WorldWideScience

Sample records for chronological aging factors

  1. Aging in elderly: Chronological versus photoaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priya Cinna Durai

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Skin is a window to aging changes, a biological reality. There is a dearth of studies regarding the various chronological (intrinsic aging and photoaging (extrinsic changes seen in Asians. This study was undertaken to detect the clinical pattern of aging skin changes and dermatoses seen in the elderly. Materials and Methods: This was a descriptive study conducted on 500 consecutive elderly individuals attending the Dermatology out-patient department. The severity of photoaging was graded using Glogau scale. Results: Most of the population had skin type IV and V. Majority (415, 83% of our cases had chronological aging without photoaging and the remaining 85 (17% individuals had photoaging along with chronological aging. The common skin changes due to chronological aging were thin skin, fine wrinkles, xerosis, and loss of elasticity. Photoaging changes such as dyspigmentation, freckles, thick skin, deep wrinkles, melasma, citrine skin, senile purpura, pseudostellate scar, acrokeratoelastoidosis marginalis, and lentigines were less frequent in our study. Smoking and prolonged sun exposure was the risk factors aggravating photoaging. The most common dermatosis was pruritus in 248 (49.6% individuals, of which 149 (29.8% had pruritus associated with xerosis. Contact dermatitis was more common in males. Fungal infections were frequently seen in females. Seborrhoeic keratosis (253, 50.6% was the most common benign neoplasm more commonly seen in males. Cutaneous malignancies were less common in our study population. Conclusion: Photoaging changes were less common than chronological aging changes in skin type IV. Chronological changes were more frequent in females than males, while photoaging was more frequent in males.

  2. Biological versus chronological ovarian age: implications for assisted reproductive technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tredway Donald

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Women have been able to delay childbearing since effective contraception became available in the 1960s. However, fertility decreases with increasing maternal age. A slow but steady decrease in fertility is observed in women aged between 30 and 35 years, which is followed by an accelerated decline among women aged over 35 years. A combination of delayed childbearing and reduced fecundity with increasing age has resulted in an increased number and proportion of women of greater than or equal to 35 years of age seeking assisted reproductive technology (ART treatment. Methods Literature searches supplemented with the authors' knowledge. Results Despite major advances in medical technology, there is currently no ART treatment strategy that can fully compensate for the natural decline in fertility with increasing female age. Although chronological age is the most important predictor of ovarian response to follicle-stimulating hormone, the rate of reproductive ageing and ovarian sensitivity to gonadotrophins varies considerably among individuals. Both environmental and genetic factors contribute to depletion of the ovarian oocyte pool and reduction in oocyte quality. Thus, biological and chronological ovarian age are not always equivalent. Furthermore, biological age is more important than chronological age in predicting the outcome of ART. As older patients present increasingly for ART treatment, it will become more important to critically assess prognosis, counsel appropriately and optimize treatment strategies. Several genetic markers and biomarkers (such as anti-Müllerian hormone and the antral follicle count are emerging that can identify women with accelerated biological ovarian ageing. Potential strategies for improving ovarian response include the use of luteinizing hormone (LH and growth hormone (GH. When endogenous LH levels are heavily suppressed by gonadotrophin-releasing hormone analogues, LH supplementation may help

  3. Iron Age Mediterranean Chronology : A Reply

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruins, Hendrik J.; Nijboer, Albert J.; van der Plicht, Johannes

    2011-01-01

    This article is a reply to the preceding rejoinder by Fantalkin et al., which they wrote in response to our article concerning radiocarbon dates of Iron Age sites in the Mediterranean region measured at Groningen (van der Plicht et al. 2009). We do not agree with much of their criticism. Our reply i

  4. Relationships between Chronological Age, Developmental Age, and Standardized Achievement Tests in Kindergarten.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freberg, Laura

    1991-01-01

    Evaluated chronological age and results of Gesell School Readiness Test as predictors of kindergarten performance as measured by Stanford Achievement Test. Results from 284 kindergarten children indicated that both chronological and developmental age provided good predictors of Stanford Achievement Test performance in kindergarten. Findings have…

  5. Molecular biomarkers for chronological age in animal ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarman, Simon N; Polanowski, Andrea M; Faux, Cassandra E; Robbins, Jooke; De Paoli-Iseppi, Ricardo; Bravington, Mark; Deagle, Bruce E

    2015-10-01

    The chronological age of an individual animal predicts many of its biological characteristics, and these in turn influence population-level ecological processes. Animal age information can therefore be valuable in ecological research, but many species have no external features that allow age to be reliably determined. Molecular age biomarkers provide a potential solution to this problem. Research in this area of molecular ecology has so far focused on a limited range of age biomarkers. The most commonly tested molecular age biomarker is change in average telomere length, which predicts age well in a small number of species and tissues, but performs poorly in many other situations. Epigenetic regulation of gene expression has recently been shown to cause age-related modifications to DNA and to cause changes in abundance of several RNA types throughout animal lifespans. Age biomarkers based on these epigenetic changes, and other new DNA-based assays, have already been applied to model organisms, humans and a limited number of wild animals. There is clear potential to apply these marker types more widely in ecological studies. For many species, these new approaches will produce age estimates where this was previously impractical. They will also enable age information to be gathered in cross-sectional studies and expand the range of demographic characteristics that can be quantified with molecular methods. We describe the range of molecular age biomarkers that have been investigated to date and suggest approaches for developing the newer marker types as age assays in nonmodel animal species.

  6. Reliability of panoramic radiography in chronological age estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramanpal Singh Makkad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There has been a strong relationship between the growth rate of bone and teeth, which can be utilized for the purpose of age identification of an individual. Aims and Objective: The present study was designed to determine the relationship between the dental age, the age from dental panoramic radiography, skeletal age, and chronological age. Materials and Methods: The study included 270 individuals, averaging between 17 years and 25 years of age from out-patient department of New Horizon Dental College and Hospital, Sakri, Bilaspur, Chhattisgarh, India, for third molar surgery. Panoramic and hand wrist radiographs were taken, the films were digitally processed for visualization of the wisdom teeth. The confirmations of ages were repeated again at an interval of 4 weeks by a radiologist. The extracted wisdom teeth were placed in 10% formalin and were examined by one dental surgeon to estimate the age on the basis of root formation. Student′s t-test was adopted for statistical analysis and probability (P value was calculated. Conclusion: Estimating the age of an individual was accurate by examining extracted third molar. Age estimation through panoramic radiography was highly accurate in upper right quadrant (mean = 0.72 and P = 0.077.

  7. Acceleration of cardiovascular-biological age by amphetamine exposure is a power function of chronological age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Amanda; Hulse, Gary Kenneth

    2017-01-01

    Background Amphetamine abuse is becoming more widespread internationally. The possibility that its many cardiovascular complications are associated with a prematurely aged cardiovascular system, and indeed biological organism systemically, has not been addressed. Methods Radial arterial pulse tonometry was performed using the SphygmoCor system (Sydney). 55 amphetamine exposed patients were compared with 107 tobacco smokers, 483 non-smokers and 68 methadone patients (total=713 patients) from 2006 to 2011. A cardiovascular-biological age (VA) was determined. Results The age of the patient groups was 30.03±0.51–40.45±1.15 years. This was controlled for with linear regression. The sex ratio was the same in all groups. 94% of amphetamine exposed patients had used amphetamine in the previous week. When the (log) VA was regressed against the chronological age (CA) and a substance-type group in both cross-sectional and longitudinal models, models quadratic in CA were superior to linear models (both pamphetamine exposure persisted after adjustment for all known cardiovascular risk factors (pamphetamines is associated with an advancement of cardiovascular-organismal age both over age and over time, and is robust to adjustment. That this is associated with power functions of age implies a feed-forward positively reinforcing exacerbation of the underlying ageing process. PMID:28243315

  8. Chronological aging in conidia of pathogenic Aspergillus: Comparison between species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Manuela; Pereira, Clara; Bessa, Cláudia; Araujo, Ricardo; Saraiva, Lucília

    2015-11-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus terreus and Aspergillus niger are common airborne fungi, and the most frequent causative agents of human fungal infections. However, the resistance and lifetime persistence of these fungi in the atmosphere, and the mechanism of aging of Aspergillus conidia are unknown.With this work, we intended to study the processes underlying conidial aging of these four relevant and pathogenic Aspergillus species. Chronological aging was therefore evaluated in A. fumigatus, A. flavus, A. terreus and A. niger conidia exposed to environmental and human body temperatures. The results showed that the aging process in Aspergillus conidia involves apoptosis,with metacaspase activation, DNA fragmentation, and reactive oxygen species production, associated with secondary necrosis. Distinct results were observed for the selected pathogenic species. At environmental conditions, A. niger was the species with the highest resistance to aging, indicating a higher adaption to environmental conditions, whereas A. flavus followed by A. terreus were the most sensitive species. At higher temperatures (37 °C), A. fumigatus presented the longest lifespan, in accordance with its good adaptation to the human body temperature. Altogether,with this work new insights regarding conidia aging are provided, which may be useful when designing treatments for aspergillosis.

  9. Estimation of Chronological Age According to Risser’s Sign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh. Birang

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Background/Objective: Risser's sign, a measure of excursion in the iliac crest apophysis, has been used to evaluate the remaining skeletal growth. The objective of this study was to evaluate the value of Risser's sign in estimation of chronological age in a number of university-affiliated referral hospitals in Tehran, Iran."nPatients and Methods: Our study group consisted of 206 patients aged between 10 and 25 years with a stable hemodynamic condition who were referred due to trauma in regions other than the head and neck. All cases underwent AP spine and proximal pelvis radiographies. All radiographies were graded by Risser's scoring system."nResults: Among our patients, 121 (58.6% were male and 85 (41.3% were female. Risser's score of 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 were seen in 13 (6.3%, 7 (3.4%, 24 (11.7%, 48 (23.3%, 35 (17%, and 79 (38.3% of the patients, respectively. Risser's score was determined for all age groups. All cases aged over 18 years had a Risser's score ≥3."nConclusion: Risser's score is useful for the estimation of age in adults especially for legal purposes, though further multicenter studies are required for more comprehensive and precise data of the normal Iranian population.

  10. Interference of aging media on the assessment of yeast chronological life span by propidium iodide staining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Clara; Saraiva, Lucília

    2013-01-01

    An increasing number of researchers are using the Saccharomyces cerevisiae chronological aging model to gain insight into the post-mitotic cellular aging. Recently, an alternative approach to the traditional cellular viability assay by colony-forming unit (CFU) counts, based on the propidium iodide (PI) staining combined with flow cytometry (PI-FCM), was proposed for the assessment of yeast chronological aging. Since the chronological aging assessment shows variations particularly concerning the aging media, in this work, the influence of the most common aging media (exhausted media or water) on the assessment of chronological aging by PI staining was studied. Our results show that this methodology is highly affected by the aging media. Indeed, a correlation between CFU counts and the percentage of PI-stained cells is only achieved with the exhausted media. As such, the assessment of yeast chronological aging by PI-FCM water should not be used.

  11. Aging on a different scale--chronological versus pathology-related aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melis, Joost P M; Jonker, Martijs J; Vijg, Jan; Hoeijmakers, Jan H J; Breit, Timo M; van Steeg, Harry

    2013-10-01

    In the next decades the elderly population will increase dramatically, demanding appropriate solutions in health care and aging research focusing on healthy aging to prevent high burdens and costs in health care. For this, research targeting tissue-specific and individual aging is paramount to make the necessary progression in aging research. In a recently published study we have attempted to make a step interpreting aging data on chronological as well as pathological scale. For this, we sampled five major tissues at regular time intervals during the entire C57BL/6J murine lifespan from a controlled in vivo aging study, measured the whole transcriptome and incorporated temporal as well as physical health aspects into the analyses. In total, we used 18 different age-related pathological parameters and transcriptomic profiles of liver, kidney, spleen, lung and brain and created a database that can now be used for a broad systems biology approach. In our study, we focused on the dynamics of biological processes during chronological aging and the comparison between chronological and pathology-related aging.

  12. Correlation of dental age, skeletal age, and chronological age among children aged 9-14 years: A retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vignesh Palanisamy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Growth can be one of the most uncertain variations, but understanding the same is very important for diagnosis and treatment planning. Skeletal age and dental age have been used to determine a child′s developmental age. Several researchers have evaluated the association between dental and skeletal maturity with chronologic age on different population. The purpose of the present study was to find out whether dental age estimation can be replaced for skeletal age estimation in the Dakshina Kannada population. Methods: A total of 104 samples equally distributed among both genders in the age group of 9-14 years were selected. Skeletal age was estimated using hand-wrist radiographs and Fishman′s skeletal maturation index and dental age was measured using Demirjian′s method. Results: Spearman′s rank-order correlation coefficients were used to measure the association between the skeletal maturity and dental maturity. The mean ages of male and female samples were determined as 11.89 ± 1.867 years and 12.21 ± 1.473 years, respectively. Chronological age was found to be positively correlated to dental age and skeletal age and found to be statistically significant (P < 0.01. The correlation between dental age and skeletal age was also found to be statistically significant with P < 0.001 and correlation coefficient of 0.683 and 0.704 for males and females. Conclusion: The present study showed a strong relation between the developmental ages in mixed dentition population; hence, dental age can be considered as a replacement in the study population.

  13. What about time? Examining chronological and subjective age and their relation to work motivation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akkermans, J.; Lange, A.H. de; Heijden, B.I.J.M. van der; Kooij, D.T.A.M.; Jansen, P.G.W.; Dikkers, J.S.E.

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE - The aging workforce is becoming an increasingly important topic in today’s labor market. However, most scientific research and organizational policies focus on chronological age as the main determinant of successful aging. Based on life span developmental theories – primarily socioemotiona

  14. Third-molar development in relation to chronologic age in young adults of central China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yuming; Mao, Jing; Zhu, Shengrong; Wei, Wei

    2008-08-01

    The estimation of chronologic age based on the stages of third-molar development was evaluated by using the eight stages (A-H) method of Demirjian and the third-molar development was compared, in terms of sex and age, with results of previous studies. The samples consisted of 291 orthopantomograms from young Chinese subjects of known chronologic age and sex (including 139 males with a mean age of 14.67+/-3.62 y and 152 females with a mean age of 14.85+/-3.70 y). Statistical analysis was performed by employing the Mann-Whitney U-test and the t-test. Regression analysis was conducted to obtain regression formulas for calculating dental age from the chronologic age. Our results showed statistically significant differences (Pthird-molar development between males and females, at the calcification stages D, E and H. And a strong correlation was found between age and third-molar development in both males (r (2)=0.65) and females (r (2)=0.61). New equations (Age=8.76+1.32 Development stage) for estimating chronologic age were derived. It is concluded that third-molar genesis took place earlier in males than in females. The use of third molars as a developmental marker is appropriate in young adults of Central China. The formula obtained in the present study can be used as a guide for estimation of dental maturity and a standard for age estimation for young adults of Central China.

  15. Ethanol and Acetate Acting as Carbon/Energy Sources Negatively Affect Yeast Chronological Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Orlandi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the chronological lifespan (CLS is defined as the length of time that a population of nondividing cells can survive in stationary phase. In this phase, cells remain metabolically active, albeit at reduced levels, and responsive to environmental signals, thus simulating the postmitotic quiescent state of mammalian cells. Many studies on the main nutrient signaling pathways have uncovered the strong influence of growth conditions, including the composition of culture media, on CLS. In this context, two byproducts of yeast glucose fermentation, ethanol and acetic acid, have been proposed as extrinsic proaging factors. Here, we report that ethanol and acetic acid, at physiological levels released in the exhausted medium, both contribute to chronological aging. Moreover, this combined proaging effect is not due to a toxic environment created by their presence but is mainly mediated by the metabolic pathways required for their utilization as carbon/energy sources. In addition, measurements of key enzymatic activities of the glyoxylate cycle and gluconeogenesis, together with respiration assays performed in extreme calorie restriction, point to a long-term quiescent program favoured by glyoxylate/gluconeogenesis flux contrary to a proaging one based on the oxidative metabolism of ethanol/acetate via TCA and mitochondrial respiration.

  16. Age determination of marine sediments in the western North Pacific by aspartic acid chronology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harada, Naomi; Kusakabe, Masashi [Japan Marine Science and Technology Center, Yokosuka, Kanagawa (Japan); Handa, Nobuhiko; Oba, Tadamichi; Matsuoka, Hiromi; Kimoto, Katsunori

    1997-02-01

    The ages of fossil planktonic foraminifera, Pulleniatina obliquiloculata, in sediments (core 3bPC) from the western North Pacific were determined by aspartic acid chronology, which uses the racemization reaction rate constant of aspartic acid (k{sub Asp}). Aspartic acid racemization-based ages (Asp ages) ranged from 7,600 yrBP at the surface, to 307,000 yrBP at a depth of 352.9 cm in the sediments. This sediment core was also dated by the glacial-interglacial fluctuation of {sigma}{sup 18}O chronology, and the ages determined by both chronologies were compared. The ages derived from aspartic acid chronology and {sigma}{sup 18}O stratigraphy were more or less consistent, but there appeared to be some differences in age estimates between these two dating methods at some depths within the core. In the core top sediments, the likely cause for the age discrepancy could be the loss of the surface sediment during sampling of the core. At depths of 66.3 and 139 cm within the core, Asp ages indicated reduced sedimentation rates during ca. 60,000-80,000 yrBP and ca. 140,000-190,000 yrBP. The maximum age differences in both chronologies are 33,000 yr and 46,600 yr during each of these periods. These anomalous reductions in sedimentation rates occurring during these periods could possibly be related to some geological events, such as an increased dissolution effect of the calcium carbonate in the western North Pacific. Another possible reason for these age differences could be the unreliability in {sigma}{sup 18}O ages of core 3bPC as they were estimated by {sigma}{sup 18}O ages of another core, 3aPC. (author)

  17. Perceived Changes in Well-Being: The Role of Chronological Age, Target Age, and Type of Measure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okun, Morris A.; Dittburner, Julie L.; Huff, Barbara P.

    2006-01-01

    The goal of this study is to investigate whether perceived changes in one's well-being from the present to the future are related to chronological age, target age, and type of measure (psychological well-being versus life satisfaction). Young adults (N = 114) rated their current well-being and their future well-being at one of three target ages…

  18. The effects of chronological age and size on toxicity of zinc to juvenile brown trout

    Science.gov (United States)

    A series of toxicity tests were conducted to investigate the role of chronological age and organism weight on zinc tolerance in juvenile brown trout (Salmo trutta). Four different incubation temperatures were used to control the maturation of the juveniles prior to zinc exposure...

  19. 14C dates from Tel Rehov: Iron-Age chronology, pharaohs, and Hebrew kings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruins, Hendrik J; van der Plicht, Johannes; Mazar, Amihai

    2003-04-11

    Stratified radiocarbon dates provide an independent chronological link between archaeological layers and historical data. The invasion by Pharaoh Shoshenq I (Shishak) is a key historical synchronism, approximately 925 B.C.E., mentioned in both Egyptian inscriptions and the Hebrew Bible. The list of places raided by Shoshenq, mentioned at Karnak (Egypt), includes Rehov (Israel). The site yielded a consistent series of radiocarbon dates from the 12th to 9th century B.C.E. Our results (i) suggest a revised Iron-Age chronology; (ii) date an archaeological stratum to Shoshenq's campaign; (iii) indicate the similarity of "Solomonic" and "Omride" pottery; and (iv) provide correlation with Greece and Cyprus.

  20. Third-Molar Development in Relation to Chronologic Age in Young Adults of Central China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuming BAI; Jing MAO; Shengrong ZHU; Wei WEI

    2008-01-01

    The estimation of chronologic age based on the stages of third-molar development was evaluated by using the eight stages (A-H) method of Demirjian and the third-molar development was compared, in terms of sex and age, with results of previous studies. The samples consisted of 291orthopantomograms from young Chinese subjects of known chronologic age and sex (including 139males with a mean age of 14.67±3.62 y and 152 females with a mean age of 14.85±3.70 y). Statistical analysis was performed by employing the Mann-Whitney U-test and the t-test. Regression analysis was conducted to obtain regression formulas for calculating dental age from the chronologic age. Our results showed statistically significant differences (P<0.05) in third-molar development between males and females, at the calcification stages D, E and H. And a strong correlation was found between age and third-molar development in both males (r2=0.65) and females (r2=0.61). New equations (Age=8.76+1.32 Development stage) for estimating chronologic age were derived. It is concluded that third-molar genesis took place earlier in males than in females. The use of third molars as a developmental marker is appropriate in young adults of Central China. The formula obtained in the present study can be used as a guide for estimation of dental maturity and a standard for age estimation for young adults of Central China.

  1. Subjective Age in Early Adolescence: Relationships with Chronological Age, Pubertal Timing, Desired Age, and Problem Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubley, Anita M.; Arim, Rubab G.

    2012-01-01

    Subjective age generally refers to the age that one feels. In a cross-sectional questionnaire study of 245 adolescents ages 10-14 years, we examined (a) whether, and when, a cross-over in subjective age occurs, (b) differences in subjective age among pubertal timing groups, (c) correlations between subjective age and each of desired age and five…

  2. Evaluation of third molar development in the estimation of chronological age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Caio Belém Rodrigues Barros; Figueiroa, José Natal; Dantas, Renata Moura Xavier; Kurita, Lúcio Mitsuo; Pontual, Andréa dos Anjos; Ramos-Perez, Flávia Maria de Moraes; Perez, Danyel Elias da Cruz; Pontual, Maria Luiza dos Anjos

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the correlation between chronological age and the degree of third molar mineralization by Demirjian's developmental stages (Demirjian et al., 1973) using panoramic radiography. From a total of 11.396 digital panoramic radiographs of patients from three oral radiology private clinics from the northeast region of Brazil, obtained from January to June 2009, 2097 radiographic images from patients aged between 6 and 22 years were selected. The images were analyzed individually by two obsevers using a 21-inch computer screen and Windows Picture and Fax Viewer. Reliability was achieved by intra- and interobserver evaluation, using the Kappa test. Chronological age, calcification stage, gender and third molar were interrelated using a multiple linear regression model, considering age as a response variable. There was reliability with Demirjian et al.'s developmental stage assesment, displaying a significant relationship between mineralization stages and patients' age (Page and the calcification stage taking gender and localization of the third molar into consideration. It is possible to estimate chronological age based on Demirjian's stage of a third molar, regardless of gender and location.

  3. Gross Motor Coincidence Timing by Children with Learning Difficulties and Children Matched on Mean Chronological and Mental Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacklin, Susan M.

    1987-01-01

    This study examines the learning of a gross motor coincidence timing task by children with learning difficulties, compared with that by children of average intelligence of an equivalent chronological age and mental age. Results are discussed. (Author/MT)

  4. Cell-autonomous mechanisms of chronological aging in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Arlia-Ciommo

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A body of evidence supports the view that the signaling pathways governing cellular aging – as well as mechanisms of their modulation by longevity-extending genetic, dietary and pharmacological interventions - are conserved across species. The scope of this review is to critically analyze recent advances in our understanding of cell-autonomous mechanisms of chronological aging in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Based on our analysis, we propose a concept of a biomolecular network underlying the chronology of cellular aging in yeast. The concept posits that such network progresses through a series of lifespan checkpoints. At each of these checkpoints, the intracellular concentrations of some key intermediates and products of certain metabolic pathways - as well as the rates of coordinated flow of such metabolites within an intricate network of intercompartmental communications - are monitored by some checkpoint-specific ′′master regulator′′ proteins. The concept envisions that a synergistic action of these master regulator proteins at certain early-life and late-life checkpoints modulates the rates and efficiencies of progression of such processes as cell metabolism, growth, proliferation, stress resistance, macromolecular homeostasis, survival and death. The concept predicts that, by modulating these vital cellular processes throughout lifespan (i.e., prior to an arrest of cell growth and division, and following such arrest, the checkpoint-specific master regulator proteins orchestrate the development and maintenance of a pro- or anti-aging cellular pattern and, thus, define longevity of chronologically aging yeast.

  5. Rewriting the Central European Early Bronze Age Chronology: Evidence from Large-Scale Radiocarbon Dating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockhammer, Philipp W; Massy, Ken; Knipper, Corina; Friedrich, Ronny; Kromer, Bernd; Lindauer, Susanne; Radosavljević, Jelena; Wittenborn, Fabian; Krause, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    The transition from the Neolithic to the Early Bronze Age in Central Europe has often been considered as a supra-regional uniform process, which led to the growing mastery of the new bronze technology. Since the 1920s, archaeologists have divided the Early Bronze Age into two chronological phases (Bronze A1 and A2), which were also seen as stages of technical progress. On the basis of the early radiocarbon dates from the cemetery of Singen, southern Germany, the beginning of the Early Bronze Age in Central Europe was originally dated around 2300/2200 BC and the transition to more complex casting techniques (i.e., Bronze A2) around 2000 BC. On the basis of 140 newly radiocarbon dated human remains from Final Neolithic, Early and Middle Bronze Age cemeteries south of Augsburg (Bavaria) and a re-dating of ten graves from the cemetery of Singen, we propose a significantly different dating range, which forces us to re-think the traditional relative and absolute chronologies as well as the narrative of technical development. We are now able to date the beginning of the Early Bronze Age to around 2150 BC and its end to around 1700 BC. Moreover, there is no transition between Bronze (Bz) A1 and Bronze (Bz) A2, but a complete overlap between the type objects of the two phases from 1900-1700 BC. We thus present a revised chronology of the assumed diagnostic type objects of the Early Bronze Age and recommend a radiocarbon-based view on the development of the material culture. Finally, we propose that the traditional phases Bz A1 and Bz A2 do not represent a chronological sequence, but regionally different social phenomena connected to the willingness of local actors to appropriate the new bronze technology.

  6. In vitro 3-D model based on extending time of culture for studying chronological epidermis aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Morgan; Metral, Elodie; Boher, Aurélie; Rousselle, Patricia; Thepot, Amélie; Damour, Odile

    2015-09-01

    Skin aging is a complex phenomenon in which several mechanisms operate simultaneously. Among them, intrinsic aging is a time-dependent process, which leads to gradual skin changes affecting its structure and function such as thinning down of both epidermal and dermal compartments and a flattening and fragility of the dermo-epidermal junction. Today, several approaches have been proposed for the generation of aged skin in vitro, including skin explants from aged donors and three-dimensional skin equivalent treated by aging-inducing chemical compounds or engineered with human cells isolated from aged donors. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a new in vitro model of aging based on skin equivalent demonstrating the same phenotypic changes that were observed in chronological aging. By using prolonged culture as a proxy for cellular aging, we extended to 120 days the culture time of a skin equivalent model based on collagen-glycosaminoglycan-chitosan porous polymer and engineered with human skin cells from photo-protected sites of young donors. Morphological, immunohistological and ultrastructural analysis at different time points of the culture allowed characterizing the phenotypic changes observed in our model in comparison to samples of non photo-exposed normal human skin from different ages. We firstly confirmed that long-term cultured skin equivalents are still morphologically consistent and functionally active even after 120 days of culture. However, similar to in vivo chronological skin aging a significant decrease of the epidermis thickness as well as the number of keratinocyte expressing proliferation marker Ki67 are observed in extended culture time skin equivalent. Epidermal differentiation markers loricrin, filaggrin, involucrin and transglutaminase, also strongly decreased. Ultrastructural analysis of basement membrane showed typical features of aged skin such as duplication of lamina densa and alterations of hemidesmosomes. Moreover, the

  7. An optical age chronology of Late Pleistocene fluvial deposits in the northern lower Mississippi valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rittenour, Tammy M.; Goble, Ronald J.; Blum, Michael D.

    2003-05-01

    The lower Mississippi valley (LMV) contains many large braided channel belts that are preserved west of the Holocene floodplain. Previous efforts to establish geochronologic control on channel-belt construction have been hindered by the lack of organic material for radiocarbon dating. Luminescence techniques provide a burial date for the sediment itself and may prove useful in this context. Samples from three channel belts in the northern LMV were analyzed using the single aliquot-regenerative technique on 90-125 μm quartz. Optical ages (19.7-17.8, 16.1-15.0 and 12.5-12.1 ka) are consistent with geomorphic relationships and indicate that channel belts were formed in the late Pleistocene under glacial conditions. These optical ages provide the first detailed chronology of LMV channel-belt formation and are the first step towards developing a chronology for the entire LMV.

  8. Home-based Early Intervention on Auditory and Speech Development in Mandarin-speaking Deaf Infants and Toddlers with Chronological Aged 7–24 Months

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Yang

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: The data suggested the early hearing intervention and home-based habilitation benefit auditory and speech development. Chronological age and recovery time may be major factors for aural verbal outcomes in hearing impaired children. The development of auditory and speech in hearing impaired children may be relatively crucial in thefirst year's habilitation after fitted with the auxiliary device.

  9. Environmental factors influence lesser scaup migration chronology and population monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finger, Taylor A.; Afton, Alan D.; Schummer, Michael L.; Petrie, Scott A.; Badzinski, Shannon S.; Johnson, Michael A.; Szymanski, Michael L.; Jacobs, Kevin J.; Olsen, Glenn H.; Mitchell, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Identifying environmental metrics specific to lesser scaup (Aythya affinis; scaup) spring migration chronology may help inform development of conservation, management and population monitoring. Our objective was to determine how environmental conditions influence spring migration of lesser scaup to assess the effectiveness of the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey in accurately estimating scaup populations. We first compared peak timing of mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) and scaup migration from weekly ground surveys in North Dakota, USA because the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey is designed to capture annual mallard migration. As predicted, we detected that peak timing of scaup and mallard migrations differed in 25 of 36 years investigated (1980–2010). We marked scaup with satellite transmitters (n = 78; 7,403 locations) at Long Point, Lake Erie, Ontario, Canada; Pool 19 of the Mississippi River, Iowa and Illinois, USA; and Presque Isle Bay, Lake Erie, Pennsylvania, USA. We tested the assumption that our marked scaup were representative of the continental population using the traditional survey area by comparing timing of migration of marked birds and scaup counted in the North Dakota Game and Fish Department survey. We detected a strong positive correlation between marked scaup and the survey data, which indicated that marked scaup were representative of the population. We subsequently used our validated sample of marked scaup to investigate the effects of annual variation in temperature, precipitation, and ice cover on spring migration chronology in the traditional and eastern survey areas of the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey, 2005–2010. We evaluated competing environmental models to explain variation in timing and rate of scaup migration at large-scale and local levels. Spring migration of scaup occurred earlier and faster during springs with warmer temperatures and greater precipitation, variables known

  10. Chronological age and breed-type effects on carcass characteristics and palatability of bull beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, R R; Smith, G C; Cross, H R; Savell, J W; Long, C R; Cartwright, T C

    1986-01-01

    Bulls (n = 115) of four slaughter ages (9, 12, 15 or 18 months) and of 15 genotypes were studied. In this analysis, each bullock was assigned to one of four breed groups-British and British crosses, Brahman and Brahman crosses. Jersey and Jersey crosses or Holstein and Holstein crosses. Slaughter age had an (P Brahman-type bulls had higher shear force values (P Brahman-type carcasses were assigned the lowest numerical ratings for juiciness. Breed-type had a greater effect on tenderness of bull beef than did chronological age.

  11. The chronology of second molar development in Brazilians and its application to forensic age estimation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, Manuella; Santos Carneiro; Beltraeo, Rejane Targino; Beltraeo, Ricardo Villar [School of Dentistry, Federal University of Paraiba, Joaeo Pessoa (Brazil); Pontual, Andrea dos Anjos [Pernambuco Dental School, Pernambuco University-UPE, Camaragibe (Brazil); Pontual, Maria Luiza dos Anjos [Federal University of Pernambuco, Recife (Brazil)

    2013-03-15

    This study investigated the possible correlation between the mineralization of the second molars and the chronological age of a sample population of the state of Paraiba, Brazil. One thousand eight hundred fifty-four digitized panoramic images using a scanner of a private dental radiology service were obtained in six months. Of these, 457 were selected from patients aged 4.6 to 16 years who met certain criteria. The images were assessed twice by a radiologist with 5 years experience. A minimum interval of 30 days between the evaluations of the same patient was established. To analyze the relationship between chronological age, calcification level proposed by Demirjian et al in 1973, gender, and tooth, a multiple linear regression model was adjusted, taking age as the response variable (p<0.05). The gender and calcification level were significantly correlated with the age of the patients (p<0.05). There was a significant difference between the average age of the patients' upper teeth compared to the lower ones in both genders (p<0.05). The dental development occurred earlier in female individuals than in male ones, and there was no significant difference between the right and left second permanent molars. It was observed that ethnic variables are related to certain parameters of age and sex identification in the Brazilian population, providing important information for forensic evaluations.

  12. Coping and coping effectiveness in relation to a competitive sport event: pubertal status, chronological age, and gender among adolescent athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholls, Adam; Polman, Remco; Morley, David; Taylor, Natalie J

    2009-06-01

    An aim of this paper was to discover whether athletes of different pubertal status, chronological age, and gender reported distinct coping strategies in response to stress during a competitive event in their sport. A secondary aim was to examine pubertal status group, chronological age, and gender differences in coping effectiveness. Participants were adolescent athletes (n = 527), classified as beginning-pubertal (n = 59), midpubertal (n = 189), advanced-pubertal (n = 237), and postpubertal (n = 22). Findings revealed that there were small, but significant differences in how athletes of different pubertal status and chronological age coped. There were also significant differences between how athletes of different pubertal status perceived the effectiveness of their coping strategies. Interestingly, our results suggested that the relationship between pubertal status and coping and coping effectiveness is different from the relationship between chronological age and coping and coping effectiveness.

  13. An evaluation of third molar eruption for assessment of chronologic age: A panoramic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Tuteja

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The identity of a person can be established by assessing one′s age, and in order to be entitled to civil rights and social benefits, verification of the chronological age is required and thereby age estimation has gained an increasing significance in recent years. Tooth eruption is one of the criteria of developmental morphology that can be evaluated by either clinical examination or by evaluation of dental radiographs to determine the dental age. The present study was aimed to evaluate the reliability of the third molar eruption stage as a parameter for forensic age estimation in living subjects. Materials and Methods: The stage of wisdom tooth eruption in 77 male and 73 female Indian subjects aged between 12-26 years was determined by subjecting them to conventional orthopantomograms and was interpreted to assess the third molar eruption stages to evaluate the dental age. Results: Predicted minimum age and mean age of the study sample were found to be significant predictors (P<0.001 of actual age. Minimum age was able to explain 58.3% of the variation in actual age and the mean age was able to explain 60.3% of variation in actual age. Conclusion: Third molar is fairly a reliable indicator to determine the age of alveolar, gingival, and complete emergence of third molar in the occlusal plane in adolescents and young adults. Minimum and most probable ages of examined subjects can also be evaluated using third molar eruption stage.

  14. Chronological age estimation of third molar mineralization of Han in southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Dong Lin; Wu, Zhi Ling; Cui, Min Yi

    2010-03-01

    In order to study the chronology of age of third molar mineralization of Han in southern China, Demirjian staging method was used to determine the stage of four third molars (18, 28, 38, 48) mineralization in 3,100 Han in southern China aged 4.1-26.9 years based on radiological evidence from digital orthopantomograms. The mean age of the 3,100 patients was 15.96 +/- 4.73 years, including 1,200 male (mean age, 15.32 +/- 4.62) and 1,900 female (mean age, 16.35 +/- 4.76). Results show that there was no significant difference in mineralization between 18 and 28 and 38 and 48 of male or female. However, significant difference was observed between 28 and 38 of female at stage C; 28 was 0.25 years earlier than 38. In male, at stage G, 38 was 0.61 years earlier than 28, and 48 was 0.62 years earlier than 18. At stages D, E, F, G, and H, male 48 was 0.34, 0.66, 0.72, 1.34, and 0.76 years earlier than that of female, respectively. At stages A, D, E, F, G, and H, male 38 was 0.73, 0.26, 0.56, 0.91, 1.29, and 0.70 years earlier than that of female, respectively. At stages B, E, F, G, and H, the mineralization mean age of male 18 was 0.54, 0.50, 0.76, 0.92, and 0.58 years earlier than that of female, respectively. At stages E, F, G, and H, the mineralization mean age of male 28 was 0.51, 0.76, 0.92, and 0.49 years earlier than that of female, respectively. After reviewing the literature, the chronological mineralization age of 48, at stages D to G, of Han in southern China was 1 to 4.6 years earlier than that of Japanese and 1 to 3 years earlier than that of German. The mean age at stage H of 48 of Han in southern China was similar to Turkish, Black African, Japanese, and German, but was later than Spanish. Finally, the conclusions are: (1) in the same gender group of Han in southern China, the mineralization ages between two sides in upper or lower jaw are very similar, and (2) the chronology mean age and complete time of third molar mineralization of male were earlier than

  15. Mineralization of mandibular third molars can estimate chronological age--Brazilian indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Fernando Toledo; Capelozza, Ana Lúcia Álvares; Lauris, José Roberto Pereira; de Bullen, Izabel Regina Fischer Rubira

    2012-06-10

    Forensic age estimation is an important element of anthropological research, as it produces one of the primary sources of data that researchers use to establish the identity of a person living or the identity of unknown bodily remains. The aim of this study was to determine if the chronology of third molar mineralization could be an accurate indicator of estimated age in a sample Brazilian population. If so, mineralization could determine the probability of an individual being 18 years or older. The study evaluated 407 panoramic radiographs of males and females from the past 5 years in order to assess the mineralization status of the mandibular third molars. The evaluation was carried out using an adaptation of Demirjian's system. The results indicated a strong correlation between chronological age and the mineralization of the mandibular third molars. The results indicated that modern Brazilian generation tends to demonstrate an earlier mandibular third molar mineralization than older Brazilian generation and people of other nationalities. Males reached developmental stages slightly earlier than females, but statistically significant differences between the sex were not found. The probability that an individual with third molar mineralization stage H had reached an age of 18 years or older was 96.8-98.6% for males and females, respectively.

  16. Chronological age estimation based on third molar development in a Portuguese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldas, Inês Morais; Júlio, Paula; Simões, Ricardo Jorge; Matos, Eduarda; Afonso, Américo; Magalhães, Teresa

    2011-03-01

    Third molar development was assessed using a sample of 1,131 orthopantomograms from a Portuguese population. The methodology applied was the eight stages (A-H) method described by Demirjian et al. The final sample was made of 739 orthopantomograms, 387 (52.5%) of which belonging to females; age ranged between 6.1 and 22.5 years old (mean age = 14.49, S.D. = 4.37). For each developmental stage, mean age, standard deviation, and minimal and maximal age was assessed; evaluation of the rate formation of each tooth, according to sex, was calculated and data distribution expressed in percentiles for each stage; the probability of an individual being 16 was also evaluated. The relationship between tooth development and chronological age had a statistical significance for all teeth and both sexes (p thesis that each population need specific data.

  17. Chronological age affects the permeation of fentanyl through human skin in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmgaard, R; Benfeldt, E; Sorensen, J A

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To study the influence of chronological age on fentanyl permeation through human skin in vitro using static diffusion cells. Elderly individuals are known to be more sensitive to opioids and obtain higher plasma concentrations following dermal application of fentanyl compared to younger...... individuals. The influence of age - as an isolated pharmacokinetic term - on the absorption of fentanyl has not been previously studied. METHOD: Human skin from 30 female donors was mounted in static diffusion cells, and samples were collected during 48 h. Donors were divided into three age groups: ... and old age groups: 5,922 and 4,050 ng, respectively). Furthermore, the lag time and absorption rate were different between the three groups, with a significantly higher rate in the young participants versus the oldest participants. CONCLUSION: We demonstrate that fentanyl permeates the skin of young...

  18. The chronological age estimation of third molar mineralization of Han population in southwestern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qing, Maofeng; Qiu, Lihua; Gao, Zhi; Bhandari, Kishor

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of the study was to estimate the chronology of third molar mineralization in Han population of southwestern China and find its unique characteristics so that it would provide a reference in several legal cases like forensic age estimation. The study used Demirjian's staging method to study 2192 orthopantomograms of 984 male and 1208 female subjects aged between 8 and 25 years. The statistical data was analyzed by Student's t test and ANOVA. The conclusions of the study are: (1) The chronological mineralization age of third molars of Han population in Southwestern China is similar to the Turkish and the Japanese, was earlier than the Austrian and Han of South China, but later than the Spanish. (2) The mineralization timing of the third molars between two sides in maxilla or mandible has no significant differences in the same gender group. (3) There is no significant difference in mineralization of third molars between male and female, except for tooth 48 in Demirjian's stage E. (4) The mineralization of third molar in maxilla is earlier than mandible.

  19. The Pranemuru project and the radiocarbon chronology of the Sardinian Bronze Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubinos, Antonio

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available New C-14 data collected by a Spanish team working in the Sardinian Pranemuru area, allow usthe possibility of revising the C-14 Chronology for the Nuragic Bronze Age and discussing the reliability of some of the dates, as well as the way they have been published, and their matching with the new official chronology for the Sardinian Bronze and Iron Ages, built on Dendro and C14 sequences for the Italian Peninsula.

    La obtención por parte del Proyecto Pranemuru de cerca de una veintena de dataciones radiocarbónicas para una microregión en época nurágica, de las que aquí se recogen discuten catorce, abre la posibilidad de revisar la cronología de la Edad del Bronce en Cerdeña, a la luz de las dataciones recogidas desde los años 90 por Trump (1990 y Tykot (1994 y, más recientemente, por Webster (2001, discutir la validez de las fechas en función de los criterios de recogida de muestra, contexto arqueológico, desviación estándar y forma en que ha sido publicada, así como contrastarla con la cronología propuesta recientemente para la Protohistoria sarda, de acuerdo con la Dendrocronología y Cronología Radiocarbónica para la Italia peninsular (Lo Schiavo 2002.

  20. Chronological and subjective age among Icelanders : alcohol, self-esteem, positive and negative affect

    OpenAIRE

    Helga Maren Pálsdóttir 1993

    2016-01-01

    Rannsóknir sýna að aldur (chronological age) hefur áhrif á huglægann aldur (subjective age) einstakinga. Yngri einstaklingum finnst þeim oft líða eldri heldur en þau eru og eldri einstaklingum finnst þeim líða yngri en þau eru. Rannsóknir hafa einnig sýnt tengsl á milli áfengisneyslu og huglægs aldurs, þeir sem drekka meira áfengi finnst þau vera eldri samanborðið við þá sem drekka ekki. Megin tilgangur núverandi rannsóknar var að skoða hvort að aldur og áfengisneysla hafi áhrif á huglægan al...

  1. [Influence of meteorological and chronological factors in epilepsy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altimiras-Roset, Jacint; Brunet-Gómez, Alícia; Aragonès, Josep M; Roura-Poch, Pere

    2014-10-16

    Introduccion. Los profesionales que atienden urgencias medicas observan picos de incidencia de crisis epilepticas. Algunos pacientes epilepticos atribuyen sus crisis a cambios climaticos y estacionales. Objetivo. Analizar la relacion de variables meteorologicas, de calendario y circadianas con la aparicion de crisis epilepticas. Pacientes y metodos. Estudio retrospectivo en un centro residencial de personas con discapacidad intelectual. Resultados. Los 16 residentes estudiados presentan 855 crisis epilepticas, entre ellas 159 en picos o cumulos, a lo largo del periodo 2009-2012. El predominio de crisis encontrado en otoño y durante el cuarto trimestre del año no es significativo (p > 0,05). No hay relacion estadisticamente significativa entre la presencia de crisis epilepticas con las fases lunares y los dias de la semana. La mayoria de crisis epilepticas (87,2%) se presenta en horario diurno (p 0,05). Conclusiones. Se constata la aparicion de picos o cumulos de crisis epilepticas. La presencia de estas presenta un marcado componente circadiano. La influencia en la epilepsia de los factores meteorologicos estudiados, fases lunares y estaciones del año no es significativa.

  2. Modelling Developmental Changes in Repeated-Sprint Ability by Chronological and Skeletal Ages in Young Soccer Players

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valente-dos-Santos, J.; Coelho-e-Silva, M. J.; Martins, R. A.; Figueiredo, A. J.; Cyrino, E. S.; Sherar, L. B.; Vaeyens, R.; Huijgen, B. C. H.; Elferink-Gemser, M. T.; Malina, R. M.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of chronological (CA) and skeletal ages (SA), anthropometry, aerobic endurance and lower limb explosive strength on developmental changes in repeated-sprint ability (RSA) in soccer players aged 11-17 years. Participants were annually followed over 5 years, resul

  3. The Later Stone Age calvaria from Iwo Eleru, Nigeria: morphology and chronology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katerina Harvati

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In recent years the Later Stone Age has been redated to a much deeper time depth than previously thought. At the same time, human remains from this time period are scarce in Africa, and even rarer in West Africa. The Iwo Eleru burial is one of the few human skeletal remains associated with Later Stone Age artifacts in that region with a proposed Pleistocene date. We undertook a morphometric reanalysis of this cranium in order to better assess its affinities. We also conducted Uranium-series dating to re-evaluate its chronology. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A 3-D geometric morphometric analysis of cranial landmarks and semilandmarks was conducted using a large comparative fossil and modern human sample. The measurements were collected in the form of three dimensional coordinates and processed using Generalized Procrustes Analysis. Principal components, canonical variates, Mahalanobis D(2 and Procrustes distance analyses were performed. The results were further visualized by comparing specimen and mean configurations. Results point to a morphological similarity with late archaic African specimens dating to the Late Pleistocene. A long bone cortical fragment was made available for U-series analysis in order to re-date the specimen. The results (∼11.7-16.3 ka support a terminal Pleistocene chronology for the Iwo Eleru burial as was also suggested by the original radiocarbon dating results and by stratigraphic evidence. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings are in accordance with suggestions of deep population substructure in Africa and a complex evolutionary process for the origin of modern humans. They further highlight the dearth of hominin finds from West Africa, and underscore our real lack of knowledge of human evolution in that region.

  4. Outcome of laparoscopic cholecystectomy is not influenced by chronological age in the elderly

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hyung Ook Kim; Jung Won Yun; Jun Ho Shin; Sang Il Hwang; Yong Kyun Cho; Byung Ho Son; Chang Hak Yoo; Yong Lai Park; Hungdai Kim

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the outcome of laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) in patients aged 80 years and older. METHODS: A total of 353 patients aged 65 to 79 years (group 1) and 35 patients aged 80 years and older (group 2) underwent LC. Patients were further classified into two other groups: those with uncomplicated gallbladder disease (group A) or those with complicated gallbladder disease (group B). RESULTS: There were no significant differences between the age groups (groups 1 and 2) with respect to clinical characteristics such as age, gender, comorbid disease, or disease presentation. Mean operative time, conversion rate, and the incidence of major postoperative complications were similar in groups 1 and 2. However, the percentage of high-risk patients was significantly higher in group 2 than in group 1 (20.0% vs 5.7%, P < 0.01). Group A comprised 322 patients with a mean age of 71.0 ± 5.3 years, and group B comprised 51 patients with a mean age of69.9 ± 4.8 years. In group B, mean operative time (78.4 ± 49.3 min vs 58.3 ± 35.8 min, P < 0.01), mean postoperative hospital stay (7.9 ± 6.5 d vs 5.0 ± 3.7 d, P < 0.01), and the incidence of major postoperative complications (9.8% vs 3.1%, P < 0.05) were significantly greater than in group A. The conversion rate tended to be higher in group B, but this difference was not significant. CONCLUSION: Perioperative outcomes in elderly patients who underwent LC seem to be influenced by the severity of gallbladder disease, and not by chronologic age. In octogenarians, LC should be performed at an earlier, uncomplicated stage of the disease whenever possible to improve perioperative outcomes.

  5. Aging on a different scale - chronological versus pathology-related aging.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melis, J.P.; Jonker, M.J.; Vijg, J.; Hoeijmakers, J.H.; Breit, T.M.; van Steeg, H.

    2013-01-01

    In the next decades the elderly population will increase dramatically, demanding appropriate solutions in health care and aging research focusing on healthy aging to prevent high burdens and costs in health care. For this, research targeting tissue-specific and individual aging is paramount to make

  6. Correlation between Dental Maturation and Chronological Age in Patients with Cerebral Palsy, Mental Retardation, and Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diz, P.; Limeres, J.; Salgado, A. F. P.; Tomas, I.; Delgado, L. F.; Vazquez, E.; Feijoo, J. F.

    2011-01-01

    Determining a child's chronological age and stage of maturation is particularly important in fields such as paediatrics, orthopaedics, and orthodontics, as well as in forensic and anthropological studies. Some systemic conditions can cause abnormal physiological maturation, and skeletal maturation is usually more delayed than dental maturation.…

  7. Mandibular third molar development staging to chronologic age and sex in north Indian children and young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, B; Kaur, J; Anand, S C

    2009-12-01

    Age estimation is not only important for clinical but also for medico-legal purposes. The present study is an attempt to estimate the chronologic age based on the stages of third molar development following the eight stages (A-H) method of Demirjian et al8 and to compare third molar development by sex and age. We examined 250 orthopantomograms of young north Indian subjects of known chronologic age (range, 7-26 years). Statistical analysis was performed using the Mann-Whitney U-test and the Wilcoxon test between sex and age. Regression analysis was performed to obtain BR regression formulae for dental age calculation with the chronologic age. Statistically significant differences in mandibular third-molar development between males and females were revealed regarding the calcification stages D and G. The results further indicated that third-molar formation was attained earlier in females than in males. Statistical analysis showed a strong correlation between age and third-molar development for both the sexes.

  8. Correlative and comparative study of Fishman′s skeletal maturity indicators with CVMI and chronological age in Lucknow population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachan Kiran

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The present study consists of comparison and correlation between the hand-wrist skeletal maturation indicator (SMI and the cervical vertebral maturation indicator (CVMI and verification of the reliability of the vertebral index and chronological age in the determination of the stages of the skeletal maturation. Materials and Methods: The study consisted of randomly selected 90 children from Lucknow population with 45 males (age range 10-13 years and 45 females (age range 9-12 years. Hand wrist radiograph taken for SMI, Lateral cephalogram taken for CVMI. Correlation was made between cervical vertebrae maturation and hand wrist maturation. These two methods and the chronological age were compared using the Newman-Keuls test. Results: There was strong correlation between SMI and CVMI for both male and female (0.849, 0.932. Cervical vertebrae maturation indicator and hand-wrist skeletal maturational indicator (SMI showed no statistical signi?cant difference for males and females. However, females showed maturation at an early age as compared to males. Chronological age shows significant difference in comparison to skeletal age. Conclusion: It was concluded that CVMI stages can also be used as for assessing skeletal maturity. Cervical vertebrae assessment provided a reliable assessment for pubertal growth spurt, it would be bene?cial to use a lateral cephalogram for skeletal maturity assessment and thereby eliminate the need for an additional radiograph (hand-wrist radiograph. This is cost effective and will also reduce the radiation exposure to the patient.

  9. Assessment of Telomere Length in Archived Formalin-Fixed, Paraffinized Human Tissue Is Confounded by Chronological Age and Storage Duration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Telomeres shorten with physiological aging but undergo substantial restoration during cancer immortalization. Increasingly, cancer studies utilize the archive of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues in diagnostic pathology departments. Conceptually, such studies would be confounded by physiological telomere attrition and loss of DNA integrity from prolonged tissue storage. Our study aimed to investigate these two confounding factors. 145 FFPE tissues of surgically-resected, non-diseased appendixes were retrieved from our pathology archive, from years 2008 to 2014. Cases from 2013 to 2014 were categorized by patient chronological age (0–20 years, 21–40 years, 41–60 years, > 60 years). Telomere lengths of age categories were depicted by telomere/chromosome 2 centromere intensity ratio (TCR) revealed by quantitative fluorescence in situ hybridization. Material from individuals aged 0–20 years from years 2013/2014, 2011/2012, 2009/2010, and 2008 were compared for storage effect. Telomere integrity was assessed by telomere fluorescence intensity (TFI). Epithelial TCRs (mean ± SD) for the respective age groups were 4.84 ± 2.08, 3.64 ± 1.21, 2.03 ± 0.37, and 1.93 ± 0.45, whereas corresponding stromal TCRs were 5.16 ± 2.55, 3.84 ± 1.36, 2.49 ± 1.20, and 2.93 ± 1.24. A trend of inverse correlation with age in both epithelial and stromal tissues is supported by r = -0.69, p archived beyond 2 years are suboptimal for telomere analysis. PMID:27598341

  10. Caloric restriction extends yeast chronological lifespan by altering a pattern of age-related changes in trehalose concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlo eKyryakov

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The nonreducing disaccharide trehalose has been long considered only as a reserve carbohydrate. However, recent studies in yeast suggested that this osmolyte can protect cells and cellular proteins from oxidative damage elicited by exogenously added reactive oxygen species (ROS. Trehalose has been also shown to affect stability, folding and aggregation of bacterial and firefly proteins heterologously expressed in heat-shocked yeast cells. Our recent investigation of how a lifespan-extending caloric restriction (CR diet alters the metabolic history of chronologically aging yeast suggested that their longevity is programmed by the level of metabolic capacity - including trehalose biosynthesis and degradation - that yeast cells developed prior to entry into quiescence. To investigate whether trehalose homeostasis in chronologically aging yeast may play a role in longevity extension by CR, in this study we examined how single-gene-deletion mutations affecting trehalose biosynthesis and degradation impact 1 the age-related dynamics of changes in trehalose concentration; 2 yeast chronological lifespan under CR conditions; 3 the chronology of oxidative protein damage, intracellular ROS level and protein aggregation; and 4 the timeline of thermal inactivation of a protein in heat-shocked yeast cells and its subsequent reactivation in yeast returned to low temperature. Our data imply that CR extends yeast chronological lifespan in part by altering a pattern of age-related changes in trehalose concentration. We outline a model for molecular mechanisms underlying the essential role of trehalose in defining yeast longevity by modulating protein folding, misfolding, unfolding, refolding, oxidative damage, solubility and aggregation throughout lifespan.

  11. Chronological versus dental age in subjects from 5 to 19 years: a comparative study with forensic implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Corral

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study evaluated six methods used in estimating the age of patients attending the Dental School at Universidad del Valle, evaluating dental development by using panoramic radiographs. Additionally, the study determined the sexual identity of the person and the bilateral symmetry of development, the maturity and the chronological eruption of permanent teeth. Materials and methods: This is a descriptive, quantitative and transversal study that evaluated which of the six methods (Logan & Kronfeld; Schour & Massler; Moorrees, Fanning & Hunt; Demirjian, Goldstein & Tanner; Ubelaker & Smith for estimating the age of a patient through radiographic evaluation of dental development is the most correlated with the chronological age of the patient, so it can be used for forensic purposes. Results: The Moorrees, Fanning & Hunt and the Smith methods showed high correlation (0.7874 and 0.7808, respectively. The Logan & Kronfeld methods presented low correlation (0.6879. The sample studied did not show sexual dimorphism or bilateral asymmetry. Conclusions: All methods evaluated have a high correlation coefficient between the dental age and the radiographic age. However, the Moorrees, Fanning & Hunt, and Smith methods presented higher correlation coefficients between dental and chronological age.

  12. Chronological versus dental age in subjects from 5 to 19 years: a comparative study with forensic implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freddy Moreno

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study evaluated six methods used in estimating the age of patients attending the Dental School at Universidad del Valle, evaluating dental development by using panoramic radiographs. Additionally, the study determined the sexual identity of the person and the bilateral symmetry of development, the maturity and the chronological eruption of permanent teeth.Materials and methods: This is a descriptive, quantitative and transversal study that evaluated which of the six methods (Logan & Kronfeld; Schour & Massler; Moorrees, Fanning & Hunt; Demirjian, Goldstein & Tanner; Ubelaker & Smith for estimating the age of a patient through radiographic evaluation of dental development is the most correlated with the chronological age of the patient, so it can be used for forensic purposes.Results: The Moorrees, Fanning & Hunt and the Smith methods showed high correlation (0.7874 and 0.7808, respectively. The Logan & Kronfeld methods presented low correlation (0.6879. The sample studied did not show sexual dimorphism or bilateral asymmetry.Conclusions: All methods evaluated have a high correlation coefficient between the dental age and the radiographic age. However, the Moorrees, Fanning & Hunt, and Smith methods presented higher correlation coefficients between dental and chronological age.

  13. Mitochondrial superoxide dismutase deficiency accelerates chronological aging in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogata, Toshiya; Senoo, Takanori; Kawano, Shinji; Ikeda, Shogo

    2016-01-01

    A mitochondrial superoxide dismutase (SOD2) is the first line of antioxidant defense against mitochondrial superoxide. Even though the involvement of SOD2 in lifespan has been studied extensively in several organisms, characterization of the aging process has not been performed for the sod2 mutant (sod2Δ) of a prominent model Schizosaccharomyces pombe. In this study, we measured the chronological lifespan of sod2Δ cells by their ability to survive in long-term culture. SOD2 deficiency drastically decreased cell viability in the stationary phase. The mutation frequency of nuclear DNA in sod2Δ was elevated in the stationary phase, and cellular proteins and nuclear DNA were extensively degraded, concurrent with cell death. The sod2 gene in wild-type cells could be induced by an increase in endogenous oxidative stresses, after which, SOD2 activity was substantially elevated during the stationary phase. Culture in a lower glucose concentration (calorie restriction) prominently extended the sod2Δ lifespan. Therefore, S. pombe SOD2 plays a critical role in longevity through its upregulation in the non-dividing phase.

  14. The significance of peroxisome function in chronological aging of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lefevre, Sophie D.; van Roermund, Carlo W.; Wanders, Ronald J. A.; Veenhuis, Marten; van der Klei, Ida J.

    2013-01-01

    Summary We studied the chronological lifespan of glucose-grown Saccharomyces cerevisiae in relation to the function of intact peroxisomes. We analyzed four different peroxisome-deficient (pex) phenotypes. These included Delta pex3 cells that lack peroxisomal membranes and in which all peroxisomal pr

  15. The reliability of chronological age determination by means of mandibular third molar development in subjects in Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legović, Mario; Sasso, Anja; Legović, Izak; Brumini, Gordana; Cabov, Tomislav; Slaj, Martina; Vancura, Irena; Lapter, Marina

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the development of the mandibular third molar and its relation to chronological age. The evaluated material consisted of 979 orthopantomograms of patients of Croatian Caucasian origin aged between 5.7 and 14.6 years. Third molar developmental stages were evaluated according to the stages proposed by Nolla. The frequencies of different stages of mineralization and the mean value of the mineralization of the mandibular third molars with regard to age, gender, and size of the mandible were determined and the coefficient of correlation determined between the age of the subject and the stage of development of the mandibular molars. Statistically significant correlation was determined between mineralization of the mandibular third molar and chronological age of the subjects (boys, mandibular left third molar r = 0.779, right third molar r = 0.793; girls, mandibular left third molar r = 0.746, right third molar r = 0.725). It can be concluded that the accuracy of age estimation based on Nolla's method is applicable for Croatian children.

  16. Assessment of skeletal age using MP 3 and hand-wrist radiographs and its correlation with dental and chronological ages in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bala M

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to assess skeletal age using MP 3 and hand-wrist radiographs and to find the correlation amongst the skeletal, dental and chronological ages. One hundred and sixty North-Indian healthy children in the age group 8-14 years, comprising equal number of males and females were included in the study. The children were radiographed for middle phalanx of third finger (MP 3 and hand-wrist of the right hand and intra oral periapical X-ray for right permanent maxillary canine. Skeletal age was assessed from MP 3 and hand-wrist radiographs according to the standards of Greulich and Pyle. The dental age was assessed from IOPA radiographs of right permanent maxillary canine based on Nolla′s calcification stages. Skeletal age from MP 3 and hand-wrist radiographs shows high correlation in all the age groups for both sexes. Females were advanced in skeletal maturation than males. Skeletal age showed high correlation with dental age in 12-14 years age group. Chronological age showed inconsistent correlation with dental and skeletal ages.

  17. Home-based Early Intervention on Auditory and Speech Development in Mandarin-speaking Deaf Infants and Toddlers with Chronological Aged 7-24 Months

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying Yang; Yue-Hui Liu; Ming-Fu Fu; Chun-Lin Li; Li-Yan Wang; Qi Wang; Xi-Bin Sun

    2015-01-01

    Background:Early auditory and speech development in home-based early intervention of infants and toddlers with hearing loss younger than 2 years are still spare in China.This study aimed to observe the development of auditory and speech in deaf infants and toddlers who were fitted with hearing aids and/or received cochlear implantation between the chronological ages of 7-24 months,and analyze the effect of chronological age and recovery time on auditory and speech development in the course of home-based early intervention.Methods:This longitudinal study included 55 hearing impaired children with severe and profound binaural deafness,who were divided into Group A (7-12 months),Group B (13-18 months) and Group C (19-24 months) based on the chronological age.Categories auditory performance (CAP) and speech intelligibility rating scale (SIR) were used to evaluate auditory and speech development at baseline and 3,6,9,12,18,and 24 months of habilitation.Descriptive statistics were used to describe demographic features and were analyzed by repeated measures analysis of variance.Results:With 24 months of hearing intervention,78% of the patients were able to understand common phrases and conversation without lip-reading,96% of the patients were intelligible to a listener.In three groups,children showed the rapid growth of trend features in each period of habilitation.CAP and SIR scores have developed rapidly within 24 months after fitted auxiliary device in Group A,which performed much better auditory and speech abilities than Group B (P < 0.05) and Group C (P < 0.05).Group B achieved better results than Group C,whereas no significant differences were observed between Group B and Group C (P > 0.05).Conclusions:The data suggested the early hearing intervention and home-based habilitation benefit auditory and speech development.Chronological age and recovery time may be major factors for aural verbal outcomes in hearing impaired children.The development of auditory

  18. Chronology of mercury enrichment factors in reef corals from western Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Ruth; Cipriani, Roberto; Guzman, Hector M; García, Elia

    2009-02-01

    Mining and deforestation in the early 20th century, the development of petrochemical industries during the 1950s, and the constant weathering of natural deposits of cinabrium (HgS) have made Golfo Triste, Venezuela, a region impacted by mercury (Hg). We studied the chronology of Hg in coral skeletons of Siderastrea siderea (1 colony, 1900-1996) and Montastraea faveolata (2 colonies, 1930-1999) from Parque Nacional San Esteban. Maximum values of Hg/Ca ratios and standard deviations of Hg enrichment factors occurred in the 1940s, 1960s, and 1980s, and matched maxima of decadal rainfall. Values from the 1950s and 1970s matched periods of abundant but constantly decreasing rainfall and hence were best explained by the combination of runoff and the sudden bioavailability of Hg in the region. This sudden availability likely was associated with activities of the chlorine-caustic soda and fertilizer plants of Morón petrochemical complex, industries that started producing large amounts of Hg in 1958.

  19. The WAIS-Divide deep ice core WD2014 chronology – Part 2: Methane synchronization (68–31 ka BP and the gas age-ice age difference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Buizert

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS-Divide ice core (WAIS-D is a newly drilled, high-accumulation deep ice core that provides Antarctic climate records of the past ∼68 ka at unprecedented temporal resolution. The upper 2850 m (back to 31.2 ka BP have been dated using annual-layer counting. Here we present a chronology for the deep part of the core (67.8–31.2 ka BP, which is based on stratigraphic matching to annual-layer-counted Greenland ice cores using globally well-mixed atmospheric methane. We calculate the WAIS-D gas age-ice age difference (Δage using a combination of firn densification modeling, ice flow modeling, and a dataset of δ15N-N2, a proxy for past firn column thickness. The largest Δage at WAIS-D occurs during the last glacial maximum, and is 525 ± 100 years. Internally consistent solutions can only be found when assuming little-to-no influence of impurity content on densification rates, contrary to a recently proposed hypothesis. We synchronize the WAIS-D chronology to a linearly scaled version of the layer-counted Greenland Ice Core Chronology (GICC05, which brings the age of Dansgaard-Oeschger (DO events into agreement with the U/Th absolutely dated Hulu speleothem record. The small Δage at WAIS-D provides valuable opportunities to investigate the timing of atmospheric greenhouse gas variations relative to Antarctic climate, as well as the interhemispheric phasing of the bipolar "seesaw".

  20. The Fears, Phobias and Anxieties of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Down Syndrome: Comparisons with Developmentally and Chronologically Age Matched Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, David W.; Canavera, Kristin; Kleinpeter, F. Lee; Maccubbin, Elise; Taga, Ken

    2005-01-01

    This study compared the fears and behavior problems of 25 children with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD), 43 children with Down syndrome (DS), 45 mental age (MA) matched children, and 37 chronologically age (CA) matched children. Children's fears, phobias, anxieties and behavioral problems were assessed using parent reports. Significant…

  1. Re-evaluation of the age model for North Atlantic Ocean Site 982 – arguments for a return to the original chronology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. T. Lawrence

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the veracity of the published chronology for the Pliocene section of North Atlantic Ocean Drilling Program Site 982 was called into question. Here, we examine the robustness of the original age model as well as the proposed age model revision. The proposed revision is predicated on an apparent misidentification of the depth to the Gauss–Matuyama (G/M polarity chronozone reversal boundary (2.581 Ma based on preliminary shipboard paleomagnetic data, and offers a new chronology that includes a hiatus between ~3.2 and 3 Ma. However, an even more accurate shore-based, u-channel-derived polarity chronozone stratigraphy for the past ~2.7 Ma supports the shipboard composite stratigraphy and demonstrates that the original estimate of the depth of the G/M reversal in the Site 982 record is correct. Thus, the main justification forwarded to support the revised chronology no longer exists. We demonstrate that the proposed revision results in a pronounced anomaly in sedimentation rates proximal to the proposed hiatus, erroneous assignment of marine-isotope stages in the Site 982 Pliocene benthic stable oxygen isotope stratigraphy, and a markedly worse correlation of proxy records between this site and other regional paleoclimate data. We conclude that the original chronology for Site 982 is a far more accurate age model than that which arises from the published revision. We strongly recommend the use of the original chronology for all future work at Site 982.

  2. Re-evaluation of the age model for North Atlantic Ocean Site 982 – arguments for a return to the original chronology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. T. Lawrence

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the veracity of the published chronology for the Pliocene section of North Atlantic Ocean Drilling Program Site 982 was called into question. Here, we examine the robustness of the original age model as well as the proposed age model revision. The proposed revision is predicated on an apparent mis-identification of the depth to the Gauss-Matuyama (G/M polarity chronozone reversal boundary (2.581 Ma based on preliminary shipboard paleomagnetic data and offers a new chronology which includes a hiatus between ~ 3.2 and 3 Ma. However, an even more accurate shore-based, u-channel-derived polarity chronozone stratigraphy for the past ~ 2.7 Ma supports the shipboard composite stratigraphy and demonstrates that the original estimate of the depth of the G/M reversal in the Site 982 record is correct. Thus, the main justification forwarded to support the revised chronology is not valid. We demonstrate that the proposed revision results in a pronounced anomaly in sedimentation rates proximal to the proposed hiatus, erroneous assignment of marine-isotope stages in the Site 982 Pliocene benthic stable oxygen isotope stratigraphy, and a markedly worse correlation of proxy records between this site and other regional paleoclimate data. We conclude that the original chronology for Site 982 is a far more accurate age-model than that which arises from the published revision. We strongly recommend the use of the original chronology for all future work at Site 982.

  3. Empirical Evidence for Various Evolutionary Hypotheses on Species Demonstrating Increasing Mortality with Increasing Chronological Age in the Wild

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacinto Libertini

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Many species show a significant increase in mortality with increasing chronological age in the wild. For this phenomenon, three possible general hypotheses are proposed, namely that: (1 it has no adaptive meaning; (2 it has an adaptive meaning; (3 the ancestry is the pivotal determinant. These hypotheses are evaluated according to their consistency with the empirical evidence. In particular, (1 the existence of many species with a constant, or almost constant, mortality rate, especially the so-called “animals with negligible senescence”; (2 the inverse correlation, observed in mammals and birds in the wild, between extrinsic mortality and the proportion of deaths due to intrinsic mortality; (3 the existence of highly sophisticated, genetically determined, and regulated mechanisms that limit and modulate cell duplication capacities and overall cell functionality. On the whole, the hypothesis of an adaptive meaning appears to be consistent with the empirical evidence, while the other two hypotheses hardly appear compatible.

