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Sample records for chrysanthemi pectin methylesterase

  1. Regulation and role in pathogenicity of Erwinia chrysanthemi 3937 pectin methylesterase.

    OpenAIRE

    Boccara, M; Chatain, V

    1989-01-01

    The gene pem, encoding the pectin methylesterase (PME) of Erwinia chrysanthemi 3937, was cloned and mutagenized by mini-Mu transposable elements. A second gene, pecY, which could act as a negative regulator of PME was found 5' to the pem gene. A PME-E. chrysanthemi derivative inoculate onto Saintpaulia plants was shown to be clearly noninvasive, demonstrating the important role of this enzyme in soft rot disease.

  2. Regulation and role in pathogenicity of Erwinia chrysanthemi 3937 pectin methylesterase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boccara, M; Chatain, V

    1989-07-01

    The gene pem, encoding the pectin methylesterase (PME) of Erwinia chrysanthemi 3937, was cloned and mutagenized by mini-Mu transposable elements. A second gene, pecY, which could act as a negative regulator of PME was found 5' to the pem gene. A PME-E. chrysanthemi derivative inoculate onto Saintpaulia plants was shown to be clearly noninvasive, demonstrating the important role of this enzyme in soft rot disease. PMID:2738029

  3. Thermal Stabilization of Erwinia chrysanthemi Pectin Methylesterase A for Application in a Sugar Beet Pulp Biorefinery▿

    OpenAIRE

    Chakiath, Chacko; Lyons, Margaret J.; Kozak, Robert E.; Laufer, Craig S.

    2009-01-01

    Directed evolution approaches were used to construct a thermally stabilized variant of Erwinia chrysanthemi pectin methylesterase A. The final evolved enzyme has four amino acid substitutions that together confer a Tm value that is approximately 11°C greater than that of the wild-type enzyme, while maintaining near-wild-type kinetic properties. The specific activity, with saturating substrate, of the thermally stabilized enzyme is greater than that of the wild-type enzyme when both are operat...

  4. High-throughput screening of Erwinia chrysanthemi pectin methylesterase variants using carbohydrate microarrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Øbro, Jens; Sørensen, Iben; Derkx, Patrick;

    2009-01-01

    pectin substrate and, after digestion the enzyme/substrate mixtures were printed as microanrays. The loss of activity that resulted from certain mutations was detected by probing arrays with a mAb (JIM7) that preferentially binds to HG with a relatively high DE. Active PMEs therefore resulted in......Pectin methylesterases (PMEs) catalyse the removal of methyl esters from the homogalacturonan (HG) backbone domain of pectin, a ubiquitous polysaccharide in plant cell walls. The degree of methyl esterification (DE) impacts upon the functional properties of HG within cell walls and plants produce...... numerous PMEs that act upon HG in muro. Many microbial plant pathogens also produce PMEs, the activity of which renders HG more susceptible to cleavage by pectin lyase and polygalacturonase enzymes and hence aids cell wall degradation. We have developed a novel microarray-based approach to investigate the...

  5. Structure of a pectin methylesterase from Yersinia enterocolitica

    OpenAIRE

    Boraston, Alisdair B.; Abbott, D. Wade

    2012-01-01

    The first crystal structure of a pectin methylesterase from an enteropathogen is presented. This enzyme from Y. enterocolitica has biological significance for the evolution of pectin-metabolic pathways within pectinolytic bacteria and related agents of foodborne illness.

  6. Thermally tolerant pectin methylesterase, juice cloud loss and greening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Multiple forms of pectin methylesterase (PME) have been isolated and characterized from citrus fruit tissue. PME is the causative agent responsible for destabilization of citrus juice cloud, a serious product quality defect. This report will present an up to date state of our knowledge regarding the...

  7. STRUCTURAL CHARACTERIZATION OF PECTIN FOLLOWING DEMETHYLATION WITH A SALT-INDEPENDENT PECTIN METHYLESTERASE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Multiple forms of pectin methylesterase (PME) purified from citrus have been shown to have a differential affect on citrus juice cloud leading to the hypothesis that they have different modes of action on pectin. PME hydrolyzes methyl esters on C6 of galacturonic acid residues in the homogalacturon...

  8. PECTOPLATE: the simultaneous phenotyping of pectin methylesterases, pectinases, and oligogalacturonides in plants during biotic stresses

    OpenAIRE

    Lionetti, Vincenzo

    2015-01-01

    Degradation of pectin, a major component of plant cell wall, is important for fungal necrotrophs to achieve a successful infection. The activities of pectin methylesterases (PMEs) from both plants and pathogens and the degree and pattern of pectin methylesterification are critical for the outcome of plant–pathogen interaction. Partial degradation of pectin by pectin degrading enzymes releases oligogalacturonides (OGs), elicitors of plant defense responses. Few analytical techniques are availa...

  9. Purification of pectin methylesterase from Lycopersicon esculentum and its application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kant, Shashi; Gupta, Reena

    2012-11-01

    Pectin methylesterase (PME) (3.1.1.11) is the pectin degrading enzyme which catalyses the hydrolysis of pectin methylester group, resulting in de-esterification. PME is widely distributed in plants, fungi, yeast and bacteria. In the present study, PME was extracted from tomato by using 8.8% NaCl (4°C). The crude enzyme precipitated with 60% ammonium sulphate resulted in 1.02 fold purification of the enzyme. The purification was done by ion exchange chromatography using DEAE-Cellulose column. This resulted in 1.82 fold purification of the enzyme. The molecular weight of purified enzyme was determined by SDS-PAGE which was found to be 34.0 kDa. During characterization of the purified enzyme, the maximum activity was found at temperature 50°C, pH 6.5, reaction time 45 min. Citrus pectin was the best substrate for maximum enzyme activity. The enzyme did not require any metal ion to express its activity, enzyme was found to be very stable at 4°C and at 50°C the enzyme was stable upto 2 h as it retained 70% of its activity. The K(m) and V(max) values of the enzyme were found to be 0.115 mg/ml and 1.03 μmol/ml/min. PME enhanced the pectin degradation process in apple juice clarification in combination with polygalacturonase and increased %T(650) from 1.7% to 5.6%. PMID:22512653

  10. Thermal inactivation kinetics of partially purified mango pectin methylesterase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Alonso DÍAZ-CRUZ

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Kinetic parameters of thermal inactivation of pectin methylesterase (PME in a partially purified mango enzyme extract were determined. The PME of mango partially purified by salting out showed different patterns of thermal inactivation, indicating the presence of a thermostable fraction at 70 °C and a thermolabile fraction at lower temperatures. The inactivation of the thermostable fraction exhibited a linear behavior that yielded a z-value of 9.44 °C and an activation energy (Ea of 245.6 kJ mol-1 K-1 using the Arrhenius model. The thermostable mango PME fraction represented 17% of total crude enzyme extract, which emphasizes the importance of residual enzyme activity after heat treatment.

  11. Ralstonia solanacearum Pectin Methylesterase Is Required for Growth on Methylated Pectin but Not for Bacterial Wilt Virulence

    OpenAIRE

    Tans-Kersten, Julie; Guan, Yanfen; Allen, Caitilyn

    1998-01-01

    Ralstonia (Pseudomonas) solanacearum causes bacterial wilt, a serious disease of many crop plants. The pathogen produces several extracellular plant cell wall-degrading enzymes, including polygalacturonases (PGs) and pectin methylesterase (Pme). Pme removes methyl groups from pectin, thereby facilitating subsequent breakdown of this cell wall component by PGs, which are known bacterial wilt virulence factors. R. solanacearum PGs could not degrade 93% methylated pectin unless the substrate was...

  12. A pectin-methylesterase-inhibitor-based molecular probe for in situ detection of plant pectin methylesterase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolie, Ruben P; Duvetter, Thomas; Vandevenne, Evelien; Van Buggenhout, Sandy; Van Loey, Ann M; Hendrickx, Marc E

    2010-05-12

    In the quest of obtaining a molecular probe for in situ detection of pectin methylesterase (PME), the PME inhibitor (PMEI) was biotinylated and the biotinylated PMEI (bPMEI) was extensively characterized. Reaction conditions for single labeling of the purified PMEI with retention of its inhibitory capacity were identified. High-performance size-exclusion chromatography (HPSEC) analysis revealed that the bPMEI retained its ability to form a complex with plant PME and that it gained the capacity to strongly bind an avidin species. By means of dot-blot binding assays, the ability of the probe to recognize native and high-temperature or high-pressure denatured plant PMEs, coated on an absorptive surface, was investigated and compared to the binding characteristics of recently reported anti-PME monoclonal antibodies. Contrary to the antibodies, bPMEI only detected active PME molecules. Subsequently, both types of probes were used for PME localization in tissue-printing experiments. bPMEI proved its versatility by staining prints of carrot root, broccoli stem, and tomato fruit. Applying the tissue-printing technique on carrot roots after thermal treatment demonstrated the complementarity of bPMEI and anti-PME antibodies, with the former selectively detecting the remaining active PME and the latter staining both native and inactivated PME molecules. PMID:20380375

  13. Optimization of ohmic heating applications for pectin methylesterase inactivation in orange juice

    OpenAIRE

    Demirdöven, Aslıhan; Baysal, Taner

    2012-01-01

    Ohmic heating (OH) which is among to electro-thermal methods and helps to inactivate microorganisms and enzymes was used in this study as thermal treatment on orange juice production for pectin methylesterase (PME) inactivation. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used for optimization of OH conditions. The effects of voltage gradient and temperature (independent variables) were investigated on PME activity (response) of orange juice. After optimization orange juice was produced and compar...

  14. Involvement of Fungal Pectin Methylesterase Activity in the Interaction Between Fusarium graminearum and Wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sella, Luca; Castiglioni, Carla; Paccanaro, Maria Chiara; Janni, Michela; Schäfer, Wilhelm; D'Ovidio, Renato; Favaron, Francesco

    2016-04-01

    The genome of Fusarium graminearum, the causal agent of Fusarium head blight of wheat, contains two putative pectin methylesterase (PME)-encoding genes. However, when grown in liquid culture containing pectin, F. graminearum produces only a single PME, which was purified and identified. Its encoding gene, expressed during wheat spike infection, was disrupted by targeted homologous recombination. Two Δpme mutant strains lacked PME activity but were still able to grow on highly methyl-esterified pectin even though their polygalacturonase (PG) activity showed a reduced capacity to depolymerize this substrate. The enzymatic assays performed with purified F. graminearum PG and PME demonstrated an increase in PG activity in the presence of PME on highly methyl-esterified pectin. The virulence of the mutant strains was tested on Triticum aestivum and Triticum durum spikes, and a significant reduction in the percentage of symptomatic spikelets was observed between 7 and 12 days postinfection compared with wild type, demonstrating that the F. graminearum PME contributes to fungal virulence on wheat by promoting spike colonization in the initial and middle stages of infection. In contrast, transgenic wheat plants with increased levels of pectin methyl esterification did not show any increase in resistance to the Δpme mutant, indicating that the infectivity of the fungus relies only to a certain degree on pectin degradation. PMID:26713352

  15. Substrate specificity of plant and fungi pectin methylesterases: Identification of novel inhibitors of PMEs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    L'Enfant, Mélanie; Domon, Jean-Marc; Rayon, Catherine; Desnos, Thierry; Ralet, Marie-Christine; Bonnin, Estelle; Pelloux, Jérôme; Pau-Roblot, Corinne

    2015-11-01

    Pectin methylesterases (PMEs) play a central role in pectin remodeling during plant development. They are also present in phytopathogens such as bacteria and fungi. We investigated the substrate specificity and pH dependence of plant and fungi PMEs using tailor-made pectic substrates. For this purpose, we used two plant PMEs (from orange peel: Citrus sinensis and from Arabidopsis thaliana) and one fungal PME (from Botrytis cinerea). We showed that plant and fungi PMEs differed in their substrate specificity and pH dependence, and that there were some differences between plant PMEs. We further investigated the inhibition of these enzyme activities using characterized polyphenols such as catechins and tannic acid. We showed that PMEs differed in their sensitivity to chemical compounds. In particular, fungal PME was not sensitive to inhibition. Finally, we screened for novel chemical inhibitors of PMEs using a chemical library of ∼3600 compounds. We identified a hundred new inhibitors of plant PMEs, but none had an effect on the fungal enzyme. This study sheds new light on the specificity of pectin methylesterases and provides new tools to modulate their activity. PMID:26342461

  16. Identification of a bacterial pectin acetyl esterase in Erwinia chrysanthemi 3937.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevchik, V E; Hugouvieux-Cotte-Pattat, N

    1997-06-01

    Erwinia chrysanthemi causes soft-rot diseases of various plants by enzymatic degradation of the pectin in plant cell walls. The structural complexity of pectin requires the combined action of several pectinases for its efficient breakdown. Three types of pectinases have so far been identified in E. chrysanthemi: two pectin methyl esterases (PemA, PemB), a polygalacturonase (PehX), and eight pectate lyases (PelA, PelB, PelC, PelD, PelE, PelL, PelZ, PelX). We report in this paper the analysis of a novel enzyme, the pectin acetyl esterase encoded by the paeY gene. No bacterial form of pectin acetyl esterases has been described previously, while plant tissues and some pectinolytic fungi were found to produce similar enzymes. The paeY gene is present in a cluster of five pectinase-encoding genes, pelA-pelE-pelD-paeY-pemA. The paeY open reading frame is 1650 bases long and encodes a 551-residue precursor protein of 60704Da, including a 25-amino-acid signal peptide. PaeY shares one region of homology with a rhamnogalacturonan acetyl esterase of Aspergillus aculeatus. To characterize the enzyme, the paeY gene was overexpressed and its protein product was purified. PaeY releases acetate from sugar-beet pectin and from various synthetic substrates. Moreover, the enzyme was shown to act in synergy with other pectinases. The de-esterification rate by PaeY increased after previous demethylation of the pectins by PemA and after depolymerization of the pectin by pectate lyases. In addition, the degradation of sugar-beet pectin by pectate lyases is favoured after the removal of methyl and acetyl groups by PemA and PaeY, respectively. The paeY gene was first identified on the basis of its regulation, which shares several characteristics with that of other pectinases. Analysis of the paeY transcription, using gene fusions, revealed that it is induced by pectic catabolic products and is affected by growth phase, oxygen limitation and catabolite repression. Regulation of pae

  17. Biochemical and In-silico Studies on Pectin Methylesterase from G9 Variety of Musa acuminata for Delayed Ripening

    OpenAIRE

    Verma, Charu; R.K, Singh; Singh, Ram B; Mishra, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    Ripening of fruit is a very important process but in some fruits early ripening leads to a great damage during long distance transportation. There are various biochemical changes taking place during the phase of ripening of fruit such as changes in respiration, aroma, flavor, ethylene production and activity of cell wall degrading enzymes. Some important cell wall degrading enzymes are Polygalacturonase (PG), Pectin methylesterase (PME), Pectin lyase, RGase. PME is known to act as a cell wall...

  18. Purification and characterization of a papaya (Carica papaya L.) pectin methylesterase isolated from a commercial papain preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    We purified a single stable pectin methylesterase (CpL-PME; EC 3.1.1.11) from a commercial papain preparation, which is isolated from Carica papaya (L.) fruit latex. This CpL-PME was separated from the abundant cysteine endopeptidases activities using sequential hydrophobic interaction and cation-ex...

  19. Structural characterization of the thermally-tolerant pectin methylesterase purified from Citrus sinensis fruit and its gene sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despite the longstanding importance for the thermally-tolerant pectin methylesterase (TT-PME) activity in citrus juice processing and product quality, unequivocal identification of the protein and its corresponding gene has remained elusive. We purified TT-PME from sweet orange [Citrus sinensis (L.)...

  20. Pectin methylesterase of Datura species, purification, and characterization from Datura stramonium and its application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixit, Sameer; Upadhyay, Santosh Kumar; Singh, Harpal; Pandey, Bindu; Chandrashekar, Krishnappa; Verma, Praveen Chandra

    2013-10-01

    Pectin methylesterases (PME; EC 3.1.1.11) involved in de-esterification of pectin and have applicability in food, textiles, wines, pulp, and paper industries. In the present study, we compared PME activity of different parts of 3 Datura species and found that fruit coat showed maximum PME activity followed by leaf and seed. PME from leaves of D. stramonium (DsPME) was purified and characterized. DsPME showed optimum activity at 60 °C and pH 9 in the presence of 0.3 M NaCl. DsPME was stable at 70 °C and retained more than 40% activity after 60 min of incubation. However, enzyme activity completely abolished at 80 after 5 min of incubation. It follows Michaelis-Menten enzyme kinetics. Km and Vmax with citrus pectin were 0.008 mg/ml and 16.96 µmol/min, respectively. DsPME in combination with polygalactourenase (PGA) increased the clarity of orange, apple, pomegranate and pineapple juices by 2.9, 2.6, 2.3, and 3.6 fold, respectively in comparison to PGA alone. Due to very high de-esterification activity, easy denaturation and significant efficacy in incrementing clarification of fruit juice makes DsPME useful for industrial application. PMID:23887498

  1. Alterations in the activity and structure of pectin methylesterase treated by high pressure carbon dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Linyan; Wu, Jihong; Hu, Xiaosong; Zhi, Xian; Liao, Xiaojun

    2009-03-11

    The influence of high pressure carbon dioxide (HPCD) on the activity and structure of pectin methylesterase (PME) from orange was investigated. The pressures were 8-30 MPa, temperature 55 degrees C and time 10 min. HPCD caused significant inactivation on PME, the lowest residual activity was about 9.3% at 30 MPa. The SDS-PAGE electrophoretic behavior of HPCD-treated PME was not altered, while changes in the secondary and tertiary structures were found. The beta-structure fraction in the secondary structure decreased and the fluorescence intensity increased as HPCD pressures were elevated. After 7-day storage at 4 degrees C, no alteration of its activity and no reversion of its beta-structure fraction were observed, while its fluorescence intensity further decreased. PMID:19256556

  2. Recombinant expression and inhibition mechanism analysis of pectin methylesterase from Aspergillus flavus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xiuping; Jia, Qiulei; Chen, Lei; Chen, Qi; Yang, Qing

    2014-06-01

    Phytopathogenic microorganisms can produce pectin methylesterase (PME) to degrade plant cell walls during plant invasion. This enzyme is thought to be a virulence factor of phytopathogens. In this work, PME from Aspergillus flavus (AFPME) was expressed in Pichia pastoris and an in vitro inhibitor study was performed. The purified AFPME with a yield of 52.2% was resolved as one band with a molecular mass of c. 40 kDa by SDS-PAGE. Optimal activity of the enzyme occurred at a temperature of 55 °C and a pH of 4.8. Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) strongly inhibited the activity of recombinant AFPME. The molecular docking analysis indicated that EGCG could form hydrogen bonds and π-π interactions with some amino acid residues in the active site of AFPME. Our studies provide a novel strategy for the control of the plant invasion of A. flavus. PMID:24766423

  3. Effects of controlled-frequency moderate electric fields on pectin methylesterase and polygalacturonase activities in tomato homogenate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samaranayake, Chaminda P; Sastry, Sudhir K

    2016-05-15

    The effect of controlled-frequency moderate electric field treatments on pectin methylesterase and polygalcturonase activities in tomato homogenate was investigated by subjecting identically treated control and electrically-treated samples to the same temperature history. Additionally, a model was developed for the motion of the enzyme molecules subjected to an electric field. Results show that the application of electric fields at a low field strength (0.4V/cm) constant temperature (65°C) has a statistically significant effect on pectin methylesterase activity, typically at or lower than 60 Hz. At higher frequencies, the effects are negligible. Molecular motion simulations suggest that the efficacy at low frequencies may be due to the amplitude of motion being of the order of the intermolecular distance for water. Higher frequencies result in small overall displacements due to rapid reversals in the direction of motion. PMID:26775970

  4. Optimization of ohmic heating applications for pectin methylesterase inactivation in orange juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirdöven, Aslıhan; Baysal, Taner

    2014-09-01

    Ohmic heating (OH) which is among to electro-thermal methods and helps to inactivate microorganisms and enzymes was used in this study as thermal treatment on orange juice production for pectin methylesterase (PME) inactivation. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used for optimization of OH conditions. The effects of voltage gradient and temperature (independent variables) were investigated on PME activity (response) of orange juice. After optimization orange juice was produced and compared with untreated control juices and conventional thermally heated juices on the aspect of PME inactivation and some quality characteristics. Reduction of PME activities was found approximately 96 % in OH groups where conventional thermally heated juice has 88.3 % reduction value. Total pectin content was increased 1.72-2 % after OH applications. Ascorbic acid contents of OH samples were found between 43.08-45.20 mg/100 mL where conventional thermally heated juice has 42.9 mg/100 mL. As a result, it was determined that OH can be applied as a thermal treatment on orange juice production in moderate temperatures for PME inactivation and may improve functional properties of orange juice. PMID:25190836

  5. Extraction and characterization of pectin methylesterase from Alyanak apricot (Prunus armeniaca L).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ünal, M Ümit; Şener, Aysun

    2015-02-01

    This study was carried out to determine some of the biochemical properties of pectin methylesterase (PME) from Alyanak apricot which is an important variety grown in Malatya region of Turkey. The enzyme had high activity in a pH range of 7.0-8.0 with the maximal activity occurring at pH 7.5. However, the enzyme activity at high and low pH values was very low. The optimum temperature for maximal PME activity was found to be 60 °C. The activity of PME has been enhanced by NaCl, particularly at 0.15 M. Km and Vmax values for Alyanak apricot PME using apple pectin as substrate were found to be 1.69 mg/mL (r(2) = 0.992) and 3.41 units/mL, respectively. The enzyme was stable at 30-45 °C/10 min whereas it lost nearly all of its activity at 80 °C/10 min. Ea and Z values were found to be 206.1 kJ/mol (r(2) = 0.993) and 10.62 °C (r(2) = 0.992), respectively. PMID:25694739

  6. Purification and partial characterisation of pectin methylesterase produced by Fusarium asiaticum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glinka, Elena M; Liao, Yu-Cai

    2011-11-01

    Fusarium asiaticum is the predominant causal agent of Fusarium head blight (FHB) in China. When grown in liquid cultures containing potato tuber extract as the sole carbon source, F. asiaticum (strain 7071) from wheat (China) produced pectin methylesterase (PME), polygalacturonase (PG), and pectin lyase (PNL). The activity of these pectolytic enzymes was detected by a gel diffusion assay. Three forms of PME were identified in a culture filtrate of F. asiaticum. Two forms of PME with molecular weights of 31 kDa and 42.5 kDa, as determined by sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), were purified using a combination of chromatographic techniques. These PMEs did not bind to Concanavalin A (Con A), which was confirmed by rechromatography using a Con A agarose column. The 31 kDa purified PME was thermostable in a temperature range of 25-55 °C. The optimal pH for the PME of F. asiaticum was 6.5. This research provides the basis for future investigations of pectolytic enzymes from F. asiaticum. PMID:22036290

  7. Citrus salt-independent pectin methylesterase demethylation of a model homogalacturonan: effect of pH on demethylated block size and distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Multiple forms of pectin methylesterase (PME) purified from citrus have been shown to have a differential affect on citrus juice cloud leading to the hypothesis that they have different modes of action on pectin. PME hydrolyzes methyl esters on C6 of galacturonic acid residues in the homogalacturon...

  8. Short term changes in methanol emission and pectin methylesterase activity are not directly affected by light in Lycopersicon esculentum

    OpenAIRE

    Oikawa, P. Y.; Li, L.; Timko, M P; Mak, J. E.; M. T. Lerdau

    2011-01-01

    Plants are an important source of atmospheric methanol (MeOH), the second most abundant organic gas after methane. Factors regulating phytogenic MeOH production are not well constrained in current MeOH emission models. Previous studies have indicated that light may have a direct influence on MeOH production. As light is known to regulate cell wall expansion, it was predicted that light would stimulate MeOH production through the pectin methylesterase (PME) pathway. MeOH emissions normalized f...

  9. Large-scale single step partial purification of potato pectin methylesterase that enables the use in major food applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spelbrink, Robin Eric Jacobus; Giuseppin, Marco Luigi Federico

    2014-11-01

    Pectin methylesterase was extracted from potato tubers and partially purified in a single chromatographic step at large industrial scale. The preparation obtained in this way matched the temperature and pH profile of the species reported earlier by Puri et al. (Food Chemistry 8:203-213, 1982) and was enriched 23 times relative to the original potato tubers on a dry matter basis. Potato PME induced gel formation in calcium pectate across a broad pH range and should be suitable for application in the food industry. The procedure presented here represents a sustainable way to recover enzymes from vegetable juices. PMID:25161039

  10. Large-Scale Single Step Partial Purification of Potato Pectin Methylesterase that Enables the Use in Major Food Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Spelbrink, Robin Eric Jacobus; Giuseppin, Marco Luigi Federico

    2014-01-01

    Pectin methylesterase was extracted from potato tubers and partially purified in a single chromatographic step at large industrial scale. The preparation obtained in this way matched the temperature and pH profile of the species reported earlier by Puri et al. (Food Chemistry 8:203–213, 1982) and was enriched 23 times relative to the original potato tubers on a dry matter basis. Potato PME induced gel formation in calcium pectate across a broad pH range and should be suitable for application ...

  11. Nanostructural modification of a model homogalacturonan with a novel pectin methylesterase: Effects of pH on nanostructure, enzyme mode of action and substrate functionality

    Science.gov (United States)

    A pectin methylesterase (CpL-PME) present in a commercial papain preparation was used to modify the amount and distribution of charge in a model pectic homogalacturonan (HG) at pH 4.5 and pH 7.5. Introduced negatively charged demethylesterified blocks (DMB) were excised as oligomers with a limited e...

  12. Comprehensive analysis of the polygalacturonase and pectin methylesterase genes in Brassica rapa shed light on their different evolutionary patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Weike; Huang, Zhinan; Song, Xiaoming; Liu, Tongkun; Liu, Hailong; Hou, Xilin; Li, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Pectins are fundamental polysaccharides in the plant primary cell wall. Polygalacturonases (PGs) and pectin methylesterases (PMEs), major components of the pectin remodeling and disassembly network, are involved in cell separation processes during many stages of plant development. A comprehensive study of these genes in plants could shed light on the evolution patterns of their structural development. In this study, we conducted whole-genome annotation, molecular evolution and gene expression analyses of PGs and PMEs in Brassica rapa and 8 other plant species. A total of 100 PGs and 110 PMEs were identified in B. rapa; they primarily diverged from 12-18 MYA and PMEs were retained more than PGs. Along with another 305 PGs and 348 PMEs in the 8 species, two different expansion or evolution types were discovered: a new branch of class A PGs appeared after the split of gymnosperms and angiosperms, which led to the rapid expansion of PGs; the pro domain was obtained or lost in the proPMEs through comprehensive analyses among PME genes. In addition, the PGs and PMEs exhibit diverged expression patterns. These findings will lead to novel insight regarding functional divergence and conservation in the gene families and provide more support for molecular evolution analyses. PMID:27112365

  13. Determination of pectin methylesterase activity in commercial pectinases and study of the inactivation kinetics through two potentiometric procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha Lemke Gonzalez

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Pectinases are enzymes that degrade pectic substances and are widely used in juice and fruit beverages to improve the quality of the process. The objective of this study was to determine the optimum pH and temperature of two samples of commercial pectinases and propose an alternative procedure to determine the residual activity comparing the data with those of the traditional procedure. The pectin methylesterase (PME activity in Pectinex 100 L Plus and Panzyn Clears was determined by potentiometry. The reaction consisted of 5.00 mg.mL-1 apple pectin, 0.100 mol.L-1 NaCl, and 50 µL enzyme to a total volume of 30 mL. The pectin reaction in the presence of PME in all experiments revealed a first order kinetics. The PME in the two enzyme preparations showed higher activity at pH 4.0 to 4.5 and temperature of 45 ºC. From the results of both procedures ΔV NaOH/Δt and ΔpH/Δt, it was concluded that the inactivation of PME occurred at 75 ºC. The results obtained from the ratio ΔpH/Δt showed good correlation with those obtained from the ratio ΔV NaOH/Δt. In the reaction accompanied by the ratio ΔpH/Δt, the release of H3O+ occurred in the real time reaction.

  14. Biochemical and In-silico Studies on Pectin Methylesterase from G9 Variety of Musa acuminata for Delayed Ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Charu; R K, Singh; Singh, Ram B; Mishra, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    Ripening of fruit is a very important process but in some fruits early ripening leads to a great damage during long distance transportation. There are various biochemical changes taking place during the phase of ripening of fruit such as changes in respiration, aroma, flavor, ethylene production and activity of cell wall degrading enzymes. Some important cell wall degrading enzymes are Polygalacturonase (PG), Pectin methylesterase (PME), Pectin lyase, RGase. PME is known to act as a cell wall hydrolyzing enzyme, responsible for demethyl esterification of cell wall polygalacturonan. The present study includes the biochemical and molecular characterization of PME from Grand naine variety of Musa acuminata (banana). This study also deals with the in-silico study reflecting inhibition of PME activity in context to delayed ripening in banana. It mainly deals with the identification of a PME1 gene from Grand naine variety of banana. The expression of this gene is related with the process of ripening. The expression of PME1 gene was observed to be peaked on 3(rd) day in ethylene treated samples of banana but the activity in untreated samples called control was rather slow and then there was a sudden decrease in their activity in both treated as well as untreated samples. With the help of in-silico study, we observed that banana has maximum homology with carrot by using cross species analysis.The designed model has been reported to be of good quality on the basis of its verification and validation. The designed model was observed to be appropriate for docking. The information of binding sites of ligand provides new insights into the predictable functioning of relevant protein. PMID:25926894

  15. Short term changes in methanol emission and pectin methylesterase activity are not directly affected by light in Lycopersicon esculentum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oikawa, P. Y.; Li, L.; Timko, M. P.; Mak, J. E.; Lerdau, M. T.

    2011-04-01

    Plants are an important source of atmospheric methanol (MeOH), the second most abundant organic gas after methane. Factors regulating phytogenic MeOH production are not well constrained in current MeOH emission models. Previous studies have indicated that light may have a direct influence on MeOH production. As light is known to regulate cell wall expansion, it was predicted that light would stimulate MeOH production through the pectin methylesterase (PME) pathway. MeOH emissions normalized for stomatal conductance (gs) did not, however, increase with light over short time scales (20-30 min). After experimentally controlling for gs and temperature, no light activation of PME activity or MeOH emission was observed. The results clearly demonstrate that light does not directly influence short-term changes in MeOH production and emission. Our data suggest that substrate limitation may be important in regulating MeOH production over short time scales. Future investigation of the long-term impacts of light on MeOH production may increase understanding of MeOH emission dynamics at the seasonal time scale.

  16. Processive pectin methylesterases: the role of electrostatic potential, breathing motions and bond cleavage in the rectification of Brownian motions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Mercadante

    Full Text Available Pectin methylesterases (PMEs hydrolyze the methylester groups that are found on the homogalacturonan (HG chains of pectic polysaccharides in the plant cell wall. Plant and bacterial PMEs are especially interesting as the resulting de-methylesterified (carboxylated sugar residues are found to be arranged contiguously, indicating a so-called processive nature of these enzymes. Here we report the results of continuum electrostatics calculations performed along the molecular dynamics trajectory of a PME-HG-decasaccharide complex. In particular it was observed that, when the methylester groups of the decasaccharide were arranged in order to mimic the just-formed carboxylate product of de-methylesterification, a net unidirectional sliding of the model decasaccharide was subsequently observed along the enzyme's binding groove. The changes that occurred in the electrostatic binding energy and protein dynamics during this translocation provide insights into the mechanism by which the enzyme rectifies Brownian motions to achieve processivity. The free energy that drives these molecular motors is thus demonstrated to be incorporated endogenously in the methylesterified groups of the HG chains and is not supplied exogenously.

  17. New insights into heat induced structural changes of pectin methylesterase on fluorescence spectroscopy and molecular modeling basis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nistor, Oana Viorela; Stănciuc, Nicoleta; Aprodu, Iuliana; Botez, Elisabeta

    2014-07-01

    Heat-induced structural changes of Aspergillus oryzae pectin methylesterase (PME) were studied by means of fluorescence spectroscopy and molecular modeling, whereas the functional enzyme stability was monitored by inactivation studies. The fluorescence spectroscopy experiments were performed at two pH value (4.5 and 7.0). At both pH values, the phase diagrams were linear, indicating the presence of two molecular species induced by thermal treatment. A red shift of 7 nm was observed at neutral pH by increasing temperature up to 60 °C, followed by a blue shift of 4 nm at 70 °C, suggesting significant conformational rearrangements. The quenching experiments using acrylamide and iodide demonstrate a more flexible conformation of enzyme with increasing temperature, especially at neutral pH. The experimental results were complemented with atomic level observations on PME model behavior after performing molecular dynamics simulations at different temperatures. The inactivation kinetics of PME in buffer solutions was fitted using a first-order kinetics model, resulting in activation energy of 241.4 ± 7.51 kJ mol-1.

  18. Effect of intrinsic and extrinsic factors on the interaction of plant pectin methylesterase and its proteinaceous inhibitor from kiwi fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ly-Nguyen, Binh; Van Loey, Ann M; Smout, Chantal; Verlent, Isabel; Duvetter, Thomas; Hendrickx, Marc E

    2004-12-29

    A proteinaceous pectin methylesterase inhibitor (PMEI) was isolated from kiwi fruit (Actinidia chinensiscv. Hayward) and purified by affinity chromatography on a cyanogen bromide (CNBr) Sepharose 4B-orange PME column. The optimal pH of banana PME activity was 7.0, whereas that for carrot and strawberry PME activity was 9.0. The optimal pH for the binding between kiwi fruit PMEI and these PMEs was 7.0. The kiwi fruit PMEI has a different affinity for PME depending on the plant source. The inhibition kinetics of kiwi fruit PMEI to banana and strawberry PME followed a noncompetitive type, whereas that to carrot PME followed a competitive type. The kiwi fruit PMEI was mixed with banana, carrot, and strawberry PME to obtain PMEI-PME complexes, which were then subjected to thermal (40-80 degrees C, atmospheric pressure) or high-pressure (10 degrees C, 100-600 MPa) treatment. Experimental data showed that the PMEI-PME complexes were easily dissociated by both thermal and high-pressure treatments. PMID:15612809

  19. A novel low-temperature-active pectin methylesterase from Penicillium chrysogenum F46 with high efficiency in fruit firming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xia; Tu, Tao; Wang, Liwen; Luo, Huiying; Ma, Rui; Shi, Pengjun; Meng, Kun; Yao, Bin

    2014-11-01

    A pectin methylesterase gene (pe8F46) was cloned from Penicillium chrysogenum F46 and successfully expressed in Pichia pastoris. The full-length cDNA consists of 969 bp and encodes a 322-residue polypeptide with the calculated molecular weight of 34.1 kDa. Deduced PE8F46 belongs to family 8 of carbohydrate esterases and shares 54% identity with a functionally characterised counterpart from Myceliophthora thermophile. Purified recombinant PE8F46 showed the optimal activity at pH 5.0 and 40°C, and remained 52% maximum activity even at 10°C. An orthogonal experiment was employed to determine the best conditions for firming pineapple dices. After incubation with 0.75% (w/v) PE8F46 and 0.4% calcium lactate (w/v) for 20 min, the firmness of pineapple dices was improved by 47.6%, 13.7% higher than that of a commercial pectinase complex. These results suggest that PE8F46 has application potential in the food industry. PMID:24874380

  20. Effects of thermal treatments and storage on pectin methylesterase and peroxidase activity in freshly squeezed orange juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Angelika R; Förch, Kirsten; Neidhart, Sybille; Wolf, Gudrun; Carle, Reinhold

    2008-07-23

    A specific indicator of freshness, allowing routine distinction between freshly squeezed orange juices (FSOJs) and FSOJ-like products, was to be identified. Using the Actijoule unit of a tubular heater at a flow rate of 60 L/h, FSOJs from Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck cv. Valencia Late were continuously heated on a pilot plant scale at six different temperatures (42-92 degrees C), followed by continuous cooling to ambient temperature and subsequent filling into sterilized glass jars. The cloud stability and residual activities of pectin methylesterase (PE) and peroxidase (POD) were monitored over the storage at 4 degrees C for up to 62 days, thus considering the storage conditions of FSOJs in retail markets. As shown by the viable microbial counts throughout storage, microbial activity was insignificant due to good sanitary practice, thus proving that the enzyme activities detected were of plant origin. The juices processed at temperatures > or =62 degrees C were characterized by minor residual activities. When exposed to temperatures history, PE was suggested as an indicator enzyme for the freshness of FSOJs, allowing their unambiguous distinction from minimally heat-processed juices. PMID:18582085

  1. Short term changes in methanol emission and pectin methylesterase activity are not directly affected by light in Lycopersicon esculentum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. T. Lerdau

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Plants are an important source of atmospheric methanol (MeOH, the second most abundant organic gas after methane. Factors regulating phytogenic MeOH production are not well constrained in current MeOH emission models. Previous studies have indicated that light may have a direct influence on MeOH production. As light is known to regulate cell wall expansion, it was predicted that light would stimulate MeOH production through the pectin methylesterase (PME pathway. MeOH emissions normalized for stomatal conductance (gs did not, however, increase with light over short time scales (20–30 min. After experimentally controlling for gs and temperature, no light activation of PME activity or MeOH emission was observed. The results clearly demonstrate that light does not directly influence short-term changes in MeOH production and emission. Our data suggest that substrate limitation may be important in regulating MeOH production over short time scales. Future investigation of the long-term impacts of light on MeOH production may increase understanding of MeOH emission dynamics at the seasonal time scale.

  2. Short term changes in methanol emission and pectin methylesterase activity are not directly affected by light in Lycopersicon esculentum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. T. Lerdau

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Plants are an important source of atmospheric methanol (MeOH, the second most abundant organic gas after methane. Factors regulating phytogenic MeOH production are not well constrained in current MeOH emission models. Previous studies have indicated that light may have a direct influence on MeOH production. As light is known to regulate cell wall expansion, it was predicted that light would stimulate MeOH production through the pectin methylesterase (PME pathway. MeOH emissions normalized for stomatal conductance (gs did not, however, increase with light over short time scales (20–30 min. After experimentally controlling for gs and temperature, no light activation of PME activity or MeOH emission was observed. The results clearly demonstrate that light does not directly influence short-term changes in MeOH production and emission. Our data suggest that substrate limitation may be important in regulating MeOH production over short time scales. Future investigation of the long-term impacts of light on MeOH production may increase understanding of MeOH emission dynamics at the seasonal time scale.

  3. Short term changes in methanol emission and pectin methylesterase activity are not directly affected by light in Lycopersicon esculentum

    OpenAIRE

    M. T. Lerdau; Mak, J. E.; Timko, M P; Oikawa, P. Y.; Li, L.

    2011-01-01

    Plants are an important source of atmospheric methanol (MeOH), the second most abundant organic gas after methane. Factors regulating phytogenic MeOH production are not well constrained in current MeOH emission models. Previous studies have indicated that light may have a direct influence on MeOH production. As light is known to regulate cell wall expansion, it was predicted that light would stimulate MeOH production through the pectin methylesterase (PME) pathway. MeOH emissions norm...

  4. Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) pectin methylesterase and polygalacturonase behaviors regarding heat- and pressure-induced inactivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crelier, S; Robert, M C; Claude, J; Juillerat, M A

    2001-11-01

    The combined high pressure/thermal (HP/T) inactivation of tomato pectin methyl esterase (PME) and polygalacturonase (PG) was investigated as a possible alternative to thermal processing classically used for enzyme inactivation. The temperature and pressure ranges tested were from 60 degrees C to 105 degrees C, and from 0.1 to 800 MPa, respectively. PME, a heat-labile enzyme at ambient pressure, is dramatically stabilized against thermal denaturation at pressures above atmospheric and up to 500-600 MPa. PG, however, is very resistant to thermal denaturation at 0.1 MPa, but quickly and easily inactivated by combinations of moderate temperatures and pressures. Selective inactivation of either PME or PG was achieved by choosing proper combinations of P and T. The inactivation kinetics of these enzymes was measured and described mathematically over the investigated portion of the P/T plane. Whereas medium composition and salinity had little influence on the inactivation rates, PME was found less sensitive to both heat and pressure when pH was raised above its physiological value. PG, on the other hand, became more labile at higher pH values. The results are discussed in terms of isoenzymes and other physicochemical features of PME and PG. PMID:11714361

  5. Influence of UV-C irradiation on expansin and pectin-methylesterase gene expression in strawberry fruit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The exposure to UV-C delays fruit softening, one of the main factors determining fruit post harvest life. This delay in softening may be caused by changes in the activities of enzymes and proteins involved in cell wall disassembly. Expansins are cell wall proteins involved in fruit softening, while pectin-melhylesterases (PME) are cell wall enzymes related to pectin demethylation, and their activity is affected by heating, another physical treatment based on abiotic stress. We analyzed FaPME 1 gene expression in irradiated strawberry fruits and also measured PME activity after treatment. An increase in PME activity immediately after the treatment was found. The expression of FaEXP2, FaEXP4 and FaEXP5 genes was analyzed in the same fruit samples, as well as expansin protein accumulation. For these three genes we found a decrease in expression 4 h after treatment and an increase after 24 h. The decrease in gene expression after treatment correlated with a diminution of expansins. (author)

  6. Size exclusion chromatography to gain insight into the complex formation of carrot pectin methylesterase and its inhibitor from kiwi fruit as influenced by thermal and high-pressure processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolie, Ruben P; Duvetter, Thomas; Verlinde, Philippe H C J; Van Buggenhout, Sandy; Van Loey, Ann M; Hendrickx, Marc E

    2009-12-01

    A size exclusion chromatography (HPSEC) method was implemented to study complex formation between carrot pectin methylesterase (PME) and its inhibitor (PMEI) from kiwi fruit in the context of traditional thermal and novel high-pressure processing. Evidence was gained that both thermal and high-pressure treatments of PME give rise to two distinct enzyme subpopulations: a catalytically active population, eluting from the size exclusion column, and an inactive population, aggregated and excluded from the column. When mixing a partly denatured PME sample with a fixed amount of PMEI, a PME-PMEI complex peak was observed on HPSEC, of which the peak area was highly correlated with the residual enzyme activity of the corresponding PME sample. This observation indicates complex formation to be restricted to the active PME fraction. When an equimolar mixture of PME and PMEI was subjected to either a thermal or a high-pressure treatment, marked differences were observed. At elevated temperature, enzyme and inhibitor remained united and aggregated as a whole, thus gradually disappearing from the elution profile. Conversely, elevated pressure caused the dissociation of the PME-PMEI complexes, followed by a separate action of pressure on enzyme and inhibitor. Remarkably, PMEI appeared to be pressure-resistant when compressed at acidic pH (ca. 4). PMID:19908835

  7. The cyclic AMP receptor protein is the main activator of pectinolysis genes in Erwinia chrysanthemi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reverchon, S; Expert, D; Robert-Baudouy, J; Nasser, W

    1997-06-01

    The main virulence factors of the phytopathogenic bacterium Erwinia chrysanthemi are pectinases that cleave pectin, a major constituent of the plant cell wall. Although physiological studies suggested that pectinase production in Erwinia species is subjected to catabolite repression, the direct implication of the cyclic AMP receptor protein (CRP) in this regulation has never been demonstrated. To investigate the role of CRP in pectin catabolism, we cloned the E. chrysanthemi crp gene by complementation of an Escherichia coli crp mutation and then constructed E. chrysanthemi crp mutants by reverse genetics. The carbohydrate fermentation phenotype of the E. chrysanthemi crp mutants is similar to that of an E. coli crp mutant. Furthermore, these mutants are unable to grow on pectin or polygalacturonate as the sole carbon source. Analysis of the nucleotide sequence of the E. chrysanthemi crp gene revealed the presence of a 630-bp open reading frame (ORF) that codes for a protein highly similar to the CRP of E. coli. Using a crp::uidA transcriptional fusion, we demonstrated that the E. chrysanthemi CRP represses its own expression, probably via a mechanism similar to that described for the E. coli crp gene. Moreover, in the E. chrysanthemi crp mutants, expression of pectinase genes (pemA, pelB, pelC, pelD, and pelE) and of genes of the intracellular part of the pectin degradation pathway (ogl, kduI, and kdgT), which are important for inducer formation and transport, is dramatically reduced in induced conditions. In contrast, expression of pelA, which encodes a pectate lyase important for E. chrysanthemi pathogenicity, seems to be negatively regulated by CRP. The E. chrysanthemi crp mutants have greatly decreased maceration capacity in potato tubers, chicory leaves, and celery petioles as well as highly diminished virulence on saintpaulia plants. These findings demonstrate that CRP plays a crucial role in expression of the pectinolysis genes and in the pathogenicity of E

  8. Rapid Enzymatic Method for Pectin Methyl Esters Determination

    OpenAIRE

    Lucyna Łękawska-Andrinopoulou; Vasiliou, Efstathios G.; Georgakopoulos, Dimitrios G.; Yialouris, Constantinos P.; Georgiou, Constantinos A.

    2013-01-01

    Pectin is a natural polysaccharide used in food and pharma industries. Pectin degree of methylation is an important parameter having significant influence on pectin applications. A rapid, fully automated, kinetic flow method for determination of pectin methyl esters has been developed. The method is based on a lab-made analyzer using the reverse flow-injection/stopped flow principle. Methanol is released from pectin by pectin methylesterase in the first mixing coil. Enzyme working solution is...

  9. A Methylotrophic Pathway Participates in Pectin Utilization by Candida boidinii

    OpenAIRE

    Nakagawa, Tomoyuki; Miyaji, Tatsuro; Yurimoto, Hiroya; Sakai, Yasuyoshi; Kato, Nobuo; Tomizuka, Noboru

    2000-01-01

    The methylotrophic yeast Candida boidinii S2 was found to be able to grow on pectin or polygalacturonate as a carbon source. When cells were grown on 1% (wt/vol) pectin, C. boidinii exhibited induced levels of the pectin-depolymerizing enzymes pectin methylesterase (208 mU/mg of protein), pectin lyase (673 mU/mg), pectate lyase (673 mU/mg), and polygalacturonase (3.45 U/mg) and two methanol-metabolizing peroxisomal enzymes, alcohol oxidase (0.26 U/mg) and dihydroxyacetone synthase (94 mU/mg)....

  10. Pectin methylesterase activity determined by different methods and thermal inactivation of exogenous pme in mango juice Determinação da atividade da pectina metilesterase por diferentes métodos e inativação térmica da PME exógena no suco de manga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha Lemke Gonzalez

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Pectin methylesterase (PME hydrolyzes methyl ester groups in pectin chains to form carboxylic groups, releasing methanol and H3O+. The aim of this study was to determine PME activity in samples of pectinases by UV-VIS spectroscopy, to measure the acid and methanol produced in the reaction of pectin with pectinase and to verify the thermal inactivation of exogenous PME in mango juice. The activity of PME in samples of pectinase was determined by potentiometry, UV-VIS spectroscopy, and by the action of alcohol oxidase. The reaction showed greater activity at pH 4.0 to 4.5 and at a temperature of 45° C. PME activity determined by UV-VIS spectroscopy with bromophenol blue indicator showed a good correlation with the activity determined by potentiometry and with alcohol oxidase. The results showed that bromophenol blue indicators can be used to determine PME activity in samples of pectinases where the optimum pH is located in the acidic range. The thermal inactivation of exogenous PME in mango juice occurred at 75° C for 20 min of exposure.A PME hidrolisa os grupos metil éster na cadeia da pectina, formando grupos carboxílicos, liberando metanol e H3O+. Objetivou-se, com o presente estudo, determinar a atividade da PME em amostras de pectinases por espectroscopia Uv-vis para quantificar o ácido e o metanol produzido na reação da pectina com as pectinases e verificar a inativação térmica da PME exógena no suco de manga. A atividade da PME nas três amostras de pectinases foi determinada por potenciometria, espectroscopia Uv-Vis, e pela ação da álcool oxidase. A reação mostrou uma maior atividade em H de 4,0 a 4,5 e a temperatura de 45º C. A atividade da PME, determinada por UV-Vis com o indicador azul de bromofenol apresentou uma boa correlação com a atividade determinada por potenciometria e com a álcool oxidase. Os resultados mostraram que o indicador azul de bromofenol pode ser utilizado para determinar a atividade da PME em

  11. Pectin modifications and the role of pectin-degrading enzymes during postharvest softening of Jonagold apples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwanpua, Sunny George; Van Buggenhout, Sandy; Verlinden, Bert E; Christiaens, Stefanie; Shpigelman, Avi; Vicent, Victor; Kermani, Zahra Jamsazzadeh; Nicolai, Bart M; Hendrickx, Marc; Geeraerd, Annemie

    2014-09-01

    This study aimed at understanding softening in Jonagold apple (Malus×domestica Borkh.) fruits, by investigating pectin modifications and the evolution of pectin-modifying enzymes during postharvest storage and ripening. Jonagold apples were harvested at commercial maturity and stored at different temperatures and controlled atmosphere conditions for 6 months, followed by exposure to ambient shelf life conditions (20 °C under air) for 2 weeks. The composition of the pectic material was analysed. Furthermore, the firmness and the ethylene production of the apples were assessed. Generally, the main changes in pectin composition associated with the loss of firmness during ripening in Jonagold apples were a loss of side chains neutral sugars, increased water solubility and decreased molar mass. Also, the activities of four important enzymes possibly involved in apple softening, β-galactosidase, α-arabinofuranosidase, polygalacturonase and pectin methylesterase, were measured. Pectin-related enzyme activities highly correlated with ethylene production, but not always with pectin modifications. PMID:24731343

  12. Effect of gamma-irradiation on ripening papaya pectin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papaya (Carica papaya, L., var. Sunset) at three initial ripeness stages were irradiated with 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.0, or 1.5 kGy gamma-irradiation and pectin changes during ripening determined. A significant linear relationship was found between irradiation dose and firmness immediately after irradiation. Irradiation had no effect on fruit skin or flesh color of papaya fruit irradiated at the 5 to 30% yellow stage and allowed to ripen. Papaya irradiated when 5 to 30% yellow showed no significant changes in pectin methylesterase activity when ripe. Immediately after irradiation, the pectin in 10 to 30% yellow papaya showed depolymerization and demethoxylation, though no effect on pectin methylesterase activity was detected. There was an increase in water soluble pectin (WSP), while chelator soluble (CSP) and alkali soluble pectin (ASP) decreased, with a significant decline in the methanol content of the ASP fraction. After the 25 to 30% yellow ripeness stage, fruit irradiated at 0.50 to 1.0 kGy had less pectic depolymerization, and had a firmer texture than nonirradiated when ripe. A lower level of WSP and higher levels of CSP and ASP were found in ripe fruit that had been irradiated at 0.5 to 1.0 kGy when 25 to 30% yellow skin with a significant quadratic relationship between irradiation dose and the three pectin fractions. The firmness of these irradiated fruit were retained for two days longer than the nonirradiated control. (author)

  13. Combined effects of pectic enzymes on the degradation of pectin polysaccharides of banana fruit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pectin polysaccharide is one of the major components of the primary cellular wall in the middle lamella of plant tissues. The degradation of pectin polysaccharide contributes to fruit softening. In this study, water-soluble pectin (WSP) and acid-soluble pectin (ASP) were isolated from pulp tissues of banana fruit at various ripening stages, and combinations of the enzymes such as polygalcturonase (PG), pectin methylesterase (PME) and beta-galactosidase (beta-Gal) were used to investigate the effect on the degradation of WSP and ASP. PG promoted the degradation of pectin polysaccharides, especially in ASP. An enhanced effect of the degradation of WSP and ASP from various ripening banana fruit was observed in the presence of PME. In addition, beta-Gal accelerated slightly the degradation of WSP and ASP in the presence of PG. Overall, PG, PME and beta-Gal can coordinate to promote the degradation of pectin polysaccharides of banana fruit, resulting in fruit softening. (author)

  14. Tissue Specific Localization of Pectin–Ca2+ Cross-Linkages and Pectin Methyl-Esterification during Fruit Ripening in Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum)

    OpenAIRE

    Hyodo, Hiromi; Terao, Azusa; Furukawa, Jun; Sakamoto, Naoya; Yurimoto, Hisayoshi; Satoh, Shinobu; Iwai, Hiroaki

    2013-01-01

    Fruit ripening is one of the developmental processes accompanying seed development. The tomato is a well-known model for studying fruit ripening and development, and the disassembly of primary cell walls and the middle lamella, such as through pectin de-methylesterified by pectin methylesterase (PE) and depolymerization by polygalacturonase (PG), is generally accepted to be one of the major changes that occur during ripening. Although many reports of the changes in pectin during tomato fruit ...

  15. Pectin-rich biomass as feedstock for fuel ethanol production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, Meredith C.; Doran-Peterson, Joy [Georgia Univ., Athens, GA (United States). Dept. of Microbiology

    2012-08-15

    The USA has proposed that 30 % of liquid transportation fuel be produced from renewable resources by 2030 (Perlack and Stokes 2011). It will be impossible to reach this goal using corn kernel-based ethanol alone. Pectin-rich biomass, an under-utilized waste product of the sugar and juice industry, can augment US ethanol supplies by capitalizing on this already established feedstock. Currently, pectin-rich biomass is sold (at low value) as animal feed. This review focuses on the three most studied types of pectin-rich biomass: sugar beet pulp, citrus waste and apple pomace. Fermentations of these materials have been conducted with a variety of ethanologens, including yeasts and bacteria. Escherichia coli can ferment a wide range of sugars including galacturonic acid, the primary component of pectin. However, the mixed acid metabolism of E. coli can produce unwanted side products. Saccharomyces cerevisiae cannot naturally ferment galacturonic acid nor pentose sugars but has a homoethanol pathway. Erwinia chrysanthemi is capable of degrading many of the cell wall components of pectin-rich materials, including pectin. Klebsiella oxytoca can metabolize a diverse array of sugars including cellobiose, one degradation product of cellulose. However, both E. chrysanthemi and K. oxytoca produce side products during fermentation, similar to E. coli. Using pectin-rich residues from industrial processes is beneficial because the material is already collected and partially pretreated to facilitate enzymatic deconstruction of the plant cell walls. Using biomass already produced for other purposes is an attractive practice because fewer greenhouse gases (GHG) will be anticipated from land-use changes. (orig.)

