WorldWideScience

Sample records for chronically implantable precision

  1. Mometasone implant for chronic rhinosinusitis

    OpenAIRE

    Wei, Calvin C; Kennedy, David W

    2012-01-01

    The Propel mometasone-eluting stent (Intersect ENT, Palo Alto, CA) is the first Food and Drug Administration-approved device for delivering steroid medication into the ethmoid cavity following surgery. The implant is composed of a biodegradable polymer in a lattice pattern that expands in a spring-like fashion to conform to the walls of a dissected ethmoid cavity and contains a total of 370 μg of mometasone furoate designed for gradual release over 30 days. The purpose of this article is to r...

  2. Risk of chronic anxiety in implantable defibrillator patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Susanne S.; den Broek, Krista C van; Theuns, Dominic A M J;

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about the prevalence of chronic anxiety in patients with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD). In a multi-center, prospective study, we examined 1) the prevalence of chronic anxiety (i.e., patients anxious at implantation and 12 months), and 2) predictors of chronic...

  3. Successful Rehabilitation of Partial Edentulous Maxilla and Mandible with New Type of Implants: Molecular Precision Implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Danza

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The extraction of teeth results in rapid bone resorption both vertically and horizontally in the first month. The loss of alveolar ridge reduces the chance of implant rehabilitation. Atraumatic extraction, implant placement in extraction socket, and an immediate prosthesis have been proposed as alternative therapies to maintain the volume and contours tissue and reduce time and cost of treatment. The immediate load of implants is a universally practiced procedure; nevertheless a successful procedure requires expertise in both the clinical and the reconstructive stages using a solid implant system. Excellent primary stability and high bone-implant contact are only minimal requirements for any type of implant procedure. In this paper we present a case report using a new type of implants. The new type of implants, due to its sophisticated control system of production, provides to the implantologist a safe and reliable implant, with a macromorphology designed to ensure a close contact with the surrounding bone.

  4. Do implantable devices improve mood? Comparisons of chronic pain patients with or without an implantable device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamison, Robert N; Washington, Tabitha A; Fanciullo, Gilbert J; Ross, Edgar L; McHugo, Gregory J; Baird, John C

    2008-10-01

    Objective.  This descriptive study compares outcome measures of a computerized assessment of pain, emotional distress, and quality of life between chronic noncancer pain patients who have received an implantable device (spinal cord stimulator or intrathecal pump; N = 143) and those who have not received a device (N = 130). Methods.  Each patient marked the location of their pain on a body diagram and rated pain intensity, emotional distress, and impact of their pain on mood, sleep, and quality of life using a computerized pain assessment program. An electronic version of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) also was administered. Results.  No significant differences were found on the pain variables between the two groups. Patients with an implantable device gave lower ratings (less impact) on emotional distress (p quality of life as better compared with control patients (p devices also scored lower on the HADS Depression Subscale. Conclusion.  The results suggest that although patients with an implantable device seem to have more pathology and greater disability, they report less emotional distress and improved quality of life compared with patients with chronic pain without an implantable device. Future controlled trials are needed to establish the role that an implantable device plays in improving mood and quality of life. PMID:22151138

  5. Bioimpedance modeling to monitor astrocytic response to chronically implanted electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, G. C.; Butera, R. J.; Bellamkonda, R. V.

    2009-10-01

    The widespread adoption of neural prosthetic devices is currently hindered by our inability to reliably record neural signals from chronically implanted electrodes. The extent to which the local tissue response to implanted electrodes influences recording failure is not well understood. To investigate this phenomenon, impedance spectroscopy has shown promise for use as a non-invasive tool to estimate the local tissue response to microelectrodes. Here, we model impedance spectra from chronically implanted rats using the well-established Cole model, and perform a correlation analysis of modeled parameters with histological markers of astroglial scar, including glial fibrillary acid protein (GFAP) and 4',6-diamidino-2- phenylindole (DAPI). Correlations between modeled parameters and GFAP were significant for three parameters studied: Py value, Ro and |Z|1 kHz, and in all cases were confined to the first 100 µm from the interface. Py value was the only parameter also correlated with DAPI in the first 100 µm. Our experimental results, along with computer simulations, suggest that astrocytes are a predominant cellular player affecting electrical impedance spectra. The results also suggest that the largest contribution from reactive astrocytes on impedance spectra occurs in the first 100 µm from the interface, where electrodes are most likely to record electrical signals. These results form the basis for future approaches where impedance spectroscopy can be used to evaluate neural implants, evaluate strategies to minimize scar and potentially develop closed-loop prosthetic devices.

  6. Ion implantation facility for precision doping of semiconductor devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: We have developed an ion implantation system for application to: the nano-fabrication of p-type and n-type silicon devices; the fabrication of silicon nano-resistors; single phosphorus doping of silicon-based quantum computer devices; the doping of diamond-based devices; the study of ion beam physics of low energy ion interactions with solids. The system reliably delivers a wide range of ion spices, including B+, Te+, P+, C+, N+ and H+ with an energy up to 15 keV. The ion implanter operates in the mode of beam-on-demand control triggered by signals from the substrate and the beam current is adjustable in a wide range from ∼mA to a few ions per-second. The beam purity of each ion species is routinely monitored and analysed using micro-ERDA/PIXE/RBS. Copyright (2005) Australian Institute of Physics

  7. High precision measurements of arsenic and phosphorous implantation dose in silicon by secondary ion mass spectrometry

    CERN Document Server

    Chi, P H; McKinley, J M; Stevie, F A; Granger, C N

    2002-01-01

    The metrology section of the 1999 International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors specifies in-line dopant profile concentration precision requirements ranging from a value of 5% in 1999 to a value of 2% in 2008. These values are to be accomplished with ''low systematic error.'' Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) has demonstrated the capability to meet these requirements for B, As, and P. However, the detailed analytical protocols required to achieve these goals have not been completely specified. This article reports the parameters that must be controlled to make highly repeatable dose measurements of As and P implants in Si with magnetic sector SIMS instruments. Instrument conditions that were investigated include analytical species, matrix ion species, energy bandpass, and sample holder design. With optimized settings, we demonstrate the ability to distinguish As or P implant doses differing by 5%.

  8. Precise Estimation of Cellular Radio Electromagnetic Field in Elevators and EMI Impact on Implantable Cardiac Pacemakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Louis-Ray; Hikage, Takashi; Nojima, Toshio

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the possible impact of cellular phones' signals on implantable cardiac pacemakers in elevators. This is achieved by carrying out precise numerical simulations based on the Finite-Difference-Time-Domain method to examine the electromagnetic fields in elevator models. In order to examine the realistic and complicated situations where humans are present in the elevator, we apply the realistic homogeneous human phantom and cellular radios operating in the frequency bands 800MHz, 1.5GHz and 2GHz. These computed results of field strength inside the elevator are compared with a certain reference level determined from the experimentally obtained maximum interference distance of implantable cardiac pacemakers. This enables us to carry out a quantitative evaluation of the EMI risk to pacemakers by cellular radio transmission. The results show that for the case when up to 5 mobile radio users are present in the elevator model used, there is no likelihood of pacemaker malfunction for the frequency bands 800MHz, 1.5GHz and 2GHz.

  9. The flexDrive: An ultra-light implant for optical control and highly parallel chronic recording of neuronal ensembles in freely moving mice

    OpenAIRE

    Jakob Voigts; Pritchett, Dominique L.; Christopher I Moore

    2013-01-01

    Electrophysiological recordings from ensembles of neurons in behaving mice are a central tool in the study of neural circuits. Despite the widespread use of chronic electrophysiology, the precise positioning of recording electrodes required for high-quality recordings remains a challenge, especially in behaving mice. The complexity of available drive mechanisms, combined with restrictions on implant weight tolerated by mice, limits current methods to recordings from no more than 4-8 electr...

  10. A reliable method for intracranial electrode implantation and chronic electrical stimulation in the mouse brain

    OpenAIRE

    Jeffrey, Melanie; Lang, Min; Gane, Jonathan; Wu, Chiping; Burnham, W McIntyre; Zhang, Liang

    2013-01-01

    Background Electrical stimulation of brain structures has been widely used in rodent models for kindling or modeling deep brain stimulation used clinically. This requires surgical implantation of intracranial electrodes and subsequent chronic stimulation in individual animals for several weeks. Anchoring screws and dental acrylic have long been used to secure implanted intracranial electrodes in rats. However, such an approach is limited when carried out in mouse models as the thin mouse skul...

  11. Cortical activation following chronic passive implantation of a wide-field suprachoroidal retinal prosthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalobos, Joel; Fallon, James B.; Nayagam, David A. X.; Shivdasani, Mohit N.; Luu, Chi D.; Allen, Penelope J.; Shepherd, Robert K.; Williams, Chris E.

    2014-08-01

    Objective. The research goal is to develop a wide-field retinal stimulating array for prosthetic vision. This study aimed at evaluating the efficacy of a suprachoroidal electrode array in evoking visual cortex activity after long term implantation. Approach. A planar silicone based electrode array (8 mm × 19 mm) was implanted into the suprachoroidal space in cats (ntotal = 10). It consisted of 20 platinum stimulating electrodes (600 μm diameter) and a trans-scleral cable terminated in a subcutaneous connector. Three months after implantation (nchronic = 6), or immediately after implantation (nacute = 4), an electrophysiological study was performed. Electrode total impedance was measured from voltage transients using 500 μs, 1 mA pulses. Electrically evoked potentials (EEPs) and multi-unit activity were recorded from the visual cortex in response to monopolar retinal stimulation. Dynamic range and cortical activation spread were calculated from the multi-unit recordings. Main results. The mean electrode total impedance in vivo following 3 months was 12.5 ± 0.3 kΩ. EEPs were recorded for 98% of the electrodes. The median evoked potential threshold was 150 nC (charge density 53 μC cm-2). The lowest stimulation thresholds were found proximal to the area centralis. Mean thresholds from multiunit activity were lower for chronic (181 ± 14 nC) compared to acute (322 ± 20 nC) electrodes (P < 0.001), but there was no difference in dynamic range or cortical activation spread. Significance. Suprachoroidal stimulation threshold was lower in chronic than acute implantation and was within safe charge limits for platinum. Electrode-tissue impedance following chronic implantation was higher, indicating the need for sufficient compliance voltage (e.g. 12.8 V for mean impedance, threshold and dynamic range). The wide-field suprachoroidal array reliably activated the retina after chronic implantation.

  12. Biodegradable Magnesium (Mg) Implantation Does Not Impose Related Metabolic Disorders in Rats with Chronic Renal Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiali; Xu, Jiankun; Liu, Waiching; Li, Yangde; Qin, Ling

    2016-05-01

    Mg and its alloys have been considered as one of the most promising biodegradable medical devices, but it was still unclear whether hypermagnesemia involved health risks would occur in persons with kidney disease due to their deteriorated kidney function for Mg ions excretion from their body. In this study, we established a chronic renal failure (CRF) model in rats induced by adenine administration prior to Mg implantation, aiming to predict if CRF patients are suitable for the use of Mg implants. The results showed that Mg levels in serum, urine, feces and internal organs had no significant changes after Mg implantation for both normal and CRF rats. Biochemical indices detection and histopathological analysis in kidney, liver and heart tissue confirmed that Mg implants did not induce any extra damage in animals even with renal failure. Our study indicates that Mg based orthopaedic medical device may be considered for use in CRF patients without biosafety concerns.

  13. Implanted neural electrodes cause chronic, local inflammation that is correlated with local neurodegeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, George C.; Rees, Howard D.; Levey, Allan I.; Gutekunst, Claire-Anne; Gross, Robert E.; Bellamkonda, Ravi V.

    2009-10-01

    Prosthetic devices that are controlled by intracortical electrodes recording one's 'thoughts' are a reality today, and no longer merely in the realm of science fiction. However, widespread clinical use of implanted electrodes is hampered by a lack of reliability in chronic recordings, independent of the type of electrodes used. One major hypothesis has been that astroglial scar electrically impedes the electrodes. However, there is a temporal discrepancy between stabilization of scar's electrical properties and recording failure with recording failure lagging by 1 month. In this study, we test a possible explanation for this discrepancy: the hypothesis that chronic inflammation, due to the persistent presence of the electrode, causes a local neurodegenerative state in the immediate vicinity of the electrode. Through modulation of chronic inflammation via stab wound, electrode geometry and age-matched control, we found that after 16 weeks, animals with an increased level of chronic inflammation were associated with increased neuronal and dendritic, but not axonal, loss. We observed increased neuronal and dendritic loss 16 weeks after implantation compared to 8 weeks after implantation, suggesting that the local neurodegenerative state is progressive. After 16 weeks, we observed axonal pathology in the form of hyperphosphorylation of the protein tau in the immediate vicinity of the microelectrodes (as observed in Alzheimer's disease and other tauopathies). The results of this study suggest that a local, late onset neurodegenerative disease-like state surrounds the chronic electrodes and is a potential cause for chronic recording failure. These results also inform strategies to enhance our capability to attain reliable long-term recordings from implantable electrodes in the CNS.

  14. Histological evaluation of a chronically-implanted electrocorticographic electrode grid in a non-human primate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degenhart, Alan D.; Eles, James; Dum, Richard; Mischel, Jessica L.; Smalianchuk, Ivan; Endler, Bridget; Ashmore, Robin C.; Tyler-Kabara, Elizabeth C.; Hatsopoulos, Nicholas G.; Wang, Wei; Batista, Aaron P.; Cui, X. Tracy

    2016-08-01

    Objective. Electrocorticography (ECoG), used as a neural recording modality for brain-machine interfaces (BMIs), potentially allows for field potentials to be recorded from the surface of the cerebral cortex for long durations without suffering the host-tissue reaction to the extent that it is common with intracortical microelectrodes. Though the stability of signals obtained from chronically implanted ECoG electrodes has begun receiving attention, to date little work has characterized the effects of long-term implantation of ECoG electrodes on underlying cortical tissue. Approach. We implanted and recorded from a high-density ECoG electrode grid subdurally over cortical motor areas of a Rhesus macaque for 666 d. Main results. Histological analysis revealed minimal damage to the cortex underneath the implant, though the grid itself was encapsulated in collagenous tissue. We observed macrophages and foreign body giant cells at the tissue-array interface, indicative of a stereotypical foreign body response. Despite this encapsulation, cortical modulation during reaching movements was observed more than 18 months post-implantation. Significance. These results suggest that ECoG may provide a means by which stable chronic cortical recordings can be obtained with comparatively little tissue damage, facilitating the development of clinically viable BMI systems.

  15. Distribution and Morphology of Calcium-Binding Proteins Immunoreactive Neurons following Chronic Tungsten Multielectrode Implants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Aurelio M Freire

    Full Text Available The development of therapeutic approaches to improve the life quality of people suffering from different types of body paralysis is a current major medical challenge. Brain-machine interface (BMI can potentially help reestablishing lost sensory and motor functions, allowing patients to use their own brain activity to restore sensorimotor control of paralyzed body parts. Chronic implants of multielectrodes, employed to record neural activity directly from the brain parenchyma, constitute the fundamental component of a BMI. However, before this technique may be effectively available to human clinical trials, it is essential to characterize its long-term impact on the nervous tissue in animal models. In the present study we evaluated how chronic implanted tungsten microelectrode arrays impact the distribution and morphology of interneurons reactive to calcium-binding proteins calbindin (CB, calretinin (CR and parvalbumin (PV across the rat's motor cortex. Our results revealed that chronic microelectrode arrays were well tolerated by the nervous tissue, with recordings remaining viable for up to 6 months after implantation. Furthermore, neither the morphology nor the distribution of inhibitory neurons were broadly impacted. Moreover, restricted microglial activation was observed on the implanted sites. On the whole, our results confirm and expand the notion that tungsten multielectrodes can be deemed as a feasible candidate to future human BMI studies.

  16. Renal infarction and immune-mediated glomerulonephritis in sheep (Ovis aries) chronically implanted with indwelling catheters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Varada P; Poutahidis, Theofilos; Marini, Robert P; Holcombe, Hilda; Rogers, Arlin B; Fox, James G

    2006-07-01

    Microbial infections are common sequelae in humans and animals implanted with long-term intravascular catheters. Understanding the pathophysiology of infectious morbidity is critical to improving quality of care in catheterized subjects. Here, we describe findings in 6 clinically healthy, male sheep implanted with indwelling aortic or cardiac catheters for 6 to 10 mo. We isolated multiple bacterial species including Serratia spp., Enterobacter agglomerans, Eschericia coli, Klebsiella oxytoca, and K. pneumoniae in aerobic cultures from catheter tips. Although sheep were clinically asymptomatic, 1 or both kidneys from all animals contained wedge-shaped infarcts of varying size and number. Microscopic examination revealed (a) marked fibrosis with mild inflammatory cell infiltrate consistent with chronic foreign body reaction around catheters; (b) moderate to severe, diffuse, subacute to chronic membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis and mild, multifocal chronic interstitial nephritis; and (c) mesangial immune-complex deposition as demonstrated by direct immunofluorescence technique. The finding of bacterial colonization of catheters together with chronic glomerulonephritis and immune-complex deposits in kidneys in clinically asymptomatic sheep underscores the need for close microbiologic monitoring of catheter implants and assessment of kidney function in animals instrumented for long-term vascular access. PMID:16884173

  17. A therapeutic delivery system for chronic osteomyelitis via a multi-drug implant based on three-dimensional printing technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Weigang; Ye, Chenyi; Zheng, Qixin; Wu, Gui; Cheng, Zhaohui

    2016-08-01

    Chronic osteomyelitis is difficult to be cured and often relapses, which presents to be a great challenge to clinicians. We conducted this original study to explore the efficiency of therapeutic alliance for chronic osteomyelitis by a multi-drug implant based on three-dimensional printing technology. We designed and fabricated preciously a multi-drug implant with a multi-layered concentric cylinder construction by three-dimensional (3D) printing technology. Levofloxacin and tobramycin were incorporated into the drug implant in a specific sequence. The drug release property of the drug implant was assayed in vitro We also developed an animal model of chronic osteomyelitis to estimate the effect of the 3D printed multi-drug implant. The results showed that the multi-drug implant had a sustained and programmed drug release property. Levofloxacin and tobramycin which were released from the multi-drug implant worked in tandem to enhance pharmacodynamic action which was similar to a tumor chemotherapy program and were sufficient to treat chronic osteomyelitis. These findings imply that the administration of 3D printed multi-drug implant would be a potential therapeutic method for chronic osteomyelitis. Further studies are required. PMID:27013218

  18. Comprehensive characterization and failure modes of tungsten microwire arrays in chronic neural implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Abhishek; Xue, Qing-Shan; Sankar, Viswanath; Nishida, Toshikazu; Shaw, Gerry; Streit, Wolfgang J.; Sanchez, Justin C.

    2012-10-01

    For nearly 55 years, tungsten microwires have been widely used in neurophysiological experiments in animal models to chronically record neuronal activity. While tungsten microwires initially provide stable recordings, their inability to reliably record high-quality neural signals for tens of years has limited their efficacy for neuroprosthetic applications in humans. Comprehensive understanding of the mechanisms of electrode performance and failure is necessary for developing next generation neural interfaces for humans. In this study, we evaluated the abiotic (electrophysiology, impedance, electrode morphology) and biotic (microglial reactivity, blood-brain barrier disruption, biochemical markers of axonal injury) effects of 16-channel, 50 µm diameter, polyimide insulated tungsten microwires array for implant durations that ranged from acute to up to 9 months in 25 rats. Daily electrode impedance spectroscopy, electrophysiological recordings, blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) withdrawals, and histopathological analysis were performed to study the time-varying effects of chronic electrode implantation. Structural changes at the electrode recording site were observed as early as within 2-3 h of electrode insertion. Abiotic analysis indicated the first 2-3 weeks following surgery was the most dynamic period in the chronic electrode lifetime as there were greater variations in the electrode impedance, functional electrode performance, and the structural changes occurring at the electrode recording tips. Electrode recording site deterioration continued for the long-term chronic animals as insulation damage occurred and recording surface became more recessed over time. In general, electrode impedance and functional performance had smaller daily variations combined with reduced electrode recording site changes during the chronic phase. Histopathological studies were focused largely on characterizing microglial cell responses to electrode implantation. We found that

  19. Scanning electron microscopy of chronically implanted intracortical microelectrode arrays in non-human primates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrese, James C.; Aceros, Juan; Donoghue, John P.

    2016-04-01

    Objective. Signal attenuation is a major problem facing intracortical sensors for chronic neuroprosthetic applications. Many studies suggest that failure is due to gliosis around the electrode tips, however, mechanical and material causes of failure are often overlooked. The purpose of this study was to investigate the factors contributing to progressive signal decline by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to visualize structural changes in chronically implanted arrays and histology to examine the tissue response at corresponding implant sites. Approach. We examined eight chronically implanted intracortical microelectrode arrays (MEAs) explanted from non-human primates at times ranging from 37 to 1051 days post-implant. We used SEM, in vivo neural recordings, and histology (GFAP, Iba-1, NeuN). Three MEAs that were never implanted were also imaged as controls. Main results. SEM revealed progressive corrosion of the platinum electrode tips and changes to the underlying silicon. The parylene insulation was prone to cracking and delamination, and in some instances the silicone elastomer also delaminated from the edges of the MEA. Substantial tissue encapsulation was observed and was often seen growing into defects in the platinum and parylene. These material defects became more common as the time in vivo increased. Histology at 37 and 1051 days post-implant showed gliosis, disruption of normal cortical architecture with minimal neuronal loss, and high Iba-1 reactivity, especially within the arachnoid and dura. Electrode tracts were either absent or barely visible in the cortex at 1051 days, but were seen in the fibrotic encapsulation material suggesting that the MEAs were lifted out of the brain. Neural recordings showed a progressive drop in impedance, signal amplitude, and viable channels over time. Significance. These results provide evidence that signal loss in MEAs is truly multifactorial. Gliosis occurs in the first few months after implantation but does

  20. Correlations between histology and neuronal activity recorded by microelectrodes implanted chronically in the cerebral cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCreery, Douglas; Cogan, Stuart; Kane, Sheryl; Pikov, Victor

    2016-06-01

    Objective. To quantify relations between the neuronal activity recorded with chronically-implanted intracortical microelectrodes and the histology of the surrounding tissue, using radial distance from the tip sites and time after array implantation as parameters. Approach. ‘Utah’-type intracortical microelectrode arrays were implanted into cats’ sensorimotor cortex for 275–364 days. The brain tissue around the implants was immuno-stained for the neuronal marker NeuN and for the astrocyte marker GFAP. Pearson’s product-moment correlations were used to quantify the relations between these markers and the amplitudes of the recorded neuronal action potentials (APs) and their signal-to-noise ratios (S/N). Main results. S/N was more stable over post-implant time than was AP amplitude, but its increased correlation with neuronal density after many months indicates ongoing loss of neurons around the microelectrodes. S/N was correlated with neuron density out to at least 140 μm from the microelectrodes, while AP amplitude was correlated with neuron density and GFAP density within ∼80 μm. Correlations between AP amplitude and histology markers (GFAP and NeuN density) were strongest immediately after implantation, while correlation between the neuron density and S/N was strongest near the time the animals were sacrificed. Unlike AP amplitude, there was no significant correlation between S/N and density of GFAP around the tip sites. Significance. Our findings indicate an evolving interaction between changes in the tissue surrounding the microelectrodes and the microelectrode’s electrical properties. Ongoing loss of neurons around recording microelectrodes, and the interactions between their delayed electrical deterioration and early tissue scarring around the tips appear to pose the greatest threats to the microelectrodes’ long-term functionality.

  1. Respiratory muscle pacing with chronically implanted intramuscular Permaloc electrodes: A feasibility study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James S. Walter, PhD

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available We tested the feasibility of stimulating upper-intercostal and abdominal muscles plus the diaphragm by using chronically implanted intramuscular electrodes. During two survival surgeries with six dogs, intramuscular electrodes were implanted bilaterally in the three respiratory muscles. Standard stimulation of the diaphragm was conducted. The dorsolateral and ventrolateral abdominal wall areas were stimulated with a 25 mA current. The second to fourth intercostal spaces were stimulated to elicit the largest tidal volume associated with the least coactivation of the serratus and latissimus muscles. Lone diaphragm and upper-intercostal muscle pacing produced inhaled tidal volumes (mean +/- standard error of the mean of 293 +/- 36 mL and 59 +/- 17 mL, respectively. Lone abdominal muscle pacing produced an exhaled volume of 55 +/- 17 mL. Combined pacing of diaphragm and intercostal muscles increased the inhaled volume to 389 +/- 39 mL. The addition of abdominal pacing following the combined stimulation of diaphragm and intercostals increased the exhaled volume to 472 +/- 54 mL. During autopsy, dislodgement of the electrodes overlying the ribs was a concern and probably resulted from loose animal jackets. Chronic intramuscular Permaloc electrodes can be implanted in several respiratory muscles and increase tidal volumes more than diaphragm stimulation alone.

  2. The flexDrive: An ultra-light implant for optical control and highly parallel chronic recording of neuronal ensembles in freely moving mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakob eVoigts

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Electrophysiological recordings from ensembles of neurons in behaving mice are a central tool in the study of neural circuits. Despite the widespread use of chronic electrophysiology, the precise positioning of recording electrodes required for high-quality recordings remains a challenge, especially in behaving mice.The complexity of available drive mechanisms, combined with restrictions on implant weight tolerated by mice, limits current methods to recordings from no more than 4-8 electrodes in a single target area. We developed a highly miniaturized yet simple drive design that can be used to independently position 16 electrodes with up to 64 channels in a package that weighs approximately 2g. This advance over current designs is achieved by a novel spring-based drive mechanism that reduces implant weight and complexity. The device is easy to build and accommodates arbitrary spatial arrangements of electrodes. Multiple optical fibers can be integrated into the recording array and independently manipulated in depth. Thus, our novel design enables precise optogenetic control and highly parallel chronic recordings of identified single neurons throughout neural circuits in mice.

  3. Chronic cortical and electromyographic recordings from a fully implantable device: preclinical experience in a nonhuman primate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryapolova-Webb, Elena; Afshar, Pedram; Stanslaski, Scott; Denison, Tim; de Hemptinne, Coralie; Bankiewicz, Krystof; Starr, Philip A.

    2014-02-01

    Objective. Analysis of intra- and perioperatively recorded cortical and basal ganglia local field potentials in human movement disorders has provided great insight into the pathophysiology of diseases such as Parkinson's, dystonia, and essential tremor. However, in order to better understand the network abnormalities and effects of chronic therapeutic stimulation in these disorders, long-term recording from a fully implantable data collection system is needed. Approach. A fully implantable investigational data collection system, the Activa® PC + S neurostimulator (Medtronic, Inc., Minneapolis, MN), has been developed for human use. Here, we tested its utility for extended intracranial recording in the motor system of a nonhuman primate. The system was attached to two quadripolar paddle arrays: one covering sensorimotor cortex, and one covering a proximal forelimb muscle, to study simultaneous cortical field potentials and electromyography during spontaneous transitions from rest to movement. Main results. Over 24 months of recording, movement-related changes in physiologically relevant frequency bands were readily detected, including beta and gamma signals at approximately 2.5 μV/\\sqrtHz and 0.7 μV/\\sqrt{Hz}, respectively. The system architecture allowed for flexible recording configurations and algorithm triggered data recording. In the course of physiological analyses, sensing artifacts were observed (˜1 μVrms stationary tones at fixed frequency), which were mitigated either with post-processing or algorithm design and did not impact the scientific conclusions. Histological examination revealed no underlying tissue damage; however, a fibrous capsule had developed around the paddles, demonstrating a potential mechanism for the observed signal amplitude reduction. Significance. This study establishes the usefulness of this system in measuring chronic brain and muscle signals. Use of this system may potentially be valuable in human trials of chronic brain

  4. Accuracy and precision of targeting using frameless stereotactic system in deep brain stimulator implantation surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayur Sharma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To assess the accuracy of targeting using NexFrame frameless targeting system during deep brain stimulation (DBS surgery. Materials and Methods: Fifty DBS leads were implanted in 33 patients using the NexFrame (Medtronic, Minneapolis, MN targeting system. Postoperative thin cut CT scans were used for lead localization. X, Y, Z coordinates of the tip of the lead were calculated and compared with the intended target coordinates to assess the targeting error. Comparative frame-based data set was obtained from randomly selected 33 patients during the same period that underwent 65 lead placements using Leksell stereotactic frame. Euclidean vector was calculated for directional error. Multivariate analysis of variance was used to compare the accuracy between two systems. Results: The mean error of targeting using frameless system in medio-lateral plane was 1.4 mm (SD ± 1.3, in antero-posterior plane was 0.9 mm (SD ± 1.0 and in supero-inferior plane Z was 1.0 mm (SD ± 0.9. The mean error of targeting using frame-based system in medio-lateral plane was 1.0 mm (SD ± 0.7, in antero-posterior plane was 0.9 mm (SD ± 0.5 and in supero-inferior plane Z was 0.7 mm (SD ± 0.6. The error in targeting was significantly more (P = 0.03 in the medio-lateral plane using the frameless system as compared to the frame-based system. Mean targeting error in the Euclidean directional vector using frameless system was 2.2 (SD ± 1.6 and using frame-based system was 1.7 (SD ± 0.6 (P = 0.07. There was significantly more error in the first 25 leads placed using the frameless system than the second 25 leads (P = 0.0015. Conclusion: The targeting accuracy of the frameless system was lower as compared to frame-based system in the medio-lateral direction. Standard deviations (SDs were higher using frameless system as compared to the frame-based system indicating lower accuracy of this system. Error in targeting should be considered while using frameless

  5. The Effect of Repetitive Rhythmic Precision Grip Task-Oriented Rehabilitation in Chronic Stroke Patients: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dispa, Delphine; Lejeune, Thierry; Thonnard, Jean-Louis

    2013-01-01

    Most chronic stroke patients present with difficulty in the manipulation of objects. The aim of this study was to test whether an intensive program of precision grip training could improve hand functioning of patients at more than 6 months after a stroke. This was a cross-over study; hence, at inclusion, the patients were randomly divided into two…

  6. Chronic alcohol abuse and endosseous implants: Linkage of in vitro osteoblast dysfunction to titanium osseointegration rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chronic alcohol consumption is associated with pathological effects on bone, and it is correlated with the increasing risk of osteoporosis and fractures. The negative effects of alcohol intake also influence bone repair processes and the osseointegration of implants. The aim of the present in vitro study was to investigate the proliferation and synthetic activity of osteoblasts isolated from the trabecular bone of rats previously exposed to 7-week intermittent exposure to ethanol vapour (EE-OB), and sham-aged rats (SA-OB), when cultured on standard commercially pure Ti (cpTi). Osteoblast proliferation (WST-1), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), osteocalcin (OC), collagen type I (CICP), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) were measured at 1, 7, and 14 days of culture. Our results showed a decrease in the cell viability and synthetic activity of osteoblasts exposed to ethanol when cultured on cpTi. Moreover, the release of local regulatory factors from osteoblasts was imbalanced: TGF-β1 production was reduced and TNF-α and IL-6 were up-regulated. These in vitro data suggest that alcohol abuse affects bone repair and decreases the ability to form bone around standard cpTi. Innovative surfaces and adjuvant therapies could be useful when implants are required in alcoholics

  7. Chronic high-frequency stimulation therapy in hemiparkinsonian rhesus monkeys using an implanted human DBS system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yiqun; Yin, Peihao; Hu, Xiaowu; Ge, Yiqin; Zhou, Xiaoping

    2013-05-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is routinely used in the treatment of Parkinson's disease, tremor disease, dystonia, and epilepsy. This study aims to establish a hemiparkinsonian monkey model and to investigate the effect of implanted human DBS system for the chronic alleviation of parkinsonian symptoms. Hemiparkinsonism was induced in four rhesus monkeys by unilateral infusion of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine. DBS leads were implanted stereotaxically in the right subthalamic (STN) of the monkeys. Subcutaneous extension wires were used to connect the leads to the internal pulse generators (IPG) for stimulation in two of the monkeys (human DBS test group). Post-operative imaging studies confirmed optimal locations of lead contacts. One week later, the IPG was turned on to determine the optimal stimulating parameters, using apomorphine (APO)-induced rotation as a behavioral readout. Animal behavior was scored on a scale of 0-10 over a 12-month period using the modified disability rating scale of hemiparkinsonian monkeys (DRSH). Parkinsonian symptoms in the group of monkeys with DBS improved dramatically (DRSH 3-4) compared to controls (DRSH 7-8). DBS leads were within the STN without intracranial hemorrhage, infection, or other serious complications. Histological examination showed cell necrosis and lymphocytic infiltration of the tissues around the lead and STN gliosis surrounding the lead contact. This study demonstrates that therapeutically effective human DBS systems can be established in relevant disease models in monkeys. Such combination of human DBS systems in hemiparkinsonian monkeys should be valuable in studying the mechanism of action and chronic consequences of DBS therapy in humans. PMID:22622869

  8. The validity and precision of the leicester cough questionnaire in COPD patients with chronic cough

    OpenAIRE

    Berkhof Farida F; Boom Lisenka N; ten Hertog Nynke E; Uil Steven M; Kerstjens Huib AM; van den Berg Jan WK

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background A validated instrument to assess the effects of chronic cough on health status in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is currently not available. The Leicester Cough Questionnaire (LCQ) is a cough-specific health status questionnaire which is originally validated for a population of general patients presenting with chronic cough. We examined the psychometric performance of the LCQ in patients with COPD and chronic productive cough. Methods Concurrent...

  9. Stability of clonidine in clonidine-hydromorphone mixture from implanted intrathecal infusion pumps in chronic pain patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudich, Zvia; Peng, Philip; Dunn, Edward; McCartney, Colin

    2004-12-01

    Clonidine is frequently added to opioids in implantable intrathecal pumps for the management of chronic pain. In such devices, a small non-retrievable volume is always present in the reservoir, and its effect on drug stability is unknown. Furthermore, stability of clonidine, when mixed with hydromorphone, has not been previously determined. This study examined the stability of clonidine when co-administered with hydromorphone in implanted intrathecal pumps. Samples of hydromorphone-clonidine before pump refill and from residual solution at subsequent refill were obtained from chronic pain patients. Clonidine concentration was measured using HPLC. Twenty paired samples from 3 patients were analyzed. All 3 patients had a SynchroMed pump implanted for 3-5 years. We found no loss in clonidine concentration during the time between refills (35 +/- 13 days), and no correlation between clonidine concentration and time interval between refills. In conclusion, clonidine, mixed with hydromorphone, is stable when delivered by implantable intrathecal pump for long-term use. PMID:15589085

  10. The Validity and Precision of the Leicester Cough Questionnaire in COPD Patients with Chronic Cough

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkhof, Farida F.; Boom, Lisenka N.; ten Hertog, Nynke E.; Uil, Steven M.; Kerstjens, Huib A. M.; van den Berg, Jan W. K.

    2012-01-01

    Background: A validated instrument to assess the effects of chronic cough on health status in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is currently not available. The Leicester Cough Questionnaire (LCQ) is a cough-specific health status questionnaire which is originally validated f

  11. [Treatment of chronic pain of oncologic origin with epidural or intrathecal morphine administered by continuous or programmable flow implanted pumps].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez López, M J; de la Torre Liébanas, M; Sánchez-Guijo Bernal, J J; Muñoz de la Guardia, J L

    1990-01-01

    We have treated a total of 40 patients who presented chronic pain secondary to a neoplastic condition; the patients were treated with morphine in a continuous perfusion by means of an implanted perfusion pump. The route used was the epidural route in seven patients and the intrathecal route in the remaining 33 patients. In 22 patients, the implanted pump was the continuous flow Infusaid model and in the remaining 18, the programmable flow Synchromed (Medtronic) model. The daily dose of morphine ranged from 2.4 mg to 48 mg and maximum perfusion period was 19 months. Main complications were displacement of the catheter and rejection of perfusion system. Despite its high prize, we believe that such treatment system should be considered because of the quality of life improvement of the patients. PMID:2098877

  12. The validity and precision of the leicester cough questionnaire in COPD patients with chronic cough

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berkhof Farida F

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A validated instrument to assess the effects of chronic cough on health status in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is currently not available. The Leicester Cough Questionnaire (LCQ is a cough-specific health status questionnaire which is originally validated for a population of general patients presenting with chronic cough. We examined the psychometric performance of the LCQ in patients with COPD and chronic productive cough. Methods Concurrent validity, internal consistency, reproducibility and responsiveness were determined. The St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ and the Short Form-36 (SF-36 were used as external criteria. Questionnaires were completed at the start of the study. After 2 and 12 weeks the LCQ was repeated, together with a global rating of change. Results In total 54 patients were included. Concurrent validity analysis showed significant correlations between corresponding domains of the LCQ and the SGRQ (rs -0.31 to -0.60. Corresponding domains of the LCQ and the SF-36 showed weaker correlations (rs 0.04 to 0.41. Internal consistency was adequate for two of the three domains (Cronbach's α 0.74 - 0.86. Test-retest reliability in stable patients was high (intraclass correlation coefficients 0.79 - 0.93. The mean difference after two weeks was 0.73 (± 1.75. Responsiveness analysis indicated that the LCQ was able to detect changes after 12 weeks. Conclusion The LCQ is a valid, reliable, responsive instrument to measure health status in COPD patients with chronic productive cough. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01071161

  13. A precise radiographic method to determine the location of the inferior alveolar canal in the posterior edentulous mandible: implications for dental implants. Part 1: Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stella, J P; Tharanon, W

    1990-01-01

    In severely atrophic or osteoporotic mandibles, the location of the inferior alveolar nerve may vary considerably, both superoinferiorly and mediolaterally. A clinician's ability to reliably locate this nerve within the mandible would permit the surgical planning of implant placement in the posterior edentulous mandible. Eight edentulous cadaver mandibles were studied. A technique that precisely locates the inferior alveolar nerve within the mandible is described. The technique will aid the surgeon in planning a surgical approach to the posterior mandible with reduced risk of injury to the inferior alveolar nerve. PMID:2391135

  14. Behavioral and cellular consequences of high-electrode count Utah Arrays chronically implanted in rat sciatic nerve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wark, H. A. C.; Mathews, K. S.; Normann, R. A.; Fernandez, E.

    2014-08-01

    Objective. Before peripheral nerve electrodes can be used for the restoration of sensory and motor functions in patients with neurological disorders, the behavioral and histological consequences of these devices must be investigated. These indices of biocompatibility can be defined in terms of desired functional outcomes; for example, a device may be considered for use as a therapeutic intervention if the implanted subject retains functional neurons post-implantation even in the presence of a foreign body response. The consequences of an indwelling device may remain localized to cellular responses at the device-tissue interface, such as fibrotic encapsulation of the device, or they may affect the animal more globally, such as impacting behavioral or sensorimotor functions. The objective of this study was to investigate the overall consequences of implantation of high-electrode count intrafascicular peripheral nerve arrays, High Density Utah Slanted Electrode Arrays (HD-USEAs; 25 electrodes mm-2). Approach. HD-USEAs were implanted in rat sciatic nerves for one and two month periods. We monitored wheel running, noxious sensory paw withdrawal reflexes, footprints, nerve morphology and macrophage presence at the tissue-device interface. In addition, we used a novel approach to contain the arrays in actively behaving animals that consisted of an organic nerve wrap. A total of 500 electrodes were implanted across all ten animals. Main results. The results demonstrated that chronic implantation (⩽8 weeks) of HD-USEAs into peripheral nerves can evoke behavioral deficits that recover over time. Morphology of the nerve distal to the implantation site showed variable signs of nerve fiber degeneration and regeneration. Cytology adjacent to the device-tissue interface also showed a variable response, with some electrodes having many macrophages surrounding the electrodes, while other electrodes had few or no macrophages present. This variability was also seen along the length

  15. Perceived success and failure of intrathecal infusion pump implantation in chronic pain patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrado, Philip; Alperson, Burton; Wright, Michelle

    2008-04-01

    Objectives.  Over the past few years, there has been an increased reliance on the intrathecal delivery of drugs for patients suffering from intractable pain. We sought to demonstrate the effectiveness of the intrathecal pain pump by examining self-reported pre- and postimplantation pain levels. Methods.  Eighty-four patients who had elected to implant a Medtronic SynchroMed 1 or 2 system in order to control their pain were asked to complete a survey. The survey consisted of pain ratings before implantation, pain ratings postimplantation, medications used before and after implantation, and patient satisfaction with the procedure. Results.  Perceived success rate for implantation is 68%, when measured by the ability to reduce reliance on oral medication. When measured by willingness to undergo the procedure again, the success rate is 86%. Conclusions.  Overall, the implantation of an intrathecal pain pump is an effective way for most people to manage their intractable pain and reduce reliance on oral medications. PMID:22151041

  16. Clinical utility of implantable neurostimulation devices in the treatment of chronic migraine

    OpenAIRE

    Freeman JA; Trentman TL

    2013-01-01

    John A Freeman, Terrance L Trentman Department of Anesthesiology, Division of Pain Medicine, Mayo Clinic Arizona, Phoenix, AZ, USA Abstract: Chronic migraine is a disabling disorder that is costly to individuals and society. Occipital nerve stimulation has been used to treat refractory cases of primary headache disorders including drug-resistant chronic cluster headaches and chronic migraine. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) off-labeled application of equipment used for peripheral nerve...

  17. Pathomorphology of the consequences of chronic irradiation from γ-neutron source implanted in abdominal cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comparison of the results of morphological investigations of the internal organs of dogs and sheep with γ-neutron radiation sources, implanted in the abdominal cavity, has shown that the correlation between a degree of severity and type of morphological changes in this case is similar to that of identical irradiation from an external source

  18. Calcification in Chronically-Implanted Blood Pumps: Experimental Results and Review of the Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Turner, Stephen A.; Bossart, Mattie I.; Milam, John D.; Fuqua, John M.; Igo, Stephen R.; McGee, Michael G.; Frazier, O. Howard

    1982-01-01

    Blood compatibility is a major objective in the development of long-term, implantable circulatory assist (left ventricular assist devices) and replacement (total artificial heart) devices. An important problem in experimental studies in animals has been the propensity for calcification to occur at the blood/material interface. Presented is a summary of our experience (27 studies) with blood pump calcification and a review of the current literature regarding this complication.

  19. A 100-Channel Hermetically Sealed Implantable Device for Chronic Wireless Neurosensing Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Yin, Ming; Borton, David A.; Aceros, Juan; Patterson, William R.; Nurmikko, Arto V.

    2013-01-01

    A 100-channel fully implantable wireless broadband neural recording system was developed. It features 100 parallel broadband (0.1 Hz–7.8 kHz) neural recording channels, a medical grade 200 mAh Li-ion battery recharged inductively at 150 kHz, and data telemetry using 3.2 GHz to 3.8 GHz FSK modulated wireless link for 48 Mbps Manchester encoded data. All active electronics are hermetically sealed in a titanium enclosure with a sapphire window for electromagnetic transparency. A custom, high-den...

  20. Clinical utility of implantable neurostimulation devices in the treatment of chronic migraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freeman JA

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available John A Freeman, Terrance L Trentman Department of Anesthesiology, Division of Pain Medicine, Mayo Clinic Arizona, Phoenix, AZ, USA Abstract: Chronic migraine is a disabling disorder that is costly to individuals and society. Occipital nerve stimulation has been used to treat refractory cases of primary headache disorders including drug-resistant chronic cluster headaches and chronic migraine. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA off-labeled application of equipment used for peripheral nerve (occipital stimulation is borrowed from FDA-labeled spinal cord stimulation. Manufacturer-sponsored randomized trials include a feasibility study (ONSTIM-Medtronic and a safety and efficacy study (St Jude. A non-industry sponsored prospective, randomized crossover study by Serra and Marchiotretto suggests improved quality of life and a significant reduction in medication use. Though preliminary studies suggest occipital nerve stimulation is safe and efficacious in treating chronic migraine headache, complication rates, including lead migration, lead fracture, and surgical site infections remain high. Further studies are needed to demonstrate long-term outcomes, while improved surgical techniques and site-specific equipment are needed to minimize complications. Keywords: headache, occipital nerve stimulation, peripheral nerve stimulation, neuromodulation, electrical stimulation therapy

  1. Long-term experience with implanted intrathecal drug administration systems for failed back syndrome and chronic mechanical low back pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Treharne GJ

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Continuous intrathecal drug delivery has been shown in open studies to improve pain and quality of life in those with intractable back pain who have had spinal surgery. There is limited data on long term effects and and even less for patients with mechanical back pain without prior spinal surgery. Methods We have investigated spinal drug administration systems for patients with failed back syndrome and chronic mechanical low back pain by patient questionnaire study of the efficacy of this therapy and a case notes review. Results 36 patients (97% of 37 approached completed questionnaires, 24 with failed back syndrome and 12 with chronic mechanical low back pain. Recalled pre-treatment levels with current post-treatment levels of pain and a range of quality of life measures (recorded on 11-point numerical rating scales were compared. Pain improved significantly in both groups (Wilcoxan signed ranks test, p 0.005, Wilcoxan signed ranks test with Bonferroni correction. Diamorphine was used in all 37 patients, bupivacaine in 32, clonidine in 27 and baclofen in 3. The mean dose of diamorphine increased for the first 2 years but did not change 2–6 years post implant, averaging 4.5 mg/day. Revision surgery was required in 24% of cases, but reduced to 12% in the later years of our experience. Conclusions We conclude that spinal drug administration systems appear to be of benefit in alleviating pain in the failed back syndrome and chronic mechanical low back pain but need to be examined prospectively.

  2. A precise radiographic method to determine the location of the inferior alveolar canal in the posterior edentulous mandible: implications for dental implants. Part 2: Clinical application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stella, J P; Tharanon, W

    1990-01-01

    An analysis of implant placement in the posterior region of eight edentulous cadaver mandibles was performed. The results demonstrated that the radiographic technique developed can be employed to safely place implants adjacent to the inferior alveolar nerve in the posterior mandible by using radiographic laminography and a specially designed intraoral reference splint. PMID:2391136

  3. Precision Attachment: Retained Overdenture

    OpenAIRE

    Jayasree, K; Mrs.M.Bharathi; Nag, V. Dileep; B. Vinod

    2011-01-01

    Precision attachments are small interlocking devices to connect prosthesis and abutments that offer a variety of solutions to the challenge of balance between functional stability and cosmetic appeal. Precision attachments have wide applications, used in fixed removable bridge, removable partial dentures, overdentures, implant retained overdentures, and maxillofacial prosthesis. Attachment retained overdentures helps in distribution of masticatory forces, minimizes trauma to abutments and sof...

  4. CAD/CAM Fabrication of Definitive Implant Prostheses: A Digital Workflow From Planning to Implant Placement to Final Restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgarten, Harold S; Wunsche, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Traditional methods of performing dental implant surgery and fabricating a definitive implant-supported prosthesis are being supplanted by digital techniques that provide greater precision and a more durable and esthetic restoration. In the present case, a 68-year-old woman presented a severely compromised dentition. She had received extensive restorative dentistry in the past and, due to recurrent caries and chronic periodontitis, was facing the loss of her maxillary teeth, as well as teeth in the lower left quadrant. This case report illustrates the use of a number of digital techniques for both treatment planning and fabrication of the final restoration. PMID:26625167

  5. The activL® Artificial Disc: a next-generation motion-preserving implant for chronic lumbar discogenic pain

    OpenAIRE

    Yue JJ; Garcia Jr R; Miller LE

    2016-01-01

    James J Yue,1 Rolando Garcia Jr,2 Larry E Miller3 1Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, 2Orthopedic Care Center, Miami, FL, 3Miller Scientific Consulting, Inc., Asheville, NC, USA Abstract: Degeneration of the lumbar intervertebral discs is a leading cause of chronic low back pain in adults. Treatment options for patients with chronic lumbar discogenic pain unresponsive to conservative management include total disc replacement (TDR) or lumbar f...

  6. The activL® Artificial Disc: a next-generation motion-preserving implant for chronic lumbar discogenic pain

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Larry E.

    2016-01-01

    James J Yue,1 Rolando Garcia Jr,2 Larry E Miller3 1Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, 2Orthopedic Care Center, Miami, FL, 3Miller Scientific Consulting, Inc., Asheville, NC, USA Abstract: Degeneration of the lumbar intervertebral discs is a leading cause of chronic low back pain in adults. Treatment options for patients with chronic lumbar discogenic pain unresponsive to conservative management include total disc replacement (TDR) or ...

  7. The diagnostic value of [18F]FDG PET for the detection of chronic osteomyelitis and implant-associated infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The diagnosis of osteomyelitis and implant-associated infections in patients with nonspecific laboratory or radiological findings is often unsatisfactory. We retrospectively evaluated the contributions of [18F]FDG PET and [18F]FDG PET/CT to the diagnosis of osteomyelitis and implant-associated infections, enabling timely and appropriate decision-making for further therapy options. [18F]FDG PET or PET/CT was performed in 215 patients with suspected osteomyelitis or implant-associated infections between 2000 and 2013. We assessed the diagnostic accuracy of both modalities together and separately with reference to intraoperative microbial findings, with a mean clinical follow-up of 69 ± 49 months. Infections were diagnosed clinically in 101 of the 215 patients. PET and PET/CT scans revealed 87 true-positive, 76 true-negative, 38 false-positive, and 14 false-negative results, indicating a sensitivity of 86 %, a specificity of 67 %, a positive predictive value (PPV) of 70 %, a negative predictive value (NPV) of 84 % and an accuracy of 76 %. The sensitivity of PET/CT was 88 %, but specificity, PPV, NPV and accuracy (76 %, 76 %, 89 % and 82 %, respectively) were higher than those of stand-alone PET. [18F]FDG PET is able to identify with high sensitivity the presence of osteomyelitis in orthopaedic surgery patients with nonspecific clinical symptoms of infection. (orig.)

  8. The activL® Artificial Disc: a next-generation motion-preserving implant for chronic lumbar discogenic pain

    OpenAIRE

    Yue, James J.; Garcia, Rolando; Miller, Larry E.

    2016-01-01

    Degeneration of the lumbar intervertebral discs is a leading cause of chronic low back pain in adults. Treatment options for patients with chronic lumbar discogenic pain unresponsive to conservative management include total disc replacement (TDR) or lumbar fusion. Until recently, only two lumbar TDRs had been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration − the Charité Artificial Disc in 2004 and the ProDisc-L Total Disc Replacement in 2006. In June 2015, a next-generation lumbar TDR receive...

  9. In situ monitoring of brain tissue reaction of chronically implanted electrodes with an optical coherence tomography fiber system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yijing; Hassler, Christina; Stieglitz, Thomas; Seifert, Andreas; Hofmann, Ulrich G.

