Wei; Du, Chao; Shi, Ya-dong; Wang, Jian-fei

    2015-05-01

    To investigate the effects of chrysanthemum-wheat rotation system and biological manure on continuous cropping soil enzyme activities and quality and yield of Chrysanthemum morifolium. Field experiments were conducted at the research base of Anhui Jutai Chuju Chrysanthemum morifolium Herbal Technology Co. , Ltd. ,in Shiji Town, Nanqiao Country, Anhui Province. Samples were collected from treatments under chrysanthemum-wheat rotation system receiving bio-organic manure application of 200 kg/667 m2, conventional chrysanthemum-wheat rotation system and chrysanthemum continuous cropping system. Chrysanthemum-wheat rotation system and biological manure obviously influenced the quality and yield of Chrysanthemum morifolium and continuous cropping soil enzyme activities. Compared with chrysanthemum continuous cropping system, total flavonoids, chlorogenic acid, soluble sugar and free amino acid contents, quantitative of ray floret, inflorescence diameter, diameter of tubular floret, number of branch, number of flower and yield of Chrysanthemum morifolium and the activities of urease, acid phosphatase, invertase and protease in soil were increased to 42.59 mg/g, 2.52 mg/g, 4.04 mg/g, 73.33 mg/100 g, 179.56, 5.57 cm, 1.43 cm, 36.10, 330.00 and 400.09 kg/667 m2, respectively, while hydrogen peroxidase of soil under chrysanthemum-wheat rotation system was decreased. Bio-organic manure application of 200 kg/667 m2 is benefit to soil environment establishment of chrysanthemum-wheat rotation system and enhancement of quality and yield of Chrysanthemum morifolium while reducing the obstacles of continuous cropping.

  16. Air-borne contact dermatitis due to Chrysanthemum with true cross sensitivity to Parthenium hysterophorus and Xanthium strumarium

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    Pasricha J

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available A 60-year old man living in Srinagar (Jammu and Kashmir had air-borne contact dermatitis for last 10 years. He had never traveled to any other part of the country where Parthenium hysterophorus or Xanthium strumarium are prevalent but he used to cultivate chrysanthemums. Patch tests with standardized extracts of various plants revealed the strongest reaction with Chrysanthemum, while the reactions with Xanthium strumarium and Parthenium hysterophorus were also positive but milder. This seems to be a case of primary sensitivity to Chrysanthemum with cross sensitivity to Xanthium strumarium and Parthenium hysterophorus.

  17. Blood lead exposure concentrations in mottled ducks (Anas fulvigula) on the upper Texas coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, Stephen K.; Conway, Warren C.; Haukos, David A.; Moon, Jena A.; Comer, Christopher E.; Hung, I-Kuai

    2015-01-01

    The mottled duck (Anas fulvigula) is a non-migratory waterfowl species dependent upon coastal marsh systems, including those on the Texas Chenier Plain National Wildlife Refuge (NWR) Complex, and considered a regional indicator species of marsh habitat quality. Research from the early 1970s, 1990s, and early-2000s indicated that mottled ducks continued to exhibit elevated wing-bone lead (Pb) concentrations, decades after implementation of non-toxic shot regulations. However, wing-bone concentrations reflect lifetime accumulation of Pb, whereas blood Pb concentrations reflect more recent exposure. To identify current potentially relevant temporal windows of Pb exposure, we collected 260 blood samples from mottled ducks during summer (n=124) and winter (n=136) from 2010–2012 on the Texas Chenier Plain NWR Complex. We quantified baseline blood Pb concentrations for all ages of mottled ducks, and hypothesized that blood lead concentrations would remain elevated above background levels (200 µg L–1) despite the 1983 and 1991 lead shot bans. Blood Pb concentrations ranged from below detection limits to >12,000 µg L–1, where >200 µg L–1 was associated with exposure levels above background concentrations. Male mottled ducks had the greatest blood Pb concentrations (30 times greater than females) with concentrations greater during winter than summer. Likewise, the proportion of exposed (>200 µg L–1) females increased from 14%–47% from summer to winter, respectively. Regardless of sex, adult mottled duck blood Pb concentrations were five times greater than juveniles, particularly during winter. We identified five plausible models that influenced blood Pb levels where year, site, and interactions among age*sex*season and between age*season were included in the top-ranked models. Frequency of exposure was greatest during winter, increasing from 12% in summer to 55% in winter, indicating that a temporal exposure window to environmental Pb exists between nesting

  18. Deflowered: Walking Students through A Harsher Reading of John Steinbeck's "The Chrysanthemums."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plath, James

    2001-01-01

    Discusses a teaching method for John Steinbeck's "The Chrysanthemums" which focuses on word choice, symbolism, character interaction, and gender roles. Proposes that such a close study should reveal to students that Steinbeck should be considered one of America's most talented writers. (PM)

  19. Isolation, identification and activity of natural antioxidants from costmary (Chrysanthemum balsamita) cultivated in Lithuania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pukalskas, A.; Venskutonis, P.R.; Dijkgraaf, I.; Beek, van T.A.

    2010-01-01

    The sweet, minty-lemony leaves of costmary (Chrysanthemum balsamita) are used for salads and tea, and as flavourings in meats, sausages, cakes and ale. In this study, the extracts isolated from costmary aerial parts were investigated as antioxidants in rapeseed oil and as free radical-scavengers in

  20. Effect of LEDs on flower bud induction in Chrysanthemum morifolium cv. Zembla

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Singh, M.; Ieperen, van W.; Heuvelink, E.

    2013-01-01

    The effect of LEDs was studied to induce flower under artificial long days (LD) in Chrysanthemum morifolium cv. Zembla plants, using light emitting diodes (LED) @ PAR m-2 s-1 80% Red / 20% Blue maintained @ 100 µ mol m- 2 s- 1 using royal blue light @ 455 nm and red light @ 640 nm wavelengths and

  1. [Effects of bio-organic fertilizer and fungicide application on continuous cropping obstacles of cut chrysanthemum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xi; Zhao, Shuang; Yao, Jian-jun; Ye, Yan-ping; Song, Ai-ping; Chen, Fa-di; Chen, Su-mei; Dong, Xue-na

    2015-04-01

    Abstract: Fusarium wilt is a soil borne disease caused by plant continuous cropping in monoculture Chrysanthemum morifolium 'Youxiang' monoculture not only declines plant quality and yield but also decreases soil enzymes and soil microbial diversity over successive cultivation. In this article, the effects of fungicide (Carbendazim MBC), antifungal enhanced bio-organic fertilizer (BOF), and their combined application on the quality and soil enzymes activities of Chrysanthemum morifolium 'Youxiang' in continuous cropping systems were investigated. The results showed that both bioorganic fertilizer (BOF) and fungicide (MBC) single application could effectively prevent the occurrence of Fusarium wilt disease of cut chrysanthemum. Bio-organic fertilizer application was more effective on root activity, soil enzymes activities and quality (shoot height, stem diameter, leaf SPAD value, ray floret number, shoot fresh mass) improvement of cut chrysanthemum, while fungicide single application was responsible for soil enzymatic activities suppression to some extent. The combined application treatment (MBC+BOF) showed the best effects on quality improvement and soil enzyme activities promotion.

  2. The role of carbohydrates in storage induced disk floret degreening in chrysanthemum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geest, van G.A.; Post, Aike; Arens, P.; Meeteren, van U.

    2016-01-01

    Dutch-grown cut chrysanthemums are often shipped over long distances resulting in storage times of up to four weeks. One problem occurring after storage is premature degreening of disk florets. We want to understand the physiological background of disk floret degreening in order to allow breeding

  3. Evidence for a wounding-induced xylem occlusion in stems of cut chrysanthemum flowers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doorn, van W.G.; Cruz, P.

    2000-01-01

    A temperature-dependent xylem occlusion was found in cut chrysanthemum stems (Dendranthema grandiflora, cv. Viking) which were placed for 24 h in air at 5oC prior to vase life evaluation. The response was inhibited by a 5-h treatment, prior to placement in air, with aqueous solutions at low initial

  4. Effects of growth conditions on external quality of cut chrysanthemum; analysis and simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carvalho, S.M.P.

    2003-01-01

    For many years the emphasis in floricultural research laid with quantity rather than quality. Nowadays, since the prices are often determined on the basis of visual quality aspects, the so-called external quality, chrysanthemum growers aim to provide a high and constant product qualit

  5. The Analyses of the effects of Environmental Descriptions in Odour of Chrysanthemums

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐亚河

    2015-01-01

    Environment is an indispensable element of a story structure. In the short story Odour of Chrysanthemums, Laurence showed a se⁃ries of original environmental descriptions which play a important role to create specific atmosphere in an industrial society and express pro⁃tagonists’inner life.

  6. Deflowered: Walking Students through A Harsher Reading of John Steinbeck's "The Chrysanthemums."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plath, James

    2001-01-01

    Discusses a teaching method for John Steinbeck's "The Chrysanthemums" which focuses on word choice, symbolism, character interaction, and gender roles. Proposes that such a close study should reveal to students that Steinbeck should be considered one of America's most talented writers. (PM)

  7. Industrial Dehumanization——Viewed from the husband and wife relationship in "Odour of Chrysanthemums"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何苗

    2007-01-01

    Lawrence is regarded as one of most accomplished short story writers in twentieth century, with "Odour of Chrysanthemums" one of his early works. Through the death of a miner, the text shows how humanity was ruined by industrial civilization. This essay is intended to unveil the destructive force by analyzing the relationship between the husband and wife.

  8. Possibilities for soilless cultivation in cut chrysanthemum: Effect of irrigation frequencies and spacing schedules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fanourakis, D.; Heuvelink, E.; Verkerke, W.

    2011-01-01

    Three levels of irrigation frequencies, provided by root misting, combined with three plant densities and two spacing treatments were tested to evaluate the optimum conditions during the first crop stages of chrysanthemum in a soilless cultivation system (aeroponics) in an experiment conducted in au

  9. Identification of Floral Scent in Chrysanthemum Cultivars and Wild Relatives by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hainan Sun

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to identify the major volatile compounds and their relative concentrations in flowers of different chrysanthemum cultivars and their wild relatives. The volatile organic components of fresh flowers were analyzed using a headspace solid-phase microextraction coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. In total, 193 volatile organic components were detected; the major scent components were monoterpenoids and oxygenated monoterpenoids, which accounted for 68.59%–99.93% of the total volatiles in all tested materials except for Chrysanthemum indicum collected from Huangshan, in which they accounted for only 37.45% of total volatiles. The major volatile compounds were camphor, α-pinene, chrysanthenone, safranal, myrcene, eucalyptol, 2,4,5,6,7,7ab-hexahydro-1H-indene, verbenone, β-phellandrene and camphene. In a hierarchical cluster analysis, 39 accessions of Chrysanthemum and its relatives formed six clusters based on their floral volatile compounds. In a principal component analysis, only spider type flowers were located closely on the score plot. The results of this study provide a basis for breeding chrysanthemum cultivars which desirable floral scents.

  10. Influences of four different light-emitting diode lights on flowering and polyphenol variations in the leaves of chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum morifolium).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Sung Woo; Park, Semin; Jin, Jong Sung; Seo, On Nuri; Kim, Gon-Sup; Kim, Yun-Hi; Bae, Hanhong; Lee, Gyemin; Kim, Soo Taek; Lee, Won Sup; Shin, Sung Chul

    2012-10-03

    Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are an efficient alternative to traditional lamps for plant growth. To investigate the influence of LEDs on flowering and polyphenol biosynthesis in the leaves of chrysanthemum, the plants were grown under supplemental blue, green, red, and white LEDs. Flower budding was formed even after a longer photoperiod than a critical day length of 13.5 h per day under blue light illumination. The weights of leaves and stems were highest under the white light illumination growth condition, whereas the weight of roots appeared to be independent of light quality. Among nine polyphenols characterized by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectroscopy, three polyphenols were identified for the first time in chrysanthemum. A quantitation and principal component analysis biplot demonstrated that luteolin-7-O-glucoside (2), luteolin-7-O-glucuronide (3), and quercetagetin-trimethyl ether (8) were the highest polyphenols yielded under green light, and dicaffeoylquinic acid isomer (4), dicaffeoylquinic acid isomer (5), naringenin (7), and apigenin-7-O-glucuronide (6) were greatest under red light. Chlorogenic acid (1) and 1,2,6-trihydroxy-7,8-dimethoxy-3-methylanthraquinone (9) were produced in similar concentrations under both light types. The white and blue light appeared inefficient for polyphenol production. Taken together, our results suggest that the chrysanthemum flowering and polyphenol production are influenced by light quality composition.

  11. A Rare Case of Non-Small Cell Carcinoma of Lung Presenting as Miliary Mottling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ballaekere Jayaram Subhashchandra

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Miliary mottling on chest radiography is seen in miliary tuberculosis, certain fungal infections, sarcoidosis, coal miner’s pneumoconiosis, silicosis, hemosiderosis, fibrosing alveolitis, acute extrinsic allergic alveolitis, pulmonary eosinophilic syndrome, pulmonary alveolar proteinosis, and rarely in hematogenous metastases from the primary cancers of the thyroid, kidney, trophoblasts, and some sarcomas. Although very infrequent, miliary mottling can be seen in primary lung cancers. Herein, we report the case of a 28-year-old female with chest X-ray showing miliary mottling. Thoracic computed tomography (CT features were suggestive of tuberculoma with miliary tuberculosis. CT-guided fine needle aspiration cytology confirmed the diagnosis as lower-lobe, left lung non-small cell carcinoma (adenocarcinoma. It is rare for the non-small cell carcinoma of the lung to present as miliary mottling. The rarity of our case lies in the fact that a young, non-smoking female with miliary mottling was diagnosed with non-small cell carcinoma of the lung.

  12. Structural determinants of tobacco vein mottling virus protease substrate specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ping; Austin, Brian P; Tözsér, József; Waugh, David S

    2010-11-01

    Tobacco vein mottling virus (TVMV) is a member of the Potyviridae, one of the largest families of plant viruses. The TVMV genome is translated into a single large polyprotein that is subsequently processed by three virally encoded proteases. Seven of the nine cleavage events are carried out by the NIa protease. Its homolog from the tobacco etch virus (TEV) is a widely used reagent for the removal of affinity tags from recombinant proteins. Although TVMV protease is a close relative of TEV protease, they exhibit distinct sequence specificities. We report here the crystal structure of a catalytically inactive mutant TVMV protease (K65A/K67A/C151A) in complex with a canonical peptide substrate (Ac-RETVRFQSD) at 1.7-Å resolution. As observed in several crystal structures of TEV protease, the C-terminus (∼20 residues) of TVMV protease is disordered. Unexpectedly, although deleting the disordered residues from TEV protease reduces its catalytic activity by ∼10-fold, an analogous truncation mutant of TVMV protease is significantly more active. Comparison of the structures of TEV and TVMV protease in complex with their respective canonical substrate peptides reveals that the S3 and S4 pockets are mainly responsible for the differing substrate specificities. The structure of TVMV protease suggests that it is less tolerant of variation at the P1' position than TEV protease. This conjecture was confirmed experimentally by determining kinetic parameters k(cat) and K(m) for a series of oligopeptide substrates. Also, as predicted by the cocrystal structure, we confirm that substitutions in the P6 position are more readily tolerated by TVMV than TEV protease.

  13. KARAKTER MOLEKULER CHRYSANTHEMUM B CARLAVIRUS (CVB ISOLAT KRISAN (DENDRANTHEMA GRANDIFLORA KITAM DI INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I G. R. M. Temaja, G. Suastika, S.H. Hidayat dan U. Kartosuwondo .

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Molecular characterstics of Chrysanthemum B Carlavirus (CVB isolated from chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflora Kitam in Indonesia. Chrysanthemum B Carlavirus (CVB belongs to Carlavirus genus which type species is Carnation latent virus (CLV. Since CVB is considered a new plant virus in chrysanthemum plantation in Indonesia, a study on its molecular characters is required. The objectives of the study are: 1 to determine molecular characters of CVB; 2 to study genetic diversity among CVB isolates collected from different geographic regions in Indonesia. The research activities cover virus purifications, electron microscope observation, coat protein analysis by SDS PAGE, and nucleic acid analysis. The result of virus purification demonstrated a high purity level with ratio value of A260/A280 =1.22. The total pure virus produced from 200 g of fresh material is 6.250 mg. Purified virus preparation yielded rather straight rod and flexuous virus particles of about 685 nm long and 12 nm wide. Coat protein analysis with sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE showed specific protein band of approximately 34 kDa. Specific DNA fragment of 739 bp was successfully amplified from chrysanthemum infected by CVB Cianjur, Medan, Malang and Bali isolates. CVB isolated from Cianjur, Medan, Malang and Bali have similarity 85-99%. Based on analysis using PAUP 4.10 program, Cianjur, Medan, Malang and Bali isolates belong to the same group with CVB isolates originated from India (Chattisgarh and Jammu isolates. Cianjur isolate has close relationship to Medan isolate, however Bali isolate showed a close relationship with Malang isolate.

  14. High temperature stress monitoring and detection using chlorophyll a fluorescence and infrared thermography in chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflora)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wakjera, Eshetu Janka; Körner, Oliver; Rosenqvist, Eva

    2013-01-01

    (PSII) and stomatal conductance (gs). A combination of chlorophyll a fluorescence, gas exchange measurements and infrared thermography was applied using Chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflora Tzvelev) cultivar ‘Coral Charm’ as a model species. Increasing temperature had a highly significant effect...

  15. Introduction of Delta-endotoxin Gene of Bacillus thuringiensis to Chrysanthemum [Dendranthema grandiflorum(Ramat.) Kitamura] for Insect Resistance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shinoyama, Harue; Komano, Masayasu; Nomura, Yukio; Nagai, Teruyuki

    2002-01-01

    We introduced a truncated delta-endotoxin gene, cry1Ab of Bacillus thuringiensis which has a specific biological activity against lepidopteran insects into chrysanthemum [Dendranthema × grandiflorum (Ramat.) Kitamura...

  16. Chlorotic spots on Clerodendrum, a disease caused by a nuclear type of Brevipalpus (Acari:Tenuipalpidae) transmitted virus

    OpenAIRE

    Kitajima, Elliot Watanabe; Kubo,Karen Sumire; Ferreira,Paulo de Tarso Oliveira; Alcântara,Berenice Kussumoto; Boari,Alessandra de Jesus; Gomes,Renata Takassugi; Freitas-Astua,Juliana; Rezende,Jorge Alberto Marques; Morais,Gilberto José de; Salaroli,Renato Barbosa

    2008-01-01

    Chlorotic spots have been observed in plants of Clerodendrum x speciosum growing in residential gardens and parks in Piracicaba, SP, Brazil. Thin sections of diseased tissues revealed characteristic cytopathic effects of the nuclear type of the Brevipalpus (Acari: Tenuipalpidae) mite-transmitted viruses (BTrV). Brevipalpus mites, identified as B. phoenicis, infesting symptomatic C. x speciosum plants transmitted the pathogen to healthy C. x speciosum and to C. thomsonae, Gomphrena globosa, Hi...

  17. Morphological Characteristics, Phenolic and Terpenoid Profiles in Garden Chrysanthemum Grown in Different Nutritional Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Cristina Cerasela MIRCEA (ARSENE); Oana CIOANCĂ; Lucia DRAGHIA; Monica HĂNCIANU

    2015-01-01

    Chrysanthemum indicum L. (Dendranthema indicum (L.) Des Moul) became useful as herbs and curatives in different parts of the world. In the current study, the chemical profile of outdoor cultivated Chrysanthemum indicum ‘Avalone Red’ was investigated for polyphenolic acid derivatives, flavonoids, alantolactone and ursolic acid using thin layer chromatography (TLC). Total phenolic content was determined through a classical method and semiquantitative analyses of alantolactone were performed thr...

  18. Violet/blue chrysanthemums--metabolic engineering of the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway results in novel petal colors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brugliera, Filippa; Tao, Guo-Qing; Tems, Ursula; Kalc, Gianna; Mouradova, Ekaterina; Price, Kym; Stevenson, Kim; Nakamura, Noriko; Stacey, Iolanda; Katsumoto, Yukihisa; Tanaka, Yoshikazu; Mason, John G

    2013-10-01

    Chrysanthemums (Chrysanthemum×morifolium Ramat.) are an important cut-flower and potted plant crop in the horticultural industry world wide. Chrysanthemums express the flavonoid 3'-hydroxylase (F3'H) gene and thus accumulate anthocyanins derived from cyanidin in their inflorescences which appear pink/red. Delphinidin-based anthocyanins are lacking due to the deficiency of a flavonoid 3', 5'-hydroxylase (F3'5'H), and so violet/blue chrysanthemum flower colors are not found. In this study, together with optimization of transgene expression and selection of the host cultivars and gene source, F3'5'H genes have been successfully utilized to produce transgenic bluish chrysanthemums that accumulate delphinidin-based anthocyanins. HPLC analysis and feeding experiments with a delphinidin precursor identified 16 cultivars of chrysanthemums out of 75 that were predicted to turn bluish upon delphinidin accumulation. A selection of eight cultivars were successfully transformed with F3'5'H genes under the control of different promoters. A pansy F3'5'H gene under the control of a chalcone synthase promoter fragment from rose resulted in the effective diversion of the anthocyanin pathway to produce delphinidin in transgenic chrysanthemum flower petals. The resultant petal color was bluish, with 40% of total anthocyanidins attributed to delphinidin. Increased delphinidin levels (up to 80%) were further achieved by hairpin RNA interference-mediated silencing of the endogenous F3'H gene. The resulting petal colors were novel bluish hues, not possible by hybridization breeding. This is the first report of the production of anthocyanins derived from delphinidin in chrysanthemum petals leading to novel flower color.

  19. Air-borne dermatitis from [i]Chrysanthemum[/i] – case report with a discussion of diagnostic procedures and therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obtulowicz Aleksander

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Airborne dermatitis belongs to a heterogeneous group of dermatoses of various etiopathology and clinical characteristics. This disease is characterized by acute or chronic inflammation of the uncovered skin exposed to irritants or allergens. Initially skin lesions are transient. The paper presents a description of chrysanthemum growers diagnosed with air-borne dermatitis from chrysanthemum. Etiology, pathomechanism, clinical course, diagnostics and therapeutical methods are described.

  20. First report of Cowpea mild mottle Carlavirus on yardlong bean (Vigna unguiculata subsp. sesquipedalis) in Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, Miriam; Fernández-Rodríguez, Thaly; Garrido, Mario José; Mejías, Alexander; Romano, Mirtha; Marys, Edgloris

    2012-12-14

    Yardlong bean (Vigna unguiculata subsp. sesquipedalis) plants with virus-like systemic mottling and leaf distortion were observed in both experimental and commercial fields in Aragua State, Venezuela. Symptomatic leaves were shown to contain carlavirus-like particles. RT-PCR analysis with carlavirus-specific primers was positive in all tested samples. Nucleotide sequences of the obtained amplicons showed 84%-74% similarity to corresponding sequences of Cowpea mild mottle virus (CPMMV) isolates deposited in the GenBank database. This is the first report of CPMMV in Venezuela and is thought to be the first report of CPMMV infecting yardlong bean.

  1. First Report of Cowpea Mild Mottle Carlavirus on Yardlong Bean (Vigna unguiculata subsp. sesquipedalis in Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgloris Marys

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Yardlong bean (Vigna unguiculata subsp. sesquipedalis plants with virus-like systemic mottling and leaf distortion were observed in both experimental and commercial fields in Aragua State, Venezuela. Symptomatic leaves were shown to contain carlavirus-like particles. RT-PCR analysis with carlavirus-specific primers was positive in all tested samples. Nucleotide sequences of the obtained amplicons showed 84%–74% similarity to corresponding sequences of Cowpea mild mottle virus (CPMMV isolates deposited in the GenBank database. This is the first report of CPMMV in Venezuela and is thought to be the first report of CPMMV infecting yardlong bean.

  2. Transcriptome-Wide Survey and Expression Profile Analysis of Putative Chrysanthemum HD-Zip I and II Genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiping Song

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The homeodomain-leucine zipper (HD-Zip transcription factor family is a key transcription factor family and unique to the plant kingdom. It consists of a homeodomain and a leucine zipper that serve in combination as a dimerization motif. The family can be classified into four subfamilies, and these subfamilies participate in the development of hormones and mediation of hormone action and are involved in plant responses to environmental conditions. However, limited information on this gene family is available for the important chrysanthemum ornamental species (Chrysanthemum morifolium. Here, we characterized 17 chrysanthemum HD-Zip genes based on transcriptome sequences. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that 17 CmHB genes were distributed in the HD-Zip subfamilies I and II and identified two pairs of putative orthologous proteins in Arabidopsis and chrysanthemum and four pairs of paralogous proteins in chrysanthemum. The software MEME was used to identify 7 putative motifs with E values less than 1e-3 in the chrysanthemum HD-Zip factors, and they can be clearly classified into two groups based on the composition of the motifs. A bioinformatics analysis predicted that 8 CmHB genes could be targeted by 10 miRNA families, and the expression of these 17 genes in response to phytohormone treatments and abiotic stresses was characterized. The results presented here will promote research on the various functions of the HD-Zip gene family members in plant hormones and stress responses.

  3. Transcriptome-Wide Survey and Expression Profile Analysis of Putative Chrysanthemum HD-Zip I and II Genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Aiping; Li, Peiling; Xin, Jingjing; Chen, Sumei; Zhao, Kunkun; Wu, Dan; Fan, Qingqing; Gao, Tianwei; Chen, Fadi; Guan, Zhiyong

    2016-05-17

    The homeodomain-leucine zipper (HD-Zip) transcription factor family is a key transcription factor family and unique to the plant kingdom. It consists of a homeodomain and a leucine zipper that serve in combination as a dimerization motif. The family can be classified into four subfamilies, and these subfamilies participate in the development of hormones and mediation of hormone action and are involved in plant responses to environmental conditions. However, limited information on this gene family is available for the important chrysanthemum ornamental species (Chrysanthemum morifolium). Here, we characterized 17 chrysanthemum HD-Zip genes based on transcriptome sequences. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that 17 CmHB genes were distributed in the HD-Zip subfamilies I and II and identified two pairs of putative orthologous proteins in Arabidopsis and chrysanthemum and four pairs of paralogous proteins in chrysanthemum. The software MEME was used to identify 7 putative motifs with E values less than 1e-3 in the chrysanthemum HD-Zip factors, and they can be clearly classified into two groups based on the composition of the motifs. A bioinformatics analysis predicted that 8 CmHB genes could be targeted by 10 miRNA families, and the expression of these 17 genes in response to phytohormone treatments and abiotic stresses was characterized. The results presented here will promote research on the various functions of the HD-Zip gene family members in plant hormones and stress responses.

  4. Metabolism of organic acids, nitrogen and amino acids in chlorotic leaves of 'Honeycrisp' apple (Malus domestica Borkh) with excessive accumulation of carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huicong; Ma, Fangfang; Cheng, Lailiang

    2010-07-01

    Metabolite profiles and activities of key enzymes in the metabolism of organic acids, nitrogen and amino acids were compared between chlorotic leaves and normal leaves of 'Honeycrisp' apple to understand how accumulation of non-structural carbohydrates affects the metabolism of organic acids, nitrogen and amino acids. Excessive accumulation of non-structural carbohydrates and much lower CO(2) assimilation were found in chlorotic leaves than in normal leaves, confirming feedback inhibition of photosynthesis in chlorotic leaves. Dark respiration and activities of several key enzymes in glycolysis and tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, ATP-phosphofructokinase, pyruvate kinase, citrate synthase, aconitase and isocitrate dehydrogenase were significantly higher in chlorotic leaves than in normal leaves. However, concentrations of most organic acids including phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP), pyruvate, oxaloacetate, 2-oxoglutarate, malate and fumarate, and activities of key enzymes involved in the anapleurotic pathway including PEP carboxylase, NAD-malate dehydrogenase and NAD-malic enzyme were significantly lower in chlorotic leaves than in normal leaves. Concentrations of soluble proteins and most free amino acids were significantly lower in chlorotic leaves than in normal leaves. Activities of key enzymes in nitrogen assimilation and amino acid synthesis, including nitrate reductase, glutamine synthetase, ferredoxin and NADH-dependent glutamate synthase, and glutamate pyruvate transaminase were significantly lower in chlorotic leaves than in normal leaves. It was concluded that, in response to excessive accumulation of non-structural carbohydrates, glycolysis and TCA cycle were up-regulated to "consume" the excess carbon available, whereas the anapleurotic pathway, nitrogen assimilation and amino acid synthesis were down-regulated to reduce the overall rate of amino acid and protein synthesis.

  5. λ-Carrageenan Suppresses Tomato Chlorotic Dwarf Viroid (TCDVd Replication and Symptom Expression in Tomatoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jatinder S. Sangha

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The effect of carrageenans on tomato chlorotic dwarf viroid (TCDVd replication and symptom expression was studied. Three-week-old tomato plants were spray-treated with iota(ɩ-, lambda(λ-, and kappa(κ-carrageenan at 1 g·L−1 and inoculated with TCDVd after 48 h. The λ-carrageenan significantly suppressed viroid symptom expression after eight weeks of inoculation, only 28% plants showed distinctive bunchy-top symptoms as compared to the 82% in the control group. Viroid concentration was reduced in the infected shoot cuttings incubated in λ-carrageenan amended growth medium. Proteome analysis revealed that 16 tomato proteins were differentially expressed in the λ-carrageenan treated plants. Jasmonic acid related genes, allene oxide synthase (AOS and lipoxygenase (LOX, were up-regulated in λ-carrageenan treatment during viroid infection. Taken together, our results suggest that λ-carrageenan induced tomato defense against TCDVd, which was partly jasmonic acid (JA dependent, and that it could be explored in plant protection against viroid infection.

  6. Complete nucleotide sequence of watermelon chlorotic stunt virus originating from Oman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Akhtar J; Akhtar, Sohail; Briddon, Rob W; Ammara, Um; Al-Matrooshi, Abdulrahman M; Mansoor, Shahid

    2012-07-01

    Watermelon chlorotic stunt virus (WmCSV) is a bipartite begomovirus (genus Begomovirus, family Geminiviridae) that causes economic losses to cucurbits, particularly watermelon, across the Middle East and North Africa. Recently squash (Cucurbita moschata) grown in an experimental field in Oman was found to display symptoms such as leaf curling, yellowing and stunting, typical of a begomovirus infection. Sequence analysis of the virus isolated from squash showed 97.6-99.9% nucleotide sequence identity to previously described WmCSV isolates for the DNA A component and 93-98% identity for the DNA B component. Agrobacterium-mediated inoculation to Nicotiana benthamiana resulted in the development of symptoms fifteen days post inoculation. This is the first bipartite begomovirus identified in Oman. Overall the Oman isolate showed the highest levels of sequence identity to a WmCSV isolate originating from Iran, which was confirmed by phylogenetic analysis. This suggests that WmCSV present in Oman has been introduced from Iran. The significance of this finding is discussed.

  7. Evaluation of different iron compounds in chlorotic Italian lemon trees (Citrus lemon).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Patricio Rivera; Castro Meza, Blanca I; de la Garza Requena, Francisco R; Flores, Guillermo Mendoza; Etchevers Barra, Jorge D

    2007-05-01

    The severe deficiency of iron or ferric chlorosis is a serious problem of most citrus trees established in calcareous soils, as a result of the low availability of iron in these soils and the poor uptake and limited transport of this nutrient in trees. The objective of this study was to evaluate the response of chlorotic Italian lemon trees (Citrus lemon) to the application of iron compounds to roots and stems. On comparing the effects of aqueous solutions of ferric citrate, ferrous sulphate and FeEDDHA chelate, applied to 20% of the roots grown in soil and sand, of trees that were planted in pots containing calcareous soil, it was observed that the chelate fully corrected ferric chlorosis, while citrate and sulphate did not solve the problem. EDDHA induced the root uptake of iron as well as the movement of the nutrient up to the leaves. With the use of injections of ferric solutions into the secondary stem of adult trees, ferric citrate corrected chlorosis but ferrous sulphate did not. The citrate ion expanded the mobility of iron within the plant, from the injection points up to the leaves, whereas the sulphate ion did not sufficiently improve the movement of iron towards the leaf mesophyll.

  8. Application of plant growth regulators mitigates chlorotic foliar injury by the black pecan aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottrell, Ted E; Wood, Bruce W; Ni, Xinzhi

    2010-11-01

    Black pecan aphid, Melanocallis caryaefoliae (Davis) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), feeding elicits localized chlorotic injury to pecan foliage [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) K Koch] and apparent acceleration of leaf senescence and defoliation. The ability of certain plant growth regulators (PGRs) (forchlorfenuron, gibberellic acid and aviglycine) to prevent M. caryaefoliae from triggering pecan leaf chlorosis and senescence-like processes was evaluated on two dates in both 2006 and 2007. Treatments were applied to orchard foliage and used in laboratory leaf-disc bioassays to assess possible reduction in aphid-elicited chlorosis and concomitant effects on aphid mortality and development. Foliage pretreated with forchlorfenuron + gibberellic acid prior to being challenged with aphids resulted in significantly less aphid-elicited chlorosis than did control or aviglycine-treated leaf discs. No PGR affected aphid mortality; however, development time was increased by forchlorfenuron + gibberellic acid in 2006 and by aviglycine + gibberellic acid on one date in 2007. Certain PGRs possess the potential for usage on pecan to protect foliar canopies from M. caryaefoliae via changes in the susceptibility of the host leaf to senescence-like factors being introduced by feeding aphids. This protective effect on host foliage and the associated suppressive effect on development of feeding aphids might also be relevant to pest management programs on other aphid-crop systems in which aphid-elicited chlorosis and senescence-like processes can limit profitability. Published 2010 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Unstable infectivity and abundant viral RNAs associated with strawberry mottle virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leone, G.; Lindner, J.L.; Schoen, C.D.

    1995-01-01

    A not yet identified virus (SMoV) associated with the strawberry mottle syndrome was mechanically transmitted from infected Fragaria vesca UC-5 to Chenopodium quinoa and from C. quinoa to Nicotiana benthamiana, N. occidentalis 37B and N. hesperis 67A. C. quinoa, N. benthamiana, and N. occidentalis

  10. Phenotypical and molecular characterization of the Tomato mottle Taino virus-Nicotiana megalosiphon interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Collazo, C.; Ramos, P.L.; Chacón, O.; Borroto, C.J.; López, Y.; Pujol, M.; Thomma, B.P.H.J.; Hein, I.; Borrás-Hidalgo, O.

    2005-01-01

    Tomato mottle Taino virus (ToMoTV) infection causes significant yield losses in plants of various Solanaceous species. In this study, the interaction between Nicotiana megalosiphon and ToMoTV was characterized on a phenotypical and molecular basis. In order to isolate genes that are differentially e

  11. Genetic diversity, host range and disease resistance to the emerging Tomato mottle mosaic virus on tomato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Since its first discovery in 2013 in Mexico, Tomato mottle mosaic virus (ToMMV), a new tomato-infecting tobamovirus is now present in a number of countries (i.e., Brazil, China, and Israel) and several states in the U.S. There is little information available on the molecular and biological properti...

  12. Complete Genome Sequence of a Carnation Mottle Virus Infecting Hop Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Jo, Yeonhwa; Choi, Hoseong; Cho, Won Kyong

    2015-01-01

    The Carnation mottle virus (CarMV) is a single positive-strand RNA virus belonging to the genus Carmovirus. The major natural host for CarMV is the carnation. In this study, using transcriptome data, we provide for the first time a nearly complete genome sequence of CarMV infecting hop plants.

  13. Molecular cloning of dsRNAs associated with strawberry mottle virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoen, C.D.; Miglino, R.; Jelkmann, W.; Leone, G.

    1998-01-01

    Strawberry mottle virus was transmitted from Fragaria vesca to Chenopodium quinoa and Nicotiana occidentalis 37B. In all plants, SMoV infection-associated dsRNA was detected but dsRNA patterns showed some differences between the herbaceous hosts. The differences were more evident when the dsRNA prep

  14. An individual-based simulation model for mottled sculpin (Cottus bairdi) in a southern Appalachian stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenda Rashleigh; Gary D. Grossman

    2005-01-01

    We describe and analyze a spatially explicit, individual-based model for the local population dynamics of mottled sculpin (Cottus bairdi). The model simulated daily growth, mortality, movement and spawning of individuals within a reach of stream. Juvenile and adult growth was based on consumption bioenergetics of benthic macroinvertebrate prey;...

  15. Population dynamics of mottled sculpin (PISCES) in a variable environment: information theoretic approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gary D. Grossman; Robert E Ratajczak; J. Todd Petty; Mark D. Hunter; James T. Peterson; Gael Grenouillet

    2006-01-01

    We used strong inference with Akaike's Information Criterion (AIC) to assess the processes capable of explaining long-term (1984-1995) variation in the per capita rate of change of mottled sculpin (Cottus bairdi) populations in the Coweeta Creek drainage (USA). We sampled two fourth- and one fifth-order sites (BCA [uppermost], BCB, and CC [lowermost])...

  16. Restricted movement by mottled sculpin (Pisces: Cottidae) in a southern Appalachian stream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Todd Petty; Gary D. Grossman

    2004-01-01

    1. We used direct observation and mark-recapture techniques to quantify movements by mottled sculpins (Cottus bairdi) in a 1 km segment of Shope Fork in western North Carolina. Our objectives were to: (i) quantify the overall rate of sculpin movement, (ii) assess variation in movement among years, individuals, and sculpin size classes, (iii) relate movement to...

  17. Mechanosensory based orienting behaviors in fluvial and lacustrine populations of mottled sculpin (Cottus bairdi)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheryl Coombs; Gary D. Grossman

    2006-01-01

    We compared prey-orienting and rheotactic behaviors in a fluvial (Coweeta Creek) and lacustrine (Lake Michigan) population of mottled sculpin. Blinded sculpin from both populations exhibited unconditioned, mechanosensory based rheotaxis to low velocity flows. Whereas Lake Michigan sculpin generally showed increasing levels of positive rheotaxis to increasing velocities...

  18. Complete Genome Sequence of a Tomato Isolate of Parietaria Mottle Virus from Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Carolina; Aramburu, José; Rubio, Luis; Galipienso, Luis

    2015-12-17

    We report here the complete genome sequence of isolate T32 of parietaria mottle virus (PMoV) infecting tomato plants in Turin, Italy, obtained by Sanger sequencing. T32 shares 90.48 to 96.69% nucleotide identity with other two PoMV isolates, CR8 and Pe1, respectively, whose complete genome sequences are available.

  19. First complete genome sequence of an emerging cucumber green mottle mosaic virus isolate in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    The complete genome sequence (6,423 nt) of an emerging Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV) isolate on cucumber in North America was determined through deep sequencing of sRNA and rapid amplification of cDNA ends. It shares 99% nucleotide sequence identity to the Asian genotype, but only 90% t...

  20. Antioxidant Activity in the Blood and Testes of the Mottled Brown ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    IJAAAR

    Department of Animal Science, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria. ... Key words: Reproductive potentials, Mottled brown male quail, Age groups, ... oxygen species (ROS)-generating systems. ... this risk, the testes have developed a ... centrifuge model of BOSCH 90-2) at 4000rpm .... human against oxidant and radical-.

  1. Complete Genome Sequence of a Tomato-Infecting Tomato Mottle Mosaic Virus in New York

    OpenAIRE

    Padmanabhan, Chellappan; Zheng, Yi; Li, Rugang; Martin, Gregory B.; Fei, Zhangjun; Ling, Kai-Shu

    2015-01-01

    The complete genome sequence of an isolate of tomato mottle mosaic virus (ToMMV) infecting tomatoes in New York was obtained using small RNA (sRNA) deep sequencing. ToMMV_NY-13 shared 99% sequence identity with isolates from Mexico and Florida. Broader distribution of this emerging virus is a cause for concern to the tomato industry.

  2. Spectral effects of supplementary lighting on the secondary metabolites in roses, chrysanthemums, and campanulas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ouzounis, Theoharis; Fretté, Xavier; Rosenqvist, Eva

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the effect of the light spectrum on photosynthesis, growth, and secondary metabolites Rosa hybrida ‘Scarlet’, Chrysanthemum morifolium ‘Coral Charm’, and Campanula portenschlagiana ‘BluOne’ were grown at 24/18 ◦C day/night temperature under purpose-built LED arrays yielding...... approximately 200 mol m−2 s−1 at plant height for 16 h per day. The four light treatments were (1) 40% Blue/60% Red, (2) 20% Blue/80% Red, (3) 100% Red, and (4) 100% White (Control). The plant height was smallest in 40% Blue/60% Red in roses and chrysanthemums, while the biomass was smallest in the white...... the stomatal conductance though net photosynthesis was unaffected, indicating excess stomatal conductance in some treatments. With higher blue light ratio all phenolic acids and flavonoids increased. In view of the roles of these secondary metabolites as antioxidants, anti-pathogens, and light protectants, we...

  3. Effects of two AM fungi on phytoplasma infection in the model plant Chrysanthemum carinatum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simonetta Sampò

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Phytoplasmas are plant pathogenic bacteria, naturally transmitted by insects and confined in the phloem of the host plant, where they take up nutrients and eventually cause plant death. Their control is mainly based on insecticide treatments. The aim of this work was to study the effect of two AM fungi in modifying plant response to chrysanthemum yellows phytoplasma (CY infection in chrysanthemum plants. Inoculation of Glomus intraradices BB-E and G. mosseae BEG12 reduced the damage caused by this plant pathogen in the aerial part of the plant, increased plant tolerance to the infection and reduced the severity of symptom expression, probably in a systemic way. Inoculation with G. mosseae did not alter CY multiplication and viability in young leaves, whilst the morphology of CY mature leaves was typical of senescent cells. Possible mechanisms involved are discussed.

  4. Hydrothermal synthesis and dielectric properties of chrysanthemum-like ZnO particles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Jun-Feng; Zhang Zhi-Yong; You Tian-Gui; Zhao Wu; Yun Jiang-Ni

    2009-01-01

    By orthogonal design theory,technological parameters of chrysanthemum-like ZnO particles prepared in a hydrothermal process are optimized. This paper reports a set of technological parameters for growing chrysanthemumlike ZnO particles on a large scale. It investigates the morphologies and crystalline structures of the as-synthesized three-dimensional ZnO particles with a scanning electron microscope,x-ray diffractometer and transmission electron microscope,and the possible growth mechanism on the three-dimensional ZnO particles. The experimental results indicate that the values of ε'、ε" and tan δe gradually increase in the X band with the improvement of the developmental level of chrysanthemum-like ZnO particles,implying that the electromagnetic wave absorbing property depends on the morphologies of three-dimensional ZnO particles.

  5. The effectiveness of funqicides in the control of white rust (Puccinia horiana P. Henn of Chrysanthemums

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cz. Zamorski

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The object of this study was to determine the effectiveness of some fungicides such as Dithane M-45 (mancozeb - 0.3%, Plantvax (oxycarboxin - 0.075%, Saprol (triforine - 0.1%, Calirus (benodanil - 0.3%, Bayleton 5 WP (triadimefon - 0.05%, Baycor (biloxazol - 0.1%, Vigilex (dichlobutrazol - 0.04% in the control of chrysanthemum white rust (Puccinia horiana. Tests were conducted in the period 1979-1980. Plants of four varieties were sprayed 8 times weekly. The disease was completely suppressed in the combinations with Plantvax, Saprol, Calirus, Bayleton 5 WP, Baycor and Vigilex. The disease index of Puccinia horiana infection on chrysanthemums was only slightly lower when Dithane M-45 was applied. Plantvax was phytotoxic for all tested varieties, Vigilex suppressed plant growth, treated plants were 3/4 shorter in comparison with plants of all the other combinations.

  6. A highly sensitive method for the detection of Chrysanthemum virus B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiyong Guan

    2017-03-01

    Conclusion: A highly specific and sensitive nested PCR-based assay has been described for detecting CVB. This new method is highly specific and sensitive for the detection of CVB, which is known to infect chrysanthemum plants in the fields. Further, this protocol has an advantage over traditional methods as it is more cost-effective. This assay is ideal for an early stage diagnosis of the disease.

  7. Impacts of Strigolactone on Shoot Branching under Phosphate Starvation in Chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflorum cv. Jinba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin eXi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflorum cv. Jinba shoot branching is determined by bud outgrowth during the vegetative growth stage. The degree of axillary bud outgrowth is highly influenced by environmental conditions, such as nutrient availability. Here, we demonstrated that phosphorus (Pi starvation significantly reduces axillary bud outgrowth in chrysanthemum. A strigolactone (SL biosynthesis gene, DgCCD7, was isolated and characterized as an ortholog of MAX3/DAD3/RMS5/D17. By using ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS, three putative SLs were identified and detected strong induction under Pi starvation conditions. Determinations of the distribution of SLs and negative regulation of DgCCD7/8 time-course in root indicated systemic response of SL. However, temporal expression patterns of biosynthesis and signaling genes in nodes revealed that Pi starvation causes a local response of SL pathway. Application of modified node segments treated with or without auxin and Pi revealed that in the absence of exogenous auxin, Pi delay axillary buds outgrowth and up-regulating local SL pathway genes. These data indicate that an auxin-SL regulatory loop respond to Pi starvation for delaying bud outgrowth locally, root biosynthesized SLs are transported acropetally and function in shoot branching inhibition under Pi starvation. We propose that SLs contribute to chrysanthemum shoot branching control in response to Pi-limiting conditions in a systemic way.

  8. [Study on transformation of snowdrop lectin gene to chrysanthemum and aphid resistance of the transgenic plants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guan-Lin; Liu, Yan-Hong; Guo, Shao-Hua; Wang, Yu; Ji, Yan; Fang, Hong-Jun

    2004-12-01

    Agrobacterium-mediated transformation in chrysanthemum was studied to prevent the insect pest of aphid (Mizus persicae). The gna gene was successfully transferred into chrysanthemum by leaf dish, and 93 transgenic clones were obtained. The highest transformation frequency 11.21% was achieved on the optimization facts, which were medium YEB with pH5.6, bacterial concentration OD600 = 0.4, precultivation for one day, cocultivation for four days, the cocultivation media supplemented with GA3 0.5 mg/L and leaf explants growed for 45 days. The results from PCR and FQ-PCR analysis confirmed that gna gene was integrated into the genome of chrysanthemum plants. The insect bioassay with aphid showed that the aphid resistance of different transgenic plants was difference, and the rate of aphid population inhibition of them were from 10% to 84% with an average rate of 39.4%. The leaf-extracts from different transgenic plants showed varying actinties in red-blood cell bioassay.

  9. Spectral effects of supplementary lighting on the secondary metabolites in roses, chrysanthemums, and campanulas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouzounis, Theoharis; Fretté, Xavier; Rosenqvist, Eva; Ottosen, Carl-Otto

    2014-10-15

    To investigate the effect of the light spectrum on photosynthesis, growth, and secondary metabolites Rosa hybrida 'Scarlet', Chrysanthemum morifolium 'Coral Charm', and Campanula portenschlagiana 'BluOne' were grown at 24/18°C day/night temperature under purpose-built LED arrays yielding approximately 200 μmol m(-2)s(-1) at plant height for 16 h per day. The four light treatments were (1) 40% Blue/60% Red, (2) 20% Blue/80% Red, (3) 100% Red, and (4) 100% White (Control). The plant height was smallest in 40% Blue/60% Red in roses and chrysanthemums, while the biomass was smallest in the white control in roses and in 100% Red in chrysanthemums. The total biomass was unaffected by the spectrum in campanulas, while the leaf area was smallest in the 40% Blue/60% Red treatment. In 100% Red curled leaves and other morphological abnormalities were observed. Increasing the blue to red ratio increased the stomatal conductance though net photosynthesis was unaffected, indicating excess stomatal conductance in some treatments. With higher blue light ratio all phenolic acids and flavonoids increased. In view of the roles of these secondary metabolites as antioxidants, anti-pathogens, and light protectants, we hypothesize that blue light may predispose plants to better cope with stress.

  10. A COMPUTER CONTROLLED IRRIGATION OF POTTED CHRYSANTHEMUM GROWN AT OUTDOOR CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halil Kirnak

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A rapid and reliable method to estimate water requirements for chrysanthemum production with practical applications to commercial operations was developed to promote water conservation. A water-requirement prediction equation (R2 = 0.71 that used class A pan evaporation along with plant-canopy height and width as input variables was generated. Equation verification was carried out by comparing vegetative growth and quality of crops irrigated according to the generated water-requirement equation to crops irrigated based on demand and conservative fixed daily irrigation regimes. Vegetation growth of the plants irrigated with the generated equation was smaller than plants grown by demand irrigation, but plant quality was not significantly different. Applied water was significantly lower for plants irrigated with the generated equation than would normally be applied in a commercial operation using a conservative fixed daily irrigation rate. The study showed that there was a close relationship between chrysanthemum water requirements and the plant and evaporative data. A simplified ET equation involving plant characteristics and evaporative data could be used in the irrigation scheduling of chrysanthemum grown under restricted root volume.

  11. The Protective Effect of Chrysanthemum indicum Extract against Ankylosing Spondylitis in Mouse Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    In traditional Chinese and Korean homeopathic medicine, Chrysanthemum indicum Linné (Asteraceae) is a time-honored herb, prescribed for the resolution of symptoms associated with inflammatory and hypertensive conditions as well as those affecting the lungs and its associated structures. The goal of this work is to investigate the defensive role of Chrysanthemum indicum extract in fighting ankylosing spondylitis (AS) using mouse models, through which the manifestation and extent of the disease progression were measured with quantitative analysis of the intervertebral joints. Markers of inflammation as well as oxidative stress were also analysed. Western blot was used to quantify the levels of Nuclear Factor-κB (NF-κB) p65, Dickkopf-1 (DKK-1), and sclerostin (SOST). Consequently, the findings of this experiment demonstrated that AS in mice that were given Chrysanthemum indicum extract had lower level of TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 (P inhibiting inflammatory mediators and NF-κB, and increasing DKK-1 and SOST levels.

  12. Identification of superior chrysanthemum genotypes based on phenological traits and postproduction longevity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hassanpour Asil

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Chrysanthemum is one of the most important ornamental and medicinal plants in the world. In this study, diversity among 50 genotypes of chrysanthemum morifolium was analyzed using phenologic and morphologic traits. The variation between studied genotypes showed a significant difference for all traits and coefficient of genetic variations for most traits was greater than 40%. The highest general heritability belonged to days to bud coloring (h2=90.59% and post-production longevity (h2=88.3%. The lowest heritability (h2=6.05% was related to disc floret opening. In multiple linear stepwise regression for flower longevity as the dependent variable, such traits as number of days to bud coloring, days to full bloom and pollen shed entered the model. Therefore, vegetative growth period and behavior of florets affect post-production longevity. On the other hand, cluster analysis according to the morphological traits using Ward method classified all the studied genotypes into six groups. In this classification, two genotypes of “Afrooz” and ‘Unknown1’, with short vegetative period, late pollen shed and high post-production longevity were classified into a separate cluster. The findings of this research showed that the studied Chrysanthemum genotypes have desirable genetic potential, and depending on the objectives, most of them could be used in breeding programs to improve different traits.

  13. Effect of the Introduction of Chrysanthemum on the Nutritional and Sensory Properties of Cabernet Sauvignon Red Wine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Liu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we propose a new wine technology where dried chrysanthemum is introduced during the process of fermentation of wine. This technology sets an example of a blend between exotic wine culture and traditional Chinese tea culture. The influence on the chemical and sensory properties of wine due to the addition of different amounts of chrysanthemum at different fermentation periods was studied. In all the wine with added chrysanthemum the content of both polyphenols and flavones obviously increased. The wine of T1 and T2 had a higher content of polyphenols and flavones than others, due to thermomaceration, whereas those in the wine of T2 were the highest, due to the technique of squeezing juice. The sensory quality of T3, without the techniques of thermomaceration and squeezing juice, was optimal, with characteristics such as a ruby color, fuller aroma, and a lighter flowery texture. Therefore, T3 was defined as the optimum of chrysanthemum adding procedures. With the increase of chrysanthemum addition, both flavones content and polyphenols content of the obtained wine first increased, and then decreased.

  14. Transcriptome-wide identification and expression profiling of the DOF transcription factor gene family in Chrysanthemum morifolium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiping eSong

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The family of DNA binding with one finger (DOF transcription factors is plant specific, and these proteins contain a highly conserved domain (DOF domain of 50-52 amino acids that includes a C2C2-type zinc finger motif at the N-terminus that is known to function in a number of plant processes. Here, we characterized 20 DOF genes in the important ornamental species chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum morifolium based on transcriptomic sequences. Phylogenetic analysis identified one pair of putative orthologous proteins in Arabidopsis and chrysanthemum and six pairs of paralogous proteins in chrysanthemum. Conserved motifs in the DOF proteins shared by Arabidopsis and chrysanthemum were analysed using MEME. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that 13 CmDOFs could be targeted by 16 miRNA families. Moreover, we used 5’ RLM-RACE to map the cleavage sites in CmDOF3, 15 and 21. The expression of these 20 genes in response to phytohormone treatments and abiotic stresses was characterized, and the expression patterns of six pairs of paralogous CmDOF genes were found to completely differ from one another, except for CmDOF6 and CmDOF7. This work will promote our research of the various functions of DOF gene family members in plant hormone and stress responses.

  15. A new aubergine disease caused by a whitefly‐borne strain of Tomato mild mottle virus (TomMMoV)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dombrovsky, A; Sapkota, R; Lachman, O; Pearlsman, M; Antignus, Y

    2013-01-01

    The aims of the present study were to further characterize the causal agent of a new viral disease of aubergines in Israel, first observed in 2003 and tentatively named eggplant mild leaf mottle virus ( EMLMV...

  16. Complete genome sequence of Brugmansia suaveolens mottle virus, a potyvirus from an ornamental shrub.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucinda, Natalia; Inoue-Nagata, Alice K; Kitajima, Elliot W; Nagata, Tatsuya

    2010-10-01

    Brugmansia suaveolens mottle virus (BsMoV) was the first potyvirus isolated from "angel trumpet" (Brugmansia suaveolens), described in Brazil. In this study, the complete nucleotide (nt) genome sequence of BsMoV was determined, and the deduced amino acid (aa) sequence was analyzed. The BsMoV RNA genome consists of 9870 nt without a poly-A tail, encoding a putative typical potyviral polyprotein of 3090 aa. Pairwise comparisons of the complete BsMoV genome with those of the most closely related potyviruses revealed a maximum nucleotide identity of 63.7% with pepper mottle virus. These results and phylogenetic analyses based on the complete genome sequence of the most closely related potyviruses confirmed that BsMoV should be considered a member of a distinct species of the genus Potyvirus.

  17. Molecular and biological characterization of corchorus mottle virus, a new begomovirus from Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blawid, Rosana; Fontenele, Rafaela S; Lacorte, Cristiano; Ribeiro, Simone G

    2013-12-01

    A begomovirus infecting Orinoco jute (Corchorus hirtus) from Brazil was characterized. Molecular analysis revealed a bipartite genomic organization, which is typical of the New World begomoviruses. Sequence analysis and phylogenetic data showed that both genomic components have the closest relationship with abutilon mosaic Brazil virus, with an identity of 87.3 % for DNA-A, indicating that this virus is a member of a new begomovirus species for which the name "Corchorus mottle virus" (CoMoV) is proposed. Sida rhombifolia plants inoculated by biolistics with an infectious clone of CoMoV showed systemic vein chlorosis, mottling and leaf deformation symptoms, while Nicotiana benthamiana and tomato plants had symptomless infection. CoMoV is the first corchorus-infecting begomovirus reported in Brazil.

  18. Characterization of Canna yellow mottle virus in a New Host, Alpinia purpurata, in Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jingxin; Dey, Kishore K; Lin, Birun; Borth, Wayne B; Melzer, Michael J; Sether, Diane; Wang, Yanan; Wang, I-Chin; Shen, Huifang; Pu, Xiaoming; Sun, Dayuan; Hu, John S

    2017-06-01

    Canna yellow mottle virus (CaYMV) is an important badnavirus infecting Canna spp. worldwide. This is the first report of CaYMV in flowering ginger (Alpinia purpurata) in Hawaii, where it is associated with yellow mottling and necrosis of leaves, vein streaking, and stunted plants. We have sequenced CaYMV in A. purpurata (CaYMV-Ap) using a combination of next-generation sequencing and traditional Sanger sequencing techniques. The complete genome of CaYMV-Ap was 7,120 bp with an organization typical of other Badnavirus species. Our results indicated that CaYMV-Ap was present in the episomal form in infected flowering ginger. We determined that this virus disease is prevalent in Hawaii and could potentially have significant economic impact on the marketing of A. purpurata as cut flowers. There is a potential concern that the host range of CaYMV-Ap may expand to include other important tropical plants.

  19. Chlorotic feeding injury by the black pecan aphid (hemiptera: aphididae) to pecan foliage promotes aphid settling and nymphal development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottrell, Ted E; Wood, Bruce W; Ni, Xinzhi

    2009-04-01

    The nature of the interaction between the black pecan aphid, Melanocallis caryaefoliae (Davis) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), and the chlorosis it causes to foliage of its pecan [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch)] host is poorly understood. Laboratory experiments were conducted on the settling behavior of the black pecan aphid, when provided chlorotic pecan leaf discs resulting from previous black pecan aphid feeding and nonchlorotic leaf discs, under a normal photoperiod and constant dark. Additionally, aphid development from the first instar to the adult stage was examined when nymphs were either allowed to feed on the same leaf disc or moved daily to a new, nondamaged, same age leaf disc. After 24 h, a significantly higher percentage of black pecan aphids settled on chlorotic than on nonchlorotic leaf discs, regardless of photoperiod. When starting from the first instar, nymphs that were prevented from inducing leaf chlorosis by moving daily to new, same-age leaf discs took approximately 5 d longer to complete development, had a shorter body length, and had higher mortality than when aphids remained on the same leaf disc. These results show that black pecan aphid-induced leaf chlorosis plays an important role in the interaction of the black pecan aphid with its pecan host.

  20. Whole-Transcriptome Analysis of Differentially Expressed Genes in the Vegetative Buds, Floral Buds and Buds of Chrysanthemum morifolium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Liu

    Full Text Available Chrysanthemum morifolium is an important floral crop that is cultivated worldwide. However, due to a lack of genomic resources, very little information is available concerning the molecular mechanisms of flower development in chrysanthemum.The transcriptomes of chrysanthemum vegetative buds, floral buds and buds were sequenced using Illumina paired-end sequencing technology. A total of 15.4 Gb of reads were assembled into 91,367 unigenes with an average length of 739 bp. A total of 43,137 unigenes showed similarity to known proteins in the Swissprot or NCBI non-redundant protein databases. Additionally, 25,424, 24,321 and 13,704 unigenes were assigned to 56 gene ontology (GO categories, 25 EuKaryotic Orthologous Groups (KOG categories, and 285 Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG pathways, respectively. A total of 1,876 differentially expressed genes (DEGs (1,516 up-regulated, 360 down-regulated were identified between vegetative buds and floral buds, and 3,300 DEGs (1,277 up-regulated, 1,706 down-regulated were identified between floral buds and buds. Many genes encoding important transcription factors (e.g., AP2, MYB, MYC, WRKY, NAC and CRT as well as proteins involved in carbohydrate metabolism, protein kinase activity, plant hormone signal transduction, and the defense responses, among others, were considerably up-regulated in floral buds. Genes involved in the photoperiod pathway and flower organ determination were also identified. These genes represent important candidate genes for molecular cloning and functional analysis to study flowering regulation in chrysanthemum.This comparative transcriptome analysis revealed significant differences in gene expression and signaling pathway components between the vegetative buds, floral buds and buds of Chrysanthemum morifolium. A wide range of genes was implicated in regulating the phase transition from vegetative to reproductive growth. These results should aid researchers in the study of

  1. Survey of Cherry necrotic rusty mottle virus and Cherry green ring mottle virus incidence in Korea by Duplex RT-PCR

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    Seung-Yeol Lee

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of Cherry necrotic rusty mottle virus (CNRMV and Cherry green ring mottle virus (CGRMV have recently been occurred in Korea, posing a problem for sweet cherry cultivation. Since infected trees have symptomless leaves or ring-like spots on the pericarp, it is difficult to identify a viral infection. In this study, the incidence of CNRMV and CGRMV in sweet cherry in Gyeongbuk province was surveyed using a newly developed duplex reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR method that can detect both viruses in a single reaction. CNRMV and CGRMV co-infection rates were 29.6%, 53.6%, and 17.6%, respectively, in samples collected from three different sites (Daegu, Gyeongju and Gyeongsan in Gyeongbuk province during 2012 and 2013. This duplex RT-PCR method offers a simple, rapid, and effective way of identifying CNRMV and CGRMV simultaneously in sweet cherry trees, which can aid in the management of viral infections that could undermine yield.

  2. Simultaneous detection of Cherry necrotic rusty mottle virus and Cherry green ring mottle virus using real-time PCR and high resolution melting analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komorowska, Beata; Fiore, Nicola; Zamorano, Alan; Li, Ruhui

    2014-08-01

    In this study, the real-time PCR assays were combined with high resolution melting (HRM) analysis for the simultaneous detection of Cherry necrotic rusty mottle virus (CNRMV) and Cherry green ring mottle virus (CGRMV) infection in sweet cherry trees. Detection of CNRMV and CGRMV was performed in a real-time PCR using a primer set for both of them or duplex real-time PCR that included one specific primer set for each virus. These two strategies allowed us to confirmed virus infection in all tested samples. In 17 field samples the technique revealed samples positive for CNRMV or CGRMV as well as positive for both viruses. In addition, the HRM analysis made it possible to differentiate clearly between CNRMV and CGRMV. Sequence variations among CNRMV and CGRMV isolates observed from the HRM peaks were confirmed by sequencing. To test the capability to use this method in field, forty one sweet cherry samples were examined by HRM analysis. The HRM data showed that seven samples were positive for CNRMV and three were infected with CGRMV. The results presented in this study indicated that real-time PCR followed by HRM analysis provides sensitive, automated and rapid tool to detect and differentiate between CNRMV and CGRMV isolates.

  3. Development of a rapid diagnostic assay for the detection of tomato chlorotic dwarf viroid based on isothermal reverse-transcription-recombinase polymerase amplification

    Science.gov (United States)

    A molecular diagnostic assay utilizing reverse transcription-recombinase polymerase amplification (RT-RPA) at an isothermal constant temperature of 39 °C and target-specific primers and probe were developed for the rapid, sensitive, and specific detection of tomato chlorotic dwarf viroid (TCDVd) in ...

  4. Morphological Characteristics, Phenolic and Terpenoid Profiles in Garden Chrysanthemum Grown in Different Nutritional Conditions

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    Cristina Cerasela MIRCEA (ARSENE

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Chrysanthemum indicum L. (Dendranthema indicum (L. Des Moul became useful as herbs and curatives in different parts of the world. In the current study, the chemical profile of outdoor cultivated Chrysanthemum indicum ‘Avalone Red’ was investigated for polyphenolic acid derivatives, flavonoids, alantolactone and ursolic acid using thin layer chromatography (TLC. Total phenolic content was determined through a classical method and semiquantitative analyses of alantolactone were performed through the HPLC method. Morphological and yield parameters and the chemical profile of plants were registered in two different nutritional statuses (local and enriched soil conditions. The results indicate that the studied cultivar is a potent source of phenolics and that the fertilisation increases the plant biosynthetic capacity for polyphenols (159.74 mg/100 g in leaves and 79.82 mg/100 g in flowers, in unfertilised plants, and 388.54 mg/100 g and 144.86 mg/100 g in leaves and flowers of fertilised plants, respectively, expressed as gallic acid equivalent value. The studied cultivar contains hyperoside (and other derivatives and four main polyphenol carboxylic acids (including chlorogenic acid. Ursolic acid was not detected. The high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC analyses confirmed the presence of alantolactone identified in TLC chromatogram. Moreover, the fertilised plant samples contain only traces of alantolactone compared to the unfertilised plants. Alantolactone is present in a small amount (less than 0.1 mg % but its presence alerts to the potential allergenic effect of the plant. Besides their ornamental value, chrysanthemums can have a wide array of uses due to their high amounts of bioactive compounds.