  4. Chronological Age, Cognitions, and Practices in European American Mothers: A Multivariate Study of Parenting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornstein, Marc H.; Putnick, Diane L.

    2007-01-01

    The authors studied multiple parenting cognitions and practices in European American mothers (N=262) who ranged from 15 to 47 years of age. All were 1st-time parents of 20-month-old children. Some age effects were 0; others were linear or nonlinear. Nonlinear age effects determined by spline regression showed significant associations to a "knot"…

  5. Pre-aged plant waxes in tropical lake sediments and their influence on the chronology of molecular paleoclimate proxy records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Peter M. J.; Pagani, Mark; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Brenner, Mark; Hodell, David A.; Curtis, Jason H.; Ma, Keith F.; Breckenridge, Andy

    2014-09-01

    Sedimentary records of plant-wax hydrogen (δDwax) and carbon (δ13Cwax) stable isotopes are increasingly applied to infer past climate change. Compound-specific radiocarbon analyses, however, indicate that long time lags can occur between the synthesis of plant waxes and their subsequent deposition in marginal marine sediments. The influence of these time lags on interpretations of plant-wax stable isotope records is presently unconstrained, and it is unclear whether such time lags also affect lacustrine sediments. We present compound-specific radiocarbon (14Cwax) data for n-alkanoic acid plant waxes (n-C26 to n-C32) from: (1) a sediment core from Lake Chichancanab, Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico, (2) soils in the Lake Chichancanab catchment, and (3) surface sediments from three other lakes in southeastern Mexico and northern Guatemala. 14Cwax ages in the surface sediments are consistently older than modern, and may be negatively correlated with mean annual precipitation and positively correlated with lake catchment area. 14Cwax ages in soils surrounding Lake Chichancanab increase with soil depth, consistent with deep, subsoil horizons being the primary source of lacustrine aged plant waxes, which are likely delivered to lake sediments through subsurface transport. Plant waxes in the Lake Chichancanab core are 350-1200 years older than corresponding ages of bulk sediment deposition, determined by 14C dates on terrestrial plant macrofossils in the core. A δDwax time series is in closer agreement with other regional proxy hydroclimate records when a plant-wax 14C age model is applied, as opposed to the macrofossil-based core chronology. Inverse modeling of plant-wax age distribution parameters suggests that plant waxes in the Lake Chichancanab sediment core derive predominantly from millennial-age soil carbon pools that exhibit relatively little age variance (soils. They also underscore the importance of direct radiocarbon dating of these organic molecules.

  6. Environmental and lifestyle factors associated with perceived facial age in Chinese women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew E Mayes

    Full Text Available Perceived facial age has been proposed as a biomarker of ageing with 'looking young for one's age' linked to physical and cognitive functioning and to increased survival for Caucasians. We have investigated the environmental and lifestyle factors associated with perceived facial ageing in Chinese women. Facial photographs were collected from 250 Chinese women, aged 25-70 years in Shanghai, China. Perceived facial age was determined and related to chronological age for each participant. Lifestyle and health information was collected by questionnaire. Bivariate analyses (controlling for chronological age identified and quantified lifestyle variables associated with perceived facial age. Independent predictors of perceived age were identified by multivariate modelling. Factors which significantly associated with looking younger for one's chronological age included greater years of education (p<0.001, fewer household members (p=0.027, menopausal status (p=0.020, frequency of visiting one's doctor (p=0.013, working indoors (p<0.001, spending less time in the sun (p=0.015, moderate levels of physical activity (p=0.004, higher frequency of teeth cleaning (p<0.001 and more frequent use of facial care products: cleanser (p<0.001; moisturiser (p=0.016 or night cream (p=0.016. Overall, 36.5% of the variation in the difference between perceived and chronological age could be explained by a combination of chronological age and 6 independent lifestyle variables. We have thus identified and quantified a number of factors associated with younger appearance in Chinese women. Presentation of these factors in the context of facial appearance could provide significant motivation for the adoption of a range of healthy behaviours at the level of both individuals and populations.

  7. 10Be exposure age chronology of the last glaciation in the Krkonoše Mountains, Central Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Zbyněk; Braucher, Régis; Traczyk, Andrzej; Laetitia, Léanni; AsterTeam

    2014-02-01

    A new chronology of the last glaciation is established for the Krkonoše (Giant) Mountains, Central Europe, based on in-situ produced 10Be in moraine boulders. Exposure ages and Schmidt Hammer rebound values obtained for terminal moraines on the northern and southern flank of the mountains suggest that the oldest preserved moraines represent early phases of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). Large moraines at the outlet of the Snowy Cirques (Śnieżne Kotły) and in the middle part of the Úpa (Obří důl) trough were deposited around 21 ka while a series of smaller moraines above the LGM deposits represent readvances that occurred no later than 18.1 ± 0.6 ka, 15.7 ± 0.5 ka, 13.5 ± 0.5 ka and 12.9 ± 0.7 ka. An exposure age of 13.8 ± 0.4 ka obtained for protalus ramparts at the foot of the Úpská jáma Cirque headwall indicates that glaciers advanced only in north- to east-facing cirques during the Lateglacial. The last glacier fluctuation was synchronous with the Younger Dryas cold event. The timing of local glacier advances during the last glacial episode correlates with the late Weichselian glacier phases in the Alps and in the Bavarian/Bohemian Forest.

  8. Radiographic evaluation of third-molar development in relation to the chronological age of Turkish children in the southwest Eastern Anatolia region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karataş, Orhan H; Öztürk, Fırat; Dedeoğlu, Numan; Çolak, Cemil; Altun, Oğuzhan

    2013-10-10

    To study the chronological age of third-molar mineralisation of Turkish children from the southwest Eastern Anatolia region, the Demirjian staging method was used to determine the stage of the mineralisation of four third molars (18, 28, 38 and 48) and to compare third-molar development by sex and age with the results of previous studies. The study comprised 832 Turkish children from the southwest Eastern Anatolia region aged 6-16 years based on radiological evidence from digital orthopantomograms. The mean age of the 832 patients was 11.03±1.98 years, with 424 males (mean age, 10.97±1.97) and 408 females (mean age, 11.09±2.00). The orthopantomograms were scored by two observers. The Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed-rank test used to assess intra- and inter-observer assessment revealed strong agreement between both observers' measurements. Statistical analysis of the association between sex and age was performed with the Mann-Whitney U-test and the Wilcoxon test. Regression analysis was performed to obtain regression formulae for calculating the dental and the chronological age. The statistical analysis showed a strong correlation between age and third-molar development in males (R(2)=0.61) and females (R(2)=0.63). New equations (age=7.49+0.69, development stage (DS) 38+0.70, DS18) were derived for estimation of the chronological age. The results showed that there was no significant difference in mineralisation between 18 and 28 and 38 and 48 in males or females. For both sexes, the dental age was lower than the chronological age. Males reached the developmental stages earlier than females. In the whole population, the boys' and the girls' dental ages were 0.84 years and 0.16 years earlier, respectively, than their chronological ages. The use of third-molar teeth as a developmental marker is suitable, particularly when comparing the obtained standard deviation with other skeletal-age calculation techniques.

  9. College Students' Chronological Age Predicts Marital Happiness Regardless of Length of Marriage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Lawrence; Powers, Justina; Laverghetta, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    A revised version of the Quality Marriage Index (QMI) was used to examine demographic correlates of marital satisfaction. We administered the revised QMI to a sample of college students and found a significant positive correlation between age and relationship satisfaction. We suggest that this increase in relationship satisfaction could be due to…

  10. An in vivo study on brain microstructure in biological and chronological ageing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Altmann-Schneider, Irmhild; de Craen, Anton J M; van den Berg-Huysmans, Annette A;

    2015-01-01

    phenotype of familial longevity. Moreover, we aimed to describe cerebral ageing effects on MTI parameters in an elderly cohort. All subjects were included from the Leiden Longevity Study and underwent 3 Tesla MTI of the brain. In total, 183 offspring of nonagenarian siblings, who are enriched for familial...

  11. Lunar basalt chronology, mantle differentiation and implications for determining the age of the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snape, Joshua F.; Nemchin, Alexander A.; Bellucci, Jeremy J.; Whitehouse, Martin J.; Tartèse, Romain; Barnes, Jessica J.; Anand, Mahesh; Crawford, Ian A.; Joy, Katherine H.

    2016-10-01

    Despite more than 40 years of studying Apollo samples, the age and early evolution of the Moon remain contentious. Following the formation of the Moon in the aftermath of a giant impact, the resulting Lunar Magma Ocean (LMO) is predicted to have generated major geochemically distinct silicate reservoirs, including the sources of lunar basalts. Samples of these basalts, therefore, provide a unique opportunity to characterize these reservoirs. However, the precise timing and extent of geochemical fractionation is poorly constrained, not least due to the difficulty in determining accurate ages and initial Pb isotopic compositions of lunar basalts. Application of an in situ ion microprobe approach to Pb isotope analysis has allowed us to obtain precise crystallization ages from six lunar basalts, typically with an uncertainty of about ± 10 Ma, as well as constrain their initial Pb-isotopic compositions. This has enabled construction of a two-stage model for the Pb-isotopic evolution of lunar silicate reservoirs, which necessitates the prolonged existence of high-μ reservoirs in order to explain the very radiogenic compositions of the samples. Further, once firm constraints on U and Pb partitioning behaviour are established, this model has the potential to help distinguish between conflicting estimates for the age of the Moon. Nonetheless, we are able to constrain the timing of a lunar mantle reservoir differentiation event at 4376 ± 18 Ma, which is consistent with that derived from the Sm-Nd and Lu-Hf isotopic systems, and is interpreted as an average estimate of the time at which the high-μ urKREEP reservoir was established and the Ferroan Anorthosite (FAN) suite was formed.

  12. Stratification of yeast cells during chronological aging by size points to the role of trehalose in cell vitality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svenkrtova, Andrea; Belicova, Lenka; Volejnikova, Andrea; Sigler, Karel; Jazwinski, S Michal; Pichova, Alena

    2016-04-01

    Cells of the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae undergo a process akin to differentiation during prolonged culture without medium replenishment. Various methods have been used to separate and determine the potential role and fate of the different cell species. We have stratified chronologically-aged yeast cultures into cells of different sizes, using centrifugal elutriation, and characterized these subpopulations physiologically. We distinguish two extreme cell types, very small (XS) and very large (L) cells. L cells display higher viability based on two separate criteria. They respire much more actively, but produce lower levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS). L cells are capable of dividing, albeit slowly, giving rise to XS cells which do not divide. L cells are more resistant to osmotic stress and they have higher trehalose content, a storage carbohydrate often connected to stress resistance. Depletion of trehalose by deletion of TPS2 does not affect the vital characteristics of L cells, but it improves some of these characteristics in XS cells. Therefore, we propose that the response of L and XS cells to the trehalose produced in the former differs in a way that lowers the vitality of the latter. We compare our XS- and L-fraction cell characteristics with those of cells isolated from stationary cultures by others based on density. This comparison suggests that the cells have some similarities but also differences that may prove useful in addressing whether it is the segregation or the response to trehalose that may play the predominant role in cell division from stationary culture.

  13. Prospects for Chronological Studies of Martian Rocks and Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyquist, L. E.; Shih, C-Y.; Reese, Y. D.

    2008-01-01

    Chronological information about Martian processes comes from two sources: Crater-frequency studies and laboratory studies of Martian meteorites. Each has limitations that could be overcome by studies of returned Martian rocks and soils. Chronology of Martian volcanism: The currently accepted chronology of Martian volcanic surfaces relies on crater counts for different Martian stratigraphic units [1]. However, there is a large inherent uncertainty for intermediate ages near 2 Ga ago. The effect of differing preferences for Martian cratering chronologies [1] is shown in Fig. 1. Stoeffler and Ryder [2] summarized lunar chronology, upon which Martian cratering chronology is based. Fig. 2 shows a curve fit to their data, and compares to it a corresponding lunar curve from [3]. The radiometric ages of some lunar and Martian meteorites as well as the crater-count delimiters for Martian epochs [4] also are shown for comparison to the craterfrequency curves. Scaling the Stoeffler-Ryder curve by a Mars/Moon factor of 1.55 [5] places Martian shergottite ages into the Early Amazonian to late Hesperian epochs, whereas using the lunar curve of [3] and a Mars/Moon factor 1 consigns the shergottites to the Middle-to-Late Amazonian, a less probable result. The problem is worsened if a continually decreasing cratering rate since 3 Ga ago is accepted [6]. We prefer the adjusted St ffler-Ryder curve because it gives better agreement with the meteorite ages (Fig.

  14. The age of three Middle Palaeolithic sites: Single-grain optically stimulated luminescence chronologies for Pech de l'Azé I, II and IV in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Zenobia; Jankowski, Nathan R; Dibble, Harold L; Goldberg, Paul; McPherron, Shannon J P; Sandgathe, Dennis; Soressi, Marie

    2016-06-01

    Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) measurements were made on individual, sand-sized grains of quartz from Middle Palaeolithic deposits at three sites (Pech de l'Azé I, II and IV) located close to one another in the Dordogne region of southwest France. We were able to calculate OSL ages for 69 samples collected from these three sites. These ages reveal periods of occupation between about 180 and 50 thousand years ago. Our single-grain OSL chronologies largely support previous age estimates obtained by thermoluminescence dating of burnt flints at Pech IV, electron spin resonance dating of tooth enamel at Pech I, II and IV and radiocarbon dating of bone at Pech I and IV, but provide a more complete picture due to the ubiquitous presence of sand-sized quartz grains used in OSL dating. These complete chronologies for the three sites have allowed us to compare the single-grain ages for similar lithic assemblages among the three sites, to test the correlations among them previously proposed by Bordes in the 1970s, and to construct our own correlative chronological framework for the three sites. This shows that similar lithic assemblages occur at around the same time, and that where a lithic assemblage is unique to one or found at two of the Pech sites, there are no deposits of chronologically equivalent age at the other Pech site(s). We interpret this to mean that, at least for these Pech de l'Azé sites, the Mousterian variants show temporal ordering. Whether or not this conclusion applies to the wider region and beyond, the hypothesis that Mousterian industrial variation is temporally ordered cannot be refuted at this time.

  15. Age factors in biometric processing

    CERN Document Server

    Fairhurst, Michael

    2013-01-01

    As biometrics-based identification and identity authentication become increasingly widespread in their deployment, it becomes correspondingly important to consider more carefully issues relating to reliability, usability and inclusion. One factor which is particularly important in this context is that of the relationship between the nature of the measurements extracted from a particular biometric modality and the age of the sample donor, and the effect which age has on physiological and behavioural characteristics invoked in a biometric transaction. In Age Factors in Biometric Processing an in

  16. Inhibition of Krebs cycle and activation of glyoxylate cycle in the course of chronological aging of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Compensatory role of succinate oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samokhvalov, V; Ignatov, V; Kondrashova, M

    2004-01-01

    We investigated oxidative processes in mitochondria of Saccharomyces cerevisiae grown on ethanol in the course of chronological aging. We elaborated a model of chronological aging that avoids the influence of exhaustion of medium, as well as the accumulation of toxic metabolites during aging. A decrease in total respiration of cells and, even more, of the contribution of respiration coupled with ATP-synthesis was observed during aging. Aging is also related with the decrease of the contribution of malonate-insensitive respiration. Activities of citrate-synthase (CS), alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase (KGDH) and malate dehydrogenase (MDH) were threefold decreased. The activity of NADP-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (NADP-ICDH) decreased more significantly, while the activity of NAD-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (NAD-ICDH) fell even greater, being completely inactivated on the third week of aging. In contrast, succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), enzymes of glyoxylate cycle (GCL) (isocitrate lyase (ICL) and malate synthase (MLS)), and enzymes of ethanol oxidation (alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and acetaldehyde dehydrogenase (ACDH)), were activated by 50% or more. The behavior of oxidative enzymes and metabolic pathways are apparently inherent to a more viable, long-lived cells in population, selected in the course of chronological aging. This selection allows cells to reveal the mechanism of their higher viability as caused by shunting of complete Krebs cycle by glyoxylate cycle, with a concomitant increased rate of the most efficient energy source, namely succinate formation and oxidation. Thiobarbituric-reactive species (TAR species) increased during aging. We supposed that to be the immediate cause of damage of a part of yeast population. These data show that a greater succinate contribution to respiration in more active cells is a general property of yeast and animal tissues.

  17. Self-consistent ice-sheet properties: ice dynamics, temperature, accumulation, delta-age and chronologies for ice cores and radar isochrones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundin, J.; Waddington, E. D.; Conway, H.

    2011-12-01

    Ice sheet behavior has not previously been modeled to force self-consistency, to determine histories of accumulation, temperature, and ice dynamics that incorporate the ice-age/gas-age offset (delta-age) and sparse depth-age measurements from ice cores. An iterative scheme is used to combine several modular components into one self-consistent model. The goal is to determine a suite of histories constrained by the depth-age data from ice cores and ice radar that are part of a physically self-consistent ice sheet. The model is tested using a synthetic data set resembling WAIS divide. Using synthetic data provides proof of concept that histories of accumulation, temperature and ice dynamics can be recovered by the self-consistent model, and that the depth-age from ice cores and ice radar can be matched. Results from synthetic data show we can recover the ice-sheet properties used to generate the data and we can improve the depth-age chronologies by interpolating with an ice-flow model where data are sparse. When this self-consistent model can be applied to field data, results will (1) improve chronologies for ice cores and radar layers, (2) determine histories of accumulation for GCM modelling, and (3) improve estimates of past ice sheet configurations, incorporating data from ice cores and ice radar.

  18. Deciphering the forcing factors of coastal evolution from a numerical chronology for a coastal sediment succession, Eastern Hengchun Peninsula, Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüthgens, Christopher; Ho, Lih-Der; Jen, Chia-Hung; Chyi, Shyh-Jeng

    2016-04-01

    Taiwan, an island with a high mountain area attaining almost 4000 m, is located in a unique position in East Asia at the transition from the subtropical to the tropical zone. The climate is driven by the East-Asian monsoon, which is responsible for a humid climate during the whole year. In addition, earthquakes, tropical storms, and typhoons trigger morphodynamic processes. Taiwan's coastal landscape is the result of complex interactions between marine and subaerial processes, sediment supply and local geology, plate tectonics, climate change, and global sea-level fluctuations. Unconsolidated sediments in coastal areas are known to preserve valuable information about these processes driving the coastal landscape evolution. In the Ganko river basin, located on the Eastern Hengchun peninsula in south-eastern Taiwan, climatic and tectonic forcing factors may have significantly influenced the natural sediment yield and sediment storage over time. In addition, in the recent past human influence within the river catchment may significantly have altered the sediment yield in the coastal areas close to the rivermouth. In order to reconstruct such variations and ideally relate them to either tectonic, climatic and anthropogenic forcing, a detailed analysis of sedimentary archives is essential. The area under investigation comprises a complex terrestrial river terrace record as well as a coastal sediment succession at the river outlet, both in parts aggraded above presumably tectonically uplifted near-shore sediments. Establishing a high resolution numerical chronology for these sediments may allow a reconstruction of sediment aggradation phases and stability phases for different sections of the catchment area from upstream fluvial terraces to coastal deposits, as well as the underlying near-shore deposits. A combination of two independent dating methods, optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating using the pIRIR150 signal of feldspar, as well as radiocarbon dating, was

  19. (UnResolved contradictions in the Late Pleistocene glacial chronology of the Southern Carpathians - new samples and recalculated cosmogenic radionuclide age estimates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zsófia RUSZKICZAY-RÜDIGER

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Application of cosmogenic nuclides in the study of Quaternary glaciations has increased rapidly during the last decade owing to the previous absence of direct dating methods of glacial landforms and sediments. Although several hundred publications have already been released on exposure age dating of glacial landforms worldwide, very few studies targeted the Carpathians so far (Kuhlemann et al, 2013a; Makos et al., 2014; Reuther et al, 2004, 2007; Rinterknecht et al. 2012.There are many unresolved or contradictory issues regarding the glacial chronology of the Romanian Carpathians. Recently, some attempts have been made to develop an improved temporal framework for the glaciations of the region using cosmogenic 10Be dating (Reuther et al. 2004, 2007, Kuhlemann et al. 2013a. However, these studies made the picture even more confusing because the local last glacial maximum, for instance, apparently occurred in asynchronous timing compared to each other and also to other dated glacial events in Europe (Hughes et al, 2013.This situation is even more interesting if we take into account that the local glacial maximum tends to agree with the global LGM derived from the Eastern Balkans (Kuhlemann et al. 2013b, while the penultimate glaciation seems to significantly overtake the LGM advance over the Western Balkans (Hughes et al. 2011.The primary candidate reasons to resolve these discrepancies are methodological, e.g. insufficient number of samples (one sample/landform ignoring geological scatter of the data and the application of different half-lives, production rates and scaling schemes during the calculation of exposure ages. Systematic methodological uncertainties in computing exposure ages from measured nuclide concentrations have a significant impact on the conclusions concerning correlations of exposure-dated glacier chronologies with millennial scale climate changes (Balco, 2011. The changes in glacial timing generated by only using the most

  20. New luminescence ages for the Galeria Complex archaeological site: resolving chronological uncertainties on the acheulean record of the Sierra de Atapuerca, northern Spain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Demuro

    Full Text Available The archaeological karstic infill site of Galería Complex, located within the Atapuerca system (Spain, has produced a large faunal and archaeological record (Homo sp. aff. heidelbergensis fossils and Mode II lithic artefacts belonging to the Middle Pleistocene. Extended-range luminescence dating techniques, namely post-infrared infrared stimulated luminescence (pIR-IR dating of K-feldspars and thermally transferred optically stimulated luminescence (TT-OSL dating of individual quartz grains, were applied to fossil-bearing sediments at Galería. The luminescence dating results are in good agreement with published chronologies derived using alternative radiometric dating methods (i.e., ESR and U-series dating of bracketing speleothems and combined ESR/U-series dating of herbivore teeth, as well as biochronology and palaeoenvironmental reconstructions inferred from proxy records (e.g., pollen data. For the majority of samples dated, however, the new luminescence ages are significantly (∼50% younger than previously published polymineral thermoluminescence (TL chronologies, suggesting that the latter may have overestimated the true burial age of the Galería deposits. The luminescence ages obtained indicate that the top of the basal sterile sands (GIb at Galería have an age of up to ∼370 thousand years (ka, while the lowermost sub-unit containing Mode II Acheulean lithics (base of unit GIIa was deposited during MIS 9 (mean age = 313±14 ka; n = 4. The overlying units GIIb-GIV, which contain the richest archaeopalaeontological remains, were deposited during late MIS 8 or early MIS 7 (∼240 ka. Galería Complex may be correlative with other Middle Pleistocene sites from Atapuerca, such as Gran Dolina level TD10 and unit TE19 from Sima del Elefante, but the lowermost archaeological horizons are ∼100 ka younger than the hominin-bearing clay breccias at the Sima de los Huesos site. Our results suggest that both pIR-IR and single-grain TT

  1. New luminescence ages for the Galería Complex archaeological site: resolving chronological uncertainties on the acheulean record of the Sierra de Atapuerca, northern Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demuro, Martina; Arnold, Lee J; Parés, Josep M; Pérez-González, Alfredo; Ortega, Ana I; Arsuaga, Juan L; Bermúdez de Castro, José M; Carbonell, Eudald

    2014-01-01

    The archaeological karstic infill site of Galería Complex, located within the Atapuerca system (Spain), has produced a large faunal and archaeological record (Homo sp. aff. heidelbergensis fossils and Mode II lithic artefacts) belonging to the Middle Pleistocene. Extended-range luminescence dating techniques, namely post-infrared infrared stimulated luminescence (pIR-IR) dating of K-feldspars and thermally transferred optically stimulated luminescence (TT-OSL) dating of individual quartz grains, were applied to fossil-bearing sediments at Galería. The luminescence dating results are in good agreement with published chronologies derived using alternative radiometric dating methods (i.e., ESR and U-series dating of bracketing speleothems and combined ESR/U-series dating of herbivore teeth), as well as biochronology and palaeoenvironmental reconstructions inferred from proxy records (e.g., pollen data). For the majority of samples dated, however, the new luminescence ages are significantly (∼50%) younger than previously published polymineral thermoluminescence (TL) chronologies, suggesting that the latter may have overestimated the true burial age of the Galería deposits. The luminescence ages obtained indicate that the top of the basal sterile sands (GIb) at Galería have an age of up to ∼370 thousand years (ka), while the lowermost sub-unit containing Mode II Acheulean lithics (base of unit GIIa) was deposited during MIS 9 (mean age = 313±14 ka; n = 4). The overlying units GIIb-GIV, which contain the richest archaeopalaeontological remains, were deposited during late MIS 8 or early MIS 7 (∼240 ka). Galería Complex may be correlative with other Middle Pleistocene sites from Atapuerca, such as Gran Dolina level TD10 and unit TE19 from Sima del Elefante, but the lowermost archaeological horizons are ∼100 ka younger than the hominin-bearing clay breccias at the Sima de los Huesos site. Our results suggest that both pIR-IR and single-grain TT

  2. The Somma-Vesuvius complex and the Phlaegrean Fields caldera: New chronological data of several eruptions of the Copper-Middle Bronze Age period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passariello, Isabella; Lubritto, Carmine; D'Onofrio, Antonio; Guan, Yongjing; Terrasi, Filippo

    2010-04-01

    Radiocarbon dating of short-lived sample materials is a useful tool applied to date deposits of volcanic eruptions. Several archaeological sites discovered and excavated in Campania witnessed important volcanic eruptions, which occurred in the Copper and Middle Bronze Ages. These eruptions come from the Somma-Vesuvius complex and the Phlaegrean Fields caldera. At least four Plinian eruptions have been identified in the eruptive history of Somma-Vesuvius, interspersed by interplinian events, called protohistoric, which occurred between Avellino and Pompeii. At S. Paolo Belsito a stratigraphic sequence below Avellino and above the first two protohistoric events after Avellino were highlighted; while Nola (Naples) gives new information on the chronology of Avellino. Sites like Caivano and Gricignano D'Aversa, involved by the Agnano 3, Paleoastroni 2 and Agnano Monte Spina eruptions were highlighted and investigated. In this work, we want to clarify the chronology of some eruptions by comparing our results with previous data. Charcoal, bone and seed samples were collected, treated and measured at the CIRCE laboratory in Caserta.

  3. The Somma-Vesuvius complex and the Phlaegrean Fields caldera: New chronological data of several eruptions of the Copper-Middle Bronze Age period

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Passariello, Isabella, E-mail: isabella.passariello@unina2.i [CIRCE - Dipartimento di Scienze Ambientali, II Universita di Napoli and INNOVA, via Vivaldi 43, Caserta 81100 (Italy); Lubritto, Carmine; D' Onofrio, Antonio [CIRCE - Dipartimento di Scienze Ambientali, II Universita di Napoli and INNOVA, via Vivaldi 43, Caserta 81100 (Italy); Guan, Yongjing [CIRCE - Dipartimento di Scienze Ambientali, II Universita di Napoli and INNOVA, via Vivaldi 43, Caserta 81100 (Italy); ICTP, Trieste (Italy); Terrasi, Filippo [CIRCE - Dipartimento di Scienze Ambientali, II Universita di Napoli and INNOVA, via Vivaldi 43, Caserta 81100 (Italy)

    2010-04-15

    Radiocarbon dating of short-lived sample materials is a useful tool applied to date deposits of volcanic eruptions. Several archaeological sites discovered and excavated in Campania witnessed important volcanic eruptions, which occurred in the Copper and Middle Bronze Ages. These eruptions come from the Somma-Vesuvius complex and the Phlaegrean Fields caldera. At least four Plinian eruptions have been identified in the eruptive history of Somma-Vesuvius, interspersed by interplinian events, called protohistoric, which occurred between Avellino and Pompeii. At S. Paolo Belsito a stratigraphic sequence below Avellino and above the first two protohistoric events after Avellino were highlighted; while Nola (Naples) gives new information on the chronology of Avellino. Sites like Caivano and Gricignano D'Aversa, involved by the Agnano 3, Paleoastroni 2 and Agnano Monte Spina eruptions were highlighted and investigated. In this work, we want to clarify the chronology of some eruptions by comparing our results with previous data. Charcoal, bone and seed samples were collected, treated and measured at the CIRCE laboratory in Caserta.

  4. A regression method including chronological and bone age for predicting final height in Turner's syndrome, with a comparison of existing methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Teunenbroek, A; Stijnen, T; Otten, B; de Muinck Keizer-Schrama, S; Naeraa, R W; Rongen-Westerlaken, C; Drop, S

    1996-04-01

    A total of 235 measurement points of 57 Dutch women with Turner's syndrome (TS), including women with spontaneous menarche and oestrogen treatment, served to develop a new Turner-specific final height (FH) prediction method (PTS). Analogous to the Tanner and Whitehouse mark 2 method (TW) for normal children, smoothed regression coefficients are tabulated for PTS for height (H), chronological age (CA) and bone age (BA), both TW RUS and Greulich and Pyle (GP). Comparison between all methods on 40 measurement points of 21 Danish TS women showed small mean prediction errors (predicted minus observed FH) and corresponding standard deviation (ESD) of both PTSRUS and PTSGP, in particular at the "younger" ages. Comparison between existing methods on the Dutch data indicated a tendency to overpredict FH. Before the CA of 9 years the mean prediction errors of the Bayley and Pinneau and TW methods were markedly higher compared with the other methods. Overall, the simplest methods--projected height (PAH) and its modification (mPAH)--were remarkably good at most ages. Although the validity of PTSRUS and PTSGP remains to be tested below the age of 6 years, both gave small mean prediction errors and a high accuracy. FH prediction in TS is important in the consideration of growth-promoting therapy or in the evaluation of its effects.

  5. CLINICAL STUDY OF THE CHRONOLOGICAL CHANGES IN KNEE ALIGNMENT PATTERN IN NORMAL SOUTH-EAST NIGERIAN CHILDREN AGED BETWEEN 0 AND 5 YEARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezeuko V.C

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to establish the chronological changes in knee alignment pattern in normal South-East Nigerian children aged between 0 and 5 years. A total number of 1450 subjects (680 males and 770 females were used for the study. The intercondylar/intermalleolar distances were measured using a vernier caliper with the subjects standing erect in anatomical position to determine straight knee, genu valgum and genu varum. The data was analysed with Microsoft Excel version 2007. The prevalence was presented as percentage (%.The result showed that the subjects have varum by the first year of life, prevalently genu valgum in type by the second year, valgum by the third year, neutral by the fourth and fifth year.

  6. Strategies to Achieve Congruence between Student Chronological Age and Grade Placement in the Compulsory Phase of Education in Botswana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Byron; Forcheh, Ntonghanwah

    2014-01-01

    In many developing countries, researchers and policy makers have downplayed issues of age in grade intentionally. This is done partly to avoid the pedagogical issues that over-age or under-age children in schools raise. It is also done to avoid putting extra pressure on government especially in developing nations that is still working hard to…

  7. Development of Joint Engagement in Young Deaf and Hearing Children: Effects of Chronological Age and Language Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cejas, Ivette; Barker, David H.; Quittner, Alexandra L.; Niparko, John K.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate joint engagement (JE) in age-matched children with and without hearing and its relationship to oral language skills. Method: Participants were 180 children with severe-to-profound hearing loss prior to cochlear implant surgery, and 96 age-matched children with normal hearing; all parents were hearing. JE was evaluated in a…

  8. A chronological perspective on the acheulian and its transition to the middle stone age in southern Africa: the question of the fauresmith.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herries, Andy I R

    2011-01-01

    An understanding of the age of the Acheulian and the transition to the Middle Stone Age in southern Africa has been hampered by a lack of reliable dates for key sequences in the region. A number of researchers have hypothesised that the Acheulian first occurred simultaneously in southern and eastern Africa at around 1.7-1.6 Ma. A chronological evaluation of the southern African sites suggests that there is currently little firm evidence for the Acheulian occurring before 1.4 Ma in southern Africa. Many researchers have also suggested the occurrence of a transitional industry, the Fauresmith, covering the transition from the Early to Middle Stone Age, but again, the Fauresmith has been poorly defined, documented, and dated. Despite the occurrence of large cutting tools in these Fauresmith assemblages, they appear to include all the technological components characteristic of the MSA. New data from stratified Fauresmith bearing sites in southern Africa suggest this transitional industry maybe as old as 511-435 ka and should represent the beginning of the MSA as a broad entity rather than the terminal phase of the Acheulian. The MSA in this form is a technology associated with archaic H. sapiens and early modern humans in Africa with a trend of greater complexity through time.

  9. Epiphyseal maturity indicators at the knee and their relationship to chronological age: results of an Irish population study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Connor, Jean E

    2013-09-01

    Skeletal maturation is divisible to three main components; the time of appearance of an ossification center, its change in morphology and time of fusion to a primary ossification center. With regard to the knee, the intermediate period between appearance and fusion of the ossification centers extends over a period of greater than 10 years. This study aims to investigate radiographically the age at which morphological changes of the epiphyses at the knee occur in a modern Irish population. Radiographs of 221 subjects (137 males; 84 females) aged 9-19 years were examined. Seven nonmetric indicators of maturity were assessed using criteria modified from the Roche, Wainer, and Thissen method and Pyle and Hoerr\\'s atlas of the knee. Reference charts are presented which display the timeline for each of the grades of development of the seven indicators. Mean age was found to increase significantly with successive grades of development of each of the seven indicators. A significant difference was noted between males and females at the same grade of development for six of the seven indicators. The narrowest age range reported for a single grade of development was 2.2 years for Grade 2 of development of the tibial tuberosity for males. The information on changing morphology of the epiphyses at the knee in the present study may provide an adjunct to methods used for evaluation of skeletal maturity before surgery for orthopedic disorders or to evaluate skeletal age in clinical scenarios where either delayed or precocious skeletal maturation is suspected.

  10. Aging Successfully: A Four-Factor Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Pai-Lin; Lan, William; Yen, Tung-Wen

    2011-01-01

    The study was designed to validate a model for a successful aging process and examine the gender differences in the aging process. Three hundred twelve participants who were 65 or older completed a Taiwan Social Change Survey that measures four factors that define successful aging process: including physical, psychological, social support, and…

  11. A New Chronology for the Bronze Age of Northeastern Thailand and Its Implications for Southeast Asian Prehistory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higham, Charles F W; Douka, Katerina; Higham, Thomas F G

    2015-01-01

    There are two models for the origins and timing of the Bronze Age in Southeast Asia. The first centres on the sites of Ban Chiang and Non Nok Tha in Northeast Thailand. It places the first evidence for bronze technology in about 2000 B.C., and identifies the origin by means of direct contact with specialists of the Seima Turbino metallurgical tradition of Central Eurasia. The second is based on the site of Ban Non Wat, 280 km southwest of Ban Chiang, where extensive radiocarbon dating places the transition into the Bronze Age in the 11th century B.C. with likely origins in a southward expansion of technological expertise rooted in the early states of the Yellow and Yangtze valleys, China. We have redated Ban Chiang and Non Nok Tha, as well as the sites of Ban Na Di and Ban Lum Khao, and here present 105 radiocarbon determinations that strongly support the latter model. The statistical analysis of the results using a Bayesian approach allows us to examine the data at a regional level, elucidate the timing of arrival of copper base technology in Southeast Asia and consider its social impact.

  12. Chronological aspects of the funerary deposit and Bronze Age fortified settlement of Chao Samartín

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Villa Valdés, Ángel

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The Chao Samartín hillfort, in western Asturias, was initially fortified at the end of the Bronze Age. A large building enclosed within several defensive lines was present at the settlement around the 8th century B.C., its excavation yielding important bronze artefacts. A small stone urn containing a human female cranium has been recently uncovered by the main gate of this fortress. The aim of this contribution is to present a set of new radiocarbon dates that allow us to ascertain the placement of this burial within the chrono-archaeological context of the Final Bronze Age settlement.

    El castro de Chao Samartín, en el occidente de Asturias, remonta su condición de asentamiento fortificado a finales de la Edad del Bronce. Durante el siglo VIII a.C. defensas monumentales delimitaban un recinto en el que se alzaba, en posición principal, una cabaña de grandes dimensiones de la que procede un interesante repertorio de materiales metálicos fabricados en bronce. Junto a la puerta de acceso al recinto, al pie de la fortificación, se instaló una pequeña cista que contenía el cráneo de una mujer joven. Este artículo presenta las nuevas dataciones que permiten establecer la antigüedad del depósito y su contextualización crono-arqueológica con el establecimiento del Bronce Final.

  13. Body mass index, chronological age and hormonal status are better predictors of biological skin age than arm skin autofluorescence in healthy women who have never smoked

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Randag, A. C.; Graaff, R.; Dreise, M. M.; Vierkoetter, A.; Werker, P. M. N.; Stenekes, M. W.

    2015-01-01

    Background As life expectancy is increasing and healthy ageing becomes more and more important, skin ageing is a growing topic of interest from both a medical and a commercial point of view. The urgency to unravel the causes of skin ageing is rising. However, there is a lack of objective, simple, no

  14. The protective effects of long-term oral administration of marine collagen hydrolysate from chum salmon on collagen matrix homeostasis in the chronological aged skin of Sprague-Dawley male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Jiang; Pei, Xinrong; Zhang, Zhaofeng; Wang, Nan; Wang, Junbo; Li, Yong

    2010-10-01

    To investigate the long-term effects of marine collagen hydrolysate (MCH) from Chum Salmon skin on the aberrant collagen matrix homeostasis in chronological aged skin, Sprague-Dawley male rats of 4-wk-old were orally administrated with MCH at the diet concentrations of 2.25% and 4.5% for 24 mo. Histological and biochemical analysis revealed that MCH had the potential to inhibit the collagen loss and collagen fragmentation in chronological aged skin. Based on immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis, collagen type I and III protein expression levels in MCH-treated groups significantly increased as compared with the aged control group. Furthermore, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis showed MCH was able to increase the expressions of procollagen type I and III mRNA (COL1A2 and COL3A1) through activating Smad signaling pathway with up-regulated TGF-βRII (TβRII) expression level. Meanwhile, MCH was shown to inhibit the age-related increased collagen degradation through attenuating MMP-1 expression and increasing tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 expression in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, MCH could alleviate the oxidative stress in chronological aged skin, which was revealed from the data of superoxide dismutase activity and the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances level in skin homogenates. Therefore, MCH was demonstrated to have the protective effects on chronological skin aging due to the influence on collagen matrix homeostasis. And the antioxidative property of MCH might play an important role in the process.

  15. Age as a risk factor for suicide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kocić Sanja S.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. World Health Organization (WHO in its plan for health policy until the year 2010, has taken reduction of risk factors of suicide as its 12th aim. Because of the fact that the problem of suicide is also significant health problem in our society, the aim of this study was to examine the influence of life period as a risk factor for suicide in the area of the town of Kragujevac. Methods. In total 211 persons, both sexes, aged between 17 and 91 years, from the area of the town of Kragujevac, who had been committed a suicide during the period from 1996 to 2005, were included in a retrospective study. This study included the analysis of: conditions prior to suicide, locations of suicide, motives for suicide, the ways of committing suicide. For statistical analysis χ2 test and univariante regression model were used. Results. Average rate of suicide, in analyzed period, moved from 8.7 to 27 with a mean value of 14.6± 6.9. Suicide rates were the lowest in the age group from 15 to 24 years and the highest in the age group above 65 years (p < 0.05. Among the presuicidal conditions, within any age groups the presence of mental disease dominated as a factor for suicide, but within the oldest one in which organic diseases prevailed as a factor for suicide (p < 0.05. Statistically significant fact is that a house (flat was the main location for committing suicide in any age groups. Motives for suicide were significantly different within the groups and they were mostly unknown. Committing suicide by hanging was the most frequent way of suicide among any age groups. Univariant regression analysis failed to show any impact of age on the analyzed factors. Conclusion. Because of the fact that an average rate of suicide in elderly increases it is obligatory to primarily determine risk factors for suicide among people more than 65 years of age. Physicians should play the most important role in that.

  16. Constraining the Cratering Chronology of Vesta

    CERN Document Server

    O'Brien, David P; Morbidelli, Alessandro; Bottke, William F; Schenk, Paul M; Russell, Christopher T; Raymond, Carol A

    2014-01-01

    Vesta has a complex cratering history, with ancient terrains as well as recent large impacts that have led to regional resurfacing. Crater counts can help constrain the relative ages of different units on Vesta's surface, but converting those crater counts to absolute ages requires a chronology function. We present a cratering chronology based on the best current models for the dynamical evolution of asteroid belt, and calibrate it to Vesta using the record of large craters on its surface. While uncertainties remain, our chronology function is broadly consistent with an ancient surface of Vesta as well as other constraints such as the bombardment history of the rest of the inner Solar System and the Ar-Ar age distribution of howardite, eucrite and diogenite (HED) meteorites from Vesta.

  17. Risk factors for age-related maculopathy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Connell, Paul P

    2012-02-01

    Age-related maculopathy (ARM) is the leading cause of blindness in the elderly. Although beneficial therapeutic strategies have recently begun to emerge, much remains unclear regarding the etiopathogenesis of this disorder. Epidemiologic studies have enhanced our understanding of ARM, but the data, often conflicting, has led to difficulties with drawing firm conclusions with respect to risk for this condition. As a consequence, we saw a need to assimilate the published findings with respect to risk factors for ARM, through a review of the literature appraising results from published cross-sectional studies, prospective cohort studies, case series, and case control studies investigating risk for this condition. Our review shows that, to date, and across a spectrum of epidemiologic study designs, only age, cigarette smoking, and family history of ARM have been consistently demonstrated to represent risk for this condition. In addition, genetic studies have recently implicated many genes in the pathogenesis of age-related maculopathy, including Complement Factor H, PLEKHA 1, and LOC387715\\/HTRA1, demonstrating that environmental and genetic factors are important for the development of ARM suggesting that gene-environment interaction plays an important role in the pathogenesis of this condition.

  18. Dominance and Age in Bilingualism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birdsong, David

    2014-01-01

    The present article examines the relationship between age and dominance in bilingual populations. Age in bilingualism is understood as the point in development at which second language (L2) acquisition begins and as the chronological age of users of two languages. Age of acquisition (AoA) is a factor in determining which of a bilingual's two…

  19. Extension of yeast chronological lifespan by methylamine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjeev Kumar

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chronological aging of yeast cells is commonly used as a model for aging of human post-mitotic cells. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae grown on glucose in the presence of ammonium sulphate is mainly used in yeast aging research. We have analyzed chronological aging of the yeast Hansenula polymorpha grown at conditions that require primary peroxisome metabolism for growth. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The chronological lifespan of H. polymorpha is strongly enhanced when cells are grown on methanol or ethanol, metabolized by peroxisome enzymes, relative to growth on glucose that does not require peroxisomes. The short lifespan of H. polymorpha on glucose is mainly due to medium acidification, whereas most likely ROS do not play an important role. Growth of cells on methanol/methylamine instead of methanol/ammonium sulphate resulted in further lifespan enhancement. This was unrelated to medium acidification. We show that oxidation of methylamine by peroxisomal amine oxidase at carbon starvation conditions is responsible for lifespan extension. The methylamine oxidation product formaldehyde is further oxidized resulting in NADH generation, which contributes to increased ATP generation and reduction of ROS levels in the stationary phase. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: We conclude that primary peroxisome metabolism enhanced chronological lifespan of H. polymorpha. Moreover, the possibility to generate NADH at carbon starvation conditions by an organic nitrogen source supports further extension of the lifespan of the cell. Consequently, the interpretation of CLS analyses in yeast should include possible effects on the energy status of the cell.

  20. Age Factor in Second Language Acquisition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张浩

    2014-01-01

    In the second language acquisition, the study focus of linguistics is the influence of age factors which has always been considered as one of the most controversial issues. Some experts hold that the younger the better and would get good compe⁃tence to learn language well, meanwhile others believe that adult have more strong motivation and competence.Based on the Brain Plasticity Theory and the Critical Period Hypothesis, and the intention of this thesis is to reveal such a hypothesis that the younger the learner who starts to learn a second language, the greater performance that he will achieve like a native does, through the comparative research between children and adults. The subjects are 100 Chinese learners who begin learning at different levels and ages. According to the results of integrated scores and a collection of the data in the questionnaire, an analysis show that the results acquired would be consistent with the hypothesis.The intention of this research is not only to argue which is better, earlier or later, but also an trial, through investigation and study, to provide some insights and suggestion to the existent issues, especially the children second language education and college English study in China.

  1. Gender and chronological age affect erythrocyte membrane oxidative indices in citrate phosphate dextrose adenine-formula 1 (CPDA-1) blood bank storage condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erman, Hayriye; Aksu, Uğur; Belce, Ahmet; Atukeren, Pınar; Uzun, Duygu; Cebe, Tamer; Kansu, Ahmet D; Gelişgen, Remisa; Uslu, Ezel; Aydın, Seval; Çakatay, Ufuk

    2016-07-01

    It is well known that in vitro storage lesions lead to membrane dysfunction and decreased number of functional erythrocytes. As erythrocytes get older, in storage media as well as in peripheral circulation, they undergo a variety of biochemical changes. In our study, the erythrocytes with different age groups in citrate phosphate dextrose adenine-formula 1 (CPDA-1) storage solution were used in order to investigate the possible effect of gender factor on oxidative damage. Oxidative damage biomarkers in erythrocyte membranes such as ferric reducing antioxidant power, pro-oxidant-antioxidant balance, protein-bound advance glycation end products, and sialic acid were analyzed. Current study reveals that change in membrane redox status during blood-bank storage condition also depends on both gender depended homeostatic factors and the presence of CPDA-1. During the storage period in CPDA-1, erythrocytes from the male donors are mostly affected by free radical-mediated oxidative stress but erythrocytes obtained from females are severely affected by glyoxidative stress.

  2. Explaining neurocognitive aging: Is one factor enough?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.R. Ridderinkhof

    2002-01-01

    Discusses a number of recent developments in the literature on aging. The classic distinction between generalized and process-specific cognitive changes with old age has reappeared in the distinctions between the frontal lobe hypothesis and more differentiated views of neurocognitive aging. The auth

  3. The comparison between measurement of open apices of third molars and Demirjian stages to test chronological age of over 18 year olds in living subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameriere, R; Ferrante, L; De Angelis, D; Scarpino, F; Galli, F

    2008-11-01

    This paper concerns a method for assessing adult age based on the relationship between age and the third molar maturity index (I(3M)), which is related to the measurement of the open apices of the third molar. Furthermore, this method was compared to those based on Demirjian's stages G and H. The sample consisted of 906 Caucasian individuals aged between 14 and 23 years (53.6% females and 46.4% males). Orthopantomographs were analyzed by two observers and calibrated by means of the concordance correlation coefficient for the reproducibility of the third molar maturity index (I(3M)) and kappa statistics for reproducibility of the Demirjian stages. Probabilities for an individual to be older than 18 years of age (adult age) were derived using the measurements of the third molar maturity index (I(3M)). These results were exploited to set out a threshold value to assign an individual to juvenile or adult age. A cutoff value of I(3M) = 0.08 was taken. The sensitivity of this test was 70% and specificity was 98%. Furthermore, the proportion of individuals with a correct classification was 83%. The results of the test showed a better specificity when compared to the choice of stage G and a better sensitivity when compared to the choice of stage H for adult age.

  4. Growth factors, aging and age-related diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramanian, Priya; Longo, Valter D

    2016-06-01

    Simple organisms including yeast and flies with mutations in the IGF-1 and Tor-S6K pathways are dwarfs, are highly protected from toxins, and survive up to 3 times longer. Similarly, dwarf mice with deficiencies in the growth hormone-IGF-I axis are also long lived and protected from diseases. We recently reported that humans with Growth Hormone Receptor Deficiency (GHRD) rarely develop cancer or diabetes. These findings are in agreement with the effect of defects in the Tor-S6K pathways in causing dwarfism and protection of DNA. Because protein restriction reduces both GHR-IGF-1 axis and Tor-S6K activity, we examined links between protein intake, disease, and mortality in over 6000 US subjects in the NHANES CDC database. Respondents aged 50-65 reporting a high protein intake displayed an increase in IGF-I levels, a 75% increased risk of overall mortality and a 3-4 fold increased risk of cancer mortality in agreement with findings in mouse experiments. These studies point to a conserved link between proteins and amino acids, GHR-IGF-1/insulin, Tor-S6k signaling, aging, and diseases.

  5. Ascertaining year of birth/age at death in forensic cases: A review of conventional methods and methods allowing for absolute chronology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynnerup, Niels; Kjeldsen, H; Zweihoff, R;

    2010-01-01

    of birth) is often a fundamental piece of data in connection with forensic identification of unidentified bodies. The methods most often used are based on determining various morphological, age-related, changes on the skeleton (or teeth, although odontological methods are not reviewed in this paper......Based on an actual case, where we were able to ascertain the year of birth of three dead babies found in a deep-freezer to within 1–2 years (1986, 1988 and 2004, respectively), we review the current state of forensic age determination/year of birth determination. The age of an individual (year...

  6. A Lateglacial to late Holocene glacial chronology for the Cairngorm Mountains (Scotland): effects of boulder inheritance and snow shielding on age distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkbride, Martin; Everest, Jez; Benn, Doug

    2014-05-01

    It is thought that British glaciers disappeared after the Younger Dryas Stadial (YDS, 12.9 - 11.7 k yr). We present cosmogenic 10Be ages of cirque moraines in the Cairngorm Mountains which include two Lateglacial advances, a speculative early Holocene advance, and a late Holocene moraine probably deposited by a Little Ice Age glacier ( 17th - 18th century AD). One cirque (CLE) contains evidence of a YDS advance peaking at c. 12.3 k yr, and a probable Little Ice Age (LIA) advance dated to cirque (CLW) has an outer moraine dated to between 15.3 and 12.0 k yr. An inner moraine, conventionally regarded as YDS in age, yields 10Be ages of 11.5 to 8.3 k yr (Lal/Stone time-dependent production model). The putative YDS moraines are well dated in cirque CLE, but appear too "young" in CLW. We consider how snow-shielding and boulder recycling may have affected age distributions. If these ages are minima from a YDS moraine, snow-shielding and delayed deposition from debris-covered ice may explain low 10Be concentrations, but this does not explain why similar adjustments are not needed in the neighbouring cirque. Alternatively, ages may be maxima from an early Holocene moraine which incorporated existing boulders. The LIA moraine in CLE contains a high proportion of inherited boulders, but the YDS moraine here contains few. Therefore the proportion of inherited boulders is estimated to be a function of the ratio of debris production during the glacial period and debris production during the preceding paraglacial period. The ratio describes the likelihood of sampling an inherited boulder if the geomorphological history is understood. By this reasoning, an alternative interpretation of the "YDS" moraine in CLW is that an early Holocene glacier (speculatively, the 8.2 k event?) incorporated post-YDS paraglacial rock fall debris.

  7. The use of AMS radiocarbon dating for Xia-Shang-Zhou chronology

    CERN Document Server

    Guo, Z Y; LiuKeXin; Lu Xiang Yang; Ma Hong Ji; Wu Xiao Hon; Yuan Si Xun

    2000-01-01

    The possibility and problems of using radiocarbon dating to historical chronology are discussed. The current situation of ancient Chinese chronology and the project of Xia-Shang-Zhou chronology are introduced. A chronological study requires the AMS radiocarbon dating with high precision, high reliability and high efficiency. The Peking University AMS facility (PKUAMS) has been upgraded and a series of quality control steps were adopted. To reduce the error of calendar age, wiggle matching with serial samples should be used. Some preliminary results of Xia-Shang-Zhou chronology are presented.

  8. Psychosocial factors for influencing healthy aging in adults in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Han, KyungHun; Lee, YunJung; Gu, JaSung; Oh, Hee; Han, JongHee; Kim, KwuyBun

    2015-01-01

    Background Healthy aging includes physical, psychological, social, and spiritual well-being in later years. The purpose of this study is to identify the psychosocial factors influencing healthy aging and examining their socio-demographic characteristics. Perceived health status, depression, self-esteem, self-achievement, ego-integrity, participation in leisure activities, and loneliness were identified as influential factors in healthy aging. Methods 171 Korean adults aged between 45 and 77 y...

  9. A Case Study Assessing the Auditory and Speech Development of Four Children Implanted with Cochlear Implants by the Chronological Age of 12 Months

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgit May-Mederake

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Children with severe hearing loss most likely receive the greatest benefit from a cochlear implant (CI when implanted at less than 2 years of age. Children with a hearing loss may also benefit greater from binaural sensory stimulation. Four children who received their first CI under 12 months of age were included in this study. Effects on auditory development were determined using the German LittlEARS Auditory Questionnaire, closed- and open-set monosyllabic word tests, aided free-field, the Mainzer and Göttinger speech discrimination tests, Monosyllabic-Trochee-Polysyllabic (MTP, and Listening Progress Profile (LiP. Speech production and grammar development were evaluated using a German language speech development test (SETK, reception of grammar test (TROG-D and active vocabulary test (AWST-R. The data showed that children implanted under 12 months of age reached open-set monosyllabic word discrimination at an age of 24 months. LiP results improved over time, and children recognized 100% of words in the MTP test after 12 months. All children performed as well as or better than their hearing peers in speech production and grammar development. SETK showed that the speech development of these children was in general age appropriate. The data suggests that early hearing loss intervention benefits speech and language development and supports the trend towards early cochlear implantation. Furthermore, the data emphasizes the potential benefits associated with bilateral implantation.

  10. Accessory mineral U-Th-Pb ages and 40Ar/39Ar eruption chronology, and their bearing on rhyolitic magma evolution in the Pleistocene Coso volcanic field, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, J.I.; Vazquez, J.A.; Renne, P.R.; Schmitt, A.K.; Bacon, C.R.; Reid, M.R.

    2009-01-01

    We determined Ar/Ar eruption ages of eight extrusions from the Pleistocene Coso volcanic field, a long-lived series of small volume rhyolitic domes in eastern California. Combined with ion-microprobe dating of crystal ages of zircon and allanite from these lavas and from granophyre geothermal well cuttings, we were able to track the range of magma-production rates over the past 650 ka at Coso. In ??? 230 ka rhyolites we find no evidence of protracted magma residence or recycled zircon (or allanite) from Pleistocene predecessors. A significant subset of zircon in the ???85 ka rhyolites yielded ages between ???100 and 200 Ma, requiring that generation of at least some rhyolites involves material from Mesozoic basement. Similar zircon xenocrysts are found in an ???200 ka granophyre. The new age constraints imply that magma evolution at Coso can occur rapidly as demonstrated by significant changes in rhyolite composition over short time intervals (???10's to 100's ka). In conjunction with radioisotopic age constraints from other young silicic volcanic fields, dating of Coso rhyolites highlights the fact that at least some (and often the more voluminous) rhyolites are produced relatively rapidly, but that many small-volume rhyolites likely represent separation from long-lived mushy magma bodies. ?? The Author(s) 2009.

  11. Age-Related Factors That Influence Fertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can be found at the NICHD Pregnancy Loss topic page . Committee on Gynecologic Practice of American College of ... 2012, from http://www.nichd.nih.gov/health/topics/pregnancyloss/researchinfo/Pages/default.aspx [top] « Lifestyle Factors That Influence Fertility ...

  12. Chronological objects in demographic research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frans J. Willekens

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Calendar time, age and duration are chronological objects. They represent an instant or a time period. Age and duration are usually expressed in units with varying lengths. The number of days in a month or a year depends on the position on the calendar. The units are also not homogeneous and the structure influences measurement. One solution, common in demography, is to use units that are large enough for the results not to be seriously affected by differences in length and structure. Another approach is to take the idiosyncrasy of calendars into account and to work directly with calendar dates. The technology that enables logical and arithmetic operations on dates is available. OBJECTIVE To illustrate logical and arithmetic operations on dates and conversions between time measurements. METHODS Software packages include utilities to process dates. I use existing and a few new utilities in R to illustrate operations on dates and conversions between calendar dates and elapsed time since a reference moment or a reference event. Three demographic applications are presented. The first is the impact of preferences for dates and days on demographic indicators. The second is event history analysis with time-varying covariates. The third is microsimulation of life histories in continuous time. CONCLUSIONS The technology exists to perform operations directly on dates, enabling more precise calculations of duration and elapsed time in demographic analysis. It eliminates the need for (a approximations and (b transformations of dates, such as Century Month Code, that are convenient for computing durations but are a barrier to interpretation. Operations on dates, such as the computation of age, should consider time units of varying length.

  13. Age as an Affective Factor in Second Language Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bista, Krishna K.

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship of age factor to second language acquisition. Age as an affective factor brings about different performance stages in second as well as first language learning. Traditionally, research in Critical Period Hypothesis and other variables has derived two major aspects of language learning--the younger = the better…

  14. Age at Natural Menopause and Related Factors in Isfahan, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golshiri, Parastoo; Abdollahzadeh, Mohammad Reza

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study was aimed to evaluate the age at natural menopause and related factors among women in a population based study in 2015 in Isfahan, Islamic Republic of Iran. Methods In this cross-sectional study 960 menopausal women were selected by cluster sampling. Demographic, socioeconomic, lifestyle behavior and reproductive history aspects were collected using a structured questionnaire. Woman and her husband's educational level and occupation with family income were the variables to construct socioeconomic status using principal component analysis. Results Mean and median of natural menopause age were 48.66 and 48 years, respectively. Women body mass index (BMI) more than 30 kg/m2 had significantly higher menopausal age than women with lower BMI (P value = 0.022). The mean of menopausal age was not statistically significant in regard to marital status, physical activity, smoking status, menarche age, age at first pregnancy and history of abortion. Menopause age with pregnancy numbers and age at last pregnancy had a significant positive association. Women with better socioeconomic status had significantly higher natural menopause age. Multiple linear regression shows significant relationship between lower age at menopause with higher age at marriage, higher number of pregnancy and lower socioeconomic status. Conclusion Age at menopause in our studied sample is similar to previous estimates reported for other Iranian populations. Age at marriage, higher number of pregnancy and lower socioeconomic status were the significant factors in relations to age at menopause. PMID:27617243

  15. Matrix effects on the relative sensitivity factors for manganese and chromium during ion microprobe analysis of carbonate: Implications for early Solar System chronology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Robert C. J.; Heber, Veronika S.; McKeegan, Kevin D.

    2017-03-01

    The short-lived radionuclide 53 Mn decays to 53 Cr providing a relative chronometer for dating the formation of Mn-rich minerals in meteorites. Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) has been extensively used for in situ dating of meteoritic olivine and carbonate by the 53 Mn-53 Cr system, however a significant analytical challenge has been realising accurate measurements of the Mn/Cr ratio in individual minerals of differing chemical compositions. During SIMS analysis, elements are ionised with differing efficiencies and standard materials are required to calibrate measured ion intensities in terms of relative elemental concentrations. The carbonate system presents a particular analytical difficulty since such standards are not naturally available due to low and variable Cr contents. Here, we utilise ion implantation of Cr into carbonate and other phases to accurately determine the relative sensitivity factors of Mn/Cr during SIMS analysis. We find significant variations in Mn/Cr RSF values among different carbonate minerals that depend systematically on chemical composition and we propose an empirical correction scheme that quantitatively yields an accurate RSF for carbonates of diverse chemical compositions. Correction of SIMS carbonate data for this strong matrix effect may help to reconcile some outstanding problems regarding the timescales of aqueous alteration processes in carbonaceous chondrites. Mn-Cr ages, revised based our new understanding of the matrix effect, are, in general, earlier than previously thought and the duration of carbonate formation is shorter.

  16. Growth Culture Conditions and Nutrient Signaling Modulating Yeast Chronological Longevity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlia Santos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The manipulation of nutrient-signaling pathways in yeast has uncovered the impact of environmental growth conditions in longevity. Studies using calorie restriction show that reducing glucose concentration of the culture media is sufficient to increase replicative and chronological lifespan (CLS. Other components of the culture media and factors such as the products of fermentation have also been implicated in the regulation of CLS. Acidification of the culture media mainly due to acetic acid and other organic acids production negatively impacts CLS. Ethanol is another fermentative metabolite capable of inducing CLS reduction in aged cells by yet unknown mechanisms. Recently, ammonium was reported to induce cell death associated with shortening of CLS. This effect is correlated to the concentration of NH4+ added to the culture medium and is particularly evident in cells starved for auxotrophy-complementing amino acids. Studies on the nutrient-signaling pathways regulating yeast aging had a significant impact on aging-related research, providing key insights into mechanisms that modulate aging and establishing the yeast as a powerful system to extend knowledge on longevity regulation in multicellular organisms.

  17. Regeneration of the aged thymus by a single transcription factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bredenkamp, Nicholas; Nowell, Craig S; Blackburn, C Clare

    2014-04-01

    Thymic involution is central to the decline in immune system function that occurs with age. By regenerating the thymus, it may therefore be possible to improve the ability of the aged immune system to respond to novel antigens. Recently, diminished expression of the thymic epithelial cell (TEC)-specific transcription factor Forkhead box N1 (FOXN1) has been implicated as a component of the mechanism regulating age-related involution. The effects of upregulating FOXN1 function in the aged thymus are, however, unknown. Here, we show that forced, TEC-specific upregulation of FOXN1 in the fully involuted thymus of aged mice results in robust thymus regeneration characterized by increased thymopoiesis and increased naive T cell output. We demonstrate that the regenerated organ closely resembles the juvenile thymus in terms of architecture and gene expression profile, and further show that this FOXN1-mediated regeneration stems from an enlarged TEC compartment, rebuilt from progenitor TECs. Collectively, our data establish that upregulation of a single transcription factor can substantially reverse age-related thymic involution, identifying FOXN1 as a specific target for improving thymus function and, thus, immune competence in patients. More widely, they demonstrate that organ regeneration in an aged mammal can be directed by manipulation of a single transcription factor, providing a provocative paradigm that may be of broad impact for regenerative biology.

  18. Risk factors of age-related macular degeneration in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Eugenia Nano

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSES: To assess the risk factors of age-related macular degeneration in Argentina using a case-control study. METHODS: Surveys were used for subjects' antioxidant intake, age/gender, race, body mass index, hypertension, diabetes (and type of treatment, smoking, sunlight exposure, red meat consumption, fish consumption, presence of age-related macular degeneration and family history of age-related macular degeneration. Main effects models for logistic regression and ordinal logistic regression were used to analyze the results. RESULTS: There were 175 cases and 175 controls with a mean age of 75.4 years and 75.5 years, respectively, of whom 236 (67.4% were female. Of the cases with age-related macular degeneration, 159 (45.4% had age-related macular degeneration in their left eyes, 154 (44.0% in their right eyes, and 138 (39.4% in both eyes. Of the cases with age-related macular degeneration in their left eyes, 47.8% had the dry type, 40.3% had the wet type, and the type was unknown for 11.9%. The comparable figures for right eyes were: 51.9%, 34.4%, and 13.7%, respectively. The main effects model was dominated by higher sunlight exposure (OR [odds ratio]: 3.3 and a family history of age-related macular degeneration (OR: 4.3. Other factors included hypertension (OR: 2.1, smoking (OR: 2.2, and being of the Mestizo race, which lowered the risk of age-related macular degeneration (OR: 0.40. Red meat/fish consumption, body mass index, and iris color did not have an effect. Higher age was associated with progression to more severe age-related macular degeneration. CONCLUSION: Sunlight exposure, family history of age-related macular degeneration, and an older age were the significant risk factors. There may be other variables, as the risk was not explained very well by the existing factors. A larger sample may produce different and better results.

  19. The boundary of the chronology violating set

    CERN Document Server

    Minguzzi, E

    2016-01-01

    A sufficiently general definition for the future and past boundaries of the chronology violating region is given. In comparison to previous studies, this work does not assume that the complement of the chronology violating set is globally hyperbolic. The boundary of the chronology violating set is studied and several propositions are obtained which confirm the reasonability of the definition. Some singularity theorems related to chronology violation are considered.

  20. The Fine Art of Age Factor in Second Language Acquisition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    覃舒雅

    2014-01-01

    In present-day world foregrounding the booming globalization, there is possibly no one who still doubts the formida-ble position of English as an international language, who still questions the immense necessity and urgency of learning English as a second language. Therefore, nothing is more rewarding than a clear-cut perception of age factor in second language acquisition that help learners young or old improve their English proficiency if not a native-like level. Among the full repertoire of ideas and arguments concerning age factor in second language acquisition, the critical period hypothesis is undoubtedly the chief character in the center of the stage.

  1. Optimisation of glaciological parameters for ice core chronology by implementing counted layers between identified depth levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazin, L.; Lemieux-Dudon, B.; Landais, A.; Guillevic, M.; Kindler, P.; Parrenin, F.; Martinerie, P.

    2014-08-01

    A~recent coherent chronology has been built for 4 Antarctic ice cores and the NorthGRIP (NGRIP) Greenland ice core (Antarctic Ice Core Chronology 2012, AICC2012) using a bayesian approach for ice core dating (Datice). When building the AICC2012 chronology, and in order to prevent any confusion with official ice cores chronology, it has been imposed that the AICC2012 chronology for NGRIP should respect exactly the GICC05 chronology based on layer counting. However, such a strong tuning did not satisfy the hypothesis of independence of background parameters and observations for the NGRIP core as required by Datice. We present here the implementation in Datice of a new type of markers that is better suited to constraints deduced from layer counting: the markers of age-difference. Using this type of markers for NGRIP in a 5 cores dating exercise with Datice, we have performed several sensitivity tests and show that the new ice core chronologies obtained with these new markers do not differ by more than 400 years from AICC2012 for Antarctic ice cores and by more than 130 years from GICC05 for NGRIP over the last 60 000 years. With this new parameterization, the accumulation rate and lock-in depth associated with NGRIP are more coherent with independent estimates than those obtained in AICC2012. While these new chronologies should not be used yet as new ice core chronologies, the improved methodology presented here should be considered in the next coherent ice core dating exercise.

  2. Comparing records with related chronologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronk Ramsey, Christopher; Albert, Paul; Kearney, Rebecca; Staff, Richard A.