    2014-03-01

    Neural microelectrodes are well established tools for delivering therapeutic electrical pulses, and recording neural electrophysiological signals. However, long term implanted neural probes often become functionally impaired by tissue encapsulation. At present, analyzing this immune reaction is only feasible with post-mortem histology; currently no means for specific in vivo monitoring exist and most applicable imaging modalities provide no sufficient resolution for a cellular measurement in deep brain regions. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a well developed imaging modality, providing cellular resolution and up to 1.2 mm imaging depth in brain tissue. Further more, a fiber based spectral domain OCT was shown to be capable of minimally invasive brain intervention. In the present study, we propose to use a fiber based spectral domain OCT to monitor the the progression of the tissue's immune response and scar encapsulation of microprobes in a rat animal model. We developed an integrated OCT fiber catheter consisting of an implantable ferrule based fiber cannula and a fiber patch cable. The fiber cannula was 18.5 mm long, including a 10.5 mm ceramic ferrule and a 8.0 mm long, 125 μm single mode fiber. A mating sleeve was used to fix and connect the fiber cannula to the OCT fiber cable. Light attenuation between the OCT fiber cable and the fiber cannula through the mating sleeve was measured and minimized. The fiber cannula was implanted in rat brain together with a microelectrode in sight used as a foreign body to induce the brain tissue immune reaction. Preliminary data showed a significant enhancement of the OCT backscattering signal during the brain tissue scarring process, while the OCT signal of the flexible microelectrode was getting weaker consequentially.

  10. Clinical effect of implant-supported complete denture of patients with moderate to severe chronic periodontitis%全颌种植义齿修复慢性中重度牙周炎的临床疗效

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱晶; 汪振华

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the clinical effect of implant-supported complete denture of patients with moderate to severe chronic periodontitis. Methods To analyze retrospectively of clinical data of 24 patients with moderate to severe chronic periodontitis, the group of patients were given the treatment of edentulous implant denture after disease control the, to evaluate the repairing effect according to patients' complaints, clinical and radiographic evaluation. Results There were 216 cases of implants were implanted in 20 dental arch, 2 of them were immediate implant in postoperative 3 weeks off, then the implant retention rate was 97.3%, the average retention rate was 97.7%. Implant 46 months average loading, all implants were not loose. The average height for bone resorption was (1.73+0.13) mm. Conclusion The implant-supported complete denture to chronic moderate to severe periodontitis can reduce the absorption of alveolar bone, shorten implant treatment, but at the same time should adhere to regular oral care.%目的 探讨全颌种植义齿修复慢性中重度牙周炎的临床疗效.方法 回顾性分析24例慢性中重度牙周炎患者的临床资料,该组患者经牙周治疗病情控制后采用全颌种植义齿修复,根据患者主诉、临床及X线评价修复效果.结果 共216枚种植体植入20个牙弓,其中有2枚即刻种植于术后3周脱落,即可种植体的保留率为97.3%,种植体平均保留率为97.7%.种植体平均承载42个月,所有种植体均无松动.骨吸收高度平均为(1.73±0.13)mm.结论 采用全颌种植义齿修复慢性中重度牙周炎可减少牙槽骨的吸收,缩短种植修复疗程,但同时要坚持定期的口腔护理.

  11. Design of Precision Adjustable Pulser of Implantable Cardiac Pacemaker Used for Experimental Animals%实验动物用埋藏式心脏起搏器精密可调脉冲发生器设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛力彬; 周真; 秦勇; 杨军

    2012-01-01

    Implantable cardiac pacemaker is a precision electronic treatment apparatus, which is implanted in the body. It outputs electrical stimulation through the pulse generator to stimulate the heart to make it contraction and relaxation. To the issue of precision adjustable and low reliability of domestic pacemaker pulse generators, a precision adjustable pacemaker pulse generator based on the design principle of the pacemaker pulse generator is designed, in which the pulse amplitude and width can be precisely adjusted. The measured amplitude adjustment accuracy is 1. 230 mV, the width adjustment accuracy is 0. 1 ms, and the pacing frequency adjustment accuracy is 1 bpm. The design uses digital control technology and has small size, low power consumption, high reliability, and characteristic of precision adjustable, which can be used in various experimental animals.%埋藏式心脏起搏器是一种植入体内的精密电子治疗仪器,它通过脉冲发生器发送电刺激脉冲刺激心脏使之收缩与舒张.针对国内起搏器脉冲发生器设计参数调节精度不高、可靠性低的问题,依据埋藏式心脏起搏脉冲发生器设计原理,设计了一款精密可调脉冲发生器,可实现对起搏脉冲幅度、脉宽和起搏频率的精密调整,实测幅度调整精度1.230 mV,脉宽调整精度0.1 ms,起搏频率调整精度1 bpm.该设计采用数字化控制,体积小、功耗低、可靠性高,具有脉冲参数精密可调的特性,可应用于多种实验动物体内.

  12. Miniaturized neural interfaces and implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stieglitz, Thomas; Boretius, Tim; Ordonez, Juan; Hassler, Christina; Henle, Christian; Meier, Wolfgang; Plachta, Dennis T. T.; Schuettler, Martin

    2012-03-01

    Neural prostheses are technical systems that interface nerves to treat the symptoms of neurological diseases and to restore sensory of motor functions of the body. Success stories have been written with the cochlear implant to restore hearing, with spinal cord stimulators to treat chronic pain as well as urge incontinence, and with deep brain stimulators in patients suffering from Parkinson's disease. Highly complex neural implants for novel medical applications can be miniaturized either by means of precision mechanics technologies using known and established materials for electrodes, cables, and hermetic packages or by applying microsystems technologies. Examples for both approaches will be introduced and discussed. Electrode arrays for recording of electrocorticograms during presurgical epilepsy diagnosis have been manufactured using approved materials and a marking laser to achieve an integration density that is adequate in the context of brain machine interfaces, e.g. on the motor cortex. Microtechnologies have to be used for further miniaturization to develop polymer-based flexible and light weighted electrode arrays to interface the peripheral and central nervous system. Polyimide as substrate and insulation material will be discussed as well as several application examples for nerve interfaces like cuffs, filament like electrodes and large arrays for subdural implantation.

  13. On-demand wireless infusion rate control in an implantable micropump for patient-tailored treatment of chronic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheybani, Roya; Meng, Ellis

    2014-01-01

    Wireless infusion rate control and programmability for an implantable, low power, electrochemical micropump is presented. Flow rate control was achieved through adjustment of the wiper position of a current potentiometer in the wireless receiver (0.6-3.2 mA output current with a resolution of 0.2 mA per step). An off-the-shelf Bluetooth module and Basic Stamp microcontroller kit was used to initiate amplitude-shift keying (ASK) modulation of the inductive power signal. Accurate flow control of two model regimens was achieved on benchtop. Wireless transmission (power transfer and control) was not affected by simulated tissue material placed between the transmitter and receiver. PMID:25570100

  14. Dental Implants

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Dental Implants A fuller, more complete smile is within reach. The following information is designed to provide helpful ... whether dental implants are right for your situation. Dental Implants and Roots The key benefit of dental implants ...

  15. One-year clinical study of NeuroRegen scaffold implantation following scar resection in complete chronic spinal cord injury patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Zhifeng; Tang, Fengwu; Tang, Jiaguang; Yang, Huilin; Zhao, Yannan; Chen, Bing; Han, Sufang; Wang, Nuo; Li, Xing; Cheng, Shixiang; Han, Guang; Zhao, Changyu; Yang, Xiaoxiong; Chen, Yumei; Shi, Qin; Hou, Shuxun; Zhang, Sai; Dai, Jianwu

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this clinical study was to assess the safety and feasibility of the collagen scaffold, NeuroRegen scaffold, one year after scar tissue resection and implantation. Scar tissue is a physical and chemical barrier that prevents neural regeneration. However, identification of scar tissue is still a major challenge. In this study, the nerve electrophysiology method was used to distinguish scar tissue from normal neural tissue, and then different lengths of scars ranging from 0.5-4.5 cm were surgically resected in five complete chronic spinal cord injury (SCI) patients. The NeuroRegen scaffold along with autologous bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMMCs), which have been proven to promote neural regeneration and SCI recovery in animal models, were transplanted into the gap in the spinal cord following scar tissue resection. No obvious adverse effects related to scar resection or NeuroRegen scaffold transplantation were observed immediately after surgery or at the 12-month follow-up. In addition, patients showed partially autonomic nervous function improvement, and the recovery of somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEP) from the lower limbs was also detected. The results indicate that scar resection and NeuroRegen scaffold transplantation could be a promising clinical approach to treating SCI. PMID:27333785

  16. Photobiomodulation and implants: implications for dentistry

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Elieza; Arany, Praveen

    2013-01-01

    The use of dental implants has become a mainstay of rehabilitative and restorative dentistry. With an impressive clinical success rate, there remain a few minor clinical issues with the use of implants such as peri-implant mucositis and peri-implantitis. The use of laser technology with implants has a fascinating breadth of applications, beginning from their precision manufacturing to clinical uses for surgical site preparation, reducing pain and inflammation, and promoting osseointegration a...

  17. Precision manufacturing

    CERN Document Server

    Dornfeld, David

    2008-01-01

    Today there is a high demand for high-precision products. The manufacturing processes are now highly sophisticated and derive from a specialized genre called precision engineering. Precision Manufacturing provides an introduction to precision engineering and manufacturing with an emphasis on the design and performance of precision machines and machine tools, metrology, tooling elements, machine structures, sources of error, precision machining processes and precision process planning. As well as discussing the critical role precision machine design for manufacturing has had in technological developments over the last few hundred years. In addition, the influence of sustainable manufacturing requirements in precision processes is introduced. Drawing upon years of practical experience and using numerous examples and illustrative applications, David Dornfeld and Dae-Eun Lee cover precision manufacturing as it applies to: The importance of measurement and metrology in the context of Precision Manufacturing. Th...

  18. A novel intravitreal fluocinolone acetonide implant (Iluvien® in the treatment of patients with chronic diabetic macular edema that is insufficiently responsive to other medical treatment options: a case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmit-Eilenberger VK

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Vera K Schmit-Eilenberger Augenklinik Städtisches Klinikum, Karlsruhe, Baden-Württemberg, Germany Background: Iluvien® is a novel, nonbiodegradable, sustained-release drug delivery system (0.2 µg/d fluocinolone acetonide [FAc] indicated in Europe for the treatment of vision impairment associated with chronic diabetic macular edema (DME, considered insufficiently responsive to available therapies.Objective: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of 190-µg FAc implant in patients with chronic DME refractory to other medical treatment options in a clinical setting. Methods: Retrospective registry data were collected by using standard case report forms (CRFs. Prior to intravitreal injection of the FAc implant, all patients were treated either with a vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF antagonist and/or a steroid (triamcinolone, dexamethasone implant. Patients were excluded from receiving FAc if they had a known history of elevated intraocular pressure (IOP following corticosteroid therapy, glaucoma, ocular hypertension, or any contraindications cited in the summary of product characteristics. Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA was the main study parameter. Central fovea thickness (CFT and IOP were measured concurrently. These parameters were recorded prior to and after the injection of the 190-µg FAc implant (between 1 week and 9 months. Injections were performed between May 2013 and March 2014.Results: Fifteen eyes from ten patients were treated. Thirteen eyes (nine patients were pseudophakic, and seven eyes (five patients were vitrectomized prior to receiving therapy. BCVA improved in eleven eyes (73.3%, remained unchanged in two eyes (13.3%, and decreased slightly in two eyes (13.3% at the last follow-up visit versus baseline levels. IOP increased in two patients and was controlled using fixed-combination of IOP-lowering eyedrops or sectorial cyclocryotherapy (n=1.Conclusion: The 190-µg FAc implant was efficacious and showed a favorable

  19. Prosthodontic management of implant therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thalji, Ghadeer; Bryington, Matthew; De Kok, Ingeborg J; Cooper, Lyndon F

    2014-01-01

    Implant-supported dental restorations can be screw-retained, cement-retained, or a combination of both, whereby a metal superstructure is screwed to the implants and crowns are individually cemented to the metal frame. Each treatment modality has advantages and disadvantages. The use of computer-aided design/computer-assisted manufacture technologies for the manufacture of implant superstructures has proved to be advantageous in the quality of materials, precision of the milled superstructures, and passive fit. Maintenance and recall evaluations are an essential component of implant therapy. The longevity of implant restorations is limited by their biological and prosthetic maintenance requirements. PMID:24286654

  20. Comparison of long-term clinical outcome between patients with chronic versus acute type B aortic dissection treated by implantation of a stent graft: a single-center report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen SL

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Shao-Liang Chen, Jian-Cheng Zhu, Xiao-Bo Li, Fei Ye, Jun-Jie Zhang, Zhi-Zhong Liu, Nai-Liang Tian, Song Lin, Cheng-Yu Lv Nanjing First Hospital, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, People's Republic of China Background: Stent grafting for treatment of type B aortic dissection has been extensively used. However, the difference in the long-term clinical outcome between patients with chronic versus acute type B aortic dissection remains unknown. This study aimed to analyze the difference in long-term clinical outcome after endovascular repair for patients with chronic (93% complete false-lumen thrombosis. Untreated tear and type I endoleak were predictors of clinical events during follow-up. Conclusion: Comparable long-term clinical results were achieved in patients with chronic or acute type B aortic dissection after implantation of a stent graft. Keywords: aortic dissection, endovascular repair, procedure-related events, propensity score matching

  1. Dental Implants

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Dental Implants A fuller, more complete smile is within reach. The following information is designed to provide ... whether dental implants are right for your situation. Dental Implants and Roots The key benefit of dental ...

  2. Dental Implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dental Implants A fuller, more complete smile is within reach. The following information is designed to provide ... whether dental implants are right for your situation. Dental Implants and Roots The key benefit of dental ...

  3. Dental Implants

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... helpful facts so you can make an informed decision as to whether dental implants are right for your situation. Dental Implants and Roots The key benefit of dental implants over other tooth replacement systems is that an implant connects directly to the ...

  4. Mini vs. Standard Implants for Mandibular Overdentures: A Randomized Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, R F; Ribeiro, A B; Della Vecchia, M P; Costa, L; Cunha, T R; Reis, A C; Albuquerque, R F

    2015-10-01

    A mandibular implant-retained overdenture is considered a first-choice treatment for edentulism. However, some aspects limit the use of standard implants-for example, the width of edentulous ridges, chronic diseases, fear, or costs. This randomized trial compared mandibular overdentures retained by 2 or 4 mini-implants with standard implants, considering oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL), patient satisfaction, and complications such as lost implant. In sum, 120 edentulous men and women (mean age, 59.5 ± 8.5 y) randomly received 4 mini-implants, 2 mini-implants, or 2 standard implants. Participants provided data regarding OHRQoL and satisfaction until 12 mo. Clinical parameters, including implant survival rate, were also recorded. Both 2 and 4 mini-implants led to better OHRQoL, compared with 2 standard implants. Treatment with 4 mini-implants was more satisfying than 2 standard implants, with 2 mini-implants presenting intermediate results. Implant survival rate was 89%, 82%, and 99% for 4 mini-implants, 2 mini-implants, or 2 standard implants, respectively. Overdentures retained by 4 or 2 mini-implants can achieve OHRQoL and satisfaction at least comparable with that of 2 standard implants. However, the survival rate of mini implants is not as high as that of standard implants (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01411683). PMID:26294416

  5. Perioperative management of antithrombotic treatment during implantation or revision of cardiac implantable electronic devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deharo, Jean-Claude; Sciaraffia, Elena; Leclercq, Christophe;

    2016-01-01

    The European Snapshot Survey on Procedural Routines for Electronic Device Implantation (ESS-PREDI) was a prospective European survey of consecutive adults who had undergone implantation/surgical revision of a cardiac implantable electronic device (CIED) on chronic antithrombotic therapy (enrolment...

  6. Why precision?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bluemlein, Johannes

    2012-05-15

    Precision measurements together with exact theoretical calculations have led to steady progress in fundamental physics. A brief survey is given on recent developments and current achievements in the field of perturbative precision calculations in the Standard Model of the Elementary Particles and their application in current high energy collider data analyses.

  7. Why precision?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Precision measurements together with exact theoretical calculations have led to steady progress in fundamental physics. A brief survey is given on recent developments and current achievements in the field of perturbative precision calculations in the Standard Model of the Elementary Particles and their application in current high energy collider data analyses.

  8. Carmustine Implant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmustine implant is used along with surgery and sometimes radiation therapy to treat malignant glioma (a certain type of ... Carmustine implant comes as a small wafer that is placed in the brain by a doctor during surgery to ...

  9. Goserelin Implant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goserelin implant is used in combination with radiation therapy and other medications to treat localized prostate cancer and is ... treatment of abnormal bleeding of the uterus. Goserelin implant is in a class of medications called gonadotropin- ...

  10. Dental Implants

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... is lost for the most predictable esthetic outcome. Timeline Replacing a tooth with an implant and a ... months to complete the process . Due to the timeline, dental implants are actually a series of steps; ...

  11. Recent refinements to cranial implants for rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Jessica M; Cohen, Yale E; Shirley, Harry; Tsunada, Joji; Bennur, Sharath; Christison-Lagay, Kate; Veeder, Christin L

    2016-04-20

    The advent of cranial implants revolutionized primate neurophysiological research because they allow researchers to stably record neural activity from monkeys during active behavior. Cranial implants have improved over the years since their introduction, but chronic implants still increase the risk for medical complications including bacterial contamination and resultant infection, chronic inflammation, bone and tissue loss and complications related to the use of dental acrylic. These complications can lead to implant failure and early termination of study protocols. In an effort to reduce complications, we describe several refinements that have helped us improve cranial implants and the wellbeing of implanted primates. PMID:27096188

  12. Evaluación y preparación psicológicas de los pacientes candidatos a terapias implantables para tratamiento del dolor crónico Evaluation and psychological preparation of the patient candidates to implantables therapies for treatment of chronic pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Merayo

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Las técnicas de neuroestimulación eléctrica Junto con las técnicas de infusión intratecal de fármacos, son el abordaje de elección para el tratamiento del dolor crónico refractario a otras terapias. La selección indiscriminada de pacientes, o la evaluación incompleta de éstos, conduce a un mayor número de fracasos del implante y por tanto de la terapia. La mayoría de expertos coinciden en que los factores psicológicos del paciente con dolor crónico deberían ser evaluados como parte de la intervención terapéutica antes y después de la realización de técnica en el marco de un abordaje multidisciplinar. En este artículo proponemos que además de la valoración se debería realizar la preparación psicológica de los pacientes para que afronten esta situación y obtener un mayor beneficio terapéutico. Se aborda también el papel que desempeña el psicólogo dentro del equipo, por qué es importante realizar una evaluación psicológica, cómo y cuándo debería tener lugar, así como las características específicas de ambas técnicas de neuromodulación. Creemos que la preparación psicológica del paciente con dolor crónico candidato al tratamiento mediante sistemas implantables podría ser un objetivo importante a tener en cuenta antes y después de las técnicas de implante para aquellos pacientes con mejor pronóstico de adaptación.Electric neurostimulation techniques along with intrathecal drugs infusión techniques are of choice for the treatment of chronic pain refractory to other therapies. An indiscriminate selection of patients, or their incomplete assessment, leads to increase the rate of implantation failure, and therefore of therapeutic failures. Most of experts agreed that psychological factors of the patient with chronic pain should be evaluated as part of the interventional pain management before and after to carry out the implant in the frame of a multidisciplinary approach. In this article, we propose to

  13. The diagnostic value of [{sup 18}F]FDG PET for the detection of chronic osteomyelitis and implant-associated infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenter, Vera; Albert, Nathalie L.; Lehner, Sebastian; Fendler, Wolfgang P.; Bartenstein, Peter [University of Munich, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Munich (Germany); Mueller, Jan-Phillip; Friederichs, Jan; Militz, Matthias; Hungerer, Sven [BG Trauma Center Murnau, Murnau (Germany); PMU Salzburg, Salzburg (Austria); Cyran, Clemens C. [University of Munich, Institute for Clinical Radiology, Munich (Germany); Hacker, Marcus [University of Vienna, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Vienna (Austria); Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-guided Therapy, Vienna (Austria)

    2016-04-15

    The diagnosis of osteomyelitis and implant-associated infections in patients with nonspecific laboratory or radiological findings is often unsatisfactory. We retrospectively evaluated the contributions of [{sup 18}F]FDG PET and [{sup 18}F]FDG PET/CT to the diagnosis of osteomyelitis and implant-associated infections, enabling timely and appropriate decision-making for further therapy options. [{sup 18}F]FDG PET or PET/CT was performed in 215 patients with suspected osteomyelitis or implant-associated infections between 2000 and 2013. We assessed the diagnostic accuracy of both modalities together and separately with reference to intraoperative microbial findings, with a mean clinical follow-up of 69 ± 49 months. Infections were diagnosed clinically in 101 of the 215 patients. PET and PET/CT scans revealed 87 true-positive, 76 true-negative, 38 false-positive, and 14 false-negative results, indicating a sensitivity of 86 %, a specificity of 67 %, a positive predictive value (PPV) of 70 %, a negative predictive value (NPV) of 84 % and an accuracy of 76 %. The sensitivity of PET/CT was 88 %, but specificity, PPV, NPV and accuracy (76 %, 76 %, 89 % and 82 %, respectively) were higher than those of stand-alone PET. [{sup 18}F]FDG PET is able to identify with high sensitivity the presence of osteomyelitis in orthopaedic surgery patients with nonspecific clinical symptoms of infection. (orig.)

  14. Ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is the purpose of the present paper to give a review of surface alloy processing by ion implantation. However, rather than covering this vast subject as a whole, the survey is confined to a presentation of the microstructures that can be found in metal surfaces after ion implantation. The presentation is limited to alloys processed by ion implantation proper, that is to processes in which the alloy compositions are altered significantly by direct injection of the implanted ions. The review is introduced by a presentation of the processes taking place during development of the fundamental event in ion implantation - the collision cascade, followed by a summary of the various microstructures which can be formed after ion implantation into metals. This is compared with the variability of microstructures that can be achieved by rapid solidification processing. The microstructures are subsequently discussed in the light of the processes which, as the implantations proceed, take place during and immediately after formation of the individual collision cascades. These collision cascades define the volumes inside which individual ions are slowed down in the implanted targets. They are not only centres for vigorous agitation but also the sources for formation of excess concentrations of point defects, which will influence development of particular microstructures. A final section presents a selection of specific structures which have been observed in different alloy systems. (orig./GSCH)

  15. Management of dislocated intraocular implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, C K; Agarwal, A; Agarwal, S; Agarwal, A

    2001-12-01

    Implant dislocation may occur in the absence of appropriate capsular or zonular support (PCIOL) (11,35,53) or following traumatic injury to anterior ocular tissues (ACIOL). (11,19,20) Other factors (e.g., advanced patient age, high myopia, previous vitrectomy, pseudoexfoliation syndrome, and certain connective tissue disorders) also may predispose implant dislocation. (9,52) Although reported for all types of IOLs, implant dislocation is becoming more manageable because of the advancement of surgical techniques. A dislocated ACIOL or PCIOL may be explanted, exchanged, or repositioned. (11,48,71) Repositioning the dislocated PCIOL in the ciliary sulcus with modern vitreoretinal techniques provides an optimal environment for visual recovery. (11,71) Implant repositioning techniques generally may be categorized into the external or the internal approaches. (8,11) The former involves external suturing methods for a primary or secondary implant in the absence of adequate capsular or zonular support (15,16,31,42,56,60,61,64,66,73,76) and the latter is achieved through modern pars plana techniques. 8,11,62,69) Recently, several implant repositioning methods gaining increasing acceptance include the scleral loop fixation, (45) the snare approach, (43) the use of the 25-gauge implant forceps, (13) temporary haptic externalization, (8,11,36,71) and the use of perfluorocarbon liquids. (1,28,40,41,44) The temporary haptic externalization method combines the best features of the external and the internal approaches, avoids complex intraocular maneuvers, and allows precise scleral fixation of the dislocated IOL on a consistent basis. (8,11,71) Endoscopy provides the surgeon with optimal viewing of the anterior retropupillary anatomy that is often difficult to appreciate (e.g., capsular-zonular complex, ciliary sulcus, anterior retina, and vitreous base). (6,11) As a result, precise haptic placement is possible during the repositioning process. (6,11) However, a three

  16. [Metal implant sensitivity: clinical and histological presentation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, D; Letulé, V; Schneider, J J; Flaig, M J

    2016-05-01

    Metal implant sensitivity (intolerance) can cause pain, reduced mobility, loosening of the implant and skin rashes. Knowledge of differential diagnoses, histology and appropriate diagnostics are essential for proper diagnosis. To outline typical clinical signs and histology in metal-implant-associated skin lesions we present three exemplary patients from our implant allergy outpatient department and give an overview of the current literature regarding metal implant sensitivity. In patients with a negative patch test the lymphocyte transformation test may reveal metal sensitization. Even "pure" titanium alloys may contain traces of nickel. The histology of implant-associated skin reactions goes from teleangiectatic postimplantation erythema to eczema and vasculitis. Based on the synopsis of history, clinical picture, allergological testing and histology, metal implant sensitivity can be diagnosed more precisely. PMID:27090521

  17. Windows to the Brain (WttB): Transparent Nanocrystalline Yttria Stabilized Zirconia Cranial Implants for Non-Invasive, Chronic Access to the Brain for Optical Diagnostics and Therapeutics

    OpenAIRE

    Damestani, Yasaman

    2015-01-01

    Windows to the Brain (WttB) platform can improve patient care by enabling the delivery and/or collection of light into/from the brain, on demand, over large areas, and on a chronically-recurring basis without the need for repeated craniotomies. WttB holds the transformative potential for facilitating diagnosis and treatment of a wide variety of brain pathologies and neurological disorders including cerebral edema, traumatic brain injury, stroke, glioma, and neurodegenerative diseases.We have ...

  18. Implant materials modified by colloids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zboromirska-Wnukiewicz Beata

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in general medicine led to the development of biomaterials. Implant material should be characterized by a high biocompatibility to the tissue and appropriate functionality, i.e. to have high mechanical and electrical strength and be stable in an electrolyte environment – these are the most important properties of bioceramic materials. Considerations of biomaterials design embrace also electrical properties occurring on the implant-body fluid interface and consequently the electrokinetic potential, which can be altered by modifying the surface of the implant. In this work, the surface of the implants was modified to decrease the risk of infection by using metal colloids. Nanocolloids were obtained using different chemical and electrical methods. It was found that the colloids obtained by physical and electrical methods are more stable than colloids obtained by chemical route. In this work the surface of modified corundum implants was investigated. The implant modified by nanosilver, obtained by electrical method was selected. The in vivo research on animals was carried out. Clinical observations showed that the implants with modified surface could be applied to wounds caused by atherosclerotic skeleton, for curing the chronic and bacterial inflammations as well as for skeletal reconstruction surgery.

  19. Aligned ion implantation using scanning probes

    OpenAIRE

    Persaud, Arun

    2007-01-01

    A new technique for precision ion implantation has been developed. A scanning probe has been equipped with a small aperture and incorporated into an ion beamline, so that ions can be implanted through the aperture into a sample. By using a scanning probe the target can be imaged in a non-destructive way prior to implantation and the probe together with the aperture can be placed at the desired location with nanometer precision. In this work first results of a scanning probe integrated into an...

  20. Dental Implants

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... are lost, it’s not uncommon to suffer from social consequences and poor nutrition. Rebuilding Bone When the ... not a one-day procedure. The implant needs time to properly adhere to the bone and create ...

  1. Cochlear Implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on this topic can be found in our Audiology Information Series [PDF]. How does a cochlear implant ... speech-language pathologists; speech, language, and hearing scientists; audiology and speech-language pathology support personnel; and students. ...

  2. Cefoperazone Sodium Impregnated Polycaprolactone Composite Implant for Osteomyelitis

    OpenAIRE

    Anand A.; Pundir R; Pandian C; Saraf S; Gupta H

    2009-01-01

    The use of local antibiotics from a biodegradable implant for chronic osteomyelitis is an attractive alternative. The implant delivers high antibiotic concentration at tissue levels, obliterates dead space, aids bone repair and does not need to be removed. The purpose of this paper is to develop and evaluate a calcium sulphate and polycaprolactone based composite biodegradable implantable delivery system of cefoperazone sodium. Implants were prepared by modified fabrication technique to avoid...

  3. Triple antithrombotic therapy versus double antiplatelet therapy after percutaneous coronary intervention with stent implantation in patients requiring chronic oral anticoagulation: a meta-analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jayswal Saheb K; DENG Bing-qing; HU Qing-song; XIE Shuang-lun; GENG Deng-feng; NIE Ru-qiong

    2013-01-01

    Background Whether an addition of OAC to double antiplatelet therapy for patients with an indication of chronic oral anticoagulation undergoing PCI-S may improve clinical outcomes is still debated.This meta-analysis aimed to update and re-compare the benefits and risks of triple antithrombotic therapy (TT) with double anti-platelet therapy (DAPT) after in patients who requiring oral anticoagulation after percutaneous coronary interventions with stenting (PCI-s).Methods Ten reports of observational retrospective or prospective studies were retrieved,including a total of 6296 patients,follow-up period ranging from 1 year to 2 years.Results Baseline characteristics were similar in both groups.The main finding of this study is the overall incidence of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE),myocardial infarction (MI) and stent thrombosis was comparable between two groups.Patients with П was associated with significant reduction in ischemic stroke (OR:0.27; 95% CI:0.13-0.57;P=0.0006) as compared to DAPT.We reaffirmed triple therapy significantly increased the risk of major bleeding (OR:1.47;95% CI:1.22-1.78; P <0.0001) and minor bleeding (OR:1.55; 95% CI:1.07-2.24; P=0.02).Conclusions Triple therapy is more efficacious in reducing the occurrence of ischemic stroke in PCI-s patients with an indication of chronic oral anticoagulation (OAC),compared with DAPT.However,it significantly increased major and minor risk of bleeding.It is imperative that further prospective randomized controlled trials are required to define the best therapeutic strategy for patients with an indication of chronic OAC undergoing PCI-s.

  4. Visualization of cortical, subcortical and deep brain neural circuit dynamics during naturalistic mammalian behavior with head-mounted microscopes and chronically implanted lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resendez, Shanna L; Jennings, Josh H; Ung, Randall L; Namboodiri, Vijay Mohan K; Zhou, Zhe Charles; Otis, James M; Nomura, Hiroshi; McHenry, Jenna A; Kosyk, Oksana; Stuber, Garret D

    2016-03-01

    Genetically encoded calcium indicators for visualizing dynamic cellular activity have greatly expanded our understanding of the brain. However, owing to the light-scattering properties of the brain, as well as the size and rigidity of traditional imaging technology, in vivo calcium imaging has been limited to superficial brain structures during head-fixed behavioral tasks. These limitations can now be circumvented by using miniature, integrated microscopes in conjunction with an implantable microendoscopic lens to guide light into and out of the brain, thus permitting optical access to deep brain (or superficial) neural ensembles during naturalistic behaviors. Here we describe steps to conduct such imaging studies using mice. However, we anticipate that the protocol can be easily adapted for use in other small vertebrates. Successful completion of this protocol will permit cellular imaging of neuronal activity and the generation of data sets with sufficient statistical power to correlate neural activity with stimulus presentation, physiological state and other aspects of complex behavioral tasks. This protocol takes 6-11 weeks to complete. PMID:26914316

  5. Cochlear Implant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    In this text, the authors recall the main principles and data ruling cochlear implants. Then, a first circle of technical equipment for assistance is presented. This circle includes: device setting (DS), Electrically evoked Auditory Brainstem Responses (EABR), Neural Response Telemetry (NRT), Stapedial Reflex (SR) and Electrodogram Acquisition (EA). This first cycle becomes more and more important as children are implanted younger and younger; the amount of data available with this assistance makes necessary the use of models (implicit or explicit) to handle this information. Consequently, this field is more open than ever.

  6. Single atom devices by ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To expand the capabilities of semiconductor devices for new functions exploiting the quantum states of single donors or other impurity atoms requires a deterministic fabrication method. Ion implantation is a standard tool of the semiconductor industry and we have developed pathways to deterministic ion implantation to address this challenge. Although ion straggling limits the precision with which atoms can be positioned, for single atom devices it is possible to use post-implantation techniques to locate favourably placed atoms in devices for control and readout. However, large-scale devices will require improved precision. We examine here how the method of ion beam induced charge, already demonstrated for the deterministic ion implantation of 14 keV P donor atoms in silicon, can be used to implant a non-Poisson distribution of ions in silicon. Further, we demonstrate the method can be developed to higher precision by the incorporation of new deterministic ion implantation strategies that employ on-chip detectors with internal charge gain. In a silicon device we show a pulse height spectrum for 14 keV P ion impact that shows an internal gain of 3 that has the potential of allowing deterministic implantation of sub-14 keV P ions with reduced straggling. (paper)

  7. Cochlear implant

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are sent along the auditory nerve to the brain. A deaf person does not have a functioning inner ear. A cochlear implant tries to replace the function of the inner ear by ... signals to the brain. Sound is picked up by a microphone worn ...

  8. Cochlear Implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... an optimal period to develop speech and language skills. Research has shown that when these children receive a cochlear implant followed by intensive therapy before they are 18 months ... age develop language skills at a rate comparable to children with normal ...

  9. Dental Implants

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... suffer from social consequences and poor nutrition. Rebuilding Bone When the supporting alveolar bone melts away , it’s gone for good, but through grafting, a skilled dental professional can recreate bone to fuse with and support an implant. This ...

  10. Dental Implants

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... an implant connects directly to the jaw bone. It’s obviously not the same as the original connection , ... may feel you don’t need to replace it, since no one can see that it’s missing ...

  11. Dental Implants

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Dental Implants A fuller, more complete smile is within reach. The following information is designed to provide helpful facts so you ... found in nature. What Happens When You Lose a Tooth? When you lose a tooth, especially a ...

  12. Chronic pancreatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronic pancreatitis - chronic; Pancreatitis - chronic - discharge; Pancreatic insufficiency - chronic; Acute pancreatitis - chronic ... abuse over many years. Repeated episodes of acute pancreatitis can lead to chronic pancreatitis. Genetics may be ...

  13. Design of an implantable micropump

    OpenAIRE

    Smal, Olivier; Merken, Patrick; Croquet, Vincent; Raucent, Benoît; Debongnie, Jean-François; Delchambre, Alain

    2004-01-01

    The implantable programmable micropump is an interesting solution to treat chronic diseases such as diabetes with regular micro-injections of medicine. However, current applications of micropumps are limited by their rather expensive cost. The challenge is therefore to develop a low cost alternative by reducing the number of parts and by simplifying the assembly. As the pump and its tank will be placed under the skin in order to increase comfort, such a system should be small and reliable. In...

  14. Direct blood pressure monitoring in laboratory rodents via implantable radio telemetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huetteman, Daniel A; Bogie, Heather

    2009-01-01

    The ability to monitor and record precise blood pressure fluctuations in research animals is vital to research for human hypertension. Direct measurement of blood pressure via implantable radio telemetry devices is the preferred method for automatic collection of chronic, continuous blood pressure data. Two surgical techniques are described for instrumenting the two most commonly used laboratory rodent species with radiotelemetry devices. The basic rat procedure involves advancing a blood pressure catheter into the abdominal aorta and placing a radio transmitting device in the peritoneal cavity. The mouse technique involves advancing a thin, flexible catheter from the left carotid artery into the aortic arch and placing the telemetry device under the skin along the animal's flank. Both procedures yield a chronically instrumented model to provide accurate blood pressure data from an unrestrained animal in its home cage. PMID:19763922

  15. Cochlear implants

    OpenAIRE

    Despotović, Adrijana

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the thesis is to analyze the performance of the child with cochlear implant (CI) at language, math and movement activities. For the purpose of research exercises from all three above mentioned activities are prepared. Results of the exercises constitute the ground for the comparison of a child with CI and children with no hearing disability. Testing language skills was performed with exercises that included understanding, diction and identifying syllables. Mathematic skills...

  16. Preliminary report on a new concept stent prototype designed for venous implant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugli, M; Maleti, O

    2015-08-01

    Venous obstruction at iliocaval level in both forms, primary and secondary, is a significant cause of severe chronic venous insufficiency. A new therapeutic approach to this pathology emerged with the introduction of stenting procedures that proved effective, leading to good long-term results. However, at present, the majority of implanted stents have been designed for arterial implant and this can pose a limit in particular districts. The purpose of this preliminary acute study was to verify the deliverability and safety of a new stent specially designed for venous-vessel implant. We assess the safety and deliverability of two braided, self-expanding, nickel-titanium stents (Jotec GmbH, Hechingen, Germany) specially designed for endovascular implant in veins. The two stents, despite being based on the same concept, have a different design: stent A presents a proximal tapering shape specially designed to reduce migration, while stent B does not. Both of them are enlarged at their distal extremity and present variable radial force the length of the stent itself, the said force becoming very high in the intermediate segment. Stents were implanted in the internal jugular vein of a sheep, showing optimal deliverability. The completion venography showed the migration of stent B into the right atrium. Stent A maintained its location, confirmed by intravascular ultrasound examination. No scaffolding effect was detected and an adequate adherence and adaptability to the vein wall was obtained. In conclusions, the stent A design matches the characteristics required by vein implants. Stability is achieved even where difficult anatomical conditions apply, such as in the jugular vein. Deployment is easy and precise in a given landing zone. Radial resistive force is very high, as required in specific vein districts, but is also associated with good flexibility. Following this preliminary acute report, further studies are required. PMID:24920424

  17. Mechanical and Biological Interactions of Implants with the Brain and Their Impact on Implant Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prodanov, Dimiter; Delbeke, Jean

    2016-01-01

    Neural prostheses have already a long history and yet the cochlear implant remains the only success story about a longterm sensory function restoration. On the other hand, neural implants for deep brain stimulation are gaining acceptance for variety of disorders including Parkinsons disease and obsessive-compulsive disorder. It is anticipated that the progress in the field has been hampered by a combination of technological and biological factors, such as the limited understanding of the longterm behavior of implants, unreliability of devices, biocompatibility of the implants among others. While the field's understanding of the cell biology of interactions at the biotic-abiotic interface has improved, relatively little attention has been paid on the mechanical factors (stress, strain), and hence on the geometry that can modulate it. This focused review summarizes the recent progress in the understanding of the mechanisms of mechanical interaction between the implants and the brain. The review gives an overview of the factors by which the implants interact acutely and chronically with the tissue: blood-brain barrier (BBB) breach, vascular damage, micromotions, diffusion etc. We propose some design constraints to be considered in future studies. Aspects of the chronic cell-implant interaction will be discussed in view of the chronic local inflammation and the ways of modulating it. PMID:26903786

  18. Development of industrial ion implantation technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On a cooperation between KAERI, Kurchatov Institute (Russia), and Mirae Co., development of a metal ion implanter and ion implantation technology is performed on a basic idea of popularization and refinement of ion implantation technology applied to the industrial components. The developed implanter is a two beam type: the mass separation line produces several mA of metal ion beams and the non-separation line produces several tens of mA gas ion beams, thus making the synergistic effect possible by the irradiation of beams from both lines. The target is made of a rotating plate of 60cm in radius and can treat various types of industrial components or parts. About 60 kinds of specimens were treated for the development of implantation technology. Two or five times lengthening of longevities were achieved on the PCB drills, razor blades, cutters, and precision dies. (Author)

  19. Esthetic Considerations for Reconstructing Implant Emergence Profile Using Titanium and Zirconia Custom Implant Abutments: Fifty Case Series Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutkut, Ahmad; Abu-Hammad, Osama; Mitchell, Richard

    2015-10-01

    Titanium and zirconia custom implant abutments are now commonly used for esthetic implant dentistry. Custom implant abutments allow the clinician to improve an implant's emergence profile, to customize cervical margins in accordance with the anatomy of the natural root, and to compensate for poor implant angulation. All of these are essential for optimum esthetic outcomes. Computer-aided design/computer-aided machining (CAD/CAM) technology allows the clinician to design custom implant abutment configurations and create natural-looking superstructures that are in harmony with the adjacent dentition and soft tissue. The CAD/CAM technique provides precise fit, reduces the cost of the procedure, and eliminates dimensional inaccuracies inherent in the conventional waxing and casting technique. The aim of this report is to describe a simplified technique for reconstructing emergence profiles during implant restoration using milled titanium and zirconia custom implant abutments. The results of 50 consecutive cases are reported. PMID:24175922

  20. Chronic Diarrhea

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... infections that cause chronic diarrhea be prevented? Chronic Diarrhea What is chronic diarrhea? Diarrhea that lasts for more than 2-4 ... represent a life-threatening illness. What causes chronic diarrhea? Chronic diarrhea has many different causes; these causes ...

  1. Cochlear Implant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrnaz Karimi

    1992-04-01

    Full Text Available People with profound hearing loss are not able to use some kinds of conventional amplifiers due to the nature of their loss . In these people, hearing sense is stimulated only when the auditory nerve is activated via electrical stimulation. This stimulation is possible through cochlear implant. In fact, for the deaf people who have good mental health and can not use surgical and medical treatment and also can not benefit from air and bone conduction hearing aids, this device is used if they have normal central auditory system. The basic parts of the device included: Microphone, speech processor, transmitter, stimulator and receiver, and electrode array.

  2. Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... NHLBI on Twitter. What Is an Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator? An implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) is a small ... pacemakers and defibrillators. Comparison of an Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator and a Pacemaker The image compares an ICD ...

  3. Computerized tomography-quided stereotaxic implantation of deep brainstimulating electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High-resolution computerized tomography (CT) images can detect deep brain commissures, internal capsules and pathological lesions. The intercommissural plane can be determined by a reconstructed sagittal CT image of deep midline structures. The individual CT atlas of the brain of a patient permits precise target identification, and eliminates the need for contrast ventriculography. Three patients, who underwent successful CT-guided stereotaxic implantation of deep brainstimulating electrodes using a Brown-Roberts-Wells apparatus for the control of chronic pain, are reported. The target of two patients who had intractable pain caused by cancer was the thalamic relay nucleus. As the stimulation was effective in controlling the pain, the amounts of analgesics could be reduced. The target of one patient who had thalamic pain was the internal capsule and the pain relief has been excellent. Intraoperative electrophysiological assessments were available to confirm the correct target. Stereotaxic implantation of deep brain electrodes may be the best indication of CT-guided functional neurosurgery. Since this method is easy and accurate, its application to poor risk patient is feasible. (author)

  4. Nanotechnology and Dental Implants

    OpenAIRE

    Sandrine Lavenus; Guy Louarn; Pierre Layrolle

    2010-01-01

    The long-term clinical success of dental implants is related to their early osseointegration. This paper reviews the different steps of the interactions between biological fluids, cells, tissues, and surfaces of implants. Immediately following implantation, implants are in contact with proteins and platelets from blood. The differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells will then condition the peri-implant tissue healing. Direct bone-to-implant contact is desired for a biomechanical anchoring of i...

  5. Complications after cardiac implantable electronic device implantations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkfeldt, Rikke Esberg; Johansen, Jens Brock; Nohr, Ellen Aagaard;

    2013-01-01

    Complications after cardiac implantable electronic device (CIED) treatment, including permanent pacemakers (PMs), cardiac resynchronization therapy devices with defibrillators (CRT-Ds) or without (CRT-Ps), and implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs), are associated with increased patient...

  6. Enduring Advantages of Early Cochlear Implantation for Spoken Language Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geers, Anne E.; Nicholas, Johanna G.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: In this article, the authors sought to determine whether the precise age of implantation (AOI) remains an important predictor of spoken language outcomes in later childhood for those who received a cochlear implant (CI) between 12 and 38 months of age. Relative advantages of receiving a bilateral CI after age 4.5 years, better…

  7. Imunohistological aspects of the tissue around dental implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimigean, Victor; Nimigean, Vanda R.; Sǎlǎvǎstru, Dan I.; Moraru, Simona; BuÅ£incu, Lavinia; Ivaşcu, Roxana V.; Poll, Alexandru

    2016-03-01

    Objectives: study of soft and hard tissues around implants. Material and methods: For the immunohistochemical and histological study of the implant/soft tissue interface, we examined pieces of peri-implant mucosa harvested from 35 patients. The implant/bone interface was assessed using histologic and histomorphometric examination of hard tissues around unloaded, early loaded or delayed loaded dental implants with pre-established design, with a sandblasted and acid-etched surface, placed both in extraction sockets, or after bone healing following tooth removal. This study was performed on 9 common race dogs. Results: The histological study of the implant/soft tissue interface showed regenerative modifications and moderate chronic subepithelial inflammatory reactions. Immunohistochemical evaluation of the soft tissue biopsies revealed the presence of specific immunocompetent cells and proteins of the matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) expression. Bone-implants contacts were more obvious in the apical half of the implants and at the edges of the threads, than between them. A mature, lamelliform bone containing lacunae with osteocytes and lack of connective tissue were noticed around implants that were late placed and loaded. The new-formed bone was also abundant in the crestal zone, not only in the apical part of the implants. Conclusions: A thorough understanding of the microstructure of dental implant/soft and hard tissue interface will improve the longevity of osseointegrated implants.

  8. Transcatheter mitral valve implantation via transapical approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sondergaard, Lars; Brooks, Matthew; Ihlemann, Nikolaj; Jonsson, Anders; Holme, Susanne; Tang, Mariann; Terp, Kim; Quadri, Arshad

    2015-01-01

    coronary artery bypass surgery (n = 2), severe pulmonary hypertension (n = 1) and moderate to severe chronic renal failure (n= 3). A CardiAQ mitral valve was implanted using fluoroscopy and transoesophageal (TEE) guidance via a standard transapical approach. RESULTS: Accurate prosthesis positioning and...

  9. Computational analyses of small endosseous implants in osteoporotic bone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AJ Wirth

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available For many years orthopedic implants were developed for patients with good bone stock. Recently it has become clear that these implants have a decreased performance when implanted in bone with low density, such as in osteoporosis. Reduced performance in osteoporotic bone is not unexpected because of the reduced quality of the peri-implant bone and the reduced bone-implant contact area. Nevertheless, the precise failure mechanisms are not well understood. Although experimental testing is considered the gold standard to determine implant fixation, it is hampered by many limitations. Computational models could potentially aid in obtaining a better understanding of implant fixation as they allow analyzing the mechanical interaction between implants and peri-implant tissues. This article provides a review of the existing finite element models of small endosseous implants in bone. The aim is to analyze the potential of such models to aid the understanding of implant failure mechanisms with the goal of improving implant performance in low quality bone.

  10. Automatic Implantable Cardiac Defibrillator

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Over the next hour you'll see the implantation of an automated implantable cardiac defibrillator. The surgery ... evening we're going to be discussing the implantation of a defibrillator. It’s a battery-powered implantable ...

  11. Retrograde peri-implantitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Jumshad B; Shivakumar, B; Sudarsan, Sabitha; Arun, K V; Kumar, T S S

    2010-01-01

    Retrograde peri-implantitis constitutes an important cause for implant failure. Retrograde peri-implantitis may sometimes prove difficult to identify and hence institution of early treatment may not be possible. This paper presents a report of four cases of (the implant placed developing to) retrograde peri-implantitis. Three of these implants were successfully restored to their fully functional state while one was lost due to extensive damage. The paper highlights the importance of recognizing the etiopathogenic mechanisms, preoperative assessment, and a strong postoperative maintenance protocol to avoid retrograde peri-implant inflammation. PMID:20922082

  12. Implant success!!!.....simplified

    OpenAIRE

    Luthra Kaushal

    2009-01-01

    The endeavor towards life-like restoration has helped nurture new vistas in the art and science of implant dentistry. The protocol of “restoration-driven implant placement” ensures that the implant is an apical extension of the ideal future restoration and not the opposite. Meticulous pre-implant evaluation of soft and hard tissues, diagnostic cast and use of aesthetic wax-up and radiographic template combined with surgical template can simplify the intricate roadmap for appropriate implant t...

  13. Electrostatically defined silicon quantum dots with counted antimony donor implants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, M., E-mail: msingh@sandia.gov; Luhman, D. R.; Lilly, M. P. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States); Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87175 (United States); Pacheco, J. L.; Perry, D.; Garratt, E.; Ten Eyck, G.; Bishop, N. C.; Wendt, J. R.; Manginell, R. P.; Dominguez, J.; Pluym, T.; Bielejec, E.; Carroll, M. S. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States)

    2016-02-08

    Deterministic control over the location and number of donors is crucial to donor spin quantum bits (qubits) in semiconductor based quantum computing. In this work, a focused ion beam is used to implant antimony donors in 100 nm × 150 nm windows straddling quantum dots. Ion detectors are integrated next to the quantum dots to sense the implants. The numbers of donors implanted can be counted to a precision of a single ion. In low-temperature transport measurements, regular Coulomb blockade is observed from the quantum dots. Charge offsets indicative of donor ionization are also observed in devices with counted donor implants.

  14. Electrostatically defined silicon quantum dots with counted antimony donor implants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deterministic control over the location and number of donors is crucial to donor spin quantum bits (qubits) in semiconductor based quantum computing. In this work, a focused ion beam is used to implant antimony donors in 100 nm × 150 nm windows straddling quantum dots. Ion detectors are integrated next to the quantum dots to sense the implants. The numbers of donors implanted can be counted to a precision of a single ion. In low-temperature transport measurements, regular Coulomb blockade is observed from the quantum dots. Charge offsets indicative of donor ionization are also observed in devices with counted donor implants

  15. Precision agricultural systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Precision agriculture is a new farming practice that has been developing since late 1980s. It has been variously referred to as precision farming, prescription farming, site-specific crop management, to name but a few. There are numerous definitions for precision agriculture, but the central concept...

  16. PRECISION ATTACHMENTS; APPLICATIONS AND LIMITATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabhakar

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: A unique concern of a removable denture when compare d to others is retention. Retention is the ability of the prosthesis to resist the movement of denture away from the supporting tissues/teeth. The component of removable d enture which provides retention is called as direct retainer. 1,3,4 A direct retainer can be either an extracoronal or intracoronal retainer. Extracoronal direct retainer uses mechanical resistance to displa cement through components placed on external surface of abutment teeth. Intracoronal retainer is either cast or attached to tally within the restored natural contours of an abutment tooth. 1 One of the main drawbacks of extracoronal retainers used in partial dentures is visibility. Many patients find themselves in an aest hetically compromised state when these retainers are placed on teeth in visible area. Preci sion attachments provide solution for this problem. Also, precision attachments provide better ve rtical support and better stimulation to the underlying tissue through intermittent vertical massage. 1,9 Although the history of intracoronal retainers goes back to 5 th and 4 th centuries BC, technically more sound developments began in early 2 0 th century AD, with Dr. Herman E. S. Chayes formulating the principle of internal attachme nt in 1906. Since then precision attachments are playing an important role in removabl e and fixed partial denture, conventional and implant supported overdenture. 9

  17. Precision performance lamp technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Dean A.; Kiesa, James E.; Dean, Raymond A.