  5. Study on Chrysanthemum Health Jelly%菊花保健果冻的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶文峰; 冷桂华; 周秀玲

    2012-01-01

    以菊花为主要原料,以卡拉胶、魔芋粉为主要胶体,研制了营养价值高,感官性状良好,并具有一定保健功能的果冻。采用三因素三水平试验确定了菊花的最佳浸提条件,即为:浸提温度85℃,时间为25 min,加水量为70倍。还探讨了卡拉胶、魔芋粉的最佳配比,通过正交试验得出保健果冻的最佳配方,即为:胶粉(卡拉胶∶魔芋粉为4∶1)为1.3%,白砂糖15%,柠檬酸0.18%,菊花浸提液25%。%With the chrysanthemum as main raw materials,carrageenan,konjac powder as the main colloid,developed a high nutritional value and sensory properties,and had certainly good health care function jelly.Adopting three factors 3 levels test to determine the best leaching of chrysanthemum,namely contracts for: leaching 85 ℃,extracting time 25 min,70 times water.Also discussed carrageenan,konjac powder at the best ratio through thogonal experiment,we confirmed the best formula of health jelly was that powder(carrageenan: konjac powder for 4∶1) 1.3%,sugar 15%,citric acid 0.18% and chrysanthemum juice 25%.

  6. Comparison effects of decapitation and disbudding with application of glucose in rooting of Chrysanthemum cuttings

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    Edward Borowski

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Cuttings of Chrysanthemum cv. 'Horim Golden' were decapitated and disbudded or intact cuttings were treated with glucose solution. Both treatments were carried out at different times after excision of the cuttings, Removal of buds on the day of cuttings excision delayed the appearance of first visible roots on the cuttings and significantly decreased the number of formed roots. But this treatment performed between day 3-5 significantly increased the mean number of roots on the cuttings. A similar influence as that of disbudding was obtained by glucose treatment of the cuttings, especially their basal parts.

  7. A correlation between antioxidant activity and metabolite release during the blanching of Chrysanthemum coronarium L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jiyoung; Choi, Jung Nam; Ku, Kang Mo; Kang, Daejung; Kim, Jong Sang; Park, Jung Han Yoon; Lee, Choong Hwan

    2011-01-01

    Liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LCMS/MS)-based metabolite profiling was applied to elucidate the correlation between metabolite release and antioxidant activity during water blanching of Chrysanthemum coronarium L. (CC). Some major metabolites showing differences between fresh CC and blanched CC (BCC) were selected by principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least-square discriminate analysis (PLS-DA) loading plots, and were identified as dicaffeoylquinic acid (DCQA), succinoyl-DCQA, and acetylmycosinol. By PLS regression analysis of the correlation between antioxidant components and effects, candidate antioxidative metabolites were predicted due to strong positive correlations with DCQA and succinoyl-DCQA, and by a relatively weak positive correlation with acetylmycosinol.

  8. Resistance induction in chrysanthemum due to silicon application in the management of whitefly Bemisia tabaci Biotype B (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae

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    Bruno Almeida Melo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Whitefly Bemisia tabaci biotype B (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae is a key pest in many cultures worldwide, among them chrysanthemum. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether silicon application in chrysanthemum plants can induce resistance to whitefly. The experiments were conducted in chrysanthemum cv. Rage in a greenhouse at EPAMIG in São João Del Rei, MG. The treatments were: 1 silicon applied as soil drench (dosage of 2t SiO2/ha on the 4th day after planting, 2 two silicon applied as foliar spray on the 4th and 12th days after planting, 3 control, with 10 replications each. The plants were infested with 100 whitefly adults/pot, released 16 days after planting. The number and viability of whitefly eggs and number of nymphs and adults were evaluated. The production of fresh and dry matter of shoots and the silicon content in plants were also evaluated. Silicon did not affect the whitefly oviposition preference; however, it affected the development of nymphs in free-choice test. Foliar silicon applications reduced the viability of whitefly eggs. There was no difference of fresh and dry weight and silicon content in plants with the application of silicon. Therefore, foliar silicon application on chrysanthemum can reduce the viability of eggs and delay the development of nymphs and thus contribute to the integrated whitefly management in commercial crops.

  9. Substrate Cultivation of Chrysanthemum: Plant performance in 6 cropping systems and the effect of parameters associated with root environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guo, X.; Blok, C.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Chrysanthemum is an important greenhouse crop in Holland and is still cultivated in soil. To prevent the emission of nutrients and crop protecting agents, an emission:free cropping system should be developed. This experiment was conducted to that purpose. The objectives of this experiment we

  10. Process-based modeling of the control of beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua, with baculoviruses in greenhouse chrysanthemum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bianchi, F.J.J.A.

    2001-01-01

    This thesis describes the development of a process-based simulation model for the population dynamics of beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua , and baculoviruses in greenhouse chrysanthemum. The model (BACSIM) has been validated for two baculoviruses with clear differences in biological characteristics,

  11. Substrate Cultivation of Chrysanthemum: Plant performance in 6 cropping systems and the effect of parameters associated with root environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guo, X.; Blok, C.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Chrysanthemum is an important greenhouse crop in Holland and is still cultivated in soil. To prevent the emission of nutrients and crop protecting agents, an emission:free cropping system should be developed. This experiment was conducted to that purpose. The objectives of this experiment we

  12. Simulation of Leaf Area Development Based on Dry Matter Partitioning and Specific Leaf Area for Cut Chrysanthemum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, J.H.; Heuvelink, E.

    2003-01-01

    This work aims to predict time courses of leaf area index (LAI) based on dry matter partitioning into the leaves and on specific leaf area of newly formed leaf biomass (SLA(n)) for year-round cut chrysanthemum crops. In five glasshouse experiments, each consisting of several plant densities and plan

  13. CsTFL1, a constitutive local repressor of flowering, modulates floral initiation by antagonising florigen complex activity in chrysanthemum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higuchi, Yohei; Hisamatsu, Tamotsu

    2015-08-01

    Chrysanthemums require repeated cycles of short-day (SD) photoperiod for successful anthesis, but their vegetative state is strictly maintained under long-day (LD) or night-break (NB) conditions. We have previously demonstrated that photoperiodic flowering of a wild diploid chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum seticuspe f. boreale) is controlled by a pair of systemic floral regulators, florigen (CsFTL3) and anti-florigen (CsAFT), produced in the leaves. Here, we report the functional characterisation of a local floral regulator, CsTFL1, a chrysanthemum orthologue of TERMINAL FLOWER 1 gene in Arabidopsis. Constitutive expression of CsTFL1 in C. seticuspe (CsTFL1-ox) resulted in extremely late flowering under SD and prevented up-regulation of floral meristem identity genes in shoot tips and leaves. Bimolecular fluorescence complementation assay showed that both CsTFL1 and CsFTL3 interacted with CsFDL1, a bZIP transcription factor FD homologue, in the nucleus. The transient gene expression assay indicated that CsTFL1 suppresses flowering by directly antagonising the flower inductive activity of the CsFTL3-CsFDL1 complex. Our results suggest that strict maintenance of vegetative state under non-inductive photoperiod is achieved by the coordinated action of both the systemic floral inhibitor and local floral inhibitor CsTFL1, which is constitutively expressed in shoot tips.

  14. Biosynthesized Silver Nanoparticles Used in Preservative Solutions for Chrysanthemum cv. Puma

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    Luis M. Carrillo-López

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of pulse solutions containing antimicrobials has been reported, but more research is necessary. To increase vase life and to study their effect on opening inflorescences, silver nanoparticles were used in vase solutions for cv. Puma Chrysanthemum stems. The nanoparticles were synthesized biologically using Chenopodium ambrosioides L. applied at concentrations of 0.01, 0.05, 0.1, 0.5, 1, and 5 mM and compared with a control. Treatments were replicated five times. The stems were cut to 50 cm and observed until the end of their vase life. Low concentrations of silver nanoparticles promoted inflorescence opening and leaf yellowing, while the control leaves remained green, but there was a lower degree of inflorescence opening. High concentrations of silver nanoparticles (0.5, 1, and 5 mM caused senescence due to low water uptake through the stems. Statistical differences in inflorescence opening and diameter, bacterial growth (CFU mL−1 in vase solutions, fresh weight, water uptake, and vase life were found among treatments. Longer vase life and less weight loss were observed in the stems exposed to low concentrations of silver nanoparticles. Low concentrations of silver nanoparticles promoted inflorescence opening and increased vase life of Chrysanthemum cv. Puma.

  15. Nutritional status of the potted chrysanthemum relative to electrical conductivity and salt leaching

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    Márkilla Zunete Beckmann-Cavalcante

    Full Text Available The quality of ornamental plants grown in pots is highly dependent on fertilization and substrate management. To this effect, we carried out an experiment in a protected environment to evaluate the nutritional status of the chrysanthemum cv. Miramar grown in pots, relative to the electrical conductivity of the nutrient solution and the leaching of salts. The experimental design was of randomized blocks with four replications and the treatments arranged in a 5 x 2 factorial, relating to the levels of electrical conductivity of the nutrient solution (ECs = 2.1; 2.8; 3.5; 4.2 and 4.9 dS m-1 in substrates without (SNL and with (SWL washing for the leaching of salts. The nutritional status of the plants was evaluated by leaf analysis of macronutrients (N, P, K, Ca, Mg and S and micronutrients (Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn. The increase in ECs inhibited the accumulation of micronutrients and of nitrogen, but stimulated the levels of P, K, Ca, Mg and S in the leaf dry mass of the chrysanthemum. The leaching of salts increased the concentration Cu, Fe and Mn in the plant leaves. Among the macronutrients, with the except of calcium and sulphur, no significant difference was observed for N, P, K and Mg relative to the leaching of salts.

  16. Mutation Breeding of various spray chrysanthemum cultivars by gamma-ray irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sang Hoon; Chung, Sung Jin; Kim, Dong Sub; Kim, Jin Baek; Kang, Si Yong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Geung Joo [Mokpo National University, Muan (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-09-15

    This study was carried out to analyze mutation rate and spectrum of chrysanthemum by gamma-ray irradiation. Five flower types, 16 cultivars including 'Geumsu', 'Hwiparam', 'Ilwol', 'Magic', 'Moonlight', 'Noblewine', 'Pinky', 'Progy', 'Sangtte', 'Waterfog', 'Whitneypangpang', 'Yelloweye', 'Yellowpangpang', 'Yesmiso', 'Yesmorning', and 'Yestogether' were irradiated as 30, 50, and 70 Gy dose during 24 hours. As a result, mutation rate was identified as the highest in single type among five flower types, but there was a little difference according to cultivars. Mutation rate was increased in proportion to irradiation dose in anemone, pompon, and spider type cultivars, but there wasn't clear in single and semi-double type cultivars. Mutation spectrum was identified as the highest in the cultivar 'Noblewine'. The most sensitive cultivars to radiation were revealed as 'Noblewine' and 'Yesmorning' and the least were Moonlight', 'Waterfog', and 'Yellowpangpang'. Consequently, there was much difference in radio-sensitivity according to cultivars of chrysanthemum and flower type was correlated a little with mutation rate.

  17. Economic viability of potted chrysanthemums production in Atibaia, São Paulo state

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    Caio Shigueaki Shiroto

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The segment of flower production in Brazil has shown remarkable development in recent years. The chrysanthemum is a product of extensive sales throughout Brazil and the diversity of types and colors, resistance to transport, excellent durability, and its easy adaptation to different regions make it as one of the main products in the various markets. This study aimed to evaluate the cost and economic viability of commercial production of potted chrysanthemums in the Atibaia, São Paulo State. For the total cost of production (6,413 vases/month expenses cuttings accounted for 36.4% of inputs and 26.4% of the EOC (effective operational cost, followed by labor, with 16% of the TOC (total operational cost achieving a profitability index 27.7%. It was found, based on cash flow, an IRR (internal rate of return of 10.27% IRR (internal rate of return already for the 6th productive year, showing attractive results for this segment considering the improving producer profitability is proportional to better production indicators. Note that to get a higher return activity, more efficient managements are required, resulting in lower losses and higher operating earnings, being necessary to take into account the cost management and production system are also essential to success in cultivation.

  18. Evaluation of potential phytoremediation of chrysanthemum in soil with excess copper

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    Janine Farias Menegaes

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Minimizing the harmful effects of copper (Cu in the soil, using plants are slow and gradual, requiring the identification of species with fitorremediativa fitness for this process. Thus, the present work had as objective to evaluate the cultivation of chrysanthemum cv. Dark Fiji in soil added with Cu as promising phytoremediation. The experiment was conducted in the period from July to December 2014, in the greenhouse of the Floriculture UFSM. In a completely randomized experimental design, with five treatments composed of doses of Cu added to the soil, in the amounts of 250, 500, 750 and 1,000 mg kg-1 and control (without addition, with five replications. In two crop cycles both with duration of 104 days from the production of seedlings to harvest. Chrysanthemum cuttings were obtained from cuttings collected in the garden clonal itself, with 8 cm long, rooted in commercial substrate and transplanted into containers containing soil. They evaluated phytotechnical parameters and translocation factors of aerial part of bioaccumulation and bioconcentration factor of Cu in plant roots and metal extraction rate. It was observed that at all doses of Cu added to the soil, the plants showed low plant development and floriferous affecting its aesthetic quality in both crop cycles. The high accumulation of Cu in the roots is indicative of growing tolerance, cv. Dark Fiji in areas with excess of this, with phytoremediation potential.

  19. Functional analysis of alternative splicing of the FLOWERING LOCUS T orthologous gene in Chrysanthemum morifolium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Yachao; Sun, Jing; Cao, Peipei; Zhang, Rong; Fu, Qike; Chen, Sumei; Chen, Fadi; Jiang, Jiafu

    2016-01-01

    As the junction of floral development pathways, the FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) protein called ‘florigen’ plays an important role in the process of plant flowering through signal integration. We isolated four transcripts encoding different isoforms of a FT orthologous gene CmFTL1, from Chrysanthemum morifolium cultivar ‘Jimba’. Sequence alignments suggested that the four transcripts are related to the intron 1. Expression analysis showed that four alternative splicing (AS) forms of CmFTL1 varied depending on the developmental stage of the flower. The functional complement experiment using an Arabidopsis mutant ft-10 revealed that the archetypal and AS forms of CmFTL1 had the function of complementing late flower phenotype in different levels. In addition, transgenic confirmation at transcript level showed CmFTL1 and CmFTL1ast coexist in the same tissue type at the same developmental stage, indicating a post-transcriptional modification of CmFTL1 in Arabidopsis. Moreover, ectopic expression of different AS forms in chrysanthemum resulted in the development of multiple altered phenotypes, varying degrees of early flowering. We found that an alternative splicing form (CmFTL1-astE134) without the exon 2 lacked the ability causing the earlier flower phenotype. The evidence in this study indicates that complex alternative processing of CmFTL1 transcripts in C. morifolium may be associated with flowering regulation and hold some potential for biotechnical engineering to create early-flowering phenotypes in ornamental cultivars. PMID:27917290

  20. [Effects of crop rotation and bio-organic manure on soil microbial characteristics of Chrysanthemum cropping system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xin; Zhu, Wei; Du, Chao; Shi, Ya-dong; Wang, Jian-fei

    2015-06-01

    We conducted a field experiment to evaluate the effects of rotation system and bio-organic manure on soil microbial characteristics of Chrysanthemum cropping system. Taking Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat and wheat as experimental plants, treatments under Chrysanthemum continuous cropping system (M1), conventional Chrysanthemum-wheat rotation system (M2), and Chrysanthemum-wheat rotation system receiving bio-organic manure application of 200 kg · 667 m(-2) (M3) were designed. Soil chemical properties, soil microbial biomass carbon (MBC) and nitrogen (MBN), and the amounts of different types of soil microorganisms were determined. Results showed that compared with M1, treatments of M2 and M3 significantly increased soil pH, organic matter, available N, P, and K, MBC, MBN, and the amounts of bacteria, fungi and actinomycetes, but decreased the ratio of MBC/MBN, and the relative percentage of fungi in the total amount of microorganisms. Treatment of M3 had the highest contents of soil organic matter, available N, available P, available K, MBC, MBN, and the amounts of bacteria, fungi and actinomycetes, with the values being 15.62 g · kg(-1), 64.75 mg · kg(-1), 83.26 mg · kg(-1), 96.72 mg · kg(-1), 217.40 mg · kg(-1), 38.41 mg · kg(-1), 22.31 x 10(6) cfu · g(-1), 56.36 x 10(3) cfu · g(-1), 15.90 x 10(5) cfu · g(-1), respectively. We concluded that rational crop rotation and bio-organic manure application could weaken soil acidification, improve soil fertility and microbial community structure, increase the efficiency of nutrition supply, and have a positive effect on reducing the obstacles of continuous cropping.

  1. Comparative analysis of chrysanthemum transcriptome in response to three RNA viruses: Cucumber mosaic virus, Tomato spotted wilt virus and Potato virus X.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hoseong; Jo, Yeonhwa; Lian, Sen; Jo, Kyoung-Min; Chu, Hyosub; Yoon, Ju-Yeon; Choi, Seung-Kook; Kim, Kook-Hyung; Cho, Won Kyong

    2015-06-01

    The chrysanthemum is one of popular flowers in the world and a host for several viruses. So far, molecular interaction studies between the chrysanthemum and viruses are limited. In this study, we carried out a transcriptome analysis of chrysanthemum in response to three different viruses including Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) and Potato virus X (PVX). A chrysanthemum 135K microarray derived from expressed sequence tags was successfully applied for the expression profiles of the chrysanthemum at early stage of virus infection. Finally, we identified a total of 125, 70 and 124 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) for CMV, TSWV and PVX, respectively. Many DEGs were virus specific; however, 33 DEGs were commonly regulated by three viruses. Gene ontology (GO) enrichment analysis identified a total of 132 GO terms, and of them, six GO terms related stress response and MCM complex were commonly identified for three viruses. Several genes functioning in stress response such as chitin response and ethylene mediated signaling pathway were up-regulated indicating their involvement in establishment of host immune system. In particular, TSWV infection significantly down-regulated genes related to DNA metabolic process including DNA replication, chromatin organization, histone modification and cytokinesis, and they are mostly targeted to nucleosome and MCM complex. Taken together, our comparative transcriptome analysis revealed several genes related to hormone mediated viral stress response and DNA modification. The identified chrysanthemums genes could be good candidates for further functional study associated with resistant to various plant viruses.

  2. Effects of Cowpea mottle virus and Cucumber mosaic virus on six Soybean (Glycine max L. cultivars

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    Aliyu Taiye H

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The study was carried out to determine the comparative pathogenic response of six cultivars of soybean; TGx 1844-18E, TGx 1448-2E, TGx 1910-8F, TGx 1019-2EN, TGx 1910-8F and TGx 1876-4E to single and mixed infections with cowpea mottle virus and cucumber mosaic virus. The experiment was conducted in the screenhouse at the crop production pavilion, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Kwara state Nigeria. The results of the experiment revealed that all soybean cultivars were susceptible to single and mixed infection of the two viruses but to seemingly different extent. The single infection with cowpea mottle virus (CMeV, however, caused the most severe symptoms on the soybean cultivars. Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV alone was not as severe as the CMeV. The mixed infection of CMeV and CMV did not cause higher severity than CMeV alone indicating that there was little or no synergistic effect between the two viruses on soybean.

  3. THE SUPPLEMENTARY RELATIONS BETWEEN THE PROTEINS OF MOTTLED GRAM BEAN AND CERTAIN OTHER CEREALS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗登义

    2006-01-01

    @@ It has been well understood that a mixture of vegetable and animal proteins is of higher quality than the former alone, and also there are some remarkable instances of effective supplementing between the proteins of certain cereals and certain legume seeds[1]. In practice, it is very valuable for the selection of human diets and farm-animal relations. This question is especially important in China where the protein of the average diet are mainly of vegetable origin, in which about 83 percent are derived from cereals and 11 percent from beans[2]. However, a review of the literature indicates that no work has been done on the supplementary relationships of the protein of mottled gram bean with those of other cereals. The writer purchased, therefore, from the Peiping market some cheaper cereals commonly used in China, namely, yellow corn(黄玉米), red kaoliang(红高粱),oat meal(油麦面),panicled glutinous and non-glutinous millets(黄米及糜子米); and determined the supplementary values between the proteins of mottled gram bean and these cereals. The experimental details are communicated in the present paper.

  4. Refined structure of desmodium yellow mottle tymovirus at 2.7 A resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, S B; Day, J; Canady, M A; Greenwood, A; McPherson, A

    2000-08-18

    Desmodium yellow mottle virus is a 28 nm diameter, T=3 icosahedral plant virus of the tymovirus group. Its structure has been solved to a resolution of 2.7 A using X-ray diffraction analysis based on molecular replacement and phase extension methods. The final R value was 0.151 (R(free)=0.159) for 134,454 independent reflections. The folding of the polypeptide backbone is nearly identical with that of turnip yellow mosaic virus, as is the arrangement of subunits in the virus capsid. However, a major difference in the disposition of the amino-terminal ends of the subunits was observed. In turnip yellow mosaic virus, those from the B and C subunits comprising the hexameric capsomeres formed an annulus about the interior of the capsomere, while the corresponding N termini of the pentameric capsomere A subunits were not visible at all in electron density maps. In Desmodium yellow mottle tymovirus, amino termini from the A and B subunits combine to form the annuli, thereby resulting in a much strengthened association between the two types of capsomeres and an, apparently, more stable capsid. The first 13 residues of the C subunit were invisible in electron density maps. Two ordered fragments of single-stranded RNA, seven and two nucleotides in length, were observed. The ordered water structure of the virus particle was delineated and required 95 solvent molecules per protein subunit.

  5. [Effects of controlled-release fertilizer on chrysanthemum leaf chlorophyll fluorescence characteristics and ornamental quality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xu-xu; Zheng, Cheng-shu; Sun, Xia; Ma, Hai-yan

    2011-07-01

    Taking cut flower chrysanthemum 'Baima' as test material, a pot experiment was conducted to study the effects of controlled-release fertilizer on the leaf chlorophyll fluorescence parameters, chlorophyll and nutrient contents, and ornamental quality of chrysanthemum. Under no fertilization, the maximal photochemical efficiency of PS II in dark (F(v)/F(m)), potential photochemical efficiency of PS II (F(v)/F(0)), and quantum yield of PS II electron transport (phi(PS II)) decreased significantly, compared with those under fertilization. With the application of conventional compound fertilizers CCFA (N:P:K=20:8:10) and CCFB (N:P:K= 14:14:14), the F(v)/F(m), F(v)/F(0) and phi(PS II) had a slight increase in early period (30-60 d) but a remarkable decrease in mid and later periods (75 - 120 d), compared with those under the application of controlled-release fertilizers CRFA (N:P:K = 20:8:10) and CRFB (N:P:K= 14:14:14). Under the application of CRFA, the F(v)/F(m), phi(PS II), and photochemical quenching (q(P)) had somewhat increase, as compared with the application of CRFB. The non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) under the application of CRFA and CRFB decreased significantly, compared with that under the application of CCFA and CCFB and the control. The chlorophyll content had a similar change trend with F(v)/F(m), F(v)/F(0), and phi(PS II). The leaf N, P, and K contents, flower stalk length and stalk diameter, flower diameter, and flower fresh and dry mass at harvest stage all increased under the application of CRFA and CRFB, compared with those under the application of CCFA and CCFB and the control, and the flower fresh and dry mass was significantly higher under the application of CRFA than of CRFB. This study showed that controlled-release fertilizer could improve the ornamental quality of chrysanthemum via improving the leaf chlorophyll content, photochemical transduction rate, and nutrient uptake, and CRFA had better effects than CRFB.

  6. Biological efficacy of the chemical chrysanthemums protection with the use of fine and coarse droplets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislaw PARAFINIUK

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Studies of three years (2007-2009 were conducted at Czesławice in south- east of Poland .The objects of research were the plants of the one cultivar of chrysanthemum: Dark Tripoli. The following agents were used for protection: Dithane NeoTec 75 WG, Sumilex 500 SC, Amistar 250 SC. The treatment was carried out with the use of two types of nozzles: standard RS-MM 110 03 and ejector type ID 120 03 C. Observation was carried out once a year: in October. The number and health status of plants were determined and diseased plants were collected for analysis. The percentage of plants with disease symptoms was estimated for each plot. The best health status and yield were noticed for Amistar 250 SC.

  7. Genetic diversity revealed in commercial varieties of Chrysanthemum (Dendranthemagrandiflora using RAPD markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.Lalitha Kameswari1, G.Anuradha2 , M. Pratap3and Hameedunnisabegum4

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Molecular characterization using RAPD analysis was carried out in 37 chrysanthemum genotypes.With 27 RAPD primers, total of 278 amplified fragments were scored.Out of which 271 were found to be polymorphic (97.4%. The genetic similarity ranged from a coefficient of 0.174 to 0.600 with an average similarity coefficient of 0.387 indicating a moderate diversity among the group of genotypes studied. In the present study, Ratlam Selection and Snow Cem were found to be the most genetically similar (0.60 followed by Akitha and Shintome with 55.3%. Cluster analysis based on UPGMA method led to the classification of genotypes intofour major clusters and seven minor clusters with one genotype each in cluster V (Arka Ravi, VI (Meera, VII(Asha, VIII(Silper, IX(Autumn Joy, X (Lilith and cluster XI (Chandrika.

  8. The embryo rescue derived intergeneric hybrid between chrysanthemum and Ajania przewalskii shows enhanced cold tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yanming; Chen, Sumei; Chen, Fadi; Cheng, Xi; Zhang, Fei

    2011-12-01

    Five intergeneric hybrids between the chrysanthemum cultivar 'Zhongshanjingui' (as female) and Ajania przewalskii (as male) were obtained with the help of embryo culture. While 'Zhongshanjingui' bears a standard anemone type flower and A. przewalskii a non-anemone type one, the inflorescence type of the hybrids varied. The diameter of the hybrids' flowers was intermediate between those of the parents. The chromosome number of the hybrids was 2n = 45, of which GISH analysis was able to establish that 27 were inherited from 'Zhongshanjingui' and the other 18 from A. przewalskii. A combination of various assays was used to show that the cold tolerance of the hybrids was equivalent to that of the highly tolerant A. przewalskii parent. Enhanced cold tolerance was correlated with an increase in free proline and a decrease in malondialdehyde content.

  9. The effect of temperature on photosynthetic induction under fluctuating light in Chrysanthemum morifolium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ozturk, Isik; Ottosen, Carl-Otto; Ritz, Christian

    2013-01-01

    to 35 A degrees C. The interaction effect of PAR and temperature on induction state was not significant. The rate of photosynthetic induction and the time required at which the induction reached its 90 % value (t (90)) was influenced by PAR significantly. The light history of a leaf had a significant......The photosynthetic response was investigated on Chrysanthemum morifolium under dynamic light conditions in the 20-35 A degrees C temperature range to evaluate the effect of climatic variables on photosynthetic induction. The plant material was grown under uniform, controlled conditions and its gas...... exchange was analyzed. The gas exchange measurements were used to investigate the rate of induction, momentary induction state, and the opening of stomata. At the varying temperature ranges and under dynamic light conditions, C. morifolium reached a quasi-steady-state induction equilibrium (ISeq...

  10. Rhizobium skierniewicense sp. nov., isolated from tumours on chrysanthemum and cherry plum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puławska, Joanna; Willems, Anne; Sobiczewski, Piotr

    2012-04-01

    Three isolates of Gram-negative, rod-shaped, non-spore-forming bacteria were recovered from galls on chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum L.; Ch11T, Ch12) and cherry plum (Prunus cerasifera var. divaricata; AL9.3). All three isolates were able to cause crown galls on various plant species. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that the three isolates were probably identical (100% sequence similarity) and closely related to Rhizobium rubi (99.6 %), Rhizobium radiobacter (98.7 %) and Rhizobium larrymoorei (98.1 %). Similar analysis based on the housekeeping genes glnA, gyrB and rpoB also indicated that the novel isolates were identical and closely related to R. rubi. The major cellular fatty acids of strain Ch11T were C18:1ω7c (62.1 %), summed feature 2 (comprising C12:0 aldehyde, iso-C16:1 I and/or C14:0 3-OH; 10.8 %), summed feature 3 (comprising C16:1ω7c and/or iso-C15:0 2-OH; 7.7 %) and C10:0 3-OH (7.5 %). However, the DNA-DNA relatedness between Ch11T and R. rubi LMG 156T was only 48 % and, unlike phylogenetically related established Rhizobium species, the novel isolates were able to utilize β-hydroxybutyric acid but not L-fucose. Based on the phylogenetic and phenotypic evidence, the isolates are considered to represent a single novel species of the genus Rhizobium, for which the name Rhizobium skierniewicense sp. nov. is proposed; the type strain is Ch11T (=LMG 26191T=CFBP 7420T).

  11. Two spinefoot colour morphs: mottled spinefoot Siganus fuscescens and white-spotted spinefoot Siganus canaliculatus are synonyms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, T-H; Adiputra, Y T; Burridge, C P; Gwo, J-C

    2011-11-01

    Mottled spinefoot Siganus fuscescens and white-spotted spinefoot Siganus canaliculatus are two similar species that differ subtly in colouration and morphology. Three major mtDNA clades were identified for these species, but individuals were clustered by amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) according to geography rather than morphology, suggesting that the colour morphs are interbreeding.

  12. Inheritance and molecular mapping of an allele providing resistance to Cowpea mild mottle virus-like symptoms in soybean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damage to soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] from Cowpea mild mottle virus-like (CPMMV-L) symptoms (family: Betaflexiviridae, genus: Carlavirus) has been of increasing concern in Argentina, Brazil, Mexico, and Puerto Rico. Soybean cultivars and lines differing in their reaction to the virus have been ...

  13. Overexpression of a novel chrysanthemum SUPERMAN-like gene in tobacco affects lateral bud outgrowth and flower organ development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qing-Lin; Xu, Ke-Dong; Ma, Nan; Zhao, Liang-Jun; Xi, Lin

    2014-04-01

    Previous studies have shown that the SUP genes play important roles in flower development and plant growth and morphogenesis. In this study, we isolated and characterized a SUPERMAN-like gene DgSZFP from chrysanthemum. DgSZFP contains one conserved Cys2/His2-type zinc finger motifs in the N-terminal region and an EAR-box in C-terminus. Its expression was significantly higher in nodes, flower buds, disc stamens, and petals than in the other tissues. Overexpression of DgSZFP in tobacco resulted in enhanced branching, reduced plant height, increased the width of petal tubes, produced the staminoid petals and petaloid stamens in flowers, and enhanced the seed weight and size. In addition, DgSZFP-overexpression tobacco plants accumulated high concentrations of cytokinin and chlorophyll. These results suggest that DgSZFP may be the candidate gene for regulating branching and floral organ development in chrysanthemum.

  14. Comparative analyses of light-induced anthocyanin accumulation and gene expression between the ray florets and leaves in chrysanthemum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Yan; Yang, Li-Wen; Li, Meng-Ling; Dai, Si-Lan

    2016-06-01

    Light is one of the key environmental factors that affect anthocyanin biosynthesis. However, the underlying molecular mechanism remains unclear, and many problems regarding phenotypic change and corresponding gene regulation have not been solved. In the present study, comparative analyses of light-induced anthocyanin accumulation and gene expression between the ray florets and leaves were performed in Chrysanthemum × morifolium 'Purple Reagan'. After contrasting the variations in the flower color phenotype and relative pigment content, as well as expression patterns of structural and regulator genes responsible for anthocyanin biosynthesis and photoreceptor between different plant organs under light and dark conditions, we concluded that (1) both the capitulum and foliage are key organs responding to light for chrysanthemum coloration; (2) compared with flavones, shading makes a greater decrease on the anthocyanins accumulation; (3) most of the structural and regulatory genes in the light-induced anthocyanin pathway specifically express in the ray florets; and (4) CmCHS, CmF3H, CmF3'H, CmANS, CmDFR, Cm3GT, CmMYB5-1, CmMYB6, CmMYB7-1, CmbHLH24, CmCOP1 and CmHY5 are key genes for light-induced anthocyanin biosynthesis in chrysanthemum ray florets, while on the transcriptional level, the expressions of CmPHYA, CmPHYB, CmCRY1a, CmCRY1b and CmCRY2 are insignificantly changed. Moreover, the inferred comprehensive effect of multiple signals on the accumulation of anthocyanins and transmission channel of light signal that exist between the leaves and ray florets were further discussed. These results further our understanding of the relationship between the gene expression and light-induced anthocyanin biosynthesis, and lay foundations for the promotion of the molecular breeding of novel flower colors in chrysanthemums.

  15. A pharmacological analysis of different chrysanthemums%不同菊花的药理作用分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王芳

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To discuss the value in clinical application based on a pharmacological analysis of different chrysanthemums. Methods: Different kinds of chrysanthemums sold in markets were classified, and the pharmacological effects were analyzed. Results: There were eight kinds of chrysanthemums, and the main pharmacological effects include anti-tumor, anti-oxidation, anti-viral, anti-inflam- matory and antibacterial and so on. Conclusion: According to different characteristics and pharmacological effects, chrysanthemum could play positive role in clinical application.%目的:对不同种类菊花药理作用进行分析,以探讨其在临床中的应用价值。方法:对最近几年市面上所售菊花种类加以归类,并对菊花药理学作用进行分析。结果:菊花主要有贡菊、杭菊、毫菊、济菊、怀菊、滁菊、川菊、祁菊共8种,其主要药理作用包括抗肿瘤、抗衰老、抗氧化、抗病毒、抗炎及抗菌等。结论:对不同菊花药理作用加以了解,按照其不同特性在临床疾病治疗中加以应用可发挥积极治疗效果。

  16. ELIMINATION OF Cucumber Mozaic Virus (CMV FROM A RANGE OF CHRYSANTHEMUM CULTIVARS THROUGH MERISTEM CULTURE FOLLOWING HEAT TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurniawan Budiarto

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Cucumber Mosaic Virus (CMV is one of pathogenic viruses that commonly found and has caused significant losses in many chrysanthemum growers in Indonesia.  Efforts have been made to get healthy plant source through eliminating virus from infected plants and one of the promising methods was the combination of thermotherapy and meristem culture. The research was conducted to find out the effect of meristem culture following heat treatments on the existence of CMV in infected chrysanthemum plantlets. The experiment was carried out in the laboratory of tissue culture and virology at The Indonesian Ornamental Crops Research Institute (IOCRI from August 2007 until June 2008. A complete factorial with ten replications was designed to accomplish the combination of two factors.  The first factor was three chrysanthemum cultivars, namely Stroika, Dewi Sartika and White Fiji, while the second dealt with the durations of heat treatment i.e. one, two and three weeks.  The results showed that plantlet survival decreased, yet improved plantlet performance by faster bud initiation with lengthened heat duration.  The percentage of virus-free planlets also increased along with the duration of treatment and three weeks heat treatment followed by meristem culture effectively eliminated CMV from infected planlets.

  17. Phosphate enhances uptake of As species in garland chrysanthemum (C. coronarium) applied with chicken manure bearing roxarsone and its metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Lixian; Huang, Lianxi; He, Zhaohuan; Zhou, Changming; Li, Guoliang; Deng, Xiancai

    2015-03-01

    Roxarsone (ROX), a world widely used feed organoarsenic additive in animal production, can be excreted as itself and its metabolites in animal manure. Animal manure is commonly land applied with phosphorous (P) fertilizer to enhance the P phytoavailability in agriculture. We investigated the accumulation of As species in garland chrysanthemum (C. coronarium) plants fertilized with 1% (w/w, manure/soil) chicken manure bearing ROX and its metabolites, plus 0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, and 0.8 g P2O5/kg, respectively. The results show that As(III) was the sole As compound in garland chrysanthemum shoots, and As(III) and As(V) were detectable in roots. Elevated phosphate level supplied more As(V) for garland chrysanthemum roots through competitive desorption in rhizosphere, leading to significantly enhanced accumulation of As species in plants. As(III) was the predominant As form in plants (85.0∼90.6%). Phosphate could not change the allocation of As species in plants. Hence, the traditional practice that animal manure is applied with P fertilizer may inadvertently increase the potential risk of As contamination in crop via the way ROX → animal → animal manure → soil → crop.

  18. Ultrastructural changes in chloroplasts of mesophyll cells of chlorotic and prematurely yellowed leaves of Betula pendula Rothr

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystyna Przybył

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The ultrastructure of chloroplasts was studied in mesophyll cells of the leaves of silver birch (Betula pendula showing interveinal chlorosis or premature yellowing, in comparison with leaves without symptoms or exhibiting symptoms of natural senescence. The leaves were collected between May 26 to June 7 and additionally in the September 10-12 from the upper part of the crown, from increments of the past four years. No major difference in ultrastructure of chloroplasts was found between spongy and palisade mesophyll cells. The following senescencerelated changes were observed in chloroplasts of prematurely yellowed leaves and showing inteveinal chlorosis: reduced chloroplast size, degeneration of the membrane systems of thylakoids and increased electron density of plastoglobuli. The most electron dark globules (lipid droplets were found together with starch grains in cells of spongy mesophyll of leaves showing interveinal chlorosis. Abnormal, spherical and rounded chloroplasts with electron-dark inside of thylakoids or the electron-dark stroma between thylakoids were found only in yellowed and chlorotic leaves in spring.

  19. New strains of chickpea chlorotic dwarf virus discovered on diseased papaya and tomato plants in Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouattara, Alassane; Tiendrébéogo, Fidèle; Lefeuvre, Pierre; Hoareau, Murielle; Claverie, Sohini; Traoré, Edgar Valentin; Barro, Nicolas; Traoré, Oumar; Varsani, Arvind; Lett, Jean-Michel

    2017-02-22

    This is the first description of full genome sequences of chickpea chlorotic dwarf virus (CpCDV; genus Mastrevirus; family Geminiviridae) identified in papaya and tomato plants sampled in Burkina Faso. The CpCDV full genome sequences from papaya and tomato share the highest pairwise sequence identity (84% and 93.5%) with Sudanese isolates of the CpCDV-K and CpCDV-M strains, respectively. Based on the strain demarcation threshold (>94% identity) for mastreviruses, we propose two new strains, CpCDV-Q and CpCDV-R, identified in papaya and tomato, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis confirmed that the sequences belong to a distinct clade of the highly diverse population of CpCDVs. Evidence of inter-strain recombination provided more support for the important role of recombination in CpCDV evolution. The discovery of CpCDV on papaya, a previously unsuspected host, raises many questions about the natural and potential host range of this dicot-infecting mastrevirus species that is reported to be emerging worldwide.

  20. Serological and molecular detection of Bean leaf roll and Chickpea chlorotic stunt luteoviruses in chickpea from Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajiyusef Tara

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L. is an important legume crop and widely cultivated in northwestern provinces of Iran. During a survey in the 2015 growing season a total of 170 selected chickpea plants with general yellowing symptoms including stunting and leaf bronzing were collected. Serological Elisa and tissue blot immunoassay (TIBA tests revealed the presence of Bean leaf roll virus (BLRV and Chickpea chlorotic stunt virus (CpCSV as the predominant viruses in the region. Some serologically positive samples of BLRV and CpCSV were selected and rechecked by RT-PCR. The results of amplified PCR products using a specific pair of primers towards the Cp gene region of the viruses were approximately 413 bp for CpCSV and 391 bp for BLRV. Results obtained from sequence comparison of BLRV (IR-F-Lor-5 isolate form two subgroups with eight other BLRV isolates from GeneBank indicating a high homology of 96% with isolates from Argentina, Germany, Tunisia, USA, Spain, and Colombia. An isolate from Norabad (Iran (IR-Nor had 98% homology with HQ840727 Libyan isolate. CpCSV sequence comparison with six other GeneBank isolates indicated 98% homology with isolates from Tunisia and Azerbaijan. The overall results of this research revealed the CpCSV and BLRV (luteoviruses associated with the yellowing disease syndrome of chickpea crops in the surveyed region.

  1. Classification of cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV) infected watermelon seeds using Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hoonsoo; Lim, Hyoun-Sub; Cho, Byoung-Kwan

    2016-05-01

    The Cucumber Green Mottle Mosaic Virus (CGMMV) is a globally distributed plant virus. CGMMV-infected plants exhibit severe mosaic symptoms, discoloration, and deformation. Therefore, rapid and early detection of CGMMV infected seeds is very important for preventing disease damage and yield losses. Raman spectroscopy was investigated in this study as a potential tool for rapid, accurate, and nondestructive detection of infected seeds. Raman spectra of healthy and infected seeds were acquired in the 400 cm-1 to 1800 cm-1 wavenumber range and an algorithm based on partial least-squares discriminant analysis was developed to classify infected and healthy seeds. The classification model's accuracies for calibration and prediction data sets were 100% and 86%, respectively. Results showed that the Raman spectroscopic technique has good potential for nondestructive detection of virus-infected seeds.

  2. [Specifics of the coat protein gene in Russian strains of the cucumber green mottle mosaic virus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavokhotova, A A; Andreeva, E N; Shiian, A N; Odintsova, T I; Pukhal'skiĭ, V A

    2007-11-01

    The primary structure of the coat protein (CP) gene was examined for pathogenic strain MS-1 and vaccine strain VIROG-43M of the cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV). In CP amino acid composition, strains MS-1 and VIROG-43M are typical representatives of CGMMV: their CPs have 98-100% homology to CPs of other tobamoviruses of the group. The CP gene has the same nucleotide composition in pathogenic MS-1 and vaccine VIROG-43M, indicating that strain attenuation is not determined by this gene. The CP amino acid sequences of the two Russian strains are fully identical to the CP sequences of two Greek strains, GR-3 and GR-5. However, the nucleotide sequences of their genes differ in 13 bp, testifying to the difference between the Russian and Greek strains.

  3. Nucleotide sequences of two Korean isolates of Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang-Min; Lee, Jung-Myung; Yim, Kyu-Ock; Oh, Man-Ho; Park, Jin-Woo; Kim, Kook-Hyung

    2003-12-31

    The nucleotide sequences of the genomic RNAs of Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus Korean watermelon isolate (CGMMV-KW) and Korean oriental melon isolate (CGMMV-KOM) were determined and compared to the sequences of other tobamoviruses including CGMMV strains W and SH. Each CGMMV isolate had a genome of 6,424 nucleotides. Each also had 60 and 176 nucleotides of 5' and 3' untranslated regions (UTRs), respectively, and four open reading frames (ORF1-4). ORFs 1 to 4 encode proteins of 129, 186, 29, and 17.4 kDa, respectively. The nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences of CGMMV-KOM and CGMMV-KW were more than 98.3% identical. When compared to other CGMMV strains in a phylogenetic analysis they were found to form a distinct virus clade, and were more distantly related to other tobamoviruses (23.5-56.7% identity).

  4. Characterization of siRNAs derived from cucumber green mottle mosaic virus in infected cucumber plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongqiang; Deng, Congliang; Shang, Qiaoxia; Zhao, Xiaoli; Liu, Xingliang; Zhou, Qi

    2016-02-01

    Virus-derived small interfering RNAs (vsiRNAs) of cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV), a member of the genus Tobamovirus, were characterised in cucumber plants by deep sequencing. CGMMV vsiRNAs of 21-22 nt in length predominated, suggesting that there might be a conserved mechanism of DCL2 and DCL4 involvement in the biogenesis of vsiRNAs, as well as a common RNA silencing pathway in CGMMV-infected cucumber plants. The 5'-terminal base of vsiRNAs was biased towards C/A/U, suggesting that CGMMV vsiRNAs might be loaded into diverse AGO-containing RISCs to disturb the gene expression of host plants. Possible targets for some of the vsiRNAs were also predicted.

  5. Cucumber Mosaic Virus and Chili Veinal Mottle Virus Infection on Growth and Yield Component of Chilli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ENDANG NURHAYATI

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available A research was undergone to study the effect of single and double infection of Cucumber Mosaic Virus (CMV and Chili Veinal Mottle Virus (ChiVMV on the growth and yield of five chilli cultivars, i.e. Prabu, Taro, Jatilaba, Laris, and Keriting Bogor. Mechanical inoculation was conducted to transmit the virus. Infection of the virus was then confirmed with DAS-ELISA. Severe symptom was observed on plant given double infection compared to those given single infection. The rate of plant growth and the amount and weight of fruits were reduced. The type of interaction between CMV and ChiVMV on most chilli cultivar can be considered as interference and additive. Synergism interaction was only observed on cultivar Laris. Based on symptom expression and reduction on yield, it can be concluded that all chilli cultivars used in this study could not hold up the virus infection.

  6. Evidence for Non-Transmission of Rice Yellow Mottle Virus (RYMV through Rice Seed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sy, AA.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available An indexing of the organs (radicle and plumule and components (husk, endosperm and embryo of rice seeds using Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA was carried out to detect Rice yellow mottle virus (RYMV and establish the exact location of the virus in the rice seed. RYMV was detected only in the husk (seed coat but not in the endosperm, plumule, radicle, nor embryo. None of the seedlings raised from the seeds expressed RYMV symptoms. No virus particle was detected by the ELISA test in the leaves of the screenhouse-reared plants obtained from seeds of infected plants. The results indicate that RYMV is apparently not transmitted through rice seed probably because the virus is seed-borne in the husk (seed coat of mature rice seeds.

  7. Colorimetric detection of Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus using unmodified gold nanoparticles as colorimetric probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lin; Liu, Zhanmin; Xia, Xueying; Yang, Cuiyun; Huang, Junyi; Wan, Sibao

    2017-05-01

    Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV)causes a severe mosaic symptom of watermelon and cucumber, and can be transmitted via infected cucumber seeds, leaves and soil. It remains a challenge to detect this virus to prevent its introduction and infection and spread in fields. For this purpose, a simple and sensitive label-free colorimetric detection method for CGMMV has been developed with unmodified gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) as colorimetric probes. The method is based on the finding that the presence of RT-PCR target products of CGMMV and species-specific probes results in color change of AuNPs from red to blue after NaCl induction. Normally, species-specific probes attach to the surface of AuNPs and thereby increasing their resistance to NaCl-induced aggregation. The concentration of sodium, probes in the reaction system and evaluation of specificity and sensitivity of a novel assay, visual detection of Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus using unmodified AuNPs has been carried out with simple preparation of samples in our study. Through this assay, as low as 30pg/μL of CGMMV RNA was thus detected visually, by the naked eye, without the need for any sophisticated, expensive instrumentation and biochemical reagents. The specificity was 100% and exhibited good reproducibility in our assays. The results note that this assay is highly species-specific, simple, low-cost, and visual for easy detection of CGMMV in plant tissues. Therefore, visual assay is a potentially useful tool for middle or small-scales corporations and entry-exit inspection and quarantine bureau to detect CGMMV in cucumber seeds or plant tissues.

  8. Characterization of a synergistic interaction between two cucurbit-infecting begomoviruses: Squash leaf curl virus and Watermelon chlorotic stunt virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sufrin-Ringwald, Tali; Lapidot, Moshe

    2011-02-01

    Squash leaf curl virus (SLCV) and Watermelon chlorotic stunt virus (WmCSV) are cucurbit-infecting bipartite begomoviruses. Both viruses are found in the eastern Mediterranean basin but the effects of dual infection of both viruses on melon (Cucumis melo L.) have not been described. 'Arava' melon plants were inoculated in the greenhouse, using whiteflies, with either SLCV, WmCSV, or both. Control plants were exposed to nonviruliferous whiteflies or not exposed at all. Following inoculation, plants were transplanted to a 50-mesh insect-proof nethouse and grown until fruit maturity. The experiment was performed in two melon-growing seasons: spring, transplant in May and harvest in July; and summer, transplant in August and harvest in October. Following inoculation, SLCV-infected melon plants showed mild symptoms that disappeared with time, and there was no effect on plant height. WmCSV-infected plants developed disease symptoms that became more obvious with time, and plants were somewhat shorter than control plants in the spring but not in the summer. SLCV had no effect on yield, regardless of season. WmCSV had no statistically significant effect on yield in the spring but, in the summer, reduced yield by 22%, on average. Dual-inoculated plants showed a synergistic interaction between the two viruses. They developed disease symptoms that were more pronounced than WmCSV alone, with plants being shorter than control plants by 20 to 25% regardless of season. Moreover, the yield of dual-inoculated plants was reduced on average by 21% in the spring and 54% in the summer, and fruit appearance was adversely affected. Dual inoculation did not affect WmCSV DNA level but SLCV DNA level was increased several-fold by the presence of WmCSV.

  9. Phylogenetic analysis of Melon chlorotic leaf curl virus from Guatemala: Another emergent species in the Squash leaf curl virus clade

    KAUST Repository

    Brown, J.K.

    2011-06-01

    The genome of a new bipartite begomovirus Melon chlorotic leaf curl virus from Guatemala (MCLCuV-GT) was cloned and the genome sequence was determined. The virus causes distinct symptoms on melons that were not previously observed in melon crops in Guatemala or elsewhere. Phylogenetic analysis of MCLCuV-GT and begomoviruses infecting cucurbits and other host plant species indicated that its closest relative was MCLCuV from Costa Rica (MCLCuV-CR). The DNA-A components of two isolates shared 88.8% nucleotide identity, making them strains of the same species. Further, both MCLCuV-GT and MCLCuV-CR grouped with other Western Hemisphere cucurbit-infecting species in the SLCV-clade making them the most southerly cucurbit-infecting members of the clade to date. Although the common region of the cognate components of MCLCuV-GT and MCLCuV-CR, shared similar to 96.3% nucleotide identity. While DNA-A and DNA-B components of MCLCuV-GT were less than 86% nucleotide identity with the respective DNAA and DNA-B common regions of MCLCuV-CR. The late viral genes of the two strains shared the least nt identity (<88%) while their early genes shared the highest nt identity (>90%). The collective evidence suggests that these two strains of MCLCuV are evolutionarily divergent owing in part to recombination, but also due to the accumulation of a substantial number of mutations. In addition they are differentially host-adapted, as has been documented for other cucurbit-infecting, bean-adapted, species in the SLCV clade. (C) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. 不同基质处理对盆栽菊花生长的影响%Effects of Different Matrix Treatments on Growth of Potted Chrysanthemum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨倩; 杨秋生

    2012-01-01

    对不同基质处理盆栽菊花的生长状况进行了观测,并利用模型模拟了菊花茎长随时间的动态变化.结果表明:珍珠岩和蛭石(1∶1)最有利于菊花植株的早期生长;所选模型能模拟菊花茎长随时间的变化,相关系数达到0.9以上;珍珠岩和蛭石(1∶1)处理菊花茎长的理论增长量最大,实际生产中推荐珍珠岩和蛭石(1∶1)作为盆栽菊花的基质.%The growth of potted chrysanthemums with different matrix treatments were observed, and related models were established to simulate the dynamics of chrysanthemum stem varying over time after transplanted. The results showed that the treatment of perlite + vermiculite (1;1) is the optimum matrix for early development of chrysanthemum; the chosen model could well simulate the changes of chrysanthemum stem over time, and the correlation coefficient reached more than 0.9; the theoretical increment of chrysanthemum stem in treatment of perlite + vermiculite (1:1) was the largest. Therefore, the treatment of perlite + vermiculite (1 :1) was recommended to use as matrix for potted chrysanthemums in the practical production.

  11. Occurrence and distribution of pepper veinal mottle virus and cucumber mosaic virus in pepper in Ibadan, Nigeria

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    Arogundade Olawale

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Viral diseases constitute obstacles to pepper production in the world. In Nigeria, pepper plants are primarily affected by pepper veinal mottle virus (PVMV, Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV, Pepper leaf curl Virus (TLCV, Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV, Pepper mottle virus (PMV and a host of other viruses. The experiment was carried out with a diagnostic survey on the experimental field of the National Horticultural Research Institute, Ibadan, Nigeria and on pepper farms in six local government areas within Ibadan Oyo State, Nigeria, forty samples were collected from each of the farms. Diseased samples were obtained from the field and taken to the laboratory for indexing. In ELISA test some of the samples from the pepper farms showed positive reaction to single infection with PVMV (36.79%, CMV (22.14% while some others showed positive reaction to mixed infection of the two viruses (10% but some also negative reaction to PVMV and CMV antisera (31.07.

  12. Morphological, Genome and Gene Expression Changes in Newly Induced Autopolyploid Chrysanthemum lavandulifolium (Fisch. ex Trautv.) Makino

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Ri; Wang, Haibin; Dong, Bin; Yang, Xiaodong; Chen, Sumei; Jiang, Jiafu; Zhang, Zhaohe; Liu, Chen; Zhao, Nan; Chen, Fadi

    2016-01-01

    Autopolyploidy is widespread in higher plants and plays an important role in the process of evolution. The present study successfully induced autotetraploidys from Chrysanthemum lavandulifolium by colchicine. The plant morphology, genomic, transcriptomic, and epigenetic changes between tetraploid and diploid plants were investigated. Ligulate flower, tubular flower and leaves of tetraploid plants were greater than those of the diploid plants. Compared with diploid plants, the genome changed as a consequence of polyploidization in tetraploid plants, namely, 1.1% lost fragments and 1.6% novel fragments occurred. In addition, DNA methylation increased after genome doubling in tetraploid plants. Among 485 common transcript-derived fragments (TDFs), which existed in tetraploid and diploid progenitors, 62 fragments were detected as differentially expressed TDFs, 6.8% of TDFs exhibited up-regulated gene expression in the tetraploid plants and 6.0% exhibited down-regulation. The present study provides a reference for further studying the autopolyploidization role in the evolution of C. lavandulifolium. In conclusion, the autopolyploid C. lavandulifolium showed a global change in morphology, genome and gene expression compared with corresponding diploid. PMID:27735845

  13. Low temperature treatment affects concentration and distribution of chrysanthemum stunt viroid in Argyranthemum

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    Zhibo eZhang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Chrysanthemum stunt viroid (CSVd can infect Argyranthemum and cause serious economic loss. Low temperature treatment combined with meristem culture has been applied to eradicate viroids from their hosts, but without success in eliminating CSVd from diseased Argyranthemum. The objectives of this work were to investigate 1 the effect of low temperature treatment combined with meristem culture on elimination of CSVd, 2 the effect of low temperature treatment on CSVd distribution pattern in shoot apical meristem (SAM, and 3 CSVd distribution in flowers and stems of two infected Argyranthemum cultivars. After treatment with low temperature combined with meristem tip culture, two CSVd-free plants were found in ‘Border Dark Red’, but none in ‘Yellow Empire’. With the help of in situ hybridization, we found that CSVd distribution patterns in the SAM showed no changes in diseased ‘Yellow Empire’ following 5oC treatment, compared with non-treated plants. However, the CSVd-free area in SAM was enlarged in diseased ‘Border Dark Red’ following prolonged 5oC treatment. Localization of CSVd in the flowers and stems of infected ‘Border Dark Red’ and ‘Yellow Empire’ indicated that seeds could not transmit CSVd in these two cultivars, and CSVd existed in phloem. Results obtained in the study contributed to better understanding of the distribution of CSVd in systemically infected plants and the combination of low temperature treatment and meristem tip culture for production of viroid-free plants.

  14. The influence of light color on the rooting of 'Horim Golden' Chrysanthemum cuttings

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    Edward Borowski

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The influence of three different colors of light; blue, green and red, compared with white light as the control, on the rooting of Chrysanthemum cuttings, is presented in this paper. The mother plants and cuttings were irradiated during rooting with different colors of light. This was shown to have had visible influence on the morphological differentiation of cuttings. It also affected the carbohydrate content in them. The rooting of the cuttings reflected this influence. The cuttings obtained from plants grown under white (control or red light were characterized by well-developed root systems in terms of the number, length and mass of the roots. The cuttings from the plants grown under green light were the worst. The influence of the color of the light on the speed with which the first roots were formed was the reverse. The cuttings from the plants irradiated with green light rooted the quickest, next in order were those from plants irradiated with blue, red and white light. Irradiating cuttings with differently colored light during rooting only had an effect on the number of roots formed. This number was high, close to that of control cuttings, in cuttings exposed to red light, decidedly lower in those exposed to blue and, in particular, green light.

  15. Antioxidant Activity, Antitumor Effect, and Antiaging Property of Proanthocyanidins Extracted from Kunlun Chrysanthemum Flowers

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    Siqun Jing

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate the antioxidant activity, antitumor effect, and antiaging property of proanthocyanidins from Kunlun Chrysanthemum flowers (PKCF grown in Xinjiang. In vitro antioxidant experiments results showed that the total antioxidant activity and the scavenging capacity of hydroxyl radicals (•OH and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH• radicals increased in a concentration-dependent manner and were stronger than those of vitamin C. To investigate the antioxidant activity of PKCF in vivo, we used serum, liver, and kidney from mouse for the measurement of superoxide dismutase (SOD, malondialdehyde (MDA, and total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC. Results indicated that PKCF had antioxidative effect in vivo which significantly improved the activity of SOD and T-AOC and decreased MDA content. To investigate the antitumor activity of PKCF, we used H22 cells, HeLa cells, and Eca-109 cells with Vero cells as control. Inhibition ratio and IC50 values were measured by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT assay; PKCF showed great inhibitory activity on H22 cells and HeLa cells. We also used fruit flies as a model for analyzing the anti-aging property of PKCF. Results showed that PKCF has antiaging effect on Drosophila. Results of the present study demonstrated that PKCF could be a promising agent that may find applications in health care, medicine, and cosmetics.

  16. Morphological, Genome and Gene Expression Changes in Newly Induced Autopolyploid Chrysanthemum lavandulifolium (Fisch. ex Trautv. Makino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ri Gao

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Autopolyploidy is widespread in higher plants and plays an important role in the process of evolution. The present study successfully induced autotetraploidys from Chrysanthemum lavandulifolium by colchicine. The plant morphology, genomic, transcriptomic, and epigenetic changes between tetraploid and diploid plants were investigated. Ligulate flower, tubular flower and leaves of tetraploid plants were greater than those of the diploid plants. Compared with diploid plants, the genome changed as a consequence of polyploidization in tetraploid plants, namely, 1.1% lost fragments and 1.6% novel fragments occurred. In addition, DNA methylation increased after genome doubling in tetraploid plants. Among 485 common transcript-derived fragments (TDFs, which existed in tetraploid and diploid progenitors, 62 fragments were detected as differentially expressed TDFs, 6.8% of TDFs exhibited up-regulated gene expression in the tetraploid plants and 6.0% exhibited down-regulation. The present study provides a reference for further studying the autopolyploidization role in the evolution of C. lavandulifolium. In conclusion, the autopolyploid C. lavandulifolium showed a global change in morphology, genome and gene expression compared with corresponding diploid.

  17. CmMYB19 Over-Expression Improves Aphid Tolerance in Chrysanthemum by Promoting Lignin Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yinjie; Sheng, Liping; Zhang, Huanru; Du, Xinping; An, Cong; Xia, Xiaolong; Chen, Fadi; Jiang, Jiafu; Chen, Sumei

    2017-01-01

    The gene encoding the MYB (v-myb avian myeloblastosis vira l oncogene homolog) transcription factor CmMYB19 was isolated from chrysanthemum. It encodes a 200 amino acid protein and belongs to the R2R3-MYB subfamily. CmMYB19 was not transcriptionally activated in yeast, while a transient expression experiment conducted in onion epidermal cells suggested that the CmMYB19 product localized to the nucleus. CmMYB19 transcription was induced by aphid (Macrosiphoniella sanborni) infestation, and the abundance of transcript was higher in the leaf and stem than in the root. The over-expression of CmMYB19 restricted the multiplication of the aphids. A comparison of transcript abundance of the major genes involved in lignin synthesis showed that CmPAL1 (phenylalanine ammonia lyase 1), CmC4H (cinnamate4 hydroxylase), Cm4CL1 (4-hydroxy cinnamoyl CoA ligase 1), CmHCT (hydroxycinnamoyl CoA-shikimate/quinate hydroxycinnamoyl transferase), CmC3H1 (coumarate3 hydroxylase1), CmCCoAOMT1 (caffeoyl CoA O-methyltransferase 1) and CmCCR1 (cinnamyl CoA reductase1) were all upregulated, in agreement with an increase in lignin content in CmMYB19 over-expressing plants. Collectively, the over-expression of CmMYB19 restricted the multiplication of the aphids on the host, mediated by an enhanced accumulation of lignin. PMID:28287502

  18. Formation flavonoid secondary metabolites in callus culture of Chrysanthemum cinerariefolium as alternative provision medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purwianingsih, Widi; Febri, Santika; Kusdianti

    2016-02-01

    Increasing need of medicine ingredients require the discovery of other methods that can be used as an alternative. One method that can be used as an alternative is tissue culture. Quercetin is a flavonoid secondary metabolites that have been known to be useful as antiviral, anti-asthma and anti-cancer potential. The purpose of this study was to produce flavonoids, especially quercetin in callus culture Chrysanthemum cinerariefolium. Pieces of leaves of plantlets C. cinerariefolium used as explants for formation of callus tissue. To grow the callus, Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium used with addition of various concentrations of growth regulators 2.4-D, and kinetin. For multiplication, callus subcultured on similar medium. Callus that had formed, especially brown callus, further analyzed using Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrum (GCMS). Before analyzed callus was extracted in 95% ethanol. The result showed that callus potentially generate secondary metabolite are brown and friable. Based on these parameters, the best callus produced from leaf explants grown on MS medium with the addition of 4 mg / L 2,4-D and 0 mg / L kinetin. The callus contain secondary metabolites such as some of the flavonoid quercetin precursors such as acetic acid and tetrahydroxychalcone, and some other secondary metabolites.

  19. Inhibitory Effect of Chrysanthemum zawadskii Herbich var. latilobum Kitamura Extract on RANKL-Induced Osteoclast Differentiation

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    Dong Ryun Gu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Chrysanthemum zawadskii Herbich var. latilobum Kitamura, known as “Gujulcho” in Korea, has been used in traditional medicine to treat various inflammatory diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis. However, these effects have not been tested on osteoclasts, the bone resorbing cells that regulate bone metabolism. Here, we investigated the effects of C. zawadskii Herbich var. latilobum Kitamura ethanol extract (CZE on osteoclast differentiation induced by treatment with the receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL. CZE inhibited osteoclast differentiation and formation in a dose-dependent manner. The inhibitory effect of CZE on osteoclastogenesis was due to the suppression of ERK activation and the ablation of RANKL-stimulated Ca2+-oscillation via the inactivation of PLCγ2, followed by the inhibition of CREB activation. These inhibitory effects of CZE resulted in a significant repression of c-Fos expression and a subsequent reduction of NFATc1, a key transcription factor for osteoclast differentiation, fusion, and activation in vitro and in vivo. These results indicate that CZE negatively regulates osteoclast differentiation and may be a therapeutic candidate for the treatment of various bone diseases, such as postmenopausal osteoporosis, rheumatoid arthritis, and periodontitis.

  20. Transcriptome-wide survey and expression analysis of stress-responsive NAC genes in Chrysanthemum lavandulifolium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, He; Wang, Yi; Wang, Shunli; Wu, Xuan; Yang, Ke; Niu, Yajing; Dai, Silan

    2012-09-01

    The plant-specific NAC (NAM, ATAF, and CUC) transcription factor family plays a vital role in various plant growth and developmental processes as well as in stress resistance. Using RNA sequencing, we found that the ClNAC genes (ClNAC1-44) were the most strongly up-regulated transcription factor family in Chrysanthemum lavandulifolium leaves under salt treatment. We carried out reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction to monitor ClNAC genes response against multiple stresses and hormonal treatments including salt, drought, cold, heat, abscisic acid and salicylic acid treatments. The results showed that 35 ClNAC genes were differentially expressed in different organ, and 32 ClNAC genes could respond to at least 2 kinds of treatments. Quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction showed that 10 ClNAC genes belonging to 7 different subfamilies could respond to at least 5 kinds of treatments. Over 50-fold variation in transcriptional levels of ClNAC17 and ClNAC21 genes was observed under 6 different types of treatments. In the present study, high-level expression of ClNAC genes under abiotic stresses and hormonal treatments suggests that the NAC transcription factors play important roles in abiotic stress tolerance and adaptation.

