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Sample records for chronic viral hepatitis

  1. Pancreatic involvement in chronic viral hepatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yoshiki Katakura; Hiroshi Yotsuyanagi; Kiyoe Hashizume; Chiaki Okuse; Noriaki Okuse; Kohji Nishikawa; Michihiro Suzuki; Shiro Iino; Fumio Itoh

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To elucidate the frequency and characteristics of pancreatic disorders in the course of chronic viral hepatitis. METHODS: We prospectively assessed the serum pancreatic enzyme levels and imaging findings in patients with chronic viral hepatitis and healthy control subjects. RESULTS: Serum amylase (t-Amy), salivary amylase (s-Amy), pancreatic amylase (p-Amy) and serum lipase levels were higher in hepatitis patients in comparison to control subjects. However, in asymptomatic viral carriers, only the serum t-Amy levels were higher than those of the controls. The levels of each enzyme rose with the progression of liver disease in patients with hepatitis B or C; whereas the levels of each enzyme within the same clinical stage of the disease did not differ between patients diagnosed with either hepatitis B or hepatitis C virus. Imaging findings demonstrated chronic pancreatitis in only 1 out of 202 patients (0.5%).CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that serum levels of pancreatic enzymes increase with the progression of liver disease in patients diagnosed with viral hepatitis. Pancreatic disease, asymptomatic in most cases, may represent an extrahepatic manifestation of chronic viral hepatitis.

  2. Viral Hepatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hepatitis viruses B and C can cause both acute and chronic infections. Chronic hepatitis B and C are serious health problems. They can lead to: Cirrhosis (suh-ROH-suhs) Liver failure Liver cancer Return to top How is viral ...

  3. Management issues in chronic viral hepatitis: hepatitis C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sievert, William

    2002-04-01

    The natural history of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and intervention with antiviral therapy are closely linked issues that cause the greatest controversy and concern for the person infected with HCV, as well as for the clinician involved in the assessment and treatment of people with chronic HCV infection. The outstanding challenge of natural history is to identify the person who is likely to develop serious liver disease, and to make that determination early in the course of chronic HCV infection when treatment is likely to be of the greatest benefit. Significant advances in the therapy of chronic HCV infection have occurred over the past decade. A sustained virological response (SVR), defined as undetectable HCV-RNA in blood 6 months after completing antiviral treatment, is the best indicator of a beneficial treatment effect. Relapse, breakthrough or non-response should all be regarded as unsuccessful outcomes of therapy. Interferons are still the mainstay of antiviral therapy for chronic HCV infection. The combination of interferon and ribavirin has improved SVR by decreasing the relapse rate. Treatment responses vary according to host factors such as age and gender, fibrotic severity and to viral factors like genotype and viral load. Patients with genotype 1 HCV and a high viral load require 12 months of treatment to achieve a SVR in approximately 30%, compared to those with genotypes 2 or 3 who achieve a SVR in approximately 65% after 6 months. Patients who relapse after an end-of-treatment response to interferon monotherapy have a good chance of responding to combination interferon and ribavirin given for 6 months, but a longer treatment course should be considered in less optimal cases. At present, the treatment of those with non-response is less clear, but there is interest in more intense forms of interferon therapy, such as induction dosing or pegylated interferon in combination with ribavirin. Clinicians need to be aware of the common side

  4. [Treatment of viral hepatitis (II). Treatment of chronic hepatitis C].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Quijano, Armando; Lissen-Otero, Eduardo

    2006-10-01

    Hepatitis C virus infection is the principal cause of chronic liver disease, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma in the Western World. Chronic hepatitis C is often silent, most of the times discovered only by routine serologic or biochemical testing and the interval between infection and the development of cirrhosis exceed 30 years. Interestingly the complications of chronic hepatitis C virus infection can be prevented by antiviral therapy. At present, the combination of pegylated interferon-alfa and ribavirina has become the standard treatment of chronic hepatitis C. The management of HCV infection in "special populations" (HIV coinfection and HCV therapy-experienced patient) has improved significantly over the past few years, through a better knowledge of the disease and the publication of several clinical trials performed in these patients. At presents, a number of new anti-HCV therapies are in development. Future drugs for HCV infection might make possible to eradicate HCV in future. PMID:16987471

  5. Noninvasive estimation of fibrosis in chronic viral hepatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risum, Malene; Barfod, Toke Seierøe; Lindhardt, Bjarne Orskov

    2013-01-01

    In chronic viral hepatitis the liver biopsy helps the clinician to decide when to start treatment and plan follow-up. However, the execution of a liver biopsy is associated with discomfort, and sampling error can lead to misinterpretation. Serum markers and transient elastography (TE) are being...

  6. Chronic hepatitis in chimpanzee carriers of hepatitis B virus: morphologic, immunologic, and viral DNA studies.

    OpenAIRE

    Shouval, D.; Chakraborty, P R; Ruiz-Opazo, N.; Baum, S.; Spigland, I; Muchmore, E; Gerber, M. A.; Thung, S. N.; Popper, H.; Shafritz, D. A.

    1980-01-01

    Years after infection with hepatitis B virus, chimpanzees may have manifestations of the carrier state as described in man. In addition to serologic evidence for persistent viral infection, percutaneous liver biopsy specimens showed hepatitis B virus surface antigen in the cytoplasm and hepatitis B virus core antigen in the nucleus. Four carrier animals had portal inflammatory reaction as seen in human chronic persistent hepatitis. Viral DNA was demonstrated in nucleic acid extracts of liver ...

  7. Liver fibrosis of patients with chronic viral hepatitis B+C

    OpenAIRE

    Sarsekeyeva Nazgul Yesentaevna

    2015-01-01

    The article deals with the problem of combined chronic viral hepatitis B and C. The paper presents the results of clinical and laboratory studies of patients with chronic viral hepatitis B+C. The author analyzes the results of liver elastomers in patients with chronic viral hepatitis B+C.

  8. Tissue viral load variability in chronic hepatitis C.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fanning, L

    2012-02-03

    OBJECTIVE: Liver biopsy is regarded as the gold standard for assessing disease activity in chronic hepatitis C, but sampling error is a potential limitation. Whether sampling variability applies equally to viral load assessment as it does to histology is uncertain. To examine this, we compared viral load between right- and left-lobe biopsy specimens from patients infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV). METHODS: Bilobe biopsies were taken from 16 patients who were serum positive for HCV RNA by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Genotype was identified by reverse line probe hybridization. There was an absence of competing risk factors for infectious and other liver diseases in this patient group. Histology and hepatic viral load were assessed blindly. None of the patients had received antiviral therapy at the time of study. RESULTS: Detection of HCV in right and left lobes was concordant with serum positivity in all cases. The viral load between lobes was highly correlated (p = 0.0003, r = 0.79). In contrast, the histological activity indices of inflammation and fibrosis\\/cirrhosis were poorly correlated between lobes (p = 0.038, r = 0.60, and p = 0.098, r = 0.50, respectively). CONCLUSION: Hepatic viral load variability does not suffer from the same degree of heterogeneity of sampling variability as does histology.

  9. Immunohistochemical study of hepatic oval cells in human chronic viral hepatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiong Ma; De Kai Qiu; Yan Shen Peng

    2001-01-01

    AIM To detect immunohistochemically the presence of oval cells in chronic viral hepatitis with antibody against c-kit.METHODS We detected oval cells in paraffin-embedded liver sections of 3 normal controls and 26 liver samples from patients with chronic viral hepatitis, using immunohistochemistry with antibodies against c-kit, π-class glutathione Stransferase ( Tr-GST ) and cytokeratins 19(CK19).RESULTS Oval cells were not observed in normal livers. In chronic viral hepatitis, hepatic oval cells were located predominantly in the periportal . region and fibrosis septa,characterized by an ovoid nucleus, small size,and scant cytoplasm. Antibody against stem cell factor receptor, c-kit, had higher sensitivity and specificity than π-GST and CK19. About 50% -70% of c-kit positive oval cells were stained positively for either π-GST or CK19.CONCLUSION Oval cells are frequently detected in human livers with chronic viral hepatitis, suggesting that oval cell proliferation is associated with the liver regeneration in this condition.

  10. Adverse Drug Reactions and Quality of Life in Schizophrenia Patients with Chronic Viral Hepatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Vadim A. Akhmedov, PhD, ScD; Olga V. Zadorozhnaya

    2012-01-01

    Schizophrenia patients frequently develop somatic co-morbidity, including chronic viral hepatitis. The study of the quality of life in schizophrenia patients with concomitant viral hepatitis in the context of hospital pharmacotherapy, therefore, becomes an important task. We examined 60 schizophrenia patients with chronic viral hepatitis. Diagnosis was based on clinical, psychopathological, psychometric, clinical and laboratory methods, followed by statistical data processing. The features re...

  11. Liver fibrosis in chronic viral hepatitis: An ultrasonographic study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rong-Qin Zheng; Qing-Hui Wang; Ming-De Lu; Shi-Bin Xie; Jie Ren; Zhong-Zhen Su; Yin-Ke Cai; Ji-Lu Yao

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To select valuable ultrasonographic predictors for the evaluation of hepatic inflammation and fibrosis degree in chronic hepatitis, and to study the value of ultrasonography in the evaluation of liver fibrosis and compensated liver cirrhosis in comparison with serology and histology.METHODS: Forty-four ultrasonographic variables were analyzed and screened using color Doppler ultrasound system in 225 patients with chronic viral hepatitis and compensated liver cirrhosis. The valuable ultrasonographic predictors were selected on the basis of a comparison with histopathological findings. The value of ultrasonography and serology in the evaluation of liver fibrosis degree and the diagnosis of compensated liver cirrhosis was also studied and compared. Meanwhile, the influencing factors on ultrasonographic diagnosis of compensated liver cirrhosis were also analyzed.RESULTS: By statistical analysis, the maximum velocity of portal vein and the degree of gall-bladder wall smoothness were selected as the valuable predictors for the inflammation grade (G), while liver surface, hepatic parenchymal echo pattern, and the wall thickness of gall-bladder were selected as the valuable predictors for the fibrosis stage (S). Three S-related independent ultrasonographyic predictors and three routine serum fibrosis markers (HA, HPCIII and CIV) were used to discriminate variables for the comparison of ultrasonography with serology. The diagnostic accuracy of ultrasonography in moderate fibrosis was higher than that of serology (P<0.01), while there were no significant differences in the general diagnostic accuracy of fibrosis as well as between mild and severe fibrosis (P<0.05). There were no significant differences between ultrasonography and serology in the diagnosis of compensated liver cirrhosis.However, the diagnostic accuracy of ultrasonography was higher in inactive liver cirrhosis and lower in active cirrhosis than that of serology (both P<0.05). False positive and false

  12. LIVER BIOPSY: IMPORTANCE OF SPECIMEN SIZE IN THE DIAGNOSIS AND STAGING OF CHRONIC VIRAL HEPATITIS

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriela P. CORAL; Aline Dal Pozzo ANTUNES; Ana Paula Almeida SERAFINI; ARAUJO, Fernanda B.; Angelo Alves de MATTOS

    2016-01-01

    Liver biopsy is the gold standard method for the grading and staging of chronic viral hepatitis, but optimal biopsy specimen size remains controversial. The aim of this study was to evaluate the quality of liver specimen (number of portal tracts) and to evaluate the impact of the number of portal tracts in the staging of chronic hepatitis. Material and Methods: 468 liver biopsies from consecutive patients with hepatitis C virus and hepatitis B virus infection from 2009 to 2010 were evaluate...

  13. The ultrasonographic changes of gallbladder wall and the corresponding hepatic pathology in patients with chronic viral hepatitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate the relationship between the ultrasonographic changes of gallbladder wall and the hepatic inflammation grading as well as fibrostic staging using ultrasound examination in patients with chronic viral hepatitis, and to survey the diagnostic standard for viral related cholecystitis. Methods: Five hundreds and nineteen chronic viral hepatitis patients and 104 normal control subjects were enrolled in the study. Ultrasound guided liver biopsy was performed in all patients with chronic viral hepatitis, in which the hepatic fibrostic stages(S) were divided into SI (n=148), S2(n=170), S3-4(n 201 ); and hepatic inflammation grades (G) were divided into G1 (n=124 ), G2 (n=204), G3 (n=191). The ultrasound scan was performed within 7 days after liver biopsy. The relationship between ultrasonographic changes of gallbladder and the hepatic inflammation grades and fibrostic stages were analyzed using statistic soft ware SPSS 11.5 for windows. Results: The percentage of the thickened gallbladder wall were 55%, 87%, 96% in S1, S2, S3-4, respectively, and were 45%, 82%, 95% in G1, G2, G3-4, respectively. Significant difference was revealed between G1 and G2, as well as between G2 and G3-4, with P < 0.05. Conclusion: A significant, positive correlative relationship exists between the ultrasonographic changes of gall-bladder wall and the hepatic inflammation grading and fibrostic staging in patients with chronic viral hepatitis. (authors)

  14. Linker phosphorylation of Smad3 promotes fibro-carcinogenesis in chronic viral hepatitis of hepatocellular carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Murata, Miki; Yoshida, Katsunori; Yamaguchi, Takashi; Matsuzaki, Koichi

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiological and clinical data point to a close association between chronic hepatitis B virus infection or chronic hepatitis C virus infection and development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). HCC develops over several decades and is associated with fibrosis. This sequence suggests that persistent viral infection and chronic inflammation can synergistically induce liver fibrosis and hepatocarcinogenesis. The transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) signaling pathway plays a pivotal role in di...

  15. The Management of Chronic Viral Hepatitis: A Canadian Consensus Conference 2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morris Sherman

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Several government and nongovernment organizations held a consensus conference on the management of acute and chronic viral hepatitis to update previous management recommendations. The conference became necessary because of the introduction of new forms of therapy for both hepatitis B and hepatitis C. The conference issued recommendations on the investigation and management of chronic hepatitis B, including the use of lamivudine, adefovir and interferon. The treatment of hepatitis B in several special situations was also discussed. There were also recommendations on the investigation and treatment of chronic hepatitis C and hepatitis C-HIV coinfection. In addition, the document makes some recommendations about the provision of services by provincial governments to facilitate the delivery of care to patients with hepatitis virus infection. The present document is meant to be used by practitioners and other health care providers, including public health staff and others not directly involved in patient care.

  16. Association of chronic viral hepatitis B with insulin resistance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jeong Gyu Lee; Sangyeoup Lee; Yun Jin Kim; Byung Mann Cho; Joo Sung Park; Hyung Hoi Kim; JaeHun Cheong

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To investigate the relationship between chronic viral hepatitis B (CVHB) and insulin resistance (IR) in Korean adults.METHODS:A total of 7880 adults (3851 men,4029 women) who underwent a comprehensive medical examination were enrolled in this study.Subjects diagnosed with either diabetes mellitus,or any other disorder that could influence their insulin sensitivity,were rejected,Anthropometry,metabolic risk factors,hepatitis B surface antigen,hepatitis B surface antibody,hepatitis B core antibody,fasting plasma glucose and insulin were measured for all subjects.Homeostasis model assessment (HOMA),quantitative insulin check index (QUICKI),and Mffm index were used for determining insulin sensitivity.Each participant was categorized into a negative,recovery,or CVHB group.To compare variables between groups,a t-test and/or one-way analysis of variance were used.Partial correlation coefficients were computed to present the association between insulin resistance and other variables.Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to assess the independent association between CVHB and IR.RESULTS:The mean age of men and women were 48.9 and 48.6 years,respectively.Subjects in the CVHB group had significantly higher waist circumference [(86.0 ± 7.7 cm vs 87.3 ± 7.8 cm,P =0.004 in men),(78.3 ± 8.6 cm vs 80.5 ± 8.5 cm,P < 0.001 in women)],cystatin C [(0.96 ± 0.15 mg/dL vs 1.02 ± 0.22 mg/dL,P < 0.001 in men),(0.84 ± 0.15 mg/dL vs 0.90 ± 0.16 mg/dL,P < 0.001 in women)],fasting insulin [(5.47 ± 3.38 μU/mL vs 6.12 ± 4.62 μU/mL,P< 0.001 in men),(4.57 ± 2.82 μU/mL vs 5.06 ± 3.10μU/mL,P < 0.001 in women)] and HOMA index [(1.24± 0.86 vs 1.43 ± 1.24,P < 0.001 in men),(1.02 ±0.76 vs 1.13 ± 0.87,P =0.033 in women)] compared to control group.The HOMA index revealed a positive correlation with body mass index (BMI) (r =0.378,P < 0.001),waist circumference (r =0.356,P < 0.001),percent body fat (r =0.296,P < 0.001),systolic blood pressure (r =0.202,P

  17. Web-based Distributed Medical Information System for Chronic Viral Hepatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ying; Qin, Tuan-fa; Jiang, Jian-ning; Lu, Hui; Ma, Zong-e.; Meng, Hong-chang

    2008-11-01

    To make a long-term dynamic monitoring to the chronically ill, especially patients of HBV A, we build a distributed Medical Information System for Chronic Viral Hepatitis (MISCHV). The Web-based system architecture and its function are described, and the extensive application and important role are also presented.

  18. Anti-hepatitis A seroprevalence among chronic viral hepatitis patients in Kelantan, Malaysia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fazlina Ahmad; Nor Aizal Che Hamzah; Nazri Mustaffa; Siew Hua Gan

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To determine the seroprevalence of anti-hepatitis A virus (HAV) antibodies in patients with chronic liver disease (CLD) and to justify the need for hepatitis A vaccination. METHODS: Patients (n = 119) were enrolled between July and September 2009. The diagnosis of CLD was based on the presence of viral markers for more than 6 mo. The diagnosis of liver cirrhosis was based on clinical, biochemical and radiological profiles. Patient serum was tested for anti-HAV IgG. RESULTS: The overall anti-HAV seroprevalence was 88.2%. The aetiology of CLD was hepatitis B in 96 patients (80.7%) and hepatitis C in 23 patients (19.3%). Mean age was 44.4 ± 14 years. Patients were grouped according to age as follows: 24 (20.2%) patients in the 21-30 years age group, 22 (18.5%) in the 31-40 years age group, 31 (26.1%) in the 41-50 years age group, 23 (19.3%) in the 51-60 years age group and 19 (16.0%) patients aged greater than 60 years, with reported seroprevalences of 66.7%, 95.5%, 93.5%, 91.3% and 94.7%, respectively. There was a marked increase of seroprevalence in subjects older than 30 years (P = 0.001). CONCLUSION: Our study demonstrated that patients aged greater than 30 years of age were likely to have natural immunity to hepatitis A. Therefore, hepatitis A vaccination may not be routinely required in this age group.

  19. Liver biopsy performance and histological findings among patients with chronic viral hepatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Peer Brehm; Krarup, Henrik Bygum; Møller, Axel; Laursen, Alex Lund; Kjaer, Mette S; Orholm, Marianne; Lindberg, Jens; Groenbaek, Karin; Kromann-Andersen, Hans; Weis, Nina; Group, Danhep

    2007-01-01

    We investigated the variance of liver biopsy frequency and histological findings among patients with chronic viral hepatitis attending 10 medical centres in Denmark. Patients who tested positive for HBsAg or HCV- RNA were retrieved from a national clinical database (DANHEP) and demographic data......, cirrhosis had developed in 23% after 20 y of infection. Age above 40 y was a better predictor of cirrhosis than elevated ALT. National database comparison may identify factors of importance for improved management of patients with chronic viral hepatitis......., laboratory analyses and liver biopsy results were collected. A total of 1586 patients were identified of whom 69.7% had hepatitis C, 28.9% hepatitis B, and 1.5% were coinfected. In total, 771 (48.6%) had a biopsy performed (range 33.3-78.7%). According to the Metavir classification, 29.3% had septal fibrosis...

  20. Liver biopsy performance and histological findings among patients with chronic viral hepatitis: a Danish database study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Peer Brehm; Krarup, Henrik Bygum; Møller, Axel; Laursen, Alex Lund; Kjaer, Mette S; Orholm, Marianne; Lindberg, Jens; Groenbaek, Karin; Kromann-Andersen, Hans; NN, NN; Weis, Nina

    2007-01-01

    We investigated the variance of liver biopsy frequency and histological findings among patients with chronic viral hepatitis attending 10 medical centres in Denmark. Patients who tested positive for HBsAg or HCV- RNA were retrieved from a national clinical database (DANHEP) and demographic data......, cirrhosis had developed in 23% after 20 y of infection. Age above 40 y was a better predictor of cirrhosis than elevated ALT. National database comparison may identify factors of importance for improved management of patients with chronic viral hepatitis. Udgivelsesdato: 2007-null......, laboratory analyses and liver biopsy results were collected. A total of 1586 patients were identified of whom 69.7% had hepatitis C, 28.9% hepatitis B, and 1.5% were coinfected. In total, 771 (48.6%) had a biopsy performed (range 33.3-78.7%). According to the Metavir classification, 29.3% had septal fibrosis...

  1. Diagnosis and management of chronic viral hepatitis: antigens, antibodies and viral genomes.

    OpenAIRE

    Chevaliez, Stéphane; Pawlotsky, Jean-Michel

    2008-01-01

    Virological tools, including serological and molecular tools, are needed to diagnose chronic hepatitis B and C infections. They may also be useful to establish their prognosis, but they have found their principal application in guiding treatment decisions and assessing the virological responses to therapy. The goal of chronic hepatitis B therapy is to prevent progression of liver disease. This is achieved if HBV replication is durably abolished or significantly reduced. In HBeAg-positive pati...

  2. Immigration and viral hepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Suraj; Carballo, Manuel; Feld, Jordan J; Janssen, Harry L A

    2015-08-01

    WHO estimates reveal that the global prevalence of viral hepatitis may be as high as 500 million, with an annual mortality rate of up to 1.3 million individuals. The majority of this global burden of disease is borne by nations of the developing world with high rates of vertical and iatrogenic transmission of HBV and HCV, as well as poor access to healthcare. In 2013, 3.2% of the global population (231 million individuals) migrated into a new host nation. Migrants predominantly originate from the developing countries of the south, into the developed economies of North America and Western Europe. This mass migration of individuals from areas of high-prevalence of viral hepatitis poses a unique challenge to the healthcare systems of the host nations. Due to a lack of universal standards for screening, vaccination and treatment of viral hepatitis, the burden of chronic liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma continues to increase among migrant populations globally. Efforts to increase case identification and treatment among migrants have largely been limited to small outreach programs in urban centers, such that the majority of migrants with viral hepatitis continue to remain unaware of their infection. This review summarizes the data on prevalence of viral hepatitis and burden of chronic liver disease among migrants, current standards for screening and treatment of immigrants and refugees, and efforts to improve the identification and treatment of viral hepatitis among migrants. PMID:25962882

  3. Characteristics and risk factors of thyroid dysfunction following interferon therapy in patients with chronic viral hepatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    桂红莲

    2013-01-01

    Objective To find out the clinical characteristics of thyroid dysfunction during interferon(IFN) therapy in patients with chronic viral hepatitis,and to analyze its risk factors based on biochemical and virological results of these patients.Methods Between January 2007 and March 2010,385 patients

  4. Clinical manifestations of chronic viral hepatitis С in children suffering for a one-year period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Churbakova О.V.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: the topical issue in medicine is currently considered to be the morbidity of chronic hepatitis in children. Material and methods. The article deals with the course of chronic hepatitis С in children with the light form of disease. The disease course has been from 6 months till 1 year. Results. According to the data of epidemiological anamneses (the analysis of the out-patient cards, previous discharges the possible way and prospective date of infection of majority of children and adolescents have been revealed. 68 children with Chronic Viral Hepatitis С at the age of from 7 months till 18 years have been under the study. Conclusion. General clinical, biochemical and instrumental methods of investigation have been carried out.

  5. Prediction of compensated liver cirrhosis by ultrasonography and routine blood tests in patients with chronic viral hepatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Hong Sub; Kim, Jai Keun; Cheong, Jae Youn; Han, Eun Jin; An, So-Yeon; Song, Jun Ha; Jung, Yun Jung; Jeon, Sung Chan; Jung, Min Wook; Jang, Eun-Jung; Cho, Sung Won

    2010-01-01

    Background/Aims Liver biopsy is a standard method for diagnosis of liver cirrhosis in patients with chronic hepatitis. Because liver biopsy is an invasive method, non-invasive methods have been used for diagnosis of compensated liver cirrhosis in patients with chronic hepatitis. The current study was designed to evaluate the usefulness of ultrasonography and routine blood tests for diagnosis of compensated liver cirrhosis in patients with chronic viral hepatitis. Methods Two hundred three pat...

  6. Chronic viral hepatitis B and C in patients with tuberculosis: the proportion of nozoform, dynamic changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Baramzina

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available the purpose of the study. identify the epidemiological of chronic hepatitis B and C, especially in the general population and in patients with different clinical forms of tuberculosis for the period of 2008–2010, treated in the regional clinical TB dispensary Kirov; correlate these data with the frequency of detection of HBV markers and HCVinfections in donors as conditionally healthy population in the region. Materials and methods. A total of 6959 patients Kirov TB dispensaries in the age range 18–70 years. All patients were screened for markers of viral hepatitis C and B (anti-HCV and HBSAg ELISA. Of them, 537 (7,72% patients with different forms of tuberculosis were diagnosed with chronic hepatitis B, C, or B + C. The diagnosis of chronic hepatitis B or C based on clinical and anamnestic data, the results of EGD, abdominal ultrasonography. The comparison group included 13,222 primary donors of 6 areas of the Kirov region is also examined for the presence of markers of viral hepatitis B and C for the period 2008–2011 Determination of HBsAg, anti-HBs, anti-HBc anti-HCV were determined by solid-phase ELISA; study of the epidemiological situation of chronic hepatitis B and C are carried out on the basis of the Center for Hygiene and Epidemiology in the Russian Federation and the Kirov region for the 1998–2013 biennium. (Form No 2. Results and conclusions. The study showed a trend toward stable growth on the incidence of HCV, a slight decrease in the incidence of chronic hepatitis B and a consistently high level of registration of patients with pulmonary tuberculosis, including smear-positive pulmonary forms in the general population of the region. CHC is prevalent among nosology chronic hepatitis in KO (77,2%. CHC also prevailed in the structure of morbidity in patients with tuberculosis as well as in the general population; CHB met in 2–2,8 times less compared to CHC (p <0,05. The tendency to increase the number of TB patients and

  7. Retinopathy and subconjunctival haemorrhage in patients with chronic viral hepatitis receiving interferon alfa.

    OpenAIRE

    Hayasaka, S; Fujii, M.; Yamamoto, Y.; Noda, S; Kurome, H; Sasaki, M

    1995-01-01

    A total of 43 patients (86 eyes) with chronic viral hepatitis were examined prospectively before and after the start of interferon therapy. Of 37 non-diabetic patients, 23 (group A1) did not have retinopathy or subconjunctival haemorrhage, 11 (group A2) developed retinopathy, and three (group A3) exhibited subconjunctival haemorrhage during the treatment. In most eyes, the retinopathy disappeared after therapy was stopped. Of six diabetic patients, three (group B1) developed retinopathy and t...

  8. Assessment of the reliability of the Serbian version of the sickness impact profile questionnaire in patients with chronic viral hepatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Majstorović Biljana; Janković Slobodan; Dimoski Zvonko; Kekuš Divna; Kocić Sanja; Mijailović Željko

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Health-related quality of life (HRQL) of chronic patients has been researched as the ultimate goal of modern treatment of chronic diseases to improve patients’ quality of life. Objective. The objective was to assess the reliability of the Serbian version of the Sickness Impact Profile (SIP) questionnaire on the sample of patients with chronic viral hepatitis. Methods. The research covered 102 patients with chronic hepatitis (47 type B and 55 t...

  9. Segmental Difference of the Hepatic Fibrosis from Chronic Viral Hepatitis due to Hepatitis B versus C Virus Infection: Comparison Using Dual Contrast Material-Enhanced MRI

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    Shin, Jae Ho; Yu, Jeong Sik; Chung, Jae Joon; Kim, Joo Hee; Kim, Ki Whang [Gangnam Severance Hospital, Yensei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-08-15

    We wanted to identify the geographic differences in hepatic fibrosis and their associations with the atrophy-hypertrophy complex in patients with chronic viral hepatitis using the dual-contrast material-enhanced MRI (DC-MRI) with gadopentetate dimeglumine and ferucarbotran. Patients with chronic C (n = 22) and B-viral hepatitis (n = 35) were enrolled for determining the subjective grade of fibrosis (the extent and thickness of fibrotic reticulations) in the right lobe (RL), the caudate lobe (CL), the medial segment (MS) and the lateral segment (LS) of the liver, with using a 5-grade scale, on the gradient echo T2-weighted images of DC-MRI. The fibrosis grades of different segments were compared using the Kruskal-Wallis test followed by post-hoc analysis to establish the segment-by-segment differences. The incidences of two pre-established morphologic signs of cirrhosis were also compared with each other between the two groups of patients. There were significant intersegmental differences in fibrosis grades of the C-viral group (p = 0.005), and the CL showed lower fibrosis grades as compared with the grades of the RL and MS, whereas all lobes were similarly affected in the B-viral group (p = 0.221). The presence of a right posterior hepatic notch was significantly higher in the patients with intersegmental differences of fibrosis between the RL and the CL (19 out of 25, 76%) than those without such differences (6 out of 32, 19%) (p < 0.001). An expanded gallbladder fossa showed no significant relationship (p = 0.327) with the segmental difference of the fibrosis grades between the LS and the MS. The relative lack of fibrosis in the CL with more advanced fibrosis in the RL can be a distinguishing feature to differentiate chronic C-viral hepatitis from chronic B-viral hepatitis and this is closely related to the presence of a right posterior hepatic notch.

  10. Segmental Difference of the Hepatic Fibrosis from Chronic Viral Hepatitis due to Hepatitis B versus C Virus Infection: Comparison Using Dual Contrast Material-Enhanced MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We wanted to identify the geographic differences in hepatic fibrosis and their associations with the atrophy-hypertrophy complex in patients with chronic viral hepatitis using the dual-contrast material-enhanced MRI (DC-MRI) with gadopentetate dimeglumine and ferucarbotran. Patients with chronic C (n = 22) and B-viral hepatitis (n = 35) were enrolled for determining the subjective grade of fibrosis (the extent and thickness of fibrotic reticulations) in the right lobe (RL), the caudate lobe (CL), the medial segment (MS) and the lateral segment (LS) of the liver, with using a 5-grade scale, on the gradient echo T2-weighted images of DC-MRI. The fibrosis grades of different segments were compared using the Kruskal-Wallis test followed by post-hoc analysis to establish the segment-by-segment differences. The incidences of two pre-established morphologic signs of cirrhosis were also compared with each other between the two groups of patients. There were significant intersegmental differences in fibrosis grades of the C-viral group (p = 0.005), and the CL showed lower fibrosis grades as compared with the grades of the RL and MS, whereas all lobes were similarly affected in the B-viral group (p = 0.221). The presence of a right posterior hepatic notch was significantly higher in the patients with intersegmental differences of fibrosis between the RL and the CL (19 out of 25, 76%) than those without such differences (6 out of 32, 19%) (p < 0.001). An expanded gallbladder fossa showed no significant relationship (p = 0.327) with the segmental difference of the fibrosis grades between the LS and the MS. The relative lack of fibrosis in the CL with more advanced fibrosis in the RL can be a distinguishing feature to differentiate chronic C-viral hepatitis from chronic B-viral hepatitis and this is closely related to the presence of a right posterior hepatic notch.