    1997-09-01

    A principal function of a lamp is to produce light output with designated spectra, intensity, and/or geometric radiation patterns. The function of a precision performance lamp is to go beyond these parameters and into the precision repeatability of performance. All lamps are not equal. There are a variety of incandescent lamps, from the vacuum incandescent indictor lamp to the precision lamp of a blood analyzer. In the past the definition of a precision lamp was described in terms of wattage, light center length (LCL), filament position, and/or spot alignment. This paper presents a new view of precision lamps through the discussion of a new segment of lamp design, which we term precision performance lamps. The definition of precision performance lamps will include (must include) the factors of a precision lamp. But what makes a precision lamp a precision performance lamp is the manner in which the design factors of amperage, mscp (mean spherical candlepower), efficacy (lumens/watt), life, not considered individually but rather considered collectively. There is a statistical bias in a precision performance lamp for each of these factors; taken individually and as a whole. When properly considered the results can be dramatic to the system design engineer, system production manage and the system end-user. It can be shown that for the lamp user, the use of precision performance lamps can translate to: (1) ease of system design, (2) simplification of electronics, (3) superior signal to noise ratios, (4) higher manufacturing yields, (5) lower system costs, (6) better product performance. The factors mentioned above are described along with their interdependent relationships. It is statistically shown how the benefits listed above are achievable. Examples are provided to illustrate how proper attention to precision performance lamp characteristics actually aid in system product design and manufacturing to build and market more, market acceptable product products in the

  18. Automatic Implantable Cardiac Defibrillator

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... discussing the implantation of a defibrillator. It’s a battery-powered implantable device that saves patients from deadly ... next doctor or whoever come to replace the battery and then to change the generator, they cannot -- ...

  19. Implantable cardioverter defibrillator - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000108.htm Implantable cardioverter defibrillator - discharge To use the sharing features on this ... chest wall. A device called an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) was inserted under your skin and muscle. ...

  20. Pacemakers and Implantable Defibrillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... need a cardiac pacemaker or an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD). They are devices that are implanted in ... can act as both a pacemaker and a defibrillator. Many ICDs also record the heart's electrical patterns ...

  1. Implantable cardioverter-defibrillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007370.htm Implantable cardioverter-defibrillator To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. An implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) is a device that detects any life- ...

  2. Urinary incontinence - injectable implant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Injectable implants are injections of material into the urethra to help control urine leakage ( urinary incontinence ) caused by a ... into the tissue next to the sphincter. The implant procedure is usually done in the hospital. Or ...

  3. Automatic Implantable Cardiac Defibrillator

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... quality healthcare for all patients. "OR Live" makes it easy for you to learn more. Just click ... to be discussing the implantation of a defibrillator. It’s a battery-powered implantable device that saves patients ...

  4. Implantable electronic medical devices

    CERN Document Server

    Fitzpatrick, Dennis

    2014-01-01

    Implantable Electronic Medical Devices provides a thorough review of the application of implantable devices, illustrating the techniques currently being used together with overviews of the latest commercially available medical devices. This book provides an overview of the design of medical devices and is a reference on existing medical devices. The book groups devices with similar functionality into distinct chapters, looking at the latest design ideas and techniques in each area, including retinal implants, glucose biosensors, cochlear implants, pacemakers, electrical stimulation t

  5. The newest precision measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book introduces basic of precision measurement, measurement of length, limit gauge, measurement of angles, measurement of surface roughness, measurement of shapes and locations, measurement of outline, measurement of external and internal thread, gear testing, accuracy inspection of machine tools, three dimension coordinate measuring machine, digitalisation of precision measurement, automation of precision measurement, measurement of cutting tools, measurement using laser, and point of choosing length measuring instrument.

  6. HA-Coated Implant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugaard, Henrik; Søballe, Kjeld; Bechtold, Joan E

    2014-01-01

    The goal of osseointegration of orthopedic and dental implants is the rapid achievement of a mechanically stable and long lasting fixation between living bone and the implant surface. In total joint replacements of cementless designs, coatings of calcium phosphates were introduced as a means of...... evaluating bone-implant fixation with HA coatings....

  7. Precision Clock Evaluation Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Tests and evaluates high-precision atomic clocks for spacecraft, ground, and mobile applications. Supports performance evaluation, environmental testing,...

  8. [Navigated implant placement using a bone supported CT-guided surgical template. Case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teubner, Eckart; Rohner, Dennis; Deak, Alexander; Lorenzon, Andreas; Marinello, Carlo P

    2009-01-01

    Surgical navigation allows precise implant placement and minimizes the risk of interferences with anatomical structures. Computerized implant planning based on tomographic data can be clinically realized by surgical templates. These are normally produced by stereo lithographic rapid prototyping. Accurate placement of virtually planned dental implants depends on a precise fabrication and positioning of the surgical template. Bone-, tooth-, implant-, and/or soft tissue-supported surgical templates allow for different micromovements. This report documents the diagnostics and surgical procedures of implant placement in an edentulous patient. Implant fixed complete dentures in the maxilla and mandible were planned. In the maxilla implants were inserted with the aid of a conventional surgical template. In the mandible a bone supported CT-guided surgical template was used. PMID:20120091

  9. Music perception with cochlear implants: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, Hugh J

    2004-01-01

    structured musical listening experience may improve the subjective acceptability of music that is heard through a prosthesis; (6) Pitch perception might be improved by designing innovative sound processors that use both temporal and spatial patterns of electric stimulation more effectively and precisely to overcome the inherent limitations of signal coding in existing implant systems; (7) For the growing population of implant recipients who have usable acoustic hearing, at least for low-frequency sounds, perception of music is likely to be much better with combined acoustic and electric stimulation than is typical for deaf people who rely solely on the hearing provided by their prostheses. PMID:15497033

  10. COCHLEAR IMPLANTATION: MY EXPERIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shankar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Cochlear implant is a small, surgically implanted complex electronic device that can help to provide a sense of sound to a person with severe to profound sensorineural hearing loss. This type of hearing loss, typically involves damage to hair cells in the cochlea, as a result sound cannot reach the auditory nerve which usually receives information from hair cells. A cochlear implant skips the damaged hair cells and to stimulate the auditory nerve directly. An implant does not restore normal hearing, instead it can give a deaf person a useful representation of sounds in the environment and help him or her to understand speech. I am here presenting this article in relation to the indications, intraoperative and postoperative complications of cochlear implantation in our institute since January 2013. Children who receive implants at earlier age, outperform their peers who are implanted at a later age. This is reflected in all the areas of speech and language development.

  11. Precision machining commercialization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To accelerate precision machining development so as to realize more of the potential savings within the next few years of known Department of Defense (DOD) part procurement, the Air Force Materials Laboratory (AFML) is sponsoring the Precision Machining Commercialization Project (PMC). PMC is part of the Tri-Service Precision Machine Tool Program of the DOD Manufacturing Technology Five-Year Plan. The technical resources supporting PMC are provided under sponsorship of the Department of Energy (DOE). The goal of PMC is to minimize precision machining development time and cost risk for interested vendors. PMC will do this by making available the high precision machining technology as developed in two DOE contractor facilities, the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory of the University of California and the Union Carbide Corporation, Nuclear Division, Y-12 Plant, at Oak Ridge, Tennessee

  12. Benefits and Risks of Cochlear Implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Medical Procedures Implants and Prosthetics Cochlear Implants Benefits and Risks of Cochlear Implants Share Tweet Linkedin ... the Use of Cochlear Implants What are the Benefits of Cochlear Implants? For people with implants: Hearing ...

  13. Piezoelectric surgery in implant dentistry: clinical applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lydia Masako Ferreira

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Pizosurgery has therapeutic characteristics in osteotomies, such as extremely precise, selective and millimetric cuts and a clear operating field. Piezoelectricity uses ultrasonic frequencies, which cause the points specially designed for osteotomy to vibrate. The points of the instrument oscillate, allowing effective osteotomy with minimal or no injury to the adjacent soft tissues, membranes and nerve tissues. This article presents the various applications of piezoelectricity in oral implant surgery such as: removal of autogenous bone; bone window during elevation of the sinus membrane and removal of fractured implants. The cavitational effect caused by the vibration of the point and the spray of physiological solution, provided a field free of bleeding and easy to visualize. The study showed that the piezoelectric surgery is a new surgical procedurethat presents advantages for bone cutting in many situations in implant dentistry, with great advantages in comparison with conventional instrumentation. Operating time is longer when compared with that of conventional cutters.

  14. Simulation of ion implantation for ULSI technology

    CERN Document Server

    Hoessinger, A

    2000-01-01

    approximately constant an almost linear performance gain could be achieved by the parallelization method, even if a fairly slow network connects the workstations. Finally, the developed Monte-Carlo ion implantation simulator is applied to a set of examples making use of some of the special features of the simulator. Additionally a small operating manual for the simulator is included in the appendix. been developed and implemented. These methods enable to treat the implantation of molecular ions and atom clusters and thus the implantation of BF, which is a widely used for the doping with boron atoms. By providing two methods for the simulation of molecular ions the functionality of the simulator can be adapted to the problem requirements. While the simplified molecular method needs less computation time, the full molecular method provides more precise results. Another part of this work was the design and the implementation of a point response interface method. It allows to interface Monte-Carlo simulation resu...

  15. [Cochlear implantation through the middle fossa approach].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szyfter, W; Colletti, V; Pruszewicz, A; Kopeć, T; Szymiec, E; Kawczyński, M; Karlik, M

    2001-01-01

    The inner part of cochlear implant is inserted into inner ear during surgery through mastoid and middle ear. It is a classical method, used in the majority cochlear centers in the world. This is not a suitable method in case of chronic otitis media and middle ear malformation. In these cases Colletti proposed the middle fossa approach and cochlear implant insertion omitting middle ear structures. In patient with bilateral chronic otitis media underwent a few ears operations without obtaining dry postoperative cavity. Cochlear implantation through the middle fossa approach was performed in this patient. The bone fenster was cut, temporal lobe was bent and petrosus pyramid upper surface was exposed. When the superficial petrosal greater nerve, facial nerve and arcuate eminence were localised, the cochlear was open in the basal turn and electrode were inserted. The patient achieves good results in the postoperative speech rehabilitation. It confirmed Colletti tesis that deeper electrode insertion in the cochlear implantation through the middle fossa approach enable use of low and middle frequencies, which are very important in speech understanding. PMID:11766315

  16. Computerized axial tomography : the tool in osseointegrated dental implants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Failure rates in rehabilitations with osseointegrated implants are handled through appropriate radiographic preoperative planning. The appropriate length of the implant without running the risk of a perforation of vital structures, has been determined by a radiographic diagnosis. Computerized and conventional axial tomography have proved to be invaluable elements for pre-surgical evaluation. A radiologic guidance is elaborated to perform a computerized axial tomography (CT) of maxillary bones in totally edentulous patients. Surgical guides are constructed from a wax-up emanated from the information of the CT. The CT has proven to be an radiographic indispensable element to achieve the surgical-prosthetic success in osseointegrated dental implants. The CT has allowed the realization of a precise wax-up for making of surgical guide and a precise temporary prostheses in positioning of osseointegrated implants, with the consequent saving time and money for the rehabilitator and patient

  17. BOOK REVIEWS - Precision agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisław Samborski

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Precision agriculture (PA is a term, which has recently become very popular in agronomy. In short this term means crop production based on site-specific crop management (SSCM. Precision agriculture is an integrated agricultural management system incorporating different science disciplines e.g. crop science, agricultural engineering and geostatistics. It also uses numerous tools i.e., geographic information system (GIS, Global Positioning System (GPS, remote sensing yield monitors. Because of the multidisciplinary character of precision agriculture, books published on this subject differ in their content. The first books on this topic appeared in the mid 90’ of the last century. The intention of this paper is to present reviews of three books the titles of which each contains the term “precision agriculture”. The books are as follows:1 Handbook of Precision Agriculture – Principles and Applications (2006 edited by Ancha Srinivasan. 2 Precision Agriculture’05 (2005 edited by John V. Stafford 3 Precision Agriculture (2006 by Terry A. Brasse.

  18. Passive and active middle ear implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beutner, Dirk

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Besides eradication of chronic middle ear disease, the reconstruction of the sound conduction apparatus is a major goal of modern ear microsurgery. The material of choice in cases of partial ossicular replacement prosthesis is the autogenous ossicle. In the event of more extensive destruction of the ossicular chain diverse alloplastic materials, e.g. metals, ceramics, plastics or composits are used for total reconstruction. Their specialised role in conducting sound energy within a half-open implant bed sets high demands on the biocompatibility as well as the acoustic-mechanic properties of the prosthesis. Recently, sophisticated titanium middle ear implants allowing individual adaptation to anatomical variations are widely used for this procedure. However, despite modern developments, hearing restoration with passive implants often faces its limitations due to tubal-middle-ear dysfunction. Here, implantable hearing aids, successfully used in cases of sensorineural hearing loss, offer a promising alternative. This article reviews the actual state of affairs of passive and active middle ear implants.

  19. Precision digital control systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyskub, V. G.; Rozov, B. S.; Savelev, V. I.

    This book is concerned with the characteristics of digital control systems of great accuracy. A classification of such systems is considered along with aspects of stabilization, programmable control applications, digital tracking systems and servomechanisms, and precision systems for the control of a scanning laser beam. Other topics explored are related to systems of proportional control, linear devices and methods for increasing precision, approaches for further decreasing the response time in the case of high-speed operation, possibilities for the implementation of a logical control law, and methods for the study of precision digital control systems. A description is presented of precision automatic control systems which make use of electronic computers, taking into account the existing possibilities for an employment of computers in automatic control systems, approaches and studies required for including a computer in such control systems, and an analysis of the structure of automatic control systems with computers. Attention is also given to functional blocks in the considered systems.

  20. Precision Multiboson Phenomenology

    OpenAIRE

    Bozzi, G.; Campanario, F.; Englert, C.; Rauch, M.; Spannoswky, M.; Zeppenfeld, D.

    2012-01-01

    We present recent results in precision multiboson (+jet) phenomenology at the LHC. Results for diboson + jet, triboson, and also for WAA + jet will be discussed focusing on the impact of the perturbative corrections on the expected phenomenology.

  1. Laser precision microfabrication

    CERN Document Server

    Sugioka, Koji; Pique, Alberto

    2010-01-01

    Miniaturization and high precision are rapidly becoming a requirement for many industrial processes and products. As a result, there is greater interest in the use of laser microfabrication technology to achieve these goals. This book composed of 16 chapters covers all the topics of laser precision processing from fundamental aspects to industrial applications to both inorganic and biological materials. It reviews the sate of the art of research and technological development in the area of laser processing.

  2. BOOK REVIEWS - Precision agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Stanisław Samborski; Dariusz Gozdowski

    2007-01-01

    Precision agriculture (PA) is a term, which has recently become very popular in agronomy. In short this term means crop production based on site-specific crop management (SSCM). Precision agriculture is an integrated agricultural management system incorporating different science disciplines e.g. crop science, agricultural engineering and geostatistics. It also uses numerous tools i.e., geographic information system (GIS), Global Positioning System (GPS), remote sensing yield monitors. Because...

  3. Cranial implant design using augmented reality immersive system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Zhuming; Evenhouse, Ray; Leigh, Jason; Charbel, Fady; Rasmussen, Mary

    2007-01-01

    Software tools that utilize haptics for sculpting precise fitting cranial implants are utilized in an augmented reality immersive system to create a virtual working environment for the modelers. The virtual environment is designed to mimic the traditional working environment as closely as possible, providing more functionality for the users. The implant design process uses patient CT data of a defective area. This volumetric data is displayed in an implant modeling tele-immersive augmented reality system where the modeler can build a patient specific implant that precisely fits the defect. To mimic the traditional sculpting workspace, the implant modeling augmented reality system includes stereo vision, viewer centered perspective, sense of touch, and collaboration. To achieve optimized performance, this system includes a dual-processor PC, fast volume rendering with three-dimensional texture mapping, the fast haptic rendering algorithm, and a multi-threading architecture. The system replaces the expensive and time consuming traditional sculpting steps such as physical sculpting, mold making, and defect stereolithography. This augmented reality system is part of a comprehensive tele-immersive system that includes a conference-room-sized system for tele-immersive small group consultation and an inexpensive, easily deployable networked desktop virtual reality system for surgical consultation, evaluation and collaboration. This system has been used to design patient-specific cranial implants with precise fit. PMID:17377223

  4. Cancer risk among Danish women with cosmetic breast implants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Søren; Hölmich, Lisbet R; McLaughlin, Joseph K;

    2006-01-01

    -up of our earlier cohort study of Danish women with cosmetic breast implants by 7 years, yielding 30 years of follow-up for women with longest implant duration. The study population consisted of women who underwent cosmetic breast implant surgery at private clinics of plastic surgery (n = 1,653) or public...... showed no clear trends, however, the statistical precision was limited in these analyses. When excluding non-melanoma skin cancer, the SIR for cancer overall was 1.0 (95% CI = 0.8-1.2). With respect to other site-specific cancers, no significantly increased or decreased SIR were observed. Similar results...

  5. Dental Implant Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshiki Oshida; Tuna, Elif B.; Oya Aktören; Koray Gençay

    2010-01-01

    Among various dental materials and their successful applications, a dental implant is a good example of the integrated system of science and technology involved in multiple disciplines including surface chemistry and physics, biomechanics, from macro-scale to nano-scale manufacturing technologies and surface engineering. As many other dental materials and devices, there are crucial requirements taken upon on dental implants systems, since surface of dental implants is directly in contact with...

  6. Implants in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohit A Shah

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Implants have gained tremendous popularity as a treatment modality for replacement of missing teeth in adults. There is extensive research present on the use of implants in adults, but there is a dearth of data available on the same in adolescents. The treatment planning and execution of implant placement in adolescents is still in its infancy. This review article is an attempt to bring together available literature.

  7. Implants in adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Rohit A.; Mitra, Dipika K.; Rodrigues, Silvia V.; Pathare, Pragalbha N.; Podar, Rajesh S.; Vijayakar, Harshad N.

    2013-01-01

    Implants have gained tremendous popularity as a treatment modality for replacement of missing teeth in adults. There is extensive research present on the use of implants in adults, but there is a dearth of data available on the same in adolescents. The treatment planning and execution of implant placement in adolescents is still in its infancy. This review article is an attempt to bring together available literature. PMID:24174743

  8. Implants in adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Shah, Rohit A.; Dipika K Mitra; Rodrigues, Silvia V.; Pathare, Pragalbha N.; Podar, Rajesh S.; Vijayakar, Harshad N.

    2013-01-01

    Implants have gained tremendous popularity as a treatment modality for replacement of missing teeth in adults. There is extensive research present on the use of implants in adults, but there is a dearth of data available on the same in adolescents. The treatment planning and execution of implant placement in adolescents is still in its infancy. This review article is an attempt to bring together available literature.

  9. Maintenance in dental implants

    OpenAIRE

    Giselle Póvoa Gomes; Ronaldo Mendes Assis Lucena; Patrícia Barcelos Bastos; José Bernardes das Neves

    2008-01-01

    In implants, maintenance is a decisive factor for obtaining success when implant supported overdentures and dentures are used. The present stud presents, a clinical case of a patient, a 70 year-old white man, with a completely edentulous mandibular alveolar ridge, severe bone resorption with presence of basal bone only, and absence of vestibule. Initially, treatment consisted of the placement of a mandibular overdenture, supported on three implants in the anterior inter-foramen region, as the...

  10. Trends in Cochlear Implants

    OpenAIRE

    Zeng, Fan-Gang

    2004-01-01

    More than 60,000 people worldwide use cochlear implants as a means to restore functional hearing. Although individual performance variability is still high, an average implant user can talk on the phone in a quiet environment. Cochlear-implant research has also matured as a field, as evidenced by the exponential growth in both the patient population and scientific publication. The present report examines current issues related to audiologic, clinical, engineering, anatomic, and physiologic as...

  11. Ion implantation technology

    CERN Document Server

    Downey, DF; Jones, KS; Ryding, G

    1993-01-01

    Ion implantation technology has made a major contribution to the dramatic advances in integrated circuit technology since the early 1970's. The ever-present need for accurate models in ion implanted species will become absolutely vital in the future due to shrinking feature sizes. Successful wide application of ion implantation, as well as exploitation of newly identified opportunities, will require the development of comprehensive implant models. The 141 papers (including 24 invited papers) in this volume address the most recent developments in this field. New structures and possible approach

  12. Temporary ectopic hand implantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Zhang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Severe crushing injuries to the distal forearm can preclude immediate hand replantation, with temporary ectopic implantation as a practicable option under special circumstances. This report describes a case of temporary ectopic hand implantation for a crush injury extending from the wrist to the middle third of the forearm, using the left foot as the recipient site. The hand was replanted onto the left forearm 3 months after the ectopic implantation, with functional gains seen by 18 months. Satisfactory ambulation was retained, with no reported foot pain. Temporary ectopic implantation is a pragmatic alternative under select circumstances.

  13. Gold Bead Implantation in Acupoints for Coxofemoral Arthrosis in Dogs: Method Description and Adverse Effects

    OpenAIRE

    Lars Moe; Morten Devor; Øyvind Stigen; Jæger, Gry T.

    2012-01-01

    Simple Summary Traditional acupuncture uses needles inserted at certain acupuncture points. Gold bead implantation at acupuncture points is used in acupuncture intended to relieve pain in certain diseases. The method of gold implantation is not well described in the literature. We describe the technique of implanting 24-karat gold beads around the joints of dogs with degenerative joint disease due to chronic hip dysplasia. The method is safe and fairly easy to perform under anesthesia. It has...

  14. Reliability of linear distance measurement for dental implant length with standardized periapical radiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the accuracy of distance measurements of implant length based on periapical radiographs compared with that of other modalities. We carried out an experimental trial to compare precision in distance measurement. Dental implant fixtures were buried in the canine and first molar regions. These were then subjected to periapical (PE) radiography, panoramic (PA) radiography conventional (CV) and medical computed (CT) tomography. The length of the implant fixture on each film was measured by nine observers and degree of precision was statistically analyzed. The precision of both PE radiographs and CT tomograms was closest at the highest level. Standardized PE radiography, in particular, was superior to CT tomography in the first molar region. This suggests that standardized PE radiographs should be utilized as a reliable modality for longitudinal and linear distance measurement, depending on implant length at local implantation site. (author)

  15. Long-term biocompatibility of implanted polymer-based intrafascicular electrodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lawrence, Stephen M; Larsen, Jytte Overgaard; Horch, Kenneth W; Riso, Ron; Sinkjaer, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    Polymer-based longitudinal intrafascicular electrodes (polyLIFEs) were chronically implanted into the sciatic nerve of white New Zealand rabbits (n=8) for a period of 6 months (hereafter referred to as the long-term group). The impact of the implantation procedure, as observed 6 months post surge...

  16. Prognostic importance of distressed (Type D) personality and shocks in patients with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Denollet, Johan; Tekle, Fetene B; Pedersen, Susanne S.;

    2013-01-01

    Clinical trials have shown the benefit of implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) treatment. In this study, we examined the importance of chronic psychological distress and device shocks among ICD patients seen in clinical practice.......Clinical trials have shown the benefit of implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) treatment. In this study, we examined the importance of chronic psychological distress and device shocks among ICD patients seen in clinical practice....

  17. Estimating sparse precision matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padmanabhan, Nikhil; White, Martin; Zhou, Harrison H.; O'Connell, Ross

    2016-05-01

    We apply a method recently introduced to the statistical literature to directly estimate the precision matrix from an ensemble of samples drawn from a corresponding Gaussian distribution. Motivated by the observation that cosmological precision matrices are often approximately sparse, the method allows one to exploit this sparsity of the precision matrix to more quickly converge to an asymptotic 1/√{N_sim} rate while simultaneously providing an error model for all of the terms. Such an estimate can be used as the starting point for further regularization efforts which can improve upon the 1/√{N_sim} limit above, and incorporating such additional steps is straightforward within this framework. We demonstrate the technique with toy models and with an example motivated by large-scale structure two-point analysis, showing significant improvements in the rate of convergence. For the large-scale structure example we find errors on the precision matrix which are factors of 5 smaller than for the sample precision matrix for thousands of simulations or, alternatively, convergence to the same error level with more than an order of magnitude fewer simulations.

  18. Precision Higgs Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boughezal, Radja

    2015-04-01

    The future of the high energy physics program will increasingly rely upon precision studies looking for deviations from the Standard Model. Run I of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) triumphantly discovered the long-awaited Higgs boson, and there is great hope in the particle physics community that this new state will open a portal onto a new theory of Nature at the smallest scales. A precision study of Higgs boson properties is needed in order to test whether this belief is true. New theoretical ideas and high-precision QCD tools are crucial to fulfill this goal. They become even more important as larger data sets from LHC Run II further reduce the experimental errors and theoretical uncertainties begin to dominate. In this talk, I will review recent progress in understanding Higgs properties,including the calculation of precision predictions needed to identify possible physics beyond the Standard Model in the Higgs sector. New ideas for measuring the Higgs couplings to light quarks as well as bounding the Higgs width in a model-independent way will be discussed. Precision predictions for Higgs production in association with jets and ongoing efforts to calculate the inclusive N3LO cross section will be reviewed.

  19. Polylactide-polyglycolide antibiotic implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garvin, Kevin; Feschuk, Connie

    2005-08-01

    Surgeons continually struggle to reduce orthopaedic infections, but no current treatment offers minimum side effects with maximum effectiveness. Antibiotics mixed in plaster of paris have been successful in treating large bony defects in patients with chronic osteomyelitis, and have the advantage of being well tolerated and absorbed by the body. Antibiotics impregnated in polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) have offered local antibiotic delivery with some success. However, the effect of the antibiotic on the bone cement, the inconsistent elution of the antibiotic, and the need to remove the PMMA implant drives the need for a better system of antibiotic delivery. Polymers or copolymers of antibiotic-impregnated polylactic acid, polyglycolic acid or polyparadioxanone may provide an absorbable system for localized antibiotic delivery. Similar biodegradable systems used to treat small bone fractures have been successful with minimal side effects. In vitro studies have shown promising results of antibiotic elution from bioabsorbable microspheres and beads. Animal in vivo tests have shown that antibiotic impregnated polymers can successfully treat induced osteomyelitis in rabbits and dogs. These studies have provided consistent reproducible results, and now it is time to plan human trials to assess the efficacy of antibiotic microspheres implanted in infected bone and to plan in vivo and in vitro animal testing to investigate the feasibility of antibiotic-polymer-coated components. PMID:16056034

  20. Developing Precision Stroke Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DavidSLiebeskind

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Stroke experts stand at the cusp of a unique opportunity to advance the care of patients with cerebrovascular disorders across the globe through improved imaging approaches. NIH initiatives including the Stroke Progress Review Group (SPRG promotion of imaging in stroke research and the newly established NINDS Stroke Trials network converge with the rapidly evolving concept of precision medicine. Precision stroke imaging portends the coming shift to individualized approaches to cerebrovascular disorders where big data may be leveraged to identify and manage stroke risk with specific treatments utilizing an improved neuroimaging infrastructure, data collection and analysis. We outline key aspects of the stroke imaging field where precision medicine may rapidly transform the care of stroke patients in the next few years.

  1. Improving Precision of Types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Johnni

    crucial to the quality of these automated checks, and in this thesis we present three different improvements to the precision of types in three different aspects of the Java programming language. First we show how to extend the type system in Java with a new type which enables the detection of unintended......Types in programming languages provide a powerful tool for the programmer to document the code so that a large aspect of the intent can not only be presented to fellow programmers but also be checked automatically by compilers. The precision with which types model the behavior of programs is...... mixing of unrelated types. Secondly, we present an improvement of the type checking algorithm in Java which enables the compiler to detect and ease the use of a common programming idiom called guarded casts. Thirdly, we present an improvement of the precision with which classes generated by a parser...

  2. Precision Muonium Spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Jungmann, Klaus P

    2016-01-01

    The muonium atom is the purely leptonic bound state of a positive muon and an electron. It has a lifetime of 2.2 $\\mu$s. The absence of any known internal structure provides for precision experiments to test fundamental physics theories and to determine accurate values of fundamental constants. In particular groun dstate hyperfine structure transitions can be measured by microwave spectroscopy to deliver the muon magnetic moment. The frequency of the 1s-2s transition in the hydrogen-like atom can be determined with laser spectroscopy to obtain the muon mass. With such measurements fundamental physical interactions, in particular Quantum Electrodynamics, can also be tested at highest precision. The results are important input parameters for experiments on the muon magnetic anomaly. The simplicity of the atom enables further precise experiments, such as a search for muonium-antimuonium conversion for testing charged lepton number conservation and searches for possible antigravity of muons and dark matter.

  3. Strain gauges′s analysis on implant-retained prosthesis′ cast accuracy

    OpenAIRE

    Mariana A Rodrigues; Leonardo F Luthi; Jessica MFK Takahashi; Mauro AA Nobilo; Guilherme EP Henriques

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: A proper cast is essential for a successful rehabilitation with implant prostheses, in order to produce better structures and induce less strain on the implants. Aims: The aim of this study was to evaluate the precision of four different mold filling techniques and verify an accurate methodology to evaluate these techniques. Materials and Methods: A total of 40 casts were obtained from a metallic matrix simulating three unit implant-retained prostheses. The molds were fi...

  4. Chronic Bronchitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronchitis is an inflammation of the bronchial tubes, the airways that carry air to your lungs. It ... chest tightness. There are two main types of bronchitis: acute and chronic. Chronic bronchitis is one type ...

  5. Precision temperature measurement system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Pavel

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays there is a great variety of sensors for temperature measurements. The Pt100 is well known as one of the transducers with excellent precision and linearity. The only problem is the need of a high gain precision instrumentation amplifier which greatly increases the cost of the system. A large varriety of simple microcontrollers are developed to use with a lot of type of senzor which made the first translate of a nonelectric parameter in the electric form like pulse width or frequency or analogue voltage amplitude. After the signal was converted it can be transmited to an upper level to proces them.

  6. Precision electron polarimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chudakov, Eugene A. [JLAB

    2013-11-01

    A new generation of precise Parity-Violating experiments will require a sub-percent accuracy of electron beam polarimetry. Compton polarimetry can provide such accuracy at high energies, but at a few hundred MeV the small analyzing power limits the sensitivity. M{\\o}ller polarimetry provides a high analyzing power independent on the beam energy, but is limited by the properties of the polarized targets commonly used. Options for precision polarimetry at ~300 MeV will be discussed, in particular a proposal to use ultra-cold atomic hydrogen traps to provide a 100\\%-polarized electron target for M{\\o}ller polarimetry.

  7. Precision genome editing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steentoft, Catharina; Bennett, Eric P; Schjoldager, Katrine Ter-Borch Gram;

    2014-01-01

    of glycobiology, primarily due to their low efficiencies, with resultant failure to impose substantial phenotypic consequences upon the final glycosylation products. Here, we review novel nuclease-based precision genome editing techniques enabling efficient and stable gene editing, including gene disruption...... by introducing single or double-stranded breaks at a defined genomic sequence. We here compare and contrast the different techniques and summarize their current applications, highlighting cases from the field of glycobiology as well as pointing to future opportunities. The emerging potential of precision gene...

  8. Implantable CMOS Biomedical Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshihiko Noda

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The results of recent research on our implantable CMOS biomedical devices are reviewed. Topics include retinal prosthesis devices and deep-brain implantation devices for small animals. Fundamental device structures and characteristics as well as in vivo experiments are presented.

  9. Aligned ion implantation using scanning probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new technique for precision ion implantation has been developed. A scanning probe has been equipped with a small aperture and incorporated into an ion beamline, so that ions can be implanted through the aperture into a sample. By using a scanning probe the target can be imaged in a non-destructive way prior to implantation and the probe together with the aperture can be placed at the desired location with nanometer precision. In this work first results of a scanning probe integrated into an ion beamline are presented. A placement resolution of about 120 nm is reported. The final placement accuracy is determined by the size of the aperture hole and by the straggle of the implanted ion inside the target material. The limits of this technology are expected to be set by the latter, which is of the order of 10 nm for low energy ions. This research has been carried out in the context of a larger program concerned with the development of quantum computer test structures. For that the placement accuracy needs to be increased and a detector for single ion detection has to be integrated into the setup. Both issues are discussed in this thesis. To achieve single ion detection highly charged ions are used for the implantation, as in addition to their kinetic energy they also deposit their potential energy in the target material, therefore making detection easier. A special ion source for producing these highly charged ions was used and their creation and interactions with solids of are discussed in detail. (orig.)

  10. Chronic gastritis

    OpenAIRE

    Sipponen, Pentti; Maaroos, Heidi-Ingrid

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Prevalence of chronic gastritis has markedly declined in developed populations during the past decades. However, chronic gastritis is still one of the most common serious pandemic infections with such severe killing sequelae as peptic ulcer or gastric cancer. Globally, on average, even more than half of people may have a chronic gastritis at present. Helicobacter pylori infection in childhood is the main cause of chronic gastritis, which microbial origin is the key for the understand...

  11. MUSIC AND COCHLEAR IMPLANTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mao Yitao; Xu Li

    2013-01-01

    Currently, most people with modern multichannel cochlear implant systems can understand speech in qui-et environment very well. However, studies in recent decades reported a lack of satisfaction in music percep-tion with cochlear implants. This article reviews the literature on music ability of cochlear implant users by presenting a systematic outline of the capabilities and limitations of cochlear implant recipients with regard to their music perception as well as production. The review also evaluates the similarities and differences be-tween electric hearing and acoustic hearing regarding music perception. We summarize the research results in terms of the individual components of music (e.g., rhythm, pitch, and timbre). Finally, we briefly intro-duce the vocal singing of prelingually-deafened children with cochlear implants as evaluated by acoustic measures.

  12. Chronic prostatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Erickson, Bradley A.; Schaeffer, Anthony J.; Le, Brian

    2008-01-01

    Chronic prostatitis can cause pain and urinary symptoms, and usually occurs without positive bacterial cultures from prostatic secretions (known as chronic abacterial prostatitis or chronic pelvic pain syndrome, CP/CPPS). Bacterial infection can result from urinary tract instrumentation, but the cause and natural history of CP/CPPS are unknown.

  13. Diagnostic value of 18F-FDG PET/CT in trauma patients with suspected chronic osteomyelitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To retrospectively evaluate the diagnostic value of 18F-FDG PET/CT in trauma patients with suspected chronic osteomyelitis. Thirty-three partial body 18F-FDG PET/CT scans were performed in 33 patients with trauma suspected of having chronic osteomyelitis. In 10 and 23 patients, infection was suspected in the axial and appendicular skeleton, respectively. In 18 patients, PET/CT was performed in the presence of metallic implants. Histopathology or bacteriological culture was used as the standard of reference. For statistical analysis, sensitivity, specificity and accuracy were calculated in relation to findings of the reference standard. Of 33 PET/CT scans, 17 were true positive, 13 true negative, two false positive and one false negative. Eighteen patients had chronic osteomyelitis and 15 had no osseous infection according to the reference standard. Sensitivity, specificity and accuracy for 18F-FDG PET/CT was 94%, 87% and 91% for the whole group, 88%, 100% and 90% for the axial skeleton and 100%, 85% and 91% for the appendicular skeleton, respectively. 18F-FDG PET/CT is a highly sensitive and specific method for the evaluation of chronic infection in the axial and appendicular skeleton in patients with trauma. PET/CT allows precise anatomical localisation and characterisation of the infectious focus and demonstrates the extent of chronic osteomyelitis with a high degree of accuracy. (orig.)

  14. Precision Chemical Abundance Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yong, David; Grundahl, Frank; Meléndez, Jorge;

    2012-01-01

    This talk covers preliminary work in which we apply a strictly differential line-by-line chemical abundance analysis to high quality UVES spectra of the globular cluster NGC 6752. We achieve extremely high precision in the measurement of relative abundance ratios. Our results indicate that the ob...

  15. Precision physics at LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this talk the author gives a brief survey of some physics topics that will be addressed by the Large Hadron Collider currently under construction at CERN. Instead of discussing the reach of this machine for new physics, the author gives examples of the types of precision measurements that might be made if new physics is discovered

  16. [The implant denture in the laboratory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scortecci, G M; Crousillat, J; Foesser, P; Bourbon, B

    1989-09-01

    The authors analyzed the numerous devices and prosthetic kits currently available for implant prosthodontics. Existing systems can be classified into two fundamentally different categories: the gold ring cylinder (or its equivalent in resin for casting) and the prosthetic abutment core or post concept. The former is based on connection of two nearly flat, horizontal surfaces by means of a screw, which avoids problems of parallelism; the latter can be likened to insertion of one part into another, like a crown that slides along the vertical axis of an abutment, with connection being obtained by cementation and/or screwing. Prosthetic abutment core or post: Whether monoblock or multiblock, the implant core or post is very similar to a conventional metallic abutment. Construction of the implant prosthesis is generally no problem when parallelism has been respected during surgery; if problems are encountered with parallelism, options include: 1. Adjustment of the abutment core by grinding, 2. Use of a telescope to achieve parallelism, 3. Use of a bendable prosthetic abutment core, 4. Use of a prosthetic abutment core preangulated 10 degrees-20 degrees, 5. A combination of the above solutions. The implant prostheses may be screwed, cemented or clipped in position. Gold ring cylinder concept The gold ring cylinder (or its equivalent in resin for casting) theoretically eliminates problems of parallelism, but at the same time restricts the implant prosthesis to screw techniques. A special protocol is required for the impression and construction of the prosthesis. Impression with plaster is often the best method for total edentulism whereas "open" impression trays are advisable for partial prostheses. In the laboratory, use of a machined gold ring cylinder provides optimum precision, but intra-oral verification remains necessary. Implant prosthodontics unquestionably represent a new type of "know how": both the dentist and the dental lab technician must acquire the

  17. Dental Implant Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiki Oshida

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Among various dental materials and their successful applications, a dental implant is a good example of the integrated system of science and technology involved in multiple disciplines including surface chemistry and physics, biomechanics, from macro-scale to nano-scale manufacturing technologies and surface engineering. As many other dental materials and devices, there are crucial requirements taken upon on dental implants systems, since surface of dental implants is directly in contact with vital hard/soft tissue and is subjected to chemical as well as mechanical bio-environments. Such requirements should, at least, include biological compatibility, mechanical compatibility, and morphological compatibility to surrounding vital tissues. In this review, based on carefully selected about 500 published articles, these requirements plus MRI compatibility are firstly reviewed, followed by surface texturing methods in details. Normally dental implants are placed to lost tooth/teeth location(s in adult patients whose skeleton and bony growth have already completed. However, there are some controversial issues for placing dental implants in growing patients. This point has been, in most of dental articles, overlooked. This review, therefore, throws a deliberate sight on this point. Concluding this review, we are proposing a novel implant system that integrates materials science and up-dated surface technology to improve dental implant systems exhibiting bio- and mechano-functionalities.

  18. Implants in the hand; Implantate der Hand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wanivenhaus, A. [Medizinische Universitaet, Universitaetsklinik fuer Orthopaedie, Wien (Austria)

    2006-09-15

    Increasingly, implants in the region of hand joints and the wrist represent an alternative for the treatment of post-traumatic, inflamed, or degenerative joint damage. The diversity of hand functions also results in varied solutions, which are effective in their stability, mobility, and distraction. Different materials are necessary for this, and they require subtile radiological control. The native X-ray represents the substantial method to observe migration of the implants. Each interface between titanium, ceramic, zirconium, pyrocarbon, and silicon to the bone has to be assessed differently in order to obtain a relevant statement. The finger joints and to a limited extent the wrist represent the artificial joints with limited alternative therapy. Other implants in the hand should only be applied after strict indication and patient compliance, as arthrodesis and resection arthroplasty have shown very good long-term results. (orig.) [German] Implantate im Bereich der Gelenke der Hand und des Handgelenks stellen zunehmend Alternativen bei der Versorgung posttraumatischer, entzuendlicher oder degenerativer Gelenkschaeden dar. Die Vielfalt der Handfunktionen fuehrt auch zu unterschiedlichen Loesungen, die durch Stabilitaet, Mobilitaet und Distraktion wirksam werden. Dafuer sind unterschiedliche Materialien erforderlich, die eine subtile radiologische Kontrolle erfordern. Das Nativroentgen stellt das wesentlichste Verfahren zur Verlaufsbeobachtung von Implantaten dar. Das Interface zwischen Titan, Keramik, Zirkonium, Pyrokarbon und Silikon zum Knochen muss unterschiedlich bewertet werden, um relevante Aussagen treffen zu koennen. Die Fingergelenke und in begrenztem Ausmass auch das Handgelenk stellen Kunstgelenke mit geringen Alternativtherapiemoeglichkeiten dar. Die uebrigen Implantate der Hand sollten nur bei strenger Indikationsstellung und hoher Patientencompliance Anwendung finden, da Arthrodese oder Resektionsarthroplastik gute Langzeitresultate aufweisen. (orig.)

  19. Precision Profits: The Economics of a Precision Agricultural Sprayer System

    OpenAIRE

    Batte, Marvin T.; Ehsani, Mohammad Reza

    2005-01-01

    Precision guidance and precision sprayer control have substantial promise to reduce input application overlap, thus saving chemicals, fuel, and time during the application process. In this report we provide preliminary estimates of the magnitude of the private benefits for a precision guidance system combined with auto-boom control for agricultural sprayers (precision spraying). Hypothetical farm fields are analyzed, allowing comparison of the performance of the precision system to a traditio...

  20. Smoking and dental implants

    OpenAIRE

    Kasat, V.; Ladda, R

    2012-01-01

    Smoking is a prevalent behaviour in the population. The aim of this review is to bring to light the effects of smoking on dental implants. These facts will assist dental professionals when implants are planned in tobacco users. A search of “PubMed” was made with the key words “dental implant,” “nicotine,” “smoking,” “tobacco,” and “osseointegration.” Also, publications on tobacco control by the Government of India were considered. For review, only those articles published from 1988 onward in ...

  1. Bioceramics for implant coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison A Campbell

    2003-11-01

    Early research in this field focused on understanding the biomechanical properties of metal implants, but recent work has turned toward improving the biological properties of these devices. This has led to the introduction of calcium phosphate (CaP bioceramics as a bioactive interface between the bulk metal impart and the surrounding tissue. The first CaP coatings were produced via vapor phase processes, but more recently solution-based and biomimetic methods have emerged. While each approach has its own intrinsic materials and biological properties, in general CaP coatings promise to improve implant biocompatibility and ultimately implant longevity.

  2. Cutaneous and systemic hypersensitivity reactions to metallic implants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basko-Plluska, Juliana L; Thyssen, Jacob P; Schalock, Peter C

    2011-01-01

    ) following the insertion of intravascular stents, dental implants, cardiac pacemakers, or implanted gynecologic devices. Despite repeated attempts by researchers and clinicians to further understand this difficult area of medicine, the association between metal sensitivity and cutaneous allergic reactions......Cutaneous reactions to metal implants, orthopedic or otherwise, are well documented in the literature. The first case of a dermatitis reaction over a stainless steel fracture plate was described in 1966. Most skin reactions are eczematous and allergic in nature, although urticarial, bullous, and...... vasculitic eruptions may occur. Also, more complex immune reactions may develop around the implants, resulting in pain, inflammation, and loosening. Nickel, cobalt, and chromium are the three most common metals that elicit both cutaneous and extracutaneous allergic reactions from chronic internal exposure...

  3. Biocompatible benzocyclobutene-based intracortical neural implant with surface modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Keekeun; Massia, Stephen; He, Jiping

    2005-11-01

    This paper presents the fabrication of a benzocyclobutene (BCB) polymer-based intracortical neural implant for reliable and stable long-term implant function. BCB polymer has many attractive features for chronic implant application: flexibility, biocompatibility, low moisture uptake, low dielectric constant and easy surface modification. A 2 µm thick silicon backbone layer was attached underneath a flexible BCB electrode to improve mechanical stiffness. No insertion trauma was observed during penetrating into the dura of a rat. In vitro cytotoxicity tests of the completed BCB electrode revealed no toxic effects on cultured cells. The modified BCB surface with a dextran coating showed a significant reduction in 3T3 cell adhesion and spreading, indicating that this coating has the potential for lowering protein adsorption, minimizing inflammatory cell adhesion and glial scar formation in vivo, and thereby enhancing long-term implant performance.

  4. Precision Muon Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Gorringe, T P

    2015-01-01

    The muon is playing a unique role in sub-atomic physics. Studies of muon decay both determine the overall strength and establish the chiral structure of weak interactions, as well as setting extraordinary limits on charged-lepton-flavor-violating processes. Measurements of the muon's anomalous magnetic moment offer singular sensitivity to the completeness of the standard model and the predictions of many speculative theories. Spectroscopy of muonium and muonic atoms gives unmatched determinations of fundamental quantities including the magnetic moment ratio $\\mu_\\mu / \\mu_p$, lepton mass ratio $m_{\\mu} / m_e$, and proton charge radius $r_p$. Also, muon capture experiments are exploring elusive features of weak interactions involving nucleons and nuclei. We will review the experimental landscape of contemporary high-precision and high-sensitivity experiments with muons. One focus is the novel methods and ingenious techniques that achieve such precision and sensitivity in recent, present, and planned experiment...

  5. A passion for precision

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2006-01-01

    For more than three decades, the quest for ever higher precision in laser spectroscopy of the simple hydrogen atom has inspired many advances in laser, optical, and spectroscopic techniques, culminating in femtosecond laser optical frequency combs  as perhaps the most precise measuring tools known to man. Applications range from optical atomic clocks and tests of QED and relativity to searches for time variations of fundamental constants. Recent experiments are extending frequency comb techniques into the extreme ultraviolet. Laser frequency combs can also control the electric field of ultrashort light pulses, creating powerful new tools for the emerging field of attosecond science.Organiser(s): L. Alvarez-Gaume / PH-THNote: * Tea & coffee will be served at 16:00.

  6. Precision disablement aiming system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monda, Mark J.; Hobart, Clinton G.; Gladwell, Thomas Scott

    2016-02-16

    A disrupter to a target may be precisely aimed by positioning a radiation source to direct radiation towards the target, and a detector is positioned to detect radiation that passes through the target. An aiming device is positioned between the radiation source and the target, wherein a mechanical feature of the aiming device is superimposed on the target in a captured radiographic image. The location of the aiming device in the radiographic image is used to aim a disrupter towards the target.

  7. Quad precision delay generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Quad Precision Delay Generator delays a digital edge by a programmed amount of time, varying from nanoseconds to microseconds. The output of this generator has an amplitude of the order of tens of volts and rise time of the order of nanoseconds. This was specifically designed and developed to meet the stringent requirements of the plasma focus experiments. Plasma focus is a laboratory device for producing and studying nuclear fusion reactions in hot deuterium plasma. 3 figs

  8. Automatic Implantable Cardiac Defibrillator

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Automatic Implantable Cardiac Defibrillator February 19, 2009 Halifax Health Medical Center, Daytona Beach, FL Welcome to Halifax Health Daytona Beach, Florida. Over the next hour you' ...

  9. Wireless cortical implantable systems

    CERN Document Server

    Majidzadeh Bafar, Vahid

    2013-01-01

    Wireless Cortical Implantable Systems examines the design for data acquisition and transmission in cortical implants. The first part of the book covers existing system-level cortical implants, as well as future devices. The authors discuss the major constraints in terms of microelectronic integration. The second part of the book focuses on system-level as well as circuit and system level solutions to the development of ultra low-power and low-noise microelectronics for cortical implants. Existing solutions are presented and novel methods and solutions proposed. The third part of the book focuses on the usage of digital impulse radio ultra wide-band transmission as an efficient method to transmit cortically neural recorded data at high data-rate to the outside world. Original architectural and circuit and system solutions are discussed.

  10. Superelastic Orthopedic Implant Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, Eric; Devaney, Robert; Palmer, Matthew; Kramer, Joshua; El Khaja, Ragheb; Fonte, Matthew

    2014-07-01

    The demand for hip and knee replacement surgery is substantial and growing. Unfortunately, most joint replacement surgeries will fail within 10-25 years, thereby requiring an arduous, painful, and expensive revision surgery. To address this issue, a novel orthopedic implant coating material ("eXalt") has been developed. eXalt is comprised of super elastic nitinol wire that is knit into a three-dimensional spacer fabric structure. eXalt expands in vivo to conform to the implantation site and is porous to allow for bone ingrowth. The safety and efficacy of eXalt were evaluated through structural analysis, mechanical testing, and a rabbit implantation model. The results demonstrate that eXalt meets or exceeds the performance of current coating technologies with reduced micromotion, improved osseointegration, and stronger implant fixation in vivo.

  11. Automatic Implantable Cardiac Defibrillator

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... rate of infection, how many device, how many experience the implanter has. That's make a different because every case, you learning from every single case. Every patient different. There ...

  12. MEMS biomedical implants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tai Yuchong

    2012-01-01

    The field of micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) has advanced tremendously for the last 20 years. Most commercially noticeably, the field has successfully advanced from pressure sensors to micro physical sensors, such as accelerometers and gyros, for handheld electronics application. In parallel, MEMS has also advanced into micro total analysis system(TAS) and/or lab-on-a-chip applications. This article would discuss a relatively new but promising future direction towards MEMS biomedical implants. Specifically, Parylene C has been explored to be used as a good MEMS implant material and will be discussed in detail. Demonstrated implant devices, such as retinal and spinal cord implants, are presented in this article.

  13. Biocompatibility of surgical implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaelble, D. H.

    1979-01-01

    Method of selecting biocompatible materials for surgical implants uses fracture mechanic relationships and surface energies of candidate materials in presence of blood plasma. Technique has been used to characterize 190 materials by parameters that reflect their biocompatibility.

  14. Ion Implantation of Polymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Popok, Vladimir

    2012-01-01

    The current paper presents a state-of-the-art review in the field of ion implantation of polymers. Numerous published studies of polymers modified by ion beams are analysed. General aspects of ion stopping, latent track formation and changes of structure and composition of organic materials...... are discussed. Related to that, the effects of radiothermolysis, degassing and carbonisation are considered. Specificity of depth distributions of implanted into polymers impurities is analysed and the case of high-fluence implantation is emphasised. Within rather broad topic of ion bombardment, the focus...... is put on the low-energy implantation of metal ions causing the nucleation and growth of nanoparticles in the shallow polymer layers. Electrical, optical and magnetic properties of metal/polymer composites are under the discussion and the approaches towards practical applications are overviewed....