  1. Ni (II) adsorption onto Chrysanthemum indicum: Influencing factors, isotherms, kinetics, and thermodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilvanathan, Sowmya; Shanthakumar, S

    2016-10-02

    The study explores the adsorption potential of Chrysanthemum indicum biomass for nickel ion removal from aqueous solution. C. indicum flowers in raw (CIF-I) and biochar (CIF-II) forms were used as adsorbents in this study. Batch experiments were conducted to ascertain the optimum conditions of solution pH, adsorbent dosage, contact time, and temperature for varying initial Ni(II) ion concentrations. Surface area, surface morphology, and functionality of the adsorbents were characterized by Brunauer, Emmett, and Teller (BET) surface analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Adsorption kinetics were modeled using pseudo-first order, pseudo-second order, Elovich, intraparticle diffusion, Bangham's, and Boyd's plot. The equilibrium data were modeled using Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin, and Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) isotherm models. Experimental data provided the best fit to pseudo-second-order kinetic model and Langmuir isotherm model for the adsorption of Ni(II) ion on both CIF-I and CIF-II with maximum adsorption capacities of 23.97 and 44.02 mg g(-1), respectively. Thermodynamic analysis of the data proved the process to be spontaneous and endothermic in nature. Desorption studies were conducted to evaluate the possibility of reusing the adsorbents. Findings of the present study provide substantial evidence for the use of C. indicum flower as an eco-friendly and potential adsorbent for the removal of Ni(II) ions from aqueous solution.

  2. Seasonal changes of photoperiodic response and inflorescence quality in pot cultivars of Chrysanthemum × grandiflorum grown in greenhouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Jerzy

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research was to investigate seasonal changes of photoperiodic response and inflorescence quality in chrysanthemum from the Time group grown all year round without supplementary lighting. Four chrysanthemum cultivars were grown in 12 cycles starting on the second day of each successive month. The first cycle began on 2 January. From the moment of potting, the plants were treated with a short day. In periods of naturally long days, the day was shortened to 10.5 hours through shading. No supplementary illumination was used from November to mid-February (a photoperiod of under 10 hours to improve light conditions in the period of insolation deficit. In Polish climatic conditions, the shortest photoperiodic responses were recorded usually in the cycles starting in February or March and August or September. An exceptionally longer photoperiodic response was recorded in the cycle including the height of summer, i.e. planting from June to July, when the temperature during the day was very high, and from October to December i.e. in the period of substantial insolation deficit. The highest quality of flower heads was attained by plants potted mostly between 2 March and 2 September and flowering from April - May to November. Those plants developed the greatest number of inflorescences and usually a typical, cultivar-specific colour of the flower. Chrysanthemums potted from 2 June to 2 July, i.e. in the period of the greatest heat, produced inflorescences with the smallest diameter. For the cultivar 'Cool Time', this unfavorable period lasted from 2 April to 2 August.

  3. 凝固型贡菊酸奶的研制%Preparation of set yogurt with chrysanthemum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙鹏; 黄君红

    2012-01-01

    研制凝固型贡菊酸奶,探讨其生产工艺,筛选出原料添加的最佳配方,并检测成品中乳酸菌活菌数.实验结果表明,以保加利亚乳杆菌和嗜热链球菌(1∶1)混合作为发酵菌种,4%接种量,添加15%贡菊茶,7%白砂糖,9%奶粉,于41℃发酵,所制成的贡菊酸奶,组织状态好,口感细腻,有酸奶和菊花茶特有的清香,乳酸菌活菌数高达2.66× 109c fu/mL.其生产工艺流程简单、可行,是一种有开发前景的新型保健乳制品.%A set yogurt with chrysanthemum developed and the production technology investigated in the paper. Through experiment, the optimal formula of raw materials was gotten. The result showed that yogurt with chrysanthemum had good state texture and taste and peculiar flavor when 9% milk powder was fermented with L. bulgaricus and S. thermophilus at the mixture ration of 1:1 at 41℃. and 4% inoculation, 15% chrysanthemum and 7% sucrose was added to the above mentioned mixture at the same time. The number of live lactobacillus was up to 2.66×109cfu/ml. The production technique was simple and applicable and this yogurt is new health care food with exploiting prospect.

  4. Effect of day and night temperature on internode and stem length in chrysanthemum: is everything explained by DIF?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, S M P; Heuvelink, E; Cascais, R; van Kooten, O

    2002-07-01

    In many plant species, including chrysanthemum, a strong positive correlation between internode length and DIF [difference between day (DT) and night (NT) temperature] has been observed. However, Langton and Cockshull (1997. Scientia Horticulturae 69: 229-237) reported no such relationship and showed that absolute DT and NT explained internode length rather than DIF. To investigate these conflicting results and to clarify the validity of the DIF concept, cut chrysanthemums (Chrysanthemum 'Reagan Improved') were grown in growth chambers at all 16 combinations of four DT and four NT (16, 20, 24 and 28 degrees C) with a 12 h day length. Length of internode 10, number of internodes and stem length were measured on days 5, 10, 17, 22 and 27 after starting the temperature treatments. Internode length on day 10 showed a positive linear relationship with DIF (R2 = 0.64). However, when internodes had reached their final length in all treatments (day 27), a much stronger positive linear relation was observed (R2 = 0.81). A model to predict final internode length was developed based on the absolute DT and NT responses: both responses were optimum curves and no significant interaction between DT and NT occurred [final internode length (mm) = -32.23 + 3.56DT + 1.08NT - 0.0687DT2 - 0.0371NT2; R2 = 0.91, where TD is day temperature and TN is night temperature]. It is shown that DIF can predict final internode length only within a temperature range where effects of DT and NT are equal in magnitude and opposite in sign (18-24 degrees C). Internode appearance rate, as well as stem length formed during the experiment, showed an optimum response to DT.

  5. Repellent effects of pongam oil on settlement and oviposition of the common greenhouse whitefly Trialeurodes vaporariorum on chrysanthemum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ROMAN PAVELA; GERHARD HERDA

    2007-01-01

    The repellent activities, including host deterrence and anti-oviposion, of pongam oil against the adults of the common greenhouse whitefly Trialeurodes vaporariorum Westwood in greenhouses were tested. Chrysanthemum plants treated with different concentrations (0.5%-2.0%) of water-suspended pongam oil showed relatively longlasting host deterrent and anti-oviposition effects on the adults of greenhouse whitefly. Although the repellent effect declined in time and concentration, strong effects on the reduction of oviposition were found, which lasts, dependent on concentration at least 12 days after application.

  6. De novo generation of defective interfering-like RNAs in broad bean mottle bromovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogany, J; Romero, J; Huang, Q; Sgro, J Y; Shang, H; Bujarski, J J

    1995-10-01

    Broad been mottle virus (BBMV) is the only member of the bromoviruses that is known to accumulate defective-interfering (DI) RNAs (Romero et al., Virology 194, 576-584, 1993). De novo generation of DI-like RNAs was demonstrated during serial passages of BBMV in broad bean using either DI RNA-free virion RNA preparations or transcribed genomic RNA inocula. As for previously described DI RNAs, all but one of the characterized de novo generated DI-like RNAs were derived by a single in-frame deletion from the RNA2 component. The sole exception was derived by two shorter in-frame deletions from RNA2. The maintenance of an open reading frame by all DI-like RNAs suggests the importance of coding capacity and/or the shortened 2a protein in the accumulation of these RNAs during infection. The deletion junction sites were between nucleotides 1152 and 2366, suggesting that the retained regions are essential for the efficient accumulation of BBMV DI-like RNAs in planta. Short regions of sequence similarity and/or complementarity were revealed at the 5' and 3' junction borders. We speculate that these regions can facilitate DI (DI-like) RNA formation. In addition to DI-like RNAs, the full-length nucleotide sequences of RNA2 components of the Type and Morocco strains of BBMV are presented.

  7. Detection and molecular characterization of Pepper mild mottle virus in Serbia

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    Milošević Dragana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available During 2009 and 2010, a survey was conducted in pepper crops to detect the possible presence of Pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV in Serbia. A total of 239 pepper samples from 39 crops at 26 localities were collected and analyzed for the presence of PMMoV, Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV, Potato virus Y (PVY, and Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV, using DAS-ELISA test. Although it was detected in a small percentage, PMMoV could pose a threat to pepper production in Serbia due to its rapid seed-borne spread. Presence of PMMoV was confirmed by serological and biological detection, followed by conventional reverse transcription RT-PCR, using primers specific for the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp and the coat protein (CP genes. Molecular identification confirmed that the Serbian isolates belong to PMMoV pathotypes P1,2 which do not break the resistance gene L3. Reconstructed phylogenetic tree confirmed the allocation of the Serbian isolates together with the majority of PMMoV isolates which belong to pathotypes P1,2. This study represents the first serological and molecular characterization of PMMoV infection of pepper in Serbia, and provides important data on the population structure. The obtained data could have great influence on pepper production in Serbia as well as future pepper resistance breeding in the country. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR31030 i br. III-43001

  8. Infectivity and complete nucleotide sequence of cucumber fruit mottle mosaic virus isolate Cm cDNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Sun-Ju; Hong, Jin-Sung; Lee, Gung Pyo

    2014-07-01

    Three isolates of cucumber fruit mottle mosaic virus (CFMMV) were collected from melon, cucumber, and pumpkin plants in Korea. A full-length cDNA clone of CFMMV-Cm (melon isolate) was produced and evaluated for infectivity after T7 transcription in vitro (pT7CF-Cmflc). The complete CFMMV genome sequence of the infectious clone pT7CF-Cmflc was determined. The genome of CFMMV-Cm consisted of 6,571 nucleotides and shared high nucleotide sequence identity (98.8 %) with the Israel isolate of CFMMV. Based on the infectious clone pT7CF-Cmflc, a CaMV 35S-promoter driven cDNA clone (p35SCF-Cmflc) was subsequently constructed and sequenced. Mechanical inoculation with RNA transcripts of pT7CF-Cmflc and agro-inoculation with p35SCF-Cmflc resulted in systemic infection of cucumber and melon, producing symptoms similar to those produced by CFMMV-Cm. Progeny virus in infected plants was detected by RT-PCR, western blot assay, and transmission electron microscopy.

  9. Analysis of the systemic colonization of cucumber plants by Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, I M; Thompson, J R; García-Arenal, F

    2004-03-01

    Systemic movement of Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV) in cucumber plants was shown to be from photoassimilate source to sink, thus indicating phloem transport. Nevertheless, CGMMV was not detected by immunocytochemical procedures in the intermediary cell-sieve element complex in inoculated cotyledons, where photoassimilate loading occurs. In stem internodes, CGMMV was first localized in the companion cells of the external phloem and subsequently in all tissues except the medulla, therefore suggesting leakage of the virus from, and reloading into, the transport phloem during systemic movement. In systemically infected sink leaves, CGMMV was simultaneously detected in the xylem and phloem. Interestingly, CGMMV accumulated to high levels in the differentiating tracheids of young leaves implying that the xylem could be involved in the systemic movement of CGMMV. This possibility was tested using plants in which cell death was induced in a portion of the stem by steam treatment. At 24 degrees C, steam treatment effectively prevented the systemic movement of CGMMV, even though viral RNA was detected in washes of the xylem above the steamed internode suggesting that xylem circulation occurred. At 29 degrees C, CGMMV systemically infected steam-treated cucumber plants, indicating that CGMMV can move systemically via the xylem. Xylem transport of CGMMV was, however, less efficient than phloem transport in terms of the time required for systemic infection and the percentage of plants infected.

  10. Occurrence and molecular characterization of Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus in cucurbit crops of KPK, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asad Ali

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Field survey of the cucurbit crops revealed a high incidence of Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province (KPK, Pakistan. Among the seven districts surveyed, average percent incidence of CGMMV was recorded up to 58.1% in district Nowshera, followed by 51.1% in district Charsada, 40.5% in district Swabi and 37.3% in district Mardan. In Swat and Dir districts average incidence CGMMV was recorded upto 31.2% and 29.4%, respectively. Among the different crops highest incidence in plain areas of KPK was recorded in bottle gourd (59.3% followed by 56.3% in Squash, 54.5% in Pumpkin, 45.5% in Melon, 41.7% in Cucumber and 29.9% in Sponge gourd. In Northern hilly areas highest incidence of CGMMV (52.9% was observed in pumpkin, followed by 49.6% in bottle gourd, 47.3% in squash, 45.1% in Melon 42.3% in cucumber and 41.6% in sponge gourd. Little variability was observed in the coat protein amino acid sequence identities of CGMMV Pakistan isolate, when compared with other reported isolates.

  11. Complete genome sequencing of Piper yellow mottle virus infecting black pepper, betelvine, and Indian long pepper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deeshma, K P; Bhat, A I

    2015-02-01

    The complete genome of the Piper yellow mottle virus (PYMoV), a Badnavirus belonging to the family Caulimoviridae, was sequenced from three naturally infected hosts namely, black pepper, betelvine, and Indian long pepper. The genome length of the three virus strains (one from each of the three host species) varied from 7,559 to 7,584 nucleotides, and all the three strains possessed four open reading frames (ORFs) I to IV that potentially encode proteins of 15.67, 17.08, 218.6, and 17.22 kDa, respectively. ORF III encodes a polyprotein consisting of viral movement protein, trimeric dUTPase, zinc finger, aspartic protease, reverse transcriptase, and RNase H whereas ORF I, II, and IV encode proteins of unknown functions. The complete genome sequences at the nucleotide level were 89-99 % identical with one available sequence of PYMoV and 39-56 % identical with other badnaviruses, indicating that all three are strains of PYMoV. Nucleotide and amino acid sequences of ORF I-IV and of the intergenic region (IR) were 80-100 % identical among PYMoV strains. Phylogenetic analysis of ORF III amino acid sequences showed the PYMoV strains forming a distinct cluster well separated from other badnaviruses. Among other badnaviruses, Fig badnavirus 1 (FBV-1) was the one most closely related to PYMoV.

  12. Short communication. First report of Eggplant mottled dwarf virus in China rose in southern Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Parrella

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Eggplant mottled dwarf virus (EMDV, genus Nucleorhabdovirus, family Rhabdoviridae is transmitted in nature by leafhoppers and its natural host range includes vegetable crops (eggplant, tomato, potato, pepper, ornamentals (pittosporum, honeysuckle, pelargonium and wild plants (caper, Solanum nigrum. The prevalence of infections is generally very low. EMDV has been demonstrated to be the causal agent of a vein yellowing disease of China rose (Hibiscus rosa-sinensis in southern Italy. In this work, four locations from Málaga and Granada provinces (southern Spain were surveyed in 2011 to study the prevalence of EMDV infections in China rose by serological and molecular methods. Overall, EMDV was detected in 77.3% of the samples (33 out of 45 samples tested. Mechanical transmission tests and immunoelectron microscopy confirmed the presence of EMDV. The possible causes of such a high and unexpected prevalence are discussed. The use of molecular hibridization with an EMDV specific riboprobe is proposed for early screening of vegetative propagated China rose plants to avoid dissemination of infected material.

  13. Uncoating Mechanism of Carnation Mottle Virus Revealed by Cryo-EM Single Particle Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chun-Yan; Zhang, Qin-Fen; Gao, Yuan-Zhu; Xie, Li; Li, Hong-Mei; Hong, Jian; Zhang, Chuan-Xi

    2015-01-01

    Genome uncoating is a prerequisite for the successful infection of plant viruses in host plants. Thus far, little is known about the genome uncoating of the Carnation mottle virus (CarMV). Here, we obtained two reconstructions of CarMV at pH7 in the presence (Ca-pH7) and absence (EDTA-pH7) of calcium ions by Cryo-EM single particle analysis, which achieved 6.4 Å and 8 Å resolutions respectively. Our results showed that chelation of the calcium ions under EDTA-pH7 resulted in reduced interaction between the subunits near the center of the asymmetric unit but not overall size change of the viral particles, which indicated that the role of the calcium ions in CarMV was not predominantly for the structural preservation. Part of the genomic RNA closest to the capsid was found to be located near the center of the asymmetric unit, which might result from the interaction between genomic RNA and Lys194 residues. Together with the electrostatic potential analysis on the inner surface of the asymmetric unit, the reduced interaction near the center of the asymmetric unit under EDTA-pH7 suggested that the genome release of CarMV might be realized through the center of the asymmetric unit.

  14. Complete nucleotide sequence of a Spanish isolate of Parietaria mottle virus infecting tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galipienso, Luis; Rubio, Luis; López, Luis; Soler, Salvador; Aramburu, José

    2009-10-01

    The genome of a Spanish isolate of Parietaria mottle virus (PMoV) obtained from tomato (strain PMoV-T) was completely sequenced. Protein motifs conserved for RNA viruses were identified: the p1 protein contained a metyltransferase domain in its N-terminal half and a triphosphatase/ helicase domain in its C-terminal half, the p2 protein contained a RNA polymerase domain; the 3a protein contained a RNA-binding domain with α-helix and β-sheet secondary structures. In addition, stem-loop structures with potential capacity of protein interactions were predicted on the untranslated terminal regions. Comparison with the other sequenced PMoV isolate showed nucleotide identities of 93, 90, and 93% for genomic RNAs 1, 2 and 3, respectively, and amino acid identities ranging from 88 to 97% for the different proteins. A cytosine deletion was detected at position 1,366 of RNA 3, involving a start codon for the coat protein (CP) gene different from the other PMoV isolate, resulting in a CP 16 amino acids shorter. Comparison of synonymous and nonsynonymous mutations revealed different selective constraints along the genome.

  15. Evidence that whitefly-transmitted cowpea mild mottle virus belongs to the genus Carlavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidu, R A; Gowda, S; Satyanarayana, T; Boyko, V; Reddy, A S; Dawson, W O; Reddy, D V

    1998-01-01

    Two strains of whitefly-transmitted cowpea mild mottle virus (CPMMV) causing severe (CPMMV-S) and mild (CPMMV-M) disease symptoms in peanuts were collected from two distinct agro-ecological zones in India. The host-range of these strains was restricted to Leguminosae and Chenopodiaceae, and each could be distinguished on the basis of symptoms incited in different hosts. The 3'-terminal 2500 nucleotide sequence of the genomic RNA of both the strains was 70% identical and contains five open reading frames (ORFs). The first three (P25, P12 and P7) overlap to form a triple gene block of proteins, P32 encodes the coat protein, followed by P12 protein located at the 3' end of the genome. Genome organization and pair-wise comparisons of amino acid sequences of proteins encoded by these ORFs with corresponding proteins of known carlaviruses and potexviruses suggest that CPMMV-S and CPMMV-M are closely related to viruses in the genus Carlavirus. Based on the data, it is concluded that CPMMV is a distinct species in the genus Carlavirus.

  16. Molecular variability of cowpea mild mottle virus infecting soybean in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanardo, L G; Silva, F N; Lima, A T M; Milanesi, D F; Castilho-Urquiza, G P; Almeida, A M R; Zerbini, F M; Carvalho, C M

    2014-04-01

    Molecular variability was assessed for 18 isolates of cowpea mild mottle virus (CPMMV, genus Carlavirus, family Betaflexiviridae) found infecting soybean in various Brazilian states (Bahia, Goiás, Maranhão, Mato Grosso, Minas Gerais, Pará) in 2001 and 2010. A variety of symptoms was expressed in soybean cv. CD206, ranging from mild (crinkle/blistering leaves, mosaic and vein clearing) to severe (bud blight, dwarfing, leaf and stem necrosis). Recombination analysis revealed only one CPMMV isolate to be recombinant. Pairwise comparisons and phylogenetic analysis were performed for partial genomes (ORF 2 to the 3' terminus) and for each ORF individually (ORFs 2 to 6), showing the isolates to be distinct. The topology of the phylogenetic tree could be related to symptoms, but not to the year of collection or geographical origin. Additionally, the phylogenetic analysis supported the existence of two distinct strains of the virus, designated CPMMV-BR1 and CPMMV-BR2, with molecular variations between them.

  17. Temporal and spatial Bean pod mottle virus-induced gene silencing in soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juvale, Parijat S; Hewezi, Tarek; Zhang, Chunquan; Kandoth, Pramod Kaitheri; Mitchum, Melissa G; Hill, John H; Whitham, Steven A; Baum, Thomas J

    2012-12-01

    Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) is a powerful reverse genetics tool in plant science. In this study, we investigated the temporal and spatial silencing patterns achieved by Bean pod mottle virus (BPMV)-based VIGS in soybean using virus constructs targeting green fluorescence protein (GFP). Silencing GFP enabled an in-depth analysis of silencing in soybean tissues over time in a transgenic line constitutively expressing GFP. We discovered evidence for variable GFP silencing based on insert orientation and targeted region in the coding sequence. A 3' sequence in reverse orientation produced the strongest silencing phenotypes. Furthermore, we documented that BPMV VIGS can achieve widespread silencing in a broad range of tissues, including leaves, stems, flowers and roots. Near-complete silencing was attained in leaves and flowers. Although weaker than in shoots, the observed gene silencing in soybean roots will also allow reverse genetics studies in this tissue. When GFP fluorescence was assayed in cross-sections of stems and leaf petioles, near-complete and uniform silencing was observed in all cell types. Silencing was observed from as early as 2 weeks post-virus inoculation in leaves to 7 weeks post-virus inoculation in flowers, suggesting that this system can induce and maintain silencing for significant durations.

  18. Interspecific hybridization contributes to high genetic diversity and apparent effective population size in an endemic population of mottled ducks (Anas fulvigula maculosa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Jeffrey L.; Sonsthagen, Sarah A.; Lavretsky, Philip; Rezsutek, Michael; Johnson, William P.; McCracken, Kevin G.

    2014-01-01

    Under drift-mutation equilibrium, genetic diversity is expected to be correlated with effective population size (Ne). Changes in population size and gene flow are two important processes that can cause populations to deviate from this expected relationship. In this study, we used DNA sequences from six independent loci to examine the influence of these processes on standing genetic diversity in endemic mottled ducks (Anas fulvigula) and geographically widespread mallards (A. platyrhynchos), two species known to hybridize. Mottled ducks have an estimated census size that is about two orders-of-magnitude smaller than that of mallards, yet these two species have similar levels of genetic diversity, especially at nuclear DNA. Coalescent analyses suggest that a population expansion in the mallard at least partly explains this discrepancy, but the mottled duck harbors higher genetic diversity and apparent N e than expected for its census size even after accounting for a population decline. Incorporating gene flow into the model, however, reduced the estimated Ne of mottled ducks to 33 % of the equilibrium Ne and yielded an estimated Ne consistent with census size. We also examined the utility of these loci to distinguish among mallards, mottled ducks, and their hybrids. Most putatively pure individuals were correctly assigned to species, but the power for detecting hybrids was low. Although hybridization with mallards potentially poses a conservation threat to mottled ducks by creating a risk of extinction by hybridization, introgression of mallard alleles has helped maintain high genetic diversity in mottled ducks and might be important for the adaptability and survival of this species.

  19. Identification of a single-stranded DNA virus associated with citrus chlorotic dwarf disease, a new member in the family Geminiviridae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loconsole, Giuliana; Saldarelli, Pasquale; Doddapaneni, Harshavardhan; Savino, Vito; Martelli, Giovanni P; Saponari, Maria

    2012-10-10

    In the attempt to identify the causal agent of Citrus chlorotic dwarf disease (CCDD), a virus-like disorder of citrus, the small RNA fraction and total DNA from symptomatic citrus plants were subjected to high-throughput sequencing. DNA fragments deriving from an apparently new geminivirus-like agent were found and assembled by NGS to re-construct the entire viral genome. The newly identified virus has a circular single-stranded DNA genome comprising five open reading frames (ORFs) with sequence homologies with those encoded by geminiviruses. PCR and qPCR assays were successfully used for determining its presence in the CCDD-affected plants obtained by graft propagation. The larger genome size (3.64 vs. 2.5-3.0 kb) and a number of differences in its structural organization, identified this virus as a highly divergent member of the family Geminiviridae, to which the provisional name of Citrus chlorotic dwarf-associated virus (CCDaV) is assigned. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Molecular, serological and biological variation among chickpea chlorotic stunt virus isolates from five countries of North Africa and West Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, A D; Menzel, W; Varrelmann, M; Vetten, H Josef

    2009-01-01

    Chickpea chlorotic stunt virus (CpCSV), a proposed new member of the genus Polerovirus (family Luteoviridae), has been reported only from Ethiopia. In attempts to determine the geographical distribution and variability of CpCSV, a pair of degenerate primers derived from conserved domains of the luteovirus coat protein (CP) gene was used for RT-PCR analysis of various legume samples originating from five countries and containing unidentified luteoviruses. Sequencing of the amplicons provided evidence for the occurrence of CpCSV also in Egypt, Morocco, Sudan, and Syria. Phylogenetic analysis of the CP nucleotide sequences of 18 samples from the five countries revealed the existence of two geographic groups of CpCSV isolates differing in CP sequences by 8-10%. Group I included isolates from Ethiopia and Sudan, while group II comprised those from Egypt, Morocco and Syria. For distinguishing these two groups, a simple RFLP test using HindIII and/or PvuII for cleavage of CP-gene-derived PCR products was developed. In ELISA and immunoelectron microscopy, however, isolates from these two groups could not be distinguished with rabbit antisera raised against a group-I isolate from Ethiopia (CpCSV-Eth) and a group-II isolate from Syria (CpCSV-Sy). Since none of the ten monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) that had been produced earlier against CpCSV-Eth reacted with group-II isolates, further MAbs were produced. Of the seven MAbs raised against CpCSV-Sy, two reacted only with CpCSV-Sy and two others with both CpCSV-Sy and -Eth. This indicated that there are group I- and II-specific and common (species-specific) epitopes on the CpCSV CP and that the corresponding MAbs are suitable for specific detection and discrimination of CpCSV isolates. Moreover, CpCSV-Sy (group II) caused more severe stunting and yellowing in faba bean than CpCSV-Eth (group I). In conclusion, our data indicate the existence of a geographically associated variation in the molecular, serological and presumably

  1. Cladosporium cladosporioides and Cladosporium pseudocladosporioides as potential new fungal antagonists of Puccinia horiana Henn., the causal agent of chrysanthemum white rust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guevara-Fefer, Patricia; Márquez-Guzmán, G. Judith; Pérez-Martínez, Carolina

    2017-01-01

    Puccinia horiana Hennings, the causal agent of chrysanthemum white rust, is a worldwide quarantine organism and one of the most important fungal pathogens of Chrysanthemum × morifolium cultivars, which are used for cut flowers and as potted plants in commercial production regions of the world. It was previously reported to be controlled by Lecanicillium lecanii, Cladosporium sphaerospermum, C. uredinicola and Aphanocladium album, due to their antagonistic and hyperparasitic effects. We report novel antagonist species on Puccinia horiana. Fungi isolated from rust pustules in a commercial greenhouse from Villa Guerrero, México, were identified as Cladosporium cladosporioides and Cladosporium pseudocladosporioides based upon molecular analysis and morphological characters. The antagonism of C. cladosporioides and C. pseudocladosporioides on chrysanthemum white rust was studied using light and electron microscopy in vitro at the host/parasite interface. Cladosporium cladosporioides and C. pseudocladosporioides grew towards the white rust teliospores and colonized the sporogenous cells, but no direct penetration of teliospores was observed; however, the structure and cytoplasm of teliospores were altered. The two Cladosporium spp. were able to grow on media containing laminarin, but not when chitin was used as the sole carbon source; these results suggest that they are able to produce glucanases. Results from the study indicate that both Cladosporium species had potential as biological control agents of chrysanthemum white rust. PMID:28141830

  2. Obstruction of Water Uptake in cut Chrysanthemum Stems after Dry Storage: Role of Wound-induced Increase in Enzyme Activities and Air Emboli

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meeteren, van U.; Arevalo-Galarza, L.

    2009-01-01

    Hydraulic conductance of cut chrysanthemum stems was lowered by the aspiration of air as well as by a wound-induced plant response. By measuring the hydraulic conductance of stem segments in which air could be introduced into and/or removed from the xylem vessels at various times after harvest, we

  3. Soluções de manutenção na pós-colheita de Chrysanthemum morifolium cv. Dragon Chrysanthemum morifolium cv. Dragon postharvest maintenance solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poliana Cristina Spricigo

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available O desenvolvimento e uso de técnicas que prolonguem a durabilidade das flores, mantendo a qualidade do produto, é imprescindível para redução de perdas pós-colheita. Objetivou-se, neste trabalho, avaliar soluções de manutenção, associadas ou não a sacarose, na manutenção da qualidade pós-colheita de hastes de crisântemos. O experimento foi conduzido sob delineamento inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial, com cinco tratamentos e três repetições, com 2 hastes florais cada uma. Os tratamentos utilizaram água destilada; 8-HQC a 100 mg L-1; 8-HQC a 100 mg L-1 + sacarose a 50 g L-1, 8-HQC a 200 mg L-1; 8-HQC a 200 mg L-1 + sacarose a 50 g L-1. Foram feitas avaliações físicas: coloração, massa fresca e conteúdo relativo de água (CRA; avaliações químicas: açúcares redutores e pigmentos; e avaliações qualitativas: turgescência, cor das flores, e número de botões, flores entreabertas e abertas. A combinação de 8-HQC 200 mg L-1 + sacarose a 50 g L-1 foi a que apresentou melhor desempenho para a manutenção da qualidade das hastes florais, favorecendo a abertura de botões e a turgescência das lígulas. A sacarose contribuiu para uma melhor manutenção de substâncias de reserva na haste, que tiveram a sua vida de vaso estendida.The development and use of techniques that extend the life vase of the flowers, maintaining the quality of the product, is essential for reducing postharvest losses. The objective of this work was to evaluate different solutions for maintenance, associated or not to sucrose, in maintaining the postharvest quality of chrysanthemum stems. The treatments used distilled water, 8-HQC to 100 mg L-1, 8-HQC to 100 mg L-1 + sucrose 50 g L-1, 8-HQC to 200 mg L-1, 8-HQC to 200 mg L-1 + sucrose 50 g L-1. Physical assessments were made: color, fresh mass and relative water content; chemical evaluations: reducing sugars and pigments, and qualitative assessments: turgidity, color of the flowers, and

  4. Chemical constituents of Chrysanthemum indicum L.%野菊花的化学成分

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张聪; 秦民坚; 王玉

    2009-01-01

    目的:研究菊科菊属植物野菊花(Chrysanthemum indicum L.)的化学成分.方法:采用硅胶柱层析、凝胶柱层析、重结晶等方法进行化学成分的分离与纯化,并运用核磁共振、质谱等波谱技术鉴定化合物的结构.结果:分离并鉴定了13个化合物:其中黄酮类9个,分别为金合欢素(acacetin,1)、木犀草素(luteolin,2)、芹菜素(apigenin,3)、异泽兰黄素(eupatilin,4)、麦黄酮(tricin,5)、5,7,3',4'-Tetrahydroxy-6,5'-dime-thoxyflavone(6)、芹菜素-7-O-β-D-葡萄糖苷(apigenin-7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside,7)、木犀草素-7-O-β-D-葡萄糖苷(luteolin-7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside,8)、蒙花苷(linarin,9);倍半萜类成分3个:cumambrin-A(10)、野菊花内酯(yejuhualactone,11)、7-(2-hydroxy-2-propyl)-10-methyl-4-methyleneperhydro-naphthalene-3,5,6-triol(12);甾体类成分1个:β-胡萝卜苷(β-daucosterol,13).结论:化合物4~7为该植物中首次分得,其中化合物5,6为该属植物中首次分得.

  5. Differential allergenicity of mature and immature pollen grains in Shasta daisy (Chrysanthemum maximum Ramond.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Sharif Shoushtari

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Weed pollen grains belonging to  the  Asteraceae  family contain  a variety of  allergens inducing type I  and IV allergies in susceptible people. The  aim of this research was to compare  the  allergenic properties  of  immature  and  mature  Shasta  daisy pollen  grains (Chrysanthemum maximum Ramond to define the potential role of the maturation process on the allergenicity of Asteraceae pollen grains.The  immature (IP and mature  pollen (MP grains were first studied by optical and scanning electron microscopand their protein contents were quantitatively and qualitatively analyzed. Pollen extracts were finally used to sensitize guinea pigs in order to obtain IP and MP specific antibodies. Nasal provocation tests using IP and MP crude extracts were also performed on pre-sensitized guinea pigs.The  MP  extract  induced  IgE  and  eosinophilia in  blood  and  positive skin  tests  in sensitized guinea pigs. Moreover, high number of eosinophils was found in the nasal mucosa of MP sensitized guinea pigs. SDS-PAGE analysis of the IP and MP protein content showed seven and five apparent bands ranging from 7 to 66kDa respectively.According to immunoblot analysis, MP extract contained a single allergen of 66kDa. The overall results showed developmental processes of Shasta daisy pollen grains towards both morphological and molecular changes increasing their allergenic potency.

  6. Biosynthesized silver nanoparticles using floral extract of Chrysanthemum indicum L.--potential for malaria vector control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arokiyaraj, Selvaraj; Dinesh Kumar, Vannam; Elakya, Vijay; Kamala, Tamilselvan; Park, Sung Kwon; Ragam, Muthiah; Saravanan, Muthupandian; Bououdina, Mohomad; Arasu, Mariadhas Valan; Kovendan, Kalimuthu; Vincent, Savariar

    2015-07-01

    Mosquitoes transmit serious human diseases, causing millions of deaths every year. The use of synthetic insecticides to control vector mosquitoes has caused physiological resistance and adverse environmental effects in addition to high operational cost. Insecticides synthesized of natural products for vector control have been a priority in this area. In the present study, silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) were green-synthesized using a floral extract of Chrysanthemum indicum screened for larvicidal and pupicidal activity against the first to fourth instar larvae and pupae of the malaria vector Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes. The synthesized Ag NPs were characterized by using UV-vis absorption, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy techniques. The textures of the yielded Ag NPs were found to be spherical and polydispersed with a mean size in the range of 25-59 nm. Larvae and pupae were exposed to various concentrations of aqueous extract of C. indicum and synthesized Ag NPs for 24 h, and the maximum mortality was observed from the synthesized Ag NPs against the vector A. stephensi (LC50 = 5.07, 10.35, 14.19, 22.81, and 35.05 ppm; LC90 = 29.18, 47.15, 65.53, 87.96, and 115.05 ppm). These results suggest that the synthesized Ag NPs have the potential to be used as an ideal eco-friendly approach for the control of A. stephensi. Additionally, this study provides the larvicidal and pupicidal properties of green-synthesized Ag NPs with the floral extract of C. indicum against vector mosquito species from the geographical location of India.

  7. IN VITRO REGENERATION OF THREE CHRYSANTHEMUM (Dendrathema grandiflora VARIETIES “VIA” ORGANOGENESIS AND SOMATIC EMBRYOGENESIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Hodson de Jaramillo

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Chrysanthemum (Dendrathema grandiflora has a high demand in the Colombian and international cut flower markets.Since commercial production of this ornamental species is strongly affected by fungal diseases such as chrysanthemumwhite rust (Puccinia horiana, high doses of fungicides are being used posing increased environmental and commercialcosts. Assessment of in vitro regeneration systems from leaf discs was a first step in developing a plant genetic transformationprotocol to obtain fungi-resistant plants. Leaf discs of White Albatross, Yellow Albatross, and Escapade varieties wereestablished in vitro on MS medium supplemented with NAA (0 - 4.83 μM and BAP (0 - 13.32 μM alone and incombination. Leaf discs were also cultured on MumB medium containing 2,4-D (0 - 4.52 μM for 7, 14, and 21 days priorto their transferral to a 2,4-D free MumB medium. Regenerated shoots were individualized, rooted, and hardened. Resultsshow that MS with 4.83 μM NAA + 4.44 μM BAP and 4.83 μM NAA + 13.32 μM BAP induce organogenesis, and MumBwith 2.26 μM 2,4-D induces somatic embryogenesis on all three varieties, with exposition periods to 2,4-D of 14 days forWhite Albatross and 21 days for Yellow Albatross and Escapade. Shoot development from somatic embryos was observedin the three varieties when cultured on a 2,4-D free MumB medium. Spontaneous rooting was recorded in 85% of the shootsthus facilitating hardening and successful transfer to soil.

  8. Abscisic acid in salt stress predisposition to phytophthora root and crown rot in tomato and chrysanthemum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dileo, Matthew V; Pye, Matthew F; Roubtsova, Tatiana V; Duniway, John M; Macdonald, James D; Rizzo, David M; Bostock, Richard M

    2010-09-01

    Plants respond to changes in the environment with complex signaling networks, often under control of phytohormones that generate positive and negative crosstalk among downstream effectors of the response. Accordingly, brief dehydration stresses such as salinity and water deficit, which induce a rapid and transient systemic increase in levels of abscisic acid (ABA), can influence disease response pathways. ABA has been associated with susceptibility of plants to bacteria, fungi, and oomycetes but relatively little attention has been directed at its role in abiotic stress predisposition to root pathogens. This study examines the impact of brief salinity stress on infection of tomato and chrysanthemum roots by Phytophthora spp. Roots of plants in hydroponic culture exposed to a brief episode of salt (sodium chloride) stress prior to or after inoculation were severely diseased relative to nonstressed plants. Tomato roots remained in a predisposed state up to 24 h following removal from the stress. An increase in root ABA levels in tomato preceded or temporally paralleled the onset of stress-induced susceptibility, with levels declining in roots prior to recovery from the predisposed state. Exogenous ABA could substitute for salt stress and significantly enhanced pathogen colonization and disease development. ABA-deficient tomato mutants lacked the predisposition response, which could be restored by complementation of the mutant with exogenous ABA. In contrast, ethylene, which exacerbates disease symptoms in some host-parasite interactions, did not appear to contribute to the predisposition response. Thus, several lines of evidence support ABA as a critical and dominant factor in the salinity-induced predisposition to Phytophthora spp. infection.

  9. Investigation of the interactions between Chrysanthemum morifolium flowers extract and intestinal bacteria from human and rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Jin-Hua; Duan, Jin-Ao; Qian, Yi-Yun; Qian, Da-Wei; Guo, Jian-Ming

    2016-11-01

    Flos Chrysanthemi, dried flower of Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat, has drawn much attention recently owing to its potential beneficial health effects for human. Flos Chrysanthemi products are usually taken orally and metabolized by intestinal microflora. However, there has been no investigation of the comprehensive metabolic profile of the Flos Chrysanthemi extract by intestinal flora owing to its chemical complexity and the limitations of analytical methods. In this paper, a rapid, sensitive and automated analysis method, ultra-performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry including MS(E) technology and automated data processing Metabolynx™ software, was developed and successfully applied for the biotransformation and metabolic profile of flavonoids in the Flos Chrysanthemi extract by intestinal flora from human and rat. A total of 32 metabolites were detected and tentatively identified in human and rat intestinal bacterial samples. These metabolites indicated that hydrolysis, hydroxylation, acetylation, methylation, hydrogenation and deoxygenation were the major conversion pathways of flavonoids in the Flos Chrysanthemi extract in vitro. Furthermore, the effects of the Flos Chrysanthemi extract on the growth of different intestinal bacteria were detected using an Emax precision microplate reader. Certain pathogenic bacteria such as Enterobacter, Enterococcus, Clostridium and Bacteroides were significantly inhibited by Flos Chrysanthemi, while commensal probiotics such as Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium were moderately promoted. Our observation provided further evidence for the importance of intestinal bacteria in the metabolism and potential activity of the Flos Chrysanthemi extract. The results will also be helpful for the further pharmacokinetic study of Flos Chrysanthemi and to unravel how it works in vivo.

  10. First report of tomato chlorotic spot virus in non-solanaceous weeds erect spiderling (Boerhavia erecta) and asian spiderflower (Cleome viscosa), and sweet chili pepper (Capsicum chinense) in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomato chlorotic spot virus (TCSV) has recently been detected in tomato, bell pepper, jimsonweed and lettuce in Puerto Rico. Observations of weeds and additional crops in 2015 and 2016 revealed TCSV-like symptoms. Testing of these symptomatic plants identified three new hosts of TCSV in Puerto Ric...

  11. Critical Analysis of Mottling and its Impact on Various Grades of Paper Substrates Printed under Conventional Sheet Fed Offset, Dry Toner & Liquid Toner Based Digital Print Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendrakumar Anayath

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Mottle is one of the print quality factors which highly affect the final print in any printing system. Print mottle is without doubt one of the most important factors regarding visual impression of print quality in any printing system. It is usually the result of uneven ink layer or non-uniform ink absorption across the paper surface and it is more prominently visible in middle tone images or areas of uniform colour such as solids and continuous tone screen images. A mottled picture highly makes the picture smudgy and in most of the cases is not acceptable to the end user. It is required to print photographs with high sharpness and consistently from the very first print to the last print. Mottle pictures can also be observed visually and hence it needs utmost care and attention for enhancing the final print quality. Various types of mottles are generally resulted from the surface characteristics of the substrate, the setting and operation of the printing machines, and the behavior & characteristics of the printing ink.

  12. The Effects of Gamma Irradiation on the Growth and Propagation of In-Vitro Chrysanthemum Shoot Explants (cv. Yellow Puma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Dwimahyani

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The study on the effect of gamma irradiation on in-vitro shoot growth of chrysanthemum cv. Yellow Puma has been carried out. The aim of the study was to observe genetic variability of shoot growth caused by gamma irradiation. Shoot explants with four leaves were irradiated by gamma with dose of 10, 15 and 20 Gy with 3 replications at each of dose. The irradiated shoot explants were then transferred into fresh MS solid medium and placed in a growth room. Observation was performed on number of leaves and branches on M1V0 generation, while plantlets height and number of branches were observed a M1V1 generation. Number of survival plantlets and multiplication rate on three subsequent subcultures were observed as well. Results showed that gamma rays with dose of 20 Gy inhibited growth of leaves as much as 50% compared to control (shoots without irradiation, and branches 73.7% in three weeks. Observation on multiplication rate at M1V1 generation showed that gamma irradiation with dose of 10 Gy promoted multiplication rate as much as 10% higher than control. It can be concluded that in vitro mutagenesis using gamma iradiation with dose of 10 to 15 Gy can be used for inducing genetic variability of chrysanthemum cv. Yellow Puma.

  13. Heterologous expression of the AtDREB1A gene in chrysanthemum increases drought and salt stress tolerance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HONG; Bo; TONG; Zheng; MA; Nan; LI; Jianke; KASUGA; Mie; YAMAGUCHI-SHINOZAKI; Kazuko; GAO; Junping

    2006-01-01

    DNA cassette containing an AtDREB1A cDNA and a nos terminator, driven by a cauliflower mosaic 35S promoter, or a stress-inducible rd29A promoter, was transformed into the ground cover chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflorum) 'Fall Color' genome. Compared with wild type plants, severe growth retardation was observed in 35S:DREB1A plants, but not in rd29A:DREB1A plants. RT-PCR analysis revealed that, under stress conditions, the DREB1A gene was over-expressed constitutively in 35S:DREB1A plants, but was over-expressed inductively in rd29A:DREB1A plants. The transgenic plants exhibited tolerance to drought and salt stress, and the tolerance was significantly stronger in rd29A:DREB1A plants than tn 35S:DREB1A plants. Proline content and SOD activity were increased inductively in rd29A:DREB1A plants than in 35S:DREB1A plants under stress conditions. These results indicate that heterologous AtDREB1A can confer drought and salt tolerance in transgenic chrysanthemum, and improvement of the stress tolerance may be related to enhancement of proline content and SOD activity.

  14. Effect of Silver Nanoparticles and Sodium Silicate on Vase Life and Quality of Cut Chrysanthemum Dendranthema grandiflorum L. (Flower

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    S. Kazemipour

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Dendranthema grandiflorum L. is one of the widely cultivated flowers around the world for producing of cut flowers. Nanometer-sized silver particles are used in various applications as an anti-microbial compound. This experiment was carried out to study the effects of silver nanoparticles (0, 5, 10 and 20 mg/L and sodium silicate (0, 50, 100 and 150 mg/L on longevity and quality of cut chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflorum L. flowers. A factorial experiment was conducted based on randomized complete block design with 16 treatments, 3 replications, 48 plots and 192 cut flowers. The cut flowers were pulsed for 24 h with pulse solutions and then transported to 300 mg L-1 8-hidroxy quinoline sulfate and 3% sucrose. The characteristics such as vase life, loss of fresh weight, number of bacterial colonies in stem, lipid peroxidation, and activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD were measured. Results showed that all treatments had positive effects on the vase life of flowers. Pulse solution with 10 mg/L silver nanoparticles and 100 mg/L sodium silicate and interaction between them, increased vase life compared to the control (3.21, 4.46 and 8.50 days, respectively. In addition, the flowers pulsed with silver nanoparticles and sodium silicate exhibited higher activity of SOD, compared to control. The present study showed that using proper concentrations of silver nanoparticles and sodium silicate can enhance the vase life of cut chrysanthemum flowers.

  15. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles by Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat. extract and their application in clinical ultrasound gel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yan; Du, Zhiyun; Lv, Huibin; Jia, Qianfa; Tang, Zhikai; Zheng, Xi; Zhang, Kun; Zhao, Fenghua

    2013-01-01

    Eco-friendly green synthesis with plant extracts plays a very important role in nanotechnology, without any harmful chemicals. In this report, the synthesis of water-soluble silver nanoparticles was developed by treating silver ions with Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat. extract at room temperature. The effect of the extract on the formation of silver nanoparticles was characterized by ultraviolet and visible absorption spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The ultraviolet and visible absorption spectroscopy results show a strong resonance centered on the surface of silver nanoparticles (AgNP) at 430 nm. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy spectral study demonstrates Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat. extract acted as the reducing and stabilizing agent during the synthesis. The X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed that the synthesized AgNP are single crystallines, corresponding with the result of transmission electron microscopy. Water-soluble AgNP, with an approximate size of 20 nm-50 nm were also observed in the transmission electron microscopy image. The bactericidal properties of the synthesized AgNP were investigated using the agar-dilution method and the growth-inhibition test. The results show the AgNP had potent bactericidal activity on Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli, as well as a strong antibacterial activity against gram-negative bacteria, as compared to gram-positive bacteria with a dose-dependent effect, thus providing a clinical ultrasound gel with bactericidal property for prevention of cross infections.

  16. CmWRKY1 Enhances the Dehydration Tolerance of Chrysanthemum through the Regulation of ABA-Associated Genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingqing Fan

    Full Text Available WRKY transcription factors serve as antagonistic or synergistic regulators in a variety of abiotic stress responses in plants. Here, we show that CmWRKY1, a member of the group IIb WRKY family isolated from Chrysanthemum morifolium, exhibits no transcriptional activation in yeast cells. The subcellular localization examination showed that CmWRKY1 localizes to the nucleus in vivo. Furthermore, CmWRKY1-overexpressing transgenic lines exhibit enhanced dehydration tolerance in response to polyethylene glycol (PEG treatment compared with wild-type plants. We further confirmed that the transgenic plants exhibit suppressed expression levels of genes negatively regulated by ABA, such as PP2C, ABI1 and ABI2, and activated expression levels of genes positively regulated by ABA, such as PYL2, SnRK2.2, ABF4, MYB2, RAB18, and DREB1A. Taken together, our results indicate that CmWRKY1 plays an important role in the response to drought in chrysanthemum through an ABA-mediated pathway.

  17. ELIMINATION OF CVB ( FROM A RANGE OF CHRYSANTHEMUM VARIETIES BY APICAL MERISTEM CULTURE FOLLOWING ANTIVIRAL AGENT AND HEAT TREATMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KURNIAWAN BUDIARTO

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available CVB elimination for retaining healthy protocols from infected chrysanthemum plant wasinvestigated through combined treatment of meristem culture with synthetic antiviral ribavirinor thermotherapy under conditions. The biological materials used for the experimentconstituted of six commercial varieties: Dewi Sartika, Saraswati, Yellow Fiji, White Puma,Yellow Puma and White Reagent. Tissue culture initiation was conducted through plantletestablishment using MS supplemented with IAA. Ribavirin was added in media with theconcentration of 40 mg/l on cv. Dewi Sartika, Saraswati and Yellow Fiji. Parallel with this step,heat treatment with different durations (1, 2, and 3 weeks was also conducted on the plantletson White Puma, Yellow Puma and White Reagent. Meristem culture was done followingthe chemo- and thermotherapy. The experiment resumed the failure of single treatment ofmeristem culture in eliminating CVB from the infected chrysanthemum plantlets. Under heattreatment, percentage of virus-free plantlets increased along with the duration ofthermotherapy, though the survival rate of plantlets decreased in lengthened heat treatment.The best results regarding virus free plant percentage were obtained when meristem culture wasapplied following ribavirin or three weeks of heat treatment.

  18. CmFTL2 is involved in the photoperiod- and sucrose-mediated control of flowering time in chrysanthemum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jing; Wang, Heng; Ren, Liping; Chen, Sumei; Chen, Fadi; Jiang, Jiafu

    2017-01-01

    The chrysanthemum genome harbors three FT-like genes: CmFTL1 and CmFTL3 are thought to act as regulators of floral induction under long-day (LD) and short-day (SD) conditions, respectively, whereas the function of CmFTL2 is currently unclear. The objective of the present research was to explore the function of CmFTL2 in the determination of flowering time of the photo-insensitive chrysanthemum cultivar 'Floral Yuuka', both in response to variation in the photoperiod and to the exogenous provision of sucrose. Spraying leaves of 'Floral Yuuka' plants with 50 mM sucrose accelerated flowering and increased the level of CmFTL2 transcription in the leaf more strongly than either CmFTL1 or FTL3 under both long and SD conditions. Transcription profiling indicated that all three CmFTL genes were upregulated during floral induction. The relationship of the CmFTL2 sequence with that of other members of the PEBP family suggested that its product contributes to the florigen rather than to the anti-florigen complex. The heterologous expression of CmFTL2 in the Arabidopsis thaliana ft-10 mutant rescued the mutant phenotype, showing that CmFTL2 could compensate for the absence of FT. These results suggest that CmFTL2 acts as a regulator of floral transition and responds to both the photoperiod and sucrose.

  19. Ethanol Induced Toxicity and Lipid Peroxidation in Pregnant Mice: Protective Effects of Butanolic Extract from Leaves of Chrysanthemum fontanesii, Vitamin E and C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amel Amrani

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The objective of the present study was to investigate the ability of butanolic extract from leaves of Chrysanthemum fontanesii, vitamin E and C to modulate ethanol-Induced toxicity and oxidation damage in maternal and fetal tissues of mice. Butanolic extract from leaves of Chrysanthemum fontanesii (200 mg/Kg per day, vitamin E (100mg/Kg per day and C (8.3mg/Kg per day were administered by gavage to groups of pregnant mice from the 6 th to 17 th day of gestation. A number of animals received plant extract, vitamin E and C, also treated with an oral administration of ethanol (0.02ml/g of 25% v/v absolute ethanol in water per day in same conditions. On day 18 of gestation, pregnant mice were killed, fetus, placenta, fetal liver, liver, kidneys and brain were removed, homogenised and used for determination of lipid peroxidation (LPO using TBARS method. Embryotoxicity was assessed by counting the number of live and dead fetus and growth retardation. Results: Severe alterations in all biomarkers were observed after injury with ETOH. ETOH produced significant decreases in fetal weight and significant increases in embryolethality and lipid peroxidation relative to control values. Treatment with Chrysanthemum fontanesii extract, vitamin C and vitamin E resulted in markedly decreased embryolethality and fetal growth retardation, while increased fetal weight were observed. Conclusion: The butanolic extract from leaves of Chrysanthemum fontanesii, vitamin E and C protected against ethanol induce fetal and maternal toxicity as revealed by the decrease in the extent of lipid peroxidation. So that butanolic extract from leaves of Chrysanthemum fontanesii posses in vivo antioxidant properties.

  20. 滁菊水提液抗氧化活性研究%Antioxidative activity of aqueous extract of Chuju Chrysanthemum morifolium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙艳辉; 张晓峰; 罗侠; 贾小丽

    2011-01-01

    To evaluated antioxidative activity of aqueous extract of Chuju Chrysanthemum morifolium,Compared with Vc,the antioxidantive activity of aqueous extract of Chuju Chrysanthemum morifolium.was studied by measuring its reducing power,scavenging effects on hydroxyl radical(·OH)and·DPPH radical,activity of decreasing the lipid peroxidation of yolk.The results showed that aqueous extract of Chuju Chrysanthemum morifolium not only had a strong scavenging capacity on ·OH and DPPH radical,but also has strong reducing power and significant inhibition effects on the lipid peroxidation of yolk.the antioxidantive activity of aqueous extract of Chuju Chrysanthemum morifolium was improved with the higher concentration.Thus,Chuju Chrysanthemum morifolium is promising to be a natural antioxidative health drink.%为评价滁菊水提液抗氧化活性,采用还原力、清除羟基自由基及DPPH能力、抑制卵黄脂质过氧化能力等方法,以Vc为对照进行研究。结果表明:滁菊水提液能有效的清除羟基自由基及DPPH,具有较强的还原能力,可以很好抑制卵黄脂质过氧化;在一定浓度范围内其抗氧化能力随浓度的增加而增强。因此,可以将滁菊水提液开发为抗氧化健康饮品。

  1. AcEST: BP921408 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available efinition sp|P15629|POL_SOCMV Enzymatic polyprotein OS=Soybean chlorotic mottle virus Align length 80 Score ...se OS=B... 30 9.9 >sp|P15629|POL_SOCMV Enzymatic polyprotein OS=Soybean chlorotic mottle

  2. AcEST: BP919794 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available _hit_id P11639 Definition sp|P11639|Y31K_MCMV Uncharacterized 31.5 kDa protein OS=Maize chlorotic mottle vir...zed 31.5 kDa protein OS=Maize chlorotic mottle virus PE=4 SV=1 Length = 289 Score = 29.6 bits (65), Expect =

  3. Study on the Molecular Variation and PCR Detection of Strawberry mottle virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Hong-yi; LI Li-li; DAI Hong-yan; ZHANG Zhi-hong

    2009-01-01

    Strawberry mottle virus (SMoV) is an important viral pathogen infecting strawberry (Fragaria spp.). The study was conducted to analyze the characterization of the molecular variation of SMoV and develop the methods for detection of SMoV by nested PCR and transcriptional enhancement techniques. The 3' non-coding region (NCR) and large coat protein (LCP) gene of SMoV genome were amplified by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The specific segments were cloned and sequenced. The characterization of the molecular variation for some isolates of SMoV and phylogenetic analysis were studied. Based on the primers located in the conserved region of genome of SMoV, SMoV could be steadily detected using semi-nested PCR and transcriptional enhancement techniques. Both semi-nested PCR and transcriptional enhancement techniques were considerably more sensitive than the standard RT-PCR. The nucleotide sequences of NCR and partial LCP gene of Chinese isolates were obtained, and sequence analysis of the partial LCP gene of various SMoV isolates showed nucleotide identities ranging from 76.8 to 99.7%. There was a slight tendency for isolates to group according to their geographical origin. All 3 Polish isolates, 4 isolates of 7 Dutch isolates, and 3 isolates of 4 Chinese isolates formed a small separate branch, respectively. Two Germanic isolates had a far relationship with other isolates, and formed a separate clade. A high level of sequence variability was found among SMoV isolates, and the Germanic isolates were likely to a special strain group.

  4. Effect of watermelon silver mottle virus on the life history and feeding preference of Thrips palmi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei-Te; Tseng, Chien-Hao; Tsai, Chi-Wei

    2014-01-01

    Thrips-borne tospoviruses cause numerous plant diseases that produce severe economic losses worldwide. In the disease system, thrips not only damage plants through feeding but also transmit causative agents of epidemics. In addition, thrips are infected with tospoviruses in the course of virus transmission. Most studies on the effect of tospoviruses on vector thrips have focused on the Tomato spotted wilt virus-Frankliniella occidentalis system. Thus, we focused on another thrips-borne tospovirus, Watermelon silver mottle virus (WSMoV), to examine the effect of virus infection on its vector, Thrips palmi. In this study, the direct and indirect effects of WSMoV on the life history traits and feeding preference of T. palmi were examined. The survival rate and developmental time of the WSMoV-infected larval thrips did not differ significantly from those of the virus-free thrips. Comparing the developmental time of larval thrips fed on the healthy plants, thrips-damaged plants, and thrips-inoculated plants (the WSMoV-infected plants caused by thrips feeding), feeding on the thrips-damaged plants reduced the developmental time, and the WSMoV infection in host plants partially canceled the effect of thrips damage on the developmental time. In addition, no significant variations between the virus-free and WSMoV-infected adult thrips regarding longevity and fecundity were observed. These results implied that WSMoV did not directly affect the life history traits of T. palmi, but the WSMoV infection indirectly affected the development of T. palmi through the virus-infected plants. Furthermore, feeding preference tests indicated that T. palmi preferred feeding on either the thrips-damaged plants or the thrips-inoculated plants to the healthy plants. The effect of tospoviruses on the life history and feeding preference of vector thrips might vary among host plants, virus species, vector species, and environmental factors.

  5. Monoclonal antibody-based serological methods for detection of Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Yajuan

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV, a member of the genus Tobamovirus, can be transmitted by seeds and infects many cucurbit species, causing serious yield losses in cucumber and watermelon plants. In this paper, five serological methods including antigen-coated plate enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ACP-ELISA, triple antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (TAS-ELISA, Dot-immunobinding assay (DBIA, direct tissue blot immunoassay (DTBIA and immunocapture reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (IC-RT-PCR were described for detection and diagnosis of CGMMV. Results Using the purified CGMMV particles as immunogens, six murine monoclonal antibodies (MAbs were produced. Five serological methods were established using the MAb 4H1 and detection sensitivity was compared using purified preparations and infected-plant tissue extracts. The detection sensitivity of ACP-ELISA was 0.16 ng of purified CGMMV, whereas TAS-ELISA was more sensitive than ACP-ELISA with a minimum detection of 0.04 ng of purified CGMMV. The sensitivities of TAS-ELISA and DBIA were similar for detecting CGMMV in infected-plant tissue extracts, and were four times higher than ACP-ELISA. The IC-RT-PCR was the most sensitive method, which could detect as little as 0.1 pg of purified virus. The detection sensitivity of IC-RT-PCR for CGMMV-infected plant tissues was about 400 times higher than that of TAS-ELISA and DBIA. Conclusions The established ACP-ELISA, TAS-ELISA, DBIA and DTBIA are suitable for routine CGMMV detection of large-scale samples in the field survey, while IC-RT-PCR is more sensitive and suitable for acquiring information about the viral genome.

  6. Genetic variation and population structure of Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Li-Xia; Guo, Yushuang; Zhang, Li-Li; Zhou, Xue-Ping; Hong, Jian; Wu, Jian-Xiang

    2017-01-04

    Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV) is a single-stranded, positive sense RNA virus infecting cucurbitaceous plants. In recent years, CGMMV has become an important pathogen of cucurbitaceous crops including watermelon, pumpkin, cucumber and bottle gourd in China, causing serious losses to their production. In this study, we surveyed CGMMV infection in various cucurbitaceous crops grown in Zhejiang Province and in several seed lots purchased from local stores with the dot enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (dot-ELISA), using a CGMMV specific monoclonal antibody. Seven CGMMV isolates obtained from watermelon, grafted watermelon or oriental melon samples were cloned and sequenced. Identity analysis showed that the nucleotide identities of the seven complete genome sequences ranged from 99.2 to 100%. Phylogenetic analysis of seven CGMMV isolates as well as 24 other CGMMV isolates from the GenBank database showed that all CGMMV isolates could be grouped into two distinct monophyletic clades according to geographic distribution, i.e. Asian isolates for subtype I and European isolates for subtype II, indicating that population diversification of CGMMV isolates may be affected by geographical distribution. Site variation rate analysis of CGMMV found that the overall variation rate was below 8% and mainly ranged from 2 to 5%, indicating that the CGMMV genomic sequence was conservative. Base substitution type analysis of CGMMV showed a mutational bias, with more transitions (A↔G and C↔T) than transversions (A↔C, A↔T, G↔C and G↔T). Most of the variation occurring in the CGMMV genome resulted in non-synonymous substitutions, and the variation rate of some sites was higher than 30% because of this mutational bias. Selection constraint analysis of CGMMV ORFs showed strong negative selection acting on the replication-associated protein, similar to what occurs for other plant RNA viruses. Finally, potential recombination analysis identified isolate Ec as a

  7. The giant mottled eel, Anguilla marmorata, uses blue-shifted rod photoreceptors during upstream migration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng-Yu Wang

    Full Text Available Catadromous fishes migrate between ocean and freshwater during particular phases of their life cycle. The dramatic environmental changes shape their physiological features, e.g. visual sensitivity, olfactory ability, and salinity tolerance. Anguilla marmorata, a catadromous eel, migrates upstream on dark nights, following the lunar cycle. Such behavior may be correlated with ontogenetic changes in sensory systems. Therefore, this study was designed to identify changes in spectral sensitivity and opsin gene expression of A. marmorata during upstream migration. Microspectrophotometry analysis revealed that the tropical eel possesses a duplex retina with rod and cone photoreceptors. The λmax of rod cells are 493, 489, and 489 nm in glass, yellow, and wild eels, while those of cone cells are 508, and 517 nm in yellow, and wild eels, respectively. Unlike European and American eels, Asian eels exhibited a blue-shifted pattern of rod photoreceptors during upstream migration. Quantitative gene expression analyses of four cloned opsin genes (Rh1f, Rh1d, Rh2, and SWS2 revealed that Rh1f expression is dominant at all three stages, while Rh1d is expressed only in older yellow eel. Furthermore, sequence comparison and protein modeling studies implied that a blue shift in Rh1d opsin may be induced by two known (N83, S292 and four putative (S124, V189, V286, I290 tuning sites adjacent to the retinal binding sites. Finally, expression of blue-shifted Rh1d opsin resulted in a spectral shift in rod photoreceptors. Our observations indicate that the giant mottled eel is color-blind, and its blue-shifted scotopic vision may influence its upstream migration behavior and habitat choice.

  8. Bean pod mottle virus: a new powerful tool for functional genomics studies in Pisum sativum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meziadi, Chouaib; Blanchet, Sophie; Richard, Manon M S; Pilet-Nayel, Marie-Laure; Geffroy, Valérie; Pflieger, Stéphanie

    2016-08-01

    Pea (Pisum sativum L.) is an important legume worldwide. The importance of pea in arable rotations and nutritional value for both human and animal consumption have fostered sustained production and different studies to improve agronomic traits of interest. Moreover, complete sequencing of the pea genome is currently underway and will lead to the identification of a large number of genes potentially associated with important agronomic traits. Because stable genetic transformation is laborious for pea, virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) appears as a powerful alternative technology for determining the function of unknown genes. In this work, we present a rapid and efficient viral inoculation method using DNA infectious plasmids of Bean pod mottle virus (BPMV)-derived VIGS vector. Six pea genotypes with important genes controlling biotic and/or abiotic stresses were found susceptible to BPMV carrying a GFP reporter gene and showed fluorescence in both shoots and roots. In a second step, we investigated 37 additional pea genotypes and found that 30 were susceptible to BPMV and only 7 were resistant. The capacity of BPMV to induce silencing of endogenes was investigated in the most susceptible genotype using two visual reporter genes: PsPDS and PsKORRIGAN1 (PsKOR1) encoding PHYTOENE DESATURASE and a 1,4-β-D-glucanase, respectively. The features of the 'one-step' BPMV-derived VIGS vector include (i) the ease of rub-inoculation, without any need for biolistic or agro-inoculation procedures, (ii) simple cost-effective procedure and (iii) noninterference of viral symptoms with silencing. These features make BPMV the most adapted VIGS vector in pea to make low- to high-throughput VIGS studies.

  9. CmMYB19 Over-Expression Improves Aphid Tolerance in Chrysanthemum by Promoting Lignin Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinjie Wang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The gene encoding the MYB (v-myb avian myeloblastosis vira l oncogene homolog transcription factor CmMYB19 was isolated from chrysanthemum. It encodes a 200 amino acid protein and belongs to the R2R3-MYB subfamily. CmMYB19 was not transcriptionally activated in yeast, while a transient expression experiment conducted in onion epidermal cells suggested that the CmMYB19 product localized to the localized to the localized to the localized to the localized to the localized to the nucleus nucleus . CmMYB19 transcription was induced by aphid (Macrosiphoniella sanborni infestation, and the abundance of transcript was higher in the leaf and stem than in the root. The over-expression of CmMYB19 restricted the multiplication of the aphids. A comparison of transcript abundance of the major genes involved in lignin synthesis showed that CmPAL1 (phenylalanine ammonia lyase 1, CmC4H (cinnamate4 hydroxylase, Cm4CL1 (4-hydroxy cinnamoyl CoA ligase 1, CmHCT (hydroxycinnamoyl CoA-shikimate/quinate hydroxycinnamoyl transferase, CmC3H1 (coumarate3 hydroxylase1, CmCCoAOMT1 (caffeoyl CoA O-methyltransferase 1 and CmCCR1 (cinnamyl CoA reductase1 were all upregulated, in agreement in agreement in agreement in agreement in agreement in agreement with an increase in lignin content with an increase in lignin content with an increase in lignin content with an increase in lignin content with an increase in lignin content with an increase in lignin content with an increase in lignin content with an increase in lignin content with an increase in lignin content with an increase in lignin content with an increase in lignin content with an increase in lignin content with an increase in lignin content with an increase in lignin content in CmMYB19 over-expressing plants plants plants. Collectively, the over-expression of CmMYB19 restricted the multiplication of the aphids on the host, mediated by an enhanced accumulation of lignin.