    2016-04-01

    In order to integrate ice, terrestrial and marine records, it is necessary to deal with records on different timescales. These timescales can be grouped into those that use a common fundamental chronometer (such as Uranium-Thorium dating or Radiocarbon) and can also be related to one another where we have chronological tie points such as tephra horizons. More generally we can, through a number of different methodologies, derive relationships between different timescales. A good example of this is the use of cosmogenic isotope production, specifically 10Be and 14C to relate the calibrated radiocarbon timescale to that of the Greenland ice cores. The relationships between different timescales can be mathematically expressed in terms of time-transfer functions. This formalism allows any related record to be considered against any linked timescale with an appropriate associated uncertainty. The prototype INTIMATE chronological database allows records to be viewed and compared in this way and this is now being further developed, both to include a wider range of records and also to provide better connectivity to other databases and chronological tools. These developments will also include new ways to use tephra tie-points to constrain the relationship between timescales directly, without needing to remodel each associated timescale. The database as it stands allows data for particular timeframes to be recalled and plotted against any timescale, or exported in spreadsheet format. New functionality will be added to allow users to work with their own data in a private space and then to publish it when it has been through the peer-review publication process. In order to make the data easier to use for other further analysis and plotting, and with data from other sources, the database will also act as a server to deliver data in a JSON format. The aim of this work is to make the comparison of integrated data much easier for researchers and to ensure that good practice in

  3. Factors for Successful E-Learning: Does Age Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Julie; Becker, Karen; Newton, Cameron

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the factors affecting employees' overall acceptance, satisfaction and future use of e-learning, specifically exploring the impact that age has on the intended future use of e-learning relative to the other potential predictors. Design/Methodology/Approach: The project developed an online survey and…

  4. Premature aging in skeletal muscle lacking serum response factor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte Lahoute

    Full Text Available Aging is associated with a progressive loss of muscle mass, increased adiposity and fibrosis that leads to sarcopenia. At the molecular level, muscle aging is known to alter the expression of a variety of genes but very little is known about the molecular effectors involved. SRF (Serum Response Factor is a crucial transcription factor for muscle-specific gene expression and for post-natal skeletal muscle growth. To assess its role in adult skeletal muscle physiology, we developed a post-mitotic myofiber-specific and tamoxifen-inducible SRF knockout model. Five months after SRF loss, no obvious muscle phenotype was observed suggesting that SRF is not crucial for myofiber maintenance. However, mutant mice progressively developed IIB myofiber-specific atrophy accompanied by a metabolic switch towards a more oxidative phenotype, muscular lipid accumulation, sarcomere disorganization and fibrosis. After injury, mutant muscles exhibited an altered regeneration process, showing smaller regenerated fibers and persistent fibrosis. All of these features are strongly reminiscent of abnormalities encountered in aging skeletal muscle. Interestingly, we also observed an important age associated decrease in SRF expression in mice and human muscles. Altogether, these results suggest that a naturally occurring SRF down-regulation precedes and contributes to the muscle aging process. Indeed, triggering SRF loss in the muscles of mutant mice results in an accelerated aging process.

  5. Social Factors and Healthy Aging: Findings from the Louisiana Healthy Aging Study (LHAS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherry, Katie E; Brown, Jennifer Silva; Kim, Sangkyu; Jazwinski, S Michal

    2016-02-01

    Social behaviors are associated with health outcomes in later life. The authors examined relationships among social and physical activities and health in a lifespan sample of adults (N = 771) drawn from the Louisiana Healthy Aging Study (LHAS). Four age groups were compared: younger (21-44 years), middle-aged (45-64 years), older (65-84 years), and oldest-old adults (85 to 101 years). Linear regression analyses indicated that physical activity, hours spent outside of the house, and social support were significantly associated with self-reported health, after controlling for sociodemographic factors. Number of clubs was significantly associated with objective health status, after controlling for sociodemographic factors. These data indicate that social and physical activities remain an important determinant of self-perceived health into very late adulthood. Implications of these data for current views on successful aging are discussed.

  6. Starting age and other influential factors: Insights from learner interviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Muñoz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study uses oral interviews with foreign language learners in search of influential factors in their language learning histories. The sample for the study was drawn from a larger sample of intermediate/advanced learners of English as a foreign language with a minimum of 10 years of exposure/instruction. The sample includes 6 early learners (range of starting age: 3.2-6.5 and 6 late learners (starting age: 11+. Half of them in each group were among those with the highest scores on two English language tests in the larger sample and half among those with the lowest scores on those same tests. A qualitative analysis of the interviews of these learners yields insights into their experience of foreign language learning and the role played in it by starting age and other significant factors, such as motivation and intensive contact with the language.

  7. A first chronology for the NEEM ice core

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. O. Rasmussen

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available A stratigraphy-based chronology for the North Greenland Eemian Ice Drilling (NEEM ice core has been derived by transferring the annual layer counted Greenland Ice Core Chronology 2005 (GICC05 from the NGRIP core to the NEEM core using 787 match points of mainly volcanic origin identified in the Electrical Conductivity Measurement (ECM and Dielectrical Profiling (DEP records. Tephra horizons found in both the NEEM and NGRIP ice cores are used to test the matching based on ECM and DEP and provide additional horizons used for the time scale transfer. A thinning function reflecting the accumulated strain along the core has been determined using a Dansgaard–Johnsen flow model and an isotope-dependent accumulation rate parameterization. Flow parameters are determined from Monte Carlo analysis constrained by the observed depth-age horizons. In order to construct a chronology for the gas phase, the ice age–gas age difference (Δage has been reconstructed using a coupled firn densification–heat diffusion model. Temperature and accumulation inputs to the Δage model, initially derived from the water isotope proxies, have been adjusted to optimize the fit to timing constraints from δ15N of nitrogen and high-resolution methane data during the abrupt onsets of interstadials. The ice and gas chronologies and the corresponding thinning function represent the first chronology for the NEEM core, and based on both the flow and firn modelling results, the accumulation history for the NEEM site has been reconstructed, providing the necessary basis for further analysis of the records from NEEM.

  8. Anorexia of Aging: Risk Factors, Consequences, and Potential Treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landi, Francesco; Calvani, Riccardo; Tosato, Matteo; Martone, Anna Maria; Ortolani, Elena; Savera, Giulia; Sisto, Alex; Marzetti, Emanuele

    2016-01-27

    Older people frequently fail to ingest adequate amount of food to meet their essential energy and nutrient requirements. Anorexia of aging, defined by decrease in appetite and/or food intake in old age, is a major contributing factor to under-nutrition and adverse health outcomes in the geriatric population. This disorder is indeed highly prevalent and is recognized as an independent predictor of morbidity and mortality in different clinical settings. Even though anorexia is not an unavoidable consequence of aging, advancing age often promotes its development through various mechanisms. Age-related changes in life-style, disease conditions, as well as social and environmental factors have the potential to directly affect dietary behaviors and nutritional status. In spite of their importance, problems related to food intake and, more generally, nutritional status are seldom attended to in clinical practice. While this may be the result of an "ageist" approach, it should be acknowledged that simple interventions, such as oral nutritional supplementation or modified diets, could meaningfully improve the health status and quality of life of older persons.

  9. Risk factors for premature death in middle aged men

    OpenAIRE

    Petersson, Bo; Trell, Erik; Henningsen, Nels-Christian; Hood, Bertil

    1984-01-01

    The causes of premature death and the associated risk factors were analysed in a cohort of 7935 middle aged men participating in a preventive population programme in Malmö. They were screened when aged 46-48 and then followed up for 3½-8 years. Two hundred and eighteen died, of whom 181 (83%) underwent necropsy. Three major causes of death were established: cancer in 61 (28%), deaths related to consumption of alcohol in 55 (25%), and coronary heart disease in 50 (23%).

  10. Aging and intestinal motility: a review of factors that affect intestinal motility in the aged.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Mahony, Denis

    2012-02-03

    Normal aging is associated with significant changes in the function of most organs and tissues. In this regard, the gastrointestinal tract is no exception. The purpose of this review is to detail the important age-related changes in motor function of the various parts of the gastrointestinal tract and to highlight some of the important motility changes that may occur, either in relation to common age-related disorders, or as a result of certain drugs commonly prescribed in the aged. A major confounding factor in the interpretation of motor phenomena throughout the gastrointestinal tract in this age group is the frequent coexistence of neurological, endocrinological and other disease states, which may be independently associated with dysmotility. Overall, current data are insufficient to implicate normal aging as a cause of dysmotility in the elderly. Normal aging is associated with various changes in gastrointestinal motility, but the clinical significance of such changes remains unclear. More important is the impact of various age-related diseases on gastrointestinal motility in the elderly: for example, long-standing diabetes mellitus may reduce gastric emptying in up to 50% of patients; depression significantly prolongs whole-gut transit time; hypothyroidism may prolong oro-caecal transit time; and chronic renal failure is associated with impaired gastric emptying. In addition, various, frequently used drugs in the elderly cause disordered gastrointestinal motility. These drugs include anticholinergics, especially antidepressants with an anticholinergic effect, opioid analgesics and calcium antagonists.

  11. Factors Influencing Obesity on School-Aged Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soepardi Soedibyo

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available School-aged children of 6-12 year old in big cities have less physical activities and relax life style. Fast food and soft drink consumed contain high calorie and protein of protein and carbohydrate sources. Obesity has impact on children’s growth and development especially on psychosocial aspect. The factors that play a role in supporting the obesity occurrence in children include socio-economic condition, behavior and life style and diet. A cross sectional descriptive –analytic study was conducted on elementary school students in Jakarta, to identify factors that play roles on obesity of school-aged children. (Med J Indones 2006; 15:43-54Keywords: childhood obesity, weight shape index, body mass index

  12. Age as a prognostic factor in carcinoma of the cervix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lybeert, M L; Meerwaldt, J H; van Putten, W L

    1987-06-01

    To investigate whether age is a prognostic factor in patients with carcinoma of the cervix, a retrospective study was undertaken of 261 patients, aged 45 years or less, who were referred to the Rotterdamsch Radio-Therapeutisch Instituut (RRTI) between 1973 and 1982. Patients were referred for either primary treatment--surgery or radiotherapy--or for adjuvant radiotherapy. Overall 5-year survival figures were rather low, which may be explained by negative patient selection as the RRTI is a referral hospital: stage IB, 72%; stage IIA; 61%; stage IIB; 52%; stage III; 29%. A particular poor survival was noted for patients (n = 22) aged 28 or less. Overall 5-year survival of these patients was only 39% in contrast to 67% 5-year survival of older patients. This difference was highly significant (p less than 0.002). Even if corrected for stage, very young patients had a poorer prognosis (stage IB: 45% versus 75% 5-year survival of older patients). Within the older age group, no trend towards a better prognosis with increasing age could be identified. As a treatment was similar for all patients, no explanation is available for this observation.

  13. Klotho is a serum factor related to human aging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖能明; 张焱明; 郑权; 顾军

    2004-01-01

    Background Does klotho (KL) protein exist in human serum, and is there any correlation between KL protein in serum with human aging? In order to answer those questions, we identified KL protein in human serum and established the correlation between KL protein in human serum and aging.Methods We prepared a polyclonal antibody against human KL protein that was able to recognize the C-terminal of human secreted KL protein. Western blot and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) were used to identify KL protein in human serum.Results In Western blot, the antibody specifically recognized a 60-kD KL protein in both human and mice serum. The population aged from 0 to 91 years screened by ELISA revealed that the level of serum KL declined while age increased, though each individual level was variable and that the trend of decreasing in serum KL had no difference in sex.Conclusion Our data suggest that KL is a serum factor related to human aging.

  14. ERP correlates of script chronology violations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baetens, Kris; Van der Cruyssen, Laurens; Vandekerckhove, Marie; Van Overwalle, Frank

    2014-11-01

    Research indicates a distinction between the processing of script content (which events, behaviors, scenes… are part of it) and script chronology (what is their usual order of occurrence). Using sequences of two line drawings depicting everyday social script events, we examined the event related potential (ERP) correlates of script chronology violations (i.e., wrong order). An increased left anterior negativity (LAN) following chronology violations suggests similarities between the processing of script chronology in visually observed human behavior and verbal syntax. Consequently, this study extends previous findings suggesting that the LAN is sensitive to structure violation across domains (e.g., verbal syntax, abstract structure), including that of meaningful human actions.

  15. Management of the aging risk factor for Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillipson, Oliver T

    2014-04-01

    The aging risk factor for Parkinson's disease is described in terms of specific disease markers including mitochondrial and gene dysfunctions relevant to energy metabolism. This review details evidence for the ability of nutritional agents to manage these aging risk factors. The combination of alpha lipoic acid, acetyl-l-carnitine, coenzyme Q10, and melatonin supports energy metabolism via carbohydrate and fatty acid utilization, assists electron transport and adenosine triphosphate synthesis, counters oxidative and nitrosative stress, and raises defenses against protein misfolding, inflammatory stimuli, iron, and other endogenous or xenobiotic toxins. These effects are supported by gene expression via the antioxidant response element (ARE; Keap/Nrf2 pathway), and by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma co-activator 1 alpha (PGC-1 alpha), a transcription coactivator, which regulates gene expression for energy metabolism and mitochondrial biogenesis, and maintains the structural integrity of mitochondria. The effectiveness and synergies of the combination against disease risks are discussed in relation to gene action, dopamine cell loss, and the accumulation and spread of pathology via misfolded alpha-synuclein. In addition there are potential synergies to support a neurorestorative role via glial derived neurotrophic factor expression.

  16. Lifestyle and dietary factors determine age at natural menopause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapre, Shilpa; Thakur, Ratna

    2014-01-01

    A literature search was done using PubMed. The age at natural menopause (ANM) depends on various factors like genetic, environmental, socioeconomic, reproductive, dietary, and lifestyle of which some like nulliparity, vegetarian diet, smoking, high fat intake, cholesterol, and caffeine accelerates; while others like parity, prior use of oral contraceptive pills, and Japanese ethnicity delays the ANM. ANM is an important risk factor for long-term morbidity and mortality; and hence, the need to identify the modifiable risk factors like diet and lifestyle changes. Delayed menopause is associated with increased risk of endometrial and breast cancer, while early ANM enhances the risk for cardiovascular diseases and osteoporosis. The correlation between diet and ANM has not been extensively studied; however, whatever studies have been done till now point towards role of high intake of total calories, fruits, and proteins in delaying the ANM, while high polyunsaturated fat intake accelerates it. The role of dietary soy, total fat, saturated fat, red meat, and dietary fiber in determining the ANM has been controversial and needs further studies to substantiate it. The lifestyle factors like current smoking and vigorous exercise have been significantly associated with early menopause, while moderate alcohol consumption delays the ANM. Large prospective studies are needed to study the association of ANM and other modifiable factors like passive smoking fish consumption, soy, and various types of tea. The knowledge of modifiable determinants of ANM can help in setting up menopausal clinics and initiating health programs specially in developing countries.

  17. Influential and prognostic factors of small for gestational age infants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yong-li; LIU Jun-tao; GAO Jin-song; YANG Jian-qiu; BIAN Xu-ming

    2009-01-01

    Background Small for gestational age (SGA) infants are associated with a high rate of oligohydramnios, stillbirth and cesarean delivery. Among SGA patients there is a higher risk of neonatal complications, such as polycythemia, hyperbilirubinemia, and hypothermia. Additionally, the SGA infant is prone to suffer from major neurologic sequelae, as well as cardiovascular system disease, in later life. Proper monitoring and therapy during pregnancy are, therefore, of utmost importance. The present study aimed to investigate the influential and prognostic factors of SGA infants.Methods From January 2001 to June 2007, a total of 55 SGA neonatal infants were included in a study group. All were born at Peking Union Medical College Hospital, with regular formal antenatal examinations. In addition, a total of 122 cases of appropriate for gestational age (AGA) infants were bom at the same time and were registered into a control group. All cases were singleton pregnancies with detailed information of the maternal age, gravidity, parity, maternal height and weight, complications, uterine height and abdominal circumference, results from transabdominal ultrasonography between 32-38 gestational weeks, pregnancy duration, delivery manner, placenta, umbilical cord, and neonatal complications.Results Significant differences were observed in placenta weight and neonatal malformations between the study and control groups. Multivariate analysis revealed increased parity, maternal hyperthyroidism and hyperthyroidism history as risk factors. Fetal abdominal circumferences less than 30 and 32 cm at 32-38 gestational weeks respectively, as determined by ultrasonography, resulted in a Youden index of 0.62.Conclusions SGA infants were associated with a greater risk of smaller placentas and infant malformations. Increased parity, maternal hyperthyroidism, and a hyperthyroid history were risk factors for SGA infants. Fetal abdominal circumference less than 30 cm at 32 gestational weeks and less

  18. Astronomical arguments in Newton's Chronology

    CERN Document Server

    Naze, Yael

    2012-01-01

    In his Chronology, Newton uses astronomical "evidence" to support its extreme rejuvenation of ancient times. These elements, having a scientific varnish, provide some credibility to the work. They have been fiercely debated for a century, with a gradual undermining of Newton's assumptions. However, this has not dented the prestige of the English scientist. ----- Dans sa Chronologie, Newton utilise des "preuves" astronomiques pour appuyer son rajeunissement extreme des epoques anciennes. Ces elements, au vernis scientifique, donnent une credibilite certaine a l'ensemble. Ils ont donc ete aprement discutes, les debats sapant petit a petit les hypotheses du savant anglais pour finalement porter un coup mortel a l'ensemble. Cela n'a toutefois pas entame le prestige du savant anglais.

  19. Constructing deposition chronologies for peat deposits using radiocarbon dating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Piotrowska

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Radiocarbon dating is one of the main methods used to establish peat chronologies. This article reviews the basis of the method and its application to dating of peat deposits. Important steps in the radiocarbon dating procedure are described, including selection and extraction of material (and fractions for dating, chemical and physical preparation of media suitable for measurements, measurements of 14C activity or concentration, calculations, calibration of results and age-depth modelling.

  20. Tanshinones extend chronological lifespan in budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ziyun; Song, Lixia; Liu, Shao Quan; Huang, Dejian

    2014-10-01

    Natural products with anti-aging property have drawn great attention recently but examples of such compounds are exceedingly scarce. By applying a high-throughput assay based on yeast chronological lifespan measurement, we screened the anti-aging activity of 144 botanical materials and found that dried roots of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge have significant anti-aging activity. Tanshinones isolated from the plant including cryptotanshione, tanshinone I, and tanshinone IIa, are the active components. Among them, cryptotanshinone can greatly extend the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae chronological lifespan (up to 2.5 times) in a dose- and the-time-of-addition-dependent manner at nanomolar concentrations without disruption of cell growth. We demonstrate that cryptotanshinone prolong chronological lifespan via a nutrient-dependent regime, especially essential amino acid sensing, and three conserved protein kinases Tor1, Sch9, and Gcn2 are required for cryptotanshinone-induced lifespan extension. In addition, cryptotanshinone significantly increases the lifespan of SOD2-deleted mutants. Altogether, those data suggest that cryptotanshinone might be involved in the regulation of, Tor1, Sch9, Gcn2, and Sod2, these highly conserved longevity proteins modulated by nutrients from yeast to humans.

  1. Predictive values derived from lower wisdom teeth developmental stages on orthopantomograms to calculate the chronological age in adolescence and young adults as a prerequisite to obtain age-adjusted informed patient consent prior to elective surgical procedures in young patients with incomplete or mismatched personal data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, Reinhard E; Schmidt, Kirsten; Treszl, András; Kersten, Jan F

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Surgical procedures require informed patient consent, which is mandatory prior to any procedure. These requirements apply in particular to elective surgical procedures. The communication with the patient about the procedure has to be comprehensive and based on mutual understanding. Furthermore, the informed consent has to take into account whether a patient is of legal age. As a result of large-scale migration, there are eventually patients planned for medical procedures, whose chronological age can't be assessed reliably by physical inspection alone. Age determination based on assessing wisdom tooth development stages can be used to help determining whether individuals involved in medical procedures are of legal age, i.e., responsible and accountable. At present, the assessment of wisdom tooth developmental stages barely allows a crude estimate of an individual's age. This study explores possibilities for more precise predictions of the age of individuals with emphasis on the legal age threshold of 18 years. Material and Methods: 1,900 dental orthopantomograms (female 938, male 962, age: 15-24 years), taken between the years 2000 and 2013 for diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the jaws, were evaluated. 1,895 orthopantomograms (female 935, male 960) of 1,804 patients (female 872, male 932) met the inclusion criteria. The archives of the Department of Diagnostic Radiology in Dentistry, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, and of an oral and maxillofacial office in Rostock, Germany, were used to collect a sufficient number of radiographs. An effort was made to achieve almost equal distribution of age categories in this study group; 'age' was given on a particular day. The radiological criteria of lower third molar investigation were: presence and extension of periodontal space, alveolar bone loss, emergence of tooth, and stage of tooth mineralization (according to Demirjian). Univariate and multivariate general linear models were calculated

  2. Potential factors that may promote successful cognitive aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vance DE

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available David E VanceCenter for Nursing Research, School of Nursing, Edward R Roybal Center for Translational Research in Aging and Mobility, University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB, Birmingham, AL, USAAbstract: With the unprecedented number of older adults worldwide, it is important to consider ways of facilitating successful cognitive aging. One way to think of this is by augmenting or bolstering cognitive reserve. Loosely defined, cognitive reserve is considered a neurological reservoir that can be depleted by physiological insults (eg, white matter hyperintensities, oxidative stress to the brain but yet maintain optimal cognitive functioning. Cognitive reserve is built up or depleted by processes of positive and negative neuroplasticity, respectively. Lifestyle factors such as physical exercise (+, mental stimulation (+, good sleep hygiene (+, substance abuse (-, sedentary lifestyle (-, chronic stress and depression (-, social isolation (-, and poor health (- can either promote or discourage positive and negative neuroplasticity, which in turn impacts cognitive reserve. Nurses are encouraged to understand these processes so they can help facilitate successful cognitive aging in their patients.Keywords: cognitive reserve, Alzheimer's disease, neuroplasticity

  3. Predictive values derived from lower wisdom teeth developmental stages on orthopantomograms to calculate the chronological age in adolescence and young adults as a prerequisite to obtain age-adjusted informed patient consent prior to elective surgical procedures in young patients with incomplete or mismatched personal data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, Reinhard E.; Schmidt, Kirsten; Treszl, András; Kersten, Jan F.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Surgical procedures require informed patient consent, which is mandatory prior to any procedure. These requirements apply in particular to elective surgical procedures. The communication with the patient about the procedure has to be comprehensive and based on mutual understanding. Furthermore, the informed consent has to take into account whether a patient is of legal age. As a result of large-scale migration, there are eventually patients planned for medical procedures, whose chronological age can’t be assessed reliably by physical inspection alone. Age determination based on assessing wisdom tooth development stages can be used to help determining whether individuals involved in medical procedures are of legal age, i.e., responsible and accountable. At present, the assessment of wisdom tooth developmental stages barely allows a crude estimate of an individual’s age. This study explores possibilities for more precise predictions of the age of individuals with emphasis on the legal age threshold of 18 years. Material and Methods: 1,900 dental orthopantomograms (female 938, male 962, age: 15–24 years), taken between the years 2000 and 2013 for diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the jaws, were evaluated. 1,895 orthopantomograms (female 935, male 960) of 1,804 patients (female 872, male 932) met the inclusion criteria. The archives of the Department of Diagnostic Radiology in Dentistry, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, and of an oral and maxillofacial office in Rostock, Germany, were used to collect a sufficient number of radiographs. An effort was made to achieve almost equal distribution of age categories in this study group; ‘age’ was given on a particular day. The radiological criteria of lower third molar investigation were: presence and extension of periodontal space, alveolar bone loss, emergence of tooth, and stage of tooth mineralization (according to Demirjian). Univariate and multivariate general linear models were

  4. Chronology of Lake El'gygytgyn sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. R. Nowaczyk

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A 318 m long sedimentary profile drilled by the International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP at Site 5011-1 in Lake El'gygytgyn, Far East Russian Arctic, has been analysed for its sedimentologic response to global climate modes by chrono-stratigraphic methods. The 12 km wide lake is sited in an 18 km large crater that was created by the impact of a meteorite 3.58 Ma ago. Since then sediments have been continuously deposited. For establishing their chronology, major reversals of the Earth's magnetic field provided initial tie points for the age model, confirming that the impact occurred in the earliest Gauss chron. Various stratigraphic parameters, reflecting redox conditions at the lake floor and climatic conditions in the catchment were tuned synchronously to Northern Hemisphere insolation variations and the marine oxygen isotope stack, respectively. Thus, a robust age model comprising more than 600 tie points could be defined. It could be shown that deposition of sediments in Lake El'gygytgyn occurred in concert with global climatic cycles. The upper ~160 m of sediments represent the past 3.3 Ma, equivalent to sedimentation rates of 4 to 5 cm ka−1, whereas the lower 160 m represent just the first 0.3 Ma after the impact, equivalent to sedimentation rates in the order of 45 cm ka−1.

  5. The WAIS Divide deep ice core WD2014 chronology - Part 2: Annual-layer counting (0-31 ka BP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigl, Michael; Fudge, Tyler J.; Winstrup, Mai; Cole-Dai, Jihong; Ferris, David; McConnell, Joseph R.; Taylor, Ken C.; Welten, Kees C.; Woodruff, Thomas E.; Adolphi, Florian; Bisiaux, Marion; Brook, Edward J.; Buizert, Christo; Caffee, Marc W.; Dunbar, Nelia W.; Edwards, Ross; Geng, Lei; Iverson, Nels; Koffman, Bess; Layman, Lawrence; Maselli, Olivia J.; McGwire, Kenneth; Muscheler, Raimund; Nishiizumi, Kunihiko; Pasteris, Daniel R.; Rhodes, Rachael H.; Sowers, Todd A.

    2016-03-01

    We present the WD2014 chronology for the upper part (0-2850 m; 31.2 ka BP) of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) Divide (WD) ice core. The chronology is based on counting of annual layers observed in the chemical, dust and electrical conductivity records. These layers are caused by seasonal changes in the source, transport, and deposition of aerosols. The measurements were interpreted manually and with the aid of two automated methods. We validated the chronology by comparing to two high-accuracy, absolutely dated chronologies. For the Holocene, the cosmogenic isotope records of 10Be from WAIS Divide and 14C for IntCal13 demonstrated that WD2014 was consistently accurate to better than 0.5 % of the age. For the glacial period, comparisons to the Hulu Cave chronology demonstrated that WD2014 had an accuracy of better than 1 % of the age at three abrupt climate change events between 27 and 31 ka. WD2014 has consistently younger ages than Greenland ice core chronologies during most of the Holocene. For the Younger Dryas-Preboreal transition (11.595 ka; 24 years younger) and the Bølling-Allerød Warming (14.621 ka; 7 years younger), WD2014 ages are within the combined uncertainties of the timescales. Given its high accuracy, WD2014 can become a reference chronology for the Southern Hemisphere, with synchronization to other chronologies feasible using high-quality proxies of volcanism, solar activity, atmospheric mineral dust, and atmospheric methane concentrations.

  6. Climate wavelet spectrum estimation under chronology uncertainties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenoir, G.; Crucifix, M.

    2012-04-01

    Several approaches to estimate the chronology of palaeoclimate records exist in the literature: simple interpolation between the tie points, orbital tuning, alignment on other data... These techniques generate a single estimate of the chronology. More recently, statistical generators of chronologies have appeared (e.g. OXCAL, BCHRON) allowing the construction of thousands of chronologies given the tie points and their uncertainties. These techniques are based on advanced statistical methods. They allow one to take into account the uncertainty of the timing of each climatic event recorded into the core. On the other hand, when interpreting the data, scientists often rely on time series analysis, and especially on spectral analysis. Given that paleo-data are composed of a large spectrum of frequencies, are non-stationary and are highly noisy, the continuous wavelet transform turns out to be a suitable tool to analyse them. The wavelet periodogram, in particular, is helpful to interpret visually the time-frequency behaviour of the data. Here, we combine statistical methods to generate chronologies with the power of continuous wavelet transform. Some interesting applications then come up: comparison of time-frequency patterns between two proxies (extracted from different cores), between a proxy and a statistical dynamical model, and statistical estimation of phase-lag between two filtered signals. All these applications consider explicitly the uncertainty in the chronology. The poster presents mathematical developments on the wavelet spectrum estimation under chronology uncertainties as well as some applications to Quaternary data based on marine and ice cores.

  7. Climate signal in a Picea abies tree ring chronology in Eastern Romanian Carpathians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieru, I.; Holobâcǎ, I. H.; Pop, O.; Irimuş, I. A.; Georgescu, M.

    2012-04-01

    Trees are both sensitive and adaptive to environmental change; consequently they are often used as indicators for past climate variability. The correlation between climate and growth of spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst) in Eastern Romanian Carpathians was tested by choosing a sample site situated beneath the upper timberline (where the climatic factor would be more restrictive), at the altitude of 900 - 1000 m, on the north facing left slope of the Gošman valley (Neamt county). The tree ring width chronology covering most of the last three centuries was derived from the 25 living spruce trees sampled. The climatic dataset comprises monthly average temperature and precipitation values from the closest 7 weather stations, as well as for the nearest grid point of CRU TS. 3.1 dataset. One of the methods consists of detrending and standardization the tree ring using a negative exponential function and a linear function, the average population index being calculated using a bi-weight robust mean. The statistical significance of correlation is tested with the bootstrap method and the coefficients that exceed the 95% confidence level are highlighted. Preliminary results indicate a significant correlation between the tree ring chronology and the average winter temperatures (November, December and January) of the grid dataset. The length of this temperature dataset also allows the performance of correlation with evolutionary and moving intervals, which is not possible in the case of instrumental data. Further on, differences in standardization methods used and the corresponding results are detailed. The results of Regional Curve Standardization are of particular interest, considering the limited length of the chronology, and the possible bias introduced by the modern sample of uneven aged trees that is prone to a contemporaneous-growth-rate-bias. Keywords: dendroclimatology, tree ring, standardization, correlation, RCS method.

  8. Maintenance of cellular ATP level by caloric restriction correlates chronological survival of budding yeast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Joon-Seok; Lee, Cheol-Koo, E-mail: cklee2005@korea.ac.kr

    2013-09-13

    Highlights: •CR decreases total ROS and mitochondrial superoxide during the chronological aging. •CR does not affect the levels of oxidative damage on protein and DNA. •CR contributes extension of chronological lifespan by maintenance of ATP level -- Abstract: The free radical theory of aging emphasizes cumulative oxidative damage in the genome and intracellular proteins due to reactive oxygen species (ROS), which is a major cause for aging. Caloric restriction (CR) has been known as a representative treatment that prevents aging; however, its mechanism of action remains elusive. Here, we show that CR extends the chronological lifespan (CLS) of budding yeast by maintaining cellular energy levels. CR reduced the generation of total ROS and mitochondrial superoxide; however, CR did not reduce the oxidative damage in proteins and DNA. Subsequently, calorie-restricted yeast had higher mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), and it sustained consistent ATP levels during the process of chronological aging. Our results suggest that CR extends the survival of the chronologically aged cells by improving the efficiency of energy metabolism for the maintenance of the ATP level rather than reducing the global oxidative damage of proteins and DNA.

  9. Strength training and testosterone treatment have opposing effects on migration inhibitor factor levels in ageing men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glintborg, D.; Christensen, L. L.; Kvorning, T.;

    2013-01-01

    Strength Training and Testosterone Treatment Have Opposing Effects on Migration Inhibitor Factor Levels in Ageing Men......Strength Training and Testosterone Treatment Have Opposing Effects on Migration Inhibitor Factor Levels in Ageing Men...

  10. Prehistoric chronology of Madhya Pradesh

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gaur, A.S.

    Madhya Pradesh is very rich in archaeological wealth, with availability of remains starting from Early Stone Age to Historical period. Several Stone Age sites have been brought to light specially in districts of Hoshangabad, Narsinghpur, Mandla...

  11. Extravehicular Activity Fact Sheet: An EVA Chronology

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Walking to Olympus: An EVA Chronology chronicles the 154 EVAs conducted from March 1965 to April 1997. It is intended to make clear the crucial role played by EVA in...

  12. Quantitative and Qualitative Approaches to Identifying Migration Chronology in a Continental Migrant

    OpenAIRE

    Beatty, William S.; Dylan C Kesler; Elisabeth B Webb; Andrew H Raedeke; Naylor, Luke W.; Humburg, Dale D.

    2013-01-01

    The degree to which extrinsic factors influence migration chronology in North American waterfowl has not been quantified, particularly for dabbling ducks. Previous studies have examined waterfowl migration using various methods, however, quantitative approaches to define avian migration chronology over broad spatio-temporal scales are limited, and the implications for using different approaches have not been assessed. We used movement data from 19 female adult mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) eq...

  13. Appearance and chronology of Textile ceramics in the Middle and Upper Volga region: critical comparison of conventional 14C-, AMS- and typological chronologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavento Mika T.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The article offers a comparison of three different methods of chronology construction – conventional 14C (radiocarbon dating, AMS (accelerator mass-spectrometry dating and the so called typological chronology – to date the textile ceramics of the Bronze – Early Iron Age in the Northern Coniferous Zone of Europe, from the Upper and Middle Volga and Kama Rivers to the Baltic region and Scandinavia. The Textile Ceramics Culture (also known as “Net”, “Pseudo-textile”, “Spun-and-speckled” is often associated with a Finnish-speaking community from the Bronze – beginning of the Iron Age. The earliest date of the Textile Ceramics sites on the Middle Oka River is presumably considered to be the 18 th century BC. Datings of the reference sites in the Middle Volga region were fixed within the 15 th – 8 th centuries BC. Comparing these data with the AMS chronology available for the materials from Finland and Estonia, the authors conclude that appearance of the Textile Ceramics was almost synchronous in the Volga and the Baltic regions, although chronology of the early tradition of the Textile Ceramics seems to be different in these areas. The results of yet a small number of AMS dates should be treated only as preliminary. However, AMS-dating seems to be the most efficient tool for further refining of the Textile Ceramics chronology over a vast territory, including in the Volga region.

  14. HYPERANDROGENISM OF PUBERTY AGE AS A FACTOR REDUCING FERTILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. M. Bogatyreva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Hyperandrogenism is a common cause of infertility in women. The onset of symptoms of hyperandrogenism takes place during puberty in the majority of women. Hyperandrogenism reduces reproductive potential,so early detection and development of its prognostic factors, allows us to solve serious problems of puberty and prevent infertility.Materials and methods. 113 adolescent girls with hyperandrogenism from 14 to 19 years were included. The control group consists of 25 healthy girls of a similar age. To confirm the prediction of decreased reproductive capacity were examined 35 women with hyperandrogenism from 19 to 36 years. In addition to routine methods of examination (anamnesis, physical examination, anthropometry, assessment of the hairline using Ferriman – Gallwey scale, ultrasound of the pelvic organs, the definition of the hormonal status (LH, FSH, prolactin, 17-OHP, estradiol, TSH, DHEAS-s, GHPG, testosterone, glucose, insulin, glucose tolerance test and dexamethasone suppression test when necessary.Results. We have proved the reduction of reproductive potential of adolescent girls with high free androgen index (FAI. When the FAI has increased from 36 to 100 conventional units it caused reduction of the reproductive capacity in 9.7 times in comparison with control group (χ2=56,24; p < 0.001; overall prediction accuracy of 92.8%.Conclusion. Free androgen index more than 36 conventional units is a high risk factor of reduced fertility.

  15. Construction of reliable radiocarbon-based chronologies for speleothems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechleitner, Franziska; Fohlmeister, Jens; McIntyre, Cameron; Baldini, Lisa M.; Jamieson, Robert A.; Hercman, Helena; Gasiorowski, Michal; Pawlak, Jacek; Stefaniak, Krzysztof; Socha, Pawel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Baldini, James U. L.

    2016-04-01

    Speleothems have become one of the most widely applied archives for paleoclimate research. One of their key advantages is their amenability for U-series dating, often producing excellent high precision chronologies. However, stalagmites with high detrital Th or very low U concentrations are problematic to date using U-series, and sometimes need to be discarded from further paleoclimate analysis. Radiocarbon chronologies could present an alternative for stalagmites that cannot be dated using U-series, if offsets from the "dead carbon fraction" (DCF) can be resolved. The DCF is a variable reservoir effect introduced by the addition of 14C-dead carbon from host rock dissolution and soil organic matter. We present a novel age modeling technique that provides accurate 14C-based chronologies for stalagmites. As this technique focuses on the long-term decay pattern of 14C, it is only applicable on stalagmites that show no secular variability in their 14C-depth profiles, but is independent of short-term DCF variations. In order to determine whether a stalagmite is suitable for this method without direct knowledge of long-term trends in the DCF, we highlight how other geochemical proxies (δ13C, Mg/Ca) can provide additional information on changes in karst hydrology, soil conditions, and climate that would affect DCF. We apply our model on a previously published U-Th dated stalagmite 14C dataset from Heshang Cave, China with excellent results, followed by a previously 'undateable' stalagmite from southern Poland.

  16. Anorexia of aging: a modifiable risk factor for frailty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martone, Anna Maria; Onder, Graziano; Vetrano, Davide Liborio; Ortolani, Elena; Tosato, Matteo; Marzetti, Emanuele; Landi, Francesco

    2013-10-14

    Anorexia of aging, defined as a loss of appetite and/or reduced food intake, affects a significant number of elderly people and is far more prevalent among frail individuals. Anorexia recognizes a multifactorial origin characterized by various combinations of medical, environmental and social factors. Given the interconnection between weight loss, sarcopenia and frailty, anorexia is a powerful, independent predictor of poor quality of life, morbidity and mortality in older persons. One of the most important goals in the management of older, frail people is to optimize their nutritional status. To achieve this objective it is important to identify subjects at risk of anorexia and to provide multi-stimulus interventions that ensure an adequate amount of food to limit and/or reverse weight loss and functional decline. Here, we provide a brief overview on the relevance of anorexia in the context of sarcopenia and frailty. Major pathways supposedly involved in the pathogenesis of anorexia are also illustrated. Finally, the importance of treating anorexia to achieve health benefits in frail elders is highlighted.

  17. Densidade mineral óssea, função pulmonar, idade cronológica e idade de diagnóstico em crianças e adolescentes com fibrose cística Bone mineral density, pulmonary function, chronological age, and age at diagnosis in children and adolescents with cystic fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio V.F. Donadio

    2013-04-01

    . First, demographic data were collected and, subsequently, patients underwent a spirometric test. All patients answered the Cystic Fibrosis Quality of Life Questionnaire (CFQ and underwent the six-minute walk test (6MWT and bone densitometry (DXA. RESULTS: A total of 25 CF patients were included, of which 56% were males. The mean age was 12.3±3.4 years; mean height was 149.2±14.4 cm; and mean weight was 44.4±13.9 kg. Most results on pulmonary function and bone mineral density (BMD were within normal limits. The mean forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1 was 92.5±23.6 (% of predicted, mean forced vital capacity (FVC was 104.4±21.3 (% of predicted, and mean BMD z-score was 0.1±1.0. BMD was moderately correlated with FEV1 (r = 0.43, p = 0.03 and FVC (r = 0.57, p = 0.003. Regarding chronological age and age at diagnosis, a moderate and inverse correlation was also found (r = -0.55, p = 0.004 ; r = -0.57, p = 0.003, respectively. However, no significant correlations were found with the data from CFQ, 6MWT, and body mass index. CONCLUSION: Most patients had BMD within normal limits and presented a positive correlation with pulmonary function, as well as a negative correlation with chronological age and age at diagnosis.

  18. Influence of Psychosocial Factors on Aging among the Aged in Ihitte-Uboma Local Government Area of Imo State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ojukwu M.O.

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The major aim of this study was to examine influence of psychosocial factors on aging among the aged in Ihitte Uboma Local Government Area of Imo State, Nigeria. Ex-post facto or casual comparative research design was adopted for the study. Two hundred and twenty-five (225 old people were selected through random sampling for the study. Self-constructed instrument entitled “Influence of Psychosocial factors on aging in Ihitte Uboma LGA” was used to collect data. Two research questions and two hypotheses guided the study. Mean and t-test analysis were used to analyze the data collected for the study. Major findings revealed that lack of security, inadequate care giver, poverty, migration of kids and family members to the urban areas, lack of health facilities and care are the major psychosocial factors affecting aging in the LGA. In all these it was also revealed that women were more influenced by these psychosocial factors than their men counterpart. It was also revealed that self-concept has significant influence on the ageing process of the aged in the area. Based on the findings it was recommended that government should provide adequate security in the villages, as well as provision of adequate healthcare and facilities. Keywords: Influence, Psychosocial factors, aged, aging process and Ihitte Uboma

  19. On the Astronomical Records and Babylonian Chronology

    CERN Document Server

    Gurzadyan, V G

    2000-01-01

    We outline the priority of high quality data of astronomical content as our strategy for the analysis of the ancient astronomical records in the search of the absolute chronology of the Near East in II millennium BC. The correspondingly defined set of data for two lunar eclipses of EAE 20 and 21 tablets linked to Ur III period enables us the choice of eclipses of 27 June 1954 BC and 17 March 1912 BC; here the information on the exit position of the darkening of the lunar disk acts as a crucial informator survived in the records. We then discuss why the 56/64 year Venus cycle cannot be traced in the Venus Tablet and therefore cannot serve as an anchor for the search of chronologies. The month length method is discussed as well. In sum the available data support the Ultra-Low Chronology proposed in the book by H.Gasche, J.A.Armstrong, S.W.Cole and V.G.Gurzadyan, "Dating the Fall of Babylon" (1998) and, particularly, leave no astronomical background for the High Chronology. Ultra-Low Chronology is supported also...

  20. Language Acquisition: The Age Factor. Multilingual Matters 47.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singleton, David

    This book provides an overview of research and thinking on age-related dimensions of language acquisition, intended for students, researchers, and educators with some experience in linguistics and applied linguistics. The first chapter introduces the variety of issues associated with age and language acquisition. Chapter 2 examines the evidence…

  1. 20 CFR 220.128 - Age as a vocational factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... because of his or her age and can still do a significant number of jobs which exist in the national... adjust to a significant number of jobs in the national economy. (d) Person of advanced age. The Board... she has skills that can be used in less demanding jobs which exist in significant numbers in...

  2. An Analysis of The Influence on SLA Caused by Age Factor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHENG Qian-qian; WANG Meng

    2016-01-01

    Various characteristics play very important role in the process of students’second language acquisition and language development, including age, gender, personality, cognitive ability, motivation, learning strategies and so on. Among all these fac-tors mentioned, age factor received much attention in second language research. In this essay, two opposing views on age factor are discussed. In the last part , on the basis of the theory, some strategies on the real classroom teaching are provided after the discussion.

  3. The oral administration of marine collagen peptides promoting collagen synthesis in the chronological aged skin of Sprague-Dawley rats%海洋胶原肽对SD大鼠自然衰老皮肤胶原合成的促进作用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁江; 裴新荣; 王楠; 张召锋; 王军波; 李勇

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of long-term oral administration of marine collagen peptides on the collagen synthesis in the chronological aged skin. METHODS Sprague-Dawley male rats of 4-week-old were administrated with MCP at the diet concentrations of 0%, 2.25%, 4.5%, and 9% for 24 months. After being sacri?ced, full thickness skin samples were excised from the depilated dorsal regions. RESULTS Immuno-histological analysis showed that MCP had the potential to promote the expression of type Ⅰ and Ⅲ collagen in chronological aged skin. Furthermore, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction revealed MCP was able to promote the expressions of procollagen type Ⅰ and Ⅲ mRNA (COL1A2 and COL3A1) (P< 0.05). Meanwhile, as compared with the aged control group, western blot analysis indicated the expression level of TGF-βR Ⅱ and ratio of phosphorylated Smad2 were up-regulated in the MCP-treated groups, whereas the expression level of Smad7 markedly decreased in the MCP-trftated groups (P< 0.05). CONCLUSION MCP is demonstrated to have the potential to promote collagen synthesis in the chronological aged skin of Sprague-Dawley male rats with the possible mechanism of activating TGF-p/Smad signaling pathway.%目的 观察海洋胶原肽(MCP)长期喂养对SD大鼠自然衰老皮肤的胶原合成的影响.方法 4周龄雄性SD大鼠按体重随机分入对照组和海洋胶原肽低、中、高3个剂量干预组,分别在基础饲料中添加0%、2.25%、4.5%和9% (wt/wt)的MCP喂养24月后取其脊柱两侧皮肤组织.结果 经过MCP长期干预,免疫组织化学实验结果表明皮肤组织Ⅰ型与Ⅲ型胶原蛋白的表达水平较老年对照组明显增加;MCP 3个剂量组的Ⅰ型和Ⅲ型前胶原基因COL1A2和COL3A1的表达水平均比老年对照组有显著升高(P<0.05);与老年对照组相比,MCP干预组TβRⅡ蛋白的表达水平及磷酸化Smad2/Smad2的比例显著升高,而Smad7

  4. Tree-Ring Chronology of Pedunculate Oak (Quercus robur and its Potential for Development of Dendrochronological Research in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarina Čufar

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We present the local tree-ring chronology of pedunculate oak (Qercus robur from Kobiljak near Zagreb, Croatia (16º09’ E, 45º49’ N, 140 m a.s.l.. The chronology is based on 17 trees and is 127 years long and covers the period of 1883-2009. The well replicated part of the residual version of the ARSTAN chronology with SSS>0.80 (interval of 88 years, period 1922-2009 was used for dendroclimatological analysis, which showed that June precipitation has positive and temperature has negative effect on tree-ring variation. Comparison with 40 available oak chronologies from the surrounding countries confi rmed its good teleconnection with 2 local oak chronologies from Austria, 2 from Hungary, and 3 from Slovenia. It also exhibits good heteroconnection, i.e. similarity with chronologies of beech (Fagus sylvatica, from various sites in Slovenia. The similarities can be ascribed to response to common climatic factors. The results indicate that the chronology could be a good reference point for constructing a longer regional chronology in Croatia and surrounding countries, which could be used for different purposes including dating of objects of cultural heritage.

  5. Factor Structure of the Student-Teacher Relationship Scale for Norwegian School-Age Children Explored with Confirmatory Factor Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drugli, May Britt; Hjemdal, Odin

    2013-01-01

    The validity of the Student-Teacher Relationship Scale (STRS) was examined in a national sample of 863 Norwegian schoolchildren in grades 1-7 (aged 6-13). The original factor structure of the STRS was tested by confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). The CFA results did not support the original three-factor structure of the STRS. Subsequent CFA of the…

  6. Teacher Professionalization: Motivational Factors and the Influence of Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrandt, Susan A.; Eom, Minhee

    2011-01-01

    This study examines motivational factors of teachers who have achieved a national standard of professionalization. Data were collected from National Board certified teachers in the United States (N = 453) using a two-part, web-based survey. Exploratory factor analysis found five motivators: improved teaching, financial gain, collaborative…

  7. Normal aging and cognition: the unacknowledged contribution of cerebrovascular risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morra, L; Zade, D; McGlinchey, R E; Milberg, W P

    2013-01-01

    Despite the widespread assumption that cognitive decline is an inherent part of the normal aging process, research suggests that part of the variance in age-related cognitive decline is attributable to modifiable factors common in geriatric populations such as cerebrovascular risk factors. We completed a literature search using Science Citation Index and evaluated the most cited articles from the last 10 years to determine the extent to which investigations of normal aging and cognition account for the influence of cerebrovascular risk factors. We found that the majority of the most frequently cited literature does not adequately account for the contribution of cerebrovascular risk factors and therefore, it is possible that many conclusions about normal aging and cognition are flawed or incomplete. Further investigation of the role of cerebrovascular risk factors in age-related cognitive decline is imperative to more accurately understand the effect of aging on cognition.

  8. A Chronological History of Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tovar, Federico Ribes

    This book presents a chronological history of Puerto Rico from prehistory and discovery through December of 1972. It includes information on the persons and events that influenced the course of Puerto Rican history. A table of contents and a selective index are included. (Author/AM)

  9. Factor structure of functional state of primary school age children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davidenko O.V.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The examination of primary school children to determine the ranking of significant factors that determine the structure of their functional state depending on the level of physical health. It is shown that the main factor in the structure of the functional state of younger schoolchildren in low-and lower-middle level of physical fitness is selected morpho-functional status, which characterizes the functions of the body at rest. For children with average or above average level of physical fitness is a leading factor in physical fitness of schoolchildren.

  10. Aging Memory Is "Not" a Limiting Factor for Lifelong Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalovic, Dejan; Gvozdenovic, Vasilije

    2015-01-01

    Efficient memory is one of the necessary cognitive potentials required for virtually every form of lifelong learning. In this contribution we first briefly review and summarize state of the art of knowledge on memory and related cognitive functions in normal aging. Then we critically discuss a relatively short inventory of clinical, psychometric,…

  11. Exploring Genetic Factors Involved in Huntington Disease Age of Onset

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valcárcel-Ocete, Leire; Alkorta-Aranburu, Gorka; Iriondo, Mikel;

    2015-01-01

    Age of onset (AO) of Huntington disease (HD) is mainly determined by the length of the CAG repeat expansion (CAGexp) in exon 1 of the HTT gene. Additional genetic variation has been suggested to contribute to AO, although the mechanism by which it could affect AO is presently unknown. The aim of ...

  12. Mental health in the aged: prevalence, covariates and related neuroendocrine, cardiovascular and inflammatory factors of successful aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klug Günther

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although aging is accompanied by diminished functioning, many elderly individuals preserve a sense of well-being. While the concept of "successful aging" has been popular for many decades, little is known about its psycho-physiologic and endocrine underpinnings. KORA-Age is a population-based, longitudinal study designed to determine the prevalence of successfully aged men and women between 65 and 94 years old in the MONICA/KORA Augsburg cohort of randomly selected inhabitants. Specifically, we aim to identify predictors of successful aging and to elucidate bio-psychosocial mechanisms that maintain mental health and successful adaptation despite adverse experiences of life and aging. Methods/Design Components of successful aging were assessed in a telephone survey of 4,127 participants (2008-2009 enrolled in the MONICA/KORA cohort, on average, 13 years earlier. Psychosocial, somatic and behavioural predictors are used to determine factors that contribute to successful aging. An age-stratified random sub-sample (n = 1,079 participated in a personal interview where further psychological mechanisms that may underlie successful adaptation (resilience, social support, attachment were examined. The interactions among neuroendocrine systems in the aging process are investigated by studying the cortisol/dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate ratio, the level of insulin-like growth factor I, and oxytocin. Discussion Longitudinal determinants of successful aging can be assessed based on a follow-up of an average of 13 years. A comprehensive analysis of biological as well as physio-psychological information provides a unique opportunity to investigate relevant outcomes such as resilience and frailty in the elderly population.

  13. Identifying factors affecting age at first semen freezing and age at first semen use in Sahiwal bulls

    OpenAIRE

    Naha, B. C.; Chakravarty, A. K.; Mir, M. A.; V. Jamuna; Singh, A. P.; Maher, D

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The objective of the study was to evaluate the effects of non-genetic factors on reproduction traits viz. age at first semen freezing and age at first semen use of breeding bulls in Sahiwal bulls by fitting least-squares analysis. Materials and Methods: The information on reproduction traits of 43 Sahiwal breeding bulls belonging to 8 sets of Sahiwal breeding program at Indian Council of Agricultural Research-National Dairy Research Institute (ICAR-NDRI), Karnal (Haryana), India durin...

  14. Factors influencing acceptance of technology for aging in place: a systematic review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peek, S.T.M.; Wouters, E.J.M.; Hoof, J. van; Luijkx, K.G.; Boeije, H.R.; Vrijhoef, H.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To provide an overview of factors influencing the acceptance of electronic technologies that support aging in place by community-dwelling older adults. Since technology acceptance factors fluctuate over time, a distinction was made between factors in the pre-implementation stage and factors

  15. Factors influencing acceptance of technology for aging in place : A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peek, Sebastiaan T M; Wouters, Eveline J M; van Hoof, Joost; Luijkx, Katrien G.; Boeije, Hennie R.; Vrijhoef, Hubertus J M

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To provide an overview of factors influencing the acceptance of electronic technologies that support aging in place by community-dwelling older adults. Since technology acceptance factors fluctuate over time, a distinction was made between factors in the pre-implementation stage and factors

  16. The WAIS Divide deep ice core WD2014 chronology – Part 2: Annual-layer counting (0–31 ka BP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sigl

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We present the WD2014 chronology for the upper part (0–2850 m, 31.2 ka BP of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS Divide ice core. The chronology is based on counting of annual layers observed in the chemical, dust and electrical conductivity records. These layers are caused by seasonal changes in the source, transport, and deposition of aerosols. The measurements were interpreted manually and with the aid of two automated methods. We validated the chronology by comparing to two high-accuracy, absolutely dated chronologies. For the Holocene, the cosmogenic isotope records of 10Be from WAIS Divide and 14C for Intcal13 demonstrated WD2014 was consistently accurate to better than 0.5 % of the age. For the glacial period, comparisons to the Hulu Cave chronology demonstrated WD2014 had an accuracy of better than 1 % of the age at three abrupt climate change events between 27 and 31 ka. WD2014 has consistently younger ages than Greenland ice-core chronologies during most of the Holocene. For the Younger Dryas-Preboreal transition (11 546 ka BP, 24 years younger and the Bølling-Allerød Warming (14 576 ka, 7 years younger WD2014 ages are within the combined uncertainties of the timescales. Given its high accuracy, WD2014 can become a reference chronology for the Southern Hemisphere, with synchronization to other chronologies feasible using high quality proxies of volcanism, solar activity, atmospheric mineral dust, and atmospheric methane concentrations.

  17. Risk factors for ischemic stroke and transient ischemic attack in patients under age 50

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, A.W.M.; Leeuw, F.E. de; Janssen, M.C.H.

    2011-01-01

    To analyze risk factors for ischemic stroke and transient ischemic attack (TIA) in young adults under the age of 50. To make recommendations for additional research and practical consequences. From 97 patients with ischemic stroke or TIA under the age of 50, classical cardiovascular risk factors, co

  18. Factors That Affect Age of Identification of Children with an Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adelman, Chana R.; Kubiszyn, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    This study explored factors associated with age of identification of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Results of a one-way ANOVA indicated differences in age of diagnosis among the four regions in the United States, F(3, 650) = 7.618, p = 0.01. Tukey's post hoc comparisons of the groups indicated that the mean age of diagnosis in the Midwest (M =…

  19. Age and gender might influence big five factors of personality: a preliminary report in Indian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magan, Dipti; Mehta, Manju; Sarvottam, Kumar; Yadav, Raj Kumar; Pandey, R M

    2014-01-01

    Age and gender are two important physiological variables which might influence the personality of an individual. The influence of age and gender on big five personality domains in Indian population was assessed in this cross-sectional study that included 155 subjects (female = 76, male = 79) aged from 16-75 years. Big five personality factors were evaluated using 60-item NEO-Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) at a single point in time. Among the big five factors of personality, Conscientiousness was positively correlated (r = 0.195; P personality traits might change with age, and is gender-dependent.

  20. The absolute chronology and thermal processing of solids in the solar protoplanetary disk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Connelly, James Norman; Bizzarro, Martin; Krot, Alexander N.;

    2012-01-01

    Transient heating events that formed calcium-aluminum - rich inclusions (CAIs) and chondrules are fundamental processes in the evolution of the solar protoplanetary disk, but their chronology is not understood. Using U-corrected Pb-Pb dating, we determined absolute ages of individual CAIs...

  1. Aging skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolognia, J L

    1995-01-16

    Aging of the skin is a composite of actinic damage, chronologic aging, and hormonal influences. The majority of changes associated with aging, such as wrinkles and solar lentigines ("liver spots"), are due to photoaging and reflect cumulative sun exposure as well as skin pigmentation. Classically, chronologic aging includes those cutaneous changes that occur in non-sun-exposed areas, such as the buttocks, and are observed in both men and women. A clinical example would be soft tissue sagging due to elastic fiber degeneration. In women, investigations into the effect of hormones on aging of the skin have concentrated on estrogens; in men, there have been a limited number of studies on the influence of testosterone. The latter have shown an age-dependent decrease in tissue androgens in pubic skin, but not scrotal or thigh skin. To date, age has not been shown to have an effect on androgen receptor binding, although a decrease in foreskin 5 alpha-reductase activity with increasing age has been described. In fibroblast cultures from foreskins, there have been conflicting results as to whether 5 alpha-reductase activity decreases in an age-dependent manner. Some of the skin changes that have been categorized as secondary to chronologic aging, such as decreased sebaceous gland activity and decreased hair growth, may actually represent a decline in the concentration of tissue androgens with increasing age. The influence of androgens on age-related changes in keratinocyte and fibroblast function remains speculative.

  2. [Epidemiological and chronological profile of the low birth weight in the region of Monastir (Tunisia) between 1994 and 2007].

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Mhamdi, S; Lifi, B; Bouanène, I; Hadded, A; Sriha, A; Letaief, M; Ben Salem, K; Soltani, M S

    2011-01-01

    In Tunisia, despite the activities of national programs of maternal and child health, low birth weight (LBW) remains common. The aim of this study is to draw up the epidemiological profile of the LBW in the region of Monastir and to study the chronological trends of the associated factors during a period of 14 years (1994-2007). We conducted a population study which interest 97.630 live births (from 26 to 43 weeks) in the public maternities of the region of Monastir. The mean's age of pregnant women was 28.7 +/- 5.5 years. Among them 14.2% were aged 35 and older and 40% were primipara. Newborns were in term in 94.7% of cases. Maternal age, prenatal care, twin pregnancies and fetal complications were the factors independently associated with the occurrence of LBW in term newborns. However, only prenatal care and twin pregnancies were independently associated to LBW in preterm newborns. During the fourteenth years of the study the parturient mean age and the frequency of preterm birth increased significantly (P < 0.001) while the frequency of multiparty decreased significantly (P < 0.001). We found that the risk factors of LBW (advanced age, multiparty, etc.) are still common in our country and require targeted interventions.

  3. Progress in the Early Solar System Chronology: A Sketch of an Ever-Changing Landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amelin, Yuri; Yin, Q.-Z.; Krot, A. N.; Bouvier, A.; Wadhwa, M.; Kleine, T.; Nyquist, L. E.

    2011-01-01

    The years since the Workshop on the Chronology of Meteorites and the Early Solar System, are marked with ongoing progress in cosmochronology. Rapid improvements in techniques, discovery of new meteorites unlike any previously known, and findings that what was deemed well established constants are actually variables, will be reflected in an updated review of the solar system chronology we are currently preparing. Along with updating the database of meteorite ages, it will involve development of a set of criteria for evaluation of accuracy and consistency of isotopic dates across the entire range of meteorite classes and isotope chronometer systems. Here we present some ideas on what we think is important in meteorite chronology, and invite the cosmochemistry community to discuss them.

  4. The Frontal Hypothesis of Cognitive Aging: Factor Structure and Age Effects on Four "Frontal Tests" among Healthy Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Aranda, Claudia; Sundet, Kjetil

    2006-01-01

    With 101 healthy aging adult participants, the authors investigated whether executive functions are a unitary concept. The authors established the factor structure of the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST; E. A. Berg, 1948), the Stroop color and word test (C. J. Golden, 1978), verbal fluency using the Controlled Oral Word Association Test (COWAT;…

  5. When erosion ruins the chronology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolters, Steffen; Enters, Dirk; Blume, Katharina; Lücke, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    Human land-use has considerably shaped the landscape of north-western Germany over the past millennia. Deforestation and agriculture created a predominantly open scenery preserved until today with only a few remnants of former landscape elements such as woodlands, peat bogs, heath lands and lakes. Here we present a multi-proxy approach including sedimentological and geochemical parameters (e. g. element concentrations and stable isotopes) as well as biological proxies (pollen, macro fossils and diatoms) combined with an archaeological site analysis to investigate the effects of prehistoric land-use on lake systems and their catchment areas with a special focus on changes of the water quality, e. g. eutrophication and acidification and its natural regeneration during phases of weaker land-use impact. The study reveals a millenia-long history of erosion processes caused by successive selective woodland clearances starting in Neolithic Times. The geochemical evidence of soil erosion is recorded by distinct peaks of the terrigenic elements K and Ti. However, due to (1) the low sensitivy of the XRF scanner for Si and (2) the prevalence of diatom related biogenic silicon XRF-scanning of highly organic lake sediments fails to reflect the actual sand input caused by erosion. Particularly single quartz grains are not detected in the organic sediment matrix. Therefore we make successful use of mineral grain analysis which previously has only been applied to record aeolian input in bogs. K and Ti concentrations are not correlated with the content of mineral grains which suggest two different erosion processes. Our efforts to construct robust age-depth relationships based on AMS 14C-dates of terrestrial plant macrofossils reveal a specific dating issue of northwest German lakes. Especially in younger sediments we observe 14C-dates which are on the one hand too old and on the other hand among themselves roughly contemporaneous. We explain this feature with the extensive bog

  6. Chronology violation and the Cosmological Argument

    CERN Document Server

    Romero, G E

    2003-01-01

    The Kalam Cosmological Argument is perhaps the most solid and widly discussed argument for a caused creation of the universe. The usual objections to the argument mainly focus on the second premise. In this paper we discuss the dependency of the first premise on the topological structure of the space-time manifold adopted for the underlying cosmological model. It is shown that in chronology-violating space-times the first premise is also violated. The chronology-violation, in turn, requires a massive violation of the so-called energy conditions which could have observational effects that are briefly discussed here. Hence, astronomical observations could be relevant for the validity of the metaphysical argument. In this sense, it is possible to talk of "observational theology".

  7. A first chronology for the North Greenland Eemian Ice Drilling (NEEM) ice core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, S. O.; Abbott, P. M.; Blunier, T.; Bourne, A. J.; Brook, E.; Buchardt, S. L.; Buizert, C.; Chappellaz, J.; Clausen, H. B.; Cook, E.; Dahl-Jensen, D.; Davies, S. M.; Guillevic, M.; Kipfstuhl, S.; Laepple, T.; Seierstad, I. K.; Severinghaus, J. P.; Steffensen, J. P.; Stowasser, C.; Svensson, A.; Vallelonga, P.; Vinther, B. M.; Wilhelms, F.; Winstrup, M.

    2013-12-01

    A stratigraphy-based chronology for the North Greenland Eemian Ice Drilling (NEEM) ice core has been derived by transferring the annual layer counted Greenland Ice Core Chronology 2005 (GICC05) and its model extension (GICC05modelext) from the NGRIP core to the NEEM core using 787 match points of mainly volcanic origin identified in the electrical conductivity measurement (ECM) and dielectrical profiling (DEP) records. Tephra horizons found in both the NEEM and NGRIP ice cores are used to test the matching based on ECM and DEP and provide five additional horizons used for the timescale transfer. A thinning function reflecting the accumulated strain along the core has been determined using a Dansgaard-Johnsen flow model and an isotope-dependent accumulation rate parameterization. Flow parameters are determined from Monte Carlo analysis constrained by the observed depth-age horizons. In order to construct a chronology for the gas phase, the ice age-gas age difference (Δage) has been reconstructed using a coupled firn densification-heat diffusion model. Temperature and accumulation inputs to the Δage model, initially derived from the water isotope proxies, have been adjusted to optimize the fit to timing constraints from δ15N of nitrogen and high-resolution methane data during the abrupt onset of Greenland interstadials. The ice and gas chronologies and the corresponding thinning function represent the first chronology for the NEEM core, named GICC05modelext-NEEM-1. Based on both the flow and firn modelling results, the accumulation history for the NEEM site has been reconstructed. Together, the timescale and accumulation reconstruction provide the necessary basis for further analysis of the records from NEEM.

  8. A chronology of librarianship, 1960-2000

    CERN Document Server

    Wilhite, Jeffrey M

    2009-01-01

    This book covers all areas of library literature that inform the history of librarianship and ranges over multiple continents. Its broad scope lends itself to wide use by scholars and students of library history and library literature. The chronology is presented in a dictionary format and separated into decades. It is complemented by a comprehensive bibliography and both subject and name indexes, which are cross-listed for ease of use.

  9. Childhood Risk Factors for Lifetime Anorexia Nervosa by Age 30 Years in a National Birth Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholls, Dasha E.; Viner, Russell M.

    2009-01-01

    Whether previously identified childhood risk factors for anorexia nervosa (AN) predict self-reported lifetime AN by age 30 is examined. The cohort confirmed four risk and two protective factors out of the 22 suggested risk factors. The study used data from the 1970 British Cohort Study.

  10. How old do you feel? The role of age discrimination and biological aging in subjective age.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yannick Stephan

    Full Text Available Subjective age, or how young or old individuals experience themselves to be relative to their chronological age, is a crucial construct in gerontology. Subjective age is a significant predictor of important health outcomes, but little is known about the criteria by which individuals' subjectively evaluate their age. To identify psychosocial and biomedical factors linked to the subjective evaluation of age, this study examined whether perceived age discrimination and markers of biological aging are associated with subjective age. Participants were 4776 adults (Mage = 68 from the 2008 and 2010 waves of the Health and Retirement Study (HRS who completed measures of subjective age, age discrimination, demographic variables, self-rated health and depression, and had physical health measures, including peak expiratory flow, grip strength, waist circumference, systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Telomere length was available for a subset of participants in the 2008 wave (n = 2214. Regression analysis indicated that perceived age discrimination, lower peak expiratory flow, lower grip strength, and higher waist circumference were associated with an older subjective age, controlling for sociodemographic factors, self-rated health, and depression. In contrast, blood pressure and telomere length were not related to subjective age. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that how old a person feels depends in part on psychosocial and biomedical factors, including the experiences of ageism and perceptible indices of fitness and biological age.

  11. Systematic Uncertainties of Glacial Chronologies Based on Surface Exposure Dating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilgner, J.; Zech, R.; Baechtiger, C.; Kubik, P. W.; Veit, H.

    2008-12-01

    Surface exposure dating using terrestrial cosmogenic nuclides provides the opportunity to establish glacial chronologies in semi-arid high mountain regions, where the lack of organic material for radiocarbon dating has limited our knowledge about the timing and the causes of glacial advances so far. However, several scaling systems and calculation schemes exist. This can result in significant systematic uncertainties, particularly at high altitudes as e.g. in the Central Andes. We present and discuss previously published exposure ages from Bolivia and Argentina in order to illustrate the extent of the current uncertainties. It is neither possible to unambiguously determine whether the local Last Glacial Maximum (local LGM) in the tropics occurred in-phase with or predated the global LGM, nor can the subsequent Late Glacial stages be dated accurately enough to infer temperature or precipitation changes at millennial-scale timescales. We then also present new results from the Tres Lagunas in the Sierra de Santa Victoria, NW Argentina. There we can compare our glacial exposure age chronology with bracketing radiocarbon ages from lake sediments. The Tres Lagunas may thus serve as a high-altitude calibration site for 10Be dating. Paleoclimatically, we conclude that glacial deposits in NW-Argentina document glacial advances in-phase with the global LGM, but that the prominent moraines there date to the Late Glacial. This coincides with the well-documented intensification and/or southward shift of the tropical circulation and reflects the strong precipitation-sensitivity of glaciers in arid and semi-arid environments.

  12. WD2014: A new reference chronology for ice cores from Antarctica?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigl, Michael; McConnell, Joseph R.; Winstrup, Mai; Fudge, Taylor J.; Cole-Dai, Jihong; Ferris, David; Taylor, Kendrick; Buizert, Christo; Rhodes, Rachael; McGwire, Ken; Welten, Kees C.; Woodruff, Thomas E.; Dunbar, Nelia; Iverson, Nels; Maselli, Olivia J.; Pasteris, Daniel R.; Muscheler, Raimund

    2015-04-01

    Here we present a chronology (WD2014) for the upper part (0-2850 m, 31.2 ka BP) of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS)-Divide ice core which is based on layer counting of distinctive annual cycles preserved in the elemental, chemical and electrical conductivity records. These cycles are caused by the seasonally varying impurity concentrations in snowfall reflecting source strength of emissions, transport and deposition efficiency. A new ice core chronology has been developed using manual interpretation as well as by using a layer detection algorithm based on Hidden Markov Models taking advantage of the large suite of sub-annually resolved and co-registered aerosol records from high-resolution continuous measurements. The age model is validated against the absolute dated radiocarbon calibration curve IntCal13 using ice-core Be-10 measurements for proxy synchronization. These records reveal an unprecedented accuracy of the new ice core chronology since the Last Glacial Maximum. The new chronology can become a reference chronology for ice cores with synchronization to other ice cores achievable through the unique high-resolution sulfur record indicating hundreds of volcanic signals common to many other deep ice cores in Antarctica. A developing tephra framework for ice cores from West Antarctica will allow to better integrating Antarctic ice cores and the marine and terrestrial records from the southern hemisphere in the future, thus gaining a detailed chronologic picture of climatic changes and environmental consequences for the region over the past 31,000 years. This southern hemisphere perspective is a fundamental step in developing a detailed global understanding of the effects of past climate changes, and its implications for the future. Due to a small ice-age gas-age difference (delta-age) at WAIS Divide - because of high annual snowfall rates at this site - and a new high-resolution WAIS CH4 record, this new ice core chronology provides also independent

  13. Differentiating the Influences of Aging and Adiposity on Brain Weights, Levels of Serum and Brain Cytokines, Gastrointestinal Hormones, and Amyloid Precursor Protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, William A; Abrass, Christine K; Hansen, Kim M

    2016-01-01

    Aging and obesity exert important effects on disease. Differentiating these effects is difficult, however, because weight gain often accompanies aging. Here, we used a nested design of aged, calorically restricted, and refed rats to measure changes in brain and blood levels of cytokines and gastrointestinal hormones, brain amyloid precursor protein levels, and brain and body weights. By comparing groups and using path analysis, we found divergent influences of chronological aging versus body weight, our main findings being (i) changes in whole brain weight and serum macrophage colony-stimulating factor levels correlated better with body weight than with chronological aging, (ii) a decrease in brain cytokines and brain plasminogen activator inhibitor levels correlated better with chronological aging than with body weight, (iii) serum erythropoietin levels were influenced by both body weight and aging, (iv) serum plasminogen activator inhibitor, serum cytokines, and brain tumor necrosis factor were not influenced by aging or body weight, and (v) brain amyloid precursor protein more closely related to body weight and serum levels of gastrointestinal hormones than to brain weight, chronological aging, or cytokines. These findings show that although aging and body weight interact, their influences are distinct not only among various cytokines and hormones but also between the central nervous system and the peripheral tissue compartments.