  15. Ion implantation at elevated temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A kinetic model has been developed to investigate the synergistic effects of radiation-enhanced diffusion, radiation-induced segregation and preferential sputtering on the spatial redistribution of implanted solutes during implantation at elevated temperatures. Sample calculations were performed for Al+ and Si+ ions implanted into Ni. With the present model, the influence of various implantation parameters on the evolution of implant concentration profiles could be examined in detail

  16. Lymphoscintigraphy and autologous stem cell implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lymphoscintigraphy is the criterion standard technique for the diagnosis of lymphedema. Advances of the application of autologous hematopoietic stem cells in ischemic disorders of lower limbs have increased the attention of researchers in this field. Aim: To determine the usefulness of lymphoscintigraphy for the assessment the efficacy of autologous stem cell implantation in patients with chronic lymphedema of the upper and lower limbs. Methods: Sixty-five patients were included. Clinical evaluation and lymphoscintigraphy were performed before and six months after stem cells implantation. The stem cells implantations were carried out by multiple superficial and deep injections in the trajectory of the lymphatic vessels and also in the inguinal region. A volume of 0.75 to 1.00 mL of cell suspension (1.0-2.2 x 109 stem cells) was administered in each injection site. Lymphoscintigraphy: Whole-body scans were acquired at 20 minutes, 1 hour, and 3 hours after administration of 185 to 259 MBq (5–7mCi) of 99mTc-albumin nanocolloids in the interdigital space of both limbs. The anatomy and function of the lymphatic system were evaluated. Results: Functional assessment before implantation of stem cells showed that 69.2% of the patients had severe lymphatic insufficiency. The 61.5% of patients showed clinical improvement, confirmed by the results of the lymphoscintigraphy. The 46.1% of the cases evaluated showed a clear improvement. The study showed that the isotopic lymphography can evaluate the therapeutic response and its intensity. Conclusion: Lymphoscintigraphy is a useful technique for the evaluation and monitoring of autologous stem cell transplantation in patients with chronic lymphedema. (author)

  17. BREAST IMPLANT SURFACE DEVELOPMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Valencia Lazenco, Anai Alicia

    2015-01-01

    Bilateral breast augmentation is one of the most common cosmetic surgical procedures carried out on women in the western world. Breast augmentation involves increasing the volume of a woman‘s breasts through surgery by placing a silicone implant in the subglandular or subpectoral cavity. Although a capsule forms inevitably around breast implants as a natural part of healing, it can cause significant morbidity if the capsule becomes firm and contracted, a condition known as breast capsular con...

  18. Bioceramics for implant coatings

    OpenAIRE

    Allison A Campbell

    2003-01-01

    During the past century, synthetic materials and devices have been developed to the point at which they can be used successfully to replace and/or restore function to diseased or damaged tissues. In the field of orthopedics, the use of metal implants has significantly improved the quality of life for countless individuals. Critical factors for implant success include proper design, material selection, and biocompatibility. Early research in this field focused on understanding the biomechan...

  19. Contraceptive implants: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rowlands S

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Sam Rowlands,1,2 Stephen Searle3 1Centre of Postgraduate Medical Research and Education, School of Health and Social Care, Bournemouth University, Bournemouth, United Kingdom; 2Dorset HealthCare, Bournemouth, United Kingdom; 3Sexual Health Services, Chesterfield, United KingdomAbstract: Progestin-only contraceptive implants are a highly cost-effective form of long-acting reversible contraception. They are the most effective reversible contraceptives and are of a similar effectiveness to sterilization. Pregnancies are rare in women using this method of contraception, and those that do occur must be fully investigated, with an ultrasound scan of the arm and serum etonogestrel level if the implant cannot be located. There are very few contraindications to use of implants, and they have an excellent safety profile. Both acceptability and continuation with the method are high. Noncontraceptive benefits include improvements in dysmenorrhea, ovulatory pain, and endometriosis. Problematic bleeding is a relatively common adverse effect that must be covered in preinsertion information-giving and supported adequately if it occurs. Recognized training for both insertion and removal should be undertaken. Care needs to be taken at both insertion and removal to avoid neurovascular injury. Implants should always be palpable; if they are not, noninsertion should be assumed until disproven. Etonogestrel implants are now radiopaque, which aids localization. Anticipated difficult removals should be performed by specially trained experts. Keywords: contraceptive, subdermal implant, etonogestrel, levonorgestrel, progestin-only, long-acting reversible contraception

  20. Biomaterials in cochlear implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenarz, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The cochlear implant (CI represents, for almost 25 years now, the gold standard in the treatment of children born deaf and for postlingually deafened adults. These devices thus constitute the greatest success story in the field of ‘neurobionic’ prostheses. Their (now routine fitting in adults, and especially in young children and even babies, places exacting demands on these implants, particularly with regard to the biocompatibility of a CI’s surface components. Furthermore, certain parts of the implant face considerable mechanical challenges, such as the need for the electrode array to be flexible and resistant to breakage, and for the implant casing to be able to withstand external forces. As these implants are in the immediate vicinity of the middle-ear mucosa and of the junction to the perilymph of the cochlea, the risk exists – at least in principle – that bacteria may spread along the electrode array into the cochlea. The wide-ranging requirements made of the CI in terms of biocompatibility and the electrode mechanism mean that there is still further scope – despite the fact that CIs are already technically highly sophisticated – for ongoing improvements to the properties of these implants and their constituent materials, thus enhancing the effectiveness of these devices. This paper will therefore discuss fundamental material aspects of CIs as well as the potential for their future development.

  1. [Neurosurgical treatment of chronic pain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontaine, D; Blond, S; Mertens, P; Lanteri-Minet, M

    2015-02-01

    Neurosurgical treatment of pain used two kind of techniques: 1) Lesional techniques interrupt the transmission of nociceptive neural input by lesionning the nociceptive pathways (drezotomy, cordotomy, tractotomy…). They are indicated to treat morphine-resistant cancer pain and few cases of selected neuropathic pain. 2) Neuromodulation techniques try to decrease pain by reinforcing inhibitory and/or to limit activatory mechanisms. Chronic electrical stimulation of the nervous system (peripheral nerve stimulation, spinal cord stimulation, motor cortex stimulation…) is used to treat chronic neuropathic pain. Intrathecal infusion of analgesics (morphine, ziconotide…), using implantable pumps, allows to increase their efficacy and to reduce their side effects. These techniques can improve, sometimes dramatically, selected patients with severe and chronic pain, refractory to all other treatments. The quality of the analgesic outcome depends on the relevance of the indications. PMID:25681114

  2. Split-Framework in Mandibular Implant-Supported Prosthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danny Omar Mendoza Marin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available During oral rehabilitation of an edentulous patient with an implant-supported prosthesis, mandibular flexure must be considered an important biomechanical factor when planning the metal framework design, especially if implants are installed posterior to the interforaminal region. When an edentulous mandible is restored with a fixed implant-supported prosthesis connected by a fixed full-arch framework, mandibular flexure may cause needless stress in the overall restorative system and lead to screw loosening, poor fit of prosthesis, loss of the posterior implant, and patient’s discomfort due to deformation properties of the mandible during functional movements. The use of a split-framework could decrease the stress with a precise and passive fit on the implants and restore a more natural functional condition of the mandible, helping in the longevity of the prosthesis. Therefore, the present clinical report describes the oral rehabilitation of an edentulous patient by a mandibular fixed implant-supported prosthesis with a split-framework to compensate for mandibular flexure. Clinical Significance. The present clinical report shows that the use of a split-framework reduced the risk of loss of the posterior implants or screws loosening with acceptable patient comfort over the period of a year. The split-framework might have compensated for the mandibular flexure during functional activities.

  3. Chronic migraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwedt, Todd J

    2014-01-01

    Chronic migraine is a disabling neurologic condition that affects 2% of the general population. Patients with chronic migraine have headaches on at least 15 days a month, with at least eight days a month on which their headaches and associated symptoms meet diagnostic criteria for migraine. Chronic migraine places an enormous burden on patients owing to frequent headaches; hypersensitivity to visual, auditory, and olfactory stimuli; nausea; and vomiting. It also affects society through direct and indirect medical costs. Chronic migraine typically develops after a slow increase in headache frequency over months to years. Several factors are associated with an increased risk of transforming to chronic migraine. The diagnosis requires a carefully performed patient interview and neurologic examination, sometimes combined with additional diagnostic tests, to differentiate chronic migraine from secondary headache disorders and other primary chronic headaches of long duration. Treatment takes a multifaceted approach that may include risk factor modification, avoidance of migraine triggers, drug and non-drug based prophylaxis, and abortive migraine treatment, the frequency of which is limited to avoid drug overuse. This article provides an overview of current knowledge regarding chronic migraine, including epidemiology, risk factors for its development, pathophysiology, diagnosis, management, and guidelines. The future of chronic migraine treatment and research is also discussed. PMID:24662044

  4. Behavioral and electrophysiological responses evoked by chronic infrared neural stimulation of the cochlea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnella Izzo Matic

    Full Text Available Infrared neural stimulation (INS has been proposed as a novel method for neural stimulation. In order for INS to translate to clinical use, which would involve the use of implanted devices over years or decades, the efficacy and safety of chronic INS needs to be determined. We examined a population of cats that were chronically implanted with an optical fiber to stimulate the cochlea with infrared radiation, the first known chronic application of INS. Through behavioral responses, the cats demonstrate that stimulation occurs and a perceptual event results. Long-term stimulation did not result in a change in the electrophysiological responses, either optically-evoked or acoustically-evoked. Spiral ganglion neuron counts and post implantation tissue growth, which was localized at the optical fiber, were similar in chronically stimulated and sham implanted cochleae. Results from chronic INS experiments in the cat cochlea support future work toward INS-based neuroprostheses for humans.

  5. Emission Channeling Investigation of Implantation Defects and Impurities in II-VI-Semiconductors

    CERN Multimedia

    Trojahn, I; Malamud, G; Straver, J; Ronnqvist, C; Jahn, S-G; Restle, M

    2002-01-01

    Detailed knowledge on the behaviour of implantation damage and its influence on the lattice position and environment of implanted dopants in II-VI-compound semiconductors is necessary for a clear interpretation of results from other investigation methods and finally for technical utilization. Besides, a precise localization of impurities could help to clarify the discussion about the instability of the electrical properties of some dopants, called " aging ".\\\\ \\\\We intend to use the emission channeling method to investigate: \\\\ \\\\i) The behaviour of implantation damage which shall be probed by the lattice location of isoelectronic isotopes (Zn,Cd,Hg,Se,Te) directly after implantation at different temperatures, doses and vacancy densities and after annealing treatments, and ii) the precise lattice sites of the acceptor Ag and donor In under different conditions by implanting precursors Cd and In isotopes. \\\\ \\\\Further on we would like to test the application of a two-dimensional position and energy sensitive e...

  6. Precision animal breeding

    OpenAIRE

    Flint, A.P.F.; WOOLLIAMS, J. A.

    2007-01-01

    We accept that we are responsible for the quality of life of animals in our care. We accept that the activities of man affect all the living things with which we share this planet. But we are slow to realize that as a result we have a duty of care for all living things. That duty extends to the breeding of animals for which we are responsible. When animals are bred by man for a purpose, the aim should be to meet certain goals: to improve the precision with which breeding outcomes can be predi...

  7. Ultra-precision bearings

    CERN Document Server

    Wardle, F

    2015-01-01

    Ultra-precision bearings can achieve extreme accuracy of rotation, making them ideal for use in numerous applications across a variety of fields, including hard disk drives, roundness measuring machines and optical scanners. Ultraprecision Bearings provides a detailed review of the different types of bearing and their properties, as well as an analysis of the factors that influence motion error, stiffness and damping. Following an introduction to basic principles of motion error, each chapter of the book is then devoted to the basic principles and properties of a specific type of bearin

  8. Electroweak precision tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document aims at summarizing a dozen of years of the author's research in High Energy Physics, in particular dealing with precision tests of the electroweak theory. Parity violating asymmetries measurements at LEP with the ALEPH detector together with global consistency checks of the Kobayashi-Maskawa paradigm within the CKM-fitter group are gathered in the first part of the document. The second part deals with the unpublished instrumental work about the design, tests, productions and commissioning of the elements of the Pre-Shower detector of the LHCb spectrometer at LHC. Physics perspectives with LHCb are eventually discussed as a conclusion. (author)

  9. Precision mass measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gläser, M.; Borys, M.

    2009-12-01

    Mass as a physical quantity and its measurement are described. After some historical remarks, a short summary of the concept of mass in classical and modern physics is given. Principles and methods of mass measurements, for example as energy measurement or as measurement of weight forces and forces caused by acceleration, are discussed. Precision mass measurement by comparing mass standards using balances is described in detail. Measurement of atomic masses related to 12C is briefly reviewed as well as experiments and recent discussions for a future new definition of the kilogram, the SI unit of mass.

  10. Immobilization precision of a modified GTC frame.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winey, Brian; Daartz, Juliane; Dankers, Frank; Bussière, Marc

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate and quantify the interfraction reproducibility and intrafraction immobilization precision of a modified GTC frame. The error of the patient alignment and imaging systems were measured using a cranial skull phantom, with simulated, predetermined shifts. The kV setup images were acquired with a room-mounted set of kV sources and panels. Calculated translations and rotations provided by the computer alignment software relying upon three implanted fiducials were compared to the known shifts, and the accuracy of the imaging and positioning systems was calculated. Orthogonal kV setup images for 45 proton SRT patients and 1002 fractions (average 22.3 fractions/patient) were analyzed for interfraction and intrafraction immobilization precision using a modified GTC frame. The modified frame employs a radiotransparent carbon cup and molded pillow to allow for more treatment angles from posterior directions for cranial lesions. Patients and the phantom were aligned with three 1.5 mm stainless steel fiducials implanted into the skull. The accuracy and variance of the patient positioning and imaging systems were measured to be 0.10 ± 0.06 mm, with the maximum uncertainty of rotation being ±0.07°. 957 pairs of interfraction image sets and 974 intrafraction image sets were analyzed. 3D translations and rotations were recorded. The 3D vector interfraction setup reproducibility was 0.13 mm ± 1.8 mm for translations and the largest uncertainty of ± 1.07º for rotations. The intrafraction immobilization efficacy was 0.19 mm ± 0.66 mm for translations and the largest uncertainty of ± 0.50º for rotations. The modified GTC frame provides reproducible setup and effective intrafraction immobilization, while allowing for the complete range of entrance angles from the posterior direction. PMID:22584167

  11. Current status of the implantable LVAD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadakia, Sagar; Moore, Ryan; Ambur, Vishnu; Toyoda, Yoshiya

    2016-09-01

    With the ongoing shortage of available organs for heart transplantation, mechanical circulatory support devices have been increasingly utilized for managing acute and chronic heart failure that is refractory to medical therapy. In particular, the introduction of the left ventricular assist devices (LVAD) has revolutionized the field. In this review, we will discuss a brief history of the LVAD, available devices, current indications, patient selection, complications, and outcomes. In addition, we will discuss recent outcomes and advancements in the field of noncardiac surgery in the LVAD patient. Finally, we will discuss several topics for surgical consideration during LVAD implantation. PMID:27270581

  12. Security for wireless implantable medical devices

    CERN Document Server

    Hei, Xiali

    2013-01-01

    In the treatment of chronic diseases, wireless Implantable Medical Devices (IMDs) are commonly used to communicate with an outside programmer (reader). Such communication raises serious security concerns, such as the ability for hackers to gain access to a patient's medical records. This brief provides an overview of such attacks and the new security challenges, defenses, design issues, modeling and performance evaluation in wireless IMDs.  While studying the vulnerabilities of IMDs and corresponding security defenses, the reader will also learn the methodologies and tools for designing securi

  13. Dosimetry of dose distributions in radiotherapy of patients with surgical implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brożyna, Bogusław; Chełmiński, Krzysztof; Bulski, Wojciech; Giżyńska, Marta; Grochowska, Paulina; Walewska, Agnieszka; Zalewska, Marta; Kawecki, Andrzej; Krajewski, Romuald

    2014-11-01

    The investigation was performed in order to evaluate the use of Gafchromic EBT films for measurements of dose distributions created during radiotherapy in tissues surrounding titanium or resorbable implants used for joining and consolidating facial bones. Inhomogeneous dose distributions at implant-tissue interfaces can be the reason of normal tissue complications observed in radiotherapy patients after surgery with implants. The dose measured at a depth of 2.5 cm on contact surfaces, proximal and distal to the beam source, between the titanium implant and the phantom material was 109% and 92% respectively of the reference dose measured in a homogeneous phantom. For the resorbable implants the doses measured on the proximal and the distal contact surfaces were 102% and 101% respectively of the reference dose. The resorbable implants affect the homogeneity of dose distribution at a significantly lesser degree than the titanium implants. Gafchromic EBT films allowed for precise dose distribution measurements at the contact surfaces between tissue equivalent materials and implants. We measured doses at contact surfaces between titanium implants and RW3 phantom. We measured doses at contact surfaces between resorbable implants and RW3 phantom. We compared doses measured on contact surfaces and doses in homogeneous phantom. Doses at contact surfaces between RW3 phantom and titanium were distorted about 8-9%. Doses at RW3 phantom and resorbable implant contact surfaces were distorted about 2%.

  14. Nitrogen ion implantation into various materials using 28 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The installation of the 28 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS) ion implantation beamline was recently completed at the Korea Basic Science Institute. The apparatus contains a beam monitoring system and a sample holder for the ion implantation process. The new implantation system can function as a multipurpose tool since it can implant a variety of ions, ranging hydrogen to uranium, into different materials with precise control and with implantation areas as large as 1–10 mm2. The implantation chamber was designed to measure the beam properties with a diagnostic system as well as to perform ion implantation with an in situ system including a mass spectrometer. This advanced implantation system can be employed in novel applications, including the production of a variety of new materials such as metals, polymers, and ceramics and the irradiation testing and fabrication of structural and functional materials to be used in future nuclear fusion reactors. In this investigation, the first nitrogen ion implantation experiments were conducted using the new system. The 28 GHz ECRIS implanted low-energy, multi-charged nitrogen ions into copper, zinc, and cobalt substrates, and the ion implantation depth profiles were obtained. SRIM 2013 code was used to calculate the profiles under identical conditions, and the experimental and simulation results are presented and compared in this report. The depths and ranges of the ion distributions in the experimental and simulation results agree closely and demonstrate that the new system will enable the treatment of various substrates for advanced materials research

  15. Nitrogen ion implantation into various materials using 28 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Chang Seouk; Lee, Byoung-Seob; Choi, Seyong; Yoon, Jang-Hee; Kim, Hyun Gyu; Ok, Jung-Woo; Park, Jin Yong; Kim, Seong Jun; Bahng, Jungbae; Hong, Jonggi; Lee, Seung Wook; Won, Mi-Sook

    2016-02-01

    The installation of the 28 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS) ion implantation beamline was recently completed at the Korea Basic Science Institute. The apparatus contains a beam monitoring system and a sample holder for the ion implantation process. The new implantation system can function as a multipurpose tool since it can implant a variety of ions, ranging hydrogen to uranium, into different materials with precise control and with implantation areas as large as 1-10 mm2. The implantation chamber was designed to measure the beam properties with a diagnostic system as well as to perform ion implantation with an in situ system including a mass spectrometer. This advanced implantation system can be employed in novel applications, including the production of a variety of new materials such as metals, polymers, and ceramics and the irradiation testing and fabrication of structural and functional materials to be used in future nuclear fusion reactors. In this investigation, the first nitrogen ion implantation experiments were conducted using the new system. The 28 GHz ECRIS implanted low-energy, multi-charged nitrogen ions into copper, zinc, and cobalt substrates, and the ion implantation depth profiles were obtained. SRIM 2013 code was used to calculate the profiles under identical conditions, and the experimental and simulation results are presented and compared in this report. The depths and ranges of the ion distributions in the experimental and simulation results agree closely and demonstrate that the new system will enable the treatment of various substrates for advanced materials research.

  16. Nitrogen ion implantation into various materials using 28 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Chang Seouk [Busan Center, Korea Basic Science Institute, Busan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of); School of Mechanical Engineering, Pusan National University, Pusan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Byoung-Seob; Choi, Seyong; Yoon, Jang-Hee; Kim, Hyun Gyu; Ok, Jung-Woo; Park, Jin Yong; Kim, Seong Jun; Bahng, Jungbae; Hong, Jonggi; Won, Mi-Sook, E-mail: mswon@kbsi.re.kr [Busan Center, Korea Basic Science Institute, Busan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Seung Wook, E-mail: Seunglee@pusan.ac.kr [School of Mechanical Engineering, Pusan National University, Pusan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-02-15

    The installation of the 28 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS) ion implantation beamline was recently completed at the Korea Basic Science Institute. The apparatus contains a beam monitoring system and a sample holder for the ion implantation process. The new implantation system can function as a multipurpose tool since it can implant a variety of ions, ranging hydrogen to uranium, into different materials with precise control and with implantation areas as large as 1–10 mm{sup 2}. The implantation chamber was designed to measure the beam properties with a diagnostic system as well as to perform ion implantation with an in situ system including a mass spectrometer. This advanced implantation system can be employed in novel applications, including the production of a variety of new materials such as metals, polymers, and ceramics and the irradiation testing and fabrication of structural and functional materials to be used in future nuclear fusion reactors. In this investigation, the first nitrogen ion implantation experiments were conducted using the new system. The 28 GHz ECRIS implanted low-energy, multi-charged nitrogen ions into copper, zinc, and cobalt substrates, and the ion implantation depth profiles were obtained. SRIM 2013 code was used to calculate the profiles under identical conditions, and the experimental and simulation results are presented and compared in this report. The depths and ranges of the ion distributions in the experimental and simulation results agree closely and demonstrate that the new system will enable the treatment of various substrates for advanced materials research.

  17. Precision muon physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorringe, T. P.; Hertzog, D. W.

    2015-09-01

    The muon is playing a unique role in sub-atomic physics. Studies of muon decay both determine the overall strength and establish the chiral structure of weak interactions, as well as setting extraordinary limits on charged-lepton-flavor-violating processes. Measurements of the muon's anomalous magnetic moment offer singular sensitivity to the completeness of the standard model and the predictions of many speculative theories. Spectroscopy of muonium and muonic atoms gives unmatched determinations of fundamental quantities including the magnetic moment ratio μμ /μp, lepton mass ratio mμ /me, and proton charge radius rp. Also, muon capture experiments are exploring elusive features of weak interactions involving nucleons and nuclei. We will review the experimental landscape of contemporary high-precision and high-sensitivity experiments with muons. One focus is the novel methods and ingenious techniques that achieve such precision and sensitivity in recent, present, and planned experiments. Another focus is the uncommonly broad and topical range of questions in atomic, nuclear and particle physics that such experiments explore.

  18. Precision manufacturing using LIGA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Our objective is the fabrication of small high-precision parts using LIGA, which can be used in a variety of industrial applications. LIGA is a combination of deep x-ray lithography, electroplating, and replication processes that enables the fabrication of microstructures with vertical dimensions several millimeters high, lateral dimensions in the micrometer range, and submicron tolerances. On beamline 10.3.2, at the Advanced Light Source (ALS), the Center for X-ray Optics (CXRO) has built an end station suitable for LIGA. The ALS is an excellent source of radiation for this application. The CXRO, in close collaboration with Sandia National Laboratory and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, has developed the other essential process steps of mask making, resist development, x-ray exposure, and electroplating. This technology provides a powerful tool for mass production and miniaturization of mechanical systems into a dimensional regime not accessible by traditional manufacturing operations. We will present several applications that exploit the characteristics of the LIGA process: the fabrication of magnetic laminations for a high precision stepping motor; miniature octopole lens for advanced e-beam lithography; high-aspect-ratio x-ray collimating grids for astronomy; and microscopic tumblers for nuclear security. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  19. Precision measurements in supersymmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, J.L.

    1995-05-01

    Supersymmetry is a promising framework in which to explore extensions of the standard model. If candidates for supersymmetric particles are found, precision measurements of their properties will then be of paramount importance. The prospects for such measurements and their implications are the subject of this thesis. If charginos are produced at the LEP II collider, they are likely to be one of the few available supersymmetric signals for many years. The author considers the possibility of determining fundamental supersymmetry parameters in such a scenario. The study is complicated by the dependence of observables on a large number of these parameters. He proposes a straightforward procedure for disentangling these dependences and demonstrate its effectiveness by presenting a number of case studies at representative points in parameter space. In addition to determining the properties of supersymmetric particles, precision measurements may also be used to establish that newly-discovered particles are, in fact, supersymmetric. Supersymmetry predicts quantitative relations among the couplings and masses of superparticles. The author discusses tests of such relations at a future e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} linear collider, using measurements that exploit the availability of polarizable beams. Stringent tests of supersymmetry from chargino production are demonstrated in two representative cases, and fermion and neutralino processes are also discussed.

  20. Precision Joining Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powell, J.W.; Westphal, D.A.

    1991-08-01

    A workshop to obtain input from industry on the establishment of the Precision Joining Center (PJC) was held on July 10--12, 1991. The PJC is a center for training Joining Technologists in advanced joining techniques and concepts in order to promote the competitiveness of US industry. The center will be established as part of the DOE Defense Programs Technology Commercialization Initiative, and operated by EG G Rocky Flats in cooperation with the American Welding Society and the Colorado School of Mines Center for Welding and Joining Research. The overall objectives of the workshop were to validate the need for a Joining Technologists to fill the gap between the welding operator and the welding engineer, and to assure that the PJC will train individuals to satisfy that need. The consensus of the workshop participants was that the Joining Technologist is a necessary position in industry, and is currently used, with some variation, by many companies. It was agreed that the PJC core curriculum, as presented, would produce a Joining Technologist of value to industries that use precision joining techniques. The advantage of the PJC would be to train the Joining Technologist much more quickly and more completely. The proposed emphasis of the PJC curriculum on equipment intensive and hands-on training was judged to be essential.

  1. Precision measurements in supersymmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Supersymmetry is a promising framework in which to explore extensions of the standard model. If candidates for supersymmetric particles are found, precision measurements of their properties will then be of paramount importance. The prospects for such measurements and their implications are the subject of this thesis. If charginos are produced at the LEP II collider, they are likely to be one of the few available supersymmetric signals for many years. The author considers the possibility of determining fundamental supersymmetry parameters in such a scenario. The study is complicated by the dependence of observables on a large number of these parameters. He proposes a straightforward procedure for disentangling these dependences and demonstrate its effectiveness by presenting a number of case studies at representative points in parameter space. In addition to determining the properties of supersymmetric particles, precision measurements may also be used to establish that newly-discovered particles are, in fact, supersymmetric. Supersymmetry predicts quantitative relations among the couplings and masses of superparticles. The author discusses tests of such relations at a future e+e- linear collider, using measurements that exploit the availability of polarizable beams. Stringent tests of supersymmetry from chargino production are demonstrated in two representative cases, and fermion and neutralino processes are also discussed

  2. Chronic inflammatory polyneuropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyneuropathy - chronic inflammatory; CIDP; Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy ... of the body equally. Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) is the most common chronic neuropathy caused by ...

  3. Iatrogenic Tumor Implantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying Ma; Ping Bai

    2008-01-01

    Iatrogenic tumor implantation is a condition that results from various medical procedures used during diagnosis or treatment of a malignancy. It involves desquamation and dissemination of tumor cells that develop into a local recurrence or distant metastasis from the tumor under treatment. The main clinical feature of the condition is nodules at the operation's porous channel or incision, which is easily diagnosed in accordance with the case history. Final diagnosis can be made based on pathological examination. Tumor implantation may occur in various puncturing porous channels, including a laparoscopic port, abdominal wall incision, and perineal incision, etc. Besides a malignant tumor,implantation potential exists with diseases, such as a borderline tumor and endometriosis etc. Once a tumor implantation is diagnosed, or suspected, surgical resection is usually conducted.During the diagnosis and treatment of diseases, avoiding and reducing iatrogenic implantation and dissemination has been regarded as an important principle for surgical treatment of tumors. In a clinical practice setting, if possible, excisional biopsy should be employed, if a biopsy is needed. Repeated puncturing should be avoided during a paracentesis. In a laparoscopic procedure, the tissue is first put into a sample bag and then is taken out from the point of incision. After a laparoscopic procedure, the peritoneum, abdominal muscular fasciae, and skin should be carefully closed, and/or the punctured porous channel be excised. In addition, the sample/tissue should be rinsed with distilled water before surgical closure of the abdominal cavity,allowing the exfoliated tumor cells to swell and rupture in the hypo-osmolar solution. Then surgical closure can be conducted following a change of gloves and equipment. The extent of hysteromyomectomy should as far as possible be away from the uterine cavity. The purpose of this study is to make clinicians aware of the possibility of tumor implantation

  4. Chronic pancreatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Kocher, Hemant M; Froeling, Fieke EM

    2008-01-01

    Chronic pancreatitis is characterised by long-standing inflammation of the pancreas owing to a wide variety of causes, including recurrent acute attacks of pancreatitis. Chronic pancreatitis affects 3–9 people in 100,000; 70% of cases are alcohol-induced.

  5. Chronic pancreatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Kocher, Hemant M; Kadaba, Raghu

    2011-01-01

    Chronic pancreatitis is characterised by long-standing inflammation of the pancreas due to a wide variety of causes, including recurrent acute attacks of pancreatitis. Chronic pancreatitis affects between 3 and 9 people in 100,000; 70% of cases are alcohol-induced.

  6. Patient-controlled Analgesia in Intrathecal Therapy for Chronic Pain: Safety and Effective Operation of the Model 8831 Personal Therapy Manager with a Pre-implanted SynchroMed Infusion System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeyaert, Jan; Buchser, Eric; Van Buyten, Jean-Pierre; Rainov, Nikolai G; Becker, Ralf

    2003-07-01

    The Model 8831 Personal Therapy Manager (PTM) offers a patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) option for the SynchroMed Infusion System (Medtronic Inc., Minneapolis, MN). The safety and effective operation of the PTM activator was evaluated in 45 patients in five European centers receiving intrathecal drug infusion for the treatment of chronic pain via a SynchroMed pump. The total volume of drug delivered intrathecally over a four-week follow-up period was calculated. Adverse events were recorded and pain levels were measured via the Visual Analog pain Scale (VAS), Brief Pain Inventory, and SF-12 Quality of Life scores. Patient satisfaction with the device and its instruction manual was also assessed by questionnaire. The expected and calculated intrathecal drug volumes (and therefore drug doses) were the same, demonstrating that the device worked as intended. There were no device-related serious adverse events. Overall, 96% of patients were satisfied with the activator. Patients appreciated being able to control their pain and considered the device and its instructions easy to use. The PTM was shown to be safe and functioning properly in the intrathecal treatment of pain. The successful addition of a PCA function to the SynchroMed system may create a new standard in intrathecal pain therapy. PMID:22151016

  7. Imaging for cochlear implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelps, P D; Annis, J A; Robinson, P J

    1990-07-01

    Insertion of a sound amplification device into the round window niche (extracochlear implant) or into the coils of the cochlea (intracochlear implant) can give significant benefits to some carefully selected, severely deaf patients. Imaging has an essential role in selective and pre-operative assessment. Severe otosclerosis and post-meningitic labyrinthitis ossificans are common causes of deafness in these patients and can be demonstrated by computed tomography (CT). The most suitable side for operation can be assessed. We describe our experiences with 165 patients, 69 of whom were found suitable for implants. Thin (1 mm) section CT in axial and coronal planes is the best imaging investigation of the petrous temporal bones but the place of magnetic resonance scanning to confirm that the inner ear is fluid-filled and polytomography to show a multichannel implant in the cochlea is discussed. No implants were used for congenital deformities, but some observations are made of this type of structural deformity of the inner ear. PMID:2390686

  8. [Chronic nonbacterial osteomyelitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskitalo, Paula; Remes-Pakarinen, Terhi; Vähäsalo, Paula; Niinimäki, Jaakko; Kröger, Liisa

    2016-01-01

    Chronic nonbacterial osteomyelitis is an autoinflammatory disease occurring mainly in children and adolescents, typically involving recurrent or persistent osteitic foci. The symptom is bone pain, possibly accompanied by soft tissue tenderness. Some patients exhibit symptoms of systemic inflammation. The. precise etiology of the disease is not known, but an imbalance of inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines is presumed to play a role in the development of the disease. While an anti-inflammatory analgesic is in most cases sufficient to calm down the osteitis, the use of corticosteroids, anti- TNF-a inhibitors or bisphosphonates is required in some cases. PMID:26939487

  9. Precise Point Positioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Xiaohong

    determination’ based on the relationship between the point clouds on regular objects (e.g. flat top buildings) and the ground truth of the objects used for calibration. In order to extract the footprints on the objects, filtering was implemented before the calibration. Three example tests have been made and......This report presents the results of investigations to determine accurate positions of aircrafts in airborne surveys (airborne gravity and airborne lidar) using precise point positioning, and also introduces a new so called “stepwise geometric misalignment determination” method to retrieve the...... airborne lidar system misalignment angle by automating the matching of lidar data with ground truth. Kinematic GPS positioning has been widely used, but the available commercial software systems are normally only suitable for the short or medium range kinematic baseline. However, in polar areas, airborne...

  10. Precision Tau Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Pich, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Precise measurements of the lepton properties provide stringent tests of the Standard Model and accurate determinations of its parameters. We overview the present status of tau physics, highlighting the most recent developments, and discuss the prospects for future improvements. The leptonic decays of the tau lepton probe the structure of the weak currents and the universality of their couplings to the W boson. The universality of the leptonic Z couplings has also been tested through leptonic Z decays. The hadronic tau decay modes constitute an ideal tool for studying low-energy effects of the strong interaction in very clean conditions. Accurate determinations of the QCD coupling and the Cabibbo mixing have been obtained with tau data. The large mass of the tau opens the possibility to study many kinematically-allowed exclusive decay modes and extract relevant dynamical information. Violations of flavour and CP conservation laws can also be searched for with tau decays. Related subjects such as muon decays, ...

  11. Psychological intervention following implantation of an implantable defibrillator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Susanne S.; van den Broek, Krista C; Sears, Samuel F

    2007-01-01

    The medical benefits of the implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) are unequivocal, but a subgroup of patients experiences emotional difficulties following implantation. For this subgroup, some form of psychological intervention may be warranted. This review provides an overview of current...

  12. Suppression of scarring in peripheral nerve implants by drug elution

    Science.gov (United States)

    FitzGerald, James J.

    2016-04-01

    Objective. Medical implants made of non-biological materials provoke a chronic inflammatory response, resulting in the deposition of a collagenous scar tissue (ST) layer on their surface, that gradually thickens over time. This is a critical problem for neural interfaces. Scar build-up on electrodes results in a progressive decline in signal level because the scar tissue gradually separates axons away from the recording contacts. In regenerative sieves and microchannel electrodes, progressive scar deposition will constrict and may eventually choke off the sieve hole or channel lumen. Interface designs need to address this issue if they are to be fit for long term use. This study examines a novel method of inhibiting the formation and thickening of the fibrous scar. Approach. Research to date has mainly focused on methods of preventing stimulation of the foreign body response by implant surface modification. In this paper a pharmacological approach using drug elution to suppress chronic inflammation is introduced. Microchannel implants made of silicone doped with the steroid drug dexamethasone were implanted in the rat sciatic nerve for periods of up to a year. Tissue from within the microchannels was compared to that from control devices that did not release any drug. Main results. In the drug eluting implants the scar layer was significantly thinner at all timepoints, and unlike the controls it did not continue to thicken after 6 months. Control implants supported axon regeneration well initially, but axon counts fell rapidly at later timepoints as scar thickened. Axon counts in drug eluting devices were initially much lower, but increased rather than declined and by one year were significantly higher than in controls. Significance. Drug elution offers a potential long term solution to the problem of performance degradation due to scarring around neural implants.

  13. Radiographic appearances of uncommon paediatric implants and devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urquia, Arlen; Watson, Tom A.; Arthurs, Owen J. [Great Ormond Street Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Radiology, London (United Kingdom)

    2015-06-15

    As childhood survival of chronic illness improves, long-term implanted devices will be encountered more frequently in routine radiology. In our paediatric tertiary referral hospital, we have come across several types of implanted devices that were not confidently recognised or identified by front-line staff and were often only identified by discussion with the patient, family or clinical team. This pictorial review highlights the appearance of nonvascular devices on paediatric radiographs in order to help clinicians identify the most frequent complications and to improve awareness of these important devices. (orig.)

  14. Pulmonary Arterial Stent Implantation in an Adult with Williams Syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report a 38-year-old patient who presented with pulmonary hypertension and right ventricular dysfunction due to pulmonary artery stenoses as a manifestation of Williams syndrome, mimicking chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension. The patient was treated with balloon angioplasty and stent implantation. Short-term follow-up showed a good clinical result with excellent patency of the stents but early restenosis of the segments in which only balloon angioplasty was performed. These stenoses were subsequently also treated successfully by stent implantation. Stent patency was observed 3 years after the first procedure

  15. Experimental Precision and Variety Comparison Precision in Regional Crop Trials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KONG Fan-ling; ZHANG Qun-yuan; GE Zhi-nan; YANG Fu-xin; ZHANG De-gui; LIU Wen-xin

    2002-01-01

    According to the basic concepts of precision and the principles of analysis of variance (ANOVA), precision types for experiments and variety comparison in regional crop trials (RCT) were studied and developed; expected variety comparison precision (EVCP) and realized variety comparison precision (RVCP) and the corresponding statistical indexes of them were proposed. It was explained that experimental precision (EP) and variety comparison precision (VCP) are two kinds of precision of RCT; EP includes error precision and variety mean precision, which can be measured respectively by the coefficient of variation of single observation's error (CVe) and the coefficient of variation of variety mean's error (CVY); VCP includes EVCP and RVCP, which can be measured respectively by the detectable least relative difference (DLRD) and the relative least significant distance (RLSD); EP is an important factor of VCP but not identical to it; RVCP is the realization of EVCP. Besides error, experimental design and GE interaction and ANOVA model affect VCP. Several application examples for these precision indexes were presented, and the precision of regional cotton trials in the Yellow River Valley and the Changjiang Valley were investigated through the historical data of RCTs from 1980 to 1999.

  16. Perioperative management of antithrombotic treatment during implantation or revision of cardiac implantable electronic devices: the European Snapshot Survey on Procedural Routines for Electronic Device Implantation (ESS-PREDI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deharo, Jean-Claude; Sciaraffia, Elena; Leclercq, Christophe; Amara, Walid; Doering, Michael; Bongiorni, Maria G; Chen, Jian; Dagres, Nicolaus; Estner, Heidi; Larsen, Torben B; Johansen, Jens B; Potpara, Tatjana S; Proclemer, Alessandro; Pison, Laurent; Brunet, Caroline; Blomström-Lundqvist, Carina

    2016-05-01

    The European Snapshot Survey on Procedural Routines for Electronic Device Implantation (ESS-PREDI) was a prospective European survey of consecutive adults who had undergone implantation/surgical revision of a cardiac implantable electronic device (CIED) on chronic antithrombotic therapy (enrolment March-June 2015). The aim of the survey was to investigate perioperative treatment with oral anticoagulants and antiplatelets in CIED implantation or surgical revision and to determine the incidence of complications, including clinically significant pocket haematomas. Information on antithrombotic therapy before and after surgery and bleeding and thromboembolic complications occurring after the intervention was collected at first follow-up. The study population comprised 723 patients (66.7% men, 76.9% aged ≥66 years). Antithrombotic treatment was continued during surgery in 489 (67.6%) patients; 6 (0.8%) had their treatment definitively stopped; 46 (6.4%) were switched to another antithrombotic therapy. Heparin bridging was used in 55 out of 154 (35.8%) patients when interrupting vitamin K antagonist (VKA) treatment. Non-vitamin K oral anticoagulant (NOAC) treatment was interrupted in 88.7% of patients, with heparin bridging in 25.6%, but accounted for only 25.3% of the oral anticoagulants used. A total of 108 complications were observed in 98 patients. No intracranial haemorrhage or embolic events were observed. Chronic NOAC treatment before surgery was associated with lower rates of minor pocket haematoma (1.4%; P= 0.042) vs. dual antiplatelet therapy (13.0%), VKA (11.4%), VKA + antiplatelet (9.2%), or NOAC + antiplatelet (7.7%). Similar results were observed for bleeding complications (P= 0.028). Perioperative management of patients undergoing CIED implantation/surgical revision while on chronic antithrombotic therapy varies, with evidence of a disparity between guideline recommendations and practice patterns in Europe. Haemorrhagic complications were significantly

  17. Injection Molding of Titanium Alloy Implant For Biomedical Application Using Novel Binder System Based on Palm Oil Derivatives

    OpenAIRE

    Ibrahim, R.; M. Azmirruddin; Jabir, M; Ismail, M. R.; M. Muhamad; R. Awang; Muhamad, S.

    2010-01-01

    Problem statement: Titanium alloy (Ti6Al4V) has been widely used as an implant for biomedical application. In this study, the implant had been fabricated using high technology of Powder Injection Molding (PIM) process due to the cost effective technique for producing small, complex and precision parts in high volume compared with conventional method through machining. Approach: Through PIM, the binder system is one of the most important criteria in order to successfully fabricate the implants...

  18. Difficulties in Cochlear Implantation

    OpenAIRE

    Santa Cruz Ruiz, Santiago; Batuecas Caletrío, Ángel; Santa Cruz Ruiz, Paloma

    2014-01-01

    [ES] Introducción y objetivo: Tras 25 años de experiencia distinguimos dos grupos de pacientes frente a la cirugía de implante coclear, en función de la dificultad de los casos. Discusión: Presentamos diferentes situaciones de patología de oído medio, malformación de oído interno y neuropatías, que suponen una dificultad en esta cirugía. Conclusiones: Aconsejamos derivar a centros experimentados en casos difíciles de implante coclear los casos complejos. [EN] Introductio...

  19. Delayed breast implant reconstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvilsom, Gitte B.; Hölmich, Lisbet R.; Steding-Jessen, Marianne;

    2011-01-01

    -stage procedures. From the Danish Registry for Plastic Surgery of the Breast, which has prospectively registered data for women undergoing breast implantations since 1999, we identified 559 women without a history of radiation therapy undergoing 592 delayed breast reconstructions following breast cancer during the......Studies of complications following reconstructive surgery with implants among women with breast cancer are needed. As the, to our knowledge, first prospective long-term study we evaluated the occurrence of complications following delayed breast reconstruction separately for one- and two...

  20. A fully implantable rodent neural stimulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, D. W. J.; Grayden, D. B.; Shepherd, R. K.; Fallon, J. B.

    2012-02-01

    The ability to electrically stimulate neural and other excitable tissues in behaving experimental animals is invaluable for both the development of neural prostheses and basic neurological research. We developed a fully implantable neural stimulator that is able to deliver two channels of intra-cochlear electrical stimulation in the rat. It is powered via a novel omni-directional inductive link and includes an on-board microcontroller with integrated radio link, programmable current sources and switching circuitry to generate charge-balanced biphasic stimulation. We tested the implant in vivo and were able to elicit both neural and behavioural responses. The implants continued to function for up to five months in vivo. While targeted to cochlear stimulation, with appropriate electrode arrays the stimulator is well suited to stimulating other neurons within the peripheral or central nervous systems. Moreover, it includes significant on-board data acquisition and processing capabilities, which could potentially make it a useful platform for telemetry applications, where there is a need to chronically monitor physiological variables in unrestrained animals.

  1. Implant materials for fracture fixation: a clinical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disegi, J A; Wyss, H

    1989-01-01

    The optimum management of traumatic skeletal fractures may involve the installation of high quality surgical implants by a skilled orthopedic surgeon. Satisfactory clinical results are very dependent on the ability to maintain stable fracture fixation. Well designed contemporary implants rely on precise control of material composition and properties to achieve a well tolerated level of biological response. Metallic materials, such as 316L stainless steel, pure titanium, and titanium alloys, demonstrate an acceptable combination of strength, ductility, corrosion resistance, and biocompatibility. Polymers, composites, and biodegradable materials may offer selected opportunities for fracture fixation. An understanding of relevant clinical factors is essential to evaluate potential applications for advanced materials. PMID:2915951

  2. Optimization of dental implant treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Dmitriy V. Ivanov; Aleksandr V. Dol; Dmitriy A. Smirnov

    2016-01-01

    Aim ― Modern dentistry cannot exist without dental implantation. The lifetime of the installed implants depends on condition of the bone and on the quality of the treatment planning and surgery technique. Usually, complications during the implant treatment are related to the inability to accurately predict the condition and location of intraosseous structure that entails the selection of the wrong type of implant and installation position. Methods ― This work is devoted to the "bone-implan...

  3. Dental implants in growing children

    OpenAIRE

    S.K. Mishra; Chowdhary, N.; Chowdhary, R.

    2013-01-01

    The replacement of teeth by implants is usually restricted to patients with completed craniofacial growth. The aim of this literature review is to discuss the use of dental implants in normal growing patients and in patients with ectodermal dysplasia and the influence of maxillary and mandibular skeletal and dental growth on the stability of those implants. It is recommended that while deciding the optimal individual time point of implant insertion, the status of skeletal growth, the degree o...

  4. Osseointegration of Immediate Transalveolar Implants

    OpenAIRE

    Yoel González Beriau; Eduardo Enrique Castillo Betancourt; Bienvenido Mesa Reinaldo

    2016-01-01

    Background: osseointegration is critical to start prosthetic rehabilitation. Objective: to describe osseointegration of immediate transalveolar implants. Methods: a prospective case series study was conducted from January 2012 to December 2013. It included all patients (75 patients with 79 implants) who attended the Prosthodontics service. Age, sex, osseointegration, cause of tooth loss, region of the implant, specific tooth, bone level and keratinized gingiva around the implant, were the var...

  5. The ruptured PIP breast implant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Public concern erupted about the safety of Poly Implant Prothèse (PIP) breast implants when it was revealed in 2011 that they contained an inferior, unlicensed industrial-grade silicone associated with a high rate of rupture. There followed national guidance for UK clinicians, which led to a considerable increase in referrals of asymptomatic women for breast implant assessment. In this review we discuss possible approaches to screening the PIP cohort and the salient characteristics of a ruptured implant

  6. Chronic cholecystitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... foods may relieve symptoms in people. However, the benefit of a low-fat diet has not been proven. Alternative Names Cholecystitis - chronic Images Cholecystitis, CT scan Cholecystitis, cholangiogram Cholecystolithiasis Gallstones, cholangiogram Cholecystogram References Wang ...

  7. Chronic Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... who have chronic pain may also have low self-esteem, depression, and anger. Causes & Risk Factors What causes ... as stretching and strengthening activities) and low-impact exercise (such as walking, swimming, or biking) can help ...

  8. Chronic Meningitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... School Lunch Lines FDA Cracks Down on Antibacterial Soaps Health Tip: Schedule a Back-to-School Dental ... the Professional Version Meningitis Introduction to Meningitis Acute Bacterial Meningitis Viral Meningitis Noninfectious Meningitis Recurrent Meningitis Chronic ...

  9. Chronic Pericarditis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sugar Control Helps Fight Diabetic Eye Disease Are 'Workaholics' Prone to OCD, Anxiety? ALL NEWS > Resources First ... weeks after heart surgery) and is considered subacute. Causes Usually, the cause of chronic effusive pericarditis is ...

  10. Dosimetry of dose distributions in radiotherapy of patients with surgical implants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The investigation was performed in order to evaluate the use of Gafchromic EBT films for measurements of dose distributions created during radiotherapy in tissues surrounding titanium or resorbable implants used for joining and consolidating facial bones. Inhomogeneous dose distributions at implant–tissue interfaces can be the reason of normal tissue complications observed in radiotherapy patients after surgery with implants. The dose measured at a depth of 2.5 cm on contact surfaces, proximal and distal to the beam source, between the titanium implant and the phantom material was 109% and 92% respectively of the reference dose measured in a homogeneous phantom. For the resorbable implants the doses measured on the proximal and the distal contact surfaces were 102% and 101% respectively of the reference dose. The resorbable implants affect the homogeneity of dose distribution at a significantly lesser degree than the titanium implants. Gafchromic EBT films allowed for precise dose distribution measurements at the contact surfaces between tissue equivalent materials and implants. - Author-Highlights: • We measured doses at contact surfaces between titanium implants and RW3 phantom. • We measured doses at contact surfaces between resorbable implants and RW3 phantom. • We compared doses measured on contact surfaces and doses in homogeneous phantom. • Doses at contact surfaces between RW3 phantom and titanium were distorted about 8–9%. • Doses at RW3 phantom and resorbable implant contact surfaces were distorted about 2%

  11. Designing Shared Electronic Records for Chronic Care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bansler, Jørgen Peter; Havn, Erling C.; Mønsted, Troels

    This paper reports preliminary findings from an ongoing research project on the development of IT support for communication and information sharing across institutional and professional boundaries within the Danish healthcare system. The project focuses on the treatment of patients with implanted...... ICDs (implantable cardioverter-defibrillator). These are chronic patients who usually see several different healthcare providers on a regular basis. The main findings so far are: (1) Most of the data produced and recorded as part of the care process are context-specific and often difficult to interpret...

  12. Untreated silicone breast implant rupture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hölmich, Lisbet R; Vejborg, Ilse M; Conrad, Carsten;

    2004-01-01

    Implant rupture is a well-known complication of breast implant surgery that can pass unnoticed by both patient and physician. To date, no prospective study has addressed the possible health implications of silicone breast implant rupture. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether untre...

  13. Automatic Implantable Cardiac Defibrillator

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Health’s commitment to provide quality healthcare for all patients. "OR Live" makes it easy for you to ... It’s a battery-powered implantable device that saves patients from deadly arrhythmias in the heart. If at ...

  14. Automatic Implantable Cardiac Defibrillator

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... they're implanted. And then, depending on the recommendations for that specific device, eventually that goes over ... them say, “I feel so great.” And they travel, they forget to take your -- they stop taking ...

  15. Remote actuated valve implant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKnight, Timothy E.; Johnson, Anthony; Moise, Kenneth J.; Ericson, Milton Nance; Baba, Justin S.; Wilgen, John B.; Evans, Boyd Mccutchen

    2016-05-10

    Valve implant systems positionable within a flow passage, the systems having an inlet, an outlet, and a remotely activatable valve between the inlet and outlet, with the valves being operable to provide intermittent occlusion of the flow path. A remote field is applied to provide thermal or magnetic activation of the valves.