  11. Viral and host causes of fatty liver in chronic hepatitis B

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Emin Altlparmak; Seyfettin K(o)klü; Mesut Yallnkilic; Osman Yüksel; Bahattin Cicek; Ertugrul Kayacetin; Tülin Sahin

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the viral and host causes of fatty liver in chronic hepatitis B patients and the role of fat deposits in liver damage.METHODS: A total of 164 patients (113 males and 51 females, average age 35±11.3 years, and range 10-62 years) with previously untreated chronic hepatitis B were included in the study. The patients were divided into two groups depending on the result of liver biopsy: group without steatosis (100 patients with <5% hepatosteatosis) and group with steatosis (64 patients with >5% hepatosteatosis). The groups were compared in terms of gender, body mass index (BMI), liver enzymes (ALT, AST, ALP, GGT), cholesterol, triglyceride, HBeAg, viral load, and histological findings. In the group with steatosis, the patients were subdivided depending on the degree of steatosis into mild group (45 patients with 5-24% steatosis), and severe group (19 patients with >25% steatosis). RESULTS: In the group of chronic hepatitis B with steatosis, the mean age, BMI, cholesterol, and triglyceride levels were significantly higher than those in the group without steatosis (P<0.05). Steatosis was found in 53 (46.9%) of male patients and 11 (22%) of female patients (P<0.05). No significant difference was found in the positivity of ALT, AST, ALP, GGT, HBeAg, viral load, histological activity index (HAI) and stage between the two groups (P>0.05). In the group with severe steatosis, the BMI was significantly higher than that in the group with mild steatosis (P<0.05). No significant difference was found in the other parameters between the groups (P>0.05). CONCLUSION: Steatosis in chronic hepatitis B appears to be a result of metabolic factors of the host rather than the effect of viruses. Steatosis is unrelated to the HAI and degree of fibrosis, which are considered as the histological indicators of liver damage.

  12. Viral load and clinicopathological features of chronic hepatitis C (1b) in a homogeneous patient population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanning, L; Kenny, E; Sheehan, M; Cannon, B; Whelton, M; O'Connell, J; Collins, J K; Shanahan, F

    1999-03-01

    Monitoring the progression of hepatitis C virus (HCV) includes clinical, biochemical, and histological parameters. Quantitation of viral load by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) may offer a more reliable marker of disease status. Conflicting reports on viral titers may reflect heterogeneity of patient population, mode of infection, and viral type/subtype. The aim of this study was to correlate quantitative serum viral load with alanine transaminase (ALT) and histological status in a homogenous population. The study population consisted of 77 Rhesus-negative women with chronic hepatitis C type 1b. Homogenous features of this study population included: same defined source of infection (contaminated anti-D immunoglobulin); same duration of disease (17 years at the time of study); same viral type/subtype; same ethnic origin; all healthy child-bearing females at the time of infection; and an absence of competing risk factors for infectious and other liver diseases. None of the patients had received antiviral treatment at the time of study. Liver biopsy was performed on all patients. All biopsies were scored by a single histopathologist who was blinded to the clinical and viral status of each patient. A weak, but statistically significant, correlation (rs =.26; P <.05) between serum viral load and the degree of inflammation (mean value: 3.87 +/- 2.17 [SD]) was found. There was no significant correlation between serum viral load and the degree of fibrosis (mean value: 0.84 +/- 0.8 [SD]; P =.06). There was no significant correlation between serum viral load and ALT, although there was a correlation between ALT and the degree of inflammation (rs =.241; P =.035). PMID:10051496

  13. Pathophysiology of insulin resistance and steatosis in patients with chronic viral hepatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Metin Basaranoglu; G(o)kcen Basaranoglu

    2011-01-01

    Chronic hepatitis due to any cause leads to cirrhosis and end-stage liver disease. A growing body of literature has also shown that fatty liver due to overweight or obesity is a leading cause of cirrhosis. Due to the obesity epidemic, fatty liver is now a significant problem in clinical practice. Steatosis has an impact on the acceleration of liver damage in patients with chronic hepatitis due to other causes. An association between hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, steatosis and the onset of insulin resistance has been reported. Insulin resistance is one of the leading factors for severe fibrosis in chronic HCV infections. Moreover, hyperinsulinemia has a deleterious effect on the management of chronic HCV. Response to therapy is increased by decreasing insulin resistance by weight loss or the use of thiazolidenediones or metformin. The underlying mechanisms of this complex interaction are not fully understood. A direct cytopathic effect of HCV has been suggested. The genomic structure of HCV (suggesting that some viral sequences are involved in the intracellular accumulation of triglycerides), lipid metabolism, the molecular links between the HCV core protein and lipid droplets (the core protein of HCV and its transcriptional regulatory function which induce a triglyceride accumulation in hepatocytes) and increased neolipogenesis and inhibited fatty acid degradation in mitochondria have been investigated.

  14. Diagnosis and treatment challenges in a patient with splenic tumor and chronic viral hepatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Firulescu, SC; Săndulescu, DL; Dinescu, ŞC; Gheonea, IA; Purcarea, RM; Săndulescu, SM

    2015-01-01

    Non-Hodgkin lymphoma is a cancer of the lymphatic tissue located in various parts of the body: lymph nodes, spleen, thymus, adenoids, tonsils, and bone marrow. The disease occurs mainly in adults, with a higher incidence within the age range of 45 to 60 years. We present a clinical case of non-Hodgkin lymphoma diagnosed in a patient with chronic viral hepatitis B and D. The particularity of this case consists in the diagnosis of primitive spleen lymphoma, described in less than 1% of the case...

  15. Constraints on Viral Evolution during Chronic Hepatitis C Virus Infection Arising from a Common-Source Exposure

    OpenAIRE

    Bailey, Justin R.; Laskey, Sarah; Wasilewski, Lisa N.; Munshaw, Supriya; Liam J. Fanning; Kenny-Walsh, Elizabeth; Ray, Stuart C.

    2012-01-01

    Extraordinary viral sequence diversity and rapid viral genetic evolution are hallmarks of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Viral sequence evolution has previously been shown to mediate escape from cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) and neutralizing antibody responses in acute HCV infection. HCV evolution continues during chronic infection, but the pressures driving these changes are poorly defined. We analyzed plasma virus sequence evolution in 5.2-kb hemigenomes from multiple longitudinal time p...

  16. Remission of bronchial asthma after viral clearance in chronic hepatitis C

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Norihiko Yamamoto; Kazumoto Murata; Takeshi Nakano

    2005-01-01

    A 53-year-old man with a history of blood transfusion at the age of 20 was admitted to our hospital because of liver dysfunction. He had bronchial asthma when he was 18 years old, which naturally resolved within 2 years. However, his bronchial asthma recurred at the age of 45 and was treated with oral theophylline. He was diagnosed as having chronic hepatitis C based on the histological and clinical findings, and then interferon (IFN) therapy was administered. The frequency of bronchial asthma attack was gradually decreasing after IFN therapy with marked improvement of hypereosinophilia. He achieved sustained viral response (SVR) and his bronchial asthma did not worsen even after the cessation of IFN. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and IFN therapy were considered in the remission of asthma in this case. HCV infection could be the cause of bronchial asthma, especially in patients with late appearance of asthma.

  17. Natural Killer Cell Functional Dichotomy: a Feature of Chronic Viral Hepatitis ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Umberto Mondelli

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available NK cells are involved in innate immune responses to viral infections either via direct cytotoxicity which destroys virus-infected cells or production of immunoregulatory cytokines which modulate adaptive immunity and directly inhibit virus replication. These functions are mediated by different NK subpopulations, with cytotoxicity being generally performed by CD56dim NK cells, whereas CD56bright NK cells are mainly involved in cytokine secretion. NK functional defects are usually combined so that impaired degranulation is often associated with deficient cytokine production. Innate immunity is thought to be relevant in the control of hepatitis virus infections such as HBV and HCV, and recent findings reproducibly indicate that NK cells in chronic viral hepatitis are characterized by a functional dichotomy, featuring a conserved or enhanced cytotoxicity and a reduced production of IFN-gamma and TNF-alfa. In chronic HCV infection this appears to be caused by altered IFN-alfa signaling resulting from increased STAT1 phosphorylation, which polarizes NK cells toward cytotoxicity, and a concomitantly reduced IFN-alfa induced STAT4 phosphorylation yielding reduced IFN-gamma mRNA levels. These previously unappreciated findings are compatible on the one hand with the inability to clear HCV and HBV from the liver and on the other they may contribute to understand why these patients are often resistant to interferon (IFNalfa-based therapies.

  18. [Viral hepatitis in travellers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu, Cândida

    2007-01-01

    Considering the geographical asymmetric distribution of viral hepatitis A, B and E, having a much higher prevalence in the less developed world, travellers from developed countries are exposed to a considerable and often underestimated risk of hepatitis infection. In fact a significant percentage of viral hepatitis occurring in developed countries is travel related. This results from globalization and increased mobility from tourism, international work, humanitarian and religious missions or other travel related activities. Several studies published in Europe and North America shown that more than 50% of reported cases of hepatitis A are travel related. On the other hand frequent outbreaks of hepatitis A and E in specific geographic areas raise the risk of infection in these restricted zones and that should be clearly identified. Selected aspects related with the distribution of hepatitis A, B and E are reviewed, particularly the situation in Portugal according to the published studies, as well as relevant clinical manifestations and differential diagnosis of viral hepatitis. Basic prevention rules considering enteric transmitted hepatitis (hepatitis A and hepatitis E) and parenteral transmitted (hepatitis B) are reviewed as well as hepatitis A and B immunoprophylaxis. Common clinical situations and daily practice "pre travel" advice issues are discussed according to WHO/CDC recommendations and the Portuguese National Vaccination Program. Implications from near future availability of a hepatitis E vaccine, a currently in phase 2 trial, are highlighted. Potential indications for travellers to endemic countries like India, Nepal and some regions of China, where up to 30% of sporadic cases of acute viral hepatitis are caused by hepatitis E virus, are considered. Continued epidemiological surveillance for viral hepatitis is essential to recognize and control possible outbreaks, but also to identify new viral hepatitis agents that may emerge as important global health

  19. Differential viral kinetics in treated genotype 4 chronic hepatitis C patients according to ethnicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elefsiniotis, I S; Pavlidis, C; Dimitroulopoulos, D; Vezali, E; Mihas, C; Mariolis-Sapsakos, T; Koutsounas, S; Paraskevas, E; Saroglou, G

    2009-10-01

    Data concerning the efficacy of PEG-IFN alpha 2a plus ribavirin treatment in treatment-naive, genotype 4-infected chronic hepatitis C (CHC) patients from Europe are limited. Hence the aim of this study was to investigate the viral kinetics as well as the sustained virological response (SVR) rates and their predictors, in these patients. One hundred and twenty-three patients were retrospectively analysed. Early (EVR) and late virological response (LVR) was confirmed by undetectable (Egyptian patients (P = 0.613), in whom the only independent predictor of SVR was the absence of cirrhosis (P = 0.004). LVR seems to be a better predictor of SVR than EVR in the vast majority of genotype 4-infected CHC patients, irrespective of ethnicity and all the other baseline parameters. PMID:19413697

  20. Mortality in patients with chronic and cleared hepatitis C viral infection: a nationwide cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Omland, Lars Haukali; Krarup, Henrik; Jepsen, Peter; Georgsen, Jørgen; Harritshøj, Lene Holm; Riisom, Kirsten; Jacobsen, Svend Erik Hove; Schouenborg, Per; Christensen, Peer Brehm; Sørensen, Henrik Toft; Obel, Niels; Bangsborg, Jette Marie

    2010-01-01

    It is unknown whether mortality differs between patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) replication and those who cleared the virus after infection. We examined the impact of chronic HCV replication on mortality among Danish patients testing positive for HCV antibodies.......It is unknown whether mortality differs between patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) replication and those who cleared the virus after infection. We examined the impact of chronic HCV replication on mortality among Danish patients testing positive for HCV antibodies....

  1. Effect of viral load on T-lymphocyte failure in patients with chronic hepatitis B

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing You; Hutcha Sriplung; Alan Geater; Virasakdi Chongsuvivatwong; Lin Zhuang; Hong-Ying Chen; Lan Yu; Bao-Zhang Tang; Jun-Hua Huang

    2008-01-01

    AIM:To investigate peripheral T-lymphocyte subpopulation profile and its correlation with hepatitis B virus (HBV) replication in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB).METHODS:Distribution of T-lymphocyte subpopulations in peripheral blood was measured by flow cytometry in 206 CHB patients.HBV markers were detected with ELISA.Serum HBV DNA load was assessed with quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR).The relationship between HBV replication and variation in peripheral T-cell subsets was analyzed.RESULTS:CHB patients had significantly decreased CD3,and CD4+ cells and CD4+/CD8+ ratio,and increased CD8+ cells compared with uninfected controls (55.44±12.39 vs 71.07±4.76,30.92±7.48 vs 38.94±3.39,1.01±0.49 vs 1.67±0.33,and 34.39±9.22 vs 24.02±4.35;P<0.001,respectively).Univariate analysis showed a similar pattern of these parameters was significantly associated with high viral load,presence of serum hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) expression,liver disease severity,history of maternal HBV infection,and young age at HBV infection,all with P<0.01.There was a significant linear relationship between viral load and these parameters of T-lymphocyte subpopulations (linear trend test P<0.001).There was a negative correlation between the levels of CD3+ and CD4+ cells and CD4+/CD8+ ratio and serum level of viral load in CHB patients (r=-0.68,-0.65 and-0.75,all P<0.0001),and a positive correlation between CD8+ cells and viral load (r=0.70,P<0.0001).There was a significant decreasing trend in CD3+ and CD4+ cells and CD4+/CD8+ratio with increasing severity of hepatocyte damage and decreasing age at HBV infection (linear trend test P<0.01).In multiple regression (after adjustment for age at HBV infection,maternal HBV infection status and hepatocyte damage severity) log copies of HBV DNA maintained a highly significant predictive coefficient on T-lymphocyte subpopulations,and was the strongest predictor of variation in CD3+,CD4+,CD8+ cells and CD4+/CD8

  2. Serological and Molecular Testing in Viral Hepatitis: An Update

    OpenAIRE

    Weston, Shiobhan R; Martin, Paul

    2001-01-01

    The routine serological diagnoses of the three major forms of viral hepatitis - A, B and C - as well as delta hepatitis, are important in the evaluation of acute and chronic viral hepatitis. Increasingly, molecular virology is also being used to evaluate patients with chronic hepatitis C, with genotype and viral load testing to plan therapy.

  3. PHENOTYPE AND FUNCTIONS OF DENDRITIC CELLS IN PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC VIRAL HEPATITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Yu. Leplina

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Phenotypic and functional features of IFNα-induced dendritic cells (DCs were studied in patients with chronic viral hepatitis B and C (HBV and HCV, and in cases with hepatitis-related liver cirrhosis (LC. It was shown that DCs are characterized by delayed differentiation/maturation which was more pronounced in HCV patients, as well as in all patients with LC, regardless of virus type. DCs from HBV patients were characterized by increased IFNγ secretion. Transformation of HBV-infection to LC is accompanied by a moderate decrease in IFNγ production, combined with a significantly increased IL-10 secretion. Irrespectively of fibrosis severity, the IFNα-induced DCs of HCV patients displayed active IL-10 synthesis. Moreover, ability of DCs to secrete IFNγ was significantly decreased only in cases of fibrosis-complicated HCV-infection. With respect to TNFα and IL-4 production levels, DCs of the patients were compatibe to normal donor cells, independently on the type of virus, or fibrosis severity. DCs from HBV- and HCV-patients were characterized by intact allostimulatory and Th1/Th2-stimulatory activities in MLC. At the same time, IFNα-induced DCs exhibited suppression of allostimulatory and increase in Th2-polarizing activity upon LC development, both in HBV and HCV patients.

  4. Non invasive assessment of liver fibrosis in chronic hemodialysis patients with viral hepatitis C

    OpenAIRE

    Arrayhani, Mohamed; Sqalli, Tarik; Tazi, Nada; El Youbi, Randa; Chaouch, Safae; Aqodad, Nourdin; Ibrahimi, Sidi Adil

    2015-01-01

    The liver biopsy has long been the "gold standard" for assessing liver fibrosis in patients with hepatitis C. It's an invasive procedure which is associated with an elevated bleeding, especially in chronic hemodialysis patients. Main goal is to assess liver fibrosis in chronic hemodialysis with HCV by Fibroscan and by biological scores (APRI, Forns and Fib-4), and to measure the correlation between these tests. Cross-sectional study including all chronic hemodialysis patients with hepatitis C...

  5. Treatment of chronic viral hepatitis with nitazoxanide and second generation thiazolides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Emmet B Keeffe; Jean-Francois Rossignol

    2009-01-01

    Nitazoxanide, the first thiazolide, was originally developed for the treatment of Cryptosporidium parvum. More recently, antiviral activity of nitazoxanide against hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus was recognized in in vitro systems. These basic studies led to phase Ⅱ clinical trials that demonstrated the safety and efficacy of nitazoxanide in combination with peginterferon, with or without ribavirin, in the treatment of chronic hepatitis C genotype 4. The sustained virologic response rate was 79% and 80% in two studies, which was higher than the response rate of 50% with the standard of care with peginterferon plus ribavirin. In very preliminary studies of patients with chronic hepatitis B, nitazoxanide suppressed serum HBV DNA and led to loss of hepatitis B e antigen in the majority of patients and hepatitis B surface antigen in approximately a quarter of patients. Randomized controlled studies of naive and nonresponder patients with chronic hepatitis C genotype 1 are underway, new second generation and controlled release thiazolides are being developed, and future studies of patients with chronic hepatitis B are planned.

  6. PDW Index - A Simple Model for the Prediction of Liver Fibrosis in Chronic Viral Hepatitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objectives: To assess the accuracy of platelets, platelet morphological parameters, mean platelet volume(MPV) and platelet distribution width, (PDW) to diagnose advanced fibrosis. Study Design: Validation study. Place and Duration of Study: Combined Military Hospital, Malir, from Jun 2008 to Jun 2009. Patients and Methods: Simple laboratory tests, aspartate aminotransferase (AST) alanine aminotransferase (ALT) platelet count and platelet morphological parameters were measured in 91 chronic viral hepatitis patients. All patients had liver biopsy performed. A new index, PDW index was derived to detect the opposing effects of liver fibrosis on platelet count, MPV, and PDW. The predictive value of the index for advanced fibrosis (F3-F4) was assessed through descriptive statistics and area under the ROC curves. Results: Two cut-offs were chosen to qualify different stages of fibrosis. A value of > 8.00 predicted advanced fibrosis, F3-F4, with a specificity of 94% and positive predictive value of 78%. A value of < 6.00 ruled out advanced fibrosis with a negative predictive value of 93% and a sensitivity of 82%. The area under the ROC curve for advanced fibrosis was 0.840. PDW Index values outside of these cut-offs correctly classified 60% of patients. Conclusion: A simple index comprising platelet as only parameters have high diagnostic value for the advanced stages of fibrosis. (author)

  7. Sequential changes of serum ferritin levels and their clinical significance in lamivudine-treated patients with chronic viral hepatitis B

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng-Wen Liu; Qun-Ying Han; Ni Zhang; Wen Kang

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To study the sequential changes of serum ferritin levels in lamivudine-treated patients with chronic viral hepatitis B and the clinical implications.METHODS: Thirty-eight patients with chronic viral hepatitis B were prospectively studied during their treatment with lamivudine. Each patient received 100 mg oral lamivudine daily for 12 mo, and was observed and tested for blood biochemistry and hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA levels and serum ferritin levels at baseline and at 3, 6 and 12 mo during the treatment. Serum HBV DNA levels were quantitatively determined using fluorescent quantitative polymerase chain reaction (FQ-PCR), and serum ferritin levels were measured by radioimmunoassay. The sequential changes of serum ferritin levels and their relationships with virological, serological and biochemical responses in the patients were analyzed.RESULTS: All the patients had a baseline HBV DNA level higher than 1x107 copies/L as determined by FQ-PCR and positive HBsAg and HBeAg and abnormal ALT levels. At the end of the 12-mo treatment, 19 of the 38(50.00%) patients had undetectable serum HBV DNA levels by FQ-PCR, and 12(31.58%) became negative for serum HBeAg and 10(26.32%) had seroconversion from HBeAg to HBeAb. Nineteen out of the 38(50.00%) patients had biochemically normal ALT levels after 12-mo lamivudine treatment. Sequential determination showed that lamivudine treatment significantly reduced ferritin levels in chronic hepatitis B patients. When the patients were divided into different groups according to their posttreatment virological, serological and biochemical responses for analysis of the sequential changes of ferritin levels, it was found that the decrease of ferritin levels in HBV DNA-negative group was significantly more obvious than that in HBV DNApositive group at 6 mo during the treatment (P=0.013).Consecutive comparisons showed that ferritin levels at 3 mo of treatment were obviously decreased as compared with the baseline levels (P<0.05) in HBe

  8. Clinical significance of determination of serum IGF-I, TNF-α and SS levels in patients with chronic viral hepatitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To study the clinical significance of changes of serum IGF-I, TNF-α and somatostatin(SS) levels in patients with chronic viral hepatitis. Methods: Serum IGF-I, TNF-α and SS levels were determined with RIA in 30 patients with chronic viral hepatitis (B hepatitis, n=24,C hepatitis, n=6) and 30 controls.Results The serum IGF-I, TNF-α and SS levels in the patients were all significantly higher than those in controls (P<0.01). Conclusion: Serum IGF-I, TNF-α and SS levels were markedly increased in patients with chronic viral hepatitis, the exact mechanism and consequence of the changes required further study. (authors)

  9. Restored Circulating Invariant NKT Cells Are Associated with Viral Control in Patients with Chronic Hepatitis B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xiaotao; Zhang, Mingxia; Lai, Qintao; Huang, Xuan; Li, Yongyin; Sun, Jian; Abbott, William G.H.; Ma, Shiwu; Hou, Jinlin

    2011-01-01

    Invariant NKT (iNKT) cells are involved in the pathogenesis of various infectious diseases. However, their role in hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is not fully understood, especially in human species. In this study, 35 chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients, 25 inactive carriers (IC) and 36 healthy controls (HC) were enrolled and the proportions of circulating iNKT cells in fresh isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were detected by flow cytometry. A longitudinal analysis was also conducted in 19 CHB patients who received antiviral therapy with telbivudine. Thereafter, the immune functions of iNKT cells were evaluated by cytokine secretion and a two-chamber technique. The median frequency of circulating iNKT cells in CHB patients (0.13%) was lower than that in HC (0.24%, P = 0.01) and IC (0.19%, P = 0.02), and increased significantly during antiviral therapy with telbivudine (P = 0.0176). The expressions of CC chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) and CCR6 were dramatically higher on iNKT cells (82.83%±9.87%, 67.67%±16.83% respectively) than on conventional T cells (30.5%±5.65%, 14.02%±5.92%, both P<0.001) in CHB patients. Furthermore, iNKT cells could migrate toward the CC chemokine ligand 5. Patients with a high ratio (≥1.0) of CD4−/CD4+ iNKT cells at baseline had a higher rate (58.33%) of HBeAg seroconversion than those with a low ratio (<1.0, 0%, P = 0.0174). In conclusion, there is a low frequency of peripheral iNKT cells in CHB patients, which increases to normal levels with viral control. The ratio of CD4−/CD4+ iNKT cells at baseline may be a useful predictor for HBeAg seroconversion in CHB patients on telbivudine therapy. PMID:22194934

  10. Viral Hepatitis: A through E and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... causes viral hepatitis? Clinical Trials What is viral hepatitis? Viral hepatitis is inflammation of the liver caused by ... and adenovirus. [ Top ] What are the symptoms of viral hepatitis? Symptoms include jaundice, which causes a yellowing of ...

  11. Bile acids for viral hepatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Weikeng; Liu, J; Gluud, C

    2007-01-01

    Trials have assessed bile acids for patients with viral hepatitis, but no consensus has been reached regarding their usefulness.......Trials have assessed bile acids for patients with viral hepatitis, but no consensus has been reached regarding their usefulness....

  12. Problems in diagnosing viral hepatitis.

    OpenAIRE

    Bonino, F; Colloredo Mels, G; Bellati, G; Ideo, G; Oliveri, F; Colombatto, P; Brunetto, M R

    1993-01-01

    The most reliable method of making a specific aetiological diagnosis of chronic viral hepatitis would be to identify virus specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes responsible for the killing of virus infected hepatocytes in each patient's liver. Unfortunately, this can not be proposed for routine diagnosis and surrogate tests are required. The detection of virus markers, and even of the virus itself, does not imply that liver damage is caused by virus infection. Indirect markers of the host's antivi...

  13. Hematological Adverse events and Sustained Viral Response in Children Undergoing Therapy for Chronic Hepatitis C Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malgorzata Pawlowska

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV infection with interferon (IFN and ribavirin (RBV is associated with adverse events, which may affect the patient's adherence to the treatment regimen and the treatment efficacy.Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the sustained viral response (SVR and interdependence between the haematological characteristics (leukocyte count, platelet count, and haemoglobin levels in patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC infection during treatment with IFN and RBV.Patients and Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 170 children with CHC infection who completed treatment with IFN-α and RBV. The children were divided into 2 groups: the first group (group I, n = 119 underwent a 48-week course of treatment with recombinant IFN α-2b (Intron A at a dosage of 3 MU 3 times a week subcutaneously and RBV at a dosage of 15 mg/kg per day orally, and the second group (group II, n = 51 was administered pegylated IFN (peg-IFN-α-2b (PegIntron at a dosage of 1.5 μg/kg per week subcutaneously and RBV at a dosage of 15 mg/kg per day orally for 48 weeks. The dose of IFN was not adjusted but that of ribavirin was in 2 children from group II. Hematological growth factors and erythropoietin were not used. SVR was defined as undetectable serum HCV RNA 24 weeks after the end of treatment (study week 72. Serum HCV RNA was determined by performing polymerase chain reaction, and the HCV genotypes and hematological parameters were evaluated. Serum HCV RNA levels were analysed by descriptive statistics. Means and standard deviations were calculated for values collected at the baseline, on the 12th and 48th weeks during treatment, and after 24 weeks of untreated follow-up (study week 72.Results: Eighty-six (50% of the 170 patients who underwent treatment achieved SVR: 62 (51% out of 119 children from group I and 24 (47% out of 51 from group II. The mean serum hemoglobin levels and leukocyte and platelet counts at

  14. Non invasive assessment of liver fibrosis in chronic hemodialysis patients with viral hepatitis C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrayhani, Mohamed; Sqalli, Tarik; Tazi, Nada; El Youbi, Randa; Chaouch, Safae; Aqodad, Nourdin; Ibrahimi, Sidi Adil

    2015-01-01

    The liver biopsy has long been the "gold standard" for assessing liver fibrosis in patients with hepatitis C. It's an invasive procedure which is associated with an elevated bleeding, especially in chronic hemodialysis patients. Main goal is to assess liver fibrosis in chronic hemodialysis with HCV by Fibroscan and by biological scores (APRI, Forns and Fib-4), and to measure the correlation between these tests. Cross-sectional study including all chronic hemodialysis patients with hepatitis C virus, in two public hemodialysis centers of Fez. All patients were evaluated for liver fibrosis using noninvasive methods (FibroScan and laboratory tests). Subsequently, the correlation between different tests has been measured. 95 chronic hemodialysis were studied, twenty nine patients (30.5%) with chronic hepatitis C. The average age was 52.38 ± 16.8 years. Nine liver fibrosis cases have been concluded by forns score. Fibroscan has objectified significant fibrosis in 6 cases. On the other side APRI has objectified sgnifivant fibrosis only in 3 cases. The Fib-4 showed severe fibrosis in five cases. The results have been most consistent between APRI and Fib-4, followed by Fibroscan and Forns, then APRI and FibroScan. PMID:26958136

  15. Bile acids for viral hepatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Weikeng; Liu, J; Gluud, C

    2003-01-01

    The viral hepatitides are common causes of liver diseases globally. Trials have assessed bile acids for patients with viral hepatitis, but no consensus was reached regarding their usefulness.......The viral hepatitides are common causes of liver diseases globally. Trials have assessed bile acids for patients with viral hepatitis, but no consensus was reached regarding their usefulness....

  16. Is liver biopsy still needed in children with chronic viral hepatitis?

    OpenAIRE

    Pokorska-Śpiewak, Maria; Kowalik-Mikołajewska, Barbara; Aniszewska, Małgorzata; Pluta, Magdalena; Marczyńska, Magdalena

    2015-01-01

    Liver biopsy is a standard method used for obtaining liver tissue for histopathological evaluation. Since reliable serological and virological tests are currently available, liver biopsy is no longer needed for the etiological diagnosis of chronic hepatitis B and C. However, liver histology remains the gold standard as a prognostic tool, providing information about the liver disease progression (grading of necroinflammatory activity and staging of fibrosis) and serving clinicians in the manag...

  17. Conserved balance of hepatocyte nuclear DNA content in mononuclear and binuclear hepatocyte populations during the course of chronic viral hepatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hidenori Toyoda; Takashi Kumada; Olivier Bregerie; Christian Brechot; Chantal Desdouets

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To analyze the percentages of hepatocytes with increased nuclear DNA content, i.e., tetraploid (4n) and octoploid (8n) nuclei, and then compared mononuclear and binuclear hepatocyte populations:METHODS: The percentages of mononuclear diploid(2n), 4n, and 8n hepatocytes and those of binuclear 2× 2n, 2 × 4n, and 2 × 8n hepatocytes were determined with a method that can simultaneously measure hepatocyte nuclear DNA content and binuclearity in 62patients with chronic hepatitis B or C. The percentage of 4n and 8n hepatocytes in the mononuclear hepatocyte population was compared with the percentage of 2 ×4n and 2 × 8n hepatocytes in the binuclear hepatocyte population.RESULTS: The percentages of 4n and 8n hepatocytes in mononuclear hepatocytes and 2 × 4n and 2 × 8n hepatocytes in binuclear hepatocytes were similar,regardless of the activity or fibrosis grade of chronic hepatitis and regardless of the infecting virus.CONCLUSION: The distribution of nuclear DNA content within mononuclear and binuclear hepatocyte populations was conserved during the course of chronic viral hepatitis.