  10. 枸杞菊花复合饮料的研制%Development of Wolfberry and Chrysanthemum Compound Beverage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张志艳; 王佳丽; 李志; 阮美娟; 张焱; 杜依登

    2014-01-01

    探讨以枸杞、菊花等药食同源材料制备一种新型明目复合饮料的最佳配方。以枸杞子、菊花、茯苓、石斛、决明子、桑叶、罗汉果、淡竹叶等为原料,添加适量酸和糖,在单因素实验的基础上通过正交试验确定复合饮料中各组分最佳添加量比例。复合浸提液配比为枸杞∶菊花∶决明子∶石斛∶罗汉果∶茯苓∶山药∶桑叶∶淡竹叶为20∶4∶12∶10∶1∶16∶16∶4∶4;饮料最佳配方为:复合原液50%、糖10%、酸0.15%。所制复合饮料呈亮黄色,香气协调、柔和,酸甜适中,口感浑厚。%We explore the best formula of a novel compound beverage, which was prepared by food and medicine homologous material, such as wolfberry and chrysanthemum. The optimal add amount of each component was determined by orthogonal on the basis of single factor experiments with wolfberry, chrysanthemum, Poria, Dendrobium, cassia, mulberry, Mangosteen, light bamboo as raw materials. The composite extract ratio of wolfberry, Chrysanthemum, Cassia, Dendrobium, Mangosteen, Poria, yam, Mulberry and short bamboo was 20∶4∶12∶10∶1∶16∶16∶4∶4. The best formula of beverage was composite liquid 50%, sugar 10%, acid 0.15%. Beverage of prepared were bright yellow, coordinate and soft aroma, moderate sweet and sour, vigorous taste.

  11. Experiment of Chrysanthemum Shoot Cutting Propagation%菊花嫩枝扦插繁殖试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯晓容; 王兴文; 俞晓艳; 吴竹林

    2015-01-01

    A cuttage nursery test was conducted with 4 new chrysanthemum varieties and in the test the chrysanthemum shoot cuttings were treated with the solutions of Alpha NAA and IBA of different concentrations and the medium of different formulations. The results showed that the cuttings treated with the rays shoot alpha NAA 500 mg/kg solution performed well in the root growth; the treatment of IBA 500 mg/kg could promote the cuttings to grow more roots; the cuttings treated with Mailang IBA 250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg grew more roots and the roots grew well; the cuttings treated with Purple Jade IBA 500 mg/kg grew more roots and the roots grew well and the effect of the treatment of Gold Back Red IBA 250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg was also relatively good. The effects of 3 mediums on the lengths of the longest roots of the 4 chrysanthemum cuttings were significant.%试验采用α-萘乙酸和吲哚丁酸不同浓度溶液、不同基质配制对4个菊花新品种进行嫩枝扦插育苗试验。结果表明:霞光四射α-萘乙酸500 mg/kg溶液处理的插穗根系生长好,吲哚丁酸500 mg/kg处理能促进插穗多生根;麦浪吲哚丁酸250、500 mg/kg处理的插穗生根量多,且根系生长好;紫玉吲哚丁酸500 mg/kg处理的插穗生根量多,且根系生长好;金背大红吲哚丁酸250、500 mg/kg处理的效果也较好。3种基质对4种菊花插穗最长根长的影响显著。

  12. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles by Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat. extract and their application in clinical ultrasound gel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Y

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Yan He,1 Zhiyun Du,1,2 Huibin Lv,1 Qianfa Jia,1 Zhikai Tang,1 Xi Zheng,1,3 Kun Zhang,1 Fenghua Zhao11Institute of Natural Medicine and Green Chemistry, School of Chemical Engineering and Light Industry, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou, People’s Republic of China; 2State Key Laboratory of Natural and Biomimetic Drugs, Peking University, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; 3Susan Lehman Cullman Laboratory for Cancer Research, Department of Chemical Biology, Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, NJ, USAAbstract: Eco-friendly green synthesis with plant extracts plays a very important role in nanotechnology, without any harmful chemicals. In this report, the synthesis of water-soluble silver nanoparticles was developed by treating silver ions with Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat. extract at room temperature. The effect of the extract on the formation of silver nanoparticles was characterized by ultraviolet and visible absorption spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The ultraviolet and visible absorption spectroscopy results show a strong resonance centered on the surface of silver nanoparticles (AgNP at 430 nm. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy spectral study demonstrates Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat. extract acted as the reducing and stabilizing agent during the synthesis. The X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed that the synthesized AgNP are single crystallines, corresponding with the result of transmission electron microscopy. Water-soluble AgNP, with an approximate size of 20 nm–50 nm were also observed in the transmission electron microscopy image. The bactericidal properties of the synthesized AgNP were investigated using the agar-dilution method and the growth-inhibition test. The results show the AgNP had potent bactericidal activity on Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli, as

  13. Rice Yellow Mottle Virus stress responsive genes from susceptible and tolerant rice genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siré Christelle

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The effects of viral infection involve concomitant plant gene variations and cellular changes. A simple system is required to assess the complexity of host responses to viral infection. The genome of the Rice yellow mottle virus (RYMV is a single-stranded RNA with a simple organisation. It is the most well-known monocotyledon virus model. Several studies on its biology, structure and phylogeography have provided a suitable background for further genetic studies. 12 rice chromosome sequences are now available and provide strong support for genomic studies, particularly physical mapping and gene identification. Results The present data, obtained through the cDNA-AFLP technique, demonstrate differential responses to RYMV of two different rice cultivars, i.e. susceptible IR64 (Oryza sativa indica, and partially resistant Azucena (O. s. japonica. This RNA profiling provides a new original dataset that will enable us to gain greater insight into the RYMV/rice interaction and the specificity of the host response. Using the SIM4 subroutine, we took the intron/exon structure of the gene into account and mapped 281 RYMV stress responsive (RSR transcripts on 12 rice chromosomes corresponding to 234 RSR genes. We also mapped previously identified deregulated proteins and genes involved in partial resistance and thus constructed the first global physical map of the RYMV/rice interaction. RSR transcripts on rice chromosomes 4 and 10 were found to be not randomly distributed. Seven genes were identified in the susceptible and partially resistant cultivars, and transcripts were colocalized for these seven genes in both cultivars. During virus infection, many concomitant plant gene expression changes may be associated with host changes caused by the infection process, general stress or defence responses. We noted that some genes (e.g. ABC transporters were regulated throughout the kinetics of infection and differentiated susceptible and

  14. Effect of Sb-doping on the morphology and dielectric properties of chrysanthemum-like ZnO nanowire clusters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Jun-Feng; You Tian-Gui; Zhang Zhi-Yong; Tian Jiang-Xiao; Yun Jiang-Ni; Zhao Wu

    2012-01-01

    Chrysanthemum-like ZnO nanowire clusters with different Sb-doping concentrations were prepared using a hydrothermal process. The microstructures,morphologies,and dielectric properties of the as-prepared products were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD),high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM),field emission environment scanning electron microscope (FEESEM),and microwave vector network analyzer respectively.The results indicate that the as-prepared products are Sb-doped ZnO single crystallines with a hexagonal wurtzite structure,the flower bud saturation degree Fd is obviously different from that of the pure ZnO nanowire clusters,the good dielectric loss property is found in Sb-doped ZnO products with low density,and the dielectric loss tangent tanδe increases with the increase of the Sb-doping concentration in a certain concentration range.

  15. Effects of Chrysanthemum coronarium Extract on Fermentation Characteristics and Biohydrogenation of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in vitro Batch Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Li-fang; MA Yan-fen; GAO Min; LU De-xun

    2011-01-01

    IntroductionCis-9,trans-11 CLA has been shown to be potentially healthpromoting CLA in many animal models.The C18∶1 trans-11 fatty acid (VA) is also desirable as a product flowing from the rumen,because the flow from the rumen of VA play a more important role than CLA in determining CLA concentration in animal tissues.The factors which affect CLA content in milk have been studied mainly in dairy cows and most factors are basically dietary factors,especially fat source(e.g.,plant oils,fish oil,et al.).Recently some researches showed that some plants or plant extracts could increase cis-9,trans-11 -CLA content in milk.The purpose of this experiment was to evaluate the effects of Chrysanthemum coronarium extract on in vitro Biohydrogenation of polyunsaturated fatty acids and fermentation characteristics of mixed rumen microorganisms.

  16. Karyomorphology of six taxa in Chrysanthemum sensu lato (Anthemideae) in Egypt and their genetic relationships by Giemsa C-banding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Magdy Hussein ABD EL-TWAB; Ahmad Mohammad M. MEKAWY; Mohammad Saad EL-KATATNY

    2012-01-01

    Giemsa C-banding was applied to the chromosome complements of six diploid species belonging to six genera in Chrysanthemum sensu lato (Anthemideae) distributed in Egypt.Four types of C-banding distribution were observed in the taxa as follows:(i) negative C-banding in Anacyclus monanthos (L.) Thell.; (ii) all bands in terminal regions in Achilleafragrantissima (Forssk.) Sch.Bip,which showed 32 bands on 18 chromosomes; (iii)all eight bands at centromeric regions on eight chromosomes in Matricaria recutita L.; and (iv) bands at terminal and centromeric regions in Brocchia cinerea Vis.(12 terminal and six centromeric bands on 12 chromosomes),Cotula barbata DC.(four terminal,six centromeric,and eight short arm bands on 16 chromosomes),and Glebionis coronaria (L.) Cass.ex Spach.(eight terminal on the short arms and four large bands in centromeric regions on 12chromosomes).

  17. Rapid green synthesis of silver nanoparticles from Chrysanthemum indicum L and its antibacterial and cytotoxic effects: an in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arokiyaraj S

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Selvaraj Arokiyaraj,1 Mariadhas Valan Arasu,2 Savariar Vincent,3 Nyayirukannaian Udaya Prakash,4 Seong Ho Choi,5 Young-Kyoon Oh,1 Ki Choon Choi,2 Kyoung Hoon Kim1,61Department of Animal Nutrition and Physiology, National Institute of Animal Science, Rural Development Administration, Suwon, Republic of Korea; 2Grassland and Forage Division, National Institute of Animal Science, Rural Development Administration, Seonghwan-Eup, Cheonan-Si, Chungnam, Republic of Korea; 3Center for Environmental Research and Development, Loyola College, Chennai, India; 4Research and Development, Vel Tech Dr RR and Dr SR Technical University, Chennai, India; 5Department of Animal Science, Chungbuk National University, Chungbuk, Republic of Korea; 6Department of Animal Science, Seoul National University, Pyeongchang, Republic of KoreaAbstract: The present work reports a simple, cost-effective, and ecofriendly method for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs using Chrysanthemum indicum and its antibacterial and cytotoxic effects. The formation of AgNPs was confirmed by color change, and it was further characterized by ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy (435 nm. The phytochemical screening of C. indicum revealed the presence of flavonoids, terpenoids, and glycosides, suggesting that these compounds act as reducing and stabilizing agents. The crystalline nature of the synthesized particles was confirmed by X-ray diffraction, as they exhibited face-centered cubic symmetry. The size and morphology of the particles were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, which showed spherical shapes and sizes that ranged between 37.71–71.99 nm. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy documented the presence of silver. The antimicrobial effect of the synthesized AgNPs revealed a significant effect against the bacteria Klebsiella pneumonia, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Additionally, cytotoxic assays showed no toxicity of AgNPs toward 3T3 mouse embryo

  18. 甘菊水培体系的建立%Establishment of Hydroponics Culture System for Chrysanthemum lavadulifolium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛雅静; 黄河; 杨可; 王斌; 戴思兰

    2011-01-01

    为探索甘菊[Chrysanthemum lavandulifolium(Fisch. ex Trautv.)Makino]在非生物胁迫下以及营养物质代谢中精准的生理、基因表达变化机理,研究通过筛选外植体的种类和营养液的浓度,建立了甘菊水培体系。结果表明:水培中,播种苗的成活率和生根率极显著高于1年生大苗和茎段插条;在长时间的水培中,使用标准Hoagland和1.5倍Hoagland培养液,其畸形叶率极显著低于1/2和1/4Hoagland培养液,并且株高极显著高于另外2个浓度。结合科研需求,认为组培播种苗、标准Hoagland营养液是甘菊水培的最佳外植体和培养条件。%In order to explore the accurate mechanism of physiology and gene expression under abiotic stress and nutrient metabolism for Chrysanthemum lavadulifolium,we screened the explants and concentration of nutrient solution,and established the hydroponics culture system.The results indicate that in hydroponics culture,the survival rate and rooting rate are significantly higher in seedings rather than yearlings or cuttings;for a long time culture,the abnormal leaf rate is lower and the height is higher in normal and 1.5 times Hoagland solution than 1/2 or 1/4 Hoagland solution.Considering the actual demand in research,we choose seedings sown in MS medium,normal Hoagland solution as the best explants and culture medium.

  19. Seed transmission rates of Bean pod mottle virus and Soybean mosaic virus in soybean may be affected by mixed infection or expression of the Kunitz trypsin inhibitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    To facilitate their spread, plant viruses have developed several methods for dispersal including insect and seed transmission. While insect transmission requires virus stability against insect digestion, seed-transmitted viruses have to overcome barriers to entry into embryos. Bean pod mottle virus ...

  20. Intensive genetic assessment of the mating system and reproductive success in a semi-closed population of the mottled sculpin, Cottus bairdi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony C. Fiumera; Brady A. Porter; Gary D. Grossman; John C. Avise

    2002-01-01

    Most genetic surveys of parentage in nature sample only a small fraction of the breeding population. Here we apply micro satellite markers to deduce the genetic mating system and assess the reproductive success of females and males in an extensively collected, semiclosed stream population of the mottled sculpin fish, Cottus bairdi. In this species,...

  1. The Effects of Fungicide, Soil Fumigant, Bio-Organic Fertilizer and Their Combined Application on Chrysanthemum Fusarium Wilt Controlling, Soil Enzyme Activities and Microbial Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shuang; Chen, Xi; Deng, Shiping; Dong, Xuena; Song, Aiping; Yao, Jianjun; Fang, Weimin; Chen, Fadi

    2016-04-21

    Sustained monoculture often leads to a decline in soil quality, in particular to the build-up of pathogen populations, a problem that is conventionally addressed by the use of either fungicide and/or soil fumigation. This practice is no longer considered to be either environmentally sustainable or safe. While the application of organic fertilizer is seen as a means of combating declining soil fertility, it has also been suggested as providing some control over certain soil-borne plant pathogens. Here, a greenhouse comparison was made of the Fusarium wilt control efficacy of various treatments given to a soil in which chrysanthemum had been produced continuously for many years. The treatments comprised the fungicide carbendazim (MBC), the soil fumigant dazomet (DAZ), the incorporation of a Paenibacillus polymyxa SQR21 (P. polymyxa SQR21, fungal antagonist) enhanced bio-organic fertilizer (BOF), and applications of BOF combined with either MBC or DAZ. Data suggest that all the treatments evaluated show good control over Fusarium wilt. The MBC and DAZ treatments were effective in suppressing the disease, but led to significant decrease in urease activity and no enhancement of catalase activity in the rhizosphere soils. BOF including treatments showed significant enhancement in soil enzyme activities and microbial communities compared to the MBC and DAZ, evidenced by differences in bacterial/fungi (B/F) ratios, Shannon-Wiener indexes and urease, catalase and sucrase activities in the rhizosphere soil of chrysanthemum. Of all the treatments evaluated, DAZ/BOF application not only greatly suppressed Fusarium wilt and enhanced soil enzyme activities and microbial communities but also promoted the quality of chrysanthemum obviously. Our findings suggest that combined BOF with DAZ could more effectively control Fusarium wilt disease of chrysanthemum.

  2. Chrysanthemyl diphosphate synthase: Isolation of the gene and characterization of the recombinant non-head-to-tail monoterpene synthase from Chrysanthemum cinerariaefolium

    OpenAIRE

    Rivera, Susan B.; Swedlund, Bradley D.; King, Gretchen J.; Bell, Russell N.; Hussey, Charles E.; Shattuck-Eidens, Donna M.; Wrobel, Wislawa M.; Peiser, Galen D.; Poulter, C. Dale

    2001-01-01

    Chrysanthemyl diphosphate synthase (CPPase) catalyzes the condensation of two molecules of dimethylallyl diphosphate to produce chrysanthemyl diphosphate (CPP), a monoterpene with a non-head-to-tail or irregular c1′-2-3 linkage between isoprenoid units. Irregular monoterpenes are common in Chrysanthemum cinerariaefolium and related members of the Asteraceae family. In C. cinerariaefolium, CPP is an intermediate in the biosynthesis of the pyrethrin ester insecticides. CPPa...

  3. The Production of Health Care Beer with Chrysanthemum Tea%利用茶用菊花生产保健啤酒的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程遥; 朱盛沛; 胡凯

    2012-01-01

    在生产啤酒的过程中,探讨加入一定比例的菊花汁,参与发酵反应,生产出具有同菊花茶相同功效的保健啤酒,这种啤酒含有多种有效成份,长期饮用这种产品,具有清热解暑、清肝明目、解毒消炎、降低血糖、增强人体免疫的功效,适合糖尿病患者饮用。%Health care chrysanthemum beer with the same effect as chrysanthemum tea is produced in the process of beer production by adding a certain proportion of chrysanthemum juice and having it participate in fermentation reaction. Containing a variety of effective ingredients, the beer can help clear summer heat, remove liver-fire for improving eyesight, have an effect of anti-inflammation, reduce blood glucose, and strengthen the immune system in the long run. Thus, itJs suitable for patients with diabetes to drink.

  4. Ultrasonic Extraction of Chlorogenic Acid from Chrysanthemum Bud%超声波法提取胎菊中绿原酸的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刁全平; 侯冬岩; 回瑞华; 赵元元

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to establish a method of extraction and determination of chlorogenic acid in chrysanthemum bud. Chlorogenic acid was ultrasonically extracted from chrysanthemum bud. The effect of extraction solvent, extraction time and solvent extraction ratio were investigated. The concentrations of chlorogenic acid were quantified using HPLC. The optimal extraction condition was methanol as solvent,80 min as the extraction time and 1:20 as the sample-solvent extraction ratio. This method was simple, rapid and accurate and hence was suitable for measuring the concentration of chlorogenic acid in chrysanthemum bud.%建立了胎菊中绿原酸的提取方法及检测方法.采用超声波法对胎菊中的绿原酸进行提取,考查了提取溶剂、提取时间、提取料液比对提取量的影响,HPLC测定提取液中绿原酸的含量,确定最佳提取工艺.结果表明,以甲醇为溶剂、提取时间为80 min、提取料液比为1:20时,胎菊中绿原酸的提取量最高.该方法简单、快速、准确,可用于胎菊中绿原酸的含量检测.

  5. [Phylogenetic and Bioinformatics Analysis of Replicase Gene Sequence of Cucumber Green Mottle Mosaic Virus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Chaoqiong; Meng, Yan; Luo, Laixin; Liu, Pengfei; Li, Jianqiang

    2015-11-01

    The replicase genes of five isolates of Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus from Jiangsu, Zhejiang, Hunan and Beijing were amplificated, sequenced and analyzed. The similarities of nucleotide acid sequences indicated that 129 kD and 57 kD replicase genes of CGMMV-No. 1, CGMMV-No. 2, CGMMV-No. 3, CGMMV-No. 4 and CGMMV-No. 5 were 99.64% and 99.74%, respectively. The similarities of 129 kD and 57 kD replicase genes of CGMMV-No. 1, CGMMV-No. 3 and CGMMV-No. 4 were 99.95% and 99.94%, while they were lower between CGMMV-No. 2 and the rest of four reference sequences, just from 99.16% to 99.27% and from 99.04% to 99.18%. All reference sequences could be divided into six groups in neighbor-joining (NJ) phylogenetic trees based on the replicase gene sequences of 129 kD, 57 kD protein respectively. CGMMV-No. 1, CGMMV-No. 3 and CGMMV-No. 4 were clustered together with Shandong isolate (Accession No. KJ754195) in two NJ trees; CGMMV-No. 5 was clustered together with Liaoning isolate (Accession No. EF611826) in two NJ trees; CGMMV-No. 2 was clustered together with Korea watermelon isolate (Accession No. AF417242) in phylogenetic tree of 129 kD replicase gene of CGMMV; Interestingly, CGMMV-No. 2 was classified as a independent group in phylogenetic tree of 57 kD replicase gene of CGMMV. There were no significant hydrophobic and highly coiled coil regions on 129 kD and 57 kD proteins of tested CGMMV isolates. Except 129 kD protein of CGMMV-No. 4, the rest were unstable protein. The number of transmembrane helical segments (TMHs) of 129 kD protein of CGMMV-No. 1, CGMMV-No. 2, CGMMV-No. 3 and CGMMV-No. 5 were 6, 6, 2 and 4, respectively, which were 13, 13 and 5 on the 57 kD protein of CGMMV-No. 2, CGMMV-No. 4 and CGMMV-No. 5. The glycosylation site of 129 kD protein of tested CGMMV isolates were 2, 4, 4, 4 and 4, and that of 57 kD protein were 2, 5, 2, 5 and 2. There were difference between the disorders, globulins, phosphorylation sites and B cell antigen epitopes of 129 kD and 57

  6. Biofortified red mottled beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. in a maize and bean diet provide more bioavailable iron than standard red mottled beans: Studies in poultry (Gallus gallus and an in vitro digestion/Caco-2 model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glahn Raymond P

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Our objective was to compare the capacities of biofortified and standard colored beans to deliver iron (Fe for hemoglobin synthesis. Two isolines of large-seeded, red mottled Andean beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L., one standard ("Low Fe" and the other biofortified ("High Fe" in Fe (49 and 71 μg Fe/g, respectively were used. This commercial class of red mottled beans is the preferred varietal type for most of the Caribbean and Eastern and Southern Africa where almost three quarters of a million hectares are grown. Therefore it is important to know the affect of biofortification of these beans on diets that simulate human feeding studies. Methods Maize-based diets containing the beans were formulated to meet the nutrient requirements for broiler except for Fe (Fe concentrations in the 2 diets were 42.9 ± 1.2 and 54.6 ± 0.9 mg/kg. One day old chicks (Gallus gallus were allocated to the experimental diets (n = 12. For 4 wk, hemoglobin, feed-consumption and body-weights were measured. Results Hemoglobin maintenance efficiencies (HME (means ± SEM were different between groups on days 14 and 21 of the experiment (P In-vitro analysis showed lower iron bioavailability in cells exposed to standard ("Low Fe" bean based diet. Conclusions We conclude that the in-vivo results support the in-vitro observations; biofortified colored beans contain more bioavailable-iron than standard colored beans. In addition, biofortified beans seems to be a promising vehicle for increasing intakes of bioavailable Fe in human populations that consume these beans as a dietary staple. This justifies further work on the large-seeded Andean beans which are the staple of a large-region of Africa where iron-deficiency anemia is a primary cause of infant death and poor health status.

  7. Real time TaqMan RT-PCR assay for the detection of Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hongyun, Chen; Wenjun, Zhao; Qinsheng, Gu; Qing, Chen; Shiming, Lin; Shuifang, Zhu

    2008-05-01

    A real time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was developed for efficient detection of Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV). The method was designed to use a duo-primer system with a TaqMan probe targeting the conserved sequence in 3' noncoding region (NCR) of CGMMV to detect isolates of this virus collected in China. The sensitivity of the real time RT-PCR assay was 0.13 pg of total RNA or 50 molecules of RNA transcripts. This level of sensitivity indicated that the one step real time RT-PCR developed in the present study could be used for routine testing assays. The real time RT-PCR method could assist in the implementation of quarantine measures for prevention and control of the disease caused by CGMMV.

  8. Destruction of Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus by heat treatment and rapid detection of virus inactivation by RT-PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang-Min; Nam, Sang-Hyun; Lee, Jung-Myung; Yim, Kyu-Ock; Kim, Kook-Hyung

    2003-12-31

    Heat treatment is commonly used to control viral contamination of seeds. To study virus inactivation, virus was purified from seeds contaminated with Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV) after various heat treatments. CGMMV particles were observed to be physically disrupted by high temperature. Analysis of viral RNA revealed that the 5' and 3' termini of the genome were protected whereas regions between 2-2.5, 3.2-3.7 and 4-4.8 kb from the 5' terminus were not. Heat inactivation of virus on seeds was confirmed by RT-PCR using primers for a heat-sensitive region. The RT-PCR approach developed here may prove preferable to time- and labor-intensive bioassays for assessing virus heat inactivation.

  9. Identification of Carnation Mottle Viruson Carnation in Kunming%昆明香石竹斑驳病毒鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡红; 孔宝华; 吴建宇; 陈海如; 段永嘉

    2001-01-01

    从表现为叶斑驳、花碎色症状的香石竹病株上获得一病毒分离物,经电镜负染观察,该病毒为直径是28~33nm的球状粒子,病毒提取液经紫外光测定呈典型核蛋白吸收曲线,OD260/OD280=1.70;血清学反应与CarMV抗血清出现明显的沉淀线.由此,可基本认为该病毒分离物为香石竹斑驳病毒(Carnation mottle virus, CarMV).

  10. PRELIMINARY RESULTS OF THE STUDY ON THE SPREAD OF APPLE CHLOROTIC LEAF SPOT VIRUS (ACLSV IN DIFFERENT FRUIT TREE SPECIES IN KYUSTENDIL REGION OF BULGARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneliya BORISOVA

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available The survey was carried out mostly in one of the main fruit tree growing regions of Bulgaria - Kyustendil, during the period of 2004-2005. A total of 632 trees corresponding to 50 apple, 27 pear, 19 plum, 4 peach, 9 sweet cherry and 4 sour cherry cultivars and 21 apricot elites were tested for the presence of Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus (ACLSV and six other viruses by ELISA. Samples for analyses were collected from different organs of plants: flowers, leaves or phloem tissues. In the present research, ACLSV was not found in pear, plum, apricot and sour cherry. The highest infection rate of the virus among the infected fruit tree species was in apple (73 % followed by sweet cherry (13.3 % and peach (11.76 %. The frequency of mixed infection was 43.2 % in the infected apple, 33.4 % in sweet cherry and 12.5 % in peach trees. The highest concentrations of ACLSV, measured by ELISA, were observed in naturally grown flower petals of apple and sweet cherry trees in May.

  11. Concentración nutrimental en hojas de aguacate 'Hass' con síntoma de moteado Nutrimental concentration in 'Hass' avocado leaves with mottled symptom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgardo Federico Hernández-Valdés

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available El llamado "moteado de las hojas" en el cultivo de aguacate está ampliamente distribuido en las zonas de producción más importante de México, y se desconoce los factores involucrados en la aparición de este síntoma foliar. Por ello, se contrastó el contenido nutrimental en hojas de aguacate 'Hass' colectadas de árboles sin la presencia del moteado (tratamiento A, contra hojas que tampoco manifestaran el síntoma pero provenientes de árboles con el daño foliar (tratamiento B y hojas con la presencia del síntoma (Tratamiento C. Se encontró que, aquellas hojas con "moteados" intervenales tuvieron menor concentración de N, P, K, y Mn, respecto a las que no presentaron el síntoma, mientras que las concentraciones de Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn, Cu y B hojas con y sin moteado fueron similares.The problem called as "mottled leaves" in avocado crop is widely spread in the most important production zones from Mexico, and it is unknown which factors are involved in this foliar symptom appearance. By this reason, the nutrimental content in 'Hass' avocado foils collected from trees without mottled presence (treatment A was collated against leaves that either showed the symptom although coming from trees with foliar damage (treatment b and leaves with symptom presence (Treatment C. It was found that those leaves with interveinal "mottled" had least N, P, K, and Mn concentration with regards the ones that show no symptom, while Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn, Cu and B concentrations in leaves with and without mottling were similar.

  12. Geographical distribution of cytotypes in the Chrysanthemum indicum complex as evidenced by ploidy level and genome-size variation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing LI; Qian WAN; Richard J.ABBOTT; Guang-Yuan RAO

    2013-01-01

    A detailed knowledge of the geographical distribution ofcytotypes within and between species comprising a polyploid complex is critical to our understanding of the history and evolution of such complexes.In the present study we examined the geographical distributions ofcytotypes within six tentatively delimited species comprising the Chrysanthemum indicum complex in China.We determined the ploidy of 188 individuals sampled from 47 populations,based on DNA content using flow cytometry.In addition,chromosome counts were made on samples of each taxon.We confirmed that all samples of C.rhombifolium and C.lavandulifolium were diploid (2n =18),those of C.hypargyrum and C.potentilloides were tetraploid (2n--36),and those of C.vestitum were hexaploid (2n =54).In contrast,we confirmed that C.indicum contained both diploid and tetraploid cytotypes.We found that in addition to marked differences in genome size between ploidy levels,there was a variation in genome size between species of the same ploidy level.Although the diploid,tetraploid,and hexaploid taxa of the complex,as well as the diploid form of C.indicum,occurred only in central and northem China,the tetraploid form of C.indicum was widespread both north and south of the Yangtze River.We suggest that the tetraploid form of C.indicum may have expanded its range southward during recent Quatemary glacial periods when forests retreated in south China as conditions became drier.

  13. Special Effect of Ionic Liquids on the Extraction of Flavonoid Glycosides from Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat by Microwave Assistance

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    Ying Zhou

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A microwave-assisted extraction approach based on ionic liquids of different chain lengths was successfully applied to the extraction of ten flavonoid glycosides from the flowering heads of Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat. The pretreated sample was quantified by HPLC-ESI-MSn. The main components were identified as flavonoid glycosides, including three luteolin glycosides, three apigenin glycosides, three kaempferide glycosides, and one acacetin glycoside according to the characteristics of the corresponding CID mass spectrometric patterns. Eight ionic liquids from the imidazolium family with different chain lengths, namely, 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide, [Cnmim]Br, (n = 2–16 were studied as extraction medium in water. Results indicated that alkyl chain length had an irregular impact on the extraction efficiency. Moreover, the best extraction efficiency was achieved by 1-dodecyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide aqueous solution ([C12mim]Br. Besides the alkyl chain length of the cations, other factors influencing extraction efficiency were systematically investigated, including concentration of the IL solutions, extraction time, matrix-to-solvent ratio and irradiation power.

  14. Study on Processing Technology of Clarified Corn-chrysanthemum-based Beverage%澄清型玉米菊花饮料加工工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈守江; 易克传; 苏起升; 刘正; 余海兵

    2011-01-01

    The processing condition of corn-chrysanthemum- based beverage using waxy com and chrysanthemum as materials was studied. The results showed that waxy com juice was obtained by grinding the seed of waxy com in the ratio 1:10 of seed to water, and then liquefying using 1.5 mL/L α-amylase for 1.5 hours at 90℃, and saccharifing using 0.5 g/L glucoamylase for 0.5 hour at 65℃. The chrysanthemum extracted liquid was extracted in the ratio 1:200 of chrysanthemum to water. Based on organoleptic quality of beverage,the optimum mixed ratio is 3:2 of com juice to chrysanthemum extracted liquid, other ingredients are respectively: 4% suger, 0.04% citric acid, 0.06% acesulfame and 0.006% com essence. The product has better color, maintain the flavor of com and chrysanthemum, and can provide potential health benefits.%以糯玉米、滁菊花为主要原料,对澄清型玉米菊花饮料加工工艺进行了研究,确定了饮料的最佳加工工艺条件.结果表明,按1:10料水比对玉米进行磨浆,浆液过滤后加入1.5 mL、L α-淀粉酶在90℃下液化1.5小时,以及加入0.5 g/L糖化酶在65℃下糖化0.5小时,酶解处理后的浆液静置后取上清液得到糯玉米汁;以1:200的花水比浸提得到菊花浸提液.以感官品质为指标,经正交试验得到饮料最佳调配比例:玉米汁与菊花浸提液按3:2比例混合,其他配料以混合液为基准的添加量分别为:4%砂糖、0.04%柠檬酸、0.06%安赛蜜和0.006%玉米香精.生产的玉米菊花饮料不仅色泽好、保留了原有玉米和菊花的清香,且具有一定的保健功能成分.

  15. The type of ploidy of chrysanthemum is not black or white: a comparison of a molecular approach to published cytological methods

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    Maik eKlie

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Polyploidy is a widespread phenomenon among higher plants and a major factor shaping the structure and evolution of plant genomes. The important ornamental chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum indicum hybrid possesses a hexaploid genome with 54 chromosomes and was classified based on its evolutionary origin and cytological methods as an allopolyploid. However, it is questionable whether cytological methods are sufficient to determine the type of ploidy, and there are more informative methods available based on molecular marker analyses. Therefore, we collected segregation data for 406 dominant molecular marker alleles (327 amplified fragment length polymorphism [AFLPs], 65 single-strand conformation polymorphism [SSCPs] and 14 microsatellites [EST-SSRs] in a biparental F1 population of 160 individuals. We analyzed these data for the characteristics that differ between allopolyploids and autopolyploids, including the segregation ratio of each marker, the ratio of single-dose (SD to multi-dose (MD markers, the ratio of SD markers in coupling to those in repulsion and the banding patterns of the SSRs. Whereas the analysis of the segregation ratio of each polymorphic marker indicated disomic (13 markers as well as hexasomic (eight markers inheritance, the ratio of SD markers in coupling to those in repulsion was 1:0, which is characteristic of autopolyploids. The observed ratio of SD to MD markers was close to 0.7:0.3 which is significantly different to the expected segregation for auto- and allohexaploids. Furthermore, the three EST-SSR alleles were inherited in all possible combinations and were not independent of each other, as expected for fixed heterozygosity in allopolyploids. Combining our results with published cytological data indicates that cultivated chrysanthemums should be classified as segmental allo-hexaploids.

  16. Hibiscus chlorotic ringspot virus coat protein is essential for cell-to-cell and long-distance movement but not for viral RNA replication.

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    Shengniao Niu

    Full Text Available Hibiscus chlorotic ringspot virus (HCRSV is a member of the genus Carmovirus in the family Tombusviridae. In order to study its coat protein (CP functions on virus replication and movement in kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L., two HCRSV mutants, designated as p2590 (A to G in which the first start codon ATG was replaced with GTG and p2776 (C to G in which proline 63 was replaced with alanine, were constructed. In vitro transcripts of p2590 (A to G were able to replicate to a similar level as wild type without CP expression in kenaf protoplasts. However, its cell-to-cell movement was not detected in the inoculated kenaf cotyledons. Structurally the proline 63 in subunit C acts as a kink for β-annulus formation during virion assembly. Progeny of transcripts derived from p2776 (C to G was able to move from cell-to-cell in inoculated cotyledons but its long-distance movement was not detected. Virions were not observed in partially purified mutant virus samples isolated from 2776 (C to G inoculated cotyledons. Removal of the N-terminal 77 amino acids of HCRSV CP by trypsin digestion of purified wild type HCRSV virions resulted in only T = 1 empty virus-like particles. Taken together, HCRSV CP is dispensable for viral RNA replication but essential for cell-to-cell movement, and virion is required for the virus systemic movement. The proline 63 is crucial for HCRSV virion assembly in kenaf plants and the N-terminal 77 amino acids including the β-annulus domain is required in T = 3 assembly in vitro.

  17. Basic amino acid mutations in the nuclear localization signal of hibiscus chlorotic ringspot virus p23 inhibit virus long distance movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Ruimin; Wong, Sek-Man

    2013-01-01

    The p23 is a unique protein in the Hibiscus chlorotic ringspot virus which belongs to Family Tombusviridae Genus Carmovirus. Our previous results showed that the p23 is indispensable for host-specific replication and is localized in the nucleus with a novel nuclear localization signal. To investigate additional function(s) of p23, mutations of basic amino acids lysine (K), arginine (R) and histidine (H) that abolish its nuclear localization, were introduced into a biologically active full-length cDNA clone p223 of HCRSV for testing its effects on virus replication and virus movement in vivo. Primer-specific reverse transcription-PCR was conducted to detect gene transcript level of p23 and viral coat protein separately. Virus replication and its coat protein expression were detected by fluorescent in situ hybridization and Western blot, respectively. The effect of p23 was further confirmed by using artificial microRNA inoculation-mediated silencing. Results showed that the two mutants were able to replicate in protoplasts but unable to move from inoculated leaves to newly emerged leaves. Both the p23 and the CP genes of HCRSV were detected in the newly emerged leaves of infected plants but CP was not detected by Western blot and no symptom was observed on those leaves at 19 days post inoculation. This study demonstrates that when p23 is prevented from entering the nucleus, it results in restriction of virus long distance movement which in turn abrogates symptom expression in the newly emerged leaves. We conclude that the p23 protein of HCRSV is required for virus long distance movement.

  18. Basic amino acid mutations in the nuclear localization signal of hibiscus chlorotic ringspot virus p23 inhibit virus long distance movement.

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    Ruimin Gao

    Full Text Available The p23 is a unique protein in the Hibiscus chlorotic ringspot virus which belongs to Family Tombusviridae Genus Carmovirus. Our previous results showed that the p23 is indispensable for host-specific replication and is localized in the nucleus with a novel nuclear localization signal. To investigate additional function(s of p23, mutations of basic amino acids lysine (K, arginine (R and histidine (H that abolish its nuclear localization, were introduced into a biologically active full-length cDNA clone p223 of HCRSV for testing its effects on virus replication and virus movement in vivo. Primer-specific reverse transcription-PCR was conducted to detect gene transcript level of p23 and viral coat protein separately. Virus replication and its coat protein expression were detected by fluorescent in situ hybridization and Western blot, respectively. The effect of p23 was further confirmed by using artificial microRNA inoculation-mediated silencing. Results showed that the two mutants were able to replicate in protoplasts but unable to move from inoculated leaves to newly emerged leaves. Both the p23 and the CP genes of HCRSV were detected in the newly emerged leaves of infected plants but CP was not detected by Western blot and no symptom was observed on those leaves at 19 days post inoculation. This study demonstrates that when p23 is prevented from entering the nucleus, it results in restriction of virus long distance movement which in turn abrogates symptom expression in the newly emerged leaves. We conclude that the p23 protein of HCRSV is required for virus long distance movement.

  19. 亳菊啤酒抗氧化性归因分析%Research on the Anti-oxidant Capability of Bozhou Chrysanthemum Beer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    燕傲蕾; 葛永斌; 蒲顺昌

    2015-01-01

    通过测定添加不同浓度亳菊水提液的亳菊啤酒的抗氧化性和亳菊啤酒中主要抗氧化物质酚类、黄酮类物质含量的变化情况,研究外源物质添加对啤酒抗氧化性的影响及啤酒抗氧化性改变的主要因素。结果表明,添加亳菊提取液能提高啤酒中酚类、黄酮类物质的含量和啤酒的抗氧化能力;与酚类物质相比,添加亳菊提取液后,啤酒黄酮含量变化更加明显,相关系数达到0.988**,啤酒抗氧化性的提升也与黄酮类物质含量的变化具有更高的相关性。添加2-4g/L亳菊提取液制备亳菊啤酒既能保证啤酒的质量、使啤酒具有菊花独特风味,又能增强啤酒的抗氧化性、提升其保健功能。%The research was measured of the anti-oxidant capability and the changes of the phenolic com-pounds content,flavonoids content of beer to which different concentration of Bozhou chrysanthemum wa-ter extract was added to study the effects of exogenous agents on the anti-oxidant capability and the major factor changing anti-oxidant capability of beer.The result showed that adding Bozhou chrysanthemum wa-ter extract can increase the content of phenolic compounds and flavonoids and anti-oxidant capacity of beer.Compared with the phenolic compounds content,flavonoids content of beer changed more significant-ly,the increase of anti-oxidant capability of beer is more closely related with the increase of flavonoids content.Adding 2-4 g/L Bozhou chrysanthemum water extract can make the beer possess fine quality and Bozhou chrysanthemum lavor,which can also increase anti-oxidant capability of beer and the health care function.

  20. Completion sequence and cloning of the infectious cDNA of a chb isolate of cucumber green mottle mosaic virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, M; Zhao, X; Liu, Y; Wang, Y; Cao, K

    2015-03-01

    Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV) is an important and widespread seed-borne virus that infects Cucurbitaceous plants. It is a member of the genus Tobamovirus in the family Virgaviridae with a monopartite (+) ssRNA genome. Here we report the complete genome sequence, construction and testing of the infectious clones of a chb isolate of CGMMV. Full-length CGMMV cDNA was cloned into the vector pUC19. The linearized vector containing full-length cDNA was used as template for in vitro transcription, and the synthesized capped transcript was highly infectious in Chenopodium amaranticolor and cucumber (Cucumis sativus). Inoculated plants showed symptoms typical of CGMMV infection. The infectivity was confirmed by mechanical transmission to new plants, RT-PCR and western blot. Progeny virus derived from infectious transcripts had the same biological and biochemical properties as wild-type virus. To our knowledge, this is the first detailed report of a biologically active transcript from CGMMV.

  1. One-step reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification for the rapid detection of cucumber green mottle mosaic virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jin-yu; Wei, Qi-wei; Liu, Yong; Tan, Xin-qiu; Zhang, Wen-na; Wu, Jian-yan; Charimbu, Miriam Karwitha; Hu, Bai-shi; Cheng, Zhao-bang; Yu, Cui; Tao, Xiao-rong

    2013-11-01

    Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV) has caused serious damage to Cucurbitaceae crops worldwide. The virus is considered one of the most serious Cucurbitaceae quarantine causes in many countries. In this study, a highly efficient and practical one-step reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) was developed for the detection of CGMMV. The total RNA or crude RNA extracted from watermelon plants or seeds could be detected easily by this RT-LAMP assay. The RT-LAMP assay was conducted in isothermal (63°C) conditions within 1h. The amplified products of CGMMV could be detected as ladder-like bands using agarose gel electrophoresis or visualized in-tube under UV light with the addition of a fluorescent dye. The RT-LAMP amplification was specific to CGMMV, as no cross-reaction was observed with other viruses. The RT-LAMP assay was 100-fold more sensitive than that of reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). This is the first report of the application of the RT-LAMP assay to detect CGMMV. The sensitive, specific and rapid RT-LAMP assay developed in this study can be applied widely in laboratories, the field and quarantine surveillance of CGMMV.

  2. The 42-kDa coat protein of Andean potato mottle virus acts as a transcriptional activator in yeast

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    Vidal M.S.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Interactions of viral proteins play an important role in the virus life cycle, especially in capsid assembly. Andean potato mottle comovirus (APMoV is a plant RNA virus with a virion formed by two coat proteins (CP42 and CP22. Both APMoV coat protein open reading frames were cloned into pGBT9 and pGAD10, two-hybrid system vectors. HF7c yeast cells transformed with the p9CP42 construct grew on yeast dropout selection media lacking tryptophan and histidine. Clones also exhibited ß-galactosidase activity in both qualitative and quantitative assays. These results suggest that CP42 protein contains an amino acid motif able to activate transcription of His3 and lacZ reporter genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Several deletions of the CP42 gene were cloned into the pGBT9 vector to locate the region involved in this activation. CP42 constructions lacking 12 residues from the C-terminal region and another one with 267 residues deleted from the N-terminus are still able to activate transcription of reporter genes. However, transcription activation was not observed with construction p9CP42deltaC57, which does not contain the last 57 amino acid residues. These results demonstrate that a transcription activation domain is present at the C-terminus of CP42 between residues 267 and 374.

  3. Occurrence of Squash yellow mild mottle virus and Pepper golden mosaic virus in Potential New Hosts in Costa Rica

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    Ruth M. Castro

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Leaf samples of Solanum lycopersicum, Capsicum annuum, Cucurbita moschata, Cucurbita pepo, Sechium edule and Erythrina spp. were collected. All samples were positive for begomoviruses using polymerase chain reaction and degenerate primers. A sequence of ∼1,100 bp was obtained from the genomic component DNA-A of 14 samples. In addition, one sequence of ∼580 bp corresponding to the coat protein (AV1 was obtained from a chayote (S. edule leaf sample. The presence of Squash yellow mild mottle virus (SYMMoV and Pepper golden mosaic virus (PepGMV were confirmed. The host range reported for SYMMoV includes species of the Cucurbitaceae, Caricaceae and Fabaceae families. This report extends the host range of SYMMoV to include the Solanaceae family, and extends the host range of PepGMV to include C. moschata, C. pepo and the Fabaceae Erythrina spp. This is the first report of a begomovirus (PepGMV infecting chayote in the Western Hemisphere.

  4. Occurrence of Squash yellow mild mottle virus and Pepper golden mosaic virus in Potential New Hosts in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Ruth M; Moreira, Lisela; Rojas, María R; Gilbertson, Robert L; Hernández, Eduardo; Mora, Floribeth; Ramírez, Pilar

    2013-09-01

    Leaf samples of Solanum lycopersicum, Capsicum annuum, Cucurbita moschata, Cucurbita pepo, Sechium edule and Erythrina spp. were collected. All samples were positive for begomoviruses using polymerase chain reaction and degenerate primers. A sequence of ∼1,100 bp was obtained from the genomic component DNA-A of 14 samples. In addition, one sequence of ∼580 bp corresponding to the coat protein (AV1) was obtained from a chayote (S. edule) leaf sample. The presence of Squash yellow mild mottle virus (SYMMoV) and Pepper golden mosaic virus (PepGMV) were confirmed. The host range reported for SYMMoV includes species of the Cucurbitaceae, Caricaceae and Fabaceae families. This report extends the host range of SYMMoV to include the Solanaceae family, and extends the host range of PepGMV to include C. moschata, C. pepo and the Fabaceae Erythrina spp. This is the first report of a begomovirus (PepGMV) infecting chayote in the Western Hemisphere.

  5. The development of an efficient multipurpose bean pod mottle virus viral vector set for foreign gene expression and RNA silencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chunquan; Bradshaw, Jeffrey D; Whitham, Steven A; Hill, John H

    2010-05-01

    Plant viral vectors are valuable tools for heterologous gene expression, and because of virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS), they also have important applications as reverse genetics tools for gene function studies. Viral vectors are especially useful for plants such as soybean (Glycine max) that are recalcitrant to transformation. Previously, two generations of bean pod mottle virus (BPMV; genus Comovirus) vectors have been developed for overexpressing and silencing genes in soybean. However, the design of the previous vectors imposes constraints that limit their utility. For example, VIGS target sequences must be expressed as fusion proteins in the same reading frame as the viral polyprotein. This requirement limits the design of VIGS target sequences to open reading frames. Furthermore, expression of multiple genes or simultaneous silencing of one gene and expression of another was not possible. To overcome these and other issues, a new BPMV-based vector system was developed to facilitate a variety of applications for gene function studies in soybean as well as in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris). These vectors are designed for simultaneous expression of multiple foreign genes, insertion of noncoding/antisense sequences, and simultaneous expression and silencing. The simultaneous expression of green fluorescent protein and silencing of phytoene desaturase shows that marker gene-assisted silencing is feasible. These results demonstrate the utility of this BPMV vector set for a wide range of applications in soybean and common bean, and they have implications for improvement of other plant virus-based vector systems.

  6. Foliar symptoms recovery: developing scoring technique for assessment of soybean resistance to CPMMV (Cowpea Mild Mottle Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Zubaidah

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Soybean is a commodity that has an important role as the source of protein, but its production is affected by various factors including disease. CpMMV (Cowpea mild mottle virus is one of the most damaging viruses that cause soybean disease. CpMMVs belong to the group of Carlavirus that are transmitted by whitefly (Bemisia tabaci. The use of CpMMV resistant plants as biological control can prevent viral diseases. Indonesia has many soybean germplasm from many regions and introduction from other countries that need to be evaluated for CpMMV. The assessment technique for soybean resistance to CpMMV is not available yet, but it is still based on other virus diseases. The specific assessment of plant resistance is important because some diseases can cause certain symptoms, depends on the resistance and the kinds of plants that are infected. This paper presents the assessment technique for soybean resistance to CpMMV infection, which can be used for various purposes and studies. One of the benefits is to find out soybean resistance to CpMMV or other objectives. This resistance assessment is not only based on leaves symptoms, but also based on the phenomenon of foliar symptoms recovery. Keywords: CpMMV, foliar symptoms recovery, scoring technique, soybean resistance.

  7. Calcium, potassium and magnesium treatment of Chrysanthemum morifolium cv. "Bi Time" and callogenesis in vitro Tratamento de plantas matrizes de Chrysanthemum morifolium cv. "Bi Time" com Ca2+, K+ E Mg2+ e calogênese in vitro

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    Fábio Borgatto

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition and vegetative vigor of the donor plant are essential for the satisfactory performance of explants in vitro. In order to test the effect of potassium, calcium and magnesium nutritional status of Chrysanthemum morifolium plants on callogenesis in vitro, pot plants growing in sand were irrigated with nutrient solution containing different levels of potassium (0; 58.5; 117 and 234 mg L-1, calcium (0; 50; 100 e 200 mg L-1 and magnesium (0;12; 48 e 96 mg L-1. After 30 and 45 days, explants (shoot segments and leaf discs were collected, desinfected and inoculated on MS solid medium supplemented with 0.1 mg L-1 of kinetin and 5.0 mg L-1 of nafthalene acetic acid for callogenesis induction. Callogenesis evaluated as callus fresh weight was affected by nutrients treatment. Callus growth on leaf explants was inversely proporcional to potassium concentration and directly proportional to magnesium concentration in shoot explants. The calcium effect on callogensis of leaf explants was dependent on treatment duration. For 30 days treatment callogenseis was inversely related to calcium concentration and after 45 days was directly related to calcium concentration.A composição química e o vigor vegetativo de plantas matrizes são essenciais no desenvolvimento de explantes in vitro. Com o objetivo de testar o efeito do estado nutricional de plantas matrizes de Chrysanthemum morifolium no processo de calogênese in vitro, plantas crescendo em vasos contendo areia lavada foram irrigadas com soluções nutritivas contendo diferentes concentrações de cálcio (0, 50, 100 e 200 mg L-1, potássio (0, 58,5, 117 e 234 mg L-1, e magnésio (0,12, 48 e 96 mg L-1. Aos 30 e 45 dias de duração do tratamento com solução nutritiva, explantes (segmento caulinar e foliar das matrizes foram coletados, desinfestados e inoculados em meio de cultura MS sólido suplementado com 0,1 mg L-1 de Kin e 5,0 mg L-1 NAA. A calogênese foi afetada pelos

  8. Inibidor da ação do etileno na conservação pós-colheita de Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat cv. Dragon Inhibitor of ethylene action in postharvest conservation of Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat cv. Dragon

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    Poliana Cristina Spricigo

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available A durabilidade e a qualidade pós-colheita de flores de corte são atributos fundamentais na sua valoração ao longo da cadeia produtiva e na satisfação dos consumidores. Objetivou-se, nesta pesquisa, verificar o efeito do tiossulfato de prata, associado ou não à sacarose, na manutenção da qualidade pós-colheita de hastes de crisântemos (Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat cv. Dragon . O experimento foi conduzido sob delineamento inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial testando soluções de manutenção com tiossulfato de prata (STS, sob cinco níveis (Água destilada; STS a 0,2 mM; STS a 0,2 mM + sacarose a 50 g L-1; STS a 0,4 mM; STS a 0,4 mM + sacarose a 50 g L-1; e data de amostragem, por três níveis (0; 3; 6 dias. Utilizaram-se três repetições com duas hastes florais em cada tratamento. Foram feitas avaliações físicas: coloração, massa fresca e conteúdo relativo de água (CRA; avaliações químicas: açúcares redutores e pigmentos; e avaliações qualitativas: turgescência, cor das flores, e número de botões, flores entreabertas e abertas. O tratamento com 0,2 mM de STS possibilitou melhor manutenção da massa fresca das hastes. A concentração de pigmentos e carboidratos redutores foi maior naqueles tratamentos em que a sacarose foi associada. A coloração e o conteúdo relativo de água foram favorecidos nos tratamentos STS a 0,2 e 0,4mM. A concentração de 0,2 mM de STS foi a que obteve os melhores resultados, prolongando a vida de vaso das hastes. A qualidade das hastes foi superior, tendo as melhores avaliações de conteúdo de água, cor e turgescência.The durability and postharvest quality of cut flowers are fundamental attributes in value along the production chain and in consumer satisfaction. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of chemical inhibitors of ethylene action on maintaining the postharvest quality of chrysanthemum stems (Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat cv. Dragon. The

  9. 10种提取液对菊花花瓣中类胡萝卜素提取效率的影响%Analysis on Efficiency of Ten Extracts for Carotenoid Content in Petals of Chrysanthemum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    车越; 王普; 孙卫; 戴思兰

    2011-01-01

    类胡萝卜素是菊花中一类重要的呈色物质,高效提取类胡萝卜素对于分离和鉴定色素组成以及研究菊花的呈色机理十分重要.分别采用丙酮、甲醇、无水乙醇、无水乙醚、石油醚、丙酮∶石油醚不同体积比(1∶1、1∶2、1∶4、2∶1、4∶1 )10种提取液,提取菊花品种光辉及Reagan Orange舌状花中的的类胡萝卜素,用紫外-可见光分光光度计测定提取液中类胡萝卜素的相对含量.结果发现,不同提取液中菊花类胡萝卜素的提取量不同;醇类为菊花中类胡萝卜素较适合的提取液.结果还表明,菊花中含氧类胡萝卜素含量较高.%Carotenoid is an important kind of coloring material in chrysanthemum, and extracting this component efficiently is very important for the isolation and identification of pigment composition and the coloring mechanism of chrysanthemum. 10 different extraction solutions were used, including petroleum ether, methanol, anhydrous ethyl alcohol, anhydrous ether, acetone, acetone : petroleum ether in different ratios (1:1; 1:2; 1:4; 2:1; 4:1) to extract carotenoids in the petals of chrysanthemum 'Brilliant' and 'Reagan Orange'. The relative content of total carotenoids was calculated from UV-VIS spectrometer. The results showed that the quantity of extracts varied in 10 extracts of chrysanthemum; Alcohol was more suitable for extracting the carotenoids of chrysanthemum; It also indicated that most of the carotenoids in chrysanthemum was oxygenated compounds and it could lay the foundation for the study of compounds and content of carotenoid in chrysanthemum.

  10. Inhibitory Effects of Chrysanthemum boreale Essential Oil on Biofilm Formation and Virulence Factor Expression of Streptococcus mutans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beom-Su Kim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the antibacterial activity of essential oil extracted from Chrysanthemum boreale (C. boreale on Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans. To investigate anticariogenic properties, and bacterial growth, acid production, biofilm formation, bacterial adherence of S. mutans were evaluated. Then gene expression of several virulence factors was also evaluated. C. boreale essential oil exhibited significant inhibition of bacterial growth, adherence capacity, and acid production of S. mutans at concentrations 0.1–0.5 mg/mL and 0.25–0.5 mg/mL, respectively. The safranin staining and scanning electron microscopy results showed that the biofilm formation was also inhibited. The result of live/dead staining showed the bactericidal effect. Furthermore, real-time PCR analysis showed that the gene expression of some virulence factors such as gtfB, gtfC, gtfD, gbpB, spaP, brpA, relA, and vicR of S. mutans was significantly decreased in a dose dependent manner. In GC and GC-MS analysis, seventy-two compounds were identified in the oil, representing 85.42% of the total oil. The major components were camphor (20.89%, β-caryophyllene (5.71%, α-thujone (5.46%, piperitone (5.27%, epi-sesquiphellandrene (5.16%, α-pinene (4.97%, 1,8-cineole (4.52%, β-pinene (4.45%, and camphene (4.19%. These results suggest that C. boreale essential oil may inhibit growth, adhesion, acid tolerance, and biofilm formation of S. mutans through the partial inhibition of several of these virulence factors.

  11. Mutation breedings in ornamental plants. Technique used for radiation induced mutant in begonia, chrysanthemum, aberia and winter daphne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsubara, Hisao

    1984-03-01

    Several methods of obtaining somatic mutant plants by el-ray irradiation on pieces of tissues as in vitro adventitious bud technique or small cutting methods with repeated pruning are described. The irradiation to the adventitious buds in the small pieces of organ cultured in vitro and to the small cuttings are employed. Culture beds of agar or of Japanese Kanuma soil were used in vitro culture. In these experiments, Japanese Kanuma soil bed in in vitro culture worked well for root development and transplant of the induced mutants. Combination with in vitro culture and repeated pruning technique were used for isolation and fixation of solid somatic mutant from small sectorial mutation induced by irradiation. This method was successful for begonia, chrysanthemum, aberia and winter daphne. These data indicates that most of the induced mutant plants were non-chimeric, while a few others were chimeric. Among the new varieties, ''Gin-Sei'', ''Ryoku-Ha'', ''Big-Cross'', ''Kaede-Iron'', ''Mei-Fu-Hana-Tsukubane-Utsugi'' and ''Daphne-el-3'' are non-chimeric, and ''Mini-Mini-Iron'' and ''Orange-Iron'' are chimeric. Moreover, these new varieties have remarkably differed in size and in color pattern from original variety. From the experimental results of somatic mutation, it is indicated that plant tissue culture have enormous potential in radiation breeding and in rapid propagation of the somatic mutant. (author).

  12. Bacillus licheniformis SA03 Confers Increased Saline–Alkaline Tolerance in Chrysanthemum Plants by Induction of Abscisic Acid Accumulation

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    Cheng Zhou

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Soil saline-alkalization is a major abiotic stress that leads to low iron (Fe availability and high toxicity of sodium ions (Na+ for plants. It has recently been shown that plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR can enhance the ability of plants to tolerate multiple abiotic stresses such as drought, salinity, and nutrient deficiency. However, the possible involvement of PGPR in improving saline–alkaline tolerance of plants and the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the effects of Bacillus licheniformis (strain SA03 on the growth of Chrysanthemum plants under saline–alkaline conditions. Our results revealed that inoculation with SA03 alleviated saline–alkaline stress in plants with increased survival rates, photosynthesis and biomass. The inoculated plants accumulated more Fe and lower Na+ concentrations under saline–alkaline stress compared with the non-inoculated plants. RNA-Sequencing analyses further revealed that SA03 significantly activated abiotic stress- and Fe acquisition-related pathways in the stress-treated plants. However, SA03 failed to increase saline–alkaline tolerance in plants when cellular abscisic acid (ABA and nitric oxide (NO synthesis were inhibited by treatment with fluridone (FLU and 2-(4-carboxyphenyl-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide (c-PTIO, respectively. Importantly, we also found that NO acted downstream of SA03-induced ABA to activate a series of adaptive responses in host plants under saline–alkaline stress. These findings demonstrated the potential roles of B. licheniformis SA03 in enhancing saline–alkaline tolerance of plants and highlighted the intricate integration of microbial signaling in regulating cellular Fe and Na+ accumulation.

  13. Inhibitory Effects of Chrysanthemum boreale Essential Oil on Biofilm Formation and Virulence Factor Expression of Streptococcus mutans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Beom-Su; Park, Sun-Ju; Kim, Myung-Kon; Kim, Young-Hoi; Lee, Sang-Bong; Lee, Kwang-Hee; Choi, Na-Young; Lee, Young-Rae; Lee, Young-Eun; You, Yong-Ouk

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the antibacterial activity of essential oil extracted from Chrysanthemum boreale (C. boreale) on Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans). To investigate anticariogenic properties, and bacterial growth, acid production, biofilm formation, bacterial adherence of S. mutans were evaluated. Then gene expression of several virulence factors was also evaluated. C. boreale essential oil exhibited significant inhibition of bacterial growth, adherence capacity, and acid production of S. mutans at concentrations 0.1-0.5 mg/mL and 0.25-0.5 mg/mL, respectively. The safranin staining and scanning electron microscopy results showed that the biofilm formation was also inhibited. The result of live/dead staining showed the bactericidal effect. Furthermore, real-time PCR analysis showed that the gene expression of some virulence factors such as gtfB, gtfC, gtfD, gbpB, spaP, brpA, relA, and vicR of S. mutans was significantly decreased in a dose dependent manner. In GC and GC-MS analysis, seventy-two compounds were identified in the oil, representing 85.42% of the total oil. The major components were camphor (20.89%), β-caryophyllene (5.71%), α-thujone (5.46%), piperitone (5.27%), epi-sesquiphellandrene (5.16%), α-pinene (4.97%), 1,8-cineole (4.52%), β-pinene (4.45%), and camphene (4.19%). These results suggest that C. boreale essential oil may inhibit growth, adhesion, acid tolerance, and biofilm formation of S. mutans through the partial inhibition of several of these virulence factors.

  14. Essential oils and crude extracts from Chrysanthemum trifurcatum leaves, stems and roots: chemical composition and antibacterial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassi, Ahlem Ben; Skhiri, Fethia Harzallah; Chraief, Imed; Bourgougnon, Nathalie; Hammami, Mohamed; Aouni, Mahjoub

    2014-01-01

    The essential oils from the leaves, stems and roots of Chrysanthemum trifurcatum (Desf.) Batt. and Trab. var. macrocephalum (viv.) were obtained by hydrodistillation and their chemical compositions were analysed by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), in order to get insight into similarities and differences as to their active composition. A total of fifty compounds were identified, constituting 97.84%, 99.02% and 98.20% of total oil composition of the leaves, stems and roots, respectively. Monoterpene hydrocarbons were shown to be the main group of constituents of the leaves and stems parts in the ratio of 67.88% and 51.29%, respectively. But, the major group in the roots oil was found to be sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (70.30%). The main compounds in leaves oil were limonene (26.83%), γ-terpinene (19.68%), α-pinene (9.7%) and α-terpenyl acetate (7.16%). The stems oil, contains mainly limonene (32.91%), 4-terpenyl acetate (16.33%) and γ-terpinene (5.93%), whereas the main compounds in roots oil were α-calacorene (25.98%), α-cedrene (16.55%), β-bourbobene (14.91%), elemol (7.45%) and 2-hexenal (6.88%). The crude organic extracts of leaves, stems and roots, obtained by maceration with solvents of increasing polarity: petroleum ether, ethyl acetate and methanol, contained tannins, flavonoids and alkaloids. Meanwhile, essential oils and organic extracts were tested for antibacterial activities against eight Gram-positive and Gram-negative strains, using a microdilution method. The oil and methanolic extact from C. trifurcatum leaves showed a great potential of antibacterial effect against Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus epidermidis, with an IC50 range of 31.25-62.5 µg/ml.

  15. Expression profile analysis of genes involved in horizontal gravitropism bending growth in the creeping shoots of ground-cover chrysanthemum by suppression subtractive hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Shengjun; Chen, Yu; Jiang, Jiafu; Chen, Sumei; Guan, Zhiyong; Fang, Weimin; Chen, Fadi

    2013-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms underlying gravitropic bending of shoots are poorly understood and how genes related with this growing progress is still unclear. To identify genes related to asymmetric growth in the creeping shoots of chrysanthemum, suppression subtractive hybridization was used to visualize differential gene expression in the upper and lower halves of creeping shoots of ground-cover chrysanthemum under gravistimulation. Sequencing of 43 selected clones produced 41 unigenes (40 singletons and 1 unigenes), which were classifiable into 9 functional categories. A notable frequency of genes involve in cell wall biosynthesis up-regulated during gravistimulation in the upper side or lower side were found, such as beta tubulin (TUB), subtilisin-like protease (SBT), Glutathione S-transferase (GST), and expensing-like protein (EXP), lipid transfer proteins (LTPs), glycine-rich protein (GRP) and membrane proteins. Our findings also highlighted the function of some metal transporter during asymmetric growth, including the boron transporter (BT) and ZIP transporter (ZT), which were thought primarily for maintaining the integrity of cell walls and played important roles in cellulose biosynthesis. CmTUB (beta tubulin) was cloned, and the expression profile and phylogeny was examined, because the cytoskeleton of plant cells involved in the plant gravitropic bending growth is well known.