  14. Age relations of cardiovascular risk factors in a traditional Melanesian society: the Kitava Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindeberg, S; Berntorp, E; Nilsson-Ehle, P; Terént, A; Vessby, B

    1997-10-01

    This study examined cross-sectional age relations of blood pressure, anthropometric indexes, serum lipids, and hemostatic variables in 203 subsistence horticulturists aged 20-86 y in Kitava, Trobriand Islands, Papua New Guinea. The population is characterized by extreme leanness (despite food abundance), low blood pressure, low plasma plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 activity, and rarity of cardiovascular disease. Tubers, fruit, fish, and coconut are dietary staples whereas dairy products, refined fat and sugar, cereals, and alcohol are absent and salt intake is low. Although diastolic blood pressure was not associated with age in Kitavans, systolic blood pressure increased linearly after 50 y of age in both sexes. Body mass index decreased with age in both sexes. Serum total cholesterol, triacylglycerol, low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol, and apolipoprotein B increased in males between 20 and 50 y of age, whereas high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol and apolipoprotein A-I decreased. There were no significant differences in these indexes with age in the few females studied. A slight linear age-related increase of lipoprotein(a) was present in males. Plasma fibrinogen, factor VII clotting activity, factor VIII clotting activity, and von Willebrand factor antigen increased with age in both sexes but plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 activity did not. The modest or absent relations between the indexes measured and age are apparently important explanations of the virtual nonexistence of stroke and ischemic heart disease in Kitava.

  15. DNA methylation-based measures of biological age: meta-analysis predicting time to death

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Brian H.; Marioni, Riccardo E.; Colicino, Elena; Peters, Marjolein J.; Ward-Caviness, Cavin K.; Tsai, Pei-Chien; Roetker, Nicholas S.; Just, Allan C.; Demerath, Ellen W.; Guan, Weihua; Bressler, Jan; Fornage, Myriam; Studenski, Stephanie; Vandiver, Amy R.; Moore, Ann Zenobia; Tanaka, Toshiko; Kiel, Douglas P.; Liang, Liming; Vokonas, Pantel; Schwartz, Joel; Lunetta, Kathryn L.; Murabito, Joanne M.; Bandinelli, Stefania; Hernandez, Dena G.; Melzer, David; Nalls, Michael; Pilling, Luke C.; Price, Timothy R.; Singleton, Andrew B.; Gieger, Christian; Holle, Rolf; Kretschmer, Anja; Kronenberg, Florian; Kunze, Sonja; Linseisen, Jakob; Meisinger, Christine; Rathmann, Wolfgang; Waldenberger, Melanie; Visscher, Peter M.; Shah, Sonia; Wray, Naomi R.; McRae, Allan F.; Franco, Oscar H.; Hofman, Albert; Uitterlinden, André G.; Absher, Devin; Assimes, Themistocles; Levine, Morgan E.; Lu, Ake T.; Tsao, Philip S.; Hou, Lifang; Manson, JoAnn E.; Carty, Cara L.; LaCroix, Andrea Z.; Reiner, Alexander P.; Spector, Tim D.; Feinberg, Andrew P.; Levy, Daniel; Baccarelli, Andrea; van Meurs, Joyce; Bell, Jordana T.; Peters, Annette; Deary, Ian J.; Pankow, James S.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Horvath, Steve

    2016-01-01

    Estimates of biological age based on DNA methylation patterns, often referred to as “epigenetic age”, “DNAm age”, have been shown to be robust biomarkers of age in humans. We previously demonstrated that independent of chronological age, epigenetic age assessed in blood predicted all-cause mortality in four human cohorts. Here, we expanded our original observation to 13 different cohorts for a total sample size of 13,089 individuals, including three racial/ethnic groups. In addition, we examined whether incorporating information on blood cell composition into the epigenetic age metrics improves their predictive power for mortality. All considered measures of epigenetic age acceleration were predictive of mortality (p≤8.2×10−9), independent of chronological age, even after adjusting for additional risk factors (p<5.4×10−4), and within the racial/ethnic groups that we examined (non-Hispanic whites, Hispanics, African Americans). Epigenetic age estimates that incorporated information on blood cell composition led to the smallest p-values for time to death (p=7.5×10−43). Overall, this study a) strengthens the evidence that epigenetic age predicts all-cause mortality above and beyond chronological age and traditional risk factors, and b) demonstrates that epigenetic age estimates that incorporate information on blood cell counts lead to highly significant associations with all-cause mortality. PMID:27690265

  16. Pneumococcal Vaccination Recommendations for Children and Adults by Age and/or Risk Factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pneumococcal Vaccination Recommendations for Children 1 and Adults by Age and/or Risk Factor Routine Recommendations for Pneumococcal Conjugate ... X X X X X 1 For PCV13 vaccination of healthy children, see “Recommen- dations for Pneumococcal ...

  17. Identifying factors affecting age at first semen freezing and age at first semen use in Sahiwal bulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. C. Naha

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The objective of the study was to evaluate the effects of non-genetic factors on reproduction traits viz. age at first semen freezing and age at first semen use of breeding bulls in Sahiwal bulls by fitting least-squares analysis. Materials and Methods: The information on reproduction traits of 43 Sahiwal breeding bulls belonging to 8 sets of Sahiwal breeding program at Indian Council of Agricultural Research-National Dairy Research Institute (ICAR-NDRI, Karnal (Haryana, India during 27 years (1987-2013 were analyzed using fixed linear model. The information was collected from AI records, reproduction sheets, and bull AI register maintained at different sections of Institute viz. record room of Dairy Cattle Breeding Division (DCB, Cattle Yard, Artificial Breeding Research Centre, ICAR-NDRI, Karnal. Results: The average age at first semen freezing and age at first semen use of Sahiwal breeding bulls was estimated as 3.17±0.01 years and 5.35±0.01 years, with the coefficient of variation 18.93% and 20%, respectively. The overall least squares mean for age at first semen freezing and age at first semen use was estimated as 3.14±0.09 years and 5.25±0.02 years, respectively, in Sahiwal breeding bulls. Period of freezing/use had significant effects on reproductive traits (p<0.01. Season had no significant effect on any of the traits considered in this study. Conclusion: It can be concluded that management inputs such as nutrition, breeding, and optimum environment should be taken care of to optimize age at first semen freezing and age at first semen use for better utilization of superior germplasm.

  18. Influencing factors analysis of spontaneous knee joint osteoarthritis among middle aged and old aged pople in Xi'an

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Wei; WANG Kun-zheng; DANG Xiao-qian; BAI Chuan-yi; WANG Chun-sheng; SHI ZHi-bin; MA Shu-qiang

    2007-01-01

    Objective:To explore the prevalence rate of knee joint osteoarthritis and its pathogenetic features among the middle-aged and old aged people in the urban and rural area of Xi'an. Methods: From May to October 2005, 1 538 Han nationality above 40 years in Xi'an were investigated according to stratified and cluster random sampling. The same questionnaire was delivered to subjects who had been given normotopia and lateral position radiographic examination in both knees. Excluded from etiological arthritis, some subjects with clinical symptoms and a radiographic grade (beyond Kellgren & Lawrence grade Ⅱ ) were finally diagnosed as spontaneous knee joint osteoarthritis. All analyses were performed with SPSS 13.0 and t test, U test. Single factor analysis and multiple logistic regression analysis were used to analyze dates. Results: The total prevalence of spontaneous knee joint osteoarthritis was 12. 1% with 2.5% and 2.1% for right and left knees, respectively. The prevalence of knee joint osteoarthritis in women was 2.5 times of that in men (17.2% vs 6.8%, P=0.000). the osteophyte prevalence in women was 2.3 times of that in men (26.5% vs 11.4%, P=0.000). The prevalence of knee joint osteoarthritis and osteophyte increased with the growth of age. So did the symptomatic knee, except for the age group of 56-60 years and 66-70 years. The prevalence of symptomatic knee joint for urban area was significantly higher than that for rural area (56. 3% vs 45.3%, P=0.003). In women, the prevalence of knee joint osteoarthritis increased significantly with the increasing of body mass index, which had not been observed in men. Female and obesity are the risk factors for osteoarthritis, but bean and its products and meat could prevent the osteoarthritis. Conclusion: Old age, female and obesity serve as risk factors for knee joint osteoarthritis.

  19. Hope and Adaptation to Old Age: Their Relationship with Individual-Demographic Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraitou, Despina; Kolovou, Chrysa; Papasozomenou, Chrysa; Paschoula, Catherine

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between hope as disposition, adaptation to old age, and individual-demographic factors. One hundred and fifty older adults, aged 60-93 years old, completed the Adult Dispositional Hope Scale developed by Snyder et AL. [1991, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 60, pp. 570-585], and the Adaptation to…

  20. Factor Structure of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms for Children Age 3 to 5 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGoey, Kara E.; Schreiber, James; Venesky, Lindsey; Westwood, Wendy; McGuirk, Lindsay; Schaffner, Kristen

    2015-01-01

    The diagnosis of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) distinguishes two dimensions of symptoms, inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity for ages 3 to adulthood. Currently, no separate classification for preschool-age children exists, whereas preliminary research suggests that the two-factor structure of ADHD may not match the…

  1. Factors related to age at natural menopause: longitudinal analyses from SWAN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Ellen B; Crawford, Sybil L; Avis, Nancy E; Crandall, Carolyn J; Matthews, Karen A; Waetjen, L Elaine; Lee, Jennifer S; Thurston, Rebecca; Vuga, Marike; Harlow, Siobán D

    2013-07-01

    Early age at the natural final menstrual period (FMP) or menopause has been associated with numerous health outcomes and might be a marker of future ill health. However, potentially modifiable factors affecting age at menopause have not been examined longitudinally in large, diverse populations. The Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN) followed 3,302 initially premenopausal and early perimenopausal women from 7 US sites and 5 racial/ethnic groups, using annual data (1996-2007) and Cox proportional hazards models to assess the relation of time-invariant and time-varying sociodemographic, lifestyle, and health factors to age at natural FMP. Median age at the FMP was 52.54 years (n = 1,483 observed natural FMPs). Controlling for sociodemographic, lifestyle, and health factors, we found that racial/ethnic groups did not differ in age at the FMP. Higher educational level, prior oral contraceptive use, and higher weight at baseline, as well as being employed, not smoking, consuming alcohol, having less physical activity, and having better self-rated health over follow-up, were significantly associated with later age at the FMP. These results suggest that age at the natural FMP reflects a complex interrelation of health and socioeconomic factors, which could partially explain the relation of late age at FMP to reduced morbidity and mortality.

  2. Factors that Limit and Enable Preschool-Aged Children's Physical Activity on Child Care Centre Playgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Bianca; Dyment, Janet E.

    2013-01-01

    The incidence of childhood obesity amongst preschool-aged children has increased dramatically in recent years and can be attributed, in part, to a lack of physical activity amongst children in this age group. This study explores the social factors that stand to limit and/or enable children's physical activity opportunities in outdoor settings in…

  3. Age- and menopause-related differences in physiological factors of health quality in women aged 35-60.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiacek, Magdalena; Jegal, Bo Seul; Hagner, Wojciech; Hagner-Derengowska, Magdalena; Zubrzycki, Igor Z

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to elucidate using time series analysis age and menopause induced differences in selected health quality related physiological factors. The study was conducted, using the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III), and the NHANES 1999-2002 data, on women aged 35-60. Subjects who had not had surgical menopause, did not use contraceptives, did not smoke, and did not breastfeed during the examination, and did not use contraception and for whom follicle stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone (LH) activity was assessed, were included in the study. Menopausal status was defined by months since the last period (12 months for pre-, peri-, and postmenopause, respectively). The results indicate that postmenopausal women, aged less than 45, are characterized by a decrease in systolic blood pressure (SBP), an increase in high density lipoprotein (HDL) levels, and a decrease in triglyceride (TG) levels. It was also determined that aging is the main factor leading to physiological variability in systolic blood pressure and high density lipoprotein levels, in pre- and perimenopausal women, and in follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) activity in peri- and postmenopausal women.

  4. Topical versus Chronological Organization of Lifespan Development: Does It Make a Difference in Student Retention and Understanding?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spangler, Brooke R.; Kiel, Elizabeth J.

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to determine whether taking a chronological approach (CA) or topical approach (TA) to teaching developmental psychology resulted in different learning outcomes. Across two semesters, in four classes, 354 students participated (M[subscript age] = 19.76, SD[subscript age] = 2.93 years), 66% identifying as female. One instructor…

  5. Factors that characterize bone health with aging in healthy postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikegami, Shota; Uchiyama, Shigeharu; Nakamura, Yukio; Mukaiyama, Keijiro; Hirabayashi, Hiroki; Kamimura, Mikio; Nonaka, Kiichi; Kato, Hiroyuki

    2015-07-01

    The exponential increase in the incidence of fragility fractures in older people is attributed to attenuation of both bone strength and neuromuscular function. Decrease in bone mineral density (BMD) does not entirely explain this increase. The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of age on various parameters related to bone health with aging, and to identify combinations of factors that collectively express the bone metabolic state in healthy postmenopausal women. Height, weight, and grip strength were measured in 135 healthy postmenopausal volunteer women. Hip BMD, biomechanical indices derived from quantitative computed tomography (QCT), cross-sectional areas of muscle and fat of the proximal thigh, and various biochemical markers of bone metabolism were measured. A smaller group of factors explanatory for bone health was identified using factor analysis and each was newly named. As a result, the factors bone mass, bone turnover, bone structure, and muscle strength had the greatest explanatory power for assessing the bone health of healthy postmenopausal women. Whereas dual X-ray absorptiometry parameters only loaded on the factor bone mass, QCT parameters loaded on both the factors bone mass and bone structure. Most bone turnover markers loaded on the factor bone turnover, but deoxypyridinoline loaded on both bone turnover and muscle strength. Age was negatively correlated with bone mass (r = -0.49, p aging is associated as much with muscle weakening as with low BMD. More attention should be paid to the effects of muscle weakening during aging in assessments of bone health.

  6. Younger age of escalation of cardiovascular risk factors in Asian Indian subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Shaon

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cardiovascular risk factors start early, track through the young age and manifest in middle age in most societies. We conducted epidemiological studies to determine prevalence and age-specific trends in cardiovascular risk factors among adolescent and young urban Asian Indians. Methods Population based epidemiological studies to identify cardiovascular risk factors were performed in North India in 1999–2002. We evaluated major risk factors-smoking or tobacco use, obesity, truncal obesity, hypertension, dysglycemia and dyslipidemia using pre-specified definitions in 2051 subjects (male 1009, female 1042 aged 15–39 years of age. Age-stratified analyses were performed and significance of trends determined using regression analyses for numerical variables and Χ2 test for trend for categorical variables. Logistic regression was used to identify univariate and multivariate odds ratios (OR for correlation of age and risk factors. Results In males and females respectively, smoking or tobacco use was observed in 200 (11.8% and 18 (1.4%, overweight or obesity (body mass index, BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2 in 12.4% and 14.3%, high waist-hip ratio, WHR (males > 0.9, females > 0.8 in 15% and 32.3%, hypertension in 5.6% and 3.1%, high LDL cholesterol (≥ 130 mg/dl in 9.4% and 8.9%, low HDL cholesterol ( Conclusion Low prevalence of multiple cardiovascular risk factors (smoking, hypertension, dyslipidemias, diabetes and metabolic syndrome in adolescents and rapid escalation of these risk factors by age of 30–39 years is noted in urban Asian Indians. Interventions should focus on these individuals.

  7. Factors associated with the differential in actual gestational age and gestational age predicted from transrectal ultrasonography in pregnant dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, A M; Ryan, D P; Berry, D P

    2015-08-01

    The objective of the study was to determine (1) how gestational age predicted using transrectal ultrasonography related to actual gestational age derived as the number of days from the most recent artificial insemination date, (2) what factors, if any, were associated with the differential between the two measures, and (3) the association between this differential in gestational age and the likelihood of subsequent pregnancy loss, stillbirth, or calving dystocia. The data set contained 7340 ultrasound records from 6805 Holstein Friesian dairy cows in 175 herds. Ultrasonography assessment underestimated gestational age relative to days since last service by 0.51 days (standard error [SE]: 0.040), although the differential was less during embryonic development phase (i.e., ≤42 days of gestation; mean overestimation of 0.31 days) versus fetal development phase (i.e., >42 days of gestation; mean underestimation of 0.81 days). Predicted calving date calculated from ultrasonography was 1.41 days (SE: 0.040) later than the actual subsequent calving date and was, on average, 0.52 days later than predicted calving date, assuming a gestation length of 282 days. Parity of the dam (P gestation length. Gestation length was 1.27 days longer (SE: 0.01) for bull calves compared to heifer calves. Calves from beef sires had a longer gestation length than calves from dairy sires, and older parity cows had a longer gestation length than younger cows. The results highlight factors associated with differences in gestational age obtained from ultrasonography and insemination data and illustrate the value of ultrasonography for the prediction of calving date and pregnancy loss.

  8. Serum AMH levels in women with a history of preeclampsia suggest a role for vascular factors in ovarian aging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yarde, F.; Maas, A.H.E.M.; Franx, A.; Eijkemans, M.J.; Drost, J.T.D.; Rijn, B.B. van; Eyck, J. van; Schouw, Y.T. van der; Broekmans, F.J.

    2014-01-01

    Context: The association between early menopause and vascular disease as a possible causative factor has recently received attention. Preeclampsia (PE) is associated with future cardiovascular risk factors, and this premature vascular aging potentially modifies the ovarian aging process. OBJECTIVE:

  9. Intrinsic Motivation and Environmental Factors Affecting Research of Social Work Faculty on Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Janice G.; Short, Glenda F. Lester

    2010-01-01

    Within the context of Self-determination Theory, this research identifies intrinsic motivation and environmental factors that support social-work-faculty research in aging. Intrinsic factors include faculty's interest in gerontology as a field of practice, the desire to advance knowledge in the field of gerontology, including producing…

  10. The Hierarchical Factor Model of ADHD: Invariant across Age and National Groupings?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toplak, Maggie E.; Sorge, Geoff B.; Flora, David B.; Chen, Wai; Banaschewski, Tobias; Buitelaar, Jan; Ebstein, Richard; Eisenberg, Jacques; Franke, Barbara; Gill, Michael; Miranda, Ana; Oades, Robert D.; Roeyers, Herbert; Rothenberger, Aribert; Sergeant, Joseph; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Thompson, Margaret; Tannock, Rosemary; Asherson, Philip; Faraone, Stephen V.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine the factor structure of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in a clinical sample of 1,373 children and adolescents with ADHD and their 1,772 unselected siblings recruited from different countries across a large age range. Hierarchical and correlated factor analytic models were compared separately in the ADHD and…

  11. Comparison of 14C and luminescence chronologies at puritjarra rock shelter, central Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, M. A.; Prescott, J. R.; Head, M. J.

    At Puritjarra rock shelter a long comparative sequence permits detailed comparisons of luminescence and radiocarbon chronologies over 35,000 years. Both techniques produce self-consistent chronologies for the Puritjarra deposit, but observed discrepancies between luminescence dates on unburnt sediments and 14C, assays on charcoal are greater than reported elsewhere. TL ages are generally older than 14C ages but dates converge at depths below 70 cm, dating first significant human occupation of the rock shelter ˜35,000 years ago. The discrepancies are not removed by calibrating 14C dates or adjusting TL ages for lower water content of sediments. The 14C chronology is broadly supported by sedimentary or palaeobotanical evidence, stone artefact typology and other archaeological data. Radiocarbon dates on intact hearths agree with those on detrital charcoal. TL ages were arrived at using both 'total bleach' and 'selective bleach' methods and the latter agree with optical ages for the same samples. Incomplete bleaching of sediments during deposition can be ruled out. Incorporation of old material into the luminescence samples via in-situ disintegration of local sandstone remains a possibility and will be an important issue to resolve as luminescence techniques are increasingly deployed to date archaeological deposits in rock shelters.

  12. Healthy Aging in Older Women Living with HIV Infection: a Systematic Review of Psychosocial Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubtsova, Anna A; Kempf, Mirjam-Colette; Taylor, Tonya N; Konkle-Parker, Deborah; Wingood, Gina M; Holstad, Marcia McDonnell

    2017-02-13

    Due to life-enhancing effects of antiretroviral therapy, HIV-positive persons have the potential for long life comparable to their uninfected peers. Older women (age 50+) living with HIV (OWLH) are often an under-recognized aging group. We conducted a systematic review to examine psychosocial factors that impact how OWLH live, cope, and age with HIV. Initial key word search yielded 1527 records, and 21 studies met our inclusion criteria of original quantitative or qualitative research published between 2013 and 2016 with results specific to OWLH. These focused on health care and self-management, sexual health and risk, stigma, loneliness, mental health (depression, substance use), and protective factors (coping, social support, well-being). Due to the scarcity of studies on each topic and inconclusive findings, no clear patterns of results emerged. As the number of OWLH continues to grow, more research, including longitudinal studies, is needed to fully characterize the psychosocial factors that impact aging with HIV.

  13. Original article Direct effects of a domain-specific subjective age measure on self-reported physical activity – Is it more important how old you are or how old you feel?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian Wienert

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Research has shown that physical activity is important for healthy aging. At the same time, physical activity and different age factors (chronological and subjective age measures are interrelated. The present study investigated whether subjective physical age and chronological age are significantly correlated with physical activity over time. Participants and procedure A study design with baseline assessment and a 4-week follow-up period was conducted with an online sample (N = 541, aged 25-78 years (M = 39.62, SD = 10.74. Regression analysis with the enter method was used to predict subsequent physical activity by baseline predictors. Results Subjective physical age correlates with chronological age (r = –.34, p < .001. Subjective physical age predicted subsequent physical activity when controlling for baseline variables (B = –.12, t = –2.43, p = .015 until past physical activity was entered (B = –.06, t = –1.44, p = .150. The final model explained 33% of variance in subsequent physical activity. Conclusions Subjective physical age seems to be more important for physical activity than chronological age. This is an important finding as subjective physical age might be a target for interventions, to enable individuals to become more physically active. Future studies should investigate non-linear relationships between subjective physical age, social-cognitive predictors of physical activity and physical activity behavior.

  14. Quality assessment of chronologies in Latin American pollen records: a contribution to centennial to millennial scale studies of environmental change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. G. A. Flantua

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The newly updated inventory of the Latin American Pollen Database (LAPD offers an important overview of data available for multi-proxy and multi-site purposes. However, heterogeneous paleoecological databases are not suitable to be integrated without an uncertainty assessment of existing chronologies. Therefore, we collected all chronological control points and age model metadata from the LAPD literature to create a complementary chronological database of 5116 dates from 1097 pollen records. We start with an overview on chronological dating and reporting in Central and South America. Specific problems and recommendations for chronology reporting are discussed. Subsequently, we implement a temporal quality assessment of pollen records from northwest South-America to support research on climate forcers and responses at a centennial-millennial time-scale. New chronologies are generated for 233 pollen records based on updated calibration curves. Different time windows are discussed on sample resolution and temporal uncertainty. Approximately one in four pollen diagrams depicts < 500 years resolution data at the Younger Dryas/Holocene transition. Overall, our analyses suggest that the temporal resolution of multi-site syntheses of late Pleistocene fossil pollen records in the northwest South-America is ca. 240 years, a resolution which allows analysis of ecological responses to centennial-millennial-scale climate change during the last deglaciation.

  15. Conceptualizing age-friendly community characteristics in a sample of urban elders: an exploratory factor analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Richard J; Lehning, Amanda J; Dunkle, Ruth E

    2013-01-01

    Accurate conceptualization and measurement of age-friendly community characteristics would help to reduce barriers to documenting the effects on elders of interventions to create such communities. This article contributes to the measurement of age-friendly communities through an exploratory factor analysis of items reflecting an existing US Environmental Protection Agency policy framework. From a sample of urban elders (n = 1,376), we identified 6 factors associated with demographic and health characteristics: access to business and leisure, social interaction, access to health care, neighborhood problems, social support, and community engagement. Future research should explore the effects of these factors across contexts and populations.

  16. Changes in growth factor expression in normal aging of the rat retina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Christopher P; Steinle, Jena J

    2007-12-01

    Although much is known about the growth factor changes in ocular tissues during various diseases, little is known about normal aging of the retina. In order to further understand normal aging in the retina, we characterized age-related changes of growth factor expression in three different ages of rat retina. Real time PCR and protein analysis was conducted to investigate steady state mRNA expression and protein levels of VEGF, VEGFR2, PEDF, Ang-1, Tie-2, EphB4 and ephrinB2 in the retina of 8-, 22-, and 32-month-old Brown Norway X Fischer 344 F1 hybrid rats. An increase of VEGF protein levels was found at 32months compared to 8 and 22months of age. VEGFR2 protein was found to be increased at 22 and 32months compared to 8months. PEDF protein levels were reduced at 22 and 32months. Tie-2 levels were found to be significantly decreased by 32months compared to 8months of age, while ephrinB2 was found to be significantly lower at both 22 and 32months compared to 8months of age. The increases found in VEGF and its receptor VEGFR2, with the simultaneous decrease of PEDF protein levels, may stimulate an environment that is well suited for neovascularization in the normal aging retina. Overall, these results suggest that normal aging produces substantial changes in gene expression and protein levels.

  17. Survey on skin aging status and related influential factors in Southeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi-na WANG; Hong FANG; Wei-fang ZHU

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate cutaneous aging patterns of residents in Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China, and their contributing 2004. Results: Facial wrinkling first occurred at 21 years of age and skin elasticity began to lose at 22 years of age. In middle-aged and old people, facial wrinkling and looseness escalated with the increase of ultraviolet (UV)-exposure time, indicating the ac-celerating effect of a higher accumulative dose of UV radiation on skin aging. Only Fitzpatrick types Ⅱ, Ⅲ and Ⅳ were found in the skin phototypes of residents in Hangzhou area, and Fitzpatrick type Ⅱ seemed to be much more subject to severe wrinkling, elasticity destruction and skin tumors than types Ⅲ and Ⅳ. The oily skin was more protected against wrinkling and facial looseness than dry skin. However, as to concomitant cutaneous diseases, no difference was found among different skin types. Conclusion: Age, solar-exposure time, Fitzpatrick type and skin type are the associated forces in promoting skin aging, and emotional factor seems to be another independent risk factor. The age of 49 years and 2 h/d of solar-exposure time seem to be the turning points responsible for dramatic changes of cutaneous appearance in the process of skin aging in Southeast China.

  18. Face Aging Effect Simulation Using Hidden Factor Analysis Joint Sparse Representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hongyu; Huang, Di; Wang, Yunhong; Wang, Heng; Tang, Yuanyan

    2016-06-01

    Face aging simulation has received rising investigations nowadays, whereas it still remains a challenge to generate convincing and natural age-progressed face images. In this paper, we present a novel approach to such an issue by using hidden factor analysis joint sparse representation. In contrast to the majority of tasks in the literature that handle the facial texture integrally, the proposed aging approach separately models the person-specific facial properties that tend to be stable in a relatively long period and the age-specific clues that change gradually over time. It then merely transforms the age component to a target age group via sparse reconstruction, yielding aging effects, which is finally combined with the identity component to achieve the aged face. Experiments are carried out on three aging databases, and the results achieved clearly demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed method in rendering a face with aging effects. Additionally, a series of evaluations prove its validity with respect to identity preservation and aging effect generation.

  19. Criticism of traditional chronology: How long will Scaliger survive?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bukvić Rajko

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers the problems of current state and survival of traditional chronology and history based upon the Scaliger and Petavius books from XVI and XVII centuries. Among many approaches that insist on the need of examination of that chronology, developed at first in Russia, but also in Germany, England, USA and other countries, author focuses to the investigation of Fomenko and his collaborators, but also the Khronotron group. Both these groups, like many others critics of current chronology, as their inspirators and predecessors mark Newton and Morozov, two great scientists who during many decades (! intensively considered problems of examination of chronology and history.

  20. Developing inorganic carbon-based radiocarbon chronologies for Holocene lake sediments in arid NW China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiawu; Ma, Xueyang; Qiang, Mingrui; Huang, Xiaozhong; Li, Shuang; Guo, Xiaoyan; Henderson, Andrew C. G.; Holmes, Jonathan A.; Chen, Fahu

    2016-07-01

    Inorganic carbonates are often used to establish radiocarbon (14C) chronologies for lake sediments when terrestrial plant remains (TPR) are rare or when bulk organic matter is insufficient for dating, a problem that is common for many lakes in arid regions. However, the reservoir effect (RE), as well as old carbon contributed from the lakes catchment make it difficult to establish reliable chronologies. Here we present a systematic study of inorganic 14C ages of two lake-sediment sequences, one from a small-enclosed saline lake - Lake Gahai in Qaidam Basin, and the other from a large freshwater lake - Lake Bosten in Xinjiang. Modern dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) of the lakes, paleo-lake sediments exposed in the catchment, and mollusk shells in core sediments from Lake Gahai were dated to assess the RE and the contribution of pre-aged carbon to the old ages in the cores. We propose a statistical regression to assess more than one RE for the 14C carbonate ages within our sedimentary sequences. Old radiocarbon ages contributed by detrital carbonates were assessed by comparing the ages of mollusk shells with those of carbonates at the same sediment depths. We established the RE of the authigenic component and assessed detrital old carbon contributions to our two sites, and this was used to correct the 14C ages. Based on this approach, we developed age models for both cores, and tested them using 210Pb ages in both cores and TPR-based 14C-ages recovered from Lake Bosten. We further tested our age models by comparing carbonate-based oxygen isotope (δ18O) records from both lakes to an independently-dated regional speleothem δ18O record. Our results suggest if sedimentary sequences are densely dated and the RE and the contribution of old carbon from detrital carbonates can be ascertained, robust chronological frameworks based on carbonate-based 14C determinations can be established.

  1. Association between age at onset of multiple sclerosis and vitamin D level-related factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Julie Hejgaard; Søndergaard, Helle Bach; Sørensen, Per Soelberg

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare vitamin D level-associated single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in GC and CYP2R1, multiple sclerosis (MS) risk SNPs in CYP27B1, CYP24A1, and HLA-DRB1*1501, and adolescent exposure to environmental risk factors for hypovitaminosis D, with MS age at onset. METHODS: This cros....... No association was found between age at onset and any of the other SNPs or vitamin D-associated environmental factors. CONCLUSION: We demonstrate an independent effect by HLA-DRB1*1501, adolescent summer sun habits, and body mass index at the age of 20 on age at onset of MS.......OBJECTIVE: To compare vitamin D level-associated single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in GC and CYP2R1, multiple sclerosis (MS) risk SNPs in CYP27B1, CYP24A1, and HLA-DRB1*1501, and adolescent exposure to environmental risk factors for hypovitaminosis D, with MS age at onset. METHODS: This cross......, and the study was approved by the local ethics committee. RESULTS: Younger age at onset was significantly associated with low exposure to summer sun in adolescence, higher body mass index at 20 years of age, and the HLA-DRB1*1501 risk allele in both univariate analyses and in a multivariable regression analysis...

  2. Molecular mechanism of extrinsic factors affecting anti-aging of stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Tzyy Yue; Solis, Mairim Alexandra; Chen, Ying-Hui; Huang, Lynn Ling-Huei

    2015-03-26

    Scientific evidence suggests that stem cells possess the anti-aging ability to self-renew and maintain differentiation potentials, and quiescent state. The objective of this review is to discuss the micro-environment where stem cells reside in vivo, the secreted factors to which stem cells are exposed, the hypoxic environment, and intracellular factors including genome stability, mitochondria integrity, epigenetic regulators, calorie restrictions, nutrients, and vitamin D. Secreted tumor growth factor-β and fibroblast growth factor-2 are reported to play a role in stem cell quiescence. Extracellular matrices may interact with caveolin-1, the lipid raft on cell membrane to regulate quiescence. N-cadherin, the adhesive protein on niche cells provides support for stem cells. The hypoxic micro-environment turns on hypoxia-inducible factor-1 to prevent mesenchymal stem cells aging through p16 and p21 down-regulation. Mitochondria express glucosephosphate isomerase to undergo glycolysis and prevent cellular aging. Epigenetic regulators such as p300, protein inhibitors of activated Stats and H19 help maintain stem cell quiescence. In addition, calorie restriction may lead to secretion of paracrines cyclic ADP-ribose by intestinal niche cells, which help maintain intestinal stem cells. In conclusion, it is crucial to understand the anti-aging phenomena of stem cells at the molecular level so that the key to solving the aging mystery may be unlocked.

  3. Genetics vs. entropy: longevity factors suppress the NF-kappaB-driven entropic aging process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salminen, Antero; Kaarniranta, Kai

    2010-07-01

    Molecular studies in model organisms have identified potent longevity genes which can delay the aging process and extend the lifespan. Longevity factors promote stress resistance and cellular survival. It seems that the aging process itself is not genetically programmed but a random process involving the loss of molecular fidelity and subsequent accumulation of waste products. This age-related increase in cellular entropy is compatible with the disposable soma theory of aging. A large array of host defence systems has been linked to the NF-kappaB system which is an ancient signaling pathway specialized to host defence, e.g. functioning in immune system. Emerging evidence demonstrates that the NF-kappaB system is activated during aging. Oxidative stress and DNA damage increase with aging and elicit a sustained activation of the NF-kappaB system which has negative consequences, e.g. chronic inflammatory response, increase in apoptotic resistance, decline in autophagic cleansing, and tissue atrophy, i.e. processes that enhance the aging process. We will discuss the role of NF-kappaB system in the pro-aging signaling and will emphasize that several longevity factors seem to be inhibitors of NF-kappaB signaling and in that way they can suppress the NF-kappaB-driven entropic host defence catastrophe.

  4. The chronology of third molar mineralization by digital orthopantomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maled, Venkatesh; Vishwanath, S B

    2016-10-01

    The present study was designed to determine the chronology of third molar mineralization to establish Indian reference data and to observe the advantages of digital orthopantomography. Therefore, a cross-sectional study was undertaken by evaluating 167 digital orthopantomographs in order to assess the mineralization status of the mandibular third molar of Caucasian individuals (85 males and 82 females) between the age of 14 and 24. The evaluation was carried out using the 8-stage developmental scheme of Demirjian et al (1973). The range, mean age, standard deviation and Student t-test are presented for each stage of mineralization in all four quadrants. Statistically significant differences between males and females were not found for all four third molars. All the individuals in this study with mature third molar were at least 18 years of age. For medicolegal purposes, the likelihood of whether an Indian is older than 18 years or not was determined. The advantage of digital orthopantomography in the interpretation of the tooth mineralization over the traditional method was acknowledged.

  5. Risk factors for weight faltering in infancy according to age at onset

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Else Marie; Skovgaard, Anne M; Weile, Birgitte

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify risk factors for failure to thrive (FTT) or weight faltering according to age of onset. The study is part of a Danish longitudinal population study of early risk mechanisms in child psychiatric disorders, The Copenhagen Child Cohort, which consists of a birth...... cohort of 6090 children born during the year 2000 and followed prospectively from birth. Weight faltering/FTT was defined as slow conditional weight gain, and divided into subtypes according to age of onset in the first year of life: birth to 2 weeks, 2 weeks to 4 months, and 4-8 months. Regardless...... of the age of onset, slow weight gain was found to be strongly associated with feeding problems, but the risk factors involved differed according to age of onset. Thus, onset within the first weeks of life clearly differed from faltering later on, the former being strongly associated with low birthweight...

  6. Perinatal Risk Factors for Feeding and Eating Disorders in Children Aged 0 to 3 Years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvelplund, Carolina; Hansen, Bo Mølholm; Koch, Susanne Vinkel

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the incidence, age at diagnosis, and associations between perinatal risk factors of feeding and eating disorders (FED) diagnosed at hospital in children aged 0 to 3 years. METHODS: A nationwide cohort of 901 227 children was followed until 48 months of age in the national...... registers from 1997 to 2010. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) for FED diagnosis according to the International Classification of Diseases and associations with perinatal risk factors. RESULTS: A total of 1365 children (53% girls) were diagnosed.......19-1.50). CONCLUSIONS: FED in referred children aged 0 to 3 years are associated with perinatal adversities, female gender, maternal smoking in pregnancy, being firstborn, and having immigrant parents. The results suggest complex causal mechanisms of FED and underscore the need for a multidisciplinary approach...

  7. Periodontal status and associated risk factors among childbearing age women in Cixi City of China*

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Yan-Min; Liu, Jia; Sun, Wei-lian; Chen, Li-li; Chai, Li-guo; Xiao, Xiang; Cao, Zheng

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the periodontal status and associated risk factors among women of childbearing age to increase the awareness of oral health. Methods: The study was conducted on childbearing age women in Cixi, a city in Zhejiang Province in the southeast of China. A total of 754 women participated in periodontal examination while receiving prenatal care. Data of the women were collected from the Cixi Family Planning Commission and during an interview. Clinical periodontal indices, su...

  8. Ageing of enteric neurons: oxidative stress, neurotrophic factors and antioxidant enzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korsak Kris

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ageing is associated with gastrointestinal dysfunction, which can have a major impact on quality of life of the elderly. A number of changes in the innervation of the gut during ageing have been reported, including neuronal loss and degenerative changes. Evidence indicates that reactive oxygen species (ROS are elevated in ageing enteric neurons, but that neurotrophic factors may reduce generation of neuronal ROS. Two such factors, glial cell line derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF and neurotrophin-3 (NT-3 have also been found to protect enteric neurons against oxidative stress induced cell death of enteric ganglion cells in vitro. We have investigated the possible roles of neurotrophic factors further, by examining their expression in the gut during ageing, and by analysing their effects on antioxidant enzyme production in cultures of enteric ganglion cells. Results Analysis of the expression of GDNF and its receptors c-Ret and GFR α − 1 in rat gut by RT-PCR showed that expression continues throughout life and into ageing, in both ad libitum(AL and calorically-restricted (CR animals. Levels of expression of GDNF and GFR α − 1 were elevated in 24 month AL animals compared to 24 month CR animals, and to 24 CR and 6 month control animals respectively. The related factor Neurturin and its receptor GFR α − 2 were also expressed throughout life, the levels of the GFR – α-2(b isoform were reduced in 24 m AL animals. Immunolabelling showed that c-Ret and GFR α − 1 proteins were expressed by myenteric neurons in ageing animals. GDNF, but not NT-3, was found to increase expression of Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase and catalase by cultured enteric ganglion cells. Conclusions The neurotrophic factors GDNF and neurturin and their receptors continue to be expressed in the ageing gut. Changes in the levels of expression of GDNF , GFR α-1 and GFR α-2(b isoform occurred in 24 m AL animals. GDNF, but not

  9. The Influence of Social Factors on Life Satisfaction in Old Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Miha Kaučič

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Research question (RQ: What is the connection between social factors and life satisfaction in old age? Purpose: The purpose of this research was to establish the influence of social factors on life satisfaction in old age. Method: The quantitative research method was used, a causal non-experimental method. As sampling data technique we used the technique of a survey questionnaire in ten statistical regions. For the analysis of causal effects and conditional associations we used the advanced statistical propensity score methods (Rubin, 2006. From the statistical set a simple random sample was chosen, we decided on proportionate stratification. For measuring life satisfaction we used Satisfaction with Life Scale (Diener, to which we added questions in order to study social factors. The research included 656 older adults aged 65 years and above, living in the home environment or in social care institutions. Results: Closely connected to life satisfaction in old age is the living conditions index (housing conditions, environment, financial situation, safety, whereas the lifestyle index (physical activity, nutrition, smoking, alcohol consumption is less closely connected. Discussion: Life satisfaction in old age is importantly influenced by social factors – suitable living conditions and less influenced by a healthy lifestyle, both of which allow for a quality life also in old age. Society: The research has an important influence on the society, as too little attention is being devoted to the phenomenon of ageing. By alerting the public we wish to contribute towards the detabuisation of ageing and ageism. For the stable healthcare system it is important that older adults remain healthy, independent and satisfied. Originality: The originality of the research is in the studying of social factor in the holistic model of satisfaction with life in the old age, which also includes physical, psychological and spiritual factors. Limitations

  10. Ageing towards 21 as a risk factor for young adult suicide in the UK and Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Malone, K M

    2012-11-13

    Aims. Youth and young adult suicide has increasingly appeared on international vital statistics as a rising trend of concern in age-specific mortality over the past 50 years. The reporting of suicide deaths in 5-year age bands, which has been the international convention to date, may mask a greater understanding of year-on-year factors that may accelerate or ameliorate the emergence of suicidal thoughts, acts and fatal consequences. The study objective was to identify any year-on-year period of increased risk for youth and young adult suicide in the UK and Ireland. Methods. Collation and examination of international epidemiological datasets on suicide (aged 18-35) for the UK and Ireland 2000-2006 (N = 11 964). Outcome measures included the age distribution of suicide mortality in international datasets from the UK and Ireland, 2000-2006. Results. An accelerated pattern of risk up to the age of 20 for the UK and Ireland which levels off moderately thereafter was uncovered, thus identifying a heretofore unreported age-related epidemiological transition for suicide. Conclusions. The current reporting of suicide in 5-year age bands may conceal age-related periods of risk for suicide. This may have implications for suicide prevention programmes for young adults under age 21.

  11. Serum insulin-like growth factor 1 in the aging horse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lygren, Tone; Hansen, Sanni; Langberg, Henning

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) has important roles in anabolic processes in the musculoskeletal system and has been reported to decrease with age in both people and horses. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to determine serum IGF-1 levels in the aging horse from early...... to late adulthood (age range 5-27 years). METHODS: Healthy horses (n = 72) were used in a cross-sectional study, while 37 paired serum samples were available for a longitudinal study. Serum IGF-1 protein was determined using an ELISA kit validated for use in equine samples. RESULTS: No association...... was found between serum IGF-1 levels and age in the cross-sectional study. In the longitudinal study, a latent variable model fitted to the data revealed that horses in general experienced a 5.2% increase of serum IGF-1 levels over a 5-year period, but horses crossing a change point around 9 years of age...

  12. Origin and chronology of chondritic components: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krot, A. N.; Amelin, Y.; Bland, P.; Ciesla, F. J.; Connelly, J.; Davis, A. M.; Huss, G. R.; Hutcheon, I. D.; Makide, K.; Nagashima, K.; Nyquist, L. E.; Russell, S. S.; Scott, E. R. D.; Thrane, K.; Yurimoto, H.; Yin, Q.-Z.

    2009-09-01

    Mineralogical observations, chemical and oxygen-isotope compositions, absolute 207Pb- 206Pb ages and short-lived isotope systematics ( 7Be- 7Li, 10Be- 10B, 26Al- 26Mg, 36Cl- 36S, 41Ca- 41K, 53Mn- 53Cr, 60Fe- 60Ni, 182Hf- 182W) of refractory inclusions [Ca,Al-rich inclusions (CAIs) and amoeboid olivine aggregates (AOAs)], chondrules and matrices from primitive (unmetamorphosed) chondrites are reviewed in an attempt to test (i) the x-wind model vs. the shock-wave model of the origin of chondritic components and (ii) irradiation vs. stellar origin of short-lived radionuclides. The data reviewed are consistent with an external, stellar origin for most short-lived radionuclides ( 7Be, 10Be, and 36Cl are important exceptions) and a shock-wave model for chondrule formation, and provide a sound basis for early Solar System chronology. They are inconsistent with the x-wind model for the origin of chondritic components and a local, irradiation origin of 26Al, 41Ca, and 53Mn. 10Be is heterogeneously distributed among CAIs, indicating its formation by local irradiation and precluding its use for the early solar system chronology. 41Ca- 41K, and 60Fe- 60Ni systematics are important for understanding the astrophysical setting of Solar System formation and origin of short-lived radionuclides, but so far have limited implications for the chronology of chondritic components. The chronological significance of oxygen-isotope compositions of chondritic components is limited. The following general picture of formation of chondritic components is inferred. CAIs and AOAs were the first solids formed in the solar nebula ˜4567-4568 Myr ago, possibly within a period of events in nebular region(s) with high ambient temperature (at or above condensation temperature of forsterite), either throughout the inner protoplanetary disk (1-4 AU) or in a localized region near the proto-Sun ( -10‰) and have ( 26Al/ 27Al) 0 similar to those in chondrules (events in regions with low ambient temperature

  13. Time and Chronology: Conjoined Twins or Distant Cousins?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blow, Frances; Lee, Peter; Shemilt, Denis

    2012-01-01

    Weaknesses in pupils' grasp of historical chronology are a commonplace in popular discussion of the state of history education. However, as Blow, Lee and Shemilt argue, although undoubtedly necessary and fundamental, mastery of chronological conventions is not sufficient: the difficulties that pupils experience when learning history are…

  14. Quantitative and qualitative approaches to identifying migration chronology in a continental migrant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beatty, William S.; Kesler, Dylan C.; Webb, Elisabeth B.; Raedeke, Andrew H.; Naylor, Luke W.; Humburg, Dale D.

    2013-01-01

    The degree to which extrinsic factors influence migration chronology in North American waterfowl has not been quantified, particularly for dabbling ducks. Previous studies have examined waterfowl migration using various methods, however, quantitative approaches to define avian migration chronology over broad spatio-temporal scales are limited, and the implications for using different approaches have not been assessed. We used movement data from 19 female adult mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) equipped with solar-powered global positioning system satellite transmitters to evaluate two individual level approaches for quantifying migration chronology. The first approach defined migration based on individual movements among geopolitical boundaries (state, provincial, international), whereas the second method modeled net displacement as a function of time using nonlinear models. Differences in migration chronologies identified by each of the approaches were examined with analysis of variance. The geopolitical method identified mean autumn migration midpoints at 15 November 2010 and 13 November 2011, whereas the net displacement method identified midpoints at 15 November 2010 and 14 November 2011. The mean midpoints for spring migration were 3 April 2011 and 20 March 2012 using the geopolitical method and 31 March 2011 and 22 March 2012 using the net displacement method. The duration, initiation date, midpoint, and termination date for both autumn and spring migration did not differ between the two individual level approaches. Although we did not detect differences in migration parameters between the different approaches, the net displacement metric offers broad potential to address questions in movement ecology for migrating species. Ultimately, an objective definition of migration chronology will allow researchers to obtain a comprehensive understanding of the extrinsic factors that drive migration at the individual and population levels. As a result, targeted

  15. Quantitative and qualitative approaches to identifying migration chronology in a continental migrant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beatty, William S; Kesler, Dylan C; Webb, Elisabeth B; Raedeke, Andrew H; Naylor, Luke W; Humburg, Dale D

    2013-01-01

    The degree to which extrinsic factors influence migration chronology in North American waterfowl has not been quantified, particularly for dabbling ducks. Previous studies have examined waterfowl migration using various methods, however, quantitative approaches to define avian migration chronology over broad spatio-temporal scales are limited, and the implications for using different approaches have not been assessed. We used movement data from 19 female adult mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) equipped with solar-powered global positioning system satellite transmitters to evaluate two individual level approaches for quantifying migration chronology. The first approach defined migration based on individual movements among geopolitical boundaries (state, provincial, international), whereas the second method modeled net displacement as a function of time using nonlinear models. Differences in migration chronologies identified by each of the approaches were examined with analysis of variance. The geopolitical method identified mean autumn migration midpoints at 15 November 2010 and 13 November 2011, whereas the net displacement method identified midpoints at 15 November 2010 and 14 November 2011. The mean midpoints for spring migration were 3 April 2011 and 20 March 2012 using the geopolitical method and 31 March 2011 and 22 March 2012 using the net displacement method. The duration, initiation date, midpoint, and termination date for both autumn and spring migration did not differ between the two individual level approaches. Although we did not detect differences in migration parameters between the different approaches, the net displacement metric offers broad potential to address questions in movement ecology for migrating species. Ultimately, an objective definition of migration chronology will allow researchers to obtain a comprehensive understanding of the extrinsic factors that drive migration at the individual and population levels. As a result, targeted

  16. Quantitative and qualitative approaches to identifying migration chronology in a continental migrant.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William S Beatty

    Full Text Available The degree to which extrinsic factors influence migration chronology in North American waterfowl has not been quantified, particularly for dabbling ducks. Previous studies have examined waterfowl migration using various methods, however, quantitative approaches to define avian migration chronology over broad spatio-temporal scales are limited, and the implications for using different approaches have not been assessed. We used movement data from 19 female adult mallards (Anas platyrhynchos equipped with solar-powered global positioning system satellite transmitters to evaluate two individual level approaches for quantifying migration chronology. The first approach defined migration based on individual movements among geopolitical boundaries (state, provincial, international, whereas the second method modeled net displacement as a function of time using nonlinear models. Differences in migration chronologies identified by each of the approaches were examined with analysis of variance. The geopolitical method identified mean autumn migration midpoints at 15 November 2010 and 13 November 2011, whereas the net displacement method identified midpoints at 15 November 2010 and 14 November 2011. The mean midpoints for spring migration were 3 April 2011 and 20 March 2012 using the geopolitical method and 31 March 2011 and 22 March 2012 using the net displacement method. The duration, initiation date, midpoint, and termination date for both autumn and spring migration did not differ between the two individual level approaches. Although we did not detect differences in migration parameters between the different approaches, the net displacement metric offers broad potential to address questions in movement ecology for migrating species. Ultimately, an objective definition of migration chronology will allow researchers to obtain a comprehensive understanding of the extrinsic factors that drive migration at the individual and population levels. As a result

  17. Effect of age on the gene expression of neural-restrictive silencing factor NRSF/REST.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Nozomu; Mizuno, Takafumi; Murai, Kiyohito; Nakano, Itsuko; Yamashita, Hitoshi

    2002-01-01

    Aging affects a wide range of gene expression changes in the nervous system. Such effects could be attributed to random changes in the environment with age around each gene, but also could be caused by selective changes in a limited set of key regulatory transcription factors and/or chromatin remodeling components. To approach the question of whether neural-restrictive silencer factor NRSF, a key determinant of the neuron-specific gene expression, is involved in these changes, we examined the levels of NRSF in the rat brain and dosal root ganglia during aging by semi-quantitative reverse transcriptase-mediated polymerase chain reaction (PCR) (RT-PCR). Complementary expression profiles of transcripts of NRSF and SCG10 in the mature brain were shown by in situ hybridization. Neither the mRNA levels of NRSF nor a splicing variant NRnV were changed, at least in rats up to 26 months old. The gene expression level of SCG10, one of the NRSF targets, was also unaffected by age. The stable expression of SCG10 transcripts in aging was confirmed by in situ hybridization. The NRS-binding ability of NRSF was also unchanged significantly in the nuclear extracts of aged rat brain. These results suggest that the genetic machinery associated with the NRS-NRSF system is well maintained during aging.

  18. Time in tortoiseshell: a bomb radiocarbon-validated chronology in sea turtle scutes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Houtan, Kyle S; Andrews, Allen H; Jones, T Todd; Murakawa, Shawn K K; Hagemann, Molly E

    2016-01-13

    Some of the most basic questions of sea turtle life history are also the most elusive. Many uncertainties surround lifespan, growth rates, maturity and spatial structure, yet these are critical factors in assessing population status. Here we examine the keratinized hard tissues of the hawksbill (Eretmochelys imbricata) carapace and use bomb radiocarbon dating to estimate growth and maturity. Scutes have an established dietary record, yet the large keratin deposits of hawksbills evoke a reliable chronology. We sectioned, polished and imaged posterior marginal scutes from 36 individual hawksbills representing all life stages, several Pacific populations and spanning eight decades. We counted the apparent growth lines, microsampled along growth contours and calibrated Δ(14)C values to reference coral series. We fit von Bertalanffy growth function (VBGF) models to the results, producing a range of age estimates for each turtle. We find Hawaii hawksbills deposit eight growth lines annually (range 5-14), with model ensembles producing a somatic growth parameter (k) of 0.13 (range 0.1-0.2) and first breeding at 29 years (range 23-36). Recent bomb radiocarbon values also suggest declining trophic status. Together, our results may reflect long-term changes in the benthic community structure of Hawaii reefs, and possibly shed light on the critical population status for Hawaii hawksbills.

  19. Testing teleconnections - chronological uncertainties of independently dated and tuned past climate events (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaauw, M.; Wohlfarth, B.

    2010-12-01

    Multiple fossil proxy archives are often dated by aligning purportedly simultaneous events between data sets. Examples are synchronising peat layers across countries or continents, orbital tuning, and dating cores through aligning proxy features with δ18O series from marine and ice deposits. Any temporal mismatch between multiple sites are then attributed to chronological errors, e.g., changing 14C age offsets, unidentified hiatuses or other mistakes in age-models. However, tuning involves the real danger of erroneously "sucking" separate events into one illusionary event, or vice versa. As an alternative, past climate events can be dated independently (e.g. using 14C dating), while explicitly quantifying their chronological uncertainties. Instead of assuming simultaneous climate events between multiple archives, the age models are kept separate, and the timing of events tested by calculating the probability of simultaneous events within a defined period of time. The method is tested by comparing Dansgaard/Oeschger-like events in two well-dated sites; Les Echets in France and NGRIP in Greenland. Chronological uncertainties are so high that we cannot safely assume that climate events were synchronous between sites at decadal to multi-centennial time scales. Past climate research would profit if tuning procedures would become more quantitative, reliable and objective. Ideally, individual proxy archives should not be tuned, and kept on independent time-scales.

  20. Objective assessment of facial skin aging and the associated environmental factors in Japanese monozygotic twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichibori, Ryoko; Fujiwara, Takashi; Tanigawa, Tomoko; Kanazawa, Shigeyuki; Shingaki, Kenta; Torii, Kosuke; Tomita, Koichi; Yano, Kenji; Sakai, Yasuo; Hosokawa, Ko

    2014-06-01

    Twin studies, especially those involving monozygotic (MZ) twins, facilitate the analysis of factors affecting skin aging while controlling for age, gender, and genetic susceptibility. The purpose of this study was to objectively assess various features of facial skin and analyze the effects of environmental factors on these features in MZ twins. At the Osaka Twin Research Center, 67 pairs of MZ twins underwent medical interviews and photographic assessments, using the VISIA(®) Complexion Analysis System. First, the average scores of the right and left cheek skin spots, wrinkles, pores, texture, and erythema were calculated; the differences between the scores were then compared in each pair of twins. Next, using the results of medical interviews and VISIA data, we investigated the effects of environmental factors on skin aging. The data were analyzed using Pearson's correlation coefficient test and the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. The intrapair differences in facial texture scores significantly increased as the age of the twins increased (P = 0.03). Among the twin pairs who provided answers to the questions regarding history differences in medical interviews, the twins who smoked or did not use skin protection showed significantly higher facial texture or wrinkle scores compared with the twins not exposed to cigarettes or protectants (P = 0.04 and 0.03, respectively). The study demonstrated that skin aging among Japanese MZ twins, especially in terms of facial texture, was significantly influenced by environmental factors. In addition, smoking and skin protectant use were important environmental factors influencing skin aging.

  1. Factors promoting resident deaths at aged care facilities in Japan: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Kentaro; Ogata, Yasuko; Kashiwagi, Masayo

    2016-10-03

    Due to an increasingly ageing population, the Japanese government has promoted elderly deaths in aged care facilities. However, existing facilities were not designed to provide resident end-of-life care and the proportion of aged care facility deaths is currently less than 10%. Consequently, the present review evaluated the factors that promote aged care facility resident deaths in Japan from individual- and facility-level perspectives to exploring factors associated with increased resident deaths. To achieve this, MEDLINE, CINAHL, Web of Science and Ichushi databases were searched on 23 January 2016. Influential factors were reviewed for two healthcare services (insourcing and outsourcing facilities) as well as external healthcare agencies operating outside facilities. Of the original 2324 studies retrieved, 42 were included in analysis. Of these studies, five focused on insourcing, two on outsourcing, seven on external agencies and observed facility/agency-level factors. The other 28 studies identified individual-level factors related to death in aged care facilities. The present review found that at both facility and individual levels, in-facility resident deaths were associated with healthcare service provision, confirmation of resident/family end-of-life care preference and staff education. Additionally, while outsourcing facilities did not require employment of physicians/nursing staff to accommodate resident death, these facilities required visits by physicians and nursing staff from external healthcare agencies as well as residents' healthcare input. This review also found few studies examining outsourcing facilities. The number of healthcare outsourcing facilities is rapidly increasing as a result of the Japanese government's new tax incentives. Consequently, there may be an increase in elderly deaths in outsourcing healthcare facilities. Accordingly, it is necessary to identify the factors associated with residents' deaths at outsourcing facilities.

  2. Application of Bomb Radiocarbon Chronologies to Shortfin Mako (Isurus oxyrinchus)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ardizzone, D; Cailliet, G M; Natanson, L J; Andrews, A H; Kerr, L A; Brown, T A

    2007-07-16

    and the number of samples for MIA analysis was insufficient for some months. Hence, unequivocal validation of shortfin mako age estimates has yet to be accomplished. Atmospheric testing of thermonuclear devices in the 1950s and 1960s effectively doubled the natural atmospheric radiocarbon ({sup 14}C). The elevated {sup 14}C levels were first recorded in 1957-58, with a peak around 1963. As a consequence, {sup 14}C entered the ocean through gas exchange with the atmosphere at the ocean surface and in terrestrial runoff. Despite variable oceanographic conditions, a worldwide rise of the bomb {sup 14}C signal entered the ocean mixed layer as dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) in 1957-58. The large amounts of {sup 14}C released from the bomb tests produced a signature that can be followed through time, throughout the marine food web, and into deeper waters. The marked increase of radiocarbon levels was first measured in the DIC of seawater and in biogenic marine carbonates of hermatypic corals in Florida. Subsequently, this record was documented in corals from other regions and in the thallus of rhodoliths. The accumulation of radiocarbon in the hard parts of most marine organisms in the mixed layer (such as fish otoliths and bivalves) was synchronous with the coral time-series. This technique has been used to validate age estimates and longevity of numerous bony fishes to date, as well as to establish bomb radiocarbon chronologies from different oceans. In the first application of this technique to lamnoid sharks, validated annual band-pair deposition in vertebral growth bands for the porbeagle (Lamna nasus) aged up to 26 years. Radiocarbon values from samples obtained from 15 porbeagle caught in the western North Atlantic Ocean (some of which were known-age) produced a chronology similar in magnitude to the reference carbonate chronology for that region. The observed phase shift of about 3 years was attributed to different sources of carbon between vertebrae and those for

  3. Reduced neuroplasticity in aged rats: a role for the neurotrophin brain-derived neurotrophic factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabrese, Francesca; Guidotti, Gianluigi; Racagni, Giorgio; Riva, Marco A

    2013-12-01

    Aging is a physiological process characterized by a significant reduction of neuronal plasticity that might contribute to the functional defects observed in old subjects. Even if the neurobiological mechanisms that contribute to such impairment remain largely unknown, a role for neurotrophic molecules, such as the neurotrophin brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), has been postulated. On this basis, the purpose of this study was to provide a detailed investigation of the BDNF system, at transcriptional and translational levels, in the ventral and dorsal hippocampus and in the prefrontal cortex of middle-aged and old rats, compared with in adult animals. The expression of major players in BDNF regulation and response, including the transcription factors, calcium-responsive transcription factor, cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) responsive element-binding protein (CREB), and neuronal Per Arnt Sim (PAS) domain protein 4, and the high-affinity receptor tropomyosin receptor kinase B (TrkB), was also analyzed. Our results demonstrate that the BDNF system is affected at different levels in aged rats with global impairment including reduced transcription, impaired protein synthesis and processing, and decreased activation of the TrkB receptors. These modifications might contribute to the cognitive deficits associated with aging and suggest that pharmacological strategies aimed at restoring reduced neurotrophism might be useful to counteract age-related cognitive decline.

  4. Is Age The Major Factor in Second Language Acquisition? -- An examination of the Critical Period Hypothesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiYing; LiuShufan

    2004-01-01

    Children, unlike adults, have an innate ability for learning language with great facility and minimal effort. This idea that early age is a major factor in native-proficient second language acquisition is a widely held and popular belief. Such views have been supported by many theories that were first proposed in the middle of the 20th century. This paper examines the

  5. Aerobic Exercise and Other Healthy Lifestyle Factors That Influence Vascular Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Parker, Jessica R.; LaRocca, Thomas J.; Seals, Douglas R

    2014-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) remain the leading cause of death in the United States and other modern societies. Advancing age is the major risk factor for CVD, primarily due to stiffening of the large elastic arteries and the development of vascular endothelial dysfunction. In contrast, regular aerobic exercise protects against the development…

  6. Fibroblast growth factors as regulators of stem cell self-renewal and aging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yeoh, Joyce S. G.; de Haan, Gerald

    2007-01-01

    Organ and tissue dysfunction which is readily observable during aging results from a loss of cellular homeostasis and reduced stem cell self-renewal. Over the past 10 years, studies have been aimed at delineating growth factors that will sustain and promote the self-renewal potential of stem cells a

  7. Age Differences in the Association of Severe Psychological Distress and Behavioral Factors with Heart Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Few studies have examined the risk factors of serious psychological distress (SPD and behavioral factors for heart disease separately stratified as young (18–44 years, middle aged (45–64 years, and elderly (65 years or older. A total of 3,540 adults with heart disease and 37,703 controls were selected from the 2005 California Health Interview Survey. Data were weighted to be representative and adjusted for potential undercoverage and nonresponse biases. Multiple logistic regression models were used to estimate the associations of the factors with heart disease at different ages. The prevalence of SPD was 8% in cases and 4% in controls, respectively. For young adults, SPD and higher federal poverty level (FPL were associated with an increased risk of heart disease while for middle-aged adults, SPD, past smoking, lack of physical activity, obesity, male, and unemployment were associated with an increased risk of heart disease. In addition, SPD, past smoking, lack of physical activity, obesity, male, unemployment, White, and lower FPL were associated with an increased risk of heart disease in elderly. Our findings indicate that risk factors for heart disease vary across all ages. Intervention strategies that target risk reduction of heart disease may be tailored accordingly.

  8. Age and metabolic risk factors associated with oxidatively damaged DNA in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løhr, Mille; Jensen, Annie; Eriksen, Louise;

    2015-01-01

    , cholesterol and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c). In the group of men, there were significant positive associations between alcohol intake, HbA1c and FPG-sensitive sites in multivariate analysis. The levels of metabolic risk factors were positively associated with age, yet only few subjects fulfilled all...

  9. Age-Related Differences in Emotion Regulation Strategies: Examining the Role of Contextual Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schirda, Brittney; Valentine, Thomas R.; Aldao, Amelia; Prakash, Ruchika Shaurya

    2016-01-01

    Increasing age is characterized by greater positive affective states. However, there is mixed evidence on the implementation of emotion regulation strategies across the life span. To clarify the discrepancies in the literature, we examined the modulating influence of contextual factors in understanding emotion regulation strategy use in older and…

  10. Relationship of Selected Factors to Traditional-Age Undergraduate Women's Development of Autonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taub, Deborah J.

    1995-01-01

    Explores the independent contribution of interpersonal relationships, parental attachment, and racial/ethnic identity to traditional-age undergraduate women's autonomy development, removing the effect of biographical correlates. Differences by race/ethnicity and by residence status in relationship to factors of autonomy are investigated.…

  11. Ergonomics/Human Factors Needs of an Ageing Workforce in the Manufacturing Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex W. Stedmon

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: As the effects of demographic transition are realised around the world, many in-dustrial societies are facing the effects of a baby boom generation, increased life expectancies, decreased birth rates and recent changes to retirement legislation with the result that older work-ers are set to comprise a greater proportion of the labour force.Methods: This paper reviews the evidence for the physical and cognitive factors that characterise an ageing workforce in manufacturing. From an ergonomics and human factors (E/HF pers-pective, characteristics of manufacturing tasks and the effects of ageing provide an insight into how the industry will have to adapt to support the user needs of the older worker in the future. The approach taken is drawn from Ilmarinen’s framework of age, experience, and work performance, from which specific E/HF issues are explored.Results: There would appear to potential to support physical decline in older workers within manufacturing jobs through increased mechanisation and automation; however, those factors associated with cognitive human factors are less clear. Increased mechanisation and automation can place greater loads and demands on the older worker where cognitive decline is more subtle and varied between workers.Conclusion: Using historical and contemporary findings and the relationship between age, experience, and work performance is redrawn to include both cognitive skills and physical attributes to provide recommendations for future job design and worker needs.

  12. META-ANALYSIS OF THE LIFE STYLE FACTORS RELEVANT TO ENVIRONMENTAL HAZARDS FOR THE AGING POPULATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    The goal of this U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) study is to characterize activity patterns, physiological changes, and environmental exposures for the aging population. Meta analysis was performed on more than 2000 reviewed articles to evaluate the lifestyle factors ...

  13. Age and metabolic risk factors associated with oxidatively damaged DNA in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løhr, Mille; Jensen, Annie; Eriksen, Louise;

    2015-01-01

    Aging is associated with oxidative stress-generated damage to DNA and this could be related to metabolic disturbances. This study investigated the association between levels of oxidatively damaged DNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and metabolic risk factors in 1,019 subjects, aged...... metabolic syndrome criteria. In summary, positive associations between age and levels of oxidatively damaged DNA appeared mediated by age-related increases in metabolic risk factors....... 18-93 years. DNA damage was analyzed as strand breaks by the comet assay and levels of formamidopyrimidine (FPG-) and human 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase 1 (hOGG1)-sensitive sites There was an association between age and levels of FPG-sensitive sites for women, but not for men. The same tendency...... was observed for the level of hOGG1-sensitive sites, whereas there was no association with the level of strand breaks. The effect of age on oxidatively damaged DNA in women disappeared in multivariate models, which showed robust positive associations between DNA damage and plasma levels of triglycerides...

  14. Advanced age is a risk factor for proximal adenoma recurrence following colonoscopy and polypectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pommergaard, H-C; Burcharth, J; Rosenberg, J

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Knowledge of risk factors for recurrence of colorectal adenomas may identify patients who could benefit from individual surveillance strategies. The aim of this study was to identify risk factors for recurrence of colorectal adenomas in a high-risk population. METHODS: Data were used ...... of inclusion in the study were independent risk factors for recurrence. CONCLUSION: In contrast to current guidelines, advanced age is not a reason to discontinue adenoma surveillance in patients with an anticipated live expectancy in which recurrence can arise....