  18. Analysis of precore/core covariances associated with viral kinetics and genotypes in hepatitis B e antigen-positive chronic hepatitis B patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Pei Cheng

    Full Text Available Hepatitis B virus (HBV is one of the most common DNA viruses that can cause aggressive hepatitis, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Although many people are persistently infected with HBV, the kinetics in serum levels of viral loads and the host immune responses vary from person to person. HBV precore/core open reading frame (ORF encoding proteins, hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg and core antigen (HBcAg, are two indicators of active viral replication. The aim of this study was to discover a variety of amino acid covariances in responses to viral kinetics, seroconversion and genotypes during the course of HBV infection. A one year follow-up study was conducted with a total number of 1,694 clones from 23 HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis B patients. Serum alanine aminotransferase, HBV DNA and HBeAg levels were measured monthly as criteria for clustering patients into several different subgroups. Monthly derived multiple precore/core ORFs were directly sequenced and translated into amino acid sequences. For each subgroup, time-dependent covariances were identified from their time-varying sequences over the entire follow-up period. The fluctuating, wavering, HBeAg-nonseroconversion and genotype C subgroups showed greater degrees of covariances than the stationary, declining, HBeAg-seroconversion and genotype B. Referring to literature, mutation hotspots within our identified covariances were associated with the infection process. Remarkably, hotspots were predominant in genotype C. Moreover, covariances were also identified at early stage (spanning from baseline to a peak of serum HBV DNA in order to determine the intersections with aforementioned time-dependent covariances. Preserved covariances, namely representative covariances, of each subgroup are visually presented using a tree-based structure. Our results suggested that identified covariances were strongly associated with viral kinetics, seroconversion and genotypes. Moreover

  19. Viral blips during long-term treatment with standard or double dose lamivudine in HBe antigen negative chronic hepatitis B

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate safety and effect on hepatitis B virus (HBV) suppression of a long-term treatment with lamivudine (LAM) at standard (100 mg/d) or double (200 mg/d) dose in chronic hepatitis B. METHODS: This was a case study with matched controls (1:3) in patients with chronic hepatitis B with anti-Hbe antibodies. RESULTS: Twelve patients received LAM 200 mg/d and 35 LAM 100 mg/d, for a median of 28 mo. A primary response (PR; I.e. Negative HBV-DNA with Amplicor assay) was achieved in 100% of LAM-200 patients and 83% of LAM-100 patients. A virological breakthrough occurred in 16.7 and 24.7%, respectively, of the PR-patients, with the appearance of typical LAM resistance mutations in all but one patient. Viremia blips (I.e. Transient HBV-DNA below 80 IU/Ml in patients who tested negative at Amplicor assay) were detected using a real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and occurred in seven out of nine patients with subsequent BT and in four out of 32 patients with end-of-study response (77.7% vs 12.5%; P = 0.001) at chi-square test). At the end of the study, 51.4% of LAM-100 patients and 83.3% of LAM-200 patients had remained stably HBV-DNA negative. Double-dose LAM was well tolerated. CONCLUSION: Long-term treatment of anti-Hbe positive chronic hepatitis B with double dose lamivudine causes a more profound and stable viral suppression as compared to conventional treatment.

  20. Natural killer cells contribute to hepatic injury and help in viral persistence during progression of hepatitis B e-antigen-negative chronic hepatitis B virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, S; Nandi, M; Pal, S; Mukhopadhyay, D; Chakraborty, B C; Khatun, M; Bhowmick, D; Mondal, R K; Das, S; Das, K; Ghosh, R; Banerjee, S; Santra, A; Chatterjee, M; Chowdhury, A; Datta, S

    2016-08-01

    Hepatitis B e-antigen negative (e(-)) chronic HBV infection (CHI) encompasses a heterogeneous clinical spectrum ranging from inactive carrier (IC) state to e(-) chronic hepatitis B (CHB), cirrhosis and hepatic decompensation. In the backdrop of dysfunctional virus-specific T cells, natural killer (NK) cells are emerging as innate effectors in CHI. We characterized CD3(-) CD56(+) NK cells in clinically well-defined, treatment-naive e(-) patients in IC, e(-)CHB or decompensated liver cirrhosis (LC) phase to appraise their role in disease progression. The NK cell frequencies increased progressively with disease severity (IC 8.2%, e(-)CHB 13.2% and LC 14.4%). Higher proportion of NK cells from LC/e(-)CHB expressed CD69, NKp46, NKp44, TRAIL and perforin, the last two being prominent features of CD56(bright) and CD56(dim) NK subsets, respectively. The frequencies of CD3(-) CD56(+) NK cells together with TRAIL(+) CD56(bright) and Perforin(+) CD56(dim) NK cells correlated positively with serum alanine transaminase levels in e(-)CHB/LC. K562 cell-stimulated NK cells from e(-)CHB/LC exhibited significantly greater degranulation but diminished interferon-γ production than IC. Further, Perforin(+) NK cell frequency inversely correlated with autologous CD4(+) T-cell count in e(-) patients and ligands of NK receptors were over-expressed in CD4(+) T cells from e(-)CHB/LC relative to IC. Co-culture of sorted CD56(dim) NK cells and CD4(+) T cells from e(-)CHB showed enhanced CD4(+) T-cell apoptosis, which was reduced by perforin inhibitor, concanamycin A, suggesting a possible perforin-dependent NK cell-mediated CD4(+) T-cell depletion. Moreover, greater incidence of perforin-expressing NK cells and decline in CD4(+) T cells were noticed intrahepatically in e(-)CHB than IC. Collectively, NK cells contribute to the progression of e(-)CHI by enhanced TRAIL- and perforin-dependent cytolytic activity and by restraining anti-viral immunity through reduced interferon-γ secretion and

  1. FastStats: Viral Hepatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Submit What's this? Submit Button NCHS Home Viral Hepatitis Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Data are for the U.S. Morbidity Number of new hepatitis A cases: 1,781 (2013) Number of new ...

  2. Noninvasive assessment of hepatic fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatic B viral Infection using magnetic resonance elastography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the diagnostic performance of magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) for staging hepatic fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. Patients with chronic HBV infection who were suspected of having focal or diffuse liver diseases (n = 195) and living donor candidates (n = 166) underwent MRE as part of the routine liver MRI examination. We measured liver stiffness (LS) values on quantitative shear stiffness maps. The technical success rate of MRE was then determined. Liver cell necroinflammatory activity and fibrosis were assessed using histopathologic examinations as the reference. Areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve (Az) were calculated in order to predict the liver fibrosis stage. The technical success rate of MRE was 92.5% (334/361). The causes of technical failure were poor wave propagation (n = 12), severe respiratory motion (n = 3), or the presence of iron deposits in the liver (n = 12). The mean LS values, as measured by MRE, increased significantly along with an increase in the fibrosis stage (r = 0.901, p < 0.001); however, the mean LS values did not increase significantly along with the degree of necroinflammatory activity. The cutoff values of LS for ≥ F1, ≥ F2, ≥ F3, and F4 were 2.45 kPa, 2.69 kPa, 3.0 kPa, and 3.94 kPa, respectively, and with Az values of 0.987-0.988. MRE has a high technical success rate and excellent diagnostic accuracy for staging hepatic fibrosis in patients with chronic HBV infection.

  3. Noninvasive assessment of hepatic fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatic B viral Infection using magnetic resonance elastography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jeong Eun [Dept. of Radiology, Chungnam National University Hospital, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jeong Min; Yoon, Jeong Hee; Shin, Cheong Il; Han, Joon Koo; Choi, Byung Ihn [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kyung Bun [Dept. of Pathology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-04-15

    To evaluate the diagnostic performance of magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) for staging hepatic fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. Patients with chronic HBV infection who were suspected of having focal or diffuse liver diseases (n = 195) and living donor candidates (n = 166) underwent MRE as part of the routine liver MRI examination. We measured liver stiffness (LS) values on quantitative shear stiffness maps. The technical success rate of MRE was then determined. Liver cell necroinflammatory activity and fibrosis were assessed using histopathologic examinations as the reference. Areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve (Az) were calculated in order to predict the liver fibrosis stage. The technical success rate of MRE was 92.5% (334/361). The causes of technical failure were poor wave propagation (n = 12), severe respiratory motion (n = 3), or the presence of iron deposits in the liver (n = 12). The mean LS values, as measured by MRE, increased significantly along with an increase in the fibrosis stage (r = 0.901, p < 0.001); however, the mean LS values did not increase significantly along with the degree of necroinflammatory activity. The cutoff values of LS for ≥ F1, ≥ F2, ≥ F3, and F4 were 2.45 kPa, 2.69 kPa, 3.0 kPa, and 3.94 kPa, respectively, and with Az values of 0.987-0.988. MRE has a high technical success rate and excellent diagnostic accuracy for staging hepatic fibrosis in patients with chronic HBV infection.

  4. Spontaneous hepatitis C viral clearance and hepatitis C chronic infection are associated with distinct cytokine profiles in Mexican patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora A Fierro

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The mechanisms related to the spontaneous clearance of hepatitis C virus (HCV have been primarily studied in regions where the infection is endemic. Results of prior studies have been extrapolated to populations with low endemicity, such as Mexico. Herein, we determined the cytokine profiles in serum samples from Mexican patients who spontaneously cleared HCV and patients chronically infected with HCV genotype 1a. Chronic HCV-infected patients displayed increased interleukin (IL-8 and regulated upon activation, normal T-cell expressed and secreted (CCL-5 secretion, whereas patients who spontaneously cleared HCV showed augmented levels of IL-1 alpha, tumour necrosis factor-alpha, transforming growth factor-beta, monocyte chemoattractant protein-2 (CCL-8, IL-13 and IL-15. Our study suggeststhat cytokine profiles may predict disease outcome during HCV infection.

  5. Viral Hepatitis: Information for Gay and Bisexual Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    VIRAL HEPATITIS Information for Gay and Bisexual Men What is viral hepatitis? Viral hepatitis is an infection of the liver caused by ... United States, the most common types of viral hepatitis are Hepatitis A, Hepatitis B, and Hepatitis C. ...

  6. Acute hepatitis C in a chronically HIV-infected patient: Evolution of different viral genomic regions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Diego Flichman; Veronica Kott; Silvia Sookoian; Rodolfo Campos

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To analyze the molecular evolution of different viral genomic regions of HCV in an acute HCV infected patient chronically infected with HIV through a 42-month follow-up.METHODS: Serum samples of a chronically HIV infected patient that seroconverted to anti HCV antibodies were sequenced, from the event of superinfection through a period of 17 months and in a late sample (42nd month). Hypervariable genomic regions of HIV (V3 loop of the gp120) and HCV (HVR-1 on the E2 glycoprotein gene) were studied. In order to analyze genomic regions involved in different biological functions and with the cellular immune response, HCV core and NS5A were also chosen to be sequenced. Amplification of the different regions was done by RT-PCR and directly sequenced. Confirmation of sequences was done on reamplified material. Nucleotide sequences of the different time points were aligned with CLUSTAL W 1.5, and the corresponding amino acid ones were deduced.RESULTS: Hypervariable genomic regions of both viruses (HVR1 and gp120 V3 loop) presented several nonsynonymous changes but, while in the gp120 V3 loop mutations were detected in the sample obtained right after HCV superinfection and maintained throughout, they occurred following a sequential and cumulative pattern in the HVR1. In the NS5A region of HCV, two amino acid changes were detected during the follow-up period, whereas the core region presented several amino acid replacements, once the HCV chronic infection had been established.CONCLUSION: During the HIV-HCV superinfection, each genomic region analyzed shows a different evolutionary pattem.Most of the nucleotide substitutions observed are nonsynonymous and clustered in previously described epitopes,thus suggesting an immune-driven evolutionary process.

  7. [Treatment for viral hepatitis in institutionalized individuals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvat, Jadranka

    2009-12-01

    The presence and spread of viral hepatitis infection in the prison population is much higher than in the general population. Prisoners represent a combination of several high risk subpopulations and are therefore generally considered a high risk category. When outside the prison system, members of these high risk groups are generally not available for education, prevention and therapy. While within the prison system, they are available for systematic and continuing monitoring and therapy. This includes testing of their HBV, HCV and HIV status. Due to the high incidence of viral hepatitis in the prison population and based on the results of a study from 2007, we established the Prison System Viral Hepatitis Counseling Center. The Center operates within the internal ward of the Prison Hospital. Currently, 42 patients are treated for chronic hepatitis C. The Center's Plan and Operating Program and treatment results are presented. PMID:20198905

  8. Detection of TT Virus Among Thalassaemic Children With Chronic Viral Hepatitis B and C Receiving Irradiated and Non Irradiated RBCs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TTV was first identified in the serum of a patient with post transfusion hepatitis of unknown etiology in 1997.As a consequence of the high prevalence of TTV in blood donors, thalassemia patients frequently acquire various genotypes of this virus through therapeutic blood transfusions.TTV as a cause of chronic hepatitis has not yet determined . Ten healthy and twenty-eight poly-transfused thalassemia children were evolved in this study where ten patients were receiving irradiated RBCs and eighteen receiving non irradiated ones.TTV was detected in serum samples by semi-nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using TTV-specific primer. Transaminases levels, hepatitis B and C virus markers were interpreted for possible association with TTV infection. As a result, TTV was found in 50% of thalassemia patients and in 20 % of the controls. Among thalassemia patients, isolated HBsAG, isolated HCV-AB, HBsAG and TTV-DNA and HCV-AB and TTV-DNA distributions were: 6 (21.43%) ,8 ( 28.57%) , 4 ( 14.29%) and 10 (35.7%) respectively. Regarding thalassemia patients receiving irradiated RBCs, the frequency of viral infections were 8(80%), 2(20%) and 0% for TTV co-infections, isolated HBV and isolated HCV, respectively. On the other hand, the prevalence of viral infections among patients receiving non irradiated RBCs were 6(33.3%), 4(22.2%) and 8(44.5%) for TTV co-infection, isolated HBV and isolated HCV, respectively. These data may give evidence that radiation raises the levels of blood safety especially regarding HCV. Furthermore, liver transaminase levels were significantly higher in all patients versus the controls, meanwhile, transaminase values were not different in HBsAG-positive subjects as compared with subjects who had both HBsAG and TTV-DNA positive. Also, there was no significant difference between isolated HCV infection and HCV and TTV co-infection. So, no convincing evidence was found to support TTV involvement in the D. F. EL-MAGHRABY, et al. / J. Rad. Res. Appl. Sci

  9. Hepatic sarcoidosis complicating treatment-naive viral hepatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Aravinthan, Aloysious; Gelson, William; Limbu, Anita; Brais, Rebecca; Richardson, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Hepatic sarcoidosis is usually asymptomatic but rarely leads to adverse liver-related outcome. Co-existence of viral hepatitis and hepatic sarcoidosis is a rare, but recognised phenomenon. Obtaining a balance between immune suppression and anti-viral therapy may be problematic. Immunosuppression in the presence of viral hepatitis can lead to rapid deterioration of liver disease. Similarly, anti-viral therapy may exacerbate granulomatous hepatitis. Here we present two cases of viral hepatitis ...

  10. Viral hepatitis: a sexually transmitted disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzby, M

    1996-03-01

    Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are often discussed in the context of herpes, gonorrhea, chlamydia, and AIDS. Viral hepatitis, specifically hepatitis B, is also an STD often omitted from these discussions. The incidence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) is variable throughout the world. In North America, the highest incidence occurs in patients who are between the ages of 15 and 25 years. Safe and effective vaccines are available to prevent HBV infection, which has an associated increased risk of chronic liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma in the carrier state. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a newly identified hepatotrophic virus that may also be sexually transmitted. There are no vaccines for the prevention of HCV infection and the majority of those who are infected become chronic carriers with chronic liver disease. Discussions focused on the prevention of STDs must include counseling for the prevention of HBV and HCV. PMID:8788658

  11. MR diffusion weighted imaging for quantification of liver fibrosis in patients with chronic viral hepatitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: The study was to evaluate DWI for quantifying liver fibrosis. Methods: A total of 12 volunteers, 47 patients who had chronic HBV or HCV hepatitis and underwent liver biopsy [Scheuer score for fibrosis(S) and inflammation(G)] were enrolled in this study. They were scanned using a 1.5 T MR unit with b value of 0,250,500,750, 1000 s/mm2. ADCs at b250-1000 and b500-1000 were the average ADCs of b=250, 500, 750, 1000 s/mm2 and b=500, 750, 1000 s/mm2. The studied the correlation between Scbeuer scores and ADC values, and conducted Mann-Whitney U test and Logistic regression to evaluate ADC for prediction of fibrosis scores. Results: The average ADCs were (1.41± 0.11), (1.37 ±0.09), (1.27 ± 0.05), (1.26 ± 0.04), (1.22 ± 0.06) mm2/s respectively from SO to S4, stage at b=750 s/mm2 (F=18.31, P250-1000 (r=-0.727, P750 and the two combined b values, the found significantly lower ADCs in S2 or greater versus S1 or less and in S3 or greater versus S2 or less fibrosis (P750 with the largest AUC of 0.909, sensitivity of 85.7%, and specificity of 100.0% (ADC ≤ 1.35 x 10-3 mm2/s). The best predictor for S3 or greater was b250-1000 with the largest AUC of 0.864, sensitivity of 69.6%, and specificity of 95.8% (ADC ≤ 1.53 x 10-3 mm2/s). Conclusion: DWI can be a good predictor for scoring liver fibrosis for S2 or S3 stage above, while b750 and the combined b values are suitable for evaluation. (authors)

  12. The influence of the human genome on chronic viral hepatitis outcome A influência do genoma humano no curso das hepatites virais crônicas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dahir Ramos de Andrade Júnior

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The mechanisms that determine viral clearance or viral persistence in chronic viral hepatitis have yet to be identified. Recent advances in molecular genetics have permitted the detection of variations in immune response, often associated with polymorphism in the human genome. Differences in host susceptibility to infectious disease and disease severity cannot be attributed solely to the virulence of microbial agents. Several recent advances concerning the influence of human genes in chronic viral hepatitis B and C are discussed in this article: a the associations between human leukocyte antigen polymorphism and viral hepatic disease susceptibility or resistance; b protective alleles influencing hepatitis B virus (HBV and hepatitis C virus (HCV evolution; c prejudicial alleles influencing HBV and HCV; d candidate genes associated with HBV and HCV evolution; d other genetic factors that may contribute to chronic hepatitis C evolution (genes influencing hepatic stellate cells, TGF-beta1 and TNF-alpha production, hepatic iron deposits and angiotensin II production, among others. Recent discoveries regarding genetic associations with chronic viral hepatitis may provide clues to understanding the development of end-stage complications such as cirrhosis or hepatocellular carcinoma. In the near future, analysis of the human genome will allow the elucidation of both the natural course of viral hepatitis and its response to therapy.Os mecanismos que determinam o clearance ou a persistência da infecção viral nas hepatites virais crônicas não estão ainda bem identificados. O progresso no conhecimento sobre as ferramentas genéticas moleculares tem permitido detectar variações na resposta imune, que freqüentemente são associadas com polimorfismos do genoma humano. As diferenças na susceptibilidade do hospedeiro para as doenças infecciosas e a intensidade das doenças não podem ser atribuídas apenas à virulência do agente microbiano. Neste

  13. Comparing HBV Viral Load in Serum, Cerumen, and Saliva and Correlation With HBeAg Serum Status in Patients With Chronic Hepatitis B Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholami Parizad, Elaheh; Gholami Parizad, Eskandar; Khosravi, Afra; Amraei, Mansour; Valizadeh, Azar; Davoudian, Abdoullah

    2016-01-01

    Background Hepatitis B is a disease that is prevalent worldwide and is responsible for 10% of the deaths that occur every year. The virus persists in 5% of infected adults and 90% of infected children and can cause chronic hepatitis. In addition to blood, the virus may also be present in other secretions. Transmission through saliva, sexual fluids, and urine has also been confirmed. Objectives The main aim of this study was to compare viral DNA copies in the serum, cerumen, and saliva of patients with HBeAg levels in their sera. Patients and Methods This was a cross-sectional study and subjects were selected by non-randomized methods. Serum, cerumen, and saliva samples were collected from 50 patients who were diagnosed with chronic hepatitis B about a year prior to the study. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was performed to determine the presence of HBsAg and HBeAg in the gathered specimens. Viral DNA was extracted from specimens by using a Qiagen kit. The number of viral DNA copies was determined using a real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay. The study was performed in Ilam province in western Iran. Results Twenty-eight percent of the patients were HBeAg positive. The average number of viral copies in serum, cerumen, and saliva was higher in women than in men, and a significant correlation was observed between the gender and average viral copies. However, no significant correlation was observed between viral copies present in the serum and cerumen with the age and gender of patients. In addition, no correlation was observed between serum HBeAg and viral copies present in serum, cerumen, and saliva. The correlation analysis confirmed a direct and definite correlation between viral DNA loads in the patients’ serum and cerumen. Conclusions A significant direct correlation was observed between the viral DNA copies present in patients’ cerumen and serum. However, the correlation between saliva viral load with serum and cerumen viral load was

  14. Impact of Nucleotide Mutations at the HNF3- and HNF4-Binding Sites in Enhancer 1 on Viral Replication in Patients with Chronic Hepatitis B Virus Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Cho, Eun-Young; Kim, Hyung-Jin; Park, Channy; So, Hong-Seob; Park, Rae Kil; Kim, Haak Cheoul

    2013-01-01

    Background/Aims The hepatitis B virus (HBV) genome contains binding sites for hepatocyte nuclear factors (HNF) 3 and 4 in the core domain of enhancer 1 (Enh1), and mutations in this domain have a strong impact on virus replication. We aimed to identify frequent base-mutation sites in the core domain of Enh1 and to examine the impact of these mutations on viral replication. Methods We studied virological characteristics and genetic sequences in 387 patients with chronic hepatitis B. We evaluat...

  15. Curative effects of interferon-α and HLA-DRB1 -DQA1 and -DQB1 alleles in chronic viral hepatitis B

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo-Qing Zang; Min Xi; Ming-Liang Feng; Yun Ji; Yong-Sheng Yu; Zheng-Hao Tang

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the association between curative effects of interferon-α and partial human leucocyte antigen (HLA) Ⅱ alleles in chronic viral hepatitis B.METHODS: Sixty patients with chronic viral hepatitis B in Shanghai were treated with a standard course of treatment with interferon-α for 6 mo. HLA-DRB1, -DQA1, and -DQB1 alleles were detected by polymerase chain reaction-sequence specific primer (PCR-SSP) method.RESULTS: Frequencies of HLA-DRB1*04 (P<0.025) and HLA-DQA1*0303 (P<0.01) in non-responders were significantly higher than those in partial and complete responders. Frequencies of HLA-DQA1*0505 (P<0.025) and HLA-DQB1*0301 (P<0.005) in partial and complete responders were significantly higher than those in nonresponders.CONCLUSION: Non-response to interferon-α therapy is positively correlated with HLA-DRB1*04 and HLADQA1*0303, and negatively correlated with HLA-DQA1*0505 and -DQB1*0301 in patient with chronic viral hepatitis B.HLA Ⅱ genes of the identification alleles provide a method for evaluating outcome of interferon-α treatment.

  16. Association of early age at establishment of chronic hepatitis B infection with persistent viral replication, liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma: a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuke Shimakawa

    Full Text Available Age at infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV is a known risk factor for chronic HBV infection. However, in addition, there is some evidence that early age at infection further increases the risk of primary liver cancer beyond its association with increased risk of chronic infection. This systematic review of observational studies assesses the association between age at initiation of chronic HBV infection and liver cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, and their predictors including indicators of ongoing viral replication and hepatic damage. The review includes birth order and maternal HBV serology as proxies for age at infection. Electronic searches in two English-language (Medline and Embase, until Jan 2012 and two Chinese-language (CNKI and SinoMed, until Sep 2012 databases without language restriction and manual search through reference lists identified 7,077 papers, of which 19 studies of 21 outcomes (8 primary liver cancer, 1 liver cirrhosis, 10 viral replication and 2 liver inflammation are included. One study directly examined the age at infection in a longitudinal cohort, 12 assessed maternal sero-status and 6 investigated birth order. The direction of associations in all studies was in accordance with our hypothesis that earlier age at infection is associated with worse outcomes in addition to its effect of increasing the probability of chronic HBV infection. This has implications for the control of hepatitis B.

  17. Outcome analysis of liver stiffness by ARFI (acoustic radiation force impulse) elastometry in patients with chronic viral hepatitis B and C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim: To evaluate the association between liver stiffness measured by acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) elastometry and the outcome of antiviral treatment in patients with chronic viral hepatitis B and C. Materials and methods: Thirty-eight patients with chronic viral hepatitis B (n = 16) or hepatitis C (n = 22) underwent liver biopsy and ARFI elastometry of the right hepatic lobe. A follow-up assessment using ARFI was performed a mean of 2.3 years after the baseline evaluation. The patients with favourable outcome were classified in group S and those receiving no treatment, showing no response to treatment, or experiencing a relapse were classified in group N. Results: The 38 patients had an initial mean ARFI value of 1.56 ± 0.62 m/s as compared with 1.54 ± 0.64 m/s in the follow-up evaluation. Group S showed a significant decline in ARFI values (1.55 ± 0.60 m/s versus 1.34 ± 0.47 m/s; p < 0.05) and included 16 (64%) patients with lower shear wave velocities at follow-up. In group N, liver stiffness values showed a slight but not significant increase (1.57 ± 0.70 m/s versus 1.93 ± 0.77 m/s). Conclusion: Changes in liver stiffness during antiviral therapy can be assessed by ARFI reflecting response or no response. ARFI elastometry is an additional, useful tool for the follow-up assessment of treatment outcome in patients with chronic viral hepatitis B or C infection

  18. The effect of antioxidant supplementation on hepatitis C viral load, transaminases and oxidative status: a randomized trial among chronic hepatitis C virus-infected patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groenbaek, K.; Friis, H.; Hansen, Max; Ring-Larsen, H.; Krarup, H. B.

    2006-01-01

    Objective To assess the effect of antioxidant supplementation on hepatitis C viral load, transaminases and oxidative status. Methods We performed a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial to assess the effect of antioxidant supplementation on serum alanine aminotransferase, plasma...... hepatitis C viral load as well as oxidative and antioxidant markers in patients with hepatitis C virus infection. The participants received a daily dose of ascorbic acid (500 mg), D-alpha-tocopherol (9451 U) and selenium (200 mu g) or placebo tablets for 6 months. Results Twenty-three patients were included...... aminotransferase and logo-transformed plasma hepatitis C virus-RNA between the groups or changes from the baseline at any time. No consistent differences between groups or changes from the baseline with respect to erythrocyte activities of antioxidative enzymes (glutathione reductase, superoxide dismutase and...

  19. Update on Alcohol and Viral Hepatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Gitto, Stefano; Vitale, Giovanni; Villa, Erica; Andreone, Pietro

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol consumption is often associated with viral hepatitis. Although alcohol is known to worsen viral liver disease, the interactions between alcohol and viral hepatitis are not fully understood. Molecular alterations in the liver due to alcohol and viral hepatitis include effects on viral replication, increased oxidative stress, cytotoxicity, and a weakened immune response. Clinically, alcohol enhances disease progression and favors induction of primitive liver neoplasm. The use of new ant...

  20. Viral hepatitis and hepatocellular carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two papers in this volume are in INIS scope, respectively dealing with MRI in the study of viral hepatitis and hepatocellular carcinoma, and The use of 131I-labeled Lipidol in the diagnosis of hepato-cellular carcinoma. (H.W.). refs.; figs.; tabs

  1. Chronic Hepatitis C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Tram T.; Martin, Paul

    2001-12-01

    Infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV) accounts for 40% of cases of chronic liver disease in the United States and is now the most common indication for liver transplantation. Estimates suggest that 4 million people (1.8%) of the American population are or have been infected with HCV. Currently, the treatment of choice for patients with chronic HCV infection is recombinant interferon alfa with ribavirin. Pegylated interferons are a promising new development, and in combination with ribavirin, they will rapidly become the standard of care. The goals of therapy are to slow disease progression, improve hepatic histology, reduce infectivity, and reduce the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma. Sustained virologic response, which generally implies the absence of viremia for 6 months or more following completion of therapy, is increasingly being regarded as a cure, with evidence of slowing or even regression of fibrosis on follow-up liver biopsy. A number of factors have been shown to be predictive of a sustained response, including viral genotype other than 1, low serum HCV RNA levels, absence of cirrhosis, younger age, female gender, and shorter duration of infection. Disease severity as assessed by liver biopsy, comorbidities, and possible contraindications to therapy should be weighed in the decision to begin treatment. Counseling patients regarding transmission, natural history, and drug and alcohol abstinence also should be included in management. Close monitoring should be done during treatment for side effects of interferon, including depression and bone marrow suppression. Hemolytic anemia is the major side effect of ribavirin. PMID:11696276

  2. The effect of antioxidant supplementation on hepatitis C viral load, transaminases and oxidative status: a randomized trial among chronic hepatitis C virus-infected patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groenbaek, K.; Friis, H.; Hansen, Max; Ring-Larsen, H.; Krarup, H. B.

    2006-01-01

    hepatitis C viral load as well as oxidative and antioxidant markers in patients with hepatitis C virus infection. The participants received a daily dose of ascorbic acid (500 mg), D-alpha-tocopherol (9451 U) and selenium (200 mu g) or placebo tablets for 6 months. Results Twenty-three patients were included....... During supplementation, the antioxidant group had significantly higher levels of plasma ascorbic acid and a-tocopherol than the placebo group and the activity of erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase had significantly increased from baseline to month 6. No differences were observed in serum alanine...