  16. External inorganic N source enhances the uptake of As species in garland chrysanthemum (C. coronarium) amended with chicken manure bearing roxarsone and its metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Lixian; Huang, Lianxi; He, Zhaohuan; Zhou, Changmin; Li, Guoliang; Yang, Baomei; Deng, Xiancai

    2013-06-15

    Roxarsone (ROX), a widely used feed organoarsenic additive, is excreted as itself and its metabolites in animal manure. Animal manure is commonly applied with N fertilizer to meet the N demand of crop. We investigated the accumulation of As species in garland chrysanthemum plants fertilized with chicken manure (CM) bearing ROX and its metabolites, combined with different inorganic N sources (NH₄(+), NO₃(-) and urea), respectively. The change of pH, N forms and As species in soils was examined as well. The results show that As(V), As(III) and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) were detectable in soils, and conversions between As species were affected by three inorganic N sources, irrespective of N form and soil pH. As(III) was the sole As species in garland chrysanthemum shoots, and As(III) and As(V) could be detected in roots. Urea, superior to NH₄(+), significantly enhanced the uptake of As species in plants by promoting plant growth, while NO₃(-) slightly reduced the As accumulation due to decreased biomass. As(III) was the dominant As compound (86.9-89.7%) in plants. Therefore, inorganic N fertilizers may inadvertently increase the risk of As contamination in plant from ROX via the way ROX→chicken→CM→soil→crop.

  17. 菊属植物DNA分子鉴定研究进展%Research Progress on DNA Molecular Identification of Plants in the Genus Chrysanthemum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡志刚; 夏叶; 郑贝; 胡志强; 高欢欢; 刘合刚

    2014-01-01

    This review summarized the research status on DNA molecular identification of plants in the genus Chrysanthemum. Some case studies on representative DNA molecular identification techniques, which included ge-nomic in situ hybridization (GISH), DNA molecular markers and DNA barcoding, were described. Simultaneously, the merits, demerits and development of the techniques were discussed. The above work provides evidence for the identi-fication and resource utilization of plants in the genus Chrysanthemum.%本文对以药用植物菊和野菊为代表的菊属植物DNA分子鉴定研究现状进行了整理和归纳,对基因组原位杂交、DNA分子标记以及DNA条形码等代表性的DNA分子鉴定技术在菊属植物中的研究进行了总结、讨论和展望,为菊属植物的分类鉴定和整理交流提供了科学依据。

  18. Characterization of in vitro haploid and doubled haploid Chrysanthemum morifolium plants via unfertilized ovule culture for phenotypical traits and DNA methylation pattern.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haibin eWang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Chrysanthemum is one of important ornamental species in the world. Its highly heterozygous state complicates molecular analysis, so it is of interest to derive haploid forms. A total of 2,579 non-fertilized chrysanthemum ovules pollinated by Argyranthemum frutescens were cultured in vitro to isolate haploid progeny. One single regenerant emerged from each of three of the 105 calli produced. Chromosome counts and microsatellite fingerprinting showed that only one of the regenerants was a true haploid. Nine doubled haploid derivatives were subsequently generated by colchicine treatment of 80 in vitro cultured haploid nodal segments. Morphological screening showed that the haploid plant was shorter than the doubled haploids, and developed smaller leaves, flowers and stomata. An in vitro pollen germination test showed that few of the haploid's pollen were able to germinate and those which did so were abnormal. Both the haploid and the doubled haploids produced yellow flowers, whereas those of the maternal parental cultivar were mauve. Methylation-sensitive amplification polymorphism (MSAP profiling was further used to detect alterations in cytosine methylation caused by the haploidization and/or the chromosome doubling processes. While 52.2% of the resulting amplified fragments were cytosine methylated in the maternal parent's genome, the corresponding proportions for the haploid's and doubled haploids' genomes were, respectively, 47.0% and 51.7%, demonstrating a reduction in global cytosine methylation caused by haploidization and a partial recovery following chromosome doubling.

  19. The influence of nitrogen fertilizations and light intersity on mother plants productivity and the rooting of cuttings of Chrysanthemum (cultivar - Horim Golden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia Kozłowska

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Mother plants of Chrysanthemum cv. "Horim Golden" have been cultivated at three levels of nitrogen fertilization, dosage for a 3 l pot was 100,500,1000 mg N. The plants were growing with fluorescent lamps on (5000 lx or 10000 lx. The rooting of the cuttings obtained under such conditions took place with 5000 lx. The effect of nitrogen on the productivity of mother plants depended on the light intensity. Higher nitrogen doses affected favourably the number of cuttings, the growth and number of roots per cuttings - only when higher light intensity was applied for mother plants. Light of various intensity used in the cultivation of chrysanthemum mother plants had a significantly higher effect on the dynamics of rooting that did nitrogen fertilization. High intensity light, irrespective of the nitrogen dose used, also increased the weight and number of roots per cutting. Moreover, a clear correlation has been found between the carbohydrate content in cuttings and the dynamics of rooting and the number and weight of roots formed. The process of root formation took place later and was slower in cuttings in which a higher carbohydrate content was found; however, the number and weight of roots formed by these cuttings were considerably higher. In cuttings characterised by a low carbohydrate; total nitrogen ratio a decrease in the number and weight of roots has been found.

  20. 富硒条件对杭白菊硒含量的影响%Effects of Selenium-Enriching Conditions on Selenium Contents in Chrysanthemum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郇延军; 陶谦; 等

    2001-01-01

    The changing regularity of different spraying selenium(Se) concentrations on Se absorbing and converting ability of chrysanthemum was studied. The effects of different spraying quantity, water resource, spraying times, batch spraying and variety on total Se content and organic Se percentage of Xiaoyangju chrysanthemum were discussed in the paper. Also the effect of different picking points on uniformity of samples and the effect of drying temperatures on Se loss were analyzed in the paper.%探讨了不同富硒浓度对杭白菊硒吸收、硒有机化和感官色泽的影响,并讨论了不同喷洒量、水质纯度、喷洒次数和茬数以及杭白菊不同结构组分对小洋菊富硒的影响,不同取点对硒喷洒和吸收的均匀性衡量的影响,干菊花干燥温度对硒损失的影响。

  1. Rational use of electrical energy in artificial light in the production of chrysanthemum seedlings in greenhouse; Uso racional de energia eletrica em iluminacao artificial na producao de mudas de crisantemo em ambiente protegido

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David, Eduardo [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (FEA/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Agricola], e-mail: eduardo.david@gr.unicamp.br; Rossi, Luiz Antonio [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (DEA/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Agricola], e-mail: rossi@agr.unicamp.br

    2008-07-01

    The type of artificial illumination employed for chrysanthemum cultivation in greenhouses to induce photo period effect will determine its growing rate as well as the energy consumption. Incandescent filament is currently employed for artificial illumination in chrysanthemum nursery to induce photo period effect. Nowadays new illumination technology is being tested aiming energy consumption reduction. The application of illumination based on electrical discharge in sodium or mercury vapor, as well as tubular or integrated compact fluorescent bulbs in chrysanthemum cultivation is identified as the objective of this research work. The experimental part of this work was carried out in a commercial greenhouse model employing five chrysanthemum variety as Papiro, Lindy White, Mona Lisa Rose, Euro Speedy and Stateman during winter and summer period. Parameters employed to the study variety behavior included: production per area, fresh matter weight, presence of flower sprouts and moisture content. The parameters known as electrical variables, like consumption, demand and power factor, together with the treatment energy efficiency index were used to analyze the employed illumination technologies and light bulbs type. Results showed differences between weight of fresh flowers and moisture content for the flowers variety under consideration. Productivity per unit area was noticed to be larger for discharge technology when compared with filament bulbs, for both varieties being tested. The lowest flower sprout occurrence was associated to the discharge technology with the exception of the variety Stateman produced with incandescent bulbs of 100 W in the winter plot. The unique exception related to discharge technology was associated to the White 23 W Integrated Compact Fluorescent bulb yielding 2.4% of flower sprouts compared with 0% of other bulb types associated to the production of the variety Euro Speedy. It was noticed from the results that the yellow integrated compact

  2. Scientific Opinion on the risk to plant health posed by Chrysanthemum stunt viroid for the EU territory, with identification and evaluation of risk reduction options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Plant Health (PLH

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The Panel on Plant Health conducted a pest risk assessment for Chrysanthemum stunt viroid (CSVd and identified and evaluated risk reduction options, particularly those listed in Council Directive 2000/29/EC. Three entry pathways were identified, with plants for planting being the most important and rated as moderately likely. CSVd is recorded in some EU Member States with a limited distribution and is regulated on chrysanthemum; host plants are widely cultivated in greenhouses and outdoors. Therefore, establishment is very likely. Short-distance spread within a crop is likely, whereas short-distance spread between different species is unlikely to moderately likely. For vegetatively propagated species, in the absence of an efficient certification system, long-distance spread is very likely and a major impact would be expected on chrysanthemum, with associated yield and quality losses. However, under the existing certification scheme for chrysanthemum plant propagation material, the probability of spread through infected cuttings is largely reduced and the direct consequences of viroid outbreaks are expected to be minor. Minimal impact is predicted for other ornamental hosts and a minor impact for solanaceous vegetable crops. The indirect effects of CSVd are considered to be limited, with the exception of eradication. Risk reduction options addressing the sanitary status of the propagation material are likely to be the most effective and feasible. These include the current EU measures, as well as a statutory certification system with associated statutory import requirements or, failing that, but potentially less effective, the use of voluntary industry standards. It is difficult to disentangle the benefits of the current legislation from those of the industry-developed chrysanthemum certification system. The high efficacy of current measures is supported by the absence or limited presence of CSVd in the EU and by the limited number of

  3. Compatibilidad del hongo entomopatógeno Purpureocillium sp. cepa UdeA0106 con biocontroladores y productos fitosanitarios utilizados en cultivos de crisantemo/Compatibility of the entomopathogenic fungus Purpureocillium sp. cepa UdeA0106 with biocontrollers fungi and plant protection products, used on chrysanthemum crops

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jenny Gallego-Velásquez; Nadya L Cardona-Bustos; Fernando Restrepo-Betancur

    2014-01-01

    ....) , a pest that attacks chrysanthemum crops, whose control has been achieved with the use of some insecticides, which temporarily reduce populations but without the desired efficiency throughout the cultivation cycle...

  4. Pepper mild mottle virus, a plant virus associated with specific immune responses, Fever, abdominal pains, and pruritus in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Colson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recently, metagenomic studies have identified viable Pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV, a plant virus, in the stool of healthy subjects. However, its source and role as pathogen have not been determined. METHODS AND FINDINGS: 21 commercialized food products containing peppers, 357 stool samples from 304 adults and 208 stool samples from 137 children were tested for PMMoV using real-time PCR, sequencing, and electron microscopy. Anti-PMMoV IgM antibody testing was concurrently performed. A case-control study tested the association of biological and clinical symptoms with the presence of PMMoV in the stool. Twelve (57% food products were positive for PMMoV RNA sequencing. Stool samples from twenty-two (7.2% adults and one child (0.7% were positive for PMMoV by real-time PCR. Positive cases were significantly more likely to have been sampled in Dermatology Units (p<10(-6, to be seropositive for anti-PMMoV IgM antibodies (p = 0.026 and to be patients who exhibited fever, abdominal pains, and pruritus (p = 0.045, 0.038 and 0.046, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Our study identified a local source of PMMoV and linked the presence of PMMoV RNA in stool with a specific immune response and clinical symptoms. Although clinical symptoms may be imputable to another cofactor, including spicy food, our data suggest the possibility of a direct or indirect pathogenic role of plant viruses in humans.

  5. Rapid plant regeneration of chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-05-04

    May 4, 2009 ... Satisfactory rooting response was obtained in half strength MS media supplemented ... Rapid clonal plant propagation in vitro can be obtained through bud or ..... D, Galgy R (1978). Multiplication of vegetative dela Cannal a.

  6. Endothelin receptor B2 (EDNRB2 is responsible for the tyrosinase-independent recessive white (mo(w and mottled (mo plumage phenotypes in the chicken.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keiji Kinoshita

    Full Text Available A mutation that confers white plumage with black eyes was identified in the Minohiki breed of Japanese native chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus. The white plumage, with a few partially pigmented feathers, was not associated with the tyrosinase gene, and displayed an autosomal recessive mode of inheritance against the pigmented phenotype. All F1 offspring derived from crosses with mottled chickens (mo/mo, which show characteristic pigmented feathers with white tips, had plumage with a mottled-like pattern. This result indicates that the white plumage mutation is a novel allele at the mo locus; we propose the gene symbol mo(w for this mutant allele. Furthermore, the F1 hybrid between the mo(w /mo(w chicken and the panda (s/s mutant of Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica, whose causative gene is the endothelin receptor B2 (EDNRB2 gene, showed a mo(w/mo(w chicken-like plumage, suggesting the possibility that the mutations in parental species are alleles of the same gene, EDNRB2. Nucleotide sequencing of the entire coding region of EDNRB2 revealed a non-synonymous G1008T substitution, which causes Cys244Phe amino acid substitution in exon 5 (which is part of the extracellular loop between the putative fourth and fifth transmembrane domains of EDNRB2 in the mutant chicken. This Cys244Phe mutation was also present in individuals of four Japanese breeds with white plumage. We also identified a non-synonymous substitution leading to Arg332His substitution that was responsible for the mottled (mo/mo plumage phenotype. These results suggest that the EDN3 (endothelin 3-EDNRB2 signaling is essential for normal pigmentation in birds, and that the mutations of EDNRB2 may cause defective binding of the protein with endothelins, which interferes with melanocyte differentiation, proliferation, and migration.

  7. Endothelin Receptor B2 (EDNRB2) Is Responsible for the Tyrosinase-Independent Recessive White (mow) and Mottled (mo) Plumage Phenotypes in the Chicken

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Keiji; Akiyama, Toyoko; Mizutani, Makoto; Shinomiya, Ai; Ishikawa, Akira; Younis, Hassan Hassan; Tsudzuki, Masaoki; Namikawa, Takao; Matsuda, Yoichi

    2014-01-01

    A mutation that confers white plumage with black eyes was identified in the Minohiki breed of Japanese native chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus). The white plumage, with a few partially pigmented feathers, was not associated with the tyrosinase gene, and displayed an autosomal recessive mode of inheritance against the pigmented phenotype. All F1 offspring derived from crosses with mottled chickens (mo/mo), which show characteristic pigmented feathers with white tips, had plumage with a mottled-like pattern. This result indicates that the white plumage mutation is a novel allele at the mo locus; we propose the gene symbol mow for this mutant allele. Furthermore, the F1 hybrid between the mow/mow chicken and the panda (s/s) mutant of Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica), whose causative gene is the endothelin receptor B2 (EDNRB2) gene, showed a mow/mow chicken-like plumage, suggesting the possibility that the mutations in parental species are alleles of the same gene, EDNRB2. Nucleotide sequencing of the entire coding region of EDNRB2 revealed a non-synonymous G1008T substitution, which causes Cys244Phe amino acid substitution in exon 5 (which is part of the extracellular loop between the putative fourth and fifth transmembrane domains of EDNRB2) in the mutant chicken. This Cys244Phe mutation was also present in individuals of four Japanese breeds with white plumage. We also identified a non-synonymous substitution leading to Arg332His substitution that was responsible for the mottled (mo/mo) plumage phenotype. These results suggest that the EDN3 (endothelin 3)–EDNRB2 signaling is essential for normal pigmentation in birds, and that the mutations of EDNRB2 may cause defective binding of the protein with endothelins, which interferes with melanocyte differentiation, proliferation, and migration. PMID:24466053

  8. Replication and encapsidation of the viroid-like satellite RNA of lucerne transient streak virus are supported in divergent hosts by cocksfoot mottle virus and turnip rosette virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehgal, O P; Sinha, R C; Gellatly, D L; Ivanov, I; AbouHaidar, M G

    1993-04-01

    Cocksfoot mottle sobemovirus supports replication and encapsidation of the viroid-like satellite RNA (sat-RNA) of lucerne transient streak virus (LTSV) in two monocotyledonous species, Triticum aestivum and Dactylis glomerata. Additionally, LTSV sat-RNA replicates effectively in the presence of turnip rosette sobemovirus in Brassica rapa, Raphanus raphanistrum and Sinapsis arvensis, but not in Thlaspi arvense or Nicotiana bigelovii, indicating that host species markedly influence this interaction. Previous reports of the association between LTSV sat-RNA and helper sobemoviruses were limited to dicotyledonous hosts. Our results demonstrate that the biological interaction between these two entities spans divergent dicotyledonous and monocotyledonous species.

  9. Development of an agroinoculation system for full-length and GFP-tagged cDNA clones of cucumber green mottle mosaic virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Hongying; Xiao, Caili; Han, Kelei; Peng, Jiejun; Lin, Lin; Lu, Yuwen; Xie, Li; Wu, Xiaohua; Xu, Pei; Li, Guojing; Chen, Jianping; Yan, Fei

    2015-11-01

    The complete 6243-nucleotide sequence of a cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV) isolate from bottle gourd in Zhejiang province, China, was determined. A full-length cDNA clone of this isolate was constructed by inserting the cDNA between the 35S promoter and the ribozyme in the binary plasmid pCB301-CH. A suspension of an Agrobacterium tumefaciens EHA105 clone carrying this construct was highly infectious in Nicotiana benthamiana and bottle gourd. Another infectious clone containing the green fluorescence protein (GFP) reporter gene was also successfully constructed. This study is the first report of the efficient use of agroinoculation for generating CGMMV infections.

  10. Comparisons of coat protein gene sequences show that East African isolates of Sweet potato feathery mottle virus form a genetically distinct group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreuze, J F; Karyeija, R F; Gibson, R W; Valkonen, J P

    2000-01-01

    Sweet potato feathery mottle virus (SPFMV, genus Potyvirus) infects sweet potatoes (Ipomoea batatas) worldwide, but no sequence data on isolates from Africa are available. Coat protein (CP) gene sequences from eight East African isolates from Madagascar and different districts of Uganda (the second biggest sweet potato producer in the world) and two West African isolates from Nigeria and Niger were determined. They were compared by phylogenetic analysis with the previously reported sequences of ten SPFMV isolates from other continents. The East African SPFMV isolates formed a distinct cluster, whereas the other isolates were not clustered according to geographic origin. These data indicate that East African isolates of SPFMV form a genetically unique group.

  11. Comparison of antioxidant activities of different parts from snow chrysanthemum (Coreopsis tinctoria Nutt.) and identification of their natural antioxidants using high performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detection and mass spectrometry and 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-sulfonic acid)diammonium salt-based assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, L X; Hu, D J; Lam, S C; Ge, L; Wu, D; Zhao, J; Long, Z R; Yang, W J; Fan, B; Li, S P

    2016-01-08

    Snow chrysanthemum (Coreopsis tinctoria Nutt.), a world-widely well-known flower tea material, has attracted more and more attention because of its beneficial health effects such as antioxidant activity and special flavor. In this study, a high performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detection and mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-MS) and 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-sulfonic acid)diammonium salt (ABTS) based assay was employed for comparison and identification of antioxidants in different samples of snow chrysanthemum. The results showed that snow chrysanthemum flowers possessed the highest while stems presented the lowest antioxidant capacities. Fourteen detected peaks with antioxidant activity were temporarily identified as 3,4',5,6,7-pentahydroxyflavanone-O-hexoside, chlorogenic acid, 2R-3',4',8-trihydroxyflavanone-7-O-glucoside, flavanomarein, flavanocorepsin, flavanokanin, quercetagitin-7-O-glucoside, 3',5,5',7-tetrahydroxyflavanone-O-hexoside, marein, maritimein, 1,3-dicaffeoylquinic acid, coreopsin, okanin and acetyl-marein by comparing their UV spectra, retention times and MS data with standards or literature data. Antioxidants existed in snow chrysanthemum are quite different from those reported in Chrysanthemum morifolium, a well-known traditional beverage in China, which indicated that snow chrysanthemum may be a promising herbal tea material with obvious antioxidant activity.

  12. Photoresponsive, reversible immobilization of virus particles on supramolecular platforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weineisen, N L; Hommersom, C A; Voskuhl, J; Sankaran, S; Depauw, A M A; Katsonis, N; Jonkheijm, P; Cornelissen, J J L M

    2017-02-07

    Here we report on the covalent attachment of photoresponsive azobenzene moieties to cowpea chlorotic mottle virus (CCMV). The modified virus capsids can be reversibly immobilized on cucurbit[8]uril (CB[8]) bearing surfaces via supramolecular complexation.

  13. 药用菊花种苗计算机快速鉴别研究%Rapid identification system for seedlings of medicinal Chrysanthemum morifolium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛鹏飞; 郭巧生; 汪涛; 邵清松

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To achieve the rapid identification for seedlings of medicinal Chrysanthemum morifolium, the discriminant equation was established and the software for rapid identification was designed. Method: Leaf structure of medicinal Chrysanthemum of 12 cultivars was analyzed to establish the discriminant equation based on variance analysis and discriminant analysis. On this basis, the identification program and software (based on the python language) were designed. Result: Through the analysis of variance and multiple comparisons for the 11 leaf parameter index data of 12 different cultivars, it was found that that the leaf parameters were significant different from each other and reached significant levels. The discriminant equation and the rapid identification software were set up based on the analysis of various indicators. Conclusion: The rapid identification system of seedlings of medicinal Chrysanthemum could be achieved through the establishment of discriminant equation combined with computer technology.%目的:通过建立药用菊花种苗判别方程,设计出快速鉴别软件,实现对其种苗的快速鉴别.方法:采用方差分析和判别分析对12个栽培类型的药用菊花叶形结构11个指标进行分析,建立判别方程.在此基础上,设计鉴别程序,编写软件(基于Python语言).结果:通过对12个不同类型药用菊花的11个叶形参数指标数据进行方差分析和多重比较,各叶形参数之间均达到显著水平,各类型之间均存在显著性差异.对各指标进行判别分析,建立判别方程,并设计了药用菊花快速判别软件.结论:通过建立的药用菊花种苗判别方程,结合计算机技术,能够实现对药用菊花种苗的快速判别.

  14. 5种切花菊内生真菌的分离鉴定与分布情况研究%Research on Isolation, Identification and Distribution of Endophytic Fungi from Five Cut Chrysanthemums

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马龑; 赵大克; 郑丽

    2014-01-01

    研究了5个常见切花菊品种内生真菌的分离鉴定与分布情况,以寻找切花菊自身抗性真菌并为今后开展生物防治提供基础资料。找到了切花菊各部位材料的表面灭菌处理最优方法,发现切花菊内生真菌在分离中出现幼嫩部位内生真菌分离数量明显高于成熟部位,并且根分布最多,叶次之,茎最少。5个切花菊的内生真菌中,镰刀菌属( Fusarium)和枝孢属( Cladosporium)为优势菌群。5个切花菊品种内生真菌的分布存在一定相似度,但不同品种还是存在自己特有的内生真菌,说明切花菊的内生真菌分布有一定多样性。%The isolation, identification and distribution of endophytic fungi from five common cut chrysanthemum cultivars were studied to find out their own resistant fungi and provide fundamental data for the future studies on biological control.The optimal method for surface sterilization treatment of various parts of cut chrysanthemum materials was found.It was found that the quantity of isolated endophytic fungi from the tender part of cut chrysanthemums was obviously higher than that from the mature part, and the distribution of endophytic fungi in different parts showed the following order:root>leaf>stem.Among endophytic fungi from five cut chrysanthemums, Fusarium and Cladosporium were dominant fungal community.Five cut chrysanthemum cultivars were some-what similar in the distribution of endophytic fungi, but different cultivars also had their own unique endophytic fungi, indicating that the distribution of endophytic fungi in cut chrysanthemums had a certain diversity.

  15. 江苏黄瓜绿斑驳花叶病毒的鉴定%Identification of cucumber green mottle mosaic virus in Jiangsu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任春梅; 程兆榜; 缪倩; 王锋; 张重阳; 徐冬青; 周益军

    2013-01-01

    为确定从江苏省洪泽县大棚西瓜、仪征市露地瓠瓜、东台市露地南瓜上采集到3个表现为褪绿、斑驳花叶症状的病样是否为黄瓜绿斑驳花叶病毒(CGMMV)侵染,采用电子镜观察、RT-PCR和序列测定方法对其进行鉴定.电子显微镜下可见300 nm×18 nm大小的直杆状病毒粒子.根据已报道的CGMMV外壳蛋白质(cp)基因序列合成特异性引物,对所提取病样的总RNA进行RT-PCR扩增,3个分离物的RNA模板中均可扩增到大小为500bp左右的DNA片段,测序结果表明3个分离物的片段均含有486个核苷酸,包含完整的cp基因,编码161个氨基酸.3个分离物与已报道的7个CGMMV分离物核苷酸及其所推导的氨基酸序列同源性分别为91.8% ~99.8%和98.1%~100.0%,与同属的其他3个病毒(Kyuri绿斑驳花叶病毒、黄瓜果实斑驳花叶病毒和小西葫芦绿斑驳花叶病毒)cp基因核苷酸及其所推导的氨基酸序列同源性分别为40.7%~ 54.7%和44.4% ~60.2%,表明所采集的3个病样由CGMMV侵染引起.%This study was performed to identify three isolates with chlorisis and mottle mosaic symptom collected from greenhouse watermelon in Hongze of Jiangsu, openground gourd in Yizheng of Jiangsu and openground pumpkin in Dongtai of Jiangsu. Straight rod virus particles with size of 300 nm×18 nm were shown under the electron micrograph in the crude extract of above isolates. Total RNA were amplified by RT-PCR with the specific primers designed on the basis of the reported coat protein ( cp) gene of cucumber green mottle mosaic virus( CGMMV) . An 500-bp gene fragment was amplified from total RNA of all three isolates, and subsequent sequence analysis indicated that the 486 bp fragment contained complete cp gene which encoded 161 amino acids. The nucleotides and deduced amino acid sequences of the cp genes from these isolates shared homologies from 91. 8% to 99. 8% and from 98. 1% to 100. 0% with 7 reported CGMMV

  16. Agarose-chitosan-C18 film micro-solid phase extraction combined with high performance liquid chromatography for the determination of phenanthrene and pyrene in chrysanthemum tea samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Nyuk Ting; Sanagi, Mohd Marsin; Wan Ibrahim, Wan Nazihah; Wan Ibrahim, Wan Aini

    2017-05-01

    Agarose-chitosan-immobilized octadecylsilyl-silica (C18) film micro-solid phase extraction (μSPE) was developed and applied for the determination of phenanthrene (PHE) and pyrene (PYR) in chrysanthemum tea samples using high performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection (HPLC-UV). The film of blended agarose and chitosan allows good dispersion of C18, prevents the leaching of C18 during application and enhances the film mechanical stability. Important μSPE parameters were optimized including amount of sorbent loading, extraction time, desorption solvent and desorption time. The matrix match calibration curves showed good linearity (r⩾0.994) over a concentration range of 1-500ppb. Under the optimized conditions, the proposed method showed good limits of detection (0.549-0.673ppb), good analyte recoveries (100.8-105.99%) and good reproducibilities (RSDs⩽13.53%, n=3) with preconcentration factors of 4 and 72 for PHE and PYR, respectively.

  17. Rapid adjustment in chrysanthemum carbohydrate turnover and growth activity to a change in time-of-day application of light and daylength

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Katrine Heinsvig; Poiré, Richard; Ottosen, Carl-Otto;

    2012-01-01

    Abstract. Diel (24 h) rhythms are believed to be of great importance to plant growth and carbohydrate metabolism in fluctuating environments. However, it is unclear how plants that have evolved to experience regular day–night patterns will respond to irregular light environments that disturb...... diurnally-regulated parameters related to growth. In this study, chrysanthemum plants were exposed to a change in the time-of-day application of light followed by short days or long days with a night interruption of light. We observed a clear shift in the diel cycle of sucrose turnover and relative leaf...... expansion, indicating a resetting of these activities with a temporal trigger in the early morning. The starch pool was relatively stable in long-day plants and marginally affected by the change in the time-of-day application in light followed by long days with a night interruption. This was in contrast...

  18. Effect of Mn-doping on the growth mechanism and electromagnetic properties of chrysanthemum-like ZnO nanowire clusters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Jun-Feng; You Tian-Gui; Zhang Zhi-Yong; Tian Jiang-Xiao; Yun Jiang-Ni; Zhao Wu

    2011-01-01

    Chrysanthemum-like ZnO nanowire clusters with different Mn-doping concentrations are prepared by a hydrothermal process. The microstructure, morphology and electromagnetic properties are characterized by x-ray diffractometer high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), a field emission environment scanning electron microscope (FEESEM)and a microwave vector network analyser respectively.The experimental results indicate that the asprepared products are Mn-doped ZnO single crystalline with a hexagonal wurtzite structure, that the growth habit changes due to Mn-doping and that a good magnetic loss property is found in the Mn-doped ZnO products, and theaverage magnetic loss tangent tan6m is up to 0.170099 for 3% Mn-doping, while the dielectric loss tangent tanSe is weakened, owing to the fact that ions Mn2+ enter the crystal lattice of ZnO.

  19. Reconocimiento y dispersión de hongos causantes del "picamento" (Rayspeck en crisantemo (Chrysanthemum morifolium ram en condiciones de invernadero

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bustos B. Indiana

    1992-11-01

    Full Text Available The recongnition of the fungi causing ray speck and their dispersion in chrysantemum (Chrysanthemum morifolium RAM cv. Polaris, was carried out under greenhouse conditions. Three speciea were identified: Alternaria alternata (FR Keiasler, Alternaria zinniae Ellis, Stemphylium botryosum, Wallroth lPleospora herbarum Raben Horst. The analysis ofthe disease dispersion was based on a random deaign with three repetitions. The number of coloniea, the temperature and relative humidity were evaluated in four different placea of the culture. The temperature was found to be the most important factor afecting the production and releaSe of conidia. The sporulation reached ita peak at noon (21°C.El reconocimiento de hongos causantes del "picamento" (ray speek y su dispersión en crisantemo (Chrysanthemum morifolium RAM cv. Polaris, se realizó bajo condiciones de invernadero. Se identificaron tres especies de hongos que producen los síntomas: ALternaria alternata (FR Keissler, ALternaria zinniae Ellis, Stemphylium botryosum, Wallroth CPkospora herbarum Raben Horst. Para el análisis de la dispersión de la enfermedad, se usó un diseño completamente al azar con tres repeticiones. En cuatro sitios del cultivo se evaluó el número de colonias, la temperatura y la humedad relativa. Se encontró que la temperatura es el factor más importante para la producción y liberación de conidias. A las 12 M. (21°C se presentó la mayor esporulación.

  20. Genomic DNA Extraction from Chrysanthemum Using High Salt CTAB Method%高盐沉淀CTAB法提取温室菊花基因组DNA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马月萍; 戴思兰

    2009-01-01

    Based on CTAB method,some protocal was modified according to the physiological characteristics of high containing contents of polyphenolics and polysaeeharides in Chrysanthemum.Adding 50% volume of 5 mol·L-1 NaCI into the solution which precipitating.High quality genomic DNA can be extracted from Chrysanthemum using the improved method.The DNA WaS preferable enough to be used as PCR template and digested by restriction enzyme completely and other studies of molecular biology.%根据温室菊花植物组织富含多酚、多糖的具体特性,对CTAB法加以改进:在待沉淀液中加入1/2体积5 mol·L~NaCI.改进后的方法获得的DNA质量良好,电泳条带清晰,提取过程无明显的DNA降解,基本上排除了多酚物质的干扰.以提取的DNA为模板,用一对引物扩增菊花中18S基因,得到条带单一,大小与已知一致,说明获得的DNA可以进行PCR扩增,EcoR I 酶切基因组DNA图谱表明,提取的DNA能被限制性内切酶完全酶切,可以满足相关的分子生物学研究.

  1. Complete nucleotide sequences and construction of full-length infectious cDNA clones of Cucumber green mottle virus (CGMMV) in a versatile newly developed binary vector including both 35S and T7 promoters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seed-transmitted viruses have caused significant damage to watermelon crops in Korea in recent years, with Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV) infection widespread as a result of infected seed lots. To determine the likely origin of CGMMV infection, we collected CGMMV isolates from watermelon...

  2. A 2014 nationwide survey of the distribution of Soybean mosaic virus (SMV), Soybean yellow mottle mosaic virus (SYMMV) and Soybean yellow common mosaic virus (SYCMV) major viruses in South Korean soybean fields, and changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 2014 symptomatic soybean samples were collected throughout Korea, and were tested for the most important soybean viruses found in Korea, namely Soybean mosaic virus (SMV), Soybean yellow common mosaic virus (SYCMV), and Soybean yellow mottle mosaic virus (SYMMV). SYMMV was most commonly detected,...

  3. The effects of foliar fertilization with iron sulfate in chlorotic leaves are limited to the treated area. A study with peach trees (Prunus persica L. Batsch grown in the field and sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. grown in hydroponics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamdi eEl-Jendoubi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Crop Fe deficiency is a worldwide problem. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of foliar Fe applications in two species grown in different environments: peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch trees grown in the field and sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. cv. ‘Orbis’ grown in hydroponics. The distal half of Fe-deficient, chlorotic leaves was treated with Fe sulfate by dipping and using a brush in peach trees and sugar beet plants, respectively. The re-greening of the distal (Fe-treated and basal (untreated leaf areas was monitored, and the nutrient and photosynthetic pigment composition of the two areas were also determined. Leaves were also studied using chlorophyll fluorescence imaging, low temperature-scanning electron microscopy microanalysis, scanning transmission ion microscopy-particle induced X-ray emission and Perls Fe staining. The distal, Fe-treated leaf parts of both species showed a significant increase in Fe concentrations (across the whole leaf volume and marked re-greening, with significant increases in the concentrations of all photosynthetic pigments, as well as decreases in de-epoxidation of xanthophyll cycle carotenoids and increases in photochemical efficiency. In the basal, untreated leaf parts, Fe concentrations increased slightly, but little re-greening occurred. No changes in the concentrations of other nutrients were found. Foliar Fe fertilization was effective in re-greening treated leaf areas both in peach trees and sugar beet plants. Results indicate that the effects of foliar Fe-sulfate fertilization in Fe-deficient, chlorotic leaves were minor outside the leaf surface treated, indicating that Fe mobility within the leaf is a major constraint for full fertilizer effectiveness in crops where Fe-deficiency is established and leaf chlorosis occurs.

  4. The effects of foliar fertilization with iron sulfate in chlorotic leaves are limited to the treated area. A study with peach trees (Prunus persica L. Batsch) grown in the field and sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) grown in hydroponics

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Jendoubi, Hamdi; Vázquez, Saúl; Calatayud, Ángeles; Vavpetič, Primož; Vogel-Mikuš, Katarina; Pelicon, Primož; Abadía, Javier; Abadía, Anunciación; Morales, Fermín

    2014-01-01

    Crop Fe deficiency is a worldwide problem. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of foliar Fe applications in two species grown in different environments: peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) trees grown in the field and sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. cv. “Orbis”) grown in hydroponics. The distal half of Fe-deficient, chlorotic leaves was treated with Fe sulfate by dipping and using a brush in peach trees and sugar beet plants, respectively. The re-greening of the distal (Fe-treated) and basal (untreated) leaf areas was monitored, and the nutrient and photosynthetic pigment composition of the two areas were also determined. Leaves were also studied using chlorophyll fluorescence imaging, low temperature-scanning electron microscopy microanalysis, scanning transmission ion microscopy-particle induced X-ray emission and Perls Fe staining. The distal, Fe-treated leaf parts of both species showed a significant increase in Fe concentrations (across the whole leaf volume) and marked re-greening, with significant increases in the concentrations of all photosynthetic pigments, as well as decreases in de-epoxidation of xanthophyll cycle carotenoids and increases in photochemical efficiency. In the basal, untreated leaf parts, Fe concentrations increased slightly, but little re-greening occurred. No changes in the concentrations of other nutrients were found. Foliar Fe fertilization was effective in re-greening treated leaf areas both in peach trees and sugar beet plants. Results indicate that the effects of foliar Fe-sulfate fertilization in Fe-deficient, chlorotic leaves were minor outside the leaf surface treated, indicating that Fe mobility within the leaf is a major constraint for full fertilizer effectiveness in crops where Fe-deficiency is established and leaf chlorosis occurs. PMID:24478782

  5. The effects of foliar fertilization with iron sulfate in chlorotic leaves are limited to the treated area. A study with peach trees (Prunus persica L. Batsch) grown in the field and sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) grown in hydroponics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Jendoubi, Hamdi; Vázquez, Saúl; Calatayud, Angeles; Vavpetič, Primož; Vogel-Mikuš, Katarina; Pelicon, Primož; Abadía, Javier; Abadía, Anunciación; Morales, Fermín

    2014-01-01

    Crop Fe deficiency is a worldwide problem. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of foliar Fe applications in two species grown in different environments: peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) trees grown in the field and sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. cv. "Orbis") grown in hydroponics. The distal half of Fe-deficient, chlorotic leaves was treated with Fe sulfate by dipping and using a brush in peach trees and sugar beet plants, respectively. The re-greening of the distal (Fe-treated) and basal (untreated) leaf areas was monitored, and the nutrient and photosynthetic pigment composition of the two areas were also determined. Leaves were also studied using chlorophyll fluorescence imaging, low temperature-scanning electron microscopy microanalysis, scanning transmission ion microscopy-particle induced X-ray emission and Perls Fe staining. The distal, Fe-treated leaf parts of both species showed a significant increase in Fe concentrations (across the whole leaf volume) and marked re-greening, with significant increases in the concentrations of all photosynthetic pigments, as well as decreases in de-epoxidation of xanthophyll cycle carotenoids and increases in photochemical efficiency. In the basal, untreated leaf parts, Fe concentrations increased slightly, but little re-greening occurred. No changes in the concentrations of other nutrients were found. Foliar Fe fertilization was effective in re-greening treated leaf areas both in peach trees and sugar beet plants. Results indicate that the effects of foliar Fe-sulfate fertilization in Fe-deficient, chlorotic leaves were minor outside the leaf surface treated, indicating that Fe mobility within the leaf is a major constraint for full fertilizer effectiveness in crops where Fe-deficiency is established and leaf chlorosis occurs.

  6. The full-length clone of cucumber green mottle mosaic virus and its application as an expression system for Hepatitis B surface antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooi, Aikseng; Tan, Sianghee; Mohamed, Rosmawati; Rahman, Noorsaadah Abdul; Othman, Rofina Yasmin

    2006-02-24

    A cucumber green mosaic mottle virus (CGMMV) full-length clone was developed for the expression of Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). The expression of the surface displayed HBsAg by the chimeric virus was confirmed through a double antibody sandwich ELISA. Assessment of the coat protein composition of the chimeric virus particles by SDS-PAGE analysis showed that 50% of the coat proteins were fused to the HBsAg. Biological activity of the expressed HBsAg was assessed through the stimulation of in vitro antibody production by cultured peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). PBMC that were cultured in the presence of the chimeric virus showed up to an approximately three-fold increase in the level of anti HBsAg immunoglobulin thus suggesting the possible use of this new chimeric virus as an effective Hepatitis B vaccine.

  7. Comparison of three magnetic-bead-based RNA extraction methods for detection of cucumber green mottle mosaic virus by real-time RT-PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaoli; Zhou, Qi; Zhang, Lijie; Yan, Wenlong; Sun, Ning; Liang, Xinmiao; Deng, Congliang

    2015-07-01

    To determine the efficiency of RNA extraction methods based on magnetic beads, three different bead-based methods (one using silica-coated magnetic beads [SMNP], one using immunomagnetic beads conjugated to a specific antibody [IMB], and one using magnetic beads to nonspecifically adsorb virions [MNP]) were compared with the TRIzol method for the extraction of cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV) RNA from cucumber leaves by real-time RT-PCR. The results indicated that the extraction efficiency of the SMNP method was 10 times higher than those of the IMB and MNP methods and 100 times higher than that of the TRIzol method. Therefore, the SMNP method could be considered for use in quarantine measures for the prevention and control of the disease caused by CGMMV.

  8. The Origin of Garden Chrysanthemums and Molecular Phylogeny of Dendranthema in China based on Nucleotide Sequences of nrDNA ITS, trnT-trnL and trnL-trnF Intergenic Spacer Regions in cpDNA%基于核糖体DNA的ITS序列和叶绿体trnT-trnL及trnL-trnF基因间区的菊花起源与中国菊属植物分子系统学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵惠恩; 汪小全; 陈俊愉; 洪德元

    2003-01-01

    Several sequences were applied to resolve phylogenetic relationships within Dendranthema and clarify the origin of garden chrysanthemums including sequences of nrDNA ITS, trnT-trnL and trnL-trnF intergenic spacer regions in cpDNA. The relationships among the species are so close that the three sequences could only provide limited information. From the evidence presented, we suggest that: ① D.rhmobifolium be the chloroplast donor of D.vestitum (HN) with the resembling morphology and the same trnT/L IGS sequence. ② D.vestitum, a putative ancestor, may be not the chloroplast donor of garden chrysanthemums. D.lavand-ulifolium might be the chloroplast donor of the type population of D.indicum (HN) or the direct chloroplast donor of the ancient garden chrysanthemum cultivar. ③ D.zawaskii might be not the ancestor of garden chrysanthemums.

  9. Chlorotic spots on Clerodendrum, a disease caused by a nuclear type of Brevipalpus (Acari:Tenuipalpidae) transmitted virus Mancha clorótica do Clerodendrum, uma enfermidade causada por um vírus do tipo nuclear, transmitido pelo ácaro Brevipalpus phoenicis (Acari:Tenuipalpidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Elliot Watanabe Kitajima; Karen Sumire Kubo; Paulo de Tarso de Oliveira Ferreira; Berenice Kussumoto de Alcântara; Alessandra de Jesus Boari; Renata Takassugi Gomes; Juliana Freitas-Astua; Jorge Alberto Marques Rezende; Gilberto José de Morais; Renato Barbosa Salaroli

    2008-01-01

    Chlorotic spots have been observed in plants of Clerodendrum x speciosum growing in residential gardens and parks in Piracicaba, SP, Brazil. Thin sections of diseased tissues revealed characteristic cytopathic effects of the nuclear type of the Brevipalpus (Acari: Tenuipalpidae) mite-transmitted viruses (BTrV). Brevipalpus mites, identified as B. phoenicis, infesting symptomatic C. x speciosum plants transmitted the pathogen to healthy C. x speciosum and to C. thomsonae, Gomphrena globosa, Hi...

  10. Investigation and Analysis of Large -Flowered Chrysanthemum Cultivars in Shandong Province%山东省大菊品种资源调查与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雒新艳; 张俊丽; 卢洁

    2015-01-01

    本研究对山东省大菊主栽城市进行了连续3年的调查和整理,共鉴定统计到195个品种,其中日本品种81个,中国品种114个;平瓣类(52%)和管瓣类(28%)品种多,畸瓣类(5%)和桂瓣类(1%)品种少;叠球型、翻卷型和钩环型3个花型的品种数量多,缺少平盘型、蜂窝型和单管型等7个花型的品种;黄色和白色品种多,两者之和超过了一半,绿色、红色和橙色品种少,不足10个;各花色在瓣型和花型中的分布极不均匀,黄色叠球型品种最多。该调查结果有利于正确认识大菊品种资源,保护珍稀资源,合理开展引种、育种和产业开发等工作。%One hundred and ninety -five Chrysanthemum cultivars were identified through the investiga-tion in the major cultivation cities of Shandong Province in 3 consecutive years,which included 81 Japanese cultivars and 114 native cultivars.The flat -petal group (52%)and quilled -petal group (28%)took the most part of cultivars,whereas the filiform -petal group (5%)and anemone -petal group (1%)had even less cultivars.These quantity of globular,reflexed and open bead types were the most,while that of 7 types, such as plate -petal types,honeycomb types and single quill type was lack.The cultivars yellow and white flowers were the most with their,sum was more than half of the total.There were less than ten cultivars with green,red and orange flowers.The distribution of each color in the petal groups and flower types was very un-even,and the yellow globular type was the most one.These results were propitious to cognize the cultivars of Chrysanthemum,protect valuable resources and develop the introduction,breeding and industry exploiting.

  11. Wolfberry Longan dates Chrysanthemum Compound Beverage%枸杞桂圆红枣菊花复合饮料的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何尧州; 吴忠义; 李莹; 曹晓虹

    2016-01-01

    Wolfberry,longan,red dates and chrysanthemum are used as raw material. White sugar,gelatin,sodium carboxymethylcellulose,and other accessories are applied. A health function,and easy to drink and carry composite drink is developed. Studying material handling,ratio,extraction,filtration,and adding accessories,production process is thus developed. Through single factor test,extraction conditions,orthogonal and sensory evaluation,to determine the optimal fomular of compound beverage:the ratio of longan:Wolfberry: dates:Chrysanthemum: water(mass ratio)is 1∶ 0.25∶ 0.5∶0.01∶40;extract complex juice at 85 ℃ ~95 ℃ water bath. Its color,aroma,taste and other indicators are of the best morphology. Accessory is made from 0.06% xanthan gum,0.08% sodium carboxymethyl cellulose and 10%of white sugar.%以枸杞、桂圆、红枣和菊花为原料,添加白砂糖、明胶和羧甲基纤维素钠等辅料。研制一款既具有保健功能,又饮用、携带方便的复合饮料。研究通过原料处理、配比、浸提、过滤和添加辅料等得出加工工艺流程,经单因素实验、浸提条件、正交试验和感官评定确定复合饮料的最佳配比是桂圆:枸杞:红枣:菊花:水(质量之比)为1∶0.25∶0.5∶0.01∶40,在85~95℃水浴条件下浸提得复合汁,其色泽、香气、口味和组织形态等指标最佳。辅料的配比为0.06%黄原胶、0.08%羧甲基纤维素钠和10%白砂糖。

  12. Avaliação do enraizamento de estacas de crisântemo (Chrysanthemum morifolium L. cv. white Reagan 606 tratadas com ácido indolbutírico (IBA Rooting evaluation in Chrysanthemum morifolium cv. white Reagan 606 stem cuttings as affected by indolbutyric acid (IBA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.L. Cuquel

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito de doses crescentes do ácido indolbutírico (IBA e de diferentes tempos de imersão no enraizamento de estacas de Chrysanthemum morifolium cv. White Reagan 606. O fator doses foi aplicado em quatro níveis: 0, 500, 1000 e 1500 ppm de IBA e o fator tempo em três níveis: 5s, 1h e 2h. O delineamento utilizado foi o de blocos completos casualizados com parcelas subdivididas, onde as dosagens de IBA foram aplicadas como tratamento principal. O experimento foi instalado em caixas de isopor, em casa de vegetação sob nebulização, tendo vermiculita como substrato. O momento adequado para o transplante foi avaliado através da leitura de uma repetição adicional utilizada como controle. Obteve-se enraizamento em todas as combinações de tratamento, mesma na ausência de IBA. De maneira geral o tratamento rápido tende a ser mais facilmente eficiente quando combinado com as maiores dosagens, enquanto os tratamentos mais demorados com as menores dosagens.The effect of rising concentrations of indolbutyric acid (IBA solutions was evaluated with different exposition times in stem cuttings of Chrysanthemum morifolium cv. White Reagan 606. The applied concentrations were 0,500,1000 and 1500 ppm of IBA during 5s, 1h and 2h, in a randomized complete split-plot block design, with IBA concentrations as main treatment. The experiment was installed in styrofoam trays in a green-house with a mist device and vermiculite as substrate. Transplanting time was determined by an additional block. All treatments induced rooting even in the absence of IBA. In a general sense the fastest treatments tended to be the more efficient when combined with higher concentrations.

  13. Molecular identification of Cucurbit chlorotic yellow virus in Hainan and Henan province%海南省和河南省发生甜瓜褪绿黄化病的分子鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘珊珊; 彭斌; 吴会杰; 柳唐镜; 孔祥义; 施艳; 古勤生

    2013-01-01

    [Objective] To investigate the pathogenic virus causing muskmelon yellowing in Hainan and Henan province, [Methods]the total RNA was extracted from samples collected from infected plants in Sanya, Hainan province and Zhengzhou, Henan province and the coat protein genes(cp) were amplified using Cucurbit cholorotic yellow virus (CCYV) specific primers and cloned. A phylogenetic tree was constructed based on the nucleotide sequences of those cp genes and all the sequences of cp genes within same species and same genus submitted in the GenBank. [Results]The results showed that the fragments of about 880 bp in size produced by RT-PCR were as expected. The phylogenetic tree showed that the samples belonged to the same branch with Cucurbit chlorotic yellow virus whereas Cucuibit yellow stunting disorder virus(CYSDV) and Barley yellow dwarf virus (BPYV) were in other branches. [Conclusions] Our investigation suggested that the yellowing of muskmelon in Hainan and Henan province was caused by Cucurbit cholorotic yellow virus.%[目的]为了探明引起海南省和河南省甜瓜褪绿黄化的病因,[方法]提取从海南三亚和河南郑州采集的甜瓜叶片的RNA,用CCYV特异性引物进行外壳蛋白基因的克隆、测序,并与GenBank中同属或同种病毒的cp基因核苷酸序列构建系统进化树.[结果]结果显示,RT-PCR产物经琼脂糖凝胶电泳,所得条带在880 bp左右,与预期的一致;构建cp基因的系统进化树发现,样品与瓜类褪绿黄化病毒(Cucurbit chlorotic yellows virus,CCYV)的亲缘关系很近,属于同一个分枝,而与该病毒同属不同种的南瓜黄矮失调病毒(Cuc urb it yellow stunting disorder virus,CYSDV)和大麦黄矮病毒(Barley yellow dwarf virus,BYDV)的亲缘关系较远,属于不同的分枝.[结论]证实海南省和河南省甜瓜褪绿黄化病是由瓜类褪绿黄化病毒引起.

  14. 茼蒿挥发油化学成分分析%Chemical Constitutes of Essential Oil from Chrysanthemum.L

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程霜; 崔庆新; 牛梅菊

    2001-01-01

    利用气相色谱-质谱联用法对茼蒿挥发油成分进行了分析,经毛细管色谱分离出了38种组分,并确认了32种成分,检出率达84.21%,并用气相色谱面积归一化法测定了各种成分的相对百分含量,其主要成分为4-甲基-2-戊烯、4-甲基-2,3-二氢呋喃、β-蒎烯、苯甲醛等。%The essential oil from Chrysanthemum. Lwas analyzed by capillary GC / MSD method. 38 peaks were isolated and 32 compounds were identified while the ratio of identification was 84. 21%. The relative contents of constitutes wrer determined by area normalizing method. The mainly chemical constitutes were: 2 - pentene - 4 - methyl -, 4 -methgl - 2, 3 - dihydro - furan, benzaldehyde, beta - pinene, etc.

  15. Comparative effects of hydrogen chloride gas on tomato and chrysanthemum. I. Distribution and accumulation of chloride following exposure. II. Pathological anatomy of hydrogen chloride gas injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shriner, D.S.

    1969-01-01

    Hydrogen chloride (HCl) gas damage to plants has not been a historically important problem. However, recent practices in a number of industries, particularly glass manufacturing and pyrolysis of waste plastics, have increased the seriousness of the problem. Studies were carried out under carefully controlled exposure conditions to determine the effects of HCl gas on a relatively sensitive and a relatively resistant plant species. The macroscopic symptoms of most importance in acute damage to tomato and chrysanthemum are glazing of the lower surface, and a bifacial bronzing of interveinal and marginal areas of leaves. Microscopically, glazing was shown to be caused by a collapse of the lower epidermal cells and a partial disorganization of the spongy mesophyll of leaves. Bronzing was shown to be caused by the further collapse of the spongy mesophyll, and in some cases the palisade mesophyll and upper epidermis. Analysis of plant tissues for their free chloride content following an exposure to HCl gas was done with cell-free water extracts which were titrated on an automatic chloride titrator. On the basis of such studies, evidence suggest that the mechanism of accumulation of chlorides in plants is similar to that of fluorides, and that in subacute doses, chlorides are translocated toward the extremities of the foliar portions of the plant. In areas where a number of different types of pollution sources exist, and symptomotology is not definitive in pinpointing the source, chloride analysis of plant tissues should prove valuable as an aid to diagnosis if HCl gas was suspected.

  16. Analysis of different technologies of artificial illumination for production of chrysanthemum in protecting environment; Analise de diferentes tecnologias de iluminacao artificial para producao de crisantemos em ambiente protegido

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David, Eduardo; Rossi, Luiz Antonio [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (FEAGRI/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Agricola. Dept. de Engenharia Agricola], Emails: eduardo.david@gr.unicamp.br, rossi@agr.unicamp.br

    2006-07-01

    In protecting environment chrysanthemum's production, the artificial illumination type used to induce the photo period, affects the growing and development of plants, as well the electric power consumed in this process of production. The most useful illumination type is by filament. Today, new artificial illumination technologies have been studied to reduce the electric power consumption. This work has been development in a commercial greenhouse with four varieties. The preliminary results have showed that the utilization of discharge lamps does not affect significantly the flower's development considering the weight and presence of flower bud. In the analyzed period, the reduction on power electricity consumption was 60,13% on the sodium-vapor lamp, 41,66% on the mercury-vapor lamp, 60,52% on the fluorescent tube lamp and 50,32% on the compact fluorescent-integrated lamp in comparison with the incandescent lamp that nowadays it is used. It shows the high intensity discharge technology (HID technology) has saved more electricity than the incandescent lamp. (author)

  17. Isolation and Identification of Flavonoids in Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat.%亳菊花中黄酮类化合物的分离鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜洪芳; 张玖; 单承莺

    2008-01-01

    菊花为菊科植物菊(Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat.)的干燥头状花序,为了进一步揭示药理活性的物质基础,为该中药的开发利用和质量评价提供依据,安徽亳州亳菊花中的黄酮类化合物进行了系统研究.毫菊经醇提、萃取、硅胶柱层析与纯化得到4个黄酮类化合物.通过理化常数和波谱解析鉴定了其中3个化舍物的结构,分别为:芹菜素-7-甲醚(Apigenin-7-methyl ether)(Ⅰ)、芹菜素(Apigenin)(Ⅱ)和未犀草素(Luteolin)(Ⅲ),另外1个化合物的结构尚在鉴定中.上述3个化合物均为首次从该植物中分到的已知合物.

  18. Should I stay or should I go: biogeographic and evolutionary history of a polyploid complex (Chrysanthemum indicum complex) in response to Pleistocene climate change in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Wan, Qian; Guo, Yan-Ping; Abbott, Richard J; Rao, Guang-Yuan

    2014-02-01

    Quaternary climatic oscillations greatly influenced the distribution and pattern of biodiversity in the Northern Hemisphere. Here we examine how such oscillations in South East Asia may have affected the demographic and evolutionary history of a polyploid plant complex associated with semi-dry habitats. We analyzed plastid and nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA) internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequence variation within the Chrysanthemum indicum complex (Asteraceae), which comprises diploid and polyploid plants distributed throughout China. In total, 368 individuals from 47 populations across the geographical range of the complex were analyzed. We show that the relatively widespread tetraploid form of C. indicum expanded its range southward in the Pleistocene, possibly during the most recent or previous glacial period when conditions became drier and forests retreated in southern China. In marked contrast, diploid and other polyploid members of the complex failed to expand their ranges at these times or have since undergone range contractions in contrast to tetraploid C. indicum. We conclude that hybridization and gene flow between taxa occurred frequently during the evolutionary history of the complex, causing considerable sharing of chlorotypes and ITS types. Nevertheless, taxa within ploidy levels could be largely distinguished according to chlorotype and/or ITS type. © 2013 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.

  19. Lupeol is one of active components in the extract of Chrysanthemum indicum Linne that inhibits LMP1-induced NF-κB activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Se Chan; Lim, Sue Yeon; Song, Yoon-Jae

    2013-01-01

    We have previously reported that seventy percent ethanol extract of Chrysanthemum indicum Linne (CIE) strongly reduces Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-transformed lymphoblastoid cell line (LCL) survival by inhibiting virus-encoded latent infection membrane protein 1 (LMP1)-induced NF-κB activation. To identify an active compound(s) in CIE that inhibits LMP1-induced NF-κB activation, activity-guided fractionation was employed. The CH2Cl2 fraction of CIE strongly reduced LMP1-induced NF-κB activation and LCL viability with relatively low cytotoxic effects on primary human foreskin fibroblast (HFF), HeLa or Burkitt's lymphoma (BL41) cells. Furthermore, lupeol, a pentacyclic triterpene, was identified in the CH2Cl2 fraction of CIE to attenuate LMP1-induced NF-κB activation and LCL viability. This study demonstrates that lupeol is one of active compounds in the CH2Cl2 fraction of CIE that inhibits LMP1-induced NF-κB activation and reduces NF-κB-dependent LCL viability.

  20. Lupeol is one of active components in the extract of Chrysanthemum indicum Linne that inhibits LMP1-induced NF-κB activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Se Chan Kang

    Full Text Available We have previously reported that seventy percent ethanol extract of Chrysanthemum indicum Linne (CIE strongly reduces Epstein-Barr virus (EBV-transformed lymphoblastoid cell line (LCL survival by inhibiting virus-encoded latent infection membrane protein 1 (LMP1-induced NF-κB activation. To identify an active compound(s in CIE that inhibits LMP1-induced NF-κB activation, activity-guided fractionation was employed. The CH2Cl2 fraction of CIE strongly reduced LMP1-induced NF-κB activation and LCL viability with relatively low cytotoxic effects on primary human foreskin fibroblast (HFF, HeLa or Burkitt's lymphoma (BL41 cells. Furthermore, lupeol, a pentacyclic triterpene, was identified in the CH2Cl2 fraction of CIE to attenuate LMP1-induced NF-κB activation and LCL viability. This study demonstrates that lupeol is one of active compounds in the CH2Cl2 fraction of CIE that inhibits LMP1-induced NF-κB activation and reduces NF-κB-dependent LCL viability.

  1. Insecticidal Effect of Chrysanthemum coronarium L. Flowers on the Pest Spodoptera littoralis Boisd and its Parasitoid Microplitis rufiventris Kok. with Identifying the Chemical Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shonouda, Mourad L.; Osman, Salah; Salama, Osama; Ayoub, Amal

    The flower extract of Chrysanthemum coronarium L. and their fractions have shown insecticidal effect on the cotton leaf worm Spodoptera littoralis. The third instar larvae fed for two days on treated leaves were more susceptible to plant extracts and to their ethyl acetate and chloroform fractions. The active lowest concentration (5%) of the flower fractions showed no significant effect on the percent reduction of emerged adult parasitoids, Microplitis rufiventris Kok. GC/MS analysis revealed that the major constituents in ethyl acetate fraction were 3-dihydro-methylene-2- (3H) furanone (17.8%), jasmolin I (15.6%), carveol 1 (13.6%), phosphoric acid, tributyl ester (11.4%) and cinerin II (11.1%), while those of chloroform fraction were 5-hydroxy-3 methyl-1H-pyrazole (42.7%) and carveol 1(24.8%). The medicinal plant C. coronarium seems to be a promising plant for application in integrated pest management due to its safety to the surrounding environment.

  2. Complete nucleotide sequences and construction of full-length infectious cDNA clones of cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV) in a versatile newly developed binary vector including both 35S and T7 promoters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chan-Hwan; Ju, Hye-Kyoung; Han, Jae-Yeong; Park, Jong-Seo; Kim, Ik-Hyun; Seo, Eun-Young; Kim, Jung-Kyu; Hammond, John; Lim, Hyoun-Sub

    2017-04-01

    Seed-transmitted viruses have caused significant damage to watermelon crops in Korea in recent years, with cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV) infection widespread as a result of infected seed lots. To determine the likely origin of CGMMV infection, we collected CGMMV isolates from watermelon and melon fields and generated full-length infectious cDNA clones. The full-length cDNAs were cloned into newly constructed binary vector pJY, which includes both the 35S and T7 promoters for versatile usage (agroinfiltration and in vitro RNA transcription) and a modified hepatitis delta virus ribozyme sequence to precisely cleave RNA transcripts at the 3' end of the tobamovirus genome. Three CGMMV isolates (OMpj, Wpj, and Mpj) were separately evaluated for infectivity in Nicotiana benthamiana, demonstrated by either Agroinfiltration or inoculation with in vitro RNA transcripts. CGMMV nucleotide identities to other tobamoviruses were calculated from pairwise alignments using DNAMAN. CGMMV identities were 49.89% to tobacco mosaic virus; 49.85% to pepper mild mottle virus; 50.47% to tomato mosaic virus; 60.9% to zucchini green mottle mosaic virus; and 60.96% to kyuri green mottle mosaic virus, confirming that CGMMV is a distinct species most similar to other cucurbit-infecting tobamoviruses. We further performed phylogenetic analysis to determine relationships of our new Korean CGMMV isolates to previously characterized isolates from Canada, China, India, Israel, Japan, Korea, Russia, Spain, and Taiwan available from NCBI. Analysis of CGMMV amino acid sequences showed three major clades, broadly typified as 'Russian,' 'Israeli,' and 'Asian' groups. All of our new Korean isolates fell within the 'Asian' clade. Neither the 128 nor 186 kDa RdRps of the three new isolates showed any detectable gene silencing suppressor function.

  3. Identification and control measures of cucumber green mottle mosaic virus in Shanghai suburbs%上海郊区黄瓜绿斑驳花叶病毒的鉴定和防治对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡亚萍; 董萍; 赵驾浩; 张艇; 于子翔; 于翠; 杨翠云

    2013-01-01

    在上海市浦东新区孙桥蔬菜基地温室内发现大量黄瓜植株发病,叶片出现花叶、斑驳、皱缩和变形等症状,发病率达50%以上.经DAS-ELISA、RT-PCR和摩擦接种试验鉴定,发现引起黄瓜发病的病原生物是黄瓜绿斑驳花叶病毒(Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus),并提出了防治对策.%It was found that a large quantity of cucumber plants in the Sunqiao Vegetables Base' s greenhouses had mosaic,mottle,shrinking and deformation symptoms on leaves and the disease incidence was over 50%.The DAS-ELISA,RT-PCR and biological inoculation tests for them showed that the pathogen of the diseased plants was cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV). It was the first time to find this quarantine virus in Shanghai suburbs,and some control measures were proposed.

  4. High-level HIV-1 Nef transient expression in Nicotiana benthamiana using the P19 gene silencing suppressor protein of Artichoke Mottled Crinckle Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianco Linda

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In recent years, different HIV antigens have been successfully expressed in plants by either stable transformation or transient expression systems. Among HIV proteins, Nef is considered a promising target for the formulation of a multi-component vaccine due to its implication in the first steps of viral infection. Attempts to express Nef as a single protein product (not fused to a stabilizing protein in transgenic plants resulted in disappointingly low yields (about 0.5% of total soluble protein. In this work we describe a transient expression system based on co-agroinfiltration of plant virus gene silencing suppressor proteins in Nicotiana benthamiana, followed by a two-step affinity purification protocol of plant-derived Nef. Results The effect of three gene silencing viral suppressor proteins (P25 of Potato Virus X, P19 of either Artichoke Mottled Crinckle virus and Tomato Bushy Stunt virus on Nef transient expression yield was evaluated. The P19 protein of Artichoke Mottled Crinckle virus (AMCV-P19 gave the highest expression yield in vacuum co-agroinfiltration experiments reaching 1.3% of total soluble protein, a level almost three times higher than that previously reported in stable transgenic plants. The high yield observed in the co-agroinfiltrated plants was correlated to a remarkable decrease of Nef-specific small interfering RNAs (siRNAs indicating an effective modulation of RNA silencing mechanisms by AMCV-P19. Interestingly, we also showed that expression levels in top leaves of vacuum co-agroinfiltrated plants were noticeably reduced compared to bottom leaves. Moreover, purification of Nef from agroinfiltrated tissue was achieved by a two-step immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography protocol with yields of 250 ng/g of fresh tissue. Conclusion We demonstrated that expression level of HIV-1 Nef in plant can be improved using a transient expression system enhanced by the AMCV-P19 gene silencing suppressor

  5. Research progress in management of Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus%黄瓜绿斑驳花叶病毒病防治研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘华威; 罗来鑫; 朱春雨; 梁超琼; 刘鹏飞; 李健强

    2016-01-01

    黄瓜绿斑驳花叶病毒(Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus ,CGMMV)主要危害葫芦科作物,已被世界上许多国家和地区列为检疫性有害生物。CGMMV 目前在我国23个省、市、区已有报道发生和危害,严重影响葫芦科作物的生产;近年来该病害在国内外呈现迅猛扩展的趋势并对生产造成危害。本文综述了防治该病害的种子处理、化学及生物防治、嫁接以及转基因等分子生物学方法;分析了 CGMMV 与寄主黄瓜互作研究的最新进展,对小分子RNA 参与调控寄主对 CGMMV 病毒的防控策略提出了展望,并概述了下一代测序技术、基因编辑技术在植物新病毒的检测、鉴定以及培育抗病新品种等方面的应用。%Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV)causes devastating disease on cucurbits,and it has been listed as quarantine pathogen in many countries in the world.It was reported in at least 23 provinces in China, causing substantial yield losses and lower market value of cucurbits.This review summarized the current control methods of CGMMV and tried to explore the novel control strategies,including next-generation sequencing (NGS)and gene-editing technology for viral diagnostics and identification,and miRNA mediated-resistance to CGMMV infection.