  15. Aging is a risk factor of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in premenopausal women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Masahide Hamaguchi; Takao Kojima; Akihiro Ohbora; Noriyuki Takeda; Michiaki Fukui; Takahiro Kato

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To clarify the relationship between age, menopause, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in women.METHODS: We conducted a follow-up study on nonalcoholic fatty liver disease by using abdominal ultrasonography, and investigated the relationship of age and menopause with the development of NAFLD in women. We followed 1829 women and 2572 men (response rate, 86%) selected in 2001 to represent the non-institutionalized adult population of Gifu, Japan. Data collected included self-reported medical history, lifestyle factors, and menopausal status. The postmenopausal state was defined as beginning 1 year after the cessation of menses. We diagnosed NAFLD with the aid of abdominal ultrasonography by using diagnostic criteria described previously.RESULTS: The prevalence of NAFLD in women increases with age, but does not alter with age in men. Furthermore, the prevalence of NAFLD in premenopausal women (6%) was lower than that in men (24%) and in postmenopausal women (15%). The associations of the postmenopausal state and hormone replacement therapy with NAFLD were statistically significant in a univariate logistic regression model. At the follow-up examination, 67 women (5%) were newly diagnosed with NAFLD. The incidence of NAFLD was 3.5% (28/802) in premenopausal women, 7.5% (4/53) in menopausal women, 6.1% (24/392) in postmenopausal women, and 5.3% (11/206) in women receiving hormone replacement therapy. The weight gain in premenopausal women was equal to that in postmenopausal women. Metabolic syndrome and weight gain were independent risk factors for NAFLD in pre- and postmenopausal women, but age was an independent risk factor in premenopausal women only.CONCLUSION: Aging is a risk factor for NAFLD in premenopausal women, independent of weight gain or influence of metabolic syndrome.

  16. Age trends in prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in Roma minority population of Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeljko, Hrvojka Marija; Skarić-Jurić, Tatjana; Narančić, Nina Smolej; Barešić, Ana; Tomas, Zeljka; Petranović, Matea Zajc; Miličić, Jasna; Salihović, Marijana Peričić; Janićijević, Branka

    2013-07-01

    The Roma (Gypsy) are the largest European minority population characterized by poverty, social exclusion as well as by numerous life-style and cultural specificities, which all could have an adverse impact on their cardiovascular health. This study assesses the prevalence of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) risk factors in community-based sample of 430 adult Roma, living in rural area of Croatia, by providing the actual and age-adjusted estimates using the European standard population. The most prominent classical CVD risk phenotypes (blood pressure, obesity, smoking, glucose and lipid profile) were selected, and the standard risk cut-offs were applied. The study has shown that compared to general population of Croatia, the Roma population bears a high CVD risk factors load related to smoking and high glucose level. The CVD risk factors prevalence in Roma also showed important sex and age patterns, the most imposing of which are the findings of higher prevalence of CVD risks in women (especially obesity and triglyceride levels) and the trend of higher body mass index (BMI) level in younger age group (18-34 years) which both stand in contrast to the trends characterizing the general population of Croatia. These findings are complemented by the trend of decreased risk in the oldest age group (65+ years) for all investigated CVD risk factors (with exception of triglycerides level) compared to the 50-64 age group. We conclude that the age and sex CVD risks pattern point to the health transition of this rural Roma population. As we expect the proportion of CVD in the Roma minority of Croatia to increase in the future along with further modernization of their lifestyle, the CVD prevention measures in this population are urgent and should be primarily targeted at women and at the younger segment of this population.

  17. The moderating impact of lifestyle factors on sex steroids, sexual activities and aging in Asian men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Victor H H; Tong, Terry Y Y

    2011-07-01

    The present study sought to evaluate the relative associations of exercise, sleep and other lifestyle habits with aging, sex hormones, percent body fat (%BF) and sexual activities in men living in the community. A better understanding of this complex interrelationship is important in helping the formulation of modalities for a holistic approach to the management of aging men. The results showed that age is a major determinant for many physiological parameters, including sleep, hormonal and metabolic parameters, some lifestyle factors and sexual activities. Testosterone (T), bioavailable testosterone (BioT) and dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS) concentrations decreased with age, while estradiol (E2), sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) and %BF increased with age. In addition, there exist intricate associations among hormonal and lifestyle factors, %BF and age. High-intensity exercise and longer duration of sleep were associated with higher concentrations of T and BioT. T was shown to be associated positively with men who were engaged in masturbation. DHEAS was associated with men wanting more sex and with good morning penile rigidity. Older Singaporean men tended to sleep for shorter duration, but exercised more intensely than younger men. Coital and masturbation frequencies decreased with age, and a significantly greater number of younger men were engaged in masturbation. Relationship between the partners is a key determinant of sexuality in men. It appears that T may have a limited, while dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) have a greater role than previously suggest, as a motivational signal for sexual function in men. Both biological and psychosocial factors interact with each other to influence sexual functions in men. Hence, a biopsychosocial approach may be more appropriate for a more lasting resolution to sexual dysfunctions in men.

  18. Factors Predicting Glycemic Control in Middle-Aged and Older Adults With Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Ju Chiu, PhD

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionFew studies have prospectively assessed the explanatory effects of demographics, clinical conditions, treatment modality, and general lifestyle behaviors on glycemic control in large heterogeneous samples of middle-aged and older adults with type 2 diabetes. We hierarchically examined these factors, focused especially on the effects of modifiable factors (ie, general lifestyle behaviors, and compared predictive patterns between middle-aged and older adults.MethodsWe used nationally representative data from the 1998 and 2000 Health and Retirement Study (HRS and the HRS 2003 Diabetes Study. We analyzed data from 379 middle-aged adults (aged 51-64 y and 430 older adults (aged ≥65 y who self-reported having type 2 diabetes at baseline.ResultsAmong middle-aged adults, demographic factors and clinical conditions were the strongest predictors of hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c levels. However, among older adults, treatment modality (diet only, oral medication, or insulin only or in combination with other regimens significantly affected HbA1c levels. Lifestyle (physical activity, smoking, drinking, and body weight control, independent of the effects of demographics, clinical conditions, and treatment modality, significantly affected HbA1c levels. An increase of 1 healthy behavior was associated with a decrease in HbA1c levels of more than 1 percentage point.ConclusionOur findings provide support for current diabetes guidelines that recommend a lifestyle regimen across the entire span of diabetes care and highlight the need to help both sociodemographically and clinically disadvantaged middle-aged adults with type 2 diabetes as well as older adults who exhibit poor adherence to medication recommendations to achieve better glycemic control.

  19. Personality Assessment Through Internet: Factor Analyses By Age Group Of The Zka Personality Questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel Blanch

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the psychometric properties of an on-line version of the Zuckerman-Kuhlman-Aluja Personality Questionnaire (ZKA-PQ by sex and age. The questionnaire was responded by 1598 people, 474 males and 1124 females, with a mean age of 32.57 (SD = 11.72. Males and females differed in their responses to all personality dimensions evaluated by this instrument, in a similar way as that reported in past research. In addition, younger people scored higher in the Aggressiveness factor, especially concerning the Physical Aggression facet, whereas older people scored higher in the Activity factor. Besides, younger people scored higher in the Neuroticism and the Sensation Seeking factors, even though there were no age differences in the Extraversion factor. The ZKA-PQ five-factor structure was clear and yielded high congruence coefficients with the original Spanish validation sample. Altogether, the findings support the validity of the online version of this instrument. The ZKAPQ online version is therefore helpful in both, basic and applied research settings about human personality and individual differences.

  20. Arsenite exposure accelerates aging process regulated by the transcription factor DAF-16/FOXO in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chan-Wei; How, Chun Ming; Liao, Vivian Hsiu-Chuan

    2016-05-01

    Arsenic is a known human carcinogen and high levels of arsenic contamination in food, soils, water, and air are of toxicology concerns. Nowadays, arsenic is still a contaminant of emerging interest, yet the effects of arsenic on aging process have received little attention. In this study, we investigated the effects and the underlying mechanisms of chronic arsenite exposure on the aging process in Caenorhabditis elegans. The results showed that prolonged arsenite exposure caused significantly decreased lifespan compared to non-exposed ones. In addition, arsenite exposure (100 μM) caused significant changes of age-dependent biomarkers, including a decrease of defecation frequency, accumulations of intestinal lipofuscin and lipid peroxidation in an age-dependent manner in C. elegans. Further evidence revealed that intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) level was significantly increased in an age-dependent manner upon 100 μM arsenite exposure. Moreover, the mRNA levels of transcriptional makers of aging (hsp-16.1, hsp-16.49, and hsp-70) were increased in aged worms under arsenite exposure (100 μM). Finally, we showed that daf-16 mutant worms were more sensitive to arsenite exposure (100 μM) on lifespan and failed to induce the expression of its target gene sod-3 in aged daf-16 mutant under arsenite exposure (100 μM). Our study demonstrated that chronic arsenite exposure resulted in accelerated aging process in C. elegans. The overproduction of intracellular ROS and the transcription factor DAF-16/FOXO play roles in mediating the accelerated aging process by arsenite exposure in C. elegans. This study implicates a potential ecotoxicological and health risk of arsenic in the environment.

  1. Influential Factors on the Relative Age Effect in Alpine Ski Racing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Lisa; Müller, Erich; Hildebrandt, Carolin; Kornexl, Elmar; Raschner, Christian

    2015-01-01

    The relative age effect (RAE), which refers to an over-representation of selected athletes born early in the selection year, was proven to be present in alpine ski racing in all age categories at both national and international levels. However, the influential factors on, or the causal mechanisms of, the RAE are still unknown. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to examine three possible influential factors on the relative age effect in alpine skiing: physical performance, anthropometric characteristics and biological maturational status. The study included the investigation of 282 elite Austrian youth ski racers and 413 non-athletes (comparison group) of the same age (10-13 years) and region. Six physical performance tests were performed, body mass and height were assessed, and the age at peak height velocity (APHV) was calculated. A significant RAE was present in the ski racers. No differences were shown in the physical performance characteristics or in the calculated APHV between the relative age quarters. These results suggest that ski racers born in the last quarter can counteract the relative age disadvantages if they already present the same level of physical performance and maturational status as those born at the beginning of the year. The height and weight of ski racers born at the beginning of the year were significantly higher compared to the non-athletes, and ski racers born in relative age quarter 1 were taller and heavier compared to the ski racers of the other quarters. This indicates that the anthropometric characteristics influence the selection process in alpine ski racing, and that relatively older athletes are more likely to be selected if they exhibit advanced anthropometric characteristics.

  2. Risk factors for cerebral venous thrombosis and deep venous thrombosis in patients aged between 15 and 50 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopman, Karen; Uyttenboogaart, Maarten; Vroomen, Patrick C A J; van der Meer, Jannes; De Keyser, Jacques; Luijckx, Gert-Jan

    2009-01-01

    Cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) and deep vein thrombosis or pulmonary embolism (DVT/PE) are associated with many risk factors. It is unclear why CVT occurs less often than DVT/PE. Age dependent risk factors may play a role. The aim of our study was to compare risk factors in a uniform age group of

  3. Enhancement of aging rat laryngeal muscles with endogenous growth factor treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stemple, Joseph C; Andreatta, Richard D; Seward, Tanya S; Angadi, Vrushali; Dietrich, Maria; McMullen, Colleen A

    2016-05-01

    Clinical evidence suggests that laryngeal muscle dysfunction is associated with human aging. Studies in animal models have reported morphological changes consistent with denervation in laryngeal muscles with age. Life-long laryngeal muscle activity relies on cytoskeletal integrity and nerve-muscle communication at the neuromuscular junction (NMJ). It is thought that neurotrophins enhance neuromuscular transmission by increasing neurotransmitter release. We hypothesized that treatment with neurotrophin 4 (NTF4) would modify the morphology and functional innervation of aging rat laryngeal muscles. Fifty-six Fischer 344xBrown Norway rats (6- and 30-mo age groups) were used to evaluate to determine if NTF4, given systemically (n = 32) or directly (n = 24), would improve the morphology and functional innervation of aging rat thyroarytenoid muscles. Results demonstrate the ability of rat laryngeal muscles to remodel in response to neurotrophin application. Changes were demonstrated in fiber size, glycolytic capacity, mitochondrial, tyrosine kinase receptors (Trk), NMJ content, and denervation in aging rat thyroarytenoid muscles. This study suggests that growth factors may have therapeutic potential to ameliorate aging-related laryngeal muscle dysfunction.

  4. Perinatal Factors Associated with Poor Neurocognitive Outcome in Early School Age Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, Jennifer R.; Gustafson, Kathryn E.; Smith, P. Brian; Ellingsen, Kirsten M.; Tompkins, K. Brooke; Goldberg, Ronald N.; Cotten, C. Michael; Goldstein, Ricki F.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Determine predictors of neurocognitive outcome in early school age congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) survivors. Study design Prospective study of infants with CDH at Duke University Medical Center. Neurocognitive delay (NCD) at school age (4 to 7 years) was defined as a score < 80 in any of the following areas: Verbal Scale IQ, Performance Scale IQ, Expressive Language, or Receptive Language. Logistic regression, Fisher’s exact, and the Wilcoxon rank sum test were used to examine the relationship between NCD at early school age and 6 demographic and 18 medical variables. Results Of 43 infants with CDH, twenty seven (63%) survived to hospital discharge, and 16 (59%) returned for school age testing at a median age of 4.9 years. Seven (44%) of the children evaluated had NCD. Patch repair (p=0.01), extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO; p=0.02), days on ECMO (p=0.01), days of mechanical ventilation (p=0.049), and post-operative use of inhaled nitric oxide (p=0.02) were found to be associated with NCD at early school age. Conclusions CDH survivors are at risk for neurocognitive delay persisting into school age. Perinatal factors such as patch repair and ECMO treatment may aid in identifying CDH survivors at high risk for continued learning difficulties throughout childhood. PMID:23583126

  5. Age at Menarche and its Related Factors among School Girls, in Zanjan, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parisa Khoshnevisasl

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThere are differences in the age at menarche in different countries and it seems that in recent decades gradually the age of puberty is declining. The aim of the present study was to determine the age at menarche and its related factors in school girls in Zanjan city, Iran.Materials and MethodsThis cross-sectional study was conducted on 1,500 healthy school girls between 6-17 years old who were selected on the basis of a multistage probability sampling. Age at menarche, birth weight, family size, Body Mass Index (BMI, fast food consumption, and physical activity, were recorded. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 16.0.ResultsOut of 1,500 students, 273 girls (18.2% had experienced menarche with a mean age of 12.6±1.6 (95% confidence interval [C]: 12.4-12.8, and a median age of 13 years. The prevalence of early menarche, was 10.3%, (95% CI: 6.6%-14.1%. A significant association between menarche and BMI, frequency of fast food consumption and birth rank was observed; however, we didn’t find a significant association between physical activity (P>0.05 and birth weight (P>0.05 with menarche. ConclusionThe mean age of menarche in our study was 12.6±1.6 years old, similar to other studies in Iran, and it was significantly associated with higher BMI.

  6. Availability of Amino Acids Extends Chronological Lifespan by Suppressing Hyper-Acidification of the Environment in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yo Maruyama

    Full Text Available The chronological lifespan of Saccharomyces cerevisiae represents the duration of cell survival in the postdiauxic and stationary phases. Using a prototrophic strain derived from the standard auxotrophic laboratory strain BY4742, we showed that supplementation of non-essential amino acids to a synthetic defined (SD medium increases maximal cell growth and extends the chronological lifespan. The positive effects of amino acids can be reproduced by modulating the medium pH, indicating that amino acids contribute to chronological longevity in a cell-extrinsic manner by alleviating medium acidification. In addition, we showed that the amino acid-mediated effects on extension of chronological longevity are independent of those achieved through a reduction in the TORC1 pathway, which is mediated in a cell-intrinsic manner. Since previous studies showed that extracellular acidification causes mitochondrial dysfunction and leads to cell death, our results provide a path to premature chronological aging caused by differences in available nitrogen sources. Moreover, acidification of culture medium is generally associated with culture duration and cell density; thus, further studies are required on cell physiology of auxotrophic yeast strains during the stationary phase because an insufficient supply of essential amino acids may cause alterations in environmental conditions.

  7. The GATA transcription factor egl-27 delays aging by promoting stress resistance in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Xu

    Full Text Available Stress is a fundamental aspect of aging, as accumulated damage from a lifetime of stress can limit lifespan and protective responses to stress can extend lifespan. In this study, we identify a conserved Caenorhabditis elegans GATA transcription factor, egl-27, that is involved in several stress responses and aging. We found that overexpression of egl-27 extends the lifespan of wild-type animals. Furthermore, egl-27 is required for the pro-longevity effects from impaired insulin/IGF-1 like signaling (IIS, as reduced egl-27 activity fully suppresses the longevity of worms that are mutant for the IIS receptor, daf-2. egl-27 expression is inhibited by daf-2 and activated by pro-longevity factors daf-16/FOXO and elt-3/GATA, suggesting that egl-27 acts at the intersection of IIS and GATA pathways to extend lifespan. Consistent with its role in IIS signaling, we found that egl-27 is involved in stress response pathways. egl-27 expression is induced in the presence of multiple stresses, its targets are significantly enriched for many types of stress genes, and altering levels of egl-27 itself affects survival to heat and oxidative stress. Finally, we found that egl-27 expression increases between young and old animals, suggesting that increased levels of egl-27 in aged animals may act to promote stress resistance. These results identify egl-27 as a novel factor that links stress and aging pathways.

  8. Age-specific radiation dose commitment factors for a one-year chronic intake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoenes, G.R.; Soldat, J.K.

    1977-11-01

    During the licensing process for nuclear facilities, radiation doses and dose commitments must be calculated for people in the environs of a nuclear facility. These radiation doses are determined by examining characteristics of population groups, pathways to people, and radionuclides found in those pathways. The pertinent characteristics, which are important in the sense of contributing a significant portion of the total dose, must then be analyzed in depth. Dose factors are generally available for adults, see Reference 1 for example, however numerous improvements in data on decay schemes and half-lives have been made in recent years. In addition, it is advisable to define parameters for calculation of the radiation dose for ages other than adults since the population surrounding nuclear facilities will be composed of various age groups. Further, since infants, children, and teens may have higher rates of intake per unit body mass, it is conceivable that the maximally exposed individual may not be an adult. Thus, it was necessary to develop new radiation-dose commitment factors for various age groups. Dose commitment factors presented in this report have been calculated for a 50-year time period for four age groups.

  9. Pharmacotherapy in the ageing patient: The impact of age per se (A review).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Shamsher; Bajorek, Beata

    2015-11-01

    A literature search was carried out to review the influence of 'ageing' on pharmacotherapeutic decision-making, specifically how 'age' is defined and considered in the utilisation of medication. Embase, Medline, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts, and Google scholar were canvassed in a three-tiered search according to pre-established inclusion criteria. In tier 1, a total of 22 studies were identified highlighting the underutilisation of medication in elderly patients, with a particular focus on warfarin. Four studies highlighted an age-bias in medication-prescribing for elderly patients, specifically in relation to medicines for rheumatoid arthritis, angina, and hypertension. Tier 2 identified diverse definitions for 'elderly', including biological age, chronological age, physiological age, as well as various descriptions of 'elderly' in clinical trials and guidelines. Finally, medication optimisation tools were identified through the third tier, emphasising the use of chronological age to describe the 'elderly'. Old age influences pharmacotherapeutic decision-making at various levels, however, what complicates the situation is the absence of a comprehensive definition of 'elderly'. Clinical recommendations need to be based more on objective factors known to affect medication effectiveness and safety.

  10. Deactivation of the GATA Transcription Factor ELT-2 Is a Major Driver of Normal Aging in C. elegans

    OpenAIRE

    Mann, Frederick G.; Van Nostrand, Eric L.; Friedland, Ari E.; Xiao Liu; Kim, Stuart K.

    2016-01-01

    Author Summary A central question in aging is to uncover the molecular drivers of the normal aging process. Using the roundworm C. elegans as a model organism, we found that the ELT-2 GATA transcription factor regulates many gene expression changes that occur during aging. During development, elt-2 functions as a key regulator of intestinal development. During aging, the levels of ELT-2 transcription factor decline, which causes expression of its target genes to decline and this limits lifesp...

  11. Chronology of Postglacial Eruptive Activity and Calculation of Eruption Probabilities for Medicine Lake Volcano, Northern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathenson, Manuel; Donnelly-Nolan, Julie M.; Champion, Duane E.; Lowenstern, Jacob B.

    2007-01-01

    Medicine Lake volcano has had 4 eruptive episodes in its postglacial history (since 13,000 years ago) comprising 16 eruptions. Time intervals between events within the episodes are relatively short, whereas time intervals between the episodes are much longer. An updated radiocarbon chronology for these eruptions is presented that uses paleomagnetic data to constrain the choice of calibrated ages. This chronology is used with exponential, Weibull, and mixed-exponential probability distributions to model the data for time intervals between eruptions. The mixed exponential distribution is the best match to the data and provides estimates for the conditional probability of a future eruption given the time since the last eruption. The probability of an eruption at Medicine Lake volcano in the next year from today is 0.00028.

  12. [The influence of alcohol consumption on the chronological patterns of sudden cardiac death].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapozhnikov, S P; Kozlov, V A; Golenkov, A V; Kichigin, V A; Karyshev, P B; Samarkina, O Yu

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was the retrospective analysis of the materials collected by the Republican Bureau of Forensic Medical Expertise, Ministry of Health and Social Development of Chuvash Republic, during the period from 1997 till 2002 for the elucidation of the chronological patterns of sudden cardiac death (SCD) associated with alcohol consumption depending on the sex and age of the victims, days of the week and months of the year as well as weather conditions. It was shown that the peak of mortality among men and women taking no alcohol fell on Monday. It was highest in May and decreased by February. The alcohol consumption significantly changes the chronological patterns of mortality from cardiovascular pathology. It was highest among the women abusing alcohol in August and October. The study has demonstrated a weak negative correlation between the frequency of sudden cardiac death among non-consumers of alcohol and dew-point temperature among the persons having alcohol in blood.

  13. Age as a Risk Factor for Burnout Syndrome in Nursing Professionals: A Meta-Analytic Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Urquiza, José L; Vargas, Cristina; De la Fuente, Emilia I; Fernández-Castillo, Rafael; Cañadas-De la Fuente, Guillermo A

    2017-04-01

    Although past research has highlighted the possibility of a direct relationship between the age of nursing professionals and burnout syndrome, results have been far from conclusive. The aim of this study was to conduct a wider analysis of the influence of age on the three dimensions of burnout syndrome (emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and personal accomplishment) in nurses. We performed a meta-analysis of 51 publications extracted from health sciences and psychology databases that fulfilled the inclusion criteria. There were 47 reports of information on emotional exhaustion in 50 samples, 39 reports on depersonalization for 42 samples, and 31 reports on personal accomplishment in 34 samples. The mean effect sizes indicated that younger age was a significant factor in the emotional exhaustion and depersonalization of nurses, although it was somewhat less influential in the dimension of personal accomplishment. Because of heterogeneity in the effect sizes, moderating variables that might explain the association between age and burnout were also analyzed. Gender, marital status, and study characteristics moderated the relationship between age and burnout and may be crucial for the identification of high-risk groups. More research is needed on other variables for which there were only a small number of studies. Identification of burnout risk factors will facilitate establishment of burnout prevention programs for nurses. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Risk factors for weight faltering in infancy according to age at onset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Else M; Skovgaard, Anne M; Weile, Birgitte; Petersen, Janne; Jørgensen, Torben

    2010-07-01

    The aim of this study was to identify risk factors for failure to thrive (FTT) or weight faltering according to age of onset. The study is part of a Danish longitudinal population study of early risk mechanisms in child psychiatric disorders, The Copenhagen Child Cohort, which consists of a birth cohort of 6090 children born during the year 2000 and followed prospectively from birth. Weight faltering/FTT was defined as slow conditional weight gain, and divided into subtypes according to age of onset in the first year of life: birth to 2 weeks, 2 weeks to 4 months, and 4-8 months. Regardless of the age of onset, slow weight gain was found to be strongly associated with feeding problems, but the risk factors involved differed according to age of onset. Thus, onset within the first weeks of life clearly differed from faltering later on, the former being strongly associated with low birthweight and gestational age, with single parenthood and with mother having smoked during pregnancy. Onset between 2 weeks and 4 months was associated with congenital disorders and serious somatic illness, and with deviant mother-child relationship, whereas, onset between 4 and 8 months seemed to represent a group of children with feeding problems arising de novo in otherwise healthy children. In conclusion, weight faltering in infancy is clearly associated with contemporary measured feeding problems, but the risk mechanisms involved differ in early vs. late onset.

  15. A PROSPECTIVE CLINICAL STUDY TO EVALUATE RISK FACTORS FOR AGE RELATED MACULAR DEGENERATION IN CENTRAL INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavita

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Age related macular degeneration (AMD is a leadi ng cause of irreversible blindness among the elderly worldwide affecting 30 - 50 million individuals. AMD is more common in developed world. AMD is characterized by central visual loss. Advanced AMD can be classified in broadly into two types: dry and wet fo rm. Several clear risk factors for the development and progression of age related macular degeneration have been established are advancing age, genetic factors, history of smoking ,white race, obesity, high dietary intake of vegetable fat, low dietary inta ke of antioxidants and zinc. This prospective non - interventional study was conducted from February 2011 to October 2012 in the Regional Institute of Ophthalmology, Hamidia Hospital, Bhopal, included patients who attended the eye OPD, retina clinic and eye ward and were diagnosed as a case of AMD. Present study included 174 patients out of which patients 79(45.39% were above the age of 70 years, with 51 (29.31% patients between 61 - 70 years and 44 cases (25.28% in the sixth decade. Male: female ratio was 0 .75: 1. 21 (12.06% patients have a positive family history of AMD. Most common risk factor identified in our study was chronic sun exposure (49.42% followed by hypertension in 41.8% patients. 25.26% cases gave history of smoking and raised serum cholest erol levels were seen in 14.28% cases. History of alcoholism was positive in 19.54% patients. Of the 174 cases in our present study 90 patients (51.72% were hypermetropic. Conclusion: Age related macular degeneration is a disease of elderly with risk fact ors, most of them are preventable. If timely proper measures are taken, a major cause of blindness can be prevented in elderly age group.

  16. Fasting-mimicking diet and markers/risk factors for aging, diabetes, cancer, and cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Min; Brandhorst, Sebastian; Shelehchi, Mahshid; Mirzaei, Hamed; Cheng, Chia Wei; Budniak, Julia; Groshen, Susan; Mack, Wendy J; Guen, Esra; Di Biase, Stefano; Cohen, Pinchas; Morgan, Todd E; Dorff, Tanya; Hong, Kurt; Michalsen, Andreas; Laviano, Alessandro; Longo, Valter D

    2017-02-15

    Calorie restriction or changes in dietary composition can enhance healthy aging, but the inability of most subjects to adhere to chronic and extreme diets, as well as potentially adverse effects, limits their application. We randomized 100 generally healthy participants from the United States into two study arms and tested the effects of a fasting-mimicking diet (FMD)-low in calories, sugars, and protein but high in unsaturated fats-on markers/risk factors associated with aging and age-related diseases. We compared subjects who followed 3 months of an unrestricted diet to subjects who consumed the FMD for 5 consecutive days per month for 3 months. Three FMD cycles reduced body weight, trunk, and total body fat; lowered blood pressure; and decreased insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1). No serious adverse effects were reported. After 3 months, control diet subjects were crossed over to the FMD program, resulting in a total of 71 subjects completing three FMD cycles. A post hoc analysis of subjects from both FMD arms showed that body mass index, blood pressure, fasting glucose, IGF-1, triglycerides, total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and C-reactive protein were more beneficially affected in participants at risk for disease than in subjects who were not at risk. Thus, cycles of a 5-day FMD are safe, feasible, and effective in reducing markers/risk factors for aging and age-related diseases. Larger studies in patients with diagnosed diseases or selected on the basis of risk factors are warranted to confirm the effect of the FMD on disease prevention and treatment.

  17. Motivating Factors and Potential Deterrents to Blood Donation in High School Aged Blood Donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Finck

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. To ensure an adequate supply of blood, collection centers must design campaigns that successfully recruit and maintain an active donor pool. Understanding factors that motivate and deter individuals from donating may help centers develop targeted recruitment campaigns. These factors among high school aged blood donors have not yet been fully investigated. Study Design and Methods. A voluntary, anonymous survey was administered to student donors at high school mobile blood drives. The survey instrument asked the students to rate several potential motivating factors in their importance in the decision to donate blood and several potential deterring factors in their future decision whether or not to donate blood again. The survey also asked the students to rate the desirability of several potential incentives. Results. Motivating factors that reflected prosocial, empathetic, and altruistic thoughts and beliefs were rated highly by students. Pain from phlebotomy was most commonly chosen as potential deterrent. Movie tickets and cookies/snacks at the drive were rated as the most attractive incentives. Conclusion. High school aged blood donors are similar to other donor groups in their expressed motives for donating blood. This group may be unique in the factors that deter them from donating and in their preferences for different incentives.

  18. Influence of genetic and environmental factors on oral diseases and function in aged twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurushima, Y; Ikebe, K; Matsuda, K; Enoki, K; Ogata, S; Yamashita, M; Murakami, S; Hayakawa, K; Maeda, Y

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to quantify the genetic and environmental contributions to oral disease and function in twins. Participants were middle-aged and old twins, 116 monozygotic and 16 dizygotic pairs whose mean age was 66·1 ± 10·3 (SD) years. Number of teeth, percentage of decayed, filled and missing teeth and periodontal status were recorded as indicators of oral disease. The widths of upper and lower dental arch served as indicators of morphological figures. Furthermore, stimulated salivary flow rate, occlusal force and masticatory performance were measured as indicators of oral function. Univariate genetic analysis with monozygotic and dizygotic twin pairs was conducted to detect the fittest structural equation model of each outcome. Both number of teeth and periodontal status fitted the model composed of common environmental factor and unique environmental factor. Decayed, filled and missing teeth, morphological figures and measurements of oral function fitted the model composed of additive genetic factor and unique environmental factor. The model fitting of each measurement suggested that periodontal disease was mainly affected by environmental factors, while morphological figures and oral functions were influenced by both genetic and environmental factors.

  19. Factors Influencing Lifestyle and Health Related Behaviors in the Aged in Rural Areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭清; 梁浩材; 吴亚君; 温汉华

    2004-01-01

    CHINA HAS REACHED the stage where its soci-ety is aging. In 2000, the population of people overage 60 was 130 million, which represented 10 % ofthe total population in China.1 The majority—100million—live in rural areas. Moreover, in the coastalopen areas of China, the over-sixty population hasreached 15%. Therefore, providing health care foraging people has become an important challenge forChina in this century. The purpose of this investi-gation is to define the factors that influence therural aging popul...

  20. Age, gender and hypertension as major risk factors in development of subclinical atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajla Rahimić Ćatić

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Intima-media thickness (IMT measurement of the common carotid artery (CCA is considered as useful indicator of carotid atherosclerosis. Early detection of atherosclerosis and its associated risk factors is important to prevent stroke and heart diseases. The aim of the present study was to investigate which risk factors are better determinants of subclinical atherosclerosis, measured by common carotidartery intima media thickness (CCA-IMT.Methods: A total of 74 subjects were randomly selected in this cross – sectional study. Information on the patient’s medical history and laboratory fi ndings were obtained from their clinical records. Risk factors relevant to this study were age, gender, cigarette smoking status, diabetes, hypertension and dyslipidemia. Ultrasound scanning of carotid arteries was performed with a 7,5 MHz linear array transducer (GE Voluson730 pro. The highest value of six common carotid artery measurements was taken as the fi nal IMT. Increased CCA-IMT was defi ned when it was > 1 mm.Results: Our data demonstrated higher CCA-IMT values in male patients compared with female patients. Increased CCA-IMT was the most closely related to age (PConclusion: Age, gender and hypertension are the most important risk factors in development of carotid atherosclerosis. Early detection of atherosclerosis among high-risk populations is important in order to prevent stroke and heart diseases, which are leading causes of death worldwide.

  1. Age- and sex-specific causal effects of adiposity on cardiovascular risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fall, Tove; Hägg, Sara; Ploner, Alexander; Mägi, Reedik; Fischer, Krista; Draisma, Harmen H M; Sarin, Antti-Pekka; Benyamin, Beben; Ladenvall, Claes; Åkerlund, Mikael; Kals, Mart; Esko, Tõnu; Nelson, Christopher P; Kaakinen, Marika; Huikari, Ville; Mangino, Massimo; Meirhaeghe, Aline; Kristiansson, Kati; Nuotio, Marja-Liisa; Kobl, Michael; Grallert, Harald; Dehghan, Abbas; Kuningas, Maris; de Vries, Paul S; de Bruijn, Renée F A G; Willems, Sara M; Heikkilä, Kauko; Silventoinen, Karri; Pietiläinen, Kirsi H; Legry, Vanessa; Giedraitis, Vilmantas; Goumidi, Louisa; Syvänen, Ann-Christine; Strauch, Konstantin; Koenig, Wolfgang; Lichtner, Peter; Herder, Christian; Palotie, Aarno; Menni, Cristina; Uitterlinden, André G; Kuulasmaa, Kari; Havulinna, Aki S; Moreno, Luis A; Gonzalez-Gross, Marcela; Evans, Alun; Tregouet, David-Alexandre; Yarnell, John W G; Virtamo, Jarmo; Ferrières, Jean; Veronesi, Giovanni; Perola, Markus; Arveiler, Dominique; Brambilla, Paolo; Lind, Lars; Kaprio, Jaakko; Hofman, Albert; Stricker, Bruno H; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Ikram, M Arfan; Franco, Oscar H; Cottel, Dominique; Dallongeville, Jean; Hall, Alistair S; Jula, Antti; Tobin, Martin D; Penninx, Brenda W; Peters, Annette; Gieger, Christian; Samani, Nilesh J; Montgomery, Grant W; Whitfield, John B; Martin, Nicholas G; Groop, Leif; Spector, Tim D; Magnusson, Patrik K; Amouyel, Philippe; Boomsma, Dorret I; Nilsson, Peter M; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Lyssenko, Valeriya; Metspalu, Andres; Strachan, David P; Salomaa, Veikko; Ripatti, Samuli; Pedersen, Nancy L; Prokopenko, Inga; McCarthy, Mark I; Ingelsson, Erik

    2015-05-01

    Observational studies have reported different effects of adiposity on cardiovascular risk factors across age and sex. Since cardiovascular risk factors are enriched in obese individuals, it has not been easy to dissect the effects of adiposity from those of other risk factors. We used a Mendelian randomization approach, applying a set of 32 genetic markers to estimate the causal effect of adiposity on blood pressure, glycemic indices, circulating lipid levels, and markers of inflammation and liver disease in up to 67,553 individuals. All analyses were stratified by age (cutoff 55 years of age) and sex. The genetic score was associated with BMI in both nonstratified analysis (P = 2.8 × 10(-107)) and stratified analyses (all P causal effect of adiposity on blood pressure, fasting levels of insulin, C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, HDL cholesterol, and triglycerides in a nonstratified analysis and in the causal effect on total cholesterol (P for difference = 0.015) in the ≥55-year stratum than in the causal estimates on cardiovascular risk factors.

  2. Application of Bomb Radiocarbon Chronologies to Shortfin Mako (Isurus oxyrinchus)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ardizzone, D; Cailliet, G M; Natanson, L J; Andrews, A H; Kerr, L A; Brown, T A

    2007-07-16

    and the number of samples for MIA analysis was insufficient for some months. Hence, unequivocal validation of shortfin mako age estimates has yet to be accomplished. Atmospheric testing of thermonuclear devices in the 1950s and 1960s effectively doubled the natural atmospheric radiocarbon ({sup 14}C). The elevated {sup 14}C levels were first recorded in 1957-58, with a peak around 1963. As a consequence, {sup 14}C entered the ocean through gas exchange with the atmosphere at the ocean surface and in terrestrial runoff. Despite variable oceanographic conditions, a worldwide rise of the bomb {sup 14}C signal entered the ocean mixed layer as dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) in 1957-58. The large amounts of {sup 14}C released from the bomb tests produced a signature that can be followed through time, throughout the marine food web, and into deeper waters. The marked increase of radiocarbon levels was first measured in the DIC of seawater and in biogenic marine carbonates of hermatypic corals in Florida. Subsequently, this record was documented in corals from other regions and in the thallus of rhodoliths. The accumulation of radiocarbon in the hard parts of most marine organisms in the mixed layer (such as fish otoliths and bivalves) was synchronous with the coral time-series. This technique has been used to validate age estimates and longevity of numerous bony fishes to date, as well as to establish bomb radiocarbon chronologies from different oceans. In the first application of this technique to lamnoid sharks, validated annual band-pair deposition in vertebral growth bands for the porbeagle (Lamna nasus) aged up to 26 years. Radiocarbon values from samples obtained from 15 porbeagle caught in the western North Atlantic Ocean (some of which were known-age) produced a chronology similar in magnitude to the reference carbonate chronology for that region. The observed phase shift of about 3 years was attributed to different sources of carbon between vertebrae and those for

  3. Fresh frozen plasma in the pediatric age group and in congenital coagulation factor deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muntean, Wolfgang

    2002-10-31

    Generally, the rules of good practice in transfusion medicine apply also to the pediatric age group. However, the frequency of specific diseases that might necessitate the administration of fresh frozen plasma (FFP) differs from that in adults. Physiologic differences to the later age exist in the neonatal period and in young infants, especially with respect to the hemostatic system, that must be recognized when considering administration of FFP. The plasma levels of many procoagulant factors and important anticoagulants are lower in neonates than in other age groups. Despite these findings, healthy neonates show no easy bruising, no increased bleeding during surgery, and excellent wound healing. The same discrepancy obtains between in vitro and clinical findings with primary hemostasis in neonates. The good primary hemostasis in neonates despite poor in vitro platelet function seems to be due mainly to a very high von Willebrand factor and the presence of more high-multimeric subunits of von Willebrand factor than later in life. We must assume that these particular plasma levels of procoagulant and anticoagulant proteins are essential for the correct function of neonatal hemostasis. Evidence that the hemostatic system of neonates works best with physiologic concentrations of procoagulants and anticoagulants can also be inferred from studies where the administration of clotting factor concentrates gave poor results.Since healthy neonates and young infants have excellent hemostasis, there is absolutely no indication to 'correct' these values to adult's norms prior to invasive procedures by administering FFP. Indications for FFP, met more frequently in the pediatric age group than later in life, are exchange transfusion and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Indications applying equally to adults are other extracorporeal life support systems, disseminated intravascular coagulation, hepatic coagulopathy, and 'complex unclear coagulopathies'. In congenital clotting

  4. Inhibition of soluble tumor necrosis factor ameliorates synaptic alterations and Ca2+ dysregulation in aged rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana M Sama

    Full Text Available The role of tumor necrosis factor α (TNF in neural function has been investigated extensively in several neurodegenerative conditions, but rarely in brain aging, where cognitive and physiologic changes are milder and more variable. Here, we show that protein levels for TNF receptor 1 (TNFR1 are significantly elevated in the hippocampus relative to TNF receptor 2 (TNFR2 in aged (22 months but not young adult (6 months Fischer 344 rats. To determine if altered TNF/TNFR1 interactions contribute to key brain aging biomarkers, aged rats received chronic (4-6 week intracranial infusions of XPro1595: a soluble dominant negative TNF that preferentially inhibits TNFR1 signaling. Aged rats treated with XPro1595 showed improved Morris Water Maze performance, reduced microglial activation, reduced susceptibility to hippocampal long-term depression, increased protein levels for the GluR1 type glutamate receptor, and lower L-type voltage sensitive Ca(2+ channel (VSCC activity in hippocampal CA1 neurons. The results suggest that diverse functional changes associated with brain aging may arise, in part, from selective alterations in TNF signaling.

  5. Age and body mass related changes of cardiovascular risk factors in women with polycystic ovary syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macut Đuro P.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is considered a metabolic disorder closely related to obesity, insulin resistance (IR, hyperinsulinemia and unfavorable lipid profile, all increasing the risk for the occurrence of cardiovascular diseases. The aim of this study was to assess age and body mass index (BMI related changes of cardiovascular risk factors in 90 women with PCOS. The cut-off age point was 30 years and for BMI 27.8 kg/m2. In all patients systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP, metabolic parameters comprising values of glucose and insulin during oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT, and basal lipid values were determined. Significant increase in blood pressure (BP indices, basal insulin values and insulin resistance (IR assessed by HOMA model were observed with aging and the increase of BMI, while the parameters of glucose metabolism, total cholesterol and triglycerides were significantly elevated only with aging. However, the correlation between the indices of arterial blood pressure, and lipid and glucose metabolism parameters occurred only in patients over 30 years of age, pointing to the causative relation and the consequent deterioration of IR and lipid profile with aging, influencing cardiovascular function in women with PCOS.

  6. Development of an OSL chronology for Late Pleistocene channel belts in the lower Mississippi valley, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rittenour, Tammy M.; Goble, Ronald J.; Blum, Michael D.

    2005-12-01

    The broad alluvial valley of the lower Mississippi River contains large channel belts for which age control has been limited by the lack of organic material for radiocarbon dating and deposit ages greater than the limit of radiocarbon. In order to produce a detailed chronology of fluvial evolution, samples for optical dating were collected from Late Pleistocene channel-belt deposits. Quartz sand was analyzed using the coarse-grained, single-aliquot regenerative-dose (SAR) technique. Samples showed little evidence of partial bleaching, and optical ages are for the most part consistent with the available radiocarbon and relative age constraints. Optical ages range from 85 to 11 ka and, along with geomorphic and stratigraphic relationships, indicate that the Mississippi River was meandering during the end of the last interglacial (85-83 ka) and switched to a braided regime by 64-50 ka during initial marine oxygen isotope stage (OIS) 4/3 glaciation of the upper Mississippi drainage basin. The Mississippi River switched back to a meandering regime after formation of the youngest braid belt at 11 ka. The 69 optical ages presented here provide the first detailed chronology of lower Mississippi valley braid-belt and Pleistocene meander-belt formation, and provide an example of the utility of optical dating in fluvial settings where material for radiocarbon dating is scarce.

  7. Which oropharyngeal factors are significant risk factors for obstructive sleep apnea? An age-matched study and dentist perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruangsri S

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Supanigar Ruangsri,1,2 Teekayu Plangkoon Jorns,1,2 Subin Puasiri,3 Thitisan Luecha,4 Chariya Chaithap,4 Kittisak Sawanyawisuth5,6 1Department of Oral Biology, Faculty of Dentistry, 2Neuroscience Research and Development Group (NRDG, 3Department of Community Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, 4Faculty of Dentistry, 5Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, 6Research Center in Back, Neck, Other Joint Pain and Human Performance (BNOJPH, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, Thailand Objective: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA is a common sleep breathing disorder. Untreated OSA may lead to a number of cardiovascular complications. Dentists may play an important role in OSA detection by conducting careful oral examinations. This study focused on the correlation of oral anatomical features in Thai patients who presented with OSA. Methods: We conducted a prospective comparative study at a sleep/hypertension clinic and a dental clinic at Khon Kaen University in Thailand. Patients with OSA were enrolled in the study, along with age-matched patients with non-OSA (controls. Baseline characteristics, clinical data, and oropharyngeal data of all patients were compared between the two groups. Oropharyngeal measurements included tongue size, torus mandibularis, Mallampati classification, palatal space, and lateral pharyngeal wall area. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify the factors associated with OSA. Results: During the study period, there were 156 patients who met the study criteria; 78 were patients with OSA and the other 78 were healthy control subjects. In the OSA group, there were 43 males with a mean age of 53 (standard deviation 12.29 years and a mean BMI of 30.86 kg/mm2. There were 37 males in the control group with a mean age of 50 (standard deviation 12.04 years and a mean BMI of 24.03 kg/mm2. According to multivariate logistic analysis, three factors were perfectly associated with OSA, including torus mandibularis class 6

  8. Paleogene geology and chronology of southwestern Umnak Island, Aleutian Islands, Alaska ( USA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, H.; Hein, J.R.

    1984-01-01

    A slightly deformed marine sedimentary sequence reflecting volcanic arc sedimentation from late Eocene to early Oligocene is intruded by hypabyssal quartz diorite sills and small plutons with apparent ages of about 30 Ma, ie, middle Oligocene. Chemical data from igneous rocks exhibit calc-alkaline and tholeiitic volcanic arc differentiation trends. The fossil ages and radiometric dates from SW Umnak Island are similar to those reported from other central and E Aleutian islands, and indicate uniformity in the chronology and tectonic development of the archipelago during the Paleogene. Paleomagnetic data suggest possible northward movement but remain equivocal and more work is indicated. -after Authors

  9. Sleep quality in middle-aged and elderly Chinese: distribution, associated factors and associations with cardio-metabolic risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Xu

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Poor sleep quality has been associated with increased risk of heart disease, diabetes and mortality. However, limited information exists on the distribution and determinants of sleep quality and its associations with cardio-metabolic risk factors in Chinese populations. We aimed to evaluate this in the current study. Methods A cross-sectional survey conducted in 2005 of 1,458 men and 1,831 women aged 50–70 years from urban and rural areas of Beijing and Shanghai. Using a questionnaire, sleep quality was measured in levels of well, common and poor. Comprehensive measures of socio-demographical and health factors and biomarkers of cardio-metabolic disease were recorded. These were evaluated in association with sleep quality using logistic regression models. Results Half of the population reported good sleep quality. After adjusting for potential confounders, women and Beijing residents had almost half the probability to report good sleep quality. Good physical and mental health (good levels of self-rated health (OR 2.48; 95%CI 2.08 to 2.96 and no depression (OR 4.05; 95%CI 3.12 to 5.26 related to an increased chance of reporting good sleep quality, whereas short sleep duration ( Conclusion Levels of good sleep quality in middle-age and elderly Chinese were low. Gender, geographical location, self-rated health, depression and sleep quantity were major factors associated with sleep quality. Prospective studies are required to distil the factors that determine sleep quality and the effects that sleep patterns exert on cardio-metabolic health.

  10. Age as a factor in sensory integration function in Taiwanese children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin CK

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Chin-Kai Lin,1 Huey-Min Wu,2 Hsin-Yi Wang,3 Mei-Hui Tseng,4,5 Chung-Hui Lin61Department of Early Childhood Education, National Taichung University of Education, Taichung, Taiwan; 2Research Center for Testing and Assessment, National Academy for Educational Research, New Taipei, Taiwan; 3Department of Special Education, National Taichung University of Education, Taichung, Taiwan; 4School of Occupational Therapy, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan; 5Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan; 6School of Occupational Therapy, College of Medical Science and Technology, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, TaiwanObjective: Sensory integration progresses along a normal developmental sequence. However, few studies have explored how age difference affects the way sensory integration functions in Taiwanese children as they develop. Therefore, this study aims to pinpoint the role of age in sensory integration.Method: A purposive sampling plan was employed. The study population comprised 1,000 Chinese children aged 36 to 131 months (mean = 74.48 months, standard deviation = 25.69 months. Subjects were scored on seven subsets of the Test of Sensory Integration Function (TSIF. An analysis of variance (ANOVA was used to identify differences between four age groups (ages 3−4, 5−6, 7−8, and 9−10 years, in the categories of the TSIF.Results: ANOVA revealed that age is a significant factor in each of the seven tasks of sensory integration associated with various stages of development. The effect of age was significant in all four groups for the subscale of Bilateral Integration Sequences. The function of sensory integration for the children aged 5−8 years did not produce statistically significant results for the subscale of Postural Movement, Sensory Discrimination, Sensory Seeking, or Attention and Activity. For the subscale of Sensory Modulation and Emotional

  11. Modifiable risk factors in periodontitis: at the intersection of aging and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Mark A

    2014-02-01

    Chronic inflammation is a prominent feature of aging and of common age-related diseases, including atherosclerosis, cancer and periodontitis. This volume examines modifiable risk factors for periodontitis and other chronic inflammatory diseases. Oral bacterial communities and viral infections, particularly with cytomegalovirus and other herpesviruses, elicit distinct immune responses and are central in the initiation of periodontal diseases. Risk of disease is dynamic and changes in response to complex interactions of genetic, environmental and stochastic factors over the lifespan. Many modifiable risk factors, such as smoking and excess caloric intake, contribute to increases in systemic markers of inflammation and can modify gene regulation through a variety of biologic mechanisms (e.g. epigenetic modifications). Periodontitis and other common chronic inflammatory diseases share multiple modifiable risk factors, such as tobacco smoking, psychological stress and depression, alcohol consumption, obesity, diabetes, metabolic syndrome and osteoporosis. Interventions that target modifiable risk factors have the potential to improve risk profiles for periodontitis as well as for other common chronic diseases.

  12. Nutrient Limitation of Microbial Mediated Decomposition and Arctic Soil Chronology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melle, C. J.; Darrouzet-Nardi, A.; Wallenstein, M. D.

    2012-12-01

    Soils of northern permafrost regions currently contain twice as much carbon as the entire Earth's atmosphere. Traditionally, environmental constraints have limited microbial activity resulting in restricted decomposition of soil organic matter in these systems and accumulation of massive amounts of soil organic carbon (SOC), however climate change is reducing the constraints of decomposition in arctic permafrost regions. Carbon cycling in nutrient poor, arctic ecosystems is tightly coupled to other biogeochemical cycles. Several studies have suggested strong nitrogen limitations of primary productivity and potentially warm-season microbial activity in these nutrient deficient soils. Nitrogen is required for microbial extracellular enzyme production which drives the decomposition of soil organic matter (SOM). Nitrogen limited arctic soils may also experience limitation via labile carbon availability despite the SOM rich environment due to low extracellular enzyme production. Few studies have directly addressed nutrient induced microbial limitation in SOC rich arctic tundra soils, and even less is known about the potential for nutrient co-limitation. Additionally, through the process of becoming deglaciated, sites within close proximity to one another may have experienced drastic differences in their effective soil ages due to the varied length of their active histories. Many soil properties and nutrient deficiencies are directly related to soil age, however this chronology has not previously been a focus of research on nutrient limitation of arctic soil microbial activity. Understanding of nutrient limitations, as well as potential co-limitation, on arctic soil microbial activity has important implications for carbon cycling and the ultimate fate of the current arctic SOC reservoir. Analyses of nutrient limitation on soils of a single site are not adequate for fully understanding the controls on soil microbial activity across a vast land mass with large variation in

  13. Factors Affecting Age at Initial Autism Spectrum Disorder Diagnosis in a National Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca E. Rosenberg

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Entry into early intervention depends on both age of first parent concern (AOC and age at initial autism spectrum disorder (ASD diagnosis (AOD. Using data collected from a national online registry from 6214 children diagnosed with an ASD between 1994 and 2010 in the US, we analyzed the effect of individual, family, and geographic covariates on AOC and AOD in a multivariate linear regression model with random effects. Overall, no single modifiable factor associated with AOC or AOD emerged but cumulative variation in certain individual- and family-based features, as well as some geographic factors, all contribute to AOC and AOD variation. A multipronged strategy is needed for targeted education and awareness campaigns to maximize outcomes and decrease disparities in ASD care.

  14. Factors buffering against the effects of job demands: how does age matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besen, Elyssa; Matz-Costa, Christina; James, Jacquelyn B; Pitt-Catsouphes, Marcie

    2015-02-01

    Given the increasing role that paid work is likely to play in older adulthood in the coming decades, the goal of this study was to understand the circumstances under which work is related to mental health for older adults and whether these circumstances differ by age. Using a multiworksite sample of 1,812 U.S. workers age 18 to 81, we use the life-span theory of control to hypothesize that older and younger workers may benefit differentially from job and personal control in the context of high job demands. Results suggest that for younger workers with high personal control, job control buffers the impact of job demands on mental health. For older workers, personal control alone buffers the impact of job demands on mental health. This study adds to previous research by addressing how the factors thought to buffer against the effects of job demands differ cross-sectionally by age.

  15. Resistance to antivascular endothelial growth factor treatment in age-related macular degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tranos P

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Paris Tranos,1 Athanasios Vacalis,1 Solon Asteriadis,1 Stavrenia Koukoula,1 Athanasios Vachtsevanos,1 Georgia Perganta,1 Ilias Georgalas21Retina Centre, Thessaloniki, Greece; 2Department of Ophthalmology, "G Gennimatas" Hospital of Athens, University of Athens, Athens, GreeceAbstract: Age-related macular degeneration (AMD is the main cause of visual impairment and blindness in people aged over 65 years in developed countries. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF is a positive regulator of angiogenesis and its proven role in the pathological neovascularization in wet AMD has provided evidence for the use of anti-VEGF agents as potential therapies. In this study, we review the literature for the possible causes of failure after treatment with anti-VEGF agents and attempt to propose an algorithm of suggestive actions to increase the chances of successful management of such difficult cases.Keywords: antiVEGF, age related macular degeneration, treatment

  16. Human telomere biology: A contributory and interactive factor in aging, disease risks, and protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, Elizabeth H; Epel, Elissa S; Lin, Jue

    2015-12-04

    Telomeres are the protective end-complexes at the termini of eukaryotic chromosomes. Telomere attrition can lead to potentially maladaptive cellular changes, block cell division, and interfere with tissue replenishment. Recent advances in the understanding of human disease processes have clarified the roles of telomere biology, especially in diseases of human aging and in some aging-related processes. Greater overall telomere attrition predicts mortality and aging-related diseases in inherited telomere syndrome patients, and also in general human cohorts. However, genetically caused variations in telomere maintenance either raise or lower risks and progression of cancers, in a highly cancer type-specific fashion. Telomere maintenance is determined by genetic factors and is also cumulatively shaped by nongenetic influences throughout human life; both can interact. These and other recent findings highlight both causal and potentiating roles for telomere attrition in human diseases.

  17. What Factors Underlie the Aging Effects on WAIS-R and WAIS-III Subtests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregoire, Jacques

    2001-01-01

    Studied the factors underlying the aging effects seen on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Adults-Revised (WAIS-R) and the scale's third edition (WAIS-III) using the French standardization samples of 1,104 for the WAIS-III and 1,000 for the WAIS-R. Results show that the observed decline in scores for both tests cannot be fully explained with a…

  18. Prevalence and factors associated with preoperative anxiety in children aged 5-12 years

    OpenAIRE

    Louise Amália de Moura; Iohanna Maria Guimarães Dias; Lilian Varanda Pereira

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: to estimate the prevalence and factors associated with preoperative anxiety in children who wait for outpatient surgery. Method: cross-sectional analysis of baseline data of a prospective cohort study that investigates the predictors of postoperative pain in children aged 5-12 years submitted to inguinal and umbilical hernia repair. It was selected 210 children, which were interviewed in the preoperative holding area of a general hospital. Anxiety was evaluated using the...

  19. Aerobic Capacity and Coronary Risk Factors in a Middle-Aged Army Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    of 32.4 ml/kg-min which, when corrected upwards by 15% to account for differences between the cycle ergometer and treadmill, 2 3 is similar to that...subjects.3 𔄂 𔃼 4 The most prevalent risk factors found in this study were obesity , elevated blood cholesterol, hypertension and positive smoking history... Obesity has been identified as one of the most prevalent health problems at all ages in the United States and has recently been shown to be an

  20. Risk factors for childhood obesity at age 5: Analysis of the Millennium Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyons Ronan A

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Weight at age 5 is a predictor for future health of the individual. This study examines risk factors for childhood obesity with a focus on ethnicity. Methods Data from the Millennium Cohort study were used. 17,561 singleton children of White/European (n = 15,062, Asian (n = 1,845 or African (n = 654 background were selected. Logistic regression and likelihood ratio tests were used to examine factors associated with obesity at age 5. All participants were interviewed in their own homes. The main exposures examined included; Birth weight, sedentary lifestyle, family health behaviours, ethnicity, education and income. Results Children with a sedentary lifestyle, large at birth, with high risk family health behaviours (overweight mothers, smoking near the child, missing breakfast and from a family with low income or low educational attainment, were more likely to be obese regardless of ethnicity. Feeding solid food before 3 months was associated with obesity in higher income White/European families. Even when controlling for socioeconomic status, ethnic background is an important independent risk factor for childhood obesity [Odds ratio of obesity; was 1.7 (95%CI: 1.2-2.3 for Asian and 2.7 (95%CI: 1.9-3.9 for African children, compared to White/European]. The final adjusted model suggests that increasing income does not have a great impact on lowering obesity levels, but that higher academic qualifications are associated with lower obesity levels [Odds of obesity: 0.63 (95%CI: 0.52-0.77 if primary carer leaves school after age 16 compared at age 16]. Conclusions Education of the primary carer is an important modifiable factor which can be targeted to address rising obesity levels in children. Interventions should be family centred supporting and showing people how they can implement lifestyle changes in their family.

  1. [Risk factors of serious bleeding among ambulatory patients taking antivitamin K aged 75 and over].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blas-Châtelain, C; Chauvelier, S; Foti, P; Debure, C; Hanon, O

    2014-05-01

    The benefits of anti-vitamin K (AVK) drugs have been acknowledged in several indications. Such indications increasing with increasing age, AVK prescriptions also increases with age. At the same time, conditions involving significant bleeding are common in this elderly population. It is thus essential to recognize the determining factors. This study included all patients taking AVK drugs aged 75 years and older who sought emergency care at the Cochin Hospital from January to December 2011 for significant bleeding. These patients were compared with a cohort of patients aged 75 years or older who were taking AVK drugs and who were admitted to the same unit during the same time period for other reasons. The case-control comparison included demographic data, comorbidity factors, multiple medications, emergency measured INR, and CHA2DS2VASC level. The hemorrhagic risk was evaluated by HEMORR2HAGES and HAS-BLED. A total of 34 patients were studied and compared with 70 case-controls. The Charlson comorbidity index was higher in patients than case-controls (PAVK drugs is related to their higher comorbidity and hemorrhagic levels which need to be evaluated before starting or stopping AVK treatment.

  2. Risk factors for weight faltering in infancy according to age at onset

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Else Marie; Skovgaard, Anne M; Weile, Birgitte

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify risk factors for failure to thrive (FTT) or weight faltering according to age of onset. The study is part of a Danish longitudinal population study of early risk mechanisms in child psychiatric disorders, The Copenhagen Child Cohort, which consists of a birth...... of children with feeding problems arising de novo in otherwise healthy children. In conclusion, weight faltering in infancy is clearly associated with contemporary measured feeding problems, but the risk mechanisms involved differ in early vs. late onset....... cohort of 6090 children born during the year 2000 and followed prospectively from birth. Weight faltering/FTT was defined as slow conditional weight gain, and divided into subtypes according to age of onset in the first year of life: birth to 2 weeks, 2 weeks to 4 months, and 4-8 months. Regardless...... of the age of onset, slow weight gain was found to be strongly associated with feeding problems, but the risk factors involved differed according to age of onset. Thus, onset within the first weeks of life clearly differed from faltering later on, the former being strongly associated with low birthweight...

  3. Risk factors for urinary incontinence in Taiwanese women aged 60 or over.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Ching-Hung; Hsu, Chun-Sen; Su, Tsung-Hsien; Chang, Shao-Tung; Lee, Meng-Chih

    2007-11-01

    To determine risk factors of urinary incontinence (UI) in Taiwanese women aged 60 or over, face-to-face interviews with 1,517 women, selected by a multistage random method, were completed. The prevalence of UI in this age group was 29.8%. Factors and their prevalence associated with UI were age [odds ratio (OR)=1.04 per year], diabetes mellitus (39.8%, p = 0.002), hypertension (39.5%, p = 0.001), abdominal gynecological surgery (41.4%, p = 0.001), hysterectomy (42.4%, p = 0.003), history of drug allergy (41.3%, p = 0.001), smoking (45.5%, p = 0.010), hormone replacement therapy (41.5%, p = 0.026), and high body mass index (OR = 1.05 per unit). Alcohol consumption and marriage did not increase the risk of UI. UI is a common and costly problem in elderly women. It diminishes the quality of life of the affected women. Of the associated factors that are preventable, modifiable, or controllable, smoking, prior hysterectomy, and obesity may have the greatest impact on the prevalence of UI.

  4. Prevalence and factors associated with preoperative anxiety in children aged 5-12 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Amália de Moura

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: to estimate the prevalence and factors associated with preoperative anxiety in children who wait for outpatient surgery. Method: cross-sectional analysis of baseline data of a prospective cohort study that investigates the predictors of postoperative pain in children aged 5-12 years submitted to inguinal and umbilical hernia repair. It was selected 210 children, which were interviewed in the preoperative holding area of a general hospital. Anxiety was evaluated using the modified Yale Preoperative Anxiety Scale (mYPAS. Sociodemographic and clinical variables were analyzed as exposure and anxiety (mYPAS final score>30 as outcome. Logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with preoperative anxiety. Results: forty-two percent (42.0% of children presented preoperative anxiety (CI95%: 35.7%-48.6%, with mean scores equal to 30.1 (SD=8.4. Factors associated with preoperative anxiety were: age group of 5-6 years (OR=2.28; p=0.007 and socioeconomic status classified as class C (OR=2.39; p=0.016. Conclusion: the evaluation of children who wait for outpatient surgery should be multidimensional and comprise information on age and socioeconomic status, in order to help in the identification and early treatment of preoperative anxiety.

  5. Prevalence and factors associated with preoperative anxiety in children aged 5-12 years 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Moura, Louise Amália; Dias, Iohanna Maria Guimarães; Pereira, Lilian Varanda

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: to estimate the prevalence and factors associated with preoperative anxiety in children who wait for outpatient surgery. Method: cross-sectional analysis of baseline data of a prospective cohort study that investigates the predictors of postoperative pain in children aged 5-12 years submitted to inguinal and umbilical hernia repair. It was selected 210 children, which were interviewed in the preoperative holding area of a general hospital. Anxiety was evaluated using the modified Yale Preoperative Anxiety Scale (mYPAS). Sociodemographic and clinical variables were analyzed as exposure and anxiety (mYPAS final score>30) as outcome. Logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with preoperative anxiety. Results: forty-two percent (42.0%) of children presented preoperative anxiety (CI95%: 35.7%-48.6%), with mean scores equal to 30.1 (SD=8.4). Factors associated with preoperative anxiety were: age group of 5-6 years (OR=2.28; p=0.007) and socioeconomic status classified as class C (OR=2.39; p=0.016). Conclusion: the evaluation of children who wait for outpatient surgery should be multidimensional and comprise information on age and socioeconomic status, in order to help in the identification and early treatment of preoperative anxiety. PMID:27305179

  6. Impact of sociodemographic factors on cognitive function in school-aged HIV-infected Nigerian children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boyede GO

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Gbemisola O Boyede,1,2 Foluso EA Lesi,2 Veronica C Ezeaka,2 Charles S Umeh3 1Division of Developmental Paediatrics, School of Child and Adolescent Health, Red Cross War Memorial Children’s Hospital, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa; 2Department of Paediatrics, 3Clinical Psychology Unit, Department of Psychiatry, Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Lagos, Nigeria Background: In this study, we sought to evaluate the influence of sociodemographic factors, ie, age, sex, socioeconomic status, maternal education, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV status, on cognitive performance in school-aged HIV-infected Nigerian children. Methods: Sixty-nine HIV-positive children aged 6–15 years were matched with 69 HIV-negative control children for age and sex. The children were subdivided for the purpose of analysis into two cognitive developmental stages using Piaget’s staging, ie, the concrete operational stage (6–11 years and the formal operational stage (12–15 years. All participants underwent cognitive assessment using Raven’s Standard Progressive Matrices (RPM. Sociodemographic data for the study participants, ie, age, sex, socioeconomic status, and level of maternal education, were obtained using a study proforma. Logistic regression analyses were used to determine associations of HIV status and sociodemographic characteristics with RPM cognitive scores. Results: The overall mean RPM score for the HIV-positive children was 18.2 ± 9.8 (range 8.0–47.0 which was significantly lower than the score of 27.2 ± 13.8 (range 8.0–52.0 for the HIV-negative children (P < 0.001. On RPM grading, 56.5% of the HIV-positive children had cognitive performance at below average to intellectually defective range. Below average RPM scores were found to be significantly associated with younger age (6–11 years, positive HIV status, lower socioeconomic status, and low level of maternal education. Conclusion: Younger age, poor socioeconomic

  7. Risk factors for the onset of prostatic cancer: age, location, and behavioral correlates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leitzmann MF

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Michael F Leitzmann1, Sabine Rohrmann21Department of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, Regensburg University Medical Center, Regensburg, Germany; 2Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine, University of Zurich, Zurich, SwitzerlandAbstract: At present, only three risk factors for prostate cancer have been firmly established; these are all nonmodifiable: age, race, and a positive family history of prostate cancer. However, numerous modifiable factors have also been implicated in the development of prostate cancer. In the current review, we summarize the epidemiologic data for age, location, and selected behavioral factors in relation to the onset of prostate cancer. Although the available data are not entirely consistent, possible preventative behavioral factors include increased physical activity, intakes of tomatoes, cruciferous vegetables, and soy. Factors that may enhance prostate cancer risk include frequent consumption of dairy products and, possibly, meat. By comparison, alcohol probably exerts no important influence on prostate cancer development. Similarly, dietary supplements are unlikely to protect against the onset of prostate cancer in healthy men. Several factors, such as smoking and obesity, show a weak association with prostate cancer incidence but a positive relation with prostate cancer mortality. Other factors, such as fish intake, also appear to be unassociated with incident prostate cancer but show an inverse relation with fatal prostate cancer. Such heterogeneity in the relationship between behavioral factors and nonadvanced, advanced, or fatal prostate cancers helps shed light on the carcinogenetic process because it discerns the impact of exposure on early and late stages of prostate cancer development. Inconsistent associations between behavioral factors and prostate cancer risk seen in previous studies may in part be due to uncontrolled detection bias because of current widespread use of prostate-specific antigen

  8. An optimized multi-proxy, multi-site Antarctic ice and gas orbital chronology (AICC2012: 120–800 ka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Fischer

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available An accurate and coherent chronological framework is essential for the interpretation of climatic and environmental records obtained from deep polar ice cores. Until now, one common ice core age scale has been developed based on an inverse dating method (Datice combining glaciological modelling with absolute and stratigraphic markers between 4 ice cores covering the last 50 ka (thousand of years before present (Lemieux-Dudon et al., 2010. In this paper, together with the companion paper of Veres et al. (2012, we present an extension of this work back to 800 ka for the NGRIP, TALDICE, EDML, Vostok and EDC ice cores using an improved version of the Datice tool. The AICC2012 (Antarctic Ice Core Chronology 2012 chronology includes numerous new gas and ice stratigraphic links as well as improved evaluation of background and associated variance scenarios. This paper concentrates on the long timescales between 120–800 ka. In this frame, new measurements of δ18Oatm over Marine Isotope Stage (MIS 11–12 on EDC and a complete δ18Oatm record of the TALDICE ice cores permit us to derive new orbital gas age constraints. The coherency of the different orbitally deduced ages (from δ18Oatm, δO2/N2 and air content has been verified before implementation in AICC2012. The new chronology shows only small differences, well within the original uncertainty range, when compared with the previous ice core reference age scale EDC3. For instance, the duration of the last four interglacial periods is not affected by more than 5%. The largest deviation between AICC2012 and EDC3 (4.4 ka is obtained around MIS 12. Despite significant modifications of the chronological constraints around MIS 5, now independent of speleothem records in AICC2012, the date of Termination II is very close to the EDC3 one.