  3. [Microbiological diagnosis of viral hepatitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Roberto; Aguilera, Antonio; Córdoba, Juan; Fuertes, Antonio

    2015-11-01

    Liver inflammation or hepatitis has many different causes, both infectious and non-infectious. Among the former, viral infection is responsible for at least half of all hepatitis worldwide. Different viruses have been described with primary tropism for liver tissue. These microorganisms have been successively named with letters of the alphabet: A, B, C, D, E and G. The aim of this paper is to review this heterogeneous group of viruses in its most basic aspects, including clinical implications, treatment, main control, and prophylactic measures and, of special interest, diagnostic approaches, both serological and molecular, which are used for their detection, quantification and characterization. PMID:25742731

  4. A randomized trial of 24 versus 48 weeks of peginterferon α-2a in patients infected with chronic hepatitis C virus genotype 2 or low viral load genotype 1: a multicenter national study in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Iwasaki, Yoshiaki; Shiratori, Yasushi; Hige, Shuhei; Nishiguchi, Shuhei; Takagi, Hitoshi; Onji, Morikazu; Yoshida, Haruhiko; Izumi, Namiki; Kohgo, Yutaka; Yamamoto, Kyosuke; Sato, Nobuhiro; Shibuya, Akitaka; Saito, Hidetsugu; SATA, MICHIO; Suzuki, Kazuyuki

    2009-01-01

    In a country such as Japan with the average age of patients with chronic hepatitis C treated with antivirals sometimes well above 60 years, the standard combination therapy is not well tolerated. In this randomized, prospective, controlled trial, we investigated the efficacy of 24-week peginterferon α monotherapy for easy-to-treat patients. A total of 132 patients chronically infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 2 (n = 115) or low viral load HCV genotype 1 (

  5. Relationship between changes of blood HBV-DNA viral load and serum liver fibrosis markers (HA, LN, IV-C, PCIII) levels in patients with chronic hepatitis B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate the relationship between changes of blood HBV DNA viral load and serum liver fibrosis markers levels in patients with chronic hepatitis B. Methods: In 2002, 20 patients with hepatitis B were divided into two groups: Group A treated with antiviral ageat (n=10), Group B not treated.Five years later (2007) the blood viral load (with FQ-PCR) and serum levels of hepatic fibrosis markers (with RIA) were determined in these patients. Results: The average log viral load in serum in the tow groups were 3.56 ± 1.12 (treated group) and 7.76 ± 1.23 respectively with significant difference (P<0.05). In 2002, serum liver fibrosis markers (HA, LN, IV-C, PCIII) levels were about the same in the two groups were (82.72 ± 30.62μg/ml, 71.18 ± 26.71μg/ml, 93.77 ± 69.87μg/ml, 91.4 ± 18.64μg/ml and 79.32 ± 31.34μg/ml, 70.25 ± 28.23)μg/ml, 90.35 ± 67.81μg/ml, 85.77 ± 20.56μg/ml respectively). In 2007, in the treated patients, serum liver fibrosis markers HA, LN, IV-C, PCIII levels were 85.72 ± 29.52μg/ml, 70.18 ± 25.4μg/ml, 94.2 ± 70.92μg/ml, 93.4 ± 19.32μg/ml respectively However, in the non-treated groups, the serum HA, LN, IV-C, PCIII levels were105.67 ± 28.54μg/ml, 97.75 ± 26.25μg/ml, 132 ± 72.13μg/ml, 120.72 ± 19.87μg/ml, being significantly higher than those in the treated group (P<0.05). Conclusion: Effective decrease of the viral load might control the progress of hepatic fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis B. (authors)

  6. Eradication Strategies for Chronic Hepatitis B Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Eleanor M P; Tang, Lydia; Kottilil, Shyam

    2016-06-01

    Chronic hepatitis B infection affects >300 million people worldwide and is a leading cause of liver failure and cancer. Current approaches to treatment for chronic hepatitis B involve suppression of hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA with the use of nucleoside analogues. Chronic suppressive therapy rarely results in a "functional cure" or absence of detectable HBV DNA in plasma and loss of detectable hepatitis B surface antigen after cessation of therapy. The major obstacles to achieving a functional cure are the presence of covalently closed circular DNA and ineffective/exhaustive immune system. This review focuses on novel approaches to target viral life cycle and host immunity to achieve a functional cure. PMID:27190322

  7. Relation between treatment efficacy and cumulative dose of alpha interferon in chronic hepatitis B. European Concerted Action on Viral Hepatitis (Eurohep)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogsgaard, K; Christensen, E; Bindslev, N; Schalm, S; Andersen, P K; Ring-Larsen, H

    1996-01-01

    Alpha interferon (IFN) is an established treatment of chronic hepatitis B. The effect has been shown to be dose related, recommended dose regimens being associated with a doubling of the spontaneous, baseline HBeAg to anti-HBe seroconversion rate. However, the efficacy of IFN treatment in relation...

  8. Liver Stiffness Measurement and Biochemical Markers in Senegalese Chronic Hepatitis B Patients with Normal ALT and High Viral Load

    OpenAIRE

    Mbaye, Papa Saliou; Sarr, Anna; Sire, Jean-Marie; Evra, Marie-Louise; Ba, Adama; Daveiga, Jean; Diallo, Aboubakry; Fall, Fatou; Chartier, Loic; Simon, François; Vray, Muriel

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims Despite the high prevalence of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) in Africa, few studies have been performed among African patients. We sought to evaluate liver stiffness measurement by FibroScan® (LSM) and two biochemical scores (FibroTest®, Fibrometer®) to diagnose liver fibrosis in Senegalese CHB patients with HBV plasma DNA load ≥3.2 log10 IU/mL and normal alanine aminotransferase (ALT) values. Methods LSM and liver fibrosis biochemical markers were performed on 225 consecutive...

  9. Effectiveness of alpha interferon (+ ribavirin in the treatment of chronic viral hepatitis C genotypes 2 and 3 in a brazilian sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Candice Beatriz Treter Gonçalves

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Pharmacovigilance studies aim to detect, assess, understand and prevent risks of adverse effects of medications or any other possible drug related problem. Alpha interferon is being produced by Bio-Manguinhos/Fiocruz, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil and used in the treatment of chronic hepatitis C at Brazilian National Health System. OBJECTIVE: To study the safety profile and effectiveness of alpha interferon in a sample of Brazilian patients with chronic hepatitis C genotypes 2 and 3, in Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil. METHOD: We followed a cohort of chronic hepatitis C genotypes 2 and 3 patients treated with alpha interferon plus ribavirin in a specialized outpatient clinic in southern Brazil. Adverse events were collected and classified according to severity in monthly structured interviews. To measure effectiveness, hepatitis C viral load was evaluated before, at the end and 24 weeks after the treatment. RESULTS: We followed 141 patients during the study period, of which 52.5% were female with mean age of 52 years. The most frequent adverse events were fatigue (84%, headache (79% and myalgia (75%. There were 13 treatment interruptions due to adverse events, 9 of those considered serious adverse events. Virological response at end of treatment was 54.6% and after 24 weeks 39.7%, considering all patients who started treatment. CONCLUSION: The product produced by Bio-Manguinhos has similar efficacy and adverse event and sustained virological response profiles comparable to those found in the literature. This is the first study of pharmacovigilance performed with the Brazilian product. These data will be useful for planning and management of this disease in Brazil.

  10. Institute of Medicine's Report on Viral Hepatitis

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-05-18

    In this podcast, Dr. John Ward, Director of CDC’s Division of Viral Hepatitis, discusses the 2010 report, Hepatitis and Liver Cancer: A National Strategy for Prevention and Control of Hepatitis B and C, from the Institute of Medicine.  Created: 5/18/2010 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 5/18/2010.

  11. Viral Hepatitis in Renal Transplant Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernieh Bassam

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis is emerging as a common serious problem in renal transplant patients. To determine the prevalence of viral hepatic in our transplant population, we screened the patients who received renal transplants in the period from 1979-1997, inclusive, for hepatitis B virus (HBV and for hepatitis C virus (HCV infection. Of those patients screened for HBV infection, seven o f101 recipients (6.9% were found positive for HbsAg. During the follow up, one patient cleared HbsAg and one from the negative group acquired it. Of the recipients screened for HCV antibodies 32 of 78 patients (41% had positive tests. Higher incidence of chronic liver disease (37.5% was found in the HCV positive group, compared to zero in the negative group. However, no difference in the short-term graft loss (25%, was noted between these two groups. We conclude that prevalence of hepatitis C in our transplant patients is high and may have an impact on their long-term outcome.

  12. Chronic hepatitis E: A brief review

    OpenAIRE

    Murali, Arvind R.; Kotwal, Vikram; Chawla, Saurabh

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis E viral infection has traditionally been considered an acute, self-limited, water borne disease similar to hepatitis A, endemic to developing countries. However, over the past decade, zoonotic transmission and progression to chronicity in human patients has been identified, resulting in persistently elevated transaminase levels, progressive liver injury and cirrhosis. In addition to liver injury, neurological, renal and rheumatological manifestations have also been reported. Chronic...

  13. DNA-guided hepatitis B treatment: Viral load is insufficient with few exceptions

    OpenAIRE

    Pankaj Jain

    2009-01-01

    In DNA-guided hepatitis B treatment, viral load is insufficient, and requires other viral markers for treatment of hepatitis B patients as in patients with acute exacerbation of chronic hepatitis B, end-stage renal disease on dialysis, human immunodeficiency virus co-infected patients. There are exceptions to this rule: a residual level hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA at 24 wk predicts beneficial outcome and reduced resistance at 1 year. The genotypic viral resistance to antiviral agents and occu...

  14. Regulatory mechanisms of viral hepatitis B and C

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G Waris; A Siddiqui

    2003-04-01

    Of all the hepatitis viruses, only the hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) cause chronic hepatitis, which can progress to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. In this review, we discuss how these two biologically diverse viruses use common pathways to induce oxidative stress and activation of key transcription factors, known to be involved in inflammatory processes in cells. Activation of NF-B and STAT-3 most likely contribute to the progression of viral infections to chronic hepatitis and liver oncogenesis associated with HBV and HCV infections. In this review, we focus on the mechanisms of action of HBx and HCV NS5A proteins in inducing intracellular events associated with the viral infections.

  15. Ribavirin for Chronic Hepatitis Prevention among Patients with Hematologic Malignancies

    OpenAIRE

    Tavitian, Suzanne; Peron, Jean-Marie; Huguet, Françoise; Kamar, Nassim; Abravanel, Florence; Beyne-Rauzy, Odile; Oberic, Lucie; Faguer, Stanislas; Alric, Laurent; Roussel, Murielle; Gaudin, Clément; Ysebaert, Loïc; Huynh, Anne; Recher, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Findings among a cohort of 26 patients who had hematologic malignancies and hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection support that HEV can induce chronic hepatitis. However, a 3-month course of ribavirin can induce a rapid viral clearance, reducing the risk for chronic hepatitis and enabling continuation of cytotoxic treatments for underlying malignancies.

  16. Optimizing Interferon Alfa Based Therapy for Chronic Hepatitis C

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Roomer (Robert)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThe hepatitis C virus was first discovered in 1989 as the major cause of chronic non-A non-B hepatitis. The hepatitis C virus is a single stranded RNA virus that belongs to the family of flaviviruses. The primary target of the hepatitis C virus are hepatocytes where viral particles repli

  17. The epidemiology of viral hepatitis in Qatar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bener Abdulbari

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Viral hepatitis is a major public health problem in many countries all over the world and especially in Middle East, Asia, East-Europe, and Africa. The aim of our study was to assess the incidence of viral hepatitis A, B and C in Qatar and compare it with other countries. This is a retrospective cohort study, which was conducted at Hamad General Hospital, State of Qatar from 2002-2006. Patients who were screened and diagnosed with viral hepatitis were included in this study. The diagnostic classification of definite viral hepatitis was made in accordance with criteria based on the International Classification of Disease tenth revision (ICD-10. A total of 527 cases of hepatitis C, 396 cases of hepatitis B, 162 cases of hepatitis A and 108 cases of unspecified were reported during the year 2006. Reported incidence rate per 10,000 populations during the year 2006 for hepatitis A was 1.9, hepatitis B 4.7, and Hepatitis C 6.3. The proportion of hepatitis B and C was significantly higher in male population than females across the years (2002-2006. Hepatitis A was more prevalent in children below 15 years (72.3%, hepatitis B in adults aged above 15 years, and hepatitis C in the population above 35 years of age. The incidence of hepatitis A has been declining in Qataris and increasing in expatriates. There was a significant relationship in gender and age group of the patients with hepatitis A, B and C. We conclude that hepatitis has become a national health issue in Qatar. The incidence rate of hepatitis in Qatar is comparable to its neighboring countries, United Arab Emirates and Saudi Arabia. There is a need for further research on hepatitis and the associated risk factors.

  18. Efficacy of thymosin alpha-1 and interferon alpha in treatment of chronic viral hepatitis B: A randomized controlled study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing You; Virasakdi Chongsuvivatwong; Hutcha Sriplung; Alan Geater; Yan-Wei Qiao; Rong-Xue Wu; Lin Zhuang; Hong-Ying Cheng; Shou-Ming Yan; Lan Yu; Jun-Hua Huang; Bao-Zhang Tang; Meng-Ling Huang; Yong-Liang Ma

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To observe the efficiency and safety of thymosin-α1treatment in patients with hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg)and HBV DNA positive chronic hepatitis.METHODS: Sixty-two patients were randomly divided into groups A and B. The patients in group A received subcutaneous injection of 1.6 mg thymosin-α1, twice a week (T-α1 group) for six months, and the patients in group B received 5 MU interferon alpha (IFN-α) each day for fifteen days, then three times weekly (IFN-α group)for six months. The results between two groups treated with and the group untreated with IFN-α which was followed up for 12 mo (historical control group consisting of 30 patients) were compared, and three groups were comparable between each other (P > 0.05) at baseline (age, sex, clinical history, biochemical, and serological parameters).RESULTS: At the end of treatment, complete response,which was defined as alanine aminotransferase (ALT)normalization and HBV DNA and HBeAg loss, occurred in 9 of 29 (31.0%) patients in the T-α1 group and in 15 of 33 (45.5%) patients in the IFN-α group (x2= 1.36, P >0.05). After a follow-up period of six months, a complete response was observed in 14 of 29 (48.3%) patients in the T-α1 group and in 9 of 33 (27.3%) patients in the IFN-α group (x2= 2.93, P > 0.05). Compared with the results observed in the historical control (HC) group untreated with IFN-α which was followed up for 12 mo,the rate of complete response was significantly higher in IFN-α group at the end of therapy (1 of 30 vs 15 of 33,x2 = 14.72, P < 0.001) and in the T-α1 group at the end of follow-up (1 of 30 vs 14 of 29, x2 = 15.71, P < 0.001).In T-α1 and IFN-α treatment groups, the area under (the plasma concentration time) curve (AUC) of negative HBV DNA and HBeAg was 34%, 17%, 31% and 19% smaller than that in the HC group. By the end of the followup period, the proportions of ALT normalization and negative HBV DNA in the T-α1 group were significantly higher than those in the

  19. A review of hepatitis viral infections in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review of published literature on viral hepatitis infections in Pakistan is presented. A total of 220 abstracts available in the Pakmedinet and Medline have been searched. All relevant articles were reviewed to determine the prevalence of hepatitis viral infections in Pakistan. Two hundred and three (203) relevant articles/abstracts including twenty nine supporting references are included in this review. Of the articles on prevalence of hepatitis infection, seven were related to Hepatitis A, fifteen to Hepatitis E while the remaining articles were on frequency of hepatitis B and C in different disease and healthy population groups. These included eight studies on healthy children, three on vertical transmission, nineteen on pregnant women, fifteen on healthy individuals, six on army recruits, thirty one on blood donors, thirteen on health care workers, five on unsafe injections, seventeen on high risk groups, five on patients with provisional diagnosis of hepatitis, thirty three on patients with chronic liver disease, four on genotypes of HBV and five on genotypes of HCV. This review highlights the lack of community-based epidemiological work as the number of subjects studied were predominantly patients, high risk groups and healthy blood donors. High level of Hepatitis A seroconversion was found in children and this viral infection accounts for almost 50%- 60% of all cases of acute viral hepatitis in children in Pakistan. Hepatitis E is endemic in the country affecting mostly the adult population and epidemic situations have been reported from many parts of the country. The mean results of HBsAg and Anti-HCV prevalence on the basis of data aggregated from several studies was calculated which shows 2.3% and 2.5% prevalence of HBsAg and Anti-HCV in children, 2.5% and 5.2% among pregnant women, 2.6% and 5.3% in general population, 3.5% and 3.1% in army recruits, 2.4% and 3.6% in blood donors, 6.0% and 5.4% in health care workers, 13.0% and 10.3% in high risk groups

  20. Viral and host factors related with histopathologyc activity in patients with chronic hepatitis B and moderate or intermittently elevated alanine aminotransferase levels Influencia de factores virales y del huésped en la actividad histológica en pacientes con hepatitis crónica por virus de la hepatitis B y elevación moderada o intermitente de alanina aminotransferasa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Molina Pérez

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: viral and host factors are related with progression of pathological lesion in chronic hepatitis B. We analyzed these factors in patients with moderate or intermittently elevated ALT levels, and its threshold that determinate significant histological activity. Patients and methods: retrospective analyses of viral and host parameters in 89 consecutive chronic hepatitis B patients biopsied because of moderate or intermittently elevated ALT levels [1-2 x ULN (ULN = 39 IU/mL] and/or DNA-HBV > 2 x 10³ IU/mL in AntiHBe+ patients. It was analyzed age, gender, ALT levels, HBeAg, viral load and genotype. It was considered advanced histological lesion a Knodell Score (KS > 7 and histological lesion indicating treatment, lobular inflammation ≥ 2 or fibrosis ≥ 2 according to Scheuer Classification. Results: KS > 7 and histological lesion indicating treatment was found in 47.8 and 60.7% respectively. It was observed relationship between age, male gender, ALT levels and viral load with histological damage (p ULN (69.1 vs. 47.1%, p = 0.04. There were not significant upper frequencies of advanced lesion when a cut-off of 40 years or DNA-HBV > 2 x 10³ IU/mL viral load or serological status HBeAg was considerate. Histological activity was lesser in genotype D patients than those infected with others genotypes (p Objetivo: analizar factores virales y del huésped relacionados con actividad histológica en un subgrupo de pacientes con hepatitis crónica B y elevación intermitente o moderada de alanina aminotransferasa (ALT, y el umbral que determine daño histológico indicativo de tratamiento. Pacientes y métodos: análisis retrospectivo de parámetros virales y del huésped en 89 pacientes con hepatitis crónica B biopsiados consecutivamente por elevación intermitente o moderada de ALT [1-2 x USN (USN = 39 UI/mL]. Fueron analizados edad, sexo, ALT, HBeAg, carga viral y genotipo. Se consideró como lesion histologica avanzada un Índice de

  1. Viral kinetics during the first month of treatment in patients with genotype 1 chronic hepatitis C Cinética viral durante el primer mes de tratamiento en pacientes con hepatitis crónica C genotipo 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hernández

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to identify predictive factors of response to pegylated interferon alpha-2b and ribavirin in patients with genotype 1 chronic hepatitis C. Viral kinetics were studied in weeks 2 and 4. Methods: a prospective and consecutive study of patients with genotype 1 chronic hepatitis C referred to our Hepatology Clinic between January 2004 and October 2006 for antiviral treatment. Baseline data were recorded and viremia levels were determined hours before the weekly dose of pegylated interferon by qualitative and quantitative PCR. Results: 57 patients were included in the study, although 3 of these were excluded during follow up; 65% were male (n = 35, with a mean age of 42 (26-65 years. Baseline viremia levels were > 800,000 IU/mL in 67% (n = 36. Liver biopsy was performed in 86% (n = 46, 22% (n = 12 had advanced fibrosis. Forty were naïve, 4 relapsing and 10 non-responders. Ribavirin dose was modified in one patient alone due to adverse effects. End treatment response and sustained virological response (SVR were 59 and 41%, respectively. A univariate analysis revealed a statistically significant association of SVR with baseline viremia (p = 0.006, baseline GGT (p = 0.025, and a reduction in viremia ≥ 2 logs at 2, 4 and 12 weeks (p = 0.001. The extent of viremia reduction at week 2 was associated with 100% SVR, and at 4 weeks the positive predictive values was 84% and the negative predictive values was 96.5%. A subanalysis of the naïve group yielded analogous results. Conclusions: in our study, a reduction in viremia ≥ 2 logs 2 weeks after treatment could ensure SVR. At 4 weeks, most non-responders could be identified.Objetivo: identificar qué factores predicen la respuesta al interferón pegilado alfa-2b y ribavirina en pacientes con hepatitis crónica C genotipo 1. Se estudió la cinética viral en la semana 2 y 4. Métodos: se evaluaron de forma prospectiva y consecutiva a los pacientes con hepatitis crónica C genotipo 1 remitidos

  2. Viral Hepatitis and Liver Cancer on the Island of Guam

    OpenAIRE

    Haddock, RL; Paulino, YC; Bordallo, R

    2013-01-01

    Patient records from the Guam Cancer Registry were compared with patients listed in a health department viral hepatitis case registry. The number of liver cancer and viral hepatitis cases were compared by ethnicity. Hepatitis C was the form of viral hepatitis most common among liver cancer cases on Guam (63.3% of viral hepatitis-associated liver cancer cases). Since viral hepatitis is an important cause of liver cancer, studies such as the present one may provide the information necessary to ...

  3. Chronic hepatitis E: A brief review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Arvind; R; Murali; Vikram; Kotwal; Saurabh; Chawla

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis E viral infection has traditionally been considered an acute, self-limited, water borne disease similar to hepatitis A, endemic to developing countries. However, over the past decade, zoonotic transmission and progression to chronicity in human patients has been identified, resulting in persistently elevated transaminase levels, progressive liver injury and cirrhosis. In addition to liver injury, neurological, renal and rheumatological manifestations have also been reported. Chronic hepatitis E occurs mainly in immunosuppressed individuals such as transplant recipients, human immunodeficiency virus patients with low CD4 counts and in patients with hematological malignancies receiving chemotherapy. Diagnosis is established by persistent elevation of hepatitis E virus RNA in the stool or serum. This population often requires treatment with antiviral agents, particularly ribavirin, as spontaneous clearance with reduction in immunosuppression occurs only in about a third of the patients. The purpose of this review, is to further discuss the clinical presentation, and recent advances in diagnosis, treatment and prophylaxis of chronic hepatitis E.

  4. Chronic Hepatitis B in Children - A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rukunuzzaman, M; Karim, M B

    2015-07-01

    Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) infection is prevalent worldwide. The prevalence is lowest (0.2-0.5%) in countries having high standard of living. About 10 million people are chronically infected with HBV in Bangladesh and it is possible that most infections occur during childhood. Overall prevalence is about 3% in Bangladesh. Perinatal transmission is more common in hyper-endemic areas of South East Asia. Chronic hepatitis B infection evolves through five phases. Most of the children belong to immune tolerant phase. About 57% patients of chronic hepatitis B are asymptomatic. Treatment of chronic hepatitis B is difficult. Decision regarding when, whom and how to treat in children is complex. Moreover, there are only limited drugs that can be used in treating chronic hepatitis B in children. Goal of therapy are to reduce viral replication, to minimize liver injury, to reduce consequence of liver injury like cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma and to reduce infectivity of HBV. Treatment should be considered in chronic hepatitis B if patient have persistently elevated ALT of more than twice normal and evidence of viral replication. There are some special circumstances where treatment of chronic hepatitis B can be given in absence of standard criteria. These conditions are cirrhosis, chemotherapy, immunosuppression, presence of co-infection (HBV-HIV), family history of HCC and pregnant women with high viral load. Sero-conversion occurs in about 17-32% cases if treated with oral nucleot(s)ide analogue and in about 58% cases if treated with interferon. These expensive drugs with limited treatment success are not suitable for the people of Bangladesh. Therefore, risk factors identification and prevention of HBV infection is the logical and rational approach for a country like Bangladesh. Vaccination against HBV play central role in preventing infection. HBV vaccine has been incorporated in EPI schedule since 2004 in Bangladesh. Immunoprophylaxis of babies of HBsAg positive mother

  5. NNDSS - Table II. Hepatitis (viral, acute)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Hepatitis (viral, acute) - 2014.In this Table, all conditions with a 5-year average annual national total of more than or equals 1,000 cases but...

  6. NNDSS - Table II. Hepatitis (viral, acute)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Hepatitis (viral, acute) - 2015.In this Table, provisional cases of selected notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported during the preceding...

  7. NNDSS - Table II. Hepatitis (viral, acute)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Hepatitis (viral, acute) - 2016. In this Table, provisional* cases of selected†notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported during the preceding...

  8. Glucocorticosteroids for viral hepatitis C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brok, J; Mellerup, M T; Krogsgaard, K;

    2004-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus may cause liver inflammation and fibrosis. It is not known whether glucocorticosteroids are beneficial or harmful for patients with hepatitis C infection.......Hepatitis C virus may cause liver inflammation and fibrosis. It is not known whether glucocorticosteroids are beneficial or harmful for patients with hepatitis C infection....

  9. Porphyria cutanea tarda as a complication of therapy for chronic hepatitis C

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    James Azim; Heather McCurdy; Richard H Moseley

    2008-01-01

    There is a strong association between porphyria cutanea tarda (PCT) and chronic viral hepatitis C. Therapy for chronic viral hepatitis C may improve PCT. However, there are only a few reports of the de novo development of PCT during therapy for chronic viral hepatitis C. We describe the development of PCT in a 56-year-old patient with chronic viral hepatitis C after 12 wk of peginterferon/ribavirin therapy. In addition, the patient was homozygous for the H63D hereditary hemochromatosis gene (HFE) mutation. The association of PCT with chronic viral hepatitis C and the possible role of hepatic iron overload and ribavirin-induced hemolytic anemia in the development of PCT during therapy for chronic viral hepatitis C are discussed.

  10. Acute pancreatitis in acute viral hepatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To elucidate the frequency and characteristics of pancreatic involvement in the course of acute (nonfulminant) viral hepatitis.METHODS: We prospectively assessed the pancreatic involvement in patients with acute viral hepatitis who presented with severe abdomimanl pain.RESULTS: We studied 124 patients with acute viral hepatitis, of whom 24 presented with severe abdominal pain. Seven patients (5.65%) were diagnosed to have acute pancreatitis. All were young males. Five patients had pancreatitis in the first week and two in the fourth week after the onset of jaundice. The pancreatitis was mild and all had uneventful recovery from both pancreatitis and hepatitis on conservative treatment.The etiology of pancreatitis was hepatitis E virus in 4,hepatitis A virus in 2, and hepatitis B virus in 1 patient.One patient had biliary sludge along with HEV infection.The abdominal pain of remaining seventeen patients was attributed to stretching of Glisson's capsule.CONCLUSION: Acute pancreatitis occurs in 5.65% of patients with acute viral hepatitis, it is mild and recovers with conservative management.

  11. Is sustained virological response a marker of treatment efficacy in patients with chronic hepatitis C viral infection with no response or relapse to previous antiviral intervention?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gurusamy, Kurinchi S; Wilson, Edward; Koretz, Ronald L;

    2013-01-01

    Randomised clinical trials (RCTs) of antiviral interventions in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection use sustained virological response (SVR) as the main outcome. There is sparse information on long-term mortality from RCTs.......Randomised clinical trials (RCTs) of antiviral interventions in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection use sustained virological response (SVR) as the main outcome. There is sparse information on long-term mortality from RCTs....

  12. Serum concentration of sFas and sFasL in healthy HBsAg carriers, chronic viral hepatitis B and C patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tadeusz Wojciech Lapinski; Oksana Kowalczuk; Danuta Prokopowicz; Lech Chyczewski

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To estimate the amount of apoptosis among healthy HBsAg carriers, patients with chronic HBV infection treated with lamk udine and patients with chronic HCV infection treated with interferon alpha and ribavirin. Activity of apoptosis was evaluated by serum sFas/sFasL concentration measurement.Moreover dependence between apoptosis and HBV-DNA or HCV-RNA levels was studied.METHODS: Eighty-six persons were included into study: 34healthy HBsAg carriers, 33 patients with chronic HBV infection and 19 patients with chronic HCV infection. Serum levels of sFas/sFasL were measured by ELISA assay. HBV-DNA and HCV-RNA were measured by RT-PCR assay. Levels of sFas/sFasL were determined before and 2 and 12 wk after therapy in patients with chronic hepatitis B and C infection.HBV-DNA or HCV-RNA was detected before treatment and 6 mo after treatment.RESULTS: Twenty-four (71%) healthy HBsAg carriers showed HBV-DNA over 105/mL, which was comparable to the patients with chronic hepatitis B. Independently from HBV-DNA levels,the concentration of sFas among healthy HBsAg carriers was comparable to healthy persons. Among patients with chronic hepatitis B and C, the concentration of sFas was significantly higher in comparison to healthy HBsAg carriers and healthy persons. In chronic hepatitis B patients the concentration of sFas was decreased during lamivudine treatment. Among chronic hepatitis C patients the concentration of sFas was increased during IFN alpha and ribavirin treatment. sFasL was not detected in control group. Furthermore sFasL occurred more frequently in chronic hepatitis C patients in comparison to chronic hepatitis B patients.CONCLUSION: There are no correlations between apoptosis and HBV-DNA levels. However ther is an association between apoptosis and activity of inflammation in patients with chronic HBV infection. Apoptosis can be increased in patients with chronic hepatitis C by effective treatment which may be a result of apoptosis stimulation by IFN-α.

  13. Viral Hepatitis: Retrospective Review in a Canadian Pediatric Hospital

    OpenAIRE

    Carolina Jimenez-Rivera; Paulina Cybulska; Andy Ni

    2010-01-01

    Introduction. Clinical presentation of viral hepatitis ranges from mild symptoms to fulminant hepatitis. Our aim is to describe clinical presentation and outcomes of children with viral hepatitis from the Eastern Ontario/Western Quebec regions of Canada. Methods. Retrospective chart review of children diagnosed with viral hepatitis at our institution from January 1, 1998, to December 31, 2007. Results. There were 261 charts reviewed, only 64 had a confirmed viral etiology: 34 (53%) hepatitis ...

  14. Effect of cytokine gene polymorphism on histological activity index, viral load and response to treatment in patients with chronic hepatitis C genotype 3

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zaigham Abbas; Tariq Moatter; Akber Hussainy; Wasim Jafri

    2005-01-01

    levels were not significantly different among different cytokine polymorphisms. There was a significant correlation of HAI and HCV RNA levels with the duration of disease. TGFβ -10 genotype CC patients had a better end of treatment response than those with other genotypes (P = 0.020). Sustained virological response to the treatment was not influenced by the cytokine polymorphism. No effect of other factors like viral load,degree of fibrosis, gender, steatosis, was observed on sustained virological response in this population infected with genotype 3.CONCLUSION: There is no significant correlation between cytokine polymorphisms and HAI except for the polymorphisms of anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10,which may influence hepatic inflammatory activity and fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis C genotype 3.Sustained virological response in this genotype does not seem to be influenced by cytokine gene polymorphisms.