  6. Influence of Flavon from Chrysanthemum Morifolium on Apoptosis of HUVECs%杭白菊黄酮对高糖诱导的人脐静脉内皮细胞的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘颖慧; 周旦阳; 寿成珉; 牟新

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the influence of flavon from Chrysanthemum morifolium on the apoptosis of human umbilical vein endothelial cells(HUVECs). Methods HUVECs were treated with high glucose(22mol/L) and then with flavone from Chrysanthemum morifolium of different concentrations(100,200,and 400mg/mL) for 72h. The cell morphological changes were observed by microscope and cell proliferation was determined by MTT chromatometry. Results The cell viability in flavon groups with different concentrations were higher than that in high glucose group(P<0.05 or P<0.01),with the most increase in 400mg/mL flavon group(P<0.01). Conclusion Flavonoids from Chrysanthemum morifolium can inhibit the high-glucose-induced apoptosis of HUVECs in a dose-dependent manner. This indicated that flavon from Chrysanthemum morifolium have protective effects on HUVECs.%目的:探讨杭白菊黄酮对高糖诱导的人脐静脉内皮细胞(HUVEC)凋亡的影响,分析杭白菊黄酮对血管内皮细胞的保护作用。方法 HUVEC分正常对照组、高糖组(22mol/L)及低、中、高浓度杭白菊黄酮组(100、200、400mg/mL),作用24~72h后,显微镜观察细胞形态改变,MTT法检测细胞活力。结果不同浓度杭白菊黄酮组细胞存活率均显著高于高糖组(P<0.05,P<0.01),尤以400mg/mL高浓度杭白菊黄酮组作用最为显著(P<0.01)。结论杭白菊黄酮对高糖诱导的HUVEC细胞凋亡有明显的抑制作用,且存在剂量依赖性,对血管内皮具有保护作用。

  7. Medium Choice of Sugar-free Micropropagation with Liquid Culture in Open-space of Chrysanthemum morifolium Plantlets%开放空间下无糖菊花组培苗栽培介质的选择

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋越冬; 马明建

    2010-01-01

    在自行研制的开放空间植物组织培养苗栽培系统内,研究了不同栽培介质对液体培养的无糖菊花(Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat.)组培苗生长的影响.结果表明,陶瓷球介质适合菊花组培苗的生长,而传统无土栽培介质岩棉和海绵不适合菊花组培苗的生产.

  8. Effects of exogenous nitric oxide on physiological characteristics in chrysanthemum under heat stress%一氧化氮对高温胁迫下菊花生理特性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨伟; 陈发棣; 陈素梅; 房伟民

    2011-01-01

    以夏菊品种早黄为材料,研究了高温胁迫下外源一氧化氮(NO)对开花期菊花叶片和花瓣相关生理指标变化的影响.结果表明:0.2 mmol·L-1 NO供体硝普钠(SNP)对高温胁迫下菊花叶片和花瓣的氧化损伤具有保护作用.与对照相比,外施SNP显著提高了叶片和花瓣中NO含量及超氧化物歧化酶、过氧化物酶、过氧化氢酶、抗坏血酸过氧化物酶的活性,降低了超氧阴离子活力及过氧化氛和丙二醛含量.表明:NO作为一种重要的信号分子,可能通过诱导菊花抗氧化酶系统的活性来减轻细胞的膜脂过氧化,增强菊花对高温胁迫的抵抗能力.%Effects of exogenous nitric oxide(NO) on some physiological characteristics of leaves and ray florets in chrysanthemum Zaohuang at flowering stage under heat stress were investigated. The results indicated that 0. 2 mmol· L-1 exogenous NO donor, named sodium nitroprusside(SNP) had obviously protective effects on leaves and ray florets oxidative damage in heat stressed chrysanthemum. Compared to the control, NO content and activities of antioxidant enzymes including superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, eatalase and ascorbic acid peroxidase increased significantly in chrysanthemum plants applied with SNP,while superoxide anion prodnciton activity,hydrogen peroxide and malondialdehyde content decreasod significantly. NO acted as an important signal molecule, might alleviate lipid peroxidation throngh activating antioxidant enzyme system to improve the heat resistance of chrysanthemum.

  9. Effect of 5' and 3' terminal sequences, overall length, and coding capacity on the accumulation of defective RNAs associated with broad bean mottle bromovirus in planta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogany, J; Romero, J; Bujarski, J J

    1997-02-17

    Broad bean mottle bromovirus (BBMV) was shown to accumulate RNA2-derived defective interfering (DI) RNAs [Romero et al., Virology 194, 576-584 (1993); Pogany et al., Virology 212, 574-586 (1995)]. In this work, we utilize three sets of BBMV RNA2-derived artificial DI RNA constructs to determine factors that affect the accumulation of defective RNAs in planta. One set of deletion constructs was used to localize sequences required for efficient accumulation within the 5' 883 nt and the 3' 387 nt of the DI RNAs. The second set had a gradually increasing size of 3' nested deletions to determine the minimal length required for efficient DI RNA accumulation. The smallest DI RNA still accumulating in plants was found to be 1712 nt long. The third set consisted of frameshift mutants which showed that at least 64.4% of BBMV DI RNA sequences must have the 5' portion of the 2a open reading frame to ensure efficient accumulation. The importance of these factors in the selection of DI RNAs is discussed.

  10. Identification of the subgenomic promoter of the coat protein gene of cucumber fruit mottle mosaic virus and development of a heterologous expression vector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Sun-Ju; Jang, Yoon Jeong; Lee, Gung Pyo

    2016-06-01

    Heterologous gene expression using plant virus vectors enables research on host-virus interactions and the production of useful proteins, but the host range of plant viruses limits the practical applications of such vectors. Here, we aimed to develop a viral vector based on cucumber fruit mottle mosaic virus (CFMMV), a member of the genus Tobamovirus, whose members infect cucurbits. The subgenomic promoter (SGP) in the coat protein (CP) gene, which was used to drive heterologous expression, was mapped by analyzing deletion mutants from a CaMV 35S promoter-driven infectious CFMMV clone. The region from nucleotides (nt) -55 to +160 relative to the start codon of the open reading frame (ORF) of CP was found to be a fully active promoter, and the region from nt -55 to +100 was identified as the active core promoter. Based on these SGPs, we constructed a cloning site in the CFMMV vector and successfully expressed enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) in Nicotiana benthamiana and watermelon (Citrullus lanatus). Co-inoculation with the P19 suppressor increased EGFP expression and viral replication by blocking degradation of the viral genome. Our CFMMV vector will be useful as an expression vector in cucurbits.

  11. Virus-Specific Read-Through Codon Preference Affects Infectivity of Chimeric Cucumber Green Mottle Mosaic Viruses Displaying a Dengue Virus Epitope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available A Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV was used to present a truncated dengue virus type 2 envelope (E protein binding region from amino acids 379 to 423 (EB4. The EB4 gene was inserted at the terminal end of the CGMMV coat protein (CP open reading frame (ORF. Read-through sequences of TMV or CGMMV, CAA-UAG-CAA-UUA, or AAA-UAG-CAA-UUA were, respectively, inserted in between the CP and the EB4 genes. The chimeric clones, pRT, pRG, and pCG+FSRTRE, were transcribed into full-length capped recombinant CGMMV transcripts. Only constructs with the wild-type CGMMV read-through sequence yielded infectious viruses following infection of host plant, muskmelon (Cucumis melo leaves. The ratio of modified to unmodified CP for the read-through expression clone developed was also found to be approximately 1:1, higher than what has been previously reported. It was also observed that infectivity was not affected by differences in pI between the chimera and its wild counterpart. Analysis of recombinant viruses after 21-days-postinculation (dpi revealed that deletions occurred resulting in partial reversions of the viral population to near wild type and suggesting that this would be the limiting harvest period for obtaining true to type recombinants with this construct.

  12. High-Throughput Sequencing Identifies Novel and Conserved Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) microRNAs in Response to Cucumber Green Mottle Mosaic Virus Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, H W; Luo, L X; Liang, C Q; Jiang, N; Liu, P F; Li, J Q

    2015-01-01

    Seedlings of Cucumis sativus L. (cv. 'Zhongnong 16') were artificially inoculated with Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV) at the three-true-leaf stage. Leaf and flower samples were collected at different time points post-inoculation (10, 30 and 50 d), and processed by high throughput sequencing analysis to identify candidate miRNA sequences. Bioinformatic analysis using screening criteria, and secondary structure prediction, indicated that 8 novel and 23 known miRNAs (including 15 miRNAs described for the first time in vivo) were produced by cucumber plants in response to CGMMV infection. Moreover, gene expression profiles (p-value cucumbers. Gene ontology (GO) analysis revealed that the predicted target genes of these 88 miRNAs, which were screened using the psRNATarget and miRanda algorithms, were involved in three functional categories: 2265 in molecular function, 1362 as cellular components and 276 in biological process. The subsequent Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis revealed that the predicted target genes were frequently involved in metabolic processes (166 pathways) and genetic information processes (40 pathways) and to a lesser degree the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites (12 pathways). These results could provide useful clues to help elucidate host-pathogen interactions in CGMMV and cucumber, as well as for the screening of resistance genes.

  13. Virus-specific read-through codon preference affects infectivity of chimeric cucumber green mottle mosaic viruses displaying a dengue virus epitope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teoh, Pak-Guan; Ooi, Aik-Seng; AbuBakar, Sazaly; Othman, Rofina Yasmin

    2009-01-01

    A Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV) was used to present a truncated dengue virus type 2 envelope (E) protein binding region from amino acids 379 to 423 (EB4). The EB4 gene was inserted at the terminal end of the CGMMV coat protein (CP) open reading frame (ORF). Read-through sequences of TMV or CGMMV, CAA-UAG-CAA-UUA, or AAA-UAG-CAA-UUA were, respectively, inserted in between the CP and the EB4 genes. The chimeric clones, pRT, pRG, and pCG+FSRTRE, were transcribed into full-length capped recombinant CGMMV transcripts. Only constructs with the wild-type CGMMV read-through sequence yielded infectious viruses following infection of host plant, muskmelon (Cucumis melo) leaves. The ratio of modified to unmodified CP for the read-through expression clone developed was also found to be approximately 1:1, higher than what has been previously reported. It was also observed that infectivity was not affected by differences in pI between the chimera and its wild counterpart. Analysis of recombinant viruses after 21-days-postinculation (dpi) revealed that deletions occurred resulting in partial reversions of the viral population to near wild type and suggesting that this would be the limiting harvest period for obtaining true to type recombinants with this construct.

  14. 香石竹斑驳病毒(CarMV)的研究进展%Research Progress of Carnation mottle Virus(CarMV)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    佟爱仔; 孔宝华; 陈海如

    2011-01-01

    Carnation mottle virus (CarMV) is a very important virus infecting carnation, CarMV severely affect the yield and quality of the fresh carnation and affect the economic value and import and export trade. A large amount of studies has been reported till now, in order to study CarMV systematically, in this paper the research progress of CarMV was proposed from aspects of etiology, serology, molecular biology, occurrence, detection and prevention and cure methods of CarMV disease.%香石竹斑驳病毒(CarMV)是侵染香石竹的主要病毒之一,严重影响香石竹切花产量与品质,影响其经济价值和进出口贸易.目前对香石竹斑驳病毒已有大量研究,为系统了解该病毒,笔者从CarMV的病原学、血清学和分子生物学,CarMV病害发生与检测及CarMV防治方法等方面综述了CarMV的研究现状.

  15. Processes of diversification and dispersion of rice yellow mottle virus inferred from large-scale and high-resolution phylogeographical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traore, O; Sorho, F; Pinel, A; Abubakar, Z; Banwo, O; Maley, J; Hebrard, E; Winter, S; Sere, Y; Konate, G; Fargette, D

    2005-06-01

    Phylogeography of Rice yellow mottle virus (RYMV) was reconstructed from the coat protein gene sequences of a selection of 173 isolates from the 14 countries of mainland Africa where the disease occurred and from the full sequences of 16 representative isolates. Genetic variation was linked to geographical distribution and not to host species as isolates from wild rice always clustered with isolates from cultivated rice of the same region. Genetic variation was not associated to agro-ecology, viral interference and insect vector species. Distinct RYMV lineages occurred in East, Central and West Africa, although the Central African lineage included isolates from Benin, Togo and Niger at the west, adjacent to countries of the West African lineage. Genetic subdivision at finer geographical scales was apparent within lineages of Central and West Africa, although less pronounced than in East Africa. Physical obstacles, but also habitat fragmentation, as exemplified by the small low-lying island of Pemba offshore Tanzania mainland, explained strain localization. Three new highly divergent strains were found in eastern Tanzania. By contrast, intensive surveys in Cote d'Ivoire and Guinea at the west of Africa did not reveal any new variant. Altogether, this supported the view that the Eastern Arc Mountains biodiversity hotspot was the centre of origin of RYMV and that the virus spread subsequently from east to west across Africa. In West Africa, specific strains occurred in the Inner Niger Delta and suggested it was a secondary centre of diversification. Processes for diversification and dispersion of RYMV are proposed.

  16. Faecal pollution along the southeastern coast of Florida and insight into the use of pepper mild mottle virus as an indicator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symonds, E M; Sinigalliano, C; Gidley, M; Ahmed, W; McQuaig-Ulrich, S M; Breitbart, M

    2016-11-01

    To identify faecal pollution along the southeastern Florida coast and determine the performance of a reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) method for pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV). In 2014, bimonthly surface water samples were collected from inlets, exposed to runoff and septic seepage, and coastal sites, exposed to ocean outfalls. Analysis of culturable enterococci and a suite of microbial source tracking (MST) markers (BacHum, CowM2, DogBact, HF183, HPyV, PMMoV) revealed faecal pollution, primarily of human origin, at all sites. Since PMMoV was detected more frequently than other MST markers, the process limits of quantification (undiluted to 10(-2) dilution) and detection (10(-2) dilution) for the RT-qPCR method were determined by seeding untreated wastewater into the coastal waters. Simulated quantitative microbial risk assessment, employing human norovirus as a reference pathogen, calculated a 0·286 median risk of gastrointestinal illness associated with the PMMoV limit of detection. All sites met the U.S. EPA recreational water criteria, despite detection of domestic wastewater-associated MST markers. PMMoV correlated only with human-associated MST markers. This study demonstrated that PMMoV is an important domestic wastewater-associated marker that should be included in the MST toolbox; therefore, future studies should thoroughly investigate the health risks associated with its detection and quantification in environmental waters. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  17. Two basic (hydrophilic) regions in the movement protein of Parietaria mottle virus have RNA binding activity and are required for cell-to-cell transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Carolina; Coll-Bonfill, Nuria; Aramburu, Jose; Pallás, Vicente; Aparicio, Frederic; Galipienso, Luis

    2014-05-12

    The movement protein (MP) of parietaria mottle virus (PMoV) is required for virus cell-to-cell movement. Bioinformatics analysis identified two hydrophilic non-contiguous regions (R1 and R2) rich in the basic amino acids lysine and arginine and with the predicted secondary structure of an α-helix. Different approaches were used to determine the implication of the R1 and R2 regions in RNA binding, plasmodesmata (PD) targeting and cell-to-cell movement. EMSA (Electrophoretic Mobility Shift Assay) showed that both regions have RNA-binding activity whereas that mutational analysis reported that either deletion of any of these regions, or loss of the basic amino acids, interfered with the viral intercellular movement. Subcellular localization studies showed that PMoV MP locates at PD. Mutants designed to impeded cell-to-cell movement failed to accumulate at PD indicating that basic residues in both R1 and R2 are critical for binding the MP at PD.

  18. Occurrence of Pepper Mild Mottle Virus (PMMoV) in Groundwater from a Karst Aquifer System in the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosiles-González, Gabriela; Ávila-Torres, Gerardo; Moreno-Valenzuela, Oscar A; Acosta-González, Gilberto; Leal-Bautista, Rosa María; Grimaldo-Hernández, Cinthya D; Brown, Judith K; Chaidez-Quiroz, Cristóbal; Betancourt, Walter Q; Gerba, Charles P; Hernández-Zepeda, Cecilia

    2017-06-23

    The Yucatan Peninsula of Mexico hosts a karst aquifer system that is the only source of freshwater for the area; however, it is vulnerable to human-mediated contamination. Pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV) is one of the most abundant RNA viruses associated with human feces, making it a viable indicator for tracking fecal pollution in aquatic environments, including groundwater. In this study, groundwater samples collected from a karst aquifer from fresh and brackish water locations were analyzed for fecal indicator bacteria, somatic and male F+ specific coliphages, and PMMoV during the rainy and dry seasons. Total coliform bacteria were detected at all sites, whereas Escherichia coli were found at relatively low levels water type (p > 0.05). Physicochemical and indicator bacteria were not correlated with PMMoV concentrations. The abundance and prevalence of PMMoV in the karst aquifer may reflect its environmental persistence and its potential as a fecal indicator in this karst aquifer system.

  19. Rapid detection of Piper yellow mottle virus and Cucumber mosaic virus infecting black pepper (Piper nigrum) by loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, A I; Siljo, A; Deeshma, K P

    2013-10-01

    The loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for Piper yellow mottle virus and the reverse transcription (RT) LAMP assay for Cucumber mosaic virus each consisted of a set of five primers designed against the conserved sequences in the viral genome. Both RNA and DNA isolated from black pepper were used as a template for the assay. The results were assessed visually by checking turbidity, green fluorescence and pellet formation in the reaction tube and also by gel electrophoresis. The assay successfully detected both viruses in infected plants whereas no cross-reactions were recorded with healthy plants. Optimum conditions for successful amplification were determined in terms of the concentrations of magnesium sulphate and betaine, temperature, and duration. The detection limit for both LAMP and RT-LAMP was up to 100 times that for conventional PCR and up to one-hundredth of that for real-time PCR. The optimal conditions arrived at were validated by testing field samples of infected vines of three species from different regions.

  20. 11个观赏菊花品种灰色关联度分析%Grey Correlation Degree Analysis of 11 Ornamental Chrysanthemum Varieties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢珍红; 蔡承良; 顾强健; 田敏; 莫锡君; 吴学尉; 桂敏

    2014-01-01

    The comprehensive analysis and evaluation on the main characters of 11 ornamental chrysanthemum varieties intro-duced from Holland were carried out , and the equal -weight and weighted correlation degrees between their main characters and ide-al characters were analyzed by using the method of grey correlation degree analysis .The results indicated that the equal -weight cor-relation degrees of various varieties had the following order: romanov>bretagne>ml.yellow>Kastelli>Amadea>Jeanny pink >Rados>Vennice>Bactica>Biarritc>pp.golden .The weighted correlation degrees showed the following sequence:romanov>bret-agne>ml.yellow>Kastelli>Amadea>Jeanny pink >Vennice >Rados>Bactica >Biarritc>pp.golden.Thus, romanov had the best comprehensive performance , followed by bretagne and ml .yellow.These three varieties were suitable to be planted in Kunming district.%采用灰色关联度分析方法,对11个从荷兰引进的观赏菊花品种的主要性状进行了综合分析评价,并对所引进的品种主要性状与理想性状进行等权与加权关联度分析。结果表明:等权关联度大小依次为:romanov >Bretagne >ml. yellow>Kastelli>Amadea>Jeanny pink>Rados>Vennice>Bactica>Biarritc>pp.golden。加权关联度大小依次为:romanov>Bretagne>ml.yellow>Kastelli>Amadea>Jeanny pink>Vennice>Rados>Bactica>Biarritc>pp.golden。即romanov的综合表现最好,其次为Bretagne和ml.yellow,这3个品种适合在昆明地区大力推广种植。

  1. Supercritical-Carbon Dioxide Fluid Extract from Chrysanthemum indicum Enhances Anti-Tumor Effect and Reduces Toxicity of Bleomycin in Tumor-Bearing Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Mei Yang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Bleomycin (BLM, a family of anti-tumor drugs, was reported to exhibit severe side effects limiting its usage in clinical treatment. Therefore, finding adjuvants that enhance the anti-tumor effect and reduce the detrimental effect of BLM is a prerequisite. Chrysanthemum indicum, an edible flower, possesses abundant bioactivities; the supercritical-carbon dioxide fluid extract from flowers and buds of C. indicum (CISCFE have strong anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, and lung protective effects. However, the role of CISCFE combined with BLM treatment on tumor-bearing mice remains unclear. The present study aimed to investigate the potential synergistic effect and the underlying mechanism of CISCFE combined with BLM in the treatment of hepatoma 22 (H22 tumor-bearing mice. The results suggested that the oral administration of CISCFE combined with BLM could markedly prolong the life span, attenuate the BLM-induced pulmonary fibrosis, suppress the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, activities of myeloperoxidase, and malondiadehyde. Moreover, CISCFE combined with BLM promoted the ascites cell apoptosis, the activities of caspases 3 and 8, and up-regulated the protein expression of p53 and down-regulated the transforming growth factor-β1 by activating the gene expression of miR-29b. Taken together, these results indicated that CISCFE could enhance the anti-cancer activity of BLM and reduce the BLM-induced pulmonary injury in H22 tumor-bearing mice, rendering it as a potential adjuvant drug with chemotherapy after further investigation in the future.

  2. Quantitative comparison of caffeoylquinic acids and flavonoids in Chrysanthemum morifolium flowers and their sulfur-fumigated products by three-channel liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liangmian; Kotani, Akira; Kusu, Fumiyo; Wang, Zhimin; Zhu, Jingjing; Hakamata, Hideki

    2015-01-01

    For the determination of seven caffeoylquinic acids [neochlorogenic acid (NcA), cryptochlorogenic acid (CcA), chlorogenic acid (CA), caffeic acid (CfA), isochlorogenic acid A (Ic A), isochlorogenic acid B (Ic B), isochlorogenic acid C (Ic C)] and two flavonoids [luteolin 7-O-glucoside (LtG) and luteolin (Lt)], a three-channel liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection (LC-3ECD) method was established. Chromatographic peak heights were proportional to each concentration, ranging from 2.5 to 100 ng/mL for NcA, CA, CcA, and CfA, and ranging from 2.5 to 250 ng/mL for LtG, Ic B, Ic A, Ic C, and Lt, respectively. The present LC-3ECD method was applied to the quantitative analysis of caffeoylquinic acids and flavonoids in four cultivars of Chrysanthemum morifolium flowers and their sulfur-fumigated products. It was found that 60% of LtG and more than 47% of caffeoylquinic acids were lost during the sulfur fumigation processing. Sulfur fumigation showed a destructive effect on the C. morifolium flowers. In addition, principle component analyses (PCA) were performed using the results of the quantitative analysis of caffeoylquinic acids and flavonoids to compare the "sameness" and "differences" of these analytes in C. morifolium flowers and the sulfur-fumigated products. PCA score plots showed that the four cultivars of C. morifolium flowers were clearly classified into four groups, and that significant differences were also found between the non-fumigated C. morifolium flowers and the sulfur-fumigated products. Therefore, it was demonstrated that the present LC-3ECD method coupled with PCA is applicable to the variation analysis of different C. morifolium flower samples.

  3. Chlorotic spots on Clerodendrum, a disease caused by a nuclear type of Brevipalpus (Acari:Tenuipalpidae transmitted virus Mancha clorótica do Clerodendrum, uma enfermidade causada por um vírus do tipo nuclear, transmitido pelo ácaro Brevipalpus phoenicis (Acari:Tenuipalpidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elliot Watanabe Kitajima

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Chlorotic spots have been observed in plants of Clerodendrum x speciosum growing in residential gardens and parks in Piracicaba, SP, Brazil. Thin sections of diseased tissues revealed characteristic cytopathic effects of the nuclear type of the Brevipalpus (Acari: Tenuipalpidae mite-transmitted viruses (BTrV. Brevipalpus mites, identified as B. phoenicis, infesting symptomatic C. x speciosum plants transmitted the pathogen to healthy C. x speciosum and to C. thomsonae, Gomphrena globosa, Hibiscus cannabinus, H. coccineus, H. schizopetalus, Salvia leucantha, Spathiphyllum wallasi and Tetragonia expansa causing chlorotic spots on their leaves. Mechanical inoculation using leaf extracts from infected C. x speciosum resulted in chlorotic spots on inoculated C. x speciosum, Chenopodium quinoa, C. amaranticolor, G. globosa, H. cannabinus, H. coccineus and T. expansa leaves. C. amaranticolor and C. quinoa kept at 28 - 30°C became systemically infected. The same cytopathic effects caused by the nuclear type of BTrV were seen in tissues from all infected test plants by electron microscopy. The virus was purified from systemically infected leaves of C. amaranticolor and C. quinoa. A polyclonal antiserum obtained from an immunized rabbit presented a strong reaction with the homologous antigen in ELISA tests. The results suggest that this chlorotic spot disease of C. x speciosum is caused by a new species of the nuclear type of BTrV, tentatively named Clerodendrum chlorotic spot virus (ClCSV.Manchas cloróticas e necróticas foram observadas em folhas de várias plantas de coração-sangrento (Clerodendrum x speciosum cultivadas em parques e jardins em Piracicaba, SP, associadas à infestação pelo ácaro tenuipalpídeo Brevipalpus phoenicis. Exames preliminares de secções de tecido das manchas cloróticas ao microscópio eletrônico revelaram a ocorrência de efeitos citopáticos característicos dos induzidos pelos vírus do tipo nuclear, transmitido

  4. Intracellular distribution, cell-to-cell trafficking and tubule-inducing activity of the 50 kDa movement protein of Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus fused to green fluorescent protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoh, H; Matsuda, H; Kawamura, T; Isogai, M; Yoshikawa, N; Takahashi, T

    2000-08-01

    The 50 kDa protein (50KP) encoded by ORF2 of Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus (ACLSV) fused to green fluorescent protein (GFP) was expressed transiently in cells of Nicotiana occidentalis and Chenopodium quinoa leaves. Its intracellular distribution, cell-to-cell trafficking in leaf epidermis and tubule formation on the surface of protoplasts were analysed. The 50KP-GFP fluorescence was distributed as small irregular spots or a fibrous network structure on the periphery of epidermal cells and protoplasts of both plant species. In leaf epidermis of N. occidentalis, the protein spread from the cells that produced it into neighbouring cells in both young and mature leaves and targetted plasmodesmata in these cells. In contrast, GFP was restricted to single cells in most cases in mature leaves. When 50KP and GFP were co-expressed in leaf epidermis of N. occidentalis, GFP spread more widely from the initial cells that produced it than when GFP was expressed alone, suggesting that 50KP facilitated the cell-to-cell trafficking of GFP. 50KP-GFP was able to complement local spread of 50KP-deficient virus when expressed transiently in leaf epidermis of C. quinoa. Expression of 50KP-GFP in protoplasts resulted in the production of tubular structures protruding from the surface. Mutational analyses showed that the C-terminal region (aa 287-457) was not essential for localization to plasmodesmata, cell-to-cell trafficking, complementation of movement of 50KP-deficient virus or tubule formation on protoplasts. In contrast, deletions in the N-terminal region resulted in the complete disruption of all these activities.

  5. The 50-kDa protein of Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus interferes with intracellular and intercellular targeting and tubule-inducing activity of the 39-kDa protein of Grapevine berry inner necrosis virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isogai, M; Saitou, Y; Takahashi, N; Itabashi, T; Terada, M; Satoh, H; Yoshikawa, N

    2003-03-01

    To understand why transgenic Nicotiana occidentalis plants expressing a functional movement protein (MP) of Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus (ACLSV) show specific resistance to Grapevine berry inner necrosis virus (GINV), the MPs of ACLSV (50KP) and GINV (39KP) were fused to green, yellow, or cyan fluorescent proteins (GFP, YFP, or CFP). These fusion proteins were transiently expressed in leaf cells of both transgenic (50KP) and nontransgenic (NT) plants, and the intracellular and intercellular trafficking and tubule-inducing activity of these proteins were compared. The results indicate that in epidermal cells and protoplasts from 50KP plant leaves, the trafficking and tubule-inducing activities of GINV-39KP were specifically blocked while those of ACLSV-50KP and Apple stem grooving virus MP (36KP) were not affected. Additionally, when 39KP-YFP and 50KP-CFP were coexpressed in the leaf epidermis of NT plants, the fluorescence of both proteins was confined to single cells, indicating that 50KP-CFP interferes with the cell-to-cell trafficking of 39KP-YFP and vice versa. Mutational analyses of 50KP showed that the deletion mutants that retained the activities described above still blocked cell-to-cell trafficking of 39KP, but the dysfunctional 50KP mutants could no longer impede cell-to-cell movement of 39KP. Transgenic plants expressing the functional 50KP deletion mutants showed specific resistance against GINV. In contrast, transgenic plants expressing the dysfunctional 50KP mutants did not show any resistance to the virus. From these results, we conclude that the specific resistance of 50KP plants to GINV is due to the ability of the 50KP to block intracellular and intercellular trafficking of GINV 39KP.

  6. Different Virus-Derived siRNAs Profiles between Leaves and Fruits in Cucumber Green Mottle Mosaic Virus-Infected Lagenaria siceraria Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Junmin; Zheng, Hongying; Zhang, Chenhua; Han, Kelei; Wang, Shu; Peng, Jiejun; Lu, Yuwen; Zhao, Jinping; Xu, Pei; Wu, Xiaohua; Li, Guojing; Chen, Jianping; Yan, Fei

    2016-01-01

    RNA silencing is an evolutionarily conserved antiviral mechanism, through which virus-derived small interfering RNAs (vsiRNAs) playing roles in host antiviral defense are produced in virus-infected plant. Deep sequencing technology has revolutionized the study on the interaction between virus and plant host through the analysis of vsiRNAs profile. However, comparison of vsiRNA profiles in different tissues from a same host plant has been rarely reported. In this study, the profiles of vsiRNAs from leaves and fruits of Lagenaria siceraria plants infected with Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV) were comprehensively characterized and compared. Many more vsiRNAs were present in infected leaves than in fruits. vsiRNAs from both leaves and fruits were mostly 21- and 22-nt in size as previously described in other virus-infected plants. Interestingly, vsiRNAs were predominantly produced from the viral positive strand RNAs in infected leaves, whereas in infected fruits they were derived equally from the positive and negative strands. Many leaf-specific positive vsiRNAs with lengths of 21-nt (2058) or 22-nt (3996) were identified but only six (21-nt) and one (22-nt) positive vsiRNAs were found to be specific to fruits. vsiRNAs hotspots were only present in the 5'-terminal and 3'-terminal of viral positive strand in fruits, while multiple hotspots were identified in leaves. Differences in GC content and 5'-terminal nucleotide of vsiRNAs were also observed in the two organs. To our knowledge, this provides the first high-resolution comparison of vsiRNA profiles between different tissues of the same host plant.

  7. Evaluation of Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria as a Protecting Agent Against Cucumber Mosaic Virus and Chilli Veinal Mottle Virus on Chillipepper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MUHAMMAD TAUFIK

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR in protecting chillipepper plant from infection of cucumber mosaic virus (CMV and chilli veinal mottle virus (ChiVMV. Seven isolates of PGPR, i.e. BC1, BTP2H, BTP3G, BTP3O BTP1, BTP2D, and T1F were applied as seed treatment and soil drench. Plants height, number of branch, and fruits weight were measured every one and ten weeks after virus inoculation. Virus concentration in plants and disease incidence were confirmed by enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA. Results showed that inoculation with PGPR improved the seed germination. Eight days after sowing, the percentage of PGPR treated seed germination reached 50-84%; whereas those of untreated seed reached only 18%. In general, PGPR treatment significantly reduced (p < 0.05 the effect of virus infection on plant growth. Two PGPR isolates, i.e. BTP1 and BTP2H, maintained fruit weight of infected plants as good as those of healthy plants. Based on ELISA, PGPR was able to inhibit the disease incidence. The BTP3O and BTP2D isolates even protected the plant from ChiVMV infection. Concentration of salicylic acid and peroxidase were relatively higher on plants treated with PGPR than those without PGPR treatment. This gave an indication that PGPR may act as induction agents for systemic acquired resistance. Therefore, PGPR treatment is a promising strategy to control viral diseases on chillipepper.

  8. High-Throughput Sequencing Identifies Novel and Conserved Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. microRNAs in Response to Cucumber Green Mottle Mosaic Virus Infection.

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    H W Liu

    Full Text Available Seedlings of Cucumis sativus L. (cv. 'Zhongnong 16' were artificially inoculated with Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV at the three-true-leaf stage. Leaf and flower samples were collected at different time points post-inoculation (10, 30 and 50 d, and processed by high throughput sequencing analysis to identify candidate miRNA sequences. Bioinformatic analysis using screening criteria, and secondary structure prediction, indicated that 8 novel and 23 known miRNAs (including 15 miRNAs described for the first time in vivo were produced by cucumber plants in response to CGMMV infection. Moreover, gene expression profiles (p-value <0.01 validated the expression of 3 of the novel miRNAs and 3 of the putative candidate miRNAs and identified a further 82 conserved miRNAs in CGMMV-infected cucumbers. Gene ontology (GO analysis revealed that the predicted target genes of these 88 miRNAs, which were screened using the psRNATarget and miRanda algorithms, were involved in three functional categories: 2265 in molecular function, 1362 as cellular components and 276 in biological process. The subsequent Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG pathway analysis revealed that the predicted target genes were frequently involved in metabolic processes (166 pathways and genetic information processes (40 pathways and to a lesser degree the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites (12 pathways. These results could provide useful clues to help elucidate host-pathogen interactions in CGMMV and cucumber, as well as for the screening of resistance genes.

  9. Occurrence and sequences of Lily mottle virus and Lily symptomless virus in plants grown from imported bulbs in Zhejiang province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, H-Y; Chen, J; Zhao, M-F; Lin, L; Chen, J-P; Antoniw, J F; Adams, M J

    2003-12-01

    Degenerate primers were used to amplify virus sequences from imported lilies in Zhejiang province, China. Two viruses, Lily mottle virus (LMoV, genus Potyvirus) and Lily symptomless virus (LSV, genus Carlavirus) were detected, purified and completely sequenced from a mixed infection in a plant raised from bulbs imported from the Netherlands. The sequence of LMoV was 9644 nt long and encoded a polyprotein of 3095 amino acids with a calculated M(r) of 351.0 kDa that had only 45.1-54.4% identity to other completely sequenced potyviruses. Phylogenetic analysis of the complete polyproteins of members of the genus demonstrated that LMoV was distantly grouped with LYSV, BYMV and ClYVV. Two partial LMoV sequences from different cultivars were identical to one another and very similar (98.3% identical nucleotides) to the corresponding region of the complete sequence. Analysis of the coat protein sequences of LMoV isolates revealed two subgroups, corresponding to the earlier "Tulip breaking virus lily strain" and "Tulip band breaking virus" isolates. Our newly-determined isolates showed an extremely close relationship to the first of these. The LSV sequence was 8393 nucleotides long and had the typical carlavirus genome organization. The ORF1 protein was most closely related to that of Blueberry scorch virus (57.2% identical amino acids). Sequences of 1796 nt at the 3'-end of three additional LSV isolates from different cultivars were very similar (>98% identical nucleotides) to the corresponding region of the complete sequence. This is the first report of complete sequences for LMoV and LSV.

  10. Evaluation of a SUMO E2 conjugating enzyme involved in resistance to Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis in Solanum peruvianum, through a tomato mottle virus VIGS assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayra Janeth Esparza-Araiza

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis (Cmm causes bacterial wilt and canker of tomato. Currently, no Solanum lycopersicum resistant varieties are commercially available, but some degree of Cmm resistance has been identified in Solanum peruvianum. Previous research showed up-regulation of a SUMO E2 conjugating enzyme (SCEI transcript in resistant S. peruvianum compared to susceptible S. lycopersicum following infection by Cmm. In order to test the role of SCEI in resistance to Cmm, a fragment of the gene from S. peruvianum was cloned into a novel virus-induced gene-silencing (VIGS vector based on the geminivirus Tomato Mottle Virus (ToMoV. Using biolistic inoculation, the ToMoV-based VIGS vector was shown to be effective in S. peruvianum by silencing the magnesium chelatase gene, which resulted in leaf bleaching. The ToMoV_SCEI construct resulted in approx. 61% silencing of SCEI in leaves of S. peruvianum as determined by quantitative RT-PCR. VIGS of SCEI in S. peruvianum resulted in unilateral wilting (15 dpi and subsequent death (20 dpi of the entire plant after Cmm inoculation, whereas empty vector-treated plants only showed wilting in the Cmm-inoculated leaf. SCEI-silenced plants also showed higher Cmm colonization with an average of 4.5 times more damaged tissue compared to the empty vector control plants. SCEI appears to play an important role in the innate immunity of S. peruvianum against Cmm, perhaps through the regulation of WRKY transcription factors, which may lead to expression of proteins involved in salicylic acid-dependent defense responses.

  11. Evaluation of a SUMO E2 Conjugating Enzyme Involved in Resistance to Clavibacter michiganensis Subsp. michiganensis in Solanum peruvianum, Through a Tomato Mottle Virus VIGS Assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esparza-Araiza, Mayra J; Bañuelos-Hernández, Bernardo; Argüello-Astorga, Gerardo R; Lara-Ávila, José P; Goodwin, Paul H; Isordia-Jasso, María I; Castillo-Collazo, Rosalba; Rougon-Cardoso, Alejandra; Alpuche-Solís, Ángel G

    2015-01-01

    Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis (Cmm) causes bacterial wilt and canker of tomato. Currently, no Solanum lycopersicum resistant varieties are commercially available, but some degree of Cmm resistance has been identified in Solanum peruvianum. Previous research showed up-regulation of a SUMO E2 conjugating enzyme (SCEI) transcript in S. peruvianum compared to S. lycopersicum following infection with Cmm. In order to test the role of SCEI in resistance to Cmm, a fragment of SCEI from S. peruvianum was cloned into a novel virus-induced gene-silencing (VIGS) vector based on the geminivirus, Tomato Mottle Virus (ToMoV). Using biolistic inoculation, the ToMoV-based VIGS vector was shown to be effective in S. peruvianum by silencing the magnesium chelatase gene, resulting in leaf bleaching. VIGS with the ToMoV_SCEI construct resulted in ~61% silencing of SCEI in leaves of S. peruvianum as determined by quantitative RT-PCR. The SCEI-silenced plants showed unilateral wilting (15 dpi) and subsequent death (20 dpi) of the entire plant after Cmm inoculation, whereas the empty vector-treated plants only showed wilting in the Cmm-inoculated leaf. The SCEI-silenced plants showed higher Cmm colonization and an average of 4.5 times more damaged tissue compared to the empty vector control plants. SCEI appears to play an important role in the innate immunity of S. peruvianum against Cmm, perhaps through the regulation of transcription factors, leading to expression of proteins involved in salicylic acid-dependent defense responses.

  12. One-step detection of Bean pod mottle virus in soybean seeds by the reverse-transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification

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    Wei Qi-Wei

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bean pod mottle virus (BPMV is a wide-spread and destructive virus that causes huge economic losses in many countries every year. A sensitive, reliable and specific method for rapid surveillance is urgently needed to prevent further spread of BPMV. Methods A degenerate reverse-transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP primer set was designed on the conserved region of BPMV CP gene. The reaction conditions of RT-LAMP were optimized and the feasibility, specificity and sensitivity of this method to detect BPMV were evaluated using the crude RNA rapidly extracted from soybean seeds. Results The optimized RT-LAMP parameters including 6 mM MgCl2, 0.8 M betaine and temperature at 62.5-65°C could successfully amplify the ladder-like bands from BPMV infected soybean seeds. The amplification was very specific to BPMV that no cross-reaction was observed with other soybean viruses. Inclusion of a fluorescent dye makes it easily be detected in-tube by naked eye. The sensitivity of RT-LAMP assay is higher than the conventional RT-PCR under the conditions tested, and the conventional RT-PCR couldn’t be used for detection of BPMV using crude RNA extract from soybean seeds. Conclusion A highly efficient and practical method was developed for the detection of BPMV in soybean seeds by the combination of rapid RNA extraction and RT-LAMP. This RT-LAMP method has great potential for rapid BPMV surveillance and will assist in preventing further spread of this devastating virus.

  13. 香石竹斑驳病毒的鉴定和RT-PCR检测%Identification and detection of carnation mottle virus on carnation by RT-PCR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔宝华; 蔡红; 刘进元; 陈海如; 常胜军; 李文君; 段永嘉

    2002-01-01

    从表现为叶斑驳、花碎色症状的香石竹病株上获得一病毒分离物,电镜负染观察到直径为28~33 nm的球状粒子.病毒提取液经紫外光测定呈典型核蛋白吸收曲线,OD260/ OD280=1.70;血清学反应与CarMV抗血清出现明显的沉淀线.通过以上实验结果,确定该病毒分离物为香石竹斑驳病毒(carnation mottle virus, CarMV).根据该病毒的RNA序列设计引物,对病健材料进行了RT-PCR检测,结果从感病材料中扩增出大约600 bp的特异片段,而健康植物无此扩增带.将PCR产物连接pGEM-T-easy载体,转化大肠杆菌JM109,得到了含目的片段的重组子,经双脱氧序列分析,与Guilley报道的序列对应部分的核苷酸序列基本一致(其同源性达96%),最低检出病毒核酸含量为5 ng,表明应用RT-PCR检测香石竹斑驳病毒是可行的.

  14. Development of Bean pod mottle virus-based vectors for stable protein expression and sequence-specific virus-induced gene silencing in soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chunquan; Ghabrial, Said A

    2006-01-20

    Plant virus-based vectors provide valuable tools for expression of foreign proteins in plants and for gene function studies. None of the presently available virus vectors is suitable for use in soybean. In the present study, we produced Bean pod mottle virus (BPMV)-based vectors that are appropriate for gene expression and virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) in soybean. The genes of interest were inserted into the RNA2-encoded polyprotein open reading frame between the movement protein (MP) and the large coat protein (L-CP) coding regions. Additional proteinase cleavage sites were created to flank the foreign protein by duplicating the MP/L-CP cleavage site. To minimize the chances of homologous recombination and thus insert instability, we took advantage of the genetic code degeneracy and altered the nucleotide sequence of the duplicated regions without affecting amino acid sequences. The recombinant BPMV constructs were stable following several serial passages in soybean and relatively high levels of protein expression were attained. Successful expression of several proteins with different biological activities was demonstrated from the BPMV vector. These included the reporter proteins GFP and DsRed, phosphinothricin acetyltransferase (encoded by the herbicide resistance bar gene), and the RNA silencing suppressors encoded by Tomato bushy stunt virus, Turnip crinkle virus, Tobacco etch virus, and Soybean mosaic virus. The possible use of BPMV as a VIGS vector to study gene function in soybean was also demonstrated with the phytoene desaturase gene. Our results suggest that the BPMV-based vectors are suitable for expression of foreign proteins in soybean and for functional genomics applications.

  15. Different virus-derived siRNAs profiles between leaves and fruits in Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus-infected Lagenaria siceraria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junmin Li

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available RNA silencing is an evolutionarily conserved antiviral mechanism, through which virus-derived small interfering RNAs (vsiRNAs playing roles in host antiviral defence are produced in virus-infected plant. Deep sequencing technology has revolutionized the study on the interaction between virus and plant host through the analysis of vsiRNAs profile. However, comparison of vsiRNA profiles in different tissues from a same host plant has been rarely reported. In this study, the profiles of virus-derived small interfering RNAs (vsiRNAs from leaves and fruits of Lagenaria siceraria plants infected with Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV were comprehensively characterized and compared. Many more vsiRNAs were present in infected leaves than in fruits. vsiRNAs from both leaves and fruits were mostly 21- and 22-nt in size as previously described in other virus-infected plants. Interestingly, vsiRNAs were predominantly produced from the viral positive strand RNAs in infected leaves, whereas in infected fruits they were derived equally from the positive and negative strands. Many leaf-specific positive vsiRNAs with lengths of 21-nt (2,058 or 22-nt (3,996 were identified but only six (21-nt and one (22-nt positive vsiRNAs were found to be specific to fruits. vsiRNAs hotspots were only present in the 5’-terminal and 3’-terminal of viral positive strand in fruits, while multiple hotspots were identified in leaves. Differences in GC content and 5'-terminal nucleotide of vsiRNAs were also observed in the two organs. To our knowledge, this provides the first high-resolution comparison of vsiRNA profiles between different tissues of the same host plant.

  16. Characterization of burdock mottle virus, a novel member of the genus Benyvirus, and the identification of benyvirus-related sequences in the plant and insect genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Hideki; Hirano, Shuichi; Chiba, Sotaro; Andika, Ida Bagus; Hirai, Makoto; Maeda, Takanori; Tamada, Tetsuo

    2013-10-01

    The complete nucleotide sequence of the burdock mottle virus (BdMoV) isolated from an edible burdock plant (Arctium lappa) in Japan has been determined. BdMoV has a bipartite genome, whose organization is similar to RNA1 and RNA2 of benyviruses, beet necrotic yellow vein virus (BNYVV), beet soil-borne mosaic virus (BSBMV), and rice stripe necrosis virus (RSNV). BdMoV RNA1 (7038 nt) contains a single open reading frame (ORF) encoding a 249-kDa polypeptide that consists of methyl-transferase, helicase, papain-like protease, AlkB-like, and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase domains. The AlkB-like domain sequence is not present in the proteins encoded by other known benyviruses, but is found in replication-associated proteins of viruses mainly belonging to the families Alfaflexiviridae and Betaflexiviridae. BdMoV RNA2 (4315 nt) contains six ORFs that are similar to those of benyviruses: these are coat protein (CP), CP readthrough, triple gene block movement and cysteine-rich proteins. Phylogenetic analyses showed that BdMoV is more closely related to BNYVV and BSBMV than to RSNV. Database searches showed that benyvirus replicase-related sequences are present in the chromosomes of a chickpea plant (Cicer arietinum) and a blood-sucking insect (Rhodnius prolixus). Some other benyvirus-related sequences are found in the transcriptome shotgun libraries of a few species of plants and a bark beetle. Our results show that BdMoV is a distinct species of the genus Benyvirus and that ancestral and extant benyviruses may have infected or currently infect a wide range of hosts, including plants and insects.

  17. Genome sequence analysis of five Canadian isolates of strawberry mottle virus reveals extensive intra-species diversity and a longer RNA2 with increased coding capacity compared to a previously characterized European isolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhagwat, Basdeo; Dickison, Virginia; Ding, Xinlun; Walker, Melanie; Bernardy, Michael; Bouthillier, Michel; Creelman, Alexa; DeYoung, Robyn; Li, Yinzi; Nie, Xianzhou; Wang, Aiming; Xiang, Yu; Sanfaçon, Hélène

    2016-06-01

    In this study, we report the genome sequence of five isolates of strawberry mottle virus (family Secoviridae, order Picornavirales) from strawberry field samples with decline symptoms collected in Eastern Canada. The Canadian isolates differed from the previously characterized European isolate 1134 in that they had a longer RNA2, resulting in a 239-amino-acid extension of the C-terminal region of the polyprotein. Sequence analysis suggests that reassortment and recombination occurred among the isolates. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the Canadian isolates are diverse, grouping in two separate branches along with isolates from Europe and the Americas.

  18. Ocorrência generalizada do Lettuce mottle virus em três regiões produtoras de alface comercial do Estado de São Paulo Occurrence of Lettuce mottle virus on three lettuce producing areas from São Paulo State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renate Krause-Sakate

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Os sequivírus são vírus isométricos transmitidos por afídeos. Lettuce mottle virus (LeMoV, um provável sequivirus foi descrito no Brasil em 1982 e causa sintomas de mosaico semelhantes aos observados pelo Lettuce mosaic virus (LMV. Um levantamento para ocorrência do LeMoV nos campos de produção de alface de três diferentes regiões do Estado de São Paulo (Mogi das Cruzes, Campinas e Bauru foi realizado durante 2002 a 2005. RNA total foi extraído e utilizado na detecção, em RT-PCR, com oligonucleotídeos específicos para o LeMoV. Do total de 1362 amostras, 137 (10,05% foram positivas para o LeMoV. Infecção mista com o LMV foi verificada em 43 amostras (31,4%. Foi verificada a ocorrência do LeMoV nas três diferentes regiões analisadas, porém sua ocorrência foi baixa nas diferentes épocas do ano.Sequiviruses are isometric aphid-borne plant viruses. Lettuce mottle virus (LeMoV, a putative sequivirus was first described in Brazil on 1982 causing similar mosaic symptoms as Lettuce mosaic virus (LMV. A survey for the occurrence of LeMoV on open field conditions was carried out during 2002 to 2005 on Mogi das Cruzes, Campinas and Bauru in São Paulo state. Total RNA was extracted and used on RT-PCR with specific LeMoV primers. On 1362 samples tested, 137 (10,05% were positive for LeMoV. Mixed infections with LMV was observed on 43 samples (31,4%. The presence of LeMoV was observed in the three different regions, but with low incidence during the year.

  19. Influencia de diferentes especies de fungo micorrizico arbuscular no desenvolvimento do crisântemo Influence of different species of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on chrysanthemum growth

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    Adriana Parada Dias da Silveira

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de verificar o desenvolvimento e florescimento do crisântemo (Dendranthema grandiflora na presença de micorriza arbuscular, foi instalado, em casa de vegetação, um experimento, empregando-se os fungos Gigaspora margarita, Glomus leptotichum, Glomus macrocarpum e Scutellospora heterogama. Utilizou-se terra roxa estruturada, da Série Luiz de Queiroz, esterilizada (por autoclavagem e não esterilizada. No florescimento, colheram-se as plantas e determinaram-se a altura, a matéria seca da parte aérea, a matéria fresca da raiz, o teor de P e K na parte aérea, a colonização micorrízica e o número de esporos do fungo micorrízico. O desenvolvimento e o florescimento foram favorecidos pela inoculação de G. leptotichum e G.macrocarpum, quando as plantas foram cultivadas em solo esterilizado, superando o efeito dos fungos micorrízicos nativos. Entretanto, no solo não esterilizado, a inoculação dessas espécies de fungo não promoveu aumento no desenvolvimento da planta.A greenhouse experiment was conducted to verify the effect of arbuscular mycorrhiza on growth and flowering of chrysanthemum. Rooted plants were inoculated with Gigaspora margarita, Glomus leptotichum, Glomus macrocarpum e Scutellospora heterogama or non-inoculated. Plants were grown in a autoclave sterilized, and non-sterilized soil of the type "Terra Roxa Estruturada". At the flowering stage, plants were harvested and measured for plant height, shoot dry matter, root fresh matter, shoot P and K content, mycorrhizal root colonization and number of mycorrhizal fungi spores. Plants colonized with G.leptotichum and G. macrocarpum presented higher growth and flowering than control plants, in sterilized soil, overcoming the effect of native mycorrhizal fungi. However, there was no effect of introduced mycorrhizal fungi on non-sterilized soil.

  20. Effect of mouth gargle with compound goji berry and chrysanthemum soup in patients with oral ulcer%复方杞菊汤漱口治疗化疗所致口腔溃疡的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王春玲; 戴正香; 戴新娟

    2011-01-01

    Objective To observe the effect of mouth gargle with compound goji berry and chrysanthemum soup on chemotherapy-induced oral ulcer in patients with multiple myeloma. Methods Totally, 60 multiple myeloma patients complicated with chemotherapy-induced oral ulcer were randomly divided into an observation group and a control group, with 30 cases in each group. The observation group took compound goji berry and chrysanthemum soup as mouth gargle, while their counterparts in the control group gargled their mouth with cetylpyridinium chloride. The treatment effects of oral ulcers in both groups were compared. Results The severity of pain was significantly lower, and the sizes of the ulcers were significantly smaller in the observation group at different time points than those in the control group; the healing length was significantly shorter and the treatment effect was significantly better in the observation group than those in the control group (P<0.05,P<0.01). Conclusion Compound goji berry and chrysanthemum soup has very significant effect on patients with oral ulcer. It eases the pain, boosts healing of ulcers, shortens healing length, and improves the effect.%目的 探讨复方杞菊汤漱口治疗多发性骨髓瘤患者化疗所致口腔溃疡的效果.方法 将住院化疗并发口腔溃疡的多发性骨髓瘤患者60例,随机分为观察组和对照组各30例.观察组给予复方杞菊汤漱口,对照组给予西吡氯胺漱口,观察两组治疗口腔溃疡疗效.结果 观察组不同时间口腔溃疡疼痛评分、口腔溃疡面积显著低于或小于对照组,愈合时间显著短于对照组,治疗效果显著优于对照组(P<0.05,P<0.01).结论 复方杞菊汤漱口治疗多发性骨髓瘤患者化疗所致口腔溃疡可行且效果显著,能有效减轻患者疼痛,加快创面愈合,缩短口腔溃疡的愈合时间,提高疗效.

  1. Determination of chlorogenic acid in tea(medicine)chrysanthemum samples by HPLC and ultraviolet detector%高效液相色谱紫外检测法测定茶(药)用菊花的绿原酸含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨小秋; 韩磊; 傅厚暾; 蒋细旺

    2013-01-01

    To identify the chlorogenic acid in chrysanthemum sample, a method of high performance liquid chromatography and four wavelengths ultraviolet detector was developed. The chrologenici acid was carried out from chrysanthemum samples with soxhlet extraction, then was separated in HPLC with the mobile phase of methanol-0. lmol/L sodium dihydrogen phosphate buffer, the proportion of the solute is 40:60 and the buffer pH was 2. 7. The signals of chlorogenic acid in the wavelength of 230nm,254nm,275nm,327nm were compared, and the comparison results and the retention time were similar basically, so the chlorogenic acid was identified effectively and the best detect wavelength was chosen. The method was used in the detection of chlorogenic acid of chrysanthemum samples, the detection limit was 0. 085 mg/L and the RSD was lower than 5 %, and the added recovery was satisfactory.%建立了高效液相色谱分离以及四波长紫外检测测定菊花中绿原酸的方法.以甲醇:磷酸二氢钠缓冲溶液(浓度为0.1mol/L)=40∶60(用磷酸调节pH值为2.7)为淋洗液进行分离,对230nm、254nm、275nm、327nm4个波长检测出的绿原酸信号加以比较进行定性定量.用该方法对菊花样品中的绿原酸进行测定,检出限为0.085mg/L,精密度低于5%,结果令人满意.实验证明,该方法准确、可行,可以很好地对菊花中的绿原酸进行定性定量研究.

  2. 杭白菊挥发油口含片中有效成分樟脑、龙脑的含量测定%Determination of Camphor and Borneol in Oral Tablets of Chrysanthemum morifolium Essential Oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈婷; 王建平; 殷红; 王玮; 陶锋

    2012-01-01

    Objective :To establish an GC method for the determination of camphor and borneol in oral tablets of Chrysanthemum morifolium essential oil in p - cyclodextrin inclusion. Methods: The camphor and borneol in inclusion tablets were extracted by refluxed. The contents of two effective components were analyzed by gas chromatography with CBP20 -M25 -025 capillary column. N - octanol was used as internal standard substance for camphor and borneol. Results; A good separation was obtained. The standard curves for camphor and bomeol were linear over the range of 14.00~224.0 μg · mL-1 and 19.69 ~ 315. Oμg · mL-1 Respectively. The average recovery for camphor and borneol was higher than 94.2%. The precisions for them were both less than 0.77%. Conclusion: The method is accurate and sensitive for the determination of camphor and borneol in inclusion tablets of Chrysanthemum morifolium essential oil with good quality controlling of oral tablet product,providing scientific evidence for the development of Chrysanthemum morifolium and reasonable clinical application of essential oil.%目的:建立杭白菊挥发油β-环糊精包合物口含片中樟脑、龙脑的浓度测定的GC方法并测定含量.方法:用加热回流法提取片剂包合物中的有效成分,采用毛细管气相色谱法,以正辛醇为内标,测定其中樟脑与龙脑的含量.结果:该方法樟脑、龙脑分离良好,线性范围分别为14.00~ 224.0μg·mL-1及19.69 ~ 315.0μg·mE-1,加样回收率均高94.2%,精密度RSD小于0.77%.结论:本法能准确、灵敏地同时测定杭白菊挥发油β-环糊精包合物口含片中樟脑、龙脑的含量,可以作为口含片的产品质量控制方法,为杭白菊产品的深度开发与挥发油制剂的质量标准制定提供科学依据.

  3. Scientific Opinion on the pest categorisation of the tospoviruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Plant Health

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available

    The European Commission requested EFSA’s Panel on Plant Health to perform the pest categorisation for the 24 viruses of the Tospovirus genus for the EU territory. The following tospoviruses were analysed: Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV, Impatiens necrotic spot virus (INSV, Iris yellow spot virus (IYSV, Polygonum ringspot virus (PolRSV, Groundnut ringspot virus (GRSV, Tomato chlorotic spot virus (TCSV, Alstroemeria necrotic streak virus (ANSV, Chrysanthemum stem necrosis virus (CSNV, Melon severe mosaic virus (MSMV, Tomato yellow (fruit ring virus (TYRV, Tomato zonate spot virus (TZSV, Groundnut yellow spot virus (GYSV, Groundnut chlorotic fan-spot virus (GCFSV, Groundnut bud necrosis virus (GBNV, Zucchini lethal chlorosis virus (ZLCV, Capsicum chlorosis virus (CaCV, Watermelon bud necrosis virus (WBNV, Watermelon silver mottle virus (WSMoV, Tomato necrotic ringspot virus (TNRV, Calla lily chlorotic spot virus (CCSV, Melon yellow spot virus (MYSV, Soybean vein necrosis associated virus (SVNaV, Bean necrotic mosaic virus (BeNMV and Pepper necrotic spot virus (PNSV. In reaching its conclusions, the Panel considered four parameters to be of critical importance in the risk assessment area: (i the presence of a tospovirus, (ii the existence of host plants, (iii the existence of thrips vector species and (iv the potential for damage to crops grown in Europe. Based on its analysis, the Panel concluded that the 24 viruses analysed could be allocated to four different risk groups. Seven viruses (GRSV, TCSV, ANSV, CSNV, MSMV, TYRV, TZSV for which both thrips species vectors and natural or experimental hosts crops are present in the EU territory were considered by the Panel to represent the highest risk to the EU territory. In

  4. Melon chlorotic leaf curl virus: characterization and differential reassortment with closest relatives reveal adaptive virulence in the squash leaf curl virus clade and host shifting by the host-restricted bean calico mosaic virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idris, A M; Mills-Lujan, K; Martin, K; Brown, J K

    2008-02-01

    The genome components of the Melon chlorotic leaf curl virus (MCLCuV) were cloned from symptomatic cantaloupe leaves collected in Guatemala during 2002. The MCLCuV DNA-A and DNA-B components shared their closest nucleotide identities among begomoviruses, at approximately 90 and 81%, respectively, with a papaya isolate of MCLCuV from Costa Rica. The closest relatives at the species level were other members of the Squash leaf curl virus (SLCV) clade, which is endemic in the southwestern United States and Mexico. Biolistic inoculation of cantaloupe seedlings with the MCLCuV DNA-A and -B components resulted in the development of characteristic disease symptoms, providing definitive evidence of causality. MCLCuV experimentally infected species within the Cucurbitaceae, Fabaceae, and Solanaceae. The potential for interspecific reassortment was examined for MCLCuV and its closest relatives, including the bean-restricted Bean calico mosaic virus (BCaMV), and three other cucurbit-infecting species, Cucurbit leaf crumple virus (CuLCrV), SLCV, and SMLCV. The cucurbit viruses have distinct but overlapping host ranges. All possible reassortants were established using heterologous combinations of the DNA-A or DNA-B components. Surprisingly, only certain reassortants arising from MCLCuV and BCaMV, or MCLCuV and CuLCrV, were viable in bean, even though it is a host of all of the "wild-type" (parent) viruses. The bean-restricted BCaMV was differentially assisted in systemically infecting the cucurbit test species by the components of the four cucurbit-adapted begomoviruses. In certain heterologous combinations, the BCaMV DNA-A or -B component was able to infect one or more cucurbit species. Generally, the reassortants were less virulent in the test hosts than the respective wild-type (parent) viruses, strongly implicating adaptive modulation of virulence. This is the first illustration of reassortment resulting in the host range expansion of a host-restricted begomovirus.

  5. Transgenic cucumbers harboring the 54-kDa putative gene of Cucumber fruit mottle mosaic tobamovirus are highly resistant to viral infection and protect non-transgenic scions from soil infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gal-On, Amit; Wolf, Dalia; Antignus, Yehezkel; Patlis, Larisa; Ryu, Ki Hyun; Min, Byoung Eun; Pearlsman, Malenia; Lachman, Oded; Gaba, Victor; Wang, Yongzeng; Shiboleth, Yoel Moshe; Yang, Jee; Zelcer, Aaron

    2005-02-01

    Cucumber fruit mottle mosaic tobamovirus (CFMMV) causes severe mosaic symptoms and yellow mottling on leaves and fruits and, occasionally, severe wilting of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) plants. No genetic source of resistance against this virus has been identified in cucumber. The gene coding for the putative 54-kDa replicase gene of CFMMV was cloned into an Agrobacterium tumefaciens binary vector, and transformation was performed on cotyledon explants of a parthenocarpic cucumber cultivar. R1 seedlings were screened for resistance to CFMMV by symptom expression, back inoculation on an alternative host and ELISA. From a total of 14 replicase-containing R1 lines, eight resistant lines were identified. Line 144--homozygous for the putative 54-kDa replicase gene--was immune to CFMMV infection by mechanical and graft inoculation, and to root infection following planting in CFMMV-infested soil. A substantial delay of symptom appearance was observed following infection by three additional cucurbit-infecting tobamoviruses. When used as a rootstock, line I44 protected susceptible cucumber scions from soil infection by CFMMV. This paper is the first report on protection of a susceptible cultivar against a soil-borne viral pathogen, by grafting onto a transgenic rootstock.