  16. Pectin-rich biomass as feedstock for fuel ethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Meredith C; Doran-Peterson, Joy

    2012-08-01

    The USA has proposed that 30 % of liquid transportation fuel be produced from renewable resources by 2030 (Perlack and Stokes 2011). It will be impossible to reach this goal using corn kernel-based ethanol alone. Pectin-rich biomass, an under-utilized waste product of the sugar and juice industry, can augment US ethanol supplies by capitalizing on this already established feedstock. Currently, pectin-rich biomass is sold (at low value) as animal feed. This review focuses on the three most studied types of pectin-rich biomass: sugar beet pulp, citrus waste and apple pomace. Fermentations of these materials have been conducted with a variety of ethanologens, including yeasts and bacteria. Escherichia coli can ferment a wide range of sugars including galacturonic acid, the primary component of pectin. However, the mixed acid metabolism of E. coli can produce unwanted side products. Saccharomyces cerevisiae cannot naturally ferment galacturonic acid nor pentose sugars but has a homoethanol pathway. Erwinia chrysanthemi is capable of degrading many of the cell wall components of pectin-rich materials, including pectin. Klebsiella oxytoca can metabolize a diverse array of sugars including cellobiose, one degradation product of cellulose. However, both E. chrysanthemi and K. oxytoca produce side products during fermentation, similar to E. coli. Using pectin-rich residues from industrial processes is beneficial because the material is already collected and partially pretreated to facilitate enzymatic deconstruction of the plant cell walls. Using biomass already produced for other purposes is an attractive practice because fewer greenhouse gases (GHG) will be anticipated from land-use changes. PMID:22695801

  17. Characterization of the pelL gene encoding a novel pectate lyase of Erwinia chrysanthemi 3937.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lojkowska, E; Masclaux, C; Boccara, M; Robert-Baudouy, J; Hugouvieux-Cotte-Pattat, N

    1995-06-01

    Erwinia chrysanthemi 3937 secretes five major isoenzymes of pectate lyases encoded by the pelA, pelB, pelC, pelD and pelE genes. Recently, a new set of pectate lyases was identified in E. chrysanthemi mutants deleted of those pel genes. We cloned the pelL gene, encoding one of these secondary pectate lyases of E. chrysanthemi 3937, from a genomic bank of a strain deleted of the five major pel genes. The nucleotide sequence of the region containing the pelL gene was determined. The pelL reading frame is 1275 bases long, corresponding to a protein of 425 amino acids including a typical amino-terminal signal sequence of 25 amino acids. Comparison of the amino acid sequences of PelL and the exo-pectate lyase PelX of E. chrysanthemi EC16 revealed a low homology, limited to 220 residues of the central part of the proteins. No homology was detected with other bacterial pectinolytic enzymes. Regulation of pelL transcription was analysed using gene fusion. As shown for the other pel genes, the transcription of pelL is dependent on various environmental conditions. It is induced by pectic catabolic products and affected by growth phase, temperature, iron starvation, osmolarity, anaerobiosis, nitrogen starvation and catabolite repression. Regulation of pelL expression appeared to be independent of the KdgR repressor, which controls all the steps of pectin catabolism. In contrast, the pecS gene, which is involved in regulation of the synthesis of the major pectate lyases and of cellulase, also appeared to be involved in pelL expression. The PelL protein is able to macerate plant tissue. This enzyme has a basic isoelectric point, presents an endo-cleaving activity on polygalacturonate or partially methylated pectin, with a basic pH optimum and an absolute requirement for Ca2+. The pelL mutant displayed a reduced virulence on potato tubers and Saintpaulia ionantha plants, demonstrating the important role of this enzyme in soft-rot disease. PMID:8577252

  18. Characterization of the exopolygalacturonate lyase PelX of Erwinia chrysanthemi 3937.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevchik, V E; Kester, H C; Benen, J A; Visser, J; Robert-Baudouy, J; Hugouvieux-Cotte-Pattat, N

    1999-03-01

    Erwinia chrysanthemi 3937 secretes several pectinolytic enzymes, among which eight isoenzymes of pectate lyases with an endo-cleaving mode (PelA, PelB, PelC, PelD, PelE, PelI, PelL, and PelZ) have been identified. Two exo-cleaving enzymes, the exopolygalacturonate lyase, PelX, and an exo-poly-alpha-D-galacturonosidase, PehX, have been previously identified in other E. chrysanthemi strains. Using a genomic bank of a 3937 mutant with the major pel genes deleted, we cloned a pectinase gene identified as pelX, encoding the exopolygalacturonate lyase. The deduced amino acid sequence of the 3937 PelX is very similar to the PelX of another E. chrysanthemi strain, EC16, except in the 43 C-terminal amino acids. PelX also has homology to the endo-pectate lyase PelL of E. chrysanthemi but has a N-terminal extension of 324 residues. The transcription of pelX, analyzed by gene fusions, is dependent on several environmental conditions. It is induced by pectic catabolic products and affected by growth phase, oxygen limitation, nitrogen starvation, and catabolite repression. Regulation of pelX expression is dependent on the KdgR repressor, which controls almost all the steps of pectin catabolism, and on the global activator of sugar catabolism, cyclic AMP receptor protein. In contrast, PecS and PecT, two repressors of the transcription of most pectate lyase genes, are not involved in pelX expression. The pelX mutant displayed reduced pathogenicity on chicory leaves, but its virulence on potato tubers or Saintpaulia ionantha plants did not appear to be affected. The purified PelX protein has no maceration activity on plant tissues. Tetragalacturonate is the best substrate of PelX, but PelX also has good activity on longer oligomers. Therefore, the estimated number of binding subsites for PelX is 4, extending from subsites -2 to +2. PelX and PehX were shown to be localized in the periplasm of E. chrysanthemi 3937. PelX catalyzed the formation of unsaturated digalacturonates by

  19. Characterization of the Erwinia chrysanthemi Gan locus, involved in galactan catabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delangle, Aurélie; Prouvost, Anne-France; Cogez, Virginie; Bohin, Jean-Pierre; Lacroix, Jean-Marie; Cotte-Pattat, Nicole Hugouvieux

    2007-10-01

    beta-1,4-Galactan is a major component of the ramified regions of pectin. Analysis of the genome of the plant pathogenic bacteria Erwinia chrysanthemi revealed the presence of a cluster of eight genes encoding proteins potentially involved in galactan utilization. The predicted transport system would comprise a specific porin GanL and an ABC transporter made of four proteins, GanFGK(2). Degradation of galactans would be catalyzed by the periplasmic 1,4-beta-endogalactanase GanA, which released oligogalactans from trimer to hexamer. After their transport through the inner membrane, oligogalactans would be degraded into galactose by the cytoplasmic 1,4-beta-exogalactanase GanB. Mutants affected for the porin or endogalactanase were unable to grow on galactans, but they grew on galactose and on a mixture of galactotriose, galactotetraose, galactopentaose, and galactohexaose. Mutants affected for the periplasmic galactan binding protein, the transporter ATPase, or the exogalactanase were only able to grow on galactose. Thus, the phenotypes of these mutants confirmed the functionality of the gan locus in transport and catabolism of galactans. These mutations did not affect the virulence of E. chrysanthemi on chicory leaves, potato tubers, or Saintpaulia ionantha, suggesting an accessory role of galactan utilization in the bacterial pathogeny. PMID:17644603

  20. Characterization of the Erwinia chrysanthemi gan Locus, Involved in Galactan Catabolism▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delangle, Aurélie; Prouvost, Anne-France; Cogez, Virginie; Bohin, Jean-Pierre; Lacroix, Jean-Marie; Cotte-Pattat, Nicole Hugouvieux

    2007-01-01

    β-1,4-Galactan is a major component of the ramified regions of pectin. Analysis of the genome of the plant pathogenic bacteria Erwinia chrysanthemi revealed the presence of a cluster of eight genes encoding proteins potentially involved in galactan utilization. The predicted transport system would comprise a specific porin GanL and an ABC transporter made of four proteins, GanFGK2. Degradation of galactans would be catalyzed by the periplasmic 1,4-β-endogalactanase GanA, which released oligogalactans from trimer to hexamer. After their transport through the inner membrane, oligogalactans would be degraded into galactose by the cytoplasmic 1,4-β-exogalactanase GanB. Mutants affected for the porin or endogalactanase were unable to grow on galactans, but they grew on galactose and on a mixture of galactotriose, galactotetraose, galactopentaose, and galactohexaose. Mutants affected for the periplasmic galactan binding protein, the transporter ATPase, or the exogalactanase were only able to grow on galactose. Thus, the phenotypes of these mutants confirmed the functionality of the gan locus in transport and catabolism of galactans. These mutations did not affect the virulence of E. chrysanthemi on chicory leaves, potato tubers, or Saintpaulia ionantha, suggesting an accessory role of galactan utilization in the bacterial pathogeny. PMID:17644603

  1. Extracellular polysaccharide of Erwinia chrysanthemi A350 and ribotyping of Erwinia chrysanthemi spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, J S; Yang, B Y; Montgomery, R

    2000-03-10

    Erwinia chrysanthemi spp. are gram-negative bacterial phytopathogens causing soft rots in a number of plants. The structure of the extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) produced by the E. chrysanthemi strain A350, which is a lacZ- mutant of the wild type strain 3937, pathogenic to Saintpaulia, has been determined using a combination of chemical and physical techniques including methylation analysis, low-pressure gel-filtration and anion-exchange chromatography, high-pH anion-exchange chromatography, partial acid hydrolysis, mass spectrometry and 1- and 2D NMR spectroscopy. In contrast to the structures of the EPS reported for other strains of E. chrysanthemi, the EPS from strain A350 contains D-GalA, together with L-Rhap and D-Galp in a 1:4:1 ratio. Evidence is presented for the following hexasaccharide repeat unit: [structure: see text] All the Erwinia chrysanthemi spp. studied to date have been analyzed by ribotyping and collated into families, which are consistent with the related structures of their EPS. PMID:10744334

  2. Pectate lyase PelI of Erwinia chrysanthemi 3937 belongs to a new family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevchik, V E; Robert-Baudouy, J; Hugouvieux-Cotte-Pattat, N

    1997-12-01

    Erwinia chrysanthemi 3937 secretes five major isoenzymes of pectate lyases encoded by the pel4, pelB, pelC, pelD, and pelE genes and a set of secondary pectate lyases, two of which, pelL and pelZ, have been already identified. We cloned the pelI gene, encoding a ninth pectate lyase of E. chrysanthemi 3937. The pelI reading frame is 1,035 bases long, corresponding to a protein of 344 amino acids including a typical amino-terminal signal sequence of 19 amino acids. The purified mature PelI protein has an isoelectric point of about 9 and an apparent molecular mass of 34 kDa. PelI has a preference for partially methyl esterified pectin and presents an endo-cleaving activity with an alkaline pH optimum and an absolute requirement for Ca2+ ions. PelI is an extracellular protein secreted by the Out secretory pathway of E. chrysanthemi. The PelI protein is very active in the maceration of plant tissues. A pelI mutant displayed reduced pathogenicity on chicory leaves, but its virulence did not appear to be affected on potato tubers or Saintpaulia ionantha plants. The pelI gene constitutes an independent transcriptional unit. As shown for the other pel genes, the transcription of pelI is dependent on various environmental conditions. It is induced by pectic catabolic products and affected by growth phase, oxygen limitation, temperature, nitrogen starvation, and catabolite repression. Regulation of pelI expression appeared to be dependent on the three repressors of pectinase synthesis, KdgR, PecS, and PecT, and on the global activator of sugar catabolism, cyclic AMP receptor protein. A functional KdgR binding site was identified close to the putative pelI promoter. Analysis of the amino acid sequence of PelI revealed high homology with a pectate lyase from Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora (65% identity) and low homology with pectate lyases of the phytopathogenic fungus Nectria haematococca (Fusarium solani). This finding indicates that PelI belongs to pectate lyase class

  3. New polygalacturonases from Trichoderma reesei: characterization and their specificities to partially methylated and acetylated pectins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Saleh A; Christensen, Tove M I E; Mikkelsen, Jorn Dalgaard

    2003-03-14

    Two extracellular isoenzymes of polygalacturonases PG1 and PG2 were isolated from 3-day-old culture filtrates of Trichoderma reesei. The two enzymes were purified to homogeneity by ion-exchange, gel filtration and hydrophobic interaction chromatographies. PG1 and PG2 exhibit similar molecular weights from gel filtration and SDS-PAGE. Their properties, including optimal pH and temperature, thermal stability and Km were compared. Characterization of substrate specificity showed that the two enzymes had higher affinity toward PGA (B0100) derived from sugar beet pectin (SBP) than PGA from lime pectin. A series of SBPs with different distribution patterns of methyl and acetyl groups, produced by treatment with either plant pectin methylesterase (P-series) or fungal pectin methylesterase (F-series) or base catalysis (B-series), was used as substrates for PG1 and PG2. Substrates with a low degree of esterification were preferred substrates. The activities of PG1 and PG2 were strongly correlated to the degree of methylation and very little effect from acetylation. The products generated by digestion of selected lime and SBPs were analysed using matrix assisted laser desorption ionisation time of flight (MALDI TOF) MS. A mode of action revealed a random cleavage pattern for PG1 and PG2, confirming that these enzymes are endopolygalacturonases. PMID:12668107

  4. Harpin Mediates Cell Aggregation in Erwinia chrysanthemi 3937

    OpenAIRE

    Yap, Mee-Ngan; Rojas, Clemencia M.; Yang, Ching-Hong; Charkowski, Amy O.

    2006-01-01

    The hypersensitive response elicitor harpin (HrpN) of soft rot pathogen Erwinia chrysanthemi strains 3937 and EC16 is secreted via the type III secretion system and remains cell surface bound. Strain 3937 HrpN is essential for cell aggregation, but the C-terminal one-third of the protein is not required for aggregative activity.

  5. UniProt search blastx result: AK287720 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK287720 J065136H22 P0C1A9|PMEA_DICD3 Pectinesterase A precursor (EC 3.1.1.11) (Pectin methyles...terase A) (PE A) - Dickeya dadantii (strain 3937) (Erwinia chrysanthemi (strain 3937)) 2.00E-17 ...

  6. [The analyses and identification of Flos rhododendri mollis and Flos chrysanthemi indici via infrared spectroscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Zhe-Xiong; Wang, Yue; Zhou, Qun; Chen, Jian-Bo; Ma, Fang; Sun, Su-Qin

    2014-09-01

    In this study, major chemical components of Flos rhododendri mollis and Flos chrysanthemi indici were characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). For Flos rhododendri mollis, the bands at 1,648 and 1,543 cm(-1) were attributed to amide I and amide II , respectively, indicating that it contained proteins probably resulting in immunization. In case of Flos chrysanthemi indici, stretching vibration of C==O function group was responsible for the bands at 1,734 and 1,515 cm(-1), as a result of essential oils, lipids, etc. Since FTIR spectra of Flos rhododendri mollis and Flos chrysanthemi indici are almost identical and it is difficult to discriminate them, two-step identification was investigated via secondary derivative of the FTIR spectra. The bands at 1,656 and 1,515 cm(-1) corresponds to flavonoides in Flos rhododendri mollis and Flos chrysanthemi indici. In the secondary derivative of the FTIR spectrum of Flos chrysanthemi indici, characteristic bands of inulin were present at 1,163, 1,077, 1,026, 986 and 869 cm(-1), and therefore Flos chrysanthemi indici contained inulin as well. Tri-step identification was carried out for Flos rhododendri mollis and Flos chrysanthemi indici by means of comparing their 2D-IR correlation spectra in different wave number range. In the characteristic range of flavonoides (1,700-1,400 cm(-1)), Flos rhododendri mollis exhibited 3 obvious autopeaks, while 10 autopeaks were visualized in the 2D-IR correlation spectrum of Flos chrysanthemi indici Moreover, in the characteristic range of glucoside (1,250-900 cm(-1)), 10 and 9 autopeaks were present in the 2D-IR correlation spectra of Flos rhododendri mollis and Flos chrysanthemi indici, respectively. Therefore, the tri-step identification of FTIR is a time-saving; accurate, cost-saving and convenient method to effectively distinguish traditional Chinese medicines. PMID:25532340

  7. PECTIN BEVERAGES WITH PROBIOTIC CHARACTERISTICS

    OpenAIRE

    Ogneva O. A.; Donchenko L. V.

    2015-01-01

    The impact of pectins and its concentration on probiotic characteristics of the beverages has been studied for developing the formulation and technology of pectin beverages. Samples of sour-milk products with dry pectin (Unipectin OB 700) and liquid one (pectin apple extract is produced by SunLand) was made. Sour milk microorganisms and bifidobacteria content were defined. High sour milk microorganisms and bifidobacteria content as well as high rate in souring were revealed in the preparatory...

  8. Biosynthesis of pectin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheller, Henrik Vibe; Jensen, Jacob Krüger; Sørensen, Susanne Oxenbøll; Harholt, Jesper; Geshi, Naomi

    2007-01-01

    Pectin consists of a group of acidic polysaccharides that constitute a large part of the cell wall of plants. The pectic polysaccharides have a complex structure but can generally be divided into homogalacturonan, rhamnogalacturonan I, rhamnogalacturonan II (RGII) and xylogalacturonan (XGA). These...... polysaccharides appear to be present in all cells but their relative abundance and structural details differ between cell types and species. Pectin is synthesized in the Golgi vesicles and its complexity dictates that a large number of enzymes must be involved in the process. The biosynthetic enzymes required are...... glycosyltransferases and decorating enzymes including methyltransferases, acetyltransferases and feruloyltransferases. Biochemical methods successfully led to the recent identification of a pectin biosynthetic galacturonosyltransferase (GAUT1), and recent functional genomics and mutant studies have allowed the...

  9. Electrosorption of pectin onto casein micelles

    OpenAIRE

    Tuinier, R.; Rolin, C.; de Kruif, C.G.

    2002-01-01

    Pectin, a polysaccharide derived from plant cells of fruit, is commonly used as stabilizer in acidified milk drinks. To gain a better understanding of the way that pectin stabilizes these drinks, we studied the adsorption and layer thickness of pectin on casein micelles in skim milk dispersions. Dynamic light scattering was used to measure the layer thickness of adsorbed pectin onto casein micelles in situ during acidification. The results indicate that the adsorption of pectin onto casein mi...

  10. A differential medium for the isolation and rapid identification of a plant soft rot pathogen, Erwinia chrysanthemi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yung-An; Yu, Cheng-Pin

    2006-02-01

    A medium was developed for the isolation and differentiation of Erwinia chrysanthemi from other Erwinia spp. based on the production of blue-pigmented indigoidine. The medium, named NGM, consists of nutrient agar supplemented with 1% glycerol, that induces pigment production, and 2 mM MnCl2*4H2O, that further enhances color development. More than fifty E. chrysanthemi strains from six different plant hosts were tested. All tested strains of E. chrysanthemi grew well on the NGM medium, developing dark brownish to blue colonies easily distinguishable from other Erwinia spp. The results indicate that pigment production on the NGM medium is a very stable property and can be used as a phenotypic property to differentiate E. chrysanthemi from other Erwinia spp. In addition, a specific oligonucleotide primer set was designed for the detection of indC, which is involved in indigoidine biosynthesis. All E. chrysanthemi strains tested contained indC as determined by PCR amplification. No amplification was observed with other Erwinia spp. Thus, pigment production of E. chrysanthemi on the NGM medium is consistent with the existence of indC. The NGM medium was used to isolate and identify the causal agent of soft rot lesions of diseased Phalaenopsis orchids from three orchid cultivation areas in Taiwan. The causal agents of Phalaenopsis soft rot were all identified as E. chrysanthemi. The results indicate that the NGM medium is efficient in isolation and identification of E. chrysanthemi from plants with soft rot symptoms and can also be used for epidemiological studies. PMID:15927293

  11. Promotion of Testa Rupture during Garden Cress Germination Involves Seed Compartment-Specific Expression and Activity of Pectin Methylesterases

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Scheler, C.; Weitbrecht, K.; Pearce, S.; Hampstead, A.; Buettner-Mainik, A.; Lee, K.J.D.; Voegele, A.; Mueller, K.; Leubner-Metzger, Gerhard

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 167, č. 1 (2015), s. 200-215. ISSN 0032-0889 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : AVOCADO PERSEA-AMERICANA * ARABIDOPSIS-THALIANA * LEPIDIUM-SATIVUM Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 6.841, year: 2014

  12. Complex formation ions with macromolecules pectin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article describe the sorption properties of N M pectin from sunflowers. It is shown than calcium ion binding to the pectin carboxylic group differ from that of zinc ions and describe cooperative character -

  13. Complex formation ions calcium with macromolecules pectin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In clause the mechanism of sorption of ions of calcium by macromolecules of pectin is opened. Is shown, that the linkage of ions of calcium descends on acid bunches of pectin, and process carries cooperative character

  14. 21 CFR 184.1588 - Pectins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Pectins. 184.1588 Section 184.1588 Food and Drugs... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1588 Pectins. (a) The pectins (CAS Reg. No. 9000-69-5) are a group of... Reg. No. 9000-59-8) salts, and in some types as the acid amide. Thus, the pectins regulated in...

  15. PECTIN BEVERAGES WITH PROBIOTIC CHARACTERISTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogneva O. A.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The impact of pectins and its concentration on probiotic characteristics of the beverages has been studied for developing the formulation and technology of pectin beverages. Samples of sour-milk products with dry pectin (Unipectin OB 700 and liquid one (pectin apple extract is produced by SunLand was made. Sour milk microorganisms and bifidobacteria content were defined. High sour milk microorganisms and bifidobacteria content as well as high rate in souring were revealed in the preparatory samples. However, liquid pectin is easier in use. Consequently, the formulation of pectin extract beverages was developed and optimized by using Mathematical Modeling. The samples of beverages were produced and their quality characteristics were evaluated. An optimal fruit/vegetable fillers / whey ration was defined to get the product which combined balanced micronutrient composition, its functional activities and gustatory qualities. For that a three-factor simplex-centroid design was used. The samples produced according to the design matrix were tasted and evaluated by color, flavor, aroma and consistency according to the ten score points scale. The findings were processed with statistical and graphical analysis. The last one used the construction of ternary graphs with the help of «Statistica 7,0» program that allowed to define the most acceptable ranges of fruit/vegetable fillers / whey components in the beverages: fruit juice – 4-16%; pumpkin juice-4-16%; whey -4%. Chemical composition, organoleptical indicators and physicochemical parameters of ready-to drink beverages were examined. As a result, these beverages have been recommended for school feeding as the source of dietary fiber, minerals and vitamins

  16. Role of endoglucanases in Erwinia chrysanthemi 3937 virulence on Saintpaulia ionantha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boccara, M; Aymeric, J L; Camus, C

    1994-03-01

    The role of endoglucanases (endoglucanases Z and Y) in Erwinia chrysanthemi pathogenicity on Saintpaulia ionantha was assessed by mutagenizing cloned cel genes (celZ and celY) and recombining them with the chromosomal alleles. Strains with an omega interposon in celZ, a deletion in celY, or a double cel mutant were as virulent as the wild-type strain. However, in the strain with a deletion in celY, a delay in the appearance of symptoms was observed, and then maceration progressed as in plants infected with the wild-type strain, suggesting that E. chrysanthemi endoglucanases play a minor role in soft rot disease development. PMID:8113196

  17. Flavohaemoglobin HmpX: a new pathogenicity determinant in Erwinia chrysanthemi strain 3937.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favey, S; Labesse, G; Vouille, V; Boccara, M

    1995-04-01

    Unlike wild-type Erwinia chrysanthemi strain 3937, which fully macerates inoculated Saintpaulia plants, HmpX- mutants produce necrotic lesions or no symptoms. The hmpX gene was sequenced and the corresponding protein sequence analysed. We show that HmpX belongs to a family of flavohaemoproteins (HMP), previously identified in two yeasts and in Escherichia coli. Comparisons of protein sequences at the secondary structure level by hydrophobic cluster analysis have shown that HmpX possesses two functional regions, a haemoglobin domain in its N-terminal part and a flavin reductase domain in its C-terminal part. In an HmpX- strain, the synthesis of pectate lyases, which are pathogenicity determinants in E. chrysanthemi, was reduced in conditions of low oxygen tension. Using gus fusion in hmpX, it was shown that hmpX transcription was induced in coculture with tobacco cells. A putative function for HmpX is discussed. PMID:7773389

  18. Bacteriocin-resistant mutants of Erwinia chrysanthemi: possible involvement of iron acquisition in phytopathogenicity.

    OpenAIRE

    Expert, D; A. Toussaint

    1985-01-01

    A series of bacteriocin-resistant mutants of Erwinia chrysanthemi 3937JRH were unable to elicit soft-rot symptoms on saintpaulia plants. The loss of pathogenicity was correlated with the disappearance of one to three outer membrane polypeptides (molecular weights, about 80,000 to 90,000) whose production in wild-type strains was greatly enhanced under iron-limited growth conditions. The mutants did not exhibit altered extracellular pectinolytic or cellulolytic activities.

  19. Bacteriocin-resistant mutants of Erwinia chrysanthemi: possible involvement of iron acquisition in phytopathogenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Expert, D; Toussaint, A

    1985-07-01

    A series of bacteriocin-resistant mutants of Erwinia chrysanthemi 3937JRH were unable to elicit soft-rot symptoms on saintpaulia plants. The loss of pathogenicity was correlated with the disappearance of one to three outer membrane polypeptides (molecular weights, about 80,000 to 90,000) whose production in wild-type strains was greatly enhanced under iron-limited growth conditions. The mutants did not exhibit altered extracellular pectinolytic or cellulolytic activities. PMID:4008442

  20. The PecT repressor coregulates synthesis of exopolysaccharides and virulence factors in Erwinia chrysanthemi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condemine, G; Castillo, A; Passeri, F; Enard, C

    1999-01-01

    Erwinia chrysanthemi 3937 synthesizes an exopolysaccharide (EPS) composed of rhamnose, galactose, and galacturonic acid. Fourteen transcriptional fusions in genes required for EPS synthesis, named eps, were obtained by Tn5-B21 mutagenesis. Eleven of them are clustered on the chromosome and are repressed by PecT, a regulator of pectate lyase synthesis. In addition, expression of these fusions is repressed by the catabolite regulatory protein, CRP, and induced in low osmolarity medium. The three other mutations are located in genes that are not regulated by pecT. A 13-kb DNA fragment containing pecT-regulated eps genes has been cloned. All the genes identified on this fragment are transcribed in the same orientation and could form a large operon. The promoter region of this operon has been sequenced. It contains a JUMP-start sequence, a sequence required for the expression of polysaccharide-associated operons. E. chrysanthemi 3937 produces a systemic soft rot on its host Saintpaulia ionantha. An eps mutant was less efficient than the wild-type strain in initiating a maceration symptom, suggesting that production of EPS is required for the full expression of the E. chrysanthemi virulence. PMID:9885192

  1. Isolation, characterization and modification of citrus pectins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIA KRATCHANOVA

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Orange and lemon peels were used for obtaining pectic polysaccharides. Citrus peels were previously treated with 96% ethanol, and the obtained alcohol-insoluble solids (AIS were subjected to a sequential extraction with hot distilled water and hot 0.5% HCl. Water- and acid-extracted orange (WEOP and AEOP and lemon (WELP and AELP pectins were obtained. Acid extraction gave higher yields of pectin than water extraction and lemon peels were richer in pectin. Comparative investigations were carried out with chromatographically purified commercial citrus pectin (CPCP. Chemical and physicochemical characterization of all pectins was accomplished. It was found that pectins were similar in anhydrouronic acid content (AUАC, 69-81%, but differed in their degree of methylesterification (DM, 55-81%. Generally water-extracted pectins were with higher DM. Both orange pectins were with higher DM and degree of acetylation (DA, 2%, in comparison with the corresponding lemon pectins. Water-extracted pectins were with higher degree of feruloylation (DF, 0.12-0.34%. To our knowledge this is the first report on the estimation of ester-linked ferulic acid in orange and lemon peel pectins. Pectic polysaccharides differed in molecular weight and homogeneity. WELP was with the highest molecular weight and homogeneity. The pectins contained D-galacturonic and D-glucuronic acids, L-arabinose, D-galactose, L-fucose, L-rhamnose and D-xylose. All investigated pectins showed immunostimulating activity by complement activation in the classical pathway at 1.25 and 2.5 mg/mL. Pectic polysaccharides were modified with endopolygalacturonase. Enzyme-modified CPCP and WEOP had higher anti-complementary activity than the corresponding initial pectins.

  2. Biodegradable Pectin/clay Aerogels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biodegradable, foamlike materials based on renewable pectin and sodium montmorillonite clay were fabricated through a simple, environmentally friendly freeze-drying process. Addition of multivalent cations (Ca2+ and Al3+) resulted in apparent crosslinking of the polymer, and enhancement of aerogel p...

  3. Protein (Viridiplantae): 15222772 [PGDBj - Ortholog DB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DLCKHSDDPNLCLSSITSRPESGEFAGTSNQIEIIAISAASANASATSSYIKQKLSNEDLEPAIEDTLEDCQKDYQDAVEQLDDSISAMLADAHTDVDVWLSAAISAIESCGSALGSRAGNDAELSQRNEVFLKLCKNALMINKMLT ... ...rtase/pectin methylesterase inhibitor domain-containing protein Arabidopsis thaliana MKQSAGVLFLCIVLISFVTGNANSGMIS

  4. Structural Biology of Pectin Degradation by Enterobacteriaceae

    OpenAIRE

    Abbott, D. Wade; Boraston, Alisdair B.

    2008-01-01

    Pectin is a structural polysaccharide that is integral for the stability of plant cell walls. During soft rot infection, secreted virulence factors from pectinolytic bacteria such as Erwinia spp. degrade pectin, resulting in characteristic plant cell necrosis and tissue maceration. Catabolism of pectin and its breakdown products by pectinolytic bacteria occurs within distinct cellular environments. This process initiates outside the cell, continues within the periplasmic space, and culminates...

  5. An array of possibilities for pectin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Iben; Pedersen, Henriette Lodberg; Willats, William G T

    2008-01-01

    Pectins are a major component of plant cell walls and have numerous roles in plant growth and development. Extracted pectins are widely used as functional food ingredients in products including ice creams, jams, jellies and milk drinks. Although all are based on a galacturonan-rich backbone...

  6. Mechanical Energy Absorption of Pectin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zsivanovits, G.

    2007-04-01

    Pectin film samples were prepared from HM, LM and amidated pectins produced by CP Kelco and Danisco, with acidic and enzymatic de-esterification and amidation. The swelling of samples were indicated by hydration before the experiments for 24 h by PEG20000 solution, on known osmotic pressure, with Ca, Mg and K ions with different concentrations. Mechanical tests were followed by Stable Micro Systems penetrometer, with stress-relaxation method, in elastic deformation section. Results show, that the energy absorption depends on the pectin type, on the hydration and the ion concentration. Based on this type experiments it is possible to choose the best pectin type for different uses - as a packaging material in different occasions, or modeling pectin changes during physiological changing in the cell-wall etc.

  7. Iron Deficiency Induced by Chrysobactin in Saintpaulia Leaves Inoculated with Erwinia chrysanthemi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neema, C.; Laulhere, J. P.; Expert, D.

    1993-07-01

    In this communication, we examine the fate of iron during soft rot pathogenesis caused by Erwinia chrysanthemi on its host, Saintpaulia ionantha. The spread of soft rot caused by this enterobacterium was previously shown to depend on a functional genetic locus encoding a high-affinity iron assimilation system involving the catechol-type siderophore chrysobactin. Leaf intercellular fluid from healthy plants was analyzed with regard to the iron content and its availability for bacterial growth. It was compared to the fluid from diseased plants for the presence of strong iron ligands, using a new approach based on the iron-binding property of an ion-exchange resin. Further characterization allowed the identification of chrysobactin in diseased tissues, thus providing the first evidence for the external release of a microbial siderophore during pathogenesis. Competition for nutritional iron was also studied through a plant-bacterial cell system: iron incorporated into plant ferritin appeared to be considerably reduced in bacteria-treated suspension soybean cells. The same effect was visualized during treatment of soybean cells with axenic leaf intercellular fluid from E. chrysanthemi-inoculated saintpaulia leaves or with chrysobactin. PMID:12231882

  8. Characterization and virulence properties of Erwinia chrysanthemi lipopolysaccharide-defective, phi EC2-resistant mutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoonejans, E; Expert, D; Toussaint, A

    1987-09-01

    Outer membrane alterations were characterized in spontaneous mutants of the Erwinia chrysanthemi 3937jRH, which were selected for resistance to bacteriophage phi EC2. All but one of the mutants analyzed were affected in their lipopolysaccharide (LPS) structure, lacking the entire heterogeneous region of apparent high molecular weight present in the wild-type E. chrysanthemi LPS. At least two 3937jRH mutants, one selected as phi EC2 resistant (RH6065) and the other previously selected (D. Expert and A. Toussaint, J. Bacteriol. 163:221-227, 1985) as bacteriocin resistant (R1456), were cross-resistant to bacteriophage Mu and had rough LPSs with an altered core structure. Two phi EC2r mutants (RH6053 and RH6065) were most severely affected in their outer membrane integrity and also lost their virulence on saintpaulia plants, although they still possessed normal extracellular levels of pectinolytic and cellulolytic activities. The two Mur mutants RH6065 and R1456 were also able to induce systemic resistance in the challenged plant. All the other phi EC2r mutants retained the virulence of 393jRH. PMID:3624200

  9. Microbial Production of Pectin from Citrus Peel

    OpenAIRE

    Sakai, Takuo; Okushima, Minoru

    1980-01-01

    A new method for the production of pectin from citrus peel was developed. For this purpose, a microorganism which produces a protopectin-solubilizing enzyme was isolated and identified as a variety of Trichosporon penicillatum. The most suitable conditions for the pectin production were determined as follows. Citrus (Citrus unshiu) peel was suspended in water (1:2, wt/vol), the organism was added, and fermentation proceeded over 15 to 20 h at 30°C. During the fermentation, the pectin in the p...

  10. Nature of pectin-protein-catechin interactions in model systems: pectin-protein-catechin interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Guang-Yuan; Diao, Hua-Juan; Zong, Wei

    2013-04-01

    Apple pectins, proteins and catechins were combined in model systems, and the resulting hazes were measured by spectrophotometric method, a zeta potential and particle size analyzer and Ostwald viscosimeter. The amount of hazes formed depends on the concentrations of both protein and pectin. The cooperative hydrogen bonding between the numerous hydroxyl groups of pectins and hydrone and the gel-like structure developed by pectin induced the solvation or solubilization of polymers, and the protein molecule has a fixed number of polyphenol binding sites. The influence of pectin relative molecular mass and degree of esterification on the formation of suspended particles is prominent, and this makes the number of hydroxyl groups and charge of pectin which is concerned with combining protein and catechin to change a lot. More haze was observed when model systems were heated, suggesting that hydrophobic groups of protein are beneficial to their binding with phenols and pectins. The pH value affects the charged state of the protein and pectin, which influences the combination of pectin-gliadin-catechin. PMID:23382557

  11. Characterization of indigoidine biosynthetic genes in Erwinia chrysanthemi and role of this blue pigment in pathogenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reverchon, Sylvie; Rouanet, Carine; Expert, Dominique; Nasser, William

    2002-02-01

    In the plant-pathogenic bacterium Erwinia chrysanthemi production of pectate lyases, the main virulence determinant, is modulated by a complex network involving several regulatory proteins. One of these regulators, PecS, also controls the synthesis of a blue pigment identified as indigoidine. Since production of this pigment is cryptic in the wild-type strain, E. chrysanthemi ind mutants deficient in indigoidine synthesis were isolated by screening a library of Tn5-B21 insertions in a pecS mutant. These ind mutations were localized close to the regulatory pecS-pecM locus, immediately downstream of pecM. Sequence analysis of this DNA region revealed three open reading frames, indA, indB, and indC, involved in indigoidine biosynthesis. No specific function could be assigned to IndA. In contrast, IndB displays similarity to various phosphatases involved in antibiotic synthesis and IndC reveals significant homology with many nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPS). The IndC product contains an adenylation domain showing the signature sequence DAWCFGLI for glutamine recognition and an oxidation domain similar to that found in various thiazole-forming NRPS. These data suggest that glutamine is the precursor of indigoidine. We assume that indigoidine results from the condensation of two glutamine molecules that have been previously cyclized by intramolecular amide bond formation and then dehydrogenated. Expression of ind genes is strongly derepressed in the pecS background, indicating that PecS is the main regulator of this secondary metabolite synthesis. DNA band shift assays support a model whereby the PecS protein represses indA and indC expression by binding to indA and indC promoter regions. The regulatory link, via pecS, between indigoidine and virulence factor production led us to explore a potential role of indigoidine in E. chrysanthemi pathogenicity. Mutants impaired in indigoidine production were unable to cause systemic invasion of potted Saintpaulia ionantha

  12. Material properties of concentrated pectin networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zsivanovits, Gabor; MacDougall, Alistair J; Smith, Andrew C; Ring, Stephen G

    2004-05-17

    We have examined the mechanical behaviour of different types of pectin at high concentrations (> 30% w/w), relevant to the behaviour of pectin in the plant cell wall, and as a film-forming agent. Mechanical properties were examined as a function of counterion type (K(+), Ca(2+), Mg(2+)), concentration and extent of hydration. Hydration was controlled in an osmotic stress experiment where pectin films were exposed to concentrated polyethylene glycol [PEG] solutions of known osmotic pressure. We investigated the mechanical behaviour under simple extension. The results show that the swelling and stiffness of the films are strongly dependent on pectin source and ionic environment. At a fixed osmotic stress, both Ca(2+) or Mg(2+) counterions reduce swelling and increase the stiffness of the film. PMID:15113669

  13. A novel perspective on pectin extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dominiak, Malgorzata Maria

    comparable with pectins obtained in a classical way. In the future it would be beneficial to optimize the Laminex C2K production strain (Penicillium funiculosum) by molecular design to delete the residual pectinolytic activity and include plant cell wall hydrolases. Pectin production is complex and therefore...... generation of large volumes of acidic effluent, which require further treatment before release. The main focus of this PhD study was to replace acid with enzymes and thereby achieve sustainable, green production of pectin. The first goal was to prove that an enzyme-based process could generate pectin with...... its optimization is a long process because the evaluation of the final product quality is accomplished at the end of the procedure, employing time-consuming off-line laboratory tests. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and carbohydrate microarrays, combined with chemometrics, were...

  14. Sedimentation measurements of apple pectins molecular weight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article is described the sedimentation measurements of a number of apple pectin's molecular weight using only sedimentation diagrams through computer program. This approach has good readability and some advantages over others

  15. Characteristics, Enzymatic Extraction of Pectin from Shaddock

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Pectins had been extracted from shaddock raw material with 0.01 mol·L-1 HGl and with three enzymic preparations including cellulase from aspergillus oryzaei, β -glucosidase from almonds and protopectinases-T, a protopectin-solubilizing enzyme, which did not degrade polygalacturonic acid. The effects of enzymic and acid soluhilization of pectin from shaddock materials were compared. The yield of pectin preparations, degree of acetylation, gelling strength, molecular weight and viscosity were determined. Enzymic methods of extraction gave much bigger yields of pectic substances. Compared with the pectin extracted with hydrochloric acid, all the samples derived from shaddock raw material with enzymic preparations had a significant lower D-galacturonic acid content.

  16. Microcapsules from sunflower pectin and whey lactoglobulin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The process for microcapsule formation through interfacial reaction of sunflower pectin and whey lactoglobulin in oil/water emulsion are presented. It's shown that the formation of stable emulsion and efficiency of Piroxicam encapsulation depend on biopolymers nature, it's ratio, a pectin chain conformation, ph and ionic strength. The particle size, distribution and it's quantity in volume unit were determined using biological microscope using Motic Advanced 3.2 software. (author)

  17. Preparation of Pectin-ZnO Nanocomposite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, L.; Gunasekaran, S.

    2008-12-01

    Pectin-ZnO nanocomposite was prepared in the aqueous solution condition at room temperature. The Fourier transform infrared, X-ray diffraction, and transmission electron microscope (TEM) measurements confirmed the nanoscaled structure of pectin-ZnO composite. According to the TEM observation, the average composite granules size was about 150 nm and the embedded ZnO nanoparticles were uniform with an average diameter of 70 nm.

  18. Interaction between pectin and rat hindgut microflora.

    OpenAIRE

    Mallett, A K; Rowland, I. R.; Wise, A

    1983-01-01

    The contents of the lower alimentary tract from rats fed a semisynthetic, pectin-supplemented diet showed increased nitrate reductase activity and an increase in the amount of luminal contents in the intestine and cecum. Nitrate reductase activity was associated with the insoluble fraction of the gut contents which was sedimented by centrifugation (5,100 X g,20 min) and was abolished after treating the animals with streptomycin, neomycin, and bacitracin for 7 days. The pectin-dependent increa...

  19. Simultaneous determination of 50 residual pesticides in Flos Chrysanthemi using accelerated solvent extraction and gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiaohui; Zhao, Xinghui; Lu, Xiaotong; Tian, Huaiping; Xu, Ajing; Liu, Yan; Jian, Zhang

    2014-09-15

    A gas chromatographic method for simultaneous determination of 50 organochlorine (OCP) and pyrethroid (PP) pesticides in Flos Chrysanthemi was established. Accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) technique was used to extract the target compounds, cleaned with alumina neutral-florisil column, and eluted by mixed solvents of ethyl acetate and hexane (15:85, v/v). Selected pesticides were identified using HP-5 and DB1701 capillary dual column and detected by electron-capture detector. Quantitative analysis was performed using an external standard by HP-5 capillary column. Results showed that recoveries were 73.4-120.1%, and the relative standard deviations (RSDs) were 1.6-12.4%. The limits of detection of the method were 0.0021-0.0069 mg/kg, and the limits of quantity were 0.0064-0.0210 mg/kg. PMID:25062509

  20. Systemic virulence of Erwinia chrysanthemi 3937 requires a functional iron assimilation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enard, C; Diolez, A; Expert, D

    1988-06-01

    In Erwinia chrysanthemi, conditions of iron starvation initiate production of a catechol-type siderophore and enhance production of three outer membrane polypeptides. Twenty-two mutants affected in the different stages of this iron assimilation system were isolated by mini-Mu insertion mutagenesis. All of them failed to induce systemic soft rot on axenically grown Saintpaulia plants. From the siderophore auxotrophs and the iron uptake mutants, clones having recovered the missing function(s) were isolated by using the in vivo cloning vector pULB113 (RP4::mini-Mu). An R-prime plasmid containing a ca. 35.5-kilobase-pair DNA insert was identified. Restoration of the iron functions restored partially, if not completely, the virulence of the parental strain. PMID:3372473

  1. Radiation sensitivity of different citric pectins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inamura, Patricia Y.; Mastro, Nelida L. del [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mails: patyoko@yahoo.com; nlmastro@ipen.br

    2007-07-01

    Pectic substances are important soluble polysaccharides of plant origin of considerable interest for food industry as gelling agent and stabilizer in jams, fruit jellies, yogurt drinks and lactic acid beverages. Polysaccharides can be degraded by ionizing radiation due to the free radical induced scission of the glycosidic bonds. Viscosity methods had been used to determine the efficiency of hydroxyl radical induced chain breaks generation in macromolecules. In the present work samples of pectin with different degree of methoxylation were employed in order to study their radiation sensitivity by means of viscosity measurements. Samples of citric pectin 1% solutions were irradiated with gamma rays at different doses, ranging from 0 to 15 kGy, using a {sup 60}Co Gammacell 220 (AECL), dose rate about 2 kGy/h. After irradiation the viscosity was measured on the viscometer Brookfield model LV-DVIII at 50, 60 and 70 deg C within a period of 48h. Pectin viscosity with high degree of methoxylation decreased sharply with the radiation dose remaining almost constant from 10 kGy. Pectin with low degree of methoxylation presented initially higher values of viscosity and the radiation induced decrease was also pronounced. Viscosity measurements decreased with the increase of the temperature applied for both kind of samples. The effect of radiation induced chain breaks generation in pectin molecules was evident through the viscosity reduction of irradiated pectin solutions although the viscosity presented diverse values depending of the degree of methoxylation of carboxyl groups in the backbone of polysaccharide macromolecules. (author)

  2. Radiation sensitivity of different citric pectins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pectic substances are important soluble polysaccharides of plant origin of considerable interest for food industry as gelling agent and stabilizer in jams, fruit jellies, yogurt drinks and lactic acid beverages. Polysaccharides can be degraded by ionizing radiation due to the free radical induced scission of the glycosidic bonds. Viscosity methods had been used to determine the efficiency of hydroxyl radical induced chain breaks generation in macromolecules. In the present work samples of pectin with different degree of methoxylation were employed in order to study their radiation sensitivity by means of viscosity measurements. Samples of citric pectin 1% solutions were irradiated with gamma rays at different doses, ranging from 0 to 15 kGy, using a 60Co Gammacell 220 (AECL), dose rate about 2 kGy/h. After irradiation the viscosity was measured on the viscometer Brookfield model LV-DVIII at 50, 60 and 70 deg C within a period of 48h. Pectin viscosity with high degree of methoxylation decreased sharply with the radiation dose remaining almost constant from 10 kGy. Pectin with low degree of methoxylation presented initially higher values of viscosity and the radiation induced decrease was also pronounced. Viscosity measurements decreased with the increase of the temperature applied for both kind of samples. The effect of radiation induced chain breaks generation in pectin molecules was evident through the viscosity reduction of irradiated pectin solutions although the viscosity presented diverse values depending of the degree of methoxylation of carboxyl groups in the backbone of polysaccharide macromolecules. (author)

  3. Differential Effects of Nitrogen Forms on Cell Wall Phosphorus Remobilization Are Mediated by Nitric Oxide, Pectin Content, and Phosphate Transporter Expression1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Chun Quan; Zhu, Xiao Fang; Hu, An Yong; Wang, Chao; Dong, Xiao Ying; Shen, Ren-Fang

    2016-01-01

    NH4+ is a major source of inorganic nitrogen for rice (Oryza sativa), and NH4+ is known to stimulate the uptake of phosphorus (P). However, it is unclear whether NH4+ can also stimulate P remobilization when rice is grown under P-deficient conditions. In this study, we use the two rice cultivars ‘Nipponbare’ and ‘Kasalath’ that differ in their cell wall P reutilization, to demonstrate that NH4+ positively regulates the pectin content and activity of pectin methylesterase in root cell walls under −P conditions, thereby remobilizing more P from the cell wall and increasing soluble P in roots and shoots. Interestingly, our results show that more NO (nitric oxide) was produced in the rice root when NH4+ was applied as the sole nitrogen source compared with the NO3−. The effect of NO on the reutilization of P from the cell walls was further demonstrated through the application of the NO donor SNP (sodium nitroprusside) and c-PTIO (NO scavenger 2-(4-carboxyphenyl)-4, 4, 5, 5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide). What’s more, the P-transporter gene OsPT2 is up-regulated under NH4+ supplementation and is therefore involved in the stimulated P remobilization. In conclusion, our data provide novel (to our knowledge) insight into the regulatory mechanism by which NH4+ stimulates Pi reutilization in cell walls of rice. PMID:27208223

  4. Differential Effects of Nitrogen Forms on Cell Wall Phosphorus Remobilization Are Mediated by Nitric Oxide, Pectin Content, and Phosphate Transporter Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Chun Quan; Zhu, Xiao Fang; Hu, An Yong; Wang, Chao; Wang, Bin; Dong, Xiao Ying; Shen, Ren-Fang

    2016-06-01

    NH4 (+) is a major source of inorganic nitrogen for rice (Oryza sativa), and NH4 (+) is known to stimulate the uptake of phosphorus (P). However, it is unclear whether NH4 (+) can also stimulate P remobilization when rice is grown under P-deficient conditions. In this study, we use the two rice cultivars 'Nipponbare' and 'Kasalath' that differ in their cell wall P reutilization, to demonstrate that NH4 (+) positively regulates the pectin content and activity of pectin methylesterase in root cell walls under -P conditions, thereby remobilizing more P from the cell wall and increasing soluble P in roots and shoots. Interestingly, our results show that more NO (nitric oxide) was produced in the rice root when NH4 (+) was applied as the sole nitrogen source compared with the NO3 (-) The effect of NO on the reutilization of P from the cell walls was further demonstrated through the application of the NO donor SNP (sodium nitroprusside) and c-PTIO (NO scavenger 2-(4-carboxyphenyl)-4, 4, 5, 5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide). What's more, the P-transporter gene OsPT2 is up-regulated under NH4 (+) supplementation and is therefore involved in the stimulated P remobilization. In conclusion, our data provide novel (to our knowledge) insight into the regulatory mechanism by which NH4 (+) stimulates Pi reutilization in cell walls of rice. PMID:27208223

  5. Proto pectin degradation of raw material by the acid hydrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article presents results of hydrolysis proto pectin apples, an orange and a basket of sunflower depending on ph a solution. The reaction products are divided into three fractions conditionally named as micro gel, pectin substances and oligosaccharide. It was shown that the high-quality pectin extracted from orange, but high percentage of carboxylic group in the sunflower pectin allow it to by used as a drug delivery materials

  6. Mechanical characterization of calcium pectinate hydrogel for controlled drug delivery

    OpenAIRE

    Chung Jin Thau; Zhibing Zhang

    2003-01-01

    Calcium pectinate beads, a paniculate hydrogel system, is an attractive drug carrier for oral delivery. In this study, a poorly water-soluble model drug indomethacin was incorporated into calcium pectinate beads made of different pectin concentrations, which were produced by an extrusion method. The effect of pectin concentration on bead size, circularity, swelling behavior, and mechanical properties, as well as in vitro drug release profile was investigated. The mechanical properties of calc...

  7. Microcapsules from low methylated pectins and whey lactoglobulin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The comparative study of microcapsule formation processes through interfacial reaction of different low methylated pectins and concentrate of whey lactoglobulin, in o/w emulsion systems are presented. It is shown that the formation of stable emulsion and efficiency of drug encapsulation depends on biopolymers nature, it's ratio, pectins local charge density and molar mass. Among studied pectins the microcapsules formed from H M-apple pectin has advantageous in particle number, size and drug loading efficiency. (author)

  8. Hydrodynamical properties of pectin derivatives at different temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article is devoted to hydrodynamical properties of pectin derivatives at different temperatures. The influence of temperature on viscosity of pectin derivatives extracted from oranges, apples and sunflower at 20-60degC was studied. It was shown that the temperature was inversely proportional to the viscosity of pectin derivatives.

  9. Study of complex formation between different pectins with lactoglobulin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study describes the complex formation of different pectins obtained from apple pomace, sunflower head and citruses pectin at the low ph. The insoluble complexes formed were investigated using turbid-dimeric, potentiometric and conductometric methods. The nature of resulted complexes manly depends on the pectin methyl ether formation pattern and molecular weight

  10. Purification and Characterization of a Unique Pectin Lyase from Aspergillus giganteus Able to Release Unsaturated Monogalacturonate during Pectin Degradation

    OpenAIRE

    Danielle Biscaro Pedrolli; Eleonora Cano Carmona

    2014-01-01

    A pectin lyase, named PLIII, was purified to homogeneity from the culture filtrate of Aspergillus giganteus grown in submerged culture containing orange peel waste as carbon source. PLIII was able to digest apple pectin and citrus pectins with different degrees of methyl esterification. Interestingly, the PLIII activity was stimulated in the presence of some divalent cations including Pb2+ and was not significantly affected by Hg2+. Like other pectin lyases, PLIII is stimulated by but is not ...

  11. Effect of degree of esterification of pectin and calcium amount on drug release from pectin-based matrix tablets

    OpenAIRE

    Sungthongjeen, Srisagul; Sriamornsak, Pornsak; Pitaksuteepong, Tasana; Somsiri, Atawit; Puttipipatkhachorn, Satit

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this work was to assess the effect of 2 formulation variables, the pectin type (with different degrees of esterification [DEs]) and the amount of calcium, on drug release from pectin-based matrix tablets. Pectin matrix tablets were prepared by blending indomethacin (a model drug), pectin powder, and various amounts of calcium acetate and then tableting by automatic hydraulic press machine. Differential scanning calorimetry, powder x-ray diffraction, and Fourier transformed-infrared...

  12. Chitosan-Pectin Synergistic Interaction and Gelation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Mixed gels of chitosan-pectin were prepared by varying the ratio of constituents in the presence of NaCl. Mixed gel at 3% of total polysaccharide concentration with addtion of 12% NaCl showed a synergistic maximum when the ratio of chitosan to pectin was 60 : 40. The effect of the polysaccharide concentration,the preparation temperature(Tp), the time of incubation, balk salt concentration, the molecular weight and the degree of deacetylation of chitosan on gelation have been studied. Interaction mechanism between molecules of both polysaccharides was investigated by FT-IR spectrometry.

  13. Novel modified pectin for heavy metal adsorption

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Ting Li; Hong Yang; Yan Zhao; Ran Xu

    2007-01-01

    Modified pectin cross-linked with adipic acid, was synthesized and used for heavy metal removal from wastewater. SEM and FrIR were used to investigate its structure and morphology. The modified pectin had a rough, porous phase covered with carboxy groups, resulting a high adsorption capacity. And at the room temperature, the saturated loading capacity for Pb2+, Cu2+ and Zn2+ reached 1.82 mmol/g, 1.794 mmol/g and 0.964 mmol/g, respectively. The results proved its potential application to remove of the heavy metal.

  14. Optimization of pectin extraction and antioxidant activities from Jerusalem artichoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shengyi; Shi, Xuejie; Xu, Lanlan; Yi, Yuetao

    2016-03-01

    Jerusalem artichoke is an economic crop widely planted in saline-alkaline soil. The use of Jerusalem artichoke is of great significance. In this study, the response surface method was employed to optimize the effects of processing variables (extraction temperature, pH, extraction time, and liquid-to-solid ratio) on the yield of Jerusalem artichoke pectin. Under the optimal extraction conditions: pH 1.52, 63.62 min, 100°C and a liquid-to-solid ratio of 44.4 mL/g, the maximum pectin yield was predicted to be 18.76%. Experiments were conducted under these optimal conditions and a pectin yield of 18.52±0.90% was obtained, which validated the model prediction. The effects of diff erent drying methods (freeze drying, spray drying and vacuum drying) on the properties of Jerusalem artichoke pectin were evaluated and they were compared with apple pectin. FTIR spectral analysis showed no major structural diff erences in Jerusalem artichoke pectin samples produced by various drying treatments. The antioxidant activities of pectin dried by diff erent methods were investigated using in vitro hydroxyl and DPPH radical scavenging systems. The results revealed that the activities of spray dried pectin (SDP) and apple pectin (AP) were stronger than those of vacuum oven dried pectin (ODP) and vacuum freeze dried pectin (FDP). Therefore compared with the other two drying methods, the spray drying method was the best.

  15. Pectin content and composition from different food waste streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller-Maatsch, Judith; Bencivenni, Mariangela; Caligiani, Augusta; Tedeschi, Tullia; Bruggeman, Geert; Bosch, Montse; Petrusan, Janos; Van Droogenbroeck, Bart; Elst, Kathy; Sforza, Stefano

    2016-06-15

    In the present paper, 26 food waste streams were selected according to their exploitation potential and investigated in terms of pectin content. The isolated pectin, subdivided into calcium bound and alkaline extractable pectin, was fully characterized in terms of uronic acid and other sugar composition, methylation and acetylation degree. It was shown that many waste streams can be a valuable source of pectin, but also that pectin structures present a huge structural diversity, resulting in a broad range of pectin structures. These can have different physicochemical and biological properties, which are useful in a wide range of applications. Even if the data could not cover all the possible batch by batch and country variabilities, to date this represents the most complete pectin characterization from food waste streams ever reported in the literature with a homogeneous methodology. PMID:26868545

  16. Differential role of ferritins in iron metabolism and virulence of the plant-pathogenic bacterium Erwinia chrysanthemi 3937.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boughammoura, Aïda; Matzanke, Berthold F; Böttger, Lars; Reverchon, Sylvie; Lesuisse, Emmanuel; Expert, Dominique; Franza, Thierry

    2008-03-01

    During infection, the phytopathogenic enterobacterium Erwinia chrysanthemi has to cope with iron-limiting conditions and the production of reactive oxygen species by plant cells. Previous studies have shown that a tight control of the bacterial intracellular iron content is necessary for full virulence. The E. chrysanthemi genome possesses two loci that could be devoted to iron storage: the bfr gene, encoding a heme-containing bacterioferritin, and the ftnA gene, coding for a paradigmatic ferritin. To assess the role of these proteins in the physiology of this pathogen, we constructed ferritin-deficient mutants by reverse genetics. Unlike the bfr mutant, the ftnA mutant had increased sensitivity to iron deficiency and to redox stress conditions. Interestingly, the bfr ftnA mutant displayed an intermediate phenotype for sensitivity to these stresses. Whole-cell analysis by Mössbauer spectroscopy showed that the main iron storage protein is FtnA and that there is an increase in the ferrous iron/ferric iron ratio in the ftnA and bfr ftnA mutants. We found that ftnA gene expression is positively controlled by iron and the transcriptional repressor Fur via the small antisense RNA RyhB. bfr gene expression is induced at the stationary phase of growth. The sigmaS transcriptional factor is necessary for this control. Pathogenicity tests showed that FtnA and the Bfr contribute differentially to the virulence of E. chrysanthemi depending on the host, indicating the importance of a perfect control of iron homeostasis in this bacterial species during infection. PMID:18165304

  17. Role of motility and chemotaxis in the pathogenesis of Dickeya dadantii 3937 (ex Erwinia chrysanthemi 3937).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antúnez-Lamas, María; Cabrera-Ordóñez, Ezequiel; López-Solanilla, Emilia; Raposo, Rosa; Trelles-Salazar, Oswaldo; Rodríguez-Moreno, Andrés; Rodríguez-Palenzuela, Pablo

    2009-02-01

    Dickeya dadantii 3937 (ex Erwinia chrysanthemi), a member of the Enterobacteriaceae, causes soft rot in many economically important crops. A successful pathogen has to reach the interior of the plant in order to cause disease. To study the role of motility and chemotaxis in the pathogenicity of D. dadantii 3937, genes involved in the chemotactic signal transduction system (cheW, cheB, cheY and cheZ) and in the structure of the flagellar motor (motA) were mutagenized. All the mutant strains grew like the wild-type in culture media, and the production and secretion of pectolytic enzymes was not affected. As expected, the swimming ability of the mutant strains was reduced with respect to the wild-type: motA (94%), cheY (80%), cheW (74%), cheB (54%) and cheZ (48%). The virulence of the mutant strains was analysed in chicory, Saintpaulia and potato. The mutant strains were also tested for their capability to enter into Arabidopsis leaves. All the mutants showed a significant decrease of virulence in certain hosts; however, the degree of virulence reduction varied depending on the virulence assay. The ability to penetrate Arabidopsis leaves was impaired in all the mutants, whereas the capacity to colonize potato tubers after artificial inoculation was affected in only two mutant strains. In general, the virulence of the mutants could be ranked as motA

  18. Global effect of indole-3-acetic acid biosynthesis on multiple virulence factors of Erwinia chrysanthemi 3937.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shihui; Zhang, Qiu; Guo, Jianhua; Charkowski, Amy O; Glick, Bernard R; Ibekwe, A Mark; Cooksey, Donald A; Yang, Ching-Hong

    2007-02-01

    Production of the plant hormone indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) is widespread among plant-associated microorganisms. The non-gall-forming phytopathogen Erwinia chrysanthemi 3937 (strain Ech3937) possesses iaaM (ASAP16562) and iaaH (ASAP16563) gene homologues. In this work, the null knockout iaaM mutant strain Ech138 was constructed. The IAA production by Ech138 was reduced in M9 minimal medium supplemented with l-tryptophan. Compared with wild-type Ech3937, Ech138 exhibited reduced ability to produce local maceration, but its multiplication in Saintpaulia ionantha was unaffected. The pectate lyase production of Ech138 was diminished. Compared with wild-type Ech3937, the expression levels of an oligogalacturonate lyase gene, ogl, and three endopectate lyase genes, pelD, pelI, and pelL, were reduced in Ech138 as determined by a green fluorescent protein-based fluorescence-activated cell sorting promoter activity assay. In addition, the transcription of type III secretion system (T3SS) genes, dspE (a putative T3SS effector) and hrpN (T3SS harpin), was found to be diminished in the iaaM mutant Ech138. Compared with Ech3937, reduced expression of hrpL (a T3SS alternative sigma factor) and gacA but increased expression of rsmA in Ech138 was also observed, suggesting that the regulation of T3SS and pectate lyase genes by IAA biosynthesis might be partially due to the posttranscriptional regulation of the Gac-Rsm regulatory pathway. PMID:17189441

  19. Corrosion inhibition of mild steel in HCL solution by pectin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Pectin is an efficient inhibitor for mild steel corrosion in HCl. • Inhibition results from surface geometric blocking by chemisorbed species. • UV–visible data point to the formation of a complex between pectin and Fe2+ ions. - Abstract: This work describes the successful performance of pectin as an eco-friendly corrosion inhibitor for mild steel in HCl solution. The inhibition mechanism is discussed considering thermodynamics of adsorption and kinetics of the electrochemical reactions. Inhibition efficiency increases with temperature while the activation energy for the corrosion rate decreases with the addition of pectin. Pectin is a mixed-type inhibitor and the mode of inhibition results from the geometric blocking effect of chemisorbed inhibitive species at the metal surface. Spectroscopic analysis points to the formation of a complex between pectin and Fe2+ ions released during the corrosion reaction

  20. Hydrolysis of sunflower proto pectin in static and dynamic mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article describes a hydrolysis process of sunflower head residue by using state and dynamics regime of hydrolysis. It's shown that application of dynamics method positively influences on the pectin yields and its main parameters. The results of comparative study of acid concentration effect on pectin parameters in two different hydrolysis mode allows to develop a more effective process in the pectin production. (author)

  1. Studies on the structure of industrial high methoxyl pectins.

    OpenAIRE

    Kravtchenko, T.P.

    1992-01-01

    The chemical structure of three industrial high methoxyl pectins (one extracted from apple pomace and two from lemon peels) has been extensively investigated. The apple pectin differs from the lemon ones by having a higher apparent molecular size, a higher neutral-sugar content, present either as covalently-linked side chains or as free neutral polysaccharides, a higher acetyl content and a higher phenolic content but a lower protein content. The lemon pectins appear to be very similar to eac...

  2. Roles of pectin in biomass yield and processing for biofuels

    OpenAIRE

    Xiao, Chaowen; Anderson, Charles T.

    2013-01-01

    Pectin is a component of the cell walls of plants that is composed of acidic sugar-containing backbones with neutral sugar-containing side chains. It functions in cell adhesion and wall hydration, and pectin crosslinking influences wall porosity and plant morphogenesis. Despite its low abundance in the secondary cell walls that make up the majority of lignocellulosic biomass, recent results have indicated that pectin influences secondary wall formation in addition to its roles in primary wall...

  3. Oxidative enzymatic gelation of sugar beet pectin for emulsion stabilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abang Zaidel, Dayang Norulfairuz; Meyer, Anne S.

    2013-01-01

    emulsions has recently been investigated in model food emulsions. This paper reviews the pectin chemistry, enzymatic oxidative gelation mechanisms, interaction mechanisms of the sugar beet pectin with the emulsion droplets and explores how the gelation affects the rheology and stability of emulsion systems....... The applied biotechnology concept of enzymatic gelation provides an array of opportunities for upgrading of low-value pectins for new food and non-food uses....