  15. Liver Toxicity of Current Antiretroviral Regimens in HIV-Infected Patients with Chronic Viral Hepatitis in a Real-Life Setting: The HEPAVIR SEG-HEP Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neukam, Karin; Mira, José A.; Collado, Antonio; Rivero-Juárez, Antonio; Monje-Agudo, Patricia; Ruiz-Morales, Josefa; Ríos, María José; Merino, Dolores; Téllez, Francisco; Pérez-Camacho, Inés; Gálvez-Contreras, María Carmen; Rivero, Antonio; Pineda, Juan A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess the current frequency of ART-associated grade 3–4 transaminase elevations (TE) and grade 4 total bilirubin elevations (TBE) in HIV-infected patients with chronic hepatitis B and/or C, who start a new regimen of ART. Patients and Methods A total of 192 pre-treated or treatment-naive HIV infected patients with HBV and/or HCV-coinfection who started ART in eight Southern Spanish centers from July/2011-December/2013, were followed for 12 months in this prospective study. Results Forty-one (21.4%) subjects had been naïve to ART, median (IQR) follow-up was 11.6 (5.6–12.9) months. The most frequently initiated NRTI were tenofovir/emtricitabine [49 patients (25.5%)]. Eighty-nine (46.4%) patients started a ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitor and 77 (40.1%) individuals a NNRTI. Raltegravir and maraviroc were initiated in 24 (12.5%) and 9 (4.7%) individuals. Ten [5.21%; 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.53%-9.37%] patients presented grade 3 TE, while 8 (4.17%; 95%CI: 1.82%-8.04%) subjects showed grade 4 TBE. No episodes of grade 4 TE or ART discontinuation due to hepatotoxic events were observed. The use of ritonavir-boosted atazanavir was the only independent predictor for grade 4 TBE [adjusted odds ratio: 7.327 (95%CI: 1.417–37.89); p = 0.018] in an analysis adjusted for age, sex and baseline HIV-RNA levels, while no factor could be independently associated with grade 3–4 TE. Conclusions Currently, the frequency of severe ART-associated TE and TBE under real-life conditions in patients with chronic viral hepatitis is similar to what has been reported previously. However, episodes of grade 4 TE are less frequent and severe TE appears to be of lesser concern. PMID:26848975

  16. Five-year follow-up of patients with chronic C hepatitis and sustained virological response Seguimiento a 5 años de pacientes con hepatitis crónica C y respuesta viral sostenida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Puig-del-Castillo

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to assess persistence of sustained viral response at 5 years of follow-up in patients with chronic viral hepatitis C treated with pegylated interferon and ribavirin. Design: a descriptive study. Patients: from August 2001 to May 2004, all patients treated at our center with pegylated interferon and ribavirin who achieved a sustained viral response were consecutively enrolled (93 patients. Demographic, histological, biochemical, and virological data were collected during treatment and 5 years after achievement of the sustained viral response. Eighty-six percent of patients enrolled (n = 80 attended the control visit at 5 years. Results: mean age of enrolled patients was 41 years (standard deviation = 10 years, and 30.1% (n = 28 were women. Liver biopsy had been performed before treatment in 68.8% of patients (n = 64, showing no or mild fibrosis in 62.3% (F0 and F1 and significant fibrosis and cirrhosis in 37.7% (F ≥ 3. Genotype distribution was: 58.1% genotype 1 (n = 54; 8.6% genotype 2 (n = 8; 24.7% genotype 3 (n = 23; 7.5% genotype 4 (n = 7, and indeterminate in one patient. Only one patient experienced virological recurrence. All other patients had negative HCV RNA levels and, in the absence of other liver diseases, normal ALT levels. Conclusion: in patients treated with pegylated interferon and ribavirin with sustained viral response, long-term recurrence rate was very low.Objetivo: evaluar la persistencia de respuesta viral sostenida a los 5 años de seguimiento en pacientes con hepatitis crónica por virus C tratados con interferón pegilado y ribavirina. Diseño: estudio descriptivo. Pacientes: desde agosto de 2001 hasta mayo de 2004, se incluyeron de forma consecutiva todos los pacientes de nuestro centro tratados con interferón pegilado y ribavirina que alcanzaron respuesta viral sostenida (93 pacientes. Se recogieron datos demográficos, histológicos, bioquímicos y virológicos durante el tratamiento y a los 5 años de

  17. Chronic hepatitis B infection in pregnancy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    There are no standard guidelines to follow when apatient with chronic hepatitis B infection becomespregnant or desires pregnancy. Topics to considerinclude which patients to treat, when to start treatment,what treatment to use and when to stop treatment.Without any prophylaxis or antiviral therapy, a hepatitisB surface antigen and E antigen positive mother has upto a 90% likelihood of vertical transmission of hepatitisB virus (HBV) to child. Standard of care in the UnitedStates to prevent perinatal transmission consists ofadministration of hepatitis B immune globulin andHBV vaccination to the infant. The two strongest riskfactors of mother to child transmission (MTCT) of HBVinfection despite immunoprophylaxis are high maternalHBV viral load and high activity of viral replication.The goal is to prevent transmission of HBV at birthby decreasing viral load and/or decreasing activity ofthe virus. Although it is still somewhat controversial,most evidence shows that starting antivirals in thethird trimester is effective in decreasing MTCT withoutaffecting fetal development. There is a growing body ofliterature supporting the safety and efficacy of antiviraltherapies to reduce MTCT of hepatitis B. There areno formal recommendations regarding which agent tochoose. Tenofovir, lamivudine and telbivudine have allbeen proven efficacious in decreasing viral load at birthwithout known birth defects, but final decision of whichantiviral medication to use will have to be determinedby physician and patient. The antivirals may bediscontinued immediately if patient is breastfeeding, orwithin first four weeks if infant is being formula fed.

  18. Structure, sequence and expression of the hepatitis delta (δ) viral genome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kang-Sheng; Choo, Qui-Lim; Weiner, Amy J.; Ou, Jing-Hsiung; Najarian, Richard C.; Thayer, Richard M.; Mullenbach, Guy T.; Denniston, Katherine J.; Gerin, John L.; Houghton, Michael

    1986-10-01

    Biochemical and electron microscopic data indicate that the human hepatitis δ viral agent contains a covalently closed circular and single-stranded RNA genome that has certain similarities with viroid-like agents from plants. The sequence of the viral genome (1,678 nucleotides) has been determined and an open reading frame within the complementary strand has been shown to encode an antigen that binds specifically to antisera from patients with chronic hepatitis δ viral infections.

  19. Porphyria cutanea tarda as a complication of therapy for chronic hepatitis C

    OpenAIRE

    Azim, James; McCurdy, Heather; Moseley, Richard H.

    2008-01-01

    There is a strong association between porphyria cutanea tarda (PCT) and chronic viral hepatitis C. Therapy for chronic viral hepatitis C may improve PCT. However, there are only a few reports of the de novo development of PCT during therapy for chronic viral hepatitis C. We describe the development of PCT in a 56-year-old patient with chronic viral hepatitis C after 12 wk of peginterferon/ribavirin therapy. In addition, the patient was homozygous for the H63D hereditary hemochromatosis gene (...

  20. Imaging Based Methods of Liver Fibrosis Assessment in Viral Hepatitis: A Practical Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Hicham Khallafi; Kamran Qureshi

    2015-01-01

    Liver fibrosis represents the repair mechanism in liver injury and is a feature of most chronic liver diseases. The degree of liver fibrosis in chronic viral hepatitis infections has major clinical implications and presence of advanced fibrosis or cirrhosis determines prognosis. Treatment initiation for viral hepatitis is indicated in most cases of advanced liver fibrosis and diagnosis of cirrhosis entails hepatology evaluation for specialized clinical care. Liver biopsy is an invasive techni...

  1. Disparities in HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STDs, and TB

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search The CDC Health Disparities in HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STDs, and TB Note: Javascript is disabled or ... Other Pacific Islanders MMWR Publications HIV and AIDS Viral Hepatitis STDs Tuberculosis Training and Networking Resources Get Email ...

  2. DNA-guided hepatitis B treatment: Viral load is insufficient with few exceptions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pankaj Jain

    2009-01-01

    In DNA-guided hepatitis B treatment, viral load is insufficient, and requires other viral markers for treatment of hepatitis B patients as in patients with acute exacerbation of chronic hepatitis B, end-stage renal disease on dialysis, human immunodeficiency virus co-infected patients. There are exceptions to this rule:a residual level hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA at 24 wk predicts beneficial outcome and reduced resistance at 1 year. The genotypic viral resistance to antiviral agents and occult HBV infection can be determined by HBV-DNA levels.

  3. The use of DWI to assess spleen and liver quantitative ADC changes in the detection of liver fibrosis stages in chronic viral hepatitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cece, Hasan, E-mail: hasan_cece@yahoo.com [Harran University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Sanliurfa (Turkey); Ercan, Abdulbasit, E-mail: abdulbasitercan@hotmail.com [Harran University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Sanliurfa (Turkey); Yıldız, Sema, E-mail: drsemayildiz@yahoo.com [Harran University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Sanliurfa (Turkey); Karakas, Ekrem, E-mail: karakasekrem@yahoo.com [Harran University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Sanliurfa (Turkey); Karakas, Omer, E-mail: dromerkarakas@hotmail.com [Harran University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Sanliurfa (Turkey); Boyacı, Fatıma Nurefsan, E-mail: drnurefsan@yahoo.com [Harran University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Sanliurfa (Turkey); Aydogan, Timucin, E-mail: drtaydogan@yahoo.com.tr [Harran University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Gastroenterology, Sanliurfa (Turkey); Karakas, Emel Yigit, E-mail: e.ygtkarakas@yahoo.com.tr [Sanliurfa Training and Research Hospital, Department of İnternal Medicine, Sanliurfa (Turkey); Cullu, Nesat, E-mail: nesatcullu77@gmail.com [Muğla Sıtkı Koçman University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Mugla (Turkey); Ulas, Turgay, E-mail: turgayulas@yahoo.com [Harran University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of İnternal Medicine, Sanliurfa (Turkey)

    2013-08-15

    This study aimed to evaluate the changes in spleen and liver diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI) in chronic viral hepatitis patients. The study comprised 47 patients and 30 healthy volunteers. DWIs were obtained. Apparent Diffusion Coefficient (ADC) measurements were made by transferring the images to the workstation. The measurements of value b 1000 were made from a total of five points of the liver and three points of the spleen. Liver biopsy was performed on the 47 patients. The fibrosis stages of the patients were defined according to the METAVIR scoring system. Student's t-test was used in the comparison of mean ages, liver and spleen ADC values between the patient and the control group. Kruskal–Wallis followed by Mann–Whitney U Test with Bonferroni adjustment was performed in the comparison of mean ADC values of the patients at different stages and the control group. A statistically significant difference was determined between the patient and control group in respect of liver and spleen mean ADC values (P < 0.05). F3 group showed a significant difference compared to control and F1 and F4 group showed a significant difference compared to control, F1, F2 and F3 group in terms of the mean liver ADC value (P < 0.01). F3 and F4 group showed a significant difference compared to control and F1 group in terms of the mean spleen ADC value (P < 0.01). As a result we believe that the measurement of liver and spleen ADC values may be an indicator in the determination of the level of fibrosis.

  4. The use of DWI to assess spleen and liver quantitative ADC changes in the detection of liver fibrosis stages in chronic viral hepatitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study aimed to evaluate the changes in spleen and liver diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI) in chronic viral hepatitis patients. The study comprised 47 patients and 30 healthy volunteers. DWIs were obtained. Apparent Diffusion Coefficient (ADC) measurements were made by transferring the images to the workstation. The measurements of value b 1000 were made from a total of five points of the liver and three points of the spleen. Liver biopsy was performed on the 47 patients. The fibrosis stages of the patients were defined according to the METAVIR scoring system. Student's t-test was used in the comparison of mean ages, liver and spleen ADC values between the patient and the control group. Kruskal–Wallis followed by Mann–Whitney U Test with Bonferroni adjustment was performed in the comparison of mean ADC values of the patients at different stages and the control group. A statistically significant difference was determined between the patient and control group in respect of liver and spleen mean ADC values (P < 0.05). F3 group showed a significant difference compared to control and F1 and F4 group showed a significant difference compared to control, F1, F2 and F3 group in terms of the mean liver ADC value (P < 0.01). F3 and F4 group showed a significant difference compared to control and F1 group in terms of the mean spleen ADC value (P < 0.01). As a result we believe that the measurement of liver and spleen ADC values may be an indicator in the determination of the level of fibrosis

  5. Meta-analyses on viral hepatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gluud, Lise L; Gluud, Christian

    2009-01-01

    This article summarizes the meta-analyses of interventions for viral hepatitis A, B, and C. Some of the interventions assessed are described in small trials with unclear bias control. Other interventions are supported by large, high-quality trials. Although attempts have been made to adjust...

  6. US findings in acute viral hepatitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reports on colecystic alterations during acute viral hepatitis are more and more frequent; the pathogenesis and clinical meaning of these alterations are still debated. Consensual periportal lymphnode enlargment has been not yet reported. The authors describe four cases of acute viral hepatites in whichUS showed alterations of colecystic walls and/or contents; in two cases enlarged periportal lymphnodes were demonstrated too. Later US exams showed a complete regression of both colecystic and lymphnodal lesions. Clinical findings and laboratory out-comes are evaluated; the connection of US results with hepatitis and its meaning are discussed. The causes of colecystic alterations are still questionable; they might be related to blood disorders or to an increased portal pressure, or else they might be considered as phlogistic lesions. The authors conclude that both colecystic and lymphnodal alterations have a phlogistic nature; moreover, they are not related to a particulary evolution of hepatitis. The importance of distinguishing colecystic alterations from different pathology is stressed

  7. Multicountry burden of chronic hepatitis C viral infection among those aware of their diagnosis: a patient survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Dacosta Dibonaventura

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization has called for global and regional assessments of the burden of hepatitis C (HCV along with country-specific patient profiles to better inform healthcare policy. The present investigated the characteristics and burden of patients reporting a diagnosis of HCV infection in the US, France, Germany, Italy, Spain, the UK, urban China, and Japan using a consistent methodology of patient-reported surveys. METHODS: The 2010 5EU (N = 57,805, 2009 US (N = 75,000, 2008/2009 Japan (N = 37,683, and 2009/2010 urban China (N = 33,261 waves of the National Health and Wellness Survey were used as the data source. Within each country, patients with a self-reported diagnosis of HCV were compared with those who did not report a diagnosis of HCV on sociodemographics, health behaviors, comorbidities, and health outcomes (e.g., Short Form-12v2. The effect of HCV was examined using regression analysis applying sampling weights. RESULTS: The prevalence of HCV ranged from 0.26% (China to 1.42% (Italy. Patients in Japan and Italy (61.60 and 61.02 years, respectively were the oldest, while patients in the US were the most likely to be obese (39.31% and have concomitant anxiety (38.43% and depression (46.05% compared with other countries. Pooling countries and adjusting for sociodemographics, health behaviors, and comorbidities, HCV was associated with significantly lower physical component summary scores (b = -2.51 and health utilities (b = -0.04 and greater overall work impairment (b = 8.79, physician visits (b = 2.91, and emergency department visits (b = 0.30 (all p<.05. The effects on health status were strongest in the US and UK while the effects on healthcare resource use were strongest in Japan. CONCLUSIONS: HCV was associated with a significant humanistic and economic burden. These results suggest that the manifestation of the HCV burden, and the profile of the patients themselves, varied

  8. Establishing a Viral Hepatitis Prevention and Control Program: Florida's Experience

    OpenAIRE

    Baldy, Linda M.; Urbas, Cheryl; Harris, Jennie L.; Stephen Jones, T.; Reichert, Philip E.

    2007-01-01

    In 1999, the Florida State Legislature established and funded the statewide Hepatitis Prevention Program (HPP) to address growing concern about hepatitis C virus (HCV) and its potential public health burden. HPP supports county health departments' (CHDs') provision of viral hepatitis prevention services to at-risk adults through free hepatitis A and B vaccine in most CHDs and hepatitis serologic testing and statewide viral hepatitis-related education, consultation, and referral services. Some...

  9. Counter-attack on viral hepatitis. [Hepatitis A; Hepatitis B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prozesky, O.W. (Pretoria Univ. (South Africa). Dept. of Medical Virology); Jupp, P.G.; Joubert, J.J.; Taylor, M.B.; Grabow, W.O.K.

    1985-07-01

    The most highly developed radioimmunoassay test system in medical virology is proving of exceptional value in research aimed at controlling and eventually eradicating the scourge of human hepatitis. The use of radioimmunoassay in detecting hepatitis A (HAV) and hepatitis B (HBV) viruses is discussed. The hepatitis A virus is an enterovirus which infects the gastrointestinal tract and is usually transmitted by contaminated food, milk or water. Hepatitis B spreads mainly by the parenteral rate. Bedbugs and ticks are considered as possible transmitters of HBV. Another important contribution of radioimmunoassay is the ability to monitor the immune response of persons at risk who are vaccinated against hepatitis B.

  10. How to Treat Pain in the Hepatic Region Due to Chronic Hepatitis?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林宗广

    2004-01-01

    @@ Chronic viral hepatitis type B and C both have the symptoms of pain in the hepatic region, asthenia, poor appetite, abdominal fullness, among which pain in the hepatic region is the most commonly seen. According to the author's clinical experience, treatment based on accurate TCM differentiation can not only eliminate pain in the hepatic region but also restore the hepatic function at the same time. Differentiation includes analysis of the nature of the hepatic pain and the accompanying symptoms, and the treatment is aimed at the differentiated symptoms. The following are methods of treatment.

  11. Transient nephritis during resolution phase of acute virale hepatitis E

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Hepatitis E Virus is a causative agent of hepatitis. Viral E hepatitis is responsible for various clinical manifestations. However, immune reactions due to hepatitis E virus are rarely encountered. A case of membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis associated with hepatitis E virus is reported her.

  12. Synchronous development of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma and hepatocellular carcinoma in different sites of the liver with chronic B-viral hepatitis: two case reports

    OpenAIRE

    Jung, Kyu Sik; Chun, Kyeong Hyeon; Choi, Gi Hong; Jeon, Hyae Min; Shin, Hye Sun; Park, Young Nyun; Park, Jun Yong

    2013-01-01

    Background Synchronous development of primary hepatocellular carcinoma and intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma has been reported rarely. In literature review, there have been only 35 reported cases of synchronous hepatocellular carcinoma and intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma, and most of these tumors developed in patients with hepatitis C-related liver cirrhosis. Here, we present synchronous development of hepatocellular carcinoma and intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma in two patients with chronic B-v...

  13. Accuracy of liver stiffness measurement using fibroscan ® to predict the response to antiviral therapy in patients with chronic hepatitis c viral infection

    OpenAIRE

    Gamal Mohamed Abdelall, Nesrine

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Antiviral therapy can prevent disease progression in patients with chronic hepatitis C . Transient Elastografy (TE; Fibroscan) is an accurate surrogate marker to liver fibrosis, by measuring liver stiffness (LS). LS decrease has been associated with sustained virologic response (SVR). Aim: to assess the changes of LS measurments in CHC patients during and one year after Interferon (IFN)-based antiviral therapy (IFN/ribavirin) or (telaprevir+IFN/ribavirin). Methods: consecutive 6...

  14. Production of infectious hepatitis C virus in tissue culture from a cloned viral genome

    OpenAIRE

    Wakita, Takaji; Pietschmann, Thomas; Kato, Takanobu; Date, Tomoko; Miyamoto, Michiko; Zhao, Zijiang; Murthy, Krishna; Habermann, Anja; Kräusslich, Hans-Georg; Mizokami, Masashi; Bartenschlager, Ralf; LIANG, T. JAKE

    2005-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection causes chronic liver diseases and is a global public health problem. Detailed analyses of HCV have been hampered by the lack of viral culture systems. Subgenomic replicons of the JFH1 genotype 2a strain cloned from an individual with fulminant hepatitis replicate efficiently in cell culture. Here we show that the JFH1 genome replicates efficiently and supports secretion of viral particles after transfection into a human hepatoma cell line (Huh7). Particles ha...

  15. Longitudinal fluctuations in PD1 and PD-L1 expression in association with changes in anti-viral immune response in chronic hepatitis B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjin Zhang

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Controversy exists regarding the role of PD1 and its ligand PD-L1 in chronic hepatitis B infection. In some studies, persistent HBV infection has been attributed to high levels of PD-1 and PD-L1 expression on HBV-specific T-cells and antigen-presenting cells (APCs respectively. Other studies revealed that the up-regulation of PD-1 and PD-L1 during an acute inflammation phase is required to offset increasing positive co-stimulatory signals to avoid severe damage by an over-vigorous immune response. Methods Fifteen chronic hepatitis B patients, with inflammatory flare episode, were recruited prospectively. Based on serum HBV-DNA, HBsAg load, and ALT values, inflammatory flare episode were divided into initial, climax, decline and regression phase. Blood sample and liver biopsy tissues from each individual were taken in these 4 phases respectively. Circulating and intra-hepatic PD1 and PD-L1 expression levels were monitored throughout the inflammatory flare episode by flow cytometry and immunostaining and these expression levels were related to the HBV-specific T-cell changes, expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, HBV-DNA replication and HBV antigen load. Results ]The levels of PD-1 and PD-L1 expressions were significantly up-regulated in the inflammation ascending phase, initial and climax period and in parallel with HBV-specific colon expansion. It showed increasing the level of serum ALT and decreasing the HBV-DNA loads. As the level of inflammation reduced, the circulating and intra-hepatic PD1 and circulating PD-L1 decreased progressively in concordance with serum ALT, HBV-DNA and HBsAg loads decreased except intra-hepatic PD-1 expression. Intra-hepatic PD-L1 expression did not decrease significantly during the regression phase of inflammation compared to that in prior period. The intra-hepatic PD-L1 expression remained relatively on higher level when serum HBV-DNA load and ALT decreased to approximately normal range

  16. Mallory-Denk Bodies in chronic hepatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Metin Basaranoglu; Nesrin Turhan; Abdullah Sonsuz; G(o)kcen Basaranoglu

    2011-01-01

    Mallory-Denk Bodies (MDB) are important as investigators, suggesting MDB as an indicator of the histologic severity of chronic hepatitis, causes of which include hepatitis C, primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC), and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Matteoni et al scored MDB in patients with NAFLD as none, rare and many, and reported that MDB plays a prominent role in this classification scheme in an earlier classification system. In this study, we evaluated 258 patients with chronic hepatitis due to metabolic, autoimmune and viral etiologies. Liver biopsy samples were evaluated with hematoxylin and eosin, periodic acid-Schiff-diastase, Gordon and Sweet's reticulin, Masson's trichrome, and iron stains. Both staging and grading were performed. Additionally, MDB were evaluated and discussed for each disease. We examined patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH;50 patients), alcoholic hepatitis (10 patients), PBC (50 patients), Wilson disease (WD;20 patients), hepatitis B (50 patients), hepatitis C (50 pati patients) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC;30 patients). Frequency of MDB was as follows;NASH: 10 patients with mild in 60% and moderate in 40% and observed in every stage of the disease and frequently seen in zone 3. PBC: 11 patients with mild in 10%, moderate in 70%, and cirrhosis in 20%, and frequently seen in zone 1. WD: 16 patients with moderate and severe in 60% and cirrhosis in 40% and frequently seen in zone 1. Hep B: 3 patients with mild in 66% and severe in 34%. Hep C: 7 patients with mild in 40% and moderate in 60% and observed in every stage. HCC: 3 patients with hep B in 2 patients. We found that there is no relationship between MDB and any form of chronic hepatitis regarding histologic severity such as alcoholic steatohepatitis and NAFLD and variable zone distribution by etiology.

  17. Pregnancy outcomes associated with viral hepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddick, K L B; Jhaveri, R; Gandhi, M; James, A H; Swamy, G K

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the contribution of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) to pregnancy-related complications including gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), preterm birth (PTB), intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), pre-eclampsia, antepartum haemorrhage and cholestasis. The Nationwide Inpatient Sample was queried for all pregnancy-related discharges, pregnancy complications and viral hepatitis from 1995 to 2005. Logistic regression was used to examine the association between HBV, HCV, HBV + HCV and pregnancy-related complications including GDM, PTB, IUGR, pre-eclampsia, antepartum haemorrhage, cholestasis and caesarean delivery. Model covariates included maternal age, race, insurance status, substance use and medical complications including liver complication, hypertension, HIV, anaemia, thrombocytopenia and sexually transmitted infections. Of 297 664 pregnant women data available for analysis, 1446 had a coded diagnosis of HBV, HCV or both. High-risk behaviours, such as smoking, alcohol and substance use were higher in women with either HBV or HCV. Women with HBV had an increased risk for PTB (aOR 1.65, CI [1.3, 2.0]) but a decreased risk for caesarean delivery (aOR 0.686, CI [0.53, 0.88]). Individuals with HCV had an increased risk for GDM (aOR 1.6, CI [1.0, 2.6]). Individuals with both HBV and HCV co-infection had an increased risk for antepartum haemorrhage (aOR 2.82, CI [1.1, 7.2]). There was no association of viral hepatitis with IUGR or pre-eclampsia. Women with hepatitis have an increased risk for complications during pregnancy. Research to determine the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of counselling patients about potential risks for adverse outcomes is warranted. PMID:21692952

  18. Viral Hepatitis A to E in South Mediterranean Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Sanaa M. Kamal; Mahmoud, Sara; Hafez, Tamer; EL-Fouly, Runia

    2010-01-01

    Viral hepatitis represents an important health problem in the South Mediterranean countries, Egypt, Libya, Tunisia, Algeria and Morocco. Emerging natural history and epidemiological information reveal differences in the overall epidemiology, risk factors and modes of transmission of viral hepatitis A, B, C, D, E infections in the South Mediterranean region. The differences in the in incidence and prevalence of viral hepatitis across North African countries is attributed to variations in healt...

  19. HEPATITIS A VIRAL INFECTION TRIGGERS AUTOIMMUNE HEPATITIS IN A PATIENT: A CASE REPORT

    OpenAIRE

    Jakkal Darpan; Solanke Sachin

    2014-01-01

    Hepatitis A virus is an infectious agent known to trigger autoimmune hepatitis (AIH). We present a case in a 40years old woman with Autoimmune hepatitis who presented 4 months after viral hepatits A infection. Diagnosis of hepatitis A virus was attributed on viral serological tests and autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) in accordance with international autoimmune hepatitis group system. [1] She is in remission with steroid therapy. The case we present is unusual with paucity ob...

  20. Intracellular expression of the proliferative marker Ki-67 and viral proteins (NS3, NS5A and C in chronic, long lasting hepatitis C virus (HCV infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Olejniczak

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C virus (HCV continues to represent the main causative agent of the hepatitis, which leads to chronic transformation of the process in 60-80% individuals. It remains unclear how far cellular expression of HCV proteins in vivo may represent an index of progression of the disease and of proliferative activity in the liver in chronic hepatitis C. Aim of the studies included detection and subcellular localization of three HCV proteins (NS3, NS5A and C in liver biopsies from adults (n=19 with chronic, long lasting hepatitis C as related to hepatocyte proliferative activity. The immunocytochemical ABC (avidin biotin-peroxidase complex technique was applied, alone or associated with the ImmunoMax technique. Results of the immunocytochemical tests were compared to histological alterations in liver biopsies, proliferation index and with selected clinical data. A significantly higher expression of NS3 protein was noted, as compared to expressions of NS5A and C proteins. In all the patients, cytoplasmic localization of all proteins dominated over nuclear localization (p0.05. At the level of electron microscopy, protein localization in endoplasmic reticulum (ER membranes, mitochondria, perinuclear region and/or in hepatocyte cell nucleus was observed. No direct relationships could be demonstrated between expressions of HCV proteins and of Ki-67 antigen. No correlations could also be demonstrated between cellular expression of any HCV protein on one hand and grading or staging, alanine transaminase (ALT, serum level of HCV RNA or alpha-fetoprotein (AFP on the other. However, positive correlations were disclosed between proliferative activity of hepatocytes on one hand and patient's age, grading and staging on the other. Advanced hepatic fibrosis correlated also with serum levels of AFP. The studies were supplemented with data on subcellular localization of HCV proteins. Moreover, they indicated that in HCV infection grading and staging

  1. Association between risk factors, basal viral load, virus genotype and the degree of liver fibrosis with the response to the therapy in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vuković Vuk R.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Hepatitis C is an important sociomedical problem worldwide due to frequent progression to chronic disease, occurrence of liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Standard pegylated interferon alfa 2a plus ribavirin therapy results in resolution of infection only in 50% of patients. The aim of this study was to determine the association of various factors with response to the therapy in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV infection. Age and sex of patients, inoculation risk factors, histopathological changes in the liver, viral load and HCV genotype were analyzed. Methods. The study included a group of 121 patients with chronic HCV infection. The treatment was carried out 24 weeks for virus genotype 2 and 3, and 48 weeks for genotype 1 and 4. The degree of histopathological changes in the liver was determined by hematoxylin and eosin staining, whereas polimerase chain reaction was used for HCV genotyping. Results. In the group of non-responding patients genotype 1 was represented with 100%, while in the other groups, although predominantly present, its percentage was lower. Unresponsiveness to therapy and relapse of disease were associated with higher viral load and advanced fibrosis. Intravenous use of psychoactive substances, as a risk factor, was present in a high percentage in the group of patients with sustained response, while blood transfusion and dialysis were leading risk factors in the group of relapse responders and non-responders. Conclusion. The results of our study showed that the treatment outcome of chronic HCV infection was associated with baseline HCV ribonucleic acid, HCV genotype, route of infection and the degree of histopathological changes in the liver. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III41010

  2. Aminoadamantanes for chronic hepatitis C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lamers, Mieke H; Broekman, Mark; Drenth, Joost Ph;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Around 3% of the world's population (approximately 160 million people) are chronically infected with hepatitis C virus. The proportion of infected people who develop clinical symptoms varies between 5% and 40%. Combination therapy with pegylated interferon-alpha plus ribavirin...... response in genotype 1 infected patients to at least 70%. There is therefore an unmet need for drugs that can achieve a higher proportion of sustained virological response. Aminoadamantanes are antiviral drugs used for treatment of patients with chronic hepatitis C. OBJECTIVES: To assess the beneficial...... and harmful effects of aminoadamantanes for patients with chronic hepatitis C infection by conducting a systematic review with meta-analyses of randomised clinical trials, as well as trial sequential analyses. SEARCH METHODS: We conducted electronic searches of the Cochrane Hepato-Biliary Group Controlled...

  3. Lymphocyte subpopulation in acute viral hepatitis.

    OpenAIRE

    Datta, U; Sehgal, S.; Pal, S. R.; Dhall, K; Singh, S.; Datta, D. V.