  9. Periodontal status and associated risk factors among childbearing age women in Cixi City of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan-min WU; Jia LIU; Wei-lian SUN; Li-li CHEN; Li-guo CHAI; Xiang XIAO; Zheng CAO

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the periodontal status and associated risk factors among women of childbearing age to increase the awareness of oral health.Methods:The study was conducted on childbearing age women in Cixi,a city in Zhejiang Province in the southeast of China.A total of 754 women participated in periodontal examination while receiving prenatal care.Data of the women were collected from the Cixi Family Planning Commission and during an interview.Clinical periodontal indices,such as bleeding on probing (BOP),probing depth (PD),and clinical attachment level (CAL) were measured during the examination.Statistical analysis on subject-based data was performed.Results:The prevalence of periodontal disease among childbearing age women in Cixi was high (84.7%).A significant association was found between the disease and educational level,pregnancy,taking oral contraceptives,stress,alcohol consumption,overweight,dental visit,and teeth brushing (P<0.05).Women who suffered periodontal disease showed deep PD,obvious BOP,and clinical attachment loss.Among this population,pregnancy was closely associated with higher BOP percentage; teeth brushing no more than once per day or brushing for less than 1 min (P<0.001) after adjusting for age and stress.Conclusions:The periodontal status of childbearing age women in Cixi needs to be improved urgently.Attention towards the periodontal health should be warranted,especially for those in special statuses and with poor awareness.

  10. Adverse Childhood Experiences and Adult Risk Factors for Age-Related Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danese, Andrea; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Harrington, HonaLee; Milne, Barry J.; Polanczyk, Guilherme; Pariante, Carmine M.; Poulton, Richie; Caspi, Avshalom

    2013-01-01

    Objective To understand why children exposed to adverse psychosocial experiences are at elevated risk for age-related disease, such as cardiovascular disease, by testing whether adverse childhood experiences predict enduring abnormalities in stress-sensitive biological systems, namely, the nervous, immune, and endocrine/metabolic systems. Design A 32-year prospective longitudinal study of a representative birth cohort. Setting New Zealand. Participants A total of 1037 members of the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study. Main Exposures During their first decade of life, study members were assessed for exposure to 3 adverse psychosocial experiences: socioeconomic disadvantage, maltreatment, and social isolation. Main Outcome Measures At age 32 years, study members were assessed for the presence of 3 age-related-disease risks: major depression, high inflammation levels (high-sensitivity C-reactive protein level >3 mg/L), and the clustering of metabolic risk biomarkers (overweight, high blood pressure, high total cholesterol, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high glycated hemoglobin, and low maximum oxygen consumption levels. Results Children exposed to adverse psychosocial experiences were at elevated risk of depression, high inflammation levels, and clustering of metabolic risk markers. Children who had experienced socioeconomic disadvantage (incidence rate ratio, 1.89; 95% confidence interval, 1.36–2.62), maltreatment (1.81; 1.38–2.38), or social isolation (1.87; 1.38–2.51) had elevated age-related-disease risks in adulthood. The effects of adverse childhood experiences on age-related-disease risks in adulthood were nonredundant, cumulative, and independent of the influence of established developmental and concurrent risk factors. Conclusions Children exposed to adverse psychosocial experiences have enduring emotional, immune, and metabolic abnormalities that contribute to explaining their elevated risk for age-related disease. The

  11. Prevalence and risk factors of atrial fibrillation in preterminal inpatients aged 60 years and over

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Jie-fu; LIU Bing; LIU Dong-ge; LUO Yao; FANG Fang

    2008-01-01

    Background Atrial fibrillation is a common arrhythmia and a major risk factor for ischaemic stroke. We investigated the prevalence of atrial fibrillation and its relation to age, gender and underlying heart disease in patients aged 60 years and over who died during hospitalization.Methods Between 1955 and 2005, 1519 autopsies of in-hospital deaths in Beijing Hospital were performed. Among them, 540 cases met criteria of age ≥60 years and full clinical history including electrocardiogram, echocardiogram, myocardial perfusion images and detailed cardiac pathology records from autopsy.Results Atrial fibrillation occurred in 193 of 540 patients and prevalence increased with age (10.5% in patients younger than 60 years, 39.6% (80-89 years) and 54.8% (≥90 years)) being higher in patients with underlying heart disease than without heart disease (P<0.0001). Coronary artery disease (CAD), congestive heart failure, cardiac valve dysfunction and chronic renal failure were associated with a higher prevalence of atrial fibrillation (P<0.001). CAD with anterior myocardial infarction or left anterior descending artery disease was also associated with an increased prevalence of atrial fibrillation (P <0.05). Following autopsy, clinical misdiagnosis of CAD increased with age and missed clinical diagnosis of CAD decreased with age. Multivariate Logistic regression analysis revealed independent predictors of atrial fibrillation: age (OR=1.335, 95% Cl: 1.114-1.600, P<0.0001), underlying heart disease (OR=2.019, 95% CI: 1.244-3.278, P <0.005), chronic heart failure (OR=1.873, 95% CI: 1.272-2.757, P <0.005), mitral regurgitation (OR=2.163, 95% Cl: 1.093-4.278, P<0.05) and mitral stenosis (OR=33.575, 95% CI: 2.852-395.357, P<0.05). Conclusions A high prevalence of atrial fibrillation was found in Chinese patients

  12. Epigenetic genome-wide association methylation in aging and longevity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Avraham, Danny; Muzumdar, Radhika H; Atzmon, Gil

    2012-10-01

    The aging phenotype is the result of a complex interaction between genetic, epigenetic and environmental factors. Evidence suggests that epigenetic changes (i.e., a set of reversible, heritable changes in gene function or other cell phenotype that occurs without a change in DNA sequence) may affect the aging process and may be one of the central mechanisms by which aging predisposes to many age-related diseases. The total number of altered methylation sites increases with increasing age, such that they could serve as marker for chronological age. This article systematically highlights the advances made in the field of epigenomics and their contribution to the understanding of the complex physiology of aging, lifespan and age-associated diseases.

  13. A 60 000 year Greenland stratigraphic ice core chronology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. K. Andersen

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The Greenland Ice Core Chronology 2005 (GICC05 is a time scale based on annual layer counting of high-resolution records from Greenland ice cores. Whereas the Holocene part of the time scale is based on various records from the DYE-3, the GRIP, and the NorthGRIP ice cores, the glacial part is solely based on NorthGRIP records. Here we present an 18 kyr extension of the time scale such that GICC05 continuously covers the past 60 kyr. The new section of the time scale places the onset of Greenland Interstadial 12 (GI-12 at 46.9±1.0 kyr b2k (before year AD 2000, the North Atlantic Ash Zone 2 layer in GI-15 at 55.4±1.2 kyr b2k, and the onset of GI-17 at 59.4±1.3 kyr b2k. The error estimates are derived from the accumulated number of uncertain annual layers and can be regarded as 1σ uncertainties. In the 40–60 kyr interval the new time scale has a discrepancy with the Meese-Sowers GISP2 time scale of up to 2.4 kyr, whereas GICC05 compares well to the dating of the Hulu Cave record with absolute age differences of less than 800 years throughout the 60 kyr period. The new time scale is generally in close agreement with other independently dated records and reference horizons, such as the Laschamp geomagnetic excursion and the Kleegruben speleothem record from the Austrian Alps, suggesting high accuracy of both event durations and absolute age estimates.

  14. A 60 000 year Greenland stratigraphic ice core chronology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Svensson

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The Greenland Ice Core Chronology 2005 (GICC05 is a time scale based on annual layer counting of high-resolution records from Greenland ice cores. Whereas the Holocene part of the time scale is based on various records from the DYE-3, the GRIP, and the NorthGRIP ice cores, the glacial part is solely based on NorthGRIP records. Here we present an 18 ka extension of the time scale such that GICC05 continuously covers the past 60 ka. The new section of the time scale places the onset of Greenland Interstadial 12 (GI-12 at 46.9±1.0 ka b2k (before year AD 2000, the North Atlantic Ash Zone II layer in GI-15 at 55.4±1.2 ka b2k, and the onset of GI-17 at 59.4±1.3 ka b2k. The error estimates are derived from the accumulated number of uncertain annual layers. In the 40–60 ka interval, the new time scale has a discrepancy with the Meese-Sowers GISP2 time scale of up to 2.4 ka. Assuming that the Greenland climatic events are synchronous with those seen in the Chinese Hulu Cave speleothem record, GICC05 compares well to the time scale of that record with absolute age differences of less than 800 years throughout the 60 ka period. The new time scale is generally in close agreement with other independently dated records and reference horizons, such as the Laschamp geomagnetic excursion, the French Villars Cave and the Austrian Kleegruben Cave speleothem records, suggesting high accuracy of both event durations and absolute age estimates.

  15. Lake trout otolith chronologies as multidecadal indicators of high-latitude freshwater ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, B.A.; Von Biela, V.R.; Zimmerman, C.E.; Brown, Randy J.

    2013-01-01

    High-latitude ecosystems are among the most vulnerable to long-term climate change, yet continuous, multidecadal indicators by which to gauge effects on biology are scarce, especially in freshwater environments. To address this issue, dendrochronology (tree-ring analysis) techniques were applied to growth-increment widths in otoliths from lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) from the Chandler Lake system, Alaska (68.23°N, 152.70°W). All otoliths were collected in 1987 and exhibited highly synchronous patterns in growth-increment width. Increments were dated, the widths were measured, and age-related growth declines were removed using standard dendrochronology techniques. The detrended time series were averaged to generate an annually resolved chronology, which continuously spanned 1964–1984. The chronology positively and linearly correlated with August air temperature over the 22-year interval (p productivity. Given the broad distribution of lake trout within North America, this study suggests that otolith chronologies could be used to examine responses between freshwater ecosystems and environmental variability across a range of temporal and spatial scales.

  16. Age as an Affective Factor in Influencing Public Speaking Anxiety of English Language Learners at Omar Al-Mukhtar University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaibani, Ahmed; Elmenfi, Fadil

    2016-01-01

    The study is to show how age factor can influence public speaking anxiety among English Language Learners at Omar Al-Mukhtar University. To indicate the influence of age factor a questionnaire was distributed to the participants of the study. As well as correlation was also undertaken to the data collected to investigate the influence of age…

  17. Relationship between the complement system, risk factors and prediction models in age-related macular degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bora, Nalini S; Matta, Bharati; Lyzogubov, Valeriy V; Bora, Puran S

    2015-02-01

    Studies performed over the past decade in humans and experimental animals have been a major source of information and improved our understanding of how dysregulation of the complement system contributes to age-related macular degeneration (AMD) pathology. Drusen, the hall-mark of dry-type AMD are reported to be the by-product of complement mediated inflammatory processes. In wet AMD, unregulated complement activation results in increased production of angiogenic growth factors leading to choroidal neovascularization both in humans and in animal models. In this review article we have linked the complement system with modifiable and non-modifiable AMD risk factors as well as with prediction models of AMD. Understanding the association between the complement system, risk factors and prediction models will help improve our understanding of AMD pathology and management of this disease.

  18. Factors associated with stunted growth in children below 11 years of age in Antioquia, Colombia, 2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bibiana Andrea Castro

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To explore some factors associated to stunted growth in children below 11 years of age in the Department of Antioquia.Methodology: Cross-sectional study using the databases of alimentary and nutritional profiles in homes of Antioquia in 2004, based on a representative random sample of homes in the department (95% reliability and error margin of 3%. For this study, 100% of the records of children below 11 years of age were used. A model of generalized equations estimation was constructed for stunted growth classified by a Z score smaller than -2 standard deviation with respect to p 50 of the 1978 NCHS (Centro Nacional de Estadísticas de la Salud - National Center for Health Statistics. Data were analyzed using the GLIMMIX Procedure: SAS version 9.1.Results: We found 18.6% of the children with stunted growth, 75% of the homes with male head of household, 70% of heads of household with maximum 5 years of schooling; 47% of homes were nucleated bi-parental, and 40% extensive with a 5-member median per home; 56.4% poor per unsatisfied basic needs, and 80% in alimentary insecurity. The factors associated to stunted growth were: female gender, 1-5 years of age, head of household with less than 6 years of schooling, more than 5 people in the home, more than two household members under 7 years of age, coming from a poor home per unsatisfied basic needs, belonging to a sub-region different from Medellin, food availability of less than 30 different foods per week, no production of food, and head of household under 40 years of age.Conclusions: Herein, we show evidence of the magnitude of poverty and association of precarious socioeconomic conditions with stunted growth in Antioquia. The study shows the importance of considering the correlated nature of the data for the construction of the model.

  19. Factors influencing the motor development of prematurely born school-aged children in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Rafaela S; Magalhães, Lívia C; Dourado, Jordana S; Lemos, Stela M A; Alves, Claudia R L

    2014-09-01

    Despite technological advances in neonatology, premature children are still susceptible to disruptions in neurological development. The current study aimed to analyze the factors that influence motor development in prematurely born school-aged children in Brazil. This cross-sectional study involved 100 "apparently normal" children, aged 8-10 years, born at less than 35 weeks of gestation or with birth weightmotor development was assessed using the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (MABC-2). The children's neuropsychological and academic performance was assessed with the Token Test (TT) and Teste de Desempenho Escolar (TDE), respectively. Parents answered questions regarding the child's clinical history and behavior using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) and family environment resources (RAF). Hierarchical multivariate analyses revealed that 39% of the children scored lower on the MABC-2, as compared to that expected for their age (manual dexterity: 49%; balance: 35%; throwing/catching a ball: 26%). Multivariate analysis indicated that the lower the birth weight, the maternal age at childbirth, and the RAF score, the greater was the chance of impairment on the MABC-2 scores. The probability of having an impairment MABC-2 scores was four times higher when the mother was not employed. We also found associations between MABC-2 scores and the tasks of tying shoes and opening/closing zippers and buttons. Factors related to children's home environments and birth weight are associated with deficient motor performance in prematurely born Brazilian school-aged children. Deficient motor skills were also associated with difficulty in performing functional tasks requiring greater manual dexterity.

  20. Factors associated with stunted growth in children below 11 years of age in Antioquia, Colombia, 2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bibiana Andrea Castro

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To explore some factors associated to stunted growth in children below 11 years of age in the Department of Antioquia. Methodology: Cross-sectional study using the databases of alimentary and nutritional profiles in homes of Antioquia in 2004, based on a representative random sample of homes in the department (95% reliability and error margin of 3%. For this study, 100% of the records of children below 11 years of age were used. A model of generalized equations estimation was constructed for stunted growth classified by a Z score smaller than -2 standard deviation with respect to p 50 of the 1978 NCHS (Centro Nacional de Estadísticas de la Salud -  National Center for Health Statistics. Data were analyzed using the GLIMMIX Procedure: SAS version 9.1. Results: We found 18.6% of the children with stunted growth, 75% of the homes with male head of household, 70% of heads of household with maximum 5 years of schooling; 47% of homes were nucleated bi-parental, and 40% extensive with a 5-member median per home; 56.4% poor per unsatisfied basic needs, and 80% in alimentary insecurity. The factors associated to stunted growth were: female gender, 1-5 years of age, head of household with less than 6 years of schooling, more than 5 people in the home, more than two household members under 7 years of age, coming from a poor home per unsatisfied basic needs, belonging to a sub-region different from Medellin, food availability of less than 30 different foods per week, no production of food, and head of household under 40 years of age. Conclusions: Herein, we show evidence of the magnitude of poverty and association of precarious socioeconomic conditions with stunted growth in Antioquia. The study shows the importance of considerin

  1. An alternative Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) factor structure of the WAIS-IV: age invariance of an alternative model for ages 70-90.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niileksela, Christopher R; Reynolds, Matthew R; Kaufman, Alan S

    2013-06-01

    The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale--Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) is by the far the most popular intelligence test for the assessment of adults in clinical and neuropsychological practice. Despite a number of studies examining the factor structure of the WAIS-IV from a Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) perspective (Benson, Hulac, & Kranzler, 2010; Ward, Bergman, & Hebert, 2012), a CHC interpretation of the WAIS-IV for individuals ages 70 and above has been absent from the literature. The exclusion of individuals ages 70 and above in previous research is likely due to the absence of several key supplemental subtests used to create a full CHC model. We provide an alternative five-factor CHC model of the WAIS-IV which includes only the subtests administered to individuals ages 70 and above in the standardization sample. Our results show (a) the alternative CHC model fits the data well; (b) this alternative CHC model met criteria for partial strict measurement invariance across the life span (only Similarities showed noninvariance) using strict criteria; (c) the five factors for ages 70-90 measure the same five CHC broad abilities identified in previous analyses reported for ages 16-69; and (d) the five-factor CHC solution for ages 70-90 is valid for the entire WAIS-IV age range and can be used whenever examiners administer the core battery but opt not to administer supplemental subtests.

  2. Risk factors for Toxoplasma gondii infection in women of childbearing age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariza Martins Avelino

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Determine the risk factors involved in toxoplasmosis transmission and determine whether pregnancy is a risk factor for toxoplasmosis infection. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study carried out on 2,242 women at childbearing age. An indirect immunofluorescence reaction was used to identify immunity to Toxoplasma gondii. Previous gestations were also analyzed as a possible risk factor. The results were analyzed by chi2 and OR tests, and by variance analysis. The sample was statistically balanced according to social-economic risk factors. RESULTS: Previously pregnant women were 1.74 times more frequently infected with toxoplasmosis, regardless of environmental conditions. Pregnant women living under unfavorable environmental conditions had an approximately two times increased risk of being infected for each risk factor (contact with host animals, presence of vehicles of oocyst transmission. Previous pregnancy was the risk factor that had the strongest influence on acquiring toxoplasmosis (variance analysis and statistical balancing. DISCUSSION: The prevalence of this zoonosis is high in Goiânia-GO, Brazil (65.8%. Inadequate environmental sanitation was not significantly correlated with toxoplasmosis infection, except when associated with previous pregnancy, showing that the fundamental cause for infection is not environmental. CONCLUSION: The finding that pregnancy makes women more vulnerable to this protozoan, makes it important to implement prophylactic control of at-risk pregnant women.

  3. Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) in Brazilian Samples of Different Age Groups: Findings from Confirmatory Factor Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassi-Oliveira, Rodrigo; Cogo-Moreira, Hugo; Salum, Giovanni Abrahão; Brietzke, Elisa; Viola, Thiago Wendt; Manfro, Gisele Gus; Kristensen, Christian Haag; Arteche, Adriane Xavier

    2014-01-01

    The Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) is internationally accepted as a key tool for the assessment of childhood abuse and neglect experiences. However, there are relative few psychometric studies available and some authors have proposed two different factor solutions. We examined the dimensional structure and internal consistency of the Brazilian version of the CTQ. A total of 1,925 participants from eight different clinical and non-clinical samples including adolescents, adults and elders were considered in this study. First, we performed Confirmatory Factor Analysis to investigate the goodness of fit of the two proposed competitive factor structure models for the CTQ. We also investigated the internal consistency of all factors. Second, multi-group analyses were used to investigate measurement invariance and population heterogeneity across age groups and sex. Our findings revealed that the alternative factor structure as opposed to the original factor structure was the most appropriate model within adolescents and adults Brazilian samples. We provide further evidence for the validity and reliability of the CTQ within the Brazilian samples and report that the alternative model showed an improvement in fit indexes and may be a better alternative over the original model. PMID:24475237

  4. Cultural and Chronological Horizons and the Problem of the Early Sarmatian Culture Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yablonsky Leonid Teodorovich

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available On the materials of Eurasian early nomads’ archaeology we highlight the South Ural cultural and historical area (UCHA. Geographically it includes steppe regions of West Kazakhstan, Chelyabinsk and Orenburg regions, steppe and forest steppe zones of the Republic of Bashkortostan. There were similar cultural processes that led to the Early Sarmatian archaeological culture formation in the Early Iron Age. Under the cultural and chronological horizon we understand the geographic region that is significantly larger than UCHA. Practically it has no geographic boundaries. Specificity of the horizon is that at a certain chronological stage (phase artifacts and their complexes, signs of spiritual culture are widely distributed that will mark the horizon – the horizon markers such as well known Scythian triad. Global chronological scheme of the Southern Trans-Urals cultural and historical area can be represented as follows: “Sauromatian” cultural and chronological horizon – the second half of the 6th – the end of the 4th (3rd centuries B.C. – Phase “A” – the second half of the 6th – the middle of the 5th centuries B.C. – Phase “B” – the second half of the 5th – the third quarter of the 4th centuries B.C. – Phase “C” – the third quarter of the 4th – the 3rd century B.C. Typologically the burial grounds like Filippovka I and Perevolochan can be attributed to the Early-Sarmatian archaeological culture, i.e. to the time of the ethnic consciousness formation of suspected archaeological Early Sarmatians. In this period ordinary mounds and graves appear along with the elite ones. It is advisable to consider the sites of the “Sauromatian” and Early-Sarmatian cultures of the South Urals of the end of the 5th-3rd centuries B.C. as a single culture of the early nomads.

  5. Socioeconomic factors and incidence of erectile dysfunction: findings of the longitudinal Massachussetts Male Aging Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aytaç, I A; Araujo, A B; Johannes, C B; Kleinman, K P; McKinlay, J B

    2000-09-01

    Despite the well-documented relationship of socioeconomic factors (SEF) to various health problems, the relationship of SEF to erectile dysfunction (ED) is not well understood. As such, the goals of this paper are: (1) to determine whether incident ED is more likely to occur among men with low SEF; and (2) to determine whether incident ED varies by SEF after taking into consideration other well-established ED risk factors that are also associated with SEF such as smoking, diabetes, and high blood pressure. We used data from 797 participants in the longitudinal population-based Massachusetts Male Aging Study (baseline 1987-1989, follow-up 1995-1997) who were free of ED at baseline and had complete data on ED and all risk factors. ED was determined by a self-administered questionnaire and its relationship to SEF was assessed using logistic regression. We first analyzed the age-adjusted relationship of education, income, and occupation to incidence of ED. The results show that men with low education (O.R. = 1.46, 95% C.I. = 1.02-2.08) or men in blue-collar occupations (O.R. = 1.68, 95% C.I. = 1.16-2.43) are significantly more likely to develop ED. For the multivariate model, due to multicollinearity among education, income, and occupation, we ran three separate models. After taking into consideration all the other risk factors--age, lifestyle and medical conditions--the effect of occupation remained significant. Men who worked in blue-collar occupations were one and a half times more likely to develop ED compared to men in white-collar occupations (O.R. = 1.55, 95% C.I. = 1.06-2.28).

  6. Risk factors for late-life cognitive decline and variation with age and sex in the Sydney Memory and Ageing Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darren M Lipnicki

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: An aging population brings increasing burdens and costs to individuals and society arising from late-life cognitive decline, the causes of which are unclear. We aimed to identify factors predicting late-life cognitive decline. METHODS: Participants were 889 community-dwelling 70-90-year-olds from the Sydney Memory and Ageing Study with comprehensive neuropsychological assessments at baseline and a 2-year follow-up and initially without dementia. Cognitive decline was considered as incident mild cognitive impairment (MCI or dementia, as well as decreases in attention/processing speed, executive function, memory, and global cognition. Associations with baseline demographic, lifestyle, health and medical factors were determined. RESULTS: All cognitive measures showed decline and 14% of participants developed incident MCI or dementia. Across all participants, risk factors for decline included older age and poorer smelling ability most prominently, but also more education, history of depression, being male, higher homocysteine, coronary artery disease, arthritis, low health status, and stroke. Protective factors included marriage, kidney disease, and antidepressant use. For some of these factors the association varied with age or differed between men and women. Additional risk and protective factors that were strictly age- and/or sex-dependent were also identified. We found salient population attributable risks (8.7-49.5% for older age, being male or unmarried, poor smelling ability, coronary artery disease, arthritis, stroke, and high homocysteine. DISCUSSION: Preventing or treating conditions typically associated with aging might reduce population-wide late-life cognitive decline. Interventions tailored to particular age and sex groups may offer further benefits.

  7. Female reproductive factors are associated with objectively measured physical activity in middle-aged women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulmala, Janne; Aukee, Pauliina; Hakonen, Harto; Kujala, Urho M.; Lowe, Dawn A.; Kovanen, Vuokko; Tammelin, Tuija; Sipilä, Sarianna

    2017-01-01

    Physical activity improves health and may delay the onset of several chronic diseases. For women in particular, the rate of these diseases accelerates at middle age; therefore it is important to identify the determinants of health-enhancing physical activity during midlife in this population. In this study, we focused on determinants that are unique to the female sex, such as childbearing and menopause. The main objective was to characterize the level of physical activity and differences between active and inactive middle-aged Finnish women. In addition, we examined the association of physical activity with female reproductive factors at midlife. The study population consisted of 647 women aged 48 to 55 years who participated in our Estrogenic Regulation of Muscle Apoptosis (ERMA) study during the period from 2015 to 2016. Physical activity was measured objectively using hip-worn accelerometers for seven consecutive days. The outcome measures included the amounts of light intensity physical activity and moderate to vigorous intensity physical activity accumulated in bouts of at least 10 minutes (MVPA10). MVPA10 was used to determine whether women were placed in the active (≥150 min/week) or inactive (pelvic floor dysfunction as independent variables. We found that a large portion (61%) of Finnish middle-aged women did not meet the physical activity recommendations of 150 minutes of MVPA10 per week. In the studied cohort, 78% of women experienced menopausal symptoms, and 54% exhibited pelvic floor dysfunction. Perceived menopausal symptoms were associated with greater light physical activity. Perceived pelvic floor dysfunction was associated with lower MVPA10. According to the fully adjusted multiple linear regression models, reproductive factors explained 6.0% of the variation of MVPA10 and 7.5% of the variation of light physical activity. The results increase our knowledge of the factors related to physical activity participation among middle-aged women and

  8. The effect of age, weight, and lifestyle factors on calcaneal quantitative ultrasound: the ESOPO study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adami, Silvano; Giannini, Sandro; Giorgino, Ruben; Isaia, GianCarlo; Maggi, Stefania; Sinigaglia, Luigi; Filipponi, Paolo; Crepaldi, Gaetano; Di Munno, Ombretta

    2003-05-01

    Quantitative ultrasound (QUS) techniques have been shown to be as good as bone mineral density (BMD) assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), in predicting fracture risk: QUS technique could increase substantially the accessibility to a reliable bone osteoporosis risk evaluation, but little is know regarding the relationship of QUS to risk factors that have been found to predict DXA-BMD values and this is even more true in men. We studied 6,811 postmenopausal women 40 to 80 years of age and 4,981 men 60-80 years of age representative of the general population of all regions of Italy. All participants were questioned on lifestyle habits and on their medical history. After a physical examination "bone stiffness" (called here for simplicity, stiffness), which is derived from the values of broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA) and speed of sounds (SoS) was measured by a heel QUS device (Achilles apparatus, Lunar, Madison, USA). The most common recognized determinants of bone mass (either categorical or continuous variables) were modeled with stiffness by multiple regression analysis or ANOVA. Stiffness was strongly related to age and weight. After adjusting for these variables, the women who had taken hormone replacement therapy for more than a year had significantly higher stiffness values. The difference versus nonusers remained significant for up to 20 years-since-menopause (YSM). This effect was so strong that for further analysis these women were excluded. By multivariate analysis, stiffness was then found to be significantly related to recalled body weight at 25 years of age, actual and past cigarettes smoked per day, and dairy calcium intake. Stiffness was also associated with a number of categorial factors adjusted for age, weight, and YSM: prior ovariectomy, history of more than 2 months confined to bed, outdoor physical activity, smoking, chronic use of any drug, and past corticosteroid use. All these categorial and continuous variables predicted

  9. Gamma spectrometry for chronology of recent sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pittauerova, Daniela

    2013-12-17

    This thesis deals with several aspects of gamma spectrometric analysis of natural and artificial isotopes in sediments and their use as tracers for qualification and quantification of accumulation and mixing processes in different aquatic environments. Sediment cores from three distinct areas including terrigenous sediments deposited on the continental slope off NW Africa, deep sea sediments off Sumba Island and five stations from the Gulf of Eilat in the Red Sea area were measured and interpreted within this dissertation. The main concern in gamma spectrometry of voluminous environmental samples is a reliable efficiency calibration. This is specially relevant for the analysis of low energy gamma emitters (<100 keV). {sup 210}Pb, an important isotopic tracer to cover the period of the last century, is one of them. Within this work mathematical efficiency calibration was applied using a commercial software package. A series of validation tests was performed and evaluated for point and voluminous samples. When using {sup 210}Pb as a tracer it is necessary to determine its excess portion, which is not supported by ingrowth from the parent nuclide {sup 226}Ra. Its analysis is mostly performed via short lived daughter isotopes that follow after the intermediate gaseous member {sup 222}Rn. Preventing the escape of radon from the sample is a critical step before analysis due to a negative effect of supported {sup 210}Pb underestimation on the chronology, which was also documented in this thesis. Time series registering ingrowth of {sup 214}Pb and {sup 214}Bi towards radioactive equilibrium with {sup 226}Ra in different containers were evaluated for analyses of {sup 226}Ra. Direct analyses of {sup 226}Ra was compared to its detection via daughter products. A method for aligning parallel radionuclide depth profiles was described and applied successfully in two case studies from the continental slope off NW Africa and off Sumba Island, Indonesia. This is primarily important

  10. Establishing Denudation Chronology through Weathering Geochronology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riffel, S. B.; Vasconcelos, P. M.; Farley, K. A.; Carmo, I. O.

    2011-12-01

    Planar landforms - erosion surfaces - are used as temporal markers in denudation chronology. These surfaces are interpreted as the result of long-term weathering and denudation controlled by a specific base level within a given time-interval characterized by long-term tectonic stability. The presence of several planar landforms at distinct elevations is interpreted as evidence for distinct denudation events, separated by periods of tectonic reactivation and crustal uplift. We selected an area in the Paraná-La Plata basin, southern Brazil (25°S lat.) to investigate if the application of weathering geochronology by the 40Ar/39Ar and (U-Th)/He methods could permit differentiating different elevation landsurfaces. We dated supergene Mn oxyhydroxides by 40Ar/39Ar geochronology and coexisting supergene Fe oxyhydroxides by the (U-Th)/He method from one of the three regional landsurfaces - The First, Second, and Third Paraná plateaus - previously identified in this area. Two sites were sampled from the Second Paraná Plateau: a ferricrust at Serra das Almas (7 hand specimens of goethite at 1080 m of altitude) and deeply weathered ferricretes and saprolites at Vila Velha (11 hand specimens of cryptomelane and 14 of goethite at 910 m of altitude). The Serra das Almas sites hosts a stratified weathering profile with ferricrust, and mottle zone. The Vila Velha site results from intense weathering that led to the precipitation of well-crystallized supergene minerals precipitated within fractures in the saprolites. The geochronological results are correlatable between the two sites and the two distinct methods (40Ar/39Ar and (U-Th)/He), and they reveal three generations of weathering and mineral precipitation: Late Eocene-Oligocene, Early Miocene, and Pleistocene. The geochronological results suggested that the Second Paraná Plateau formed by regional erosion during the Oligocene, and that this landsurface has been continuously exposed to weathering and erosion since then

  11. Psychosocial biomarker research: integrating social, emotional and economic factors into population studies of aging and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steptoe, Andrew

    2011-04-01

    There are complex reciprocal relationships between health and social, emotional and economic factors in aging populations. Social and affective neurosciences are rapidly developing an understanding of the mechanisms underlying these phenomena using sophisticated behavioural, neuroimaging and psychophysiological methods. These techniques are often complex and expensive, so are generally used in relatively small selected samples rather than in large-scale cohort studies. However, an understanding of the significance of these processes in health and well-being depends on integrating findings from social and affective neuroscience into population-level studies. The aim of this article is to describe how a population perspective on the determinants of health and well-being in old age articulates with the agenda of social, affective and economic neuroscience, particularly through the application of psychosocial biomarker research. Social and affective neuroscience and epidemiological approaches provide complementary research strategies for understanding the mechanisms linking social, emotional and economic factors with health risk. This will be illustrated primarily from findings from two studies conducted at University College London, the Whitehall II Study and the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing.

  12. Study of factors affecting contraceptive use among married women of reproductive Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Bhandari

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background The use of contraception can prevent pregnancies related complication and helps in improving the women’s health and quality of their lives. Objective To explore reproductive characteristics among married women of reproductive age. To find out method of contraceptive use and side effects among married women of reproductive age. To uncover factors related to contraceptive use among married women of reproductive age. Methods This cross-sectional was carried out among (369 married couples of reproductive age group in ward number 5, 6 and 7 of Dhulikhel Municipality using purposive sampling. Those who fell in between the age group of (14-49 years and willing to participate were included and pregnant women were excluded from the study. Questionnaire was used to obtain informations. Results Among 369(81.3% of the respondents of reproductive age were using a modern contraceptive method. Regarding education 331(89.5% of women’s and 352(95.1% of husbands were literate and 275(91.6% of women were found to be involved in decision making and had good inter-spousal communication that is 280(93.3%. Among the temporary method of family planning, Depo-Provera was the choice 150(54.5% of contraceptive method. Conclusion The present study put more emphasis on increase in women’s literacy, women’s involvement in decision making and inter-spousal communication which helps to promote the effective use of contraceptive methods. As women play an important role in the decision making, women should be included in all aspects of reproductive health and family planning programs. Journal of College of Medical Sciences-Nepal, 2013, Vol-9, No-4, 24-29 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/jcmsn.v9i4.10233

  13. Insulin-Like Growth Factor 1: At the Crossroads of Brain Development and Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrigley, Sarah; Arafa, Donia; Tropea, Daniela

    2017-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) is a polypeptide hormone structurally similar to insulin. It is central to the somatotropic axis, acting downstream of growth hormone (GH). It activates both the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase and PI3K signaling pathways, acting in almost every tissue in the body to promote tissue growth and maturation through upregulation of anabolic processes. Overall GH and IGF1 signaling falls with age, suggesting that it is this reduced IGF1 activity that leads to age-related changes in organisms. However, mutations that reduce IGF1-signaling activity can dramatically extend the lifespan of organisms. Therefore, the role of IGF1 in the overall aging process is unclear. This review article will focus on the role of IGF1 in brain development and aging. The evidence points towards a role for IGF1 in neurodevelopment both prenatally and in the early post-natal period, and in plasticity and remodeling throughout life. This review article will then discuss the hallmarks of aging and cognitive decline associated with falls in IGF1 levels towards the end of life. Finally, the role of IGF1 will be discussed within the context of both neuropsychiatric disorders caused by impaired development of the nervous system, and neurodegenerative disorders associated with aging. IGF1 and its derivatives are shown to improve the symptoms of certain neuropsychiatric disorders caused by deranged neurodevelopment and these effects have been correlated with changes in the underlying biology in both in vitro and in vivo studies. On the other hand, studies looking at IGF1 in neurodegenerative diseases have been conflicting, supporting both a role for increased and decreased IGF1 signaling in the underlying pathogenesis of these diseases. PMID:28203146

  14. Evaluating the Prevalence of Small for Gestational Age and Its Associated Risk Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barati

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Small for gestational age (SGA fetuses have birth weights below 10th percentile or abdominal circumference less than 10th percentile for gestational age Objectives This study aimed to determine the prevalence of SGA and its associated risk factors in Iran. Patients and Methods This is a retrospective study. A total of 341 pregnant women were evaluated in fetal health care clinic of perinatology from January 2013 to January 2014. Results Of 312 pregnant women, 33 had SGA fetuses. The average of body mass index (BMI was lower in SGA group than non-SGA. Pulsatility index has no stastical meaningful between SGA and nonSGA groups. In Gestational age had no difference between 2 groups. Severe SGA (< 3rd centile estimated fetal weight was observed in 2.6% of all cases. Conclusions In conclusion, the prevalence of SGA was approximately one tenth of all pregnancies. SGA incidence was associated with nulliparity and more frequently seen in lower age group.

  15. Regulation of age-related macular degeneration-like pathology by complement factor H.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toomey, Christopher B; Kelly, Una; Saban, Daniel R; Bowes Rickman, Catherine

    2015-06-09

    Complement factor H (CFH) is a major susceptibility gene for age-related macular degeneration (AMD); however, its impact on AMD pathobiology is unresolved. Here, the role of CFH in the development of AMD pathology in vivo was interrogated by analyzing aged Cfh(+/-) and Cfh(-/-) mice fed a high-fat, cholesterol-enriched diet. Strikingly, decreased levels of CFH led to increased sub-retinal pigmented epithelium (sub-RPE) deposit formation, specifically basal laminar deposits, following high-fat diet. Mechanistically, our data show that deposits are due to CFH competition for lipoprotein binding sites in Bruch's membrane. Interestingly and despite sub-RPE deposit formation occurring in both Cfh(+/-) and Cfh(-/-) mice, RPE damage accompanied by loss of vision occurred only in old Cfh(+/-) mice. We demonstrate that such pathology is a function of excess complement activation in Cfh(+/-) mice versus complement deficiency in Cfh(-/-) animals. Due to the CFH-dependent increase in sub-RPE deposit height, we interrogated the potential of CFH as a previously unidentified regulator of Bruch's membrane lipoprotein binding and show, using human Bruch's membrane explants, that CFH removes endogenous human lipoproteins in aged donors. Thus, advanced age, high-fat diet, and decreased CFH induce sub-RPE deposit formation leading to complement activation, which contributes to RPE damage and visual function impairment. This new understanding of the complicated interactions of CFH in AMD-like pathology provides an improved foundation for the development of targeted therapies for AMD.

  16. Oral health as a risk factor for mortality in middle-aged men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabbah, Wael; Mortensen, Laust Hvas; Sheiham, Aubrey;

    2012-01-01

    to examine the association between oral health and premature death among middle-aged men and to test whether it was explained by socioeconomic position and behaviours. METHODS: Data were from the Vietnam Experience Study, a prospective cohort study of Vietnam War-era (1965-1971), American male army personnel....... The authors examined risk of cause-specific and all-cause mortality in relation to poor oral health in middle age, adjusting for age, ethnicity, socioeconomic position, IQ, behavioural factors and systemic conditions. RESULTS: Men with poor oral health experienced a higher risk of cause-specific and all......-cause mortality. HRs for all-cause mortality were 2.94 (95% CI 2.11 to 4.08) among individuals with poor oral health and 3.98 (95% CI 2.43 to 6.49) among edentates compared with those with good oral health after adjusting for ethnicity and age. The association attenuated but remained significant after further...

  17. AGE AS A FACTOR IN THE COMPLICATIONS RATES AFTER REMOVAL OF IMPACTED MANDIBULAR THIRD MOLARS: A REVIEW OF LITERATURE

    OpenAIRE

    Samir; Abdul Mujeb

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT : PURPOSE: The purpose of the study was to estimate the frequency of complications after mandibular third molar surgery, with age as the primary risk factor. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Review of literatures were selected and It was analyzed from last 25 years publications with a pubmed search using the following ke y words such as : impacted third molar, age, wisdom tooth, age and post operative complications ,age and inflammatory tissue reaction, mandibul...

  18. Caries prevalence and risk factors among children aged 0 to 36 months

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos Ana Paula Pires dos

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of caries and risk factors in outpatients of the Pediatric Ambulatory of the Pedro Ernesto University Hospital aging up to 36 months. After signing informed consent forms, the parents answered a structured questionnaire in order to evaluate risk factors for dental caries, including socioeconomic status, oral hygiene and dietary habits. A single investigator carried out the dental examination which assessed the presence of caries, biofilm and gingival bleeding. The data were analyzed by means of the Epi Info program, utilizing the chi-squared test. The children?s mean age was 22.9 months. The prevalence of caries, including white spot lesions, was 41.6%, and the mean def-s was 1.7 (± 2.5. The most affected teeth were the maxillary incisors, and the most common lesion was the white spot. No significant associations were found between the prevalence of caries and socioeconomic status, frequency of oral hygiene, nocturnal bottle- and breast-feeding or cariogenic food and beverage intake during the day. However, the association between caries and oral hygiene quality (dental biofilm was statistically significant (p < 0.001. The results suggest that the presence of a thick biofilm was the most important factor for the occurrence of early childhood caries in the evaluated sample.

  19. Central Obesity and Metabolic Risk Factors in Middle-aged Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN Xue Yao; ZHENG Fen Ping; ZHOU Jia Qiang; DU Ying; PAN Qian Qian; ZHANG Sai Fei; YU Dan; LI Hong

    2014-01-01

    Objective Central obesity is considered to be a central component of metabolic syndrome. Waist circumference (WC) has been widely used as a simple indicator of central obesity. This study is aimed to evaluate the sensitivity of WC cut-off values for predicting metabolic risk factors in middle-aged Chinese. Methods The study involved 923 subjects aged 40-65 years. The metabolic risk factors were defined according to the Chinese Joint Committee for Developing Chinese Guidelines on Prevention and Treatment of Dyslipidemia in Adults. WC cut-off 85-90 cm and≥90 cm were used as cut-off values of central pre-obesity and central obesity in males, respectively, while WC 80-85 cm and≥85 cm were used as cut-off values of central pre-obesity and central obesity in females. Results First, WC values corresponding to body mass index (BMI) 24 kg/m2 and visceral fat area (VFA) 80 cm2 were 88.55 cm and 88.51 cm in males, and 81.46 cm and 82.51 cm in females respectively. Second, receiver operating characteristic curves showed that the optimal WC cut-off of value was 88.75 cm in males, higher than that in females (81.75 cm). Third, the subjects with higher WC values were more likely to have accumulating metabolic risk factors. The prevalence of metabolic risk factors increased linearly and significantly in relation to WC levels. Conclusion WC cut-off values of central pre-/central obesity are optimal to predict multiple metabolic risk factors.

  20. Age associated differences in prevalence of individual rotterdam criteria and metabolic risk factors during reproductive age in 446 caucasian women with polycystic ovary syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glintborg, D; Mumm, H; Ravn, P;

    2012-01-01

    Clinical manifestations and metabolic risk factors may differ according to age in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Therefore, a retrospective trans-sectional study in academic tertiary-care medical center was designed. A cohort of 446 premenopausal, Caucasian women (age range 15......, fasting lipids, insulin, glucose), transvaginal ultrasound, oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT) (n=234), and ACTH tests (n=201). BMI, waist, Ferriman-Gallwey score, blood pressure, and lipid profile were higher in older vs. younger age groups whereas androgen levels were lower. Measures of insulin...... resistance were unchanged between age groups, but glucose levels were significantly higher in older age groups. Rotterdam criteria: The prevalence of PCO and biochemical hyperandrogenism decreased in the oldest age group whereas clinical hyperandrogenism increased. Young patients are characterized by PCO...

  1. Chronology of Holocene lacustrine sediments in Co Ngoin, central Tibetan Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Yanhong; WANG Sumin; HOU Xinhua

    2006-01-01

    Chronology is the basis for using lacustrine sediments to reconstruct the history of environmental change. Radioactive-nuclides such as 14C, 210Pb and 137Cs dating are mainly used to establish the chronology for recent several ten thousand years. Because of being mixed with "dead carbon", the measured 14C age is always older than the actual age which is recognized as "reservoir effect". Cs is a kind of active metal element, and easy to migrate vertically in the sediment that leads to the error of the time marker. 210Pb dating should make sure to select CIC model or CRS model. On the Tibetan Plateau, most of the lakes are alkaline closed lake where Cs is more moveable in the sediment and the reservoir effect caused by "dead carbon" on 14C dating is stronger. Based on the analysis on results of 14C, 210Pb and 137Cs of the lacustrine sediments from Co Ngoin, central Tibetan Plateau, we use the simple regression method to re-calculate the 14C calendar ages, and establish the time sequence for cores CE-1 and CE-2 with result of 210Pb CRS model for the upper 35 cm and recalculated 14C calendar age for sediments bellow 35 cm. Since 1400 cal. a BP, sedimentation interrupted for more than 1000 years. According to this time sequence, variations of environmental proxies confidently reflect the major climatic events in Holocene.

  2. Lead, Manganese, and Methylmercury as Risk Factors for Neurobehavioral Impairment in Advanced Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard Weiss

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Contamination of the environment by metals is recognized as a threat to health. One of their targets is the brain, and the adverse functional effects they induce are reflected by neurobehavioral assessments. Lead, manganese, and methylmercury are the metal contaminants linked most comprehensively to such disorders. Because many of these adverse effects can appear later in life, clues to the role of metals as risk factors for neurodegenerative disorders should be sought in the exposure histories of aging populations. A review of the available literature offers evidence that all three metals can produce, in advanced age, manifestations of neurobehavioral dysfunction associated with neurodegenerative disease. Among the critical unresolved questions is timing; that is, during which periods of the lifespan, including early development, do environmental exposures lay the foundations for their ultimate effects?

  3. Growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor-1 and the aging brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashpole, Nicole M; Sanders, Jessica E; Hodges, Erik L; Yan, Han; Sonntag, William E

    2015-08-01

    Growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 regulate the development and function of cells throughout the body. Several clinical diseases that result in a decline in physical and mental functions are marked by mutations that disrupt GH or IGF-1 signaling. During the lifespan there is a robust decrease in both GH and IGF-1. Because GH and IGF-1 are master regulators of cellular function, impaired GH and IGF-1 signaling in aging/disease states leads to significant alterations in tissue structure and function, especially within the brain. This review is intended to highlight the effects of the GH and IGF-1 on neuronal structure, function, and plasticity. Furthermore, we address several potential mechanisms through which the age-related reductions in GH and IGF-1 affect cognition. Together, the studies reviewed here highlight the importance of maintaining GH and IGF-1 signaling in order to sustain proper brain function throughout the lifespan.

  4. Cardiovascular risk factors associated with age-related macular degeneration: the Tromso Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erke, M. G.; Bertelsen, G.; Peto, T.

    2014-01-01

    regression analyses were performed based on questionnaires addressing habits of smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity, health and medication; and physical examination comprising anthropometric measurements, blood pressure and blood sampling. Cardiovascular disease status was obtained from......PurposeTo examine associations between cardiovascular risk factors and age-related macular degeneration (AMD). MethodsA population-based, cross-sectional study of Caucasians aged 65-87years was conducted in Norway in 2007/2008. Retinal photographs were graded for AMD. Multivariable logistic...... and physical exercise. Current daily smoking was significantly related to late AMD in both sexes (odds ratio (OR) 4.06, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.69-9.76 and OR 3.59, 95% CI 1.17-11.04, women and men, respectively) compared with never smokers. Higher number of pack years was associated with the presence...

  5. Age-related macular degeneration: genetic and environmental factors of disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuhong; Bedell, Matthew; Zhang, Kang

    2010-10-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the most common cause of visual impairment among the elderly in developed countries, and its prevalence is thus increasing as the population ages; however, treatment options remain limited because the etiology and pathogenesis of AMD are incompletely defined. Recently, much progress has been made in gene discovery and mechanistic studies, which clearly indicate that AMD involves the interaction of multiple genetic and environmental factors. The identification of genes that have a substantial impact on the risk for AMD is not only facilitating the diagnosis and screening of populations at risk but is also elucidating key molecular pathways of pathogenesis. Pharmacogenetic studies of treatment responsiveness among patients with the "wet" form of AMD are increasingly proving to be clinically relevant; pharmacogenetic approaches hold great promise for both identifying patients with the best chance for vision recovery as well as tailoring individualized therapies.

  6. Reconstructions of Columbia River streamflow from tree-ring chronologies in the Pacific Northwest, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littell, Jeremy; Pederson, Gregory T.; Gray, Stephen T.; Tjoelker, Michael; Hamlet, Alan F.; Woodhouse, Connie A.

    2016-01-01

    We developed Columbia River streamflow reconstructions using a network of existing, new, and updated tree-ring records sensitive to the main climatic factors governing discharge. Reconstruction quality is enhanced by incorporating tree-ring chronologies where high snowpack limits growth, which better represent the contribution of cool-season precipitation to flow than chronologies from trees positively sensitive to hydroclimate alone. The best performing reconstruction (back to 1609 CE) explains 59% of the historical variability and the longest reconstruction (back to 1502 CE) explains 52% of the variability. Droughts similar to the high-intensity, long-duration low flows observed during the 1920s and 1940s are rare, but occurred in the early 1500s and 1630s-1640s. The lowest Columbia flow events appear to be reflected in chronologies both positively and negatively related to streamflow, implying low snowpack and possibly low warm-season precipitation. High flows of magnitudes observed in the instrumental record appear to have been relatively common, and high flows from the 1680s to 1740s exceeded the magnitude and duration of observed wet periods in the late-19th and 20th Century. Comparisons between the Columbia River reconstructions and future projections of streamflow derived from global climate and hydrologic models show the potential for increased hydrologic variability, which could present challenges for managing water in the face of competing demands

  7. The Difference that Age Makes: Cultural Factors that Shape Older Adults' Responses to Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogk, Marja

    2008-01-01

    This article suggests that approaching vision loss from age-related macular degeneration from a sociocultural perspective, specifically considering perceptions of aging, blindness, disability, and generational viewpoints and norms, may be critical to understanding older adults' responses to vision loss and visual rehabilitation.

  8. Prevalence and related factors for anorgasmia among reproductive aged women in Hesarak, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitra Tadayon Najafabady

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Orgasmic dysfunction in women is characterized by persistent or recurrent delay in or absence of orgasm following a normal sexual excitement phase. Research has shown that almost two thirds of women have concerns about their sexual relationship. Sexual dysfunction has many problems for couples; some researchers found that up to 67% of divorces related to sexual disorders. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this cross-sectional study was to assess the prevalence and related factors of anorgasmia among reproductive age Iranian women. METHODS: This study was conducted in 2006-7 in Hesarak, Karaj, Iran. A total of 1200 women were randomly recruited to the study. Sexual satisfaction questions were prepared according to the Enrich Sexual Satisfaction Questionnaire. Orgasms were assessed according to the relevant questions in the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI questionnaire. The data were analyzed using SPSS version 11; Chi-square, Mann-Whitney and independent t-test were used for statistical purposes. RESULTS: This study showed that the prevalence of anorgasmia among Iranian women in Hesarak, Karaj, was 26.3%. There was a significant difference between the anorgasmic and normal orgasm groups regarding the women's age, age at marriage, duration of marriage and education during puberty (p<0.05. Some psychological factors, e.g. anxiety, fatigue, pain, feeling of guilt, anti-masculine feelings and embarrassment in sexual relationships were higher in the anorgasmic group (p<0.001. DISCUSSION: The results of this study showed that the prevalence of anorgasmia in Hesarak is high and most of the anorgasmic women were highly unsatisfied with their sexual relationship compared to the normal orgasm group. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of anorgasmia among Iranian women in Hesarak, Karaj, is high and some socio-demographic and psychological factors have a strong relationship with anorgasmia.

  9. Two-carbon metabolites, polyphenols and vitamins influence yeast chronological life span in winemaking conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orozco Helena

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Viability in a non dividing state is referred to as chronological life span (CLS. Most grape juice fermentation happens when Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast cells have stopped dividing; therefore, CLS is an important factor toward winemaking success. Results We have studied both the physical and chemical determinants influencing yeast CLS. Low pH and heat shorten the maximum wine yeast life span, while hyperosmotic shock extends it. Ethanol plays an important negative role in aging under winemaking conditions, but additional metabolites produced by fermentative metabolism, such as acetaldehyde and acetate, have also a strong impact on longevity. Grape polyphenols quercetin and resveratrol have negative impacts on CLS under winemaking conditions, an unexpected behavior for these potential anti-oxidants. We observed that quercetin inhibits alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenase activities, and that resveratrol performs a pro-oxidant role during grape juice fermentation. Vitamins nicotinic acid and nicotinamide are precursors of NAD+, and their addition reduces mean longevity during fermentation, suggesting a metabolic unbalance negative for CLS. Moreover, vitamin mix supplementation at the end of fermentation shortens CLS and enhances cell lysis, while amino acids increase life span. Conclusions Wine S. cerevisiae strains are able to sense changes in the environmental conditions and adapt their longevity to them. Yeast death is influenced by the conditions present at the end of wine fermentation, particularly by the concentration of two-carbon metabolites produced by the fermentative metabolism, such as ethanol, acetic acid and acetaldehyde, and also by the grape juice composition, particularly its vitamin content.

  10. Positive mutations and mutation-dependent Verhulst factor in Penna ageing model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss de Oliveira, S.; Stauffer, D.; de Oliveira, P. M. C.; Sá Martins, J. S.

    2004-02-01

    We modify twice the Penna model for biological ageing. First, we introduce back (good) mutations and a memory for them into the model. It allows us to observe an improvement of the species fitness over long-time scales as well as punctuated equilibrium. Second, we adopt a food/space competition factor that depends on the number of accumulated mutations in the individuals genomes, and get rid of the fixed limiting number of allowed mutations. Besides reproducing the main results of the standard model, we also observe a mortality maximum for the oldest old.

  11. The Age Conundrum: A Scoping Review of Younger Age or Adolescent and Young Adult as a Risk Factor for Clinical Distress, Depression, or Anxiety in Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Michael J; David, Victoria; Giese-Davis, Janine

    2015-12-01

    This scoping review was conducted to understand the extent, range, and nature of current research on adolescents and young adults (AYA) with cancer and distress, depression, and anxiety (DDA). This information is necessary to find and aggregate valuable data on the AYA population embedded in generalized studies of DDA. Keyword searches of six relevant electronic databases identified 2156 articles, with 316 selected for abstract review and 40 for full text review. Full-text reviews and data extraction resulted in 34 studies being included, which ranged widely in design, sample size, age-range categorization, analysis methods, DDA measurement tool, overall study rigor, and quality of evidence. Studies very seldom reported using theory to guide their age categorization, with only four studies giving any rationale for their age-group definitions. All 34 studies found a significant association between at least one DDA construct and the younger age group relative to the older age groups at some point along the cancer trajectory. However, age as an independent risk factor for DDA is still unclear, as the relationship could be confounded by other age-related factors. Despite the wide range of definitions and effect sizes in the studies included in this review, one thing is clear: adolescents and young adults, however defined, are a distinct group within the cancer population with an elevated risk of DDA. Widespread adoption of a standard AYA age-range definition will be essential to any future meta-analytical psycho-oncology research in this population.

  12. Environmental, Behavioral, and Cultural Factors That Influence Healthy Eating in Rural Women of Childbearing Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Mabry

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite increasing recognition of the role nutrition plays in the health of current and future generations, many women struggle to eat healthy. We used the PhotoVoice method to engage 10 rural women in identifying perceived barriers and facilitators to healthy eating in their homes and community. They took 354 photographs, selected and wrote captions for 62 images, and explored influential factors through group conversation. Using field notes and participant-generated captions, the research team categorized images into factors at the individual, relational, community/organizational, and societal levels of a socioecological model. Barriers included limited time, exposure to marketing, and the high cost of food. Facilitators included preparing food in advance and support from non-partners; opportunities to hunt, forage, and garden were also facilitators, which may be amplified in this rural environment. Nutritional interventions for rural women of childbearing age should be multi-component and focus on removing barriers at multiple socioecological levels.

  13. Social factors and coping status in asymptomatic middle-aged Danes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mols, Rikke Elmose; Sand, Niels Peter; Jensen, Jesper Møller;

    2013-01-01

    by the general self-efficacy (GES) scale. Coronary artery calcification (CAC) was assessed by computed tomography using the Agatston score (AS). Conventional clinical risk factors included sex, family history of CAD, BMI > 25, smoking, hypercholesterolaemia and hypertension. Results: In 568 individuals...... the prevalence of subjects with CAC was 267 (45%). Independent predictors of CAC in males were age (OR = 1.10, 95% CI = 1.04–1.16, p ... = 1.67, 95% CI = 1.02–1.12, p = 0.006), and smoking (OR = 1.71, 95% CI = 1.06–2.78, p = 0.029). Higher AS was associated to lower employment level in females (p = 0.001) but not in males (p = 0.833). Conclusions: Social factors are associated to the prevalence and severity of CAC in asymptomatic...

  14. Muscle growth in young horses: Effects of age, cytokines, and growth factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaVigne, E K; Jones, A K; Londoño, A Sanchez; Schauer, A S; Patterson, D F; Nadeau, J A; Reed, S A

    2015-12-01

    Success as equine athletes requires proper muscle growth in young horses. Muscle hypertrophy occurs through protein synthesis and the contribution of muscle satellite cells, which can be stimulated or inhibited by cytokines and growth factors present during exercise and growth. The hypotheses of this study were that 1) the LM area in young horses would increase over 1 yr, and 2) specific cytokines and growth factors (IL-1β, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-α, IGF-I, and fibroblast growth factor [FGF]-2) would alter proliferation and differentiation of satellite cells isolated from young horses. Fourteen horses were divided into 3 age groups: weanlings ( = 5), yearlings to 2 yr olds ( = 4), and 3 to 4 yr olds ( = 5). The area, height, and subcutaneous fat depth of the LM were measured using ultrasonography, and BW and BCS were taken in October (Fall1), April (Spring), and October of the following year (Fall2). Satellite cells obtained from 10-d-old foals ( = 4) were cultured in the presence of IL-6, IL-1β, TNF-α, IGF-I, or FGF-2 before evaluation of proliferation and differentiation. Data were analyzed using PROC MIXED in SAS. Body weight increased from Fall1 to Spring in weanlings ( horses from Spring to Fall2 ( ≤ 0.02). Area and height of the LM increased over time ( horse ( ≤ 0.03), although there was no interaction of time and age ( > 0.61). There was a significant increase in LM area in all animals from Spring to Fall2 ( horses with the most growth occurring in summer. By stimulating or inhibiting proliferation and differentiation of satellite cells, IL-6, TNF-α, IL-1β, IGF-I, and FGF-2 may alter muscle growth in young horses, thereby impacting athletic potential.

  15. [Taking into account both chronology and duration of events is crucial in the medical interview].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheen, A J

    2016-03-01

    Medical history taking represents a key step in the diagnostic approach. A structured interview with a special attention to the chronology of events is mandatory. The medical student often fails to use the information on time in an optimal way. The aim of this article is to draw the attention on a few key elements, especially the age of the patient, the duration of symptoms, the time of occurrence of complaints within the 24h period and, finally, how to interpret the simultaneous or sequential occurrence of two (or more) events.

  16. Small effect of genetic factors on neck pain in old age: a study of 2,108 Danish twins 70 years of age and older

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartvigsen, Jan; Petersen, Hans Christian; Frederiksen, Henrik;

    2005-01-01

    environmental risk factors (rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, disc prolapse, and coronary heart disease) showed no significant additive genetic, dominant genetic, or common environmental effects. CONCLUSION: Genetic factors do not play an important role in the liability to neck pain in persons 70 years......STUDY DESIGN: Classic twin study. OBJECTIVES: To determine the heritability of neck pain in persons 70 years of age and older. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Previous studies have shown a moderate effect of genetic factors on back pain in the elderly. Genetic influence on neck pain in old age...... is unknown. METHODS: Data on the 1-month prevalence of neck pain from twin pairs participating in the population based Longitudinal Study of Aging Danish Twins formed the basis of this analysis. To assess twin similarity, probandwise concordance rates, odds ratios, and tetrachoric correlations were...

  17. Tuck Jump Assessment: An Exploratory Factor Analysis in a College Age Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lininger, Monica R; Smith, Craig A; Chimera, Nicole J; Hoog, Philipp; Warren, Meghan

    2017-03-01

    Lininger, MR, Smith, CA, Chimera, NJ, Hoog, P, and Warren, M. Tuck Jump Assessment: An exploratory factor analysis in a college age population. J Strength Cond Res 31(3): 653-659, 2017-Due to the high rate of noncontact lower extremity injuries that occur in the collegiate setting, medical personnel are implementing screening mechanisms to identify those athletes that may be at risk for certain injuries before starting a sports season. The tuck jump assessment (TJA) was created as a "clinician friendly" tool to identify lower extremity landing technique flaws during a plyometric activity. There are 10 technique flaws that are assessed as either having the apparent deficit or not during the TJA. Technique flaws are then summed up for an overall score. Through expert consensus, these 10 technique flaws have been grouped into 5 modifiable risk factors: ligament dominance, quadriceps dominance, leg dominance or residual injury deficits, trunk dominance ("core" dysfunction), and technique perfection. Research has not investigated the psychometric properties of the TJA technique flaws or the modifiable risk factors. The present study is a psychometric analysis of the TJA technique flaws to measure the internal structure using an exploratory factor analysis (EFA) using data from collegiate athletes (n = 90) and a general college cohort (n = 99). The EFA suggested a 3 factor model accounting for 46% of the variance. The 3 factors were defined as fatigue, distal landing pattern, and proximal control. The results differ from the 5 modifiable risk categories as previously suggested. These results may question the use of a single score, a unidimensional construct, of the TJA for injury screening.

  18. Risk factors for vitamin A deficiency among preschool aged children in Pohnpei, Federated States of Micronesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamura, Carrie M; Sullivan, Kevin M; van der Haar, Frits; Auerbach, Steven B; Iohp, Kidsen K

    2004-02-01

    In 1993, the Department of Health of the Federated States of Micronesia (FSM) conducted a population-based stratified random survey among 355 children aged 24-48 months in Pohnpei, one of the four FSM States. The objective was to determine the prevalence, and explore risk factors for vitamin A deficiency (VAD). Trained field workers collected data from a range of demographic, dietary and socioeconomic variables related to the children. The serum retinol concentration was 19.4 +/- 7.5 microg/dl (mean +/- SD), and the VAD prevalence (serum retinol <20 microg/dl) 53.1 per cent. The significant independent risk factors, determined by logistic regression, were: mother's work at home, sibling <2 years older, rural household located on the main island, early weaning, and child anemia, controlling for pipe water and electricity in the household. If compared with a reference of apparently healthy children of similar age in the USA, the distribution of serum retinol among young Pohnpei children was shifted entirely to low levels. We conclude that eliminating the pervasive VAD problem in Pohnpei would require a multi-pronged tactical approach that combines dietary improvement strategies with the ongoing supplementation effort.

  19. Association between maternal socioeconomic factors and nutritional outcomes in children under 5 years of age,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiane Géa-Horta

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To estimate the association between maternal socioeconomic factors and the occurrence of nutritional outcomes in children under five years of age in a representative sample of the Brazilian population. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study that evaluated data from the latest National Survey of Children and Women's Demographics and Health, carried out in Brazil in 2006-2007. Maternal employment and maternal level of schooling were the main exposures. The following nutritional outcomes in children were considered: height/age 2SD for overweight. Generalized estimating equations (GEE were utilized as the regression method. Results: After adjustments, it was observed that children whose mothers had low level of schooling had a higher chance of having short stature (OR = 3.97, 95% CI, 1.23-12.80 and children whose mothers worked outside the home were more likely to have excess weight (OR = 1.57, 95% CI, 1.02-2.42. Maternal employment was not associated with short stature in children (OR = 1.09, 95% CI, 0.67-1.77. Conclusion: Maternal level of schooling was associated with short stature in children and maternal employment with overweight, indicating the need to take into account the socioeconomic factors when proposing programs and strategies aimed at health and nutrition improvement of children, considering inter-sectoral interventions.

  20. Steroidogenic Factor 1 in the Ventromedial Nucleus of the Hypothalamus Regulates Age-Dependent Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinyua, Ann W.; Yang, Dong Joo; Chang, Inik; Kim, Ki Woo

    2016-01-01

    The ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (VMH) is important for the regulation of whole body energy homeostasis and lesions in the VMH are reported to result in massive weight gain. The nuclear receptor steroidogenic factor 1 (SF-1) is a known VMH marker as it is exclusively expressed in the VMH region of the brain. SF-1 plays a critical role not only in the development of VMH but also in its physiological functions. In this study, we generated prenatal VMH-specific SF-1 KO mice and investigated age-dependent energy homeostasis regulation by SF-1. Deletion of SF-1 in the VMH resulted in dysregulated insulin and leptin homeostasis and late onset obesity due to increased food intake under normal chow and high fat diet conditions. In addition, SF-1 ablation was accompanied by a marked reduction in energy expenditure and physical activity and this effect was significantly pronounced in the aged mice. Taken together, our data indicates that SF-1 is a key component in the VMH-mediated regulation of energy homeostasis and implies that SF-1 plays a protective role against metabolic stressors including aging and high fat diet. PMID:27598259

  1. Ancient Egyptian chronology and the astronomical orientation of pyramids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, Kate

    2000-11-01

    The ancient Egyptian pyramids at Giza have never been accurately dated, although we know that they were built approximately around the middle of the third millennium BC. The chronologies of this period have been reconstructed from surviving lists of kings and the lengths of their reigns, but the lists are rare, seldom complete and contain known inconsistencies and errors. As a result, the existing chronologies for that period (the Old Kingdom) can be considered accurate only to about +/-100 years, a figure that radiocarbon dating cannot at present improve. Here I use trends in the orientation of Old Kingdom pyramids to demonstrate that the Egyptians aligned them to north by using the simultaneous transit of two circumpolar stars. Modelling the precession of these stars yields a date for the start of construction of the Great Pyramid that is accurate to +/-5 yr, thereby providing an anchor for the Old Kingdom chronologies.

  2. Modelling of dead carbon fraction in speleothems: a step towards reliable speleothem 14C-chronologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechleitner, Franziska A.; Jamieson, Robert A.; McIntyre, Cameron; Baldini, Lisa M.; Baldini, James U. L.; Eglinton, Timothy I.

    2015-04-01

    the top 1mm of the stalagmite, using a gas ion source (GIS) on the MICADAS. The resulting DCF-corrected chronology shows that the stalagmite grew over much of the Holocene, and reveals that existing U-Th dates strongly overestimated the real ages and thus are unreliable. In contrast, the new 14C-based chronology, when constrained using trace element ratios and stable isotopes, enables confident reconstruction of broad climatic changes and trends over the Holocene.

  3. Hepatitis A virus age-specific sero-prevalence and risk factors among Jordanian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayajneh, Wail A; Balbeesi, Adel; Faouri, Samir

    2015-04-01

    Hepatitis A Virus (HAV) has been a significant cause of infections among the children and adolescents of Jordan. Availability of safe vaccines made it necessary to identify the ill-defined temporal immunity trends for HAV and possible age-specific prevalence transitions. This community-based cross sectional study was conducted during the period July-August 2008 on 3,066 recruited subjects from the 12 governorates of Jordan, with pre-defined criteria. Several households were chosen at random within each selected block to enroll the subjects. They were interviewed and data were collected. Their sera were tested for total antibodies against HAV. A multivariate model was then performed to identify the possible risk factors. The HAV sero-prevalence rates among the age categories-second year, 2-4 years, 5-9 years, 10-14 years, 15-19 years, and those above 20 years were 26%, 32%, 44%, 63%, 78%, and 94%, respectively. The model revealed the association of several risk factors for higher HAV sero-prevalence rates: (i) older age groups; (ii) lower maternal education levels; (iii) residing in certain governorates; (iv) using public net drinking water; and (v) avoiding use of public net sewage system. This study provided strong evidence for continuous transition of HAV epidemiology towards intermediate endemicity in Jordan, with more susceptible adolescents and adults. Following the World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations for countries with intermediate endemicity, large-scale hepatitis A vaccination is recommended for children in Jordan. This is strengthened by the availability of effective and safe HAV vaccines, improving the socio-economic status of the Jordanians, and increasing life expectancy among Jordanians.