  16. Semiconductor Ion Implanters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1953 the Raytheon CK722 transistor was priced at $7.60. Based upon this, an Intel Xeon Quad Core processor containing 820,000,000 transistors should list at $6.2 billion! Particle accelerator technology plays an important part in the remarkable story of why that Intel product can be purchased today for a few hundred dollars. Most people of the mid twentieth century would be astonished at the ubiquity of semiconductors in the products we now buy and use every day. Though relatively expensive in the nineteen fifties they now exist in a wide range of items from high-end multicore microprocessors like the Intel product to disposable items containing 'only' hundreds or thousands like RFID chips and talking greeting cards. This historical development has been fueled by continuous advancement of the several individual technologies involved in the production of semiconductor devices including Ion Implantation and the charged particle beamlines at the heart of implant machines. In the course of its 40 year development, the worldwide implanter industry has reached annual sales levels around $2B, installed thousands of dedicated machines and directly employs thousands of workers. It represents in all these measures, as much and possibly more than any other industrial application of particle accelerator technology. This presentation discusses the history of implanter development. It touches on some of the people involved and on some of the developmental changes and challenges imposed as the requirements of the semiconductor industry evolved.

  17. Corrosion of bio implants

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    U Kamachi Mudali; T M Sridhar; Baldev Raj

    2003-06-01

    Chemical stability, mechanical behaviour and biocompatibility in body fluids and tissues are the basic requirements for successful application of implant materials in bone fractures and replacements. Corrosion is one of the major processes affecting the life and service of orthopaedic devices made of metals and alloys used as implants in the body. Among the metals and alloys known, stainless steels (SS), Co–Cr alloys and titanium and its alloys are the most widely used for the making of biodevices for extended life in human body. Incidences of failure of stainless steel implant devices reveal the occurrence of significant localised corroding viz., pitting and crevice corrosion. Titanium forms a stable TiO2 film which can release titanium particles under wear into the body environment. To reduce corrosion and achieve better biocompatibility, bulk alloying of stainless steels with titanium and nitrogen, surface alloying by ion implantation of stainless steels and titanium and its alloys, and surface modification of stainless steel with bioceramic coatings are considered potential methods for improving the performance of orthopaedic devices. This review discusses these issues in depth and examines emerging directions.

  18. Remote actuated valve implant

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKnight, Timothy E; Johnson, Anthony; Moise, Jr., Kenneth J; Ericson, Milton Nance; Baba, Justin S; Wilgen, John B; Evans, III, Boyd McCutchen

    2014-02-25

    Valve implant systems positionable within a flow passage, the systems having an inlet, an outlet, and a remotely activatable valve between the inlet and outlet, with the valves being operable to provide intermittent occlusion of the flow path. A remote field is applied to provide thermal or magnetic activation of the valves.

  19. Automatic Implantable Cardiac Defibrillator

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to see tonight the implantation of a very complex, sophisticated device to save people’s lives. But the ... It doesn't require a device that’s this complex to get the heart back into rhythm and ...

  20. Utility of CT in branemark implant treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yosue, Takashi; Takamori, Hitoshi; Nomura, Atsushi; Watanabe, Kaichi; Kamezawa, Hiroshi; Ohtani, Kazuo; Hiraga, Yasushi; Nakaya, Hiroshi (Nippon Dental Univ., Tokyo (Japan))

    1992-12-01

    Since the implant prognosis depends on the diagnosis, we use CT or tomography in addition to ordinary radiographic procedures to diagnose the propriety. Here we would like to present the diagnostic value of CT. We have performed CT examinations for 55 patients (66 jaws) up to the end of May 1992. In addition to the one-dimensional observation of CT images, we routinely used reconstructed CT images for the valuation of bone quality and quantity. The reconstructed CT images provided precise information regarding the width and height of the alveolar creat. The axial CT view provides more precise information on jawbone structure than panoramic radiographs. The CT number gives a quick estimate of jawbone quality. Because the image reconstruction requires only axial CT radiographs, metal restorations on the opposite jaw do not affect radiographic images. We have to take into account the partial volume effect, though. The disadvantages of CT use in diagnosis are an increase of time and of patient irradiation. The clarity of lower jaw CTs are especially sensitive to the patient movement. In conclusion, the CT radiographs are valuable in implant diagnosis. (author).

  1. Precise Truss Assembly Using Commodity Parts and Low Precision Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komendera, Erik; Reishus, Dustin; Dorsey, John T.; Doggett, W. R.; Correll, Nikolaus

    2014-01-01

    Hardware and software design and system integration for an intelligent precision jigging robot (IPJR), which allows high precision assembly using commodity parts and low-precision bonding, is described. Preliminary 2D experiments that are motivated by the problem of assembling space telescope optical benches and very large manipulators on orbit using inexpensive, stock hardware and low-precision welding are also described. An IPJR is a robot that acts as the precise "jigging", holding parts of a local structure assembly site in place, while an external low precision assembly agent cuts and welds members. The prototype presented in this paper allows an assembly agent (for this prototype, a human using only low precision tools), to assemble a 2D truss made of wooden dowels to a precision on the order of millimeters over a span on the order of meters. The analysis of the assembly error and the results of building a square structure and a ring structure are discussed. Options for future work, to extend the IPJR paradigm to building in 3D structures at micron precision are also summarized.

  2. Rationale for the Use of CAD/CAM Technology in Implant Prosthodontics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abduo, Jaafar; Lyons, Karl

    2013-01-01

    Despite the predictable longevity of implant prosthesis, there is an ongoing interest to continue to improve implant prosthodontic treatment and outcomes. One of the developments is the application of computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) to produce implant abutments and frameworks from metal or ceramic materials. The aim of this narrative review is to critically evaluate the rationale of CAD/CAM utilization for implant prosthodontics. To date, CAD/CAM allows simplified production of precise and durable implant components. The precision of fit has been proven in several laboratory experiments and has been attributed to the design of implants. Milling also facilitates component fabrication from durable and aesthetic materials. With further development, it is expected that the CAD/CAM protocol will be further simplified. Although compelling clinical evidence supporting the superiority of CAD/CAM implant restorations is still lacking, it is envisioned that CAD/CAM may become the main stream for implant component fabrication. PMID:23690778

  3. Rationale for the Use of CAD/CAM Technology in Implant Prosthodontics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaafar Abduo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the predictable longevity of implant prosthesis, there is an ongoing interest to continue to improve implant prosthodontic treatment and outcomes. One of the developments is the application of computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM to produce implant abutments and frameworks from metal or ceramic materials. The aim of this narrative review is to critically evaluate the rationale of CAD/CAM utilization for implant prosthodontics. To date, CAD/CAM allows simplified production of precise and durable implant components. The precision of fit has been proven in several laboratory experiments and has been attributed to the design of implants. Milling also facilitates component fabrication from durable and aesthetic materials. With further development, it is expected that the CAD/CAM protocol will be further simplified. Although compelling clinical evidence supporting the superiority of CAD/CAM implant restorations is still lacking, it is envisioned that CAD/CAM may become the main stream for implant component fabrication.

  4. Therapeutic options in chronic heart failure. Findings on chest X-ray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The contribution covers drugless therapeutic options for chronic heart failure: the implantable cardioverter/defibrillator (ICD), the cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT), the interventional catheter treatment of functional mitral insufficiency, and mechanical heart supporting systems and heart transplantation.

  5. Precision Cryogenic Dilatometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudik, Matthew; Halverson, Peter; Levine-West, Marie; Marcin, Martin; Peters, Robert D.; Shaklan, Stuart

    2005-01-01

    A dilatometer based on a laser interferometer is being developed to measure mechanical creep and coefficients of thermal expansion (CTEs) of materials at temperatures ranging from ambient down to 15 K. This cryogenic dilatometer has been designed to minimize systematic errors that limit the best previously available dilatometers. At its prototype stage of development, this cryogenic dilatometer yields a strain measurement error of 35 ppb or 1.7 ppb/K CTE measurement error for a 20-K thermal load, for low-expansion materials in the temperature range from 310 down to 30 K. Planned further design refinements that include a provision for stabilization of the laser and addition of a high-precision sample-holding jig are expected to reduce the measurement error to 5-ppb strain error or 0.3-ppb/K CTE error for a 20-K thermal load. The dilatometer (see figure) includes a common-path, differential, heterodyne interferometer; a dual-frequency, stabilized source bench that serves as the light source for the interferometer; a cryogenic chamber in which one places the material sample to be studied; a cryogenic system for cooling the interior of the chamber to the measurement temperature; an ultra-stable alignment stage for positioning the chamber so that the sample is properly positioned with respect to the interferometer; and a data-acquisition and control system. The cryogenic chamber and the interferometer portion of the dilatometer are housed in a vacuum chamber on top of a vibration isolating optical table in a cleanroom. The sample consists of two pieces a pillar on a base both made of the same material. Using reflections of the interferometer beams from the base and the top of the pillar, what is measured is the change in length of the pillar as the temperature in the chamber is changed. In their fundamental optical and electronic principles of operation, the laser light source and the interferometer are similar to those described in Common-Path Heterodyne

  6. Automatic Implantable Cardiac Defibrillator

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... hospital for cardiovascular disease compared to many other causes of illness. And if you look at the ... It claims as many lives as the next causes, including cancer, chronic obstructive lung disease or emphysema, ...

  7. Automatic Implantable Cardiac Defibrillator

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... chronic obstructive lung disease or emphysema, automobile or accidents of all kind, diabetes -- all combined. You put ... up in an emergency room -- say an automobile accident or something -- and somebody recognizes there’s a pacemaker ...

  8. Automatic Implantable Cardiac Defibrillator

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... including cancer, chronic obstructive lung disease or emphysema, automobile or accidents of all kind, diabetes -- all combined. ... was leaning across the alternator of a race car, which is generating a whole lot of electricity. ...

  9. CBCT analysis of three implant cases for treatment planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae Duk; Kim, Kwang Won; Lim, Sung Hoon [Chosun Univ. School of Dentistry, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-09-15

    The role of radiographic imaging in determining the size, numbers and the position of implants is very important. To perform the implant procedure, the dentist needs to evaluate the bone pathology and bone density, and to know the precise height, width, and contour of the alveolar process, as well as its relationship to the maxillary sinus and mandibular canal. The author analyzed 3 implant cases for treatment planning with the cone beam CT. All axial, panoramic, serial and buccolingual-sectioned images of 3 cases with stent including vertical marker were taken by using Mercury (Hitachi, Japan). When the curved line drawn intentionally did nor include dot image of a vertical marker on the axial image of CBCT, the image of the vertical marker was deformed on its buccolingually sectioned image. There was wide discrepancy in inclination between the alveolar bone and tooth on buccolingually sectioned image.

  10. Feasibility study of self-lubrication by chlorine implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhajdenung, T.; Aizawa, T.; Yoshitake, M.; Mitsuo, A.

    2003-05-01

    Implantation of chlorine into titanium nitride (TiN) coating on the high-speed steel substrate has succeeded in significant reduction of wear rate and friction coefficient for original TiN under dry wear condition. Through precise investigation on the surface reaction in the wear track, in situ formation of oxygen-deficient titanium oxides was found to play a role as a lubricious oxide. In the present paper, this self-lubrication mechanism is further investigated for various wearing conditions. For wide range of sliding speed and normal load in the wear map, the wear volume of a counter material is actually reduced with comparison to the un-implanted TiN. Effect of the ion implantation dose on this self-lubrication mechanism is also studied for practical use. Some comments are made on further application of this self-lubrication to manufacturing.

  11. Feasibility study of self-lubrication by chlorine implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Implantation of chlorine into titanium nitride (TiN) coating on the high-speed steel substrate has succeeded in significant reduction of wear rate and friction coefficient for original TiN under dry wear condition. Through precise investigation on the surface reaction in the wear track, in situ formation of oxygen-deficient titanium oxides was found to play a role as a lubricious oxide. In the present paper, this self-lubrication mechanism is further investigated for various wearing conditions. For wide range of sliding speed and normal load in the wear map, the wear volume of a counter material is actually reduced with comparison to the un-implanted TiN. Effect of the ion implantation dose on this self-lubrication mechanism is also studied for practical use. Some comments are made on further application of this self-lubrication to manufacturing

  12. Channeling effects in high energy implantation of N + in silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasparotto, A.; Carnera, A.; Acco, S.; La Ferla, A.

    1992-01-01

    Nitrogen implantation in Si single crystals in the 600 keV to 1.4 MeV energy range in random, and alignment conditions on cut silicon wafers was performed. The 6 × 10 13-2 × 10 16 cm -2 fluence range was investigated. The beam alignment along the various axial directions was precisely checked by monitoring the backscattered nitrogen signal. RBS-channeling analysis was performed in order to measure the damage profiles. The nitrogen concentration profiles were analyzed by SIMS in all the implanted samples. The behaviour of the channeled component and the amorphization process was studied as a function of the dose for all the implantation orientations. The energy loss of the channeled ions was also estimated.

  13. Channeling effects in high energy implantation of N+ in silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitrogen implantation in Si single crystals in the 600 keV to 1.4 MeV energy range in random, and alignment conditions on cut silicon wafers was performed. The 6x1013-2x1016 cm-2 fluence range was investigated. The beam alignment along the various axial directions was precisely checked by monitoring the backscattered nitrogen signal. RBS-channeling analysis was performed in order to measure the damage profiles. The nitrogen concentration profiles were analyzed by SIMS in all the implanted samples. The behaviour of the channeled component and the amorphization process was studied as a function of the dose for all the implantation orientations. The energy loss of the channeled ions was also estimated. (orig.)

  14. Centroid precision and orientation precision of planar localization microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGray, C; Copeland, C R; Stavis, S M; Geist, J

    2016-09-01

    The concept of localization precision, which is essential to localization microscopy, is formally extended from optical point sources to microscopic rigid bodies. Measurement functions are presented to calculate the planar pose and motion of microscopic rigid bodies from localization microscopy data. Physical lower bounds on the associated uncertainties - termed centroid precision and orientation precision - are derived analytically in terms of the characteristics of the optical measurement system and validated numerically by Monte Carlo simulations. The practical utility of these expressions is demonstrated experimentally by an analysis of the motion of a microelectromechanical goniometer indicated by a sparse constellation of fluorescent nanoparticles. Centroid precision and orientation precision, as developed here, are useful concepts due to the generality of the expressions and the widespread interest in localization microscopy for super-resolution imaging and particle tracking. PMID:26970565

  15. Invited Article: Precision nanoimplantation of nitrogen vacancy centers into diamond photonic crystal cavities and waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schukraft, M.; Zheng, J.; Schröder, T.; Mouradian, S. L.; Walsh, M.; Trusheim, M. E.; Bakhru, H.; Englund, D. R.

    2016-05-01

    We demonstrate a self-aligned lithographic technique for precision generation of nitrogen vacancy (NV) centers within photonic nanostructures on bulk diamond substrates. The process relies on a lithographic mask with nanoscale implantation apertures for NV creation, together with larger features for producing waveguides and photonic nanocavities. This mask allows targeted nitrogen ion implantation, and precision dry etching of nanostructures on bulk diamond. We demonstrate high-yield generation of single NVs at pre-determined nanoscale target regions on suspended diamond waveguides. We report implantation into the mode maximum of diamond photonic crystal nanocavities with a single-NV per cavity yield of ˜26% and Purcell induced intensity enhancement of the zero-phonon line. The generation of NV centers aligned with diamond photonic structures marks an important tool for scalable production of optically coupled spin memories.

  16. Precise Determination of the Unperturbed 8B Neutrino Spectrum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roger, T.; Büscher, J.; Bastin, B.;

    2012-01-01

    A measurement of the final state distribution of the 8B β decay, obtained by implanting a 8B beam in a double-sided silicon strip detector, is reported here. The present spectrum is consistent with a recent independent precise measurement performed by our collaboration at the IGISOL facility, Jyv...

  17. Peri-implant hastalıklar

    OpenAIRE

    Dilsiz, Alparslan; Zihni, Meltem; Yavuz, M Selim

    2011-01-01

    The treatment of partially or totally edentulous subjects with oral implants is a common procedure. Biological complications are occur around implants which are peri-implant mucositis and periimplantitis. Peri-implant mucositis is pathological condition which is normally localized in the soft tissues surrounding an oral implant. Peri-implantitis surrounding oral implants is an inflammatory process affecting the soft and hard tissues resulting in rapid loss of supporting bone associated with b...

  18. Chronic neural probe for simultaneous recording of single-unit, multi-unit, and local field potential activity from multiple brain sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pothof, F.; Bonini, L.; Lanzilotto, M.; Livi, A.; Fogassi, L.; Orban, G. A.; Paul, O.; Ruther, P.

    2016-08-01

    Objective. Drug resistant focal epilepsy can be treated by resecting the epileptic focus requiring a precise focus localisation using stereoelectroencephalography (SEEG) probes. As commercial SEEG probes offer only a limited spatial resolution, probes of higher channel count and design freedom enabling the incorporation of macro and microelectrodes would help increasing spatial resolution and thus open new perspectives for investigating mechanisms underlying focal epilepsy and its treatment. This work describes a new fabrication process for SEEG probes with materials and dimensions similar to clinical probes enabling recording single neuron activity at high spatial resolution. Approach. Polyimide is used as a biocompatible flexible substrate into which platinum electrodes and leads are integrated with a minimal feature size of 5 μm. The polyimide foils are rolled into the cylindrical probe shape at a diameter of 0.8 mm. The resulting probe features match those of clinically approved devices. Tests in saline solution confirmed the probe stability and functionality. Probes were implanted into the brain of one monkey (Macaca mulatta), trained to perform different motor tasks. Suitable configurations including up to 128 electrode sites allow the recording of task-related neuronal signals. Main results. Probes with 32 and 64 electrode sites were implanted in the posterior parietal cortex. Local field potentials and multi-unit activity were recorded as early as one hour after implantation. Stable single-unit activity was achieved for up to 26 days after implantation of a 64-channel probe. All recorded signals showed modulation during task execution. Significance. With the novel probes it is possible to record stable biologically relevant data over a time span exceeding the usual time needed for epileptic focus localisation in human patients. This is the first time that single units are recorded along cylindrical polyimide probes chronically implanted 22 mm deep into the

  19. Hormonal control of implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandra, Olivier

    2016-06-01

    In mammals, implantation represents a key step of pregnancy and its progression conditions not only the success of pregnancy but health of the offspring. Implantation requires a complex and specific uterine tissue, the endometrium, whose biological functions are tightly regulated by numerous signals, including steroids and polypeptide hormones. Endometrial tissue is endowed with dynamic properties that associate its ability to control the developmental trajectory of the embryo (driver property) and its ability to react to embryos displaying distinct capacities to develop to term (sensor property). Since dynamical properties of the endometrium can be affected by pre- and post-conceptional environment, determining how maternal hormonal signals and their biological actions are affected by environmental factors (e.g. nutrition, stress, infections) is mandatory to reduce or even to prevent their detrimental effects on endometrial physiology in order to preserve the optimal functionality of this tissue. PMID:27172870

  20. Study of ICT implanter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A compact new low cost ion implantation facility using an ICT (insulated core type) high voltage supply and capable of handling beam currents upto 10 mA is described. Following a systematic investigation of the numerous parameters of the ion implanter, a practical method has been developed for controlling them and to optimise the performance of the machine. Relationship between beam divergence and the extraction parameters has been found. With this machine a stable and typical operation, using 15 mil cathode, yields of 2 μA of boron, 4 μA of argon and 2.5 μA of antimony have been found on the target using B2O3 + Sb (powdered mix) solid feed and argon as support gas. (author)

  1. Efter cochlear implant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højen, Anders

    2007-01-01

      Dit barn har netop fået et cochlear implant. Hvad nu? Skal barnet fokusere udelukkende på at lære talt sprog, eller skal det også lære/fortsætte med tegnsprog eller støttetegn? Det er et vanskeligt spørgsmål, og før valget foretages, er det vigtigt at vurdere hvilke konsekvenser valget har, dels...... for den sproglige udvikling isoleret set, og dels for barnets udvikling ud fra en helhedsbetragtning. Dette indlæg fokuserer på, hvilke forventninger man kan have til cochlear implant-brugeres sproglige udvikling med talt sprog alene, hhv. med to sprog (tale og tegn). Disse forventninger er baseret på...

  2. Efter cochlear implant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højen, Anders

    Dit barn har netop fået et cochlear implant. Hvad nu? Skal barnet fokusere udelukkende på at lære talt sprog, eller skal det også lære/fortsætte med tegnsprog eller støttetegn? Det er et vanskeligt spørgsmål, og før valget foretages, er det vigtigt at vurdere hvilke konsekvenser valget har, dels...... for den sproglige udvikling isoleret set, og dels for barnets udvikling ud fra en helhedsbetragtning. Dette indlæg fokuserer på, hvilke forventninger man kan have til cochlear implant-brugeres sproglige udvikling med talt sprog alene, hhv. med to sprog (tale og tegn). Disse forventninger er baseret på...

  3. Congestive heart failure in patients with chronic kidney disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poskurica Mileta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disorders are the most frequent cause of death (46-60% among patients with advanced chronic renal failure (CRF, and on dialysis treatment. Uremic cardiomyopathy is the basic pathophysiologic substrate, whereas ischemic heart disease (IHD and anemia are the most important contributing factors. Associated with well-know risk factors and specific disorders for terminal kidney failure and dialysis, the aforementioned factors instigate congestive heart failure (CHF. Suspected CHF is based on the anamnesis, clinical examination and ECG, while it is confirmed and defined more precisely on the basis of echocardiography and radiology examination. Biohumoral data (BNP, NT-proBNP are not sufficiently reliable because of specific volemic fluctuation and reduced natural clearance. Therapy approach is similar to the one for the general population: ACEI, ARBs, β-blockers, inotropic drugs and diuretics. Hypervolemia and most of the related symptoms can be kept under control effectively by the isolated or ultrafiltation, in conjunction with dialysis, during the standard bicarbonate hemodialysis or hemodiafiltration. In the same respect peritoneal dialysis is efficient for the control of hypervolemia symptoms, mainly during the first years of its application and in case of the lower NYHA class (II°/III°. In general, heart support therapy, surgical interventions of the myocardium and valve replacement are rarely used in patients on dialysis, whereas revascularization procedures are beneficial for associated IHD. In selected cases the application of cardiac resynchronization and/or implantation of a cardioverter defibrillator are advisable.

  4. [Congestive heart failure in patients with chronic kidney disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poskurica, Mileta; Petrović, Dejan

    2014-01-01

    Cardiovascular disorders are the most frequent cause of death (46-60%) among patients with advanced chronic renal failure (CRF), and on dialysis treatment. Uremic cardiomyopathy is the basic pathophysiologic substrate, whereas ischemic heart disease (IHD) and anemia are the most important contributing factors. Associated with well-know risk factors and specific disorders for terminal kidney failure and dialysis, the aforementioned factors instigate congestive heart failure (CHF). Suspected CHF is based on the anamnesis, clinical examination and ECG, while it is confirmed and defined more precisely on the basis of echocardiography and radiology examination. Biohumoral data (BNP, NT-proBNP) are not sufficiently reliable because of specific volemic fluctuation and reduced natural clearance. Therapy approach is similar to the one for the general population: ACEI, ARBs, β-blockers, inotropic drugs and diuretics. Hypervolemia and most of the related symptoms can be kept under control effectively by the isolated or ultrafiltation, in conjunction with dialysis, during the standard bicarbonate hemodialysis or hemodiafiltration. In the same respect peritoneal dialysis is efficient for the control of hypervolemia symptoms, mainly during the first years of its application and in case of the lower NYHA class (II°/III°). In general, heart support therapy, surgical interventions of the myocardium and valve replacement are rarely used in patients on dialysis, whereas revascularization procedures are beneficial for associated IHD. In selected cases the application of cardiac resynchronization and/or implantation of a cardioverter defibrillator are advisable. PMID:25731010

  5. Automatic Implantable Cardiac Defibrillator

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... discover the precision and experience required to successfully use this technology, and Halifax Health’s commitment to provide ... introducer because the lead we're going to use is an acceptable size lead and it has ...

  6. Automatic Implantable Cardiac Defibrillator

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the chances of survival in people at high risk for arrhythmias. You'll also discover the precision ... men to have heart disease, that mean their risk of sudden death is high. So what are ...

  7. Automatic Implantable Cardiac Defibrillator

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... precision and experience required to successfully use this technology, and Halifax Health’s commitment to provide quality healthcare ... has a cut on it so in the future if we need to remove this lead, it ...

  8. Automatic Implantable Cardiac Defibrillator

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... precision and experience required to successfully use this technology, and Halifax Health’s commitment to provide quality healthcare ... very important here that we have the latest technology available to the physicians to do these procedures. ...

  9. Precision Farming. A Comprehensive Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Grisso, Robert D. (Robert Dwight), 1956-; Alley, Mark M.; McClellan, Phil; Brann, Daniel Edward, 1945-; Donohue, Stephen J.

    2005-01-01

    Precision Farming (PF), also referred to as precision agriculture or variable rate technology, is the process used to vary management of crop production across a field. This publication introduces the principles and terminology used in PF. Crop producers can use this information to gain a working knowledge of PF and develop the ability to implement PF technologies in traditional crop production.

  10. PRECISION FARMING FOR NITROGEN MANAGEMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Approaches to precision nitrogen management vary from region to region depending on crop, soils, landscape, and climate yet all strategies essentially attempt to estimate crop nitrogen demand or plant available nitrogen. In this chapter, we provide case studies that illustrate precision nitrogen ma...

  11. Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML)

    Science.gov (United States)

    CML; Chronic myeloid leukemia; Chronic granulocytic leukemia; Leukemia - chronic granulocytic ... nuclear disaster. It takes many years to develop leukemia from radiation exposure. Most people treated for cancer ...

  12. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... airways disease; Chronic obstructive lung disease; Chronic bronchitis; Emphysema; Bronchitis - chronic ... a protein called alpha-1 antitrypsin can develop emphysema. Other risk factors for COPD are: Exposure to ...

  13. Completely Digital Two-Visit Immediately Loaded Implants: Proof of Concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnitman, Paul A; Han, Rita K

    2015-08-01

    Implant dentistry has become a common treatment alternative, yet only a small percentage of patients missing teeth are receiving its benefits. Significant limitations are the small percent of practitioners placing implants due to the long learning curve, as well as the time commitment on the part of the patient. This proof of concept demonstrates clinical implant treatment requiring years of manual skill development on the part of the surgeon, restorative dentist, and technician can be accomplished in 2 visits, completely digitally, without the need for conventional impressions, laboratory procedures, and advanced manual skills. This technique results in reduced learning curve and treatment time. The first visit consists of consultation, diagnosis, CT and optical surface scans of the implant site to include: soft tissue, adjacent teeth, and opposing arch. This digital information is imported and interactively reconstructed in a 3-D open format implant planning software. The implant and restoration are now precisely planned into the optimal bone position with the ideal emergence profile for biologically and esthetically designed restoration. This information is then electronically forwarded to a production facility, where all necessary models are digitally printed and the immediate crown is digitally milled. On the second visit, the patient returns for guided implant insertion and immediate restoration. As digital procedures are refined, many more dental professionals will become involved in providing implant therapy earlier in their careers. This promises to result in reduced costs, making implants available to millions more patients who could benefit from them. PMID:25985057

  14. Template-guided implantation of the Bonebridge: clinical experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Nozomu; Takumi, Yutaka; Cho, Byunghyun; Mori, Kentaro; Usami, Shin-Ichi; Yamashita, Makoto; Hashizume, Makoto; Komune, Shizuo

    2015-12-01

    The surgical procedure for Bonebridge implantation cannot be done in some cases without exposing the dura mater or sigmoid sinus. Surgical simulation technology can help to identify such difficulties prior to surgery and be used to clarify the optimal location and orientation of the device to be implanted. However, there has not been a simple strategy to drill the temporal bone at exactly the same location as that simulated on the computer. Based on our previous development of the surface template-assisted marker positioning (STAMP) method for performing image-guided otologic surgery, we recently developed a noninvasive guiding method, the BB-STAMP method, for performing image-guided Bonebridge implantation. Three patients underwent Bonebridge implantation at our surgical center during the years of 2013-2014. The authors in the simulation center supported the surgery using the BB-STAMP method. The time and effort required to prepare for the surgery were evaluated. In addition, a postoperative analysis was performed to assess the accuracy of placing the device in the planned location. The BB-STAMP method enabled the surgeon to precisely replicate the computer simulation in the real patient with submillimetric accuracy without complexity. Thus, the use of experienced and elaborative simulation coupled with the creation of a tailor-made three-dimensional template (BB-STAMP) enables surgeons to perform quick, precise and safe surgical procedures at distant institutions. PMID:25524644

  15. ITI implants and Dolder bars in the treatment of large traumatic defect of mandible: a clinical report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Murat; Yilmaz, Ayşe; Kâtiboğlu, Bülent; Tunç, Elif Pak

    2004-12-01

    The development of more sophisticated implant techniques to produce satisfying results improves the precise planning of both the surgical phase of the implantation and the following prosthetic rehabilitation. Ball and bar attachments are the main retainer systems for implant-bearing overdentures to achieve a successful treatment in the partial or full edentulism. In this clinical report, a 23-year-old male patient, presented with a large traumatic defect in the anterior mandible, was treated with ITI implant and ITI Dolder bar combinations. The reason to prefer this kind of treatment depends on the highest retention capacity and cleaning facilities of the system. PMID:15522058

  16. Use of PID and Iterative Learning Controls on Improving Intra-Oral Hydraulic Loading System of Dental Implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yi-Cheng; Chan, Manuel; Hsin, Yi-Ping; Ko, Ching-Chang

    This study presents the control design and tests of an intra-oral hydraulic system for quantitatively loading of a dental implant. The computer-controlled system was developed and employed for better pressure error compensation by PID (proportional-integral-derivative) control and point-to-point iterative learning algorithm. In vitro experiments showed that implant loading is precisely controlled (error 3%) for 0.5Hz loading without air inclusion, and reasonably performed (errorvivo animal studies for better understanding of how bone responds to implant loading. Quantitative information derived from this biomechanical model will add to improved designs of dental implants.

  17. Bone Substitutes for Peri-Implant Defects of Postextraction Implants

    OpenAIRE

    Pâmela Letícia Santos; Jéssica Lemos Gulinelli; Cristino da Silva Telles; Walter Betoni Júnior; Roberta Okamoto; Vivian Chiacchio Buchignani; Thallita Pereira Queiroz

    2013-01-01

    Placement of implants in fresh sockets is an alternative to try to reduce physiological resorption of alveolar ridge after tooth extraction. This surgery can be used to preserve the bone architecture and also accelerate the restorative procedure. However, the diastasis observed between bone and implant may influence osseointegration. So, autogenous bone graft and/or biomaterials have been used to fill this gap. Considering the importance of bone repair for treatment with implants placed immed...

  18. Validation of implant stability: A measure of implant permanence

    OpenAIRE

    Neha Mall; B Dhanasekar; I. N. Aparna

    2011-01-01

    Implant stability is a requisite characteristic of osseointegration. Without it, long-term success cannot be achieved. Continuous monitoring in a quantitative and objective manner is important to determine the status of implant stability. Measurement of implant stability is a valuable tool for making decisions pertaining to treatment protocol and also improves dentist-patient communication. Owing to the invasive nature of histological analysis, various others methods have been proposed like r...

  19. Gold Bead Implantation in Acupoints for Coxofemoral Arthrosis in Dogs: Method Description and Adverse Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Moe

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Gold bead implantation has been used for years as an alternative method to improve function in chronic joint disease both in humans and dogs. The aims of the present study were to describe the technique of implanting 24-karat gold beads around the hip joints of dogs with chronic hip dysplasia, and to record any side effects or complications of such treatment. A prospective placebo-controlled double-blinded clinical trial was performed. Eighty dogs were randomly allocated to treatment or placebo, with 38 in the gold implantation group and 42 in the placebo group, and followed intensely for six months. The implantation technique was simple to perform, using fluoroscopy and with the dogs under inhalation anesthesia for about 30 minutes. Adverse effects, measured as pain or discomfort, were seen for a period of up to four weeks in 15 of the dogs in the gold implantation group, compared to six dogs in the placebo group. During implantation, a technical difficulty occurred as 82% of the dogs showed leakage of blood and/or synovia from the needles. The dogs in the gold implantation group were radiographed 18 months later. Of the 30 dogs that were radiographed at both inclusion and 24 months, 80% (24 dogs showed a deterioration of the coxofemoral arthrosis, the other six had stable disease evaluated by radiography. Migration of gold beads was only observed in one dog.

  20. Gold Bead Implantation in Acupoints for Coxofemoral Arthrosis in Dogs: Method Description and Adverse Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jæger, Gry T; Stigen, Øyvind; Devor, Morten; Moe, Lars

    2012-01-01

    Gold bead implantation has been used for years as an alternative method to improve function in chronic joint disease both in humans and dogs. The aims of the present study were to describe the technique of implanting 24-karat gold beads around the hip joints of dogs with chronic hip dysplasia, and to record any side effects or complications of such treatment. A prospective placebo-controlled double-blinded clinical trial was performed. Eighty dogs were randomly allocated to treatment or placebo, with 38 in the gold implantation group and 42 in the placebo group, and followed intensely for six months. The implantation technique was simple to perform, using fluoroscopy and with the dogs under inhalation anesthesia for about 30 minutes. Adverse effects, measured as pain or discomfort, were seen for a period of up to four weeks in 15 of the dogs in the gold implantation group, compared to six dogs in the placebo group. During implantation, a technical difficulty occurred as 82% of the dogs showed leakage of blood and/or synovia from the needles. The dogs in the gold implantation group were radiographed 18 months later. Of the 30 dogs that were radiographed at both inclusion and 24 months, 80% (24 dogs) showed a deterioration of the coxofemoral arthrosis, the other six had stable disease evaluated by radiography. Migration of gold beads was only observed in one dog. PMID:26487031

  1. Inflammatory response to therapeutic gold bead implantation in canine hip joint osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lie, K-I; Jæger, G; Nordstoga, K; Moe, L

    2011-11-01

    Inflammatory changes associated with periarticular pure gold bead implants were studied in dogs involved in a clinical trial investigating motor dysfunction and chronic pain owing to hip joint dysplasia and osteoarthritis. Gold beads were percutaneously implanted via a needle into different locations surrounding the greater trochanter of the femur. Nine dogs with implants were necropsied. In all examined animals, characteristic histologic lesions were observed in the tissue surrounding the gold implants--namely, a fibrous capsule composed of concentric fibroblasts intermixed with a variable number of inflammatory cells and a paucicellular innermost layer of collagen with a few fibrocyte-like cells in empty lacunae. Lymphocytes dominated the inflammatory infiltrate, with rarely observed macrophages present in close proximity to the implant site. No giant cells were observed. Immunohistochemistry showed mixed populations of lymphocytes, both CD3 positive (T cells) and CD79a positive (B cells), which in some cases formed lymphoid follicles. Diffuse inflammatory changes were present to a minor extent in the perimysium and surrounding fascia. The inflammation observed in dogs is similar to that observed with gold implants in humans. It is possible that the clinically beneficial effect of gold beads for chronic osteoarthritis depends on sustained localized inflammation with localized release of soluble mediators. The encapsulation of the implant by a paucicellular and poorly vascularized fibrous capsule may help prevent an exaggerated inflammatory reaction by sequestering the gold bead from the surrounding tissue. PMID:20861497

  2. Computed tomography diagnostic of chronic rhino sinusitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ordinary conventional roentgenological examinations of paranasal sinuses does not satisfy the latest needs of otorinolaringologysta, especially for functional endoscopic surgery. Computed tomography of paranasal sinuses because more important for diagnostics of chronic rhino sinusitis and for choosing the appropriate therapy of it. The examination enables to localize pathology precisely, to exactly evaluate anatomic structures, ostiomeatalic complex, the status of mucous membrane of paranasal sinuses and the effectiveness of surgical treatment of chronic rhino sinusitis. (author)

  3. Cefoperazone sodium impregnated polycaprolactone composite implant for osteomyelitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand A

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of local antibiotics from a biodegradable implant for chronic osteomyelitis is an attractive alternative. The implant delivers high antibiotic concentration at tissue levels, obliterates dead space, aids bone repair and does not need to be removed. The purpose of this paper is to develop and evaluate a calcium sulphate and polycaprolactone based composite biodegradable implantable delivery system of cefoperazone sodium. Implants were prepared by modified fabrication technique to avoid solvent use. Interaction studies were carried out to check any incompatibility between ingredients. Prepared implants were evaluated for various in vitro parameters like dimensions, hardness, tensile strength, drug release profile and sterility. Morphological changes in pellet before and after drug release were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy. The pellet were also tested for microbiological efficacy and compared with plain drug solution in different concentrations. Developed pellets are regular in shape and size with good tensile strength. The release profile displayed drug levels above MIC continuously up to 2 months. Wide zone of inhibition by pellet against Staph. aureus as compared to drug solution proves its efficacy in treatment of osteomyelitis.

  4. MR imaging artifacts caused by abrasion of metallic implants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eighteen patients with vertebral body fractures that had been stabilized by an internal spinal skeletal fixation system were prospectively examined by magnetic resonance (MR) imaging between February 1989 and November 1990 at the Department of Diagnostic Radiology of the University Hospital Freiburtg 3-7 days after removal of the metallic implants. In most cases imaging artifacts in the paraspinal extensor muscles were evident on MR studies. These were found especially in the region of the previous site of the metal clip jaw bearing. In a few cases artifacts were also present within the vertebral body and/or vertebral arch, but only if the vertebral body had been surgically reconstructed by transpedicular spongiosa implantation. None or only minor artifacts by abrasion of metal were detected if the (modified Schanz's) screws appeared to be tigth at surgical removal of the implants. Therefore, marked metal artifacts on MR imaging retrospectively indicate a chronic straining of the implants, which has been shown to be a risk factor for implant loosening. Additional in vitro studies with powdered metallic alloy showed that as little as 1 mg of metal could be detected as artifacts in routine spin-echo sequences. When the metallic pieces were large enough to be seen on conventional radiographs or computed tomograms, they caused severe, distorting artifacts on MR imaging. It is concluded that MR imaging is the method of choice for detection of small amounts of metal. (orig.)

  5. Optimal management of chronic osteomyelitis: current perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Pande KC

    2015-01-01

    Ketan C Pande Raja Isteri Pengiran Anak Saleha Hospital, Bandar Seri Begawan, BruneiAbstract: Chronic osteomyelitis is a challenging condition to treat. It is seen mostly after open fractures or in implant-related infections following treatment of fractures and prosthetic joint replacements. Recurrence of infection is well known, and successful treatment requires a multidisciplinary team approach with surgical debridement and appropriate antimicrobial therapy as the cornerstone of treatment. ...

  6. European Symposium on Precision Medicine in Allergy and Airways Diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muraro, A; Fokkens, W J; Pietikainen, S;

    2016-01-01

    The European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI), the European Rhinologic Society (ERS) and the European Medical Association (EMA) organized, on 14 October 2015, a symposium in the European Parliament in Brussels on Precision Medicine in Allergy and Airways Diseases, hosted by MEP...... Diseases Patients Associations (EFA), the Global Allergy and Asthma European Network (Ga2len), Allergic Rhinitis and Its Impact on Asthma (ARIA) and the Respiratory Effectiveness Group (REG). The socio-economic impact of allergies and chronic airways diseases cannot be underestimated, as they represent the...... most frequently diagnosed chronic non-communicable diseases in the EU. 30% of the total European population is suffering from allergies and asthma, and more than half are deprived from adequate diagnosis and treatment. Precision Medicine represents a novel approach, embracing 4 key features...

  7. The change of rotational freedom following different insertion torques in three implant systems with implant driver

    OpenAIRE

    Kwon, Joo-Hyun; Han, Chong-Hyun; Kim, Sun-Jai; Chang, Jae-Seung

    2009-01-01

    STATEMENT OF PROBLEM Implant drivers are getting popular in clinical dentistry. Unlike to implant systems with external hex connection, implant drivers directly engage the implant/abutment interface. The deformation of the implant/abutment interface can be introduced while placing an implant with its implant driver in clinical situations. PURPOSE This study evaluated the change of rotational freedom between an implant and its abutment after application of different insertion torques. MATERIAL...

  8. Current trends in dental implants

    OpenAIRE

    Gaviria, Laura; Salcido, John Paul; Guda, Teja; Ong, Joo L.

    2014-01-01

    Tooth loss is very a very common problem; therefore, the use of dental implants is also a common practice. Although research on dental implant designs, materials and techniques has increased in the past few years and is expected to expand in the future, there is still a lot of work involved in the use of better biomaterials, implant design, surface modification and functionalization of surfaces to improve the long-term outcomes of the treatment. This paper provides a brief history and evoluti...

  9. Dental Implants: Dual Stabilization Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Saini, Rajiv

    2015-01-01

    More recent epidemiological data seem to show an increasing trend of tooth loss due to periodontal reasons rather than caries; the presence of initial attachment loss, bone height and the habit of smoking significantly increase the risk of tooth mortality. A dental implant is a titanium screw which is placed into bone to replace missing teeth. The implant mimics the root of a tooth in function. Dental Implants have changed the face of dentistry over the last three decades. Success of dental i...

  10. Short implants in oral rehabilitation

    OpenAIRE

    Emmanuel Panobianco Chizolini; Ana Cláudia Rossi; Alexandre Rodrigues Freire; Mario Roberto Perussi; Paulo Henrique Ferreira Caria; Felippe Bevilacqua Prado

    2011-01-01

    Introduction and objective: The placement of short dental implants is used as an alternative treatment modality to bone grafting procedures. The aim of this study was to discuss, through a literature review, the features, indications and biomechanical aspects of short implants, as well as to report the clinical factors that influence on their indication. Literature review and conclusion: It was found that short implants osseointegration can be compromised by risk factors that must be controll...

  11. Nanostructured Surfaces of Dental Implants

    OpenAIRE

    Stefano Sivolella; Barbara Zavan; Letizia Ferroni; Chiara Gardin; Vincenzo Vindigni; Edoardo Stellini; Marco Roman; Ilaria Tocco; Riccardo Guazzo; Luca Sbricoli; Eriberto Bressan

    2013-01-01

    The structural and functional fusion of the surface of the dental implant with the surrounding bone (osseointegration) is crucial for the short and long term outcome of the device. In recent years, the enhancement of bone formation at the bone-implant interface has been achieved through the modulation of osteoblasts adhesion and spreading, induced by structural modifications of the implant surface, particularly at the nanoscale level. In this context, traditional chemical and physical process...

  12. Paediatric cataract implant surgery outcome

    OpenAIRE

    Istiantoro Istiantoro

    2003-01-01

    This study evaluated the surgical outcome of various surgical technique in paediatric cataract implant surgery, at Jakarta Eye Center, Jakarta, Indonesia. This was a retrospective study of 57 eyes in 44 children who had primary cataract implants surgery. Three surgical techniques used were : 1. Extracapsular cataract extraction with intraocular lens implantation with intact posterior capsule which was performed on 21 eyes (group 1). 2. Extracapsular cataract extraction with intraocular lens i...

  13. Low back pain - chronic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonspecific back pain; Backache - chronic; Lumbar pain - chronic; Pain - back - chronic; Chronic back pain - low ... Low back pain is common. Almost everyone has back pain at some time in their life. Often, the exact cause of ...

  14. Chronic Pelvic Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Chronic Pelvic Pain Home For Patients Search FAQs Chronic Pelvic Pain ... Pain FAQ099, August 2011 PDF Format Chronic Pelvic Pain Gynecologic Problems What is chronic pelvic pain? What ...

  15. Employees with Chronic Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home | Accommodation and Compliance Series: Employees with Chronic Pain By Beth Loy, Ph.D. Preface Introduction Information ... at http://AskJAN.org/soar. Information about Chronic Pain How prevalent is chronic pain? Chronic pain has ...

  16. A Chronic Generalized Bi-directional Brain-Machine Interface

    OpenAIRE

    Rouse, Adam; Stanslaski, Scott; Cong, Peng; Jensen, Randy; Afshar, Pedram; Ullestad, Dave; Moran, Dan; Denison, Tim

    2011-01-01

    A bi-directional neural interface (NI) system was designed and built by incorporating a novel neural recording and processing subsystem into a commercially approved neural stimulator. The NI system prototype leverages the system infrastructure from a market-approved neurostimulator to ensure reliable operation in a chronic implantation environment. In addition to providing approved therapy capabilities, the device adds key elements to facilitate chronic clinical research, such as four channel...

  17. Cochlear implants in genetic deafness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xuezhong Liu

    2014-01-01

    Genetic defects are one of the most important etiologies of severe to profound sensorineural hearing loss and play an important role in determining cochlear implantation outcomes. While the pathogenic mutation types of a number of deafness genes have been cloned, the pathogenesis mechanisms and their relationship to the outcomes of cochlear implantation remain a hot research area. The auditory performance is considered to be affected by the etiology of hearing loss and the number of surviving spiral ganglion cells, as well as others. Current research advances in cochlear implantation for hereditary deafness, especially the relationship among clinic-types, genotypes and outcomes of cochlear implantation, will be discussed in this review.

  18. Short implants: A systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Karthikeyan, I.; Shrikar R. Desai; Singh, Rika

    2012-01-01

    Background: Short implants are manufactured for use in atrophic regions of the jaws. Although many studies report on short implants as ≤10 mm length with considerable success, the literature regarding survival rate of ≤7 mm is sparse. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to systematically evaluate the publications concerning short dental implants defined as an implant with a length of ≤7 mm placed in the maxilla or in the mandible. Materials and Methods: A Medline and manual search was cond...

  19. Ion implantation: Science and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book is a tutorial presentation of the science, techniques, and machines of ion implantation. The first section of this book concerns the science of ion implantation. It covers the historical development of the field, and the basic theory of energetic ion penetration of solids. The major concentration of this section is to explain the nature of the creation of damage in crystaline silicon during ion implantation, and the methods which can be used to recover the original crystalinity. Especially helpful are the TEM photographs scattered throughout this section which show the many phases of the morphology of ion implantation damage. Methods are described which allow the quantitative evaluation of the success of the implantation and the recovery of the semiconductor. The last half of this book describes the ion accelerators (implanters) used in ion implantation, with a detailed presentation of the major components which require maintenance. A large part of this section concerns the methods of quantitatively evaluating the performance of ion implanters. A chapter is devoted to the extensive safety hazards of implanters and methods to maintain safe operation

  20. Proprioceptive precision is impaired in Ehlers-Danlos syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, Holly A; Jones, Stephanie A H; Henriques, Denise Y P

    2015-01-01

    It has been suggested that people with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS), or other similar connective tissue disorders, may have proprioceptive impairments, the reason for which is still unknown. We recently found that EDS patients were less precise than healthy controls when estimating their felt hand's position relative to visible peripheral reference locations, and that this deficit was positively correlated with the severity of joint hypermobility. We further explore proprioceptive abilities in EDS by having patients localize their non-dominant left hand at a greater number of workspace locations than in our previous study. Additionally, we explore the relationship between chronic pain and proprioceptive sensitivity. We found that, although patients were just as accurate as controls, they were not as precise. Patients showed twice as much scatter than controls at all locations, but the degree of scatter did not positively correlate with chronic pain scores. This further supports the idea that a proprioceptive impairment pertaining to precision is present in EDS, but may not relate to the magnitude of chronic pain. PMID:26180743

  1. Chronic coughing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chronic coughing was acknowledged to result from pathological state of the respiratory organs. Cardiac diseases could be accompanied by coughing as well. It was recommended to perform x-ray examinations, including biomedical radiography of the chest, computerized tomography, scintiscanning with 67Ga-citrate, bronchi examination in order to exclude heart disease. The complex examination permitted to detect localization and type of the changes in the lungs and mediastinum, to distinguish benign tumor from malignant one

  2. Integrated device for combined optical neuromodulation and electrical recording for chronic in vivo applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Wagner, Fabien; Borton, David A.; Zhang, Jiayi; Ozden, Ilker; Burwell, Rebecca D.; Nurmikko, Arto V.; van Wagenen, Rick; Diester, Ilka; Deisseroth, Karl

    2012-02-01

    Studying brain function and its local circuit dynamics requires neural interfaces that can record and stimulate the brain with high spatiotemporal resolution. Optogenetics, a technique that genetically targets specific neurons to express light-sensitive channel proteins, provides the capability to control central nervous system neuronal activity in mammals with millisecond time precision. This technique enables precise optical stimulation of neurons and simultaneous monitoring of neural response by electrophysiological means, both in the vicinity of and distant to the stimulation site. We previously demonstrated, in vitro, the dual capability (optical delivery and electrical recording) while testing a novel hybrid device (optrode-MEA), which incorporates a tapered coaxial optical electrode (optrode) and a 100 element microelectrode array (MEA). Here we report a fully chronic implant of a new version of this device in ChR2-expressing rats, and demonstrate its use in freely moving animals over periods up to 8 months. In its present configuration, we show the device delivering optical excitation to a single cortical site while mapping the neural response from the surrounding 30 channels of the 6 × 6 element MEA, thereby enabling recording of optically modulated single-unit and local field potential activity across several millimeters of the neocortical landscape.

  3. Automatic Implantable Cardiac Defibrillator

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... as many lives as the next causes, including cancer, chronic obstructive lung disease or emphysema, automobile or accidents of all kind, diabetes -- all combined. You put them all together and we lose more ... death from breast cancer, which women seem to be very concerned about, ...

  4. Implant periapical lesion: Diagnosis and treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Peñarrocha Diago, María; Maestre Ferrín, Laura; Cervera Ballester, Juan; Peñarrocha Oltra, David

    2012-01-01

    The implant periapical lesion is the infectious-inflammatory process of the tissues surrounding the implant apex. It may be caused by different factors: contamination of the implant surface, overheating of bone during drilling, preparation of a longer implant bed than the implant itself, and pre-existing bone disease. Diagnosis is achieved by studying the presence of symptoms and signs such us pain, swelling, suppuration or fistula; in the radiograph an implant periapical radiolucency may app...