    1982-01-01

    Studies of peripheral blood lymphocytes were performed in 41 patients with acute viral hepatitis, in grade III-IV coma; 16 patients were in the third trimester of pregnancy. There were significant reductions in absolute lymphocyte count and T cell number in patients who succumbed to the disease, when compared with those who survived. B cell counts were similar in the two groups and migration inhibition test with BCG antigen was normal. It is postulated that a decrease in the number of cells i...

  4. Detection of serum leptin levels in patients with viral hepatitis and fatty liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to find out the correlations between serum leptin levels and viral hepatitis, the serum leptin levels in 167 patients with viral chronic hepatitis, 87 patients with fatty liver, and 80 control subjects were determined by radioimmunoassay. The liver function (ALT, AST), glucose(Glu) and total cholesterol(TC) in these patients were also measured. Compared with controls and patients with fatty liver, the levels of serum leptin in patients with viral hepatitis were significantly increased (P0.05). The increase of serum leptin levels in the patients with viral hepatitis was correlated positively with the severity of liver inflammation. Therefore, the leptin can be regarded as an indicator to reflect the severity of liver inflammation. (authors)

  5. Negative Association of Plasma Levels of Vitamin D and miR-378 With Viral Load in Patients With Chronic Hepatitis B Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamadkhani

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background Chronic Hepatitis B (CHB is accompanied by inflammation of liver because of infection with Hepatitis B Virus (HBV. Previous studies revealed an inverse association between vitamin D and HBV DNA levels. Objectives The current study aimed to investigate the levels of 25 (OH D3 (the steady form of vitamin D, miR-378 and HBV DNA in the patients with CHB. Patients and Methods One hundred and seventy three patients with HBeAg negative CHB were recruited for the study. Plasma levels of HBVDNA and 25 (OH D3 were quantified. The expression level of miR-378 in plasma was measured by a relative quantitative Real Time Polymerase Chain Reaction (qRT-PCR assay. Results In the pathway regression analysis, the plasma level of 25 (OH D3 showed a significant inverse correlation with plasma levels of HBV DNA (-0.198, P = 0.008 and direct correlation with miR-378 (0.188, P = 0.013. Similarly plasma level of miR-378 had inverse association with HBV DNA level (-0.177, P = 0.020. Conclusions These results suggest that vitamin D could involve in a miRNA- mediated regulatory pathway in control of HBV replication. Further studies are recommended to understand the effects of miR-378 and anti-infective action of vitamin D on Hepatitis B Virus.

  6. New therapies for chronic hepatitis B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitton Alaluf, Maya; Shlomai, Amir

    2016-06-01

    Approximately 350 million people worldwide are chronically infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV), representing a significant public health challenge. Nucleos/tide analogues (NUCs) and interferon alpha (IFNα), the current standard of care for chronic infection, aim at preventing progression of the disease to cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and death. However, in contrast to the case of hepatitis C virus infection, in which novel antiviral drugs cure the vast majority of treated patients, in regard to HBV, cure is rare due to the unusual persistence of viral DNA in the form of covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA) within the nucleus of infected cells. Available therapies for HBV require lifelong treatment and surveillance, as reactivation frequently occurs following medication cessation and the occurrence of HCC is decreased but not eliminated, even after years of successful viral suppression. Progress has been made in the development of new therapeutics, and it is likely that only a combination of immune modulators, inhibitors of gene expression and replication and cccDNA-targeting drugs will eradicate chronic infection. This review aims to summarize the state of the art in HBV drug research highlighting those agents with the greatest potential for success based on in vitro as well as on data from clinical studies. PMID:26854115

  7. Epclusa Approved for Chronic Hepatitis C

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... news/fullstory_159609.html Epclusa Approved for Chronic Hepatitis C Combination drug treats six major forms of ... to treat the six major strains of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV). Epclusa combines sofosbuvir, FDA-approved ...

  8. Patient concerns regarding chronic hepatitis C infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minuk, G Y; Gutkin, A; Wong, S G; Kaita, K D E

    2005-01-01

    Counselling of patients with chronic hepatitis C infections is often limited to discussions regarding how the virus is transmitted and what can be done to decrease the risk of transmission to others. The purpose of the present study was to document the principal concerns of newly diagnosed and follow-up patients with chronic hepatitis C, and thereby enhance counselling strategies and content. Seventy newly diagnosed and 115 follow-up patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection were initially asked in an open-ended manner (volunteered concerns) and then to prioritize from a prepared list of seven potential concerns (prioritized concerns), to identify those concerns that were of utmost importance to them. The most common volunteered concerns of newly diagnosed patients in decreasing order were: disease progression (27%), premature death (19%), infecting family members (13%), side-effects of treatment (11%) and miscellaneous others. In decreasing order, prioritized concerns included: infecting family members, development of liver cancer, infecting others, development of cirrhosis, social stigma of having liver disease, need for liver transplant and loss of employment. The principal volunteered and prioritized concerns of follow-up patients were similar to those of newly diagnosed patients. Volunteered and prioritized concerns were relatively consistent across the different genders, age groups, ethnic backgrounds, education level, marital status, employment, modes of viral acquisition and in the case of follow-up patients, duration of follow-up. These results indicate that health care providers who focus counselling efforts exclusively on viral transmission are unlikely to address other important concerns of newly diagnosed and follow-up patients with chronic HCV infection. PMID:15655048

  9. Chinese medicinal herbs for chronic hepatitis B

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, J; McIntosh, H; Lin, Haili

    2001-01-01

    Chronic hepatitis B is a serious health problem worldwide. Chinese medicinal herbs are widely used for treatment of chronic hepatitis B in China and many clinical trials have been conducted. This systematic review is to assess the efficacy and safety of Chinese medicinal herbs for chronic hepatitis...

  10. Hepatic inflammation and progressive liver fibrosis in chronic liver disease

    OpenAIRE

    Czaja, Albert J

    2014-01-01

    Chronic liver inflammation drives hepatic fibrosis, and current immunosuppressive, anti-inflammatory, and anti-viral therapies can weaken this driver. Hepatic fibrosis is reversed, stabilized, or prevented in 57%-79% of patients by conventional treatment regimens, mainly by their anti-inflammatory actions. Responses, however, are commonly incomplete and inconsistently achieved. The fibrotic mechanisms associated with liver inflammation have been clarified, and anti-fibrotic agents promise to ...

  11. LIPID METABOLISM DISORDERS IN PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC HEPATITIS C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. I. Tkachenko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the study. To study lipid metabolism in chronic hepatitis C and to assess its impact on the formation of insulin resistance, steatosis and progression of liver fibrosis.Materials and methods. The study included 205 patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC. Conducts research, depending on the genotype C, viral load and body mass index (BMI of the patients.Results. CHC patients revealed a combined hyperlipoproteinemia on the background of op-pression synthesis of apolipoproteins A1 and B. Formation of hepatic steatosis was associated with HCV genotype 3 virus-induced viral load at ≥ 6 log10 IU/ml and metabolic in VL < 6 log10 IU/ml. In patients with chronic hepatitis C genotype 1, high viral load leads to inhibition of protein synthesis conveyor ApoA1 and increased synthesis of cholesterol, accompanied by abdominal obesity and the formation of insulin resistance. CHC patients with BMI < 25 kg/m2 viral load ≥ 6 log10 ME/ml was associated with dyslipidemia IV type on D. Fredriskson (1970, hyperglycemia, insulin resistance and diabetes. The advanced stage of liver fi brosis (F ≥ 3 on a scale METAVIR and non-response to treatment were associated with a decrease in HDL cholesterol below normal. With an increase in viral load > 5 log10 ME/ml signifi cantly increased the risk of lipid and carbohydrate metabolism.

  12. Carboxy terminal peptide of type I procollagen and epidermal growth factor in patients with different viral hepatitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author observed the serum levels of carboxy terminal peptide of type I procollagen (PICP) and epidermal growth factor (EGF) in the patients with viral hepatitis and cirrhosis. The serum PICP and EGF were detected in 164 cases by RIA. The results indicated that two indexes increased significantly in patients with severe chronic hepatitis, chronic persistent hepatitis and post hepatitis cirrhosis compared with normal control (P 0.05). The results showed that detection of serum PICP and EGF may be valuable diagnostic markers to assess the degree of liver inflammation and fibrosis in viral liver diseases

  13. Classical and Modern Approaches Used for Viral Hepatitis Diagnosis

    OpenAIRE

    Heiat, Mohammad; Ranjbar, Reza; Alavian, Seyed Moayed

    2014-01-01

    Context: Viral hepatitis diagnosis is an important issue in the treatment procedure of this infection. Late diagnosis and delayed treatment of viral hepatitis infections can lead to irreversible liver damages and occurrence of liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. A variety of laboratory methods including old and new technologies are being applied to detect hepatitis viruses. Here we have tried to review, categorize, compare and illustrate the classical and modern approaches used for ...

  14. Acute renal failure associated with nonfulminant acute viral hepatitis A

    OpenAIRE

    Sarawgi, S.; Gupta, A. K.; Arora, D S; Jasuja, S.

    2008-01-01

    Hepatitis A runs a benign course in children, but may have atypical presentations in adults. Very rarely acute renal failure complicates nonfulminant hepatitis A. We report a patient with nonfulminant acute viral hepatitis A with multiorgan involvement. Patient had biopsy proven acute interstitial nephritis, acute pancreatitis, acute myocarditis and required hemodialysis for 6 weeks.

  15. Viral kinetics of the Hepatitis C virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.C. Bekkering (Frank)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractHepatitis A virus and hepatitis B virus were identified as the cause of infectious hepatitis and serum hepatitis respectively in the beginning of the seventies. After introduction of screening tests for hepatitis A and B 4 only 25% of the cases of post transfusion hepatitis were found to

  16. Viral kinetics of the Hepatitis C virus

    OpenAIRE

    Bekkering, Frank

    2001-01-01

    textabstractHepatitis A virus and hepatitis B virus were identified as the cause of infectious hepatitis and serum hepatitis respectively in the beginning of the seventies. After introduction of screening tests for hepatitis A and B 4 only 25% of the cases of post transfusion hepatitis were found to be caused by hepatitis B and none by hepatitis A. One or more viruses other than hepatitis A or B were suspected to be the cause of the remaining 75% of post-transfusion hepatitis. Initially, this...

  17. Overview of hepatitis B viral replication and genetic variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Shuping; Revill, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Chronic infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) greatly increases the risk for liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). HBV isolates worldwide can be divided into ten genotypes. Moreover, the immune clearance phase selects for mutations in different parts of the viral genome. The outcome of HBV infection is shaped by the complex interplay of the mode of transmission, host genetic factors, viral genotype and adaptive mutations, as well as environmental factors. Core promoter mutations and mutations abolishing hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) expression have been implicated in acute liver failure, while genotypes B, C, subgenotype A1, core promoter mutations, preS deletions, C-terminal truncation of envelope proteins, and spliced pregenomic RNA are associated with HCC development. Our efforts to treat and prevent HBV infection are hampered by the emergence of drug resistant mutants and vaccine escape mutants. This paper provides an overview of the HBV life cycle, followed by review of HBV genotypes and mutants in terms of their biological properties and clinical significance. PMID:27084035

  18. Effect of alpha 2b interferon on inducement of mIL-2R and treatment of HCV in PBMC from patients with chronic viral hepatitis C

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian Wang; Gui-Ju Xiang; Bing-Xiang Liu

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To study the level of membrane interleukin-2 receptor (mIL-2R) on surface of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and the therapeutic efficacy of alpha 2b interferon on the treatment of HCV-RNA in PBMC of patients with chronic hepatitis C and to compare the negative rates of HCV-RNA in PBMC, HCV-RNA and anti-HCV in serum.METHODS: Before and after treatment of alpha 2b interferon, the level of mIL-2R of patients with chronic hepatitis C was detected by biotin-streptavidin (BSA). The therapeutic group (26 cases) was treated with alpha 2b interferon (3 MU/d) and control therapeutic group (22 cases)was treated with routine drugs (VitC, aspartic acid). The total course of treatment with alpha 2b interferon and routine drug was six months and per course of the treatment was three months. The levels of HCV-RNA in PBMC, HCV-RNA and anti-HCV in serum were detected before and after a course of the treatment.RESULTS: Before and after treatment of alpha 2b interferon and routine drugs, the levels of mIL-2R in silence stage were (3.44±0.77)% and (2.95±0.72)%, the levels of mIL-2R in inducement stage were (33.62±3.95)% and (30.04±3.73)%. There was a significant difference between two groups (P<0.01-P<0.05). After treatment of alpha 2b interferon with 3 MU/d for two courses of the treatment,the total negative rates of HCV-RNA in the PBMC and HCVRNA, anti-HCV in serum were 42.31% (11/26), 57.69%(15/26), 65.38%(17/26) respectively. After the treatment of routine drug, the negative rates of HCV-RNA in PBMC and HCV-RNA, anti-HCV in serum were 13.64% (3/22),22.73% (5/22), 27.27% (6/22) respectively. There was high significant difference in the group treated with alpha 2b interferon and the group treated with routine drugs (P<0.01-P<0.05).CONCLUSION: The mIL-2R can be induced by alpha 2b interferon during the treatment. The alpha 2b interferon has a definite effect on the treatment of HCV-RNA in PBMC.The curative effect of alpha 2b interferon is better than that

  19. 宿主和病毒因素在慢性乙型肝炎肝细胞脂肪变中的作用%Viral and host causes of hepatosteatosis in chinese patients with chronic hepatitis B

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施军平; 范建高; 武瑞; 高晓倩; 张莉

    2008-01-01

    Objective To explore the viral and host causes of bepatosteatosis in chinese patient with chronic hepatitis B. Methods A total of 562 patients (450 males and 112 females, age range 13-80 years) with biospy-proven chronic hepatitis B were enrolled in the study. The patients were divided into two groups: group without steatosis (460 patients) and group with steatosis (102 patients). The groups were compared in terms of age, gender, body mass index (BMI), liver enzymes, cholesterol, triglyceride, APO-A, APO-B, urine acid (UA), fasting serum glucose(FSG) and HBeAg, viral load. Results Steatosis was present in 102 patients (18.15%). The degree of liver steatosis in 97 (95.10%) patients were less 30%. Steatosis was found in 98 (21.78%) of male patients and 4 (3.75%) of female patients (P < 0.01). In the group of chronic hepatitis B with steatosis, the prevalence of obesity, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidaemia, alcoholic consumption, the BMI, cholesterol, triglyceride, UA and FSG levels were significantly higher than those in the group without steatosis (P< 0.01). No significant difference was found in the mean age, HBeAg, viral load between the two groups (P>0.05). Logistic regression analysis demonstrated that the present of steatosis was positively correlated to BMI, TG and UA. Conclusion Hepatosteatosis in chronic hepatitis B appears to be a result of metabolic factors of the host rather than the effect of viruses.%目的 探讨宿主和病毒因素在慢性乙型肝炎(CHB)患者肝细胞脂肪变中的作用.方法 将肝穿组织活检证实的562例CHB患者(男450例,女112例).分为肝脂肪变组(102例)和无脂肪变组(460例),比较两组的人口学特征、病毒学指标和生化学指标.结果 在562例CHB患者中,102例(18.15%)有不同程度肝细胞脂肪变;男性高于女性.肝脂肪变组患者BMI(体重指数)、血清TG(甘油三酯)、Cho(总胆固醇)、UA(尿酸)、FSG(空腹血糖)水平和超重/肥胖、糖尿病、血脂异常和

  20. Etiology and outcome of acute viral hepatitis in Korean adults.

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, H. S.; Byun, J. H.; Kim, C. Y.

    1990-01-01

    One hundred and sixteen Korean adults with biopsy-proven acute viral hepatitis were studied to determine the etiology and the outcome of the disease using paired sera obtained during acute and convalescent phases. The prevalence of acute viral hepatitis A, B, D and non-A non-B were 3.4%, 60.3%, 0.9% and 35.3%, respectively: hepatitis B virus infection was the most common cause and the hepatitis D virus superinfection was almost negligible. Only eleven (26.8%) of 41 patients with AVH NANB were...

  1. Hepatitis C virus genotypes: A plausible association with viral loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salma Ghulam Nabi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: The basic aim of this study was to find out the association of genotypes with host age, gender and viral load. Material and Methods: The present study was conducted at Social Security Hospital, Pakistan. This study included 320 patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV infection who were referred to the hospital between November 2011 and July 2012. HCV viral detection and genotyping was performed and the association was seen between genotypes and host age, gender and viral load. Results : The analysis revealed the presence of genotypes 1 and 3 with further subtypes 1a, 1b, 3a, 3b and mixed genotypes 1b + 3a, 1b + 3b and 3a + 3b. Viral load quantification was carried out in all 151 HCV ribonucleic acid (RNA positive patients. The genotype 3a was observed in 124 (82.12% patients, 3b was found in 21 (13.91%, 1a was seen in 2 (1.32%, 1b in 1 (0.66%, mixed infection with 1b + 3a in 1 (0.66%, 1b + 3b in 1 (0.66% and 3a + 3b was also found in 1 (0.66% patient. Viral load quantification was carried out in all 151 HCV RNA positive patients and was compared between the various genotypes. The mean viral load in patients infected with genotype 1a was 2.75 × 10 6 , 1b 3.9 × 10 6 , 3a 2.65 × 10 6 , 3b 2.51 × 10 6 , 1b + 3a 3.4 × 106, 1b + 3b 2.7 × 106 and 3a + 3b 3.5 × 10 6 . An association between different types of genotypes and viral load was observed. Conclusion : Further studies should be carried out to determine the association of viral load with different genotypes so that sufficient data is available and can be used to determine the type and duration of therapy needed and predict disease outcome.

  2. Use of Serum Levels of Proinflammatory Cytokine IL–1α in Chronic Hepatitis B

    OpenAIRE

    Vukobrat-Bijedic, Zora; Mehmedovic, Amila; Redzepovic, Amir; Gogov, Bisera

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: The reasons for the chronic viral persistence of hepatitis B virus infection (HBV) are unknown, but are probably related to host immune factors. Cytokines play a significant role in immune defense. Interleukin-1 (IL-1) is a proinflammatory cytokine and some studies have demonstrated that IL-1 production was impaired in patients with chronic infections of hepatitis B virus, implying that IL-1 may play a role in viral clearance, progression of fibrosis and in malignant pote...

  3. Hepatitis C viral infection among prisoners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostić Velimir

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Hepatitis C virus (HCV infection is an important sociomedical problem worldwide because the chronification of the disease is frequent and the occurance of liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma can be expected. The aim of this study was to determine the way of infection, pathohistological changes of the liver, virus genotype presence and sustained virological response after pegylated interferon and ribavirin therapy in prison inmates. Methods. The study included 52 patients with chronic HCV infection classified in two groups managed during 2008-2010. The first group consisted of prisoners (n = 22 and the second one of “non-prisoners” (n = 30. The patients from both groups underwent diagnostic preparation (biochemical analyses, liver biopsy, hepatitis virus detection and genotypisation using polymerase chain reaction issue. The treatment lasted for 24 weeks for virus genotypes 2 and 3, and 48 weeks for genotypes 1 and 4. Results. All the patients were males, approximately the same age (35 ± 4.1 and 31 ± 7.6 years. Virus genotype 1 was significantly more frequent in the prisoners (p < 0.05, that demanded longer treatment (48 weeks. At the same time, statistically significant higher number of patients, “non-prisoners”, achieved a sustained virological response (p < 0.01. Conclusion. Intravenous drug abuse and tattoos, separately or together, are the most frequent way of infection in prisoners. Dominant presence of virus genotype 1 resulted in lower number of patients with sustained virological response, probably regardless prison environment and regime.

  4. Detection of serum leptin levels in patients with viral hepatitis C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate changes of serum leptin levels in patients with viral hepatitis C(HCV), serum leptin levels were determined by RIA in 65 patients with viral chronic hepatitis C and in 80 control subjects ,liver function (ALT, AST) , glucose (Glu) , and total cholesterol (TC) were evaluated too. Campared with controls, the levels of serum leptin were significantly increased in patients with HCV (P0.05). The levels of serum leptin increased in patients with HCV, which correlates positively with the severity of liver inflammation, so that leptin can be regarded as an index which reflects the severity of liver inflammation. (authors)

  5. Chronic urticaria following acute hepatitis A

    OpenAIRE

    Griffin, Paul M.; Kevat, Dev A S; James S. McCarthy; Woods, Marion L

    2012-01-01

    Urticaria has a documented association with the prodromal phases of hepatitis A, B and, although still contentious, likely hepatitis C. Despite the documented association there are few actual reported cases of urticaria occurring with hepatitis A infection and in all of the cases reported so far the urticaria preceded the diagnosis of hepatitis A and was acute rather than chronic. We describe a case of urticaria occurring following acute infection with hepatitis A, which persisted beyond 6 we...

  6. Early Detection of Viral Hepatitis Can Save Lives - PSA (:30)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-05-12

    Early detection of viral hepatitis can help prevent liver damage, cirrhosis, and even liver cancer.  Created: 5/12/2010 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 5/12/2010.

  7. Telbivudine: A new treatment for chronic hepatitis B

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Three hundred and fifty million people worldwide are estimated to be chronically infected with hepatitis B virus. 15%-40% of these subjects will develop cirrhosis,liver failure or hepatocellular carcinoma during their life. The treatment of chronic hepatitis B has improved dramatically over the last decade merits to the advent of nucleoside/nucleotide analogues and the use of pegylated interferons. Approved drugs for chronic hepatitis B treatment include: standard interferonalpha 2b, pegylated interferon-alpha 2a, lamivudine,adefovir dipivoxil, and entecavir. Unfortunately, these agents are not effective in all patients and are associated with distinct side effects. Interferons have numerous side effects and nucleoside or nucleotide analogues,which are well tolerated, need to be used for prolonged periods, even indefinitely. However, prolonged treatment with nucleoside or nucleotide analogues is associated with a high rate of resistance. Telbivudine is a novel,orally administered nucleoside analogue for use in the treatment of chronic hepatitis B. In contrast to other nucleoside analogues, Telbivudine has not been associated with inhibition of mammalian DNA polymerase with mitochondrial toxicity. Telbivudine has demonstrated potent activity against hepatitis B with a significantly higher rate of response and superior viral suppression compared with lamivudine, the standard treatment.Telbivudine has been generally well tolerated, with a low adverse effect profile, and at its effective dose, no doselimiting toxicity has been observed. Telbivudine is one of the most potent antiviral agents for chronic hepatitis B virus and was approved by the FDA in late 2006.

  8. Health Inequities and HIV, Viral Hepatitis, TB, and STDs

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-09-15

    Dr. Kevin A. Fenton, Director of CDC's National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP), discusses health inequities in the United States and how NCHHSTP research, policies, and programs can address them.  Created: 9/15/2010 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention.   Date Released: 9/15/2010.

  9. Hepatic transcriptome analysis of hepatitis C virus infection in chimpanzees defines unique gene expression patterns associated with viral clearance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh Nanda

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C virus infection leads to a high rate of chronicity. Mechanisms of viral clearance and persistence are still poorly understood. In this study, hepatic gene expression analysis was performed to identify any molecular signature associated with the outcome of hepatitis C virus (HCV infection in chimpanzees. Acutely HCV-infected chimpanzees with self-limited infection or progression to chronicity were studied. Interferon stimulated genes were induced irrespective of the outcome of infection. Early induction of a set of genes associated with cell proliferation and immune activation was associated with subsequent viral clearance. Specifically, two of the genes: interleukin binding factor 3 (ILF3 and cytotoxic granule-associated RNA binding protein (TIA1, associated with robust T-cell response, were highly induced early in chimpanzees with self-limited infection. Up-regulation of genes associated with CD8+ T cell response was evident only during the clearance phase of the acute self-limited infection. The induction of these genes may represent an initial response of cellular injury and proliferation that successfully translates to a "danger signal" leading to induction of adaptive immunity to control viral infection. This primary difference in hepatic gene expression between self-limited and chronic infections supports the concept that successful activation of HCV-specific T-cell response is critical in clearance of acute HCV infection.

  10. Demographic profile, host, disease & viral predictive factors of response in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus infection at a tertiary care hospital in north India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasudevan, Sreejith; Shalimar; Kavimandan, Amit; Kalra, Nancy; Nayak, Baibaswata; Thakur, Bhaskar; Das, Prasenjit; Gupta, Siddhartha Datta; Panda, Subrat Kumar; Acharya, Subrat Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Background & objectives: Standard of care for chronic hepatitis C (CHC) in India is peginterferon and ribavirin (RBV). The response to treatment in real life stetting is unclear. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the demographic profile and assess the virological response and predictors of response in CHC patients. Methods: Consecutive patients with CHC were included in this study. Detailed clinical history, risk factors, and predictive factors of response were noted. Patients were treated with peginterferon α2b (1.5 µg/kg/wk) and RBV (12 mg/kg/day) for 6 to 18 months based on response. Results: A total of 211 patients were included in the analysis, mean age 40.6±12.3 yr, 144 (68%) were males and 71 (34%) had compensated cirrhosis. Commonest risk factor for acquiring CHC was previous transfusion and surgery (51%). Genotype 3 (72%) was most common followed by genotype 1 (23%). Overall sustained virologic response (SVR) was 64 per cent [95% CI 57.1%-70.4%]. The SVR was 66.5 per cent [95% CI 58.34-73.89%] for genotype 3 and 61.2 per cent [95% CI 46.23 to 74.80%] for genotype 1. Non-cirrhotics had better SVR rates compared to cirrhotics (76 vs 41%, P2 were predictors of low SVR. Interpretation & conclusions: Genotype 3 was the commonest HCV genotype. The commonest source of infection was previous transfusion and surgery. SVR rates for genotypes 3 were better than genotype 1 patients. Predictors of non-response were high BMI, insulin resistance, significant fibrosis and inadequate compliance. PMID:27241647

  11. Markers of viral hepatitis in hemophiliacs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sero prevalence of Hepatitis B surface antigen (HbsAg) and anti-HCV IgG was determined in 100 persons with Hemophilia (PWH), registered with Hemophilia Patient Welfare Society (HPWS), Lahore Zone, Pakistan. The study shows that 4% were positive for HBsAg. However, there was a high level of anti-HCV sero positivity (56%) in our PWH, including many patients in younger age groups. When compared with figures from PWH in other regions of Asia like 23% in Western India, 33% in Sri Lanka and 15% of those in Iran, this figure is one of the highest. This rate is a reflection of the same rising trend in our population that is now exceeding 10%. The practice of unscreened blood/blood-products transfusions in the backdrop of high prevalence of HCV in our population is responsible for high figures seen in PWH. The need is to increase awareness amongst the patients, health care workers and policy makers about the transfusion associated viral infections in a group of patients who already had a hereditary disorder of severe nature. (author)

  12. Networking for Overcoming on Viral Hepatitis in Middle East and Central Asia: Asian Hepatitis Network

    OpenAIRE

    Seyed Moayed Alavian

    2007-01-01

    Chronic liver disease is an important health challenge in the world, where hepatitis B virus (HBV) or hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections are the main causes of liver insufficiency. HBV infection is a serious global health problem, with two billion people infected worldwide, and 350 million suffering from chronic HBV infection. Chronic hepatitis B (CHB) affects more than 400 million people globally, of whom 75% are Asians (1). Hepatitis B infection is the 10th leading cause of death worldwide,...

  13. Scoring system in cirrhotics due to viral hepatitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To determine the association of serum cholesterol levels with Child-Pugh class in patients with decompensated chronic liver disease due to viral hepatitis. Methodology: Consecutive patients attending outpatient department or admitted in medical unit III were eligible if they had a diagnosis of cirrhosis secondary to viral hepatitis. Patients were excluded if alcoholic, diabetic, hypertensive, or with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, autoimmune, metabolic, cardiovascular, cerebrovascular or kidney diseases and recent use of lipid-regulating drugs. Serum lipid profile was determined after an overnight fast of 12 hours. On the basis of serum total cholesterol, patients were divided into four groups; Group I with serum total cholesterol = 100 mg/dl, Group II with level of 101-150 mg/dl, Group III with level of 151-200 mg/dl and Group IV with serum total cholesterol level of > 200 mg/dl. Hepatic dysfunction was categorized according to Child-Pugh scoring system. Chi-square and Spearman's correlation testing with p < 0.05 was accepted as significant. Results: One hundred and fourteen patients met the inclusion criteria with a mean age of 40.32 +- 13.59 years. Among these 32 were females (28.1%) while 82 were males (71.9%). According to Child-Pugh class; 34 patients (29.8%) presented with Child-Pugh class A, 34 (29.8%) in class B and 46 (40.4%) were in class C. Serum cholesterol (total) and triglycerides had significant association with Child-Pugh class (p = 0.0001 and p = 0.004 respectively) suggesting that as severity of liver dysfunction increases; serum cholesterol and triglycerides levels decrease. Results also revealed that males were significantly more hypocholesterolemic than females (p = 0.006). Conclusion: Hypocholesterolemia is a common finding in decompensated chronic liver disease and has got significant association with Child-Pugh class. It may increase the reliability of Child-Pugh classification in assessment of severity and prognosis in

  14. Hepatitis B e Antigen-Negative Chronic Hepatitis B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed-Moayed Alavian

    2006-12-01

    replication (including priming, RNA and DNA dependent DNA polymerase, and RnaseH activities(10. Although HBV is a DNA virus, replication is through an RNA-replicative intermediate requiring an active viral reverse transcriptase/polymerase enzyme. The reverse transcriptase (for both HBV and human immunodeficiency virus is believed to lack a proofreading function that is common to other polymerases. Therefore, HBV exhibits a mutation rate more than 10-fold higher than other DNA viruses(11; the estimated mutation rate is approximately one nucleotide/10,000bases/ infection year. In addition, the accuracy of replication by the reverse transcriptase has been shown to vary with intracellular deoxynucleotide triphosphate concentrations(12. Figure 1. Organization of the HBV genome (genotypeA. The inner circles represent the minus (2 and (1DNA strands of the viral genome. The HBV polymeraseis shown as an orange circle covalentlybound to the 58-end of the (2 DNA strand. Thenucleotide numbering of the genome is based on theunique EcoRI restriction enzyme site shown. The differentopen reading frames encoded by the genome,designated as S, core, polymerase, and X, are indicatedby the arrows. Nucleotide numbers designatethe boundaries of each ORF with position 1 mappedat the EcoRI site. Shown also are the map positionsfor the viral direct repeats (DR1 and DR2 andthe approximate position of the YMDD locus in theHBV polymerase gene. Abbreviations: S, surface antigen;Y, tyrosine; M, methionine; D, aspartate; prec,precore; DR, direct repeat segment, used in viralreplication.9Definition and nomenclaturee-CHB (or HBeAg-negative chronic hepatitis B: Patients with e-CHB are HBsAg-positive for at least 6 months, HBeAg-negative, anti-HBe-positive, withHBV DNA detectable in serum using unamplified assays, and active liver disease (elevated AST or ALT, liver histology showing chronic hepatitis with or without cirrhosis, or clinical evidence of cirrhosis(13.PrevalenceAn estimated 350 million individuals

  15. [From the national competence network for viral hepatitis (HepNet) emerged the German Liver Foundation (Deutsche Leberstiftung)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardtke, S; Wiebner, B; Manns, M P

    2016-04-01

    The competence network for viral hepatitis (HepNet) was founded in 2002 with funding from the German government and has influenced the research on viral hepatitis in Germany. HepNet collaborator sites have been involved in numerous national and international investigator-initiated, as well as industry-sponsored, phase 1-3 studies. Within the HepNet Study-House, many groundbreaking investor-initiated trials have been completed and are still ongoing. For example, the acute hepatitis C trials and trials on chronic hepatitis D (delta), which led to therapy optimization. Continuation of the competence network on viral hepatitis has been achieved by the foundation of the German Liver Foundation, which has been an external cooperation partner of the German Center for Infection Research (DZIF) for two years. The well-established HepNet Study-House acts here as the clinical trial platform for all DZIF hepatitis trials. PMID:26942931

  16. Nucleic Acid-Based Approaches for Detection of Viral Hepatitis

    OpenAIRE

    BEHZADI, Payam; Ranjbar, Reza; Alavian, Seyed Moayed

    2014-01-01

    Context: To determining suitable nucleic acid diagnostics for individual viral hepatitis agent, an extensive search using related keywords was done in major medical library and data were collected, categorized, and summarized in different sections. Results: Various types of molecular biology tools can be used to detect and quantify viral genomic elements and analyze the sequences. These molecular assays are proper technologies for rapidly detecting viral agents with high accuracy, high sensit...