  4. Inflammation and infection do not promote arterial aging and cardiovascular disease risk factors among lean horticulturalists.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Gurven

    Full Text Available Arterial aging is well characterized in industrial populations, but scantly described in populations with little access to modern medicine. Here we characterize health and aging among the Tsimane, Amazonian forager-horticulturalists with short life expectancy, high infectious loads and inflammation, but low adiposity and robust physical fitness. Inflammation has been implicated in all stages of arterial aging, atherogenesis and hypertension, and so we test whether greater inflammation associates with atherosclerosis and CVD risk. In contrast, moderate to vigorous daily activity, minimal obesity, and low fat intake predict minimal CVD risk among older Tsimane.Peripheral arterial disease (PAD, based on the Ankle-Brachial Index (ABI, and hypertension were measured in Tsimane adults, and compared with rates from industrialized populations. No cases of PAD were found among Tsimane and hypertension was comparatively low (prevalence: 3.5%, 40+; 23%, 70+. Markers of infection and inflammation were much higher among Tsimane than among U.S. adults, whereas HDL was substantially lower. Regression models examine associations of ABI and BP with biomarkers of energy balance and metabolism and of inflammation and infection. Among Tsimane, obesity, blood lipids, and disease history were not significantly associated with ABI. Unlike the Tsimane case, higher cholesterol, C-reactive protein, leukocytes, cigarette smoking and systolic pressure among North Americans are all significantly associated with lower ABI.Inflammation may not always be a risk factor for arterial degeneration and CVD, but instead may be offset by other factors: healthy metabolism, active lifestyle, favorable body mass, lean diet, low blood lipids and cardiorespiratory health. Other possibilities, including genetic susceptibility and the role of helminth infections, are discussed. The absence of PAD and CVD among Tsimane parallels anecdotal reports from other small-scale subsistence

  5. Evolução da aptidão física e capacidade funcional de mulheres ativas acima de 50 anos de idade de acordo com a idade cronológica, na cidade de Santos Evolution of physical fitness and functional capacity in active elderly women over 50 years of age according to chronological age in Santos city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos Lopes Penha

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi comparar a evolução da aptidão física, capacidade funcional e densidade mineral óssea de mulheres fisicamente ativas durante um ano. Métodos: A amostra consistiu de 78 mulheres de 50 a 79 anos de idade (c: 62,4 ± 7,1 anos, participantes de um programa de exercícios aeróbicos, duas vezes por semana, 50 minutos por sessão durante 3,4 anos e divididas em três grupos: A: 5059 (n: 38; B: 6069 (n: 28; C: 7079 (n:12. Os resultados foram comparados usando ANOVA Two Way com "post-hoc" Bonferroni e delta percentual (*pThe scope of this study was to compare the evolution of physical fitness, functional capacity and bone mineral density in active elderly women over a one-year period. The sample consisted of 78 women from 50 to 79 years of age (c:62.4 ± 7.1 participating in an aerobic program, twice a week, 50 minutes per session during 3.4 years and divided into three age groups: A: 50-59 (n:38; B: 60-69 (n:28; C: 70-79 (n:12. Results were compared using Two Way ANOVA, "post-hoc" Bonferroni and delta (D% variations (*p<.o1. The velocity of rising from a chair and gait speed revealed a significant difference in the three groups ranging from -14.3% to -45.5%; there was a significant improvement in A and B groups in walking speed (-12.1% to -13.9%, and also in maximum gait speed (-15.4% to -18.5%, elbow flexion in all the groups (18.9% to 24.1%, vertical jump (22.5% to 43.9% in groups B and C, and rising from a chair in 30 seconds (25.2% to 30.8% in groups A and B, the flexibility test showed an increase in group A (16.2% to 33.3% and stationary walking in the three groups of (16,4% 30.0% and bone mineral density (BMD presented a significant increase (3.1% to 10.2%. The results indicate the salutary effect of regular physical activity.

  6. Determination of an ageing factor for lead/acid batteries. 1. Kinetic aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armenta-Deu, C.; Donaire, T.

    The capacity of lead/acid batteries decreases with the number of cycles. This process is known as ageing. The reduction of capacity affects not only the operation time but also the performance of the accumulator and of the system attached to the battery. One of the main procedures affected by the battery ageing is the determination of the state-of-charge. In this paper, a parameter called 'ageing factor', fa, which represents the reduction of the available energy in lead/acid batteries, is introduced. A method to calculate this factory and its incidence on battery performance has also been developed. The method is intended to predict 'ageing' effects on lead/acid batteries as a non-destructive method, as well as on-line battery operation. The method is based on the effective reduction in electrolyte specific gravity in a fully charged lead/acid battery computed from the change of the slope of the electrolyte density during charge with the number of cycles, and the subsequent reduction in discharge time. A correlation process between the reduction of the energy delivered by the electrochemical cell, the reduction of the discharge time, and the apparent change of the slope of electrolyte density has been developed, resulting in an analytical expression that may be used to compute the effective reduction in available energy in lead/acid batteries. The results of the experiments have proven the merit of the proposed system: the predicted values are in good agreement with experimental data, the associated error in the a estimation being lower than 9%, a result which has been considered acceptable to validate the proposed method.

  7. Dietary and lifestyle risk factors associated with age-related macular degeneration: A hospital based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhatiwada Nidhi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim : To establish the frequency, associations and risk factors for age-related macular degeneration (AMD in hospital population of South India. Materials and Methods : In this cross-sectional hospital based study, 3549 subjects (2090 men and 1459 women above 45 years of age were screened randomly for AMD. Participants underwent ocular evaluation and were interviewed for lifestyle variables and dietary intake of carotenoids by structured food frequency questionnaire. AMD was defined according to the international classifications and grading system. Results : Either form of AMD was detected in 77 (2.2% participants. Of which, early and late AMD was present in 63 (1.8% and 14 (0.4% subjects, respectively. Binary logistic analysis showed that the incidence of AMD was significantly higher with increasing age (Odds ratio [OR] 1.17; 95% CI 1.13-1.22 and diabetes (OR 3.97; 95% CI 2.11-7.46. However, AMD was significant among heavy cigarette smokers (OR 5.58; 95% CI 0.88-7.51 and alcoholics (OR 4.85; 95% CI 2.45-12.22. Dietary lutein/zeaxanthin (L/Z and β-carotene intake were associated (P < 0.001 with the reduction in risk for AMD, with an OR of 0.38 and 0.65, respectively. Conclusions : Higher dietary intake of carotenoids, especially L/Z, was associated with lower risk for AMD. Risk of AMD is higher with increasing age and was prevalent among subjects with diabetes. Cessation of smoking and alcohol may reduce the risk of AMD in this population.

  8. Age dependency of serum insulin - like growth factor (IGF-1 in healthy Turkish adolescents and adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiryakioaylu O

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Serum levels of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1 reflect endogenous growth hormone (GH secretion in healthy subjects. Measurements of IGF-1 are useful for diagnosis and follow-up of patients with acromegaly and the diagnosis of GH deficiency in children. AIMS: To assess age dependency and normal ranges of serum IGF-1 levels in healthy Turkish population. SETTING AND DESIGN: We therefore studied 272 healthy adolescents and adults between 15-75 years of age. None had diabetes or other endocrine disease or had received estrogen therapy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Height, weight, body mass index (BMI and waist-hip ratio were measured in all subjects. Serum samples were obtained during morning hours and IGF-1 was measured by radioimmunoassay. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: The age-dependent reference range for serum IGF-1 concentrations was calculated by simple least linear regression analysis: the regression line represents the means with 95 percent confidence intervals. Correlation analysis was also done. RESULTS: Ageing was negatively related to serum levels of IGF-1 (P= 0.0001, r=-0.931 with a mean decrease (youngest vs. oldest. IGF-1 levels increased during adolescence, with the highest mean values during puberty. After puberty, a subsequent decline in serum levels of IGF-1 was apparent. There were also a significant difference according to gender; females had significantly higher levels (357.909+/-219.167 mg/L than males (307.962+/-198.41 mg/L (P=0.012. IGF-1 levels were correlated with body height (P=0.001, r=0.223, body weight (P=0.002,r=-0.188 and BMI (P=0.039, r=0.128. CONCLUSION: IGF-1 serum levels increase in adolescents with a peak in puberty, whereafter IGF-1 levels return to prepubertal levels.

  9. Age as a predictive factor of mammographic breast density in Jamaican women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, Deanne; Reid, Marvin; James, Michael

    2002-06-01

    AIM: We sought to determine the relationship between age, and other clinical characteristics such as parity, oestrogen use, dietary factors and menstrual history on breast density in Jamaican women. METHODS AND MATERIALS: A retrospective study was done of 891 patients who attended the breast imaging unit. The clinical characteristics were extracted from the patient records. Mammograms were assessed independently by two radiologists who were blinded to the patient clinical characteristics. Breast densities were assigned using the American College of Radiology (ACR) classification. RESULTS: The concordance between the ACR classification of breast density between the two independent radiologists was 92% with k = 0.76 (SE = 0.02, P < 0.001). Women with low breast density were heavier (81.3 {+-} 15.5 kg vs 68.4 {+-} 14.3 kg,P < 0.0001, mean {+-} standard deviation (SD)) and more obese (body mass index (BMI), 30.3 {+-} 5.8 kg m{sup -2} vs 26.0 {+-} 5.2 kg m{sup -2}, P < 0.0001). Mammographic breast density decreased with age. The age adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for predictors significantly related to high breast density were parity, OR = 0.79 (95%CI:0.71, 0.88), weight, OR = 0.92 (95% CI:0.91, 0.95), BMI, OR = 0.83 (95% CI:0.78, 0.89), menopause, OR = 0.51 (95% CI:0.36, 0.74) and a history of previous breast surgery, OR 1.6 (95% CI:1.1, 2.3). CONCLUSION: The rate decline of breast density with age in our population was influenced by parity and body composition. Soares, D. et al. (2002)

  10. Volcano-induced regime shifts in millennial tree-ring chronologies from northeastern North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gennaretti, Fabio; Arseneault, Dominique; Nicault, Antoine; Perreault, Luc; Bégin, Yves

    2014-07-15

    Dated records of ice-cap growth from Arctic Canada recently suggested that a succession of strong volcanic eruptions forced an abrupt onset of the Little Ice Age between A.D. 1275 and 1300 [Miller GH, et al. (2012) Geophys Res Lett 39(2):L02708, 10.1029/2011GL050168]. Although this idea is supported by simulation experiments with general circulation models, additional support from field data are limited. In particular, the Northern Hemisphere network of temperature-sensitive millennial tree-ring chronologies, which principally comprises Eurasian sites, suggests that the strongest eruptions only caused cooling episodes lasting less than about 10 y. Here we present a new network of millennial tree-ring chronologies from the taiga of northeastern North America, which fills a wide gap in the network of the Northern Hemisphere's chronologies suitable for temperature reconstructions and supports the hypothesis that volcanoes triggered both the onset and the coldest episode of the Little Ice Age. Following the well-expressed Medieval Climate Anomaly (approximately A.D. 910-1257), which comprised the warmest decades of the last millennium, our tree-ring-based temperature reconstruction displays an abrupt regime shift toward lower average summer temperatures precisely coinciding with a series of 13th century eruptions centered around the 1257 Samalas event and closely preceding ice-cap expansion in Arctic Canada. Furthermore, the successive 1809 (unknown volcano) and 1815 (Tambora) eruptions triggered a subsequent shift to the coldest 40-y period of the last 1100 y. These results confirm that series of large eruptions may cause region-specific regime shifts in the climate system and that the climate of northeastern North America is especially sensitive to volcanic forcing.

  11. Deactivation of the GATA Transcription Factor ELT-2 Is a Major Driver of Normal Aging in C. elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Frederick G; Van Nostrand, Eric L; Friedland, Ari E; Liu, Xiao; Kim, Stuart K

    2016-04-01

    To understand the molecular processes underlying aging, we screened modENCODE ChIP-seq data to identify transcription factors that bind to age-regulated genes in C. elegans. The most significant hit was the GATA transcription factor encoded by elt-2, which is responsible for inducing expression of intestinal genes during embryogenesis. Expression of ELT-2 decreases during aging, beginning in middle age. We identified genes regulated by ELT-2 in the intestine during embryogenesis, and then showed that these developmental genes markedly decrease in expression as worms grow old. Overexpression of elt-2 extends lifespan and slows the rate of gene expression changes that occur during normal aging. Thus, our results identify the developmental regulator ELT-2 as a major driver of normal aging in C. elegans.

  12. Deactivation of the GATA Transcription Factor ELT-2 Is a Major Driver of Normal Aging in C. elegans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederick G Mann

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available To understand the molecular processes underlying aging, we screened modENCODE ChIP-seq data to identify transcription factors that bind to age-regulated genes in C. elegans. The most significant hit was the GATA transcription factor encoded by elt-2, which is responsible for inducing expression of intestinal genes during embryogenesis. Expression of ELT-2 decreases during aging, beginning in middle age. We identified genes regulated by ELT-2 in the intestine during embryogenesis, and then showed that these developmental genes markedly decrease in expression as worms grow old. Overexpression of elt-2 extends lifespan and slows the rate of gene expression changes that occur during normal aging. Thus, our results identify the developmental regulator ELT-2 as a major driver of normal aging in C. elegans.

  13. A detailed post-IR IRSL chronology for the last interglacial soil at the Jingbian loess site (northern China)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buylaert, Jan-Pieter; Yeo, Eun-Young; Thiel, Christine

    2015-01-01

    The chronology of dust deposition and climate during the last interglacial is poorly known on the Chinese Loess Plateau. Here, 51 samples were taken from the ~5 m S1 palaeosol (MIS5) at the desert marginal Jingbian site to develop what is currently the most detailed S1 chronology on the Plateau...... dependence of De on first IR stimulation temperature between 50 and 260 °C suggesting negligible signal fading. Resultant ages are consistent with a last interglacial age (~130 to ~75 ka) and are also consistent within errors with continuous linear sedimentation rates. The average mass accumulation rate...... for S1 is ~150 g m-2 a-1, considerably higher than at many other sites but within the overall range of Loess Plateau estimates. The remarkably stable sediment accumulation at the site contrasts with a more complex record of environmental and monsoonal change recorded in grain-size and magnetic...

  14. Factors influencing sexual function of middle-aged married Korean women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jee, YoungJu; Kim, YoungHae

    2015-03-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the status of women's sexual function and relevant factors given the fact that women's health is crucial to the national health, and in particular that women's sexual health has a significant impact on their overall health. [Subjects and Methods] This study surveyed 353 women living in South Korea's P and K metropolitan regions from July 2012 to August 10, 2013. The Female Sexual Functional Index (FSFI), the Sexual Attitude Scale (SAS), sexual knowledge and questionnaires were used. [Results] Two groups based on FSFI scores above and below a cutoff value of 25 were compared with each other, and significant differences were found in age, male friends, menstrual status, sex status, and frequency of sex, experience of forced sex, personal health, husband's health and sexual knowledge. Male friends, sex status, experience of forced sex, husband's healths and sexual knowledge explained women's sexual function. [Conclusion] The finding that women's sexual function is associated with multiple factors suggests an intervention program for improving women's sexual function should be developed to reflect the factors influencing the target groups' sexual function.

  15. Prevalence of Coronary Risk Factors among Population Aged 35 Years and Above From Rural Maharashtra, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek Singh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: It is predicted that cardiovascular diseases will be the most important cause of mortality in India by the year 2015. Since the key to combating the increased incidence of coronary artery disease (CAD is the control of known risk factors by a population based strategy aimed at comprehensive risk reduction, it is pertinent to study the magnitude of the risk. Aim: The present study was therefore conducted to assess the prevalence of certain coronary risk factors among rural population aged 35 years and above in Maharashtra. Methods: The present community based cross sectional survey was carried out in the rural area of Pune district on 272 subjects using a structured questionnaire, clinical examination followed by lab investigations. SPSS version 17.0 was used for analysis. Results: Tobacco consumption was found to be prevalent in 51.83% of the study subjects followed by physical inactivity which was prevalent among 31.61% whereas high diastolic blood pressure was found to be prevalent in 29.41% of the study subjects. Obesity and alcohol consumption were found to be prevalent among 13.97% of the study subjects. Among the biochemical parameters studied, hypertriglyceridemia was found to be prevalent in 22.05% followed by raised fasting blood sugar in 15.44% of the study subjects. Conclusion: Behaviour change communication strategies targeting these modifiable known high risk factors need to be emphasized to lower coronary heart disease (CHD related morbidity burden in the community.

  16. Body Mass Index assessment of institutionalized aged people without cognitive impairment using clinical and nutritional factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Mar Ruperto López

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Overweight and obesity are recognized mortality risk factors in the general population. The aim of the study was to analyse the phenotypic distribution of body mass index (BMI, and to identify the prevalence of malnutrition and clinical and nutritional factors related to BMI in autonomous institutionalized elders. Material and Methods: Cross-sectional and descriptive study in 104 institutionalized aged people (73% female, mean of age 86.4 [±6.2] years and time on institutionalization 25.7 [±21.7] months. Mini-Nutritional Assessment (MNA, anthropometric measures and laboratory parameters were used for nutritional assessment. Bioimpedance analysis (BIA-101; RJL-System was used for body composition analysis. The sample was classified into BMI tertiles (Tn: T1=<26.2kg/m2; T2=26.3-29.7kg/m2; and T3=≥29.8kg/m2. Results: The phenotypic distribution of BMI was: overweight 51% and, prevalence of obesity 29.8%. Mean of BMI: 28.3 (±4.6 kg/m2. Nutritional risk or malnutrition were 60.6% and 11.5%, respectively in the sample. The tertiles of BMI showed significant differences with: mid-arm muscle circumference, triceps-skinfold thickness, total body water (TBW (all, p<0.001. Subjects into T1 had significantly higher nutritional risk or malnutrition compared with T2 and T3 counterparts (p=0.015. Waist-circumference, calf-circumference (at least, p<0.01, and TBW (p<0.001 were independent predictors of BMI in the linear regression analysis (R2=0.52. Conclusions: Overweight and obesity measured by BMI is not an exclusion criterion of malnutrition in the geriatric population. Nutritional screening by MNA and the conjoint use of clinical-nutritional parameters are useful for identifying at nutritional risk or malnutrition. Further studies are needed to define the potential nutritional risk factors associated with BMI in autonomous institutionalized aged.

  17. Age-related alterations in TGF beta signaling as a causal factor of cartilage degeneration in osteoarthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraan, P.M. van der

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Age is the most important risk factor for primary osteoarthritis (OA). Members of the TGF-beta superfamily play a crucial role in chondrocyte differentiation and maintenance of healthy articular cartilage. OBJECTIVE: We have investigated whether age-related changes in TGF-beta superfamil

  18. Accumulation of Advanced Glycation End Products as a Molecular Mechanism for Aging as a Risk Factor in Osteoarthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, J. de; Verzijl, N.; Wenting-Wijk, M.J.G. van; Jacobs, K.M.G.; El, B. van; Roermund, P.M. van; Bank, R.A.; Bijlsma, J.W.J.; TeKoppele, J.M.; Lafeber, F.P.J.G.

    2004-01-01

    Objective. Osteoarthritis (OA) is one of the most prevalent and disabling chronic conditions affecting the elderly. Its etiology is largely unknown, but age is the most prominent risk factor. The current study was designed to test whether accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs), which

  19. Factors that Limit and Enable Preschool-Aged Children's Physical Activity on Child Care Centre Playgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Bianca; Dyment, Janet E.

    2013-01-01

    The incidence of childhood obesity amongst preschool-aged children has increased dramatically in recent years and can be attributed, in part, to a lack of physical activity amongst children in this age group. This study explores the social factors that stand to limit and/or enable children's physical activity opportunities in outdoor settings…

  20. 77 FR 19080 - Disparate Impact and Reasonable Factors Other Than Age Under the Age Discrimination in Employment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-30

    ... Age Discrimination in Employment Act AGENCY: Equal Employment Opportunity Commission. ACTION: Final... of proof by requiring the employer to prove that the challenged employment action was not based on... commenter asserted that, whereas tort law and sexual-harassment theory assess reasonableness in terms of...

  1. AGE AS A FACTOR IN THE COMPLICATIONS RATES AFTER REMOVAL OF IMPACTED MANDIBULAR THIRD MOLARS: A REVIEW OF LITERATURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samir

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT : PURPOSE: The purpose of the study was to estimate the frequency of complications after mandibular third molar surgery, with age as the primary risk factor. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Review of literatures were selected and It was analyzed from last 25 years publications with a pubmed search using the following ke y words such as : impacted third molar, age, wisdom tooth, age and post operative complications ,age and inflammatory tissue reaction, mandibular third molar surgery, tooth extraction and age, wisdom tooth. Additionally, hand searching of key texts, refer ences, and reviews relevant to the field were performed. RESULTS: The effect of age on post operative complications after third molar surgery was combined with other factors such as tooth, operating and clinical factors. Studies reviewed have shown that no specific age demonstrate increase morbidity. Pain, swelling and trismus were most common complications associated with increase age. CONCLUSIONS: The results of these analyses suggest that increased age appears to be associated with a higher complication rate for mandibular third molar extractions.

  2. Online newspapers: the impact of culture, sex, and age on the perceived importance of specified quality factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beverley G. Hope

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available There has been a proliferation of online newspapers over recent years. Despite this, or perhaps because of it, factors affecting the quality of online newspapers remain only partially understood. Based on a two-factor model of hygiene and motivator factors, this paper examines quality for online newspapers giving attention to differences across culture, sex, and age. Hygiene factors are essential requirements whose absence causes dissatisfaction, while motivators are desirable elements that add value and increase user satisfaction. The paper presents findings from an empirical study of eighty-four Web users. Results show that hygiene factors for our respondents were: Timeliness, Content attractiveness, Content coverage, Usefulness, and Navigation, while motivators were: Writing style, Layout, Archives, Services, Interactivity, and Multimedia presentation. Four factors were borderline: Journalism ethics, Ease of use, Front page and headlines, and Locating information. However, the research reveals some differences in classification of factors across culture, sex, and age.

  3. Temperature signal instability of tree-ring δ13C chronology in the northeastern Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenzhi; Liu, Xiaohong; Xu, Guobao; Zeng, Xiaomin; Wu, Guoju; Zhang, Xuanwen; Qin, Dahe

    2016-04-01

    Tree ring δ13C as a climate proxy is widely used for palaeoclimate research, however, its temporal stability response to the climate change remains unclear under more than one limited factors on tree growth. Here, we used a millennium tree-ring δ13C chronology combining two annual-resolution δ13C chronologies since 1800 from long-lived Qilian juniper (Sabina przewalskii) to assess its instability of the climate signal in the northeastern Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. Tree-ring δ13C chronologies were strongly correlated with the regional mean April to August temperature from 1956 to 2008, but the associations were absent within the period 1901 to 1955 values in the CRU TS dataset. Comparison of the millennium-long δ13C series with reconstructed Asian temperatures also demonstrated that the δ13C chronology exhibited climate signal temporal instability. Substantial oscillations were revealed using a frequency-dependent analysis and 51-year running correlation analysis from the millennium-long tree-ring δ13C and δ18O series. Dual-isotope approach indicated that stomatal limitations created a statistical significant positive correlation between tree-ring δ13C and δ18O, but photosynthetic rate may be dominant when the correlations were not significant. Our results suggest that tree-ring δ13C series in the northeastern Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau is responded instability to temperature variations in the past 1000 years.

  4. HLA B27 as Predisposition Factor to Suffer Age Related Macular Degeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becerril, Enrique Villegas; Fernández, Rafael González; Torres, Luis Pérula; Lacomba, Manuel Santos; Galera, José María Gallardo

    2009-01-01

    To research whether specific alleles HLA class I (HLA-A and HLA-B) and class II (HLA-DR) are risk factors for the development of exudative type of Age Related Macular Degeneration (ARMD), HLA antigens are expressed both in normal and affected eyes with ARMD. We designed a prospective case-controlled study. We recruited 75 patients with choroidal neovascularization predominantly classic or occult, secondary to ARMD, and treated with photodynamic therapy. Two hundred and fifty patients over 55 years old, without ophthalmologic pathology who went to hospital for an analytical routine check were used as control. The analysis of the data shows a significant difference between two groups. Allele HLA-B27 correlated positively with ARMD (p < 0.0113). However, we didn't find alleles negatively associated. Thus HLA-B27 is an allele predisposed to suffer ARMD. PMID:19728932

  5. Prognostic factors in de novo myelodysplastic syndrome in young and middle-aged people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Наталья Николаевна Климкович

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We spent multivariate analysis of clinical and laboratory parameters for the prediction of de-novo myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS patients aged 18-60 years. The results of clinical application of prognostic systems in MDS show that there is a large variability within individual risk groups, especially at low-risk MDS. So now hematologists conduct research aimed at identifying additional adverse risk MDS. This is done so that patients with low-risk MDS embodiments and unfavorable prognosis could benefit from early therapeutic intervention, and not only be clinician monitored until disease progression. We found that additional adverse risk factors for the development of MDS are the expression of CD95 in bone marrow ≤40 % and FLT3≥60 %. The expression level of CD95 in bone marrow cells≤40 % and FLT3≥60 % can be considered as a prognostic marker progression of MDS and time start specific therapy

  6. Factors influencing perceived oral health of Japanese middle-aged adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Masayuki; Zaitsu, Takashi; Ohara, Satoko; Wright, Clive; Kawaguchi, Yoko

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the relationships between subjective oral health symptoms and clinical oral health conditions on the perceived oral health of 1799 Japanese middle-aged adults. A self-administered questionnaire together with dental examinations was administered. A structural equation modeling analysis with Bayesian estimation was used to examine the factors influencing perceived oral health as a latent variable with 4 other latent variables: subjective oral health symptoms, clinical tooth conditions, clinical periodontal conditions, and other clinical oral conditions. For perceived oral health as the endogenous variable, only subjective oral health symptoms and clinical tooth conditions showed significant relationship. Clinical periodontal conditions and other clinical oral conditions did not show significant effects on the perceived oral health.

  7. AGE AND GENDER RELATED ANALYSIS OF PSYCHOSOCIAL FACTORS IN ATTEMPTED SUICIDE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, P.N. Suresh

    1998-01-01

    Hundred consecutive suicide attempters admitted in the Medical Intensive Care Unit(MlCU) of Christian Medical College, Vellore during the period December 1991 to December 1992 were evaluated in detail with respect to all psycho-socio-demographic variables. Instruments used included a specially designed sociodemographic proforma, Gurmeet Singh's Presumptive Stressful Life Event Scale, Suicide Intent Questionnaire and DSM III R Diagnostic Criteria. Young males constituted major part of the sample. Organophosphorus poisoning was the commonest mode of suicide attempt. More than 90% had psychiatric diagnosis. Adjustment disorder was the commonest psychiatric diagnosis followed by major depression and alcohol abuse/dependence. Many of the risk factors reported earlier was found to be operating in older age group only. Among males the commonest mode of attempt was organophosphorus poisoning whereas in females it was drug over dose and native poisoning. The implication of these findings are discussed in the context of prevention and further management strategies. PMID:21494498

  8. Complement factor H and hemicentin-1 in age-related macular degeneration and renal phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Cheryl L; Klein, Barbara E K; Klein, Ronald; Xu, Zhiying; Capriotti, Jennifer; Joshi, Tripti; Leontiev, Dmitry; Lee, Kristine E; Elston, Robert C; Iyengar, Sudha K

    2007-09-01

    In this study, we investigated the associations of complement factor H (CFH) and hemicentin-1 (HMCN1) with age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and renal function. Three scales, measuring the course of AMD and drusen development, were examined in two samples: the Family Age-Related Macular degeneration Study (FARMS), consisting of families ascertained through a single individual with severe AMD, and an unascertained population-based family cohort, the Beaver Dam Eye Study (BDES), which was also used to assess longitudinal changes in AMD and associations with renal function. Associations were performed by a regression accounting for known risk factors as well as familial and sibling effects. Strong evidence of the association of rs1061170 (Y402H) variation with AMD was confirmed (P = 9.15 x 10(-5) in BDES, P = 0.016 in FARMS). This association was observed in multiple AMD scales, suggesting that its role is not phenotype-specific. Polymorphisms in both CFH and HMCN1 appeared to influence the longitudinal rate of change of AMD. The rs1061170 polymorphism was also associated with a reduction in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) (P = 0.046). Another CFH polymorphism, rs800292, was similarly associated with eGFR [beta = -0.90 (P = 0.022)]. Associations between rs743137 (P = 0.05) and rs680638 (P = 0.022) in HMCN1 with calculated creatinine clearance progression were also observed. Both genes appear to play a role in both AMD and renal pathophysiology. These findings support evidence for common pathways influencing ocular and renal function and suggest that further work is required on their common determinants.

  9. [Genetic factors in susceptibility to age- and noise-related hearing loss].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sliwińiska-Kowalska, Mariola; Pawelczyk, Małgorzata; Kowalski, Tomasz Jarema

    2006-10-01

    Individual susceptibility to age-related hearing loss (AHL) and noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) varies greatly, and this inter-individual variation is due to an interaction of environmental factors, individual factors, and susceptibility genes. Majority of studies on susceptibility genes for AHL and NIHL have been performed in mice model. These findings suggest the role of the same genes in the development of AHL and NIHL, the more so as the pathogenesis of both diseases is similar with a crucial role of oxidative stress. The alleles responsible for AHL have been localized to the chromosome 10 (Ahl gene). Ahl-/- mice develop hearing impairment at early age and are also oversensitive to noise. Ahl gene is a recessive gene and it is probably responsible for the synthesis of cell junction proteins. In mice ahl codes for cadherin (CDH) proteins. The cadherin of interest is named otocadherin or CDH23, and it is localized to the links between stereocilia of hair cells. A hypomorphic 753G>A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in Cdh 23 is associated with AHL, and the 753A variant is also correlated with susceptibility to NIHL. An increased susceptibility to AHL and NIHL may rely on the SNPs of several other genes, including the groups of oxidative stress genes, K+ ions recycling genes, monogenic deafness genes (including Connexin 26 gene, which mutation is responsible for the most frequent hereditary deafness in Caucasians), as well as mitochondrial genes. Several oxidative stress enzyme (sod1-/-, gpx -/-) knock-out mice have been shown to be more susceptible to NIHL than wild strains. Current large-scale cohort studies on AHL and NIHL performed under the European projects in between-lab collaboration along with a dynamic progress in the field of genetics of deafness open up new opportunities to find human AHL and NIHL susceptibility genes and develop methods for AHUNIHL treatment.

  10. Diabetes Mellitus and Younger Age Are Risk Factors for Hyperphosphatemia in Peritoneal Dialysis Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imtiaz, Rameez; Hawken, Steven; McCormick, Brendan B.; Leung, Simon; Hiremath, Swapnil; Zimmerman, Deborah L.

    2017-01-01

    Hyperphosphatemia has been associated with adverse outcomes in patients with end stage kidney disease (ESKD). The purpose of this study was to determine risk factors for hyperphosphatemia in ESKD patients treated with peritoneal dialysis (PD). This information will be used to develop a patient specific phosphate binder application to facilitate patient self-management of serum phosphate. Adult PD patients documented their food, beverage, and phosphate binder intake for three days using a dietitian developed food journal. Phosphate content of meals was calculated using the ESHA Food Processor SQL Software (ESHA Research, Salem, UT, USA). Clinic biochemistry tests and an adequacy assessment (Baxter Adequest program) were done. Univariate logistic regression was used to determine predictors of serum phosphate >1.78 mmol/L. A multivariable logistic regression model was then fit including those variables that achieved a significance level of p 1.78 mmol/L). In univariate analysis, the variables associated with an increased risk of hyperphosphatemia with a p-value carbonate (0.08), higher parathyroid serum concentration (0.08), lower phosphate intake (0.03), lower measured glomerular filtration rate (0.15), higher phosphate excretion (0.11), and a higher body mass index (0.15). After multivariable logistic regression analysis, younger age (odds ratio (OR) 0.023 per decade, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.00065 to 0.455; p = 0.012), presence of diabetes (OR 11.40, 95 CI 2.82 to 61.55; p = 0.0003), and measured GFR (OR 0.052 per mL/min decrease; 95% CI 0.0025 to 0.66) were associated with hyperphosphatemia. Our results support that younger age and diabetes mellitus are significant risk factors for hyperphosphatemia. These findings warrant further investigation to determine the potential mechanisms that predispose younger patients and those with DM to hyperphosphatemia. PMID:28218647

  11. Dietary and physical activity/inactivity factors associated with obesity in school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Rodriguez, Marcela; Melendez, Guillermo; Nieto, Claudia; Aranda, Marisol; Pfeffer, Frania

    2012-07-01

    Diet and physical activity (PA) are essential components of nutritional status. Adequate nutrition and an active lifestyle are key factors during childhood, because food habits track into adulthood. Children spend more time in school than in any other environment away from home. Studying the diet factors and patterns of PA that affect obesity risk in children during school hours and the complete school day can help identify opportunities to lower this risk. We directly measured the time children spent performing moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA) at school, compared the amount and intensity of PA during school hours with after-school hours, and tried to determine if diet behaviors and PA or inactivity were associated with excess weight and body fat. This cross-sectional study included 143 normal-weight (NLW) and 48 obese children aged 8-10 y. Diet data were obtained from two 24-h recalls. Body composition was measured by bioimpedance. Screen time and sports participation data were self-reported. NLW children drank/ate more dairy servings than the obese children, who consumed more fruit-flavored water than the NLW group. Consumption of soft drinks, sugar-added juices, and fresh juices was low in both groups. Children were less active during school hours than after school. MVPA was lower during school hours in the obese group than in the NLW group. Schools, parents, and authorities should be more involved in promoting strategies to improve the dietary habits and PA levels of school-aged children, because this group is not achieving the recommended level of daily MVPA.

  12. Bullying among school-age children in the greater Beirut area: risk and protective factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khamis, Vivian

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the prevalence of bullying at schools in the Greater Beirut Area and the extent to which differences in children's sociodemographics, family and school environment, and coping strategies could account for variation in academic achievement, PTSD and emotional and behavioral disorders. Participants were 665 male and female children of mean age 13.8 years. Results indicated that a high proportion of children had been involved in bullying on a regular basis with victims having a higher prevalence ratio than bullies and bully/victims. Verbal bullying including spreading rumors was the most common type of victimization, followed by being rejected from a group. Being bullied about one's religion or sect comprised one of the most common bullying behaviors in schools. Students rarely tried to stop a student from being bullied and teachers were reported to have done relatively little or nothing to counteract bullying. Prevalence of bullying was more among boys than girls. School bullying was not associated with academic achievement or with having difficulties in reading and math. Children who were identified as bully/victim, victim, and bully suffered from PTSD compared to those who were not identified as being involved in bullying The study showed that both bullies and victims are at-risk for short term and long-term adjustment difficulties including hyperactivity, emotional symptoms, conduct problems and peer problems. Child's gender and emotion-focused coping stood out as risk factors for the development of bullying behaviors whereas age, problem-focused coping, family environment, and school environment were significant protective factors.

  13. THE ADDRESSEE AGE AS A FACTOR DETERMINING THE DISCURSIVE STRUCTURE OF A WORK OF FICTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beloglazova Elena Vladimirovna

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper the author attempts to establish the connection between the discursive structure of a work of fiction and the addressee age factor. At that the point of departure for the argument is (a the thesis on discursive heterogeneity being a feature of fiction in general, which is a direct consequence of literature of literature being aimed at reflecting the world in its entirety and complexity, and (b the assumption that the above-said is applicable to children's fiction, though discursive heterogeneity undergoes a certain transformation due to the specific nature and role of literature for children. The category of addressee in the cornerstone of children's fiction predetermining: on the surface level – the selection of organization of language means in the text; on the contents level – the selection of story and characters; on the ideology level – the configuration of the polydiscourse of the children's fiction, as well as the selection of discourses' representatives. The peculiarity of children's fiction is primarily due to the ideology underlying it - what the society demands from the right book for kids, which is viewed as a socializing tool. And in order to be efficient, the tool needs to be tailored for its object, its exact parameters, age being one of them. Thus the complexity of the discursive structure of literary works for children appears to be directly related to the age of their ideal reader, which is shown in the article by comparative analysis of works addressed to floor and ceiling audiences of the childhood span. The analysis reveals the fact that older readership leads not only to a greater complexity of a literary work's discursive structure, but also to a wider variety in the ways of introducing interdiscursemes into text.

  14. Evaluating gene by sex and age interactions on cardiovascular risk factors in Brazilian families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krieger José E

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In family studies, it is important to evaluate the impact of genes and environmental factors on traits of interest. In particular, the relative influences of both genes and the environment may vary in different strata of the population of interest, such as young and old individuals, or males and females. Methods In this paper, extensions of the variance components model are used to evaluate heterogeneity in the genetic and environmental variance components due to the effects of sex and age (the cutoff between young and old was 43 yrs. The data analyzed were from 81 Brazilian families (1,675 individuals of the Baependi Family Heart Study. Results The models allowing for heterogeneity of variance components by sex suggest that genetic and environmental variances are not different in males and females for diastolic blood pressure, LDL-cholesterol, and HDL-cholesterol, independent of the covariates included in the models. However, for systolic blood pressure, fasting glucose and triglycerides, the evidence for heterogeneity was dependent on the covariates in the model. For instance, in the presence of sex and age covariates, heterogeneity in the genetic variance component was suggested for fasting glucose. But, for systolic blood pressure, there was no evidence of heterogeneity in any of the two variance components. Except for the LDL-cholesterol, models allowing for heterogeneity by age provide evidence of heterogeneity in genetic variance for triglycerides and systolic and diastolic blood pressure. There was evidence of heterogeneity in environmental variance in fasting glucose and HDL-cholesterol. Conclusions Our results suggest that heterogeneity in trait variances should not be ignored in the design and analyses of gene-finding studies involving these traits, as it may generate additional information about gene effects, and allow the investigation of more sophisticated models such as the model including sex

  15. Interaction of complement factor h and fibulin3 in age-related macular degeneration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Keith Wyatt

    Full Text Available Age-related macular degeneration (AMD is a major cause of vision loss. It is associated with development of characteristic plaque-like deposits (soft drusen in Bruch's membrane basal to the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE. A sequence variant (Y402H in short consensus repeat domain 7 (SCR7 of complement factor H (CFH is associated with risk for "dry" AMD. We asked whether the eye-targeting of this disease might be related to specific interactions of CFH SCR7 with proteins expressed in the aging human RPE/choroid that could contribute to protein deposition in drusen. Yeast 2-hybrid (Y2H screens of a retinal pigment epithelium/choroid library derived from aged donors using CFH SCR7 baits detected an interaction with EFEMP1/Fibulin 3 (Fib3, which is the locus for an inherited macular degeneration and also accumulates basal to macular RPE in AMD. The CFH/Fib3 interaction was validated by co-immunoprecipitation of native proteins. Quantitative Y2H and ELISA assays with different recombinant protein constructs both demonstrated higher affinity for Fib3 for the disease-related CFH 402H variant. Immuno-labeling revealed colocalization of CFH and Fib3 in globular deposits within cholesterol-rich domains in soft drusen in two AMD donors homozygous for CFH 402H (H/H. This pattern of labeling was quite distinct from those seen in examples of eyes with Y/Y and H/Y genotypes. The CFH 402H/Fib3 interaction could contribute to the development of pathological aggregates in soft drusen in some patients and as such might provide a target for therapeutic intervention in some forms of AMD.

  16. Cancer screening in a middle-aged general population: factors associated with practices and attitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perneger Thomas V

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to identify factors associated with cancer screening practices and with general attitudes toward cancer screening in a general population. Methods Mailed survey of 30–60 year old residents of Geneva, Switzerland, that included questions about screening for five cancers (breast, cervix uteri, prostate, colon, skin in the past 3 years, attitudes toward screening, health care use, preventive behaviours and socio-demographic characteristics. Cancer screening practice was dichotomised as having done at least one screening test in the past 3 years versus none. Results The survey response rate was 49.3% (2301/4670. More women than men had had at least one cancer screening test in the past 3 years (83.2% vs 34.5%, p Conclusion Attitudes play an important role in cancer screening practices among middle-aged adults in the general population, independent of demographic variables (age and sex that determine in part screening recommendations. Negative attitudes were the most frequent among men and the most socio-economically disadvantaged. The moderate participation rate raises the possibility of selection bias.

  17. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: Important Underrecognised Cardiometabolic Risk Factor in Reproductive-Age Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinka Pavicic Baldani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is the most common endocrine disorder amongst women of reproductive age. Although PCOS is diagnosed exclusively based on reproductive criteria, it is also a metabolic disorder. Insulin resistance, impaired glucose tolerance, type 2 diabetes mellitus, obesity, and dyslipidemia are more common in women with PCOS than in age-comparable women without PCOS. Many of the metabolic abnormalities that manifest in PCOS are worsened by the concurrent incidence of obesity. However, some of these metabolic perturbations occur even in lean women with PCOS and therefore are rightfully recognized as intrinsic to PCOS. The intrinsic factors that produce these metabolic disturbances are reviewed in this paper. The consequences of obesity and the other metabolic aberrations are also discussed. The metabolic perturbations in PCOS patients lead to chronic low-grade inflammation and to cardiovascular impairments that heighten the risk of having cardiovascular disease. Even though many studies have shown an elevation in surrogate biomarkers of cardiovascular disease in PCOS women, it is still not clear to what extent and magnitude the elevation precipitates more frequent and earlier events.

  18. Relationship Between Dietary Patterns and Socio- Demographic or Lifestyle Factors in Urban School- Aged Children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huan WANG; Yun CHEN; Wei CHEN; Ai ZHAO; Yu-mei ZHANG; Zhi-shen MU

    2014-01-01

    Objective To identify the dietary patterns in urban school-aged children in China and determine the relations with socio-demographic or lifestyle factors.MethodsA total of 620 school-aged children from 7 cities in China were recruited in a cross-sectional study and their dietary data over the preceding 6 months were recorded via questionnaire between 2011-2012. The dietary patterns were identified using principal components analysis. Mann-Whitney U or Kruskal-Walis H test was preformed to reveal the relationship between dietary patterns and socio-demographic or lifestyle characteristics. Results Three major dietary patterns were identified. The traditional pattern had high positive relationships with grains, potatoes, vegetables, fruits, vegetables and soybeans/soybean products. The high-protein pattern was characterized by large positive coefficient for fruits, fish/shrimps, eggs, milk/milk products, soybeans/soybean products and salt. The oil/fat and beverage pattern with highly related with grains, meat/poultry, eggs, oil/fat, salt and beverages. The relationships between the dietary patterns and various socio-demographic or lifestyle characteristics were analyzed.Conclusion Three dietary patterns were identified. A clear association was found between the dietary patterns and socio-demographic or lifestyle characteristics.

  19. Antivascular Endothelial Growth Factor Agents for Neovascular Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilias Zampros

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Age-related macular degeneration (AMD is the leading cause of severe visual loss and blindness over the age of 50 in developed countries. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF is considered as a critical molecule in the pathogenesis of choroidal neovascularization (CNV, which characterizes the neovascular AMD. Anti-VEGF agents are considered the most promising way of effectively inhibition of the neovascular AMD process. VEGF is a heparin-binding glycoprotein with potent angiogenic, mitogenic and vascular permeability-enhancing activities specific for endothelial cells. Two anti-VEGF agents have been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA for the treatment of neovascular AMD. Pegaptanib sodium, which is an aptamer and ranibizumab, which is a monoclonal antibody fragment. Another humanized monoclonal antibody is currently off-label used, bevacizumab. This paper aims to discuss in details the effectiveness, the efficacy and safety of these three anti-VEGF agents. New anti-VEGF compounds which are recently investigated for their clinical usage (VEGF-trap, small interfering RNA are also discussed for their promising outcomes.

  20. Circadian typology, age, and the alternative five-factor personality model in an adult women sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muro, Anna; Gomà-i-Freixanet, Montserrat; Adan, Ana; Cladellas, Ramon

    2011-10-01

    Research on personality and circadian typology indicates evening-type women are more impulsive and novelty seeking, neither types are more anxious, and morning types tend to be more active, conscientious, and persistent. The purpose of this study is to examine the differences between circadian typologies in the light of the Zuckerman's Alternative Five-Factor Model (AFFM) of personality, which has a strong biological basis, in an adult sample of 412 women 18 to 55 yrs of age. The authors found morning-type women had significant higher scores than evening-type and neither-type women on Activity, and its subscales General Activity and Work Activity. In contrast, evening-type women scored significantly higher than morning-type women on Aggression-Hostility, Impulsive Sensation Seeking, and its subscale Sensation Seeking. In all groups, results were independent of age. These findings are in accordance with those previously obtained in female student samples and add new data on the AFFM. The need of using personality models that are biologically based in the study of circadian rhythms is discussed.

  1. Chronological History of Federal Fleet Actions and Mandates (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-04-01

    This chronological history of Federal fleet actions and mandates provides a year-by-year timeline of the acts, amendments, executive orders, and other regulations that affect Federal fleets. The fleet actions and mandates included in the timeline span from 1988 to 2009.

  2. Constraints on the Pleistocene chronology of sediments from the Lomonosov Ridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Regan, M.; King, J.; Backman, J.; Jakobsson, M.; Palike, H.; Moran, K.; Heil, C.; Sakamoto, T.; Cronin, T. M.; Jordan, R.W.

    2008-01-01

    Despite its importance in the global climate system, age-calibrated marine geologic records reflecting the evolultion of glacial cycles through the Pleistocene are largely absent from the central Arctic Ocean. This is especially true for sediments older than 200 ka. Three sites cored during the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program's Expedition 302, the Arctic Coring Expedition (ACEX), provide a 27 m continuous sedimentary section from the Lomonosov Ridge in the central Arctic Ocean. Two key biostratigraphic datums and constraints from the magnetic inclination data are used to anchor the chronology of these sediments back to the base of the Cobb Mountain subchron (1215 ka). Beyond 1215 ka, two best fitting geomagnetic models are used to investigate the nature of cyclostratigraphic change. Within this chronology we show that bulk and mineral magnetic properties of the sediments vary on predicted Milankovitch frequencies. These cyclic variations record "glacial" and "interglacial" modes of sediment deposition on the Lomonosov Ridge as evident in studies of ice-rafted debris and stable isotopic and faunal assemblages for the last two glacial cycles and were used to tune the age model. Potential errors, which largely arise from uncertainties in the nature of downhole paleomagnetic variability, and the choice of a tuning target are handled by defining an error envelope that is based on the best fitting cyclostratigraphic and geomagnetic solutions. Copyright 2008 by the American Geophysical Union.

  3. AFSC/REFM: Bomb-produced age validation study

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish age validation with bomb-produced radiocarbon (14C) requires a known-age Delta14C reference chronology spanning the era of a marine increase in bomb-produced...

  4. Visible Age-Related Signs and Risk of Ischemic Heart Disease in the General Population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Mette; Frikke-Schmidt, Ruth; Schnohr, Peter;

    2014-01-01

    developed MI. Presence of frontoparietal baldness, crown top baldness, earlobe crease, and xanthelasmata was associated with increased risk of IHD or MI after multifactorial adjustment for chronological age and well-known cardiovascular risk factors. The risk of IHD and MI increased stepwise with increasing...... number of age-related signs with multifactorially adjusted hazard ratios up to 1.40 (95% confidence interval, 1.20-1.62) for IHD and 1.57 (1.28-1.93) for MI, in individuals with 3 to 4 versus no age-related signs at baseline (P for trend groups in both women and men, absolute 10-year...

  5. DNA Damage: A Main Determinant of Vascular Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bautista-Niño, Paula K; Portilla-Fernandez, Eliana; Vaughan, Douglas E; Danser, A H Jan; Roks, Anton J M

    2016-05-18

    Vascular aging plays a central role in health problems and mortality in older people. Apart from the impact of several classical cardiovascular risk factors on the vasculature, chronological aging remains the single most important determinant of cardiovascular problems. The causative mechanisms by which chronological aging mediates its impact, independently from classical risk factors, remain to be elucidated. In recent years evidence has accumulated that unrepaired DNA damage may play an important role. Observations in animal models and in humans indicate that under conditions during which DNA damage accumulates in an accelerated rate, functional decline of the vasculature takes place in a similar but more rapid or more exaggerated way than occurs in the absence of such conditions. Also epidemiological studies suggest a relationship between DNA maintenance and age-related cardiovascular disease. Accordingly, mouse models of defective DNA repair are means to study the mechanisms involved in biological aging of the vasculature. We here review the evidence of the role of DNA damage in vascular aging, and present mechanisms by which genomic instability interferes with regulation of the vascular tone. In addition, we present potential remedies against vascular aging induced by genomic instability. Central to this review is the role of diverse types of DNA damage (telomeric, non-telomeric and mitochondrial), of cellular changes (apoptosis, senescence, autophagy), mediators of senescence and cell growth (plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors, senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP)/senescence-messaging secretome (SMS), insulin and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) signaling), the adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK)-mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)-nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB) axis, reactive oxygen species (ROS) vs. endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS)-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (c

  6. DNA Damage: A Main Determinant of Vascular Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula K. Bautista-Niño

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Vascular aging plays a central role in health problems and mortality in older people. Apart from the impact of several classical cardiovascular risk factors on the vasculature, chronological aging remains the single most important determinant of cardiovascular problems. The causative mechanisms by which chronological aging mediates its impact, independently from classical risk factors, remain to be elucidated. In recent years evidence has accumulated that unrepaired DNA damage may play an important role. Observations in animal models and in humans indicate that under conditions during which DNA damage accumulates in an accelerated rate, functional decline of the vasculature takes place in a similar but more rapid or more exaggerated way than occurs in the absence of such conditions. Also epidemiological studies suggest a relationship between DNA maintenance and age-related cardiovascular disease. Accordingly, mouse models of defective DNA repair are means to study the mechanisms involved in biological aging of the vasculature. We here review the evidence of the role of DNA damage in vascular aging, and present mechanisms by which genomic instability interferes with regulation of the vascular tone. In addition, we present potential remedies against vascular aging induced by genomic instability. Central to this review is the role of diverse types of DNA damage (telomeric, non-telomeric and mitochondrial, of cellular changes (apoptosis, senescence, autophagy, mediators of senescence and cell growth (plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1, cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors, senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP/senescence-messaging secretome (SMS, insulin and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1 signaling, the adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK-mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR-nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB axis, reactive oxygen species (ROS vs. endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS-cyclic guanosine monophosphate

  7. Nitrogen chronology of massive main sequence stars

    CERN Document Server

    Köhler, K; Brott, I; Langer, N; de Koter, A

    2012-01-01

    Rotational mixing in massive main sequence stars is predicted to monotonically increase their surface nitrogen abundance with time. We use this effect to design a method for constraining the age and the inclination angle of massive main sequence stars, given their observed luminosity, effective temperature, projected rotational velocity and surface nitrogen abundance. This method relies on stellar evolution models for different metallicities, masses and rotation rates. We use the population synthesis code STARMAKER to show the range of applicability of our method. We apply this method to 79 early B-type main sequence stars near the LMC clusters NGC 2004 and N 11 and the SMC clusters NGC 330 and NGC 346. From all stars within the sample, 17 were found to be suitable for an age analysis. For ten of them, which are rapidly rotating stars without a strong nitrogen enhancement, it has been previously concluded that they did not evolve as rotationally mixed single stars. This is confirmed by our analysis, which fla...

  8. Nutrition and cardiovascular risk factors in four age groups of female individuals: The pep family heart study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Schwandt

    2010-01-01

    Conclusions: The prevalence of CVD risk factors increased con-tinuously from girls and adolescents to junior and senior women. However, dietary intake was different in the four age groups. Ca-loric intake was associated with overweight and clustering of risk factors in adult women.

  9. The five factors of personality and regional cortical variability in the Baltimore longitudinal study of aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapogiannis, Dimitrios; Sutin, Angelina; Davatzikos, Christos; Costa, Paul; Resnick, Susan

    2013-11-01

    Although personality changes have been associated with brain lesions and atrophy caused by neurodegenerative diseases and aging, neuroanatomical correlates of personality in healthy individuals and their stability over time have received relatively little investigation. In this study, we explored regional gray matter (GM) volumetric associations of the five-factor model of personality. Eighty-seven healthy older adults took the NEO Personality Inventory and had brain MRI at two time points 2 years apart. We performed GM segmentation followed by regional analysis of volumes examined in normalized space map creation and voxel based morphometry-type statistical inference in SPM8. We created a regression model including all five factors and important covariates. Next, a conjunction analysis identified associations between personality scores and GM volumes that were replicable across time, also using cluster-level Family-Wise-Error correction. Larger right orbitofrontal and dorsolateral prefrontal cortices and rolandic operculum were associated with lower Neuroticism; larger left temporal, dorsolateral prefrontal, and anterior cingulate cortices with higher Extraversion; larger right frontopolar and smaller orbitofrontal and insular cortices with higher Openness; larger right orbitofrontal cortex with higher Agreeableness; larger dorsolateral prefrontal and smaller frontopolar cortices with higher Conscientiousness. In summary, distinct personality traits were associated with stable individual differences in GM volumes. As expected for higher-order traits, regions performing a large number of cognitive and affective functions were implicated. Our findings highlight personality-related variation that may be related to individual differences in brain structure that merit additional attention in neuroimaging research.

  10. Risk factors for eating disorder symptoms at 12 years of age: A 6-year longitudinal cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Elizabeth H; Adamson, Ashley J; Basterfield, Laura; Le Couteur, Ann; Reilly, Jessica K; Reilly, John J; Parkinson, Kathryn N

    2017-01-01

    Eating disorders pose risks to health and wellbeing in young adolescents, but prospective studies of risk factors are scarce and this has impeded prevention efforts. This longitudinal study aimed to examine risk factors for eating disorder symptoms in a population-based birth cohort of young adolescents at 12 years. Participants from the Gateshead Millennium Study birth cohort (n = 516; 262 girls and 254 boys) completed self-report questionnaire measures of eating disorder symptoms and putative risk factors at age 7 years, 9 years and 12 years, including dietary restraint, depressive symptoms and body dissatisfaction. Body mass index (BMI) was also measured at each age. Within-time correlates of eating disorder symptoms at 12 years of age were greater body dissatisfaction for both sexes and, for girls only, higher depressive symptoms. For both sexes, higher eating disorder symptoms at 9 years old significantly predicted higher eating disorder symptoms at 12 years old. Dietary restraint at 7 years old predicted boys' eating disorder symptoms at age 12, but not girls'. Factors that did not predict eating disorder symptoms at 12 years of age were BMI (any age), girls' dietary restraint at 7 years and body dissatisfaction at 7 and 9 years of age for both sexes. In this population-based study, different patterns of predictors and correlates of eating disorder symptoms were found for girls and boys. Body dissatisfaction, a purported risk factor for eating disorder symptoms in young adolescents, developed concurrently with eating disorder symptoms rather than preceding them. However, restraint at age 7 and eating disorder symptoms at age 9 years did predict 12-year eating disorder symptoms. Overall, our findings suggest that efforts to prevent disordered eating might beneficially focus on preadolescent populations.

  11. Selected atherosclerosis risk factors in youth aged 13–15 years 

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Michalska

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:The high frequency of cases of circulatory system conditions in Europe and other countries around the world requires scientific research to define risk factors of early atherosclerotic changes. The aim of the present study was to define which students are at danger of developing atherosclerosis by means of measuring cholesterol and triglyceride levels in blood as well as defining the correlation between atherosclerosis risk factors and arterial blood pressure, physical fitness and efficiency of the subjects.Material/Methods:The research covered 167 students of Public Junior High School ¹1 in Biala Podlaska aged 13–15 years. Accutrend GCT was employed to define the levels of total cholesterol and triglycerides in the screen test. Those students who were found to have increased values of biochemical parameters of capillary blood were subjected to additional blood tests aiming to define complete lipid profile of venous blood. The blood pressure in subjects was tested three times. The Moderate-to-Vigorous Physical Activity (MVPA test, suggested by American authors, was employed to define physical activity in subjects. EUROFIT was employed to define physical efficiency.Results:Among the 167 subjects there were found 42 students (25.1�20whose lipid level in capillary blood proved to be increased. Full lipid profile tests proved that 16 students (9.6�20had increased blood lipid levels; those subjects constituted the risk group. Subjects in the risk group were characterized by lower levels of physical activity and physical efficiency compared to subjects with normal blood lipid level. Moreover, the frequency of hypertension was greater in risk group subjects compared to subjects with normal blood lipid levels.Inferences:Students diagnosed with atherosclerosis risk factors require observation and early prophylactics by adopting habits of healthy physical activity.

  12. Risk factors of dental disease in working age population of a large industrial city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Klimenko

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Back in 2005, the WHO has identified European targets by 2020, that provide specific measures for improving dental health and define clear rates of intensity and prevalence of dental diseases. Most EU countries that adopted the WHO recommended principles have already achieved the goals regarding dental health. Level of diseases of the teeth and oral cavity among the population of Ukraine is higher than in the EU countries. Consistently high prevalence of dental diseases among population of all age groups, especially prevalence of dental caries, which is confirmed by the results of various epidemiological studies is a cause of concern. Nowadays factors that influence occurrence of the teeth and oral cavity diseases among the working age population of a large industrial city are not enough studied. The aim of the study was to determine the factors leading to the worsening of the working age population of the large industrial city dental health. To establish the risk factors was developed a special closed-type questionnaire, careful attention in which was paid to personal oral hygiene. Methods and results.The most influential factors leading to the increase of the Green - Vermilon index are personal oral hygiene factors and lifestyle of the individual: brushing teeth less than 2 times a day (odds ratio OR=2,64, 95% СІ: 0,97-7,14; р<0,05; smoking (odds ratio OR=2,07, 95% СІ: 0,78-5,53; р<0,05; alcohol intake 1-2 times a week and more often (odds ratio OR=1,82, 95% СІ: 0,61-5,42; р<0,05 lead to increased chances of a low level of oral hygiene. The level of oral hygiene is also affected by the socio-economic factors: higher education in 1.9 times decreases chances of a low level of oral hygiene (odds ratio OR=1,88, 95% СІ: 0,68-5,22; р<0,05; income at subsistence level and below (odds ratio OR=1,20, 95% СІ: 0,45-3,19; р<0,05. According to our research, level of oral hygiene is also influenced by medical and organizational factors

  13. Pathway-based factor analysis of gene expression data produces highly heritable phenotypes that associate with age

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Andrew Anand; Ding, Zhihao; Viñuela, Ana; Glass, Dan; Parts, Leopold; Spector, Tim; Winn, John; Durbin, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Statistical factor analysis methods have previously been used to remove noise components from high-dimensional data prior to genetic association mapping and, in a guided fashion, to summarize biologically relevant sources of variation. Here, we show how the derived factors summarizing pathway expression can be used to analyze the relationships between expression, heritability, and aging. We used skin gene expression data from 647 twins from the MuTHER Consortium and applied factor analysis to...

  14. Are age-related trends in suicide rates associated with life expectancy and socio-economic factors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Ajit

    2009-01-01

    Background. A recent cross-national study reported that suicide rates increased, decreased or remained unchanged with increasing age in individual countries. The relationship between age-related trends in suicide rates and child mortality rates, life expectancy and socio-economic factors was examined. Methods. Countries with an increase, decrease and no change in suicide rates with increasing age were ascertained from an earlier study (Shah, 2007a, International Psychogeriatrics, 19, 1141), which analysed data from the World Health Organisation (WHO). The relationship between age-related trends in suicide rates and (i) child mortality rates, (ii) life expectancy and (iii) markers of socio-economic status (per capita gross national domestic product (GDP) and the Gini coeffcient) was examined using data from the WHO and the United Nations. Results. The main findings were: (i) child mortality rates were significantly lower in countries with an increase in suicide rates with increasing age when compared to countries without a change in suicide rates with increasing age in males; (ii) life expectancy was significantly higher in countries with an increase in suicide rates with increasing age when compared to countries without a change in suicide rates with increasing age in males; and (iii) the Gini coefficient was significantly lower in countries with an increase in suicide rates with increasing age when compared to countries without a change or a decline in suicide rates with increasing age in females. Conclusions. Potential explanations for these findings and the interaction of life expectancy and socio-economic factors with other factors that differentially influence suicide rates in different age and sex groups requires further examination.

  15. Determination of factors affecting relapse of vaginitis among reproductive-aged women: An experimental study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsapour, Roxana; Majlessi, Fereshteh; Rahimiforoushani, Abbas; Sadeghi, Roya

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Vaginitis is a common problem for women, especially in reproductive-aged women. It is a worldwide health problem with many side effects but could be prevented by a health-promoting lifestyle related to vagina health. The aim of this study was to determine the factors affecting relapse of vaginitis. Methods In this experimental study, 350 reproductive-aged women with vaginitis were selected from 10 health centers in Kermanshah (Iran) during 2015 and were equally included in the intervention and control groups. To collect data, a researcher-created questionnaire, which included sociodemographic and health-promoting lifestyle questions, was used. The educational intervention was performed over 20 sessions, each lasting 25–35 minutes. An intervention group was educated by face-to-face education, pamphlets, phone contacts, text messages, and social media. Another group continued the routine clinic education and treatment without contacting the intervention group. Data were analyzed through chi-square and a logistics regression model using IBM-SPSS version 20. Results The results of the study indicated a significant relation between sociodemographic characteristics such as women and their husbands’ literacy, job, family size, income, area for each member of family, tendency of pregnancy, body mass index (BMI), and caesarean experience (plifestyle dimensions and prevention of vaginitis were identified. Relapse after intervention in the intervention group was 27.7% and 72.3% in the control group. According to the logistic regression analysis, chance for relapse of vaginitis in the group that did not receive intervention was more than the same chance in the intervention group (OR=5.14). Conclusion Health-promoting lifestyle intervention influences prevention of vaginitis. Health-promoting lifestyle, literacy promotion, prevention of caesarian, and obesity are beneficial to improvement in lifestyle dimensions associated with vagina health could be

  16. Chronology of heavily cratered terrains on Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchi, S.; Chapman, C. R.

    2012-12-01

    Imaging of Mercury by Mariner 10 revealed a planet with more extensive plains units than on the Moon. Even in heavily cratered terrain, there is a lack of craters Morbidelli et al., [1] in order to interpret new crater counts on these terrains. We find that these craters are probably not saturated but may have been in equilibrium with a rapid resurfacing process, presumably volcanism that formed the earliest recognized intercrater plains. The crater retention age for this terrain, which contains the oldest large craters on Mercury, is surprisingly young, perhaps hundreds of millions of years younger than the heavily cratered pre-Nectarian terrains on the Moon [2]. These results are important for understanding the early geological and geophysical evolution of Mercury. References: [1] Morbidelli A., Marchi S., Bottke W.F., and Kring D.A. 2012. A sawtooth timeline for the first billion years of the lunar bombardment. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, in press. [2] Marchi S., Bottke W.F., Kring D.A., and Morbidelli A. 2012. The onset of the lunar cataclysm as recorded in its ancient crater populations. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 325, 27-38.

  17. Precipitation reconstruction using ring-width chronology of Himalayan cedar from western Himalaya: Preliminary results

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ram R Yadav; Won-Kyu Park

    2000-09-01

    Himalayan cedar (Cedrus deodara (D. Don) G. Don) due to its long age and wide ecological amplitude in the Himalayan region has strong dendroclimatic potential. A well replicated ring-width chronology of it, derived from the ensemble of tree-ring samples of two adjacent homogeneous sites, has been used to reconstruct precipitation for the non-monsoon months (previous year October to concurrent May) back to AD 1171. This provides the first record of hydrological conditions for the western Himalayan region, India during the whole of the `Little Ice Age' and latter part of the `Medieval Warm Period'. The reconstruction revealed the wettest and the driest non-monsoon months during the fourteenth and the thirteenth centuries, respectively. The seventeenth century consistently recorded dry non-monsoon months in the western Himalayan region. Surplus precipitation, especially more pronounced since the 1950s, is recorded in the current century.

  18. Chronology of Tropical Glaciation from Cosmogenic Dating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J. A.; Farber, D. L.; Seltzer, G. O.; Finkel, R. C.; Rodbell, D. T.

    2002-12-01

    Moraines from multiple glaciations dating back more than a million years are preserved in deglaciated valleys bordering the Junin Plain in the Peruvian Andes. We have used cosmogenic dating (10Be) of boulders on moraines in Alcacocha Valley (S 11° 03', W 75° 58', elev. ~4100-4800 m) to identify deposits ranging in age from the last glaciation (~12-33 ka) to >1.5 Ma. This may be the longest and most detailed record of tropical glaciation yet produced. In Alcacocha Valley, lateral moraines of several older glaciations are considerably larger and extend farther downvalley than end moraines of the last glacial maximum. Preservation of the older moraines and of polished surfaces on some old boulders argues for extremely low boulder erosion rates. We estimate a maximum erosion rate of ~0.3 m/Myr, which approaches published rates for Antarctica and suggests that aridity is important in slowing boulder erosion. Our findings are consistent with results from other Andean locations, such as the Cordillera Real in Bolivia, where moraines of older glaciations are also more extensive than those of the last glacial maximum. Tectonics, climate, or a combination of both may have been responsible for the apparent decrease in glacial extent and ice volume in the Junin Plain during the Quaternary. A late Tertiary pulse of tectonism may have resulted in an increase in high-elevation topography in the Junin region, allowing growth of large ice masses. The subsequent trend in decreasing ice volume could have been caused by either a decrease in the area of high-elevation topography through glacial erosion or a decrease in the amplitude of climate variability. These hypotheses could be tested by analyzing the sediment record preserved in the Junin basin.

  19. Prevalence of diabetes mellitus and affecting factors of diabetes mellitus in adult age group in Van province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatice Yılmaz

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Regional studies of diabetes mellitus (DM are important to determine of effective environmental factors in the development of DM and defining strategy against these factors. This study aims to define the frequency of DM prevalence in the province of the Van city, distribution of DM according to age groups, effective socio-economical, geographical and metabolic factors over the diabetes development.Material and methods: This study included 191 male and 209 female totals 400 person aged year 16 years or over. Blood-Glucose levels of persons were measured with Accu-check glucometer and questionnaires were filled with face-to-face interviews.Results: Age mean of subjects was 35.09±13.75 years, DM prevalence was %13.4 between the females and %9.1 males, disglisemi (DG prevalence were %9.1 between the females and %5.8 between the males. 74.4% of impaired glucose metabolism persons were people who they do not make physical exercise and adopted sedentary lifestyle.Conclusion: In this study, age and family history from unchangeable factors were found to be effective on the development of DM but sex, educational level, social security, incomes were not found to be effective on development of DM. Exercise, blood pressure levels, obesity and diets from changeable factors are the factors that influence the frequency of DM was determined in this study. J Clin Exp Invest 2011; 2 (4: 392-399

  20. Asynchronous Glacial Chronologies in the Central Andes (15-40°S) and Paleoclimatic Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zech, R.; Kull, C.; Kubik, P. W.; Veit, H.

    2006-12-01

    We have established glacial chronologies along a N-S transect over the Central Andes using 10Be surface exposure dating. Our results show that maximum glacial advances occurred asynchronously and reflect the varying influence and shifts of the major atmospheric circulation systems during the Late Quaternary: the tropical circulation in the north and the westerlies in the south. In Bolivia (three research areas in the Cordillera Real and the Cordillera Cochabamba, ~15°S) glacial advances could be dated to ~20 and 12 ka BP. This is in good agreement with published exposure age data from moraines in Bolivia and Peru (provided that all ages are calculated following the same scaling system). Accordingly, the maximum glaciation there probably occurred roughly synchronous to the temperature minimum of the global Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) and the lateglacial cold reversals. Strict correlation with neither the Younger Dryas in the northern hemisphere, nor the Antarctic Cold Reversal is possible due to the current systematic exposure age uncertainties (~10%). Glacier-Climate-Modelling corroborates the sensitivity of the reconstructed glaciers to temperature changes, rather than precipitation. On the contrary, there is good evidence for the dominant role of precipitation changes on the glacial chronologies in the lee of the Cordillera Occidental, i.e. on the Altiplano and further south. The pronounced lateglacial wet phase, which is well documented in lake transgression phases as far south as 28°S (-> tropical moisture source), seems to have caused glacial advances even at ~30°S. In two research areas in Chile at that latitude, we were able to date several lateglacial moraines. Besides, the maximum datable glaciation there occurred at ~30 ka BP. That is significantly earlier than the LGM (sensu strictu) and points to favourable climate conditions for glaciation at that time (particularly increased precipitation). We conclude that the westerlies were more intensive or

  1. Parent-Reported Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Symptomatology in Preschool-Aged Children: Factor Structure, Developmental Change, and Early Risk Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Willoughby, Michael T.; Pek, Jolynn; Greenberg, Mark T.