  4. Environmentally friendly ionic liquid-in-water microemulsions for extraction of hydrophilic and lipophilic components from Flos Chrysanthemi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jue; Cao, Jun; Gao, Wen; Qi, Lian-Wen; Li, Ping

    2013-10-21

    Ionic liquids (ILs) have numerous chemical applications as environmentally green solvents that are extending into microemulsion applications. In this work, a novel benign IL-in-water microemulsion system modified by an IL surfactant has been proposed for simultaneous extraction of hydrophilic and lipophilic constituents from Flos Chrysanthemi (Chrysanthemum morifolium). Constituents were analyzed by rapid-resolution liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. A mixture-design approach was used to optimize the IL surfactant and the IL oil phase in the microemulsion system. Microemulsions consisting of 6.0% 1-dodecyl-3-methylimidazolium hydrogen sulfate, 0.1% 1-vinyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate and 93.9% water offered the acceptable extract efficiency that are comparable to or even better than conventional volatile organic solvents. This assay was fully validated with respect to the linearity of response (r(2) > 0.999 over two orders of magnitude), precision (intra-RSD microemulsion method provided an environmentally friendly alternative for efficient extraction of compounds from Flos Chrysanthemi and could be extended to complex environmental and pharmaceutical samples. PMID:23928686

  5. Utilization of a thermosensitive episome bearing transposon TN10 to isolate Hfr donor strains of Erwinia carotovora subsp. chrysanthemi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotoujansky, A; Lemattre, M; Boistard, P

    1982-04-01

    A thermosensitive episome bearing the transposon Tn10, F(Ts)::Tn10 Lac+, has been successfully transferred from Escherichia coli to several wild strains of the enterobacteria Erwinia carotovora subsp. chrysanthemi, which are pathogenic on Saintpaulia ionantha. In one of these strains, all of the characters controlled by this episome (Lac+, Tetr, Tra+) were expressed, and its replication was stopped at 40 degrees C and above. At 30 degrees C, the episome was easily transferred between strains derived from E. carotovora subsp. chrysanthemi 3937j and to E coli. Hfr donor strains were obtained from a F' strain of 3937j by selecting clones which grew at 40 degrees C on plates containing tetracycline. One of these strains, Hfrq, was examined in more detail: the characters Lac+ and Tetr were stabilized and did not segregate higher than its parental F' strain. The mating was most efficient at 37 degrees C on a membrane. Hfrq transferred its chromosome to recipient strains at high frequency and in a polarized fashion, as evidenced by the gradient of transfer frequencies, the kinetics of marker entry (in interrupted mating experiments), and the analysis of linkage between different markers. The chromosome of Hfrq was most probably transferred in the following sequence: origin...met...xyl...arg...ile...leu...thr...cys...pan...ura...gal...trp...his. ..pur... Moreover, this genetic transfer system proved to be efficient in strain construction. PMID:6277860

  6. Dynamic regulation of GacA in type III secretion, pectinase gene expression, pellicle formation, and pathogenicity of Dickeya dadantii (Erwinia chrysanthemi 3937).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shihui; Peng, Quan; Zhang, Qiu; Yi, Xuan; Choi, Chang Jae; Reedy, Ralph M; Charkowski, Amy O; Yang, Ching-Hong

    2008-01-01

    Dickeya dadantii (Erwinia chrysanthemi 3937) secretes exoenzymes, including pectin-degrading enzymes, leading to the loss of structural integrity of plant cell walls. A type III secretion system (T3SS) is essential for full virulence of this bacterium within plant hosts. The GacS/GacA two-component signal transduction system participates in important biological roles in several gram-negative bacteria. In this study, a gacA deletion mutant (Ech137) of D. dadantii was constructed to investigate the effect of this mutation on pathogenesis and other phenotypes. Compared with wild-type D. dadantii, Ech137 had a delayed biofilm-pellicle formation. The production of pectate lyase (Pel), protease, and cellulase was diminished in Ech137 compared with the wild-type cells. Reduced transcription of two endo-Pel genes, pelD and pelL, was found in Ech137 using a green fluorescence protein-based fluorescence-activated cell sorter promoter activity assay. In addition, the transcription of T3SS genes dspE (an effector), hrpA (a structural protein of the T3SS pilus), and hrpN (a T3SS harpin) was reduced in Ech137. A lower amount of rsmB regulatory RNA was found in gacA mutant Ech137 compared with the wild-type bacterium by quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. Compared with wild-type D. dadantii, a lower amount of hrpL mRNA was observed in Ech137 at 12 h grown in medium. Although the role of RsmA, rsmB, and RsmC in D. dadantii is not clear, from the regulatory pathway revealed in E. carotovora, the lower expression of dspE, hrpA, and hrpN in Ech137 may be due to a post-transcriptional regulation of hrpL through the Gac-Rsm regulatory pathway. Consequently, the reduced exoenzyme production and Pel gene expression in the mutant may be sue partially to the regulatory role of rsmB-RsmA on exoenzyme expression. Similar to in vitro results, a lower expression of T3SS and pectinase genes of Ech137 also was observed in bacterial cells inoculated into Saintpaulia

  7. Influence of pectin characteristics on complexation with ß-lactoglobulin

    OpenAIRE

    Sperber, B.L.H.M.

    2010-01-01

    Pectin and proteins are both common food constituents. The type of pectin that forms complexes with protein is known to be of great influence on the structure and stability of liquid foods. Therefore, the aim of this thesis is to investigate the influence of the overall charge and local charge density of pectin on the formation of soluble complexes with β-lactoglobulin (β-lg). Combination of state diagrams and binding isotherms shows that a high local charge density of pectin is a prerequisit...

  8. The role of pectin in plant morphogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palin, Robert; Geitmann, Anja

    2012-09-01

    The presence of a polysaccharidic cell wall distinguishes plant cells from animal cells and is responsible for fundamental mechanistic differences in organ development between the two kingdoms. Due to the presence of this wall, plant cells are unable to crawl and contract. On the other hand, plant cell size can increase by several orders of magnitude and cell shape can change from a simple polyhedron or cube to extremely intricate. This expansive cellular growth is regulated by the interaction between the cell wall and the intracellular turgor pressure. One of the principal cell wall components involved in temporal and spatial regulation of the growth process is pectin. Through biochemical changes to pectin composition and biochemical configuration, the properties of this material can be altered to trigger specific developmental processes. Here, the roles of pectin in three systems displaying rapid growth - the elongation zone of the root, the tip region of the pollen tube, and organ primordia formation at the shoot apical meristem - are reviewed. PMID:22554809

  9. Mechanical characterization of calcium pectinate hydrogel for controlled drug delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung Jin Thau

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Calcium pectinate beads, a paniculate hydrogel system, is an attractive drug carrier for oral delivery. In this study, a poorly water-soluble model drug indomethacin was incorporated into calcium pectinate beads made of different pectin concentrations, which were produced by an extrusion method. The effect of pectin concentration on bead size, circularity, swelling behavior, and mechanical properties, as well as in vitro drug release profile was investigated. The mechanical properties of calcium pectinate beads were determined by a micromanipulation technique. The drug release profile was measured using a standard British Pharmacopoeia method. It was found that the beads made of higher pectin concentration in general had a less permeable matrix structure and greater mechanical rigidity, although they swelled more after hydration. However, such an effect was not significant when the pectin concentration was increased to above 8%. Micromanipulation measurements showed that there was significant relaxation of the force being imposed on single hydrated beads when they were held, but this phenomenon did not occur on dry beads, which means that the force relaxation was dominated by liquid loss from the beads. The rate of the force relaxation was determined, and has been related to the release rate of the model drug entrapped in the calcium pectinate beads.

  10. Characterization of Pectin from Citrus sinensis (Sweet Orange) Juice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pectin is a structurally diverse polysaccharide synthesized in plants. Its core element is a backbone of a-(1,4)-galacturonic acid residues, which may be interspersed with rhamnose residues, esterified, and decorated with a variety of glycan chains. In citrus juice, pectin comprises the majority o...

  11. New bioactive and biobased product applications of pectin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pectin is well known for its bioactive health-promoting properties and use in biobased products. Recent reports have demonstrated that pectin and pectic fractions have potential as prebiotics, prevent pathogenic bacterial adhesion, increase prostate specific antigen doubling time in patients with re...

  12. Gelatin-Pectin Composite Films from Polyion Complex Hydrogels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Composite films from gelatin and low-methoxyl pectin were prepared by either ionic complexation or covalent cross-linking. The ionic interactions between positively charged gelatin and negatively charged pectin produced physically reversible hydrogels. The resultant homogeneous gels had improved mec...

  13. Structure of a Rhamnogalacturonan Fragment from Apple Pectin: Implications for Pectin Architecture

    OpenAIRE

    Xiangmei Wu; Andrew Mort

    2014-01-01

    A commercial apple pectin was sequentially digested with the cloned enzymes endopolygalacturonase, galactanase, arabinofuranosidase, xylogalacturonase, and rhamnogalacturonan hydrolase. The rhamnogalacturonan hydrolase-generated oligosaccharides were separated by ultrafiltration, anion exchange, and size-exclusion chromatography. Fractions from the ion exchange chromatography were pooled, lyophilized, and screened by MALDI-TOF MS. An oligosaccharide (RGP14P3) was identified and its structure,...

  14. Effect of different pectin on bile acid biosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of the study was to examine the effects of consumption of different pectins from peach, quince, and apricot on bile flow and bile secretion of bile acids, cholesterol, phospholipids and bilirubin in rats. Six groups of nine rats were fed diets containing pectin 20 mg/kg once a day for two weeks. These groups of rats were compared with the group fed on physiological solution as a control and two groups fed on flamenol. Results of our study indicate that pectins, by decreasing cholesterol levels and enhancing bile acid secretion may cause increased hepatic synthesis of bile acids, phospholipids and reduced bilirubin synthesis. Among the studied pectins the apricot pectin shows in a very consistent lowering of cholesterol and bilirubin levels

  15. Oxidative enzymatic gelation of sugar beet pectin for emulsion stabilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abang Zaidel, Dayang Norulfairuz; Meyer, Anne S.

    2013-01-01

    Pectin from sugar beet is derived from the sugar beet pulp residue which results when sugar beets are processed for sucrose extraction. The sugar beet pectin has poor gelationability by the classic divalentcation molecular mechanism because of a relatively high acetylation degree and short...... polygalacturonate backbone chain length. However, due to the feruloyl-substitutions on the side chains, the sugar beet pectic polysaccharides can be cross-linked via enzyme catalyzed oxidation. The enzyme kinetics and functionality of such oxidativelycross-linked sugar beet pectin, in relation to stabilizing...... emulsions has recently been investigated in model food emulsions. This paper reviews the pectin chemistry, enzymatic oxidative gelation mechanisms, interaction mechanisms of the sugar beet pectin with the emulsion droplets and explores how the gelation affects the rheology and stability of emulsion systems...

  16. Roles of pectin in biomass yield and processing for biofuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Chaowen; Anderson, Charles T

    2013-01-01

    Pectin is a component of the cell walls of plants that is composed of acidic sugar-containing backbones with neutral sugar-containing side chains. It functions in cell adhesion and wall hydration, and pectin crosslinking influences wall porosity and plant morphogenesis. Despite its low abundance in the secondary cell walls that make up the majority of lignocellulosic biomass, recent results have indicated that pectin influences secondary wall formation in addition to its roles in primary wall biosynthesis and modification. This mini-review will examine these and other recent results in the context of biomass yield and digestibility and discuss how these traits might be enhanced by the genetic and molecular modification of pectin. The utility of pectin as a high-value, renewable biomass co-product will also be highlighted. PMID:23543255

  17. Erwinia chrysanthemi: pectolytic bacterium causing soft rot outbreaks of arracacha in Brazil Erwinia chrysanthemi: bactéria pectolítica envolvida na "mela" da mandioquinha-salsa no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilmar Paulo Henz

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The objetive of this work was to identify the pectolytic bacteria associated with soft rot of arracacha roots in Brazil. From 1998 to 2001, 227 isolates of Erwinia spp. were obtained from arracacha roots and identified by biochemical and physiological tests (pectolytic activity, lecithinase, a-methyl glucoside, phosphatase, erythromycin sensivity, growth at 37ºC. Of these isolates, 89.9% were identified as E. chrysanthemi (Ech, 9.7% as E. carotovora subsp. carotovora (Ecc and 0.5% as E. carotovora subsp. atroseptica. The identity of seventeen out of twenty representative isolates of Ech and Ecc was confirmed by PCR (primers '149f', 'L1r', 'ADE1', 'ADE2'.O objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar as bactérias pectolíticas envolvidas na podridão-mole de raízes de mandioquinha-salsa no Brasil. De 1998 a 2001, 227 isolados de Erwinia spp. foram obtidos de raízes de mandioquinha-salsa e identificados por testes bioquímicos e fisiológicos (atividade pectolítica, lecitinase, a-methyl glucosídeo, fosfatase, sensibilidade à eritromicina, crescimento a 37ºC. Destes isolados, 89,9% foram identificados como E. chrysanthemi (Ech, 9,7% como E. carotovora subsp. carotovora (Ecc e somente 0,5% como E. carotovora subsp. atroseptica. A identidade de 20 isolados representativos de Ech e Ecc foi confirmada por PCR (primers '149f', 'L1r', 'ADE1', 'ADE2', com exceção de dois isolados de Ech e um de Ecc.

  18. Effect of pectin and amidated pectin on cholesterol homeostasis and cecal metabolism in rats fed a high-cholesterol diet

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Marounek, Milan; Volek, Z.; Synytsya, A.; Čopíková, J.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 56, - (2007), s. 433-442. ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA525/03/0358 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : pectin * amidated pectin s * rat Subject RIV: GH - Livestock Nutrition Impact factor: 1.505, year: 2007

  19. Extraction of pectin from apple pomace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Helene Canteri-Schemin

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available As apple-processing units are now in expansion in Brazil, industrial by-products like pomace play an important role in pectin manufacture. The objective of this article was to determine a pratical follow-up to the extraction of pectin from apple pomace and to characterize it in a laboratory, on a small scale, aiming at establishing the optimum conditions for acid extraction. The highest yields were obtained when [1]apple pomace was dried and ground to obtain an apple flour to be used as raw material, [2] citric or nitric acids were used and [3] when the citric acid concentration was 6.2 g/100 ml and the time of reaction was 153 minutes. The apple variety in itself was not significant in pectin yield. The degree of esterification (DE = 68.84 % of the product obtained, as well as its physical looks, show the success of pectin extraction.No aproveitamento de resíduos das indústrias processadoras de maçã, em expansão no Brasil, a pectina alimentícia surge como importante subproduto. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram os seguintes: extração e caracterização da pectina de bagaço de maçã em bancada, em que as condições para maior rendimento de obtenção em relação ao tipo de ácido, ao tamanho das partículas e à variedade de maçã foram estabelecidas. Objetivou-se também a otimização da produção, levando-se em conta o tempo e a concentração do ácido cítrico. Foram considerados métodos de extração mais eficientes quanto ao rendimento: [1] acidificação com ácido cítrico ou ácido nítrico, [2] cominuição do bagaço, usando a farinha como matéria-prima, com partículas retidas no tamis de 106 µm, [3] concentração de ácido de 6,2 g% e tempo de extração de 153 minutos. A variedade da maçã não interferiu significativamente no rendimento. A alta metoxilação (DE= 68,84% das pectinas produzidas em bancada confirma o grau de maturidade das matérias-primas usadas nos experimentos.

  20. Concentration of lemon pectin extract by ultrafiltration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damián Stechina

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Current annual lemon production in Argentina is about 900 thousand t. 75% is used industrially to obtain pasteurized juice concentrate. Since 40 - 45 % of citrus fruit content is peel and seeds, the annual lemon residue yield is 360 thousand t. Lemon peel contains about 30% (B.S. of peptic substances with an important commercial value due to its gelling and thickening properties for food, chemical, pharmacological and cosmetic products. Membrane processes have many applications in food manufacture. The objective of this study is to analyze the influence of ultrafiltration operating variables on instant permeate flow (Fp and on the energy requirement for pectin extract concentration from lemon peel. A DDS lab module was used, lab 20-772 model with synthetic material membranes, 9 kDa, shear force, the intrinsic membrane resistance (Rm being 3*1013 m -1 . Results show that Fp decrease caused by polarization induced resistance occurrence and the influence of operating variables on Fp offer relevant data to estimate the energy requirement in relation to feeding flow at constant temperature, which may be compared to pectin concentration increase in the retained flow in relation to initial extract concentration.

  1. Preparation and preclinical evaluation of aceclofenac loaded pectinate mucoadhesive microspheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santanu Chakraborty

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present research work was to fabricate aceclofenac loaded pectinate microspheres by ionic gelation method and evaluate the effect of different cross-linking agents and polymer concentration on particle size, encapsulation efficacy and drug release behavior. It was also investigated that whether this pectinate dosage form was able to target the drug release in intestinal region and prevent the different side effect associated with the drug in stomach or not. It was observed that particle size, encapsulation efficacy and in vitro drug release were largely depended on polymer concentration and cross-linking agents. It was also observed that pectinate microspheres showed excellent pH depended mucoadhesive properties and they were able to restrict the drug release in stomach. In vitro drug release study showed that alminium-pectinate microspheres have more sustaining property as compared to barium-pectinate microspheres. Holm-Sidak multiple comparison analysis suggested a significant difference in measured t50% values among all the formulations with same cross-linking agent. In vivo studies revealed that the anti inflammatory and analgesic effects induced by pectinate microspheres were significantly high and prolonged as compared to pure drug. So, pectinate microspheres can be an excellent carrier for targeting the delivery of aceclofenac as well as help in improving the patient compliance by prolonging the systemic absorption.

  2. Engineering of acidic O/W emulsions with pectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alba, K; Sagis, L M C; Kontogiorgos, V

    2016-09-01

    Pectins with distinct molecular design were isolated by aqueous extraction at pH 2.0 or 6.0 and were examined in terms of their formation and stabilisation capacity of model n-alkane-in-water emulsions at acidic pH (pH 2.0). The properties and stability of the resulting emulsions were examined by means of droplet size distribution analysis, Lifshitz-Slyozov-Wagner modelling, bulk rheology, interfacial composition analysis, large-amplitude oscillatory surface dilatational rheology, electrokinetic analysis and fluorescence microscopy. Both pectin preparations were able to emulsify alkanes in water but exhibited distinct ageing characteristics. Emulsions prepared using pectin isolated at pH 6.0 were remarkably stable with respect to droplet growth after thirty days of ageing, while those prepared with pectin isolated at pH 2.0 destabilised rapidly. Examination of chemical composition of interfacial layers indicated multi-layered adsorption of pectins at the oil-water interface. The higher long-term stability of emulsions prepared with pectin isolated at high pH is attributed to mechanically stronger interfaces, the highly branched nature and the low hydrodynamic volume of the chains that result in effective steric stabilisation whereas acetyl and methyl contents do not contribute to the long-term stability. The present work shows that it is possible by tailoring the fine structure of pectin to engineer emulsions that operate in acidic environments. PMID:27209382

  3. Application of Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism Fingerprinting for Taxonomy and Identification of the Soft Rot Bacteria Erwinia carotovora and Erwinia chrysanthemi

    OpenAIRE

    Avrova, Anna O; Hyman, Lizbeth J.; Toth, Rachel L.; Toth, Ian K

    2002-01-01

    The soft rot bacteria Erwinia carotovora and Erwinia chrysanthemi are important pathogens of potato and other crops. However, the taxonomy of these pathogens, particularly at subspecies level, is unclear. An investigation using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) fingerprinting was undertaken to determine the taxonomic relationships within this group based on their genetic relatedness. Following cluster analysis on the similarity matrices derived from the AFLP gels, four clusters (c...

  4. Biogenesis of Fe/S proteins and pathogenicity: IscR plays a key role in allowing Erwinia chrysanthemi to adapt to hostile conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rincon-Enriquez, Gabriel; Crété, Patrice; Barras, Frédéric; Py, Béatrice

    2008-03-01

    The Erwinia chrysanthemi genome is predicted to encode three systems, Nif, Isc and Suf, known to assist Fe/S cluster biogenesis and the CsdAE cysteine desulphurase. Single iscU, hscA and fdx mutants were found sensitive to paraquat and exhibited reduced virulence on both chicory leaves and Arabidopsis thaliana. Depletion of the whole Isc system led to a pleiotropic phenotype, including sensitivity to both paraquat and 2,2'-dipyridyl, auxotrophies for branched-chain amino acids, thiamine, nicotinic acid, and drastic alteration in virulence. IscR was able to suppress all of the phenotypes listed above in a sufC-dependent manner while depletion of the Isc system led to IscR-dependent activation of the suf operon. No virulence defects were found associated with csdA or nifS mutations. Surprisingly, we found that the sufC mutant was virulent against A. thaliana, whereas its virulence had been found altered in Saintpaulia. Collectively, these results lead us to propose that E. chrysanthemi possess the Fe/S biogenesis strategy suited to the physico-chemical conditions encountered in its host upon infection. In this view, the IscR regulator, which controls both Isc and Suf, is predicted to play a major role in the ability of E. chrysanthemi to colonize a wide array of different plants. PMID:18284573

  5. Characterization of a tonB mutation in Erwinia chrysanthemi 3937: TonB(Ech) is a member of the enterobacterial TonB family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enard, C; Expert, D

    2000-08-01

    The pectinolytic enterobacterium Erwinia chrysanthemi 3937 causes a systemic disease in its natural host, the African violet (Saintpaulia: ionantha). It produces two structurally unrelated siderophores, chrysobactin and achromobactin. Chrysobactin makes a large contribution to invasive growth of the bacterium in its host. Insertion mutants of a chrysobactin-defective strain were constructed and screened on the universal CAS-agar medium used for siderophore detection. A set of mutants affected in the production of achromobactin were identified. This paper describes a mutant affected in the transport of all the ferrisiderophores used by the bacterium as iron sources. Molecular analysis revealed that the insertion mutation disrupts the tonB gene. The predicted Er. chrysanthemi TonB protein has a molecular mass of 27600 Da and shares 20-58% identity with the TonB proteins from 20 other bacterial species. The pathogenicity of the tonB mutant was assessed by inoculation of African violets. The impairment in the spread of symptoms was similar in the tonB mutant to that in chrysobactin-defective mutants. However, the pectinolytic activity, the major pathogenicity determinant in Er. chrysanthemi, appeared to be stimulated twofold in the tonB mutant. PMID:10931909

  6. Physicochemical Characteristics and Biological Activity of Irradiated Pectin Solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pectin was dissolved in HCI, citric acid, and deionized distilled water (DW, 2%, v/v) and irradiated at different irradiation doses (2.5-50 kGy) by gamma ray to investigate its physicochemical characteristics and biological activity. Viscosity of pectin solution was significantly decreased by irradiation up to 10 kGy, then remained constant thereafter. Gamma-irradiation increased monosaccharide and polysaccharide levels up to 30-40 kDa. Electron donating ability of pectin solution was highest when DW was added was increased by increasing irradiation dose (p less than 0.05)

  7. Structure of a Rhamnogalacturonan Fragment from Apple Pectin: Implications for Pectin Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangmei Wu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A commercial apple pectin was sequentially digested with the cloned enzymes endopolygalacturonase, galactanase, arabinofuranosidase, xylogalacturonase, and rhamnogalacturonan hydrolase. The rhamnogalacturonan hydrolase-generated oligosaccharides were separated by ultrafiltration, anion exchange, and size-exclusion chromatography. Fractions from the ion exchange chromatography were pooled, lyophilized, and screened by MALDI-TOF MS. An oligosaccharide (RGP14P3 was identified and its structure, α-D-GalpA-(1→2-α-L-Rhap-(1→4-α-D-GalpA-(1→2-α-L-Rhap-(1→4-α-D-GalpA, determined by 1D and 2D NMR spectrometry. This oligosaccharide probably represents a direct connection between homogalacturonan and rhamnogalacturonan in pectin. Alternatively, it could indicate that the nonreducing end of rhamnogalacturonan starts with a galacturonic acid residue.

  8. Purification and Characterization of a Unique Pectin Lyase from Aspergillus giganteus Able to Release Unsaturated Monogalacturonate during Pectin Degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrolli, Danielle Biscaro; Carmona, Eleonora Cano

    2014-01-01

    A pectin lyase, named PLIII, was purified to homogeneity from the culture filtrate of Aspergillus giganteus grown in submerged culture containing orange peel waste as carbon source. PLIII was able to digest apple pectin and citrus pectins with different degrees of methyl esterification. Interestingly, the PLIII activity was stimulated in the presence of some divalent cations including Pb(2+) and was not significantly affected by Hg(2+). Like other pectin lyases, PLIII is stimulated by but is not dependent on Ca(2+). The main soluble product released during the degradation of pectic substances promoted by the PLIII is compatible with an unsaturated monogalacturonate. PLIII is a unique enzyme able to release unsaturated monogalacturonate as the only soluble product during the degradation of pectic substances; therefore, PLIII was classified as an exo-pectin lyase. To our knowledge, this is the first characterization of an exo-pectin lyase. The PLIII described in this work is potentially useful for ethanol production from pectin-rich biomass, besides other common applications for alkaline pectinases like preparation of textile fibers, coffee and tea fermentation, vegetable oil extraction, and the treatment of pulp in papermaking. PMID:25610636

  9. Effect of acarbose, pectin, a combination of acarbose with pectin, and placebo on postprandial reactive hypoglycaemia after gastric surgery.

    OpenAIRE

    Speth, P A; Jansen, J.B.; Lamers, C.B.

    1983-01-01

    In a double-blind study we have compared the effect of 50 mg acarbose, 100 mg acarbose, 4.2 g pectin, a combination of 50 mg acarbose with 4.2 g pectin, and placebo on plasma glucose, plasma insulin, breath hydrogen and hypoglycaemic symptoms after a normal carbohydrate rich meal in nine patients with previous gastric surgery. Fifty milligrams acarbose, 100 mg acarbose and the combination of 50 mg acarbose with 4.2 g pectin significantly inhibited the postprandial peak glucose concentration (...

  10. Dynamic Modeling of Pectin Extraction for Monitoring and Optimisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Nina M.; Santacoloma, Paloma A.; Gernaey, Krist; Abildskov, Jens; Huusom, Jakob K.

    Pectin is used as an additive in many food and pharmaceutical products to modify the rheological properties of the product [1]. Commercial pectin extraction is a batch operation with several tanks that can feed continuously the downstream processing.The variability of the raw material is a...... continuous input ofuncontrolled disturbances to the process. Consequently, the processconditions should be constantly adjusted in order to obtain a highpectin yield and good product quality. The pectin quality can becharacterized by the degree of esterification (%DE) [2].Measurements of %DE can only be...... carried out after precipitation,which occurs several hours from the start of extraction. As aconsequence, some batches are processed under non-optimalconditions reducing pectin yield and quality....

  11. Chemical modification of pectin to improve its sorption properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sorption properties of natural polysaccharide (apple pectin) with respect to heavy metals (M=Cd, Sr, Cu, Ni, Pb) in a Ringer salt solution were studied as influenced by the procedures and process parameters of its chemical modification. It is shown that chemical modification of pectin using hydrochloric and nitric acids and ammonium hydroxide permits improving (by 30-50%) its sorption properties as regards cadmium(II), lead(II), and copper(II) ions

  12. Preparation and Characterization of Pectin Hydroxamates from Citrus Unshiu Peels.

    OpenAIRE

    In Young Bae; Hyun Jae Rha; Suyong Lee; Hyeon Gyu Lee

    2011-01-01

    Pectin was extracted from unshiu orange (Citrus unshiu) peels and was subjected to chemical modification using hydroxamic acid. The structural and physical properties of the resulting derivatives were investigated as a function of hydroxamic acid content (4.68-9.58%). The extracted unshiu orange pectin showed 66.8% degree of esterification, 787.5 mg/g galacturonic acid, and 92 mg/g neutral sugars, which were composed of arabinose (53%), galactose (35%), glucose (5%), rhamnose (5%), and fructo...

  13. Thermodynamic incompatibility and complex formation in pectin/caseinate mixtures

    OpenAIRE

    Rediguieri, Camila F; de Freitas, Osvaldo; Lettinga, Pavlik; Tuinier, Remco

    2007-01-01

    The instability of polysaccharide/protein mixtures occurs because of either thermodynamic incompatibility or complexation. We studied which instability mechanism dominated given the external conditions. Therefore the effect of temperature, pH, and biopolymer concentration on the phase separation of pectin/caseinate mixtures was investigated. At pH > 6, thermodynamic incompatibility with spinodal decomposition was observed in pectin/caseinate mixtures resulting in the formation of water-in-wat...

  14. Chemical, physical and biological features of Okra pectin

    OpenAIRE

    Sengkhamparn, N.

    2009-01-01

    In Thailand, many plants have been used as vegetables as well as for traditional medicine. Okra, Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench, is an example of such a plant. Examples for the medical use are treatment of gastric irritation, treatment of dental diseases, lowering cholesterol level and preventing cancer. These biological activities are ascribed to polysaccharide structures of okra in particular pectin structures. However, the precise structure of okra pectins and also of other polysacchar...

  15. Inhibition of Pectin Methyl Esterase Activity By Green Tea Catechins

    OpenAIRE

    Sagi, Irit; Lewis, Kristin; Tworowski, Dmitry; Shahar, Chen; Selzer, Tzvia

    2008-01-01

    Pectin methyl esterases (PMEs) and their endogenous inhibitors are involved in the regulation of many processes in plant physiology, ranging from tissue growth and fruit ripening to parasitic plant haustorial formation and host invasion. Thus, control of PME activity is critical for enhancing our understanding of plant physiological processes and regulation. Here we report on the identification of epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), a green tea component, as a natural inhibitor for pectin ...

  16. Various-sourced pectin and polyethylene oxide electrospun fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockwell, Pamela L; Kiechel, Marjorie A; Atchison, Jennifer S; Toth, Laura J; Schauer, Caroline L

    2014-07-17

    Pectin, a naturally occurring and biorenewable polysaccharide, is derived from plant cell wall tissue and used in applications ranging from food processing to biomedical engineering. Due to extraction methods and source variation, there is currently no consensus in literature as to the exact structure of pectin. Here, we have studied key material properties of electrospun pectin blends with polyethylene oxide (PEO) (1:1, v/v) in order to demonstrate the fabrication of a fibrous and less toxic material system, as well as to understand the effects of source variability on the resulting fibrous mats. The bulk pectin degree of esterification (DE) estimated using FTIR (bulk apple pomace (AP)=28%, bulk citrus peel (CP)=86% and bulk sugar beet pulp (SBP)=91%) was shown to inversely correlate with electrospun fiber crystallinity determined using XRD (PEO-AP=37%, PEO-CP=28% and PEO-SBP=23%). This in turn affected the trend observed for the mean fiber diameter (n=50) (PEO-AP=124 ± 26 nm, PEO-CP=493 ± 254 nm and PEO-SBP=581 ± 178 nm) and elastic tensile moduli (1.6 ± 0.2 MPa, 4.37 ± 0.64 MPa and 2.49 ± 1.46 MPa, respectively) of the fibrous mats. Electrospun fibers containing bulk AP had the lowest DE, highest crystallinity, smallest mean fiber diameter, and lowest tensile modulus compared to either the bulk CP or bulk SBP. Bound water in PEO-CP fiber and bulk pectin impurities in PEO-SPB were observed to influence fiber branching and mean diameter distributions, which in turn influenced the fiber tensile properties. These results indicate that pectin, when blended with PEO in water, produces submicron fibrous mats with pectin influencing the blend fiber properties. Moreover, the source of pectin is an important variable in creating electrospun blend fibrous mats with desired material properties. PMID:24702925

  17. Extraction, characterisation, and enzymatic degradation of lemon peel pectins.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ros, J.M.; Schols, H.A.; Voragen, A.G.J.

    1996-01-01

    The albedo of Spanish lemons (16.0% w/w of lemon fresh weight) was extracted to obtain a chelating agent soluble pectin fraction, a diluted sodium hydroxide soluble pectin fraction and a residue (4.2, 1.8, and 5.0% w/w of fresh albedo, respectively). These fractions represented 61.3, 12.4, and 10.4%

  18. Physicochemical properties of modified citrus pectins extracted from orange pomace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venzon, Simoni Spohr; Canteri, Maria Helene Giovanetti; Granato, Daniel; Junior, Bogdan Demczuk; Maciel, Giselle Maria; Stafussa, Ana Paula; Haminiuk, Charles Windson Isidoro

    2015-07-01

    Modified pectin is a polysaccharide rich in galacturonic acid altered by pH adjustment and thermal treatment used especially as an anti-cancer agent. The aim of this work was to study the physical and chemical properties of modified pectins extracted from orange pomace with citric and nitric acids. The galacturonic acid content, degree of esterification, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy profile, molecular weight, intrinsic viscosity, rheological properties and antioxidant activity of the pectins were evaluated. The modification process caused the de-esterification of pectins and a decrease of molecular weight due to removal of neutral sugars, maintaining the linear chain of galacturonic acid. Such changes also caused a significant increase in the in vitro antioxidant activity (p ≤ 0.05) and influenced the rheological properties of pectin, reducing its viscosity. This work showed that the modification of pectin from orange pomace with citric and nitric acids altered its structural and physical characteristics as well as its biological activity toward a free-radical. PMID:26139875

  19. Preparation and Characterization of Pectin Hydroxamates from Citrus Unshiu Peels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    In Young Bae

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Pectin was extracted from unshiu orange (Citrus unshiu peels and was subjected to chemical modification using hydroxamic acid. The structural and physical properties of the resulting derivatives were investigated as a function of hydroxamic acid content (4.68-9.58%. The extracted unshiu orange pectin showed 66.8% degree of esterification, 787.5 mg/g galacturonic acid, and 92 mg/g neutral sugars, which were composed of arabinose (53%, galactose (35%, glucose (5%, rhamnose (5%, and fructose (2%. Compared to the nativepectin, the FT-IR spectra of the hydroxamic acid derivatives showed two new absorption bands at 1,646 cm-1 (C=O and 1,568 cm-1 (N-H. Specifically, the pectin derivatives with more hydroxamic acids were shown to have enhanced water solubility, upto two-fold higher than that of the native pectin. Thus, the introduction of hydroxamic acid into the pectin structure appears to be a useful tool for improving the solubility of pectin.

  20. Faba bean hulls as a potential source of pectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korish, Mohamed

    2015-09-01

    This study aimed for the first time to assess the potential use of faba bean hulls as a source of pectin. The study involved extracting pectin under various conditions of pH, temperature and extraction time and determining how these conditions affected pectin yield and its characteristics. The maximum yield of extracted pectin did not coincide with the highest degree of esterification since the maximum yield (15.75 %) was recorded at pH 1.5 and at a temperature of 85 °C for an 80-min extraction period and solid to liquid (1: 25) ratio, while the highest degree of esterification (54.62 %) occurred at pH 2.5 and at temperature of 90 °C for a 60-min extraction period. The composition of the pectin varied according to the extraction conditions: the neutral sugars galactose, arabinose and rhamnose increased under milder extraction conditions while glucose, mannose and xylose sugars predominated under harsher extraction conditions. The results indicated that faba bean hulls contains adequate amount of pectin, suitable for commercial utilization. PMID:26345029

  1. THE USE OF HIGH-PERFORMANCE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY AS SCREENING TECHNIQUE FOR PECTIN AND PECTIN SUBSTANCES OF DIETARY FIBERS

    OpenAIRE

    G.N. Ignatyeva; Patricia Melgarejo Juan; Sandra Monera Picazo; Desirée Follana Álvarez

    2015-01-01

    The peak of the unspecified compound of quantitative analysis of organic acids in biological materials by using high-performance liquid chromatography was identified. This peak corresponded to polygalacturonic acid. A High-performance liquid chromatographic method was developed to identify and quantify of water soluble pectin fraction and insoluble pectin fraction, galacturonic acid and polygalacturonic acid. The method based on the extraction of free water soluble fraction with phosphate buf...

  2. Calcium pectinate gel beads obtained from callus cultures pectins as promising systems for colon-targeted drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günter, Elena A; Popeyko, Oxana V

    2016-08-20

    Low methyl-esterified pectins obtained from the cell walls of the campion (SV, SV>300), tansy (TV, TV>300) and duckweed (LM, LM>300) callus cultures and apple pectin (AP, Classic AU 701) were used as the carriers for colon delivery of prednisolone. The pectins with molecular weight more than 300kDa (SV>300, TV>300, LM>300) formed gels which exhibited the higher gel strength. The higher gel strength of these gels appeared to be related to the higher Mw and the lower degree of methylesterification (DE) of these pectins. Release aspects of prednisolone in the simulated gastric (pH 1.25), intestinal (pH 7.0) and colonic (pH 7.0+pectinase) media were investigated. The LM-5%, AP-3% and AP-5% beads destroyed in simulated intestinal medium probably due to the higher DE of the LM and AP pectins. The SV>300-3% and TV>300-3% prednisolone loaded bead systems showed a high stability at pH 1.25 and pH 7.0. Prednisolone release occurred in a larger extent in colonic medium due to the enzymatic erosion of the beads. The SV>300-3% and TV>300-3% particles showed a more controlled release that appeared to be related to the lower DE, rhamnogalacturonan content, rhamnogalacturonan I branching and the higher linearity and Mw of the TV>300 and SV>300 pectins, as well as to the higher gel strength. This in vitro study suggests that calcium pectinate gel beads obtained from callus cultures pectins can be proposed as potential systems for colon-targeted drug delivery. PMID:27178956

  3. Chemically Methylated and Reduced Pectins: Preparation and Characterisation by 1H-NMR Spectroscopy, Enzymatic Degradation and Gelling Properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenbohm, Christoph; Lundt, Inge; Christensen, T.M.I.E.; Young, N.W.G.

    2003-01-01

    The gelling properties of pectin are known to be closely related to the degree of methylation (DM) and the distribution of the ester groups. In order to investigate this dependency, a natural citrus pectin (DM=64%) has been methylated to pectins with higher DM’s or saponified to achieve pectins w...... activities than with unmodified pectin. The new reduced pectins exhibit high gelling properties. Keywords: Pectin; Methylation; Deesterification; Reduction; DM and DR by 1H-NMR spectroscopy; Reduced Pectin; Pectinases; Gelling properties....

  4. Gelation of low methoxyl pectin in the presence of polyvalent counterions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The pectin-polyvalent counterions interaction were studied in a dilute solution by a power low including a critical ratio (equivalent polyvalent ions/pectin carboxylic sites) and quasi-critical exponents

  5. Removal of the metal ions from aqueous solutions by nanoscaled low molecular pectin isolated from seagrass Phyllospadix iwatensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khozhaenko, Elena; Kovalev, Valeri; Podkorytova, Elena; Khotimchenko, Maksim

    2016-09-15

    Pectins from sea grasses are considered as promising substances with pronounced metal-binding activity. Due to the high molecular weight and heterogeneous structure, the use of pectins for removal of metal ions is difficult. Technology of directed pectin degradation was developed and homogenous degraded nanoscaled pectin polymers were synthesized. Experimental samples of degraded pectin isolated from Phyllospadix iwatensis were tested for their metal binding activity in comparison with native pectin from this seagrass and commercial citrus pectin. The metal uptake of all pectin compounds was highest within the pH range from 4.0 to 6.0. The Langmuir, Freundlich and BET sorption models were applied to describe the isotherms and constants. Results showed that depolymerized pectin exerts highest lead and cadmium binding activity with pronounced affinity. All pectin compounds were suggested to be favorable sorbents. Therefore, it can be concluded that degraded pectin is a prospective material for creation of metal-removing water treatment systems. PMID:26848015

  6. The state of cell wall pectin monitored by wall associated kinases: A model

    OpenAIRE

    Kohorn, Bruce D

    2015-01-01

    The Wall Associated Kinases (WAKs) bind to both cross-linked polymers of pectin in the plant cell wall, but have a higher affinity for smaller fragmented pectins that are generated upon pathogen attack or wounding. WAKs are required for cell expansion during normal seedling development and this involves pectin binding and a signal transduction pathway involving MPK3 and invertase induction. Alternatively WAKs bind pathogen generated pectin fragments to activate a distinct MPK6 dependent stres...

  7. Hydrophobic Thiolation of Pectin with 4-Aminothiophenol: Synthesis and In Vitro Characterization

    OpenAIRE

    Perera, Glen; Hombach, Juliane; Bernkop-Schnürch, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to modify pectin by covalent attachment of the water-insoluble ligand 4-aminothiophenol to its polymeric backbone. 4-Aminothiophenol is a ligand which is highly prone to oxidation. Therefore, this ligand allows oxidative cross-linking of pectin under mild oxidative conditions. Additionally, hydrophobization of pectin can be achieved by the mentioned modification which offers certain advantages over highly hydrophilic native pectins. 4-Aminothiophenol was covalently a...

  8. Anti-Oxidative Activity of Pectin and Its Stabilizing Effect on Retinyl Palmitate

    OpenAIRE

    Ro, Jieun; Kim, Yeongseok; Kim, Hyeongmin; Jang, Soung Baek; Lee, Hyun Joo; Chakma, Suharto; Jeong, Ji Hoon; Lee, Jaehwi

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the anti-oxidative activity of pectin and other polysaccharides in order to develop a cosmeceutical base having anti-oxidative effects towards retinyl palmitate (RP). The anti-oxidative stabilizing effects of pectin and other polysaccharides on RP were evaluated by DPPH assay and then the stabilizing effect of pectin on RP was examined as a function of time. Among the polysaccharides we examined, pectin exhibited a considerably higher anti-oxidative ac...

  9. Pectin and complications after gastric surgery: normalisation of postprandial glucose and endocrine responses.

    OpenAIRE

    Jenkins, D J; Bloom, S. R.; Albuquerque, R H; Leeds, A R; Sarson, D L; Metz, G L; Alberti, K G

    1980-01-01

    Pectin has been shown to minimise the fall in blood glucose seen in patients who are troubled by hypoglycaemia attacks after gastric surgery. We therefore performed 50 g glucose tolerance tests with and without 14.5 g pectin on 11 post-gastric surgery patients. After pectin, the high postprandial levels of glucose, insulin, and enteroglucagon were significantly reduced as was the fall in blood glucose between 90 and 120 minutes. These effects of pectin may reflect slower uptake of glucose fro...

  10. Effect of Celluclast 1.5L on the Physicochemical Characterization of Gold Kiwifruit Pectin

    OpenAIRE

    Mawson, John A.; Charles S. Brennan; Kelvin K. T. Goh; Lara Matia-Merino; Oni Yuliarti

    2011-01-01

    The effects of Celluclast 1.5L concentration on the physicochemical characterization of gold kiwifruit pectin was evaluated. Varying the enzyme concentration affected the pectin yield and pectin physicochemical properties. The viscosity of extracted pectin was largely dependent on the enzyme concentration. Celluclast 1.5L with medium concentration exhibited the highest viscosity. Varying the enzyme concentration also influenced the molecular weight distribution. High molecular weight (M w) pe...

  11. Obtaining of pectin polysaccharides from secondary resources of food industry by rapid extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Present article is devoted to obtaining of pectin polysaccharides from secondary resources of food industry by rapid extraction. The method of rapid extraction under the pressure of pectin polysaccharides from secondary resources of food industry was elaborated. The additional information on macromolecule structure of pectin of various vegetative raw materials was obtained. The prospect of application the elaborated method for obtaining of pectin polysaccharides from secondary resources of food industry with high output yield, optimal parameters and low cost was proved.

  12. Modification of Pectin and Hemicellulose Polysaccharides in Relation to Aril Breakdown of Harvested Longan Fruit

    OpenAIRE

    Duoduo Wang; Haiyan Zhang; Fuwang Wu; Taotao Li; Yuxiang Liang; Xuewu Duan

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the modification of cell wall polysaccharides in relation to aril breakdown in harvested longan fruit, three pectin fractions (WSP, water soluble pectin; CSP, CDTA-soluble pectin; ASP, alkali soluble pectin) and one hemicellulose fraction (4 M KOH-SHC, 4 M KOH-soluble hemicellulose) were extracted, and their contents, monosaccharide compositions and molecular weights were evaluated. As aril breakdown intensified, CSP content increased while ASP and 4 M KOH-SHC contents decreas...

  13. How to let go: pectin and plant cell adhesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daher, Firas Bou; Braybrook, Siobhan A

    2015-01-01

    Plant cells do not, in general, migrate. They maintain a fixed position relative to their neighbors, intimately linked through growth and differentiation. The mediator of this connection, the pectin-rich middle lamella, is deposited during cell division and maintained throughout the cell's life to protect tissue integrity. The maintenance of adhesion requires cell wall modification and is dependent on the actin cytoskeleton. There are developmental processes that require cell separation, such as organ abscission, dehiscence, and ripening. In these instances, the pectin-rich middle lamella must be actively altered to allow cell separation, a process which also requires cell wall modification. In this review, we will focus on the role of pectin and its modification in cell adhesion and separation. Recent insights gained in pectin gel mechanics will be discussed in relation to existing knowledge of pectin chemistry as it relates to cell adhesion. As a whole, we hope to begin defining the physical mechanisms behind a cells' ability to hang on, and how it lets go. PMID:26236321

  14. Multiple approaches to assess pectin binding to galectin-3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tao; Zheng, Yi; Zhao, Dongyang; Yan, Jingmin; Sun, Chongliang; Zhou, Yifa; Tai, Guihua

    2016-10-01

    Although several approaches have been used to evaluate binding of carbohydrates to lectins, results are not always comparable, especially with larger polysaccharides. Here, we quantitatively assessed and compared binding of pectin-derived polysaccharides to galectin-3 (Gal-3) using five methods: surface plasmon resonance (SPR), bio-layer interferometry (BLI), fluorescence polarization (FP), competitive fluorescence-linked immunosorbance (cFLISA), and the well-known cell-based hemagglutination assay (G3H). Our studies revealed that whereas Gal-3-pectin binding parameters determined by SPR and BLI were comparable and correlated with inhibitory potencies from the G3H assay, results using FP and cFLISA assays were highly variable and depended greatly on the probe and mass of the polysaccharide. In the cFLISA assay, for example, pectins showed no inhibition when using the DTAF-labeled asialofetuin probe, but did when using a DTAF-labeled pectin probe. And the FP approach with the DTAF-lactose probe did not work on polysaccharides and large galactan chains, although it did work well with smaller galactans. Nevertheless, even though results derived from all of these methods are in general agreement, derived KD, IC50, and MIC values do differ. Our results reflect the variability using various techniques and therefore will be useful to investigators who are developing pectin-derived Gal-3 antagonists as anti-cancer agents. PMID:27328612

  15. Novel hybrid nanostructured materials of magnetite nanoparticles and pectin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Saurabh; Dutta, Raj Kumar

    2011-04-01

    A novel hybrid nanostructured material comprising superparamagnetic magnetite nanoparticles (MNPs) and pectin was synthesized by crosslinking with Ca2+ ions to form spherical calcium pectinate nanostructures, referred as MCPs, which were typically found to be 100-150 nm in size in dried condition, confirmed from transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The uniform size distribution was revealed from dynamic light scattering measurement. In aqueous medium the MCPs showed swelling behavior with an average size of 400 nm. A mechanism of formation of spherical MCPs is outlined constituting a MNP-pectin interface encapsulated by calcium pectinate at the periphery, by using an array of characterization techniques like zeta potential, thermogravimetry, Fourier transformed infrared and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The MCPs were stable in simulated gastrointestinal fluid and ensured minimal loss of magnetic material. They exhibited superparamagnetic behavior, confirmed from zero field cooled and field cooled profiles and showed high saturation magnetization (Ms) of 46.21 emu/g at 2.5 T and 300 K. Ms decreased with increasing precursor pectin concentrations, attributed to quenching of magnetic moments by formation of a magnetic dead layer on the MNPs.

  16. Formation and rupture of Ca2+induced pectin biopolymer gels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basak, Rajib; Bandyopadhyay, Ranjini

    When calcium salts are added to an aqueous solution of polysaccharide pectin, ionic cross-links form between pectin chains, giving rise to a gel network in dilute solution. In this work, dynamic light scattering (DLS) is employed to study the microscopic dynamics of the fractal aggregates (flocs) that constitute the gels, while rheological measurements are performed to study the process of gel rupture. As calcium salt concentration is increased, DLS experiments reveal that the polydispersities of the flocs increase simultaneously with the characteristic relaxation times of the gel network. Above a critical salt concentration, the flocs become interlinked to form a reaction-limited fractal gel network. Rheological studies demonstrate that the limits of the linear rheological response and the critical stresses required to rupture these networks both decrease with increase in salt concentration. These features indicate that the ion-mediated pectin gels studied here lie in a `strong link' regime that is characterised by inter-floc links that are stronger than intra-floc links. A scaling analysis of the experimental data presented here demonstrates that the elasticities of the individual fractal flocs exhibit power-law dependences on the added salt concentration. We conclude that when pectin and salt concentrations are both increased, the number of fractal flocs of pectin increases simultaneously with the density of crosslinks, giving rise to very large values of the bulk elastic modulus.

  17. Structural analysis of pectin, polygalacturonic acid and pectinase enzyme iyophilysed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pectic substances are pectinic acid, pectic acid and their salts. Pectin is a polysaccharide found in plants like fruits and vegetables etc in high level. Substances which have no methyl group are pectic acid and polygalacturonic acid. Pectic substances are heteropolysaccharides with 30,000-300,000 molecular weight. Pectic enzymes are known as enzyme destroying chain. Pectic enzyme's produce monogalacturonates by attaking the nonreducing end of the high molecular weight pectic acids. These are produced by saprophytic fungi, bacteria and some yeasts. They are used in fruit and vegetable technologies. In this research, crystal structures of pectin, polygalacturonic acid and Iyophilysed bacterial pectinase samples were studied by scanning electron microskop. Homogenous crystal structure was observed from the images at SEM. Pectin, polygalacturonic acid and pectinase enzyme was packed so compact and tightly that no transition of beam was observed. Pectin crystals have bigger size than polygalacturonic acid crystals. The crystals of substrata molecules was determined to be smaller than pectinase enzymes. Ca++ and Na++ cations are known to stimulate enzymatic activity. In second step of study, the elements which are thought to be present in the crystal structure of pectinase were analysed. Analysis results showed that Na, Zn, and Ca elements were found at concentrations of 60 %, 29.296 % and 6.555 %, respectively

  18. Pilot plan concentration and purification of pectin polysaccharides by dia-ultrafiltration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of pilot plans dia-ultrafiltration process of pectin polysaccharides hydrolyzed solutions using two type of hollow fiber are given. It is shown that polyamide membrane has advantages on the polysulfone one and application of dia-ultrafiltration process in pectin production will improve quality of pectin and make the production profitable. (author)

  19. GLOBAL STRUCTURES OF HIGH METHOXYL PECTIN FROM SOLUTION AND IN GELS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Images of high methoxyl orange pectin deposited from solution and sugar acid gels (HMSAG) were obtained by atomic force microscopy in the Tapping Mode (TM). For the first time, images of pectin deposited from water revealed that the transition from pectin networks to individual molecules or aggrega...

  20. Sorption properties of pectin polysaccharides obtained form the wastes of food industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Present article is devoted to sorption properties of pectin polysaccharides obtained form the wastes of food industry. The comparative analysis of quantitative parameters of combining of cooper and lead by pectin polysaccharides, obtained from different raw sources was conducted. It was defined that micro gel and low methylated pectin have the most cooper and lead binding ability.

  1. Contactless conductivity: an HPLC method to analyze degree of methylation of pectin

    Science.gov (United States)

    After removal of soluble sugars and other compounds by washing, citrus peel is largely composed of pectin, cellulose and hemicellulose. One of the major components, pectin can be modified using pectinesterases which reduces the degree of methylation (DM) to produce lower DM pectins which have great...

  2. Low level hydrogen peroxide generation from a nonwoven fibrous pectin-cellulose blend

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fibrous pectic-cellulose (FPC) (cellulose blended with primary cell wall pectin at 2 percent by weight of pectin) is product made from naturally occurring plant fibers. FPC is a fibrous mixture of polysaccharides with a low percent by weight of pectin-based primary cell wall and lipid components att...

  3. High performance liquid chromatography time of flight electrospray ionization mass spectrometry for quantification of sesquiterpenes in Chrysanthemi indici Flos active extract

    OpenAIRE

    Fu, Ling; Wang, Pan; SUN, YIQUN; Wang, Yangyang; Zhao, Jing; Ye, Yuting; Zhang, Yanbin; Bi, Yuefeng

    2015-01-01

    Background: Chrysanthemi indici Flos, a traditional herbal medicine is used to clearing heat–toxicity, removing the liver fire, and improving eyesight. In our preliminary work, an active extract of CTC in C. An indici Flos with anti-hepatitis B virus and liver protective activity was found by HepG2.2.1.5 test and experiment of protein synthesis in mice's injured liver. In this work, we aimed to study the active faction CTC further by qualitative and quantitative analysis method. Materials and...

  4. Pectin extraction from pomegranate peels with citric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Paulo Henrique F; Oliveira, Túlio Ítalo S; Rosa, Morsyleide F; Cavalcante, Fabio Lima; Moates, Graham K; Wellner, Nikolaus; Waldron, Keith W; Azeredo, Henriette M C

    2016-07-01

    Pectins were extracted from pomegranate peels with citric acid, according to a central composite design with three variables: pH (2-4), temperature (70-90°C), and extraction time (40-150min). Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was used to follow changes in material composition during the main steps of pectin extraction, and also to determine the degree of methyl esterification and galacturonic acid content of pectins produced under different conditions. Harsh conditions enhanced the extraction yield and the galacturonic acid contents, but decreased the degree of methoxylation. The optimum extraction conditions, defined as those predicted to result in a yield of galacturonic acid higher than 8g/100g while keeping a minimum degree of methoxylation of 54% were: 88°C, 120min, pH 2.5. Close agreement was found between experimental and predicted values at the extraction conditions defined as optimum. PMID:27044343

  5. Formation of microcapsule from high methoxyl pectins and whey lactoglobulin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The process of microencapsulation of model drug through complex formation between whey lactoglobulin concentrate and different high methoxyl pectins from apples and citrus in the oil/water interface were investigated. There are optimum conditions for obtaining stable emulsions by changing the ionic strength of the system, capable of forming a solid layer at the oil/water interface were studied. It is shown that the emulsion system formed by apple pectin has maximum particle number, higher drug loading efficiency in comparison with the citrus pectin. Delivery systems in the form of emulsion microparticles have demonstrated the ability to efficiently encapsulate the model drug-piroxicam, which can be widely used in the development of injectable and aerosol delivery systems. (author)

  6. Novel hybrid nanostructured materials of magnetite nanoparticles and pectin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahu, Saurabh [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee 247 667 (India); Dutta, Raj Kumar, E-mail: duttafcy@iitr.ernet.i [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee 247 667 (India)

    2011-04-15

    A novel hybrid nanostructured material comprising superparamagnetic magnetite nanoparticles (MNPs) and pectin was synthesized by crosslinking with Ca{sup 2+} ions to form spherical calcium pectinate nanostructures, referred as MCPs, which were typically found to be 100-150 nm in size in dried condition, confirmed from transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The uniform size distribution was revealed from dynamic light scattering measurement. In aqueous medium the MCPs showed swelling behavior with an average size of 400 nm. A mechanism of formation of spherical MCPs is outlined constituting a MNP-pectin interface encapsulated by calcium pectinate at the periphery, by using an array of characterization techniques like zeta potential, thermogravimetry, Fourier transformed infrared and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The MCPs were stable in simulated gastrointestinal fluid and ensured minimal loss of magnetic material. They exhibited superparamagnetic behavior, confirmed from zero field cooled and field cooled profiles and showed high saturation magnetization (M{sub s}) of 46.21 emu/g at 2.5 T and 300 K. M{sub s} decreased with increasing precursor pectin concentrations, attributed to quenching of magnetic moments by formation of a magnetic dead layer on the MNPs. - Research highlights: > In the present investigation we have developed a facile route to synthesize a novel, low cost calcium pectinate nanostructure functionalized with SPIONs (magnetite nanoparticles). > Though there are sufficient scientific illustrations on polymer as well as biopolymers coated on SPIONs for various biomedical applications, the one presented here, is novel of its kind as it is considered to offer a new dimension to the magnetic responsive properties of calcium pectinate nanomaterials towards biomedical applications, especially as a potential carrier for magnetically targeted drug delivery to colon specific sites. > The synthesis of these nanostructured

  7. A Comprehensive Approach for Pectin Chemical and Functional Characterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Sousa, António Felipe Gomes Teixeira

    In this work, a comprehensive approach for the chemical and functional analysis of pectin was used in order to relate the different extraction conditions used to the polymer structure and the final functional (mainly gelling) properties. A wide range of methods were utilized including chemical and...... chromatographic characterization methods (HPAEC and HPSEC), rheological measurements of elasticity, and biological epitopes detection using carbohydrate microarrays. The end product of this study is expected to contribute to the knowledge of pectin polymeric conformation and structure-function properties as well...

  8. Novel hybrid nanostructured materials of magnetite nanoparticles and pectin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A novel hybrid nanostructured material comprising superparamagnetic magnetite nanoparticles (MNPs) and pectin was synthesized by crosslinking with Ca2+ ions to form spherical calcium pectinate nanostructures, referred as MCPs, which were typically found to be 100-150 nm in size in dried condition, confirmed from transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The uniform size distribution was revealed from dynamic light scattering measurement. In aqueous medium the MCPs showed swelling behavior with an average size of 400 nm. A mechanism of formation of spherical MCPs is outlined constituting a MNP-pectin interface encapsulated by calcium pectinate at the periphery, by using an array of characterization techniques like zeta potential, thermogravimetry, Fourier transformed infrared and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The MCPs were stable in simulated gastrointestinal fluid and ensured minimal loss of magnetic material. They exhibited superparamagnetic behavior, confirmed from zero field cooled and field cooled profiles and showed high saturation magnetization (Ms) of 46.21 emu/g at 2.5 T and 300 K. Ms decreased with increasing precursor pectin concentrations, attributed to quenching of magnetic moments by formation of a magnetic dead layer on the MNPs. - Research Highlights: → In the present investigation we have developed a facile route to synthesize a novel, low cost calcium pectinate nanostructure functionalized with SPIONs (magnetite nanoparticles). → Though there are sufficient scientific illustrations on polymer as well as biopolymers coated on SPIONs for various biomedical applications, the one presented here, is novel of its kind as it is considered to offer a new dimension to the magnetic responsive properties of calcium pectinate nanomaterials towards biomedical applications, especially as a potential carrier for magnetically targeted drug delivery to colon specific sites. → The synthesis of these nanostructured materials has

  9. Pectin-rich biomass as feedstock for fuel ethanol production

    OpenAIRE

    Edwards, Meredith C.; Doran-Peterson, Joy

    2012-01-01

    The USA has proposed that 30 % of liquid transportation fuel be produced from renewable resources by 2030 (Perlack and Stokes 2011). It will be impossible to reach this goal using corn kernel-based ethanol alone. Pectin-rich biomass, an under-utilized waste product of the sugar and juice industry, can augment US ethanol supplies by capitalizing on this already established feedstock. Currently, pectin-rich biomass is sold (at low value) as animal feed. This review focuses on the three most stu...

  10. Global Effect of Indole-3-Acetic Acid Biosynthesis on Multiple Virulence Factors of Erwinia chrysanthemi 3937▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shihui; Zhang, Qiu; Guo, Jianhua; Charkowski, Amy O.; Glick, Bernard R.; Ibekwe, A. Mark; Cooksey, Donald A.; Yang, Ching-Hong

    2007-01-01

    Production of the plant hormone indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) is widespread among plant-associated microorganisms. The non-gall-forming phytopathogen Erwinia chrysanthemi 3937 (strain Ech3937) possesses iaaM (ASAP16562) and iaaH (ASAP16563) gene homologues. In this work, the null knockout iaaM mutant strain Ech138 was constructed. The IAA production by Ech138 was reduced in M9 minimal medium supplemented with l-tryptophan. Compared with wild-type Ech3937, Ech138 exhibited reduced ability to produce local maceration, but its multiplication in Saintpaulia ionantha was unaffected. The pectate lyase production of Ech138 was diminished. Compared with wild-type Ech3937, the expression levels of an oligogalacturonate lyase gene, ogl, and three endopectate lyase genes, pelD, pelI, and pelL, were reduced in Ech138 as determined by a green fluorescent protein-based fluorescence-activated cell sorting promoter activity assay. In addition, the transcription of type III secretion system (T3SS) genes, dspE (a putative T3SS effector) and hrpN (T3SS harpin), was found to be diminished in the iaaM mutant Ech138. Compared with Ech3937, reduced expression of hrpL (a T3SS alternative sigma factor) and gacA but increased expression of rsmA in Ech138 was also observed, suggesting that the regulation of T3SS and pectate lyase genes by IAA biosynthesis might be partially due to the posttranscriptional regulation of the Gac-Rsm regulatory pathway. PMID:17189441

  11. Analysis of the LacI family regulators of Erwinia chrysanthemi 3937, involvement in the bacterial phytopathogenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Gijsegem, Frédérique; Wlodarczyk, Aleksandra; Cornu, Amandine; Reverchon, Sylvie; Hugouvieux-Cotte-Pattat, Nicole

    2008-11-01

    Analysis of the regulators of the LacI family was performed in order to identify those potentially involved in pathogenicity of Erwinia chrysanthemi (Dickeya dadantii). Among the 18 members of the LacI family, the function of 11 members is either known or predicted and only 7 members have, as yet, no proposed function. Inactivation of these seven genes, called lfaR, lfbR, lfcR, lfdR, lfeR, lffR, and lfgR, demonstrated that four of them are important for plant infection. The lfaR and lfcR mutants showed a reduced virulence on chicory, Saintpaulia sp., and Arabidopsis. The lfeR mutant showed a reduced virulence on Arabidopsis. The lfdR mutant was more efficient than the wild-type strain in initiating maceration on Saintpaulia sp. The genetic environment of each regulator was examined to detect adjacent genes potentially involved in a common function. Construction of transcriptional fusions in these neighboring genes demonstrated that five regulators, LfaR, LfcR, LfeR, LffR, and LfgR, act as repressors of adjacent genes. Analysis of these fusions also indicated that the genes controlled by LfaR, LfcR, LfgR, and LffR are expressed during plant infection. Moreover, addition of crude plant extracts to culture medium demonstrated that the expression of the LfaR- and LfgR-controlled genes is specifically induced by plant components. PMID:18842096

  12. Development of microwave-assisted extraction followed by headspace solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for quantification of camphor and borneol in Flos Chrysanthemi Indici

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the work, microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) followed by headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was developed for quantitative analysis of the bioactive components of camphor and borneol in a traditional Chinese medicines (TCM) of Flos Chrysanthemi Indici. After systematical investigation, the optimal experimental parameters microwave power (400 W), irradiation time (4 min), fiber coating (PDMS/DVB fiber), extraction temperature (40 deg. C), extraction time (20 min), stirring rate (1100 rpm), and salt effect (no salt added) were investigated. The optimized method provided satisfactory precision (RSD values less than 12%), good recovery (from 86% to 94%), and good linearity (R 2 > 0.999). The proposed method was applied to quantitative analysis of camphor and borneol in Flos Chrysanthemi Indici samples from 11 different growing areas. To demonstrate the method feasibility, steam distillation was also used to analyze camphor and borneol in Flos Chrysanthemi Indici samples from these different growing areas. The very close results were obtained by the two methods. It has been shown that the proposed ME-HS-SPME-GC-MS is a simple, rapid, solvent-free and reliable method for quantitative analysis of camphor and borneol in TCM, and a potential tool for quality assessment of Flos Chrysanthemi Indici

  13. Development of microwave-assisted extraction followed by headspace solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for quantification of camphor and borneol in Flos Chrysanthemi Indici

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng Chunhui [Department of Chemistry, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Mao Yu [Department of Basic Medical Sciences, Second Military Medicinal University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Yao Ning [Department of Chemistry, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Zhang Xiangmin [Department of Chemistry, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China)]. E-mail: xmzhang@fudan.edu.cn

    2006-08-04

    In the work, microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) followed by headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was developed for quantitative analysis of the bioactive components of camphor and borneol in a traditional Chinese medicines (TCM) of Flos Chrysanthemi Indici. After systematical investigation, the optimal experimental parameters microwave power (400 W), irradiation time (4 min), fiber coating (PDMS/DVB fiber), extraction temperature (40 deg. C), extraction time (20 min), stirring rate (1100 rpm), and salt effect (no salt added) were investigated. The optimized method provided satisfactory precision (RSD values less than 12%), good recovery (from 86% to 94%), and good linearity (R {sup 2} > 0.999). The proposed method was applied to quantitative analysis of camphor and borneol in Flos Chrysanthemi Indici samples from 11 different growing areas. To demonstrate the method feasibility, steam distillation was also used to analyze camphor and borneol in Flos Chrysanthemi Indici samples from these different growing areas. The very close results were obtained by the two methods. It has been shown that the proposed ME-HS-SPME-GC-MS is a simple, rapid, solvent-free and reliable method for quantitative analysis of camphor and borneol in TCM, and a potential tool for quality assessment of Flos Chrysanthemi Indici.