  17. Hepadnavirus infection of peripheral blood lymphocytes in vivo: woodchuck and chimpanzee models of viral hepatitis.

    OpenAIRE

    Korba, B E; Wells, F; Tennant, B C; Yoakum, G H; Purcell, R H; Gerin, J L

    1986-01-01

    The peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) of five hepatitis B virus (HBV)-infected chimpanzees and 17 woodchuck hepatitis virus (WHV)-infected woodchucks were examined for the presence of viral DNA and RNA. HBV DNA was detected in the PBL of three of three chronically infected chimpanzees but in neither of two animals with acute HBV infection. WHV DNA was found in the PBL of 11 of 13 chronically infected woodchucks and in the PBL and bone marrow of 1 of 4 woodchucks with antibody to WHV surface ...

  18. The effectiveness of retreatment with peginterferon alfa and ribavirin in patients with chronic viral hepatitis C genotype 2 and 3: a prospective cohort study in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artico Simara

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background More than 50% of patients infected with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV do not respond to treatment with conventional interferon (IFN combined with ribavirin (RBV. The aim of our study was to evaluate the effectiveness of retreatment with peginterferon alfa-2a or 2b (PEG-IFN 2a or 2b concomitantly with RBV in patients with HCV genotype 2 and 3, which were non-responders or relapsers to initial treatment with IFN / RBV and to identify possible predictors of sustained virological response (SVR. Methods From September 2003 to March 2009 a cohort of 216 patients who had previously failed therapy with a regimen of standard interferon and ribavirin, were followed in a specialized service implemented in the Brazilian Unified Health System, Rio Grande do Sul. All patients were retreated with PEG-IFN 2a or 2b per week, associated with RBV, through oral route, with doses determined according to weight (1,000 mg if weight ≤ 75 Kg and 1,250 mg if ≥ 75 Kg per day for 48 weeks. The HCV-RNA was tested by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR. Virological Response (VR within 48 weeks and SVR in the 72 weeks was considered for evaluation of treatment efficacy. Analyses were performed in patients who received at least one dose of PEG-IFN. Results The SVR rate for non-responders to previous treatment was 34.4% and for relapsers was 50% (p = 0.031. As predictive factors that contribute to improve SVR, were identified the age (p = 0.005, to be relapsers to previous treatment (p = 0.023 and present liver biopsy examination Metavir F0-F2 (p = 0.004. In assessing the safety profile, 51 patients (23.6% discontinued treatment prematurely. Conclusions This alternative retreatment for patients who have failed prior therapies for anti-HCV, has demonstrated promising SVR rate, provided that it includes a careful selection of patients with predictors of response and adverse events monitored.

  19. VIRAL HEPATITIS A TO E IN SOUTH MEDITERRANEAN COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanaa M. Kamal

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Viral hepatitis represents an important health problem in the South Mediterranean countries, Egypt, Libya, Tunisia, Algeria and Morocco.  Emerging natural history and epidemiological information reveal differences in the overall epidemiology, risk factors and modes of transmission of viral hepatitis A, B, C, D, E infections in the South Mediterranean region. The differences in the in incidence and prevalence of viral hepatitis across North African countries is attributed to variations in health care  and sanitation standards, risk factors and immunization strategies. The active continuous population movement through travel, tourism and migration from and to the South Mediterranean countries contribute to the spread of infections due to hepatitis viruses across borders leading to outbreaks and emergence of new patterns of infection or introduction of uncommon genotypes in other countries, particularly in Europe.

  20. Acute hepatitis e viral infection in pregnancy and maternal morbidity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine the maternal morbidity in pregnant women with acute hepatitis E viral infection. Study Design: Observational, cross-sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: Departments of Obstetrics and Gynaecology and Medicine, Liaquat University of Medical and Health Sciences, Jamshoro, Red Crescent General Hospital and Saint Elizabeth Hospital, Hyderabad, from January 2011 to December 2013. Methodology: The study population was pregnant women with acute hepatitis E infection confirmed by ELIZA technique. Pregnant women with other hepatic viral infections were excluded. All medical and obstetric conditions, and mortality were noted on the predesigned proforma. Results: Out of the total 45 admitted pregnant women with hepatitis E viral infection, 22 women (48.9%) had severe morbidity. The most common were hepatic coma in 8 (36.36%) cases and disseminated intravascular coagulation in 14 (63.63%) cases. Highest mortality rate was seen in women with hepatic coma (100%), while in those with disseminated intravascular coagulation, one out of the 14 cases (7.14%) died. Conclusion: The acute viral hepatitis E infection in pregnant women is associated with maternal morbidities and high mortality rate. (author)

  1. Ribavirin monotherapy for chronic hepatitis C infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brok, Jesper; Gluud, Lise L; Gluud, Christian

    2006-01-01

    Adding ribavirin to interferon improves treatment response for patients with chronic hepatitis C, but the effects of ribavirin monotherapy are unclear. We conducted a systematic review to assess the benefits and harms of ribavirin monotherapy for patients with chronic hepatitis C....

  2. the Pathogenesis of acute on Chronic Hepatitis B liver Failure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao-chun Chi; Quan-jiang Dong; Chang-xin Geng

    2014-01-01

    Acute-on-chronic liver failure is a characteristic clinical liver syndrome, which should be differentiated from acute liver failure, acute decompensated liver cirrhosis and chronic liver failure. The pathogenesis of ACLF is not fully understood yet. Viral factors and immune injury have been reported to be the two major pathogenesis. This paper reviewed the researches on the pathogenesis of acute on chronic hepatitis B liver failure in recent years, to provide theoretical basis for prompt and accurate diagnosis and treatment of this syndrome. This would beneift for the prognosis and raise the survival rate of patients.

  3. Distribution of hepatitis B virus genotypes and viral load levels in Brazilian chronically infected patients in São Paulo city Distribuição dos genótipos do vírus da hepatite B e níveis de carga viral em pacientes brasileiros cronicamente infectados na cidade de São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana Alcalde

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate the serum viral load in chronically infected Hepatitis B virus (HBV patients and to investigate the distribution of HBV genotypes in São Paulo city. Quantitative HBV-DNA assays and HBV genotyping have gained importance for predicting HBV disease progression, have been employed for assessing infectivity, for treatment monitoring and for detecting the emergence of drug resistance. Twenty-nine Brazilian patients with suspected chronic hepatitis B were studied, using real time PCR for viral load determination and direct DNA sequencing for the genotyping. The serology revealed chronic HBV infection in 22 samples. The HBV-DNA was positive in 68% samples (15/22. The phylogenetic analysis disclosed that eleven patients were infected with HBV genotype A, two with genotype F and two with genotype D. Thus, the genotype A was the most prevalent in our study.O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar a carga viral no soro de pacientes cronicamente infectados pelo vírus da Hepatite B (HBV e investigar a distribuição de genótipos HBV na cidade de São Paulo. PCR quantitativo do HBV e genotipagem ganharam importância para a previsão de progressão da doença, empregada para avaliar a infectividade, para tratamento e acompanhamento e para detectar o aparecimento de resistência aos anti-retrovirais. Vinte e nove pacientes brasileiros com suspeita de hepatite B crônica foram estudados, utilizando PCR em tempo real para a determinação da carga viral e seqüenciamento direto para determinação do genótipo. A sorologia revelou que 22 estavam, de fato, cronicamente infectados pelo HBV. O HBV-DNA foi positivo em 68% das amostras (15/22. Em sete casos, HBV-DNA foi indetectável por PCR quantitativo. A análise filogenética mostra que onze pacientes foram infectados com hepatite B genótipo A, dois com genótipo F e dois com genótipo D. Desta forma, o genótipo A foi o mais prevalente em nosso estudo.

  4. Chronic hepatitis caused by persistent parvovirus B19 infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mogensen Trine H

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human infection with parvovirus B19 may lead to a diverse spectrum of clinical manifestations, including benign erythema infectiosum in children, transient aplastic crisis in patients with haemolytic anaemia, and congenital hydrops foetalis. These different diseases represent direct consequences of the ability of parvovirus B19 to target the erythroid cell lineage. However, accumulating evidence suggests that this virus can also infect other cell types resulting in diverse clinical manifestations, of which the pathogenesis remains to be fully elucidated. This has prompted important questions regarding the tropism of the virus and its possible involvement in a broad range of infectious and autoimmune medical conditions. Case Presentation Here, we present an unusual case of persistent parvovirus B19 infection as a cause of chronic hepatitis. This patient had persistent parvovirus B19 viraemia over a period of more than four years and displayed signs of chronic hepatitis evidenced by fluctuating elevated levels of ALAT and a liver biopsy demonstrating chronic hepatitis. Other known causes of hepatitis and liver damage were excluded. In addition, the patient was evaluated for immunodeficiency, since she had lymphopenia both prior to and following clearance of parvovirus B19 infection. Conclusions In this case report, we describe the current knowledge on the natural history and pathogenesis of parvovirus B19 infection, and discuss the existing evidence of parvovirus B19 as a cause of acute and chronic hepatitis. We suggest that parvovirus B19 was the direct cause of this patient's chronic hepatitis, and that she had an idiopathic lymphopenia, which may have predisposed her to persistent infection, rather than bone marrow depression secondary to infection. In addition, we propose that her liver involvement may have represented a viral reservoir. Finally, we suggest that clinicians should be aware of parvovirus B19 as an unusual

  5. Studies on some biochemical parameters in viral hepatitis patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present investigation deals with studying liver amino transferases (ALT. AST). Cholesterol and triglycerides. As well as testosterone and protection hormones in blood of Egyptian men infected with hepatitis C virus.hepatitis B virus and mixed B and C viruses. These biochemical parameters were evaluated to be used in diagnosis and prognosis of viral hepatitis. Which considered the most important health problem in Egypt and developing countries. Biochemical analysis were performed using spectrophotometric and radioimmunoassay techniques. All data will be subjected to statistical analysis in order to detect the most suitable biochemical analysis that can be used as specific tests for early diagnosis of viral hepatitis and to detect the parameters that show abnormalities among the different groups of infected patients. The data revealed that AST and ALT levels were increased in all patient groups. Concerning the level of triglycerides, it was increased only in the group of mixed viral hepatitis B and C, while cholesterol showed non-significant changes in all viral hepatitis groups. The sex hormone testosterone was decreased in all infected patients while the prolactin level was increased only in case of patients infected with mixed B and C viruses. However, these abnormal values in such sex hormones play a serious role in male sterility

  6. Aminoadamantanes versus other antiviral drugs for chronic hepatitis C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lamers, Mieke H; Broekman, Mark; Drenth, Joost Ph;

    2014-01-01

    aminoadamantanes for patients with chronic hepatitis C would show strong benefits, it is probably better to focus on the assessments of other direct acting antiviral drugs. We found no evidence assessing other aminoadamantanes in randomised clinical trials in order to recommend or refute their use....... months after the end of treatment) in approximately 40% to 80% of treated patients, depending on viral genotype. Recently, a new class of drugs have emerged for hepatitis C infection, the direct acting antivirals, which in combination with standard therapy or alone can lead to sustained virological...... response in 80% or more of treated patients. Aminoadamantanes, mostly amantadine, are antiviral drugs used for the treatment of patients with chronic hepatitis C. We have previously systematically reviewed amantadine versus placebo or no intervention and found no significant effects of the amantadine on...

  7. Noninvasive Markers of Hepatic Fibrosis in Chronic Hepatitis B

    OpenAIRE

    Poynard, Thierry; Ngo, Yen; Munteanu, Mona; Thabut, Dominique; Ratziu, Vlad

    2011-01-01

    A serum biomarker (FibroTest; Biopredictive, Paris, France; FibroSure; LabCorp, Burlington, USA) and liver stiffness measurement (LSM) by Fibroscan (Echosens, Paris, France) have been extensively validated in chronic hepatitis C. This review updates the clinical validation of serum biomarkers and LSM in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB). One meta-analysis combined all published studies and another used a database combining FibroTest individual data. Sensitivity analysis assessed the imp...

  8. Viral Hepatitis and Diabetes: Clinical Implications of Diabetes Prevention Through Hepatitis Vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karnchanasorn, Rudruidee; Ou, Horng-Yih; Lin, James; Chuang, Lee-Ming; Chiu, Ken C

    2016-10-01

    Viral hepatitis has been posited to play a role in the development of type 2 diabetes. Thus, prevention of viral hepatitis through vaccination has the potential to reduce the burden of type 2 diabetes. We have shown that successful hepatitis B vaccination reduces the risk of diabetes by 33 %. Although diabetes can be prevented by behavior modification and pharmaceutical agents, these require significant personal commitment and cost. In contrast, diabetes prevention through hepatitis B vaccination would require little personal commitment and relatively low cost. In this review, we discuss hepatitis viruses A, B, and C and their interaction with diabetes; explore the potential underlying mechanisms and potential for hepatitis vaccination to reduce diabetes; and estimate the medical expense savings that would result from such an intervention. Given the projected increase of diabetes prevalence in the developing regions, where hepatitis B is endemic, exploration of such an intervention is very timely. PMID:27620495

  9. Valor preditivo de marcadores séricos de fibrose hepática em pacientes portadores de hepatite crônica viral C Predictive value of serum markers of hepatic fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Maria Soares Tojal de Barros Lima

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Os marcadores séricos têm sido empregados na avaliação da fibrose hepática em pacientes portadores de hepatite crônica C (HCC. OBJETIVOS: Avaliar a capacidade do índice aspartato aminotransferase (AST/alanina aminotransferase (ALT, dos níveis séricos de gama-glutamiltransferase (GGT, contagem de plaquetas, do índice AST/plaquetas (APRI e do ácido hialurônico (AH em predizer a intensidade da fibrose hepática na HCC e a variação desses marcadores após tratamento com interferon. PACIENTES E MÉTODOS: Em 72 pacientes portadores de hepatite C determinamos no soro o índice AST/ALT, GGT, plaquetas, índice APRI (obtido pelo quociente AST/plaquetas e o AH, que foram comparados ao estadiamento histológico, segundo os critérios de METAVIR. Receberam tratamento com interferon e ribavirina 65 pacientes. Os indivíduos que concluíram o tratamento (n = 33 realizaram nova dosagem dos marcadores séricos de fibrose para comparar com os níveis pré-tratamento. RESULTADOS: Observamos que a GGT, a contagem de plaquetas, o índice APRI e o AH se correlacionaram com estádio de doença hepática (p INTRODUCTION: Serum markers have been used in the assessment of liver fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC. AIMS: We evaluated the capacity of aspartate aminotransferase (AST/alanine aminotransferase (ALT ratio, gama-glutamyltransferase (GGT levels, platelet count, the AST to platelet ratio index (APRI and serum hyaluronic acid (HA to predict the intensity of hepatic fibrosis in patients with CHC and the variation of these markers after therapy with interferon. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In 72 patients with hepatitis C, AST/ALT ratio, GGT levels, platelet count, the APRI index (calculated as the ratio of AST to platelets and serum HA concentration were determined and compared to histological staging according to the scoring system of METAVIR. Sixty-five patients received interferon and ribavirin therapy. The individuals that

  10. Liver cirrhosis as a result of chronic hepatitis C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Sukhoruk

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of chronic hepatitis C in St. Petersburg is 124.4 per 100 000 population. The number of patients with liver cirrhosis is significant.Aim of this study: to examine the demographic, clinical and epidemiological characteristics of patients with cirrhosis in the results of chronic hepatitis C.Materials and methods: 100 patients with cirrhosis due to chronic hepatitis C in age 31–70 years were included. Patients with infection hepatitis viruses A and B, HIV, alcohol abuse, drug addicts, previously received antiviral therapy were excluded. Liver cirrhosis was diagnosed on the basis clinical, laboratory and instrumental investigations.Results: most patients (86,2% male and 81,7% female are socially adapted. In 23,2% of patients antibodies to hepatitis C virus were first detected simultaneously with the diagnosis of cirrhosis. Medical procedures were the most common route of infection (25,6% male and 57,1% female. Genotype 1 was dominant (65.7%. Viral load over 800 000 IU/ml was detected in 36,7% of patients. ALT activity was normal or not more than 2 upper limit of normal in 59% of patients, AST – 47%. Normal levels of total bilirubin were recorded in 37% of cases.Conclusions: the first detection of antibodies to hepatitis C virus at the stage of cirrhosis, absence of jaundice, normal or low cytolytic activity once again confirms the need for screening for markers of hepatitis C virus. Dominance of genotype 1 is probably due on the one hand with features routes of transmission, and the other – with the speed of transformation chronic hepatitis to cirrhosis.

  11. Interleukins as one of possible markers for early diagnosis of viral hepatitis c at first year old children

    OpenAIRE

    T. A. Kirsanova

    2014-01-01

    The article presents the results of the research of improvement one of possible methods of early diagnostics of viral hepatitis C at first-year old children, who born from mothers with chronic viral hepatitis C, in blood anti-HCV IgG are revealed, based on the study of maintenance of blood serum interleukins in dynamic observation of children. Proven that for children with maternal antibodies to virus of hepatitis C gradual decrease of titer of anti-HCV IgG is marked on background of physiolo...

  12. New treatment of chronic hepatitis B

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, E.S.; Weis, Nina

    2008-01-01

    Worldwide, 350 million people are infected with chronic hepatitis B. Over the last few years, it has been possible to treat chronic hepatitis B. Treatment very often consists of nucleos(t)ide analogs and in a few cases of pegylated alpha-interferon. In 2007, a new nucleoside analog, Telbivudine......, was approved to treat chronic hepatitis B. In phase II and ongoing phase III studies, Telbivudine has proven more effective than the nucleoside analog, Lamivudine, which was very often used up until recently Udgivelsesdato: 2008/11/24...

  13. Aptamers Against Viral Hepatitis: from Rational Design to Practical Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui FENG; Kang-hong HU

    2008-01-01

    Aptamers are short nucleic acids or peptides that strongly bind to a protein of interest and functionally inhibit a given target protein at the intracellular level. Besides high affinity and specificity, aptamers have several advantages over traditional antibodies. Hence, they have been broadly selected to develop antiviral agents for therapeutic applications against hepatitis B and C viruses (HBV, HCV). This review provides a summary of in vitro selection and characterization of aptamers against viral hepatitis, which is of practical significance in drug discovery.

  14. Chronic hepatitis C is a common associated with hepatic granulomas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ned Snyder; Juan G Martinez; Shu-Yuan Xiao

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To determine the most frequent etiologies of hepatic epithelioid granulomas, and whether there was an association with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV). METHODS: Both a retrospective review of the pathol-ogy database of liver biopsies at our institution from 1996 through 2006 as well as data from a prospective study of hepatic fibrosis markers and liver biopsies from 2003 to 2006 were reviewed to identify cases of hepatic epithelioid granulomas. Appropriate charts, liver biopsy slides, and laboratory data were reviewed to determine all possible associations. The diagnosis of HCV was based on a positive HCV RNA. RESULTS: There were 4578 liver biopsies and 36 (0.79%) had at least one epithelioid granuloma. HCV was the most common association. Fourteen patients had HCV, and in nine, there were no concurrent condi-tions known to be associated with hepatic granulomas. Prior interferon therapy and crystalloid substances from illicit intravenous injections did not account for the finding. There were hepatic epithelioid granulomas in 3 of 241 patients (1.24%) with known chronic HCV enrolled in the prospective study of hepatic fibrosis markers. CONCLUSION: Although uncommon, hepatic granu-Iomas may be part of the histological spectrum of chronic HCV. When epithelioid granulomas are found on the liver biopsy of someone with HCV, other clini-cally appropriate studies should be done, but if nothing else is found, the clinician can be comfortable with an HCV association.

  15. The natural course of hepatitis C virus infection after 22 years in a unique homogenous cohort: spontaneous viral clearance and chronic HCV infection

    OpenAIRE

    Barrett, S; Goh, J; Coughlan, B; Ryan, E.; Stewart, S; Cockram, A; O'Keane, J; Crowe, J

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS—The cohort of Irish women infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 1b via contaminated anti-D immunoglobulin in 1977 represent a unique homogenous group to investigate the natural course of HCV infection.
METHODS—The clinical status of 87 polymerase chain reaction (PCR) positive and 68 PCR negative women was investigated at diagnosis (1994/95) and after 4-5 years of follow up (21/22 years after inoculation). Other features investigated included: histological status/progr...

  16. New prevalence estimate of Torque Teno virus(TTV) infection in healthy population and patients with chronic viral hepatitis in Jiujiang, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin; Peng; Yueyue; Fang; Xuesen; Zhao; Yihong; Peng

    2015-01-01

    <正>Dear Editor,Torque Teno virus(TTV)is a nonenveloped human DNA virus that was isolated from the serum of a patient with transfusion-transmitted hepatitis with unknown etiology in 1997(Nishizawa et al.,1997).TTV is the first human virus with a single-stranded circular DNA genome to be identified,and is recently classified as the Alphatorquevirus genus of the Anelloviridae family by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses(ICTV)(King et al.,2011).TTV shows very high genetic

  17. Hepatoerythropoietic porphyria precipitated by viral hepatitis.

    OpenAIRE

    Hift, R J; Meissner, P N; Todd, G.

    1993-01-01

    Porphyria cutanea tarda (PCT), the condition resulting from a deficiency of hepatic uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase activity, is the commonest form of porphyria. Both acquired and familial form exist and are commonly associated in adults with liver disease and hepatic iron overload. The condition is extremely rare in children; most cases of childhood PCT are familial and some particularly severe cases have been shown to have a hepatoerythropoietic porphyria or homozygous uroporphyrinogen decar...

  18. Dynamics of viral hepatitis B epidemiological process in Plovdiv region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevorkyan-Sariyan, Ani K

    2013-01-01

    Registration of viral hepatitis cases by type started in 1982 in Bulgaria, and in August 1991 Bulgaria launched a mass immunisation programme to vaccinate infants against hepatitis B. The objective of this dissertation thesis is to study the epidemiological status of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in Plovdiv region (the second largest administrative region in Bulgaria with a population of 683,027 people in 2011), and assess the epidemiological process dynamics as a result of the administration of a recombinant vaccine that has been used over the past two decades. PMID:24191410

  19. Simultaneous quantitation of serum HBV DNA and HBeAg can distinguish between slow and fast viral responses to antiviral therapy in patients with chronic hepatitis B A quantificação simultânea do DNA VHB e do AgHBe séricos podem distinguir entre resposta viral lenta e rápida à terapêutica anti-viral em pacientes com hepatite crônica B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Caetano da Silva

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The quantitation of serum HBeAg is not commonly used to monitor viral response to therapy in chronic hepatitis B. METHODS: In this study, 21 patients receiving varying therapies were followed and their viral response monitored by concomitant viral load and HBeAg quantitation in order to study the meaning and the kinetics of both parameters. RESULTS: It was possible to distinguish between three different patterns of viral response. The first was characterized by a simultaneous decrease in serum HBV DNA and HBeAg. The second pattern was characterized by a decrease in serum HBeAg but persistent detection of HBV DNA. The third pattern was characterized by undetectable HBV DNA with persistent HBeAg positivity, which points to a non-response (Pattern III-B except when HBeAg levels showed a slow but steady drop, characterizing a "slow responder" patient (Pattern III-A. CONCLUSIONS: The first pattern is compatible with a viral response. A long-term HBeAg seropositivity with a slow and persistent decrease (Pattern III-A is also compatible with a viral response and calls for a prolongation of anti-viral treatment.INTRODUÇÃO: A quantificação do AgHBe sérico não é habitualmente utilizada para monitorizar a resposta viral ao tratamento da hepatite crônica B. MÉTODOS: Neste estudo, 21 pacientes sob tratamento com diferentes terapias foram acompanhados e a resposta viral monitorizada pela quantificação concomitante da carga viral e do AgHBe a fim de investigar o significado e a cinética de ambos os parâmetros. RESULTADOS: Distinguiram-se três diferentes padrões de resposta viral. O primeiro caracterizou-se pela redução simultânea do HBV DNA e AgHBe séricos. O segundo padrão caracterizou-se por uma redução do AgHBe porém com detecção persistente do HBV DNA. O terceiro padrão caracterizou-se por HBV DNA indetectável com positividade persistente do AgHBe, sugerindo ausência de resposta (Padrão III-B, exceto quando os n

  20. Clinical study of hepatitis in children with special reference to viral markers.

    OpenAIRE

    Zankhana Parekh; Rohit Modi; Deepa Banker; Pallavi Dagali

    2013-01-01

    nfective hepatitis is a systemic viral infection marked by hepatic cell necrosis and hepatic inflammation which leads to a characteristic constellation of clinical, biochemical and histological changes. This exercise was done to study the epidemiology of infective hepatitis, presenting symptoms and signs, mode of transmission, complication and outcome and to study the role of various investigations with special focus on viral markers. We concluded that poor outcome related with viral hepatiti...

  1. [Autoimmune hepatitis and membranous glomerulonephritis under immune therapy in chronic hepatitis C].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paparoupa, Maria; Huy Ho, Ngoc Ahn; Schuppert, Frank

    2016-05-01

    A 63-year-old patient is evaluated for an unclear weight loss with general malaise and fatigue for several months. Serological examination reveales the first diagnosis of a hepatitis-C-virus-genotype-1b-infection with an initial viral load of 980 000 IU / ml. The duration of the infection is suggested to be more than 6 months. Because of the initially elevated anti-nuclear-antibodies (ANA) the diagnosis of an autoimmune hepatitis needs to be excluded. All other liver related autoantibodies and the immunoglobulins (Ig) IgG, IgA and IgM are normal. A liver biopsy is conducted. After a short test with non-pegylated interferon (IFN) liver enzymes remain stable and treatment with pegylated IFN-alfa-2a and ribavirin (RBV) is initiated. The patient is a "rapid viral responder" and his viral load is found under the detection limit within 4 weeks under therapy. On the 16th week, liver enzymes increase rapidly. ANA's and IgG-immunoglobulins are positive. A second lever biopsy does not confirm the diagnosis of autoimmune hepatitis and the treatment is continued under careful observation of all relevant liver parameters. 21 weeks after the initiation of the treatment, massive peripheral edema, hypoproteinemia and proteinuria are observed. The renal biopsy reveales membranous glomerulonephritis. Because of the preserved renal function, no acute immunosuppression is initiated and the treatment gets completed after overall 24 weeks. Liver and renal parameters return quickly back to normal after treatment discharge. This is the first report of a combined autoimmune reaction with development of autoimmune hepatitis and glomerulonephritis under INF and RBV antiviral therapy for a chronic hepatitis-C-infection. The occurrence of autoimmune manifestations should especially be considered in genetically susceptible individuals or those with positive autoimmunity markers. The initiation of INF for the treatment of chronic hepatitis-C-infection has to be critically evaluated since

  2. New animal models for hepatitis C viral infection and pathogenesis studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dina Kremsdorf; Nicolas Brezillon

    2007-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major cause of chronic liver disease, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).In man, the pathobiological changes associated with HCV infection have been attributed to both the immune system and direct viral cytopathic effects. Until now, the lack of simple culture systems to infect and propagate the virus has hampered progress in understanding the viral life cycle and pathogenesis of HCV infection,including the molecular mechanisms implicated in HCV-induced HCC. This clearly demonstrates the need to develop small animal models for the study of HCV-associated pathogenesis. This review describes and discusses the development of new HCV animal models to study viral infection and investigate the direct effects of viral protein expression on liver disease.

  3. Management of chronic hepatitis B before and after livertransplantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Liver transplantation remains the only curative option foreligible patients with complications of chronic hepatitis B(CHB) infection, including severe acute hepatitis flares,decompensated cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma.In general, all patients with CHB awaiting liver transplantationshould be treated with oral nucleos(t)ideanalogs (NAs) with high barriers to resistance toprevent potential flares of hepatitis and reduce diseaseprogression. After liver transplantation, lifelong antiviraltherapy is also required to prevent graft hepatitis, whichmay lead to subsequent graft loss. Although combinationtherapy using NA and hepatitis B immune globulin(HBIG) has been the regimen most widely adopted forover a decade, recent studies have demonstrated thatnewer NAs with low rates of resistance are effective inpreventing graft hepatitis even without the use of HBIG,achieving excellent long term outcome. For patientswithout pre-existing resistant mutations, monotherapywith a single NA has been shown to be effective. Forthose with resistant strains, a combination of nucleosideanalog and nucleotide analog should be used. To date,clinical trials using therapeutic vaccination have shownsuboptimal response, as CHB patients likely have animmune deficit against HBV epitopes. Future strategiesinclude targeting different sites of the hepatitis Breplication cycle and restoring the host immunityresponse to facilitate complete viral eradication.

  4. Chronic hepatitis B in 2014: Great therapeutic progress, large diagnostic deficit

    OpenAIRE

    Niederau, Claus

    2014-01-01

    This review analyzes progress and limitations of diagnosis, screening, and therapy of patients with chronic hepatitis B infection. A literature review was carried out by framing the study questions. Vaccination in early childhood has been introduced in most countries and reduces the infection rate. Treatment of chronic hepatitis B can control viral replication in most patients today. It reduces risks for progression and may reverse liver fibrosis. The treatment effect on development of hepato...