  5. Post-treatment supportive care for the natural dentition and dental implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armitage, Gary C; Xenoudi, Pinelopi

    2016-06-01

    Long-term successful treatment of chronic periodontitis requires placement of patients on post-treatment recall programs known as either periodontal maintenance therapy or supportive periodontal therapy. Selection of the recall intervals must be based on the specific needs of individual patients. A single recall interval (e.g. 6 months) is not suitable for all patients. The main purpose of these programs is to prevent the recurrence of periodontitis. The components of every periodontal maintenance therapy program include: review of medical/dental histories; complete oral examination with an emphasis on the detection of gingival inflammation; establishing whether the maintenance program is working by monitoring clinical attachment levels; evaluation of oral hygiene; and full-mouth supragingival and subgingival debridement (i.e. biofilm removal). Long-term post-insertion care for dental implants also requires a similar patient-specific recall program of supportive implant therapy. The main purposes of a supportive implant therapy program are to maintain a healthy peri-implant mucosa and thereby prevent the development of peri-implantitis. In cases in which plaque-induced peri-implant mucositis has occurred, a well-designed supportive implant therapy program can help return the mucosa to a healthy state. At the current time there is no consensus on the optimal interventions for the treatment of peri-implant mucositis. However, all effective supportive implant therapy programs emphasize meticulous oral hygiene practices, careful peri-implant examination, thoughtful analysis of risk factors and periodic removal of microbial deposits from the implants. PMID:27045436

  6. Precise and feasible measurements of lateral calcaneal lengthening osteotomies by radiostereometric analysis in cadaver feet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinkevich, P; Rahbek, Ole; Møller-Madsen, B;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Lengthening osteotomies of the calcaneus in children are in general grafted with bone from the iliac crest. Artificial bone grafts have been introduced, however, their structural and clinical durability has not been documented. Radiostereometric analysis (RSA) is a very accurate and...... precise method for measurements of rigid body movements including the evaluation of joint implant and fracture stability, however, RSA has not previously been used in clinical studies of calcaneal osteotomies. We assessed the precision of RSA as a measurement tool in a lateral calcaneal lengthening...... poorly dispersed markers. Precision was assessed as systematic bias and 95% repeatability limits. RESULTS: Systematic bias was generally below 0.10 mm for translations. Precision of migration measurements was below 0.2 mm for translations in the osteotomy. CONCLUSION: RSA is a precise tool for the...

  7. Accurate guitar tuning by cochlear implant musicians.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Lu

    Full Text Available Modern cochlear implant (CI users understand speech but find difficulty in music appreciation due to poor pitch perception. Still, some deaf musicians continue to perform with their CI. Here we show unexpected results that CI musicians can reliably tune a guitar by CI alone and, under controlled conditions, match simultaneously presented tones to <0.5 Hz. One subject had normal contralateral hearing and produced more accurate tuning with CI than his normal ear. To understand these counterintuitive findings, we presented tones sequentially and found that tuning error was larger at ∼ 30 Hz for both subjects. A third subject, a non-musician CI user with normal contralateral hearing, showed similar trends in performance between CI and normal hearing ears but with less precision. This difference, along with electric analysis, showed that accurate tuning was achieved by listening to beats rather than discriminating pitch, effectively turning a spectral task into a temporal discrimination task.

  8. Accurate guitar tuning by cochlear implant musicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Thomas; Huang, Juan; Zeng, Fan-Gang

    2014-01-01

    Modern cochlear implant (CI) users understand speech but find difficulty in music appreciation due to poor pitch perception. Still, some deaf musicians continue to perform with their CI. Here we show unexpected results that CI musicians can reliably tune a guitar by CI alone and, under controlled conditions, match simultaneously presented tones to <0.5 Hz. One subject had normal contralateral hearing and produced more accurate tuning with CI than his normal ear. To understand these counterintuitive findings, we presented tones sequentially and found that tuning error was larger at ∼ 30 Hz for both subjects. A third subject, a non-musician CI user with normal contralateral hearing, showed similar trends in performance between CI and normal hearing ears but with less precision. This difference, along with electric analysis, showed that accurate tuning was achieved by listening to beats rather than discriminating pitch, effectively turning a spectral task into a temporal discrimination task. PMID:24651081

  9. SLA Wear Study in Biomedical Implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarborough, Kyla; Blatchley, Charles; Namavar, Fereydoon; Haider, Hani

    2004-05-01

    Monitoring of surface loss by detecting radionuclide markers or tracers (Surface Layer Activation) has been a popular approach in mechanical systems, such as engines, power plants, and corrosive environments for several decades. We report calibrations of activity versus depth profiles generated by Van de Graaff bombardment in CoCrMo and titanium, materials commonly used for biomedical implants, in preparation for mechanical wear simulations planned for later this year at the University of Nebraska Medical Center. Nuclides monitored include Mn-52, Co-58, and V-48. We will also discuss plans to extend the technique to zirconia ceramics and polymers. Calibrations will be used to translate changes in gamma ray intensity measured by NaI(Tl) spectrometry into precise determinations of surface loss. Typical exposure levels are barely distinguishable from natural background, because small amounts are effective; counting intervals can be long; and characteristic source gamma rays can be isolated to insure safety.

  10. Imaging breasts with silicone implants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the last two decades, the use of breast implants both for breast augmentation and for breast reconstruction following mastectomy has increased substantially. It is estimated that around two million women have undergone breast augmentation, while hundreds of thousands have had breast reconstruction surgery. Different types of material have been used for breast implants, but silicone gel implants have been the dominating implant type. Many implants can lead to complications, such as hardening and rupture, and may therefore need in vivo evaluation by imaging, particularly if they lead to clinical symptoms. They can also pose problems in the assessment of surrounding breast tissue by conventional mammography. In this respect, imaging modalities such as ultrasound, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging offer greater possibilities to assess a failing implant, as well as surrounding breast tissue. Several factors, mainly of a psychological nature, lead to requests for breast implants. In this review article, only the imaging aspects of breasts with silicone gel implants will be dealt with. Each modality is concisely presented with its possibilities and limitations. (orig.)

  11. Implantable Antennas for Biomedical Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Merli, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    Since the introduction of implantable pacemakers in the early 1960s, implantable medical devices have become more and more interesting for healthcare services. Nowadays, the devices designed to monitor physiological data from inside the human body have great promises to provide major contributions to disease prevention, diagnosis and therapy. Furthermore, minimally invasive devices allow reducing hospitalization terms, thus improving the patients' qua...

  12. Endometrium implantation and ectopic pregnancy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU; Yixun

    2004-01-01

    Embryo in uterine implantation is a complex and multifactor-related process and is a downstream and ideal point for woman fertility control.Understanding the cellular and molecular mechanism of implantation is a prerequisite for development of anti-implantation contraceptives.In spite of considerable accumulation of information from the laboratory animals that has been achieved,it is difficult to generate such information in human due to ethical restriction and experimental limitation,and the present knowledge for understanding the definitive mechanisms which control these events remains elusive.Embryo implantation can also occur outside uterus.Some women with abdominal pregnancies could successfully complete the processes of gestation and bear normal babies,implying that implantation itself may be not an endometrium-specific process.Reproductive biologists should cooperate with gynecologists to further comparatively study the molecular and cellular mechanisms of implantation normally occurring in endometrium and abnormally appearing outside uterine cavity.Such collaborative studies may generate new important information for developing anti-implantation contraceptive and for techniques of accurate diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy.A specially designed GnRH-2 analog and a combination use of Iow dose RU486 and gossypol as anti-implantation contraceptives have been suggested.

  13. Serrated needle design facilitates precise round window membrane perforation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, James P; Watanabe, Hirobumi; Kysar, Jeffrey W; Lalwani, Anil K

    2016-07-01

    The round window membrane (RWM) has become the preferred route, over cochleostomy, for the introduction of cochlear implant electrodes as it minimizes inner ear trauma. However, in the absence of a tool designed for creating precise perforation, current practices lead to tearing of the RWM and significant intracochlear pressure fluctuations. On the basis of RWM mechanical properties, we have designed a multi-serrated needle to create consistent holes without membrane tearing or damaging inner ear structures. Four and eight-serrated needles were designed and produced with wire electrical discharge machining (EDM). The needle's ability to create RWM perforations was tested in deidentified, commercially acquired temporal bones with the assistance of a micromanipulator. Subsequently, specimens were imaged under light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The needles created consistent, appropriately sized holes in the membrane with minimal tearing. While a four-serrated crown needle made rectangular/trapezoid perforations, the octagonal crown formed smooth oval holes within the membrane. Though designed for single use, the needle tolerated repeated use without significant damage. The serrated needles formed precise perforations in the RWM while minimizing damage during cochlear implantation. The octagonal needle design created the preferred oval perforation better than the quad needle. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 104A: 1633-1637, 2016. PMID:26914984

  14. Surface-conductivity enhancement of PMMA by keV-energy metal-ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An experiment has been proposed to measure the neutron electric dipole moment (nEDM) with high precision at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Spallation Neutron Source. One of the requirements of this experiment is the development of PMMA (Lucite) material with a sufficiently conductive surface to permit its use as a high-voltage electrode while immersed in liquid He. At the ORNL Multicharged Ion Research Facility, an R and D activity is under way to achieve suitable surface conductivity in poly-methyl methacrylate (PMMA) using metal ion implantation. The metal implantation is performed using an electron-cyclotron-resonance (ECR) ion source and a recently developed beam line deceleration module that is capable of providing high flux beams for implantation at energies as low as a few tens of eV. The latter is essential for reaching implantation fluences exceeding 1 × 1016 cm−2, where typical percolation thresholds in polymers have been reported. In this contribution, we report results on initial implantation of Lucite by Ti and W beams with keV energies to average fluences in the range 0.5–6.2 × 1016 cm−2. Initial measurements of surface-resistivity changes are reported as function of implantation fluence, energy, and sample temperature. We also report X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) surface and depth profiling measurements of the ion implanted samples, to identify possible correlations between the near surface and depth resolved implanted W concentrations and the measured surface resistivities

  15. The dosimetric impact of dental implants on head-and-neck volumetric modulated arc therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Mu-Han; Li, Jinsheng; Price, Robert A., Jr.; Wang, Lu; Lee, Chung-Chi; Ma, C.-M.

    2013-02-01

    This work aims to investigate the dosimetric impact of dental implants on volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) for head-and-neck patients and to evaluate the effectiveness of using the material's electron-density ratio for the correction. An in-house Monte Carlo (MC) code was utilized for the dose calculation to account for the scattering and attenuation caused by the high-Z implant material. Three different dental implant materials were studied in this work: titanium, Degubond®4 and gold. The dose perturbations caused by the dental implant materials were first investigated in a water phantom with a 1 cm3 insert. The per cent depth dose distributions of a 3 × 3 cm2 photon field were compared with the insert material as water and the three selected dental implant materials. To evaluate the impact of the dental implant on VMAT patient dose calculation, four head-and-neck cases were selected. For each case, the VMAT plan was designed based on the artifact-corrected patient geometry using a treatment planning system (TPS) that was typically utilized for routine patient treatment. The plans were re-calculated using the MC code for five situations: uncorrected geometry, artifact-corrected geometry and artifact-corrected geometry with one of the three different implant materials. The isodose distributions and the dose-volume histograms were cross-compared with each other. To evaluate the effectiveness of using the material's electron-density ratio for dental implant correction, the implant region was set as water with the material's electron-density ratio and the calculated dose was compared with the MC simulation with the real material. The main effect of the dental implant was the severe attenuation in the downstream. The 1 cm3 dental implant can lower the downstream dose by 10% (Ti) to 51% (Au) for a 3 × 3 cm2 field. The TPS failed to account for the dose perturbation if the dental implant material was not precisely defined. For the VMAT patient dose calculation

  16. The dosimetric impact of dental implants on head-and-neck volumetric modulated arc therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work aims to investigate the dosimetric impact of dental implants on volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) for head-and-neck patients and to evaluate the effectiveness of using the material's electron-density ratio for the correction. An in-house Monte Carlo (MC) code was utilized for the dose calculation to account for the scattering and attenuation caused by the high-Z implant material. Three different dental implant materials were studied in this work: titanium, Degubond®4 and gold. The dose perturbations caused by the dental implant materials were first investigated in a water phantom with a 1 cm3 insert. The per cent depth dose distributions of a 3 × 3 cm2 photon field were compared with the insert material as water and the three selected dental implant materials. To evaluate the impact of the dental implant on VMAT patient dose calculation, four head-and-neck cases were selected. For each case, the VMAT plan was designed based on the artifact-corrected patient geometry using a treatment planning system (TPS) that was typically utilized for routine patient treatment. The plans were re-calculated using the MC code for five situations: uncorrected geometry, artifact-corrected geometry and artifact-corrected geometry with one of the three different implant materials. The isodose distributions and the dose–volume histograms were cross-compared with each other. To evaluate the effectiveness of using the material's electron-density ratio for dental implant correction, the implant region was set as water with the material's electron-density ratio and the calculated dose was compared with the MC simulation with the real material. The main effect of the dental implant was the severe attenuation in the downstream. The 1 cm3 dental implant can lower the downstream dose by 10% (Ti) to 51% (Au) for a 3 × 3 cm2 field. The TPS failed to account for the dose perturbation if the dental implant material was not precisely defined. For the VMAT patient dose

  17. Short implants in oral rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Panobianco Chizolini

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and objective: The placement of short dental implants is used as an alternative treatment modality to bone grafting procedures. The aim of this study was to discuss, through a literature review, the features, indications and biomechanical aspects of short implants, as well as to report the clinical factors that influence on their indication. Literature review and conclusion: It was found that short implants osseointegration can be compromised by risk factors that must be controlled to achieve treatment success. In conclusion, the main indication of short implants is to avoid an invasive surgery at atrophic areas of maxilla and mandible. Furthermore, implant design associated with surface treatment are factors that compensate its short length.

  18. Anatomic consideration for preventive implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denissen, H W; Kalk, W; Veldhuis, H A; van Waas, M A

    1993-01-01

    The aim of preventive implant therapy is to prevent or delay loss of alveolar ridge bone mass. For use in an anatomic study of 60 mandibles, resorption of the alveolar ridge was classified into four preventive stages: (1) after extraction of teeth; (2) after initial resorption; (3) when the ridge has atrophied to a knife-edge shape; and (4) when only basal bone remains. Implantation in stage 3 necessitates removal of the knife-edge ridge to create space for cylindrical implants. Therefore, implantation in stage 2 is advocated to prevent the development of stage 3. The aim of implantation in stage 4 is to prevent total loss of function of the atrophic mandible. PMID:8359876

  19. Staged ridge-split evaluated using cone beam computed tomography and peri-implant plastic surgery in the mandibular arch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikhil Vasant Jain

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Lack of sufficient bone to place an implant at a functionally and an esthetically appropriate position is a common problem, especially in the mandibular posterior region. Narrow edentulous alveolar ridges <5 mm wide require bone augmentation before implant placement to establish a bony wall of at least 1 mm around the endosseous implant. Various surgical widening techniques are available, including lateral augmentation with or without guided bone regeneration, ridge-split technique and horizontal distraction osteogenesis. The ridge-split technique aims at creating a new implant bed by longitudinal osteotomy of the alveolar bone. The buccal cortex is repositioned laterally by greenstick fracture, and the space between the buccal and lingual cortices is filled with a graft material. Peri-implant plastic surgery focuses on harmonizing peri-implant structures by means of hard- and soft-tissue engineering and includes bone structure enhancement, soft-tissue enhancement, precision in implant placement and improves quality of the prosthetic restoration. The rationale for the peri-implant plastic surgery approach goes well beyond pure esthetics as it creates peri-implant keratinized mucosa and interimplant soft-tissue height in order to avoid food impaction, interimplant airflow, and speech problems. This case report demonstrates a staged ridge-split technique evaluated with cone beam computed tomography using a piezosurgical unit and a surgical technique to restore a papilla-like tissue at the time of the second-stage implant surgery.

  20. Chronic Insomnia

    OpenAIRE

    Buysse, Daniel J.

    2008-01-01

    Ms. F, a 42-year-old divorced woman, presents for evaluation of chronic insomnia. She complains of difficulty falling asleep, often 30 minutes or longer, and difficulty maintaining sleep during the night, with frequent awakenings that often last 30 minutes or longer. These symptoms occur nearly every night, with only one or two “good” nights per month. She typically goes to bed around 10:00 p.m. to give herself adequate time for sleep, and she gets out of bed around 7:00 a.m. on work days and...

  1. A Novel Percutaneous Electrode Implant for Improving Robustness in Advanced Myoelectric Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahne, Janne M; Farina, Dario; Jiang, Ning; Liebetanz, David

    2016-01-01

    Despite several decades of research, electrically powered hand and arm prostheses are still controlled with very simple algorithms that process the surface electromyogram (EMG) of remnant muscles to achieve control of one prosthetic function at a time. More advanced machine learning methods have shown promising results under laboratory conditions. However, limited robustness has largely prevented the transfer of these laboratory advances to clinical applications. In this paper, we introduce a novel percutaneous EMG electrode to be implanted chronically with the aim of improving the reliability of EMG detection in myoelectric control. The proposed electrode requires a minimally invasive procedure for its implantation, similar to a cosmetic micro-dermal implant. Moreover, being percutaneous, it does not require power and data telemetry modules. Four of these electrodes were chronically implanted in the forearm of an able-bodied human volunteer for testing their characteristics. The implants showed significantly lower impedance and greater robustness against mechanical interference than traditional surface EMG electrodes used for myoelectric control. Moreover, the EMG signals detected by the proposed systems allowed more stable control performance across sessions in different days than that achieved with classic EMG electrodes. In conclusion, the proposed implants may be a promising interface for clinically available prostheses. PMID:27065783

  2. Pre implantation psychological functioning preserved in majority of implantable cardioverter defibrillator patients 12 months post implantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Susanne S.; Hoogwegt, Madelein T; Jordaens, Luc; Theuns, Dominic A M J

    2013-01-01

    The impact of ICD therapy on patient well being has typically focused on mean differences between groups, thereby neglecting changes within individuals. Using an intra-individual approach, we examined (i) the prevalence of implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) patients maintaining their pr...... implantation level of psychological functioning at 12 months, and (ii) factors associated with deterioration in functioning....

  3. High-precision multipass reflectometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, D.F.; Baumeister, P.

    1981-01-01

    The multipass reflectometer has been shown to be a convenient and precise instrument for the measurement of spectral reflectances in excess of 0.99. This report gives a brief sketch of the initial setup of the reflectometer, its operation, optimization of parameters, and some limitations to the expected precision. The instrumental precision is set by the uncertainty in the computer fit of a straight line to the measured data. Systematic errors due to nonuniform photosurfaces and the effects of astigmatism have been minimized. We have used this reflectrometer to measure the absolute reflectance of evaporated aluminum films in the uv and visible regions. It has also been used to measure the low-level insertion losses of laser window materials for this same spectral region.

  4. The magic road to precision

    CERN Document Server

    Safronova, M S; Safronova, U I; Clark, Charles W

    2015-01-01

    We predict a sequence of magic-zero wavelengths for the Sr excited $5s5p~ ^3P_0$ state, and provide a general roadmap for extracting transition matrix elements using precise frequency measurements. We demonstrate that such measurements can serve as a best global benchmark of the spectroscopic accuracy that is required for the development of high-precision predictive methods. These magic-zero wavelengths are also needed for state-selective atom manipulation for implementation of quantum logic operations. We also identify five magic wavelengths of the $5s^2\\ ^1S_0 - 5s5p\\ ^3P_0$ Sr clock transition between 350 nm and 500 nm which can also serve as precision benchmarks.

  5. Silicone breast implants: complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwuagwu, F C; Frame, J D

    1997-12-01

    Silicone breast implants have been used for augmentation mammoplasty for cosmetic purposes as well as for breast reconstruction following mastectomy for more than three decades. Though the use of the silicone gel filled variety has been banned in the USA except for special cases, they continue to be available elsewhere in the world including the UK. Despite the immense benefit they provide, their usage is associated with some complications. Most of these are related to the surgery and can be reduced by good surgical management. The major complications associated with their use is adverse capsular contracture, an outcome which can be very frustrating to manage. This article reviews the commonly reported complications and suggested management alternatives. PMID:9613406

  6. Hydrogen implantation into silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hydrogen and deuterium implantations into crystalline silicon (c-Si) are carried out at room temperature. Infra-red spectra and electrical property studies are performed on these samples before and following annealing. Analysis of the vibrational spectra shows at least two types of bonding for hydrogen in c-Si, which are identified as SiH1, (SiH2)2 units. A strong evidence of SiH2 group formation is obtained for the relatively low hydrogen concentration in c-Si in comparison with a-Si:H. On the basis of the kinetics of formation and annealing of Si-H vibrations and scanning micrograph data it is concluded that the microvoids with reconstructed inner surfaces, and hydrogen passivating dangling bonds, are effectively produced due to divacancy type defect agglomeration followed by hydrogen trapping. The electrical properties of c-Si:H are discussed also. (author)

  7. PRECISION RADIAL VELOCITIES WITH CSHELL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radial velocity (RV) identification of extrasolar planets has historically been dominated by optical surveys. Interest in expanding exoplanet searches to M dwarfs and young stars, however, has motivated a push to improve the precision of near-infrared RV techniques. We present our methodology for achieving 58 m s-1 precision in the K band on the M0 dwarf GJ 281 using the CSHELL spectrograph at the 3 m NASA Infrared Telescope Facility. We also demonstrate our ability to recover the known 4 MJUP exoplanet Gl 86 b and discuss the implications for success in detecting planets around 1-3 Myr old T Tauri stars.

  8. Precision protection through indirect correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yao

    2016-04-01

    The dynamics of the quantum Fisher information of the parameters of the initial atomic state is studied, in the framework of open quantum systems, for a pair of static two-level atoms coupled to a bath of fluctuating vacuum scalar fields. Our results show that the correlations between the two atoms as well as the precision limit in quantum metrology are determined by the separation between the two atoms. Remarkably, when the separation between the two atoms approaches zero, the quantum Fisher information, thus the precision limit of the estimation of the parameters of the initial atomic state will be survived from the vacuum fluctuations after long time evolution.

  9. Sensing technologies for precision irrigation

    CERN Document Server

    Ćulibrk, Dubravko; Minic, Vladan; Alonso Fernandez, Marta; Alvarez Osuna, Javier; Crnojevic, Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    This brief provides an overview of state-of-the-art sensing technologies relevant to the problem of precision irrigation, an emerging field within the domain of precision agriculture. Applications of wireless sensor networks, satellite data and geographic information systems in the domain are covered. This brief presents the basic concepts of the technologies and emphasizes the practical aspects that enable the implementation of intelligent irrigation systems. The authors target a broad audience interested in this theme and organize the content in five chapters, each concerned with a specific technology needed to address the problem of optimal crop irrigation. Professionals and researchers will find the text a thorough survey with practical applications.

  10. Implantation of Hickman catheters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hickmann catheters are used mainly in patients with hematologic diseases, especially lymphatic and myelotic leukemias, and malignant lymphomas. They facilitate the administration of chemotherapeutics, hyperosmolar solutions and other substances with local toxicity as well as frequent taking of blood samples. Usually Hickmann catheters are placed by surgical cutdown on a jugular vein. In lieu of this surgical placement, we recommend the implantation of Hickman catheters by means of interventional radiology techniques. In a period of 13 months 78 Hickman catheters were placed in 67 patients. 37 catheters (=47%) stayed more than one month, 8 catheters (=10%) stayed 5 to 8 months in the central venous system. 26, respectively 6, of these catheters are until now in situ. Lethal or life threatening complications did not occur. There were no infections at the introduction site of the catheter. The main complications were: Pneumothorax without drainage: 3.2%, pneumothorax with drainage: 3.2%, slipping back of the tip of the catheter: 4.8%, thrombosis of the subclavian vein: 3.2%, fluid in the pleural cavity: 1.6%. In correspondance to the literature the complications of Hickman catheter placement by means of interventional radiology are less serious than by means of surgical cutdown. Further advantages are: General anesthesia can be avoided (less strain on severely ill patients, no problems to wean from assisted ventilation in patients with respiratory insufficiency), the smooth curve of the implanted catheter avoids sharp kinking and occlusion of the lumen, very small skin incisions are sufficient (lesser risk of hematomas in patients with thrombopenia), time and cost are reduced in comparison to surgical placement. (orig.)

  11. Basic research on maxillofacial implants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsui, Yoshiro [Showa Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Dentistry

    2001-11-01

    Osseointegrated implants have begun to be used not only in general practice in dentistry but also in various clinical situations in the maxillofacial region. The process has yielded three problems: the spread of application, new materials and diagnostic methods, and management for difficult situations. This paper presents basic data and clinical guidelines for new applications, it investigates the characteristics of the materials and the usefulness of a new diagnostic method, and it studies effective techniques for difficult cases. The results obtained are as follows: Investigations into the spreading application. The lateral and superior orbital rim have sufficient bone thickness and width for the implant body to be placed. Osseointegrated implants, especially by the fixed bridge technique, are not recommended in the craniofacial bone and jaws of young children. Implant placement into bone after/before irradiation must be performed in consideration of impaired osteogenesis, the decrease of trabecular bone, and the time interval between implantation and irradiation. Investigations into materials and diagnostic methods. Hydroxyapatite-coated and titanium implants should be selected according to the characteristics of the materials. A dental simulating soft may also be applicable in the craniofacial region. Investigations into the management of difficult cases. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBO), bone morphogenetic protein (BMP), and tissue engineering should be useful for improving the quality and increasing the quantity of bone where implants are placed. Soft tissue around implants placed in the reconstructed area should be replaced with mucosal tissue. The data obtained here should be useful for increasing the efficiency of osseointegrated implants, but further basic research is required in the future. (author)

  12. Basic research on maxillofacial implants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osseointegrated implants have begun to be used not only in general practice in dentistry but also in various clinical situations in the maxillofacial region. The process has yielded three problems: the spread of application, new materials and diagnostic methods, and management for difficult situations. This paper presents basic data and clinical guidelines for new applications, it investigates the characteristics of the materials and the usefulness of a new diagnostic method, and it studies effective techniques for difficult cases. The results obtained are as follows: Investigations into the spreading application. The lateral and superior orbital rim have sufficient bone thickness and width for the implant body to be placed. Osseointegrated implants, especially by the fixed bridge technique, are not recommended in the craniofacial bone and jaws of young children. Implant placement into bone after/before irradiation must be performed in consideration of impaired osteogenesis, the decrease of trabecular bone, and the time interval between implantation and irradiation. Investigations into materials and diagnostic methods. Hydroxyapatite-coated and titanium implants should be selected according to the characteristics of the materials. A dental simulating soft may also be applicable in the craniofacial region. Investigations into the management of difficult cases. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBO), bone morphogenetic protein (BMP), and tissue engineering should be useful for improving the quality and increasing the quantity of bone where implants are placed. Soft tissue around implants placed in the reconstructed area should be replaced with mucosal tissue. The data obtained here should be useful for increasing the efficiency of osseointegrated implants, but further basic research is required in the future. (author)

  13. COCHLEAR IMPLANTATION PREVALENCE IN ELDERLY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Starokha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Current paper describes an experience of cochlear implantation in elderly. Cochlear implantation has become a widely accepted intervention in the treatment of individuals with severe-to-profound sensorineural hearing loss. Cochlear implants are now accepted as a standard of care to optimize hearing and subsequent speech development in children and adults with deafness. But cochlear implantation affects not only hearing abilities, speech perception and speech production; it also has an outstanding impact on the social life, activities and self-esteem of each patient. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cochlear implantation efficacy in elderly with severe to profound sensorineural hearing loss. There were 5 patients under our observation. Surgery was performed according to traditional posterior tympanotomy and cochleostomy for cochlear implant electrode insertion for all observed patients. The study was conducted in two stages: before speech processor’s activation and 3 months later. Pure tone free field audiometry was performed to each patient to assess the efficiency of cochlear implantation in dynamics. The aim of the study was also to evaluate quality of life in elderly with severe to profound sensorineural hearing loss after unilateral cochlear implantation. Each patient underwent questioning with 36 Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36. SF-36 is a set of generic, coherent, and easily administered quality-of-life measures. The SF-36 consists of eight scaled scores, which are the weighted sums of the questions in their section. Each scale is directly transformed into a 0-100 scale on the assumption that each question carries equal weight. The eight sections are: physical functioning; physical role functioning; emotional role functioning; vitality; emotional well-being; social role functioning; bodily pain; general health perceptions. Our results demonstrate that cochlear implantation in elderly consistently improved quality of life

  14. Inductive Contactless Distance Measurement Intended for a Gastric Electrical Implant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Tomek

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available For a gastric electrical stimulation project we are developing a system for on-demand switching according to the volume or elongation of the stomach wall. The system is to be implanted into the human abdomen, which limits the utilization of many possible solutions and types of sensors. Magnetic induction has been agreed as the most suitable principle, despite its direction dependency and the need of multi-axial and multiple probes for precision measurements. Possible configurations are discussed as well as the complexity of the necessary electronics and the implantation itself. For detecting food consumption, perfect precision is fortunately not necessary, but a certain compromise will still be necessary for the final system. A simple two-coil system – a transmitter and receiver and a system with a three-axial coil – have already been realized. The first system has already been successfully tested in-vivo on dogs by our US colleagues. However, if the implantation is badly performed, and the coils are completely out of axis, the system cannot sense relative changes in volume properly. The three-axial sensor presented here eliminates these problems. More complex arrangements emerging from magnetic tracking are discussed, because laboratory studies of stomach movements may require them. 

  15. Pediatric cochlear implantation: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincenti, Vincenzo; Bacciu, Andrea; Guida, Maurizio; Marra, Francesca; Bertoldi, Barbara; Bacciu, Salvatore; Pasanisi, Enrico

    2014-01-01

    Deafness in pediatric age can adversely impact language acquisition as well as educational and social-emotional development. Once diagnosed, hearing loss should be rehabilitated early; the goal is to provide the child with maximum access to the acoustic features of speech within a listening range that is safe and comfortable. In presence of severe to profound deafness, benefit from auditory amplification cannot be enough to allow a proper language development. Cochlear implants are partially implantable electronic devices designed to provide profoundly deafened patients with hearing sensitivity within the speech range. Since their introduction more than 30 years ago, cochlear implants have improved their performance to the extent that are now considered to be standard of care in the treatment of children with severe to profound deafness. Over the years patient candidacy has been expanded and the criteria for implantation continue to evolve within the paediatric population. The minimum age for implantation has progressively reduced; it has been recognized that implantation at a very early age (12-18 months) provides children with the best outcomes, taking advantage of sensitive periods of auditory development. Bilateral implantation offers a better sound localization, as well as a superior ability to understand speech in noisy environments than unilateral cochlear implant. Deafened children with special clinical situations, including inner ear malformation, cochlear nerve deficiency, cochlear ossification, and additional disabilities can be successfully treated, even thogh they require an individualized candidacy evaluation and a complex post-implantation rehabilitation. Benefits from cochlear implantation include not only better abilities to hear and to develop speech and language skills, but also improved academic attainment, improved quality of life, and better employment status. Cochlear implants permit deaf people to hear, but they have a long way to go before

  16. Silicone breast implants and platinum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wixtrom, Roger N

    2007-12-01

    Platinum, in a specific form, is used as a catalyst in the cross-linking reactions of the silicone gel and elastomer in breast implants. After manufacture, it remains in the devices at low-parts-per-million levels. Potential concerns have been raised as to whether this platinum might diffuse from silicone breast implants into the body and result in adverse health effects. The weight of evidence indicates that the platinum present is in its most biocompatible (zero valence) form, and the very minute levels (<0.1 percent) that might diffuse from the implants do not represent a significant health risk to patients. PMID:18090821

  17. Cluster Implantation and Deposition Apparatus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanif, Muhammad; Popok, Vladimir

    In the current report, a design and capabilities of a cluster implantation and deposition apparatus (CIDA) involving two different cluster sources are described. The clusters produced from gas precursors (Ar, N etc.) by PuCluS-2 can be used to study cluster ion implantation in order to develop...... contributions to the theory of cluster stopping in matter as well as for practical applications requiring ultra-shallow implantation and modification of surfaces on the nanoscale. Metal clusters from the magnetron cluster source are of interest for the production of optical sensors to detect specific biological...

  18. Optical power transfer and communication methods for wireless implantable sensing platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mujeeb-U-Rahman, Muhammad; Adalian, Dvin; Chang, Chieh-Feng; Scherer, Axel

    2015-09-01

    Ultrasmall scale implants have recently attracted focus as valuable tools for monitoring both acute and chronic diseases. Semiconductor optical technologies are the key to miniaturizing these devices to the long-sought sub-mm scale, which will enable long-term use of these devices for medical applications. This can also enable the use of multiple implantable devices concurrently to form a true body area network of sensors. We demonstrate optical power transfer techniques and methods to effectively harness this power for implantable devices. Furthermore, we also present methods for optical data transfer from such implants. Simultaneous use of these technologies can result in miniaturized sensing platforms that can allow for large-scale use of such systems in real world applications.

  19. Optical power transfer and communication methods for wireless implantable sensing platforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mujeeb-U-Rahman, Muhammad; Adalian, Dvin; Chang, Chieh-Feng; Scherer, Axel

    2015-09-01

    Ultrasmall scale implants have recently attracted focus as valuable tools for monitoring both acute and chronic diseases. Semiconductor optical technologies are the key to miniaturizing these devices to the long-sought sub-mm scale, which will enable long-term use of these devices for medical applications. This can also enable the use of multiple implantable devices concurrently to form a true body area network of sensors. We demonstrate optical power transfer techniques and methods to effectively harness this power for implantable devices. Furthermore, we also present methods for optical data transfer from such implants. Simultaneous use of these technologies can result in miniaturized sensing platforms that can allow for large-scale use of such systems in real world applications. PMID:26405820

  20. An introduction to single implant abutments.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Warreth, Abdulhadi

    2013-01-01

    This article is an introduction to single implant abutments and aims to provide basic information about abutments which are essential for all dental personnel who are involved in dental implantology. Clinical Relevance: This article provides a basic knowledge of implants and implant abutments which are of paramount importance, as replacement of missing teeth with oral implants has become a well-established clinical procedure.

  1. 21 CFR 522.1350 - Melatonin implant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Melatonin implant. 522.1350 Section 522.1350 Food... Melatonin implant. (a) Specifications. The drug is a silicone rubber elastomer implant containing 2.7...—(1) Amount. One implant per mink. (2) Indications for use. For use in healthy male and female kit...

  2. Precision Machining Technology. Curriculum Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idaho State Dept. of Education, Boise. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This curriculum guide was developed from a Technical Committee Report prepared with the assistance of industry personnel and containing a Task List which is the basis of the guide. It presents competency-based program standards for courses in precision machining technology and is part of the Idaho Vocational Curriculum Guide Project, a cooperative…

  3. Environment-assisted precision measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goldstein, G.; Cappellaro, P.; Maze, J. R.;

    2011-01-01

    We describe a method to enhance the sensitivity of precision measurements that takes advantage of the environment of a quantum sensor to amplify the response of the sensor to weak external perturbations. An individual qubit is used to sense the dynamics of surrounding ancillary qubits, which are in...

  4. Precision Measurements in Neutron Decay

    OpenAIRE

    Schumann, Marc; collaboration, for the PERKEO II

    2007-01-01

    We present new precision measurements of angular correlation coefficients in polarized neutron decay. We have obtained values for the electron asymmetry coefficient A, the neutrino asymmetry coefficient B, and for the proton asymmetry coefficient C. In combination with other results, the new measurements are used to derive limits on "Physics beyond the Standard Model".

  5. Sensor fusion for precision agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information-based management of crop production systems known as precision agriculture relies on different sensor technologies aimed at characterization of spatial heterogeneity of a cropping environment. Remote and proximal sensing systems have been deployed to obtain high-resolution data pertainin...

  6. Precise laser refractometry of liquids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gonchukov, S.; Vakurov, M.; Yermachenko, V.

    2006-01-01

    The results of development of two versions of the intracavity laser refractometry in reflection (ILRR) are reviewed in this paper. The ILRR method is based on the use of the properties of two-mode lasers with broken cavity and allows the precise refractive investigations of turbid media to be fulfil

  7. Spin and precision electroweak physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A perspective on fundamental parameters and precision tests of the Standard Model is given. Weak neutral current reactions are discussed with emphasis on those processes involving (polarized) electrons. The role of electroweak radiative corrections in determining the top quark mass and probing for ''new physics'' is described

  8. Precision Farming Tools. Yield Monitor

    OpenAIRE

    Grisso, Robert D. (Robert Dwight), 1956-; Alley, Mark M.; McClellan, Phil

    2005-01-01

    Using yield monitors is the first step many producers take in precision farming. A yield monitor, combined with Global Positioning System (GPS) technology, is an electronic tool that collects data on crop performance for a given year. To have accurate data for yield map interpretation, the yield monitor must be properly operated and calibrated.

  9. Precision Cleaning - Path to Premier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackler, Scott E.

    2008-01-01

    ITT Space Systems Division s new Precision Cleaning facility provides critical cleaning and packaging of aerospace flight hardware and optical payloads to meet customer performance requirements. The Precision Cleaning Path to Premier Project was a 2007 capital project and is a key element in the approved Premier Resource Management - Integrated Supply Chain Footprint Optimization Project. Formerly precision cleaning was located offsite in a leased building. A new facility equipped with modern precision cleaning equipment including advanced process analytical technology and improved capabilities was designed and built after outsourcing solutions were investigated and found lacking in ability to meet quality specifications and schedule needs. SSD cleans parts that can range in size from a single threaded fastener all the way up to large composite structures. Materials that can be processed include optics, composites, metals and various high performance coatings. We are required to provide verification to our customers that we have met their particulate and molecular cleanliness requirements and we have that analytical capability in this new facility. The new facility footprint is approximately half the size of the former leased operation and provides double the amount of throughput. Process improvements and new cleaning equipment are projected to increase 1st pass yield from 78% to 98% avoiding $300K+/yr in rework costs. Cost avoidance of $350K/yr will result from elimination of rent, IT services, transportation, and decreased utility costs. Savings due to reduced staff expected to net $4-500K/yr.

  10. Accidental Implant Screwdriver Ingestion: A Rare Complication during Implant Placement.

    OpenAIRE

    Anshul Jain; Baliga, Shridhar D

    2014-01-01

    One of the complications during a routine dental implant placement is accidental ingestion of the implant instruments, which can happen when proper precautions are not taken. Appropriate radiographs should be taken to locate the correct position of foreign body; usually the foreign body passes asymptomatically from gastrointestinal tract but sometimes it may lead to intestinal obstruction, perforations and impactions. The aim of this article is to report accidental ingestion of 19 mm long scr...

  11. Drug delivery: enabling technology for drug discovery and development. iPRECIO® Micro Infusion Pump: Programmable, refillable and implantable

    OpenAIRE

    TsungTan

    2011-01-01

    Successful drug delivery using implantable pumps may be found in over 12,500 published articles. Their versatility in delivering continuous infusion, intermittent or complex infusion protocols acutely or chronically has made them ubiquitous in drug discovery and basic research. The recent availability of iPRECIO®, a programmable, refillable and implantable infusion pump has made it possible to carry out quantitative pharmacology (PKPD) in single animals. When combined with specialized c...

  12. Drug Delivery: Enabling Technology for Drug Discovery and Development. iPRECIO® Micro Infusion Pump: Programmable, Refillable, and Implantable

    OpenAIRE

    Tan, Tsung; Watts, Stephanie W.; Davis, Robert Patrick

    2011-01-01

    Successful drug delivery using implantable pumps may be found in over 12,500 published articles. Their versatility in delivering continuous infusion, intermittent or complex infusion protocols acutely or chronically has made them ubiquitous in drug discovery and basic research. The recent availability of iPRECIO®, a programmable, refillable, and implantable infusion pump has made it possible to carry out quantitative pharmacology (PKPD) in single animals. When combined with specialized cathet...

  13. 62. Gap in the application of implantable defibrillator and cardiac resynchronization therapy guidelines in heart failure patients

    OpenAIRE

    A. Hersi; A. Al Hammad; T. Al Doheyan; D. Al Munif; J. Alaskar; A. Haifa

    2016-01-01

    Literature review revealed no studies were done regarding the application of implantable defibrillator and cardiac resynchronization therapy guidelines in Saudi Arabia. Therefore, our aim was to identify the gap in the application of the guidelines for acute on chronic systolic heart failure patients in Saudi Arabia. Design and setting: We used data from the heart function assessment registry trial in Saudi Arabia (HEARTS) to explore the rate of device implantation. In consecutive cohort a...

  14. A comparision of two types of decalcified freeze-dried bone allograft in treatment of dehiscence defects around implants in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Moghareh Abed

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Decalcified freeze-dried bone allograft (DFDBA may have the potential to enhance bone formation around dental implants. Our aim in this study was the evaluation and comparison of two types of DFDBA in treatment of dehiscence defects around Euroteknika® implants in dogs. Methods : In this prospective clinical trial animal study, all mandibular premolars of three Iranian dogs were extracted. After 3 months of healing, fifteen SLA type Euroteknika® dental implants (Natea with 4.1mm diameter and 10mm length were placed in osteotomy sites with dehiscence defects of 5mm length, 4 mm width, and 3mm depth. Guided bone regeneration (GBR procedures were performed using Cenobone and collagen membrane for six implants, the other six implants received Dembone and collagen membrane and the final three implants received only collagen membrane. All implants were submerged. After 4 months of healing, implants were uncovered and stability (Implant Stability Quotient of all implants was measured. Then, block biopsies of each implant site were taken and processed for ground sectioning and histomorphometric analysis. The data was analyzed by ANOVA and Pearson tests. P value less than 0.05 was considered to be significant. Results: All implants osseointegrated after 4 months. The mean values of bone to implant contact for histomorphometric measurements of Cenobone, Denobone, and control groups were 77.36 ± 9.96%, 78.91 ± 11.9% and 71.56 ± 5.61% respectively, with no significant differences among the various treatment groups. The correlation of Implant Stability Quotient and histomorphometric techniques was 0.692. Conclusion: In treating of dehiscence defects with GBR technique in this study, adding DFDBA did not significantly enhance the percentages of bone-to-implant contact measurements; and Implant Stability Quotient Resonance Frequency Analysis appeared to be a precise technique.

  15. Patterned electrical conductance and electrode formation in ion-implanted diamond films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selective implantation of 140 keV Co ions into self-supporting diamond films converts the surface into a conductive region at which redox electron transfer and metal deposition have been accomplished. Simple masking allows precise definition of the area to be plated within the insulating diamond matrix. Formation and electrochemical characterization of a rotating disk electrode in this manner are demonstrated

  16. The Emergence of Productive Speech and Language in Spanish-Learning Paediatric Cochlear Implant Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Torres, Ignacio

    2014-01-01

    It has been proposed that cochlear implant users may develop robust categorical perception skills, but that they show limited precision in perception. This article explores if a parallel contrast is observable in production, and if, despite acquiring typical linguistic representations, their early words are inconsistent. The participants were…

  17. Signal Processing Strategies for Cochlear Implants Using Current Steering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldo Nogueira

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In contemporary cochlear implant systems, the audio signal is decomposed into different frequency bands, each assigned to one electrode. Thus, pitch perception is limited by the number of physical electrodes implanted into the cochlea and by the wide bandwidth assigned to each electrode. The Harmony HiResolution bionic ear (Advanced Bionics LLC, Valencia, CA, USA has the capability of creating virtual spectral channels through simultaneous delivery of current to pairs of adjacent electrodes. By steering the locus of stimulation to sites between the electrodes, additional pitch percepts can be generated. Two new sound processing strategies based on current steering have been designed, SpecRes and SineEx. In a chronic trial, speech intelligibility, pitch perception, and subjective appreciation of sound were compared between the two current steering strategies and standard HiRes strategy in 9 adult Harmony users. There was considerable variability in benefit, and the mean results show similar performance with all three strategies.

  18. 慢性应激性抑郁对大鼠皮下种植性肿瘤Walker256的影响及其作用机制%Effect of Chronic Stress-induced Depression on Subcutaneously Implanted Walker 256 Tumors in Rats and Its Mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王双彪; 姜达; 张增叶

    2013-01-01

    间的慢性应激性抑郁可显著缩短荷瘤大鼠的生存期,其作用机制可能与脾脏等免疫器官萎缩、血清皮质醇、IL-6水平升高造成机体免疫内分泌功能紊乱,机体内环境的稳定遭到破坏有关.%Objective To observe the effect of chronic stress-induced depression on subcutaneously implanted Walker 256 tumors in rats,and to explore its possible mechanism.Methods Rat models of chronic stress-induced depression and subcutaneous implanted tumors were established in this study.Forty-eight female SD rats were randomly divided into four groups,with 12 rats in each group.Group A was only inoculated with Walker 256 carcinosarcoma cells,without stress before and after inoculation;Group B was given various stress treatments for 16 days after inoculation with Walker 256 carcinosarcoma cells;Group C was given various stress treatments for 16 days before inoculation with Walker 256 carcinosarcoma cells;Group D was given various stress treatments for 16 days both before and after inoculation with Walker 256 carcinosarcoma cells.The survival,behavior indexes,spleen weight,tumor weight,serum cortisol levels and interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels were measured after inoculation.Results Compared with group A,movement time,movement distance and central regional movement time significantly decreased but rest time and peripheral regional movement time significantly increased in group B,C and D (P<0.05).Compared with group B or C,movement distance significantly decreased in group D (P<0.05).In addition,movement time,rest time,central regional movement time and peripheral regional movement time in group D were longer than those in group B or C,but differences were not significant (P>0.05).Compared with group A,survival time and spleen weight obviously decreased but IL-6 levels obviously increased in group D (P<0.05).However,no significant differences were found among group A,B and C (P>0.05).Compared with group A,serum cortisol levels

  19. Atypical Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... myeloproliferative neoplasms, leukemia , and other conditions . Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia Key Points Chronic myelomonocytic leukemia is a disease ... chance of recovery) and treatment options. Chronic myelomonocytic leukemia is a disease in which too many myelocytes ...

  20. Living with Chronic Bronchitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. Living With Chronic Bronchitis If you have chronic bronchitis, you can take steps to control your symptoms. ... and a pneumonia vaccine. If you have chronic bronchitis, you may benefit from pulmonary rehabilitation (PR). PR ...

  1. Biofilm Disrupting Technology on Orthopedic Implants: What’s on the Horizon?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VaniJanakiSabesan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The use of orthopedic implants in joints has revolutionized the treatment of patients with many debilitating chronic musculoskeletal diseases such as osteoarthritis. However, the introduction of foreign material into the human body predisposes the body to infection. The treatment of these infections has become very complicated since the orthopedic implants serve as a surface for multiple species of bacteria to grow at a time into a resistant biofilm layer. This biofilm layer serves as a protectant for the bacterial colonies on the implant making them more resistant and difficult to eradicate when using standard antibiotic treatment. In some cases the use of antibiotics alone has even made the bacteria more resistant to treatment. (1-2 Thus, there has been surge in the creation of non-antibiotic anti-biofilm agents to help disrupt the biofilms on the orthopedic implants to help eliminate the infections. In this study we discuss infections of orthopedic implants in the shoulder then we review the main categories of anti-biofilm agents that have been used for the treatment of infections on orthopedic implants. Then we introduce some of the newer biofilm disrupting technology that has been studied in the past few years that may advance the treatment options for orthopedic implants in the future.

  2. Dexamethasone intravitreal implant in the treatment of diabetic macular edema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dugel PU

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Pravin U Dugel,1,2 Francesco Bandello,3 Anat Loewenstein4 1Retinal Consultants of Arizona, Phoenix, AZ, 2Department of Ophthalmology, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA; 3Department of Ophthalmology, University Vita-Salute Scientific Institute San Raffaele, Milan, Italy; 4Department of Ophthalmology, Tel Aviv Medical Center and Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel Abstract: Diabetic macular edema (DME resembles a chronic, low-grade inflammatory reaction, and is characterized by blood–retinal barrier (BRB breakdown and retinal capillary leakage. Corticosteroids are of therapeutic benefit because of their anti-inflammatory, antiangiogenic, and BRB-stabilizing properties. Delivery modes include periocular and intravitreal (via pars plana injection. To offset the short intravitreal half-life of corticosteroid solutions (~3 hours and the need for frequent intravitreal injections, sustained-release intravitreal corticosteroid implants have been developed. Dexamethasone intravitreal implant provides retinal drug delivery for ≤6 months and recently has been approved for use in the treatment of DME. Pooled findings (n=1,048 from two large-scale, randomized Phase III trials indicated that dexamethasone intravitreal implant (0.35 mg and 0.7 mg administered at ≥6-month intervals produced sustained improvements in best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA and macular edema. Significantly more patients showed a ≥15-letter gain in BCVA at 3 years with dexamethasone intravitreal implant 0.35 mg and 0.7 mg than with sham injection (18.4% and 22.2% vs 12.0%. Anatomical assessments showed rapid and sustained reductions in macular edema and slowing of retinopathy progression. Phase II study findings suggest that dexamethasone intravitreal implant is effective in focal, cystoid, and diffuse DME, in vitrectomized eyes, and in combination with laser therapy. Ocular complications of

  3. Development of a keV single-ion-implanter for nanofabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Traditional methods of doping semiconductors have a difficulty meeting the demand for high precision doping due to large statistical fluctuations in the numbers of dopant atoms introduced in the ever shrinking volume in micro- and nano-electronics devices, especially when the fabrication process approaches the nanometre scale. The statistical fluctuations in doping semiconductors for the fabrication of devices with a very small feature size may lead to inconsistent and unreliable performance. This paper describes the adaptation of a commercial ion implanter into a single-ion-implantation system for the accurate delivery of dopants into a nanometre or micrometre area in a silicon substrate. All the implanted ions can be accurately counted with near 100% certainty through online detection using the silicon substrate itself as an ion detector. A variety of ion species including B+, N+, P+ at the energy range of 10-15 keV can be delivered in the single ion implantation system. (author). 6 refs., 6 figs

  4. High dose metal ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To affect non-electronic surface properties (wear, corrosion and so on) the implanted material must reach measureable atom percentages, on the order of 10%, requiring ion implantation does in the range of 1017/cm2. For this reason, the MEVVA metallic ion source, developed at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, has been modified to provide metal ions for high dose metal ion implantation. The modifications inlcude increasing the arc efficiency, increasing beam spot size, and increasing beam divergence. The extracted beams have been characterized as to beam cross section and the depth profiles of implants. Time-average beam currents in excess of 20 mA have been extracted. Beams of titanium, tantalum, and other refractory metal ions, plus other refractory materials, such as titanium carbide, have been extracted and used to produce modifications in the surface properties of materials. (orig.)

  5. Peri-implant esthetics assessment and management

    OpenAIRE

    Aarthi S Balasubramaniam; Raja, Sunitha V.; Libby John Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Providing an esthetic restoration in the anterior region of the mouth has been the basis of peri-implant esthetics. To achieve optimal esthetics, in implant supported restorations, various patient and tooth related factors have to be taken into consideration. Peri-implant plastic surgery has been adopted to improve the soft tissue and hard tissue profiles, during and after implant placement. The various factors and the procedures related to enhancement of peri-implant esthetics have been disc...