  14. The influence of pectin and pectin-containing substances of some metabolic indices of blood and hepatic tissues of rats subjected to external gamma-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It was shown that the administration of apple pectin and pectin-containing canned fruit (natural and enriched with pectin and Vitamin C) to rats subjected to a single exposure to 1 Gy gamma-radiation exerted a favourable effect on the postirradiation recovery of formed blood elements, increased antitoxic activity of blood and hepatic tissues, and imporved the system of the antioxidant protection of erythrocytes and protein blood fractions

  15. [Adhesion of Bacillus subtilis on the surface of pectin-calcium gel].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunter, E A; Melekhin, A K

    2015-01-01

    Pectin-calcium gels obtained based on pectins of callus cultures are able to adhere to the surface of cells of Gram-positive bacteria Bacillus subtilis to various degrees and this is thanks to the structural features of pectin. Rapid adhesion of the cells to gels obtained from the pectin of Tanacetum vulgare (TVC) callus cultures is associated with a high content of the linear region in the carbohydrate chain of pectin, a high molecular weight, and a low degree of methyl etherification of pectin. The number of adherent cells on the surface of gels obtained from pectins of Silene vulgaris callus cultures (SVC), TVC, and Lemna minor (LMC) after 8 h of incubation was close, whereas the number of cells was minimal on a gel produced using the pectin of Silene tatarica (STC) callus culture. This was due to the higher degree of methyl etherification of STC pectin (45%) compared to other pectins (4-12%). The adhesion rate constant (k) of B. subtilis for TCV gel during the first 120 min was the highest in comparison with other gels; the k value for SVC, STC and LMC gels was similar. The lowest level of k was characteristic for the gel from commercial apple pectin. The obtained data can beused for the production of gels with adhesive and antiadhesive properties. PMID:25842905

  16. Flavohaemoglobin HmpX from Erwinia chrysanthemi confers nitrosative stress tolerance and affects the plant hypersensitive reaction by intercepting nitric oxide produced by the host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boccara, Martine; Mills, Catherine E; Zeier, Jürgen; Anzi, Chiara; Lamb, Chris; Poole, Robert K; Delledonne, Massimo

    2005-07-01

    Host cells respond to infection by generating nitric oxide (NO) as a cytotoxic weapon to facilitate killing of invading microbes. Bacterial flavohaemoglobins are well-known scavengers of NO and play a crucial role in protecting animal pathogens from nitrosative stress during infection. Erwinia chrysanthemi, which causes macerating diseases in a wide variety of plants, possesses a flavohaemoglobin (HmpX) whose function in plant pathogens has remained unclear. Here we show that HmpX consumes NO and prevents inhibition by NO of cell respiration, indicating a role in protection from nitrosative stress. Furthermore, infection of Saintpaulia ionantha plants with an HmpX-deficient mutant of E. chrysanthemi revealed that the lack of NO scavenging activity causes the accumulation of unusually high levels of NO in host tissue and triggers hypersensitive cell death. Introduction of the wild-type hmpX gene in an incompatible strain of Pseudomonas syringae had a dramatic effect on the hypersensitive cell death in soya bean cell suspensions, and markedly reduced the development of macroscopic symptoms in Arabidopsis thaliana plants. These observations indicate that HmpX not only protects against nitrosative stress but also attenuates host hypersensitive reaction during infection by intercepting NO produced by the plant for the execution of the hypersensitive cell death programme. PMID:15998309

  17. Pectin, a versatile polysaccharide present in plant cell walls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voragen, A.G.J.; Coenen, G.J.; Verhoef, R.P.; Schols, H.A.

    2009-01-01

    Pectin or pectic substances are collective names for a group of closely associated polysaccharides present in plant cell walls where they contribute to complex physiological processes like cell growth and cell differentiation and so determine the integrity and rigidity of plant tissue. They also pla

  18. Facile and green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using oxidized pectin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tummalapalli, Mythili; Deopura, B.L. [Bioengineering Lab, Department of Textile Technology, Indian Institute of Technology, Hauz Khas, New Delhi 110016 (India); Alam, M.S. [Department of Chemistry, Jamia Hamdard, New Delhi 110062 (India); Gupta, Bhuvanesh, E-mail: bgupta@textile.iitd.ernet.in [Bioengineering Lab, Department of Textile Technology, Indian Institute of Technology, Hauz Khas, New Delhi 110016 (India)

    2015-05-01

    In the current work, an alternative route for facile synthesis of nanosilver is reported. Oxidized pectin has been used as the reducing agent as well as the stabilizing agent, resulting in the formation of oxidized pectin-nanosilver (OP-NS) core sheath nanohydrogels. The effect of reaction parameters on the synthesized nanoparticles is investigated. The structural and morphological features have been analyzed using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) respectively. The crystal size of the synthesized nanosilver was calculated to be 28.76 nm. While the average size of the core sheath structure varied from 289 nm to 540 nm, the size of the silver nanoparticle entities at the core varied from 100 nm to 180 nm, with variation in reaction time. From the morphological examination, it could be seen that flower like nanostructures are formed with nanosilver in the core surrounded by a polymeric halo. - Highlights: • In-situ reduction of silver nitrate to nanosilver was carried out using oxidized pectin. • Oxidized pectin-nanosilver nanohydrogels were synthesized. • Nanoparticles with flower like morphology and face centered cubic crystal structure were fabricated.

  19. Casein/pectin nanocomplexes as potential oral delivery vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yangchao; Pan, Kang; Zhong, Qixin

    2015-01-01

    Delivery systems prepared with natural biopolymers are of particular interests for applications in food, pharmaceutics and biomedicine. In this study, nanocomplex particles of sodium caseinate (NaCas) and pectin were fabricated and investigated as potential oral delivery vehicles. Nanocomplexes were prepared with three mass ratios of NaCas/pectin by acidification using glucono-δ-lactone and thermal treatment. NaCas/pectin at 1:1 mass ratio resulted in dispersions with the lowest turbidity and the smallest and most uniform nanocomplexes. Thermal treatment at 85 °C for 30 min facilitated the formation of stable, compact, and spherical nanocomplexes. Heating not only greatly increased the yield of nanocomplexes but also significantly improved the encapsulation capability of rutin studied as a model compound. Pectin in nanocomplexes delayed the hydrolysis of NaCas by pepsin at gastric conditions and enabled the controlled release of most rutin in simulated intestinal conditions. The nanocomplexes based on food-sourced biopolymers have promising features for oral delivery of nutrients and medicines. PMID:25800678

  20. Ion equilibrium in aqueous solutions of pectin materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By means of electro conductivity method the comparative study of ion equilibrium of pectin materials of apple, orange and sunflower in aqueous solution at various ph was conducted. According to experimental data on specific conductivity the value of equivalent conductivity, level, functions and dissociation constant were evaluated. (author)

  1. Micro sheaths on the basis of low methylated pectin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    His study has demonstrated a new type of charged film microcapsules formed by pectin- surfactant interfacial reaction at an emulsion interface and prepared using a relatively simple method. The resulting encapsulated emulsions contained relatively small particles (d< mu), had high total particle number, specific surface area and drug encapsulation efficiency and demonstrated relatively good stability to particle aggregation

  2. Facile and green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using oxidized pectin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the current work, an alternative route for facile synthesis of nanosilver is reported. Oxidized pectin has been used as the reducing agent as well as the stabilizing agent, resulting in the formation of oxidized pectin-nanosilver (OP-NS) core sheath nanohydrogels. The effect of reaction parameters on the synthesized nanoparticles is investigated. The structural and morphological features have been analyzed using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) respectively. The crystal size of the synthesized nanosilver was calculated to be 28.76 nm. While the average size of the core sheath structure varied from 289 nm to 540 nm, the size of the silver nanoparticle entities at the core varied from 100 nm to 180 nm, with variation in reaction time. From the morphological examination, it could be seen that flower like nanostructures are formed with nanosilver in the core surrounded by a polymeric halo. - Highlights: • In-situ reduction of silver nitrate to nanosilver was carried out using oxidized pectin. • Oxidized pectin-nanosilver nanohydrogels were synthesized. • Nanoparticles with flower like morphology and face centered cubic crystal structure were fabricated

  3. Pectin as an Extraordinary Natural Kinetic Hydrate Inhibitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shurui; Fan, Shuanshi; Fang, Songtian; Lang, Xuemei; Wang, Yanhong; Chen, Jun

    2016-03-01

    Pectin as a novel natural kinetic hydrate inhibitor, expected to be eco-friendly and sufficiently biodegradable, was studied in this paper. The novel crystal growth inhibition (CGI) and standard induction time methods were used to evaluate its effect as hydrate inhibitor. It could successfully inhibit methane hydrate formation at subcooling temperature up to 12.5 °C and dramatically slowed the hydrate crystal growth. The dosage of pectin decreased by 66% and effective time extended 10 times than typical kinetic inhibitor. Besides, its maximum growth rate was no more than 2.0%/h, which was far less than 5.5%/h of growth rate for PVCap at the same dosage. The most prominent feature was that it totally inhibited methane hydrate crystal rapid growth when hydrate crystalline occurred. Moreover, in terms of typical natural inhibitors, the inhibition activity of pectin increased 10.0-fold in induction time and 2.5-fold in subcooling temperature. The extraordinary inhibition activity is closely related to its hydrogen bonding interaction with water molecules and the hydrophilic structure. Finally, the biodegradability and economical efficiency of pectin were also taken into consideration. The results showed the biodegradability improved 75.0% and the cost reduced by more than 73.3% compared to typical commercial kinetic inhibitors.

  4. Activity of pectin methyl esterase during blanching of peaches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tijskens, L.M.M.; Rodis, P.S.; Hertog, M.L.A.T.M.; Proxenia, N.; Dijk, van C.

    1999-01-01

    The activity of pectin methyl esterase (PE) in peaches during blanching treatments was modelled and analyzed. It was postulated that the enzyme exists in two configurations, one bound and one soluble. The bound configuration can be converted into the soluble configuration. These two configurations h

  5. Microwave extraction of citrus peel to release pectin

    Science.gov (United States)

    After removal of soluble sugars and other compounds by washing, citrus peel is largely composed of pectin, cellulose and hemicellulose. In order to utilize the greatest amount of citrus peel product, it would appear reasonable that one or all three of these polysaccharides be converted to a useful m...

  6. Characterization and degradation of pectin derived from Budimka apple

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MILOS V. NIKOLIC

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The characterization of apple pectin and its oligogalacturonic fractions derived from the autochthones apple variety Budimka, characteristic for central Serbia, is described in this paper. After extraction, the apple pectin was subjected to controlled enzymatic hydrolysis by polygalacturonase (PG and pectin lyase (PL from Aspergillus niger and then fractionated by ion-exchange column chromatography on Dowex 1X-8 (200–400 mesh. Saturated oligogalacturonic acids, obtained by controlled hydrolysis with PG, were efficiently separated by elution with a gradient of Na acetate buffer (pH 6.0, while unsaturated oligogalacturonic acids, obtained by controlled hydrolysis with PL, were separated on the same resin, using a gradient of Na formate buffer (pH 4.7 as the eluent. The yields of the fractions with the particular degree of polymerization (DP were also determined. The total content of neutral saccharides in the original Budimka apple pectin was detected by HPLC analysis of the 4-nitrobenzoyl derivatives of the sugar, and amounted to 5.31 %. Among the neutral saccharides, contents of galactose, glucose, rhamnose, arabinose, xylose and mannose were detected.

  7. Development of complete hydrolysis of pectins from apple pomace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wikiera, Agnieszka; Mika, Magdalena; Starzyńska-Janiszewska, Anna; Stodolak, Bożena

    2015-04-01

    Enzymatically extracted pectins have a more complex structure than those obtained by conventional methods. As a result, they are less susceptible to hydrolysis, which makes the precise determination of their composition difficult. The aim of the study was to develop a method of complete hydrolysis of enzymatically extracted apple pectins. Substrates were pectins isolated from apple pomace by the use of xylanase and multicatalytic preparation Celluclast and apple pomace. Hydrolysis was performed by a chemical method with 2M TFA at 100 °C and 120 °C and a combined acidic/enzymatic method. After hydrolysis, the contents of galacturonic acid and neutral sugars were measured by HPLC. Complete hydrolysis of polygalacturonic acid occurred after 2.5h incubation with 2M TFA at 120 °C. The efficient hydrolysis of neutral sugars in pectins was performed with 2M TFA at 100 °C for 2.5h. Monomers most susceptible to concentrated acid were rhamnose, mannose and arabinose. PMID:25442606

  8. Pectin/zein microspheres as a sustained drug delivery system

    Science.gov (United States)

    A series of microspheres were prepared from pectins and corn proteins from various sources in the presence of the divalent ions calcium or zinc. The results showed that the yield of microsphere and the efficiency of drug incorporation were dependent on the type and ratio of biopolymers, the size of ...

  9. Nanostructure of native pectin sugar acid gels visualized by atomic force microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishman, Marshall L; Cooke, Peter H; Coffin, David R

    2004-01-01

    Height and phase shift images of high methoxyl sugar acid gels (HMSAG) of pectin were obtained by atomic force microscopy in the tapping mode. Images revealed that pores in these gels were fluid and flattened out when measured as a function of time. These images revealed for the first time the structure of adsorbed sugar on pectin in the hydrated native gels and how the pectin framework is organized within these gels. Segmentation of images revealed that the underlying pectin framework contained combinations of rods, segmented rods, and kinked rods connected end to end and laterally. The open network of strands was similar to pectin aggregates from 5 mM NaCl solution imaged earlier by electron microscopy (Fishman et al., Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 1992, 294, 253). Area measurements revealed that the ratio of bound sugar to pectin was in excess of 100 to 1 (w/w). Furthermore, images indicated relatively small differences in the organization of native commercial citrus pectin, orange albedo pectin, and lime albedo pectin gels at optimal pH as determined in this study. The findings are consistent with earlier gel strength measurements of these gels. In addition, values of gel strength were consistent with values of molar mass and viscosity of the constituent pectins in that they increased in the same order. Finally, we demonstrated the advantage of simultaneous visualization of height and phase shift images for observing and quantitating the nanostructure of relatively soft gels which are fully hydrated with a buffer. PMID:15002992

  10. Optimization of fermentation conditions of pectin production from Aspergillus terreus and its partial characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhanmin; Yao, Lifeng; Fan, Chuanhui

    2015-12-10

    Figures of persimmons for the world's top ten persimmon producing countries are about 4000,000 tons in 2011 and are increasing every year according to FAO statistics. However, there is not any report on pectin production by microbial with persimmon peel as the source. Optimization of fermentation conditions of pectin production from Aspergillus terreus in submerged culture and partial characterization of pectin were carried out in the work. An optimum fermentation condition for pectin production was obtained through a central composite rotatable design in response surface methodology as follows: fermentation time, 30.09 h, temperature, 25.00 °C and the initial pH in the fermentation medium, 6.90, respectively and the pectin yield reached the maximal value 0.449 g/g. Persimmon peel pectin had highly methoxylated (62.51%), high galacturonic acid content (82.28%) than citrus pectin, and was classified as the highly methoxylated pectin, the results indicated that persimmon peel had potential good resources for pectin production. The investigation can make it available to utilize persimmon peel to produce high methoxyl pectin for food industry, pharmacy and cosmetic manufacture. PMID:26428166

  11. Anti-Oxidative Activity of Pectin and Its Stabilizing Effect on Retinyl Palmitate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ro, Jieun; Kim, Yeongseok; Kim, Hyeongmin; Jang, Soung Baek; Lee, Hyun Joo; Chakma, Suharto

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the anti-oxidative activity of pectin and other polysaccharides in order to develop a cosmeceutical base having anti-oxidative effects towards retinyl palmitate (RP). The anti-oxidative stabilizing effects of pectin and other polysaccharides on RP were evaluated by DPPH assay and then the stabilizing effect of pectin on RP was examined as a function of time. Among the polysaccharides we examined, pectin exhibited a considerably higher anti-oxidative activity, with an approximately 5-fold greater DPPH radical scavenging effect compared to other polysaccharides. The DPPH radical scavenging effect of pectin increased gradually with increasing concentrations of pectin. At two different RP concentrations, 0.01 and 0.1% in ethanol, addition of pectin improved the stability of RP in a concentration dependent manner. The stabilizing effect of pectin on RP was more effective for the lower concentration of RP (0.01%, v/v). Further, degradation of RP was reduced following the addition of pectin as measured over 8 hours. From the results obtained, it can be suggested that pectin may be a promising ingredient for cosmeceutical bases designed to stabilize RP or other pharmacological agents subject to degradation by oxidation. PMID:23776395

  12. MES16, a member of the methylesterase protein family, specifically demethylates fluorescent chlorophyll catabolites during chlorophyll breakdown in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christ, Bastien; Schelbert, Silvia; Aubry, Sylvain; Süssenbacher, Iris; Müller, Thomas; Kräutler, Bernhard; Hörtensteiner, Stefan

    2012-02-01

    During leaf senescence, chlorophyll (Chl) is broken down to nonfluorescent chlorophyll catabolites (NCCs). These arise from intermediary fluorescent chlorophyll catabolites (FCCs) by an acid-catalyzed isomerization inside the vacuole. The chemical structures of NCCs from Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) indicate the presence of an enzyme activity that demethylates the C13(2)-carboxymethyl group present at the isocyclic ring of Chl. Here, we identified this activity as methylesterase family member 16 (MES16; At4g16690). During senescence, mes16 leaves exhibited a strong ultraviolet-excitable fluorescence, which resulted from large amounts of different FCCs accumulating in the mutants. As confirmed by mass spectrometry, these FCCs had an intact carboxymethyl group, which slowed down their isomerization to respective NCCs. Like a homologous protein cloned from radish (Raphanus sativus) and named pheophorbidase, MES16 catalyzed the demethylation of pheophorbide, an early intermediate of Chl breakdown, in vitro, but MES16 also demethylated an FCC. To determine the in vivo substrate of MES16, we analyzed pheophorbide a oxygenase1 (pao1), which is deficient in pheophorbide catabolism and accumulates pheophorbide in the chloroplast, and a mes16pao1 double mutant. In the pao1 background, we additionally mistargeted MES16 to the chloroplast. Normally, MES16 localizes to the cytosol, as shown by analysis of a MES16-green fluorescent protein fusion. Analysis of the accumulating pigments in these lines revealed that pheophorbide is only accessible for demethylation when MES16 is targeted to the chloroplast. Together, these data demonstrate that MES16 is an integral component of Chl breakdown in Arabidopsis and specifically demethylates Chl catabolites at the level of FCCs in the cytosol. PMID:22147518

  13. Reação de cultivares de batata à podridão mole causada por Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. atrosepticum, por P. carotovorum subsp. carotovorum e por P. chrysanthemi Reaction of potato cultivars to soft rot caused by Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. atrosepticum, P. carotovorum subsp. carotovorum and P. chrysanthemi

    OpenAIRE

    Adilce I. H. Benelli; Norimar D. Denardin; CARLOS A. FORCELINI; Valmir Duarte

    2004-01-01

    A podridão mole em tubérculos de batata (Solanum tuberosum), causada por Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. atrosepticum, por Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum e por P. chrysanthemi, é uma preocupante doença que causa danos expressivos à cultura em todo o mundo. Como inexiste tratamento eficiente para a podridão mole, o desenvolvimento de cultivares resistentes é considerado o método mais eficaz para a redução de perdas causadas pela doença. Nesse sentido, quatro cultivares de bata...

  14. Reaction of arracacha genotypes to the root soft rot caused by Pectobacterium chrysanthemi Reação de genótipos de mandioquinha-salsa à podridão-mole das raízes causada por Pectobacterium chrysanthemi

    OpenAIRE

    Gilmar Paulo Henz; Francisco José Becker Reifschneider; Fausto Francisco dos Santos

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to screen thirty-two arracacha genotypes for their reaction to root soft rot. Twenty roots of each genotype were inoculated with two Pectobacterium chrysanthemi isolates in a randomized experiment (10 roots/isolate). After inoculation, roots were individually wrapped with PVC film and kept at 26ºC in closed plastic bags. Soft rot lesions were recorded after 36 hours and genotypes were grouped in four classes of susceptibility by cluster analysis: 10 were less sus...

  15. Morphology and ontogeny of the pectines of Babycurus jacksoni (Scorpiones: Buthidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Funch, Peter; Thybring, Mette

    Pectines are unique mechano- and chemosensory organs of scorpions used in prey capture and mating. All extant species possess one pair of these comb-like sensory structures ventrally on the second mesosomal segment, and each pecten is composed of marginal and medial lamellae that carry numerous...... pectinal teeth with ventral microscopic sensory pegs. Here we studied the ontogeny and morphology of the pectines in the Tanzanian red bark scorpion, Babycurus jacksoni by comparison of size and morphology of their exuvia and pectines from first instar to adult. Light- and scanning electron microscopy of...... unexpec-ted because of the important role of pectines in courtship behaviour. The cuticular spikes found here has not been reported from scorpion pectines before and their function should be further investigated. The undeveloped pegs in the first instar are probably not fully functional in agreement with...

  16. Effect of Celluclast 1.5L on the Physicochemical Characterization of Gold Kiwifruit Pectin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuliarti, Oni; Matia-Merino, Lara; Goh, Kelvin K. T.; Mawson, John A.; Brennan, Charles S.

    2011-01-01

    The effects of Celluclast 1.5L concentration on the physicochemical characterization of gold kiwifruit pectin was evaluated. Varying the enzyme concentration affected the pectin yield and pectin physicochemical properties. The viscosity of extracted pectin was largely dependent on the enzyme concentration. Celluclast 1.5L with medium concentration exhibited the highest viscosity. Varying the enzyme concentration also influenced the molecular weight distribution. High molecular weight (Mw) pectin (1.65 × 106 g/mol) was obtained when the medium concentration was used. Overall, the study clearly reflects the importance of taking into consideration the amount of cellulytic enzyme added in order to determine the final quality of pectin. PMID:22072895

  17. Effect of Celluclast 1.5L on the Physicochemical Characterization of Gold Kiwifruit Pectin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John A. Mawson

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The effects of Celluclast 1.5L concentration on the physicochemical characterization of gold kiwifruit pectin was evaluated. Varying the enzyme concentration affected the pectin yield and pectin physicochemical properties. The viscosity of extracted pectin was largely dependent on the enzyme concentration. Celluclast 1.5L with medium concentration exhibited the highest viscosity. Varying the enzyme concentration also influenced the molecular weight distribution. High molecular weight (Mw pectin (1.65 × 106 g/mol was obtained when the medium concentration was used. Overall, the study clearly reflects the importance of taking into consideration the amount of cellulytic enzyme added in order to determine the final quality of pectin.

  18. [Influence of various pectins on production of staphylococcal enterotoxins types A and B].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fluer, F S; Men'shikov, D D; Lazareva, E B; Prokhorov, V Ia; Vesnin, A V

    2007-01-01

    Experimental in vitro study of influence of 2% solution of pectins (red beet, apple, citrus, manufactured by "Vitaline" company, citrus high- and low-etherified pectins, manufactured by "Hercules" company, Unipectine OB 700, and biologically active supplement "Pecto") on growth of staphylococci and production by them of type A and B enterotoxins was performed. It was shown that red beet, citrus high- and low-etherified pectins, as well as biologically active supplement "Pecto" render bactericidal effect on staphylococci and inhibit synthesis of types A and B staphylococcal enterotoxins. Citrus pectin "Vitaline" and Unipectine OB 700 don't have such influence. The most effective pectins, which were able to inhibit synthesis of types A and B staphylococcal enterotoxins, were red beet, apple, and citrus low-etherified pectins as well as biologically active supplement "Pecto". PMID:18277535

  19. Swelling and erosion of pectin matrix tablets and their impact on drug release behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriamornsak, Pornsak; Thirawong, Nartaya; Weerapol, Yossanun; Nunthanid, Jurairat; Sungthongjeen, Srisagul

    2007-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate swelling and erosion behaviors of hydrophilic matrix tablets using pectin and their impact on drug release. The matrix tablets were prepared by direct compression using different types of pectin. Swelling and erosion studies of pectin matrix tablets were carried out in various media. The pectin matrix tablets formed a continuous gel layer while in contact with the aqueous medium undergoing a combination of swelling and erosion. The swelling action of pectin matrices was controlled by the rate of its hydration in the medium. Release studies showed that the swelling and erosion of matrices influenced the drug release. The extent of matrix swelling, erosion and diffusion of drug determined the kinetics as well as mechanism of drug release from pectin-based matrix tablets. The release data showed a good fit into the power law or the Korsmeyer-Peppas equation indicating the combined effect of diffusion and erosion mechanisms of drug release. PMID:17267193

  20. Evaluation of Pectin derived from Orange peel as a Pharmaceutical Excipient

    OpenAIRE

    M Ravindrakullai reddy; Kopparam Manjunath

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the present work is extraction of pectin from waste of orange fruit peel and further characterization for useful alternative pharmaceutical excipient. The pectin was subjected to phytochemical and physicochemical characterization of its safety and suitability to use as binding and suspending agent. FT-IR spectroscopy, DSC studies were performed for drug, orange peel pectin powder, prepared tablet and suspension formulations. Aceclofenac tablets were prepared by wet granulatio...

  1. Nephrocalcinosis in Female Rats Fed Diets Containing Either Pectin, Galacturonic Acid or Glucose

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed, H.; A. Beynen; Mohamed, H. E.; A. Alhaidary; Beynen, A C

    2010-01-01

    Problem statement: In our earlier study, dietary pectin has been shown to promote nephrocalcinosis in rats when compared with the feeding of cellulose. It was not known whether this pectin effect relates to its structure or to its monosaccharide component, galacturonic acid. Approach: The effects of dietary pectin, galacturonic acid and glucose on kidney calcification were studied in female rats. The purified diets used had similar concentrations of calcium, magnesium and phosphorus. Results:...

  2. Orange Pectin Mediated Growth and Stability of Aqueous Gold and Silver Nanocolloids

    OpenAIRE

    Nigoghossian, Karina; dos Santos, Molíria V.; Barud, Hernane S.; da Silva, Robson R.; Rocha, Lucas A.; Caiut, José M.A.; Rosana M. N. de Assunção; Spanhel, Lubomir; Poulain, Marcel; Messaddeq, Younes; Sidney J.L. Ribeiro

    2015-01-01

    The role of orange based pectin in the nucleation and growth of silver and gold nanoparticles is addressed. Pectin is a complex polysaccharide found in fruits such as oranges, lemons, passion fruits or apples. It displays smooth and hairy chain regions contg. hydroxyl-​, ester-​, carboxylate- and eventually amine groups that can act as surface ligands interacting under various pH conditions more or less efficiently with growing nanometals. Here, a high methoxy pectin (>50​% esterified) was us...

  3. Pectin extraction from Citron peel (Citrus medica Linn.) and its use in food system

    OpenAIRE

    Rojanakorn, T.; Lerkchaiyaphum, K.; Nantachai, K.; Tangwongchai, R.

    2006-01-01

    Screening experiments using 25-1 fractional factorial design showed that pH, temperature, and extracting time were the main factors affecting the amount and quality of extracted pectin from Citrus medica Linn. Optimum condition of pectin extraction was studied using central composite design (CCD). Mathematical models relating pH, temperature and extracted time to amount of extracted pectin, equivalent weight, methyl content and anhydrogalacturonic acid content were established. Based on the m...

  4. The Pectin Lyases in Arabidopsis thaliana: Evolution, Selection and Expression Profiles

    OpenAIRE

    Cao, Jun

    2012-01-01

    Pectin lyases are a group of enzymes that are thought to contribute to many biological processes, such as the degradation of pectin. However, until this study, no comprehensive study incorporating phylogeny, chromosomal location, gene duplication, gene organization, functional divergence, adaptive evolution, expression profiling and functional networks has been reported for Arabidopsis. Sixty-seven pectin lyase genes have been identified, and most of them possess signal sequences targeting th...

  5. Nephrocalcinosis in Female Rats Fed Diets Containing Either Pectin or Cellulose

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed Alhaidary; Mohamed, H. E.; Beynen, A C

    2010-01-01

    Problem statement: There is evidence that the type of fiber influences the development of nephrocalcinosis in rats, but the effect of pectin was unknown. Approach: The effects of dietary pectin and cellulose on kidney calcification were studied in female rats. The diets used contained either 0.4-0.6% phosphorus and either cellulose (10%, w/w) or pectin. The purified diets used were balanced for residual calcium, magnesium and phosphorus in the fiber preparations. Results: Increasing the phosp...

  6. In vivo pectin solubility in ripening and chill-injured tomato fruit

    OpenAIRE

    Almeida, Domingos P. F.; Huber, Donald J.

    2008-01-01

    In vivo pectin solubility was examined in ripening and chill-injured tomato fruit with down-regulated polygalacturonase (PG, EC 3.2.1.15) activity and untransformed wild-type fruit by analyzing a pressure-extracted fluid of apoplastic origin. Pectin concentration in the apoplastic fluid increased threefold during ripening and was not affected by endogenous PG. In contrast, PG strongly affected pectin concentration in a bulk pericarp fluid obtained after tissue disruption. There was a 14-fo...

  7. Citrus pectin as a hydrocolloid emulsifier: Emulsifying and emulsion stabilizing properties

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt, Ulrike

    2016-01-01

    Citrus pectin is commonly used as a gelling agent and viscosity enhancer in food products. However, it is considered to be less effective in terms of emulsifier. This thesis explores ways to enhance the emulsifying properties of citrus pectin by molecular modification and by a proper choice of recipe parameters. It is shown how stable emulsions can be produced with citrus pectin when the viscosity enhancing effects are properly accounted for.

  8. Utilization of Aspergillus oryzae to produce pectin lyase from various agro-industrial residues

    OpenAIRE

    Safia Koser; Zahid Anwar; Zafar Iqbal; Awais Anjum; Tahir Aqil; Sajid Mehmood; Muhammad Irshad

    2014-01-01

    The present study was aimed to investigate the culture influence on pectin lyase production potential of fungal strain Aspergillus oryzae. The enzyme profile of A. oryzae showed highest activity of pectin lyase after 3rd day of incubation on lemon peel waste under solid state fermentation conditions. To induce the pectin lyase synthesis capability of A. oryzae at optimal level various culture variables including physical and nutritional parameters were optimized by adopting classical optimiza...

  9. General Analytical Schemes for the Characterization of Pectin-Based Edible Gelled Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Haghighi, Maryam; Rezaei, Karamatollah

    2012-01-01

    Pectin-based gelled systems have gained increasing attention for the design of newly developed food products. For this reason, the characterization of such formulas is a necessity in order to present scientific data and to introduce an appropriate finished product to the industry. Various analytical techniques are available for the evaluation of the systems formulated on the basis of pectin and the designed gel. In this paper, general analytical approaches for the characterization of pectin-b...

  10. Standard triple, bismuth pectin quadruple and sequential therapies for Helicobacter pylori eradication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To compare the effectiveness of standard triple, bismuth pectin quadruple and sequential therapies for Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori ) eradication in a randomized, double-blinded, comparative clinical trial in China. METHODS: A total of 215 H. pylori -positive patients were enrolled in the study and randomly allocated into three groups: group A (n = 72) received a 10-d bismuth pectin quadruple therapy (20 mg rabeprazole bid , 1000 mg amoxicillin bid , 100 mg bismuth pectin qid , and 500 mg levofloxaci...

  11. Osteoblastic response to pectin nanocoating on titanium surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gurzawska, Katarzyna; Svava, Rikke; Yihua, Yu;

    2014-01-01

    Osseointegration of titanium implants can be improved by organic and inorganic nanocoating of the surface. The aim of our study was to evaluate the effect of organic nanocoating of titanium surface with unmodified and modified pectin Rhamnogalacturonan-Is (RG-Is) isolated from potato and apple with...... respect to surface properties and osteogenic response in osteoblastic cells. Nanocoatings on titanium surfaces were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy, contact angle measurements, atomic force microscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The effect of coated RG-Is on cell adhesion, cell...... viability, bone matrix formation and mineralization was tested using SaOS-2 cells. Nanocoating with pectin RG-Is affected surface properties and in consequence changed the environment for cellular response. The cells cultured on surfaces coated with RG-Is from potato with high content of linear 1.4-linked...

  12. Microbial utilization and selectivity of pectin fractions with various structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onumpai, Chatchaya; Kolida, Sofia; Bonnin, Estelle; Rastall, Robert A

    2011-08-15

    To evaluate the fermentation properties of oligosaccharides derived from pectins and their parent polysaccharides, a 5-ml-working-volume, pH- and temperature-controlled fermentor was tested. Six pectic oligosaccharides representing specific substructures found within pectins were prepared. These consisted of oligogalacturonides (average degrees of polymerization [DP] of 5 and 9), methylated oligogalacturonides (average DP of 5), oligorhamnogalacturonides (average DP of 10 as a disaccharide unit of galacturonic acid and rhamnose), oligogalactosides (average DP of 5), and oligoarabinosides (average DP of 6). The influence of these carbohydrates on the human fecal microbiota was evaluated. Use of neutral sugar fractions resulted in an increase in Bifidobacterium populations and gave higher organic acid yields. The Bacteroides-Prevotella group significantly increased on all oligosaccharides except oligogalacturonides with an average DP of 5. The most selective substrates for bifidobacteria were arabinan, galactan, oligoarabinosides, and oligogalactosides. PMID:21724897

  13. A Novel Pectin Material: Extraction, Characterization and Gelling Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustin Rascón-Chu

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A novel pectin was acid extracted from chickpea husk (CHP. CHP presented a 67% (w/w of galacturonic acid, an intrinsic viscosity of 374 mL/g and a viscosimetric molecular weight of 110 kDa. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy spectrum of CHP indicated a degree of esterification of about 10%. The CHP-calcium system formed ionic gels with a storage (G’ modulus of 40 Pa and gel set time (G’ > G’’ of 3 min at 1% (w/v, and a G’ of 131 Pa and gel set time of 1 min at 2% (w/v. The G’ of CHP gels was not greatly affected by temperature. The results attained suggest that chickpea husk can be a potential source of a gelling pectin material.

  14. New insights into the mucoadhesion of pectins by AFM roughness parameters in combination with SPR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joergensen, Lars; Klösgen, Beate; Simonsen, Adam Cohen;

    2011-01-01

    The object of this study was to assess the mucoadhesion of the three main commercially available types of pectin by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and surface Plasmon resonance (SPR). Polyacrylic acid and polyvinyl pyrrolidone were used as positive and negative control, respectively. Image analysis...... of the AFM scans revealed a significant change of roughness parameters when low-ester pectin was introduced to mica supported bovine submaxillarymucin, indicating a high mucoadhesion for this type of pectin. Only minor changes were observed with high-ester and amidated pectin. The same ranking order...

  15. Pectin-Based Bioadhesive Delivery of Carbenoxolone Sodium for Aphthous Ulcers in Oral Cavity

    OpenAIRE

    Wattanakorn, Nathaya; Asavapichayont, Panida; Nunthanid, Jurairat; Limmatvapirat, Sontaya; Sungthongjeen, Srisagul; Chantasart, Doungdaw; Sriamornsak, Pornsak

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to prepare and evaluate the pectin-based dosage form for buccal adhesion. Carbenoxolone sodium, which is used for the treatment of aphthous ulcers in oral cavity, was used as a model drug. The pectin buccal discs were prepared by direct compression. The water uptake and erosion of pectin disc increased progressively with the swelling time. The bioadhesion of dried pectin discs decreased when either the discs were hydrated or the buccal tissue was wet with a sma...

  16. Cerium Binding Activity of Pectins Isolated from the Seagrasses Zostera marina and Phyllospadix iwatensis

    OpenAIRE

    Valeri Kovalev; Maxim Khotimchenko; Yuri Khotimchenko; Elena Khozhaenko

    2012-01-01

    Cerium binding activity of three different water soluble pectin compounds of different origin was studied in a batch sorption system. The Langmuir, Freundlich and BET sorption models were adopted to describe the binding reactions between metal ions and pectin molecules. The Langmuir model provided the best fit. Within the pH range from 4.0 to 6.0, the largest amount of the cerium ions was bound by pectin isolated from the seagrass Phylospadix iwatensis in comparison to pectin extracted from t...

  17. Identification of irradiated fruit from the pectin-derived EPR signal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An EPR method based upon the observation of an unidentified multiline spectrum has been reported for the detection of irradiated fruit (dried papaya, banana, dates). A similar long-lived EPR spectrum after irradiation of dried amorphous apple pectin (BDH, 6% methyl ester) suggesting that pectin might be the origin of the signal in the dried fruit. Compositions of pectins vary greatly according to source and also with the age of the fruit itself. Therefore, a series of pectins of citrus fruit and potato tuber origin have been investigated to examine the effects of different levels of esterification on the irradiation-induced EPR signal. (author)

  18. Eudragit-coated pectin microspheres of 5-fluorouracil for colon targeting

    OpenAIRE

    Paharia, Amol; Yadav, Awesh K.; Rai, Gopal; Sunil K. Jain; PANCHOLI, SHYAM S.; Agrawal, Govind P.

    2007-01-01

    An objective of the present investigation was to prepare and evaluate Eudragit-coated pectin microspheres for colon targeting of 5-fluorouracil (FU). Pectin microspheres were prepared by emulsion dehydration method using different ratios of FU and pectin (1:3 to 1:6), stirring speeds (500–2000 rpm) and emulsifier concentrations (0.75%–1.5% wt/vol). The yield of preparation and the encapsulation efficiencies were high for all pectin microspheres. Microspheres prepared by using drug:polymer rat...

  19. Extraction and Characterization of Pectin from Dragon Fruit (Hylocereus Polyrhizus) using Various Extraction Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The extraction of pectin from dragon fruit (Hylocereus polyrhizus) peels under three different extraction conditions was identified as an alternative source of commercial pectin. In this work, dried alcohol-insoluble residues (AIR) of dragon fruit peels were treated separately with 0.25 % ammonium oxalate/oxalic acid at a pH of 4.6 at 85 degree Celsius; 0.03 M HCl at a pH of 1.5 at 85 degree Celsius; and de-ionized water at 75 degree Celsius. The pectin obtained from these methods was compared in terms of yield, physicochemical properties and chemical structure. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) was used in the identification of dragon fruit pectins. The results showed that the pectin yield (14.96-20.14 % based on dry weight), moisture content (11.13-11.33 %), ash content (6.88-11.55 %), equivalent weight (475.64-713.99), methoxyl content (2.98-4.34 %), anhydro uronic acid (45.25-52.45 %) and the degree of esterification (31.05-46.96 %) varied significantly (p < 0.05) with the various extraction conditions used. Pectin extracted with ammonium oxalate gave the highest yield of pectin, with high purity and low ash content. Based on the value of methoxyl content and the degree of esterification, dragon fruit pectin can be categorized as low-methoxyl pectin. (author)

  20. Identification of irradiated fruit from the pectin-derived EPR signal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deighton, N.; Glidewell, S.M.; Goodman, B.A.; McMillan, G.P.; Perombelon, M.C.M. [Scottish Crop Research Inst., Dundee (United Kingdom)

    1996-12-31

    An EPR method based upon the observation of an unidentified multiline spectrum has been reported for the detection of irradiated fruit (dried papaya, banana, dates). A similar long-lived EPR spectrum after irradiation of dried amorphous apple pectin (BDH, 6% methyl ester) suggesting that pectin might be the origin of the signal in the dried fruit. Compositions of pectins vary greatly according to source and also with the age of the fruit itself. Therefore, a series of pectins of citrus fruit and potato tuber origin have been investigated to examine the effects of different levels of esterification on the irradiation-induced EPR signal. (author).

  1. Ultrasound effects on the degradation kinetics, structure and rheological properties of apple pectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lifen; Ye, Xinqian; Ding, Tian; Sun, Xiaoyang; Xu, Yuting; Liu, Donghong

    2013-01-01

    The effects of ultrasound on the molecular weight of apple pectin were investigated. The structure and rheological properties of the degradation products were also tentatively identified by High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Photodiode Array Detector (HPLC-PAD), Infrared spectroscopy (IR), Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy (NMR) and Rheometer. The results indicated that the weight-average molecular weight of apple pectin decreased obviously after ultrasound treatment. The molecular weight of degradation products had a uniform and narrow distribution. Ultrasound intensity and temperature play an important role in the degradation reaction. Degradation kinetics model of apple pectin fitted to 1/M(t) - 1/M(0) = kt from 5 to 45 °C. The degree of methylation of apple pectin reduced according to IR analysis when ultrasound was applied. Ultrasound treatment could not alter the primary structure of apple pectin according to the results determined by HPLC, IR and NMR. Meanwhile, the viscosity of apple pectin was 10(3) times as large as that of ultrasound-treated apple pectin. The ultrasound-treated apple pectin showed predominantly viscous responses (G' pectin. PMID:22982008

  2. Isolation of pectin from pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata, L.) by acid hydrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata, L.) constitutes an excellent source of carotenoids, precursors of vitamin A. Besides, it also that constitutes also a great natural source of low-cost pectin. Pectin is a heterogeneous complex polysaccharide found in the primary cell wall of most plants and its effect on health is receiving increasing interest from the scientific community. In this work, high-methoxy pectin was obtained from pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata, L.) through the acid hydrolysis methodology. The pectin obtained was characterized by FTIR, NMR 1H, GPC and rheology. (author)

  3. Effect of Extraction Conditions on Quality of Pectin Extracted from Irradiated Sugar Beet Pulp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pectin is used in a number of foods as a gelling agent, thickener, texturizer, emulsifier and stabilizer. Sugar-beet pulp, the residue from sugar industry, is a rich source of pectin. Beet pulp pectin was extracted by using acids under various conditions from ph and temperatures but this method has problems such as pollution and hydrolysis. In this study we avoid these problems by using enzymic pectin (bio extraction). In this method we used different microorganisms tested for their ability to produce proto pectin-solubilizing enzymes. Bacillus subtilis and Pichia polymorphia. Chemical components of the extracted pectin were determined and compared, and study the quality of pectin under different conditions of ph, period of incubation and age of inoculum, also the quantity of pectin extracted by incubation with Bacillus, and Pichia were study. The results show that the best conditions were at ph 6, at the optimum period incubation 8-16 h and 24 h age of inoculum. The best yield of pectin obtained by Pichia polymorphia without Bacillus subtilis

  4. PECTIN MICROGELS CONTAINING SYNTHETIC POLYMERS BASED ON NANOCAPSULES FOR THE CONTROLLED RELEASE OF INDOMETHACIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela HOLBAN

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Nanocapsule-based Eudragit RS100 and Eudragit E100 containing indomethacin have been prepared. The nanosuspensions have been included into pectin microgels of different polysaccharide concentrations, 28-61 µm-ranged polymer microgels with size and size polydispersity highly depending on the pectin amount being thus obtained. Study of the drug release revealed that indomethacin was released at a slower and more controlled rate from the microgels containing nanocapsules than from the empty pectin microgels. Also, the rate of released indomethacin increased with the augmentation of pectin amount into the microgels.

  5. Pectin Methylesterification Impacts the Relationship between Photosynthesis and Plant Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    M Weraduwage, Sarathi; Kim, Sang-Jin; Renna, Luciana; C Anozie, Fransisca; D Sharkey, Thomas; Brandizzi, Federica

    2016-06-01

    Photosynthesis occurs in mesophyll cells of specialized organs such as leaves. The rigid cell wall encapsulating photosynthetic cells controls the expansion and distribution of cells within photosynthetic tissues. The relationship between photosynthesis and plant growth is affected by leaf area. However, the underlying genetic mechanisms affecting carbon partitioning to different aspects of leaf growth are not known. To fill this gap, we analyzed Arabidopsis plants with altered levels of pectin methylesterification, which is known to modulate cell wall plasticity and plant growth. Pectin methylesterification levels were varied through manipulation of cotton Golgi-related (CGR) 2 or 3 genes encoding two functionally redundant pectin methyltransferases. Increased levels of methylesterification in a line over-expressing CGR2 (CGR2OX) resulted in highly expanded leaves with enhanced intercellular air spaces; reduced methylesterification in a mutant lacking both CGR-genes 2 and 3 (cgr2/3) resulted in thin but dense leaf mesophyll that limited CO2 diffusion to chloroplasts. Leaf, root, and plant dry weight were enhanced in CGR2OX but decreased in cgr2/3. Differences in growth between wild type and the CGR-mutants can be explained by carbon partitioning but not by variations in area-based photosynthesis. Therefore, photosynthesis drives growth through alterations in carbon partitioning to new leaf area growth and leaf mass per unit leaf area; however, CGR-mediated pectin methylesterification acts as a primary factor in this relationship through modulation of the expansion and positioning of the cells in leaves, which in turn drive carbon partitioning by generating dynamic carbon demands in leaf area growth and leaf mass per unit leaf area. PMID:27208234

  6. Pectin methyl esterase activity in apple and orange pulps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of pectin methyl esterase activity from apple, orange pulp and orange peel depending of ph and temperature are discussed. It's shown that the methyl esterase activity form apple and orange pulps higher in range of temperatures from +37...+60digC. The analysis of dependence of its activity from ph has shown that in both case the enzyme activity increase with increase of ph

  7. How to let go: pectin and plant cell adhesion

    OpenAIRE

    Daher, Firas Bou; Braybrook, Siobhan A.

    2015-01-01

    Plant cells do not, in general, migrate. They maintain a fixed position relative to their neighbors, intimately linked through growth and differentiation. The mediator of this connection, the pectin-rich middle lamella, is deposited during cell division and maintained throughout the cell’s life to protect tissue integrity. The maintenance of adhesion requires cell wall modification and is dependent on the actin cytoskeleton. There are developmental processes that require cell separation, such...

  8. Pectin Lyase Activity in a Penicillium italicum Strain

    OpenAIRE

    Alaña, Aitor; Alkorta, Itziar; Domínguez, Juan B.; Llama, Maria J.; Serra, Juan L.

    1990-01-01

    An extracellular pectin lyase (PNL) [poly-(methoxygalacturonide)lyase; EC 4.2.2.10] produced by Penicillium italicum CECT 2294 grown on a surface bran (natural medium) or in a submerged (synthetic medium) culture was investigated. Both culture filtrates showed macerating activity at low pH on cucumber, potato, and orange tissues. The physicochemical properties of the enzyme obtained from both culture methods were identical, as well as its catalytic properties, which were assayed by different ...

  9. Pectin, a versatile polysaccharide present in plant cell walls

    OpenAIRE

    Voragen, A.G.J.; Coenen, G.J.; Verhoef, R.P.; Schols, H.A.

    2009-01-01

    Pectin or pectic substances are collective names for a group of closely associated polysaccharides present in plant cell walls where they contribute to complex physiological processes like cell growth and cell differentiation and so determine the integrity and rigidity of plant tissue. They also play an important role in the defence mechanisms against plant pathogens and wounding. As constituents of plant cell walls and due to their anionic nature, pectic polysaccharides are considered to be ...

  10. Hydrolysis-extraction of apple proto pectins in dynamic mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article describes a hydrolysis process of apple husks by using dynamics regime of hydrolysis. It's shown that application of dynamics method positively influences on the pectin yields and its main parameters. It was defined that by dynamics regime of hydrolysis-extraction of apple husks it is possible to obtain qualitative products with high yield at a mild ph value of medium of hydrolysing agent.

  11. Osteoblastic response to pectin nanocoating on titanium surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurzawska, Katarzyna; Svava, Rikke; Yihua, Yu; Haugshøj, Kenneth Brian; Dirscherl, Kai; Levery, Steven B; Byg, Inge; Damager, Iben; Nielsen, Martin W; Jørgensen, Bodil; Jørgensen, Niklas Rye; Gotfredsen, Klaus

    2014-10-01

    Osseointegration of titanium implants can be improved by organic and inorganic nanocoating of the surface. The aim of our study was to evaluate the effect of organic nanocoating of titanium surface with unmodified and modified pectin Rhamnogalacturonan-Is (RG-Is) isolated from potato and apple with respect to surface properties and osteogenic response in osteoblastic cells. Nanocoatings on titanium surfaces were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy, contact angle measurements, atomic force microscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The effect of coated RG-Is on cell adhesion, cell viability, bone matrix formation and mineralization was tested using SaOS-2 cells. Nanocoating with pectin RG-Is affected surface properties and in consequence changed the environment for cellular response. The cells cultured on surfaces coated with RG-Is from potato with high content of linear 1.4-linked galactose produced higher level of mineralized matrix compared with control surfaces and surfaces coated with RG-I with low content of linear 1.4-linked galactose. The study showed that the pectin RG-Is nanocoating not only changed chemical and physical titanium surface properties, but also specific coating with RG-Is containing high amount of galactan increased mineralized matrix formation of osteoblastic cells in vitro. PMID:25175196

  12. Rheological evaluation of the irradiated pectin/gelatin mixed systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main biopolymers used in the edible films production are polysaccharides and proteins. Pectin is a heterosaccharidic polymer derived from the vegetal cell wall. Gelatin is a heterogeneous mixture of water-soluble proteins of high average molecular mass derived by hydrolytic action from animal collagen. The aim of this research was to evaluate the effect of ionizing radiation on either the biopolymers alone or on the mixed systems prepared with high-and low-methoxyl pectin and gelatin in solution and mixed gel. The results showed that gelatin viscosity remained almost unaffected by the irradiation with doses from 1 to 15 kGy, with a slight increase at 3 kGy. On the other hand, there was a sharp decrease of viscosity values of all pectin solutions upon irradiation, being this behavior predominant when both polysaccharides and proteins were present in a mixed system. The gel hardness and gel brittleness of the gelatin were affected by the increase of radiation dose. (author)

  13. Rheological evaluation of the irradiated pectin/gelatin mixed systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inamura, Patricia Y.; Mastro, Nelida L. del, E-mail: nlmastro@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The main biopolymers used in the edible films production are polysaccharides and proteins. Pectin is a heterosaccharidic polymer derived from the vegetal cell wall. Gelatin is a heterogeneous mixture of water-soluble proteins of high average molecular mass derived by hydrolytic action from animal collagen. The aim of this research was to evaluate the effect of ionizing radiation on either the biopolymers alone or on the mixed systems prepared with high-and low-methoxyl pectin and gelatin in solution and mixed gel. The results showed that gelatin viscosity remained almost unaffected by the irradiation with doses from 1 to 15 kGy, with a slight increase at 3 kGy. On the other hand, there was a sharp decrease of viscosity values of all pectin solutions upon irradiation, being this behavior predominant when both polysaccharides and proteins were present in a mixed system. The gel hardness and gel brittleness of the gelatin were affected by the increase of radiation dose. (author)

  14. PREPARATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF AMIDATED PECTIN BASED POLYMER ELECTROLYTE MEMBRANES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    R.K.Mishra; A.Anis; S.Mondal; M.Dutt; A.K.Banthia

    2009-01-01

    The work presents the synthesis and characterization of ami dated pectin(AP)based polymer electrolyte membranes(PEM)crosslinked with glutaraldehyde(GA).The prepared membranes are characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy(FTIR),organic elemental analysis,X-ray diffraction studies(XRD),thermogravimetric analysis (TGA)and impedance spectroscopy.Mechanical properties of the membranes are evaluated by tensile tests.The degree of amidation(DA),molar and mass reaction yields(YM and YN)are calculated based on the results of organic elemental analysis.FTIR spectroscopy indicated the presence of primary and secondary amide absorption bands.XRD pattern of membranes clearly indicates that there is a considerable increase in crystallinity as compared to parent pectin.TGA studies indicate that AP is less thermally stable than reference pectin.A maximum room temperature conductivity of 1.098×10-3 Scm-1 is obtained in the membrane,which is designated as AP-3.These properties make them good candidates for low cost biopolymer electrolyte membranes for fuel cell applications.

  15. In vitro interaction of quinidine with kaolin and pectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucci, A J; Myre, S A; Tan, H S; Shenouda, L S

    1981-09-01

    The adsorption of quinidine onto kaolin was studied as a function of pH in aqueous solutions in which the ionic strength was adjusted to 0.1. The interaction of quinidine with pectin also was investigated in water and in phosphate buffer; the buffer pH and ionic strength were adjusted to 6.5 and 0.1, respectively. The in vitro results indicated that quinidine was adsorbed onto kaolin. At the highest concentration studied, the extent of adsorption increased from 3.64 mg of quinidine adsorbed/g of adsorbent at pH 2.4 to an average of 5.81 mg/g in the pH 5.5-7.5 range. In the presence of electrolytes, the interaction of quinidine with pectin was relatively small (3-13% bound) as compared to studies performed in water (66-90% bound). The data indicate that some quinidine may be adsorbed when this drug is administered concurrently with kaolin-pectin preparations. PMID:6101170

  16. Potato tuber pectin structure is influenced by pectin methyl esterase activity and impacts on cooked potato texture

    OpenAIRE

    Ross, Heather A.; Wright, Kathryn M.; McDougall, Gordon J.; Roberts, Alison G.; Chapman, Sean N.; Morris, Wayne L.; Hancock, Robert D; Stewart, Derek; Tucker, Gregory A; James, Euan K.; Taylor, Mark A

    2010-01-01

    Although cooked potato tuber texture is an important trait that influences consumer preference, a detailed understanding of tuber textural properties at the molecular level is lacking. Previous work has identified tuber pectin methyl esterase activity (PME) as a potential factor impacting on textural properties. In this study, tuber PME isoform and gene expression profiles have been determined in potato germplasm with differing textural properties as assessed using an amended wedge fracture m...

  17. Characterization, sub-cellular localization and expression profiling of the isoprenylcysteine methylesterase gene family in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Wujun

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Isoprenylcysteine methylesterases (ICME demethylate prenylated protein in eukaryotic cell. Until now, knowledge about their molecular information, localization and expression pattern is largely unavailable in plant species. One ICME in Arabidopsis, encoded by At5g15860, has been identified recently. Over-expression of At5g15860 caused an ABA hypersensitive phenotype in transgenic Arabidopsis plants, indicating that it functions as a positive regulator of ABA signaling. Moreover, ABA induced the expression of this gene in Arabidopsis seedlings. The current study extends these findings by examining the sub-cellular localization, expression profiling, and physiological functions of ICME and two other ICME-like proteins, ICME-LIKE1 and ICME-LIKE2, which were encoded by two related genes At1g26120 and At3g02410, respectively. Results Bioinformatics investigations showed that the ICME and other two ICME-like homologs comprise a small subfamily of carboxylesterase (EC 3.1.1.1 in Arabidopsis. Sub-cellular localization of GFP tagged ICME and its homologs showed that the ICME and ICME-like proteins are intramembrane proteins predominantly localizing in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER and Golgi apparatus. Semi-quantitative and real-time quantitative PCR revealed that the ICME and ICME-like genes are expressed in all examined tissues, including roots, rosette leaves, cauline leaves, stems, flowers, and siliques, with differential expression levels. Within the gene family, the base transcript abundance of ICME-LIKE2 gene is very low with higher expression in reproductive organs (flowers and siliques. Time-course analysis uncovered that both ICME and ICME-like genes are up-regulated by mannitol, NaCl and ABA treatment, with ICME showing the highest level of up-regulation by these treatments. Heat stress resulted in up-regulation of the ICME gene significantly but down-regulation of the ICME-LIKE1 and ICME-LIKE2 genes. Cold and dehydration

  18. Heterologous expression of a Penicillium purpurogenum pectin lyase in Pichia pastoris and its characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Fuentes, Claudio; Cristina Ravanal, María; Eyzaguirre, Jaime

    2014-01-01

    Lignocellulose is the major component of plant cell walls and it represents a great source of renewable organic matter. One of lignocellulose constituents is pectin. Pectin is composed of two basic structures: a 'smooth' region and a 'hairy' region. The 'smooth' region (homogalacturonan) is a linear polymer of galacturonic acid residues with α-(1→4) linkages, substituted by methyl and acetyl residues. The 'hairy' region is more complex, containing xylogalacturonan and rhamnogalacturonans I and II. Among the enzymes which degrade pectin (pectinases) is pectin lyase (E.C. 4.2.2.10). This enzyme acts on highly esterified homogalacturonan, catalysing the cleavage of α-(1→4) glycosidic bonds between methoxylated residues of galacturonic acid by means of β-elimination, with the formation of 4,5-unsaturated products. In this work, the gene and cDNA of a pectin lyase from Penicillium purpurogenum have been sequenced, and the cDNA has been expressed in Pichia pastoris. The gene is 1334 pb long, has three introns and codes for a protein of 376 amino acid residues. The recombinant enzyme was purified to homogeneity and characterized. Pectin lyase has a molecular mass of 45 kDa as determined by SDS-PAGE. It is active on highly esterified pectin, and decreases 40% the viscosity of pectin with a degree of esterification ≥85%. The enzyme showed no activity on polygalacturonic acid and pectin from citrus fruit 8% esterified. The optimum pH and temperature for the recombinant enzyme are 6.0 and 50 °C, respectively, and it is stable up to 50 °C when exposed for 3 h. A purified pectin lyase may be useful in biotechnological applications such as the food industry where the liberation of toxic methanol in pectin degradation should be avoided. PMID:24863479

  19. Chitosan-pectin hybrid nanoparticles prepared by coating and blending techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampino, A; Borgogna, M; Bellich, B; Blasi, P; Virgilio, F; Cesàro, A

    2016-03-10

    The preparation of chitosan nanoparticles in combination with pectins, as additional mucoadhesive biopolymers, was investigated. Pectins from apple and from citrus fruit were considered; polygalacturonic acid was taken as a reference. Tripolyphosphate was used as an anionic cross-linker. Two different techniques were compared, namely the coating and the blending. Coated nanoparticles (NPs) in the ratio pectin:NPs from 2:1 to 5:1 evidenced that the size of NPs increased as the amount of pectin (both from apple and citrus fruit) was increased. In particular, for NPs coated with pectin from citrus fruit the size ranges from 200 to 260nm; while for NPs coated with pectin from apple the size ranges from 330 to 450nm. A minimum value of Z-potential around -35mV was obtained for the ratio pectin:NPs 4:1, while further addition of pectin did not decrease the Z-potential. Also blended NPs showed a dependence of the size on the ratio of the components: for a given ratio pectin:tripolyphosphate the size increases as the fraction of chitosan increases; for a low ratio chitosan:pectin a high amount of tripolyphosphate was needed to obtain a compact structure. The effect of the additional presence of loaded proteins in chitosan-pectin nanoparticles was also investigated, since proteins contribute to alter the electrostatic interactions among charged species. FT-IR and DSC characterization are presented to confirm the interactions between biopolymers. Finally, the biocompatibility of the used materials was assessed by the chorioallantoic membrane assay, confirming the safety of the materials. PMID:26772898

  20. Genome Sequence of Pectin-Degrading Alishewanella aestuarii Strain B11T, Isolated from Tidal Flat Sediment

    OpenAIRE

    Jung, Jaejoon; Choi, Sungjong; Chun, Jongsik; Park, Woojun

    2012-01-01

    We present the genome sequence of Alishewanella aestuarii B11T (=KCTC 22051T=DSM 19476T). This species, isolated from tidal flat sediment, was reported to be a novel species. A. aestuarii is known to degrade pectin, an important component of plant cell wall. The presence of the genes related to pectin metabolism in this strain indicates its capability to utilize pectin.