    2012-01-01

    Although Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) has increasingly been studied in preschool-aged children, relatively few studies have provided a comprehensive evaluation of the factor structure and patterns of developmental changes in parent-reported ADHD symptomatology across the early childhood period. This study used confirmatory factor analyses to test for longitudinal measurement invariance of ADHD symptoms and semi-parametric finite mixture models to identify prototypic pattern...

  2. Gender and age effects on risk factor-based prediction of coronary artery calcium in symptomatic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicoll, R; Wiklund, U; Zhao, Y;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The influence of gender and age on risk factor prediction of coronary artery calcification (CAC) in symptomatic patients is unclear. METHODS: From the European Calcific Coronary Artery Disease (EURO-CCAD) cohort, we retrospectively investigated 6309 symptomatic patients, 62......% male, from Denmark, France, Germany, Italy, Spain and USA. All of them underwent risk factor assessment and CT scanning for CAC scoring. RESULTS: The prevalence of CAC among females was lower than among males in all age groups. Using multivariate logistic regression, age, dyslipidaemia, hypertension......, diabetes and smoking were independently predictive of CAC presence in both genders. In addition to a progressive increase in CAC with age, the most important predictors of CAC presence were dyslipidaemia and diabetes (β = 0.64 and 0.63, respectively) in males and diabetes (β = 1.08) followed by smoking (β...

  3. Risk factors for childhood obesity in elementary school-age Taiwanese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jyu-Lin; Kennedy, Christine; Yeh, Chao-Hsing; Kools, Susan

    2005-01-01

    A cross-sectional study design was used to examine factors that contribute to high relative weight in children in Taiwan. A total sample of 331 Chinese children (ages 7 and 8) and their parents participated in the study. Parents completed questionnaires regarding demographic information, family functioning, parenting styles, physical activity, and dietary intake. Children completed physical fitness tests and questionnaires regarding physical activity, dietary intake, coping strategies, and self-esteem. The weight-for-length index was used to measure children's relative weight. The findings revealed that four variables contributed to higher weight-for-length index in boys compared with girls and explained 37.7% of the variance: high maternal body mass index, poor aerobic capacity, healthy family role functioning, and poor family affective responsiveness. Two variables were found to contribute to higher weight-for-length index in girls and explained 12.8% of the variance: high household income and high maternal body mass index. Taken together, the results indicate the importance of assessment of children's weight status, maternal weight status, and family functioning as part of routine child health care and the need for developmentally appropriate and gender-specific approaches to prevent childhood obesity.

  4. The largest human cognitive performance dataset reveals insights into the effects of lifestyle factors and aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel A Sternberg

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Making new breakthroughs in understanding the processes underlying human cognition may depend on the availability of very large datasets that have not historically existed in psychology and neuroscience. Lumosity is a web-based cognitive training platform that has grown to include over 600 million cognitive training task results from over 35 million individuals, comprising the largest existing dataset of human cognitive performance. As part of the Human Cognition Project, Lumosity’s collaborative research program to understand the human mind, Lumos Labs researchers and external research collaborators have begun to explore this dataset in order uncover novel insights about the correlates of cognitive performance. This paper presents two preliminary demonstrations of some of the kinds of questions that can be examined with the dataset. The first example focuses on replicating known findings relating lifestyle factors to baseline cognitive performance in a demographically diverse, healthy population at a much larger scale than has previously been available. The second example examines a question that would likely be very difficult to study in laboratory-based and existing online experimental research approaches: specifically, how learning ability for different types of cognitive tasks changes with age. We hope that these examples will provoke the imagination of researchers who are interested in collaborating to answer fundamental questions about human cognitive performance.

  5. Vascular endothelial growth factor gene polymorphisms in age-related macular degeneration in a Turkish population

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yunus; Bulgu; Gokhan; Ozan; Cetin; Vildan; Caner; Ebru; Nevin; Cetin; Volkan; Yaylali; Cem; Yildirim

    2014-01-01

    AIM:To assess the association between age-related macular degeneration(AMD) and three single nucleotide polymorphisms(SNPS) related to the vascular endothelial growth factor(VEGF) gene.METHODS:The patients who were diagnosed with AMD were included in this prospective study. Three SNPs(rs1413711, rs2146323, and rs3025033) of the VEGF gene were genotyped by real-time polymerase chain reaction in the genomic DNA isolated from peripheral blood samples of the 82 patients and 80 controls.RESULTS:The genotype frequencies of rs1413711 and rs2146323 were not significantly different between the study group and the control group(P =0.072 and P =0.058).However, there was a significant difference in the genotype frequencies of these SNPs between the wet type AMD and dry type AMD(P =0.005 and P =0.010,respectively). One of the SNPs(rs1413711) was also found to be associated with the severity of AMD(P =0.001)with significant genotype distribution between early,intermediate, and advanced stages of the disease. The ancestral alleles were protective for both SNPs while the polymorphic alleles increased the risk for dry AMD.CONCLUSION:VEGF SNPs rs1413711 and rs2146323 polymorphisms are significantly associated with AMD subtypes in our population.

  6. Perceived age as clinically useful biomarker of ageing: cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Kaare; Thinggaard, Mikael; McGue, Matt;

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether perceived age correlates with survival and important age related phenotypes. DESIGN: Follow-up study, with survival of twins determined up to January 2008, by which time 675 (37%) had died. SETTING: Population based twin cohort in Denmark. PARTICIPANTS: 20 nurses, 10...... was significantly associated with survival, even after adjustment for chronological age, sex, and rearing environment. Perceived age was still significantly associated with survival after further adjustment for physical and cognitive functioning. The likelihood that the older looking twin of the pair died first...... age, controlled for chronological age and sex, also correlated significantly with physical and cognitive functioning as well as with leucocyte telomere length. CONCLUSION: Perceived age-which is widely used by clinicians as a general indication of a patient's health-is a robust biomarker of ageing...

  7. Advanced BrainAGE in older adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja eFranke

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aging alters brain structure and function and diabetes mellitus (DM may accelerate this process. This study investigated the effects of type 2 DM on individual brain aging as well as the relationships between individual brain aging, risk factors and functional measures. To differentiate a pattern of brain atrophy that deviates from normal brain aging, we used the novel BrainAGE approach, which determines the complex multidimensional aging pattern within the whole brain by applying established kernel regression methods to anatomical brain MRIs. The Brain Age Gap Estimation (i.e., BrainAGE score was then calculated as the difference between chronological age and estimated brain age. 185 subjects (98 with type 2 DM completed an MRI at 3T, laboratory and clinical assessments. Twenty-five subjects (12 with type 2 DM also completed a follow-up visit after 3.8 ± 1.5 years. The estimated brain age of DM subjects was 4.6 ± 7.2 years greater than their chronological age (p = 0.0001, whereas within the control group, estimated brain age was similar to chronological age. As compared to baseline, the average BrainAGE scores of DM subjects increased by 0.2 years per follow-up year (p = 0.034, whereas the BrainAGE scores of controls did not change between baseline and follow-up. At baseline, across all subjects, higher BrainAGE scores were associated with greater smoking and alcohol consumption, higher tumor necrosis factor (TNFα levels, lower verbal fluency scores and more severe depression. Within the DM group, higher BrainAGE scores were associated with longer diabetes duration (r = 0.31, p = 0.019 and increased fasting blood glucose levels (r = 0.34, p = 0.025. In conclusion, type 2 DM is independently associated with structural changes in the brain that reflect advanced aging. The BrainAGE approach may thus serve as a clinically relevant biomarker for the detection of abnormal patterns of brain aging associated with type 2 DM.

  8. Chronology protection in stationary three-dimensional spacetimes

    CERN Document Server

    Raeymaekers, Joris

    2011-01-01

    We study chronology protection in stationary, rotationally symmetric spacetimes in 2+1 dimensional gravity, focusing especially on the case of negative cosmological constant. We show that in such spacetimes closed timelike curves must either run all the way to the boundary or, alternatively, the matter stress tensor must violate the null energy condition in the bulk. We also show that the matter in the closed timelike curve region gives a negative contribution to the conformal weight from the point of view of the dual conformal field theory. We illustrate these properties in a class of examples involving rotating dust in anti-de Sitter space, and comment on the use of the AdS/CFT correspondence to study chronology protection.

  9. A Survey of the Xia-Shang-Zhou Chronology Project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xi Zezong

    2002-01-01

    @@ Ⅰ. Goals In connection with the history of science, the XiaShang-Zhou Chronology Project is one of the important projects of the National Key Science and Technology Research and Development Programme of the Ninth Five-Year Plan. It officially began in May 1996.After five years of effort by more than 200 scholars and experts from the Chinese Academy of Sciences,the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, Peking University and other institutions, the project has attained its goal. The general goal of the project is to establish a chronological table for the three dynasties by means of combining the humanities and social sciences with the natural sciences. The concrete goals for different historical periods are:

  10. New radiocarbon chronology of a late Holocene landslide event in the Mont Blanc massif, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajdas, Irka; Sojc, Ursula; Ivy-Ochs, Susan; Akçar, Naki; Deline, Philip

    2016-04-01

    The Ferret valley Arp Nouva peat bog located in the Mont Blanc massif was critically evaluated since previously published radiocarbon dates have led to controversial conclusions on the formation of the swamp. Radiocarbon dating of roots from three pits of up to 1 m depth was applied to discuss the question whether the historical documented rock avalanche occurring in AD 1717 overran the peat bog or formed it at a later stage. Our results indicate that the rock avalanche formed the Arp Nouva peat bog by downstream blockage of the Bellecombe torrent. Furthermore, careful sample preparation with consequent separation of roots from the bulk peat sample provides possible explanation for the too old 14C ages of bulk peat samples dated previously (Deline and Kirkbride, 2009 and references therein). This work demonstrates that a combined geomorphological and geochronological approach is the most reliable way to reconstruct landscape evolution, especially in light of apparent chronological problems. The key to successful 14C dating is a careful sample selection and the identification of material that might be not ideal for chronological reconstructions. References Deline, Philip, and Martin P. Kirkbride. "Rock avalanches on a glacier and morainic complex in Haut Val Ferret (Mont Blanc Massif, Italy)".Geomorphology 103 (2009): 80-92.

  11. Chronology and ecology of late Pleistocene megafauna in the northern Willamette Valley, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmour, Daniel M.; Butler, Virginia L.; O'Connor, James E.; Davis, Edward Byrd; Culleton, Brendan J.; Kennett, Douglas J.; Hodgins, Gregory W. L.

    2015-01-01

    Since the mid-19th century, western Oregon's Willamette Valley has been a source of remains from a wide variety of extinct megafauna. Few of these have been previously described or dated, but new chronologic and isotopic analyses in conjunction with updated evaluations of stratigraphic context provide substantial new information on the species present, timing of losses, and paleoenvironmental conditions. Using subfossil material from the northern valley, we use AMS radiocarbon dating, stable isotope (δ13C and δ15N) analyses, and taxonomic dietary specialization and habitat preferences to reconstruct environments and to develop a local chronology of events that we then compare with continental and regional archaeological and paleoenvironmental data. Analysis of twelve bone specimens demonstrates the presence of bison, mammoth, horse, sloth, and mastodon from ~ 15,000–13,000 cal yr BP. The latest ages coincide with changing regional climate corresponding to the onset of the Younger Dryas. It is suggested that cooling conditions led to increased forest cover, and, along with river aggradation, reduced the area of preferred habitat for the larger bodied herbivores, which contributed to the demise of local megafauna. Archaeological evidence for megafauna–human interactions in the Pacific Northwest is scarce, limiting our ability to address the human role in causing extinction.

  12. Genetic Factors Explain Variation in the Age at Onset of Psoriasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lønnberg, Ann Sophie; Skov, Lone; Duffy, David Lorenzo

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the age at onset of psoriasis in a population-based twin sample. Questionnaire-data in 10,725 twin pairs, 20-71 years of age, from the Danish Twin Registry, was collected, and analysed using survival regression analysis. Median age at onset was 25 and 28 years...

  13. 20 CFR 416.963 - Your age as a vocational factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Section 416.963 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Determining Disability and Blindness Vocational Considerations § 416.963 Your... ask you to prove your age. However, if we need to know your exact age to determine whether you...

  14. Age Assessment in Children: A Novel Cameriere’s Stratagem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attiguppe, Prabhakar Ramasetty; Yavagal, Chandrashekar; Mythri, P

    2016-01-01

    Aim Age is one of the essential factors in establishing the identity of a person, especially in children. Age estimation plays an important part in treatment planning, forensic dentistry, legal issues, and paleodemographic research. The present study was an attempt to estimate the chronological age in children of Davangere population by using Cameriere’s India specific formula. Materials and methods This was a retrospective observational study to estimate the chronological age in children of Davangere population. A total of 150 panoramic radiographs of patients aged between 6 and 15 years, including both sexes, were selected. Age was calculated by measuring open apices of seven right or left mandibular teeth using Adobe Photoshop software. Results Statistical analysis was performed to derive a regression equation for estimation of age, which showed that, of the variables X1, X2, X3, X4, X5, X6, X7, s, N0, the variables N0 and X4 were statistically noteworthy. Hence, these two variables were used to derive the linear regression formula: Age = 10.522 + 0.712(N0) - 5.040(X4). The model was found to be statistically significant, F(2, 147) = 207.96, p < 0.001, and accounted for approximately 74% of the variance of age (R2 = 0.739, adjusted R2 = 0.735). Conclusion Cameriere’s method can be used for age assessment in children for forensic as well as legal contexts and based on these variables a reliable age estimation equation could be proposed specifically for Davangere population. How to cite this article Attiguppe PR, Yavagal C, Maganti R, Mythri P. Age Assessment in Children: A Novel Cameriere’s Stratagem. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(4):330-334. PMID:28127165

  15. The impact of nutrients on the aging rate: A complex interaction of demographic, environmental and genetic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dato, Serena; Bellizzi, Dina; Rose, Giuseppina; Passarino, Giuseppe

    2016-03-01

    Nutrition has a strong influence on the health status of the elderly, with many dietary components associated to either an increased risk of disease or to an improvement of the quality of life and to a delay of age-related pathologies. A direct effect of a reduced caloric intake on the delay of aging phenotypes is documented in several organisms. The role of nutrients in the regulation of human lifespan is not easy to disentangle, influenced by a complex interaction of nutrition with environmental and genetic factors. The individual genetic background is fundamental for mediating the effects of nutritional components on aging. Classical genetic factors able to influence nutrient metabolism are considered those belonging to insulin/insulin growth factor (INS/IGF-1) signaling, TOR signaling and Sirtuins, but also genes involved in inflammatory/immune response and antioxidant activity can have a major role. Considering the worldwide increasing interest in nutrition to prevent age related diseases and achieve a healthy aging, in this review we will discuss this complex interaction, in the light of metabolic changes occurring with aging, with the aim of shedding a light on the enormous complexity of the metabolic scenario underlying longevity phenotype.

  16. Age- and Gender-Specific Prevalence of Risk Factors in Patients with First-Ever Ischemic Stroke in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-ying Yao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Evidences are accumulating that age and gender have great impact on the distribution of stroke risk factors. Such data are lacking in Chinese population. Methods. 1027 patients with first-ever ischemic stroke (IS were recruited and divided into young adult (80 years groups according to stroke onset ages. Vascular risk factors were collected and compared among groups. Results. Female patients were globally older than male patients at stroke onset and having higher prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM, heart diseases, and atrial fibrillation (AF. However, females were less likely to drink heavily or smoke than males. Young patients had a much higher proportion of smoking and drinking than middle-aged and very old patients and the highest family history of hypertension, while very old patients had the highest prevalence of heart diseases and AF but lowest proportion of positive family history of vascular diseases. Hypertension and DM were equally frequent among three groups. Conclusion. Our study showed that vascular risk factors had a specific age and gender distribution pattern in Chinese IS patients. Secondary prevention strategy should emphasize on the control of different risk factors based on patient’s age and gender.

  17. Cardiovascular risk factors in rural Kenyans are associated with differential age gradients, but not modified by sex or ethnicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Dirk L.; Faurholt-Jepsen, Daniel; Birkegaard, Louise

    2016-01-01

    among rural Kenyans. BP and pulse rate (PR) were measured while sitting and fasting blood samples were taken for analysis of standard lipid profile. Standard anthropometric measurements were collected. Physical activity energy expenditure was obtained objectively and lifestyle data were obtained using......The relationship between metabolic disease and the non-modifiable risk factors sex, age and ethnicity in Africans is not well-established. This study aimed to describe sex, age and ethnicity differences in blood pressure (BP) and lipid status in rural Kenyans. A cross-sectional study was undertaken...... questionnaires. In total, 1139 individuals (61.0% women) participated aged 17-68 years. Age was positively associated with BP and plasma cholesterol levels. Sitting PR was negatively associated with age in women only (sex-interaction p ...

  18. The Prevalence of Anxiety and its related Factors among School-age Children in South West of Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Zeinab Banaeipour; Shahnaz Rostami; Kourosh Zarea; Bahman Cheraghian

    2016-01-01

    Background Anxiety is one of the most common childhood disorders, so it is necessary to explore extend and its related factors in the students. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of anxiety and the related factors of anxiety among the children aged 9-12 years. Materials and Methods At a descriptive-analytic study 623 children aged 9-12 year- old who were studying in the fourth to sixth grade of elementary school in Dezful city, were selected through multistage random samplin...

  19. Parent-Reported Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Symptomatology in Preschool-Aged Children: Factor Structure, Developmental Change, and Early Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willoughby, Michael T.; Pek, Jolynn; Greenberg, Mark T.

    2012-01-01

    Although Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) has increasingly been studied in preschool-aged children, relatively few studies have provided a comprehensive evaluation of the factor structure and patterns of developmental changes in parent-reported ADHD symptomatology across the early childhood period. This study used confirmatory…

  20. Overweight at age two years in a multi-ethnic cohort (ABCD study): the role of prenatal factors, birth outcomes and postnatal factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.L.A. de Hoog; M. van Eijsden; K. Stronks; R.J.B.J. Gemke; T.G.M. Vrijkotte

    2011-01-01

    Childhood overweight/obesity is a major public health problem worldwide which disproportionally affects specific ethnic groups. Little is known about whether such differences already exist at an early age and which factors contribute to these ethnic differences. Therefore, the present study assessed

  1. How old are you, really? Communicating chronic risk through 'effective age' of your body and organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiegelhalter, David

    2016-08-05

    In communicating chronic risks, there is increasing use of a metaphor that can be termed 'effective-age': the age of a 'healthy' person who has the same risk profile as the individual in question. Popular measures include 'real-age', 'heart-age', 'lung-age' and so on.Here we formally define this concept, and illustrate its use in a variety of areas. We explore conditions under which the years lost or gained that are associated with exposure to risk factors depends neither on current chronological age, nor the period over which the risk is defined. These conditions generally hold for all-cause adult mortality, which enables a simple and vivid translation from hazard-ratios to years lost or gained off chronological age. Finally we consider the attractiveness and impact of this concept.Under reasonable assumptions, the risks associated with specific behaviours can be expressed in terms of years gained or lost off your effective age. The idea of effective age appears a useful and attractive metaphor to vividly communicate risks to individuals.

  2. Skin pentosidine and telomere length do not covary with age in a long-lived seabird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattiste, Kalev; Klandorf, Hillar; Urvik, Janek; Sepp, Tuul; Asghar, Muhammad; Hasselquist, Dennis; Cooey, Crissa; Hõrak, Peeter

    2015-08-01

    The questions about why and how senescence occurs in the wild are among the most pertinent ones in evolutionary ecology. Telomere length is a commonly used marker for aging, while other biomarkers of aging have received considerably less attention. Here we studied how another potent indicator of aging-skin pentosidine concentration-relates to age and blood telomere length in a long-lived seabird with well-documented reproductive senescence. We found no associations between telomere length, skin pentosidine and chronological age in male common gulls (Larus canus), aging from 2 to 30 years. However, the variance in telomere length was 4.6 times higher among the birds older than 13 years, which hints at relaxed selection on telomere length among the birds that have passed their prime age of reproduction. These results suggest that physiological and chronological ages may be largely uncoupled in our study system. Furthermore, our findings do not support a hypothesis about the presence of a common physiological factor (e.g., such as oxidative stress) that would cause covariation between two independent markers of aging.

  3. The chronology of the India-Asia collision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garzanti, Eduardo; Hu, Xiumian

    2016-04-01

    Markedly diverging interpretations and incompatible scenarios have been proposed for the early stages of the Himalayan Orogeny. One view is that the northern Indian passive margin may have been involved in ophiolite obduction, arc-continent, or continent-continent collision as early as the Late Cretaceous. A different view is that India may have not come into contact with Asia until as late as the Oligo-Miocene. Ages assigned to the India-Asia collision have thus ranged rather freely from as old as 70 Ma to as young as 25-20 Ma, allowing researchers to select in remarkable liberty the age that fitted best with their lines of reasoning. In recent years, however, a growing body of stratigraphic evidence has constrained the chronology of collision with increasing accuracy and precision. Provenance analysis has ruled out early collision or ophiolite-obduction hypotheses, indicating that renewed terrigenous supply in the Maastrichtian to Danian (72-62 Ma) was derived from India in the south - rejuvenated by magmatic upwelling during the Deccan event - rather than from Asia or from an obducting ophiolite in the north (Garzanti and Hu, 2015). Integrated biostratigraphy and detrital-zircon chronostratigraphy has demonstrated that the first continent-continent contact and consequent disappearance of Neotethyan oceanic lithosphere at one point in south Tibet took place in the Selandian (59 ± 1 Ma; DeCelles et al., 2014; Wu et al., 2014; Hu et al., 2015). A major disconformity documenting tectonic uplift of carbonate platforms all along the Tethys Himalaya from the Gamba and Tingri areas of south Tibet to the Zanskar Range of the NW Himalaya, allowed dating the arrival of the orogenic wave in the inner part of the northern Indian passive margin around the Paleocene/Eocene boundary (ca. 56 Ma; Garzanti et al., 1987; Li et al., 2015). Shallow-marine seaways linked with Neotethys persisted in the Himalaya until the mid-Ypresian (ca. 50 Ma), when they were finally filled by

  4. Sensitivity to reinforcement and family factors as predictors of psychological health problems in different age groups of children and teenagers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Kuznetsova

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The follow-up study was designed to assess and to compare the effects of sensitivity to reward, sensitivity to punishment and family environment on internalizing and externalizing problems in a community sample of 477 children and adolescents aged 3-18 (50% female. The level of problem behavior at Time 1 in all age groups was the best predictor of corresponding type of problem level at Time 2; the residual variance in problem behavior was also predicted by sensitivity to reinforcement. Family factors contributed for change in externalizing problems and hyperactivity in preschool and middle childhood children; living in the urban environment was significant factor for peer problem. The study showed that individual differences interact with the family factors in the process of development, and family environment could strengthen or mitigate the influence of biological factors on children and adolescents’ adjustment.

  5. Population Ageing and Socially Assistive Robots for Elderly Persons: The Importance of Sociodemographic Factors for User Acceptance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priska Flandorfer

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Taking care of older adults is among the major challenges currently faced by ageing populations. Researchers, designers, and engineers have proposed socially assistive robots as one way of helping elderly people stay in their homes longer. In a systematic literature review, this paper wants to investigate if and how evaluations of the acceptance of socially assistive robots by older people take into account sociodemographic factors. The results indicate that this only holds true for a few studies. Research that incorporates age, gender, education, and so forth; clearly shows that these key factors have a significant impact. However, the relations are complex and experience with technology mitigates the influence of sociodemographic factors on acceptance. Assistive devices should be adaptable to individual needs to be able to consider all these factors.

  6. Depositional chronology and fabric of Siwalik group sediments in Central Nepal from magnetostratigraphy and magnetic anisotropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautam, Pitambar; Rösler, Wolfgang

    1999-12-01

    Magnetostratigraphic research, undertaken within the past 15 years in the Siwaliks distributed along 400 km of the Sub-Himalaya in central Nepal, has proved that the sediments possess highly reliable hematite-based primary detrital remanent magnetization suitable to determine depositional chronology. In order to bring out the polarity sequences in a common chronological frame, all available data are newly correlated to the latest global magnetic polarity time scale of Cande and Kent (S.C. Cande, D.V. Kent (1995) Revised calibration of the geomagnetic polarity timescale for the Late Cretaceous and Cenozoic. Journal of Geophysical Research 100, 6093-6095). Chronological data presented are referred, in relation to the diverse lithological nomenclature, to the formations whose ages are not constrained by isotopic or paleontologic ages. The age of the sections dated by magnetostratigraphy ranges between 14 and <2 Ma. Sediment accumulation rates average to 32-50 cm kyr -1. Rock-magnetic parameters, e.g. initial susceptibility and isothermal remanent magnetization ratios, allow correlation with an accuracy of up to a few hundred meters among several kilometers thick adjacent sections. Anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) data reveal a well-defined fabric contributed to by paramagnetic ( k=10 -5 to 3×10 -4 SI) as well as ferromagnetic minerals ( k=3×10 -4 to 10 -2 SI). AMS ellipsoids are mainly oblate along with some prolate ones and the degree of anisotropy is mostly low ( P'<1.2). The magnetic fabric is of pre-folding origin with tilt-corrected sub-vertical magnetic foliation poles. The magnetic lineations do not show parallelism to the expected paleocurrent directions. Rather, sub-parallelism between the clusters of magnetic lineation and the fold axes/bedding strikes/thrust fronts is observed. A superimposed fabric consisting of a sedimentary-compactional and an overprint induced by a mild deformation process is suggested. The latter process was active during

  7. Prevalence and associated factors of contraceptive discontinuation and switching among Bangladeshi married women of reproductive age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahumud RA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rashidul Alam Mahumud,1 Md Golam Hossain,2 Abdur Razzaque Sarkar,1 Md Nurul Islam,2 Md Ripter Hossain,2 Aik Saw,3 Jahangir AM Khan1,4 1Health Economics and Financing Research Group, Center for Equity and Health Systems, International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh, Dhaka, Bangladesh; 2Department of Statistics, University of Rajshahi, Rajshahi, Bangladesh; 3Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, National Orthopaedic Centre of Excellence for Research and Learning, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; 4Adjunct Faculty, Health Economics Unit, Department of Learning, Informatics, Management and Ethics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden Introduction: Contraceptive discontinuation is a worldwide incident that may be connected with low incentive to avoid pregnancy. Contraceptive discontinuation highly contributes to unplanned pregnancy and unwanted births.Objectives: The objective of this study was to observe the prevalence of discontinuation and switching of contraceptive methods among Bangladeshi married women. In addition, the sociodemographic factors associated with contraceptive discontinuation and switching were assessed.Methods: Secondary cross-sectional data was used in this study. A total of 16,273 married Bangladeshi women of reproductive age (15–49 years were considered in the present study, from the Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey, 2011. Logistic regression models were used to determine the relationships between key sociodemographic factors and user status.Results: The prevalence of discontinuation and switching of contraceptive method among women were 38.4% and 15.4%, respectively. The logistic regression model demonstrated that women in early reproductive years (25–29 years and 30–34 years significantly more often (odds ratio [OR] =0.84 and 0.71, respectively discontinued use of contraceptives. Significantly higher rates of discontinuation were pronounced among women who

  8. Several dominants risk factors related to obesity in urban childbearing age women in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kencana Sari

    2016-01-01

    analyze several dominant riskfactors related to obesity in childbearing age women living in urban areas in Indonesia.Methods: This analysis used a part of Basic Health Research (Riskesdas 2007 data. The samples werederived from 258366 households. Riskesdas data on socio-demographic and other factors was collectedby questionnaire. Nutritional status was measured using body mass index (BMI. Cox regression withconstant time analysis was used for the analysis.Results: This analysis noted that there are 14357 (18.8% of women were obese and 62052 (81.2%normal. Compared with the respective reference groups, women aged 25-49 had a 3.5-fold greater riskof becoming obese [adjusted relative risk (RRa = 3.49; P = 0.000, and divorced or married had 2.5-foldhigher risk to be obese (RRa = 2.58; P= 0.000 and RRa = 2.62; P = 0.000, respectively. Furthermore,unemployed women had higher risk to be obese (RRa = 1.06; P = 0.000, and consuming excess proteinas well as often consume fatty foods made women had a higher risk of obesity (RRa = 1.09; P = 0.000 andRRa = 1.17; P = 0.000, respectively.Conclusion: Women aged 25-49, divorced or married, unemployed, consumed excess protein, and often consumefatty foods have a higher risk for becoming obese. (Health Science Journal of Indonesia 2015;6:63-8Key words: obesity, urban, women

  9. Prevalence of Anemia and Associated Factors in Child Bearing Age Women in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlQuaiz, AlJohara M.; Gad Mohamed, Ashry; Khoja, Tawfik A. M.; AlSharif, Abdullah; Shaikh, Shaffi Ahamed; Al Mane, Hamad; Aldiris, Abdallah; Hammad, Durdana

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To determine the prevalence and risk factors for anemia in child bearing age women in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Design. Cross-sectional survey was conducted using two-stage cluster sampling. 25 clusters (primary health care centers (PHCC)) were identified from all over Riyadh, and 45–50 households were randomly selected from each cluster. Eligible women were invited to PHCC for questionnaire filling, anthropometric measurements, and complete blood count. Blood hemoglobin was measured with Coulter Cellular Analysis System using light scatter method. Setting. PHCC. Subjects. 969 (68%) women out of 1429 women were included in the analysis. Results. Mean hemoglobin was 12.35 (±1.80) g/dL, 95% CI 12.24–12.46 with interquartile range of 1.9. Anemia (Hb <12 g/dL) was present in 40% (390) women. Mean (±SD) for MCH, MCV, MCHC, and RDW was 79.21 (±12.17) fL, 26.37 (±6.21) pg, 32.36 (±4.91) g/dL, and 14.84 (±4.65)%, respectively. Multivariate logistic regression revealed that having family history of iron deficiency anemia (OR 2.91, 95% CI 1.78–4.76) and infrequent intake of meat (OR 1.54, 95%CI 1.15–2.05) were associated with increased risk of anemia, whereas increasing body mass index (OR 0.95, 95% CI 0.92–0.97) was associated with reduced risk of anemia. Conclusion. Women should be educated about proper diet and reproductive issues in order to reduce the prevalence of anemia in Saudi Arabia. PMID:24205435

  10. Prevalence of Anemia and Associated Factors in Child Bearing Age Women in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AlJohara M. AlQuaiz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine the prevalence and risk factors for anemia in child bearing age women in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Design. Cross-sectional survey was conducted using two-stage cluster sampling. 25 clusters (primary health care centers (PHCC were identified from all over Riyadh, and 45–50 households were randomly selected from each cluster. Eligible women were invited to PHCC for questionnaire filling, anthropometric measurements, and complete blood count. Blood hemoglobin was measured with Coulter Cellular Analysis System using light scatter method. Setting. PHCC. Subjects. 969 (68% women out of 1429 women were included in the analysis. Results. Mean hemoglobin was 12.35 (±1.80 g/dL, 95% CI 12.24–12.46 with interquartile range of 1.9. Anemia (Hb <12 g/dL was present in 40% (390 women. Mean (±SD for MCH, MCV, MCHC, and RDW was 79.21 (±12.17 fL, 26.37 (±6.21 pg, 32.36 (±4.91 g/dL, and 14.84 (±4.65%, respectively. Multivariate logistic regression revealed that having family history of iron deficiency anemia (OR 2.91, 95% CI 1.78–4.76 and infrequent intake of meat (OR 1.54, 95%CI 1.15–2.05 were associated with increased risk of anemia, whereas increasing body mass index (OR 0.95, 95% CI 0.92–0.97 was associated with reduced risk of anemia. Conclusion. Women should be educated about proper diet and reproductive issues in order to reduce the prevalence of anemia in Saudi Arabia.

  11. Current status of vascular endothelial growth factor inhibition in age-related macular degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousa, Shaker A; Mousa, Shaymaa S

    2010-06-01

    Angiogenesis, the process by which new vessels are created from pre-existing vasculature, has become the subject of intense research in recent years. Increased rates of angiogenesis are associated with several disease states, including cancer, age-related macular degeneration (AMD), psoriasis, rheumatoid arthritis, and diabetic retinopathy. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is an important modulator of angiogenesis, and has been implicated in the pathology of a number of conditions, including AMD, diabetic retinopathy, and cancer. AMD is a progressive disease of the macula and the third major cause of blindness worldwide. If not treated appropriately, AMD can progress to involve both eyes. Until recently, the treatment options for AMD have been limited, with photodynamic therapy (PDT) the mainstay of treatment. Although PDT is effective at slowing disease progression, it rarely results in improved vision. Several therapies have been or are now being developed for neovascular AMD, with the goal of inhibiting VEGF. These VEGF inhibitors include the RNA aptamer pegaptanib, partial and full-length antibodies ranibizumab and bevacizumab, the VEGF receptor decoy aflibercept, small interfering RNA-based therapies bevasiranib and AGN 211745, sirolimus, and tyrosine kinase inhibitors, including vatalanib, pazopanib, TG 100801, TG 101095, AG 013958, and AL 39324. At present, established therapies have met with great success in reducing the vision loss associated with neovascular AMD, whereas those still under investigation offer the potential for further advances. In AMD patients, these therapies slow the rate of vision loss and in some cases increase visual acuity. Although VEGF-inhibitor therapies are a milestone in the treatment of these disease states, several concerns need to be addressed before their impact can be fully realized.

  12. Risk factors associated with pleuritis and cranio-ventral pulmonary consolidation in slaughter-aged pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraile, L; Alegre, A; López-Jiménez, R; Nofrarías, M; Segalés, J

    2010-06-01

    Examination of lung lesions at the slaughterhouse is a useful tool to estimate the importance of respiratory disease at farm, regional or national level. The objective of the present work was to describe the prevalence of gross lung lesions at slaughter, with a special focus on pleuritis and cranio-ventral pulmonary consolidation, and to identify major risk factors for these lesions. Data from 107 farms involving approximately 11,000 pigs enabled gross lung lesions to be correlated with serology to different swine respiratory pathogens as well as with production system characteristics and vaccination schedules. Pleuritis and cranio-ventral pulmonary consolidation lesions were recorded in 26.8% and 55.7% of slaughter-aged pigs, respectively. Among lungs with pleuritis, 50.1% had lesions compatible with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (App) infection. Antibodies to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRSV), three subtypes (H1N1, H1N2 and H3N2) of swine influenza virus (SIV), App and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (Mhyo) were highly prevalent (>82%) in most of the farms. In a multivariable analysis, it was estimated (R(2)=0.40) that the percentage of animals with pleuritis compatible with App infection depended on the existence of an all in-all out by room management system and App and PRRSV herd seroprevalence. Moreover, it was possible to foresee (R(2)=0.59) that cranio-ventral pulmonary consolidation lesions (EP-like lesions) were affected by the type of farm ventilation, the presence of respiratory symptoms during the fattening period and Mhyo and SIV H1N2 herd seroprevalence.

  13. Sequence and chronology of the Cuerpo de Hombre paleoglacier (Iberian Central System) during the last glacial cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco, Rosa M.; Pedraza, Javier; Domínguez-Villar, David; Willenbring, Jane K.; Villa, Javier

    2015-12-01

    The Cuerpo de Hombre paleoglacier occupies the upper sector of the Cuerpo de Hombre river basin, located on the northwest slope of the Sierra de Béjar Mountains (Iberian Central System). At the stage of the maximum ice extent during the last glacial cycle, this paleoglacier was one of the longest tongues emerging from the Sierra de Béjar plateau glacier. The study of the morphostratigraphic succession and the geometric and genetic relations between the geomorphological indicators of this paleoglacier has revealed its evolutionary sequence during the last glacial cycle. The comparison between this sequence and the one previously established by a regional evolutionary pattern shows that although they both coincide in general terms, some stages/substages of this pattern must be corrected or more clearly defined. The absolute chronology of the different stages was obtained using terrestrial cosmogenic nuclides (10Be). The maximum ice extent of Cuerpo de Hombre paleoglacier has been dated to ∼25.0 ka (MIS2 and concurrent with the LGM). This chronology coincides with date obtained for other paleoglaciers in the Iberian Central System, but is slightly more modern than the regional chronology estimated as most likely for the maximum ice extent in these areas. Subsequent to reaching the maximum extent, the glacier had a retreat (minimum age ∼20.6 ka), followed by another stage of expansion or readvance, after which it stabilised until the start of the deglaciation stage (∼17.8 ka). In all previous work, the deglaciation stages in the Iberian Central System have been described as one continuous recession process. However, in the Cuerpo de Hombre paleoglacier, all the data point to stabilisations of considerable magnitude, and particularly to another stage of readvance of the glacier. Based on its chronology (minimum age ∼11.1 ka) and its evolutionary significance, this new readvance has been correlated with the Older Dryas stadial. Finally, the evolutionary context

  14. The moderating impact of lifestyle factors on sex steroids, sexual activities and aging in Asian men

    OpenAIRE

    Goh, Victor HH; Tong, Terry YY

    2011-01-01

    The present study sought to evaluate the relative associations of exercise, sleep and other lifestyle habits with aging, sex hormones, percent body fat (%BF) and sexual activities in men living in the community. A better understanding of this complex interrelationship is important in helping the formulation of modalities for a holistic approach to the management of aging men. The results showed that age is a major determinant for many physiological parameters, including sleep, hormonal and me...

  15. Factors associated with the ability and willingness to continue working until the age of 65 in construction workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oude Hengel, K.M.; Blatter, B.M.; Geuskens, G.A.; Koppes, L.L.J.; Bongers, P.M.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The working population is aging and a shortage of workers is expected in the construction industry. As a consequence, it is considered necessary that construction workers extend their working life. The purpose of this study was to explore factors associated with construction workers' abi

  16. Risk Factors for Deformational Plagiocephaly at Birth and at 7 Weeks of Age: A Prospective Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlimmeren, van Leo A.; Graaf, van der Jolanda; Boere-Boonekamp, Magda M.; L'Hoir, Monique P.; Helders, Paul J.M.; Engelbert, Raoul H.H.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. The purpose of this work was to identify risk factors for deformational plagiocephaly within 48 hours of birth and at 7 weeks of age. PATIENTS AND METHODS. This was a prospective cohort study in which 380 healthy neonates born at term in Bernhoven Hospital in Veghel were followed at bir

  17. Social class, ethnicity and other risk factors for small for gestational age and preterm delivery in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkerk, P.H.; Zaadstra, B.M.; Reerink, J.D.; Herngreen, W.P.; Verloove-Vanhorick, S.P.

    1994-01-01

    Social class and ethnicity are important risk factors for small-for-gestational-age and preterm delivery in many countries. This study was performed to assess whether this is also the case in the Netherlands, a country with a high level of social security, relatively small income differences and eas

  18. The Factor Structure and Age-Related Factorial Invariance of the Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System (D-KEFS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latzman, Robert D.; Markon, Kristian E.

    2010-01-01

    There has been an increased interest in the structure of and relations among executive functions.The present study examined the factor structure as well as age-related factorial invariance of the Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System (D-KEFS), a widely used inventory aimed at assessing executive functions. Analyses were first conducted using data…

  19. Diverse roles of growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor-1 in mammalian aging: progress and controversies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonntag, William E; Csiszar, Anna; deCabo, Raphael; Ferrucci, Luigi; Ungvari, Zoltan

    2012-06-01

    Because the initial reports demonstrating that circulating growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor-1 decrease with age in laboratory animals and humans, there have been numerous studies related to the importance of these hormones for healthy aging. Nevertheless, the role of these potent anabolic hormones in the genesis of the aging phenotype remains controversial. In this chapter, we review the studies demonstrating the beneficial and deleterious effects of growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor-1 deficiency and explore their effects on specific tissues and pathology as well as their potentially unique effects early during development. Based on this review, we conclude that the perceived contradictory roles of growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor-1 in the genesis of the aging phenotype should not be interpreted as a controversy on whether growth hormone or insulin-like growth factor-1 increases or decreases life span but rather as an opportunity to explore the complex roles of these hormones during specific stages of the life span.

  20. Impact of lifestyle factors on caries experience in three different age groups : 9, 15, and 21-year-olds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dusseldorp, Elise; Kamphuis, Mascha; Schuller, Annemarie

    2015-01-01

    ObjectivesTo study the impact of lifestyle factors on dental caries experiences in addition to the effect of demographic characteristics at the ages of 9, 15, and 21years. MethodsThe data were obtained from the study Oral health in children and adolescents in the Netherlands'. Data were collected th

  1. Impact of lifestyle factors on caries experience in three different age groups : 9, 15, and 21-year-olds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dusseldorp, E.; Kamphuis, M.; Schuller, A.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To study the impact of lifestyle factors on dental caries experiences in addition to the effect of demographic characteristics at the ages of 9, 15, and 21 years. Methods The data were obtained from the study ‘Oral health in children and adolescents in the Netherlands’. Data were collecte

  2. Factor structure of the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Functions (BRIEF-P) at age three years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skogan, Annette Holth; Egeland, Jens; Zeiner, Pål; Øvergaard, Kristin Romvig; Oerbeck, Beate; Reichborn-Kjennerud, Ted; Aase, Heidi

    2016-01-01

    The preschool period is an important developmental period for the emergence of cognitive self-regulatory skills or executive functions (EF). To date, evidence regarding the structure of EF in preschool children has supported both unitary and multicomponent models. The aim of the present study was to test the factor structure of early EF as measured by the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Preschool version (BRIEF-P). BRIEF-P consists of five subscales and three broader indexes, hypothesized to tap into different subcomponents of EF. Parent ratings of EF from a nonreferred sample of children recruited from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (N = 1134; age range 37-47 months) were subjected to confirmatory factor analyses (CFA). Three theoretically derived models were assessed; the second-order three-factor model originally proposed by the BRIEF-P authors, a "true" first-order one-factor model and a second-order one-factor model. CFA fit statistics supported the original three-factor solution. However, the difference in fit was marginal between this model and the second-order one-factor model. A follow-up exploratory factor analysis (EFA) supported the existence of several factors underlying EF in early preschool years, with a considerable overlap with the five BRIEF-P subscales. Our results suggest that some differentiation in EF has taken place at age 3 years, which is reflected in behavior ratings. The internal consistency of the BRIEF-P five clinical subscales is supported. Subscale interrelations may, however, differ at this age from those observed in the preschool group as a whole.

  3. Factores intrínsecos y extrínsecos implicados en el envejecimiento cutáneo Intrinsec and extrinsec factors related to cutaneous aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Alves

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available El envejecimiento es la perdida progresiva y gradual de nuestras funciones fisiológicas debido al paso de los años; conduce a una disminución de la salud y de la sensación de bienestar, aumentando el riesgo de contraer enfermedades y la probabilidad de muerte. En la actualidad hay cada vez más interés en el estudio del envejecimiento humano y surgen muchas preguntas, que necesitan respuestas que nos hagan comprender mejor el complejo proceso que lleva a la senectud. El envejecimiento es un proceso complejo y multifactorial que resulta de la acumulación de varios cambios funcionales y estéticos en el organismo que se producen en el tiempo. La piel también se ve afectada por estos cambios a través de factores intrínsecos y extrínsecos. La percepción de la edad, así como la belleza, dependen en gran medida de la exposición de la piel al medio ambiente. El envejecimiento intrínseco o el envejecimiento biológico es un proceso inevitable, genéticamente determinado, que progresa lentamente a medida que avanzamos en edad, pero puede acelerarse por factores ambientales. Los principales factores responsables del envejecimiento extrínseco son la exposición solar y el consumo de tabaco. No se trata solo, por tanto, de procesos celulares, sino que es también una respuesta al proceso de adaptación a los factores externos propios del medio ambiente. El objetivo de esta revisión es conocer mejor cuáles son los mecanismos responsables del envejecimiento intrínseco e identificar los principales factores extrínsecos que influyen en el mismo, y cómo éstos pueden acelerar los procesos celulares biológicos.As human life expectancy increases, more interesting studies arise in order to better understand the complex process that aging involves. The perception of age is largely dependent on the appearance of exposed skin. Aging is a complex and multifactorial process resulting in the accumulation of several functional and aesthetic changes in

  4. The Status and Associated Factors of Successful Aging among Older Adults Residing in Longevity Areas in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Wen Hui; andSHI Xiao Ming; ZHANG Hong Yan; ZHANG Juan; LYU Yue Bin; Melanie Sereny Brasher; YIN Zhao Xue; LUO Jie Si; HU Dong Sheng; FEN Lei

    2016-01-01

    ObjectiveThis study aims to assess the status of successful aging (SA) in longevity areas in Chinaand explore multiple factors associated with SA among the young-old and oldest-old. MethodsA total of 2296 elderly people aged 65 and older were interviewed in the longevity areas sub-sample of the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey (CLHLS) in 2012. Baseline assessments included a researcher-administered questionnaire, physical examination, and laboratory testing. A logistic regression model was used to identify factors associated with SA. ResultsThe prevalenceof SA was 38.81% in the CLHLS in 2012. There were significant differences between ages groups, with SA compromising 56.85%among≥65 years group and 20.31% among ≥100 years group (χ2trend=126.73,P ConclusionPreventing central obesity, improving sleep quality and promoting healthy lifestyle may contribute to achieve SA among the elderly.

  5. A review of ageing and an examination of clinical methods in the assessment of ageing skin. Part I: Cellular and molecular perspectives of skin ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callaghan, T M; Wilhelm, K-P

    2008-10-01

    The ageing process is noticeable within all organs of the body and manifests itself visibly in the skin. Skin ageing is influenced by several factors including genetics, environmental exposure, hormonal changes and metabolic processes. Together these factors lead to cumulative alterations of skin structure, function and appearance. The functioning of the central nervous, immune, endocrine and cardiovascular systems, as well as the skin is also impaired with age. Chronologically, aged skin is thin, relatively flattened, dry and unblemished, with some loss of elasticity and age-related loss of architectural regularity. General atrophy of the extracellular matrix is reflected by a decrease in the number of fibroblasts. Reduced levels of collagen and elastin, with impaired organization are primarily because of decreased protein synthesis affecting types I and III collagen in the dermis, with an increased breakdown of extracellular matrix proteins. Oxidative stress is considered of primary importance in driving the ageing process. The original free radical theory of ageing purported that the molecular basis of ageing was derived from a lifetime accumulation of oxidative damage to cells resulting from excess reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced as a consequence of aerobic metabolism. Although the skin possesses extremely efficient anti-oxidant activities, during ageing, ROS levels rise and anti-oxidant activities decline. The ROS are necessary in multiple MAP kinase pathways and the induction of AP-1, in turn, up-regulates expression of matrix-metalloproteinases providing a plausible mechanism for the increased collagen degradation in aged human skin.

  6. Cognitive Functioning in Healthy Aging: The Role of Reserve and Lifestyle Factors Early in Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritsch, Thomas; McClendon, McKee J.; Smyth, Kathleen A.; Lerner, Alan J.; Friedland, Robert P.; Larsen, Janet D.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: According to the "reserve perspective" on cognitive aging, individuals are born with or can develop resources that help them resist normal and disease-related cognitive changes that occur in aging. The reserve perspective is becoming more sophisticated, but gaps in knowledge persist. In the present research, we considered three…

  7. Signaling pathway activation drift during aging: Hutchinson-Gilford Progeria Syndrome fibroblasts are comparable to normal middle-age and old-age cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliper, Alexander M; Csoka, Antonei Benjamin; Buzdin, Anton; Jetka, Tomasz; Roumiantsev, Sergey; Moskalev, Alexy; Zhavoronkov, Alex

    2015-01-01

    For the past several decades, research in understanding the molecular basis of human aging has progressed significantly with the analysis of premature aging syndromes. Progerin, an altered form of lamin A, has been identified as the cause of premature aging in Hutchinson-Gilford Progeria Syndrome (HGPS), and may be a contributing causative factor in normal aging. However, the question of whether HGPS actually recapitulates the normal aging process at the cellular and organismal level, or simply mimics the aging phenotype is widely debated. In the present study we analyzed publicly available microarray datasets for fibroblasts undergoing cellular aging in culture, as well as fibroblasts derived from young, middle-age, and old-age individuals, and patients with HGPS. Using GeroScope pathway analysis and drug discovery platform we analyzed the activation states of 65 major cellular signaling pathways. Our analysis reveals that signaling pathway activation states in cells derived from chronologically young patients with HGPS strongly resemble cells taken from normal middle-aged and old individuals. This clearly indicates that HGPS may truly represent accelerated aging, rather than being just a simulacrum. Our data also points to potential pathways that could be targeted to develop drugs and drug combinations for both HGPS and normal aging.

  8. Factors associated with quality of life in middle-aged and older patients living with HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Fabiana; Canavarro, Maria Cristina; Pereira, Marco

    2016-01-01

    HIV infection has been historically considered a disease of young adults; however, adults aged 50 years and older represent now an increasing proportion of HIV cases worldwide, including in Portugal. In this context, given the considerable burden associated with living with HIV, the topic of quality-of-life (QoL) assessment has become increasingly relevant. The aims of this study were to examine the age-related differences in QoL and depressive symptoms of younger and middle-aged and older adults with HIV as well as the sociodemographic, HIV-related and depressive symptoms (cognitive-affective and somatic) associated with QoL domains. The sample consisted of 1194 HIV-infected patients, recruited from 10 Portuguese hospitals. QoL data were collected using the WHOQOL-HIV-Bref questionnaire. Patients also completed the Beck Depression Inventory. Of the 1194 patients, 185 (15.5%) were over 50 years old. Middle-aged and older patients reported significantly lower QoL in the physical, independence and social relationships domains. Regarding the specific facets of QoL, middle-aged and older patients reported significantly lower scores in seven of the 29 specific facets of the WHOQOL-HIV-Bref and higher scores in one facet (financial resources). Overall, among middle-aged and older patients, higher education, being employed, a shorter time since HIV diagnosis, use of combination anti-retroviral therapy and fewer depressive symptoms were significantly associated with higher QoL ratings. Our findings suggest that both cognitive-affective and somatic depressive symptoms account for significant variability in QoL scores in middle-aged and older patients. Because an important feature of healthy ageing is maintaining QoL, these data may provide useful information for tailoring age-appropriate and effective interventions to improve the mental health and QoL of middle-aged and older patients living with HIV.

  9. A review of the chronologies and geomorphology of the aeolian landforms in the northwestern Negev dunefield (Israel)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roskin, Joel

    2015-04-01

    The northwestern (NW) Negev Desert dunefield covering an area of only 1,300 km2, comprises the eastern end of the northern Sinai Peninsula - NW Negev erg and is probably the most densely dated dune body in the INQUA Dunes Atlas chronologic database. Over 230 luminescence ages (TL, IRSL, and mainly OSL) and radiocarbon dates have been retrieved over the past course of 20 years from calcic and sandy palaeosols serving as dune substrates, sand sheets, vegetated linear dunes (VLDs), fluvial deposits, and archaeological sites. Despite being from different deposit types and aeolian morphologies, and based on different methodologies, the chronologies usually show good compatibility. By reviewing and reassessing the significance of the Eastern Mediterranean INQUA Dunes Atlas chronologies, along with detailed stratigraphic, structural and geomorphologic data and understandings, the major, and possibly extreme, episodes of aeolian activity and stability are outlined. Repetitive chronostratigraphic sequences in VLDs indicate that this dune type, at least in the Negev, comprises a reliable recorder of main dune mobilization periods. This presentation demonstrates that certain combinations of research finds, using different OSL dating strategies and other regional and local late Quaternary records and in particular aeolian ones, are required assets for providing for acceptable local and regional palaeoclimatic interpretations. The distribution of the VLD chronologies points to rapid mobilization during the Heinrich 1 and Younger Dryas, characterized by powerful winds, though VLDs also form in late Holocene palaeoenvironments. Time slices illustrate the different sensitivities of the studied aeolian landforms to the source, availability, and supply of sediment; long- and short-term climate change, local human-induced environmental changes and also their joint effects, that enable evaluation of aeolian responses to future environmental and climate changes.

  10. Pathway-Based Factor Analysis of Gene Expression Data Produces Highly Heritable Phenotypes That Associate with Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand Brown, Andrew; Ding, Zhihao; Viñuela, Ana; Glass, Dan; Parts, Leopold; Spector, Tim; Winn, John; Durbin, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Statistical factor analysis methods have previously been used to remove noise components from high-dimensional data prior to genetic association mapping and, in a guided fashion, to summarize biologically relevant sources of variation. Here, we show how the derived factors summarizing pathway expression can be used to analyze the relationships between expression, heritability, and aging. We used skin gene expression data from 647 twins from the MuTHER Consortium and applied factor analysis to concisely summarize patterns of gene expression to remove broad confounding influences and to produce concise pathway-level phenotypes. We derived 930 “pathway phenotypes” that summarized patterns of variation across 186 KEGG pathways (five phenotypes per pathway). We identified 69 significant associations of age with phenotype from 57 distinct KEGG pathways at a stringent Bonferroni threshold (P<5.38×10−5). These phenotypes are more heritable (h2=0.32) than gene expression levels. On average, expression levels of 16% of genes within these pathways are associated with age. Several significant pathways relate to metabolizing sugars and fatty acids; others relate to insulin signaling. We have demonstrated that factor analysis methods combined with biological knowledge can produce more reliable phenotypes with less stochastic noise than the individual gene expression levels, which increases our power to discover biologically relevant associations. These phenotypes could also be applied to discover associations with other environmental factors. PMID:25758824

  11. TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR 1 IN CHILDREN OF EARLY AGE WITH LIVER TRANSPLANTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. Kurabekova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1 plays a key role in the development of the immune response, as well as in the process of liver regeneration. Measuring the level of TGF-β1 may have important clinical implications in liver transplantation, because cytokine concentration in the tissue and in blood plasma varies with different liver diseases. Aim. To analyze the dynamics of TGF-β1 levels in children-recipients with liver transplant from related donors, including from incompatible blood groups.Materials and methods. The study involved 127 children aged 3 to 72 months (median – 8, average age – 12 ± 14 months, including 57 boys and 70 girls, with liver cirrhosis, developed as the result of congenital and hereditary diseases of the hepatobiliary system. All patients underwent transplantation of the left lateral liver sector from living related donors: 98 patients were transplantedfragment of a liver from identical or AB0-compatible donors and 29 – from incompatible donors. The concentration of TGF-β1 was determined by enzyme immunoassay method in blood plasma samples.Results. Average level of TGF-β1 in blood plasma of children with liver cirrhosis, developed as the result of congenital and hereditary diseases of the hepatobiliary system was 5,2 ± 5,5 ng/ml. A month after liver transplantation from a related donor level of TGF-β1 in blood plasma of recipients increased to 8,1 ± 9,6 ng/ml. One year after transplantation, the average level of TGF-β1 in the recipients of liver fragment was 7,7 ± 8,4 ng/ml, and signifi cantly (p = 0,00 differed from the level prior to transplantation. No association between TGF-β1 level in a month and a year after transplantation and the compatibility of the recipient with AB0 donor was found. A correlation (r = –0,23, p < 0,05 between level of TGF-β1 prior to transplantation and the development of graft dysfunction was observed: in recipients with graft dysfunction (16 cases

  12. Prevalence and factors of addictive Internet use among adolescents in Wuhan, China: interactions of parental relationship with age and hyperactivity-impulsivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianhua Wu

    Full Text Available PURPOSES: This study examined the prevalence of addictive Internet use and analyzed the role of parental relationship in affecting this behavior among a random sample of adolescents in Wuhan, China. METHODS: Students (n = 1,101 were randomly selected from four schools, including 638 boys and 463 girls with a mean age of 13.8 (standard deviation = 1.2 years. Addictive Internet use, parental relationship, hyperactivity-impulsivity were measured by validated instruments. Prevalence rate, ANOVA and multiple linear regression method were used to analyze the level of Internet addiction and its association with parental relationship, hyperactivity-impulsivity, as well as the interaction of parental relationship with chronological age and hyperactivity-impulsivity. RESULTS: The prevalence rate of Internet addiction was 13.5% (16.5% for boys and 9.5% for girls, p<0.01. Compared to non-addictive users, addictive Internet users were scored significantly lower on parental relationships and significantly higher on hyperactivity-impulsivity. Interaction analysis indicated that better parental relationship was associated with more reductions in risk of addictive Internet use for younger students than for older students, and with more risk of Internet addiction among higher than among lower hyperactivity-impulsivity students. CONCLUSIONS: Findings of this study indicate that adolescent addictive Internet use is a significant public health threat in China. Prevention interventions targeting parental relationship must consider adolescent's age and hyperactivity-impulsivity tendency.

  13. Behavioral problems and related factors in children of different aged patients with schizophrenia A cross-sectional study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: With the age growing, changes of behavioral problems in children whose parents had schizophrenia, differences of related factors and ways for particular intervention should be further studied.OBJECTIVE: To survey the behavioral problems in children of different aged patients with chizophrenia and investigate the correlation between behavioral problems and related factors in different aged groups.DESIGN: Cross-sectional study.SETTING: Shandong Mental Health Center.PARTICIPANTS: A total of 364 patients with schizophrenia were selected from eleven psychiatric hospitals from June 1999 to June 2000. There were 179 males and 185 females, and their ages ranged from 28 to 45 years. All patients met modified diagnostic criteria of schizophrenia (the second edition),China Classification of Mental Diseases and Diagnostic Criteria. Meanwhile, children of the 364 patients were grouped based on their ages, including 6 - 11 years old group [n =217; 114 males and 103 females;mean age of(9±2) years] and 12 - 16 years old group [n =147; 99 males and 48 females; mean age of(14±1) years]. The Chinese norms of Achenbach's Child Behavior Check List were regarded as the normal control group.METHODS: Children who received self-made mental health related factors inventory and Achenbach's Child Behavior Check List were involved in this study. All children and their parents provided the confirmed consent. Achenbach's Child Behavior Check List was used for parents to mainly evaluate children, and the results manifested various behavioral problems based on different sexes and different ages. Self-made mental health related factors inventory contained questionnaires for parents and children, respectively. In this study,home situation of parents as well as personality characteristics and educational styles of children were mainly evaluated.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: ① Scores of Achenbach's Child Behavior Check List in different aged children; ② Scores of self-made mental health

  14. Audit of Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors among Supported Adults with Intellectual Disability Attending an Ageing Clinic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Robyn A.; Schluter, Philip

    2008-01-01

    Background: Little is known about the cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factor profile for older adults with intellectual disability (ID). As many CVD risk factors are treatable by lifestyle changes, confirmation of the risk factor profile for older adults with ID could substantially impact upon preventive health practices for this group. Method:…

  15. Factors affecting unmet need for family planning in married women of reproductive age group in urban slums of Lucknow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjali Pal

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Unmet need for family planning signifies the gap between the reproductive intentions of couples and their actual contraceptive behaviour. The National Family Health Surveys carried out in India in 1992-93, 1998-99 and 2004-2005 have revealed that for a sizable proportion of the population in the reproductive age group, the need for contraceptive services are not met with despite the existence of a National Policy on family planning since 1983. This study was carried out to assess the extent of unmet need for family planning among married women of reproductive age group in urban slums of Lucknow and identify the various factors affecting it. Study design: Cross sectional Setting: four urban slums of Lucknow Participants: 414 married women in the age group of 15- 44 years Study variables: age, education, occupation, religion, parity Statistical analysis: chi- square test, logistic regression analysis, fisher’s exact test Results: the extent of unmet need among married women of reproductive age group was 53.1%. The unmet need was found to be significantly associated with age, number of living sons, discussion of family planning with husband, perception of husband’s view on family planning and husbands’ behaviour towards use of family planning method. Logistic regression analysis of unmet need showed that the lower age of the woman, lesser number of living sons and husband’s discouragement towards the use of FP method were correlated with the unmet need for Family Planning.

  16. Aging and infection reduce expression of specific brain-derived neurotrophic factor mRNAs in hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Timothy R; Barrientos, Ruth M; Ahrendsen, Jared T; Hoover, Jennifer M; Maier, Steven F; Patterson, Susan L

    2012-04-01

    Aging increases the likelihood of cognitive decline after negative life events such as infection or injury. We have modeled this increased vulnerability in aged (24-month-old), but otherwise unimpaired F344xBN rats. In these animals, but not in younger (3-month-old) counterparts, a single intraperitoneal injection of E. coli leads to specific deficits in long-term memory and long-lasting synaptic plasticity in hippocampal area CA1-processes strongly dependent on brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Here we have investigated the effects of age and infection on basal and fear-conditioning-stimulated expression of Bdnf in hippocampus. We performed in situ hybridization with 6 probes recognizing: total (pan-)BDNF mRNA, the 4 predominant 5' exon-specific transcripts (I, II, IV, and VI), and BDNF mRNAs with a long 3' untranslated region (3' UTR). In CA1, aging reduced basal levels and fear-conditioning-induced expression of total BDNF mRNA, exon IV-specific transcripts, and transcripts with long 3' UTRs; effects of infection were similar and sometimes compounded the effects of aging. In CA3, aging reduced all of the transcripts to some degree; infection had no effect. Effects in dentate were minimal. Northern blot analysis confirmed an aging-associated loss of total BDNF mRNA in areas CA1 and CA3, and revealed a parallel, preferential loss of BDNF mRNA transcripts with long 3' UTRs.

  17. Diabetes and age-related demographic differences in risk factor control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egan, Brent M; Li, Jiexiang; Wolfman, Tamara E; Sinopoli, Angelo

    2014-06-01

    Disparate vascular outcomes in diabetes by race and/or ethnicity may reflect differential risk factor control, especially pre-Medicare. Assess concurrent target attainment for glycohemoglobin 2, P factor awareness and treatment were lower in Hispanics than whites. When treated, diabetes and hypertension control were greater in whites than blacks or Hispanics. Concurrent risk factor control is low in all diabetics and could improve with greater statin use. Insuring younger adults, especially Hispanic, could raise risk factor awareness and treatment. Improving treatment effectiveness in younger black and Hispanic diabetics could promote equitable risk factor control.

  18. Why some women look young for their age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunn, David A; Rexbye, Helle; Griffiths, Christopher E M; Murray, Peter G; Fereday, Amelia; Catt, Sharon D; Tomlin, Cyrena C; Strongitharm, Barbara H; Perrett, Dave I; Catt, Michael; Mayes, Andrew E; Messenger, Andrew G; Green, Martin R; van der Ouderaa, Frans; Vaupel, James W; Christensen, Kaare

    2009-12-01

    The desire of many to look young for their age has led to the establishment of a large cosmetics industry. However, the features of appearance that primarily determine how old women look for their age and whether genetic or environmental factors predominately influence such features are largely unknown. We studied the facial appearance of 102 pairs of female Danish twins aged 59 to 81 as well as 162 British females aged 45 to 75. Skin wrinkling, hair graying and lip height were significantly and independently associated with how old the women looked for their age. The appearance of facial sun-damage was also found to be significantly correlated to how old women look for their age and was primarily due to its commonality with the appearance of skin wrinkles. There was also considerable variation in the perceived age data that was unaccounted for. Composite facial images created from women who looked young or old for their age indicated that the structure of subcutaneous tissue was partly responsible. Heritability analyses of the appearance features revealed that perceived age, pigmented age spots, skin wrinkles and the appearance of sun-damage were influenced more or less equally by genetic and environmental factors. Hair graying, recession of hair from the forehead and lip height were influenced mainly by genetic factors whereas environmental factors influenced hair thinning. These findings indicate that women who look young for their age have large lips, avoid sun-exposure and possess genetic factors that protect against the development of gray hair and skin wrinkles. The findings also demonstrate that perceived age is a better biomarker of skin, hair and facial aging than chronological age.

  19. Why some women look young for their age.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A Gunn

    Full Text Available The desire of many to look young for their age has led to the establishment of a large cosmetics industry. However, the features of appearance that primarily determine how old women look for their age and whether genetic or environmental factors predominately influence such features are largely unknown. We studied the facial appearance of 102 pairs of female Danish twins aged 59 to 81 as well as 162 British females aged 45 to 75. Skin wrinkling, hair graying and lip height were significantly and independently associated with how old the women looked for their age. The appearance of facial sun-damage was also found to be significantly correlated to how old women look for their age and was primarily due to its commonality with the appearance of skin wrinkles. There was also considerable variation in the perceived age data that was unaccounted for. Composite facial images created from women who looked young or old for their age indicated that the structure of subcutaneous tissue was partly responsible. Heritability analyses of the appearance features revealed that perceived age, pigmented age spots, skin wrinkles and the appearance of sun-damage were influenced more or less equally by genetic and environmental factors. Hair graying, recession of hair from the forehead and lip height were influenced mainly by genetic factors whereas environmental factors influenced hair thinning. These findings indicate that women who look young for their age have large lips, avoid sun-exposure and possess genetic factors that protect against the development of gray hair and skin wrinkles. The findings also demonstrate that perceived age is a better biomarker of skin, hair and facial aging than chronological age.

  20. Critical review of a new volcanic eruption chronology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuhäuser, Dagmar L.; Neuhäuser, Ralph

    2016-04-01

    Sigl. et al. (2015, Nature) present historical evidence for 32 volcanic eruptions to evaluate their new polar ice core 10-Be chronology - 24 are dated within three years of sulfur layers in polar ice. Most of them can be interpreted as weather phenomena (Babylonia: disk of sun like moon, reported for only one day, e.g. extinction due to clouds), Chinese sunspot reports (pellet, black vapor, etc.), solar eclipses, normal ice-halos and coronae (ring, bow, etc.), one aurora (redness), red suns due to mist drops in wet fog or fire-smoke, etc. Volcanic dust may facilitate detections of sunspots and formation of Bishop's ring, but tend to inhibit ice-halos, which are otherwise often reported in chronicles. We are left with three reports possibly indicating volcanic eruptions, namely fulfilling genuine criteria for atmospheric disturbances due to volcanic dust, e.g. bluish or faint sun, orange sky, or fainting of stars for months (BCE 208, 44-42, and 32). Among the volcanic eruptions used to fix the chronology (CE 536, 626, 939, 1257), the reports cited for the 930s deal only with 1-2 days, at least one reports an eclipse. In the new chronology, there is a sulfur detection eight years after the Vesuvius eruption, but none in CE 79. It may appear surprising that, from BCE 500 to 1, all five northern sulfur peaks labeled in figure 2 in Sigl et al. are systematically later by 2-4 years than the (corresponding?) southern peaks, while all five southern peaks from CE 100 to 600 labeled in figure 2 are systematically later by 1-4 years than the (corresponding?) northern peaks. Furthermore, in most of their six strongest volcanic eruptions, temperatures decreased years before their sulfur dating - correlated with weak solar activity as seen in radiocarbon, so that volcanic climate forcing appears dubious here. Also, their 10-Be peaks at CE 775 and 994 are neither significant nor certain in dating.

  1. Prevalence, age at onset, and risk factors of self-reported asthma among Swedish adolescent elite cross-country skiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, L M; Irewall, T; Lindberg, Anne; Stenfors, Nikolai

    2017-03-17

    The objective of the study was to compare the prevalence of self-reported physician-diagnosed asthma and age at asthma onset between Swedish adolescent elite skiers and a reference group and to assess risk factors associated with asthma. Postal questionnaires were sent to 253 pupils at the Swedish National Elite Sport Schools for cross-country skiing, biathlon, and ski-orienteering ("skiers") and a random sample of 500 adolescents aged 16-20, matched for sport school municipalities ("reference"). The response rate was 96% among the skiers and 48% in the reference group. The proportion of participants with self-reported physician-diagnosed asthma was higher among skiers than in the reference group (27 vs. 19%, p = 0.046). Female skiers reported a higher prevalence of physician-diagnosed asthma compared to male skiers (34 vs. 20%, p = 0.021). The median age at asthma onset was higher among skiers (12.0 vs. 8.0 years; p < 0.001). Female sex, family history of asthma, nasal allergy, and being a skier were risk factors associated with self-reported physician-diagnosed asthma. Swedish adolescent elite cross-country skiers have a higher asthma prevalence and later age at asthma onset compared to a reference population. Being an adolescent elite skier is an independent ris