  6. Computerized implant-dentistry: Advances toward automation

    OpenAIRE

    Minkle Gulati; Vishal Anand; Sanjeev Kumar Salaria; Nikil Jain; Shilpi Gupta

    2015-01-01

    Advancements in the field of implantology such as three-dimensional imaging, implant-planning software, computer-aided-design/computer-aided-manufacturing (CAD/CAM) technology, computer-guided, and navigated implant surgery have led to the computerization of implant-dentistry. This three-dimensional computer-generated implant-planning and surgery has not only enabled accurate preoperative evaluation of the anatomic limitations but has also facilitated preoperative planning of implant position...

  7. Advances in lens implant technology

    OpenAIRE

    Kook, Daniel; Kampik, Anselm; Dexl, Alois K.; Zimmermann, Nicole; Glasser, Adrian; Baumeister, Martin; Kohnen, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Cataract surgery is one of the oldest and the most frequent outpatient clinic operations in medicine performed worldwide. The clouded human crystalline lens is replaced by an artificial intraocular lens implanted into the capsular bag. During the last six decades, cataract surgery has undergone rapid development from a traumatic, manual surgical procedure with implantation of a simple lens to a minimally invasive intervention increasingly assisted by high technology and a broad variety of imp...

  8. Cochlear Implants and Brain Plasticity

    OpenAIRE

    Fallon, James B.; Irvine, Dexter R. F.; Shepherd, Robert K.

    2002-01-01

    Cochlear implants have been implanted in over 110,000 deaf adults and children worldwide and provide these patients with important auditory cues necessary for auditory awareness and speech perception via electrical stimulation of the auditory nerve (AN). In 1942 Woolsey & Walzl presented the first report of cortical responses to localised electrical stimulation of different sectors of the AN in normal hearing cats, and established the cochleotopic organization of the projections to primary au...

  9. Model Checking Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillators

    OpenAIRE

    Abbas, Houssam; Jang, Kuk Jin; Jiang, Zhihao; Mangharam, Rahul

    2015-01-01

    Ventricular Fibrillation is a disorganized electrical excitation of the heart that results in inadequate blood flow to the body. It usually ends in death within seconds. The most common way to treat the symptoms of fibrillation is to implant a medical device, known as an Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator (ICD), in the patient's body. Model-based verification can supply rigorous proofs of safety and efficacy. In this paper, we build a hybrid system model of the human heart+ICD closed loop...

  10. Carbon coatings for medical implants

    OpenAIRE

    K. Bakowicz-Mitura; P. Couvrat; I. Kotela; P. Louda; D. Batory; J. Grabarczyk

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: In this paper we report in vitro and in vivo results of Nanocrystalline Diamond Coatings whichare used in medicine onto medical implants The very important property of carbon coatings is the protectionliving organism against the metalosis. Different medical implants with complicated shapes are covering byNanocrystalline Diamond Coatings by RF dense plasma CVD.Design/methodology/approach: 1) Material characterizations of deposited coatings have been evaluated by using:Transmission Ele...

  11. New paradigm in implant osseointegration

    OpenAIRE

    Meyer Ulrich; Joos Ulrich

    2006-01-01

    Abstract During the last years, implant dentistry has seen an dramatic increase as a treatment option in oral rehabilitation. This is based to a large extent on scientific advances and clinical improvements in implantology. The extension of indications has broadened the opprtunities to rehabilitate patients that were formerly considered to posess restricted indications to place implants. Additionally, patient desires (high aesthetic demands, fast prosthetic rehabilitation) were placed more in...

  12. Prosthetic Rehabılıtatıon of a Partıal Edentulous Condition By a Combination Of Extracoronal Semi Precision Attachment and a Cast Partial Denture: A Clinical Report

    OpenAIRE

    Reddy, K. Raghavendra; Thumati, Prafulla; Reddy, G.V Krishna Mohan

    2013-01-01

    Restoration of the lost structure can be achieved by using simple conventional removable partial dentures, cast partial dentures, precision or semi precision attachment system for a removable partial dentures, telescopic dentures and dental implants. Fabrication of fixed prosthesis becomes difficult if a patient exhibits a highly reduced dentition with regard to number of teeth lost due to caries or periodontal disease. Patient’s systemic factors do not favour Implant placement. Treatment uti...

  13. The vestibular implant: Quo vadis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond eVan De Berg

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available AbstractObjective: to assess the progress of the development of the vestibular implant and its feasibility short-term. Data sources: a search was performed in Pubmed, Medline and Embase. Key words used were vestibular prosth* and vestibular implant. The only search limit was language: English or Dutch. Additional sources were medical books, conference lectures and our personal experience with per-operative vestibular stimulation in patients selected for cochlear implantation.Study selection: all studies about the vestibular implant and related topics were included and evaluated by two reviewers. No study was excluded since every study investigated different aspects of the vestibular implant. Data extraction and synthesis: data was extracted by the first author from selected reports, supplemented by additional information, medical books conference lectures. Since each study had its own point of interest with its own outcomes, it was not possible to compare data of different studies. Conclusion: to use a basic vestibular implant in humans seems feasible in the very near future. Investigations show that electric stimulation of the canal nerves induces a nystagmus which corresponds to the plane of the canal which is innervated by the stimulated nerve branch. The brain is able to adapt to a higher baseline stimulation, while still reacting on a dynamic component. The best response will be achieved by a combination of the optimal stimulus (stimulus profile, stimulus location, precompensation, complemented by central vestibular adaptation. The degree of response will probably vary between individuals, depending on pathology and their ability to adapt.

  14. Nanostructured Surfaces of Dental Implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Sivolella

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The structural and functional fusion of the surface of the dental implant with the surrounding bone (osseointegration is crucial for the short and long term outcome of the device. In recent years, the enhancement of bone formation at the bone-implant interface has been achieved through the modulation of osteoblasts adhesion and spreading, induced by structural modifications of the implant surface, particularly at the nanoscale level. In this context, traditional chemical and physical processes find new applications to achieve the best dental implant technology. This review provides an overview of the most common manufacture techniques and the related cells-surface interactions and modulation. A Medline and a hand search were conducted to identify studies concerning nanostructuration of implant surface and their related biological interaction. In this paper, we stressed the importance of the modifications on dental implant surfaces at the nanometric level. Nowadays, there is still little evidence of the long-term benefits of nanofeatures, as the promising results achieved in vitro and in animals have still to be confirmed in humans. However, the increasing interest in nanotechnology is undoubted and more research is going to be published in the coming years.

  15. Imaging of common breast implants and implant-related complications: A pictorial essay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amisha T Shah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The number of women undergoing breast implant procedures is increasing exponentially. It is, therefore, imperative for a radiologist to be familiar with the normal and abnormal imaging appearances of common breast implants. Diagnostic imaging studies such as mammography, ultrasonography, and magnetic resonance imaging are used to evaluate implant integrity, detect abnormalities of the implant and its surrounding capsule, and detect breast conditions unrelated to implants. Magnetic resonance imaging of silicone breast implants, with its high sensitivity and specificity for detecting implant rupture, is the most reliable modality to asses implant integrity. Whichever imaging modality is used, the overall aim of imaging breast implants is to provide the pertinent information about implant integrity, detect implant failures, and to detect breast conditions unrelated to the implants, such as cancer.

  16. Delayed breast implant reconstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvilsom, Gitte B.; Hölmich, Lisbet R.; Steding-Jessen, Marianne;

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated the association between radiation therapy and severe capsular contracture or reoperation after 717 delayed breast implant reconstruction procedures (288 1- and 429 2-stage procedures) identified in the prospective database of the Danish Registry for Plastic Surgery of the Breast during...... the period between 1999 and 2006. A history of radiation therapy was associated with increased risk of severe capsular contracture for 1- and 2-stage procedures, with adjusted hazard ratios (HR) of 3.3 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.9-12.4) and 7.2 (95% CI: 2.4-21.4), respectively. Similarly, a...... history of radiation therapy was associated with a non-significantly increased risk of reoperation after both 1-stage (HR = 1.4; 95% CI: 0.7-2.5) and 2-stage (HR = 1.6; 95% CI: 0.9-3.1) procedures. Reconstruction failure was highest (13.2%) in the 2-stage procedures with a history of radiation therapy...

  17. NEW PRECISION PIEZOELECTRIC STEP ACTUATOR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jianfang; YANG Zhigang; FAN Zunqiang; CHENG Guangming

    2006-01-01

    A new precision piezoelectric actuator is proposed to improve its drive capabilities. The actuator is based on the piezoelectric technology. It adopts the principle of bionics and works with a new method of stator initiative anchoring/loosen and a distortion structure of double-side thin flexible hinge. It solves the problem of anchoring/loosen, frequency, journey, resolution and velocity. The experiment shows that the new linear piezoelectric actuator works with high frequency (100 Hz), high speed (502 μm/s), large travel (>10 mm), high resolution (0.05 μm) and high load (100 N). This kind of new piezoelectric actuator will be applied for large travel and high resolution driving device, optics engineering, precision positioning and some micromanipulation field.

  18. Approaches and Challenges of Engineering Implantable Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS Drug Delivery Systems for in Vitro and in Vivo Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken-Tye Yong

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Despite the advancements made in drug delivery systems over the years, many challenges remain in drug delivery systems for treating chronic diseases at the personalized medicine level. The current urgent need is to develop novel strategies for targeted therapy of chronic diseases. Due to their unique properties, microelectromechanical systems (MEMS technology has been recently engineered as implantable drug delivery systems for disease therapy. This review examines the challenges faced in implementing implantable MEMS drug delivery systems in vivo and the solutions available to overcome these challenges.

  19. Design of precise lightweight mirror

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vít, Tomáš; Melich, Radek; Václavík, Jan; Lédl, Vít

    Vol. 284-287. Zürich : Trans Tech Publications, 2013 - (Hsieh, W.), s. 2717-2722 ISSN 1660-9336. [International Conference on Engineering and Technology Innovation 2012 (ICETI 2012)/2./. Kaohsiung (TW), 02.11.2012-06.11.2012] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED2.1.00/03.0079 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : SiSiC * lightweight mirrors * precise optics Subject RIV: JV - Space Technology

  20. Precise Object Tracking under Deformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The precise object tracking is an essential issue in several serious applications such as; robot vision, automated surveillance (civil and military), inspection, biomedical image analysis, video coding, motion segmentation, human-machine interface, visualization, medical imaging, traffic systems, satellite imaging etc. This framework focuses on the precise object tracking under deformation such as scaling, rotation, noise, blurring and change of illumination. This research is a trail to solve these serious problems in visual object tracking by which the quality of the overall system will be improved. Developing a three dimensional (3D) geometrical model to determine the current pose of an object and predict its future location based on FIR model learned by the OLS. This framework presents a robust ranging technique to track a visual target instead of the traditional expensive ranging sensors. The presented research work is applied to real video stream and achieved high precession results. xiiiThe precise object tracking is an essential issue in several serious applications such as; robot vision, automated surveillance (civil and military), inspection, biomedical image analysis, video coding, motion segmentation, human-machine interface, visualization, medical imaging, traffic systems, satellite imaging etc. This framework focuses on the precise object tracking under deformation such as scaling, rotation, noise, blurring and change of illumination. This research is a trail to solve these serious problems in visual object tracking by which the quality of the overall system will be improved. Developing a three dimensional (3D) geometrical model to determine the current pose of an object and predict its future location based on FIR model learned by the OLS. This framework presents a robust ranging technique to track a visual target instead of the traditional expensive ranging sensors. The presented research work is applied to real video stream and achieved high

  1. Time-Precision Flexible Adder

    OpenAIRE

    García Chamizo, Juan Manuel; Mora Pascual, Jerónimo Manuel; Mora Mora, Higinio

    2003-01-01

    A new conception of flexible calculation that allows us to adjust a sum depending on the available time computation is presented. More specifically, the objective is to obtain a calculation model that makes the processing time/precision more flexible. The addition method is based on carry-select scheme adder and the proposed design uses precalculated data stored in look-up tables, which provide, above all, quality results and systematization in the implementation of low level primitives that ...

  2. Precision measurements in pionic hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anagnostopoulos, D.F.; Cargnelli, M.; Fuhrmann, H.; Giersch, M.; Gotta, D.; Gruber, A.; Hennebach, M.; Hirtl, A.; Indelicato, P.; Liu, Y.W.; Manil, B.; Markushin, V.E.; Marton, J.; Nelms, N.; Simons, L.M.; Trasinelli, M.; Zmeskal, J

    2003-06-30

    The strong interaction in the pion nucleon system leads to a shift and a broadening of the 1s-ground state in pionic hydrogen. These two quantities are being measured in an experiment at the Paul Scherrer Institute with much improved precision and allow an experimental test of recent calculations in the framework of Chiral Perturbation Theory. The experimental techniques using high resolution crystal spectroscopy are described as well as recent results.

  3. Precision photometry for planetary transits

    CERN Document Server

    Pont, F; Pont, Frederic; Moutou, Claire

    2007-01-01

    We review the state of the art in follow-up photometry for planetary transit searches. Three topics are discussed: (1) Photometric monitoring of planets discovered by radial velocity to detect possible transits (2) Follow-up photometry of candidates from photometric transit searches to weed out eclipsing binaries and false positives (3) High-precision lightcurves of known transiting planets to increase the accuracy on the planet parameters.

  4. Optimal management of chronic osteomyelitis: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pande KC

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Ketan C Pande Raja Isteri Pengiran Anak Saleha Hospital, Bandar Seri Begawan, BruneiAbstract: Chronic osteomyelitis is a challenging condition to treat. It is seen mostly after open fractures or in implant-related infections following treatment of fractures and prosthetic joint replacements. Recurrence of infection is well known, and successful treatment requires a multidisciplinary team approach with surgical debridement and appropriate antimicrobial therapy as the cornerstone of treatment. Staging of the disease and identification of the causative microorganism is essential before initiation of treatment. Important surgical steps include radical debridement of necrotic and devitalized tissue, removal of implants, management of resultant dead space, soft-tissue coverage, and skeletal stabilization or management of skeletal defects. The route of administration and duration of antimicrobial therapy continues to be debated. The role of biofilm is now clearly established in the chronicity of bone infection, and newer modalities are being developed to address various issues related to biofilm formation. The present review addresses various aspects of chronic osteomyelitis of long bones seen in adults, with a review of recent developments. Keywords: osteomyelitis, infection, biofilm, bone, therapy, treatment

  5. Chronic urticaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Sachdeva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic urticaria (CU is a disturbing allergic condition of the skin. Although frequently benign, it may sometimes be a red flag sign of a serious internal disease. A multitude of etiologies have been implicated in the causation of CU, including physical, infective, vasculitic, psychological and idiopathic. An autoimmune basis of most of the ′idiopathic′ forms is now hypothesized. Histamine released from mast cells is the major effector in pathogenesis and it is clinically characterized by wheals that have a tendency to recur. Laboratory investigations aimed at a specific etiology are not always conclusive, though may be suggestive of an underlying condition. A clinical search for associated systemic disease is strongly advocated under appropriate circumstances. The mainstay of treatment remains H1 antihistaminics. These may be combined with complementary pharmacopeia in the form of H2 blockers, doxepin, nifedipine and leukotriene inhibitors. More radical therapy in the form of immunoglobulins, plasmapheresis and cyclophosphamide may be required for recalcitrant cases. Autologous transfusion and alternative remedies like acupuncture have prospects for future. A stepwise management results in favorable outcomes. An update on CU based on our experience with patients at a tertiary care centre is presented.

  6. Coherent Synchrotron-Based Micro-Imaging Employed for Studies of Micro-Gap Formation in Dental Implants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biocompatible materials such as titanium are regularly applied in oral surgery. Titanium-based implants for the replacement of missing teeth demand a high mechanical precision in order to minimize micro-bacterial leakage, especially when two-piece concepts are used. Synchrotron-based hard x-ray radiography, unlike conventional laboratory radiography, allows high spatial resolution in combination with high contrast even when micro-sized features in such highly attenuating objects are visualized. Therefore, micro-gap formation at interfaces in two-piece dental implants with the sample under different mechanical loads can be studied. We show the existence of micro-gaps in implants with conical connections and study the mechanical behavior of the mating zone of conical implants during loading. The micro-gap is a potential source of implant failure, i.e., bacterial leakage, which can be a stimulus for an inflammatory process.

  7. Comparison of Implant Stability Before Prosthetic Loading of Two Dental Implant Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Lagdive, Sanjay Balaji; Lagdive, Sushma Sanjay

    2013-01-01

    Dental implantology is the state of the art technique to replace missing teeth. Implant stability of implant jeopardizes its longevity and success of treatment. This study evaluates the implant stability of implant before and after 4 months of the implant placement, but before prosthetically loading it. Ten two-stage implants of Life care and Nobel Biocare dental implants were placed in 20 patients. Digital OPG was taken on the day of implant placement. After 4 months, at the time of second s...

  8. CT stereotactic reconstruction of oral cavity interstitial plastic tube implants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The continuous using of CT images in external RT have made us think of its applications for plastic tube interstitial implants in the oral cavity in order to calculate the dose delivered by an interstitial implant at any point of the image and its relationship with local control and complications. Moreover, the outcoming result of the whole treatment depends on whether the irradiated volume up to a prescribed dose includes the CTV or not. None of these objectives may be achieved through the classical film reconstruction. Although film reconstruction appeared as the only accurate method for these purposes in the early eighties, it does not allow us to calculate doses at critical points or volumes. Therefore possible complications over critical tissues surrounding the radioactive implant cannot be taken into account in a precise way. The use of a stereotactic coordinate system could make CT reconstruction as precise as film reconstruction. As our stereotactic frame can be placed over the patient in 'direct' or 'inverse' positions it is really interesting in the applications we are talking about. We also have used a non invasive standard plexiglass helmet commonly used in stereotactic fractionated irradiations in teletherapy. It fits perfectly the patient's head and avoids any movement of the patient during the CT exam. We do parallel slices, approximately perpendicular to the iridium wires (following the Paris System), covering the whole implant helping ourselves with both bone and implant references. The dose-volume histograms and DNR (dose nonuniformity ratio) index defined by Saw et Al are used for intercomparison between the ortogonal and the stereotactic reconstructions. The existence of a minimum in the DNR curve indicates that there is a reference dose rate for this implant which provides an optimal dose distribution. If we calculate which is the minimum of each method, we find they are very close. So, as both methods give very similar results, we can conclude

  9. The effect of ion implantation on the lifetime of punches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electronics industry demands stamped parts with high performance. Therefore, punching tools like cutting punches with very high precision have to be used. In the case reported, the punches are mounted in a modular system and have to be resharpened or replaced after a certain number of strokes. To increase the lifetime of the punches made of Vasco Wear steel, implantations with carbon, nitrogen, boron and titanium, and co-implantation with titanium and carbon were performed at energies from 50 keV to 200 keV and 600 keV and 700 keV with different doses in the region of several times 1018 cm-2, measured perpendicular to the ion beam. A maximum increase in lifetime of a factor of 3.6 was reached. The surface roughness had a large influence on the increase lifetime and the improvement caused by specific ion species. The maximum improvement was obtained for the lowest surface roughness (Ra=0.04 μm). Therefore, when performing the implants, punches with low surface roughness should be used. The most successful ion species were boron and nitrogen for the lowest surface roughness used (Ra=0.04 μm), and after changing the polishing procedure (Ra=0.14 μm) titanium and nitrogen at medium energies (100-200 keV). High energy implantation (700 keV) resulted in an increase of a factor of 2.1 at lower doses (5.6x1017 cm-2), but is uneconomical owing to the low current density. In laboratory wear tests (ball on disk) no improvement by ion implantation could be found. These results prove that it is difficult to compare field tests and laboratory tests because of different testing conditions. (orig.)

  10. Gelatine-embedded electrodes—a novel biocompatible vehicle allowing implantation of highly flexible microelectrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, Gustav; Eriksson Linsmeier, Cecilia; Thelin, Jonas; Schouenborg, Jens

    2010-08-01

    Chronic neural interfaces that are both structurally and functionally stable inside the brain over years or decades hold great promise to become an invaluable clinical tool in the near future. A key flaw in the current electrode interfaces is that their recording capabilities deteriorate over time, possibly due to the lack of flexibility, which causes movements in relation to the neural tissue that result in small inflammations and loss of electrode function. We have developed a new neural probe using the stabilizing property of gelatine that allows the implantation of ultra-thin and flexible electrodes into the central nervous system. The microglial and astrocytic reactions evoked by implanted gelatine needles, as well as the wire bundles in combination with gelatine, were investigated using immunohistochemistry and fluorescence microscopy up to 12 weeks after implantation. The results indicate that pure gelatine needles were stiff enough to penetrate the brain tissue on their own, and evoked a significantly smaller chronic scar than stab wounds. Moreover, gelatine embedding appeared to reduce the acute reactions caused by the implants and we found no adverse effects of gelatine or gelatine-embedded electrodes. Successful electrophysiological recordings were made from very thin electrodes implanted in this fashion.

  11. Multicomponent Implant Releasing Dexamethasone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikkola, L.; Vapalahti, K.; Ashammakhi, N.

    2008-02-01

    Several inflammatory conditions are usually treated with corticosteroids. There are various problems like side effects with traditional applications of steroids, e.g. topical, or systemic routes. Local drug delivery systems have been studied and developed to gain more efficient administration with fewer side effects. Earlier, we reported on developing Dexamethasone (DX) releasing biodegradable fibers. However, their drug release properties were not satisfactory in terms of onset of drug release. Thus, we assessed the development of multicomponent (MC) implant to enhance earlier drug release from such biodegradable fibers. Poly (lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) and 2 wt-% and 8 wt-% DX were compounded and extruded with twin-screw extruder to form of fibers. Some of the fibers were sterilized to obtain a change in drug release properties. Four different fiber classes were studied: 2 wt-%, 8 wt-%, sterilized 2 wt-%, and sterilized 8 wt-%. 3×4 different DX-releasing fibers were then heat-pressed to form one multicomponent rod. Half of the rods where sterilized. Drug release was measured from initial fibers and multicomponent rods using a UV/VIS spectrometer. Shear strength and changes in viscosity were also measured. Drug release studies showed that drug release commenced earlier from multicomponent rods than from component fibers. Drug release from multicomponent rods lasted from day 30 to day 70. The release period of sterilized rods extended from day 23 to day 57. When compared to the original component fibers, the drug release from MC rods commenced earlier. The initial shear strength of MC rods was 135 MPa and decreased to 105 MPa during four weeks of immersion in phosphate buffer solution. Accordingly, heat pressing has a positive effect on drug release. After four weeks in hydrolysis, no disintegration was observed.

  12. Biomimetic implant coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenbarth, E; Velten, D; Breme, J

    2007-02-01

    Biomaterials and tissue engineering technologies are becoming increasingly important in biomedical practice, particularly as the population ages. Cellular responses depend on topographical properties of the biomaterial at the nanometer scale. Structures on biomaterial surfaces are used as powerful tools to influence or even control interactions between implants and the biological system [; ]. The influence of nanometer sized surface structures on osteoblastlike cell interactions was tested with niobium oxide coatings on polished titanium slices (cp-Ti grade 2). The aim of the study was to investigate the influence of nanoscopic surface structures on osteoblast interactions in order to support collagen I production and cell adhesion. The coatings were done by means of the sol-gel process. The surface structure was adjusted by annealing of the metaloxide ceramic coatings due to temperature depended crystal growth. The applied annealing temperatures were 450, 550 and 700 degrees C for 1 h, corresponding to Ra-numbers of 7, 15 and 40 nm. The surfaces were characterized by means of AFM, DTA/TG, diffractometry and white light interferometry. The cell reactions were investigated concerning adhesion kinetics, migration, spreading, cell adhesion, and collagen I synthesis. The smooth surface (Ra=7 nm) resulted in the fastest cell anchorage and cell migration. The closest cell adhesion was reached with the surface structure of Ra=15 nm. The roughest surface (Ra=40 nm) impedes the cell migration as well as a proper spreading of the cells. The best results concerning cell adhesion and spreading was reached with an intermediate surface roughness of Ra=15 nm of the niobium oxide coating on cp-titanium slices. PMID:16828342

  13. Perioperative steroid administration inhibits angiogenic host tissue response to porous polyethylene (medpor® implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Ehrmantraut

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Porous polyethylene (Medpor® is an alloplastic biomaterial, which is commonly used in plastic and reconstructive surgery. In the present study, we analyzed the effect of perioperative steroid administration on the inflammatory and angiogenic host tissue response to implanted Medpor®. For this purpose, Medpor® was implanted into the dorsal skinfold chamber of prednisolone-treated and vehicle-treated (control balb/c mice and analyzed by means of intravital fluorescence microscopy over a 14-day period. Incorporation of the implants was evaluated by histology. An aortic ring assay and Western blot analyses were performed to determine in vitro the effect of prednisolone on angiogenesis. Implantation of Medpor® did not induce a leukocytic inflammatory host tissue response. However, in prednisolone-treated and control animals giant cells could be detected at the interface between the implants and the surrounding granulation tissue as a typical indicator for a chronic foreign body reaction. Interestingly, perioperative prednisolone administration inhibited vascularisation of the implants, as indicated by a significantly decreased functional density of newly developing capillary blood vessels. Accordingly, prednisolone suppressed in vitro endothelial sprouting and tube formation in the aortic ring assay and reduced proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA, Tie2, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-9 expression of murine endothelioma cells. In conclusion, prednisolone treatment inhibits the early vascularisation of Medpor® implants due to direct inhibition of distinct angiogenic mechanisms. Therefore, perioperative steroid therapy should be avoided in case of Medpor® implantation to achieve a rapid incorporation of the biomaterial at the implantation site.

  14. Intravascular Ultrasound in Percutaneous Coronary Intervention for Chronic Total Occlusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Mohandes

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI of chronic total occlusion (CTO is one of the most challenging procedures in interventional cardiology. New techniques and devices have made possible to face these complex procedures. Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS reveals special features and contributes greatly to procedural success.Method: We analysed retrospectively IVUS contribution and findings in 23 cases of a total 46 CTOs PCI from February 2009 to August 2010 in our cath lab. Both true and functional CTO were included in this study. The procedure was considered successful when a TIMI III flow was reached in the occluded vessel after stent implantation with a residual stenosis less than 30%. IVUS features and contribution in CTO-PCI were analysed. All data were introduced in SPSS version 15 (SPSS Inc. Chicago, Illinois, USA. Continuous variables were described by mean ± SD and categorical variables were expressed as percentage. A P<0.05 was considered statistically significant.Results: 46 PCIs in 34 patients were performed during 19 months in our centre. The procedure was successful in 28 cases (60.9%.. IVUS was performed in 23 (82.1% of successful procedures. IVUS revealed calcium somewhere in 17 (73.9%. Despite wire angiographic verification in true lumen distally IVUS showed subintimal wire position in part of CTO segment in 6(26.1%. In 22(95.7% of cases IVUS allowed both the wire position verification in true lumen and the vessel measurement before stent implantation. In 1(4.3% case a second wire was introduced into true lumen guided by IVUS after realising that the first wire was in false lumen. We could not find significant relation between calcium presence and subintimal wire penetration in CTO segment (p: 0.14 Conclusions: IVUS showed calcium in CTO segment in a high percentage of cases. It is not unusual to find wire penetration in subintimal space in part of CTO segment. IVUS has a key contribution in the step by step

  15. Stab injury and device implantation within the brain results in inversely multiphasic neuroinflammatory and neurodegenerative responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Kelsey A.; Buck, Amy C.; Self, Wade K.; Capadona, Jeffrey R.

    2012-08-01

    An estimated 25 million people in the US alone rely on implanted medical devices, ˜2.5 million implanted within the nervous system. Even though many devices perform adequately for years, the host response to medical devices often severely limits tissue integration and long-term performance. This host response is believed to be particularly limiting in the case of intracortical microelectrodes, where it has been shown that glial cell encapsulation and localized neuronal cell loss accompany intracortical microelectrode implantation. Since neuronal ensembles must be within ˜50 µm of the electrode to obtain neuronal spikes and local field potentials, developing a better understanding of the molecular and cellular environment at the device-tissue interface has been the subject of significant research. Unfortunately, immunohistochemical studies of scar maturation in correlation to device function have been inconclusive. Therefore, here we present a detailed quantitative study of the cellular events and the stability of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) following intracortical microelectrode implantation and cortical stab injury in a chronic survival model. We found two distinctly inverse multiphasic profiles for neuronal survival in device-implanted tissue compared to stab-injured animals. For chronically implanted animals, we observed a biphasic paradigm between blood-derived/trauma-induced and CNS-derived inflammatory markers driving neurodegeneration at the interface. In contrast, stab injured animals demonstrated a CNS-mediated neurodegenerative environment. Collectively these data provide valuable insight to the possibility of multiple roles of chronic neuroinflammatory events on BBB disruption and localized neurodegeneration, while also suggesting the importance to consider multiphasic neuroinflammatory kinetics in the design of therapeutic strategies for stabilizing neural interfaces.

  16. Implantable biomedical devices on bioresorbable substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, John A; Kim, Dae-Hyeong; Omenetto, Fiorenzo; Kaplan, David L; Litt, Brian; Viventi, Jonathan; Huang, Yonggang; Amsden, Jason

    2014-03-04

    Provided herein are implantable biomedical devices, methods of administering implantable biomedical devices, methods of making implantable biomedical devices, and methods of using implantable biomedical devices to actuate a target tissue or sense a parameter associated with the target tissue in a biological environment. Each implantable biomedical device comprises a bioresorbable substrate, an electronic device having a plurality of inorganic semiconductor components supported by the bioresorbable substrate, and a barrier layer encapsulating at least a portion of the inorganic semiconductor components. Upon contact with a biological environment the bioresorbable substrate is at least partially resorbed, thereby establishing conformal contact between the implantable biomedical device and the target tissue in the biological environment.

  17. Is a radiolucent breast implant needed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over 1 million American women have undergone augmentation mammoplasty. The silicone implants used create numerous technical difficulties during mammography. An American College of Radiology mammography phantom was used to assess the effect prototype implants have on resolution of microcalcifications and masses. Implants filled with silicone gel and/or saline had equal radiodensity and obscured all phantom artifacts. Implants filled with peanut oil and sunflower oil had equal radiolucency and allowed visualization of microcalcifications and several masses. The implant filled with gelatin was of intermediate radiodensity. A more radiolucent breast implant is possible, and further research is needed to define the best filter material and test its biocompatibility

  18. Current trends in ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As semiconductor device dimensions continue to shrink, the drive beyond 250 nm is creating significant problems for the device processor. In particular, trends toward shallower-junctions, lower thermal budgets and simplified processing steps present severe challenges to ion implantation. In parallel with greater control of the implant process goes the need for a better understanding of the physical processes involved during implantation and subsequent activation annealing. For instance, the need for an understanding of dopant-defect interaction is paramount as defects mediate a number of technologically important phenomena such as transient enhanced diffusion and impurity gettering. This paper will outline the current trends in the ion implantation and some of the challenges it faces in the next decade, as described in the semiconductor roadmap. It will highlight some recent positron annihilation work that has made a contribution to addressing one of these challenges, namely the need for tighter control of implant uniformity and dose. Additionally, some vacancy-mediated processes are described with the implication that these may provide areas in which positron annihilation spectroscopy could make a significant contribution. (orig.)

  19. Paediatric cataract implant surgery outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Istiantoro Istiantoro

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the surgical outcome of various surgical technique in paediatric cataract implant surgery, at Jakarta Eye Center, Jakarta, Indonesia. This was a retrospective study of 57 eyes in 44 children who had primary cataract implants surgery. Three surgical techniques used were : 1. Extracapsular cataract extraction with intraocular lens implantation with intact posterior capsule which was performed on 21 eyes (group 1. 2. Extracapsular cataract extraction with intraocular lens implantation and posterior capsulorhexis (PCCC and optic capture which was performed on 24 eyes (group 2. 3. Extracapsular cataract extraction with intra­ocular lens implantation, posterior capsulorhexis and anterior vitrectomy which was performed on 24 eyes (group 3. All patients were followed up more than one year. Our results showed that posterior capsule opacity (PCO was developed in 20 eyes with intact capsules in group 1. All eyes had a clear visual axis in group 2. PCO developed only in one eye in group 3. In conclusion,  PCCC and optic capture with or without anterior vitrectomy are effective methods in preventing PCO in infant and children. (Med J Indones 2003; 12: 21-6Keywords: posterior capsule opacification, posterior capsulorhexis, optic capture, anterior vitrectomy

  20. Therapeutic options in chronic heart failure. Findings on chest X-ray; Nicht medikamentoese Therapieoptionen der chronischen Herzinsuffizienz. Befunde in der Projektionsradiografie des Thorax

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granitz, M.R.; Meissnitzer, T.; Meissnitzer, M.W.; Hergan, K.; Altenberger, J.; Granitz, C. [Uniklinikum Salzburg - Landeskrankenhaus (Austria)

    2016-05-15

    The contribution covers drugless therapeutic options for chronic heart failure: the implantable cardioverter/defibrillator (ICD), the cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT), the interventional catheter treatment of functional mitral insufficiency, and mechanical heart supporting systems and heart transplantation.

  1. Precision luminosity measurement at ILC

    CERN Document Server

    Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I; Pandurovic, M; Smiljanic, I

    2014-01-01

    In these proceedings a novel approach to deal with the beam-induced effects in luminosity measurement is presented. Based on the relativistic kinematics of the collision frame of the Bhabha process, the beam-beam related uncertainties can be reduced to the permille level independently of a precision with which the beam parameters are known. Specific event selection combined with the corrective methods we introduce, leads to the systematic uncertainty from the beam-induced effects to be at a few permille level in the peak region above the 80% of the nominal centre-of-mass energies at ILC.

  2. High precision anatomy for MEG

    OpenAIRE

    Troebinger, Luzia; López, José David; Lutti, Antoine; Bradbury, David; Bestmann, Sven; Barnes, Gareth

    2013-01-01

    Precise MEG estimates of neuronal current flow are undermined by uncertain knowledge of the head location with respect to the MEG sensors. This is either due to head movements within the scanning session or systematic errors in co-registration to anatomy. Here we show how such errors can be minimized using subject-specific head-casts produced using 3D printing technology. The casts fit the scalp of the subject internally and the inside of the MEG dewar externally, reducing within session and ...

  3. Serial intravascular ultrasound analysis of peri-stent remodeling and proximal and distal edge effects after sirolimus-eluting or paclitaxel-eluting stent implantation in patients with diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lisette Okkels; Maeng, Michael; Mintz, Gary S;

    2009-01-01

    Patients with diabetes have an increased risk of in-stent restenosis after coronary stent implantation. Serial intravascular ultrasound was used to study chronic arterial responses and edge effects after implantation of Cypher (Cordis, Johnson & Johnson, Miami Lakes, Florida) or Taxus (Boston Sci...

  4. Chronic pain after hysterectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandsborg, B; Nikolajsen, L; Kehlet, Henrik;

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Chronic pain is a well-known adverse effect of surgery, but the risk of chronic pain after gynaecological surgery is less established. METHOD: This review summarizes studies on chronic pain following hysterectomy. The underlying mechanisms and risk factors for the development of chronic...... post-hysterectomy pain are discussed. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Chronic pain is reported by 5-32% of women after hysterectomy. A guideline is proposed for future prospective studies. Udgivelsesdato: 2008-Mar...

  5. Untying chronic pain

    OpenAIRE

    Häuser, Winfried; Wolfe, Frederik; Henningsen, Peter; Schmutzer, Gabriele; Brähler, Elmar; Hinz, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Background: Chronic pain is a major public health problem. The impact of stages of chronic pain adjusted for disease load on societal burden has not been assessed in population surveys. Methods: A cross-sectional survey with 4360 people aged ≥ 14 years representative of the German population was conducted. Measures obtained included demographic variables, presence of chronic pain (based on the definition of the International Association for the Study of Pain), chronic pain stages (by chronic ...

  6. Micromotion of Dental Implants: Basic Mechanical Considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werner Winter

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Micromotion of dental implants may interfere with the process of osseointegration. Using three different types of virtual biomechanical models, varying contact types between implant and bone were simulated, and implant deformation, bone deformation, and stress at the implant-bone interface were recorded under an axial load of 200 N, which reflects a common biting force. Without friction between implant and bone, a symmetric loading situation of the bone with maximum loading and displacement at the apex of the implant was recorded. The addition of threads led to a decrease in loading and displacement at the apical part, but loading and displacement were also observed at the vertical walls of the implants. Introducing friction between implant and bone decreased global displacement. In a force fit situation, load transfer predominantly occurred in the cervical area of the implant. For freshly inserted implants, micromotion was constant along the vertical walls of the implant, whereas, for osseointegrated implants, the distribution of micromotion depended on the location. In the cervical aspect some minor micromotion in the range of 0.75 μm could be found, while at the most apical part almost no relative displacement between implant and bone occurred.

  7. Precision experiments in electroweak interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electroweak theory of Glashow, Weinberg, and Salam (GWS) has become one of the twin pillars upon which our understanding of all particle physics phenomena rests. It is a brilliant achievement that qualitatively and quantitatively describes all of the vast quantity of experimental data that have been accumulated over some forty years. Note that the word quantitatively must be qualified. The low energy limiting cases of the GWS theory, Quantum Electrodynamics and the V-A Theory of Weak Interactions, have withstood rigorous testing. The high energy synthesis of these ideas, the GWS theory, has not yet been subjected to comparably precise scrutiny. The recent operation of a new generation of proton-antiproton (p bar p) and electron-positron (e+e-) colliders has made it possible to produce and study large samples of the electroweak gauge bosons W± and Z0. We expect that these facilities will enable very precise tests of the GWS theory to be performed in the near future. In keeping with the theme of this Institute, Physics at the 100 GeV Mass Scale, these lectures will explore the current status and the near-future prospects of these experiments

  8. Green Solvents for Precision Cleaning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandelli, Heather; Maloney, Phillip; DeVor, Robert; Surma, Jan; Hintze, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Aerospace machinery used in liquid oxygen (LOX) fuel systems must be precision cleaned to achieve a very low level of non-volatile residue (solvent-replacement is non-flammable, environmentally benign, non-corrosive, inexpensive, effective and evaporates completely, leaving no residue. Highlighted is a green precision cleaning process, which is contaminant removal using supercritical carbon dioxide as the environmentally benign solvent. In this process, the contaminant is dissolved in carbon dioxide, and the parts are recovered at the end of the cleaning process completely dry and ready for use. Typical contaminants of aerospace components include hydrocarbon greases, hydraulic fluids, silicone fluids and greases, fluorocarbon fluids and greases and fingerprint oil. Metallic aerospace components range from small nuts and bolts to much larger parts, such as butterfly valves 18 in diameter. A fluorinated grease, Krytox, is investigated as a model contaminant in these preliminary studies, and aluminum coupons are employed as a model aerospace component. Preliminary studies are presented in which the experimental parameters are optimized for removal of Krytox from aluminum coupons in a stirred-batch process. The experimental conditions investigated are temperature, pressure, exposure time and impeller speed. Temperatures of 308 - 423 K, pressures in the range of 8.3 - 41.4 MPa, exposure times between 5 - 60 min and impeller speeds of 0 - 1000 rpm were investigated. Preliminary results showed up to 86 cleaning efficiency with the moderate processing conditions of 323 K, 13.8 MPa, 30 min and 750 rpm.

  9. Precision luminosity measurements at LHCb

    CERN Document Server

    Aaij, Roel; Adinolfi, Marco; Affolder, Anthony; Ajaltouni, Ziad; Akar, Simon; Albrecht, Johannes; Alessio, Federico; Alexander, Michael; Ali, Suvayu; Alkhazov, Georgy; Alvarez Cartelle, Paula; Alves Jr, Antonio Augusto; Amato, Sandra; Amerio, Silvia; Amhis, Yasmine; An, Liupan; Anderlini, Lucio; Anderson, Jonathan; Andreassen, Rolf; Andreotti, Mirco; Andrews, Jason; Appleby, Robert; Aquines Gutierrez, Osvaldo; Archilli, Flavio; Artamonov, Alexander; Artuso, Marina; Aslanides, Elie; Auriemma, Giulio; Baalouch, Marouen; Bachmann, Sebastian; Back, John; Badalov, Alexey; Baesso, Clarissa; Baldini, Wander; Barlow, Roger; Barschel, Colin; Barsuk, Sergey; Barter, William; Batozskaya, Varvara; Battista, Vincenzo; Bay, Aurelio; Beaucourt, Leo; Beddow, John; Bedeschi, Franco; Bediaga, Ignacio; Belogurov, Sergey; Belous, Konstantin; Belyaev, Ivan; Ben-Haim, Eli; Bencivenni, Giovanni; Benson, Sean; Benton, Jack; Berezhnoy, Alexander; Bernet, Roland; Bettler, Marc-Olivier; van Beuzekom, Martinus; 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Lambert, Robert W; Lanfranchi, Gaia; Langenbruch, Christoph; Langhans, Benedikt; Latham, Thomas; Lazzeroni, Cristina; Le Gac, Renaud; van Leerdam, Jeroen; Lees, Jean-Pierre; Lefèvre, Regis; Leflat, Alexander; Lefrançois, Jacques; Leo, Sabato; Leroy, Olivier; Lesiak, Tadeusz; Leverington, Blake; Li, Yiming; Likhomanenko, Tatiana; Liles, Myfanwy; Lindner, Rolf; Linn, Christian; Lionetto, Federica; Liu, Bo; Lohn, Stefan; Longstaff, Iain; Lopes, Jose; Lopez-March, Neus; Lowdon, Peter; Lu, Haiting; Lucchesi, Donatella; Luo, Haofei; Lupato, Anna; Luppi, Eleonora; Lupton, Oliver; Machefert, Frederic; Machikhiliyan, Irina V; Maciuc, Florin; Maev, Oleg; Malde, Sneha; Malinin, Alexander; Manca, Giulia; Mancinelli, Giampiero; Mapelli, Alessandro; Maratas, Jan; Marchand, Jean François; Marconi, Umberto; Marin Benito, Carla; Marino, Pietro; Märki, Raphael; Marks, Jörg; Martellotti, Giuseppe; Martens, Aurelien; Martín Sánchez, Alexandra; Martinelli, Maurizio; Martinez Santos, Diego; Martinez Vidal, Fernando; 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Oldeman, Rudolf; Onderwater, Gerco; Orlandea, Marius; Otalora Goicochea, Juan Martin; Owen, Patrick; Oyanguren, Maria Arantza; Pal, Bilas Kanti; Palano, Antimo; Palombo, Fernando; Palutan, Matteo; Panman, Jacob; Papanestis, Antonios; Pappagallo, Marco; Pappalardo, Luciano; Parkes, Christopher; Parkinson, Christopher John; Passaleva, Giovanni; Patel, Girish; Patel, Mitesh; Patrignani, Claudia; Pearce, Alex; Pellegrino, Antonio; Pepe Altarelli, Monica; Perazzini, Stefano; Perret, Pascal; Perrin-Terrin, Mathieu; Pescatore, Luca; Pesen, Erhan; Pessina, Gianluigi; Petridis, Konstantin; Petrolini, Alessandro; Picatoste Olloqui, Eduardo; Pietrzyk, Boleslaw; Pilař, Tomas; Pinci, Davide; Pistone, Alessandro; Playfer, Stephen; Plo Casasus, Maximo; Polci, Francesco; Poluektov, Anton; Polycarpo, Erica; Popov, Alexander; Popov, Dmitry; Popovici, Bogdan; Potterat, Cédric; Price, Eugenia; Price, Joseph David; Prisciandaro, Jessica; Pritchard, Adrian; Prouve, Claire; Pugatch, Valery; Puig Navarro, Albert; 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Schopper, Andreas; Schubiger, Maxime; Schune, Marie Helene; Schwemmer, Rainer; Sciascia, Barbara; Sciubba, Adalberto; Semennikov, Alexander; Sepp, Indrek; Serra, Nicola; Serrano, Justine; Sestini, Lorenzo; Seyfert, Paul; Shapkin, Mikhail; Shapoval, Illya; Shcheglov, Yury; Shears, Tara; Shekhtman, Lev; Shevchenko, Vladimir; Shires, Alexander; Silva Coutinho, Rafael; Simi, Gabriele; Sirendi, Marek; Skidmore, Nicola; Skwarnicki, Tomasz; Smith, Anthony; Smith, Edmund; Smith, Eluned; Smith, Jackson; Smith, Mark; Snoek, Hella; Sokoloff, Michael; Soler, Paul; Soomro, Fatima; Souza, Daniel; Souza De Paula, Bruno; Spaan, Bernhard; Sparkes, Ailsa; Spradlin, Patrick; Sridharan, Srikanth; Stagni, Federico; Stahl, Marian; Stahl, Sascha; Steinkamp, Olaf; Stenyakin, Oleg; Stevenson, Scott; Stoica, Sabin; Stone, Sheldon; Storaci, Barbara; Stracka, Simone; Straticiuc, Mihai; Straumann, Ulrich; Stroili, Roberto; Subbiah, Vijay Kartik; Sun, Liang; Sutcliffe, William; Swientek, Krzysztof; Swientek, Stefan; Syropoulos, Vasileios; Szczekowski, Marek; Szczypka, Paul; Szumlak, Tomasz; T'Jampens, Stephane; Teklishyn, Maksym; Tellarini, Giulia; Teubert, Frederic; Thomas, Christopher; Thomas, Eric; van Tilburg, Jeroen; Tisserand, Vincent; Tobin, Mark; Tolk, Siim; Tomassetti, Luca; Tonelli, Diego; Topp-Joergensen, Stig; Torr, Nicholas; Tournefier, Edwige; Tourneur, Stephane; Tran, Minh Tâm; Tresch, Marco; Trisovic, Ana; Tsaregorodtsev, Andrei; Tsopelas, Panagiotis; Tuning, Niels; Ubeda Garcia, Mario; Ukleja, Artur; Ustyuzhanin, Andrey; Uwer, Ulrich; Vacca, Claudia; Vagnoni, Vincenzo; Valenti, Giovanni; Vallier, Alexis; Vazquez Gomez, Ricardo; Vazquez Regueiro, Pablo; Vázquez Sierra, Carlos; Vecchi, Stefania; Velthuis, Jaap; Veltri, Michele; Veneziano, Giovanni; Vesterinen, Mika; Viaud, Benoit; Vieira, Daniel; Vieites Diaz, Maria; Vilasis-Cardona, Xavier; Vollhardt, Achim; Volyanskyy, Dmytro; Voong, David; Vorobyev, Alexey; Vorobyev, Vitaly; Voß, Christian; de Vries, Jacco; Waldi, Roland; Wallace, Charlotte; Wallace, Ronan; Walsh, John; Wandernoth, Sebastian; Wang, Jianchun; Ward, David; Watson, Nigel; Websdale, David; Whitehead, Mark; Wicht, Jean; Wiedner, Dirk; Wilkinson, Guy; Williams, Matthew; Williams, Mike; Wilschut, Hans; Wilson, Fergus; Wimberley, Jack; Wishahi, Julian; Wislicki, Wojciech; Witek, Mariusz; Wormser, Guy; Wotton, Stephen; Wright, Simon; Wyllie, Kenneth; Xie, Yuehong; Xing, Zhou; Xu, Zhirui; Yang, Zhenwei; Yuan, Xuhao; Yushchenko, Oleg; Zangoli, Maria; Zavertyaev, Mikhail; Zhang, Liming; Zhang, Wen Chao; Zhang, Yanxi; Zhelezov, Alexey; Zhokhov, Anatoly; Zhong, Liang; Zvyagin, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Measuring cross-sections at the LHC requires the luminosity to be determined accurately at each centre-of-mass energy $\\sqrt{s}$. In this paper results are reported from the luminosity calibrations carried out at the LHC interaction point 8 with the LHCb detector for $\\sqrt{s}$ = 2.76, 7 and 8 TeV (proton-proton collisions) and for $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 5 TeV (proton-lead collisions). Both the "van der Meer scan" and "beam-gas imaging" luminosity calibration methods were employed. It is observed that the beam density profile cannot always be described by a function that is factorizable in the two transverse coordinates. The introduction of a two-dimensional description of the beams improves significantly the consistency of the results. For proton-proton interactions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 8 TeV a relative precision of the luminosity calibration of 1.47% is obtained using van der Meer scans and 1.43% using beam-gas imaging, resulting in a combined precision of 1.12%. Applying the calibration to the full data set determin...

  10. DESIGN OF FARMLAND GIS FOR PRECISION AGRICULTURE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Precision Agriculture, also known as Precision Farming, or Prescription Farming, is a modern agriculture technology system, which brings " precision" into agriculture system. All concepts of Precision Agriculture are established on the collection and management of variable cropland information. As the tool of collecting, managing and analyzing spatial data, GIS is the key technology of integrated Precision Agriculture system. This article puts forward the concept of Farmland GIS and designs Farmland GIS into five modules, and specifies the functions of the each module, which builds the foundation for practical development of the software. The study and development of Farmland GIS will propel the spreading of Precision Agriculture technology in China.

  11. Precision-cut human kidney slices as a model to elucidate the process of renal fibrosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stribos, Elisabeth G D; Luangmonkong, Theerut; Leliveld, Anna M; de Jong, Igle J; van Son, Willem J; Hillebrands, Jan-Luuk; Seelen, Marc A; van Goor, Harry; Olinga, Peter; Mutsaers, Henricus A M

    2015-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease is a major health concern, and experimental models bridging the gap between animal studies and clinical research are currently lacking. Here, we evaluated precision-cut kidney slices (PCKSs) as a potential model for renal disease. PCKSs were prepared from human cortical tissue

  12. Treatment of Infected Facial Implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Kriti; Cox, Joshua A; Dickey, Ryan M; Gravina, Paula; Echo, Anthony; Izaddoost, Shayan A; Nguyen, Anh H

    2016-05-01

    Alloplastic facial implants have a wide range of uses to achieve the appropriate facial contour. A variety of materials such as metals, polymers, ceramics and synthetic injectable fillers are available to the reconstructive and aesthetic surgeon. Besides choosing the right surgical technique and the adequate material, the surgeon must be prepared to treat complications. Infection is an uncommon but serious complication that can cause displeasing consequences for the patient. There are few references in literature regarding treatment and management of facial implant-related infections. This study aims to discuss the role of biofilm in predisposing alloplastic materials to infection, to provide a review of literature, to describe our own institutional experience, and to define a patient care pathway for facial implant-associated infection. PMID:27152100

  13. Scleral buckling with hydrogel implant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Das Taraprasad

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available The hydrogel implant for scleral buckling, first developed in 1980, is said to combine the advantages of both solid silicone rubber and silicone sponges. But it is still not widely used. Our clinical experience with the hydrogel implant used in 23 cases of rhegmatogenous retinal detachment is described. It was used both as exoplant and implant. Anatomical success was achieved in 91% of the cases. There was no infection, erosion, migration of extrusion of the buckle. The advantages are that it is soft, elastic, nontoxic, and nonpyogenic; it is devoid of infection and postoperatively it swells up, for additional heightening of the buckle. This new material appears to combine the advantages of both silicone sponge and solid silicon rubber thereby providing an ideal buckling material.