  1. Characterization of gold kiwifruit pectin from fruit of different maturities and extraction methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuliarti, Oni; Matia-Merino, Lara; Goh, Kelvin K T; Mawson, John; Williams, Martin A K; Brennan, Charles

    2015-01-01

    Studies on gold kiwifruit pectins are limited. In this work, the characterization of pectin isolated from two different stages of maturity of gold kiwifruit, namely early harvested fruit (EHF) and main harvested fruit (MHF) isolated by three methods (acid, water, enzymatic) was carried out. Pectins isolated from MHF were higher in galacturonic acid content (52-59% w/w) and weight-average molecular weights (Mw, 1.7-3.8 × 10(6)g/mol) compared with EHF pectins (29-49% w/w and 0.2-1.7 × 10(6)g/mol respectively). Enzymatic treatment gave the highest yield but lowest in Mw, viscosity and mechanical spectra for both maturities. The pectin of both maturities was classified as high-methoxyl pectin with the degree of esterification ranged from 82% to 90%. Water-extracted MHF pectin molecules had the highest RMS radius (182.7 nm) and Mw (3.75 × 10(6)g/mol). The water extraction method appeared to retain the native state of pectin molecules compared with acid and enzymatic extraction methods based on the Mw and viscosity data. PMID:25053083

  2. Extraction and characterisation of pomace pectin from gold kiwifruit (Actinidia chinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuliarti, Oni; Goh, Kelvin K T; Matia-Merino, Lara; Mawson, John; Brennan, Charles

    2015-11-15

    Gold kiwifruit pomace extracted using citric acid, water and enzyme (Celluclast 1.5L) were studied in terms of pectin yield, protein, ash, non-starch polysaccharide, galacturonic acid (GalA), neutral sugar composition, molar mass (Mw), viscosity and degree of branching. Water-extracted pectin was considered closest to its native form. Enzyme extracted pectin showed the highest yield (∼ 4.5%w/w) as compared with the acid and water extraction methods (∼ 3.6-3.8%w/w). Pectin obtained from different extraction methods showed different degree of branching. The Mw and root mean square (RMS) radius varied with the extraction methods with values of 8.4 × 10(5) g/mol and 92 nm, 8.5 × 10(5)g/mol and 102 nm, 6.7 × 10(5) g/mol and 52 nm for acid, water and enzymatic extraction methods, respectively. Similar trend was observed for pectin viscosity, with water-extracted pectin giving a slightly higher viscosity followed by acid and enzyme-extracted pectin. This study showed that gold kiwifruit pomace pectin has potential application in food products. PMID:25977029

  3. Composite films from pectin and fish skin gelatin or soybean flour protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Composite films were prepared from pectin and fish skin gelatin (FSG) or pectin and soybean flour protein (SFP). The inclusion of protein promoted molecular interactions, resulting in a well-organized homogeneous structure, as revealed by scanning electron microscopy and fracture-acoustic emission ...

  4. An efficient procedure for studying pectin structure which combines limited depolymerization and 13C NMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A protocol for partial thermally-induced depolymerization of differently methoxylated pectin samples is described. The resulting macromolecules have been fully characterized with various complementary techniques, such as size exclusion chromatography (SEC), potentiometry, viscometry and 13C NMR. Optimum conditions afford samples at 50-80% yield with weight-average molecular weights in the 4 to 20 kDa range. The major fraction of these polysaccharides adopts the random-coil conformation and such samples are suitable for 13C NMR structural studies at room temperature. The methoxyl distributions of two apple pectin samples with a degree of esterification (DE) between 54 and 74% and a citrus pectin (DE, 72%) were shown to be random in nature, whereas that of a lightly methoxylated apple pectin (DE 39%) was partially blockwise. The carbon relaxation parameters of the depolymerized pectins attain asymptotic values for MW > 4 kDa. The MW values estimated from intrinsic viscosity data with the Mark-Houwink relationship reported for native pectins are in good agreement with those obtained by either end-group analysis (NMR) or SEC. Thus, all the physicochemical data indicate that the secondary structure of the isolated chains of depolymerized pectin is closely related to that of the parent polymers. Finally, pectinmethylesterase activity towards the depolymerized pectins was similar to that of the untreated samples. (orig.)

  5. The extraction kinetics of calcium ions at hydrolyses of proto-pectin of sunflower heads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of present work is studying of extraction kinetics of calcium ions at acid hydrolyses of proto-pectin of sunflower heads. Obtained experimental data in this article shows important role of calcium ions in stabilization of various component structures of proto-pectin hydrolysis and possibility of process regulation by selective removal of calcium ions

  6. 77 FR 38463 - Implementation of National Organic Program (NOP); Sunset Review (2012) Amendments to Pectin on...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-28

    ... handling. On June 6, 2012, AMS published a final rule (77 FR 33290) addressing multiple exemptions due to... to Pectin on the National List of Allowed and Prohibited Substances AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing... listings for pectin on the National List effective June 27, 2012. DATES: Based upon new information...

  7. Ionization equilibrium in water solutions of the pectin substances received from various sources of vegetative materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On the basis of the potentiometric titration an orange, apples and sunflower head residues pectin's, it was calculated the exchange capacity E, p K value and their dependence on degree of dissociations. It has been shown that irrespective of pectin sources the p K value remains constants and their dependence on a degree of dissociations has the same forms

  8. Distribution of calcium ions in hydrolyses products of proto-pectin of sunflower head

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of present work is determination calcium ions containing in hydrolyses products of proto-pectins of sunflowers heads which let elaborate optimal method of high quality pectin obtaining. Obtained data in this article indicate that at least one of chemical reactions at hydrolysis passes with participations calcium ions

  9. Preparation of poly(lactic acid) and pectin composite films intended for application in antimicrobial packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Composite films of pectin and poly(lactic acid) (PLA) were compounded by extrusion. A model antimicrobial polypeptide, nisin, was loaded into the film by diffusion. The incorporation of pectin into PLA resulted in a heterogeneous biphasic structure as revealed by scanning electronic microscopy, co...

  10. A COMPARISON OF LIME AND ORANGE PECTIN BY HPSGC WITH MOLAR MASS AND VISCOSITY DETECTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pectin was acid extracted from lime albedo by microwave heating under pressure. Extraction times ranged from 1 to 10 minutes. Solubilized pectin was characterized for molar mass (M), rms radius of gyration (Rg) and intrinsic viscosity (IV) by HPSEC with online light scattering and viscosity detect...

  11. Characterization of the global structure of low methoxyl pectin in solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low methoxyl citrus pectin (LMP) and amidated low methoxyl pectin (LMAP) were characterized by high performance size exclusion chromatography (HPSEC) with online light scattering (LS), intrinsic viscosity ('w), differential refractive index (dRI) and ultra violet detection (UV), by amino acid anal...

  12. Studies on the intra- and intermolecular distributions of substituents in commercial pectins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guillotin, S.E.

    2005-01-01

    Commercial pectins are mainly used for the gelling, thickening and stabilizing properties in food products. The different physical properties of pectins strongly depend on the galacturonic acid level and the level of methyl-esterification as well as on the molecular weight distribution. However, the

  13. Pectin extraction from Citron peel (Citrus medica Linn. and its use in food system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rojanakorn, T.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Screening experiments using 25-1 fractional factorial design showed that pH, temperature, and extracting time were the main factors affecting the amount and quality of extracted pectin from Citrus medica Linn. Optimum condition of pectin extraction was studied using central composite design (CCD. Mathematical models relating pH, temperature and extracted time to amount of extracted pectin, equivalent weight, methyl content and anhydrogalacturonic acid content were established. Based on the mathematics models, the condition of pH 2, 100ºC and 105 min was found to be the optimum conditions for pectin extraction from Citrus medica Linn. Mathematical and experimental results were verified. The use of extracted pectin as a gelling agent in pineapple jam revealed no significant difference in gel consistency compared to that of commercial pectin grade 150 (p>0.05. However, the commercial pectin had a higher liking score on the spreadability, texture and overall liking. As a stabilizer in chocolate pasteurised milk, 0.2% of the extracted pectin was required to prevent precipitation of chocolate powder with the similar viscosity obtained from 0.06% κ-carageenan

  14. Characterisation of biodegradable pectin aerogels and their potential use as drug carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veronovski, Anja; Tkalec, Gabrijela; Knez, Željko; Novak, Zoran

    2014-11-26

    The purpose of this work was to prepare stable citrus (CF) and apple (AF) pectin aerogels for potential pharmaceutical applications. Different shapes of low ester pectin aerogels were prepared by two fundamental methods of ionic cross-linking. Pectins' spherical and multi-membrane gels were first formed by the diffusion method using 0.2M CaCl2 solution as an ionic cross-linker. The highest specific surface area (593 m(2)/g) that had so far been reported for pectin aerogels was achieved using this method. Monolithic pectin gels were formed by the internal setting method. Pectin gels were further converted into aerogels by supercritical drying using CO2. As surface area/volume is one of the key parameters in controlling drug release, multi-membrane pectin aerogels were further used as drug delivery carriers. Theophylline and nicotinic acid were used as model drugs for the dissolution study. CF aerogels showed more controlled release behaviour than AF pectin aerogels. Moreover a higher release rate (100%) was observed with CF aerogels. PMID:25256485

  15. Studies of pectin substrates as the adsorbents of aromatic compounds of essential oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Наталія Василівна Чепель

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the perspective of gum arabic as an adsorbent of aromatic compounds of essential oils. Its adsorption properties were compared with apple pectin and beet pectin which were more selective. The stabilization of chemical content of essential oils has been proven in applying the gum arabic. 

  16. An efficient procedure for studying pectin structure which combines limited depolymerization and {sup 13}C NMR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catoire, L.; Herve du Penhoat, C. [Dept. de Chimie, Ecole Normale Superieure, Paris (France); Goldberg, R.; Pierron, M. [Laboratoire d`enzymologie en Milieu Structure, Institut Jacques Monod, Paris (France); Morvan, C. [Faculte des Sciences, Universite de Rouen, Mont-Saint-Aignan (France)

    1998-04-01

    A protocol for partial thermally-induced depolymerization of differently methoxylated pectin samples is described. The resulting macromolecules have been fully characterized with various complementary techniques, such as size exclusion chromatography (SEC), potentiometry, viscometry and {sup 13}C NMR. Optimum conditions afford samples at 50-80% yield with weight-average molecular weights in the 4 to 20 kDa range. The major fraction of these polysaccharides adopts the random-coil conformation and such samples are suitable for {sup 13}C NMR structural studies at room temperature. The methoxyl distributions of two apple pectin samples with a degree of esterification (DE) between 54 and 74% and a citrus pectin (DE, 72%) were shown to be random in nature, whereas that of a lightly methoxylated apple pectin (DE 39%) was partially blockwise. The carbon relaxation parameters of the depolymerized pectins attain asymptotic values for M{sub W} > 4 kDa. The M{sub W} values estimated from intrinsic viscosity data with the Mark-Houwink relationship reported for native pectins are in good agreement with those obtained by either end-group analysis (NMR) or SEC. Thus, all the physicochemical data indicate that the secondary structure of the isolated chains of depolymerized pectin is closely related to that of the parent polymers. Finally, pectinmethylesterase activity towards the depolymerized pectins was similar to that of the untreated samples. (orig.) With 6 figs., 4 tabs., 27 refs.

  17. Biosorption properties of citrus peel derived oligogalacturonides, enzyme-modified pectin and peel hydrolysis residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Data is presented on the biosorption properties of modified pectins and pectin fragments using lead as a model cation. Samples tested for their sorption capacity are Narrow-Range Size-Classes of galacturonic acid oligomers, well characterized homogalacturonan demethylations series produced at pH 7....

  18. Colonic delivery of compression coated nisin tablets using pectin/HPMC polymer mixture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugurlu, Timucin; Turkoglu, Murat; Gurer, Umran Soyogul; Akarsu, Burcak Gurbuz

    2007-08-01

    Nisin containing pectin/HPMC compression coated tablets were prepared and their in vitro behavior tested for colonic delivery. Nisin is a 34-amino-acid residue long, heat stable peptide belonging to the group A lantibiotics with wide antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive bacteria. The invention can be useful for treating colonic infectious diseases such as by Clostridium difficile, and also by colonization of vancomycin-resistant enterococci. In this study, each 100mg core tablet of nisin was compression coated with 100% pectin, 90% pectin-10% HPMC, 85% pectin-15% HPMC, 80% pectin-20% HPMC, 75% pectin-25% HPMC, 100% HPMC at a coat weight of 400mg. The concentration and the activity of nisin were quantified using Well Diffusion Agar Assay. Drug release studies were carried out in pH 3.3 buffer solution. System degradation/erosion experiments were carried out in pH 1.2, 3.3, and 6.8 buffers using a pectinolytic enzyme. The biological activity and NMR studies were performed to assess the stability of nisin during the processing and after the in vitro tests. It was found that pectin alone was not sufficient to protect the nisin containing core tablets. At the end of the 6h 40% degradation was observed for 100% pectin tablets. HPMC addition required to control the solubility of pectin, a 5% increase in HPMC ratio in pectin/HPMC mixture provided a 2-h lag time for nisin release. Eighty percent pectin-20% HPMC appeared to be an optimum combination for further evaluation. Tablets maintained their integrity during the 6-h dissolution test, approximating the colon arrival times. Nisin was found to be active/stable during processing and after in vitro tests. Effect of polymer hydration on pectin degradation was found to be crucial for the enzyme activity. Sufficiently hydrated pectin degraded faster. The pectin/HPMC envelope was found to be a good delivery system for nisin to be delivered to the colon. PMID:17337171

  19. Pectin gelation with chlorhexidine: Physico-chemical studies in dilute solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lascol, Manon; Bourgeois, Sandrine; Guillière, Florence; Hangouët, Marie; Raffin, Guy; Marote, Pedro; Lantéri, Pierre; Bordes, Claire

    2016-10-01

    Low methoxyl pectin is known to gel with divalent cations (e.g. Ca(2+), Zn(2+)). In this study, a new way of pectin gelation in the presence of an active pharmaceutical ingredient, chlorhexidine (CX), was highlighted. Thus chlorhexidine interactions with pectin were investigated and compared with the well-known pectin/Ca(2+) binding model. Gelation mechanisms were studied by several physico-chemical methods such as zeta potential, viscosity, size measurements and binding isotherm was determined by Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy ((1)H NMR). The binding process exhibited similar first two steps for both divalent ions: a stoichiometric monocomplexation of the polymer followed by a dimerization step. However, stronger interactions were observed between pectin and chlorhexidine. Moreover, the dimerization step occurred under stoichiometric conditions with chlorhexidine whereas non-stoichiometric conditions were involved with calcium ions. In the case of chlorhexidine, an additional intermolecular binding occurred in a third step. PMID:27312625

  20. Anti-cancer activities of pH- or heat-modified pectin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lionel eLeclere

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Despite enormous efforts that have been made in the search for novel drugs and treatments, cancer continues to be a major public health problem. Moreover, the emergence of resistance to cancer chemotherapy often prevents complete remission. Researchers have thus turned to natural products mainly from plant origin to circumvent resistance. Pectin and pH- or heat-modified pectin have demonstrated chemopreventive and antitumoral activities against some aggressive and recurrent cancers. The focus of this review is to describe how pectin and modified pectin display these activities and what are the possible underlying mechanisms. The failure of conventional chemotherapy to reduce mortality as well as serious side effects makes natural products, such as pectin-derived products, ideal candidates for exerting synergism in combination with conventional anticancer drugs.

  1. Characterisation of pectins extracted from banana peels (Musa AAA) under different conditions using an experimental design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Happi Emaga, Thomas; Ronkart, Sébastien N; Robert, Christelle; Wathelet, Bernard; Paquot, Michel

    2008-05-15

    An experimental design was used to study the influence of pH (1.5 and 2.0), temperature (80 and 90°C) and time (1 and 4h) on extraction of pectin from banana peels (Musa AAA). Yield of extracted pectins, their composition (neutral sugars, galacturonic acid, and degree of esterification) and some macromolecular characteristics (average molecular weight, intrinsic viscosity) were determined. It was found that extraction pH was the most important parameter influencing yield and pectin chemical composition. Lower pH values negatively affected the galacturonic acid content of pectin, but increased the pectin yield. The values of degree of methylation decreased significantly with increasing temperature and time of extraction. The average molecular weight ranged widely from 87 to 248kDa and was mainly influenced by pH and extraction time. PMID:26059123

  2. Mechanistic aspects of the nucleophilic substitution of pectin. On the formation of chloromethane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sailaukhanuly, Yerbolat; Sárossy, Zsuzsa; Carlsen, Lars; Egsgaard, Helge

    2014-09-01

    Chloromethane, accounting for approximately 16% of the tropospheric chlorine, is mainly coming from natural sources. However anthropogenic activities, such as combustion of biomass may contribute significantly as well. The present study focuses on the thermal solid state reaction between pectin, an important constituent of biomass, and chloride ions as found in alkali metal chlorides. The formation of chloromethane is evident with the amount formed being linear with respect to chloride if pectin is in great excess. Thus the reaction is explained as a pseudo first order SN2 reaction between the chloride ion and the methyl ester moiety in pectin. It is suggested that the polymeric nature of pectin plays an active role by an enhanced transport of halides along the carbohydrate chain. Optimal reaction temperature is around 210°C. At higher temperatures the yield of chloromethane decreases due to a thermal decomposition of the pectin. The possible influence of the type of cation is discussed. PMID:24997968

  3. An experimental design approach to the chemical characterisation of pectin polysaccharides extracted from Cucumis melo Inodorus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denman, Laura J; Morris, Gordon A

    2015-03-01

    Extracted pectins have been utilised in a number of applications in both the food and pharmaceutical industries where they are generally used as gelling agents, thickeners and stabilisers, although a number of pectins have been shown to be bioactive. These functional properties will depend upon extraction conditions. A statistical experimental design approach was used to study the effects of extraction conditions pH, time and temperature on pectins extracted from Cucumis melo Inodorus. The results show that the chemical composition is very sensitive to these conditions and that this has a great influence on for example the degree of branching. Higher temperatures, lower pHs and longer extraction times lead to a loss of the more acid labile arabinofuranose residues present on the pectin side chain. The fitting of regression equations relating yield and composition to extraction conditions can therefore lead to tailor-made pectins for specific properties and/or applications. PMID:25498647

  4. Orange pectin mediated growth and stability of aqueous gold and silver nanocolloids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Pectin from orange was used as stabilizer of Ag, Au and Ag–Au nanoparticles. • Sodium citrate, oxalic acid or pectin were used as reducing agents. • Colloids spanning all visible region were obtained depending on Ag/Au-ratio and pH. • Pectin is a highly efficient stabilizer of nanocolloidal solutions for years. - Abstract: The role of orange based pectin in the nucleation and growth of silver and gold nanoparticles is addressed. Pectin is a complex polysaccharide found in fruits such as oranges, lemons, passion fruits or apples. It displays smooth and hairy chain regions containing hydroxyl-, ester-, carboxylate- and eventually amine groups that can act as surface ligands interacting under various pH conditions more or less efficiently with growing nanometals. Here, a high methoxy pectin (>50% esterified) was used as a stabilizer/reducing agent in the preparation of gold, silver and silver–gold nanoparticles. Commercial pectin (CP) and pectin extracted from orange bagasse (OP) were used. Optionally, trisodium citrate or oxalic acid we used to reduce AgNO3 and HAuCl4 in aqueous environment. Characterization methods included UV–vis absorption spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, electron diffraction and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The results show that under different pH conditions, pectin and reducing agents allow producing various nanostructures shapes (triangles, spheres, rods, octahedrons and decahedrons) often with high polydispersity and sizes ranging between 5 nm and 30 nm. In addition, depending on Ag/Au-ratio and pH, the surface plasmon bands can be continuously shifted between 410 nm and 600 nm. Finally, pectin seems to be a highly efficient stabilizer of the colloidal systems that show a remarkable stability and unchanged optical spectral response even after five years

  5. Biphasic release of indomethacin from HPMC/pectin/calcium matrix tablet: I. Characterization and mechanistic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Baojian; Chen, Zhukang; Wei, Xiuli; Sun, Ningyun; Lu, Yi; Wu, Wei

    2007-11-01

    Calcium-induced crosslinking of pectin acts as the dominating factor controlling drug release from pectin-based matrices. The same interaction was employed to modify indomethacin release from HPMC/pectin/calcium matrix in this study. The aim was to characterize the release profiles, and to study the formulation variables and the underlying mechanisms. The matrix tablet was made up of pectin HM 70, calcium chloride and HPMC K4M, and prepared by the wet granulation method. In vitro release was performed in water and characterized by the power law. Matrix erosion was evaluated by studying the weight loss and pectin release. Biphasic release of indomethacin from the HPMC/pectin/calcium matrix tablet was observed, and extraordinary power law exponent n values of over 1.0 were observed. Increase in calcium amount led to more significant retardation on drug release. The two power law parameters, n and K, correlated to the amount of calcium in the matrix. A lag time of over 4 h can be achieved at HPMC/pectin/calcium chloride amount of 100 mg/100 mg/100 mg. Both matrix weight loss and pectin release were linearly correlated to indomethacin release, indicating erosion-controlled drug release mechanisms. The hybrid matrix showed retarded erosion and hydration rate, which served as the basis for retarded indomethacin release. It is concluded that the pectin/calcium interaction can be employed to modify drug release from HPMC/pectin/calcium matrix tablet with biphasic release patterns for potential timed or site-specific drug delivery. PMID:17540549

  6. Orange pectin mediated growth and stability of aqueous gold and silver nanocolloids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nigoghossian, Karina; Santos, Molíria V. dos; Barud, Hernane S.; Silva, Robson R. da [Institute of Chemistry, São Paulo State University – UNESP, 14801-970 Araraquara, SP (Brazil); Rocha, Lucas A. [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade de Franca, Franca, SP (Brazil); Caiut, José M.A. [Departamento de Química, FFCLRP, USP, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Assunção, Rosana M.N. de [Faculdade de Ciências Integradas do Pontal, Universidade Federal de Uberlândia, 38302-000 Ituiutaba, MG (Brazil); Spanhel, Lubomir [CEITEC-Central European Institute of Technology, Masaryk University Brno (Czech Republic); Institute of Chemical Sciences, University of Rennes 1, Campus Beaulieu, 35 042 Rennes (France); Poulain, Marcel [Institute of Chemical Sciences, University of Rennes 1, Campus Beaulieu, 35 042 Rennes (France); Messaddeq, Younes [Institute of Chemistry, São Paulo State University – UNESP, 14801-970 Araraquara, SP (Brazil); Ribeiro, Sidney J.L., E-mail: sidney@iq.unesp.br [Institute of Chemistry, São Paulo State University – UNESP, 14801-970 Araraquara, SP (Brazil)

    2015-06-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Pectin from orange was used as stabilizer of Ag, Au and Ag–Au nanoparticles. • Sodium citrate, oxalic acid or pectin were used as reducing agents. • Colloids spanning all visible region were obtained depending on Ag/Au-ratio and pH. • Pectin is a highly efficient stabilizer of nanocolloidal solutions for years. - Abstract: The role of orange based pectin in the nucleation and growth of silver and gold nanoparticles is addressed. Pectin is a complex polysaccharide found in fruits such as oranges, lemons, passion fruits or apples. It displays smooth and hairy chain regions containing hydroxyl-, ester-, carboxylate- and eventually amine groups that can act as surface ligands interacting under various pH conditions more or less efficiently with growing nanometals. Here, a high methoxy pectin (>50% esterified) was used as a stabilizer/reducing agent in the preparation of gold, silver and silver–gold nanoparticles. Commercial pectin (CP) and pectin extracted from orange bagasse (OP) were used. Optionally, trisodium citrate or oxalic acid we used to reduce AgNO{sub 3} and HAuCl{sub 4} in aqueous environment. Characterization methods included UV–vis absorption spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, electron diffraction and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The results show that under different pH conditions, pectin and reducing agents allow producing various nanostructures shapes (triangles, spheres, rods, octahedrons and decahedrons) often with high polydispersity and sizes ranging between 5 nm and 30 nm. In addition, depending on Ag/Au-ratio and pH, the surface plasmon bands can be continuously shifted between 410 nm and 600 nm. Finally, pectin seems to be a highly efficient stabilizer of the colloidal systems that show a remarkable stability and unchanged optical spectral response even after five years.

  7. Impact of pectin type on the storage stability of black currant (Ribes nigrum L.) anthocyanins in pectic model solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchweitz, M; Speth, M; Kammerer, D R; Carle, R

    2013-08-15

    The effects of different pectins on the stabilisation of black currant anthocyanins in viscous model solutions at pH 3.0 were investigated. For this purpose, low esterified amidated (AM), low (LM) and high (HM) methoxylated citrus and apple pectins and a sugar beet pectin were added to a purified anthocyanin extract (ACN-E) and to an extract containing anthocyanins and non-anthocyanin phenolics (PP-E). Model systems were stored at 20±0.5°C in the dark. Anthocyanin contents were monitored by HPLC analysis over a period of 18 weeks, and half-life and destruction values were calculated. In all pectic model solutions anthocyanin stability was significantly improved compared to stability of the extracts without added pectins (blank). Best stabilisation was obtained with AM pectin, followed by LM and HM pectins. In model systems containing citrus pectins, anthocyanin stabilisation was better compared to that of apple pectins having similar degrees of esterification and amidation, respectively. This was primarily due to the strong interaction of delphinidin glycosides with the citrus pectins, whereas stabilisation of cyanidin derivatives was less important. Sugar beet pectin improved anthocyanin stability only to a limited extent. In the presence of non-anthocyanin phenolics (PP-E) the impact of the pectin source was even more pronounced than the effect of the pectin type. Addition of citrate to pectic systems accelerated anthocyanin decay. Stabilising effects of pectins were hardly noticeable when evaluating total phenolic content (TPC, Folin-Ciocalteu) and antioxidant capacity during storage. Highest TPC, TEAC- and FRAP values were observed in systems containing citrus pectin, which was in contrast to sugar beet pectin, where values fell below those of the blank after storage. PMID:23561223

  8. Osteoblastic response to pectin nanocoating on titanium surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osseointegration of titanium implants can be improved by organic and inorganic nanocoating of the surface. The aim of our study was to evaluate the effect of organic nanocoating of titanium surface with unmodified and modified pectin Rhamnogalacturonan-Is (RG-Is) isolated from potato and apple with respect to surface properties and osteogenic response in osteoblastic cells. Nanocoatings on titanium surfaces were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy, contact angle measurements, atomic force microscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The effect of coated RG-Is on cell adhesion, cell viability, bone matrix formation and mineralization was tested using SaOS-2 cells. Nanocoating with pectin RG-Is affected surface properties and in consequence changed the environment for cellular response. The cells cultured on surfaces coated with RG-Is from potato with high content of linear 1.4-linked galactose produced higher level of mineralized matrix compared with control surfaces and surfaces coated with RG-I with low content of linear 1.4-linked galactose. The study showed that the pectin RG-Is nanocoating not only changed chemical and physical titanium surface properties, but also specific coating with RG-Is containing high amount of galactan increased mineralized matrix formation of osteoblastic cells in vitro. - Highlights: • Surface nanocoating with plant-derived Rhamnogalacturonan-I (RG-I) is proposed. • Titanium surface became more hydrophilic after RG-Is nanocoating. • RG-Is with high galactose content resulted in high level of mineralized matrix. • RG-I is a new candidate for improvement of bone healing and osseointegration

  9. Osteoblastic response to pectin nanocoating on titanium surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gurzawska, Katarzyna, E-mail: kagu@sund.ku.dk [Research Center for Ageing and Osteoporosis, Departments of Medicine and Diagnostics, Copenhagen University Hospital Glostrup, Ndr. Ringvej 57, 2600 Glostrup (Denmark); Institute of Odontology, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Nørre Allé 20, 2200 Copenhagen N (Denmark); Svava, Rikke [Department of Plant Environment Sciences, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Thorvaldsensvej 40, 1871 Frederiksberg C (Denmark); Copenhagen Center for Glycomics, Institute for Cellular and Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Blegdamsvej 3B, 2200 Copenhagen N (Denmark); Yihua, Yu; Haugshøj, Kenneth Brian [Microtechnology and Surface Analysis, Danish Technological Institute, Gregersensvej 8, 2630 Taastrup (Denmark); Dirscherl, Kai [Dansk Fundamental Metrologi A/S, Matematiktorvet 307, 2800 Lyngby (Denmark); Levery, Steven B. [Copenhagen Center for Glycomics, Institute for Cellular and Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Blegdamsvej 3B, 2200 Copenhagen N (Denmark); Byg, Inge [Department of Plant Environment Sciences, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Thorvaldsensvej 40, 1871 Frederiksberg C (Denmark); Damager, Iben [Novozymes A/S, Krogshoejvej 36, 2880 Bagsvaerd (Denmark); Nielsen, Martin W. [Department of Systems Biology, Technical University of Denmark, Matematiktorvet, Building 301, Kgs. Lyngby DK-2800 (Denmark); Jørgensen, Bodil [Department of Plant Environment Sciences, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Thorvaldsensvej 40, 1871 Frederiksberg C (Denmark); Jørgensen, Niklas Rye [Research Center for Ageing and Osteoporosis, Departments of Medicine and Diagnostics, Copenhagen University Hospital Glostrup, Ndr. Ringvej 57, 2600 Glostrup (Denmark); and others

    2014-10-01

    Osseointegration of titanium implants can be improved by organic and inorganic nanocoating of the surface. The aim of our study was to evaluate the effect of organic nanocoating of titanium surface with unmodified and modified pectin Rhamnogalacturonan-Is (RG-Is) isolated from potato and apple with respect to surface properties and osteogenic response in osteoblastic cells. Nanocoatings on titanium surfaces were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy, contact angle measurements, atomic force microscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The effect of coated RG-Is on cell adhesion, cell viability, bone matrix formation and mineralization was tested using SaOS-2 cells. Nanocoating with pectin RG-Is affected surface properties and in consequence changed the environment for cellular response. The cells cultured on surfaces coated with RG-Is from potato with high content of linear 1.4-linked galactose produced higher level of mineralized matrix compared with control surfaces and surfaces coated with RG-I with low content of linear 1.4-linked galactose. The study showed that the pectin RG-Is nanocoating not only changed chemical and physical titanium surface properties, but also specific coating with RG-Is containing high amount of galactan increased mineralized matrix formation of osteoblastic cells in vitro. - Highlights: • Surface nanocoating with plant-derived Rhamnogalacturonan-I (RG-I) is proposed. • Titanium surface became more hydrophilic after RG-Is nanocoating. • RG-Is with high galactose content resulted in high level of mineralized matrix. • RG-I is a new candidate for improvement of bone healing and osseointegration.

  10. Characterization of Pectin Nanocoatings at Polystyrene and Titanium Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gurzawska, Katarzyna; Dirscherl, Kai; Yihua, Yu;

    2013-01-01

    study was to physically characterize and compare polystyrene and titanium surfaces nanocoated with different Rhamnogalacturonan-Is (RG-I) and to visualize RG-I nanocoatings. RG-Is from potato and apple were coated on aminated surfaces of polystyrene, titianium discs and titanium implants. To...... wettability, without any major effect on surface roughness (Sa, Sdr). Furthermore, we demonstrated that it is possible to visualize the pectin RG-Is molecules and even the nanocoatings on titanium surfaces, which have not been presented before. The comparison between polystyrene and titanium surface showed...

  11. SoxR-dependent response to oxidative stress and virulence of Erwinia chrysanthemi: the key role of SufC, an orphan ABC ATPase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nachin, L; El Hassouni, M; Loiseau, L; Expert, D; Barras, F

    2001-02-01

    Erwinia chrysanthemi causes soft-rot disease in a great variety of plants. In addition to the depolymerizing activity of plant cell wall-degrading enzymes, iron acquisition and resistance to oxidative stress contribute greatly to the virulence of this pathogen. Here, we studied the pin10 locus originally thought to encode new virulence factors. The sequence analysis revealed six open reading frames that were homologous to the Escherichia coli sufA, sufB, sufC, sufD, sufS and sufE genes. Sequence similarity searching predicted that (i) SufA, SufB, SufD, SufS and SufE proteins are involved in iron metabolism and possibly in Fe-S cluster assembly; and (ii) SufC is an ATPase of an ABC transporter. The reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction procedure showed that the sufABCDSE genes constitute an operon. Expression of a sufB:uidA fusion was found to be induced in iron-deficient growth conditions and to be repressed by the iron-sensing Fur repressor. Each of the six suf genes was inactivated by the insertion of a cassette generating a non-polar mutation. The intracellular iron level in the sufA, sufB, sufC, sufS and sufE mutants was higher than in the wild type, as assessed by increased sensitivity to the iron-activated antibiotic streptonigrin. In addition, inactivation of sufC and sufD led to increased sensitivity to paraquat. Virulence tests showed that sufA and sufC mutants exhibited reduced ability to cause maceration of chicory leaves, whereas a functional sufC gene was necessary for the bacteria to cause systemic invasion of Saintpaulia ionantha. The E. coli sufC homologue was inactivated by reverse genetic. This mutation was found to modify the soxR-dependent induction of soxS gene expression. We discuss the possibility that SufC is a versatile ATPase that can associate either with the other Suf proteins to form a Fe-S cluster-assembling machinery or with membrane proteins encoded elsewhere in the chromosome to form an Fe-S ABC exporter. Overall, these

  12. Pectin engineering: Modification of potato pectin by in vivo expression of an endo-1,4-β-d-galactanase

    OpenAIRE

    Oxenbøll Sørensen, Susanne; Pauly, Markus; Bush, Max; Skjøt, Michael; McCann, Maureen C.; Borkhardt, Bernhard; Ulvskov, Peter

    2000-01-01

    Potato tuber pectin is rich in galactan (oligomer of β-1,4-linked galactosyl residues). We have expressed a fungal endo-galactanase cDNA in potato under control of the granule bound starch synthase promoter to obtain expression of the enzyme in tubers during growth. The transgenic plants displayed no altered phenotype compared with the wild type. Fungal endo-galactanase activity was quantified in the transgenic tubers, and its expression was verified by Western blot analysis. The effect of th...

  13. Performance evaluation of pectin as ecofriendly corrosion inhibitor for X60 pipeline steel in acid medium: experimental and theoretical approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umoren, Saviour A; Obot, Ime B; Madhankumar, A; Gasem, Zuhair M

    2015-06-25

    The corrosion inhibition effect of pectin (a biopolymer) for X60 pipeline steel in HCl medium was investigated using weight loss, electrochemical, water contact angle measurements, and scanning electron microscopy techniques. The results obtained show that pectin acts as a good corrosion inhibitor for X60 steel. Inhibition efficiency increased with increase in pectin concentration and temperature. Potentiodynamic polarization results reveal that pectin could be classified as a mixed-type corrosion inhibitor with predominant control of the cathodic reaction. The effective corrosion inhibition potential of pectin could be related to the adsorption of pectin molecules at the metal/solution interface which is found to accord with the Langmuir adsorption isotherm model and a protective film formation. Quantum chemical calculations provided insights into the active sites and reactivity parameters governing pectin activity as a good corrosion inhibitor for X60 steel. PMID:25839822

  14. Reaction of arracacha genotypes to the root soft rot caused by Pectobacterium chrysanthemi Reação de genótipos de mandioquinha-salsa à podridão-mole das raízes causada por Pectobacterium chrysanthemi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilmar Paulo Henz

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper was to screen thirty-two arracacha genotypes for their reaction to root soft rot. Twenty roots of each genotype were inoculated with two Pectobacterium chrysanthemi isolates in a randomized experiment (10 roots/isolate. After inoculation, roots were individually wrapped with PVC film and kept at 26ºC in closed plastic bags. Soft rot lesions were recorded after 36 hours and genotypes were grouped in four classes of susceptibility by cluster analysis: 10 were less susceptible, 16 intermediate, 3 susceptible and 3 very susceptible. All the tested arracacha genotypes showed only variation in the degree of susceptibility.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a reação de 32 genótipos de mandioquinha-salsa à podridão-mole das raízes. Vinte raízes de cada genótipo foram inoculadas com dois isolados de Pectobacterium chrysanthemi em um experimento casualizado (10 raízes/isolado. Após a inoculação, as raízes foram embaladas com filmes de PVC e mantidas a 26ºC em sacos de plástico. As lesões de podridão-mole foram avaliadas após 36 horas e os genótipos agrupados em quatro classes de suscetibilidade por análise de agrupamento: 10 foram menos suscetíveis, 16 intermediários, 3 suscetíveis e 3 muito suscetíveis. Todos os genótipos avaliados demonstraram apenas variação no grau de suscetibilidade.

  15. Orange pectin mediated growth and stability of aqueous gold and silver nanocolloids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigoghossian, Karina; dos Santos, Molíria V.; Barud, Hernane S.; da Silva, Robson R.; Rocha, Lucas A.; Caiut, José M. A.; de Assunção, Rosana M. N.; Spanhel, Lubomir; Poulain, Marcel; Messaddeq, Younes; Ribeiro, Sidney J. L.

    2015-06-01

    The role of orange based pectin in the nucleation and growth of silver and gold nanoparticles is addressed. Pectin is a complex polysaccharide found in fruits such as oranges, lemons, passion fruits or apples. It displays smooth and hairy chain regions containing hydroxyl-, ester-, carboxylate- and eventually amine groups that can act as surface ligands interacting under various pH conditions more or less efficiently with growing nanometals. Here, a high methoxy pectin (>50% esterified) was used as a stabilizer/reducing agent in the preparation of gold, silver and silver-gold nanoparticles. Commercial pectin (CP) and pectin extracted from orange bagasse (OP) were used. Optionally, trisodium citrate or oxalic acid we used to reduce AgNO3 and HAuCl4 in aqueous environment. Characterization methods included UV-vis absorption spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, electron diffraction and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The results show that under different pH conditions, pectin and reducing agents allow producing various nanostructures shapes (triangles, spheres, rods, octahedrons and decahedrons) often with high polydispersity and sizes ranging between 5 nm and 30 nm. In addition, depending on Ag/Au-ratio and pH, the surface plasmon bands can be continuously shifted between 410 nm and 600 nm. Finally, pectin seems to be a highly efficient stabilizer of the colloidal systems that show a remarkable stability and unchanged optical spectral response even after five years.

  16. Adsorption of Cd(II) by two variable-charge soils in the presence of pectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ru-Hai; Zhu, Xiao-Fang; Qian, Wei; Zhao, Min-Hua; Xu, Ren-Kou; Yu, Yuan-Chun

    2016-07-01

    Batch experiments were conducted to investigate cadmium(II) (Cd(II)) adsorption by two variable-charge soils (an Oxisol and an Ultisol) as influenced by the presence of pectin. When pectin dosage was less than 30 g kg(-1), the increase in Cd(II) adsorption with the increasing dose of pectin was greater than that when the pectin dosage was >30 g kg(-1). Although both Langmuir and Freundlich equations fitted the adsorption isotherms of Cd(II) and electrostatic adsorption data of Cd(II) by the two soils well, the Langmuir equation showed a better fit. The increase in the maximum total adsorption of Cd(II) induced by pectin was almost equal in both the soils, whereas the increase in the maximum electrostatic adsorption of Cd(II) was greater in the Oxisol than in the Ultisol because the former contained greater amounts of free Fe/Al oxides than the latter, which, in turn, led to a greater increase in the negative charge on the Oxisol. Therefore, the presence of pectin induced the increase in Cd(II) adsorption by the variable-charge soils mainly through the electrostatic mechanism. Pectin increased the adsorption of Cd(II) by the variable-charge soils and thus decreased the activity and mobility of Cd(II) in these soils. PMID:26996909

  17. Membraneless dialysis of strontium in aqueous liquid-liquid milk-pectin system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binding of added strontium by milk proteins under native conditions was investigated using pectin of various degrees of esterification. The partition of strontium, as well as cesium and europium, in aqueous two-phase milk-pectin system, is discussed in terms of 'membraneless dialysis' and described by Donnan equilibria, and compared with the distribution between cation exchanger and milk, artificial milk serum, or pectin solutions. When going from pectin with a degree of esterification D.E. = 93.2 to 61.4, the distribution of strontium decreases for about 40% in favor of pectin phase and this was explained by a relatively lower degree of dissociation of free carboxyle groups of pectin. The low-molecular fraction of added strontium in milk was assessed from Dowex 50*8 sorption data to be 31%, and that of cesium and europium 58% and 40%, respectively. However, distribution ratio of strontium and europium in milk/pectin system is much higher than it would correspond to the ion exchanger adsorption data. (author) 16 refs.; 2 tabs

  18. Effect of gamma irradiation in the viscosity of gelatin and pectin solutions used in food industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pectin is a polysaccharide substance of plant origin that may be used as gelling agent, stabilizer in jams, in yogurt drinks and lactic acid beverages. Gelatin, a protein from bovine origin, in this case, is mainly used as gelling agent due to hydrogel formation during cooling. The 60 Co-irradiation process may cause various modifications in macromolecules, some with industrial application, as reticulation. The dynamic response of viscoelastic materials can be used in order to give information about the structural aspect of a system at molecular level. In the present work samples of pectin with different degree of methoxylation, gelatin and the mixture of both were employed to study the radiation sensitivity by means of viscosity measurements. Solutions prepared with citric pectin with high methoxylation content (ATM) 1 por cent, pectin with low content (BTM) 1 por cent, gelatin 0.5 por cent, 1 por cent and 2 por cent, and the mixture 1 por cent and 2 por cent were irradiated with gamma rays at different doses, up to 15 kGy with dose rate about 2 kGy/h. After irradiation the viscosity was measured within a period of 48 h. The viscosity of ATM and BTM pectin solutions decreased sharply with the radiation dose. However, the gelatin sample presented a great radiation resistance. When pectin and gelatin solutions were mixed a predominance of pectin behavior was found. (author)

  19. Acetylesterase-Mediated Deacetylation of Pectin Impairs Cell Elongation, Pollen Germination, and Plant Reproduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gou J. Y.; Liu C.; Miller, L. M.; Hou, G.; Yu, X.-H.; Chen, X.-Y.

    2012-01-01

    Pectin is a major component of the primary cell wall of higher plants. Some galacturonyl residues in the backbone of pectinaceous polysaccharides are often O-acetylated at the C-2 or C-3 position, and the resulting acetylesters change dynamically during the growth and development of plants. The processes involve both enzymatic acetylation and deacetylation. Through genomic sequence analysis, we identified a pectin acetylesterase (PAE1) from black cottonwood (Populus trichocarpa). Recombinant Pt PAE1 exhibited preferential activity in releasing the acetate moiety from sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) and potato (Solanum tuberosum) pectin in vitro. Overexpressing Pt PAE1 in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) decreased the level of acetyl esters of pectin but not of xylan. Deacetylation engendered differential changes in the composition and/or structure of cell wall polysaccharides that subsequently impaired the cellular elongation of floral styles and filaments, the germination of pollen grains, and the growth of pollen tubes. Consequently, plants overexpressing PAE1 exhibited severe male sterility. Furthermore, in contrast to the conventional view, PAE1-mediated deacetylation substantially lowered the digestibility of pectin. Our data suggest that pectin acetylesterase functions as an important structural regulator in planta by modulating the precise status of pectin acetylation to affect the remodeling and physiochemical properties of the cell wall's polysaccharides, thereby affecting cell extensibility.

  20. The potential of pectin as a stabilizer for liposomal drug delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smistad, Gro; Bøyum, Silje; Alund, Siv Jorunn; Samuelsen, Anne Berit C; Hiorth, Marianne

    2012-10-15

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential of different types of pectin as stabilizers for liposomal drug delivery systems. Positively charged liposomes were coated with commercially available and purified low-methoxylated (LM), high-methoxylated (HM) and amidated (AM) pectins. The samples were stored for up to 12 weeks at 4°C, at room temperature and at 35°C. The change in liposomal size and size distribution, zeta potential, pH, leakage of encapsulated carboxyfluorescein (CF), and lipid degradation were studied. All the types of pectin were found to protect the liposomes against aggregation during storage. The pectin coat did not affect the permeability of the liposome membrane. HM and LM pectin seemed to be the most promising types of pectin due to minimal changes in the zeta potentials during storage for these samples and no detectable lipid degradation. It is concluded that pectin may be used for stabilizing liposomal drug delivery systems. PMID:22939349

  1. Evaluation of Pectin derived from Orange peel as a Pharmaceutical Excipient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Ravindrakullai reddy

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present work is extraction of pectin from waste of orange fruit peel and further characterization for useful alternative pharmaceutical excipient. The pectin was subjected to phytochemical and physicochemical characterization of its safety and suitability to use as binding and suspending agent. FT-IR spectroscopy, DSC studies were performed for drug, orange peel pectin powder, prepared tablet and suspension formulations. Aceclofenac tablets were prepared by wet granulation method containing mannitol as diluent; using 2.5, 5, 7.5 and 10 %w/w of orange peel pectin powder and 7.5 %w/w of PVP (reference as binding agents in the tablet formulation. Aceclofenac suspensions were prepared with orange peel pectin powder at 0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2 %w/v as suspending agent and 1.5 %w/v of sodium CMC as reference suspending agent. Pharmaceutical properties of granules and tablets such as carr’s index, Haunser’s ratio and angle of repose and post compression parameters like friability, hardness, and disintegration time studies were determine and found satisfactory. The evaluation test of suspension like sedimentation volume, redispersibility, pH, degree of flocculation were found satisfactory. In vitro release studies shows that release rate of drug is decreased with increase in the orange peel pectin powder percentage in the formulation. Orange peel pectin powder showed good binding and suspending properties at 10 %w/w and 2 %w/v, respectively.

  2. CaSO4 and cationic polyelectrolyte as possible pectin precipitants in sugar beet juice clarification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuljanin Tatjana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Three pectin preparations were isolated from fresh sugar beet pulp during the 150 minutes of extraction, at pH values of 1, 3.5 and 8.5. CaSO4 precipitant was added to 100 cm3 of 0.1% (wt solution of pectin. Studies were performed with 9 different concentrations of CaSO4 solution (50-450 mg dm-3 with the addition of a cationic polyelectrolyte (cationic PAM in concentrations of 3 and 5 mg dm-3. The efficiency of pectin precipitation was monitored by measuring the zeta potential of pectin preparations. Optimal amounts of precipitant CaSO4, without the use of a cationic polyelectrolyte, were as follows: 490-678 mg CaSO4/g pectin. After the use of a cationic polyelectrolyte, the optimal amounts of CaSO4 were smaller (353-512 mg/g pectin. These quantities are significantly lower than the average amount of CaO used in the conventional clarification process of sugar beet juice (about 9 g/g pectin of sugar beet juice. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR -31055

  3. Effect of extraction conditions on the yield and chemical properties of pectin from cocoa husks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Siew-Yin; Choo, Wee-Sim

    2013-12-15

    Different extraction conditions were applied to investigate the effect of temperature, extraction time and substrate-extractant ratio on pectin extraction from cocoa husks. Pectin was extracted from cocoa husks using water, citric acid at pH 2.5 or 4.0, or hydrochloric acid at pH 2.5 or 4.0. Temperature, extraction time and substrate-extractant ratio affected the yields, uronic acid contents, degrees of methylation (DM) and degrees of acetylation (DA) of the extracted pectins using the five extractants differently. The yields and uronic acid contents of the extracted pectins ranged from 3.38-7.62% to 31.19-65.20%, respectively. The DM and DA of the extracted pectins ranged from 7.17-57.86% to 1.01-3.48%, respectively. The highest yield of pectin (7.62%) was obtained using citric acid at pH 2.5 [1:25 (w/v)] at 95 °C for 3.0 h. The highest uronic acid content (65.20%) in the pectin was obtained using water [1:25 (w/v)] at 95 °C for 3.0 h. PMID:23993545

  4. Effects of pectin liquid on gastroesophageal reflux disease in children with cerebral palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimizu Nobuzo

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of thickeners is a standard therapy for decreasing episodes of regurgitation or vomiting in infants. However, it remains to be investigated whether thickener is effective for vomiting and/or chronic respiratory symptoms in children with cerebral palsy. Methods We enrolled 18 neurologically impaired children caused by cerebral palsy, with gastroesophageal reflux disease. In the first part of this study (pH monitoring, subjects were randomly allocated to two groups: fed with a high-pectin diet [enteral formula: pectin liquid = 2:1 (v/v], or a low-pectin diet [enteral formula: pectin liquid = 3:1 (v/v]. Two-channel esophageal pH monitoring was performed over 48 h. In the second part (clinical trial, subjects were fed a high- or low-pectin diet and non-pectin diet for 4 weeks in a crossover manner. Nurses recorded the feeding volume, number of episodes of vomiting, volume of gastric residue, episodes of cough and wheeze, frequency of using oxygen for dyspnea, and the day when the child could return to school. Cough and wheeze were recorded as a cough-score. Results The median value for the % time pH Conclusion Pectin liquid partially decreased gastroesophageal reflux as measured by eshophageal pH monitoring, and might improve vomiting and respiratory symptoms in children with cerebral palsy. Trial registration ISRCTN19787793

  5. Mucoadhesive properties of various pectins on gastrointestinal mucosa: an in vitro evaluation using texture analyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirawong, Nartaya; Nunthanid, Jurairat; Puttipipatkhachorn, Satit; Sriamornsak, Pornsak

    2007-08-01

    Mucoadhesive performance of various pectins with different degrees of esterification and molecular weights was examined with porcine gastrointestinal (GI) mucosa, i.e. buccal, stomach, small intestine and large intestine, using a texture analyzer equipped with mucoadhesive platform. The instrumental parameters and test conditions such as pre-hydration time of pectin disc, contact time, contact force, test speed of probe withdrawal, GI tissue and test medium were also studied. Two parameters derived from texture analysis, namely maximum detachment force (F(max)) and work of adhesion (W(ad)), were used as parameters for comparison of mucoadhesive performance. The results indicated that degree of hydration of pectin disc affected the mucoadhesive properties. The mucoadhesion of pectin increased with the increased contact time and contact force, but not by the increased probe withdrawal speed. Tissue from different parts of GI tract and test medium also influenced the mucoadhesion. Pectins showed a stronger mucoadhesion on large intestinal mucosa than on small intestinal mucosa. The mucoadhesive properties of pectins on gastric mucosa depended on pH of the medium; a higher F(max) and W(ad) in a pH 4.8 medium than a pH 1.2 medium was revealed. Additionally, pectin showed a significantly higher mucoadhesion than carbomer934P in most of the GI mucosa tested. The results also demonstrated that the mucoadhesive performance of pectins largely depended on their characteristics, i.e. higher degree of esterification and molecular weight gave a stronger mucoadhesion. These findings suggest that pectin can be used as a mucoadhesive carrier for GI-mucoadhesive drug delivery systems. PMID:17321731

  6. Stabilisation of strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa Duch.) anthocyanins by different pectins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchweitz, M; Speth, M; Kammerer, D R; Carle, R

    2013-12-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of different pectins on strawberry anthocyanins in viscous model solutions at pH 3.0. For this purpose, low esterified amidated, low and high methyl esterified citrus and apple pectins, and a sugar beet pectin (SBP), respectively, were added to strawberry extracts. The latter were predominantly composed of pelargonidin-glycosides, containing either reduced (E-1) or original amounts of non-anthocyanin phenolics (E-2). Model systems were stored for 18 weeks at 20±0.5 °C protected from light, and anthocyanins were quantitated in regular intervals by HPLC-DAD analyses. Half-life (t1/2) and destruction (D) values were calculated based on first-order kinetics. Generally, significant differences in pigment retention could be ascribed to differing pectin sources, while variation in the degree of esterification and amidation, respectively, had negligible effects. Compared to systems without added pectin, apple pectins and SPB enhanced anthocyanin stability moderately, while stabilising effects of citrus pectins were poor or even imperceptible. Generally, the amount of non-anthocyanin phenolics and the addition of citrate did not markedly affect anthocyanin stability. However, pectins had no influence on total phenolic contents (Folin-Ciocalteu assay) and antioxidant capacities (FRAP and TEAC assay) of strawberry phenolics over time. For pelargonidin-3-glucoside and -rutinoside largely consistent stabilities were found in all model systems. In contrast, pelargonidin-3-malonylglucoside was less stable in the blank, and stabilisation by pectins was always negligible. The findings of the present study are contrary to results reported previously for the stabilisation of cyanidin- and delphinidin-glycosides in similar model systems prepared with black currant extracts, indicating a high impact of the number of hydroxyl groups in the anthocyanin B-ring. PMID:23871051

  7. Formation of nano-hydroxyapatite crystal in situ in chitosan-pectin polyelectrolyte complex network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hydroxyapatite (HA)/polysaccharide composites have been widely used in bone tissue engineering due to their chemical similarity to natural bone. Polymer matrix-mediated synthesis of nano-hydroxyapatite is one of the simplest models for biomimetic. In this article, the nano-hydroxyapatite/chitosan-pectin (nHCP) composites were prepared through in situ mineralization of hydroxyapatite in chitosan-pectin polyelectrolyte complex (PEC) network. The formation processes of nHCP were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. The interactions between nHA crystal and chitosan-pectin PEC networks were studied using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). The morphology and structure of nHA crystal were characterized by XRD and Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM). Results suggested that the interfacial interactions between nano-hydroxyapatite crystal and chitosan-pectin PEC network assist the site specific nucleation and growth of nHA nanoparticles. The nHA crystals grow along the c-axis. In this process, pH value is the main factor to control the nucleation and growth of nHA crystal in chitosan-pectin PEC networks, because both the interactions' strength between nHA crystal and chitosan-pectin and diffusion rate of inorganic ions depend on the pH value of the reaction system. Apart from the pH value, the chitosan/pectin ratio and [Ca2+] also take important effects on the formation of nHA crystal. An effective way to control the size of nHA crystal is to adjust the content of pectin and [Ca2+]. It is interesting that the Zeta potential of nHCP composites is about - 30 mV when the chitosan/pectin ratio ≤ 1:1, and the dispersion solution of nHCP composites has higher stability, which provides the possibility to prepare 3D porous scaffolds with nHCP for bone tissue engineering.

  8. Effects of temperature, ultraviolet radiation and pectin methyl esterase on aerobic methane release from plant material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruhn, Dan; Mikkelsen, Teis Nørgaard; Øbro, J.;

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the effects of different irradiance types on aerobic methane (CH4) efflux rates from terrestrial plant material. Furthermore, the role of the enzyme pectin methyl esterase (PME) on CH4 efflux potential was also examined. Different types of plant tissue and purified pectin were...... exponentially on temperature and linearly on UV-B irradiance. UV-B had a greater stimulating effect than UV-A, while visible light had no effect on emission rates. PME was found to substantially reduce the potential for aerobic CH4 emissions upon demethylation of pectin....

  9. The effect of different storage temperatures on the physical properties of pectin solutions and gels

    OpenAIRE

    Morris, Gordon; Castile, Jonathan; Smith, Alan; Adams, Gary; Stephen E. Harding

    2010-01-01

    The stability (in terms of viscosity and gel strength) of pectin solutions and gels potentially plays an important role in their behaviour and functional properties in a wide range of applications and therefore any changes over time must be understood. The gel strength of pectin gels and intrinsic viscosity of pectin solutions at different temperatures (4 °C, 25 °C and 40 °C) have been investigated using a "rolling ball" viscometer and a texture analyser respectively. Both the intrinsic visco...

  10. Application of enzymes for efficient extraction, modification, and development of functional properties of lime pectin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dominiak, Malgorzata Maria; Marie Søndergaard, Karen; Wichmann, Jesper;

    2014-01-01

    at higher temperatures. The Laminex CK2 extracted pectin polymers were not sensitive to the presence of Ca2+ ions, they formed a gel at low pH in the presence of sugar and were able to stabilize acidified milk drinks. Further modification by enzymatic de-esterification of the pectin extracted with...... Laminex C2K improved its calcium sensitivity and ability to stabilize acidified milk drinks. The present study demonstrates that it is possible to substitute classical acid-based extraction by enzymatic catalysis and obtain pectin products with desirable functional properties....

  11. Application of Ionic Liquids in the Microwave-Assisted Extraction of Pectin from Lemon Peels

    OpenAIRE

    Huang Guolin; Shi Jeffrey; Zhang Kai; Huang Xiaolan

    2012-01-01

    Microwave-assisted extraction of pectin from lemon peels by using ionic liquid as alternative solvent was investigated. The extracted pectin was detected by Fourier transform infrared spectra. The extraction conditions were optimized through the different experiments in conjunction with the response surface methodology. A pectin yield of 24.68 % was obtained under the optimal parameters: the extraction temperature of 88°C, the extraction time of 9.6 min, and a liquid-solid ratio of 22.7 ml · ...

  12. CaSO4 and cationic polyelectrolyte as possible pectin precipitants in sugar beet juice clarification

    OpenAIRE

    Kuljanin Tatjana; Lončar Biljana; Pezo Lato; Nićetin Milica; Knežević Violeta; Jevtić-Mučibabić Rada

    2015-01-01

    Three pectin preparations were isolated from fresh sugar beet pulp during the 150 minutes of extraction, at pH values of 1, 3.5 and 8.5. CaSO4 precipitant was added to 100 cm3 of 0.1% (wt) solution of pectin. Studies were performed with 9 different concentrations of CaSO4 solution (50-450 mg dm-3) with the addition of a cationic polyelectrolyte (cationic PAM) in concentrations of 3 and 5 mg dm-3. The efficiency of pectin precipitation was monitored by measu...

  13. Influence of pectin on radiation changes in free radical and antioxidant system in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To study the influence of apple and orange pectin on the metabolic processes, free radical oxidation and antioxidant systems state in rats exposed to the dose of 1 Gy of external gamma-irradiation. Favourable effect of the investigated pectins on the proteins, enzyme activity, peroxide-resistant erythrocytes as well as induced activity of blood serum peroxidation processes in the blood serum and liver of the exposed animals was established. Apple pectin influenced more effectively the blood globulins whereas orange one-enzyme activity, anti peroxide and antioxidant state of the organism

  14. FORMULATION AND OPTIMIZATION OF SUSTAINED RELEASE MATRIX TABLETS OF DICLOFENAC SODIUM USING PECTIN AS RELEASE MODIFIER

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma Pramod Kumar; Malviya Rishabha; Srivastava Pranati; Bansal Mayank

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: In the present investigation, an attempt was made to increase therapeutic effectiveness, reduction in dosing frequency and thus improving patient compliance, by developing sustained release matrix tablets of Diclofenac sodium using pectin as release modifier. Method: Six batches of sustained release matrix tablets of Diclofenac sodium were prepared by using different drug: polymer ratios viz. 1:1, 1:1.5, 1:2, 1:2.5, 1:3, and 1:3.5 for pectin. Pectin was used as matrix forming mat...