  6. A simple method for screening of plant NBS-LRR genes that confer a hypersensitive response to plant viruses and its application for screening candidate pepper genes against Pepper mottle virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Phu-Tri; Choi, Hoseong; Kim, Saet-Byul; Lee, Hyun-Ah; Choi, Doil; Kim, Kook-Hyung

    2014-06-01

    Plant NBS-LRR genes are abundant and have been increasingly cloned from plant genomes. In this study, a method based on agroinfiltration and virus inoculation was developed for the simple and inexpensive screening of candidate R genes that confer a hypersensitive response to plant viruses. The well-characterized resistance genes Rx and N, which confer resistance to Potato virus X (PVX) and tobamovirus, respectively, were used to optimize a transient expression assay for detection of hypersensitive response in Nicotiana benthamiana. Infectious sap of PVX and Tobacco mosaic virus were used to induce hypersensitive response in Rx- and N-infiltrated leaves, respectively. The transient expression of the N gene induced local hypersensitive response upon infection of another tobamovirus, Pepper mild mottle virus, through both sap and transcript inoculation. When this method was used to screen 99 candidate R genes from pepper, an R gene that confers hypersensitive response to the potyvirus Pepper mottle virus was identified. The method will be useful for the identification of plant R genes that confer resistance to viruses. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Kajian Morfologi Anatomi dan Agronomi antara Kedelai Sehat dengan Kedelai Terserang Cowpea Mild Mottle Virus serta Pemanfaatannya sebagai Bahan Ajar Sekolah Menengah Kejuruan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    As’ad Syamsul Arifin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Salah satu penyebab rendahnya produktivitas kedelai di Indonesia adalah serangan virus belang samar kacang tunggak Cowpea mild mottle virus (CPMMV. Penelitian ini adalah penelitian survei yang bertujuan untuk menggambarkan dan mengumpulkan informasi tentang kajian morfologi, anatomi dan agronomi terhadap infeksi CPMMV antara varietas yang terinfeksi dengan yang tidak terinfeksi. Data dianalisi secara deskriptif dan secara Inferensial ANAVA dengan menggunakan pro-gram SPSS for Windows versi 16. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan: Varietas Gumitir sehat, Anjosmoro sehat, Mahameru sehat , MLGG 0021, dan MLGG 0268 memiliki ukuran lebih besar dalam hal panjang daun, lebar daun, panjang petiol daun, nisbah daun (L/W, dan nisbah daun (L/PL dibandingkan va-rietas yang sakit. Varietas Argopuro sakit memiliki ukuran lebih besar dalam hal panjang daun, lebar daun, panjang petiol daun, dan nisbah daun (L/W, Nisbah daun (L/PL dibandingkan varietas yang sehat. Tidak terdapat perbedaan warna hipokotil, perbedaan bentuk daun, warna daun, warna bulu batang, permukaan daun antara kedelai sehat dan sakit pada keenam varietas. Terdapat perbedaan warna biji, warna polong masak, antara kedelai sehat dan sakit pada keenam varietas. Warna bunga pada kelima varietas kedelai sehat dan sakit berwarna ungu, kecuali pada varietas Gumitir berwarna putih. Terdapat perbedaan bentuk daun pada varietas Argopuro, Anjosmoro, Mahameru sehat dan sakit. Tidak terdapat perbedaan bentuk daun antara sehat dan sakit pada varietas Gumitir, MLGG 0021 dan MLGG 0268. Ada pengaruh varietas, kondisi, interaksi varietas dan kondisi terhadap ukuran sel daun. Ada pengaruh varietas terhadap jumlah stomata, kondisi serta interaksi varietas dan kondisi tidak berpengaruh secara nyata terhadap jumlah stomata. Tidak terdapat pengaruh varietas, interaksi varietas dan kondisi terhadap jumlah epidermis. Ada pengaruh kondisi terhadap jumlah epidermis. Jumlah trikoma varietas kedelai sehat lebih banyak daripada

  8. 柚类果树叶片斑驳病的病原鉴定与检测%Identification and detection of pathogen causing mottle leaf of pomelo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田亚南; 柯穗; 李韬; 徐平东; 柯冲

    1999-01-01

    Pomelo is a group of popular cultivars of citrus in China. In recent years, diseased plants of pomelo have been found in Fujian production areas. The symptoms of the diseased trees include leaf mottle, small fruit and stunting. The disease is graft-transmissible from diseased plant to healthy pomelo and ponkan via tissue grafting. The morphological characteristics of the pathogen resemble those of Liberobacter asiaticum which causes citrus Huanglongbing (formerly "citrus greening") based on electron microscopy. The PCR products of pathogen DNA obtained with gene-specific primers for Huanglongbing liberobacter and Southern hybridization of the PCR products with oligonucleotide probe specific for the liberobacter pathogen show that there is a remarkable degree of DNA homogeneity between the pathogen from diseased pomelo and that of citrus Huanglongbing plants. Taken together, the results of this study show that the causative agent of pomelo disease is either identical or very closely related to the Liberobacter asiaticum which causes citrus Huanglongbing.%柚类是柑桔中的一类重要品种,在我国有广泛的分布.近年来,在福建等产区发现柚类病树日趋增多,其病状为叶片斑驳、小果、植株矮化,暂称为叶片斑驳病.本病能通过组织嫁接从病柚树传染到柚健苗和芦柑健苗.在电镜下观察,其病原菌体的形态和细胞壁构造与柑桔黄龙病的病原(Liberobacter asiaticum)十分相似.应用柑桔黄龙病病原DNA的特异性引物进行PCR试验产生的PCR 产物,其分子量与柑桔黄龙病病原DNA PCR 产物的基本相同,为563 bp.;以及应用柑桔黄龙病病原的特异性探针与其PCR 产物进行Southern 杂交试验,能产生杂交反应;这些都表明在柚树病原DNA与柑桔黄龙病病原DNA之间存在着十分高度的同源性.综上结果证明:柚类叶片斑驳的病原很可能与柑桔黄龙病病原是相同的,或其关系是十分密切的.

  9. Proteomic analysis of pathogenesis-related proteins (PRs) induced by compatible and incompatible interactions of pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV) in Capsicum chinense L3 plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elvira, Maria Isabel; Galdeano, Myriam Molina; Gilardi, Patricia; García-Luque, Isabel; Serra, Maria Teresa

    2008-01-01

    Resistance conferred by the L(3) gene is active against most of the tobamoviruses, including the Spanish strain (PMMoV-S), a P(1,2) pathotype, but not against certain strains of pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV), termed P(1,2,3) pathotype, such as the Italian strain (PMMoV-I). Both viruses are nearly identical at their nucleotide sequence level (98%) and were used to challenge Capsicum chinense PI159236 plants harbouring the L(3) gene in order to carry out a comparative proteomic analysis of PR proteins induced in this host in response to infection by either PMMoV-S or PMMoV-I. PMMoV-S induces a hypersensitive reaction (HR) in C. chinense PI159236 plant leaves with the formation of necrotic local lesions and restriction of the virus at the primary infection sites. In this paper, C. chinense PR protein isoforms belonging to the PR-1, beta-1,3-glucanases (PR-2), chitinases (PR-3), osmotin-like protein (PR-5), peroxidases (PR-9), germin-like protein (PR-16), and PRp27 (PR-17) have been identified. Three of these PR protein isoforms were specifically induced during PMMoV-S-activation of C. chinense L(3) gene-mediated resistance: an acidic beta-1,3-glucanase isoform (PR-2) (M(r) 44.6; pI 5.1), an osmotin-like protein (PR-5) (M(r) 26.8; pI 7.5), and a basic PR-1 protein isoform (M(r) 18; pI 9.4-10.0). In addition, evidence is presented for a differential accumulation of C. chinense PR proteins and mRNAs in the compatible (PMMoV-I)-C. chinense and incompatible (PMMoV-S)-C. chinense interactions for proteins belonging to all PR proteins detected. Except for an acidic chitinase (PR-3) (M(r) 30.2; pI 5.0), an earlier and higher accumulation of PR proteins and mRNAs was detected in plants associated with HR induction. Furthermore, the accumulation rates of PR proteins and mRNA did not correlate with maximal accumulation levels of viral RNA, thus indicating that PR protein expression may reflect the physiological status of the plant.

  10. Espectroscopía NIR como Técnica Exploratoria Rápida para Detección de Amarillamiento Hojas Crisantemo (Dendranthema grandiflora var. Zembla / NIR Spectroscopy as Quick Exploratory Technique for Detection of Chrysanthemum Leaf Yellowing (Dendranthema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Pérez Naranjo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Resumen. El diagnóstico seguro de enfermedades en lasplantas depende de técnicas costosas, que requieren de tiempo y entrenamiento especializado. Esta investigación evaluó el uso de espectroscopia infrarroja cercana NIR (por sus siglas en ingles near-infrared para la detección rápida del “amarillamiento de hojas de crisantemo”, una enfermedad de etiología incierta que genera pérdidas económicas importantes. En este experimento se tomaron espectros infrarrojos en hojas con niveles de amarillamiento diferentes según la clasificación empleada por los agricultores (asintomáticas, síntomas intermedios y hojasdeformadas con síntomas avanzados. Mediante un análisis de componentes principales y con los valores de los espectros de esas muestras, se desarrolló un modelo de clasificación de hojas. Ese modelo aplicado en espectros de hojas tomados al azar separó adecuadamente el grupo de espectros NIR de hojas asintomáticas de un grupo indiferenciado de espectros obtenidos de hojas consíntomas intermedios o avanzados. Los resultados sugieren que para esta enfermedad es posible desarrollar un modelo de detección en muestras problema. Para ello, se requerirá incorporar al modelo un mayor número de muestras en rangos de enfermedad bien definidos. Estos resultados permiten vislumbrar las posibilidades del uso de esta técnica no destructiva, para detección temprana de los síntomas del amarillamiento foliar en crisantemo y como herramienta para el diseño de estrategias oportunas y efectivas demanejo de esta y otras enfermedades en las plantas. / Abstract. The safe diagnostic of plant diseases depends on expensive techniques which require time and specialized training. This study evaluated the use of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIR for the rapid detection of “chrysanthemum leaf yellowing”, a disease of unknown etiology causing important economic losses in Antioquia’s chrysanthemum main producing areas

  11. The Association Analysis of Phenotypic Traits with SRAP Markers in Chrysanthemum%菊花品种表型性状与SRAP分子标记的关联分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李仁伟; 王晨; 戴思兰; 雒新艳; 李宝琴; 朱珺; 卢洁; 刘倩倩

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] In order to provide a genetic basis for studies on complex quantitive traits and for molecular assisted breeding of chrysanthemum, the SRAP markers associated with important chrysanthemum horticulture traits were screened. [Method] The genomic regions with selection sweep were detected through scanning 58 representative chrysanthemum cultivars using 19 SRAP markers. Population structure was firstly analyzed, then association analysis between SRAP markers and 18 important phenotypic traits were performed using TASSEL GLM. [Result] Genetic structure analysis showed that the selected cultivar population was composed of 5 subpopulations, namely flat type subgroup, tube type subgroup, irregular type subgroup, anemone type subgroup and Japanese subgroup. There were 6 SRAP loci associated with 5 quantitative characters (/J<0.01), among which 3 flower traits were associated with 5 loci, while 1 stem and 1 leaf traits were associated with 1 locus, respectively. The rate of explanation on the phenotype of related locus ranged from 0.0738 to 0.4791. [Conclusion] It is feasible to estimate and differentiate chrysanthemum population's structure effectively using SRAP markers, and the markers obtained in this study are promising in molecular assisted breeding.%[目的]寻找与菊花重要园艺性状相关联的分子标记,为菊花复杂数量性状的研究以及分子标记辅助育种奠定遗传学基础.[方法]利用筛选出的19对SRAP引物组合对58个典型大菊品种进行多位点扫描分析.在对供试材料进行群体结构分析的基础上,利用TASSEL软件,对获得的分子标记与这些品种的18个重要表型性状进行关联分析.[结果]群体遗传结构分析将58个大菊品种划分为5个亚群结构:平瓣类、管瓣类、畸瓣类、桂瓣类和日本品种亚群;通过关联分析,发现有6个标记位点与5个性状关联(P< 0.01),其中与花部性状(花梗粗度、花瓣宽度、筒

  12. 转AtDREB1A基因菊花杂交后代优株水分胁迫耐性分析%Drought Stress Tolerance of the Hybrid Offspring Produced by AtDREB1A Transgenic Chrysanthemum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨英杰; 李春水; 张晓娇; 魏倩; 高俊平; 洪波

    2013-01-01

    过量表达拟南芥(A rab idopsis thaliana)逆境诱导转录因子DREB1A基因(AtDREB1A)能提高菊花的干旱胁迫耐性.以具有干旱胁迫耐性的转AtDREB1A基因菊花(Chrysanthemum morifolium)株系与广泛应用的非转基因菊花品种进行常规杂交获得的后代优株A-121、A-128、A-136为实验材料,进行了RT-PCR检测、水分胁迫下的萎蔫指数和成活率统计以及脯氨酸(Pro)含量和超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)活性测定.结果显示,外源A tDREB1A基因能够在有性繁殖过程中遗传给后代,且在水分胁迫下能在杂交后代植株中表达;与对照相比,水分胁迫条件下,转基因植株杂交后代Pro含量和SOD活性明显升高,且具有较强的水分胁迫耐性.研究结果表明,转基因菊花所携带的A tDREB1A基因可以在常规杂交中稳定遗传并发挥功能,提高了植株对水分胁迫的耐性.本研究为通过基因工程和传统育种结合方式选育具有干旱耐性的菊花新品种提供了技术平台.%Overexpression of the stress-inducible transcription factor gene A tDREB1A in Chrysanthemum conferred strong drought stress tolerance. Taking A-112, A-128 and A-136 as experimental materials, which are the three excellent hybrid offspring plants of the ground cover Chrysanthemum fall color transgenic line 1805 with drought stress tolerance harboring Arabidopsis thaliana dehydration response element-binding protein 1A (AtDREB1A) and the Asia Winter Light with better phenotype, we analyzed the stability and expression of AtDREB1A under water stress condition by RT-PCR, and determined the wilting index, survival rate, proline(Pro) content and superoxide dismutase(SOD) activity under drought stress condition. The results demonstrated that the exogenous gene AtDREB1A A was transferred into the hybrid offspring plants by sexual propagation and it could be expressed in offspring plants under drought condition. Compared with the control plants, the hybrid offspring plants

  13. Historical and Cultural Origin and Textual Research of Chrysanthemum morifolium Cultivated in Macheng%麻城福白菊的历史文化渊源及本草考证

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗光军; 陈科力

    2011-01-01

    麻城市种植的药用菊花(Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat.)品质优良,产量在全国占有较大的份额,并以麻城福白菊(C.morifolium cv.Fubaiju)注册了国家地理标志证明商标,但该品牌还不为国人所熟知.笔者从历史文化渊源和本草考证的角度证实,湖北麻城大别山地区是具有悠久历史的传统菊花产地之一,关于麻城菊花食用和种植历史最明确的记载,可以在麻城县志中追溯到明末清初,而关于麻城菊花采收和食用的文化习俗,甚至可以追溯到更为久远的春秋战国时期.%The Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat. cultivated in Macheng region had excellent quality and contributed to a large proportion of total yield in China. The National Geographic Symbol Certification Mark, name of C. morifolium cv.Fubai-ju, had been registered. However, the C. morifolium cv. Fubaiju brand had not been well known. According to the historical and cultural origin and textual research on Chinese medicine, the presented paper verified that the Dabie Mountain area in Macheng city of Hubei was a traditional production area of C. morifolium with long history. The clear record about C. morifolium cultivated and used as food in Macheng could be traced back to Late Ming Dynasty to Early Qing Dynasty in Macheng local chronicles. And the cultural consuetude about C. morifolium collection and recipe in Macheng could even be traced back to old Spring and Autumn Period.

  14. Transmissão do Cowpea mild mottle virus pela mosca branca Bemisia tabaci biótipo B para plantas de feijão e soja Transmission of the Cowpea mild mottle virus by whitefly Bemisia tabaci biotype B for plants of beans and soy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Massaharu Marubayashi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A necrose da haste da soja é causada por um vírus do gênero Carlavirus transmitido pela mosca branca Bemisia tabaci, também infectante de feijão e identificado como Cowpea mild mottle virus (CpMMV. Neste trabalho foram realizados testes para determinação do número de moscas-brancas B. tabaci biótipo B necessários para transmissão do vírus em feijoeiro e soja. Na sequência foram realizados dois outros testes, com 10 insetos por planta. Avaliaram-se períodos de acesso à aquisição (PAA de 'Jalo' para 'Jalo', e o efeito de períodos de acesso à inoculação (PAI. Foram visualmente constatados sintomas típicos do carlavírus como mosaico, clareamento de nervuras, necrose sistêmica e redução de crescimento. Houve transmissão do vírus para 'BT-2' de feijão e 'BRS-132' de soja com apenas um inseto por planta, sendo mais eficaz nesta última espécie. A taxa de transmissão do vírus foi maior com o aumento do número de insetos por planta. E o PAA foi determinado após 15' de tempo para aquisição, e o PAI com 5 min e aumentando os períodos de acesso a aquisição e inoculação aumentou-se a taxa de transmissão.The stem necrosis of soybean is caused by a virus of the Carlavirus and transmitted for the whitefly Bemisia tabaci, also infectad of beans and identified as Cowpea mild mottle virus (CpMMV. In this work biotype B for transmission of the virus in beans and soy had been carried through tests for determination of the number of necessary whiteflys B. tabaci. In the sequence two other tests had been carried through, with 10 insects for plant. Periods of access to the acquisition (PAA of 'Jalo' for 'Jalo', and the effect of periods of access to the inoculation (PAI had been evaluated increase. Visually typical symptoms of carlavirus had been evidenced as mosaic, veinclearing, sistemic necrosis and reduction of growth. It had transmission of the virus for 'BT-2' of beans and 'BRS-132' of soy with only one insect for plant

  15. Observation on therapeutic effect of ultrasonic atomizing inhalation of mother chrysanthemum in treatment of acute pharyngitis and nursing care of it%野菊花超声雾化吸入治疗急性咽炎的疗效观察及护理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高影儿

    2014-01-01

    [目的]观察野菊花针剂雾化吸入治疗急性咽炎的疗效。[方法]将200例病人随机分为治疗组和对照组,每组100例,治疗组使用野菊花针剂雾化吸入,对照组使用庆大霉素+地塞米松雾化吸入,比较两组病人的治疗效果。[结果]治疗组疗效明显优于对照组(P<0.01)。[结论]野菊花针剂雾化吸入对急性咽炎有良好的效果。%Obj ective:To observe the therapeutic effect of ultrasonic atomizing inhalation with mother chrysanthemum inj ection in treating acute pharyngitis. Methods:A total of 200 patients were randomly divided into treatment group and control group,200 cases in each.The patients in treatment group were giv-en ultrasonic atomizing inhalation with mother chrysanthemum inj ection,while the patients in control group were given ultrasonic atomizing inhalation with gentamicin and dexamethasone.Results:The therapeutic effect in treatment group was significantly better than that in control group(P<0.01).Conclu-sion:The therapeutic effect of ultrasonic atomizing inhalation with mother chrysanthemum inj ection for acute plmryngitis is good.

  16. Compounds from fraction with cardiovascular activity of Chrysanthemum indicum%野菊花心血管活性部位化学成分的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙昱; 马晓斌; 刘建勋

    2012-01-01

    In order to investigate the chemical constituents from the fraction with cardiovascular activtiy of Chrysanthemum indicum , the isolation and purification of compounds from this active fraction were performed, and the chemical structures were elucidated by spectral analysis and comparison of the spectral data with those reported in the literature. As a result, twelve compounds were obtained and identified as (2S)-eriodictyol-7-O-β-D-glucuronide (1), (2.S)-eriodictyol-7-O-β-D-glucoside (2), (2S)-hesperetin-7-O-β-D-glucuronide (3), luteolin-7-O-β-D-glucoside (4), luteolin-7-O-β-D-glucuronide (5), diosmetin-7-O-β-D-glucuronide (6), quercetin -7-O-β-D-glucoside (7), (2S)-eriodict-dicaffeoylquinate(8), 3, 5-dicaffeoylquinic acid(9), 3, 5-cis-dieaffeoylquinic acid (10), 1, 5-dioaffeoylquinic acid( 11), and 1, 3-dicaffeoylquinic acid( 12). The above result indicated that flavonoids were the ma-di-caffeoylquinate(8), 3, 5-dicaffeoylquinic acid(9), 3, 5-cis-dieaffeoylquinic acid(10), 1, 5-dicaffeoylquinic acid(11), and 1, 3-di-caffcoylquinic acid (12). The above result indicated that flavonoids were the major components of the active fraction. Compounds 2,3, 7, 8 and 10 were obtained from this genus for the first time, and compounds 5, 6, 9, 11, and 12 were first isolated from C. indicum.%目的:研究菊科植物野菊花心血管活性部位中的主要化学成分.方法:采用多种色谱方法进行分离纯化,通过波谱方法结合文献对照鉴定化合物结构.结果:从野菊花心血管活性部位中分离并鉴定了12个化合物,包括7个黄酮类化合物(1~7),5个苯丙素类化合物(8~12),分别鉴定为(2S)-圣草酚-7-O-β-D-吡喃葡萄糖醛酸苷(1),(2S)-圣草酚-7-O-β-D-吡喃葡萄糖苷(2),(2S)-橙皮素-7-O-β-D-吡喃葡萄糖醛酸苷(3),木犀草素-7-O-β-D-吡喃葡萄糖苷(4),木犀草素-7-O-β-D-吡喃葡萄糖醛酸苷(5),香叶木素-7-O-β-D-吡喃葡萄糖醛酸苷(6),槲皮素-7-O-β-D-呲喃葡萄糖苷(7),3,5-

  17. 打孔塞入法治疗果树缺铁黄叶病%Therapy Study of Chlorotic Disorder of Fruit Trees Caused by Iron Deficiency through Punched Hole

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王满平; 孙占育; 孙志强; 田芳银; 王小军

    2012-01-01

    Researches selected out eight kinds of iron-contained compounds and insert them to the holes dug on the trunks, in order to cure the fruit chlorosis reduced by iron deficiency economically, safely as well as efficiently,and overcome the poor effects of fertilizing iron on soil or tree leaves and the defects of injecting green-recovering potion from tree trunks, such as restriction by season, poor safety condition and complex operation. These compounds can be divided into four types including: (1) the soluble inorganic ferrous salt FeSO4 ·7H2O and FeCl2 ·4H2O; (2) the soluble inorganic ferric salt Fe2(SO4)3 and FeCl3 ·6H2O; (3) the hard dissolved iron compounds FeC2O4 and Fe2O3; (4) Iron complex ammonium ferrous sulphate Fe(NH4 )2 (SO4 )2 ·6H2O and ferrous citrate. The results showed that several iron-contained compounds can cure chlorotic disorder of fruit trees caused by iron-deficiency within 6~7 days,even the white leaves totally recover to green within 20 days. Fe(NH4 )2 (SO4)2 ·6H2O is the most economic, efficient and safest compound; FeSO4 ·7H2O is the second best. The research also paved a new way for treatment of other trace elements deficiency diseases.%为了经济、安全、高效地治疗果树因缺铁而引发的黄叶病,克服目前土壤和叶面施铁疗效差,树干注射复绿剂受季节限制、安全性差、操作复杂的缺陷,选用4类8种含Fe化合物(易溶性二价无机铁盐FeSO4·7H2O和FeCl2·4H2O,易溶性三价无机铁盐Fe2 (SO4)3和FeCl3·6H2O,难溶性Fe2O3和FeC2O4,铁络合物Fe( NH4)2(SO4)2·6H2O和FeC6O2H6),在树干上打孔后将其塞入.结果表明,多种含铁化合物都能使果树缺铁黄化病在第6至第7天开始复绿,20 d后使已经白化的叶片也能彻底恢复绿色,其中Fe(NH4)2(SO4)2·6H2O最为经济、安全、高效,FeSO4·7H2O次之.

  18. 甘薯羽状斑驳病毒外壳蛋白基因的分子变异%Molecular variation of Sweet potato feathery mottle virus coat protein gene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓华; 张振臣; 乔奇; 秦艳红; 张德胜; 田雨婷

    2012-01-01

    应用单链构象多态性(single-strand conformation polymorphism,SSCP)技术结合核苷酸序列测定的方法,对我国甘薯主产区11个省份的甘薯羽状斑驳病毒(Sweet potato feathery mottle virus,SPFMV)外壳蛋白(CP)基因的分子变异情况进行了研究.结果表明,SPFMV CP基因的RT-PCR产物表现了较丰富的图谱类型,50个分离物共产生9种主要的SSCP带型;对显示不同带型的20个样品的CP基因进行了序列测定和进化树分析,CP基因核苷酸序列一致性为77.2%~99.9%.说明这些样品的SPFMV的CP基因存在较大的分子变异,可划分为EA、RC、O和C4个株系.%Virus samples were collected from 11 provinces in China, and the molecular variation of Sweet potato feathery mottle virus (SPFMV) coat protein (CP) gene were analyzed using single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) and sequence analysis. SSCP analysis of 50 isolates showed that these isolates produced 9 kinds of SSCP band forms. The results of sequence comparison and phylogenetic analysis showed that the identities of the nucleotide sequences of CP genes among these isolates were 77. 2% - 99. 9%. SPFMV CP genes of different isolates in China had great molecular variability and could be divided into four diverged groups at least, including the East Africa (EA), Russet Crack (RC), Ordinary (O) and Common , strain groups.

  19. 黄瓜绿斑驳花叶病毒传播方式的研究进展%Research Progress on Transmission Modes of Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李俊香; 古勤生

    2015-01-01

    黄瓜绿斑驳花叶病毒(Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus,CGMMV)是葫芦科作物重要病毒,通过多种方式如种子、土壤、水、介体和机械接触传播,病害蔓延扩散迅速。该病害在许多国家和地区频繁报道,我国也曾大面积受到为害,尤其是西瓜嫁接地区,产业损失严重。带毒种子为初侵染源,发生过该病害的地块土壤也是重要的侵染源,发病植株可通过灌溉水以及机械接触传播病毒。为了更好地控制该病害的发生与流行,本文介绍了该病毒传播方式方面的研究进展。%Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus(CGMMV;genus Tobamovirus)is an important virus of cucurbit crops. It spread through a number of ways,such as seed,soil,water,vector and mechanical contact and spread quickly. This disease was frequently reported in many countries and regions. China was once harmed by this disease on large areas,especially regions where watermelon was grafted. This disease caused severe damage in grafting watermelon production. Seed with CGMMV was the primary source of infection. And the soil contaminated with infected plants debris was also recognized as the major primary source. The infected plants can transmit virus via irrigation water and mechanical contact. In order to better control the occurance and spread of this disease,this paper introduced the research progress in the transmission modes of CGMMV.

  20. Ocorrência do vírus do mosqueado do morangueiro no estado de São Paulo Occurrence of the strawberry mottle virus in São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria B. Carvalho

    1961-01-01

    Full Text Available Verificou-se a ocorrência de estirpes do vírus do grupo denominado mosqueado («strawberry mottle» em plantações de morangueiro no Estado de São Paulo. Variedades antigas, como a Dr. Morère. acham-se totalmente infetatas. sendo portadoras sem sintomas. Alguns clones novos plantados apenas por poucos anos em campo, já se acham parcialmente infetados, indicando que há transmissão da moléstia sob condições naturais. Sintomas de palidez das nervuras, mosqueado, paralisação no crescimento e encrespamento são apresentados por plantas de Fragaria vesca infetadas pelos vírus dêsse grupo. Numerosas espécies de plantas-teste habituais foram inoculadas com diferentes isolados do vírus, por meio do vetor, mas os resultados foram geralmente negativos. Afídios virulíferos, colonizados sôbre plantas novas de Cassia accidentalis, Chenopodiam quinoa, Leonotis nepaetifolia e Leonurus sibiricus. induziram o aparecimento de sintomas. Não se conseguiu retransmitir o vírus dessas espécies para F. vesca, existindo, portanto, dúvidas sôbre a verdadeira identidade do vírus que infetava tais plantas. O vírus do mosqueado não foi aparentemente transmitido pela semente. Também não se mostrou transmissível mecânicamente para Frogaria vesca. O virus obtido por inoculação com o vetor em Chenopodium quinoa e que se supõe ser o do mosqueado, pôde se transmitido mecânicamente de C. quinoa para C. quinoa. mas não para F. vesca. O pulgão Pentatrichopus fragaefolii mostrou-se eficiente vetor do mosqueado, conseguindo-se obter em média mais de 50% de infecção em infestações com 1 afidio por planta. Aphis gossypii também transmitiu o vírus do mosqueado, mas com muito menor eficiência. Não se conseguiu transmitir o mosqueado com uma espécie de Cuscuta que ocorre comumeute em Campinas. Em testes de transmissão por enxertia de fôlhas, os resultados foram muito fracos devido ao mau pegamento. O pulgão Pentatrichopus fragaefolii

  1. 发根农杆菌K599对菊花活体转化及其高效再生%Hairy Roots Induced by Agrobacterium rhizogenes K599 in Chrysanthemum in Vivo and Plant Regeneration from Hairy Roots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    向太和; 王琳; 蒋欢; 田璟鸾

    2011-01-01

    The transgenic hairy roots were formed on cut leaves of chrysanthemum plantlet by Agrobacterium rhizogenes K599 with frequencies of 88.0%.The calli were induced from hairy roots and plantlets were regenerated from calli at rates of 75.0% and 63.3% respectively.The transgenic hairy roots and plantlet were confirmed by PCR analysis with primers from K599 Ri plasmid rolC gene.Quantitative RT-PCR(qRT-PCR)analysis showed that rolC gene was normally expressed in the regenerated transgenic plants.Regenerated plants harbored a character of dwarf,more hairy roots and flowering normally.Organism in vivo directly as a receptor for infection by Agrobacterium rhizogenes K599,it overcame the emergence of false-positive transgenic hairy roots.In addition,using the process of hairy roots propagation characteristics of the top growing point region sterile and the interception of adventitious roots near the growing point to the top for subculture,combined with cefotaxime sterilization,it can inhibit and kill the Agrobacterium effectively.In the subsequent callus induction and redifferentiation from hairy roots,it is no antibiotics added to medium for killing Agrobacterium.It genetically enhanced efficiency of plant regeneration.The transgenic hairy roots were induced by Agrobacterium rhizogenes K599 in chrysanthemum in vivo and plant regenerated from hairy roots highly efficiently in the study.It is useful to dwarf breeding and the target gene transformation of chrysanthemum.%发根农杆菌K599侵染菊花无菌苗刻伤的叶片形成转基因不定根,生根频率为88.0%;不定根经过诱导培养形成愈伤组织,并再生完整植株,愈伤组织诱导率和分化率分别为75.0%和63.3%。诱导的不定根和再生植株经过PCR鉴定含有K599 Ri质粒中的rolC基因,qRT-PCR检测显示rolC基因在再生转基因植株中实现了正常表达。再生植株表现出矮缩、多毛状根特征,并能正常开花。建立的利用活体材料

  2. Effects of exponential fertilization on yield and soil properties in cut chrysanthemum%指数施肥方式对切花菊生长及其土壤性质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏莎; 李素艳; 孙向阳; 张骅; 郝利锋; 张强; 王敬国

    2011-01-01

    在大田试验条件下,根据矿质稳态营养的理论对连续种植切花菊的施肥方式进行研究,讨论了指数施肥方式对连续种植的切花菊品质、产量、养分吸收和土壤性质的影响.结果表明,在完整的生长期内,指数施肥处理(EF)产量高于一次性施入全部肥料处理(MCK)、直线施肥(SF)、平均施肥(AF),分别为28.04%、13.23%、14.2%.土壤性质变化结果显示,指数施肥处理可以有效降低土壤中的氮素残留.养分吸收结果显示,各施肥处理均能促进植株对养分的吸收并显著提高切花菊植株N、P、K等养分含量,其中指数施肥处理对切花菊生长的促进作用的效果最显著.本文通过对指数施肥的研究提供了切花菊的规模生产养分高效利用的新思路,并发现通过该方法可以有效解决土壤富营养化问题,减少土壤连作危害.%In the field experiment conditions, according to the theory of-steady - state mineral nutrition, we discussed the effect ion of this methods to cut chrysanthemum quality, yield, nutrient uptake and soil properties. The results showed that; In the full growth period, the exponential fertilization (EF) yields were higher than the one - time fertilizer was applied to all (MCK), straight fertilizer (SF), the average fertilization (AF), and increased by 28.04%, 13.23%, 14. 2% respectively. The results showed that soil properties change, the exponentia fertilization could reduce the residual nitrogen in soil. Nutrient uptake results showed that the fertilization treatments significantly increased chrysanthemum plant N, P, K, and promote the absorption of nutrients in plants. Exponential fertilization was more effective than other treatments. This test could be the size of cut chrysanthemum production of methods and to improve the efficient use of nutrients in the soil of nutrients, reducing soil even for harm.

  3. Characteristics of Seed Germination and Regularities of Growth and Development of Chrysanthemum lavandulifolium in Natural Conditions%甘菊种子萌发特性及自然条件下生长发育规律

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁焱; 付建新; 戴思兰

    2012-01-01

    对甘菊[ Chrysanthemum lavandulifolium(Fisch.ex Trautv.)Makino]种子萌发特性和自然条件下生长发育规律进行了试验观察,发现不同栽培基质及不同储藏时间对甘菊种子萌发率均有影响,在MS培养基上播种甘菊种子萌发率最高,可达90%左右.甘菊种子无休眠现象,采收后立即播种和次年春季播种萌发率均可达90%左右.甘菊种子不耐储藏,储藏至第3年秋季播种,萌发率仅为30%.自然条件下,5月至8月底是甘菊植株的营养生长时期,在此期间,甘菊株高、茎粗、冠幅、叶片数及分枝数一直处于增长状态;9月份当日照长度缩短至13 h时,甘菊开始现蕾,这表明13h光照/11h黑暗可能为甘菊现蕾的临界日长.%An experiment was conducted to study the seed germination characteristics and the regularities of growth and development of Chrysanthemum lavandulifolium (Fisch. ex Trautv. ) Makino in natural conditions. Results indicate that different culture media and different storage times have some effects on the germination rate of C. lavandulifolium. The seeds on the MS medium showed the highest germination rate (about 90% ). The seeds of C. lavandulifolium have no dormancy phenomenon. The germination rate of the seeds sowed immediately after harvest or the next spring could reach almost 90%. The germination rate of the seeds decreased with storage time. The germination rate of the seeds sowed in the fall of the third year was only 30%. May to late August is the period of vegetative growth when the plant height, stem thickness, the number of leaves, crown size and the number of branches of C. lavandulifolium are in a rapid growth stage. The buds start appeared when the duration of day decreased to thirteen hours, which indicates that 13 hours of light and 11 hours of darkness may be the critical period for the buds of C. lavandulifolium, but it still need to be demonstrated by extensive experiments.

  4. Effects of Different Concentrations of Gibberellin on the Flowering of Ground-cover Chrysanthemum 'Zichonglou'%不同浓度赤霉素对地被菊‘紫重楼’开花特性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王媛; 崔雁汇; 孔一昌; 张强; 吕晋慧

    2012-01-01

    The effects of different concentrations of gibberellin on plant height, crown breadth, flowering characteristic (flowering season, flower number, petals number, flower diameter) and the pollen germination viability of ground-cover Chrysanthemum ' Zichonglou' were studied, which could provided substantial base for the hybrid breeding and regulating flower season of ground-cover Chrysanthemum. The results showed that 100-500 mg/L of gibberellin might cause the dewing color season 6-10 days ahead of time, the starting flower season 7-12 days ahead of time, and the abundant flowering season 2-7 days ahead of time. With the increase of gibberellin concentration ranging from 0 to 500 mg/L, internode and plant height were increased, but the flower number, petals number, crown breadth, and flower diameter were inhibited. The longest internode and plant height occurred with 500 mg/L gibberellin treatment. The pollen germination viability were improved by 100-300 mg/L of gibberellin, and impressed by 500 mg/L gibberellin.%笔者探讨不同浓度赤霉素(GA3)对地被菊‘紫重楼’株高、冠幅、开花特性(花期、开花量、花朵重瓣性、花径)和花粉生活力的影响,旨在为地被菊杂交育种、花期调控提供参考依据.试验结果表明,喷施100~500 mg/L GA3后,‘紫重楼’露色期、始花期及盛花期分别提前6~10天、7~12天和2~7天;GA3有利于节间伸长和株高增加,但植株开花量和花瓣重瓣性降低,冠幅、花径减小.其中,500 mg/L GA3处理下的地被菊节间长度与株高显著高于其他水平;100~300 mg/L GA3处理可促进花粉生活力,500 mg/L对花粉生活力有抑制作用.

  5. EVALUACIÓN DE DOS TRATAMIENTOS FOTOPERIÓDICOS EN CRISANTEMO (Dendranthema grandiflorum (Ramat. Kitam., BAJO CONDICIONES DEL INTERTRÓPICO ANDINO ALTO EVALUATION OF TWO PHOTOPERIOD TREATMENTS IN CHRYSANTHEMUM (Dendranthema grandiflorum ((Ramat. Kitam., UNDER CONDITIONS OF HIGH ANDEAN INTERTROPIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fáber de Jesús Chica Toro

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available En la floricultura colombiana, cerca del 14 % de los costos de producción del crisantemo o pompón (Dendranthema grandiflorum (Ramat. Kitam., está representado por la luz complementaria requerida para controlar su floración. Con el fin de encontrar un protocolo que hiciera uso de un menor suministro de luz, en este trabajo se compararon los efectos de dos esquemas de complemento lumínico nocturno sobre algunas características precosecha y poscosecha en dos variedades comerciales tipo spider de crisantemo: Super White y Super Yellow. El esquema testigo de suplemento lumínico nocturno consistió en aportar la adición durante 28 días para la variedad Super Yellow, y 26 para la variedad Super White. La propuesta alternativa de adición lumínica nocturna consistió en interrumpir el estímulo durante una noche completa cada dos días. Tal disminución del estímulo lumínico, en aproximadamente un 30 %, no afectó el crecimiento ni las características poscosecha de las variedades evaluadas.In Colombian floriculture, nearly 14% of the production costs of chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflorum (Ramat. Kitam. consists of the additional lighting required to control its flowering. In order to find a protocol that consumes a lower amount of electricity, this study compared the effects of two supplementary noctural lighting schemes on several preharvest and postharvest characteristics in two commercial varieties of chrysanthemum: Super White and Super Yellow. The control nocturnal lighting scheme consisted of providing the supplemental lighting during 28 days for the Super Yellow variety and during 26 days for the Super White variety. The alternative nocturnal lighting scheme consisted of interrupting the stimulus during one complete night every two days. This approximately 30% reduction in light stimulation did not affect either growth or postharvest characteristics of the varieties evaluated.

  6. Preparation of A Compound Beverage with Inulin of Jerusalem Artichok, Hawthorn and Chrysanthemum%菊芋菊糖、山楂、菊花复合饮料的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李伟; 朱畅

    2016-01-01

    The hot water was used to extract inulin. Through orthogonal test the optimal conditions of extract in-ulin were:the ratio of sample to water was 1∶25 (g/g),temperature 90℃,time 60 min. Under these conditions, the extract ratio was 79.98 %. Inulin of jerusalem artichoke ,hawthorn and chrysanthemum were used as the main materials,added white granulate sugar,honey and other accessories. A discussion was carried out on the key technologies,through single factor and orthogonal experimental design ,the sensory score was investigated an indicator to determine the optimum formula of the compound beverage. The results showed that the mixing proportion of hawthorn extract and chrysanthemum extract was 2∶3(mL/mL),inulin 2%,white granulate sugar 4%,honey 3%,the best stabilizer was sodium alginate 0.05%and CMC-Na 0.1%. The compound beverage is nutritions and good for health,can be developed with good color, flavor and taste.%采用热水浸提法对菊糖进行提取,通过正交试验确定了提取菊糖的最佳条件为:料水比1∶25(g/g),温度90℃,提取时间60 min,菊糖提取率为79.98%。以菊芋菊糖、山楂、菊花为主要原料,添加白砂糖、蜂蜜等辅料。针对其关键技术进行了探讨,采用单因素和正交试验设计,以产品感官评价为指标,确定菊芋菊糖、山楂、菊花复合饮料的最佳工艺配方。结果表明:山楂和菊花提取液比为2∶3(mL/mL)、菊芋菊糖2%、白砂糖4%、蜂蜜3%、最佳稳定剂为0.05%海藻酸钠和0.1%CMC-Na。该复合饮料具有营养、保健的功能,色泽、香味、口感俱佳。

  7. Position of the axillary bud and mutation induction in Chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflora Tzvelev) plant lets; Posicao da gema axilar e a inducao de mutacao em mudas de crisantemo (Dendranthema grandiflora Tzvelev)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adames, Alvis Hernan; Latado, Rodrigo Rocha; Camargo, Nalza Maria; Tulmann Neto, Augusto [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Melhoramento de Plantas. E-mail: rrlatado@cena.usp.br

    1999-12-01

    Mutagenic treatment of multicellular meristems from vegetatively propagated plants generally results in the formation of chimeric plants. Mutated sectors can be increased and stabilized through the cutting-back method. The objective of the present research was to study the influence of application of this method in the M{sub 1}V{sub 2} population, originated from six different axillary buds from the M{sub 1}V{sub 1} chrysanthemum branches. For this purpose, rooted plants of the cultivar Ingrid (dark ping) were irradiated with 20 Gy of gamma-rays and the prune was carried out 40 days after planting. Frequency and spectrum of flower color mutants were evaluated. No mutants were observed in the control population. In the M{sub 1}V{sub 1} population, 22.1% of the total plants were mutants (white color, dark bronze, pale pink, yellow, wine, variegated and cream). Among them, 1.8% were periclinal chimeras (with only one different color from the original) and the others showed mutated sectors. No differences were observed in mutation frequency and size of mutated sector among six M{sub 1}V{sub 1} populations. The wine colored mutant was selected, multiplied and evaluated in a yield trial. This mutant named Magali was multiplied and was released as a new cultivar. (author)

  8. The Protective Effects of the Supercritical-Carbon Dioxide Fluid Extract of Chrysanthemum indicum against Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Acute Lung Injury in Mice via Modulating Toll-Like Receptor 4 Signaling Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Li Wu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The supercritical-carbon dioxide fluid extract of Chrysanthemum indicum Linné. (CFE has been demonstrated to be effective in suppressing inflammation. The aim of this study is to investigate the preventive action and underlying mechanisms of CFE on acute lung injury (ALI induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS in mice. ALI was induced by intratracheal instillation of LPS into lung, and dexamethasone was used as a positive control. Results revealed that pretreatment with CFE abated LPS-induced lung histopathologic changes, reduced the wet/dry ratio and proinflammatory cytokines productions (TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6, inhibited inflammatory cells migrations and protein leakages, suppressed the levels of MPO and MDA, and upregulated the abilities of antioxidative enzymes (SOD, CAT, and GPx. Furthermore, the pretreatment with CFE downregulated the activations of NF-κB and the expressions of TLR4/MyD88. These results suggested that CFE exerted potential protective effects against LPS-induced ALI in mice and was a potential therapeutic drug for ALI. Its mechanisms were at least partially associated with the modulations of TLR4 signaling pathways.

  9. Impact of Aqueous Extract from KunLun Snow Chrysanthemum on the Levels of Blood Glucose and Insulin of the Mice with Type Two Diabetes Mellitus%昆仑雪菊水提物对2型糖尿病小鼠血糖及胰岛素水平的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张邦能; 舒畅; 杜玫; 刘晓富; 杨丽霞; 李雪英

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To explore the effects of Kunlun snow chrysanthemum on decreasing blood glucose of type two diabetes mellitus (T2DM) mice. Methods: Fifty T2DM mice were divided into pioglitazone group, positive control group, high, moderate and low doses groups of Kunlun snow chrysanthemum according to random number table, ten mice each group, ten mice in the normal control group were established. Normal control group and positive control group accepted intragastric administration of 0.9% sodium chloride solution by standard of 0.001 mL/kg each day; high, moderate and low doses groups of Kunlun snow chrysanthemum lavaged aqueous solution of Kunlun snow chrysanthemum in the concentrations of 0.4, 0.2 and 0.1 g/kg by standard of 0.01 mL/g; pioglitazone group aqueous solution of pioglitazone by standard of 0.01g/kg, once per day, for 35 consecutive days. General condition, preprandial blood glucose, 2hours postprandial blood glucose, serum insulin and insulin sensitivity index(ISI) were observed. Results: Kunlun snow chrysanthemum could significantly decrease body weight and fasting blood glucose of the mice, and its effects were superior to these of pioglitazone; while equivalent to pioglitazone in decreasing 2hours postprandial blood glucose and improving ISI. Conclusion: Kunlun snow chrysanthemum could decrease blood glucose and the levels of insulin of T2DM mice, and improve insulin resistance of the mice.%目的:探讨昆仑雪菊水提物对2型糖尿病小鼠的降糖作用.方法:将2型糖尿病小鼠50只,按随机数字表法分为吡格列酮组、阳性对照组,昆仑雪菊高、中、低剂量组,每组10只,另设正常对照组10只.正常对照组和阳性对照组每日以0.001 mL/kg灌服0.9%氯化钠溶液;昆仑雪菊高、中、低剂量组每日分别以0.4、0.2、0.1 g/kg浓度按0.01 mL/g体质量灌服昆仑雪菊水溶液;吡格列酮组按每日0.01 g/kg灌服吡格列酮水溶液,1次/d,连续35天.观察小鼠一般情况及餐前、餐后2

  10. Complex Assembly Behavior During the Encapsulation of Green Fluorescent Protein Analogs in Virus Derived Protein Capsules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Minten, Inge J.; Nolte, Roeland J.M.; Cornelissen, Jeroen J.L.M.

    2010-01-01

    Enzymes encapsulated in nanocontainers are a better model of the conditions inside a living cell than free enzymes in solution. In a first step toward the encapsulation of multiple enzymes inside the cowpea chlorotic mottle virus (CCMV) capsid, enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) was attached

  11. Solution scattering studies on a virus capsid protein as a building block for nanoscale assemblies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Comellas Aragones, M.; Comellas-Aragones, Marta; Sikkema, Friso D.; Delaittre, Guillaume; Terry, Ann E.; King, Stephen M.; Visser, Dirk; Heenan, Richard K.; Nolte, Roeland J.M.; Cornelissen, Jeroen Johannes Lambertus Maria; Feiters, Martin C.

    2011-01-01

    Self-assembled protein cages are versatile building blocks in the construction of biomolecular nanostructures. Because of the defined assembly behaviour the cowpea chlorotic mottle virus (CCMV) protein is often used for such applications. Here we report a detailed solution scattering study of the

  12. AcEST: BP913308 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E Sbjct: 502 GLNAALKDEFHPLPTSEDIFSRL-KGTVYSQIDLKDAYLQVELDEE 546 >sp|P15629|POL_SOCMV Enzymatic polyprotein OS=Soybean chlorotic mott...le virus GN=ORF V PE=3 SV=2 Length = 692 Score = 44.7 bi

  13. Technical and economic feasibility of the use of discharge lamps in replacement of filament for induction of photoperiod in chrysanthemum seedlings production; Viabilidade tecnico-economica do uso de lampadas de descarga em substituicao as de filamento para inducao de fotoperiodo na producao de mudas de crisantemos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossi, Luiz A.; David, Eduardo [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (FEAGRI/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Agricola], E-mail: rossi@feagri.unicamp.br; Pagliardi, Odail [Faculdade Municipal Prof. Franco Montoro (FMPFM), Mogi Guacu, SP (Brazil); Sarubbi, Juliana [Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (CESNORS/UFSM), Palmeira das Missoes, RS (Brazil). Centro de Educacao Superior Norte-RS

    2010-07-01

    Due to its physiological characteristics, the seedlings of chrysanthemums require supplemental light to prevent bud formation, that is done at night. This article examines the technical and economic valuation to replace the current technology of artificial lighting used by producers (incandescent bulbs) for the purpose of inducing photoperiod in a protected environment for cutting-discharge lamps, with the goal of reducing the consumption electricity used in the process. The analysis showed that the integrated compact fluorescent yellow lamp 23W is the technically and economically feasible for such replacement. (author)

  14. Single amino acid substitution in the methyltransferase domain of Paprika mild mottle virus replicase proteins confers the ability to overcome the high temperature-dependent Hk gene-mediated resistance in Capsicum plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Katsutoshi; Johnishi, Kousuke; Hamada, Hiroyuki; Sawada, Hiromasa; Takeuchi, Shigeharu; Kobayashi, Kappei; Suzuki, Kazumi; Kiba, Akinori; Hikichi, Yasufumi

    2009-03-01

    Capsicum plants harboring the Hk gene (Hk) show resistance to Paprika mild mottle virus (PaMMV) at 32 degrees C but not 24 degrees C. To identify the viral elicitor that activates the Hk-mediated resistance, several chimeric viral genomes were constructed between PaMMV and Tobacco mosaic virus-L. Infection patterns of these chimeric viruses in Hk-harboring plants revealed responsibility of PaMMV replicase genes for activation of the Hk-mediated resistance. The comparison of nucleotide sequence of replicase genes between PaMMV and PaHk1, an Hk-resistance-breaking strain of PaMMV, revealed that the adenine-to-uracil substitution at the nucleotide position 721 causes an amino acid change from threonine to serine at the 241st residue in the methyltransferase domain. Introduction of the A721U mutation into the replicase genes of parental PaMMV overcame the Hk resistance at 32 degrees C. The results indicate that Hk-mediated resistance is induced by PaMMV replicase proteins and that methyltransferase domain has a role in this elicitation.

  15. Characterization of new variety of Chrysanthemum by using ISSR markers Caracterização de novas cultivares de crisântemo com o uso de marcadores ISSR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SK Palai

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Chrysanthemum is the important cut flower after rose among the ornamental plants traded in the global flower market. It is propagated vegetatively and also has a strong sporophytic self-incompatibility system as shown by all members of Asteraceae family. Morphologically, the petal numbers and flower colours present maximum variation when compared to existing varieties. Twenty Inter Simple Sequence Repeat primers were used to detect the new variety of Chrysanthemum developed through spontaneous sporting. The results indicate that the rate of polymorphism showed significant differences as compared to other existing varieties. The average number of amplification products per primer was eight. The size of ISSR amplified fragments varied from 0.25 - 2.4 Kbp. Therefore, ISSR marker is a useful technique for the rapid and easy assessment of genetic variation among the variants. Morphological traits of new variants showed variation as compared to other parents. The 1st flower bud appearance and the height of 1st bud of the variant were less as compared to original mother variety. The new variants can be propagated in large scale commercially through in vitro technique.Entre as plantas ornamentais comercializados no mercado mundial, o crisântemo é a flor de corte de maior importância sendo superado apenas pela rosa. Ele é propagado vegetativamente e também tem um forte sistema de auto-incompatibilidade esporofítica como mostrado por todos os membros da família Asteraceae. Morfologicamente, os números de pétalas e as cores das flores apresentam variação máxima em relação às cultivares existentes. Empregou-se vinte primers ISSR (Inter Simple Sequence Repeat para caracterizar a nova cultivar de crisântemo desenvolvida por mutação expontânea. Os resultados indicam que a taxa de polimorfismo mostrou diferenças significativas em comparação com outras cultivares existentes. Foi de oito o número médio de produtos de amplificação por

  16. Research for fluidized bed granulation technology of Chrysanthemum and Lotus Plant Beverage Solids%菊花莲子植物固体饮料流化床制粒工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龙敏玲; 汪涛; 陈理; 向飞军

    2013-01-01

    目的 优化一步制粒工艺以制备菊花莲子固体饮料.方法 对方中中药水煎提取、浓缩得到一定密度的流浸膏,以目测流化床中颗粒的流动性为考察指标,通过单因素和正交试验,考察辅料种类、添加量、物料温度、供液转速对制粒工艺的影响.结果 最佳的工艺条件为供液转速5 r/min,物料温度45℃,异麦芽酮糖醇添加量为流浸膏固形物的35%,辅料为麦芽糊精:白砂糖粉(2:1).结论 按优选的处方和工艺制得的固体饮料,含糖量低,流动性较好,工艺稳定.%Objective To optimize the one step granulation preparation method of Chrysanthemum and Lotus Plant Beverage Solids.Methods The liquidity was used as indexes, the type and dosage of excipient, material temperature, liquid velocity were investigated by the single factor and orthogonal experiment of a certain density of liquid extract.Results The optimal process conditions: liquid velocity was 5 r/min, temperature was 45℃, the dosage of isomalt was 35% of dry solids, excipient was malt dextrin-white sugar powder (2:1).Conclusion This technique is reasonable and feasible.The product has low sugar content, good fluidity and process stability.

  17. Solarização do solo para o controle de Pythium e plantas daninhas em cultura de crisântemo Soil solarization for Pithium and weed control in chrysanthemum crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Bettiol

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available A solarização, durante dois meses, de um solo naturalmente infestado com Pythium, promoveu o controle do patógeno, de modo semelhante à aplicação de metalaxyl + mancozeb, na cultura de crisântemo. A incidência média de plantas mortas foi de 2,3% nas parcelas solarizadas; 1,0% no solo solarizado que recebeu metade da dose dos fungicidas; 9,0% com a aplicação da dose completa dos fungicidas (1 g de metalaxyl + 4,8 g de mancozeb/m² e 38,9%, na testemunha não tratada. A solarização também promoveu o controle de plantas daninhas, avaliado através do peso da matéria seca das plantas emergentes aos 21 dias após o transplante das mudas, semelhantemente ao herbicida oxidiazon.Two months solarization of a soil naturally infested with Pythium sp. promoted a level of control similar to what was obtained with the application of methalaxyl + mancozeb for the chrysanthemum crop. The average rate of dead plants was 9.0% with the application of fungicides (1 g of methalaxyl + 4.8 g of mancozeb/ m²; 2.3% in solarized plots; 1.0% in solarized plots which received half the dosages of the fungicides and 38.9% in control plots. Similar control of weeds was obtained in solarized plots and plots treated with the herbicide oxidiazon.

  18. HPLC Determination of logganin in Qi Chrysanthemum rehmanrha pill(concentrated pill)%HPLC法测定杞菊地黄丸(浓缩丸)中马钱苷的含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑风敏; 刘会艳

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To estabilish a method for the determination of of loganin in Qi Chrysanthemum rehmanrha pill (concentrated pill) Method:HPLC C18(4.6mm×250mm,5μm) ,column was used with methanol—acetonitrile—phosphate(0.1%)(5:9:86). The flow rate was 1.0mL/min. The detection wave length was 236nm. The column temperature was at 30℃, and the inject volume was 10μL. Results:The calibration curves showed good linearity in the range of 2μg~0.8416μg (loganin)(r=0.9998).The average recoveries were 99.0%,RSD were1.2%(n=6).Conclusion:This Method is simple, accurate, and could be adopted for the quality control of this durg .%目的:建立测定杞菊地黄丸(浓缩丸)中马钱苷的含量测定方法.方法:HPLC法;C18柱(4.6mm×250mm,5μm),流动相为甲醇-乙腈-0.1%磷酸溶液(5:9:86),流速为1.0mL/min;检测波长236nm;柱温30℃;进样量10μL. 结果:马钱苷的线性范围为2μg~0.8416μg,相关系数为0.9998;平均加样回收率为99.0%,RSD为1.2%(n=6). 结论:该法简单,准确度高,重复性好,可用于控制杞菊地黄丸(浓缩丸)的质量.

  19. Produtividade de crisântemo em função de níveis de irrigação Chrysanthemum yield as affected by various irrigation depths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana de L Rego

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available O crisântemo (Dendranthema grandiflora, Tzevelev. é uma das principais flores comercializadas no Brasil e no mundo. Apesar de sua importância, no Brasil o manejo da irrigação em crisântemo é caracterizado pelo empirismo, necessitando-se de maiores estudos quanto ao uso de água pela cultura. Este trabalho teve como objetivo estudar os efeitos de níveis de irrigação sobre o crisântemo cultivado em ambiente protegido. O experimento foi conduzido, de 06/08-27/10/03, na Fazenda Venezuela, no município de Guaramiranga-CE, em ambiente protegido de 9 x 30 m. O delineamento experimental foi blocos ao acaso, com quatro tratamentos (níveis de irrigação correspondentes a 50; 75; 100 e 125% da evaporação no tanque classe "A", ECA, e quatro repetições, totalizando dezesseis parcelas. O ciclo da cultura foi de 82 dias e as lâminas totais aplicadas foram: 192,2; 246,4; 300,9 e 355,4 mm para os tratamentos 50, 75, 100 e 125% da ECA, respectivamente. Não houve diferença significativa para número de hastes por pacote e de pacotes por m² e, tampouco, para produtividade (Tabela 1. Entre tratamentos, o número de hastes por pacote variou de 21 (75, 100 e 125% ECA a 22 (50% ECA, o número de pacotes por m², entre 3,63 (100% ECA e 4,28 (75% ECA e, a produtividade, entre 3,94 (125% ECA e 4,36 kg m-2 (75% ECA. À medida que se aumentou a lâmina d'água, diminuiu-se linearmente a eficiência do uso da água. A irrigação utilizando-se lâmina de água correspondente a 125% da ECA apresentou significativamente a menor eficiência no uso da água (0,0107 pacotes m-2 mm-1, enquanto os tratamentos em que a irrigação correspondeu a 50 e 75% da ECA foram os mais eficientes (0,0210 e 0,0174 pacotes m-2 mm-1, respectivamente.Chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflora, Tzevelev. is one of the most important flowers traded both in Brazil and in the world. In spite of that, chrysanthemum irrigation management in Brazil is characterized by empiricism

  20. 香石竹斑驳病毒外壳蛋白基因的原核表达及抗血清制备%Prokaryotic Expression and Antiserum Preparation of the Coat Protein Gene of Carnation mottle virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓鹏; 王连春; 彭杰军; 姬盼; 李准; 孔宝华; 陈海如

    2013-01-01

    香石竹斑驳病毒(Carnation mottle virus,CarMV)是侵染香石竹的主要病毒.本研究从已鉴定的CarMV毒源植物中提取总RNA,克隆外壳蛋白(cp)基因后构建pET30a-CP重组质粒,并转入BL21 (DE3) pLysS进行原核表达.通过对诱导温度、初菌浓度、IPTG的浓度等表达条件进行优化,目的蛋白在37℃,IPTG终浓度为1.0 mmol/L的条件下,诱导表达6h后获得最高表达量.采用割胶的方法纯化cp蛋白,纯化后的目的蛋白免疫小鼠获得了特异性抗血清.经Western-blot检测,结果表明所制备的抗血清与诱导表达的重组蛋白及接种CarMV的香石竹样品均发生特异性结合.利用所制备抗血清对昆明地区的48个香石竹样品进行抽检,结果表明香石竹样品的带毒率为79.2%.本研究为大规模抗血清生产、检测应用和深入研究该病毒cp基因与寄主的互作奠定基础.%Carnation mottle virus (CarMV) is one of the important viruses infecting carnation. In this study, RNA was extracted from CarMV infected carnation, and coat protein (cp) gene was cloned into pET30a ( + ) and transformed into BL21 (DE3) pLysS. The optimal conditionsor the highest expres-sion of coat protein was expressing at 37℃ for 6 h and inducing with 1. 0 mmol/L IPTG. The expressed protein was purified with gradient SDS-PAGE and the antiserum against the protein was raised in Kun-ming mice. The result of Western-blot analysis confirmed that the antiserum reacted strongly and spe-cifically recombinant CarMV cp and CarMV infected samples. Forty-eight carnation samples in Kun-ming were tested with the antibody made in this experiment, of which 79. 2% of the samples were in-fected by CarMV. This study provides a good basis for massive CarMV cp antiserum preparation CarMV detection and interaction studies between CarMV and host plants.

  1. 香石竹斑驳病毒(CarMV)主要基因的分子变异分析%Molecular variation analysis of main genes of Carnation mottle virus (CarMV)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    佟爱仔; 孔宝华; 陈海如; 王连春; 胡中会; 李晓鹏; 蔡红

    2012-01-01

    Carnation mottle virus (CarMV) is one of the important viruses infecting Carnation. In this study, three genes of p7, p9 and CP of CarMV were isolated from twelve different cultivars of Carnation by RT-PCR and their sequences of nucleotides and amino acids were analyzed. The results showed that the p7, p9 and CP genes had higher stability by sequence alignment. The identities of the nucleotide and the amino acid sequence of p7 gene were 98.10% and 97.81 % respectively. There were evident variations at the 11th and 14thof amino acid position of p7 gene. While the identities of the nucleotide and amino acid sequence of p9 gene were 98.80% and 99.13% respectively. There was clear variations at the 4 th amino acid position of p9 gene. How-ever, the identities of the nucleotide and amino acid sequence of CP gene were 97.58% and 98.43% respec-tively. There was correlative between the 164 th and 331th amino acid. Those variations of positions of CP were dispersive. The results also showed that the mutations of p7 and p9 were main located at N-terminal parts which exposed to interact with host. Those variations of positions of CarMV might relate to vial variation and interaction between the virus and host.%香石竹斑驳病毒(Carnation mottle virus,CarMV)是侵染香石竹的主要病毒之一.本试验从12个香石竹品种中获得CarMV分离物,通过RT-PCR扩增包含p7、p9、CP3个主要基因的片段,并对扩增产物进行克隆测序.通过序列比对发现CarMV的p7、p9、CP 3个基因有较高的稳定性,p7基因核苷酸序列相似性为98.10%,氨基酸序列相似性为97.81%,其中氨基酸的第11和14位存在显著差异;p9基因核苷酸序列的相似性为98.80%,氨基酸序列相似性为99.13%,氨基酸序列在第4位差异明显;CP基因核酸序列相似性为97.58%,氨基酸的相似性为98.43%,氨基酸序列的第164和331位的变异存在相关性,整个CP变异位点比较分散.证实p7和p9的变异位点

  2. Observation on compressive strength of veneers on mottled teeth after pulse Nd:YAG laser irradiation%氟斑牙经脉冲Nd:YAG激光照射后贴面抗压强度观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏永华; 张丹丹

    2008-01-01

    Objective To analyze experimentally the compressive strength of veneers on mottled teeth after Dul8e Nd:YAG laser irradiation.Methods Sixty motded teeth were extracted,including thirty maxdlary central incisors and thirty maxillary lateral incisors and each were divided equally into two groups randomly(experimental groups and control groups).The former were irradiated by pulse Nd:YAG lafer and then etched by 37%phosphorus acid.The latter only etched by 37%phosphorus acid.All the teeth were restored by composite resin veneers and tested with Instron 4505 electronic testing machine.The average collapse loads of the veneers of incisors were tested. The maximal compressive loads of the samples were obtained,then the experimental results were analyzed.Results The average collapse loads of central incisors of test groups and control groups were(0.342±0.053),(0.289±0.041) kN respectively,with a signiticant difference(t=3.16,P<0.05).The average collapse loads of lateral incisors of test groups and control groups were(0.321±0.041),(0.208 ±0.032)kN respectively.There was a significant difference when they were compared(t=7.66,P<0.05).Conclusions The compressive strength of the veneers incneases significandv when the mottled teeth are irradiated by pulse Nd:YAG laser.This method is worthy of recommending.%目的 观察氟斑牙经脉冲Nd:YAG激光照射后贴面的抗压强度变化.方法 取因各种原因而拔除的人上颌中切、侧切氟斑牙各30颗,每种切牙均分成试验组和对照组,每组15颗.试验组牙齿以脉冲Nd:YAG激光照射后.再以37%的磷酸酸蚀;而对照组牙齿只用37%的磷酸酸蚀,然后所有牙齿做树脂贴面,在Instron 4505电子万能试验机上进行压缩试验,测定切牙的试验组、对照组贴面的平均破坏载荷.结果 试验组和对照组中切牙贴面平均破坏载荷分别为(0.342 4-0.053)、(0.289±0.041)kN,试验组明显高于对照组,两组比较差异有统计学意义(t=3.16,P<0.05);试验

  3. Molecular genetic analysis of virus isolates from wild and cultivated plants demonstrates that East Africa is a hotspot for the evolution and diversification of sweet potato feathery mottle virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tugume, Arthur K; Cuéllar, Wilmer J; Mukasa, Settumba B; Valkonen, Jari P T

    2010-08-01

    Sweet potato feathery mottle virus (SPFMV, genus Potyvirus) is globally the most common pathogen of cultivated sweet potatoes (Ipomoea batatas; Convolvulaceae). Although more than 150 SPFMV isolates have been sequence-characterized from cultivated sweet potatos across the world, little is known about SPFMV isolates from wild hosts and the evolutionary forces shaping SPFMV population structures. In this study, 46 SPFMV isolates from 14 wild species of genera Ipomoea, Hewittia and Lepistemon (barcoded for the matK gene in this study) and 13 isolates from cultivated sweet potatoes were partially sequenced. Wild plants were infected with the EA, C or O strain, or co-infected with the EA and C strains of SPFMV. In East Africa, SPFMV populations in wild species and sweet potato were genetically undifferentiated, suggesting inter-host transmission of SPFMV. Globally, spatial diversification of the 178 isolates analysed was observed, strain EA being largely geographically restricted to East Africa. Recombination was frequently detected in the 6K2-VPg-NIaPro region of the EA strain, demonstrating a recombination 'hotspot'. Recombination between strains EA and C was rare, despite their frequent co-infections in wild plants, suggesting purifying selection against strain EA/C recombinants. Positive selection was predicted on 17 amino acids distributed over the entire coat protein in the globally distributed strain C, as compared to only four amino acids in the coat protein N-terminus of the EA strain. This selection implies a more recent introduction of the C strain and a higher adaptation of the EA strain to the local ecosystem. Thus, East Africa appears as a hotspot for evolution and diversification of SPFMV.