  14. Cortical Plasticity after Cochlear Implantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Bjørn; Gjedde, Albert; Wallentin, Mikkel;

    2013-01-01

    recently implanted adult implant recipients listened to running speech or speech-like noise in four sequential PET sessions at each milestone. CI listeners with postlingual hearing loss showed differential activation of left superior temporal gyrus during speech and speech-like stimuli, unlike CI listeners...... with prelingual hearing loss. Furthermore, Broca's area was activated as an effect of time, but only in CI listeners with postlingual hearing loss. The study demonstrates that adaptation to the cochlear implant is highly related to the history of hearing loss. Speech processing in patients whose hearing loss...... occurred after the acquisition of language involves brain areas associated with speech comprehension, which is not the case for patients whose hearing loss occurred before the acquisition of language. Finally, the findings confirm the key role of Broca's area in restoration of speech perception, but only...

  15. Implant rehabilitation in bruxism patient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goiato, Marcelo Coelho; Sonego, Mariana Vilela; dos Santos, Daniela Micheline; da Silva, Emily Vivianne Freitas

    2014-01-01

    A white female patient presented to the university clinic to obtain implant retained prostheses. She had an edentulous maxillary jaw and presented three teeth with poor prognosis (33, 34 and 43). The alveolar bone and the surrounding tissues were healthy. The patient did not report any relevant medical history contraindicating routine dental treatment or implant surgery, but self-reported a dental history of asymptomatic nocturnal bruxism. The treatment plan was set and two Branemark protocols supported by six implants in each arch were installed after a 6-month healing period. A soft occlusal splint was made due to the patient's history of bruxism, and the lack of its use by the patient resulted in an acrylic fracture. The prosthesis was repaired and the importance of using the occlusal splint was restated. In the 4-year follow-up no fractures were reported. PMID:24907215

  16. Developmental neuroplasticity after cochlear implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kral, Andrej; Sharma, Anu

    2012-02-01

    Cortical development is dependent on stimulus-driven learning. The absence of sensory input from birth, as occurs in congenital deafness, affects normal growth and connectivity needed to form a functional sensory system, resulting in deficits in oral language learning. Cochlear implants bypass cochlear damage by directly stimulating the auditory nerve and brain, making it possible to avoid many of the deleterious effects of sensory deprivation. Congenitally deaf animals and children who receive implants provide a platform to examine the characteristics of cortical plasticity in the auditory system. In this review, we discuss the existence of time limits for, and mechanistic constraints on, sensitive periods for cochlear implantation and describe the effects of multimodal and cognitive reorganization that result from long-term auditory deprivation. PMID:22104561

  17. Optical effects of ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book, the thirteenth in the series ''Cambridge Studies in Modern Optics,'' represents the first attempt to provide a detailed description of the factors and processes that govern the optical properties of ion implanted materials. It begins with a survey of the basic physics and practical methods involved, then goes on to discuss the topics of optical absorption and luminescence. The authors present the basic theory of optical waveguides and their analysis and examine how ion implantation can be used in the production of optical waveguides. The concluding chapter deals with the progress being made in the development of device-oriented waveguide structures and how ion implantation is being used to achieve these ends

  18. Radioactive implants for medical applications; Radioaktive Implantate fuer medizinische Anwendungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schubert, M.

    2008-07-01

    The long-term success of surgery is often diminished by excessive wound healing, which makes another intervention necessary. Locally applied radionuclides with short range radiation can prevent such benign hyperproliferation. As pure electron emitter with a half-life of 14.3 days and a mean energy of 694.9 keV (E{sub max}=1710.48 keV) {sup 32}P is a suitable radionuclide which can be produced from the stable {sup 31}P by the capture of thermal neutrons (1 x 10{sup 14} /s/cm{sup 2}) in a nuclear reactor. After a typical irradiation time (14 days) the ratio of {sup 32}P to {sup 31}P is 1.4 x 10{sup -5} to 1. Implants made of polymer and/or bioabsorbable material functioning as a carrier of the radioactive emitter allow - as opposed to metallic implants - for new applications for this type of radiotherapy. In this thesis a manufacturing method for previously not available organic, radioactive implants has been developed and a corresponding dosimetry system has been established. By means of ion implantation, {sup 32}P ions with up to 180 keV can be shot some 100 nm deep into organic implant materials. For a typical dose (15 Gy over 7 days, 1 mm distance from the implant) an activity of 75 kBq is needed corresponding to 1.3 x 10{sup 11} {sup 32}P ions. The sputter ion gun, which has been optimized for this application, creates an ion beam with high beam current (> 14 {mu}A P{sup -}) and low emittance (< 4 {pi} mm mrad {radical}(MeV)). Because of the good beam quality also small implants (<1 mm{sup 2}) can be manufactured with high efficiency. The unintentionally co-implanted portion of molecules and nuclides of the same mass (e.g. {sup 31}PH, {sup 16}O{sub 2} and {sup 32}S) could be reduced from approximately 500 to 50 by an improvement of the isotope selection at {sup 32}P beam creation. Hence, in comparison with the best hitherto existing implantation methods, the radiation dose of the implant could be reduced by an order of magnitude. With regard to the beta

  19. Carbon Fiber Biocompatibility for Implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Carbon fibers have multiple potential advantages in developing high-strength biomaterials with a density close to bone for better stress transfer and electrical properties that enhance tissue formation. As a breakthrough example in biomaterials, a 1.5 mm diameter bisphenol-epoxy/carbon-fiber-reinforced composite rod was compared for two weeks in a rat tibia model with a similar 1.5 mm diameter titanium-6-4 alloy screw manufactured to retain bone implants. Results showed that carbon-fiber-reinforced composite stimulated osseointegration inside the tibia bone marrow measured as percent bone area (PBA) to a great extent when compared to the titanium-6-4 alloy at statistically significant levels. PBA increased significantly with the carbon-fiber composite over the titanium-6-4 alloy for distances from the implant surfaces of 0.1 mm at 77.7% vs. 19.3% (p enhanced implant osseointegration. Carbon fibers acting as polymer coated electrically conducting micro-biocircuits appear to provide a biocompatible semi-antioxidant property to remove damaging electron free radicals from the surrounding implant surface. Further, carbon fibers by removing excess electrons produced from the cellular mitochondrial electron transport chain during periods of hypoxia perhaps stimulate bone cell recruitment by free-radical chemotactic influences. In addition, well-studied bioorganic cell actin carbon fiber growth would appear to interface in close contact with the carbon-fiber-reinforced composite implant. Resulting subsequent actin carbon fiber/implant carbon fiber contacts then could help in discharging the electron biological overloads through electrochemical gradients to lower negative charges and lower concentration. PMID:26966555

  20. Meditation's impact on chronic illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonadonna, Ramita

    2003-01-01

    Meditation is becoming widely popular as an adjunct to conventional medical therapies. This article reviews the literature regarding the experience of chronic illness, theories about meditation, and clinical effects of this self-care practice. Eastern theories of meditation include Buddhist psychology. The word Buddha means the awakened one, and Buddhist meditators have been called the first scientists, alluding to more than 2500 years of precise, detailed observation of inner experience. The knowledge that comprises Buddhist psychology was derived inductively from the historical figure's (Prince Siddhartha Gautama) diligent self-inquiry. Western theories of meditation include Jungian, Benson's relaxation response, and transpersonal psychology. Clinical effects of meditation impact a broad spectrum of physical and psychological symptoms and syndromes, including reduced anxiety, pain, and depression, enhanced mood and self-esteem, and decreased stress. Meditation has been studied in populations with fibromyalgia, cancer, hypertension, and psoriasis. While earlier studies were small and lacked experimental controls, the quality and quantity of valid research is growing. Meditation practice can positively influence the experience of chronic illness and can serve as a primary, secondary, and/or tertiary prevention strategy. Health professionals demonstrate commitment to holistic practice by asking patients about use of meditation, and can encourage this self-care activity. Simple techniques for mindfulness can be taught in the clinical setting. Living mindfully with chronic illness is a fruitful area for research, and it can be predicted that evidence will grow to support the role of consciousness in the human experience of disease. PMID:14650573

  1. Mutation breeding by ion implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zengliang; Deng, Jianguo; He, Jianjun; Huo, Yuping; Wu, Yuejin; Wang, Xuedong; Lui, Guifu

    1991-07-01

    Ion implantation as a new mutagenic method has been used in the rice breeding program since 1986, and for mutation breeding of other crops later. It has been shown, in principle and in practice, that this method has many outstanding advantages: lower damage rate; higher mutation rate and wider mutational spectrum. Many new lines of rice with higher yield rate; broader disease resistance; shorter growing period but higher quality have been bred from ion beam induced mutants. Some of these lines have been utilized for the intersubspecies hybridization. Several new lines of cotton, wheat and other crops are now in breeding. Some biophysical effects of ion implantation for crop seeds have been studied.

  2. Comparison of in vivo biocompatibilities between parylene-C and polydimethylsiloxane for implantable microelectronic devices

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Dong Sup Lee; Su Jin Kim; Eun Bi Kwon; Cheol Whee Park; Su Min Jun; Bumkyoo Choi; Sae Woong Kim

    2013-11-01

    Implantable devices are often composed of or coated with different biologically compatible materials based on their requirements. Selecting a surface material for an implantable device is not an easy task, and it is necessary to compare the biocompatibilities of the available surface materials. In this study, we perform a comparison of the in vivo biocompatibilities of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and para-xylyene polymer (parylene-C) as they are considered to be candidates for a coating material for implantable microelectronic devices. For in vivo biocompatibility testing, fifty four male Sprague-Dawley rats were used for testing, and they were divided into three groups (PDMS, parylene-C and a positive control). At one, four and twelve weeks after implantation of the test object, the density of inflammatory cells and the granulation layer thickness were recorded for each group and compared with other groups using visible light and fluorescence microscopy. The thickness of the granulation layer tended to decrease over time for all of the experimental groups, whereas the granulation layer thickness remained constant in the positive control group. The thinnest capsular layer was observed for the parylene-C group and fewest inflammatory cells were observed in this group during the entire experimental period. Macrophage infiltration was minimal, even at one week, and was not observed thereafter. The parylene-C group showed better biocompatibility than the PDMS groups, both for acute and chronic implantation. Thus, parylene-C is the best candidate of the tested materials for applications involving permanent implantable micro-devices.

  3. Dental implant surgery: planning and guidance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A prototype application has been developed for interactive planning of dental implants on the EasyVision workstation. The user is led step by step via virtual positioning of the implant to the design of a customized drill guide. (orig.)

  4. Preparation of targets by ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various factors are described which are involved in target preparation by direct ion implantation and the limitations and pitfalls of the method are emphasized. Examples are given of experiments for which ion implanted targets are well suited. (author)

  5. Elderly Benefit from Using Implantable Defibrillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... org Learn More Elderly benefit from using implantable defibrillators June 17, 2013 Categories: Heart News Study Highlights: Older people may benefit from implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs) as much as younger people. Overall health, ...

  6. High fluence implantation in glasses: chemical interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results will be given on chemical interactions in amorphous SiO2 implanted with reactive and non-reactive species. Samples were implanted with nitrogen, silicon, titanium and silver; a set of samples already implanted with these elements (excluding those implanted with nitrogen) has been subjected to a second implant with nitrogen ions, at the dose of 2x1017 ions cm-2, at different energies. Samples have been characterized by secondary ion mass spectrometry, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, nuclear techniques and optical absorption measurements. Radiation damage and chemical effects have been discriminated; precipitation of the implanted species, as well as chemical compound formation in the interaction both between the implanted species and the host matrix and between the implanted species themselves have been detected. (orig.)

  7. FDA Approves Eye Implant for Aging Boomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus/news/fullstory_159648.html FDA Approves Eye Implant for Aging Boomers Tiny lens reshapes cornea to ... 2016 THURSDAY, June 30, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- An implant that helps the aging eye focus on small ...

  8. FDA Approves Implant to Battle Opioid Addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_159050.html FDA Approves Implant to Battle Opioid Addiction Experts say steady dosing ... 26, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- A new long-acting implant that can help treat people addicted to heroin ...

  9. Proton implanted sapphire planar and channel waveguides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laversenne, L.; Crunteanu, A.; Hoffmann, P.; Pollnau, M.; Moretti, P.; Mugnier, J.

    2003-01-01

    We report low-order transverse-mode planar waveguides in sapphire fabricated for the first time by proton implantation. The waveguides show good guiding properties without post-implantation annealing. Channel waveguiding was achieved by polyimide strip-loading.

  10. Clinical management of implant prostheses in patients with bruxism

    OpenAIRE

    Osamu Komiyama; Frank Lobbezoo; Antoon De Laat; Takashi Iida; Tsuyoshi Kitagawa; Hiroshi Murakami; Takao Kato; Misao Kawara

    2012-01-01

    There is general agreement that excessive stress to the bone-implant interface may result in implant overload and failure. Early failure of the implant due to excessive loading occurs shortly after uncovering the implant. Excess load on a final restoration after successful implant integration can result in physical failure of the implant structure. Many clinicians believe that overload of dental implants is a risk factor for vertical peri-implant bone loss and/or may be detrimental for the su...

  11. Hydroxyapatite-coated uncemented implants and peri-implant infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterbos, Cornelis Johannes Maria

    2004-01-01

    One of the major complications of joint replacement surgery is a peri-implant infection. A hip prosthesis coated with hydroxyapatite, a calcium phosphate (found in human bone), may offer protection in this respect. In a series of patients who were treated with a hydroxyapatite-coated hip prosthesis

  12. CO2 laser surface treatment of failed dental implants for re-implantation: an animal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasraei, Shahin; Torkzaban, Parviz; Shams, Bahar; Hosseinipanah, Seyed Mohammad; Farhadian, Maryam

    2016-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the success rate of failed implants re-implanted after surface treatment with CO2 laser. Despite the widespread use of dental implants, there are many incidents of failures. It is believed that lasers can be applied to decontaminate the implant surface without damaging the implant. Ten dental implants that had failed for various reasons other than fracture or surface abrasion were subjected to CO2 laser surface treatment and randomly placed in the maxillae of dogs. Three failed implants were also placed as the negative controls after irrigation with saline solution without laser surface treatment. The stability of the implants was evaluated by the use of the Periotest values (PTVs) on the first day after surgery and at 1, 3, and 6 months post-operatively. The mean PTVs of treated implants increased at the first month interval, indicating a decrease in implant stability due to inflammation followed by healing of the tissue. At 3 and 6 months, the mean PTVs decreased compared to the 1-month interval (P implant stability. The mean PTVs increased in the negative control group compared to baseline (P implants were significantly lower than control group at 3 and 6 months after implant placement (P implantation of failed implants in Jack Russell Terrier dogs after CO2 laser surface debridement is associated with a high success rate in terms of implant stability. PMID:27126410

  13. One-stage explant-implant procedure of exposed porous orbital implants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Peter B; Rasmussen, Marie L Roed; Prause, Jan Ulrik

    2011-01-01

    median score of 9 (range 5-10). Poor motility was present in six of 17 patients. Micro-organisms were identified in three removed implants and signs of inflammation were present in 20 removed implants. Conclusions:  If a decision of implant removal has been made, it is safe to replace the implant at the...

  14. Impact of cone-beam computed tomography on implant planning and on prediction of implant size

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedroso, Ludmila Assuncao de Mello; Silva, Maria Alves Garcia Santos, E-mail: ludmilapedroso@hotmail.com [Universidade Federal de Goias (UFG), Goiania, GO (Brazil). Fac. de Odontologia; Garcia, Robson Rodrigues [Universidade Federal de Goias (UFG), Goiania, GO (Brazil). Fac. de Odontologia. Dept. de Medicina Oral; Leles, Jose Luiz Rodrigues [Universidade Paulista (UNIP), Goiania, GO (Brazil). Fac. de Odontologia. Dept. de Cirurgia; Leles, Claudio Rodrigues [Universidade Federal de Goias (UFG), Goiania, GO (Brazil). Fac. de Odontologia. Dept. de Prevencao e Reabilitacao Oral

    2013-11-15

    The aim was to investigate the impact of cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) on implant planning and on prediction of final implant size. Consecutive patients referred for implant treatment were submitted to clinical examination, panoramic (PAN) radiography and a CBCT exam. Initial planning of implant length and width was assessed based on clinical and PAN exams, and final planning, on CBCT exam to complement diagnosis. The actual dimensions of the implants placed during surgery were compared with those obtained during initial and final planning, using the McNemmar test (p < 0.05). The final sample comprised 95 implants in 27 patients, distributed over the maxilla and mandible. Agreement in implant length was 50.5% between initial and final planning, and correct prediction of the actual implant length was 40.0% and 69.5%, using PAN and CBCT exams, respectively. Agreement in implant width assessment ranged from 69.5% to 73.7%. A paired comparison of the frequency of changes between initial or final planning and implant placement (McNemmar test) showed greater frequency of changes in initial planning for implant length (p < 0.001), but not for implant width (p = 0.850). The frequency of changes was not influenced by implant location at any stage of implant planning (chi-square test, p > 0.05). It was concluded that CBCT improves the ability of predicting the actual implant length and reduces inaccuracy in surgical dental implant planning. (author)

  15. Breast augmentation with reduced-height anatomic implants: the pros and cons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spear, S L

    2001-07-01

    The reduced-height anatomic saline-filled implant has certain advantages. It has a distinct footprint and profile that allows the creation of a breast with relatively exaggerated width and abbreviated height. This creation suits certain anatomic situations and often is preferred by women seeking a more natural-looking augmentation, without excessive upper pole fullness. The use of any anatomic design implant requires some dimensional planning and more precise pocket dissection. Although the risk for rotational deformities could be expected to be increased, clinically significant rotational deformities have not been a major problem. PMID:11471961

  16. Implant surface preparation in the surgical treatment of experimental peri-implantitis with autogenous bone graft and ePTFE membrane in cynomolgus monkeys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Søren; Holmstrup, Palle; Jørgensen, Torben;

    2003-01-01

    peri-implantitis; treatment; implant surface preparation; nonhuman primates; histology; stereology......peri-implantitis; treatment; implant surface preparation; nonhuman primates; histology; stereology...

  17. Augmentation Mammaplasty Using Implants: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Susumu Takayanagi

    2012-01-01

    One of the techniques for augmentation mammaplasty is the procedure using implants. Even though this technique has been used for many years, there are still several controversial issues to be discussed and overcome for patient safety. In this review article, capsular contracture, leak or rupture of the implants, possible systemic disease, relation with breast cancer, and recent problems with Poly Implant Prothese implants are described and discussed.

  18. Augmentation Mammaplasty Using Implants: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susumu Takayanagi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available One of the techniques for augmentation mammaplasty is the procedure using implants. Eventhough this technique has been used for many years, there are still several controversial issuesto be discussed and overcome for patient safety. In this review article, capsular contracture,leak or rupture of the implants, possible systemic disease, relation with breast cancer, andrecent problems with Poly Implant Prothese implants are described and discussed.

  19. Early Loaded Single Implant Reinforced Mandibular Overdenture

    OpenAIRE

    Nischal, K; Chowdhary, R.

    2016-01-01

    Rehabilitating atrophied mandible with two-implant supported denture is a common treatment modality for implant retained removable overdenture in mandible. This paper aims to design a treatment modality where single implant reinforced overdenture is fabricated for a severely atrophied mandibular ridge with early loading protocol. Results of studies have shown that a single implant mandibular overdenture significantly increases the satisfaction and quality of life of patients with edentulism. ...

  20. Assessing legal responsibility for implant failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palat, M

    1991-04-01

    The number of malpractice suits related to implants has recently increased significantly, with awards that are among the largest in dentistry. This article discusses the principles involved in assessing liability for implant failure and the various clinical situations that can affect liability in implant practice. The author also provides a list of the interrogatories required of defendants in malpractice suits related to implants. PMID:1893392

  1. Implant fractures: Rare but not exceptional

    OpenAIRE

    Sahitya Sanivarapu; Srinivas Moogla; Rupa Sruthi Kuntcham; Lakshmi Kanth Kolaparthy

    2016-01-01

    Fabrication of dentures aided with implants has become a preferred treatment option for rehabilitation of completely and partially edentulous patients when durability is concerned. Simulation to natural teeth in terms of esthetics and to a greater extent in function can be considered as key elements in the raise of implant dentistry worldwide. Despite its high success rate, therapy with osseointegrated dental implants is not free of complications. Implant failure can occur for other reasons, ...

  2. Techniques for dental implant nanosurface modifications

    OpenAIRE

    Pachauri, Preeti; Bathala, Lakshmana Rao; Sangur, Rajashekar

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE Dental implant has gained clinical success over last decade with the major drawback related to osseointegration as properties of metal (Titanium) are different from human bone. Currently implant procedures include endosseous type of dental implants with nanoscale surface characteristics. The objective of this review article is to summarize the role of nanotopography on titanium dental implant surfaces in order to improve osseointegration and various techniques that can generate nanosc...

  3. Factors affecting peri-implant tissue reactions

    OpenAIRE

    Hultin, Margareta

    2001-01-01

    Screw- shaped titanium implants are today routinely used m the substitution of lost teeth. In this thesis some of the biological factors related to the long-term survival and maintenance of dental implants were studied. The first arm of these studies was to evaluate the neutrophil activation around teeth and dental implants (Papers I & II). Secondly we wanted to evaluate the clinical radiographic and microbiological status of implants after long-term. function m partly e...

  4. Implanting helium into nanocrystalline hydrogen storage alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The possibility of implanting helium into LaNixAly alloy by high energy ball milling is explored. By analyzing the sample after ball milling, it is shown that Helium can be implanted into the material. Helium lies in the interfacial free volume rather than the crystal lattice. The implanted helium has high thermal stability. Quantity of Helium implanted by this method is very little

  5. In vivo organ specific drug delivery with implantable peristaltic pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speed, Joshua S; Hyndman, Kelly A

    2016-01-01

    Classic methods for delivery of agents to specific organs are technically challenging and causes superfluous stress. The current study describes a method using programmable, implantable peristaltic pumps to chronically deliver drugs in vivo, while allowing animals to remain undisturbed for accurate physiological measurements. In this study, two protocols were used to demonstrate accurate drug delivery to the renal medulla. First, the vasopressin receptor-2 agonist, dDAVP, was delivered to the renal medulla resulting in a significant increase in water retention, urine osmolality and aquaporin-2 expression and phosphorylation. Second, in a separate group of rats, the histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor, MS275, was delivered to the renal medulla. HDAC inhibition resulted in a significant increase in histone H3-acetylation, the hallmark for histone deacetylase inhibition. However, this was confined to the medulla, as the histone H3-acetylation was similar in the cortex of vehicle and MS275 infused rats, suggesting targeted drug delivery without systemic spillover. Thus, implantable, peristaltic pumps provide a number of benefits compared to externalized chronic catheters and confer specific delivery to target organs. PMID:27185292

  6. Role of telecommunications in precision agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Precision agriculture has been made possible by the confluence of several technologies: geographic positioning systems, geographic information systems, image analysis software, low-cost microcomputer-based variable rate controller/recorders, and precision tractor guidance systems. While these techn...

  7. Using hyperspectral data in precision farming applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Precision farming practices such as variable rate applications of fertilizer and agricultural chemicals require accurate field variability mapping. This chapter investigated the value of hyperspectral remote sensing in providing useful information for five applications of precision farming: (a) Soil...

  8. Precision Electrospray Thruster Assembly (PETA) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — New low cost, low volume, low power, rugged electrospray thrusters will be ideal as actuators for precision thrusting, if provided with precision high voltage power...

  9. Application of micro beam PIXE to detection of titanium ion release from dental and orthopaedic implants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the past two decades the utilization of dental and orthopaedic implants in reconstructive surgery has been spread widely. Most of these implants are inserted in the corrosive environment of the human body for long periods of time. The level of dissolution, release, and transport of metal ions as a result of corrosion of these materials are not fully known at present. We report the results of application of micro ion beam PIXE spectroscopy to detect release of titanium from titanium and titanium alloy implants inserted in the tibiae of rabbits for three months. It was found that titanium ions could be detected in the surrounding tissues, with high precision, as a gradient from the implant surface and in higher amounts in the bone tissue as compared with the soft tissues. It is concluded that application of micro ion beam PIXE spectroscopy for detection of metal ion release, and distribution of the released material around the implants with high special resolution and accuracy may be used to further investigate the mechanism of metal release, and the relation between surface micromorphology and corrosion resistance of the implant materials. (author)

  10. Precision QCD measurements at HERA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pirumov Hayk

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A review of recent experimental results on perturbative QCD from the HERA experiments H1 and ZEUS is presented. All inclusive deep inelastic cross sections measured by the H1 and ZEUS collaborations in neutral and charged current unpolarised ep scattering are combined. They span six orders of magnitude in negative four-momentum-transfer squared, Q2, and in Bjorken x. This data set is used as the sole input to NLO and NNLO QCD analyses to determine new sets of parton distributions, HERAPDF2.0, with small experimental uncertainties and an estimate of model and parametrisation uncertainties. Also shown are new results on inclusive jet, dijet and trijet differential cross sections measured in neutral current deep inelastic scattering. The precision jet data is used to extract the strong coupling αs at NLO with small experimental errors.

  11. Precision moisture generation and measurement.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thornberg, Steven Michael; White, Michael I.; Irwin, Adriane Nadine

    2010-03-01

    In many industrial processes, gaseous moisture is undesirable as it can lead to metal corrosion, polymer degradation, and other materials aging processes. However, generating and measuring precise moisture concentrations is challenging due to the need to cover a broad concentration range (parts-per-billion to percent) and the affinity of moisture to a wide range surfaces and materials. This document will discuss the techniques employed by the Mass Spectrometry Laboratory of the Materials Reliability Department at Sandia National Laboratories to generate and measure known gaseous moisture concentrations. This document highlights the use of a chilled mirror and primary standard humidity generator for the characterization of aluminum oxide moisture sensors. The data presented shows an excellent correlation in frost point measured between the two instruments, and thus provides an accurate and reliable platform for characterizing moisture sensors and performing other moisture related experiments.

  12. Precision cosmology and the landscape

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bousso, Raphael; Bousso, Raphael

    2006-10-01

    After reviewing the cosmological constant problem -- why is Lambda not huge? -- I outline the two basic approaches that had emerged by the late 1980s, and note that each made a clear prediction. Precision cosmological experiments now indicate that the cosmological constant is nonzero. This result strongly favors the environmental approach, in which vacuum energy can vary discretely among widely separated regions in the universe. The need to explain this variation from first principles constitutes an observational constraint on fundamental theory. I review arguments that string theory satisfies this constraint, as it contains a dense discretuum of metastable vacua. The enormous landscape of vacua calls for novel, statistical methods of deriving predictions, and it prompts us to reexamine our description of spacetime on the largest scales. I discuss the effects of cosmological dynamics, and I speculate that weighting vacua by their entropy production may allow for prior-free predictions that do not resort to explicitly anthropic arguments.

  13. Precise Nanoelectronics with Adatom Chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Toshishige

    1999-01-01

    Adatom chains on an atomically regulated substrate will be building components in future precise nanoelectronics. Adatoms need to be secured with chemical bonding, but then electronic isolation between the adatom and substrate systems is not guaranteed. A one-dimensional model shows that good isolation with existence of surface states is expected on an s-p crossing substrate such as Si, Ge, or GaAs, reflecting the bulk nature of the substrate. Isolation is better if adatoms are electronically similar to the substrate atoms, and can be manipulated by hydrogenation. Chain structures with group IV adatoms with two chemical bonds, or group III adatoms with one chemical bond, are semiconducting, reflecting the surface nature of the substrate. These structures are unintentionally doped due to the charge transfer across the chemical bonds. Physical properties of adatom chains have to be determined for the unified adatom-substrate system.

  14. Precision cosmology and the landscape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After reviewing the cosmological constant problem--why is Lambda not huge?--I outline the two basic approaches that had emerged by the late 1980s, and note that each made a clear prediction. Precision cosmological experiments now indicate that the cosmological constant is nonzero. This result strongly favors the environmental approach, in which vacuum energy can vary discretely among widely separated regions in the universe. The need to explain this variation from first principles constitutes an observational constraint on fundamental theory. I review arguments that string theory satisfies this constraint, as it contains a dense discretuum of metastable vacua. The enormous landscape of vacua calls for novel, statistical methods of deriving predictions, and it prompts us to reexamine our description of spacetime on the largest scales. I discuss the effects of cosmological dynamics, and I speculate that weighting vacua by their entropy production may allow for prior-free predictions that do not resort to explicitly anthropic arguments

  15. Precision Spectroscopy of Atomic Hydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, A.; Parthey, Ch G.; Kolachevsky, N.; Alnis, J.; Khabarova, K.; Pohl, R.; Peters, E.; Yost, D. C.; Matveev, A.; Predehl, K.; Droste, S.; Wilken, T.; Holzwarth, R.; Hänsch, T. W.; Abgrall, M.; Rovera, D.; Salomon, Ch; Laurent, Ph; Udem, Th

    2013-12-01

    Precise determinations of transition frequencies of simple atomic systems are required for a number of fundamental applications such as tests of quantum electrodynamics (QED), the determination of fundamental constants and nuclear charge radii. The sharpest transition in atomic hydrogen occurs between the metastable 2S state and the 1S ground state. Its transition frequency has now been measured with almost 15 digits accuracy using an optical frequency comb and a cesium atomic clock as a reference [1]. A recent measurement of the 2S - 2P3/2 transition frequency in muonic hydrogen is in significant contradiction to the hydrogen data if QED calculations are assumed to be correct [2, 3]. We hope to contribute to this so-called "proton size puzzle" by providing additional experimental input from hydrogen spectroscopy.

  16. Precision experiments with exotic nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Progress and modern developments of secondary nuclear beam facilities based on the in-flight and ISOL separation methods are outlined. Precision experiments with nuclear beams characterized by large emittances have been performed by using special ion-optical conditions in spectrometers. A new generation of experiments have been started with stored and cooled exotic nuclei at sub-eV and at relativistic energies using the combination of an ISOL facility and an ion trap or the combination of an in-flight system with a storage and cooler ring, respectively. Both experimental scenarios are realized by ISOLDE and the ISOLTRAP at CERN and the fragment separator FRS in combination with the experimental storage ring ESR at GSI. The power and the potential of these devices are illustrated by direct mass and lifetime measurements. (orig.)

  17. Instrumented hip implants: electric supply systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares dos Santos, Marco P; Ferreira, Jorge A F; Ramos, A; Simões, José A O; Morais, Raul; Silva, Nuno M; Santos, Paulo M; Reis, M J C S; Oliveira, T

    2013-10-18

    Instrumented hip implants were proposed as a method to monitor and predict the biomechanical and thermal environment surrounding such implants. Nowadays, they are being developed as active implants with the ability to prevent failures by loosening. The generation of electric energy to power active mechanisms of instrumented hip implants remains a question. Instrumented implants cannot be implemented without effective electric power systems. This paper surveys the power supply systems of seventeen implant architectures already implanted in-vivo, namely from instrumented hip joint replacements and instrumented fracture stabilizers. Only inductive power links and batteries were used in-vivo to power the implants. The energy harvesting systems, which were already designed to power instrumented hip implants, were also analyzed focusing their potential to overcome the disadvantages of both inductive-based and battery-based power supply systems. From comparative and critical analyses of the methods to power instrumented implants, one can conclude that: inductive powering and batteries constrain the full operation of instrumented implants; motion-driven electromagnetic energy harvesting is a promising method to power instrumented passive and active hip implants. PMID:24050511

  18. [The elementary discussion on digital implant dentistry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Y C

    2016-04-01

    It is a digital age today. Exposed to all kinds of digital products in many fields. Certainly, implant dentistry is not exception. Digitalization could improve the outcomes and could decrease the complications of implant dentistry. This paper introduces the concepts, definitions, advantages, disadvantages, limitations and errors of digital implant dentistry. PMID:27117209

  19. INFORMATION AND THE ADOPTION OF PRECISION FARMING

    OpenAIRE

    Daberkow, Stan G.; McBride, William D.

    2001-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between precision farming information sources and precision farming adoption. The analysis accounts for the fact that not all farmers are aware of precision farming techniques and that those who are aware may not be a random sample. Results indicate that many information sources increase adoption relative to information only from the media, but contact with crop consultants has had the greatest impact on the adoption of precision farming technologies.

  20. Ultrasonic precision optical grinding technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahill, Michael J.; Bechtold, Michael J.; Fess, Edward; Wolfs, Frank L.; Bechtold, Rob

    2015-10-01

    As optical geometries become more precise and complex and a wider range of materials are used, the processes used for manufacturing become more critical. As the preparatory stage for polishing, this is especially true for grinding. Slow processing speeds, accelerated tool wear, and poor surface quality are often detriments in manufacturing glass and hard ceramics. The quality of the ground surface greatly influences the polishing process and the resulting finished product. Through extensive research and development, OptiPro Systems has introduced an ultrasonic assisted grinding technology, OptiSonic, which has numerous advantages over traditional grinding processes. OptiSonic utilizes a custom tool holder designed to produce oscillations in line with the rotating spindle. A newly developed software package called IntelliSonic is integral to this platform. IntelliSonic automatically characterizes the tool and continuously optimizes the output frequency for optimal cutting while in contact with the part. This helps maintain a highly consistent process under changing load conditions for a more accurate surface. Utilizing a wide variety of instruments, test have proven to show a reduction in tool wear and increase in surface quality while allowing processing speeds to be increased. OptiSonic has proven to be an enabling technology to overcome the difficulties seen in grinding of glass and hard optical ceramics. OptiSonic has demonstrated numerous advantages over the standard CNC grinding process. Advantages are evident in reduced tool wear, better surface quality, and reduced cycle times due to increased feed rates. These benefits can be seen over numerous applications within the precision optics industry.

  1. Precision grinding process development for brittle materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High performance, brittle materials are the materials of choice for many of today's engineering applications. This paper describes three separate precision grinding processes developed at Lawrence Liver-more National Laboratory to machine precision ceramic components. Included in the discussion of the precision processes is a variety of grinding wheel dressing, truing and profiling techniques

  2. Product Approximation of Grade and Precision

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xian-yong; MO Zhi-wen

    2005-01-01

    The normal graded approximation and variable precision approximation are defined in approximate space. The relationship between graded approximation and variable precision approximation is studied, and an important formula of conversion between them is achieved. The product approximation of gradeand precision is defined and its basic properties are studied.

  3. Advances of Precise Radiotherapy for Lung Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Xin WANG; Xu, Feng; Wei, Yuquan

    2011-01-01

    At present lung tumor radiation therapy has entered the accurate radiotherapy era. Precise radiotherapy includes intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) and stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT). During the process of implementing precise radiotherapy, these problems should be fully considered to ensure executing precise radiotherapy accurately: patient positioning, controlling of the lung tumor motion, selecting of image techniques, PTV margin, dose prescrip...

  4. Precision Farming and Conservation Advances Agricultural Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    To many, Precision Farming, more formally termed Precision Agriculture, seems like an oxymoron. Yet site-specific management makes sense to an exponentially growing number of farmers. So where is Precision Farming headed? The short answer is that it is being extended from a focus on crop productio...

  5. Lattice Structure of Variable Precision Rough Sets

    OpenAIRE

    Basu, Sumita

    2016-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to study the lattice structure of variable precision rough sets. The notion of variation in precision of rough sets have been further extended to variable precision rough set with variable classification error and its algebraic properties are also studied.

  6. Chemical, Corrosion and Topographical Analysis of Stainless Steel Implants after Different Implantation Periods

    OpenAIRE

    Chrzanowski, Wojciech; Armitage, David Andrew; Knowles, Jonathan Campbell; Szade, Jacek; Korlacki, Wojciech; Marciniak, Jan

    2008-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this work is to examine the corrosion properties, chemical composition, and material?implant interaction after different periods of implantation of plates used to correct funnel chest. The implants are made of 316L stainless steel. Examinations are carried out on three implants: new (nonimplanted) and two implanted for 29 and 35 months. The corrosion study reveals that in the potential range that could occur in the physiological condition the new bar has the low...

  7. The Clinical Implications of Poly Implant Prothèse Breast Implants: An Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Wazir, Umar; Kasem, Abdul; Mokbel, Kefah

    2015-01-01

    Mammary implants marketed by Poly Implant Prothèse (PIP) were found to contain industrial grade silicone and this caused heightened anxiety and extensive publicity regarding their safety in humans. These implants were used in a large number of patients worldwide for augmentation or breast reconstruction. We reviewed articles identified by searches of Medline, PubMed, Embase, and Google Scholar databases up to May 2014 using the terms: "PIP", "Poly Implant Prothèse", "breast implants" and "aug...

  8. Investigation of the Effects of Abutment and Implant Length on Stability of Short Dental Implants

    OpenAIRE

    Eda OZYILMAZ; Aykul, Halil; OZYILMAZ, Emre; Dalkiz, Mehmet; M. Burak BİLGİN

    2015-01-01

    The use of dental implants to solve different problems in dentistry has been growing rapidly. The success rates of dental implants are also very important for patients. Depending on the bone level of patients, short dental implants are very popular and widely used by many dentists. Although many dentists are using short dental implants frequently, It can be guessed that there can be stability problems because of crown to implant ratios. In this study, it is aimed to find out...

  9. Primary prevention of peri-implantitis: Managing peri-implant mucositis

    OpenAIRE

    Jepsen, Søren; Berglundh, Tord; Genco, Robert; Aass, Anne Merete; Demirel, Korkud; Derks, Jan; Figuero, Elena; Giovannoli, Jean Louis; Goldstein, Moshe; LAMBERT, France; Ortiz-Vigon, Alberto; POLYZOIS, IOANNIS; Salvi, Giovanni; Schwarz, Frank; Serino, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    Abstract AIMS: Over the past decades, the placement of dental implants has become a routine procedure in the oral rehabilitation of fully and partially edentulous patients. However, the number of patients/implants affected by peri-implant diseases is increasing. As there are--in contrast to periodontitis--at present no established and predictable concepts for the treatment of peri-implantitis, primary prevention is of key importance. The management of peri-implant mucositis is considere...

  10. Annealing of ion implanted silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The newer uses of ion implantation require a higher dose rate. This has led to the introduction of high beam current implanters; the wafers move in front of a stationary beam to give a scanning effect. This can lead to non-uniform heating of the wafer. Variations in the sheet resistance of the layers can be very non-uniform following thermal annealing. Non-uniformity in the effective doping both over a single wafer and from one wafer to another, can affect the usefulness of ion implantation in high dose rate applications. Experiments to determine the extent of non-uniformity in sheet resistance, and to see if it is correlated to the annealing scheme have been carried out. Details of the implantation parameters are given. It was found that best results were obtained when layers were annealed at the maximum possible temperature. For arsenic, phosphorus and antimony layers, improvements were observed up to 12000C and boron up to 9500C. Usually, it is best to heat the layer directly to the maximum temperature to produce the most uniform layer; with phosphorus layers however it is better to pre-heat to 10500C. (U.K.)

  11. Reading skills after cochlear implantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, Agnes Maria

    2007-01-01

    It has frequently been found that profoundly deaf children with conventional hearing aids have difficulties with the comprehension of written text. Cochlear Implants (CIs) were expected to enhance the reading comprehension of these profoundly deaf children because they provide auditory access to spo

  12. Digital planning of cranial implants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meer, Wicher J.; Bos, Ruud R. M.; Vissink, Arjan; Visser, Anita

    2013-01-01

    Computer-aided techniques can be used in the reconstruction of defects in the skull, although there are limitations for large defects. We describe a technique for the digital design of an implant for cranioplasty using one, easy-to-use, piece of generic industrial software that shows a curvature-bas

  13. Carbon coatings for medical implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Bakowicz-Mitura

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: In this paper we report in vitro and in vivo results of Nanocrystalline Diamond Coatings whichare used in medicine onto medical implants The very important property of carbon coatings is the protectionliving organism against the metalosis. Different medical implants with complicated shapes are covering byNanocrystalline Diamond Coatings by RF dense plasma CVD.Design/methodology/approach: 1 Material characterizations of deposited coatings have been evaluated by using:Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM, Atomic Force Microscopy(AFM, Auger electron spectroscopy (AES, microX-Ray Spectroscopy and bend test 2 Biological investigationbased on: (a in vivo and (b in vitro examinations as well (c clinical investigations – contact allergy.Findings: It was revealed that Nanocrystalline Diamond Coatings form the barrier diffusion between implantand human environment as a consequence prevent leaching of metallic ions into the body. Additionally, theresearch on carbon coatings proved that diamond layers are biocompatible with living organism. Contact allergyon nickel is inhibited by diamond powders.Practical implications: Practical application metal implants with NCD in orthopedy, cardiosurgery, oralsurgery, maxillo-facial surgery and dermatology.Originality/value: We have observed anti-inflammatory, antiallergic and anticancerogenic responses from thecarbon coatings layers onto medical implants like wires and screws.

  14. Radioactive implants for medical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The long-term success of surgery is often diminished by excessive wound healing, which makes another intervention necessary. Locally applied radionuclides with short range radiation can prevent such benign hyperproliferation. As pure electron emitter with a half-life of 14.3 days and a mean energy of 694.9 keV (Emax=1710.48 keV) 32P is a suitable radionuclide which can be produced from the stable 31P by the capture of thermal neutrons (1 x 1014 /s/cm2) in a nuclear reactor. After a typical irradiation time (14 days) the ratio of 32P to 31P is 1.4 x 10-5 to 1. Implants made of polymer and/or bioabsorbable material functioning as a carrier of the radioactive emitter allow - as opposed to metallic implants - for new applications for this type of radiotherapy. In this thesis a manufacturing method for previously not available organic, radioactive implants has been developed and a corresponding dosimetry system has been established. By means of ion implantation, 32P ions with up to 180 keV can be shot some 100 nm deep into organic implant materials. For a typical dose (15 Gy over 7 days, 1 mm distance from the implant) an activity of 75 kBq is needed corresponding to 1.3 x 101132P ions. The sputter ion gun, which has been optimized for this application, creates an ion beam with high beam current (> 14 μA P-) and low emittance (2) can be manufactured with high efficiency. The unintentionally co-implanted portion of molecules and nuclides of the same mass (e.g. 31PH, 16O2 and 32S) could be reduced from approximately 500 to 50 by an improvement of the isotope selection at 32P beam creation. Hence, in comparison with the best hitherto existing implantation methods, the radiation dose of the implant could be reduced by an order of magnitude. With regard to the beta dosimetry of 1-2 MeV electrons, the challenge arises from the short range (few millimeters only) in the tissue and the resulting steep dose decay. Therefore a Monte Carlo Simulation has been developed, based on

  15. Cortical Plasticity after Cochlear Implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, B.; Gjedde, A.; Wallentin, M.; Vuust, P.

    2013-01-01

    The most dramatic progress in the restoration of hearing takes place in the first months after cochlear implantation. To map the brain activity underlying this process, we used positron emission tomography at three time points: within 14 days, three months, and six months after switch-on. Fifteen recently implanted adult implant recipients listened to running speech or speech-like noise in four sequential PET sessions at each milestone. CI listeners with postlingual hearing loss showed differential activation of left superior temporal gyrus during speech and speech-like stimuli, unlike CI listeners with prelingual hearing loss. Furthermore, Broca's area was activated as an effect of time, but only in CI listeners with postlingual hearing loss. The study demonstrates that adaptation to the cochlear implant is highly related to the history of hearing loss. Speech processing in patients whose hearing loss occurred after the acquisition of language involves brain areas associated with speech comprehension, which is not the case for patients whose hearing loss occurred before the acquisition of language. Finally, the findings confirm the key role of Broca's area in restoration of speech perception, but only in individuals in whom Broca's area has been active prior to the loss of hearing. PMID:24377050

  16. The evolution of breast implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, G Patrick; Gabriel, Allen

    2009-01-01

    Female glandular hypomastia is a frequently encountered entity that occurs either developmentally or by postpartum involution. Historically, women have long sought breast enlargement to improve physical proportions, to foster a more feminine appearance, or to enhance self-image. This article explores the evolution of breast implants. PMID:19055956

  17. Influence of resveratrol release on the tissue response to mechanically adaptive cortical implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Jessica K; Jorfi, Mehdi; Buchanan, Kelly L; Park, Daniel J; Foster, E Johan; Tyler, Dustin J; Rowan, Stuart J; Weder, Christoph; Capadona, Jeffrey R

    2016-01-01

    The stability and longevity of recordings obtained from intracortical microelectrodes continues to remain an area of concern for neural interfacing applications. The limited longevity of microelectrode performance has been associated with the integrity of the blood brain barrier (BBB) and the neuroinflammatory response to the microelectrode. Here, we report the investigation of an additive approach that targets both mechanical and chemical factors believed to contribute to chronic BBB instability and the neuroinflammatory response associated with implanted intracortical microelectrodes. The implants investigated were based on a mechanically adaptive, compliant nanocomposite (NC), which reduces the tissue response and tissue strain. This material was doped with various concentrations of the antioxidant resveratrol with the objective of local and rapid delivery. In vitro analysis of resveratrol release, antioxidant activity, and cytotoxicity suggested that a resveratrol content of 0.01% was optimal for in vivo assessment. Thus, probes made from the neat NC reference and probes containing resveratrol (NC Res) were implanted into the cortical tissue of rats for up to sixteen weeks. Histochemical analysis suggested that at three days post-implantation, neither materials nor therapeutic approaches (independently or in combination) could alter the initial wound healing response. However, at two weeks post-implantation, the NC Res implant showed a reduction in activated microglia/macrophages and improvement in neuron density at the tissue-implant interface when compared to the neat NC reference. However, sixteen weeks post-implantation, when the antioxidant was exhausted, NC Res and the neat NC reference exhibited similar tissue responses. The data show that NC Res provides short-term, short-lived benefits due to the antioxidant release, and a long-term reduction in neuroinflammation on account of is mechanical adaptive, compliant nature. Together, these results

  18. Effectiveness of Implant Therapy Analyzed in a Swedish Population: Prevalence of Peri-implantitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derks, J; Schaller, D; Håkansson, J; Wennström, J L; Tomasi, C; Berglundh, T

    2016-01-01

    Peri-implantitis is an inflammatory disease affecting soft and hard tissues surrounding dental implants. As the global number of individuals that undergo restorative therapy through dental implants increases, peri-implantitis is considered as a major and growing problem in dentistry. A randomly selected sample of 588 patients who all had received implant-supported therapy 9 y earlier was clinically and radiographically examined. Prevalence of peri-implantitis was assessed and risk indicators were identified by multilevel regression analysis. Forty-five percent of all patients presented with peri-implantitis (bleeding on probing/suppuration and bone loss >0.5 mm). Moderate/severe peri-implantitis (bleeding on probing/suppuration and bone loss >2 mm) was diagnosed in 14.5%. Patients with periodontitis and with ≥4 implants, as well as implants of certain brands and prosthetic therapy delivered by general practitioners, exhibited higher odds ratios for moderate/severe peri-implantitis. Similarly, higher odds ratios were identified for implants installed in the mandible and with crown restoration margins positioned ≤1.5 mm from the crestal bone at baseline. It is suggested that peri-implantitis is a common condition and that several patient- and implant-related factors influence the risk for moderate/severe peri-implantitis (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01825772). PMID:26701919

  19. COMMUNICATION: Minocycline increases quality and longevity of chronic neural recordings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rennaker, R. L.; Miller, J.; Tang, H.; Wilson, D. A.

    2007-06-01

    Brain/machine interfaces could potentially be used in the treatment of a host of neurological disorders ranging from paralysis to sensory deficits. Insertion of chronic micro-electrode arrays into neural tissue initiates a host of immunological responses, which typically leads to the formation of a cellular sheath around the implant, resulting in the loss of useful signals. Minocycline has been shown to have neuroprotective and neurorestorative effects in certain neural injury and neurodegenerative disease models. This study examined the effects of minocycline administration on the quality and longevity of chronic multi-channel microwire neural implants 1 week and 1 month post-implantation in auditory cortex. The mean signal-to-noise ratio for the minocycline group stabilized at the end of week 1 and remained above 4.6 throughout the following 3 weeks. The control group signal-to-noise ratio dropped throughout the duration of the study and at the end of 4 weeks was 2.6. Furthermore, 68% of electrodes from the minocycline group showed significant stimulus-driven activity at week 4 compared to 12.5% of electrodes in the control group. There was a significant reduction in the number of activated astrocytes around the implant in minocycline subjects, as well as a reduction in total area occupied by activated astrocytes at 1 and 4 weeks.

  20. [Chronic illness and contraception].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saarikoski, S

    1987-01-01

    In recent years sterilization that can cause problems of the psyche and marital life has been recommended much less frequently with respect to chronic diseases. As regards heart and hypertensive diseases pregnancy is always contraindicated in case of 3rd and 4th disease categories and sterilization is recommended according to the New York Heart Association. As far as 1st and 2nd category patients are concerned if the load carrying capacity is normal pregnancy could be undertaken. Combination pills are not recommended for contraception because they can cause fluid retention or increase the risk of thrombosis. If the patient has a higher-than-normal risk of developing thrombosis or infection, for instance, those who wear pacemakers only tablets containing progesterone or subdermal capsule implants can be used. In those with blood pressure problems the additional use of the IUD is also advised. Among diseases of neurological and psychic origin the effect of hormonal contraceptives is weakened by antiepileptics, but even in such cases older combination pills of larger doses of active ingredients can be employed. Migraine is exacerbated in 1/3 of patients; here IUDs can be used. Even the contraceptive tablets themselves can induce depression. In psychosis methods requiring regular attention can be easily forgotten, therefore the IUD is the most suitable device. In diabetes progesterone and other progestogens reduce insulin response, harm carbohydrate metabolism; therefore in young people the IUD is preferred an in older women with children even sterilization can be employed. Hormonal tablets must not be used in hyperlipidemia and liver diseases. Caution must be exercised in hyperthyroidism and in endocrine disorders (e.g., Cushing's syndrome); if it is accompanied by blood pressure disorders appropriate treatment is required. In kidney diseases pregnancy is contraindicated if it is accompanied by blood pressure increase or a higher level of creatine. On the other hand