  15. Rheological properties and the mechanism of a viscous flow of aqueous pectin solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netesova, G. A.; Kotov, V. V.; Bodyakina, I. M.; Lukin, A. L.

    2012-09-01

    The rheological properties and mechanisms of a viscous flow of diluted apple pectin solutions are investigated. It is found that the rise in solution viscosity upon an increase in concentration and a drop in temperature is, along with the corresponding degree to which the interaction between pectin molecules and solvent is reduced, associated with the processes of structuring. The entropy of a viscous flow of pectin solutions is found to be positive: it grows with a rise in concentration is virtually temperature independent. It is established that the entropy factor makes the main contribution to the free energy value of a viscous flow.

  16. Effects of Low-Ester Pectin on Wheat Dough's Physical Properties Detected by Rheological Method

    OpenAIRE

    Peilong Xu; Na Na; Qing Lin

    2013-01-01

    The study examined the influence of low-ester pectin on the rheological property of wheat dough through capillary rheological method. The experimental results showed that the more the content of low-ester pectin in wheat dough, the less viscosity of the dough, meanwhile, the higher of the dough strength, the weaker the maximum drawing force endured by the dough. Therefore, the content of low-ester pectin had a direct impact on gluten index of the dough, namely, the stability and stirring resi...

  17. Fat reduction in the formulation of frankfurter sausages using inulin and pectin

    OpenAIRE

    Gerardo Méndez-Zamora; José Arturo García-Macías; Eduardo Santellano-Estrada; América Chávez-Martínez; Lorenzo Antonio Durán-Meléndez; Ramón Silva-Vázquez; Armando Quintero-Ramos

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of different concentrations of inulin and pectin as fat substitutes on the chemical composition, texture, and sensory acceptance of frankfurter sausages. Six treatments were evaluated to test fat replacement: control (T0); low fat control (T1); low fat with 15% inulin (T2); low fat with 30% inulin (T3); low fat with 7.5% inulin and 7.5% pectin (T4); and low fat with 15% inulin and 15% pectin (T5). The addition of fibers increased the yield (...

  18. Changes in functional properties of sugar beet and citrus pectins by irradiation with electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Changes in functional properties of pectin extracted from sugar beet or citrus peel by electron beam in solid state or aqueous solution were investigated. Citrus pectin (CP) was degraded at both solid state and aqueous solution by irradiation with electron beam. Sugar beet pectin (SBP) was degraded at solid state but in aqueous solution at high concentrate was polymerized by irradiation with electron beam. SBP polymerized by electron beam formed hydrogel. This hydrophilic polymer was useful as water absorbent. Moreover, it was confirmed that the emulsification stability and acidified milk beverage stabilization of SBP was enhanced by electron beam. (author)

  19. The minimal gene set member msrA, encoding peptide methionine sulfoxide reductase, is a virulence determinant of the plant pathogen Erwinia chrysanthemi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassouni, M E; Chambost, J P; Expert, D; Van Gijsegem, F; Barras, F

    1999-02-01

    Peptide methionine sulfoxide reductase (MsrA), which repairs oxidized proteins, is present in most living organisms, and the cognate structural gene belongs to the so-called minimum gene set [Mushegian, A. R. & Koonin, E. V., (1996) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 93, 10268-10273]. In this work, we report that MsrA is required for full virulence of the plant pathogen Erwinia chrysanthemi. The following differences were observed between the wild-type and a MsrA- mutant: (i) the MsrA- mutant was more sensitive to oxidative stress; (ii) the MsrA- mutant was less motile on solid surface; (iii) the MsrA- mutant exhibited reduced virulence on chicory leaves; and (iv) no systemic invasion was observed when the MsrA- mutant was inoculated into whole Saintpaulia ionantha plants. These results suggest that plants respond to virulent pathogens by producing active oxygen species, and that enzymes repairing oxidative damage allow virulent pathogens to survive the host environment, thereby supporting the theory that active oxygen species play a key role in plant defense. PMID:9927663

  20. Simultaneous ingestion of high-methoxy pectin from apple can enhance absorption of quercetin in human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishijima, Tomohiko; Takida, Yoshiki; Saito, Yasuo; Ikeda, Takayuki; Iwai, Kunihisa

    2015-05-28

    Chronic ingestion of apple pectin has been shown to increase the absorption of quercetin in rats. The present study was designed to elucidate whether the simultaneous ingestion of quercetin with apple pectin could enhance the absorption of quercetin in humans, and the effects of dose dependency and degree of pectin methylation on quercetin absorption were also investigated. Healthy volunteers (n 19) received 200 ml of 0.5 mg/ml of quercetin drinks with or without 10 mg/ml of pectin each in a randomised cross-over design study with over 1-week intervals; urine samples from all the subjects were collected within 24 h after ingestion of the test drinks, and urinary deconjugated quercetin and its metabolites were determined using HPLC. The sum of urinary quercetin and its metabolites excreted was increased by 2.5-fold by the simultaneous ingestion of pectin. The metabolism of methylated quercetin (isorhamnetin and tamarixetin) was not affected by pectin ingestion. In six volunteers, who received quercetin drinks containing 0, 3 and 10 mg/ml of pectin, the sum of urinary quercetin and its metabolites excreted also increased in a pectin dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, the simultaneous ingestion of quercetin with low-methoxy and high-methoxy pectin, respectively, increased the sum of urinary excretion of quercetin and its metabolites by 1.69-fold and significantly by 2.13-fold compared with the ingestion of quercetin without pectin. These results elucidated that apple pectin immediately enhanced quercetin absorption in human subjects, and that its enhancing effect was dependent on the dose and degree of pectin methylation. The results also suggested that the viscosity of pectin may play a role in the enhancement of quercetin absorption. PMID:25865751

  1. Effect of dietary pectin on iron absorption and turnover in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of dietary pectin on iron absorption and retention was studied in rats. Basal diet with low and normal iron levels were fed with and without addition of 2% citrus pectin. After 40 days rats were fasted for 24 hours and were given 59Fe in dilute HCl with or without 2% pectin by gavage. Whole-body counting techniques were employed to monitor 59Fe absorption and turnover. Rats maintained on low iron diet absorbed and retained a much higher proportion of 59Fe than rats maintained on normal level of iron. Dietary pectin at the level fed in this study had no influence on iron uptake and/or turnover in rats

  2. Spatial frequency behavior of holograms made with pectin and oxidizing agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordóñez-Padilla, M. J.; Olivares-Pérez, A.; Grijalva-Ortiz, N.; Fuentes-Tapia, I.

    2013-03-01

    Preparation of holographic gratings using photosensitive films pectin-H2O-oxidizing agent exposed to a He-Cd laser, wavelength of 442nm. For the photo-oxidation, we used two agents: ammonium dichromate and iron ammonium citrate. Parallel studies performed experimental variation of angles between overlapping beams that generate the interference pattern, generating different spatial frequencies in the holographic gratings. Were prepared from pectin-water-ammonium dichromate and pectin-water-ammoniacal iron citrate. Results module of the transfer function (MTF) of the materials used, to determine the diffraction efficiencies as a function of the spatial frequency (line/mm) of each holographic gratings, which were prepared with different pectin and oxidizing agents. We made an experimental analysis of the MTF, comparing each of the films with different photosensitizers applied.

  3. Pectin functionalised by fatty acids: Diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform (DRIFT) spectroscopic characterisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamnev, Alexander A.; Calce, Enrica; Tarantilis, Petros A.; Tugarova, Anna V.; De Luca, Stefania

    2015-01-01

    Chemically modified pectin derivatives obtained by partial esterification of its hydroxyl moieties with fatty acids (FA; oleic, linoleic and palmitic acids), as well as the initial apple peel pectin were comparatively characterised using diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform (DRIFT) spectroscopy. Characteristic changes observed in DRIFT spectra in going from pectin to its FA esters are related to the corresponding chemical modifications. Comparing the DRIFT spectra with some reported data on FTIR spectra of the same materials measured in KBr or NaCl matrices has revealed noticeable shifts of several polar functional groups both in pectin and in its FA-esterified products induced by the halide salts. The results obtained have implications for careful structural analyses of biopolymers with hydrophilic functional groups by means of different FTIR spectroscopic methodologies.

  4. Study on swelling behaviour of hydrogel based on acrylic acid and pectin from dragon fruit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Mohd Fadzlanor; Lazim, Azwani Mat

    2014-09-01

    Biocompatible hydrogel based on acrylic acid (AA) and pectin was synthesized using gamma irradiation technique. AA was grafted onto pectin backbone that was extracted from dragon fruit under pH 3.5 and extracts and ethanol ratios (ER) 1:0.5. The optimum hydrogel system with high swelling capacity was obtained by varying the dose of radiation and ratio of pectin:AA. FTIR-ATR spectroscopy was used to verify the interaction while thermal properties were analyzed by TGA and DSC. Swelling studies was carried out in aqueous solutions with different pH values as to determine the pH sensitivity. The results show that the hydrogel with a ratio of 2:3 (pectin:AA) and 30 kGy radiation dose has the highest swelling properties at pH of 10.

  5. Mechanistic aspects of the nucleophilic substitution of pectin. On the formation of chloromethane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sailaukhanuly, Yerbolat; Sárossy, Zsuzsa; Carlsen, Lars;

    2014-01-01

    Chloromethane, accounting for approximately 16% of the tropospheric chlorine, is mainly coming from natural sources. However anthropogenic activities, such as combustion of biomass may contribute significantly as well. The present study focuses on the thermal solid state reaction between pectin, an...... important constituent of biomass, and chloride ions as found in alkali metal chlorides. The formation of chloromethane is evident with the amount formed being linear with respect to chloride if pectin is in great excess. Thus the reaction is explained as a pseudo first order SN2 reaction between the...... chloride ion and the methyl ester moiety in pectin. It is suggested that the polymeric nature of pectin plays an active role by an enhanced transport of halides along the carbohydrate chain. Optimal reaction temperature is around 210 °C. At higher temperatures the yield of chloromethane decreases due to a...

  6. Application of Celluclast 1.5L in apple pectin extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wikiera, Agnieszka; Mika, Magdalena; Starzyńska-Janiszewska, Anna; Stodolak, Bożena

    2015-12-10

    Pectins were extracted from apple pomace with Celluclast 1.5L at a dose of 25, 50 and 75 μl per 1g of material. In obtained pectin, the galacturonic acid (GalA) content, the neutral sugars (NS) profile, the degree of methylation (DM) and acetylation (DAc), the molecular mass, protein, ash and polyphenol levels as well as antioxidant and antitumor activity were determined. The lowest dose of enzymatic preparation resulted in the yield of pectin isolation comparable with acidic treatment (15.3%). Application of higher dose caused further, almost 4% increase in polymer recovery. Enzymatically isolated pectin was characterised by larger molecular mass and contained more GalA of higher DM and DAc than polymer extracted with acid. It was also richer in protein and polyphenols, and had different NS profile, which resulted in higher antiradical activity as well as the ability to inhibit the proliferation and invasion of Caco-2 adenocarcinoma cells. PMID:26428122

  7. Standard triple, bismuth pectin quadruple and sequential therapies for Helicobacter pylori eradication

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Xiao-Zhong; Qiao, Xiu-li; Song, Wen-chong; Wang, Xiao-Feng; Liu, Feng

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To compare the effectiveness of standard triple, bismuth pectin quadruple and sequential therapies for Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) eradication in a randomized, double-blinded, comparative clinical trial in China.

  8. Pomegranate peel pectin films as affected by montmorillonite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Túlio Ítalo S; Zea-Redondo, Luna; Moates, Graham K; Wellner, Nikolaus; Cross, Kathryn; Waldron, Keith W; Azeredo, Henriette M C

    2016-05-01

    The industrial production of pomegranate juice has been favored by its alleged health benefits derived from its antioxidant properties. The processing of pomegranate juice involves squeezing juice from the fruit with the seeds and the peels together, leaving a pomace consisting of approximately 73 wt% peels. In this study, pectin was extracted from pomegranate peels, and used to produce films with different contents of montmorillonite (MMT) as a nanoreinforcement material. The nanoreinforcement improved the tensile strength and modulus of films when added at up to 6 wt%, while the further addition of MMT (to 8 wt%) reduced the reinforcement effect, probably because of dispersion problems. The elongation was decreased with increasing MMT concentrations. The water vapor permeability decreased with increasing MMT contents up to 8 wt% MMT, indicating that the increased tortuosity of the permeant path was effective on barrier properties of the film. PMID:26769511

  9. Study of nanocomposites based on iron oxides and pectin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mössbauer and X-ray diffraction study of nanocomposites based on iron oxides and pectin (PC) was carried out involving magnetization measurements. The concentrations of PC in nanocomposites varied from 0 to 10%. Mössbauer investigations of nanocomposites were carried out in the temperature range from 5 to 300 K. Many-state superparamagnetic relaxation model was used for spectra fitting. The magnetization, M(T,H), was measured in the temperature interval of 80-300 K and magnetic field up to 10 kOe. Formation of the 'iron-polymer' interface was not observed. Particle sizes were estimated using the Mössbauer and X-ray powder diffraction data

  10. Study of nanocomposites based on iron oxides and pectin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chistyakova, Nataliya I.; Shapkin, Alexey A.; Sirazhdinov, Ruslan R.; Gubaidulina, Tatiana V.; Kiseleva, Tatiana Yu.; Kazakov, Alexander P.; Rusakov, Vyacheslav S.

    2014-10-01

    Mössbauer and X-ray diffraction study of nanocomposites based on iron oxides and pectin (PC) was carried out involving magnetization measurements. The concentrations of PC in nanocomposites varied from 0 to 10%. Mössbauer investigations of nanocomposites were carried out in the temperature range from 5 to 300 K. Many-state superparamagnetic relaxation model was used for spectra fitting. The magnetization, M(T,H), was measured in the temperature interval of 80-300 K and magnetic field up to 10 kOe. Formation of the "iron-polymer" interface was not observed. Particle sizes were estimated using the Mössbauer and X-ray powder diffraction data.

  11. Study of nanocomposites based on iron oxides and pectin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chistyakova, Nataliya I., E-mail: nchistyakova@yandex.ru; Shapkin, Alexey A., E-mail: nchistyakova@yandex.ru; Sirazhdinov, Ruslan R., E-mail: nchistyakova@yandex.ru; Gubaidulina, Tatiana V., E-mail: nchistyakova@yandex.ru; Kiseleva, Tatiana Yu., E-mail: nchistyakova@yandex.ru; Kazakov, Alexander P., E-mail: nchistyakova@yandex.ru; Rusakov, Vyacheslav S., E-mail: nchistyakova@yandex.ru [M. V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Faculty of Physics, Leninskie gory, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2014-10-27

    Mössbauer and X-ray diffraction study of nanocomposites based on iron oxides and pectin (PC) was carried out involving magnetization measurements. The concentrations of PC in nanocomposites varied from 0 to 10%. Mössbauer investigations of nanocomposites were carried out in the temperature range from 5 to 300 K. Many-state superparamagnetic relaxation model was used for spectra fitting. The magnetization, M(T,H), was measured in the temperature interval of 80-300 K and magnetic field up to 10 kOe. Formation of the 'iron-polymer' interface was not observed. Particle sizes were estimated using the Mössbauer and X-ray powder diffraction data.

  12. Enzymatic gelation of sugar beet pectin in food products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergsøe, Merete Norsker; Jensen, Mette; Adler-Nissen, Jens

    2000-01-01

    chopped heat-treated meat emulsion. The addition of salt resulted in softer, less stiff and chewy, and less adhesive gels. Generally speaking, sugar addition increased the hardness but at high concentration the gels were very brittle. However, Young's modulus was lower in gels containing sugar than in...... standard gels. Protein reduced the hardness, stiffness and chewiness of the gels whereas there were some variation in the effect of protein on the adhesiveness of the gels. Sugar beet pectin in black currant juice formed a gel and a gelation also took place in milk. In luncheon meat a cohesive gel was...... formed which bound the meat pieces together thereby making the product sliceable. However, in two of the food products some unwanted side effects were observed. The enzymes did not only catalyse the cross-linking, but also oxidised the anthocyanins in the black currant juice and short chained fatty acids...

  13. Screening and optimization of pectin lyase and polygalacturonase activity from ginseng pathogen Cylindrocarpon Destructans

    OpenAIRE

    Gayathri Sathiyaraj; Sathiyaraj Srinivasan; Ho-Bin Kim; Sathiyamoorthy Subramaniyam; Ok Ran Lee; Yeon-Ju Kim; Deok Chun Yang

    2011-01-01

    Cylindrocarpon destructans isolated from ginseng field was found to produce pectinolytic enzymes. A Taguchi's orthogonal array experimental design was applied to optimize the preliminary production of polygalacturonase (PG) and pectin lyase (PL) using submerged culture condition. This method was applied to evaluate the significant parameters for the production of enzymes. The process variables were pH, pectin concentration, incubation time and temperature. Optimization of process parameters r...

  14. Screening and optimization of pectin lyase and polygalacturonase activity from ginseng pathogen Cylindrocarpon Destructans

    OpenAIRE

    Sathiyaraj, Gayathri; Srinivasan, Sathiyaraj; Kim, Ho-Bin; Subramaniyam, Sathiyamoorthy; Lee, Ok Ran; Kim, Yeon-Ju; Yang, Deok Chun

    2011-01-01

    Cylindrocarpon destructans isolated from ginseng field was found to produce pectinolytic enzymes. A Taguchi’s orthogonal array experimental design was applied to optimize the preliminary production of polygalacturonase (PG) and pectin lyase (PL) using submerged culture condition. This method was applied to evaluate the significant parameters for the production of enzymes. The process variables were pH, pectin concentration, incubation time and temperature. Optimization of process parameters r...

  15. Microbial Utilization and Selectivity of Pectin Fractions with Various Structures ▿

    OpenAIRE

    Onumpai, Chatchaya; Kolida, Sofia; Bonnin, Estelle; Rastall, Robert A.

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the fermentation properties of oligosaccharides derived from pectins and their parent polysaccharides, a 5-ml-working-volume, pH- and temperature-controlled fermentor was tested. Six pectic oligosaccharides representing specific substructures found within pectins were prepared. These consisted of oligogalacturonides (average degrees of polymerization [DP] of 5 and 9), methylated oligogalacturonides (average DP of 5), oligorhamnogalacturonides (average DP of 10 as a disaccharide un...

  16. Study of moisture structurization and binding form changes in pectin gels by differential scanning calorimetry

    OpenAIRE

    Крапивницька, Ірина Олексіївна; Потапов, Володимир Олексійович; Гурський, Петро Васильович; Перцевой, Федір Всеволодович

    2015-01-01

    During thermal cycling, changes in the structure and moisture-holding capacity of the samples of pectin gels with different formulations were investigated using differential scanning calorimetry by their cyclic heating and freezing.The fact that pectin gels are used for a wide variety of foods and semi-finished products, subjected to heat treatment in a wide temperature range from positive to negative was also taken into account during thermal cycling.The influence of the main formula compone...

  17. Physicochemical characterization of protein-loaded pectin-chitosan nanoparticles prepared by polyelectrolyte complexation

    OpenAIRE

    Ahlin Grabnar, Pegi; Kristl, Julijana

    2015-01-01

    Recent advances in nanotechnology applied to proteins are directed towards safer and simpler methods of preparation, using naturally occurring polymers such as alginate, pectin and chitosan. In this study, pectin-chitosan nanoparticles (NPs) were designed by the mild process of polyelectrolyte complexation, which occurs at room temperature without using sonication or organic solvents. NPs with a mean diameter between 300 and 400 nm and 45 to 86% protein association efficiency were obtained by...

  18. Anti-cancer activities of pH- or heat-modified pectin

    OpenAIRE

    Leclere, Lionel; Van Cutsem, Pierre; Michiels, Carine

    2013-01-01

    Despite enormous efforts that have been made in the search for novel drugs and treatments, cancer continues to be a major public health problem. Moreover, the emergence of resistance to cancer chemotherapy often prevents complete remission. Researchers have thus turned to natural products mainly from plant origin to circumvent resistance. Pectin and pH- or heat-modified pectin have demonstrated chemopreventive and antitumoral activities against some aggressive and recurrent cancers. The focus...

  19. Pectin-Lipid Self-Assembly: Influence on the Formation of Polyhydroxy Fatty Acids Nanoparticles

    OpenAIRE

    Guzmán-Puyol, Susana; Benítez, José J.; Domínguez, Eva; Bayer, Illker S.; Cingolani, Roberto; Athanassiou, Athanassia; Heredia, Antonio; Heredia-Guerrero, José A.

    2015-01-01

    Nanoparticles, named cutinsomes, have been prepared from aleuritic (9,10,16- trihidroxipalmitic) acid and tomato fruit cutin monomers (a mixture of mainly 9(10),16- dihydroxypalmitic acid (85%, w/w) and 16-hydroxyhexadecanoic acid (7.5%, w/w)) with pectin in aqueous solution. The process of formation of the nanoparticles of aleuritic acid plus pectin has been monitored by UV-Vis spectrophotometry, while their chemical and morphological characterization was analyzed by ATR-FTIR,...

  20. Encapsulated Escherichia coli in alginate beads capable of secreting a heterologous pectin lyase

    OpenAIRE

    Trikka Fotini A; Chaitidou Sotiria A; Papi Rigini M; Kyriakidis Dimitrios A

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Production of heterologous proteins in the E. coli periplasm, or into the extracellular fluid has many advantages; therefore naturally occurring signal peptides are selected for proteins translocation. The aim of this study was the production in high yields of a recombinant pectin lyase that is efficiently secreted and the encapsulation of transformed E. coli cells for pectin degradation in a biotechnological process. Results The nucleotide sequence of Bacillus subtilis α-...

  1. Piroxicam release kinetics from emulsion microcapsules of low methylated pectin and whey lactoglobulin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study describes release kinetics of piroxicam as model drug from developed two different low methylated-pectins and concentrate of lactoglobulin in condition mimicking gastrointestinal tract. It is shows that the drug release tailored from low methylated-sunflower pectin exhibit zero order kinetics in the condition of intestinal. The results demonstrate effectiveness of microcapsules system as sustained delivery system able to prolong drug release, which may reduce drug dose and its side effect. (author)

  2. Microbiology of Wetwood: Importance of Pectin Degradation and Clostridium Species in Living Trees

    OpenAIRE

    Schink, Bernhard; James C. Ward; Zeikus, J. Gregory

    1981-01-01

    Wetwood samples from standing trees of eastern cottonwood (Populus deltoides), black poplar (Populus nigra), and American elm (Ulmus americana) contained high numbers of aerobic and anaerobic pectin-degrading bacteria (104 to 106 cells per g of wood). High activity of polygalacturonate lyase (≤0.5 U/ml) was also detected in the fetid liquid that spurted from wetwood zones in the lower trunk when the trees were bored. A prevalent pectin-degrading obligately anaerobic bacterium isolated from th...

  3. Pectin-enriched Material from Mandarin Orange Byproducts as a Potential Fat Replacer in Cookies

    OpenAIRE

    Agus Prihatin; Chen Shiguo; Ye Xingqian

    2015-01-01

    The production of mandarin orange canned on an industrial level leads to a considerable quantity of residue, which is still considered as waste or used as a complement in agriculture. In general, mandarin orange byproducts have no economic value, even though their composition is rich in soluble sugars, cellulose, hemicellulose, pectin and essential oils that could form the basis of several industrial processes. The purpose of this study was to characterize pectin from byproducts and to study ...

  4. PECTIN MICROGELS CONTAINING SYNTHETIC POLYMERS BASED ON NANOCAPSULES FOR THE CONTROLLED RELEASE OF INDOMETHACIN

    OpenAIRE

    Mihaela HOLBAN; Folescu, Elena; Liliana SACHELARIE; Paula MERLUȘCĂ; Adina Simona ROTARU(BÎRGĂOANU); Mihaela VASILIU; Laura DÂRȚU

    2015-01-01

    Nanocapsule-based Eudragit RS100 and Eudragit E100 containing indomethacin have been prepared. The nanosuspensions have been included into pectin microgels of different polysaccharide concentrations, 28-61 µm-ranged polymer microgels with size and size polydispersity highly depending on the pectin amount being thus obtained. Study of the drug release revealed that indomethacin was released at a slower and more controlled rate from the microgels containing nanocapsules than from the empty pect...

  5. Extrusion/spheronization of pectin-based formulations. I. Screening of important factors

    OpenAIRE

    Tho, Ingunn; Kleinebudde, Peter; Sande, Sverre Arne

    2001-01-01

    This study investigated the possibility of producing pectin-based pellets by extrusion/spheronization. The study also identified factors influencing the process and the characteristics of the resulting product. Three types of pectin with different degrees of amid and methoxyl substitution were studied in combination with different granulation liquids (water, calcium chloride, citric acid, and ethanol) and/or microcrystalline cellulose. Pellets were prepared in a power-consumption-controlled, ...

  6. Detoxical aspects of nutritional therapy using natural enterosorbents on the basis of pectins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena E. Tekutskaya

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The rate of anthropogenic pollution and reduction of the environmental quality progress quicker than adaptive possibilities of an organism. This causes pre-pathological and pathological changes. So there is a necessity of preventive measures organization to eliminate toxic load and accelerated eliminating of xenobiotics from an organism. The discoveries of the recent 15 years had been revealed the possibility to change complexons (which are used for detoxication to dietary fibers, pectin as well. Meanwhile pectin substances are not widely used in clinical practice, and their efficiency comparing with small concentrations of cumulating poisons had not been studied yet. During the development of the detoxification nutritional therapy at patients with different pathology of the digestive system organs (with the revealed heavy metals and organochlorine pesticides there had been organized tests of pectin efficiency (citrus and apple for reducing the contamination with these xenobiotics. After the course of pectin treatment there had been fixed not only the reduce of toxic heavy metals, but essential microelements as well, which is connected with nonselective complexing capability of pectin substances. The probe tests also showed that course of citrus pectin treatment favored total excretion of organochlorine pesticides at 11.0% of patients, at other patients pesticide level reduced up to minimal rate (revealed by gas chromatographic method 0.0001 mg/dm³. There is a significant difference of values before and after pectin treatment. At the same time at patients who had not taken enterosorbent (compare group the level of organochlorine pesticides after repeated tests stayed on the level close to the basic. There had been discussed mechanism of excretion of organochlorine pesticides and heavy metals with the help of pectins.

  7. Ascorbic acid and pectin in different sizes and parts of citric fruits

    OpenAIRE

    Larissa Akemi Ywassaki; Solange Guidolin Canniatti-Brazaca

    2011-01-01

    Citric fruits - in natura, as frozen pulp or even as juice - are one of the most important Brazilian exportation products. They are a source of ascorbic acid - a potent antioxidant, and pectin, which is used in the food industry and is an important dietary fiber. This project aims to quantify ascorbic acid and pectin contents in citric fruits, commercial oranges and tangerines, comparing them in sizes and varieties. Ascorbic acid amount was measured in juice comparing sizes, varieties and sto...

  8. Properties of cellulose/pectins composites: implication for structural and mechanical properties of cell wall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agoda-Tandjawa, G; Durand, S; Gaillard, C; Garnier, C; Doublier, J L

    2012-10-01

    The primary cell wall of dicotyledonous plants can be considered as a concentrated polymer assembly, containing in particular polysaccharides among which cellulose and pectins are known to be the major components. In order to understand and control the textural quality of plant-derived foods, it is highly important to elucidate the rheological and microstructural properties of these components, individually and in mixture, in order to define their implication for structural and mechanical properties of primary plant cell wall. In this study, the rheological and microstructural properties of model systems composed of sugar-beet microfibrillated cellulose and HM pectins from various sources, with varied degrees of methylation and containing different amounts of neutral sugar side chains, were investigated. The influence of the presence of calcium and/or sodium ions and the biopolymer concentrations on the properties of the mixed systems were also studied. The characterizations of the mixed system, considered as a simplified model of primary plant cell wall, showed that whatever the structural characteristics of the pectins, the ionic conditions of the medium and the biopolymer concentrations, the gelation of the composite was mainly controlled by cellulose. Thus, the cellulose network would be the principal component governing the mechanical properties of the cell walls. However, the neutral sugar side chains of the pectins seem to play a part in the interactions with cellulose, as shown by the interesting viscoelastic properties of cellulose/apple HM pectins systems. The rigidity of cellulose/pectins composite was strongly influenced by the structural characteristics of pectins. The particular properties of primary plant cell walls would thus result from the solid viscoelastic properties of cellulose, its interactions with pectins according to their structural characteristics (implication of the neutral sugar side chains and the specific potential calcic

  9. Contribution of the pectin in the cesium elimination in organism. results of analysis on Belarus children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results make appear that the cesium 137 would be eliminated less quick than what the ICRP considered for its models. Pectin would accelerate the cesium elimination but less quick than what is announced by its promotors. Politically speaking, the pectin is ignored by the officials of medicine and radiation protection at the pretext that its efficiency is not proved but no study is made. (N.C.)

  10. Eudragit S100 Coated Citrus Pectin Nanoparticles for Colon Targeting of 5-Fluorouracil

    OpenAIRE

    M. Biswaranjan Subudhi; Ankit Jain; Ashish Jain; Pooja Hurkat; Satish Shilpi; Arvind Gulbake; Jain, Sanjay K.

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, Eudragit S100 coated Citrus Pectin Nanoparticles (E-CPNs) were prepared for the colon targeting of 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU). Citrus pectin also acts as a ligand for galectin-3 receptors that are over expressed on colorectal cancer cells. Nanoparticles (CPNs and E-CPNs) were characterized for various physical parameters such as particle size, size distribution, and shape etc. In vitro drug release studies revealed selective drug release in the colonic region in the case of ...

  11. Enhanced In Vitro Skin Deposition Properties of Retinyl Palmitate through Its Stabilization by Pectin

    OpenAIRE

    Suh, Dong-Churl; Kim, Yeongseok; Kim, Hyeongmin; Ro, Jieun; Cho, Seong-Wan; Yun, Gyiae; Choi, Sung-Up; Lee, Jaehwi

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of stabilization of retinyl palmitate (RP) on its skin permeation and distribution profiles. Skin permeation and distribution study were performed using Franz diffusion cells along with rat dorsal skin, and the effect of drug concentration and the addition of pectin on skin deposition profiles of RP was observed. The skin distribution of RP increased in a concentration dependent manner and the formulations containing 0.5 and 1 mg of pectin d...

  12. Yield of albedo flour and pectin content in the rind of yellow passion fruit

    OpenAIRE

    Eliana Monteiro Soares de Oliveira; Eder Dutra de Resende

    2012-01-01

    In this study, it was evaluated the influence of different shapes, sizes, and maturation stages on the yield of albedo flour and pectin content of yellow passion fruit rinds. Random samples of 40 fruits were used, and the data were compared using significance intervals at 5%. Weight, skin color, fruit size and shape, pulp yield, mesocarp thickness, amount of epicarp and mesocarp, moisture content, and pectin yield were determined. The maturation stages were defined according to measurements o...

  13. The Analysis of Saccharides in Chrysanthemi Flos by Capillary Electrophoresis-Amperometric Detection%菊花中糖类组分的毛细管电泳——安培检测研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱金坤; 姚孝林; 郑胜彪; 唐婧

    2012-01-01

    本文采用毛细管区带电泳-安培检测法(CZE-AD),研究了四类菊花中的常见单糖及蔗糖的分离、检测方法。在选定的实验条件下,可在20分钟内实现对葡萄糖、果糖、半乳糖、蔗糖的有效分离;待测糖类在铜电极上具有良好的电流响应、检测灵敏度(LOD:~1.0×10-6mol/L)及适宜的线性范围(5.0×10-6~5.0×10-4mol/L)。实验对滁菊、杭黄菊、贡菊、亳菊中的糖类组分进行了CZE-AD分离检测,方法具有良好的重现性及应用前景。检测结果表明,四类菊花中常见糖类组分的含量差异较大,可为相关植物资源的开发利用提供参考;检测方法简单、快速、有效,可用于菊花中常见糖类成分的测定及质量控制。%In this paper,the determination of normal saccharides in four kinds of Chrysanthemi Flos was investigated with capillary zone electrophoresis-amperometric detection method(CZE-AD).Under the optimized conditions,glucose,fructose,galactose and sucrose could be separated in 20 min.These analyzed saccharides gained excellent current response,detection limits(LOD): ~1.0×10-6mol/L and adequate linear ranges(5.0×10-6~5.0×10-4mol/L).The saccharides in four kinds of Chrysanthemi Flos(Chu-Ju,Hanghuang-Ju,Gong-Ju,Bo-Ju) were analyzed,and the results indicated good reproducibility and applicability of this proposed CZE-AD method.It could be found that the concerns of saccharides varied from one kind of Chrysanthemi Flos to another,and the detection data would provide reference to exploit the corresponding plant resources efficiently.This proposed detection method was simple,quick and effective with potential application in the analysis of saccharides for quality control of Chrysanthemi Flos.

  14. Water-Soluble and Biodegradable Pectin-Grafted Polyacrylamide and Pectin-Grafted Polyacrylic Acid: Electrochemical Investigation of Corrosion-Inhibition Behaviour on Mild Steel in 3.5% NaCl Media

    OpenAIRE

    R. Geethanjali; A. Ali Fathima Sabirneeza; S. Subhashini

    2014-01-01

    Pectin-g-polyacrylamide (denoted as Pec-g-PAAm) and pectin-g-polyacrylic acid (denoted as Pec-g-PAA) were synthesized using pectin, acrylamide, and acrylic acid as starting materials. The grafted polymers were characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetric analyser (TGA), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The corrosion inhibition behaviour of the grafted polymers on mild steel in 3.5% NaCl was evaluated electrochemically through Tafel polarization ...

  15. Viscous-flow properties and viscosity-average molecular mass of orange peel pectin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周尽花; 吴宇雄; 沈志强

    2008-01-01

    The viscous-flow properties of pectin from the residue of orange peel after extraction of essential oil and flavonoid were studied and the viscosity-average molecular mass(Mv,ave) of this kind of pectin was determined.Experimental results show that Arrhenius viscous-flow equation can be applied to describing the effect of temperature on viscosity of this kind of orange peel pectin solutions with the average viscous-flow activation energy being 17.91 kJ/mol(depending on the concentration).Neither power equation,η =K1 cA1,nor exponential equation,η=K2exp(A2c) can describe the effect of concentration on viscosity of this kind of orange peel pectin solutions well.However,it seems that exponential equation model is more suitable to describe their relation due to its higher linear correlation coefficient.Schulz-Blaschke equation can be used to calculate the intrinsic viscosity of this kind of orange peel pectin.The Mv,ave of the orange peel pectin is 1.65×105 g/mol.

  16. Influence of protein-pectin electrostatic interaction on the foam stability mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadahira, Mitie S; Lopes, Fernanda C Rezende; Rodrigues, Maria I; Netto, Flavia M

    2014-03-15

    This study aimed at evaluating the effect of three independent variables: biopolymer concentration (egg white proteins and pectin) (2.0-4.0%, w/w); protein:pectin ratio (15:1-55:1); and temperature (70-80 °C), at pH 3.0, using a central composite design on the foaming properties (overrun, drainage and bubble growth rate). Foams produced with protein:pectin ratio 15:1 showed the lowest bubble growth rate and the greatest drainage, whereas protein:pectin ratio 55:1 presented the lowest drainage. Complexes obtained with protein:pectin ratio 15:1 were close to electroneutrality and showed larger size (95.91 ± 8.19 μm) than those obtained with protein:pectin ratio 55:1 (45.92 ± 3.47 μm) not electrically neutral. Larger particles seemed to build an interfacial viscoelastic network at the air-water interface with reduced gas permeability, leading to greater stability concerning the disproportionation. Soluble complexes of smaller sizes increased viscosity leading to a low drainage of liquid and inhibiting the bubbles coalescence. PMID:24528700

  17. Pectin isolated from prickly pear (Opuntia SSP) modifies LDL metabolism in cholesterol-fed guinea pigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of dietary pectin on plasma and hepatic cholesterol (CH) levels, plasma lipoprotein profiles, hepatic 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl Coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase activity, and low density lipoprotein (LDL) binding to hepatic membranes were investigated by feeding 1% pectin to guinea pigs on a high CH diet. Animals were fed either chow + 0.25% CH (HC diet) or the CH diet + 1% prickly pear pectin (HC-P diet) for 25 days. Plasma CH levels were decreased 26% by the HC-P with 33% decreases in LDL and KDL. LDL peak density shifted from 1.040 to 1.055 g/ml with pectin. Hepatic total, free and esterified CH levels were reduced 60, 40 and 85% respectively by the HC-P diet. In contrast, HMG-CoA reductase activity was unaffected. 125I-LDL binding to hepatic membranes was increased by intake of the HC-P diet compared to the HC diet. The affinity of the apo B/E receptor for LDL was not affected by dietary pectin while the receptor number was increased 1.5-fold in animals on the HC-P diet. These data suggest that the parameters of HC metabolism affected by dietary pectin are consistent with an increased demand on the hepatic CH pools which possibly results from increased fecal excretion of bile acids

  18. Pectin-lipid self-assembly: influence on the formation of polyhydroxy fatty acids nanoparticles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Guzman-Puyol

    Full Text Available Nanoparticles, named cutinsomes, have been prepared from aleuritic (9,10,16-trihidroxipalmitic acid and tomato fruit cutin monomers (a mixture of mainly 9(10,16-dihydroxypalmitic acid (85%, w/w and 16-hydroxyhexadecanoic acid (7.5%, w/w with pectin in aqueous solution. The process of formation of the nanoparticles of aleuritic acid plus pectin has been monitored by UV-Vis spectrophotometry, while their chemical and morphological characterization was analyzed by ATR-FTIR, TEM, and non-contact AFM. The structure of these nanoparticles can be described as a lipid core with a pectin shell. Pectin facilitated the formation of nanoparticles, by inducing their aggregation in branched chains and favoring the condensation between lipid monomers. Also, pectin determined the self-assembly of cutinsomes on highly ordered pyrolytic graphite (HOPG surfaces, causing their opening and forming interconnected structures. In the case of cutin monomers, the nanoparticles are fused, and the condensation of the hydroxy fatty acids is strongly affected by the presence of the polysaccharide. The interaction of pectin with polyhydroxylated fatty acids could be related to an initial step in the formation of the plant biopolyester cutin.

  19. Ascorbic acid and pectin in different sizes and parts of citric fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Akemi Ywassaki

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Citric fruits - in natura, as frozen pulp or even as juice - are one of the most important Brazilian exportation products. They are a source of ascorbic acid - a potent antioxidant, and pectin, which is used in the food industry and is an important dietary fiber. This project aims to quantify ascorbic acid and pectin contents in citric fruits, commercial oranges and tangerines, comparing them in sizes and varieties. Ascorbic acid amount was measured in juice comparing sizes, varieties and storage conditions, using a tritimetric method with 2.6-dichlorobenzenoindophenol indicator. Total and soluble pectin in each part of the fruits (peel, albedo, pulp and juice were quantified using the polygalacturonic acid as a standard. Differences were found between the sizes. The highest content of vitamin C was found in the oranges (Bahia variety. Comparing the storage temperatures, the biggest loss was at room temperature. Albedo presented the highest content of pectin in all fruits. In juice, the total and soluble pectin contents increased as fruits size decreased. Oranges and tangerines differed in the amount of pectin

  20. Effect of pectin extracted from citrus pulp on digesta characteristics and nutrient digestibility in broilers chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Karla Silva

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was carried out to evaluate the effects of continuous ingestion of pectin on intestinal viscosity, intestinal transit time, excreta moisture content, nutrient digestibility and energy metabolism of broilers at starter and growth phases. We used 240 one-day-old Cobb male broiler chicks, distributed in a completely randomized experimental design. Treatments consisted of four concentrations of pectin (0, 10, 30 and 50 g kg-1 with six replicates of 10 birds each. The ingestion of pectin supplied in the feed by broilers at the starter phase increased intestinal viscosity and intestinal transit time, reduced excreta moisture, improved the use of apparent metabolizable energy, nitrogen-corrected apparent metabolizable energy, coefficient of apparent metabolizability, coefficient of nitrogen-corrected apparent metabolizability, apparent digestibility coefficient of crude protein and organic matter; worsened calcium utilization and coefficients of apparent digestibility of dry matter; and did not influence the coefficients of apparent digestibility of crude fat, ash and phosphorus. Pectin ingestion during the growth phase increased intestinal viscosity and apparent digestibility coefficients of ash and organic matter, but decreased the dry matter, crude fat, crude protein and calcium. Intestinal transit time, energy metabolism and apparent digestibility coefficient of crude protein showed quadratic behavior according to pectin levels in the feed. Therefore, pectin ingestion by broilers at the starter phase increases intestinal viscosity and intestinal transit time, reduces excreta moisture and improves energy utilization, whereas at the growth phase nutrient digestibility is decreased.

  1. Utilization of Aspergillus oryzae to produce pectin lyase from various agro-industrial residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safia Koser

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study was aimed to investigate the culture influence on pectin lyase production potential of fungal strain Aspergillus oryzae. The enzyme profile of A. oryzae showed highest activity of pectin lyase after 3rd day of incubation on lemon peel waste under solid state fermentation conditions. To induce the pectin lyase synthesis capability of A. oryzae at optimal level various culture variables including physical and nutritional parameters were optimized by adopting classical optimization technique. Therefore, through fermentation process optimization the production of pectin lyase was substantially induced up to the level of 875 U/mL, when fermentation medium of lemon peel waste inoculated with 5 mL spore suspension of A. oryzae. The optimal fermentation conditions for maximum pectin lyase yield were as: optimum pH 5, 70% moisture level and incubated at 40 °C in addition with 1% sterile glucose solution as readily available carbon source and 0.2% yeast extract as an inexpensive nitrogen supplement (1%. The results obtained in current investigation so far demonstrated that culture conditions have great influence on the pectin lyase production potential of A. oryzae.

  2. Quanti-qualitative evaluation of pectins in the dietary fibre of 24 foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Bonsembiante

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The dietary fibre of 24 foods was analysed for its proportions of insoluble and soluble (SDF fractions and for its contentof high methoxyl pectins (HM, low methoxyl pectins (LM and protopectin. The fractional extraction and quantitativedetermination of pectins were performed on the total dietary fibre residue, following the procedure suggested byRobertson (1979. Total pectin content (TP, calculated as sum of the three fractions, ranged from 2.4 to 49.8 g/kg ofdry matter. The variation coefficient of TP measurements repeated on the same foods were, on average, 2%. Total pectincontent was 49.8 g/kg DM in dried beet pulp and averaged 33.8+_0.3 g/kg DM in fruits and vegetables, 13.2+_8.4 g/kgDM in legumes and tubers and only 2.8+_0.5 g/kg DM in cereals. HM fraction prevailed in apple and pear samples (>40%of TP, while LM and protopectin largely prevailed in legumes and vegetables. A strong variability among foods was foundfor the TP/SDF ratio. In general, within each food category, increasing levels of SDF were associated with decreasing valuesof TP/SDF ratio. Since many foods contain low amounts of pectins, care in the development of calibration curves forspectrophotometric reading is required. Finally, the whole procedure for pectin extraction and quantification on dietaryfibre of food is very complex and time-consuming.

  3. Pectin-enriched Material from Mandarin Orange Byproducts as a Potential Fat Replacer in Cookies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agus Prihatin

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The production of mandarin orange canned on an industrial level leads to a considerable quantity of residue, which is still considered as waste or used as a complement in agriculture. In general, mandarin orange byproducts have no economic value, even though their composition is rich in soluble sugars, cellulose, hemicellulose, pectin and essential oils that could form the basis of several industrial processes. The purpose of this study was to characterize pectin from byproducts and to study their application as a fat replacer in cookies. When pectin solutions were subjected to steady-shear measurements, shear-thinning behavior was observed. The flow behaviors could be described by the Cross model (R2 = 0.84, and temperature effects were investigated by the Arrhenius equation. When pectin-enriched material were incorporated into cookie formulations in place of shortening (semisolid fat generally used in baked foods up to 30 % by the weight of shortening, the cookie spread diameter was reduced while the color has no significant difference with control. Surprisingly, the use of mandarin orange pectin at different prosentation as fat replacer reduce the fat content significantly. Thus mandarin orange pectin proved to be a promising alternative as a fat replacer in cookies production.

  4. Impact of hemicelluloses and pectin on sphere-like bacterial cellulose assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu, Jin; Catchmark, Jeffrey M

    It has been shown previously that certain strains of the bacterium Gluconacetobacter xylinus produce a spherical form of cellulose where the cellulose was formed in a layered fashion. The spherical cellulose was used as a model system to study cellulose–hemicellulose and cellulose–pectin composite formation. Cultures were produced in the presence of 0.5% (w/v) xyloglucan, xylan, arabinogalactan and pectin under agitating conditions. Cellulose samples with xyloglucan and pectin had different macro structures compared to other culture conditions. The micro structures showed that these two samples formed dense cellulose layers and had fewer cellulose fiber connections between layers. Cellulose samples with xylan and xyloglucan were found to contain more Iβ cellulose as found in higher plants, and exhibited decreases in crystallinity and crystalline sizes according to X-ray diffraction patterns. IR spectroscopy confirmed the changes in crystal allomorph. Cellulose was also grown in cultures containing different blends of both xyloglucan and pectin. Results show that xyloglucan had the dominant impact on the assembly of cellulose, suggesting that xyloglucan and pectin may interact with cellulose at different points in the assembly process, or in different regions. Bacterial cellulose and biomass yields indicated that xyloglucan and pectin could also stimulate the growth of cellulose.

  5. Fermentation Process of Cocoa Based on Optimum Condition of Pulp PectinDepolymerization by Endogenous Pectolityc Enzymes

    OpenAIRE

    G.P. Ganda-Putra; L.P. Wrasiati; N.M. Wartini

    2010-01-01

    Pulp degradation during cocoa fermentation can be carried out by depolymerization process of pulp pectin using endogenous pectolytic enzymes at optimum condition. The objectives of this research were to study the effect of fermentation process based on optimum condition in terms of temperature and pH of pulp pectin depolymerization using endogenous pectolytic enzymes polygalakturonase (PG) and pectin metyl esterase (PME) and fermentation period in cocoa processing on quality characteristics o...

  6. Effects of Apple Juice Concentrate, Blackcurrant Concentrate and Pectin Levels on Selected Qualities of Apple-Blackcurrant Fruit Leather

    OpenAIRE

    Diamante, Lemuel M.; Siwei Li; Qianqian Xu; Janette Busch

    2013-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the effects of different levels of apple juice concentrate (AJC), blackcurrant concentrate (BCC) and pectin on the moisture content, water activity, color, texture and ascorbic acid content of apple-blackcurrant fruit leather using the response surface methodology. The results showed the moisture content increased with increasing pectin level and with greater increases at higher AJC and BCC levels while the water activity increased with increasing pectin lev...

  7. Ion equilibrium in the solutions of ethynil piperidol polymers and pectin substances, synthesis, inter polyelectrolyte complexes on their bases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Present article is devoted to ion equilibrium in the solutions of ethynil piperidol polymers and pectin substances, synthesis, inter polyelectrolyte complexes on their bases. Thus, the ion equilibrium in the solutions of ethynyl vinyl trimethyl piperidine and its derivatives is studied. Acid-base equilibrium in aqueous solutions of pectin substances is considered. Ion equilibrium in aqueous solutions of pectin substances is studied as well.

  8. Characterization of citrus pectin samples extracted under different conditions: influence of acid type and pH of extraction

    OpenAIRE

    Kaya, Merve; Sousa, Antonio G.; Crepeau, Marie-Jeanne; Sorensen, Susanne O.; Ralet, Marie-Christine

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims Pectin is a complex macromolecule, the fine structure of which is influenced by many factors. It is used as a gelling, thickening and emulsifying agent in a wide range of applications, from food to pharmaceutical products. Current industrial pectin extraction processes are based on fruit peel, a waste product from the juicing industry, in which thousands of tons of citrus are processed worldwide every year. This study examines how pectin components vary in relation to the ...

  9. Elucidation of the recognition mechanisms for hemicellulose and pectin in Clostridium cellulovorans using intracellular quantitative proteome analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Aburaya, Shunsuke; Esaka, Kohei; Morisaka, Hironobu; Kuroda, Kouichi; Ueda, Mitsuyoshi

    2015-01-01

    Clostridium cellulovorans is an anaerobic, cellulolytic bacterium, capable of effectively degrading and metabolizing various types of substrates, including cellulose, hemicellulose (xylan and galactomannan), and pectin. Among Clostridia, this ability to degrade and metabolize a wide range of hemicellulose and pectin substrates is a unique feature; however, the mechanisms are currently unknown. To clarify the mechanisms of hemicelluloses and pectin recognition and metabolism, we carried out a ...

  10. Impact of Cross-linking and Drying Method on Drug Delivery Performance of Casein–Pectin Microparticles

    OpenAIRE

    Marreto, Ricardo N.; Ramos, Monica F. S.; Silva, Emmanuelle J.; de Freitas, Osvaldo; Luís A. P. Freitas

    2013-01-01

    Pectin is a heteropolysaccharide which has been investigated for the development of colon-specific drug delivery systems. Polymers have been associated with pectin to reduce its aqueous solubility and improve the performance of drug delivery systems. Pectin–casein interaction is widely known in food research, but it has not been fully considered by pharmaceutical scientists. Thus, this study investigated the potential of casein–pectin microparticles as a drug delivery system and clarified the...

  11. Reação de cultivares de batata à podridão mole causada por Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. atrosepticum, por P. carotovorum subsp. carotovorum e por P. chrysanthemi Reaction of potato cultivars to soft rot caused by Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. atrosepticum, P. carotovorum subsp. carotovorum and P. chrysanthemi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adilce I. H. Benelli

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available A podridão mole em tubérculos de batata (Solanum tuberosum, causada por Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. atrosepticum, por Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum e por P. chrysanthemi, é uma preocupante doença que causa danos expressivos à cultura em todo o mundo. Como inexiste tratamento eficiente para a podridão mole, o desenvolvimento de cultivares resistentes é considerado o método mais eficaz para a redução de perdas causadas pela doença. Nesse sentido, quatro cultivares de batata foram avaliados quanto à resistência natural às pectobactérias, mediante redução de massa de tubérculos após 20, 24, 48, 72 e 96 h de inoculação com suspensões bacterianas. O delineamento experimental constou de um esquema fatorial com quatro cultivares, três bactérias e quatro repetições. Os resultados foram transformados em proporção e integralizados como área abaixo da curva de progresso da doença (AACPD. Para as três bactérias estudadas, a cultivar Asterix mostrou-se o menos suscetível à podridão mole, diferindo significativamente dos demais.Soft rot caused by Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. atrosepticum, Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum and P. chrysanthemi is a severe disease of potato (Solanum tuberosum worldwide. Since there is no efficient treatment for soft rot, the use of resistant cultivars is considered the most effective method to reduce crop losses due to this disease. In this research, four potato cultivars were evaluated regarding their resistance to pectobacteria. Tubers inoculated with bacterial suspensions were assessed for mass reduction at five periods (20, 24, 48, 72, and 96 h after inoculation. The experimental design consisted of a factorial scheme with four cultivars, three bacteria, and four replications. The data on tuber mass loss were transformed into proportion and integrated as the area under the disease progress curve. For all three bacteria, the cultivar Asterix was the less

  12. Influence of Structure, Charge, and Concentration on the Pectin-Calcium-Surfactant Complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Nidhi; Rawat, Kamla; Bohidar, H B

    2016-05-12

    Polymer-surfactant complex formation of pectin with different types of surfactants, cationic (cetyltrimethylammonium bromide, CTAB and dodecyl trimethylammonium bromide, DTAB), anionic (sodium dodecyl sulfate, SDS), and neutral (Triton X-100, TX-100), was investigated at room temperature in the presence and absence of cross-linker calcium chloride using light scattering, zeta potential, rheology, and UV-vis spectroscopic measurements where the surfactant concentration was maintained below their critical micellar concentration (CMC). Results indicated that the interaction of cationic surfactant with pectin in the presence and absence of calcium chloride was much stronger compared to anionic and neutral surfactants. The neutral surfactant showed identifiable interaction despite the absence of any charged headgroup, while anionic surfactant showed feeble or very weak interaction with the polymer. The pectin-CTAB or DTAB complex formation was attributed to associative electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions. On comparison between the cationic surfactants, it was found that CTAB interacts strongly with pectin because of its long hydrocarbon chain. The morphology of complexes formed exhibited random coil structures while at higher concentration of surfactant, rod-like or extended random coil structures were noticed. Thus, functional characteristics of the complex could be tuned by varying the type of surfactant (charge and structure) and its concentration. The differential network rigidity (pectin-CTAB versus pectin-DTAB gels) obtained from rheology measurements showed that addition of a very small amount of surfactant (concentration ≪ CMC) was required for enhancing network strength, while the presence of a large amount of surfactant resulted in the formation of fragile gels. No gel formation occurred when the surfactant concentration was close to their CMC values. Considering the importance of pectin in food and pharmaceutical industry, this study is relevant

  13. Potential hemostatic agent based on extracted pectin from calamansi peels (Citrus microcarpa) blende with polyethylene oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the years, researches have been made to develop hemostatic products for specific purposes such as surgical procedures, tissue adhesives and non-surgical purposes. Due to its crucial application, comercially hemostatic agents are usually costly. However, some reports revealed that some of these products may impose side effects. This study aimed to produce potential hemostatic agents from extracted pectin of Calamansi peels (Citrus microcarpa) blended with polyethylene oxide. Calamansi peels were gathered and extracted. THe obtained pectin was confirmed using FT-IR analysis. After the sample confirmation, pectin was mixed with polyethylene oxide having pectin/PEO concentrations of 0.5/5, 1.0/5 and 1.5/5. The viscous solutions formed were subjected to irradiation. The following doses were applied: 10,15 and 20 kGY. The gels recovered were dried and ground into small particles. Gels formed upon irradiation were characterized by means of gel fraction and swelling. Blood samples were collected in a slaughter house located in Vitas,Tondo and in Valenzuela City. Blood clothing assay was performed. Celox granules were used as the positive control. Absorbance of the samples and controls were measured and compared. According to the results obtained from the experiment, pectin/polyethylene oxide blends exhibits hemostatic properties. Moreover, as the radiation dose and pectin concentration increases, the blood clotting ability of the samples also increases. Mean absorbance of the samples were compared using One-way ANOVA (p>0.05). Samples having 1.5% pectin have lower absorbance compared to Celox. Absorbance of 0.5% AEP/5% PEO and 1% AEP/5% PEO at 15 kGy showed a significantly higher absorbance than that of Celox. Results of the evaluated samples are comparable to Celox, however the rest of it did not show any significant difference. (author)

  14. Pectin May Hinder the Unfolding of Xyloglucan Chains during Cell Deformation: Implications of the Mechanical Performance of Arabidopsis Hypocotyls with Pectin Alterations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Willie Abasolo; Michaela Eder; Kazuchika Yamauchi; Nicolai Obel; Antje Reinecke; Lutz Neumetzler; John W.C. Dunlop; Gregory Mouille; Markus Pauly; Herman H(o)fte; Ingo Burgert

    2009-01-01

    Plant cell walls, like a multitude of other biological materials, are natural fiber-reinforced composite materials. Their mechanical properties are highly dependent on the interplay of the stiff fibrous phase and the soft matrix phase and on the matrix deformation itself. Using specific Arabidopsis thaliana mutants, we studied the mechanical role of the matrix assembly in primary cell walls of hypocotyls with altered xyloglucan and pectin composition. Standard microtensile tests and cyclic loading protocols were performed on rnurl hypocotyls with affected RGII borate diester cross-links and a hin-dered xyloglucan fucosylation as well as qua2 exhibiting 50% less homogalacturonan in comparison to wild-type. As a con-trol, wild-type plants (Col-0) and tour2 exhibiting a specific xyloglucan fucosylation and no differences in the pectin network were utilized. In the standard tensile tests, the ultimate stress levels (-tensile strength) of the hypocotyls of the mutants with pectin alterations (rnurl, qua2) were rather unaffected, whereas their tensile stiffness was noticeably reduced in comparison to Col-0. The cyclic loading tests indicated a stiffening of all hypocotyls after the first cycle and a plastic deformation during the first straining, the degree of which, however, was much higher for murl and qua2 hypo-cotyls. Based on the mechanical data and current cell wall models, it is assumed that folded xyloglucan chains between cellulose fibrils may tend to unfold during straining of the hypocotyls. This response is probably hindered by geometrical constraints due to pectin rigidity.

  15. Decreasing methylation of pectin caused by nitric oxide leads to higher aluminium binding in cell walls and greater aluminium sensitivity of wheat roots

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Chengliang; Lu, Lingli; Yu, Yan; Liu, Lijuan; Hu, Yan; Ye, Yiquan; Jin, Chongwei; Lin, Xianyong

    2015-01-01

    Highlight Aluminium-induced nitric oxide production enhances the aluminium sensitivity of wheat by decreasing pectin methylation of root cell-wall pectin, resulting in greater aluminium binding in root cell walls.

  16. Development of pectin films with pomegranate juice and citric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azeredo, Henriette M C; Morrugares-Carmona, Rosario; Wellner, Nikolaus; Cross, Kathryn; Bajka, Balazs; Waldron, Keith W

    2016-05-01

    The influence of pomegranate juice (PJ, replacing water as solvent) and citric acid (CA) on properties of pectin films was studied. PJ provided the films with a bright red color, and acted as a plasticizer. Increasing PJ/water ratio from 0/100 to 100/0 resulted in enhanced elongation (from 2% to 20%), decreased strength (from 10 to <2 MPa) and modulus (from 93 to <10 MPa), increased water vapor permeability (WVP, from 3 to 9 g.mm.kPa(-1).h(-1).m(-2)), and decreased insoluble matter (IM, from 35% to 24%). Although a crosslinking effect by CA was not confirmed, it has been suggested to occur from its effects on films. CA noticeably increased IM (from <10% to almost 40%); moreover, when measured on a dry film basis, the CA effects presented a noticeable tendency to increases strength and modulus, and to decrease WVP. The red color density was decreased by CA, suggesting a destabilization of anthocyanins. PMID:26769510

  17. Oxidation behavior of biomass chars: pectin and Populus deltoides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong-Shig Shim; Mohammad R. Hajaligol; Vicki L. Baliga [Philip Morris USA, Richmond, VA (United States). Research Center

    2004-08-01

    Biomass chars of pectin and cotton wood (Populus deltoides) were prepared by using a heating rate of about 1{sup o}C/s, peak pyrolysis temperatures of 400-800{sup o}C, and residence times of 10-60 min at peak temperatures. Char samples were pyrolyzed in a helium atmosphere using a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA). Oxidation reactivity measurements of the same char samples in the TGA were collected after converting the helium atmosphere to an oxygen containing atmosphere. Reactivities were measured using an isothermal method at various reaction temperatures from 400 to 700{sup o}C and oxygen concentrations of 2-21%. Oxidation kinetic parameters such as apparent reaction order and apparent activation energies were obtained. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was employed to study morphological and structural development in the char samples as a function of heat treatment temperature. An interesting morphological development on the surface of the char was observed by SEM, which showed evolution of vesicle formation and whisker growth as heat treatment temperatures increased. Its implication on char reactivity is discussed. Preliminary results showed decreasing reactivity with increasing peak heat treatment temperatures. Char reactivity was affected more by the heat treatment temperature than by the hold times (10-60 min). 15 refs., 12 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. New polyelectrolyte complex from pectin/chitosan and montmorillonite clay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa, Marcia Parente Melo; de Mello Ferreira, Ivana Lourenço; de Macedo Cruz, Mauricio Tavares

    2016-08-01

    A new nanocomposite hydrogel was prepared by forming a crosslinked hybrid polymer network based on chitosan and pectin in the presence of montmorillonite clay. The influence of clay concentration (0.5 and 2% wt) as well as polymer ratios (1:1, 1:2 and 2:1) was investigated carefully. The samples were characterized by different techniques: transmission and scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis, infrared spectroscopy, swelling degree and compression test. Most samples presented swelling degree above 1000%, which permits characterizing them as superabsorbent material. Images obtained by transmission electron microscopy showed the presence of clay nanoparticles into hydrogel. The hydrogels' morphological properties were evaluated by scanning electron microscope in high and low-vacuum. The micrographs showed that the samples presented porous. The incorporation of clay produced hydrogels with differentiated morphology. Thermogravimetric analysis results revealed that the incorporation of clay in the samples provided greater thermal stability to the hydrogels. The compression resistance also increased with addition of clay. PMID:27112858

  19. Endo-xylanase and endo-cellulase-assisted extraction of pectin from apple pomace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wikiera, Agnieszka; Mika, Magdalena; Starzyńska-Janiszewska, Anna; Stodolak, Bożena

    2016-05-20

    Pectins were extracted from apple pomace with monoactive preparation of endo-xylanase and endo-cellulase. The process was conducted for 10h in conditions of pH 5.0 at 40°C, with constant shaking. Endo-xylanase application resulted in the highest extraction efficiency of pectins (19.8%). The obtained polymer was characterised by a very high molecular mass, high level of neutral sugars - mainly arabinose, galactose and glucose, and very high DM (73.4). It also contained the highest level of protein and phenols. Pectin extracted with endo-cellulase had 1.5 fold lower molecular mass but contained significantly more GalA (70.5%) of a high degree of methylation (66.3%). The simultaneous application of both enzymatic preparations resulted in their cooperation, leading to a decrease of both the extraction efficiency and the molecular mass of pectin. However, this pectin was distinguished by the highest GalA (74.7%) and rhamnose contents. PMID:26917391

  20. On-line characterization using ultrasound of pectin hydrolysis catalyzed by the enzyme pectinmethylesterase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aparicio, C.; Resa, P.; Sierra, C.; Elvira, L.