  4. Element geochemical characteristics of the reticulate red clay in southern China and its significance for the formation proccess of reticulated mottles%中国南方网纹红土元素地球化学特征及其对网纹化过程的指示意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐传奇; 廖富强; 贾玉连; 黄思源; 连丽聪; 凌超豪; 龙进

    2016-01-01

    中国南方网纹红土是在季风气候条件下形成的一种特殊地层,对重建南方第四纪气候环境具有特殊重要的意义,但长期以来对网纹化过程的物化特点缺乏足够的认识。对江西九江、彭泽与湖南岳阳3个剖面的黏土质网纹红土中白色网纹和红色基质分离后进行了地球化学元素、游离铁含量等测试,结果表明:(1)白色网纹中,发生了 Fe、Mn、Th、Ga、Cu、Zn、Co、Ni、Cr、V 等元素的显著亏损,SiO2、Zr、Hf及轻稀土元素的显著富集,游离铁含量较低;红色基质中则完全相反;(2)网纹中 Fe2+含量较高,基质中含量较低,揭示了网纹倾向于还原环境,基质倾向于氧化环境。研究认为网纹和基质这种氧化还原差异,是 Fe、Mn、Co、Ni、Cr、V、Zn、Th、Ga、Cu等元素在网纹中游离淋失,并在基质中的沉淀富集,造成 Zr、SiO2及轻稀土等在网纹中的相对富集、在基质中“稀释”而呈现亏损的主要原因。%Reticulate red clay in southern China is a kind of special stratum that formed in a monsoon climate condition,which is of great significance to reconstruct the Quaternary climate environment.For a long time,there is a lack of adequate understanding of physical and chemical characteristics of the forma-tion process of reticulated mottles.Three sections of reticulate red clay,which were located in the Jiujiang and Pengze of Jiangxi Province,and Yueyang of Hunan Province,were studied,and the red matrix and the white reticulated mottles were separated and the geochemical elements, free iron content and so on were analysed.The results show that: (1 ) In the white reticulated mottles,Fe,Mn,Th,Ga,Cu, Zn,Co,Ni,Cr,V elements are outstanding leaching,while Zr,SiO2,Hf and light rare earth ele-ments are obvious enriched,and the content of free iron are low;in the red matrix,they are reversed. (2) Fe2+content is higher in the white reticulate,while lower

  5. Study on the Technology of Preparing Microcapsules for Volatile Oil in Chrysanthemum by Complex Coacervation%复凝聚法制备滁菊挥发油微囊的工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王盈盈; 时维静; 孙洁; 李响; 刘峰; 王茜

    2015-01-01

    探索滁菊挥发油微囊的最佳制备工艺。采用复凝聚法制备滁菊挥发油微囊,以外观形态、粒径、包封率、载药量为指标,正交设计优选工艺条件。滁菊挥发油微囊的最佳制备工艺条件为:复合胶与挥发油的比例为1:1,温度为55℃,pH为4.0,固化剂量为1.5mL。制得的滁菊挥发油微囊形态呈圆形、光滑,粒径分布在80~120μm,平均包封率为(48.89±5.93)%,平均载药量为(13.11±2.30)%,TLC 法显示供试品溶液与对照品溶液在相同的位置出现相同斑点。该制备方法操作简单易行,处方合理,制得微囊外观圆整,载药量和包封率较高。%This paper is to study the preparation microcapsules of volatile oil from Chrysanthemum morifolium Ra-mat. The microcapsules were prepared by complex coacervation with formulation,diameter,amount of the drug and encapsulation efficiency as evaluation index and the preparation was optimized by orthogonal experimental design. The best technology is that compound plastic and the volatile oil of the ratio is 1:1,the temperature is 55℃,pH 4. 0 and formaldehyde in an amount of 1. 5 mL. the prepared microcapsules spherical with smooth surface,and the proportion with a diameter of 80-120μm,encapsulation efficiency was(48. 89 ± 5. 93)%,and the average drug loadings were(13. 11 ± 2. 30)%,TLC indication that the test solution and reference solution appeared at the same spot in the same location. The preparation process is simple and feasible,and the methods of evaluation are reliable. The microcapsules’appearance is round and normal. The drug loading and the encap-sulation efficiency are higher.

  6. Clinical effect of wild chrysanthemum,radix, sculellaria barbata ultrasonic atomizing for the treatment of chronic pharyngitis%应用野菊花、板蓝根、半枝莲超声雾化治疗慢性咽炎的用药效果探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石家贵

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨野菊花、板蓝根以及半枝莲超声雾化吸入治疗慢性咽炎的临床疗效。方法收集2012年1月~2014年1月收治的慢性咽炎患者120例,随机分为观察组与对照组,各60例。对照组予以庆大霉素和地塞米松超声雾化吸入,观察组予以野菊花、板蓝根以及半枝莲超声雾化吸入,比较两组的临床疗效。结果观察组的治疗总有效率为93.3%,显著高于对照组的81.7%(P<0.05);两组均未见明显不良反应。结论野菊花、板蓝根以及半枝莲超声雾化吸入治疗慢性咽炎疗效显著,无明显不良反应,是一种安全有效的用药方案,值得推广应用。%Objective To investigate the clinical efficacy of wild chrysanthemum,radix, sculellaria barbata ultrasonic atomizing for the treatment of chronic pharyngitis.Methods 120 patients with chronic pharyngitis in our hospital between January 2012 and January 2014 were collected and randomly divided into observation group and control group, 60 cases in each group. The control group received gentamicin and dexamethasone ultrasonic atomizing inhalation, the observation group received chrysanthemum,radix, sculellaria barbata ultrasonic atomizing inhalation, the clinical efficacy of the two groups were compared.Results The total effective rate of observation group was 93.3%, significantly higher than 81.7% in the control group(P<0.05); both groups showed no significant adverse reactions.Conclusion Wild chrysanthemum,radix, sculellaria barbata ultrasonic atomizing for the treatment of chronic pharyngitis has a significant effect, and has no significant adverse reactions, it is a safe and effective drug regimens, should be widely applied.

  7. 香菊胶囊配合中药超声雾化治疗变应性鼻炎疗效观察%Clinical Analysis of Treatment of Allergic Rhinitis by Traditional Chinese Medicine Ultrasonic Atomization Combined with Sweet Chrysanthemum Capsule

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓梅

    2015-01-01

    Objective To observe the sweet chrysanthemum with Chinese medicine capsule ultrasonic atomization ef ect for the treatment of al ergic rhinitis.Methods 240 cases of al ergic rhinitis were randomly divided into treatment group and control group,control group given conventional treatment,treatment group given sweet chrysanthemum with Chinese medicine capsule ultrasonic atomizer.Two weeks for a period of treatment,for three consecutive period of treatment,fol owed up for half a year,observe two groups of curative ef ect.Results Two groups of patients after treatment of sneezing,flow cleaning stuf ,stuf y nose,nasal itching integral and IgE decreased,IL-12 and TNF-gamma are increased,the treatment group was bet er than control group ( <0.05),the treatment group compared with control group the dif erence was statistical y significant.Conclusion Sweet chrysanthemum with Chinese medicine capsule ultrasonic atomization treatment al ergic rhinitis curative ef ect is clear, suitable for clinical promotion.%目的观察香菊胶囊配合中药超声雾化治疗变应性鼻炎的效果。方法变应性鼻炎240例,随机分为治疗组和对照组,对照组给予常规治疗,治疗组给予香菊胶囊配合中药超声雾化。2w为一个疗程,连续3个疗程,随访6个月,观察两组疗效。结果两组患者经治疗后喷嚏、流清涕、鼻塞、鼻痒积分和IgE均下降,IL-12和TNF-γ均增加,治疗组明显优于对照组(<0.05),治疗组与对照组比较差异有统计学意义。结论香菊胶囊配合中药超声雾化治疗变应性鼻炎疗效明确,适合临床推广。

  8. 利用酵母双杂交筛选与苹果褪绿叶斑病毒CP互作的寄主因子%Screening of the Host Factors Interacting with CP ofApple chlorotic leaf spot virusby Yeast Two-Hybrid System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何乙坤; 钟敏; 胡同乐; 王树桐; 段豪; 丁丽; 王亚南; 曹克强

    2014-01-01

    Objective] The objective of this study is to screen the host factors interacting with coat protein (CP) ofApple chlorotic leaf spot virus (ACLSV) by yeast two-hybrid system and analyze their function in the interaction between host and virus by the method of bioinformatics.[Method] Firstly, the bait vector of pGBKT7-CP was constructed and transformed into Y2H gold. The growth of the transformed yeast was assayed on the culture plate of SD/-Trp, SD/-Trp/-His and SD/-Trp/-Ade-X-α-Gal to make clear the self-activating effect of pGBKT7-CP. The plasmids of pGBKT7-CPand pGBKT7 were transformed intoY2H gold, the OD 600 of which was tested by ultraviolet spectrophotometer at different stages. The effect of pGBKT7-CP on the yeast was analyzed. Secondly, the interactive proteins of CP were screened from cDNA library ofMalus sylvestris cv. R12740-7A constructed early by yeast two-hybrid sequencing transformation. At last, the positive clones were selected from the culture plate of SD/-Ade/-His/-Leu/-Trp/X-α-Gal and sequenced. BLAST analysis was made for the host factors in the GenBank and the function in the interaction between host and virus was deduced based on gene annotation.[Result] The bait vector of pGBKT7-CP was constructed. The transformed yeast Y2H gold was able to grow on the plate of SD/-Trp, but not able to grow on the plate of SD/-Trp/-His and SD/-Trp/-Ade-X-α-Gal, which implied that the recombined plasmid had no ability to activate the reporter gene of His and Ade.The growth of pGBKT7-CPand the control was similar, which predicated that the recombined plasmid had no virulence to the yeast. Sixty-nine interactive factors were obtained, which were divided into 10 types of proteins based on their functions, including transcription factor activity, carbon fixation activity, cellular iron ion homeostasis, defense response, hydrolase activity, oxidase activity, oxidoreductase activity, photosystem II assembly and protein binding activity. Eight host genes (Malus3

  9. PHOSPHORUS ACCUMULATION IN CHRYSANTHEMUM (Dendranthema grandiflorum T., Var. SALMON REAGAN IN THE WINTER MARCHA DE ACÚMULO DE FÓSFORO EM CRISÂNTEMO (Dendranthema grandiflorum T., Var. SALMON REAGAN NO INVERNO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosângela Vera

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available

    The objective of this study was to evaluate P accumulation in cut chrysanthemum, var. Salmon Reagan, at different phenologic phases, in the winter. The experiment was carried out in greenhouse environment, in Goiás State, Brazil. The population density was 80 seedlings.m-2. The experimental design was completely randomized, with plots split in time,  and  four replications. The plant portion factor (stem, leaf, inflorescence and whole plant was applied to plots, and the development phases (45, 60, 75, 90, 105, and 120 days applied to sub-plots. The plant nutrition was 133 g.m-2 of thermophosphate Yoorin and 150 g.m-2 of fertilizer formula 5:25:15, which was added to the circulating nutritive solution of calcium nitrate (20 g.m-2, during all the evaluated period, alternated with potassium sulfate (30 g.m-2 and potassium nitrate (30 g.m-2, each fifteen days. It was concluded that P demand by chrysanthemum, during the growing cycle, ranges according to the plant age and the organ studied, having been more accentuated in the stems and between 90 and 120 days after sowing.

    KEY-WORDS: Plant; nutrient; fertilization.

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o acúmulo de fósforo nos diferentes estágios fenológicos da cultura de crisântemo, var. Salmon Reagan, no período de inverno. O experimento foi desenvolvido em condições de

  10. Study on the Pollen Viability and Stigma Receptivity of Chrysanthemum morifolium ‘Fubaiju’%福白菊花粉活力和柱头可授性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐雷; 刘常丽; 王慧弟; 陈科力

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To study the blooming habits,pollen viability and stigma receptivity of Chrysanthemum morifolium and provide theoretical basis for its breeding.Methods:Explored the blooming habits by dynamic observation on the process of blossom,evaluated the pollen viability by germination in vitro culture method and estimated stigma receptivity by benzidine-hydrogen peroxide method.Results: About the pollen viability,there were no significant differences between the flowers which in the same round of the capitulum; Tubular flowers in the center of a capitulum were significantly higher than that on the edge; In the morning pollen vitality gradually raised,during 11:00 ~ 14:00 maintained the highest,and then gradually decreased; Tubular flower began to loose powder on the third day,during 4th ~6th day the pollen viability was highest,respectively was 35.12% ,39.89% ,38.12% ,then gradually decreased,on the 15th day was only 7.41 % ,finally turned into wither.Regard to the stigma receptivity,the center of a capitulum were significantly higher than that on the edge,outer edge ligulate flower had no receptivity; Revealed the strongest during 13:00 ~ 14:00 in one day; During the 5th ~7th day was the strongest after flowering.The regulation of the stigma secreted mucus existed great consistency with the stigma receptivity,namely the stigma receptivity usually was strong when it secreted large number mucus.Conclusion:Understand the blossom habits of Chrysanthemun morifolium,as well as the dynamic changes regulation of pollen viability and stigma receptivity during its blossom,which could be used to select the flowers in a capitulum which are on the more suitable period and position for artificial pollination and hybridization breeding research.%目的:明确福白菊(Chrysanthemum morifolium‘ Fubaiju’)开花习性、花粉活力以及柱头可授性,以期为药用菊花良种选育提供理论依据.方法:对开花过程进行动态观察了解开花习性,采用

  11. 野菊花水提液对豚鼠离体回肠收缩的影响及抑菌作用观察%Effects of Flos chrysanthemum indicum on the bacterial pathogens and the muscular tension of the isolated ileum of guinea pigs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白银亮; 田新慧; 毕跃峰; 王盼; 张旗

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the antibacterial effects of water extract of Flos chrysanthemum indicum and its effects on muscular tension of the isolated ileum of guinea pigs. Methods: The isolated guinea pig ileum in the organ-bath was used to measure the contractive tension of smooth muscle before and after administration of drug. Double dilution method was used to observe the antibacterial effect of water extract of Flos chrysanthemum indicum. Results: Water extract of Flos chrysanthemum indicum inhibited dose-dependently the contraction of normal guinea pig ileum( F = 11. 088, P <0. 001 ) and that induced by acetyl choline and diphenhydramine( F = 13. 881 and 19. 305 ,P < 0. 001 ). It also had antibacterial effects on Escherichia coli ,Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus subtilis, and especially on Staphylococcus aureus with a lowest antibacterial dosage of 125 g/L. Conclusion: Water extract of Flos chrysanthemum indicum relaxes the smooth muscle of ileum of guinea pigs, and can effectively inhibit the growth of bacteria in vitro.%目的:观察野菊花水提液对豚鼠离体回肠收缩的影响及其抑菌作用.方法:将豚鼠离体回肠标本悬吊于麦氏浴槽中,测量并记录给药前后离体回肠张力,计算张力变化百分率.采用二倍体积连续稀释法考察野菊花水提液的抗菌效果.结果:野菊花水提液对豚鼠离体回肠收缩有明显的抑制作用(F=11.088,P<0.001),并剂量依赖性地抑制乙酰胆碱及组胺引起的豚鼠回肠收缩(F=13.881、19.305,P均<0.001).野菊花水提液对金黄色葡萄球菌、大肠杆菌、绿脓假单胞菌和枯草芽孢菌均具有相对较好的抑菌效果,其中对金黄色葡萄球菌的抑菌效果最好,最小抑菌质量浓度为125 g/L.结论:野菊花水提液对豚鼠离体回肠具有直接的舒张作用,能够拮抗乙酰胆碱及组胺引起的豚鼠回肠收缩,同时具有体外抑菌作用.

  12. 2株内生真菌对菊花抗旱特性的影响%Effect of PEG stress on plantlets of Chrysanthemum morifolium induced by endophytic Botrytis sp.(C1)and Chaetomium globosum(C4)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋文玲; 刘晓珍; 蔡信之; 孙迪; 戴传超

    2011-01-01

    The effect of the endophytic fungi Botrytis sp. ( C1 ) or Chaetomium globosum (C4) on the drought resistance of Chrysanthemum morifolium was studied. Ch. morifolium plantlets were inoculated with C1, C4 and cultured in the pots for 60 days, then the plantlets were stressed by 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40% PEG6000 respectively in order to simulate different drought conditions. Biomass, the activities of SOD, POD, PAL, the contents of MDA and soluble protein of each group were determined. The results showed that endophytic fungi groups grew better than the control ( without inoculation endophytic fungi). With the increasing of the concentration of PEG6000, the biomass of Ch. morifolium of each groups decreased, while the biomass of fungi groups was significantly higher than that of control, moreover C4 group higher than C1 group. With the concentration of PEG increasing, the content of MDA of each group increased too, while POD activity and soluble protein content of all treatments increased at first and then decreased. SOD activity and PAL activity of the control were increased with the increase of PEG concentration, but SOD activity of the two ftmgi groups were stable. After been stressed by different concentrations of PEG, MDA content of two fungi groups were always lower than the control, while SOD activity, POD activity, PAL activity and soluble protein content were higher. In conclusion, endophytic fungi can increase the drought resistance of Ch. morifolium.%目的:以PEG6000模拟干旱条件,研究接种内生真菌(葡萄孢属C1菌Botrytis sp.、球毛壳菌G4菌Chaetomium globosum对药用菊花Ch.morifolium抗旱性的影响.方法:分别用0%,10%,20%,30%,40%PEG6000胁迫菊花组培苗4 d,测定各处理组菊花生物量,叶片超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)、过氧化物酶(POD)、苯丙氨酸解氨酶(PAL)活性及叶片丙二醛(MDA)、可溶性蛋白含量.结果:模拟干旱胁迫后,接种内生真菌的菊花长势好于对照(未接菌),PEG6000

  13. 内生真菌对菊花幼苗干旱胁迫生理的影响%Effects of Two Kinds of Endophytic Fungi Infection on Water Stress of Seedlings of Chrysanthemum morifolium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓珍; 宋文玲; 张凯; 叶宇成; 戴传超

    2011-01-01

    The water stress was simulated to study the effect of the endophytic fungi Botrytis sp.(C1) or Chaetomium globosum (C4) on Chrysanthemum morifolium in the adverse circumstance.C.morifolium plantlets which were inoculated with C 1, C4 and cultured 60 days in the pots were stressed by 30% PEG6000 solution.SOD activity, POD activity, PAL activity, root activity, MDA content and soluble protein content were determined at 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15 days after treatments, and the biomass of C.morifolium were also determined at 15 days after treatment.The results showed that the biomass of C 1, C4 group and the control reached 4.1, 4.4 and 3.3 g respectively, and all treatments got significant deviation (P < 0.05 ).With PEG treatment, the root activity and PAL activity of the control were more sensitive at the first period of PEG stress, while fungi treatment groups were stabled, and stress reactions were delayed by fungi treatment.MDA content of the two fungi treatments reached the peak values with PEG stress for 3 days, while the control continues increased and got the peak at 6 days with PEG treatment.When at the later period of the stress, root activity, PAL activity, and MDA content of all treatments had no significant deviation.POD activity and soluble protein content of all treatments were increased firstly and decreased then, but all treatments had no siginificant deviation.Endophytic fungi can increase the drought resistance of C.morifolium in a short period of water stress.%比较了内生葡萄孢菌(C1)和球毛壳菌(C4)菌株诱导下的菊花苗和对照菊花苗,经30%PEG6000胁迫不同天数后,叶片超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)、过氧化物酶(POD)、苯丙氨酸解氨酶(PAL)活性,叶片丙二醛(MDA)、可溶性蛋白含量,根系活力,以及胁迫15 d后菊花的总生物量.结果表明:PEG胁迫15 d后,Cl、C4处理和对照的生物量分别为4.1、4.4和3.3 g,差异达到显著水平.对照根系活力、PAL活性在胁迫前期迅速变化,接

  14. Effect of two kinds of endophytic fungi on salt resistance of Chrysanthemum morifolium%两株内生真菌对菊花抗盐特性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓珍; 宋文玲; 蔡信之; 戴传超

    2011-01-01

    目的 用NaCl模拟盐胁迫,研究接种内生真菌对菊花抗盐特性的影响.方法 采用盆栽试验,以与内生真菌葡萄孢(C1菌株)、球毛壳菌(C4菌株)共生培养的菊花为材料,研究不同浓度盐胁迫对不同处理组菊花生理指标的影响.结果 各处理组菊花根叶的含水量随着盐分胁迫的加重而降低,接菌处理组的根叶含水量减失程度比对照组小.各处理组SOD酶活力、可溶性蛋白量均随NaCl浓度提高而增加,20 g/L NaCl时均达到最大值,接菌处理组SOD酶活力、可溶性蛋白量高于对照组,C4组高于C1组.POD酶活力均先升高后降低,15 g/LNaCl时各处理组POD酶活力达到最大值,C4、C1组POD酶活力分别比对照组高25.50%、1.35%.15 g/L NaCl处理时,C4组PAL活力约是对照组的7倍.结论 内生真菌增加了菊花的抗盐能力,C4组效果好于C1组.%Objective The NaCl stress conditions were simulated to study the effect of the endophytic fungi C1, C4 on antisalty characteristic of Chrysanthemum morifolium in the adverse circumstance.Methods Endophytic Botrytis sp.(C1) and Chaetomium globosum (C4) were inoculated to the C.morifolium plantlets which were planted in the pots in order to research the effects of salt stress on physiological indicators of C.morifolium.Results With the increase of NsCl concentration, the water content of root and leaf decreased in every group.The loss of root and leaf's water in fungi-treated group was smaller than that in the control group.SOD activities in every group increased with the increase of NaCl concentration, and achieved the peak value at 20 g/L NaCl.The SOD activity in fungi-treated group was higher than that in the control group.Soluble protein of fungi-treated group was higher than that in the control group, and C4 group surpassed C 1 group.POD activity increased firstly and then decreased, and compared to the control group, the POD activities in C4 and C1 groups increased by 25.50% and 1.35

  15. Storage of white chrysanthemum under room conditions using preservative solutions / Armazenamento de crisântemos brancos sob condição ambiente utilizando soluções conservantes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvanda de Melo Silva

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of preservative solutions on the maintenance of postharvest quality of white type chysanthemum flowers (Dendrathema grandiflora T.. Flowers were kept at room temperature (24 ± 2°C and 85 ± 2 % UR, under the following treatments: distilled water (control; sodium hypochloride solutions (80ppm and 800 ppm; sucrose solutions (10% and 15 % and hidroxyquinoline solutions (0.04% and 0.08 %. Flowers were stored under these treatments during 18 days, being the solutions changed each 4 days. The following evaluations were done: longevity (scores from 0 to 4, flower appearance (scores from 1 to 9. Sodium hipochloride solutions at 80ppm and 800 ppm reduced white chrysanthemum longevity as compared to control. The utilization the hidroxyquinoline solutions at 0.04% and 0.08 % had no effects on flower longevity or quality maintenance. The preservative solution utilizing 10 % of sucrose kept the postharvest quality during 17 days, providing flowers with lower percentage of dark spots, and lower index of petals and leaves damage.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de soluções conservantes na manutenção da qualidade pós-colheita de flores de crisântemo (Dendranthema grandiflora T. do tipo branco, variedade Calábria. As flores foram mantidas à temperatura ambiente, de 24 ± 2ºC e 85 ± 2% UR, nos seguintes tratamentos: água destilada (controle, solução de hipoclorito de sódio (80ppm e 800ppm, solução de sacarose (10% e 15% e solução de hidroxiquinolina (0.04% e 0.08%. As flores permaneceram dezoito dias no ambiente de armazenamento, sendo as soluções substituídas a cada quatro dias. Foram realizadas as seguintes avaliações: longevidade (notas de 0-4, aparência (notas de 1-9. As soluções de hipoclorito de sódio a 80ppm e 800ppm reduziram a longevidade de crisântemos brancos, comparadas ao controle. A utilização de soluções de hidroxiquinolina a 0.04% e 0.08% n

  16. Desenvolvimento de plantas de crisântemo cultivadas em vaso em resposta a níveis de condutividade elétrica Development of chrysanthemum plants cultivated in flower pot in response to electrical conductivity levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poliana R. D' Almeida Mota

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Na floricultura, a competição por mercados é intensa e o diferencial de produtividade consiste no manejo nutricional adequado, por promover grande impacto sobre a qualidade, a produtividade e a longevidade das inflorescências e da planta. O presente trabalho teve o objetivo de avaliar os efeitos de níveis de condutividade elétrica (CE no desenvolvimento de plantas de crisântemo (Dendranthema grandiflora Tzvelev. em vaso sob cultivo protegido. O experimento foi conduzido no município de Paranapanema - SP. Usou-se o delineamento experimental de blocos casualizados com quatro repetições e parcelas divididas. As parcelas foram constituídas pelas épocas de amostragem, e as subparcelas, pelos diferentes níveis de CE, determinados na solução aplicada via água de irrigação: 1,42; 1,65; 1,89; 2,13 e 2,36 dS m-1 (fase vegetativa; 1,71; 1,97; 2,28; 2,57 e 2,85 dS m-1 (fase de botão. Determinaram-se, semanalmente, a altura da planta e o diâmetro do buquê, e a cada 14 dias, a área foliar e a fitomassa seca da parte aérea da planta. O tratamento, correspondente à aplicação de solução com CE de 2,13 dS m-1 na fase vegetativa e 2,57 dS m-1 na fase de botão, proporcionou melhor aspecto visual das plantas, além de apresentar maior valor de fitomassa seca da parte aérea, maior área foliar e melhores formação e coloração.In floriculture market, the competition is intense and the productivity differential consists in an appropriated nutritional management which provides a large impact in quality, productivity and longevity of the flowers and plants. This present work aimed to evaluate the effects of electrical conductivity (EC levels in chrysanthemum plant (Dendranthema grandiflora Tzvelev. development. These plants were planted in pots and cultivated in a greenhouse. The experiment was carried out in Paranapanema city, São Paulo State. The experimental design was made in randomized blocks with four repetitions and split plots

  17. Qualidade de crisântemo (Dendranthema grandiflora Tzevelev. cv. Snowdon em diferentes populações e épocas de plantio Quality of chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflora Tzevelev. cv. Snowdon affected by plant density and plant date

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Nardi

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Para avaliar a qualidade das hastes florais, a cultivar de crisântemo Snowdon foi conduzida em estufa plástica em oito populações de plantas e duas épocas de plantio. O experimento bifatorial (2 x 8, com parcela subdividida, foi conduzido na Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (Santa Maria, RS e teve época como parcela principal, sendo a primeira época outono/inverno no período de 05/03/98 à 29/06/98 e a segunda época inverno/primavera no período de 22/07/98 à 11/11/98 e as populações de 40, 48, 56, 64, 72, 80, 88 e 104pl/m², na subparcela para as duas épocas de plantio. As plantas foram conduzidas em haste unifloral. Determinaram-se a altura da planta, o diâmetro da inflorescência e da haste e a massa da matéria fresca. Para obtenção de maiores rendimentos de hastes de classe A (comprimento da haste > ou = 90 cm, diâmetro da inflorescência > ou = 13,5cm, diâmetro da haste > ou = 0,73cm e massa da matéria fresca > ou = 113g a população indicada está entre 40 e 56plantas/m². Não há diferenças de rendimento qualitativo de classe A entre as épocas de plantio. Para obtenção de maiores rendimentos qualitativos, as populações de plantas não devem ser superiores a 72 plantas/m².To evaluate the quality of the flowers of chrysanthemums, were cultivated the cv. Snowdon in greenhouse in eight plant densities and two planting dates. The experimental design was factorial, (2 planting dates x 8 plants densities. The two planting dates were: 05 March 1998 (Fall/Winter growing season and 22 July 1998 (Winter/Spring growing season. Plant densities were: 48, 56, 64, 72, 80, 88 and 104plants/m². Plant height, diameter of the flower and stem, fresh weight were determinated. For obtaining of larger revenues of class stems A, the suitable plant density is between 40 and 56plants/m². There are not differences of qualitative revenue of class A (stem lenght > or = 90cm, flower diameter > or = 13,5cm, stem diameter > or = 0,73cm

  18. 菊花黄绿叶突变体的光合与类囊体膜光谱%Characteristics of Photosynthesis and Spectra Properties of Thylakoid Membranes in the Yellow-Green Leaf Mutant of Chrysanthemum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常青山; 张利霞; 陈煜; 陈素梅; 刘兆磊; 房伟民; 陈发棣

    2013-01-01

    In order to study photosynthetic mechanism of the yellow-green leaf mutant- 'Jinglingguozi ' of chrysanthemum, the characteristics of photosynthesis and the spectra properties of thylakoid membrane in the green and yellow leaf tissue of the mutant were studied. We measured the photosynthesis, stomatal characteristics, room temperature absorption spectra, chlorophyll emission fluorescence spectra of thylakoid membrane. The results that compared to the green leaf tissue of the mutant, the yellow leaf tissue had lower net photosynthetic rate ( Pn ) , light saturation point (LSP) , dark respiration rate (Rd) , apparent quantum yield (AQY) , but higher light compensation point (LCP). The yellow leaf tissue had lower stomata limit value ( Ls ) , but higher non-stomata limit value. There was no significant difference in the characteristics of stomatal microstructure between the green leaf and yellow leaf tissue. The absorption spectra and fluorescence spectra significantly decreased in the yellow leaf tissue. The yellow leaf tissue had significantly lower capacity of the capture and excitation of light energy and lower the photosynthetic capacity than the green leaf tissue did, which was caused by non-stomata factors, such as a decrease of the function of thylakoid membrane.%以菊花‘金陵国紫’黄绿叶突变体为试验材料,研究该突变体黄绿叶的绿叶与黄叶组织光合与类囊体膜光谱特性.对突变体黄绿叶中绿叶与黄叶组织的光合速率、光响应曲线、气孔特征与类囊体膜光谱特性进行测定与分析.结果表明:与绿叶组织相比,突变体黄叶组织的净光合速率、光饱和点、暗呼吸速率、表观量子效率均显著低于绿叶组织,而光补偿点则显著高于绿叶组织;黄叶组织的气孔限制值低于绿叶组织,非气孔限制值则显著高于绿叶组织,而黄叶与绿叶组织的气孔特征并无显著性差异.突变体黄叶组织类囊体膜叶绿素捕光能力与受激

  19. "Mancha-cafe" em soja: seleção para resistência e interação entre genótipos e épocas de inoculação Seedcoat mottling in soybeans: selection for resistance and interaction between genotypes and inoculation date

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luiz Lourençao

    1996-01-01

    infectadas no estádio vegetativo. Esses resultados fortalecem a diretriz utilizada no programa de melhoramento da Seção de Leguminosas do IAC: a de eliminar plantas e/ou linhagens com incidência de "mancha-café".The soybean mosaic virus (SMV is widespread in all soybean production areas. The mottled brown seed is the most characteristic symptom under our conditions, so in Brazil the disease was called "mancha-café" (coffee-spot. The mottling was the main limiting factor to the seed production in the certification system. The present paper had two objetives: screenning lines with different levels of mottled seeds, and to verify the interaction between selected genotypes and inoculation dates. During 1987, 131 F4:5 experimental lines from the cross IAC78-2318 x Santa Rosa, both susceptible to SMV, were evaluated under field conditions in Campinas (SP, Brazil. In the next year, seventeen selected lines plus the cultivars Santa Rosa, representing the five levels of mottling were planted again under field conditions in randomized complete-block design, with six replications. The results showed that the screenning realized in the field was efficient to identify the lines with different levels of mottled seeds. It was also observed that this characteristic was not much influenced by environmental effects as indicated by the positive and high correlation between diseases notes of both years, as well as the low value of the coefficient of variation. An additional study was carried out under greenhouse conditions to evaluate genotypes in distinct growth stages when mechanically inoculated with the virus. It consisted of a factorial experiment, involving a non-inoculated control, three inoculation times, and five lines representing notes from 1 to 5, plus the cultivars Santa Rosa, IAC-Santa Rosa PC and IAC-Santa Rosa DF. The genotypes were sowed in plastic bags and at the maturity, the following evaluations were made: the mottled seed rate, seed production (g/3 plants, mass (g of

  20. 香石竹斑驳病毒云南分离物全基因组序列测定和侵染性克隆构建%Sequence and construction of infectious cDNA clones of Carnation mottle virus isolate in Yunnan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王连春; 彭杰军; 郭维霞; 李晓鹏; 孔宝华; 陈海如

    2012-01-01

    香石竹斑驳病毒(Carnation mottle virus,CarMV)是危害香石竹的一种重要病毒,本研究通过构建农杆菌介导的CarMV侵染性克隆来进一步研究该病毒基因功能.首先获得CarMV云南分离物全长序列,与报道的上海分离物相似性达到94.78%;将CarMV全长cDNA基因序列构建到具有35S启动子的双元表达载体pCV-nGFP,通过农杆菌浸润到本氏烟中瞬时表达,本氏烟系统叶片RT-PCR能检测到CarMV.试验结果表明,本研究构建Car-MV侵染性克隆通过农杆菌介导可快速高效侵染植物,可以用于病毒基因功能研究;同时CarMV云南分离物全长序列测定结果表明其属于p164 K331组群.%Carnation mottle virus was a serious constraint to carnation. The objective of this study is to generate the Agrobacterium tumefacien-mediated infectious cDNA clones of Carnation mottle virus to study the gene function of the virus. Firstly, we got full cDNA sequences of CarMV from Yunnan Province, the nucleic acid similarity of which with Shanghai isolate was 94. 78%. The full-length cDNAs of CarMV were inserted into pCV-nGFP with a 35S promoter. They were then introduced into A. tumefacien, and infiltrated into Nicotiana benthami-ana . RT-PCR detection of systemic leaves of N. benthamiana showed that they were infected with CarMV. The result suggested that the Agrobacterium -mediated infection of N. benthamiana by the infectious cDNA clones of CarMV was successful and efficient, and it could be used to study the gene of virus. The full-length sequences of CarMV which isolated from Yunnan belonged to the group P164 K331.

  1. 昆明麝香石竹斑驳病毒分离物的鉴定与提纯及高效价抗血清的制备%Identification,purification and high efficiency antiserum preparation of carnation mottle virus in Kunming

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李婷婷; 方琦; 丁铭; 苏晓霞; 张丽珍; 张仲凯

    2008-01-01

    对引起云南鲜切花麝香石竹植株叶斑驳、花朵变小的病毒分离物应用酶联免疫吸附测定(ELISA)和电子显微镜技术(IEM)检测,直径大约28 nm.经TAS-ELISA测定仅与CsrMV标准抗体反应为阳性.鉴定为麝香石竹斑驳病毒(Carnation mottle vi-rus,CarMV)的分离株.对病株检测筛选后进行分离纯化,将提纯后的CarMV制备兔抗血清获得高效价的抗体,间接ELISA测定为1:10240.

  2. Agrobacterium-mediated gene transfer to Chrysanthemum.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wordragen, van M.F.

    1991-01-01

    Genetic manipulation of plants is a technique that enables us to add to the plant genome, in a precise and well controlled manner, one or a few new genes, coding for desirable traits. In contrast to this, the conventional method for the introduction of new properties in plants, by cross breeding, is

  3. Flavonoids and volatiles in Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-06-21

    Jun 21, 2010 ... chemical composition of C. morifolium Ramat flower has been reported. Revealing the ... play a vital role in healthcare systems of most traditional and modern medicines .... polymers and adhesives. There has been no study ...

  4. Temperature integration and DIF in cut chrysanthemum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korner, O.; Challa, H.

    2003-01-01

    To reduce energy consumption in greenhouses, temperature integration can be used. However, the temperature integration principle considers only average temperatures and does not comply with the DIF concept (difference between mean day temperature and mean night temperature). With DIF, stem elongatio

  5. Toxicity and Control Efficacy of Spirotetramat Mixed with Thiamethoxam on Bemisia tabaci and its Security to Ornamental Chrysanthemum Cultivar%螺虫乙酯与噻虫嗪混配对菊花烟粉虱的毒力、防效及安全性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹华娇

    2015-01-01

    The synergistic toxicity of spirotetramat mixed with thiamethoxam to Bemisia tabaci were measured by insecticide‐impregnated filter method ,and the results showed that the co‐toxicity coefficient (CTC) ranged from 122.97 to 167.43 ,showing the synergistic effect .Based on the result above ,40% mixtures of spirotetramat and thiamethoxam SC were made , and its toxicity and control efficacy on B . tabaci and its safety to ornamental chrysanthemum cultivars were studied .The results showed when the active ingredient was 90 g a .i . ·hm-2 ,which was the recommended dose ,double dose 180 g a .i . ·hm -2 ,and quadruple dose 360 g a .i . ·hm-2 ,respectively . The mixtures of spirotetramat and thiamethoxam had no significant impact on the growth of three ornamental chrysanthemum cultivars ,Calendula of f icinalis and Callistephus chinensis and Tagetes erecta .So the compound was safe to ornamental chrysanthemum cultivars . After spraying , the control effects of 40% mixtures of spirotetramat and thiamethoxam SC with under 60 -90 g a .i . ·hm -2 treatment could reach 75.60% -90.67% , which was higher than that of mixtures of 22.4% spirotetramate SC and 25% thiamethoxam WG treatments . Therefore the mixtures were proved to have available and persistent control effect against Bemisia tabaci .%采用滤纸药膜法测定了螺虫乙酯与噻虫嗪混配对菊花烟粉虱的联合毒力,测定共毒系数CTC为122.97~167.43,表现增效作用。据此确定最佳配比,配制成增效混剂40%SC,并研究了其对菊花烟粉虱的毒力和防效及其对观赏菊花安全性,结果表明在推荐有效成分剂量90ga.i.·hm-2、二倍量180ga.i.·hm-2及四倍量360ga.i.·hm-2下对金盏菊、翠菊、万寿菊等3种观赏菊花植株生长无明显异常影响,具有较好的安全性;田间药效良好,其用量60~90ga.i.·hm-2的效果达75.60%~90.67%,优于22.4%螺虫乙酯SC和25%噻虫嗪WG。该增效

  6. Effect of Inhaled Wild Chrysanthemum Injection by an Ultrasonic Atomizer in the Assisted Treatment of Bronchial Pneumonia in Children%超声雾化吸入野菊花注射液佐治婴幼儿支气管肺炎疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶滨

    2013-01-01

    目的:探讨超声雾化吸入野菊花注射液佐治婴幼儿支气管肺炎的临床疗效.方法:将137例婴幼儿支气管肺炎患儿随机分为治疗组69例和对照组68例,两组均给予常规综合治疗,治疗组在常规综合治疗基础上超声雾化吸入野菊花注射液,对照组在常规综合治疗基础上超声雾化吸入灭菌蒸馏水.治疗过程中观察患儿发热、咳嗽、喘息、气促及肺部干湿哆音消失情况,治疗前及治疗后第3天监测血常规和CRP水平.结果:治疗组患儿发热、咳嗽、喘息及肺部体征消失时间均早于对照组(P<0.05),平均住院时间少于对照组[(13.7±3.7)dvs(16.2±4.5)d,P<0.05],白细胞计数及CRP水平均较治疗前降低(P<0.05),且均低于对照组(P<0.05),总有效率高于对照组(89.9%vs 67.6%,P<0.05).结论:超声雾化吸入野菊花注射液佐治婴幼儿支气管肺炎具有明显疗效.%Objective:To explore the assisted treatment effect of inhaled wild chrysanthemum injection by an ultrasonic atomizer for children with bronchial pneumonia.Methods:A total of 137 infants with bronchial pneumonia were randomly divided into a treatment group (n =69) and a control group (n =68).Based on conventional treatment,all infants inhaled an ultrasonic nebulization as an adjuvant therapy,wild chrysanthemum injection for the treatment group and sterile distilled water for the control group.During the course of treatment,children's body temperature,cough,wheezing,shortness of breath and lung wet and dry tales were monitored.Simultaneously,blood analysis and serum CRP level were monitored before and after the third day of treatment.Results:The time to defervesce,the disappearing time of coughing,wheezing,and pulmonary signs and average hospitalization time in the treatment group were significantly shorter than those in the control group (13.7±3.7) d vs (16.2±4.5) (P<0.05).After treatment,the white blood cell count and CRP level of children in the

  7. CHITOSAN AND BENZOTHIAZOLE COMPOUND AGENTS PROMOTE BROWN SPOT DISEASE-RESISTANCE AND MASS GROWTH OF CUT Chrysanthemum morifolium 'Jinba'%壳聚糖与苯并噻唑复配剂对切花菊‘神马’生长与抗病性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李江文; 李俊香; 曾海鹏; 马男; 赵梁军

    2012-01-01

    以切花菊‘神马’为材料,喷施不同复配比例的诱抗剂(壳聚糖和苯并噻唑)和蔗糖、KH2PO4,观测各处理对菊花的生长量、相关防御酶活性及褐斑病抗性的影响。结果表明:与对照相比,分别用诱抗剂300mg.L-1壳聚糖或100mg.L-1苯并噻唑,与3%蔗糖、0.3%KH2PO4复配后喷施菊花植株,能显著增加‘神马’的株高与茎粗,提高叶片的POD、PPO与PAL酶活性,降低褐斑病病情指数,提高诱抗效果,且壳聚糖与苯并噻唑的作用效果相似,二者均可作为防治菊花褐斑病的药剂。%Two self-defense inducers of chitosan and benzothiazole with sucrose and KH2PO4 were applied to evaluate the effects of compound agents on the growth of cut Chrysanthemum morifolium 'Jinba',and mass growth,activities of related defensive enzymes and disease-resistance to brown spot were measured.Results showed that,when the compound agents of 300mg﹒L-1 chitosan or 100 mg﹒L-1 benzothiazole compounding with 3% of sucrose and 0.3% of KH2PO4 were sprayed on chrysanthemum,plant height,stem diameter,activities of POD,PPO and PAL in leaves,and effects of induced resistance were significantly promoted,and brown spot disease indexes were significantly reduced.The effects of chitosan were observed similar to that of benzothiazole.

  8. Avaliação de seletividade de produtos fitossanitários utilizados na cultura do crisântemo a adultos de Orius insidiosus (Say, 1832 (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae em laboratório Selectivity of pesticides used on chrysanthemum crop to adults of Orius insidiosus (Say, 1832 (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Augusto Morais

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar a seletividade de produtos fitossanitários utilizados na cultura do crisântemo a adultos de Orius insidiosus (Say. Os bioensaios foram conduzidos a 25±1oC, UR 70±10% e fotofase de 12h, em Lavras, MG. Os inseticidas avaliados foram abamectina (0,0009 g i.a./100 ml, cartap (0,06 g i.a./100 ml, ciromazina (0,011 g i.a./100 ml, fenpropatrina (0,009 g i.a./100 ml e imidaclopride (0,042 g i.a./100 ml. As pulverizações foram realizadas por meio de torre de Potter calibrada a 15 lb/pol2, com volume de 1,5±0,5 mg de calda/cm2, sobre casais de O. insidiosus. Avaliou-se a ação dos produtos sobre a mortalidade, oviposição, fertilidade e capacidade predatória dos adultos. Abamectina, fenpropatrina e imidaclopride foram altamente tóxicos aos adultos de O. insidiosus, e ciromazina e cartap apresentaram moderada toxicidade. Ciromazina e cartap apresentam possibilidades de serem recomendados em programas de manejo integrado de pragas na cultura do crisântemo.The goal of this research was to evaluate the selectivity of products used in the chrysanthemum crop to adults of Orius insidiosus (Say. The experiments were kept under controlled conditions at 25±1oC, RH 70±10% and L/D 12:12 h, in Lavras, MG, Brazil. The insecticides evaluated were abamectin (0.0009 g a.i./100 ml, cartap (0.06 g a.i./100 ml, cyromazine (0.011 g a.i./100 ml, fenpropathrin (0.009 g a.i./100 ml and imidacloprid (0.042 g a.i./100 ml. The sprays were done using Potter's tower calibrated to 15 lb/pol2, applying volume of 1.5±0.5 mg of solution/cm2. The applications were realized directly in the pairs of O. insidiosus. It was evaluated the action of the products on mortality, oviposition, fertility and the adult's predatory capacity. Abamectin, fenpropathrin and imidacloprid were highly harmful to the adults of O. insidiosus. Cyromazine and cartap were moderately toxic. Cyromazine and cartap presented possibilities of being recommended in integrated pest

  9. Manutenção da qualidade e aumento da longevidade floral de crisântemo cv. White polaris Keeping quality and prolonging the postharvest longevity of spray chrysanthemum cv. White polaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Julio Flórez-Roncancio

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available 0 objetivo do trabalho foi determinar o melhor tratamento pós-colheita para manutenção floral e aumento da longevidade de crisântemo de maço do tipo pompom (Dendranthema grandiflorum (Ramat. S. Kitamura cv. White Polaris. Estabeleceu-se como ponto de colheita o momento em que as hastes apresentavam três inflorescências apicais com as pétalas externas em ângulo de 45° em relação à horizontal. Durante o ensaio em laboratório, as hastes, colhidas em estufa de produção comercial, após totalmente imersas em água de torneira, à sombra, durante três horas, foram cortadas sob água na base do caule entre 50 e 60 cm. As hastes foram distribuídas nos diferentes tratamentos de "pulsing" durante 24 horas, com luz contínua de 1.500 lux, 60 a 90% de umidade relativa do ar e temperatura ambiente de 25 ± 2°C. No primeiro experimento, testou-se a eficiência de 8-hidroxiquinolina (8-HQ e tiabendazole (TBZ como germicidas de manutenção da qualidade na solução de "pulsing"; testaram-se, também, dois reguladores de crescimento, a saber: ácido giberélico (GA3, 6-benzilaminopurina (6-BA ou a mistura dos dois, com o objetivo de preservar a cor e a turgidez da folhagem. Os melhores resultados foram com 8-HQ (0,69 mol/m³ e GA3 (0,058 mo1/m³. No segundo experimento, avaliaram-se os seguintes inibidores de etileno: tiossulfato de prata (STS, nitrato de prata (AgNO3 e cloreto de cobalto (COC1(2. A melhor resposta foi obtida com AgNO3 (2,9 e 4,4 mo1/m³.Cut flowers of spray chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflorum (Ramat. S. Kitamura cv. White Polaris were harvested and treated in pulsing solutions. The flowers were harvested in commercial greenhouses and transported to the laboratory where the whole stem and inflorescence were immersed in tap water at darkness, during 3 hours. The flowers were selected for uniformity in terms of development; the stems were trimmed to equal length (50 to 60 cm and tagged to allow recording morphological

  10. Produção de crisântemo (Dendranthema grandiflora Tzvelev. ‘Snowdon’ em vaso II: ciclo da cultivar, comprimento, largura e área da folha Production of Chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflora Tzvelev. ‘Snowdon’ in pot II: cycle, leaf length, width and area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jucelma de Cássia C. Tolotti Mainardi

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar a resposta quanto ao ciclo e comprimento, largura e área da folha, ao redutor de crescimento Daminozide, pulverizado na cultivar de crisântemo (Dendranthema grandiflora Tzvelev. de corte Snowdon, conduzida em vaso. O estudo foi composto por dois ensaios com cinco repetições, no delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado bifatorial 4 x 2, sendo formado por quatro doses de Daminozide (0, 2000, 4000 e 6000 mg.L-1 e duas freqüências de aplicações (semanal e bissemanal. Os resultados mostraram que a cultivar Snowdon pode ser conduzida em vaso, porém, com aumento de ciclo e redução de até 28% na área da folha.The aim of this study was to investigate the response of cultivation cycle, length, width and area leaf, to the growth retardant Daminozide, sprayed on the Chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflora Tzvelev. ‘Snowdon’ cultivated in pot. The study consisted of two experiments with five repetitions. The experiments were bifactorial 4 x 2, with four concentrations of Daminozide (0, 2.000, 4.000 and 6.000 mg.L-1 and two frequencies of application (weekly and bi-weekly of product. Cultivation cycle, leaf length, width and area were determined. The ‘Snowdon’ was able to produce pots commercially acceptable, with increase in the cultivation cycle and decrease of the leaf size.

  11. 西瓜感染黄瓜绿斑驳花叶病毒后糖的变化与倒瓤关系的研究%The relation between sugar change and blood-flesh of watermelon infected with Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李立梅; 吴元华; 赵秀香; 王文航; 王林; 蔡明

    2011-01-01

    By high performance liquid chromatography ( HPLC), the contents of glucose, fructose and sucrose, and the sweetness were analyzed in watermelon inoculated with Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV). The relationship between sugar change and blood-flesh of watermelon was determined. The results indicated that the content of glucose was apparently increased compared to that of the control before maturity (within 28 days after pollination), but reduced to 24.8% of the control after maturity (at 35 days after pollination). The content of fructose was higher than that of the control within 14 days after pollination, and then decreased with a significant difference. In all cases, the content of sucrose increased with the growth of watermelon. However, compared with the control, the sucrose content of watermelon inoculated with CGMMV was lower. The ratios of glucose, fructose and sucrose in the total sugar were abnormal. Coincidence with the changes of the total sugar, the fruit sweetness before maturity was higher than that of the control, whereas decreased sharply after maturity ( lower than that of the control). The inner pulp of the mature fruit appeared to be water-soaked and dirty red with no edibility. In a word, after inoculation with CGMMV, the changes of sugars and sweetness affected the watermelon quality.%@@ 黄瓜绿斑驳花叶病毒(Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus,CGMMV)是葫芦科作物上的重要病毒,2006年12月被农业部列为全国检疫性有害生物,2007年5月又被列为中华人民共和国进境植物检疫性有害生物.西瓜感染该病毒后,果肉出现油渍状深色病变,种子周围形成暗紫红色空洞,变色组织软化溶解呈丝状纤维化,俗称血瓤或倒瓤,果味异样,丧失食用价值[1].

  12. 山东地区樱桃绿环斑驳病毒(CGRMV)的RT-PCR 检测及外壳蛋白基因的克隆%DETECTION OF CHERRY GREEN RING MOTTLE VIRUS (CGRMV) AND ISOLATION OF ITS COAT PROTEIN GENES FROM SWEET CHERRY IN SHANDONG PROVINCE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王文文; 宗晓娟; 陈立伟; 王甲威; 魏海蓉; 徐丽; 孟艳玲; 严雪瑞; 刘庆忠

    2012-01-01

    为调查我省甜樱桃感染樱桃绿环斑驳病毒(Cherry Green Ring Mottle Virus,CCRMV)情况,本研究以甜樱桃(Prunus avium L.)品种“红灯”叶片总RNA为模板,根据CGRMV基因组序列设计特异引物,对山东地区37份甜樱桃“红灯”样品进行RT - PCR检测,共检测出19份阳性样品.利用CGRMV外壳蛋白基因序列引物,从阳性植物样本中分离到约800bp的目的片段,克隆测序,序列分析显示该片段全长807 bp,编码268个氨基酸,与G enBank中已登录的CGRMV分离物的外壳蛋白基因序列一致性为87% ~97%,氨基酸序列相似性为95%~99%.该结果表明山东地区甜樱桃生产园中感染CGRMV的病例较为普遍.%In order to investigate the infection of Cherry Green Ring Mottle Virus (CGRMV) from sweet cherry ( Prunus avium L. ) in Shandong province, total RNA was extracted from the leaves of the sweet cherry cultivar Red Lamp' The specific primers were designed corresponding to the CGRMV genome sequence and used for the RT - PCR detection. Thirty - seven sweet cherry samples from six orchards were analyzed in the experiment and nineteen of them were detected as positive. The gene that encodes the virus coat protein was amplified and se-quenced. Sequence analysis revealed that the fragment was 807 nucleotides in length, encoding 268 amino acids. It shared 87% ~97% identity to the other CGRMV isolates reported in GenBank in the nucleotide level and 95% ~99% similarity in the amino acids level. These results showed CGRMV had been wide spread on sweet cherry in Shandong district.

  13. Detection of Strawberry mottle virus and Strawberry mild yellow edge virus with multiplex RT-PCR based on internal control%利用内标为基础的多重 RT-PCR 技术检测草莓斑驳病毒和草莓轻型黄边病毒

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王红; 王菁菁; 张科立; 成卓敏

    2014-01-01

    草莓斑驳病毒(SMoV)和草莓轻型黄边病毒(SMYEV)分布较广,危害较重。应用CTAB法提取草莓总RNA,以优质的草莓总RNA为模板,结合扩增内标的检测体系,建立了SMoV和SMYEV的多重RT-PCR检测体系,可以对草莓田间植株和试管苗进行快速稳定的病毒检测。%Strawberry mottle virus(SMoV) and Strawberry mild yellow edge virus(SMYEV), which are found world-wide, can cause serious crop losses .Total RNA for reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction ( RT-PCR) was extracted from strawberry with CTAB method .A multiplex RT-PCR assay was used for simultaneous detecting SMoV and SMYEV based on ndh B gene as the internal control .Both field plants and test-tube plantlets of strawberries were detected effectively .

  14. Elaboração e validação de escala diagramática para avaliação da severidade da ferrugem branca do crisântemo Elaboration and validation of diagrammatic key to evaluate white rust severity in Chrysanthemum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Angélica G. Barbosa

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available A ferrugem branca, causada pelo fungo Puccinia horiana, é considerada a principal doença do crisântemo no Brasil, induzindo severas perdas aos produtores. Apesar da importância, inexistem estudos epidemiológicos no país, e para que estes estudos sejam realizados, é necessário o desenvolvimento de métodos padronizados de quantificação da severidade da doença no campo. Visando atender a essa demanda, foi elaborada uma escala diagramática com os níveis de 1, 3, 6, 10, 18 e 30% de área foliar lesionada, testando-se a acurácia, a precisão e a reprodutibilidade das estimativas de severidade da ferrugem branca com e sem a sua utilização. Na validação da escala diagramática, 50 folhas com diferentes níveis de severidade da doença, mensurados previamente com o programa AutoCADâ, foram avaliadas por 10 pessoas sem e com a utilização da escala diagramática. Foram realizadas duas avaliações com a utilização da escala, com intervalo de sete dias, onde seqüências diferentes das mesmas folhas foram estimadas visualmente pelos mesmos avaliadores. A acurácia e a precisão de cada avaliador foi determinada por regressão linear simples, entre a severidade real e a estimada. Sem o auxílio da escala, todos os avaliadores superestimaram consistentemente a severidade, indicando a presença de desvios positivos constantes para todos os níveis de severidade da doença. As avaliações realizadas com a escala diagramática foram mais acuradas nas estimativas da maioria dos avaliadores e mais precisas para todos os avaliadores, além de proporcionar boa repetibilidade e elevada reprodutibilidade entre avaliações de diferentes avaliadores. A escala diagramática mostrou-se adequada para avaliação da severidade da ferrugem branca do crisântemo.White rust, caused by Puccinia horiana, is considered the major disease of Chrysanthemum in Brazil, which results in severe losses for the growers. Despite of its economic importance, very

  15. QUALIDADE DE CRISÂNTEMOS (Dendranthema grandiflora TZVELEV PRODUZIDOS EM DIFERENTES REGIÕES DO ESTADO DE SÃO PAULO: GRUPO POLARIS QUALITY OF CHRYSANTHEMUM (Dendranthema grandiflora TZVELEV CULTIVATED IN DIFFERENT REGIONS OF THE SÃO PAULO STATE: POLARIS GROUP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosiris Bergemann de Aguiar Silveira

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Escolheu-se o crisântemo, por ser a principal flor de corte comercializada no Estado de São Paulo, para iniciar um processo de melhoria de qualidade com conseqüente padronização para a floricultura brasileira, tanto para a produção de consumo interno quanto para aquela destinada à exportação. Através da avaliação da qualidade de inflorescências de crisântemos do grupo Polaris produzidos em diferentes regiões, e comparação com os padrões existentes, pretendeu-se chegar a um padrão nacional para crisântemos de corte. Os parâmetros analisados foram: comprimento de haste; peso da matéria fresca da haste floral; número de inflorescências abertas e por abrir; localização e número de ramificações; rigidez de haste; defeitos de formação; presença de resíduos químicos e incidência de pragas e moléstias. Os dados obtidos permitiram concluir que comprimento, peso da matéria fresca e rigidez de haste foram os parâmetros que mais se aproximaram dos padrões existentes; número de inflorescências, localização e número de ramificações e presença de hastes tortas indicaram a necessidade de maiores cuidados nas operações de desbotoamento e elevação da rede de sustentação; presença de resíduos químicos e de pragas e moléstias mostraram os piores resultados, requerendo estudos visando a adequada aplicação de defensivos agrícolas para o efetivo controle das pragas e moléstias, não deixando resíduos químicos . Com esses resultados, verificou-se não ser possível elaborar, de imediato, um padrão nacional para crisântemos de corte.Chrysanthemum is the major cut flower commercialized in the São Paulo State, Brazil. This study aimed for the standardization of chrysantemum flowers in order to set new parameters of quality for trading, in both domestic and international markets. Chrysanthemum inflorescences from three regions were evaluated for four seasons, and compared to current standards. The evaluated

  16. Effect of Sound Stimulation on the Lipid Physical States and Metabolism of Plasma Membrane from Chrysanthemum Callus%声波刺激对菊花愈伤组织膜脂物理状态和膜脂代谢的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵虎成; 王伯初; 蔡绍皙; 席葆树

    2002-01-01

    以蔗糖梯度法纯化的菊花(Dendranthema morifolium (Ramat.) Tzvel.)愈伤组织质膜微囊为材料,研究了声波刺激下质膜膜脂代谢和物理状态的变化.结果表明, 一定强度(100 dB)和频率(1 000 Hz)的声波刺激使质膜磷酸二脂含量和二苯己三烯(DPH)荧光偏振值降低,质膜光散射值、MC540荧光强度和磷酸单脂含量增加.表明一定强度和频率的声波刺激使质膜变疏松,膜的流动性增加,膜表面电荷密度和疏水性降低,膜脂合成代谢增加,分解代谢减弱.由此可见,膜脂物理状态和膜脂代谢对声波刺激极为敏感.%Plasma membrane vesicles of chrysanthemum (Dendranthema morifolium (Ramat.) Tzvel.) callus was purified by sucrose gradient centrifugation to investigate the influence of sound stimulation on the lipid physical states and metabolism of plasma membrane. The results showed that sound stimulation decreased the content of phosphodiesters and the fluorescent intensity of DPH, but increased the light scattering value of the membrane, the fluorescent intensity of MC540 and the content of phosphomonoesters, indicating that the vesicles got looser, the charge density and hydrophobicity of membrane surface decreased under sound stimulation of some strength and frequency. However, the membrane fluidity increased under the condition. Meanwhile, the anabolism of membrane lipid increased and the catabolism decreased. It can be seen that the physical state and metabolism of membrane lipid is sensitive to sound stimulation.

  17. Effects of spermidine on the contents of endogenous polyamines during floral induction period and flowering of autumn chrysanthemum 'Jinba'%亚精胺对秋菊'神马'成花诱导期间内源多胺和开花的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨丽; 杨际双

    2009-01-01

    为筛选出促进切花菊'神马'(Chrysanthemum morifolium 'Jinba')开花的最佳亚精胺(Spermidine,Spd)溶液浓度,采用整株喷施的方法,研究了不同浓度(0~1.0 mmol/L)的Spd对成花诱导期间顶芽和叶片多胺(Polyamines,PAs)和开花的影响.结果表明:0.1 mmol/L处理提高了成花诱导前期和中期顶芽内Spd的含量,提高了中期时顶芽内精胺(Spermine,Spm)的含量,降低了前期叶片内Spd的含量.1.0 mmol/L处理区成花诱导中期顶芽内Spd含量显著低于对照,但是在后期顶芽和叶片内腐胺(Putrescine,Put)含量都突然升高;0.01 mmol/L处理变化与对照相差不大.虽然0.1 mmol/L和1.0 mmol/L处理均增加菊花的舌状花数,但前者可以提前2 d开花,延长盛花期天数,而后者则延迟2 d开花,并缩短盛花期天数3 d.结果显示,Spd与小花原基分化有密切关系,0.1 mmol/L Spd促进菊花开花,1.0 mmol/L Spd则抑制开花.

  18. Viabilidade técnico-econômica do uso de diferentes tecnologias de iluminação para indução de fotoperíodo na produção de mudas de crisântemo Technical and economical viability of distinct illumination technologies applied to photoperiod induction in chrysanthemum production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz A. Rossi

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Em função de suas características fisiológicas, as mudas de crisântemo necessitam de luz suplementar para evitar formação de botão floral. Isto é feito no período noturno. O presente trabalho visou a analisar a viabilidade técnico-econômica de substituir-se a atual tecnologia de iluminação artificial utilizada pelos produtores (lâmpadas incandescentes para efeito de indução de fotoperíodo em ambiente protegido, pela tecnologia de lâmpadas de descarga, com o objetivo de reduzir o consumo de energia elétrica utilizada no processo. As lâmpadas de descarga possuem maior vida útil e apresentam menor consumo de energia quando comparadas às lâmpadas incandescentes. Os resultados das análises permitem concluir que a lâmpada fluorescente compacta integrada amarela, de 23 W, é a que apresenta viabilidade técnica e econômica para tal substituição.Physiological characteristics of chrysanthemum nurseries require extra light supply to prevent buds production. That extra illumination is carried during night period. This research aimed to analyze the technical and economical viability associated to the substitution of conventional incandescent lamps used by the producers to discharge lamps to induce photoperiod, aiming electricity cost reduction in protected environment. Discharge lamps are more efficient, exhibit lower consumption and longer life when compared to the incandescent ones. The results of the analysis allow concluding that the yellow fluorescent compact integrated 23 W lamp turned to be technical and economically viable for the proposed substitution.

  19. Scientific Opinion on the assessment of the risk of solanaceous pospiviroids for the EU territory and the identification and evaluation of risk management options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, R.; Candresse, T.; Dormannsné Simon, E.

    2011-01-01

    (PSTVd). The risk assessment included PSTVd, Citrus exocortis viroid, Columnea latent viroid, Mexican papita viroid, Tomato apical stunt viroid, Tomato chlorotic dwarf viroid, Tomato planta macho viroid, Chrysanthemum stunt viroid and Pepper chat fruit viroid. Four entry pathways were identified, three...... involving plant propagation material, with moderate probability of entry, and one involving plant products for human consumption, with low probability of entry. The probability of establishment was considered very high. Spread was considered likely within a crop and moderately likely between crop species...

  20. Produção de crisântemo (Dendranthema grandiflora Tzvelev. 'Snowdon' em vaso I: doses e freqüências de aplicação de daminozide Production of chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflora Tzvelev., cv. 'Snowdon', in pots I: daminozide's concentrations and times of application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jucelma de Cássia Câmara Tolotti

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a resposta de crisântemo através da análise de parâmetros fenométricos, ao redutor de crescimento Daminozide, pulverizado na cultivar de crisântemo de corte "Snowdon", cultivada em vaso. O estudo foi formado por dois ensaios com cinco repetições, usando delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado em esquema fatorial 4 x 2, sendo formado por quatro doses de Daminozide (0, 2.000, 4.000 e 6.000 mg.L-1 e duas freqüências de aplicações (semanal e bissemanal. Os resultados evidenciaram que as diferentes doses e freqüências de aplicações reduziram a altura da planta, o número de nós, o comprimento de entrenós, o diâmetro da inflorescência e o comprimento do pedúnculo floral. Entretanto, constatou-se aumento dos diâmetros da haste e do pedúnculo floral. Na dose 4.000 mg.L-1 aplicada semanalmente, produziram-se os vasos de melhor qualidade, com altura da planta nos padrões recomendados para comercialização.The aim of this study was to investigate the response of potted chrysanthemum cv. Snowdon, to the growth retardant Daminozide, in terms of fenometric parameters. The study consisted of two experiments with five repetitions. The experiments were bifactorial 4 x 2, with four concentrations of Daminozide (0, 2,000, 4,000 and 6,000 mg.L-1 and two times of application (weekly and bi-weekly of the product. Plant height, number of nodes, length of internodes, diameter of stems and inflorescences, length and diameter of floral peduncle were determinated. All concentrations and times of applications were able to reduce plant height, length of internodes, flower diameter and floral peduncle length. However, the diameter of the stem and floral peduncle were increased. The weekly application of 4,000 mg.L-1 Daminozide produced plants with the best quality within the commercial standards.