    2012-12-01

    The major problem in the fruit juice industry is associated with juice quality deterioration due to the cloud loss of juice concentrates by the enzymatic reaction of pectinmethylesterase enzyme (PME, EC 3.1.1.11). During pectin hydrolysis, pectin and water are transformed into polygalacturonic acid (pectate) and methanol by the action of PME. In this work, a low-intensity ultrasonic technique is used to monitor this enzymatic reaction, with PME both from orange peel and from Aspergillus niger. Changes in sound velocity during pectin hydrolysis (1% concentration of pectin, T = 30°C and pH = 4.5 and 7) with 0.25 ml of enzyme solution (PME) have been measured using a through-transmission technique. Sound velocity decreases as pectin is transformed into pectate and methanol and at the end of the process, the change in sound velocity reaches 0.3 m/s with PME from orange peel and 0.33 m/s with PME from Aspergillus niger.

  1. Aqueous extraction of pectin from sour orange peel and its preliminary physicochemical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Seyed Saeid; Khodaiyan, Faramarz; Yarmand, Mohammad Saeid

    2016-01-01

    Sour orange peel, a by-product of the fruit juice industry, was used as a source of pectin. The effects of temperature (75-95°C), time (30-90 min), and liquid-solid ratio (20-40, v/w) were investigated on yield, methoxylation degree (DE), and galacturonic acid content using a Box-Behnken design and response surface methodology. The highest extraction yield (17.95 ± 0.3%) was obtained at temperature of 95°C, time of 90 min, and liquid-solid ratio of 25 (v/w). The DE values for the pectin ranged from 17% to 30.5%, indicating that the pectin was low in methoxyle. The emulsifying activity of pectin extracted under optimal conditions was 45%. The emulsions were 86.6% stable at 4°C and 71.4% at 23°C after 30 days of storage. The pectin exhibited Newtonian flow at low concentrations (≤ 1.0%, w/v); as the concentration increased, pseudoplastic flow became dominant. PMID:26549440

  2. Fat reduction in the formulation of frankfurter sausages using inulin and pectin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Méndez-Zamora

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of different concentrations of inulin and pectin as fat substitutes on the chemical composition, texture, and sensory acceptance of frankfurter sausages. Six treatments were evaluated to test fat replacement: control (T0; low fat control (T1; low fat with 15% inulin (T2; low fat with 30% inulin (T3; low fat with 7.5% inulin and 7.5% pectin (T4; and low fat with 15% inulin and 15% pectin (T5. The addition of fibers increased the yield (T3 and T5; 98.96%, and the color parameters were slightly reduced (T3. Moisture (61.14% and ashes (6.96% of sausages with inulin and pectin were higher (T5, while shear force, hardness, fracturability, gumminess, and chewiness (T3 and T5 were slightly lower than those of the control. The addition of inulin (T2 increased the sensory acceptance of the sausages (5.75. Fat can be replaced with inulin and pectin in frankfurter sausages to produce healthy and functional products.

  3. Potential utilization of Citrullus lanatus var. Colocynthoides waste as a novel source of pectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korish, Mohamed

    2015-04-01

    The Citrullus lanatus var. Colocynthoides is an ancestor type of watermelon. It was investigated as a new source of pectin. It was cultivated in Egypt for seeds only, while the remaining fruits are discarded as waste. Effect of different extraction conditions such as pH, solid: liquid ratio, temperature and extraction time on pectin yield of Citrullus lanatus var. Colocynthoides waste was investigated in the present study. The highest yield (19.75 % w/w) was achieved at pH 2, solid: liquid ratio1:15 and 85 °C, for 60 min. Methylation degree and galacturonic acid content of extracted pectin were 55.25 %, w/w and 76.84 %, w/w. The main neutral sugars were galactose followed by arabinose and rhamnose. In addition, glucose, xylose and mannose existed as constituents in the pectin hydrolysate. The results indicated that Citrullus lanatus var. Colocynthoide waste is a potential new source of pectin. PMID:25829625

  4. On-line characterization using ultrasound of pectin hydrolysis catalyzed by the enzyme pectinmethylesterase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The major problem in the fruit juice industry is associated with juice quality deterioration due to the cloud loss of juice concentrates by the enzymatic reaction of pectinmethylesterase enzyme (PME, EC 3.1.1.11). During pectin hydrolysis, pectin and water are transformed into polygalacturonic acid (pectate) and methanol by the action of PME. In this work, a low-intensity ultrasonic technique is used to monitor this enzymatic reaction, with PME both from orange peel and from Aspergillus niger. Changes in sound velocity during pectin hydrolysis (1% concentration of pectin, T = 30°C and pH = 4.5 and 7) with 0.25 ml of enzyme solution (PME) have been measured using a through-transmission technique. Sound velocity decreases as pectin is transformed into pectate and methanol and at the end of the process, the change in sound velocity reaches 0.3 m/s with PME from orange peel and 0.33 m/s with PME from Aspergillus niger.

  5. Enhanced In Vitro Skin Deposition Properties of Retinyl Palmitate through Its Stabilization by Pectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Dong-Churl; Kim, Yeongseok; Kim, Hyeongmin; Ro, Jieun; Cho, Seong-Wan; Yun, Gyiae; Choi, Sung-Up; Lee, Jaehwi

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of stabilization of retinyl palmitate (RP) on its skin permeation and distribution profiles. Skin permeation and distribution study were performed using Franz diffusion cells along with rat dorsal skin, and the effect of drug concentration and the addition of pectin on skin deposition profiles of RP was observed. The skin distribution of RP increased in a concentration dependent manner and the formulations containing 0.5 and 1 mg of pectin demonstrated significantly increased RP distributions in the epidermis. Furthermore, it was found that skin distribution of RP could be further improved by combined use of pectin and ascorbyl palmitate (AP), due largely to their anti-oxidative effect. These results clearly demonstrate that the skin deposition properties of RP can be improved by stabilizing RP with pectin. Therefore, it is strongly suggested that pectin could be used in the pharmaceutical and cosmetic formulations as an efficient stabilizing agent and as skin penetration modulator. PMID:24596625

  6. Sugar-cane juice induces pectin lyase and polygalacturonase in Penicillium griseoroseum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minussi Rosana Cristina

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of other inducers as substitutes for pectin was studied aiming to reduce the production costs of pectic enzymes. The effects of sugar-cane juice on the production of pectin lyase (PL and polygalacturonase (PG by Penicillium griseoroseum were investigated. The fungus was cultured in a mineral medium (pH 6.3 in a rotary shaker (150 rpm for 48 h at 25oC. Culture media were supplemented with yeast extract and sucrose or sugar-cane juice. Sugar-cane juice added singly to the medium promoted higher PL activity and mycelial dry weight when compared to pectin and the use of sugar-cane juice and yeast extract yielded levels of PG activity that were similar to those obtained with sucrose-yeast extract or pectin. The results indicated that, even at low concentrations, sugar-cane juice was capable of inducing pectin lyase and polygalacturonase with no cellulase activity in P. griseoroseum.

  7. Pectin: new insights into an old polymer are starting to gel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willats, W. G. T.; Knox, J. P.; Mikkelsen, J. D.

    2006-01-01

    Pectin is a high value functional food ingredient widely used as a gelling agent and stabilizer. It is also an abundant, ubiquitous and multifunctional component of the cell walls of all land plants. Food scientists and plant scientists therefore share a common goal to better understand the struc....... Producers are beginning to develop a new generation of sophisticated designer pectins with specific functionalities. Moreover, the ability to manipulate pectin in planta would have a major impact on fruit and vegetable quality and processing, as well as on pectin production.......Pectin is a high value functional food ingredient widely used as a gelling agent and stabilizer. It is also an abundant, ubiquitous and multifunctional component of the cell walls of all land plants. Food scientists and plant scientists therefore share a common goal to better understand the...... made possible by synergies between plant and food research and by the application of a range of state-of-the-art techniques including enzymatic fingerprinting, mass spectrometry, NMR, molecular modelling, and monoclonal antibodies. With this increased knowledge comes the prospect of novel applications...

  8. Evidence and mechanism for pectin-reduced intestinal inorganic iron absorption in idiopathic hemochromatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monnier, L; Colette, C; Aguirre, L; Mirouze, J

    1980-06-01

    The intestinal absorption of iron was measured in 13 patients suffering from idiopathic hemochromatosis by using a double radiotracer technique. For each patient, iron absorption was determined in the fasting state, i.e., under basal conditions, and after an oral indigestible fiber load (9 g/m2 of body surface) with either pectin (group I: eight patients) or cellulose (group II: five patients). The results were compared with those from a group of seven normal control subjects investigated under basal conditions. The patients with haemochromatosis (groups I and II) had a significant increase in the basal value of fractional iron absorption as compared with controls. In the patients of group I, the pectin induced a significant fall in fractional iron absorption (P less than 0.02). In group II, iron absorption rates remained unchanged whether or not cellulose was given. Furthermore, we found in vitro that pectin had a high iron binding activity, while cellulose bound none. From the present study, we conclude that pectin but not cellulose reduces iron absorption by forming unabsorbable complexes with dietary iron. Thus, enrichment of the diet with foods providing significant amounts of noncellulosic dietary fibers, such as pectin, may be useful in the management of hemochromatosis patients. PMID:6247906

  9. Influence of pressure and temperature on the yields and properties of pectin substances from different plant sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study used two different methods: traditionally hydrolysis-extraction and flash extraction in autoclave to extract pectin polysaccharides from fruit wastes and sunflower head residue. It is shown that application of last method allows increase the pectin yields and optimize the main physicochemical characteristics of end products. (author)

  10. Dietary pectin shortens the biologic half-life of vitamin B-12 in rats by increasing fecal and urinary losses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As little as 5% of pectin added to a fiber-free diet elevates urinary methylmalonic acid (MMA) severalfold in vitamin B-12--deprived rats. The present study examines whether increased urinary MMA reflects lower vitamin B-12 status or occurs only because of fermentation of pectin by intestinal bacteria and increased production of propionate, a precursor of MMA. By monitoring urinary and fecal excretion of 57Co after a tracer dose of [57Co]vitamin B-12, we found the biologic half-life of vitamin B-12 to be 59 d for rats fed a fiber-free diet and only 19 d for rats fed a 5% pectin diet. Also, pectin-fed rats oxidized only 12% of a 1-mmol dose of [14C]propionate to 14CO2 in 2 h, whereas rats fed the fiber-free diet expired 33% of the dose. Finally, high urinary MMA persisted even after the removal of pectin from the diet. We conclude that dietary pectin accelerates vitamin B-12 depletion in rats, possibly by interfering with enterohepatic recycling of vitamin B-12. By stimulating microbial propionate production, pectin and other fermentable fibers may also contribute to increased urinary MMA in vitamin B-12 deficiency, but a larger propionate pool does not account for the other effects of pectin on vitamin B-12 status

  11. The preparation of polyelectrolyte complexes carboxymethyl chitosan(CMC)-pectin by reflux method as a Pb (II) metal ion adsorbent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastuti, Budi; Mudasir, Siswanta, Dwi; Triyono

    2016-02-01

    Aim of this research is to synthesized a chemically stable polyelectrolyte complexs carboxymetyl chitosan CMC-pectin as Pb(II) ion adsorbent by reflux method. During synthesis process, the optimum mass ratio of CMC and pectin was pre-determined and the active groups of the CMC-pectin complex was characterized by using IR spectrofotometer. Finally, adsorption capacity of the adsorbent material for Pb (II) ions was studied under optimum condition, i.e. adsorbent mass, contact time, and pH. Result shows that CMC could be succesfully combined with pectin to produce CMC-pectin complex. The optimum mass ratio CMC: pectin to form the polyelectrolyte complexs CMC-pectin was 70% : 30%. The active groups identified in the CMC-pectin complex was a hydroxyl (OH) and carboxylate (-COOH) groups. The optimum conditions for Pb (II) ion absoprtion was 10 mg of the adsorbent mass, 75 min of contact time, and pH 5. This material can be effectively used as adsorbents for Pb (II) ions, where up to 91% Pb (II) metal ions was adsorbed from aqueous solution and the adsorption capacity of the adsorbent was 41.63 mg/g.

  12. Physicochemical and Antimicrobial Properties of Cocoa Pod Husk Pectin Intended as a Versatile Pharmaceutical Excipient and Nutraceutical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ofosua Adi-Dako

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The physicochemical and antimicrobial properties of cocoa pod husk (CPH pectin intended as a versatile pharmaceutical excipient and nutraceutical were studied. Properties investigated include pH, moisture content, ash values, swelling index, viscosity, degree of esterification (DE, flow properties, SEM, FTIR, NMR, and elemental content. Antimicrobial screening and determination of MICs against test microorganisms were undertaken using agar diffusion and broth dilution methods, respectively. CPH pectin had a DE of 26.8% and exhibited good physicochemical properties. Pectin had good microbiological quality and exhibited pseudoplastic, shear thinning behaviour, and high swelling capacity in aqueous media. The DE, FTIR, and NMR results were similar to those of previous studies and supported highly acetylated low methoxy pectin. CPH pectin was found to be a rich source of minerals and has potential as a nutraceutical. Pectin showed dose-dependent moderate activity against gram positive and gram negative microorganisms but weak activity against Listeria spp. and A. niger. The MICs of pectin ranged from 0.5 to 4.0 mg/mL, with the highest activity against E. coli and S. aureus (MIC: 0.5–1.0 mg/mL and the lowest activity against A. niger (MIC: 2.0–4.0 mg/mL. The study has demonstrated that CPH pectin possesses the requisite properties for use as a nutraceutical and functional pharmaceutical excipient.

  13. Effects of Apple Juice Concentrate, Blackcurrant Concentrate and Pectin Levels on Selected Qualities of Apple-Blackcurrant Fruit Leather

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lemuel M. Diamante

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to determine the effects of different levels of apple juice concentrate (AJC, blackcurrant concentrate (BCC and pectin on the moisture content, water activity, color, texture and ascorbic acid content of apple-blackcurrant fruit leather using the response surface methodology. The results showed the moisture content increased with increasing pectin level and with greater increases at higher AJC and BCC levels while the water activity increased with increasing pectin level and with increasing AJC level, at low pectin levels, but with decreasing AJC, at high pectin levels. The chroma decreased with increasing pectin level and with lower values at the middle AJC level. The puncturing force decreased with increasing AJC level but with a lower value at the middle pectin level. Lastly, the ascorbic acid content increased with increasing BCC level regardless of AJC and pectin levels. There is a need to reduce the drying temperature or time of apple-blackcurrant fruit leather just enough to bring the water activity closer to 0.60, thereby increasing the moisture content resulting in higher product yield.

  14. Physicochemical and Antimicrobial Properties of Cocoa Pod Husk Pectin Intended as a Versatile Pharmaceutical Excipient and Nutraceutical

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adi-Dako, Ofosua; Frimpong Manso, Samuel; Boakye-Gyasi, Mariam EL; Sasu, Clement; Pobee, Mike

    2016-01-01

    The physicochemical and antimicrobial properties of cocoa pod husk (CPH) pectin intended as a versatile pharmaceutical excipient and nutraceutical were studied. Properties investigated include pH, moisture content, ash values, swelling index, viscosity, degree of esterification (DE), flow properties, SEM, FTIR, NMR, and elemental content. Antimicrobial screening and determination of MICs against test microorganisms were undertaken using agar diffusion and broth dilution methods, respectively. CPH pectin had a DE of 26.8% and exhibited good physicochemical properties. Pectin had good microbiological quality and exhibited pseudoplastic, shear thinning behaviour, and high swelling capacity in aqueous media. The DE, FTIR, and NMR results were similar to those of previous studies and supported highly acetylated low methoxy pectin. CPH pectin was found to be a rich source of minerals and has potential as a nutraceutical. Pectin showed dose-dependent moderate activity against gram positive and gram negative microorganisms but weak activity against Listeria spp. and A. niger. The MICs of pectin ranged from 0.5 to 4.0 mg/mL, with the highest activity against E. coli and S. aureus (MIC: 0.5–1.0 mg/mL) and the lowest activity against A. niger (MIC: 2.0–4.0 mg/mL). The study has demonstrated that CPH pectin possesses the requisite properties for use as a nutraceutical and functional pharmaceutical excipient. PMID:27066294

  15. Physicochemical and Antimicrobial Properties of Cocoa Pod Husk Pectin Intended as a Versatile Pharmaceutical Excipient and Nutraceutical.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adi-Dako, Ofosua; Ofori-Kwakye, Kwabena; Frimpong Manso, Samuel; Boakye-Gyasi, Mariam El; Sasu, Clement; Pobee, Mike

    2016-01-01

    The physicochemical and antimicrobial properties of cocoa pod husk (CPH) pectin intended as a versatile pharmaceutical excipient and nutraceutical were studied. Properties investigated include pH, moisture content, ash values, swelling index, viscosity, degree of esterification (DE), flow properties, SEM, FTIR, NMR, and elemental content. Antimicrobial screening and determination of MICs against test microorganisms were undertaken using agar diffusion and broth dilution methods, respectively. CPH pectin had a DE of 26.8% and exhibited good physicochemical properties. Pectin had good microbiological quality and exhibited pseudoplastic, shear thinning behaviour, and high swelling capacity in aqueous media. The DE, FTIR, and NMR results were similar to those of previous studies and supported highly acetylated low methoxy pectin. CPH pectin was found to be a rich source of minerals and has potential as a nutraceutical. Pectin showed dose-dependent moderate activity against gram positive and gram negative microorganisms but weak activity against Listeria spp. and A. niger. The MICs of pectin ranged from 0.5 to 4.0 mg/mL, with the highest activity against E. coli and S. aureus (MIC: 0.5-1.0 mg/mL) and the lowest activity against A. niger (MIC: 2.0-4.0 mg/mL). The study has demonstrated that CPH pectin possesses the requisite properties for use as a nutraceutical and functional pharmaceutical excipient. PMID:27066294

  16. Properties of Tableted High-Amylose Corn Starch?Pectin Blend Microparticles Intended for Controlled Delivery of Diclofenac Sodium

    OpenAIRE

    Desai, Kashappa Goud

    2007-01-01

    Abstract This study reports the properties of tableted microparticles based on high-amylose corn starch (HACS)?pectin blend polymers as the controlled release system for diclofenac sodium (DS). HACS?pectin blend microparticles are prepared through a modified process by the spray drying technique, which is a widely used microencapsulation technique in the pharmaceutical industry. The mean particle size ...

  17. Physicochemical and functional performance of pectin extracted by QbD approach from Tamarindus indica L. pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Radhika; Kamboj, Sunil; Khurana, Rajneet; Singh, Gursharan; Rana, Vikas

    2015-12-10

    The aim of present investigation was to utilize quality by design (QbD) approach for extraction of tamarind pectin (TP) from Tamarindus indica L. pulp employing purity descriptors as indicator. The software generated quadratic equations showed significant effect of polarity index as compared to pulp concentration and boiling temperature on percentage yield and purity characteristics of TP. An insignificant effect on purity descriptors and percentage yield of TP upon replacement of acetone with methanol during predicted vs observed correlation studies (being similar polarity index of 5.1) pointed towards overwhelming influence of solvent polarity. Further, the FTIR-ATR, (1)H NMR, DSC and mass spectroscopy suggested TP was rhamnogalacturonan pectin with no tartaric acid content. TP was found to have significantly higher antioxidant activity as compare to apple pomace pectin, citrus peel pectin and commercial pectin. Overall, the physicochemical properties and antioxidant potential of TP could be utilized as an excipient for food and pharmaceutical industry. PMID:26428136

  18. Characterization of citrus pectin samples extracted under different conditions: influence of acid type and pH of extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaya, Merve; Sousa, Antonio G.; Crepeau, Marie-Jeanne;

    2014-01-01

    on fruit peel, a waste product from the juicing industry, in which thousands of tons of citrus are processed worldwide every year. This study examines how pectin components vary in relation to the plant source (orange, lemon, lime, grapefruit) and considers the influence of extraction conditions on......Background and Aims Pectin is a complex macromolecule, the fine structure of which is influenced by many factors. It is used as a gelling, thickening and emulsifying agent in a wide range of applications, from food to pharmaceutical products. Current industrial pectin extraction processes are based...... the chemical and macromolecular characteristics of pectin samples. Methods Citrus peel (orange, lemon, lime and grapefruit) from a commercial supplier was used as raw material. Pectin samples were obtained on a bulk plant scale (kilograms; harsh nitric acid, mild nitric acid and harsh oxalic acid...

  19. Effect of an ionic force on a hydrolysis of a sunflower proto pectin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The speed of the reactions of a hydrolysis of a sunflower proto pectin has been investigated at ph=1.2 and temperature =85digC at a variation of concentration from 0 up to 2 g-eq/l. From solution of a hydrolyse three fractions have been separated the pectin substances, micro gel and oligosaccharides. It was shown that under influence of a sodium chloride the speed of the reaction increases up to 2.5 times. In these conditions with increasing of the concentration of a sodium chloride in solution of a hydrolyse the contents of micro gel decreases up to 0 and concentration of key product-pectin substances increase more than 20%

  20. Opuntia ficus indica peel derived pectin mediated hydroxyapatite nanoparticles: Synthesis, spectral characterization, biological and antimicrobial activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopi, D.; Kanimozhi, K.; Kavitha, L.

    2015-04-01

    In the present study, we have adapted a facile and efficient green route for the synthesis of HAP nanoparticles using pectin as a template which was extracted from the peel of prickly pear (Opuntia ficus indica) fruits. The concentration of pectin plays a major role in the behavior of crystallinity, purity, morphology as well as biological property of the as-synthesized HAP nanoparticles. The extracted pectin and the as-synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by various analytical techniques. The in vitro apatite formation on the surface of the as-synthesized nanoparticles in simulated body fluid (SBF) for various days showed an enhanced bioactivity. Also, the antimicrobial activity was investigated using various microorganisms. All the results revealed the formation of pure, low crystalline and discrete granular like HAP nanoparticles of size around 25 nm with enhanced biological and antimicrobial activities. Hence the as-synthesized nanoparticles can act as a better bone regenerating material in the field of biomedicine.

  1. Technique of optimum extraction of pectin from sour orange peels and its chemical evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The extraction of pectin from sour orange peels and effect of pH, temperature, extraction time on the yield and quality of pectin was studied. The extracting reagent was 0.1 N sulphuric acid and variables were pH (1.5, 2.5 and 3.5), extraction time (30, 60 and 120 minutes) and temperature (70 degree C, 80 degree C arid 90 degree C). These variables were significantly affected the extraction of pectin. The best yield (16.10 %) was obtained on soaking the finely ground peels in the sulphuric acid solution of pH, 25 at 80 degree C for 120 minutes. Anhydrogalacturonic acid, methoxyl content were 7310 % and 9.93 %, respectively, while equivalent weight value 945 was obtained by using pH, 2.5 at 80 degree C for 120 minutes. (author)

  2. Partition of lead in a milk-pectin aqueous biphasic system with complexing agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aqueous two-phase systems allow partition of metal ions in nondenaturing conditions. From the fresh skim bovine milk spiked with 212Pb and agitated with 4% water solution of apple pectin (degree of esterification - 70%), less than 2.3% is recovered to the pectin phase and in the case of pasteurized milk less than 3.0%. Complexation with chelate forming agents was studied. Aminoacids as glycine, alanine and histidine do not exert influence on the yield, but the recovery in the pectin phase was 22% for cysteine, and 80% in the case of EdtacalTM (calcium salt of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid). The retention of lead in milk phase is extraordinarily high as compared to strontium and corresponds to the behavior of trivalent ions. (author)

  3. External and internal gelation of pectin solutions: microscopic dynamics versus macroscopic rheology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secchi, E.; Munarin, F.; Alaimo, M. D.; Bosisio, S.; Buzzaccaro, S.; Ciccarella, G.; Vergaro, V.; Petrini, P.; Piazza, R.

    2014-11-01

    Pectin is a natural biopolymer that forms, in the presence of divalent cations, ionic-bound gels typifying a large class of biological gels stabilized by non-covalent cross-links. We investigate and compare the kinetics of formation and aging of pectin gels obtained either through external gelation via perfusion of free Ca2+ ions, or by internal gelation due to the supply of the same ions from the dissolution of CaCO3 nanoparticles. The microscopic dynamics obtained with photon correlation imaging, a novel optical technique that allows obtaining the microscopic dynamics of the sample while retaining the spatial resolution of imaging techniques, is contrasted with macroscopic rheological measurements at constant strain. Pectin gelation is found to display peculiar two-stage kinetics, highlighted by non-monotonic growth in time of both microscopic correlations and gel mechanical strength. These results are compared to those found for alginate, another biopolymer extensively used in food formulation.

  4. Identification of Protein-Protein Interactions Involved in Pectin Biosynthesis in the golgi Apparatus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Christian Have

    The plant cell wall surrounds every plant cell and is an essential component that is involved in diverse functions including plant development, morphology, resistance towards plant pathogens etc. The plant cell wall is not only important for the plant. The cell wall has many industrial applications...... for instance as food additives, nutraceutical, for paper and energy production. Pectin is a cell wall glycan that crucial for every plant growing on land. Pectin is said to be one of the most complex glycans on earth and it is hypothesized that at least 67 enzymatic reactions are involved in its...... exploit the diverse pectin structures for industrial, agronomic and biomedical uses. Increasing evidence suggests that complex formation is important in governing functional coordination of proteins involved in cell wall biosynthesis. In Arabidopsis thaliana, a homogalacturonan (HG) synthase core complex...

  5. Synthesis and Characterization of pH Sensitive Hydrogel Using Extracted Pectin from Dragon Fruit Peel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study is to synthesis pectin-based hydrogel from the dragon fruit peel. The pectin was extracted using acid extraction (pH 3.5) that carried out at 60 degree Celsius for 30 minutes. The extracted compound conformation was analyzed by calculating the degree of esterification (DE) and the analysis was confirmed by the FTIR analysis spectrum. The dragon fruit peel pectin (PcDF) and acrylic acid (AA) hydrogel (AA-PcDF) was fabricated using a free radical polymerization in aqueous solution. Its up taking efficiency was determined in different pH buffer solutions and their swelling percentage was calculated. Further characterizations were made by using FTIR and SEM to examine the AA-PcDF hydrogel physicochemical properties. Results obtained showed that this new material has a high potential to be used as bio material in pharmaceutical and medical purposes. (author)

  6. An acidic pectin lyase from Aspergillus niger with favourable efficiency in fruit juice clarification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, S X; Qin, X; Liu, B; Zhang, D Q; Zhang, W; Wu, K; Zhang, Y H

    2015-02-01

    The pectin lyase gene pnl-zj5a from Aspergillus niger ZJ5 was identified and expressed in Pichia pastoris. PNL-ZJ5A was purified by ultrafiltration, anion exchange and gel chromatography. The Km and Vmax values determined using citrus pectin were 0.66 mg ml(-1) and 32.6 μmol min(-1) mg(-1) , respectively. PNL-ZJ5A exhibited optimal activity at 43°C and retained activity over 25-50°C. PNL-ZJ5A was optimally active at pH 5 and effective in apple juice clarification. Compared with controls, PNL-ZJ5A increased the fruit juice yield significantly. Furthermore, PNL-ZJ5A reduced the viscosity of apple juice by 38.8% and increased its transmittance by 86.3%. PNL-ZJ5A combined with a commercial pectin esterase resulted in higher juice volume. PMID:25382689

  7. Developing precipitation modes for preventing the calcium-oxalate contamination of sugar beet pectins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiaoming; Meng, Hecheng; Zhu, Siming; Tang, Qiang; Pan, Runquan; Yu, Shujuan

    2015-09-01

    Effects of precipitation modes on the co-precipitation of insoluble oxalates particles during the purification of sugar beet pectins (SBP) from the extract were investigated. It was observed that soluble oxalate ions formed insoluble oxalate salts with calcium and precipitated with pectins during ethanol precipitation as pH of the medium increased and the solvent changed from water to ethanol-water mixture. Comparison among the employed precipitation methods revealed that both the dialysis-ethanol-precipitation and metal precipitation effectively prevented the calcium-oxalate contamination of SBP. Emulsifying properties of DEPP, EPP and MPP were also studied. It was observed that DEPP performed better than the remainder with respect to emulsifying ability. Based on these results, we concluded that the dialysis-ethanolic-precipitation can be a suitable method for improving the purity as well as emulsifying properties of the resulting pectins. PMID:25842309

  8. Colonic drug delivery: influence of cross-linking agent on pectin beads properties and role of the shell capsule type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupuis, G; Chambin, O; Génelot, C; Champion, D; Pourcelot, Y

    2006-08-01

    For colonic delivery, pectin beads obtained by ionotropic gelation method have been already reported as an interesting approach. This study investigated the influence of the cross-linking agent (calcium or zinc) and the type of shell capsule used (classical or enteric capsules) on pectin beads properties and on their performance to target the colon (in vitro dissolution studies with subsequent pH change to mimic overall gastro-intestinal tract). Zinc pectinate beads seemed to be relatively similar to calcium's ones in morphological point, except on the surface aspect. When beads were introduced in classical hard capsules, ketoprofen release was not significantly different between CPG and ZPG beads, and it was too premature and too quick due to a chemical erosion of the pectinate matrix (acid + basic attacks). However, zinc pectinate beads showed slower ketoprofen release compared with calcium pectinate beads when enteric hard capsules were used. This interesting finding could be due to the strength of the network formed during the process between the zinc cations and the LM-pectin following the "egg-box" model. This network was stronger and induced a reduction of swelling and hydration when contact with dissolution medium, then subsequently a decrease of drug release. Thus, the zinc pectinate beads could protect sufficiently drug entrapped from the upper gastro-intestinal conditions and drug release will be controlled by pectin degradation with colonic microflora. Finally, these zinc pectinate beads in enteric hard capsules are promising as a carrier for specific colonic delivery of drugs after oral administration. PMID:16908422

  9. Partition of lead in milk-pectin aqueous biphasic system with complexation agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In present work, decontamination of raw cow milk from lead was investigated using the 'membraneless dialysis'. The 4% w/w solutions of apple pectin, degree of esterification 70%, containing various complexing agents were used for experiments at the initial volume ration pectin : milk = 3:7 which changed to 8:2 at equilibration. Radioactive indicator 212Pb was prepared from 228Th emanator. After dissolution in Jennes-Koops buffer with 10-5 M Pb2+ carrier, milk was spiked with the indicator for 100 minutes. Distribution equilibrium of water and lead was achieved after next 100 minutes but yield of lead extraction into pectin phase was less then 2.3% in the case of raw milk, and less then 3.0% in the case of pasteurized milk. Due to denaturation of raw milk, there are strongly limited possibilities to influence the radionuclide partition in the systems. Various non-toxic complexation agents (glycine, alanine, histidine, cysteine, Edtacal) were applied to improve extraction of lead to pectin phase. Glycine and histidine have not influence on lead extraction yields but there was observed an increased yield, 3,8% for alanine and even 25% for 0.002 M cysteine. As the most interesting appeared application of Edtacal, calcium salt of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, EDTA by which the recovery of lead with with pectin phase reached about 80% at concentration of EDTA in initial pectin phase 0.001 M. The retention of Pb2+ cation in milk phase is extraordinary high as compared with strontium and corresponds to behavior of trivalent ions what is attributed to specific interactions with thiol groups of milk components

  10. Morphology and buoyancy of oil-entrapped calcium pectinate gel beads

    OpenAIRE

    Sriamornsak, Pornsak; Thirawong, Nartaya; Puttipipatkhachorn, Satit

    2004-01-01

    A new emulsion-gelation method to prepare oil-entrapped calcium pectinate gel (CaPG) beads capable of floating in the gastric condition was designed and tested. The gel beads containing edible oil were prepared by either being gently mixed or homogenized an oil phase and a water phase containing pectin, and then extruded into calcium chloride solution with gentle agitation at room temperature. The gel beads formed were then separated, washed with distilled water, and dried at 37°C for 12 hour...

  11. Dispersion of halloysite loaded with natural antimicrobials into pectins: Characterization and controlled release analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorrasi, Giuliana

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports the preparation and characterization of green composites based on pectins and nano-hybrids composed of halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) loaded with rosemary essential oil. Different hybrid percentages were mixed into a pectin matrix, by ball milling in the presence of water. Cast films were obtained and analyzed. Structural organization and physical properties (thermal, mechanical, barrier to water vapor) were correlated to the nano-hybrid content. A preliminary study on the kinetics of release of the rosmarinic acid, chosen as a model molecule, was also performed. This work showed the potential of these systems in the active packaging field where controlled release of active species is required. PMID:25965455

  12. Dietary Pectin Increases Intestinal Crypt Stem Cell Survival following Radiation Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Sureban, Sripathi M.; May, Randal; Qu, Dongfeng; Chandrakesan, Parthasarathy; Weygant, Nathaniel; Ali, Naushad; Lightfoot, Stan A.; Ding, Kai; Umar, Shahid; Schlosser, Michael J.; Houchen, Courtney W.

    2015-01-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) mucosal damage is a devastating adverse effect of radiation therapy. We have recently reported that expression of Dclk1, a Tuft cell and tumor stem cell (TSC) marker, 24h after high dose total-body gamma-IR (TBI) can be used as a surrogate marker for crypt survival. Dietary pectin has been demonstrated to possess chemopreventive properties, whereas its radioprotective property has not been studied. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of dietary pectin on i...

  13. Pectin-Lipid Self-Assembly: Influence on the Formation of Polyhydroxy Fatty Acids Nanoparticles

    OpenAIRE

    Guzman-Puyol, Susana; Benítez, José Jesús; Domínguez, Eva; Bayer, Ilker Sefik; Cingolani, Roberto; Athanassiou, Athanassia; Heredia, Antonio; Heredia-Guerrero, José Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    Nanoparticles, named cutinsomes, have been prepared from aleuritic (9,10,16-trihidroxipalmitic) acid and tomato fruit cutin monomers (a mixture of mainly 9(10),16-dihydroxypalmitic acid (85%, w/w) and 16-hydroxyhexadecanoic acid (7.5%, w/w)) with pectin in aqueous solution. The process of formation of the nanoparticles of aleuritic acid plus pectin has been monitored by UV-Vis spectrophotometry, while their chemical and morphological characterization was analyzed by ATR-FTIR, TEM, and non-con...

  14. A Study On The Qualty Griterias Ofthe Pectins Used In Food Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Batu, Ali; SERİM, Fehmi

    1991-01-01

    This investigetion was conducted with the aim of determination of some qu¬ality criterias of the pectins used in food industry. It was determined that the pectin samples conteined 6.01-8.46 % of water. The samples of A, B and G conteining no salt and 1.36 - 2.75 % of ash, other fo¬ur samples conteining 4.00 - 6.51 % of salt and 13.50 - 17.45 % of ash were de¬termined. It was concluded that the A and G samples whose metilation degree were higher than 60 % had good jelatinization. The B and F...

  15. Physical characterisation of the rhamnogalacturonan and homogalacturonan fractions of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) pectin

    OpenAIRE

    Morris, Gordon; Ralet, M.C.; Bonnin, E.; Thibault, J.F.; Harding, S E

    2010-01-01

    Acid extracted sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) pectin was subjected to enzymatic hydrolysis using fungal pectin methyl esterase (f-PME) and two endopolygalacturonanases (PGs I and II). From the hydrolysate, the RG-I fraction was separated and purified by chromatographic techniques. This RG-I fraction was shown to be of high weight average molar mass (188,000 g/mol), but low intrinsic viscosity (36 ml/g), which is consistent with a random coil conformation (Lp = 1.4 nm). The HG fraction was prepare...

  16. Preparation and characteristics of high-amylose corn starch/pectin blend microparticles: A technical note

    OpenAIRE

    Desai, Kashappa Goud H.

    2005-01-01

    The HACS/pectin blend microparticles were prepared by spray-drying technique to obtain effective targeted drug release to the colon. The mean particle size of the micro-particles (plain and blend) that were prepared in the present study was between 5.8 and 7.3 μm. The microparticles were positively charged (ζ potential was in the range of 20.3 to 30.8), and the encapsulation efficiency was between 80.1% and 94.7%. The blending of HACS with pectin improved the encapsulation efficiency and decr...

  17. Potential utilization of Citrullus lanatus var. Colocynthoides waste as a novel source of pectin

    OpenAIRE

    Korish, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    The Citrullus lanatus var. Colocynthoides is an ancestor type of watermelon. It was investigated as a new source of pectin. It was cultivated in Egypt for seeds only, while the remaining fruits are discarded as waste. Effect of different extraction conditions such as pH, solid: liquid ratio, temperature and extraction time on pectin yield of Citrullus lanatus var. Colocynthoides waste was investigated in the present study. The highest yield (19.75 % w/w) was achieved at pH 2, solid: liquid ra...

  18. Effect of apple pectin on gut microbiota - qPCR in applied microbiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergström, Anders; Wilcks, Andrea; Poulsen, Morten;

    This study was part of the large European project ISAFRUIT aiming to reveal the biological explanations for the epidemiologically well-established health effects of fruits. The objective was to identify effects of apple and apple product consumption on the composition of the cecal microbial......), while no effects of apple juice, purée or pomace on microbial composition in cecum were observed. Administration of pectin derived from apples resulted in considerable changes of these DGGE profiles. A 2-fold increase in the activity of beta-glucuronidase was observed in animals fed with pectin (7% in...

  19. A Proteomic Study of Pectin Degrading Enzymes Secreted by Botrytis cinerea Grown in Liquid Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Shah, Punit; Gutierrez-Sanchez, Gerardo; Orlando, Ron; Bergmann, Carl

    2009-01-01

    Botrytis cinerea is a pathogenic filamentous fungus which infects more than 200 plant species. The enzymes secreted by B. cinerea play an important role in the successful colonization of a host plant. Some of the secreted enzymes are involved in the degradation of pectin, a major component of the plant cell wall. A total of 126 proteins secreted by B. cinerea were identified by growing the fungus on highly or partially esterified pectin, or on sucrose in liquid culture. Sixty-seven common pro...

  20. Sugar-cane juice induces pectin lyase and polygalacturonase in Penicillium griseoroseum

    OpenAIRE

    Minussi Rosana Cristina; Soares-Ramos Juliana Rocha Lopes; Coelho Jorge Luiz Cavalcante; Silva Daison Olzany

    1998-01-01

    The use of other inducers as substitutes for pectin was studied aiming to reduce the production costs of pectic enzymes. The effects of sugar-cane juice on the production of pectin lyase (PL) and polygalacturonase (PG) by Penicillium griseoroseum were investigated. The fungus was cultured in a mineral medium (pH 6.3) in a rotary shaker (150 rpm) for 48 h at 25oC. Culture media were supplemented with yeast extract and sucrose or sugar-cane juice. Sugar-cane juice added singly to the medium pro...

  1. Anti-diabetic effect of citrus pectin in diabetic rats and potential mechanism via PI3K/Akt signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanlong; Dong, Man; Yang, Ziyu; Pan, Siyi

    2016-08-01

    This study was performed to investigate the anti-diabetic effect of citrus pectin in type 2 diabetic rats and its potential mechanism of action. The results showed that fasting blood glucose levels were significantly decreased after 4 weeks of citrus pectin administration. Citrus pectin improved glucose tolerance, hepatic glycogen content and blood lipid levels (TG, TC, LDL-c and HDL-c) in diabetic rats. Citrus pectin also significantly reduced insulin resistance, which played an important role in the resulting anti-diabetic effect. Moreover, after the pectin treatment, phosphorylated Akt expression was upregulated and GSK3β expression was downregulated, indicating that the potential anti-diabetic mechanism of citrus pectin might occur through regulation of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. Together, these results suggested that citrus pectin could ameliorate type 2 diabetes and potentially be used as an adjuvant treatment. PMID:27164497

  2. Radiation syntheses of Pectin/acrylamide (PEC/PAM) and Pectin/Diethylaminoethylmethacrylate (PEC/DEAMA) hydrogels as drug delivery systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Different pH responsive copolymer hydrogels based on pectin were prepared by the effect of radiation. The physical and chemical properties of prepared hydrogels were studied by FTIR, and TGA. Also, the prepared hydrogels were evaluated for the possible use as drug delivery system for chlortetracycline HCL as model drug. The results revealed that the swelling ratios and the release behavior of hydrogels depend mainly on the pH of the medium and the hydrogel composition. (author)

  3. Variabilidade genética na região its do rDNA de isolados de trichoderma spp. (Biocontrolador e Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. Chrysanthemi Genetic variability in rDNA ITS region of Trichoderma spp. (biocontrole agent and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. chrysanthemi isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josiane Pacheco Menezes

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available A análise de características morfológicas e culturais podem não ser suficientes para uma caracterização precisa das espécies de Trichoderma e Fusarium. Objetivou-se, neste trabalho, caracterizar a região do Espaço Interno Transcrito (ITS do rDNA dos isolados UFSMT15.1, UFSMT16 e UFSMT17 de Trichoderma spp. utilizados no biocontrole de Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. chrysanthemi (isolado UFSMF6. A extração de DNA de cada isolado foi realizada a partir de micélio produzido em meio líquido Batata-Dextrose. As amostras de DNA genômico foram submetidas à Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase (PCR com os oligonucleotídeos iniciadores universais ITS1 e ITS4 e o produto gerado foi sequenciado. Os fragmentos gerados pela amplificação da PCR foram tratados com as enzimas de restrição HaeIII, HinfI e MboI. As regiões ITS1, ITS2 e 5.8S do rDNA desses isolados fúngicos foram amplificadas com sucesso. A região ITS dos isolados UFSMT15.1, UFSMT16 e UFSMT17 de Trichoderma e o isolado UFSMF6 de Fusarium apresentaram uma banda simples com um fragmento de aproximadamente 600 pares de base (pb. As enzimas de restrição HaeIII, HinfI e MboI geraram polimorfismo de bandas entre os isolados. Com base nas análises da sequência de DNA, os isolados UFSMT15.1, UFSMT16, UFSMT17 e UFSMF6 apresentaram maior similaridade com as espécies Trichoderma koningiopsis, Hypocrea virens, Hypocrea lixii e Fusarium oxysporum, respectivamente.The analysis of morphological and cultural characteristics may not enough for the characterization of the species of Trichoderma and Fusarium. The aim of this work was to characterize the Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS region of the rDNA of UFSMT15.1, UFSMT16 and UFSMT17 isolates of Trichoderma spp. used in the biocontrol of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. chrysanthemi UFSMF6. DNA extraction of each isolate was accomplished starting from hyphae produced in liquid medium Potato-Dextrose-Agar. The samples of genomic DNA were submitted to

  4. 玉米细菌性茎腐病的发生为害调查%Surveys of the occurrence and damage of corn bacterial stalk rots (Erwinia chrysanthemi pv.zeae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李巧芝; 高明; 王自伟; 高清珍; 罗秦岳

    2002-01-01

    系统调查表明,玉米细菌性茎腐病由玉米细菌性茎腐病菌 (Erwinia chrysanthemi pv.zeae)所致,在玉米植株中部叶鞘和茎秆上发生水渍状腐烂,引起组织软化.病菌随病残组织在田间、地边越冬.夏季暴雨多、空气湿度大、虫害发生重等对病害发生有利.提出及时清除病残体、防治虫害、适时施药的防治措施.

  5. Stabilization of a magnetic nano-adsorbent by extracted pectin to remove methylene blue from aqueous solution: A comparative studying between two kinds of cross-likened pectin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rakhshaee, Roohan, E-mail: rakhshaei@iaurasht.ac.ir [Department of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Islamic Azad University, Rasht Branch, P.O. Box 41335-3516, Rasht (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Panahandeh, Mohammad [Environmental Research Institute of Jahad Daneshgahi (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-05-15

    The removal of methylene blue (MB) as a cationic dye from aqueous solution by the stabilized Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nano-particles with the extracted pectin from apple waste (FN-PA) increased due to using the cross-linked forms of the bound pectin on the nano-particles surface by glutaraldehyde (FN-PAG) and adipic acid (FN-PAA) as the cross-linking agents. This increase happened in spite of binding some of the adsorbent functional groups of pectin with nano-particles. It can be due to the local concentrate of other free functional groups after connecting with nano-scale particles. Thermodynamic studies showed that the adsorption equilibrium constant and the maximum adsorption capacities increased with increasing temperature for all of the nano-bioparticles. The kinetic followed the second-order models with the highest rate constants viz. 16.23, 19.76 and 23.04 (x10{sup -3} g/mg min) by FN-PAA. The adsorption force arrangement of MB by these nano-biosorbents regarding their activation energy was obtained as: FN-PAA > FN-PAG > FN-PA.

  6. Stabilization of a magnetic nano-adsorbent by extracted pectin to remove methylene blue from aqueous solution: A comparative studying between two kinds of cross-likened pectin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The removal of methylene blue (MB) as a cationic dye from aqueous solution by the stabilized Fe3O4 nano-particles with the extracted pectin from apple waste (FN-PA) increased due to using the cross-linked forms of the bound pectin on the nano-particles surface by glutaraldehyde (FN-PAG) and adipic acid (FN-PAA) as the cross-linking agents. This increase happened in spite of binding some of the adsorbent functional groups of pectin with nano-particles. It can be due to the local concentrate of other free functional groups after connecting with nano-scale particles. Thermodynamic studies showed that the adsorption equilibrium constant and the maximum adsorption capacities increased with increasing temperature for all of the nano-bioparticles. The kinetic followed the second-order models with the highest rate constants viz. 16.23, 19.76 and 23.04 (x10-3 g/mg min) by FN-PAA. The adsorption force arrangement of MB by these nano-biosorbents regarding their activation energy was obtained as: FN-PAA > FN-PAG > FN-PA.

  7. Comparative effects of hawthorn (Crataegus pinnatifida Bunge) pectin and pectin hydrolyzates on the cholesterol homeostasis of hamsters fed high-cholesterol diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ru-Gang; Sun, Yan-Di; Li, Tuo-Ping; Chen, Gang; Peng, Xue; Duan, Wen-Bin; Zheng, Zheng-Zheng; Shi, Shu-Lei; Xu, Jing-Guo; Liu, Yan-Hua; Jin, Xiao-Yi

    2015-08-01

    This study aims to compare the effects of feeding haw pectin (HP), haw pectin hydrolyzates (HPH), and haw pectin pentasaccharide (HPPS) on the cholesterol metabolism of hypercholesterolemic hamsters induced by high-cholesterol diets. The animals were fed a standard diet (SD), high-cholesterol diet (HCD), or HCD plus HP, HPH, or HPPS at a dose of 300mg/kg body weight for 4weeks. Results showed that HPPS was more effective than HP and HPH in decreasing the body weight gain (by 38.2%), liver weight (by 16.4%), and plasma and hepatic total cholesterol (TC; by 23.6% and 27.3%, respectively) of hamsters. In addition, the bile acid levels in the feces were significantly higher by 39.8% and 132.8% in the HPH and HPPS groups than in the HCD group. Such changes were not noted in the HP group. However, the HP group had higher cholesterol excretion capacities than the HPH and HPPS groups by inhibiting cholesterol absorption in the diet, with a 21.7% increase in TC excretion and a 31.1% decrease in TC absorption. Thus, HPPS could be a promising anti-atherogenic dietary ingredient for the development of functional food to improve cholesterol metabolism. PMID:26070415

  8. Potentiometric titration for determining the composition and stability of metal(II) alginates and pectinates in aqueous solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaisheva, N. Sh.; Kaishev, A. Sh.

    2015-07-01

    The compositions and stabilities of Cu2+, Mn2+, Pb2+, Ca2+, Zn2+, Cd2+, Co2+, and Ni2+ alginates and pectinates are determined in aqueous solutions via titrimetry and potentiometry with calculations performed using Bjerrum's method, the curve intersection technique, and the equilibrium shift method. It is found that the interaction between Cu2+ and polyuronides is a stepwise process and, depending on the ligand concentration and the method of determination, Cu2+ alginate can be characterized by its ML, ML2, and ML3 compositions (where M is the metal ion and L is the structural unit of polyuronide) and stability constants logβ = 2.65, 5.00-5.70, and 7.18-7.80, respectively. The compositions of Cu2+ pectinates are ML and ML2 with logβ = 3.00 and 7.64-7.94, respectively. It is concluded that Pb2+, Ca2+, Mn2+, Zn2+, Cd2+, Co2+, and Ni2+ ions form only alginates and pectinates of ML2 composition with logβ values of 3.45 (Pb2+ alginate), 2.20 (Ca2+ alginate), 1.06 (Mn2+ alginate), 3.51 (Pb2+ pectinate), 2.35 (Ca2+ pectinate), and 1.24 (Mn2+ pectinate). The pectinates are shown to be more stable than the alginates, the most stable compounds being those formed by polyuronides and Cu2+. The least stable are those with Mn2+.

  9. The nanostructural characterization of strawberry pectins in pectate lyase or polygalacturonase silenced fruits elucidates their role in softening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posé, Sara; Kirby, Andrew R; Paniagua, Candelas; Waldron, Keith W; Morris, Victor J; Quesada, Miguel A; Mercado, José A

    2015-11-01

    To ascertain the role of pectin disassembly in fruit softening, chelated- (CSP) and sodium carbonate-soluble (SSP) pectins from plants with a pectate lyase, FaplC, or a polygalacturonase, FaPG1, downregulated by antisense transformation were characterized at the nanostructural level. Fruits from transgenic plants were firmer than the control, although FaPG1 suppression had a greater effect on firmness. Size exclusion chromatography showed that the average molecular masses of both transgenic pectins were higher than that of the control. Atomic force microscopy analysis of pectins confirmed the higher degree of polymerization as result of pectinase silencing. The mean length values for CSP chains increased from 84 nm in the control to 95.5 and 101 nm, in antisense FaplC and antisense FaPG1 samples, respectively. Similarly, SSP polyuronides were longer in transgenic fruits (61, 67.5 and 71 nm, in the control, antisense FaplC and antisense FaPG1 samples, respectively). Transgenic pectins showed a more complex structure, with a higher percentage of branched chains than the control, especially in the case of FaPG1 silenced fruits. Supramolecular pectin aggregates, supposedly formed by homogalacturonan and rhamnogalacturonan I, were more frequently observed in antisense FaPG1 samples. The larger modifications in the nanostructure of pectins in FaPG1 silenced fruits when compared with antisense pectate lyase plants correlate with the higher impact of polygalacturonase silencing on reducing strawberry fruit softening. PMID:26256334

  10. Novel banana peel pectin mediated green route for the synthesis of hydroxyapatite nanoparticles and their spectral characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopi, D.; Kanimozhi, K.; Bhuvaneshwari, N.; Indira, J.; Kavitha, L.

    2014-01-01

    Hydroxyapatite [HAP, Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2] is the main inorganic component of natural bone and is widely used in various biomedical applications. In this paper, we have reported the synthesis of HAP nanoparticles by banana peel pectin mediated green template method. The pectin extracted from the peels of banana and its various concentrations were exploited in our study to achieve a controlled crystallinity, particle size as well as uniform morphology of HAP. The extracted pectin was characterized by spectral techniques like Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) for the functional group analysis, proton-1 nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H NMR) and carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (13C NMR) for the identification of H and C atoms in the extracted pectin, respectively. The HAP nanoparticles were synthesized using different concentrations of the as-extracted pectin. The purity, crystallinity and morphology of the as-synthesized HAP nanoparticles were evaluated by FTIR, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), respectively. Moreover the antibacterial activity of HAP nanoparticles was evaluated against the gram positive and negative bacteria like Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and Escherichia coli (E. coli), respectively. The experimental results revealed that the HAP nanoparticles synthesized in the presence of an optimized concentration of pectin are pure, low crystalline, spherical and discrete particles with reduced size. Also, the HAP sample derived in the presence of pectin showed an enhanced antibacterial activity than that of the HAP synthesized in the absence of pectin. Hence, the HAP nanoparticles synthesized using pectin as a green template can act as a good biomaterial for biomedical applications.

  11. Antimicrobial activity of nisin incorporated in pectin and polylactic acid composite films against Listeria monocytogenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Extruded composite films from 20% pectin and 80% polylactic acids (PLA) were developed and nisin was loaded into films by a diffusion post extrusion. Inhibitory activities of the films against Listeria monocytogenes were evaluated in brain heart infusion (BHI) broth, liquid egg white and orange juic...

  12. Optimization for Ultrasound-microwave Assisted Extraction of Pectin from Jujube Waste using Response Surface Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengqi Bai

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Optimization of conditions for Jujube pectin extraction was investigated using Response Surface Methodology (RSM. Extraction parameters which are employed in this study are Liquid-Solid Ratio (LSR (5-15, pH (1.5-2.5, ultrasonic time (10-20 min and microwave irradiation time (40-60 s and they were optimized using a four factor three levels Box-Behnken response surface design (BBD coupled with desirability function methodology. The results showed that, all the process variables have significant effect on the yield of pectin. The satisfactory conditions for Jujube pectin extraction were obtained as follows: 10.03 mL/g of LSR, 1.97 of pH of sulfuric, 17.66 min of ultrasonic time and 52.73 s of microwave irradiation time. Among the studied factors, microwave irradiation time had the greatest influence on yield. Under these conditions, the experimental yield of Jujube pectin was 1.95±0.06%, which is well in close agreement with the value predicted by the model.

  13. Biosorption properties of citrus peel derived oligogalacturonides, enzyme-modified pectin and peel hydrolysis residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    A citrus processing industry priority is obtaining added value from fruit peel. Approximately one-half of each processed fruit is added to the waste stream. Peel residue mainly is composed of water (~80%), the remaining 20% (solid fraction) consists of pectin, soluble sugars, cellulose, proteins, ph...

  14. Use of 3-D modeling in the early development phase of pectin tablets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Salbu

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the contribution of a 3-D model in an early development of pectin tablets. The aim of this work was to extract as much information of the compression behavior from as few tablets as possible. Pectins with various degrees of methoxylation (DM were studied (4%-72%. The compressibility was evaluated using classic “in-die” Heckel and Kawakita analyses in addition to the 3-D modeling. For validation purposes well-known reference materials were included. 3-D modeling applied to data of single tablets yielded some information on their compressibility. When several tablets with different maximum relative densities (p rel, max were included, no additional information was obtained through classic evaluation. However, the 3-Dmodel provided additional information through the shape of the 3-D parameter plot. Pectins with a DM $ 25% consolidated predominantly by elastic deformation similarly to the 3-D parameter plot ofpregelatinized starch (PGS. The 3-D analysis also suggests some degree of fragmentation and, for some of the low-methoxylated pectins (DM <= 10%, viscoelastic deformation. This study showed that by applying 3-D modeling it is possible to differentiate between elastic and viscoelastic materials for tablets with different p rel,max values.

  15. Facile synthesis of pectin coated Fe3O4 nanospheres by the sonochemical method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pectin coated Fe3O4 magnetic nanospheres (PCMNs) were synthesized by the sonochemical method. The Fe3O4 nanoparticles were prepared by chemical precipitation as reported in the previous articles, and the PCMNs were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering, thermogravimetric analysis, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, a vibrating sample magnetometer and energy dispersive X-ray spectrum. The results indicated that the magnetic nanoparticles have been coated by pectin, magnetite content of which was up to 63%, with the saturation magnetization being 32.69 emu/g. The formation mechanism and further application of PCMNs have also been discussed. The results show that the PCMNs can be applied to biomedical applications. -- Highlights: ► Using the sonochemical method to synthesize the pectin coated magnetic nanospheres makes it easier to load the drugs. ► Pectin is difficult to digest and can only be degraded in colon; it has a bright future in colon targeting. ► This method can control the particle size distribution and magnetic content effectively

  16. THE USE OF ULTRASONIC METHODS FOR VISCOSITY CONTROL OF SOLUTIONS IN THE PECTIN PRODUCTION

    OpenAIRE

    Mishchenko, E.; Mishchenko, V.

    2013-01-01

    The construction of the ultrasonic viscometer for the viscosity continuous control of a liquid in a stream is developed. Perspective of the application of ul'traacoustics methods of control of the viscosity in the production of pectin substances from plant raw materials is showed.

  17. Formation and Properties of Protamine/Pectin LbL-Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hileuskaya, K.; Agabekov, V. E.

    The adsorption regularities of protamine sulfate and pectin on the surfaces from solution with different ionic strength were investigated in situ using quartz substrate via the quartz crystal microbalance technique. Both polymers were observed to absorb according to Langmuir's adsorption isotherm. The value of Langmuir adsorption constant (k) is equal to 74,48 and 1,12 sm3/μg for pectin and protamine respectively. Maximum amount of biopolymer (A∞) adsorbed on resonator is 0,87 μg/sm2 for Pect and 0,57 μg/sm2 for PtS. Ultrathin (pectin)8 LbL films were formed and adsorption kinetics of both polyions were studied. The rate constant of protamine and pectin adsorption are (3,9 ± 0,9)·10-2 s-1 and (3,4 ± 0,3)·10-2 s-1 respectively. It was shown, that film thickness increases by 2.5 times with polymers concentration in solution increasing from 0.1 to 3.0 mg/ml.

  18. Environmentally Friendly Preparation of Gold and Silver Nanoparticles for Sers Applications Using Biopolymer Pectin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balachandran, Y. L.; Panarin, A. Y.; Khodasevich, I. A.; Terekhov, S. N.; Gutleb, A. C.; Girijaa, S.

    2015-01-01

    A facile, one-step, and environmentally friendly fabrication of anisotropic gold nanostructures and size-controlled spherical silver nanoparticles (NP) using biopolymer pectin is reported. The reduction of Au and Ag ions was carried out at room temperature using an increasing concentration of pectin, which acts as the single source of reducing and stabilizing agent. The as-formed NPs were studied by UV-vis, infrared Fourier transform and surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopies, as well as transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. A high yield of anisotropic gold nanostructures was observed at low concentrations of pectin, while its increase results in the formation of smaller sharp edged perfect triangles with a considerable number of quasi-spherically shaped gold NP. On the other hand, the size of spherical silver NP decreased as the biopolymer concentration in the solution increased. The surface-enhanced Raman scattering enhancement of different NPs was evaluated using a Cu-complex of cationic tetrakis(4-N-methylpyridyl)porphyrin as a probe molecule at 441.6 and 532 nm excitation. Great enhancement of Raman signal was obtained with a pectin-silver NP and for most of them their levels were higher than that for the routinely synthesized citrate silver NP.

  19. Aluminium and calcium ions binding to pectin in sugar beet juice: Model of electrical double layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuljanin Tatjana A.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In sugar industry, there is a problem of the presence of undesirable macromolecules such as pectins in sugar beet juice. Separation of these compounds is done mostly by CaO. Calcium may cause undesirable process of alkalization of soil in the near environment of the sugar factory. The theoretical basis of new juice purificatin method based on the application of Al2(SO43, CaSO4 and their mixtures are presented. Two model solutions of pectin (0.1 % w/w are investigated using a method of measuring zeta potential. Pure salts Al2(SO43 and CaSO4, showed better binding properties with the pectin than mixtures. Amount of all studied pure salts and mixtures of Al3+ and Ca2+ ions were significantly less (142 - 710 mg/gpectin than the average amount of CaO used in classical process (about 9 g/gpectin. Mechanism of discharge of pectin macromolecules in the presence of mixtures of these ions using a model of double electric layer are suggested.

  20. Characterization of molecular structural changes in pectin during juice cloud destabilization in frozen concentrated orange juice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pectin comprises one of the major components of cloud material in citrus juices. Juice cloud is a complex mixture of polysaccharides, proteins and lower molecular weight compounds that are responsible for the turbid appearance of citrus juices. The stability of juice cloud depends on a number of fac...

  1. Modification of Pectin and Hemicellulose Polysaccharides in Relation to Aril Breakdown of Harvested Longan Fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duoduo Wang

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the modification of cell wall polysaccharides in relation to aril breakdown in harvested longan fruit, three pectin fractions (WSP, water soluble pectin; CSP, CDTA-soluble pectin; ASP, alkali soluble pectin and one hemicellulose fraction (4 M KOH-SHC, 4 M KOH-soluble hemicellulose were extracted, and their contents, monosaccharide compositions and molecular weights were evaluated. As aril breakdown intensified, CSP content increased while ASP and 4 M KOH-SHC contents decreased, suggesting the solubilization and conversion of cell wall components. Furthermore, the molar percentage of arabinose (Ara, as the main component of the side-chains, decreased largely in CSP and ASP while that of rhamnose (Rha, as branch point for the attachment of neutral sugar side chains, increased during aril breakdown. Analysis of (Ara + Gal/Rha ratio showed that the depolymerization of CSP and ASP happened predominantly in side-chains formed of Ara residues. For 4 M KOH-SHC, more backbones were depolymerized during aril breakdown. Moreover, it was found that the molecular weights of CSP, ASP and 4 M KOH-SHC polysaccharides tended to decrease as aril breakdown intensified. These results suggest that both enhanced depolymerization and structural modifications of polysaccharides in the CSP, ASP and 4 M KOH-SHC fractions might be responsible for aril breakdown of harvested longan fruit.

  2. Influence of pectin supplementation on feed fermentation characteristics in rats and pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tian, L.

    2016-01-01

    The physiological effects of dietary fiber (DFs) depend on several factors including structural features of the DFs, composition and activity of colonic microbiota, and products formed during fermentation. In this thesis, the influence of pectin supplementation to feed fermentation characteristics i

  3. Effect of temperature on the intrinsic viscosity and conformation of different pectins

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of temperature on the intrinsic viscosity and on the conformation of different pectins obtained from citrus, apple and sunflower in a 0.17M NaCl solution were studied. The intrinsic viscosity and the flow activation energy of the polymer (Ea) derived from slope of d In [']/ d(l/T) as an ...

  4. Pectin Biosynthesis Is Critical for Cell Wall Integrity and Immunity in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bethke, Gerit; Thao, Amanda; Xiong, Guangyan; Li, Baohua; Soltis, Nicole E; Hatsugai, Noriyuki; Hillmer, Rachel A; Katagiri, Fumiaki; Kliebenstein, Daniel J; Pauly, Markus; Glazebrook, Jane

    2016-02-01

    Plant cell walls are important barriers against microbial pathogens. Cell walls of Arabidopsis thaliana leaves contain three major types of polysaccharides: cellulose, various hemicelluloses, and pectins. UDP-d-galacturonic acid, the key building block of pectins, is produced from the precursor UDP-d-glucuronic acid by the action of glucuronate 4-epimerases (GAEs). Pseudomonas syringae pv maculicola ES4326 (Pma ES4326) repressed expression of GAE1 and GAE6 in Arabidopsis, and immunity to Pma ES4326 was compromised in gae6 and gae1 gae6 mutant plants. These plants had brittle leaves and cell walls of leaves had less galacturonic acid. Resistance to specific Botrytis cinerea isolates was also compromised in gae1 gae6 double mutant plants. Although oligogalacturonide (OG)-induced immune signaling was unaltered in gae1 gae6 mutant plants, immune signaling induced by a commercial pectinase, macerozyme, was reduced. Macerozyme treatment or infection with B. cinerea released less soluble uronic acid, likely reflecting fewer OGs, from gae1 gae6 cell walls than from wild-type Col-0. Although both OGs and macerozyme-induced immunity to B. cinerea in Col-0, only OGs also induced immunity in gae1 gae6. Pectin is thus an important contributor to plant immunity, and this is due at least in part to the induction of immune responses by soluble pectin, likely OGs, that are released during plant-pathogen interactions. PMID:26813622

  5. Accelerated extraction of pectin from orange citrus albedo using focused microwaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    After removal of soluble sugars and other compounds by washing, citrus peel is largely composed of pectin, cellulose and hemicellulose. In order to utilize the greatest amount of citrus peel product, it would appear reasonable that one or all three of these polysaccharides be converted to a useful p...

  6. Enzyme catalyzed oxidative gelation of sugar beet pectin: Kinetics and rheology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abang Zaidel, Dayang Norulfairuz; Chronakis, Ioannis S.; Meyer, Anne S.

    2012-01-01

    Sugar beet pectin (SBP) is a marginally utilized co-processing product from sugar production from sugar beets. In this study, the kinetics of oxidative gelation of SBP, taking place via enzyme catalyzed cross-linking of ferulic acid moieties (FA), was studied using small angle oscillatory measure...

  7. Improvement of Starch Digestion Using α-Amylase Entrapped in Pectin-Polyvinyl Alcohol Blend

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício Cruz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA and pectin blends were used to entrap α-amylase (Termamyl using glutaraldehyde as a cross-linker. The effect of glutaraldehyde concentration (0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1.0, and 1.25% on the activity of the immobilized enzyme and rate of enzyme released was tested during a 24 h period. Characteristics of the material, such as scanning electron microscopy (SEM, tensile strength (TS, elongation, and rate of dissolution in water (pH 5.7, ruminal buffering solution (pH 7.0, and reactor containing 0.1 mol L−1 sodium phosphate buffer (pH 6.5, were also analyzed. SEM results showed that the surfaces of the pectin/PVA/amylase films were highly irregular and rough. TS values increased as a function of glutaraldehyde concentration, whereas percentage of elongation (%E decreased. Pectin/PVA/amylase films presented similar values of solubility in the tested solvents. The material obtained with 0.25% glutaraldehyde performed best with repeated use (active for 24 h, in a phosphate buffer reactor. By contrast, the material obtained with 1.25% glutaraldehyde presented higher performance during in vitro testing using an artificial rumen. The results suggest that pectin/PVA/amylase is a highly promising material for biotechnological applications.

  8. Kinetics of piroxicam release from low-methylated pectin/zein hydrogel microspheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    The kinetics of a model drug (piroxicam) release from pectin/zein hydrogel microspheres was studied under conditions simulating the gastrointestinal tract. It is established that the rate-limiting step in the release mechanism is drug diffusion out of the microspheres rather than its dissolution. ...

  9. Water sorption properties of HM-pectin and liposomes intended to alleviate dry mouth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamczak, Małgorzata I; Martinsen, Ørjan G; Smistad, Gro; Hiorth, Marianne

    2016-06-15

    Pharmaceutical formulations intended for treatment of xerostomia (dry mouth) should be able to keep the oral mucosa hydrated for a prolonged period of time. The products already existing on the market contain water-soluble polymers, however their ability to moisturize the oral mucosa for a longer period of time seems limited. In this paper the sorption properties of water vapor of high-methoxylated pectin (HM-pectin, a hydrophilic biopolymer) and phosphatidylcholine-based (Soya-PC) liposomes have been studied and compared using a gravimetric method. The kinetics of water desorption and sorption have been recorded over the relative humidity range RH=95-0-95%, at 35°C. The obtained isotherms were found to be well described by the n-layer Brunauer-Emmet-Teller (BET) adsorption model. The water isotherms on HM-pectin were Type II (IUPAC), while water isotherms on liposomes were Type III. The maximum water sorption capacity of liposomes (1.2mg water per mg of adsorbent at 95% RH) was found to be twice as high as for pectin. Due to the slower water release from the liposomes, as well as their high water sorption capacity, they seem to have great potential in relieving the symptoms of dry mouth syndrome. PMID:27109048

  10. Biocompatibility of Pectin-Protein Gels and Microencapsulates: In Vivo Study on Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pectin-protein complex hydrogel beads were tested in vivo on rats. The beads were pre-loaded with a model drug, piroxicam (PX), in ethanol at different loading rates. The rats were starved 8 hr prior to experiment. The rats were then fed with the beads. Blood samples were taken in 2, 4, 6, 12, and 2...

  11. Comparative effect of amidated pectin and psyllium on cholesterol homeostasis in rats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Marounek, Milan; Volek, Z.; Skřivanová, E.; Tůma, J.; Dušková, D.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 3 (2010), s. 299-303. ISSN 1895-104X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : Cholesterol homeostazis * Pectin * Psyllium Subject RIV: GH - Livestock Nutrition Impact factor: 0.685, year: 2010

  12. Hemicellulose-pectin cross-linking in parsley root cell walls

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Flodrová, Dana; Stratilová, E.; Sasinková, V.; Omelková, J.

    Brno: Masarykova univerzita, 2009 - (Wimmerová, M.). s. 24 ISBN 978-80-210-4831-7. [Current chemistry and Biochemistry of Carbohydrates. Cukrblik 2009. 16.04.2009, Brno] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40310501 Keywords : parsley roots * hemicellulose- pectin complex Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry

  13. N-octadecylpectinamide, a hydrophobic sorbent based on modification of highly methoxylated citrus pectin

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Synytsya, A.; Čopíková, J.; Marounek, Milan; Mlčochová, P.; Sihelníková, L.; Skoblya, S.; Havlátová, H.; Matějka, P.; Maryška, M.; Machovič, V.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 56, - (2004), s. 169-179. ISSN 0144-8617 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA525/03/0358 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5045916 Keywords : N-octadecylpectinamide * aminolysis * HM citrus pectin Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 1.710, year: 2004

  14. Composite Films from Sodium Alginate and High Methoxyl Pectin - Physicochemical Properties and Biodegradation in Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayten O. Solak

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The increased public attention on the waste pollution and the awareness of the hard environmental problems is the reason for the need of new materials which are susceptible to degradation in nature for a short period of time. The biopolymer films and coatings based on renewable natural sources are suitable for obtaining of biodegradable packaging. The newly developed composite films based on sodium alginate and apple high methoxyl pectin were studied for total soluble matter, swelling in water, water vapors transmission rate and biodegradation in soil. The analysis of their behavior in water medium showed a considerably higher rate and degree of dissolution of the pectin monocomponent film compared to the composite and alginate films. The composite alginate-pectin films showed lower water vapors transmission rate even under extreme conditions (38ºC, RH 90 % compared to the monocomponent films. All investigated films degraded in soil up to 80 days. The good barrier properties to water vapors and the complete biodegradation in soil make the films based on sodium alginate and high methoxyl pectin potential ecological materials for packing and coating of foods and pharmaceutical products.

  15. Genome Sequence of Pectin-Degrading Alishewanella agri, Isolated from Landfill Soil

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jisun; Jung, Jaejoon; Sung, Jung-Suk; Chun, Jongsik; Park, Woojun

    2012-01-01

    Alishewanella agri BL06T (= KCTC 22400T = JCM 15597T) was isolated from landfill soil in Pohang, South Korea. A. agri showed the ability to degrade pectin, a structural heteropolysaccharide present in the cell wall of plants. Here we report the genome sequence of Alishewanella agri BL06T, the second sequenced strain in the genus Alishewanella.

  16. Genome sequence of pectin-degrading Alishewanella agri, isolated from landfill soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jisun; Jung, Jaejoon; Sung, Jung-Suk; Chun, Jongsik; Park, Woojun

    2012-09-01

    Alishewanella agri BL06(T) (= KCTC 22400(T) = JCM 15597(T)) was isolated from landfill soil in Pohang, South Korea. A. agri showed the ability to degrade pectin, a structural heteropolysaccharide present in the cell wall of plants. Here we report the genome sequence of Alishewanella agri BL06(T), the second sequenced strain in the genus Alishewanella. PMID:22933763

  17. SURFACE-ACTIVE PROPERTIES OF THE DISTILLERS GRAINS AND THE PECTINS ISOLATED FROM THEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. S. Kaisheva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Distillers grains are a huge secondary raw material resource, prospective for different fields, including pharmaceutical use, because of a rich content of biologically active compounds. The purpose of this paper was to estimate possibilities of the pharmaceutical use of distillers grains as the additive agent by means of surface-active properties of distillers grains study as well as pectins, isolated from them. We have established the surface-active properties of the liquid phase of the distillers wheat grains by means of higher pressure of air bubbles with the use of Rehbinder’s apparatus. It contained 6.67 mol/m3 pectins, and pectins isolated from a solid phase of the same distillers grains: surface activity 11.67 and 7.54, saturated surface excess amounted to 1.28×10-5 and 6.25×10-5 mol/m2, critical concentration of micelle formation amounted to 1.32 mol/m3 and 1.48 mol/m3 respectively. Surface-active characteristics of distillers grains and isolated pectins are comparable with well-known natural polysaccharides (sodium alginate, polygalacturonic acid, beet bin pectin, which are used as additive agents in technology of medicinal plants. We have determined the sizes of pectins molecules from distillers grains in the unsaturated adsorption layers, which differed from the well-known polysaccharides by lesser square (2.658 Å2, radius (0.920 Å, diameter of cross-section (1.840 Å and the volume (2727 Å3 at the bigger mass per surface unit (1.031×10-4 кг and a length (1026 Å. The data obtained by the sizes of pectin molecules are the favorable factor, which conduced their high biological availability. 

  18. The effect of copper ions, aluminium ions and their mixtures on separation of pectin from the sugar beet juice

    OpenAIRE

    Kuljanin Tatjana A.; Mišljenović Nevena M.; Koprivica Gordana B.; Jevrić Lidija R.; Grbić Jasna P.

    2013-01-01

    In sugar industry there is a problem of the presence of undesirable macromolecules compounds such as pectin in sugar beet juice. The affinity of calcium ions commonly used in the sugar industry for the removal of pectin from the sugar beet juice is relatively small. Coagulation and precipitation of pectin can be performed by process of discharging that is chemically induced. Compounds with di- and trivalent cations such as pure CuSO4, Al2(SO4)3 or their mixtures can be applied for clari...

  19. SALT-OVERLY SENSITIVE5 Mediates Arabidopsis Seed Coat Mucilage Adherence and Organization through Pectins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Jonathan S; Tsai, Allen Yi-Lun; Xue, Hui; Voiniciuc, Cătălin; Sola, Krešimir; Seifert, Georg J; Mansfield, Shawn D; Haughn, George W

    2014-05-01

    Interactions between cell wall polymers are critical for establishing cell wall integrity and cell-cell adhesion. Here, we exploit the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) seed coat mucilage system to examine cell wall polymer interactions. On hydration, seeds release an adherent mucilage layer strongly attached to the seed in addition to a nonadherent layer that can be removed by gentle agitation. Rhamnogalacturonan I (RG I) is the primary component of adherent mucilage, with homogalacturonan, cellulose, and xyloglucan constituting minor components. Adherent mucilage contains rays composed of cellulose and pectin that extend above the center of each epidermal cell. CELLULOSE SYNTHASE5 (CESA5) and the arabinogalactan protein SALT-OVERLY SENSITIVE5 (SOS5) are required for mucilage adherence through unknown mechanisms. SOS5 has been suggested to mediate adherence by influencing cellulose biosynthesis. We, therefore, investigated the relationship between SOS5 and CESA5. cesa5-1 seeds show reduced cellulose, RG I, and ray size in adherent mucilage. In contrast, sos5-2 seeds have wild-type levels of cellulose but completely lack adherent RG I and rays. Thus, relative to each other, cesa5-1 has a greater effect on cellulose, whereas sos5-2 mainly affects pectin. The double mutant cesa5-1 sos5-2 has a much more severe loss of mucilage adherence, suggesting that SOS5 and CESA5 function independently. Double-mutant analyses with mutations in MUCILAGE MODIFIED2 and FLYING SAUCER1 that reduce mucilage release through pectin modification suggest that only SOS5 influences pectin-mediated adherence. Together, these findings suggest that SOS5 mediates adherence through pectins and does so independently of but in concert with cellulose synthesized by CESA5. PMID:24808103

  20. On the confocal images and the rheology of whey protein isolated and modified pectins associated complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, Rachel; Aserin, Abraham; Portnoy, Yariv; Gottlieb, Moshe; Garti, Nissim

    2009-02-15

    The conditions necessary to form an associated complex between whey protein isolate (WPI) and enzymatically modified pectin in water, at pH values above the isoelectric point of the protein, have been documented. The existence of the complex is not easily verified and its characterization in solution is even more complicated, since the structure is an intermediate entity between the non-interacting, incompatible aqueous soluble mixture of the biopolymers, and a strongly interacting coacervated precipitating complex. Evidence for the formation of this associated complex is provided from confocal laser scanning microscope images and rheological behavior of the aqueous mixtures. The associated complex is characterized by small fluorescent "patches" interpreted as small aggregates. The viscosity of this solution is greater than that of its individual biopolymer constituents, indicating a synergy of attractive interactions that occurs in the solution. While individually, the pectin and the WPI solutions at the studied range of concentrations exhibit moderately non-Newtonian behavior, at specific weight ratios, mixtures of the two behave either as highly entangled polymeric structures or as weak gels. The values of the storage modulus G' are equal to or greater than those of the loss modulus G''. We conclude that the associated complexes are formed at pH 6, and at 4 wt% WPI with a pectin concentration ranging from 0.1 to 0.75 wt%. The influence of the charge distribution (degree of order of the carboxylic groups) of pectin on the associated complex was also investigated, and it was found that the more "ordered" pectin (U63) favors the formation of the associated soluble complex. PMID:19070469

  1. Influence of chain length and polymer concentration on the gelation of (amidated) low-methoxyl pectin induced by calcium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capel, François; Nicolai, Taco; Durand, Dominique; Boulenguer, Patrick; Langendorff, Virginie

    2005-01-01

    The gelation of low-methoxyl pectin (LMP) induced by addition of Ca2+ was studied by measuring the storage modulus as a function of temperature during cooling. Samples with different molar masses were prepared by mechanical degradation. The effect of the molar mass and the pectin concentration on the gelation properties was investigated. The effect of partial amidation was studied by comparing LMP and partially amidated LMP with the same molar mass and degree of methylation. The results are compared to those from a model developed for Ca2+-induced pectin gelation, and good agreement is found except at low concentrations and low molar masses where the gels are weaker than predicted. At low concentrations intrachain bonding weakens the gel, while the presence of small pectin chains weakens the gel because it neutralizes binding sites on larger chains. PMID:16283714

  2. Distribution and speciation of cesium, strontium, and europium in the aqueous two-phase system milk-pectin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Partition of radionuclides in aqueous liquid-liquid systems allows speciation of bioinorganic forms under nondenaturing conditions. From the fresh pasteurized skim bovine milk spiked with respective radionuclides and agitated with 4% w/w water solution of apple pectin, about 80% of cesium, 22% of strontium and less than 1.5% of europium is recovered with the pectin, phase at an initial milk - pectin volume ratio of 7:3. This recovery fraction is proportional to the abundance of radionuclides in milk serum. No protein bound fraction of strontium extractable by Aerosol OT in isooctane was obtained. More than 3-fold preconcentration of strontium and europium radionuclides in milk is achieved after 10-15 min membraneless osmosis with pectin phase. (author) 26 refs.; 6 tabs

  3. In vitro release modulation from crosslinked pellets for site-specific drug delivery to the gastrointestinal tract. II. Physicochemical characterization of calcium-alginate, calcium-pectinate and calcium-alginate-pectinate pellets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillay, V; Fassihi, R

    1999-05-20

    Pellets of calcium-alginate, calcium-pectinate and calcium-alginate-pectinate were produced via crosslinking in an aqueous medium for site-specific drug delivery in the gastrointestinal tract. A comparative study of their physicochemical characteristics by means of texture analysis, modulated temperature differential scanning calorimetry (MTDSC), scanning electron microscopy and swelling dynamics under different pH conditions was undertaken. It was found that the incorporation of low methoxylated pectin (i.e., degree of methoxylation approximately 35%) together with alginate appears to influence the degree of crosslinking and subsequently the physical, mechanical and resilience behavior. In general, texture analysis of various pellets indicated that both strength and resilience profiles were in the order of calcium-alginate>/=calcium-alginate-pectinate>calcium-pectinate. Calcium-alginate pellets were found to be viscoelastic, while calcium-pectinate was highly brittle. Through the application of MTDSC, depolymerization transitions, reversing and non-reversing heat flow were determined and interpreted for each formulation. Scanning electron microscopy and micro-thermal analysis revealed distinct morphological differences in each case. The influence of and nature of crosslinking, and textural properties of such pellets on drug release rate modulation is discussed. PMID:10332058

  4. Identification and functional characterization of the distinct plant pectin esterases PAE8 and PAE9 and their deletion mutants

    OpenAIRE

    de Souza, Amancio; Hull, Philip A.; Gille, Sascha; Pauly, Markus

    2014-01-01

    Main conclusion PAE8 and PAE9 have pectin acetylesterase activity and together remove one-third of the cell wall acetate associated with pectin formation in Arabidopsis leaves. In pae8 and pae9 mutants, substantial amounts of acetate accumulate in cell walls. In addition, the inflorescence stem height is decreased. Pectic polysaccharides constitute a significant part of the primary cell walls in dicotyledonous angiosperms. This diverse group of polysaccharides has been implicated in several p...

  5. Galacturonosyltransferase (GAUT)1 and GAUT7 are the core of a plant cell wall pectin biosynthetic homogalacturonan:galacturonosyltransferase complex

    OpenAIRE

    Atmodjo, Melani A.; Sakuragi, Yumiko; Zhu, Xiang; Burrell, Amy J.; Mohanty, Sushree S; Atwood, James A.; Orlando, Ron; Henrik V. Scheller; Mohnen, Debra

    2011-01-01

    Plant cell wall pectic polysaccharides are arguably the most complex carbohydrates in nature. Progress in understanding pectin synthesis has been slow due to its complex structure and difficulties in purifying and expressing the low-abundance, Golgi membrane-bound pectin biosynthetic enzymes. Arabidopsis galacturonosyltransferase (GAUT) 1 is an α-1,4-galacturonosyltransferase (GalAT) that synthesizes homogalacturonan (HG), the most abundant pectic polysaccharide. We now show that GAUT1 functi...

  6. A copolymer analysis approach to estimate the neutral sugar distribution of sugar beet pectin using size exclusion chromatography

    OpenAIRE

    Morris, Gordon; Ralet, M.C.

    2012-01-01

    Partially degraded sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) pectins were characterised in terms of galacturonic acid, neutral sugar and ferulic acids contents. It was shown that the total neutral sugar content is correlated with the ferulic acid content. One pectin (C) was further characterised by size exclusion chromatography coupled to refractive index and UV detectors (SEC-RI-UV). This gave the opportunity to estimate how the ferulic acid and neutral sugar contents changed with hydrodynamic radius. Pect...

  7. Impact of cross-linking and drying method on drug delivery performance of casein-pectin microparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marreto, Ricardo N; Ramos, Monica F S; Silva, Emmanuelle J; de Freitas, Osvaldo; de Freitas, Luís A P

    2013-09-01

    Pectin is a heteropolysaccharide which has been investigated for the development of colon-specific drug delivery systems. Polymers have been associated with pectin to reduce its aqueous solubility and improve the performance of drug delivery systems. Pectin-casein interaction is widely known in food research, but it has not been fully considered by pharmaceutical scientists. Thus, this study investigated the potential of casein-pectin microparticles as a drug delivery system and clarified the impact of cross-linking and drying methods on the in vitro release of indomethacin (IND) or acetaminophen (PCT) from microparticles. Microparticles were prepared by coacervation and dried by spray or spouted bed methods. Drug recovery, in vitro drug release, size, morphology, and the thermal and diffractometric properties of dried microparticles were determined. Spray-dried non-cross-linked microparticles were able to prolong IND release, and pectin was still degraded by pectinolytic enzymes. On the other hand, glutaraldehyde cross-linking prevented the enzymatic breakdown of pectin without improving IND release. Spouted bed drying reduced IND recovery from all microparticles when compared with spray drying, thus the successful spouted bed drying of microparticles depends on the chemical characteristics of both the drug and the polymer. Release data from PCT microparticles suggested that the microparticle formulation should be improved to bring about a more efficient delivery of water-soluble drugs. In conclusion, casein-pectin microparticles show great potential as a drug delivery system because casein reduces the water solubility of pectin. The drying method and cross-linking process had significant effects on the in vitro performance of these microparticles. PMID:23934432

  8. Extraction and Characterization of Pectin from Peels of Lemon (Citrus limon), Grape Fruit (Citrus paradisi) and Sweet Orange (Citrus sinensis)

    OpenAIRE

    V.O. Aina; Mustapha M. Barau; O.A. Mamman; Amina Zakari; Hauwa Haruna; M.S. Hauwa Umar; Yagana Baba Abba

    2012-01-01

    This research study aimed at comparing the characteristics of three different pectins and to see which one is more suitable for industrial applications. Pectin, which is a family of complex polysaccharides that contains 1, 4-linked x and &betagalactosyluronic acid residues was extracted using alcohol precipitation method from peels of lemon, grape and sweet orange after which it was characterized using both qualitative and quantitative analysis to determine and compare the color equivalent we...

  9. Oregano essential oil-pectin edible films as anti-quorum sensing and food antimicrobial agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Maria V; Ortega-Ramirez, Luis A; Gutierrez-Pacheco, M Melissa; Bernal-Mercado, A Thalia; Rodriguez-Garcia, Isela; Gonzalez-Aguilar, Gustavo A; Ponce, Alejandra; Moreira, Maria Del R; Roura, Sara I; Ayala-Zavala, J Fernando

    2014-01-01

    Edible films can be used as carriers for antimicrobial compounds to assure food safety and quality; in addition, pathogenesis of food bacteria is related to a cell to cell communication mechanism called quorum sensing (QS). Oregano essential oil (OEO) has proved to be useful as food antimicrobial; however, its food applications can be compromised by the volatile character of its active constituents. Therefore, formulation of edible films containing OEO can be an alternative to improve its food usages. QS inhibitory activity of OEO and pectin-OEO films was evaluated using Chromobacterium violaceum as bacterial model. Additionally, antibacterial activity was tested against Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella Choleraesuis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Listeria monocytogenes. OEO was effective to inhibit bacterial growth at MIC of 0.24 mg/mL for all tested bacteria and MBC of 0.24, 0.24, 0.48, and 0.24 mg/mL against E. coli O157:H7, S. Choleraesuis, S. aureus, and L. monocytogenes, respectively. Pectin-films incorporated with 36.1 and 25.9 mg/mL of OEO showed inhibition diameters of 16.3 and 15.2 mm for E. coli O157:H7; 18.1 and 24.2 mm for S. Choleraesuis; 20.8 and 20.3 mm for S. aureus; 21.3 and 19.3 mm for L. monocytogenes, respectively. Pectin-OEO film (15.7 mg/mL) was effective against E. coli O157:H7 (9.3 mm), S. aureus (9.7 mm), and L. monocytogenes (9.2 mm), but not for S. Choleraesuis. All concentrations of OEO (0.0156, 0.0312, 0.0625 and 0.125 mg/mL) and pectin-OEO films (15.7, 25.9 and 36.1 mg/mL) showed a significant anti-QS activity expressed as inhibition of violacein production by C. violaceum. Additionally, the application of pectin-OEO films was effective reducing total coliforms, yeast, and molds of shrimp and cucumber slices stored at 4°C during 15 d. These results demonstrated the potential of pectin films enriched with OEO as food related microorganisms and QS inhibitors. PMID:25566215

  10. Oregano essential oil-pectin edible films as anti-quorum sensing and food antimicrobial agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Maria V.; Ortega-Ramirez, Luis A.; Gutierrez-Pacheco, M. Melissa; Bernal-Mercado, A. Thalia; Rodriguez-Garcia, Isela; Gonzalez-Aguilar, Gustavo A.; Ponce, Alejandra; Moreira, Maria del R.; Roura, Sara I.; Ayala-Zavala, J. Fernando

    2014-01-01

    Edible films can be used as carriers for antimicrobial compounds to assure food safety and quality; in addition, pathogenesis of food bacteria is related to a cell to cell communication mechanism called quorum sensing (QS). Oregano essential oil (OEO) has proved to be useful as food antimicrobial; however, its food applications can be compromised by the volatile character of its active constituents. Therefore, formulation of edible films containing OEO can be an alternative to improve its food usages. QS inhibitory activity of OEO and pectin-OEO films was evaluated using Chromobacterium violaceum as bacterial model. Additionally, antibacterial activity was tested against Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella Choleraesuis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Listeria monocytogenes. OEO was effective to inhibit bacterial growth at MIC of 0.24 mg/mL for all tested bacteria and MBC of 0.24, 0.24, 0.48, and 0.24 mg/mL against E. coli O157:H7, S. Choleraesuis, S. aureus, and L. monocytogenes, respectively. Pectin-films incorporated with 36.1 and 25.9 mg/mL of OEO showed inhibition diameters of 16.3 and 15.2 mm for E. coli O157:H7; 18.1 and 24.2 mm for S. Choleraesuis; 20.8 and 20.3 mm for S. aureus; 21.3 and 19.3 mm for L. monocytogenes, respectively. Pectin-OEO film (15.7 mg/mL) was effective against E. coli O157:H7 (9.3 mm), S. aureus (9.7 mm), and L. monocytogenes (9.2 mm), but not for S. Choleraesuis. All concentrations of OEO (0.0156, 0.0312, 0.0625 and 0.125 mg/mL) and pectin-OEO films (15.7, 25.9 and 36.1 mg/mL) showed a significant anti-QS activity expressed as inhibition of violacein production by C. violaceum. Additionally, the application of pectin-OEO films was effective reducing total coliforms, yeast, and molds of shrimp and cucumber slices stored at 4°C during 15 d. These results demonstrated the potential of pectin films enriched with OEO as food related microorganisms and QS inhibitors. PMID:25566215

  11. Effect of sucrose and pectin addition on physical, chemical, thermal and rheological properties of frozen/thawed pineapple pulps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conceição, Márcia Cavalcante; Fernandes, Tatiana Nunes; Prado, Mônica Elisabeth Torres; de Resende, Jaime Vilela

    2012-09-01

    Pectin (0-1.0 g/100 mL) and sucrose (0-20 g/100 mL) were added to pineapple pulp to improve their rheological properties, thermal properties and stability after freezing and thawing processes. The properties of the mixes were characterized before and after freezing and thawing. Samples were frozen at -20°C, and the freeze concentration was evaluated every 60 min. The thawing rate was evaluated at 19°C and quantified by photographic editing and image analysis software. The thawing rates and values for the freeze concentration were leveled out at pectin concentrations above 0.5 g/100 mL pectin, which indicated that pectin functions to maintain structural homogeneity during freezing. In the thawed samples, the plastic viscosity values were leveled out from pectin concentrations (0.25-0.75 g/100 mL) as the sucrose concentration increased when compared to unfrozen samples. The differences between the rheological parameters of the unfrozen and frozen/thawed pulps, the higher yield stress values after thawing were attributed to the size of suspended particles in the pulp. Applications can specify formulations of frozen products containing pectin, where these properties can be handled after thawing the product.

  12. Extraction and Characterization of Pectin from Peels of Lemon (Citrus limon, Grape Fruit (Citrus paradisi and Sweet Orange (Citrus sinensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.O. Aina

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This research study aimed at comparing the characteristics of three different pectins and to see which one is more suitable for industrial applications. Pectin, which is a family of complex polysaccharides that contains 1, 4-linked x and &betagalactosyluronic acid residues was extracted using alcohol precipitation method from peels of lemon, grape and sweet orange after which it was characterized using both qualitative and quantitative analysis to determine and compare the color equivalent weight methoxyl content, each content solubility in cold and hot alkali, pH as well as sugar and organic acid. The result showed that the colors of the pectin from these 3 sources were the same i.e., Brown they were all soluble in hot and cold alkali and water, the moisture content, the methoxyl content and the ash were all higher in the pectin extracted from peels of sweet orange with 95.25, 5.79 and 35%, respectively. However, the equivalent weight of the pectin extracted from peels of grape was higher with 793.6 mg/mol. The overall results showed that the pectin from these sources were suitable for industrial use.

  13. Ultrasound-assisted extraction of pectins from grape pomace using citric acid: a response surface methodology approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minjares-Fuentes, R; Femenia, A; Garau, M C; Meza-Velázquez, J A; Simal, S; Rosselló, C

    2014-06-15

    An ultrasound-assisted procedure for the extraction of pectins from grape pomace with citric acid as the extracting agent was established. A Box-Behnken design (BBD) was employed to optimize the extraction temperature (X1: 35-75°C), extraction time (X2: 20-60 min) and pH (X3: 1.0-2.0) to obtain a high yield of pectins with high average molecular weight (MW) and degree of esterification (DE) from grape pomace. Analysis of variance showed that the contribution of a quadratic model was significant for the pectin extraction yield and for pectin MW whereas the DE of pectins was more influenced by a linear model. An optimization study using response surface methodology was performed and 3D response surfaces were plotted from the mathematical model. According to the RSM model, the highest pectin yield (∼32.3%) can be achieved when the UAE process is carried out at 75°C for 60 min using a citric acid solution of pH 2.0. These pectic polysaccharides, composed mainly by galacturonic acid units (grape pomace at industrial level. PMID:24721067

  14. Heat-Modified Citrus Pectin Induces Apoptosis-Like Cell Death and Autophagy in HepG2 and A549 Cancer Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Leclere, Lionel; Fransolet, Maude; Cote, Francois; Cambier, Pierre; Arnould, Thierry; Van Cutsem, Pierre; Michiels, Carine

    2015-01-01

    Cancer is still one of the leading causes of death worldwide, and finding new treatments remains a major challenge. Previous studies showed that modified forms of pectin, a complex polysaccharide present in the primary plant cell wall, possess anticancer properties. Nevertheless, the mechanism of action of modified pectin and the pathways involved are unclear. Here, we show that citrus pectin modified by heat treatment induced cell death in HepG2 and A549 cells. The induced cell death differs...

  15. Utilization of cast seaweed and waste from pectin production for anaerobic digestion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fredenslund, Anders Michael; Christensen, Thomas Budde; Kjær, Tyge; Danielsen, Steen; Møller, Henrik Bjarne; Kjær, Lotte Lodberg; Fafner, Klaus

    2011-01-01

    The paper describes a preliminary study on the environmental consequences of realizing a biogas plant using locally available biomass fractions in Solrød, Denmark. The biomass, which will be used at the plant, will consist of: cast seaweed (app. 20,000 tons year-1), waste from pectin production...... (app. 80,000 tons year-1) and manure (app. 50,000 tons year-1) and other materials in lesser amounts. Methane potentials of the two “new” biomass fractions were measured to predict their contribution to the biogas production. Measured methane potentials were: Pectin waste: 370 to 460 ml CH4 g VS-1 and......,000 tons CO2 year-1 depending on the type of energy utilization. Reduction of nutrients in the coastal zone by removal of seaweed was found to be of high value....

  16. Influence of sulphate, chloride, and thiocyanate salts on formation of β-lactoglobulin-pectin microgels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirt, Stacey; Jones, Owen G; Adijanto, Marilyn; Gilbert, Jay

    2014-12-01

    Effects of sulphate, chloride, and thiocyanate salts on the heat-induced formation of protein-based microgels from β-lactoglobulin-pectin complexes were determined as a function of pH and protein-to-polysaccharide ratio. Aggregation temperatures were initially decreased at low ionic strength due to shielding of electrostatic interactions between β-lactoglobulin and pectin but increased with further increases in ionic strength. Turbidity of heated mixtures and associated sizes of formed microgels were increased with up to 75 mmol kg(-1) ionic strength. Aggregation and microgel formation were relatively increased in the presence of thiocyanate salts compared to chloride salts and relatively decreased in the presence of sulphate salts, indicating that the inverse Hofmeister series was relevant in this system. Topographical analysis of dried microgels by atomic force microscopy verified that microgels were smallest in the presence of sulphate salts and showed that added ions, particularly thiocyanate, increased the deformability of microgels during drying. PMID:24996306

  17. Studies on alpha-amylase induced degradation of binary polymeric blends of crosslinked starch and pectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajpai, A K; Shrivastava, Jyoti

    2007-05-01

    A blend matrix of crosslinked starch and pectin was prepared and characterized by infra-red (IR) spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The prepared blends were investigated kinetically for water sorption studies and alpha-amylase induced degradation adopting a gravimetric procedure. Based on the experimental findings, a plausible mechanism including both diffusion and surface enhanced degradation was suggested and degradation profiles were interpreted. The influence of various factors such as chemical architecture of the blend, pH and temperature of alpha-amylase solution were examined for the swelling and degradation kinetics of crosslinked starch-pectin blends. The effect of concentration of enzyme solution was also studied on the degradation profile of the blends. A correlation was established between the extent of degradation and water imbibing capacity of the degrading blends. PMID:17143735

  18. Facile synthesis of pectin coated Fe3O4 nanospheres by the sonochemical method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Junjun; Wu, Shixi; Jiang, Wei; Li, Pingyun; Chen, Xiaolong; Liu, Li; Liu, Jie; Sun, Danping; Chen, Wei; Chen, Binhua; Li, Fengsheng

    2013-04-01

    Pectin coated Fe3O4 magnetic nanospheres (PCMNs) were synthesized by the sonochemical method. The Fe3O4 nanoparticles were prepared by chemical precipitation as reported in the previous articles, and the PCMNs were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering, thermogravimetric analysis, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, a vibrating sample magnetometer and energy dispersive X-ray spectrum. The results indicated that the magnetic nanoparticles have been coated by pectin, magnetite content of which was up to 63%, with the saturation magnetization being 32.69 emu/g. The formation mechanism and further application of PCMNs have also been discussed. The results show that the PCMNs can be applied to biomedical applications.

  19. Physical Characterization Of High Amylose/Pectin Mixtures Cross-Linked With Sodium Trimetaphosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some researches have reported that pectin and high amylose mixtures presented superior mechanical properties in relation to those of the isolated polymers. In this work, mixtures at different ratios (1:4; 1:1) of pectin and high amylose were crosslinked with sodium trimetaphosphate at different degrees by varying reaction conditions. All samples were characterized by rheological and X-ray diffraction analyses. Samples without cross-linker were prepared as control. The oscillatory dynamic tests showed that all samples exhibited predominant elastic behavior, although cross-linked samples presented higher G' values, suggesting that crosslinking by phosphorylation resulted in more strength structures. The diffractograms showed that cross-linked samples underwent structural modifications that resulted in increase of crystallinity due to cross-linking process. (author)

  20. [The use of pectin-containing enterosorbents in exposure to radionuclides and heavy metals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trakhtenberg, I M; Litenko, V A; Dereviago, I B; Demchenko, P I; Mikhaĭlovskiĭ, S V

    1992-05-01

    The pectin-vitamin composition (PVC) and its complex with active carbon (AC) was investigated for use as an oral sorbent to protect radionuclide (Sr-85, Cs-137) accumulation. PVC is composed of the natural mixture of cellulose, pectin (Ca-salt), flavonoides, vitamins of the B-group, PP and C. Investigation of PVC radioprotective action was carried out on the two groups of rats (n = 30) which received 1306 Bk/animal of Sr-85 or 343 Bk/animal of Cs-137 daily. One of the group of rats received every day also 300 mg of PVC. After 30 days level of Sr-85 was less by 56.6%, level of Cs = 137 was less by 27.6% in PVC-treated than in the control group (P < 0.05). Composite sorbent consisting of PVC and AC was slightly less effective in removing of Sr and Cs. PMID:1441405

  1. Strong, Thermally Superinsulating Biopolymer-Silica Aerogel Hybrids by Cogelation of Silicic Acid with Pectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shanyu; Malfait, Wim J; Demilecamps, Arnaud; Zhang, Yucheng; Brunner, Samuel; Huber, Lukas; Tingaut, Philippe; Rigacci, Arnaud; Budtova, Tatiana; Koebel, Matthias M

    2015-11-23

    Silica aerogels are excellent thermal insulators, but their brittle nature has prevented widespread application. To overcome these mechanical limitations, silica-biopolymer hybrids are a promising alternative. A one-pot process to monolithic, superinsulating pectin-silica hybrid aerogels is presented. Their structural and physical properties can be tuned by adjusting the gelation pH and pectin concentration. Hybrid aerogels made at pH 1.5 exhibit minimal dust release and vastly improved mechanical properties while remaining excellent thermal insulators. The change in the mechanical properties is directly linked to the observed "neck-free" nanoscale network structure with thicker struts. Such a design is superior to "neck-limited", classical inorganic aerogels. This new class of materials opens up new perspectives for novel silica-biopolymer nanocomposite aerogels. PMID:26447457

  2. Isolation of pectin from pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata, L.) by acid hydrolysis;Isolamento de pectina de abobora (Cucurbita moschata, L.) por hidrolise acida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Jose R.R.; Ricardo, Nagila M.P.S.; Paula, Regina C.M. de; Feitosa, Judith P.A., E-mail: judith@dqoi.ufc.b [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica Organica e Inorganica. Lab. de Polimeros; Brito, Edy S. [EMBRAPA Agroindustria Tropical, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata, L.) constitutes an excellent source of carotenoids, precursors of vitamin A. Besides, it also that constitutes also a great natural source of low-cost pectin. Pectin is a heterogeneous complex polysaccharide found in the primary cell wall of most plants and its effect on health is receiving increasing interest from the scientific community. In this work, high-methoxy pectin was obtained from pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata, L.) through the acid hydrolysis methodology. The pectin obtained was characterized by FTIR, NMR {sup 1}H, GPC and rheology. (author)

  3. Design and Evaluation of Stomach-Specific Drug Delivery of Domperidone using Floating Pectin Beads

    OpenAIRE

    K.Varun Kumar; P. Srikanth Choudary; Ajaykumar. B

    2013-01-01

    The objective of present study was to develop floating beads of Domperidone (DOM) in order to increase its residence time in the stomach without contact with the mucosa, improve patient compliance and obtain improved therapeutic efficacy. They are prepared by extrusion congealing technique with pectin as a polymer. Floating beads were characterized by polymer compatibility by using FT-IR. The prepared beads were evaluated for particle size, surface morphology, buoyancy, actual drug content, e...

  4. Rheological and microstructural properties of porcine gastric digesta and diets containing pectin or mango powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Peng; Dhital, Sushil; Williams, Barbara A; Chen, Xiao Dong; Gidley, Michael J

    2016-09-01

    Hydrated polysaccharides and their assemblies are known to modulate gastric emptying rate due to their capacity to change the structural and rheological properties of gastric contents (digesta). In the present study, we investigated the rheological and microstructural properties of gastric digesta from pigs fed with diets incorporating mango powder or pectin, and compared results with those from hydrated diets of the same water content, in order to investigate the origins for rheological changes in the pig stomach. All of the hydrated diets and gastric digesta were particle-dominated suspensions, generally showing weak gel or more solid-like behavior with the storage modulus (G') always greater than loss modulus (G") under small deformation oscillatory measurements, and with small deformation viscosity greater than steady shear viscosity (i.e. non-Cox-Merz superposition). Although significant rheological differences were observed between the hydrated diets, rheological parameters for gastric digesta were similar for all diets, indicative of a rheological homeostasis in the pig stomach. Whilst the addition of gastric mucin (20mg/mL) to control and mango diets altered the rheology to match the gastric digesta rheology, the effect of mucin on the pectin-containing diet was negligible. The viscous effect of pectin also hindered the action of alpha amylase as observed from relatively less damaged starch granules in pectin digesta compared to mango and control digesta. Based on the experimental findings that the rheology of gastric digesta differs from hydrated diets of the same water content, the current study revealed composition-dependent complex behavior of gastric digesta in vivo, suggesting that the rheology of food products or ingredients may not necessarily reflect the rheological effect when ingested. PMID:27185134

  5. Pectin Methylesterification Impacts the Relationship between Photosynthesis and Plant Growth1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang-Jin; Renna, Luciana; Brandizzi, Federica

    2016-01-01

    Photosynthesis occurs in mesophyll cells of specialized organs such as leaves. The rigid cell wall encapsulating photosynthetic cells controls the expansion and distribution of cells within photosynthetic tissues. The relationship between photosynthesis and plant growth is affected by leaf area. However, the underlying genetic mechanisms affecting carbon partitioning to different aspects of leaf growth are not known. To fill this gap, we analyzed Arabidopsis plants with altered levels of pectin methylesterification, which is known to modulate cell wall plasticity and plant growth. Pectin methylesterification levels were varied through manipulation of cotton Golgi-related (CGR) 2 or 3 genes encoding two functionally redundant pectin methyltransferases. Increased levels of methylesterification in a line over-expressing CGR2 (CGR2OX) resulted in highly expanded leaves with enhanced intercellular air spaces; reduced methylesterification in a mutant lacking both CGR-genes 2 and 3 (cgr2/3) resulted in thin but dense leaf mesophyll that limited CO2 diffusion to chloroplasts. Leaf, root, and plant dry weight were enhanced in CGR2OX but decreased in cgr2/3. Differences in growth between wild type and the CGR-mutants can be explained by carbon partitioning but not by variations in area-based photosynthesis. Therefore, photosynthesis drives growth through alterations in carbon partitioning to new leaf area growth and leaf mass per unit leaf area; however, CGR-mediated pectin methylesterification acts as a primary factor in this relationship through modulation of the expansion and positioning of the cells in leaves, which in turn drive carbon partitioning by generating dynamic carbon demands in leaf area growth and leaf mass per unit leaf area. PMID:27208234

  6. Investigating the role of pectin in carrot cell wall changes during thermal processing: A microscopic approach

    OpenAIRE

    Ribas, Albert; Van Buggenhout, Sandy; Palmero, Paola; Hendrickx, Marc; Van Loey, Ann

    2014-01-01

    Changes in cell wall integrity upon thermal treatment were assessed in carrot cells using novel microscopic approaches using Congo red and different cell wall polysaccharide specific probes (JIM7, LM10, LM11, LM15, LM21, LM22 and CBM3a). Strong thermal processing induced an increased accessibility of cellulose and hemicelluloses by Congo red and the specific probes, except galactomannan, which detection was not affected by the thermal processing. Detection of pectin by JIM7 disappeared upon t...

  7. Citric pectin. Effect of steam haulage in the extraction and of different drying methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is carried out this investigation with the purpose of determining the effects of steam haulage and of two drying methods in extracted pectin of orange shell, using the residuals of the machine processor of the Caldas region, that it uses the system In Line in the obtaining of the juice for the effect. The essential oils were eliminated the pericarp with haulage of steam, the pectin was extracted with solution to 50% of citric acid and hexametaphosphate of sodium to 0.2%. For shell weight the extraction temperature was of 80 applied during one hour and the pH of 3.4. The pectin was characterized extracted by means of determinations of humidity, ashy, nitrogen, methoxyl percentage, anhidrogalacturonic acid, pH, and acidity. Their behavior is also evaluated by means of determinations that are carried out to the gel with them prepared as its hardness, time and low temperature. They use a totally aleatory statistical design in factorial arrangement 3x2, three treatments: T1 flavedo and albedo with haulage of steam, T2 albedo with steam haulage and T3 albedo without steam haulage and two drying methods, with hot air and with microwaves. The results were analyzed by means of ANDEVA and tests of comparison of Tuckey and Scheff at a level of probability of 95%. They concluded that the steam haulage doesn't have significant influence in the characteristics of the obtained product while, the drying for microwaves influenced significantly in a positive way in the characteristics of the extracted pectin

  8. Influence of temperature on the dynamic and steady-shear rheology of pectin dispersions

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, J. A. Lopes da; M. P. Gonçalves; M.A. Rao

    1994-01-01

    The influence of temperature on the dynamic and steady-shear rheology of ionic polysaccharides, high-methoxyl and low-methoxyl pectins, has been studied and compared with the behaviour of locust bean gum, a virtually neutral biopolymer. Using the time-temperature superposition principle, the rheological parameters were reduced to an arbitrary reference temperature. Activation energies were calculated and their dependence on temperature and shear rate analysed. Concerning the viscosity depende...

  9. Influence of pH on mechanical relaxations in high solids lm-pectin preparations

    OpenAIRE

    Alba, Katerina; Kasapis, Stefan; Kontogiorgos, Vassilis

    2015-01-01

    The influence of pH on the mechanical relaxation of LM-pectin in the presence of co-solute has been investigated by means of differential scanning calorimetry, ζ-potential measurements and small deformation dynamic oscillation in shear. pH was found to affect the conformational properties of the polyelectrolyte altering its structural behaviour. Cooling scans in the vicinity of the glass transition region revealed a remarkable change in the viscoelastic functions as the polyelectrolyte rearra...

  10. DETOXICAL ASPECTS OF NUTRITIONAL THERAPY USING NATURAL ENTEROSORBENTS ON THE BASIS OF PECTINS

    OpenAIRE

    Elena E. Tekutskaya

    2013-01-01

    The rate of anthropogenic pollution and reduction of the environmental quality progress quicker than adaptive possibilities of an organism. This causes pre-pathological and pathological changes. So there is a necessity of preventive measures organization to eliminate toxic load and accelerated eliminating of xenobiotics from an organism. The discoveries of the recent 15 years had been revealed the possibility to change complexons (which are used for detoxication) to dietary fibers, pectin as ...

  11. Design, development and in vitro evaluation of sennosides tablets containing pectin HPMC for colonic drug delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Momin Munira

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present investigation was to achieve colon specific delivery of sennosides using the polysaccharide pectin as a compression-coating agent. In this study, pectin along with hydroxypropylmethylcellulose was used for compression coating of the core tablets of calcium sennoside. Drug dissolution and erosion studies were carried out in pH 1.2 and phosphate buffer pH 7.4 using a pectinolytic enzyme. The system was designed based on the gastrointestinal transit time concept, assuming colon arrival time to be 6 h. It was found that pectin alone was not sufficient to protect the core tablets during entire gastrointestinal transit time. Addition of hydroxypropylmethylcellulose was required to control the erosion of tablets. In this investigation a 3 2 factorial design was constructed to investigate the influence of two variables; the amount of hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (X1 and coat weight of the tablets (X2 on the time taken for 50% erosion of tablet in presence of pectinase enzyme (TE 50 and average percent weight difference between tablets with and without enzyme at the 10 th hour (% WD. The results revealed that for protecting the calcium sennosides core tablets in upper gastrointestinal tract, the core tablets should be coated with lower amount of hydroxypropylmethylcellulose and higher amount of coat weight. The main effects were found to be statistically significant in nature. The amount of hydroxypropylmethylcellulose exhibited predominant action as compared to coat weight. In vivo performance was assessed by X-ray roentegenography study. The pectin-hydroxypropylmethylcellulose coating was found to be a promising colon delivery system for those drugs like sennosides.

  12. Influence of pectin supplementation on feed fermentation characteristics in rats and pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Tian, L.

    2016-01-01

    The physiological effects of dietary fiber (DFs) depend on several factors including structural features of the DFs, composition and activity of colonic microbiota, and products formed during fermentation. In this thesis, the influence of pectin supplementation to feed fermentation characteristics in rats and pigs was studied. The non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) present in the selected feed ingredient oats were characterized. Distinct populations of arabinoxylans (AXs) were observed in oats,...

  13. A Miniature Membrane Reactor for Evaluation of Process Design Options on the Enzymatic Degradation of Pectin

    OpenAIRE

    Zainal Alam, Muhd Nazrul Hisham; Pinelo, Manuel; Arnous, Anis; Jonsson, Gunnar Eigil; Meyer, Anne S.; Gernaey, Krist

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to assess if a membrane microbioreactor system could potentially be used to diagnose consequences of different process design and reactor operation options relevant for larger-scale enzymatic degradation of pectin reactions. The membrane microbioreactor prototype was fabricated from poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA) and poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) with a working volume of ∼190 μL. The prototype also contained the necessary sensors and actuators, i.e., pressure t...

  14. Obtaining process of interpolymeric complexes from lactalbumin, xanthan gum and pectin

    OpenAIRE

    Virginia Coimbra Zuvanov; Edwin Elard Garcia-rojas; Clitor Júnior Fernandes de Souza; Eliana da Silva Gulão; Luciano José Barreto Pereira

    2014-01-01

    In this work, the optimization process of interpolymeric complexes formation between lactalbumin and the polysaccharides xanthan gum and pectin was studied in order to define the optimum conditions for the complexes formation. For the experimental design, response surface methodology (RSM) for three independent variables was used. The optimum conditions for the complexes formation between lactalbumin and xanthan gum were: pH 6.6, NaCl concentration of 0.6 mol/L and xanthan gum concentration 0...

  15. Screening and optimization of pectin lyase and polygalacturonase activity from ginseng pathogen Cylindrocarpon Destructans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gayathri Sathiyaraj

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Cylindrocarpon destructans isolated from ginseng field was found to produce pectinolytic enzymes. A Taguchi's orthogonal array experimental design was applied to optimize the preliminary production of polygalacturonase (PG and pectin lyase (PL using submerged culture condition. This method was applied to evaluate the significant parameters for the production of enzymes. The process variables were pH, pectin concentration, incubation time and temperature. Optimization of process parameters resulted in high levels of enzyme (PG and PL production after ten days of incubation at a pH of 5.0 at 25°C in the presence of 1.5% pectin. Among different nitrogen sources, urea and peptone showed high production of PG and PL, respectively. The enzyme production and mycelial growth seems to have direct influence on the culture conditions; therefore, at stationary state high enzyme production and mycelial growth were obtained than agitation state. Along with this, optimization of enzyme activity was also determined using various physiological parameters like, temperature, incubation time and pH. Taguchi's data was also analyzed using one step ANOVA statistical method.

  16. Screening and optimization of pectin lyase and polygalacturonase activity from ginseng pathogen Cylindrocarpon Destructans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathiyaraj, Gayathri; Srinivasan, Sathiyaraj; Kim, Ho-Bin; Subramaniyam, Sathiyamoorthy; Lee, Ok Ran; Kim, Yeon-Ju; Yang, Deok Chun

    2011-04-01

    Cylindrocarpon destructans isolated from ginseng field was found to produce pectinolytic enzymes. A Taguchi's orthogonal array experimental design was applied to optimize the preliminary production of polygalacturonase (PG) and pectin lyase (PL) using submerged culture condition. This method was applied to evaluate the significant parameters for the production of enzymes. The process variables were pH, pectin concentration, incubation time and temperature. Optimization of process parameters resulted in high levels of enzyme (PG and PL) production after ten days of incubation at a pH of 5.0 at 25°C in the presence of 1.5% pectin. Among different nitrogen sources, urea and peptone showed high production of PG and PL, respectively. The enzyme production and mycelial growth seems to have direct influence on the culture conditions; therefore, at stationary state high enzyme production and mycelial growth were obtained than agitation state. Along with this, optimization of enzyme activity was also determined using various physiological parameters like, temperature, incubation time and pH. Taguchi's data was also analyzed using one step ANOVA statistical method. PMID:24031695

  17. Characterization of Two Homogalacturonan Pectins with Immunomodulatory Activity from Green Tea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huijun Wang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Two natural homogalacturonan (HG pectins (MW ca. 20 kDa were isolated from green tea based on their immunomodulatory activity. The crude tea polysaccharides (TPS1 and TPS2 were obtained from green tea leaves by hot water extraction and followed by 40% and 70% ethanol precipitation, respectively. Two homogenous water soluble polysaccharides (TPS1-2a and TPS1-2b were obtained from TPS1 after purification with gel permeation, which gave a higher phagocytic effect than TPS2. A combination of composition, methylation and configuration analyses, as well as NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy revealed that TPS1-2a and TPS1-2b were homogalacturonan (HG pectins consisting of a backbone of 1,4-linked α-d-galacturonic acid (GalA residues with 28.4% and 26.1% of carboxyl groups as methyl ester, respectively. The immunological assay results demonstrated that TPS1-2, which consisted mainly of HG pectins, showed phagocytosis-enhancing activity in HL-60 cells.

  18. In Vitro and In Vivo Evaluation of Pectin/Copper Exchanged Faujasite Composite Membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ninan, Neethu; Muthiah, Muthunarayanan; Park, In-Kyu; Elain, Anne; Wong, Tin Wui; Thomas, Sabu; Grohens, Yves

    2015-09-01

    The biocompatibility and excellent ion exchange capacity make faujasites ideal candidates for tissue engineering applications. A novel pectin/copper exchanged faujasite hybrid membrane was synthesized by solvent casting technique, using calcium chloride as the crosslinking agent. AFM images revealed the egg-box model organization of calcium cross-linked pectin chains used as a matrix. The morphology of composite membranes was characterized by SEM and their elemental composition was determined using EDX. The higher contact angle of P (1%) when compared to that of native pectin figured out an enhanced hydrophobicity of hybrid material. The embedded faujasite particles maintained their crystalline structure as revealed by XRD and their interactions with the polymer matrix was evaluated by FTIR. The composite membrane with 1% (w/w) of copper exchanged faujasite, P(1%), exhibited better thermal stability, excellent antibacterial activity, controlled swelling and degradation. Finally, it displayed cell viability of 89% on NIH3T3 fibroblast cell lines and aided in improving wound healing and re-epithelialisation in Sprague Dawley rats. The obtained data suggested their potential as ideal matrices for efficient treatment of burn wounds. PMID:26485926

  19. Investigation of Pectin/Chitosan Multilayers Build-up on Corona Charged Polylactide Substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yovcheva, T. A.; Marudova, M. G.; Viraneva, A. P.; Gencheva, E. A.; Mekishev, G. A.; Sainov, S. H.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present research is to investigate the formation and stability of pectin/chitosan multilayer films on preliminary corona charged polylactide substrate with different polarity. For this purpose two different multilayer structures with alternative ordering of polycation and polyanion layers were prepared. Layer-by-layer (LbL) deposition technique was used for multilayer build-up. The FT-IR transmittance spectra of the substrates with multilayers indicated of the presence of pectin and chitosan. The intensity of the typical bands was found to increase with increasing of the number of the deposited layers. The stability and physico-chemical properties of the multilayer structures were investigated by determination of surface refractive index and swelling behaviour. Multilayers are stable enough in distilled water and their equilibrium degree of swelling increases with the increase of build-up layers. This relation is correlated with the increased amount of hydrophilic biopolymers. It was found out that chitosan/pectin multilayers buil-up on negatively charged substrate consist of higher amount of polyelectrolytes and are more stable in distilled water.

  20. Effect of ca2+ to salicylic acid release in pectin based controlled drug delivery system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kistriyani, L.; Wirawan, S. K.; Sediawan, W. B.

    2016-01-01

    Wastes from orange peel are potentially be utilized to produce pectin, which are currently an import commodity. Pectin can be used in making edible film. Edible films are potentially used as a drug delivery system membrane after a tooth extraction. Drug which is used in the drug delivery system is salicylic acid. It is an antiseptic. In order to control the drug release rate, crosslinking process is added in the manufacturing of membrane with CaCl2.2H2O as crosslinker. Pectin was diluted in water and mixed with a plasticizer and CaCl2.2H2O solution at 66°C to make edible film. Then the mixture was dried in an oven at 50 °C. After edible film was formed, it was coated using plasticizer and CaCl2.2H2O solution with various concentration 0, 0.015, 0.03 and 0.05g/mL. This study showed that the more concentration of crosslinker added, the slower release of salicylic acid would be. This was indicated by the value of diffusivites were getting smaller respectively. The addition of crosslinker also caused smaller gels swelling value,which made the membrane is mechanically stronger