  5. [Amniocentesis and viral risk (hepatitis B, C virus and HIV)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducarme, G; Ceccaldi, P-F; Bernuau, J; Luton, D

    2009-10-01

    Very few studies have properly addressed to the risk of fetal hepatitis B (HBV), hepatitis C (HCV) or human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection through amniocentesis. For HBV, this risk is low. However, knowledge of the maternal hepatitis B e antigen status is valuable in the counselling of risks associated with amniocentesis. For HCV, the risk is not well known but cannot be excluded. For HIV, it seems rational to propose a viral test before amniocentesis for patients with contamination's risk and to postpone the sampling in cases with positive results in order to obtain an undetectable HIV-1 RNA viral load. For these reasons, it can be useful to analyse for each virus the benefit of amniocentesis and the risk of mother-to-infant transmission, and to inform the patient. PMID:19679409

  6. Hodgkin’s lymphoma coexisting with liver failure secondary to acute on chronic hepatitis B

    OpenAIRE

    Palta, Renee; McClune, Amy; Esrason, Karl

    2013-01-01

    Acute on chronic liver failure (ACLF) is rarely the initial manifestation of a malignant process or precipitated by the initiation of anti-viral treatment with a nucleoside or nucleotide agent. We report an unusual case of ACLF temporally associated with initiation of Entecavir for treatment of chronic hepatitis B. Early Hodgkin’s lymphoma (HL) was unmasked with initiation of the anti-viral treatment which may have exacerbated ACLF. To the best of our knowledge, this has not been described in...

  7. Viral Hepatitis: A through E and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... particularly those traveling to developing countries • people who live with or have sex with an infected person • people living in areas ... highest risk. Others at risk include • people who live with or have sex with a person infected with hepatitis D • people ...

  8. LIVER FUNCTION ABNORMALITIES IN HIV POSITIVE INDIVIDUALS WITH VIRAL HEPATITIS CO-INFECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudagar Singh

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Liver enzyme elevations are common in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-infected patients, and their diagnosis and management becomes a challenge because of complex pathogenic mechanisms. Liver enzyme abnormalities may be worsened by hepatitis B (HBV or hepatitis C (HCV infection, which each have their own risks for chronic immune-mediated liver disease along with direct cytotoxicity. OBJECTIVES: The present study was done to identify various liver function abnormalities in HIV and viral hepatitis co- infection METHODS: The study included 22 HIV seropositive patients along with serology positive for hepatitis (19 patients were HBsAg positive and 3 patients were HCV positive who presented to Sri Ramachandra Medical College and Hospital from the year 2012 to 2014. Complete haemogram, blood urea, serum creatinine, liver function tests, CD4 count, and ultrasound abdomen was done for all the patients. LFT abnormalities were compared with HIV positive patients without hepatitis (78 patients. RESULTS: LFT abnormalities were significant in comparison to patients with negative hepatitis serology. Only a modest elevation of liver enzymes was seen in hepatitis. Co-infection. Majority of the patients had elevation of transaminases and INR was normal in all HCV positive patients. CONCLUSION: HBV and HCV coinfection increases the incidence of LFT abnormality. Only a modest elevation of liver enzymes was seen in hepatitis co-infection.

  9. Ribavirin monotherapy for chronic hepatitis C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brok, Jesper; Gluud, Lise Lotte; Gluud, Christian

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C is a major cause of liver-related morbidity and mortality. A high proportion of patients never experience symptoms. Peginterferon plus ribavirin is the recommended treatment for chronic hepatitis C. However, ribavirin monotherapy may be considered for some patients....... OBJECTIVES: To assess the beneficial and harmful effects of ribavirin monotherapy for patients with chronic hepatitis C. SEARCH STRATEGY: We identified trials through electronic databases, manual searches of bibliographies and journals, authors of trials, and pharmaceutical companies until March 2009....... SELECTION CRITERIA: We included all randomised trials irrespective of blinding, language, or publication status comparing ribavirin versus no intervention, placebo, or interferon for chronic hepatitis C. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: The primary outcome measures were serum sustained virological response...

  10. An Asymptomatic Young Female with Chronic Hepatitis-B Presenting as Minimal Change Glomerulonephritis with Nephrotic Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.K.Gupta ,A.Rohatgi, V.Pardasani, S.K.Sharma, A.k. Dinda, P.Shakhuja

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis B is a worldwide problem with high prevalence rate in our country. Kidney involvement iscommon in chronic hepatitis B patients. The usual pattern is membranous glomerulonephritis inchildren and Type I membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis in adults. A previously asymptomaticyoung female suffering from chronic hepatitis B with portal hypertension presented with nephroticsyndrome. Kidney biopsy revealed minimal change glomerulonephritis which is rarely seen inassociation with hepatitis B. Patient recovered following administration of oral steroids. Wereconunend screening ofall patients ofnephrotic syndrome for chronic hepatitis B with viral markersin addition to HBsAg.

  11. The incidence of sporadic viral hepatitis in North India:a preliminary study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Subrat Kumar; Radha Kanta Ratho; Yogesh Kumar Chawla; India

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Viral hepatitis is one of the major causes of mortality and morbidity in developing countries. Hepatitis E virus (HEV) among the major etiological agents is responsible for both sporadic and epidemic outbreaks. The epidemic outbreak is water-borne whereas the sporadic outbreak is possibly through contact. Various diagnostic tools at times fail to pinpoint the cause of viral hepatitis. This study was carried out to evaluate the utility of ELISA and nRT-PCR (nested reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction) for the diagnosis of sporadic and acute viral hepatitis (AVH) caused by HEV in an endemic situation in North India. METHODS:Serum samples were collected from all the affected and suspected persons and subjected to serological detection of HAV IgM, HBsAg, HCV antibody and HEV IgM. The samples that were positive for HEV IgM were further processed for the detection of HEV RNA by nRT-PCR. RESULTS:A total of 843 samples were collected from 685 patients with AVH, 70 patients with fulminant hepatic failure (FHF), 53 patients with chronic liver disease (CLD), 11 patients with antituberculosis therapy (ATT)-induced jaundice, and 24 pregnant women. The percentage of positivity for anti-HEV IgM was 58.3% in the pregnant women, 41.4% in the paients with FHF, 38.6% in the patients with AVH, 9.4% in the patients with CLD and 18.2% in the patients with ATT induced jaundice. 9.4%of HBsAg carriers were positive for anti-HEV IgM. Males outnumbered females (62.8% vs. 37.1%). Furthermore, the rates of fulminant and acute outbreaks of hepatitis with HEV RNA positivity were 41.4% and 9.4%, respectively. CONCLUSION:Serological and molecular analysis should be combined for the diagnosis of viral infections, especially in endemic areas.

  12. Noninvasive diagnosis of hepatic fibrosis in chronic hepatitis C

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Assessment of hepatic fibrosis is important for determining prognosis, guiding management decisions,and monitoring disease. Histological evaluation of liver biopsy specimens is currently considered the reference test for staging hepatic fibrosis. Since liver biopsy carries a small but significant risk, noninvasive tests to assess hepatic fibrosis are desirable. This editorial gives an overview on noninvasive methods currently available to determine hepatic fibrosis and their diagnostic accuracy for predicting significant fibrosis and cirrhosis in chronic hepatitis C. Based on available data, the performance of simple tests derived from routine laboratory parameters appears to be similar to that of more complex and expensive fibrosis panels. Transient elastography seems more accurate than blood tests for diagnosing cirrhosis.

  13. Viral hepatitis among drug users in methadone maintenance: Associated factors, vaccination outcomes, and interventions

    OpenAIRE

    Perlman, DC; Jordan, AE; McKnight, C; Young, C.(CERN, Geneva, Switzerland); Delucchi, KL; Sorensen, JL; Des Jarlais, DC; Masson, CL

    2014-01-01

    Copyright © 2014 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC. Drug users are at high risk of viral Hepatitis A, B, and C. The prevalence of Hepatitis A, Hepatitis B, and Hepatitis C, associated factors, and vaccine seroconversion among drug treatment program participants in a randomized controlled trial of hepatitis care coordination were examined. Of 489 participants, 44 and 47% required Hepatitis A/Hepatitis B vaccinations, respectively; 59% were Hepatitis C positive requiring linkage to care. Factors asso...

  14. Telaprevir: Changing the standard of care of chronic hepatitis C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A K Rajani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic hepatitis C is a major public health problem and its burden is expected to increase in the near future. Out of six genotypes of hepatitis C virus (HCV identified, genotype 1 is the most prevalent genotype in America and Europe. With peg-interferon alpha and ribavirin dual therapy, sustained virological response (SVR is achieved in less than half of the patients infected with HCV genotype 1. Moreover, this dual therapy also causes many intolerable adverse effects. Telaprevir is an HCV protease inhibitor approved for chronic hepatitis C genotype 1 mono-infection. It is a type of direct acting antiviral drug acting through inhibition of viral non-structural 3/4A protease. It can be safely administered in mild hepatic dysfunction. Due to inhibition of CYP3A4 and P-glycoprotein, significant drug-drug interactions are possible with telaprevir. Trials have shown significantly higher SVR rates when telaprevir is added to peg-interferon alpha and ribavirin, particularly in patients with unfavorable prognostic factors. It is approved for use in treatment-naïve and previously treated patients. Rash and anemia are the major troublesome side-effects. Next-generation protease inhibitors may overcome the drawbacks of telaprevir and another approved HCV protease inhibitor - boceprevir. Evidence from small scale studies suggests that telaprevir may be used in conditions like HIV co-infection, post-transplantation and some HCV non-1 genotype infections also. Preliminary data show higher SVR rates with triple therapy even in patients with unfavorable interleukin-28B (IL28B genotype. With development of other direct acting antivirals, it might be possible to treat chronic hepatitis C with interferon-free regimens in future. This article briefly reviews the properties of telaprevir and its status in the context of rapidly evolving aspects of management of chronic hepatitis C.

  15. Herpes viral hepatitis in a toucan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlton, B R; Barr, B C; Castro, A E; Davis, P L; Reynolds, B J

    1990-01-01

    Herpesvirus infection was diagnosed in a toucan. The herpesvirus was isolated from the liver and identified by electron microscopy in the liver and in cell culture. A negative immunofluorescent reaction was obtained when virus-infected cell cultures were reacted with a conjugate to the herpesvirus of Pacheco's disease. The main pathologic finding in the toucan consisted of a severe necrotizing hepatitis with intranuclear inclusions in the liver and spleen. A presumptive diagnosis of chlamydiosis was also made, based on a positive direct fluorescent monoclonal antibody reaction to chlamydial antigens in impression smears of liver and spleen. Chlamydial isolation attempts were unsuccessful. The toucan had been in contact with two macaws that had died 5 days before the toucan died and were diagnosed by histology as having herpesvirus hepatitis. PMID:2173540

  16. A human hepatitis B viral enhancer element.

    OpenAIRE

    Shaul, Y; Rutter, W J; Laub, O

    1985-01-01

    Fragments of the cloned hepatitis B virus (HBV) genome were assayed in vivo for the presence of a transcriptional enhancer element. We demonstrate that sequences positioned approximately 450 bp upstream from the HBcAg gene promoter are required for its efficient activity. These HBV stimulatory sequences activate transcription when inserted upstream to a heterologous SV40 early promoter. Like other known enhancer elements, this HBV sequence acts in an orientation-independent manner. Furthermor...

  17. Safety of interferon treatment for chronic HCV hepatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    D Festi; L Sandri; G Mazzella; E Roda; T Sacco; T Staniscia; S Capodicasa; A Vestito; A Colecchia

    2004-01-01

    Hepatitis C is a major cause of liver-related morbidity and mortality worldwide, In fact, chronic hepatitis C is considered as one of the primary causes of chronic liver disease, cirhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma, and is the most common reason for liver transplantation. The primary objectives for the treatment of HCV-related chronic hepatitis is to eradicate infection and prevent progression of the disease. The treatment has evolved from the use of α-interferon (TFNα)alone to the combination of IFNα plus ribavirin, with a significant improvement in the overall efficacy, and to the newer PEG-IFNs which have further increased the virological response, used either alone or in combination with ribavirin.Despite these positive results, in terms of efficacy, concerns are related to the safety and adverse events. Many patients must reduce the dose of PEG-IFN or ribavirin, others must stop the treatment and a variable percentage of subjects are not suitable owing to intolerance toward drugs. IFNβ represents a potential therapeutic alternative for the treatment of chronic viral hepatitis and in some countries it plays an important role in therapeutic protocols. Aim of the present paper was to review available data on the safety of IFNβ treatment in HCV-related chronic hepatitis.The rates of treatment discontinuation and/or dose modification due to the appearance of severe side effects during IFNβ are generally low and in several clinical studies no requirements for treatment discontinuation and/or dose modifications have been reported. The most frequent side effects experienced during IFNβ treatment are flu-like syndromes, fever, fatigue and injection-site reactions. No differences in terms of side-effect frequency and severity between responders and non-responders have been reported.A more recent study, performed to compare IFNβ alone or in combination with ribavirin, confirmed the good safety profile of both treatments. Similar trends of adverse event

  18. Sonographic changes of liver and gallbladder in acute viral hepatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahimi Daryani N

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Hepatomegaly, decrease in the liver paranchymal echo and increase in the gallbladder wall thickness has been shown in acute viral hepatitis. The present study was done to determine sonographic changes in acute viral hepatitis. We performed liver and bile ducts sonography and specific tests on 42 patients (mean age: 31.5 and 61% male with acute viral hepatitis. Gallbladder wall thickness was seen in 45.2% and hepatomegaly in 33.3% of patients and liver paranchymal echo was decreased in 19.3%. Age, sex, type of hepatitis, cholecystitis like symptoms, aspartate aminotransfrase, alanine aminotransfrase, alkaline phosphatase and bilirubin did not significantly corralate with these changes. Only raised prothrombin time was strongly correlated to the thickening of the gallbladder and decrease in the liver paranchymal echo and cholesistic like symptoms we can postulate that thickening of the gallbladder and decrease in the liver paranchymal echo is not dependent on the severity and speed of the paranchymal necrosis (as considered with ALT and AST but they depend on the liver function disturbance (as considered with PT because the thickening of the gall bladder is present in 45% of the patients and 10% of the normal population have gallbladder stones, one should not perform the diagnosis of acute cholecystitis, only on the basis of sonographic report without attention to the clinical and laboratory data.

  19. VIRAL HEPATITIS A TO E IN SOUTH MEDITERRANEAN COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Mahmoud

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available

    Viral hepatitis represents an important health problem in the South Mediterranean countries, Egypt, Libya, Tunisia, Algeria and Morocco.  Emerging natural history and epidemiological information reveal differences in the overall epidemiology, risk factors and modes of transmission of viral hepatitis A, B, C, D, E infections in the South Mediterranean region. The differences in the in incidence and prevalence of viral hepatitis across North African countries is attributed to variations in health care  and sanitation standards, risk factors and immunization strategies. The active continuous population movement through travel, tourism and migration from and to the South Mediterranean countries contribute to the spread of infections due to hepatitis viruses across borders leading to outbreaks and emergence of new patterns of infection or introduction of uncommon genotypes in other countries, particularly in Europe.

  20. Viral hepatitis in Pakistan:challenges and priorities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sadia; Ashraf; Aftab; Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis B and C are big health issues worldwide as more than 400 million people arc suffering from chronic hepatitis B and C which result in more than 1.4 million deaths each year.According to a study done by Pakistan Medical Research Council in 2007-08,7.6%Pakistani population suffered with hepatitis B and C.with around 4.8%with hepatitis C only.Government of Pakistan has taken different initiatives like vaccination,patient safety,blood screening,education and awareness about disease but still there is high prevalence of hepatitis in Pakistan.According to some studies injecting drug users have the highest prevalence of hepatilis B and C in the country.The follow-up studies and documentation of hepatitis patients was not very good which need to be improved.There is no recent large scale study on risk factors and prevalence of hepatitis B and C in Pakistan so it should be done on an urgent basis.If government set up regional laboratories for prevalence study and also a central institute for hepatitis research and treatment,the disease could be prevented in better and proper way.The treatment of hepatitis is very costly and a developing country like Pakistan cannot afford such high costs.Therefore more focus should be on preventive measures.

  1. Pathogenesis of occult chronic hepatitis B virus infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rocio Aller de la Fuente; María L Gutiérrez; Javier Garcia-Samaniego; Conrado Fernández-Rodriguez; Jose Luis Lledó; Gregorio Castellano

    2011-01-01

    Occult hepatitis B infection (OBI) is characterized by hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA in serum in the absence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) presenting HBsAg-negative and anti-HBc positive serological patterns. Occult HBV status is associated in some cases with mutant viruses undetectable by HBsAg assays; but more frequently it is due to a strong suppression of viral replication and gene expression. OBI is an entity with world-wide diffusion. The failure to detect HBsAg, despite the persistence of the viral DNA, is due in most cases to the strong suppression of viral replication and gene expression that characterizes this "occult" HBV infection; although the mechanisms responsible for suppression of HBV are not well understood. The majority of OBI cases are secondary to overt HBV infection and represent a residual low viremia level suppressed by a strong immune response together with histological derangements which occurred during acute or chronic HBV infection. Much evidence suggests that it can favour the progression of liver fibrosis and the development of hepatocellular carcinoma.

  2. High prevalence of hepatitis C in Egyptian patients with chronic liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waked, I A; Saleh, S M; Moustafa, M S; Raouf, A A; Thomas, D L; Strickland, G T

    1995-07-01

    The highest prevalence rates of hepatitis C virus infection in the world have been recently reported among Egyptian blood donors and frequent recipients of transfusions and other blood products. This is the first report, however, demonstrating hepatitis C as the most frequent association with chronic liver disease in Egypt. Of 1023 patients referred to the Liver Institute in Menoufia governorate for evaluation of chronic liver disease, 752 (73.5%) had antibodies to hepatitis C compared with 168 (16.4%) with hepatitis B surface antigen. Hepatitis C antibody was more common in patients with active schistosomiasis and patients without hepatitis B surface antigenaemia. Of 100 patients having liver biopsies, histological findings consistent with chronic viral hepatitis or its complications were found in 89 and antibody to hepatitis C was present in 75 (84.3%) of these patients with chronic hepatitis, active cirrhosis or hepatocellular carcinoma. These data pointing to the importance of hepatitis C as a cause of chronic liver disease in Egypt emphasise the necessity of studies delineating its routes of transmission in this country. PMID:7545630

  3. Radix Sophorae flavescentis for chronic hepatitis B

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Jianping; Zhu, Minghui; Shi, Rui;

    2003-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of radix Sophorae fiavescentis for chronic hepatitis B, a systematic review of randomized clinical trials was conducted. Randomized trials comparing extract of radix Sophorae flavescentis versus placebo, no intervention, non-specific treatment, other active medicines......, or interferon for chronic hepatitis B were identified by electronic and manual searches. Trials of Sophorae herb plus other drugs versus other drugs alone were also included. No blinding and language limitations were applied. The methodological quality of trials was assessed by the Jadad scale plus allocation...... responses were not significantly different between matrine and IFN-alpha. No serious adverse event was reported. Based on the review, Sophorae flavescentis extract (matrine) may have antiviral activity and positive effects on liver biochemistry in chronic hepatitis B. However, the evidence is not sufficient...

  4. Use of serum levels of proinflammatory cytokine IL-1α in chronic hepatitis C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanis, Nenad; Mehmedović, Amila; Mesihović, Rusmir

    2015-03-01

    Immunoregulatory cytokines influence the persistence of hepatitis C virus chronic infection and the extent of liver damage. Interleukin-1 plays an important role in the inflammatory process. Some studies have demonstrated that IL-1 production was impaired in patients with chronic infections of hepatitis C virus, implying that IL-1 may play a role in viral clearance. In this study, along with routine laboratory tests, has been performed the analysis of serum levels of proinflammatory cytokine IL-1α in order of better understanding and monitoring of chronic hepatitis C. The aim of study was to analyze the usefulness of laboratory tests, which are routinely used in the assessment of liver disease with specified immunological parameters, in patients with chronic hepatitis C. Total of 60 subjects were divided into two groups: HCV-PCR positive and negative group. The control group of 30 healthy participans was included. Apart from standard laboratory tests, the analysis included serum levels of cytokine IL-1α. IL-1α had the highest mean concentration in group of viral hepatitis C, with PCR positive test (5.73 pg/mL), and then in of chronic viral hepatitis C, PCR negative test (5.39 pg/mL). ANOVA test proves that IL-1α in the healthy group was different from other groups as follows: in relation to HCV-RNA-PCR positive patients statistical significance level was p ele- vated in inflammatory conditions of pronounced activity (PCR positive hepatitis). IL-1α may have important role as marker of both inflammation and hepatic injury, particularly in the course of hepatitis C. Results suggest that inflammatory and immune parameters, analyzed together can significantly contribute to the understanding and predicting of chronic liver damage. PMID:26040073

  5. Acute viral hepatitis morbidity and mortality associated with hepatitis E virus infection: Uzbekistan surveillance data

    OpenAIRE

    Margolis Harold S; Onischenko Gennady G; Yashina Tatiana L; Brown Matthew S; Favorov Michael O; Sharapov Makhmudkhan B; Chorba Terence L

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background In Uzbekistan, routine serologic testing has not been available to differentiate etiologies of acute viral hepatitis (AVH). To determine the age groups most affected by hepatitis E virus (HEV) during documented AVH epidemics, trends in AVH-associated mortality rate (MR) per 100,000 over a 15-year period and reported incidence of AVH over a 35-year period were examined. Methods Reported AVH incidence data from 1971 to 2005 and AVH-associated mortality data from 1981 to 1995...

  6. IP-10 predicts the first phase decline of HCV RNA and overall viral response to therapy in patients co-infected with chronic hepatitis C virus infection and HIV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falconer, Karolin; Askarieh, Galia; Weis, Nina Margrethe; Hellstrand, Kristoffer; Alaeus, Annette; Lagging, Martin

    The aim of this study was to investigate the utility of baseline plasma interferon-gamma inducible protein-10 (IP-10) levels in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-hepatitis C virus (HCV) co-infected patients. Baseline IP-10 was monitored during HCV combination therapy in 21 HIV-HCV co-infected pa......The aim of this study was to investigate the utility of baseline plasma interferon-gamma inducible protein-10 (IP-10) levels in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-hepatitis C virus (HCV) co-infected patients. Baseline IP-10 was monitored during HCV combination therapy in 21 HIV-HCV co......-10 <150 pg/ml is predictive of a favourable viral response to HCV therapy in HIV-HCV co-infected patients, and may thus be useful in encouraging such difficult-to-treat patients to initiate therapy....

  7. Interferon alfa with or without ribavirin for chronic hepatitis C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaergard, L L; Krogsgaard, K; Gluud, C

    2001-01-01

    To assess the efficacy and safety of interferon alfa with or without ribavirin for treatment of chronic hepatitis C.......To assess the efficacy and safety of interferon alfa with or without ribavirin for treatment of chronic hepatitis C....

  8. Prevention of hepatocellular carcinoma in patients with chronic hepatitis B

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Conrado; M; Fernández-Rodríguez; María; Luisa; Gutiérrez-García

    2014-01-01

    Patients with chronic hepatitis B are at significant risk for hepatocellular carcinoma(HCC). Globally,over half a million people each year are diagnosed with HCC,with marked geographical variations. Despite overwhelming evidence for a causal role of hepatitis B virus(HBV) infection in the development of HCC and a well-established relationship between high baseline hepatitis B viral load and cumulative risk of HCC,the molecular basis for this association has not been fully elucidated. In addition,a beneficial role for antiviral therapy in preventing the development of HCC has been difficult to establish. This review examines the biological and molecular mechanisms of HBV-related hepatocarcinogenesis,recent results on the effect of modern nucleos(t)ides on the rate of HCC development in high risk HBV cohorts and the potential mechanisms by which long-term antiviral therapy with potent inhibitors of HBV replication might reduce the risk of HCC in patients with chronic hepatitis B. Although evidence from randomized controlled trials shows the favourable effects of antiviral agentsin achieving profound and durable suppression of HBV DNA levels while improving liver function and histology,robust evidence of other long-term clinical outcomes,such as prevention of HCC,are limited.

  9. Viral Hepatitis in Hawai‘i - Differing Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannan, Michael; Bauman, Kay; Collis, Tarquin; Hall, Alba; Haning, William; Hannemann, Shoshana; Hare, C Bradley; Humphry, Joseph; Jao, Robert; Leevy, Carroll; Lusk, Heather; Ochoa, Edward; Palafox, Neal; Withers, Nancy; Akinaka, Kenneth

    2010-01-01

    This publication contains information from a conference titled “Individual Perspectives on the Silent Epidemic of Viral Hepatitis in Hawai‘i” held in October of 2007 with updates and additional contributions from annual conferences in 2008 and 2009. These conferences were sponsored by the Hepatitis Support Network of Hawai‘i and held in Honolulu, Hawai‘i at the Queen's Conference Center. The primary objectives of the conferences have been to heighten awareness of viral hepatitis in Hawai‘i and to bring together health care professionals to learn about these infections and to help them respond to the challenges they bring to the people of Hawai‘i. The initial conference was oriented to present the unique and individual perspectives of patients, physicians, and other healthcare providers specific to the complex issues of hepatitis in an effort to help them understand their role in the context of others and to develop a team approach in responding to this epidemic. PMID:20533191

  10. Frequency and severity of steatosis in patients with chronic hepatitis-c

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hepatitis-C viral infection is a global health problem. It has been estimated that approximately 170 million individuals are infected with hepatitis-C virus. Hepatic steatosis is a frequent histological feature in patients with chronic hepatitis-C infection. Histological examinations show that up to 50% of these patients have variable degrees of hepatic steatosis, even in the absence of other possible steatogenic factors like alcohol, drugs or metabolic syndromes. The objective of this study was to determine the frequency and severity of steatosis in patients with Chronic Hepatitis-C. Methods: This cross sectional study was carried out from 1st January 2010 to 1st July 2010 at the department of Gastroenterology PIMS, Islamabad. A total of 127 patients of chronic hepatitis-C were enrolled in the study after taking informed written consent. Frequency and severity (mild, moderate and severe) of steatosis was assessed on the basis of liver biopsy. Results: A total of 127 patients were included in the study. Mean age of the patients was 36.24 years. Out of 127 patients, 48(38%) were male and 79(62%) were female. Steatosis was present in 50(39%) patients with chronic hepatitis-C infection. whereas steatosis was absent in 77(61%) patients. Conclusion: The presence of steatosis on liver biopsy in patients with chronic hepatitis-C is common (39% patients) and female patients had slightly more severe degree of steatosis as compared to male patients. (author)

  11. The enzymes LSD1 and Set1A cooperate with the viral protein HBx to establish an active hepatitis B viral chromatin state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alarcon, Valentina; Hernández, Sergio; Rubio, Lorena; Alvarez, Francisca; Flores, Yvo; Varas-Godoy, Manuel; De Ferrari, Giancarlo V.; Kann, Michael; Villanueva, Rodrigo A.; Loyola, Alejandra

    2016-01-01

    With about 350 million people chronically infected around the world hepatitis B is a major health problem. Template for progeny HBV synthesis is the viral genome, organized as a minichromosome (cccDNA) inside the hepatocyte nucleus. How viral cccDNA gene expression is regulated by its chromatin structure; more importantly, how the modulation of this structure impacts on viral gene expression remains elusive. Here, we found that the enzyme SetDB1 contributes to setting up a repressed cccDNA chromatin state. This repressive state is activated by the histone lysine demethylase-1 (LSD1). Consistently, inhibiting or reducing LSD1 levels led to repression of viral gene expression. This correlates with the transcriptionally repressive mark H3K9 methylation and reduction on the activating marks H3 acetylation and H3K4 methylation on viral promoters. Investigating the importance of viral proteins we found that LSD1 recruitment to viral promoters was dependent on the viral transactivator protein HBx. Moreover, the histone methyltransferase Set1A and HBx are simultaneously bound to the core promoter, and Set1A expression correlates with cccDNA H3K4 methylation. Our results shed light on the mechanisms of HBV regulation mediated by the cccDNA chromatin structure, offering new therapeutic targets to develop drugs for the treatment of chronically infected HBV patients. PMID:27174370

  12. The enzymes LSD1 and Set1A cooperate with the viral protein HBx to establish an active hepatitis B viral chromatin state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alarcon, Valentina; Hernández, Sergio; Rubio, Lorena; Alvarez, Francisca; Flores, Yvo; Varas-Godoy, Manuel; De Ferrari, Giancarlo V; Kann, Michael; Villanueva, Rodrigo A; Loyola, Alejandra

    2016-01-01

    With about 350 million people chronically infected around the world hepatitis B is a major health problem. Template for progeny HBV synthesis is the viral genome, organized as a minichromosome (cccDNA) inside the hepatocyte nucleus. How viral cccDNA gene expression is regulated by its chromatin structure; more importantly, how the modulation of this structure impacts on viral gene expression remains elusive. Here, we found that the enzyme SetDB1 contributes to setting up a repressed cccDNA chromatin state. This repressive state is activated by the histone lysine demethylase-1 (LSD1). Consistently, inhibiting or reducing LSD1 levels led to repression of viral gene expression. This correlates with the transcriptionally repressive mark H3K9 methylation and reduction on the activating marks H3 acetylation and H3K4 methylation on viral promoters. Investigating the importance of viral proteins we found that LSD1 recruitment to viral promoters was dependent on the viral transactivator protein HBx. Moreover, the histone methyltransferase Set1A and HBx are simultaneously bound to the core promoter, and Set1A expression correlates with cccDNA H3K4 methylation. Our results shed light on the mechanisms of HBV regulation mediated by the cccDNA chromatin structure, offering new therapeutic targets to develop drugs for the treatment of chronically infected HBV patients. PMID:27174370

  13. Retroperitoneal lymphadenopathy: an extrahepatic feature of chronic active hepatitis.

    OpenAIRE

    Hayek, T.; Markel, A.; Goldfeld, M.; Ben-Arie, Y.; Brook, G. J.

    1994-01-01

    We report a patient with chronic active hepatitis in whom one of the initial findings was retroperitoneal lymphadenopathy, detected by abdominal ultrasound examination. Extrahepatic presenting findings of chronic active hepatitis may include arthritis, urticaria, pleurisy and pericarditis, while abdominal lymphadenopathy has been only rarely described. Chronic active hepatitis should be included in the differential diagnosis of abdominal lymphadenopathy.

  14. Chronic hepatitis C: latest treatment options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iosue, Kathleen

    2002-04-01

    The most common chronic bloodborne infection in the United States, hepatitis C virus (HCV) is the most frequent reason for liver transplantation. Unfortunately, most infected individuals don't realize they're HCV positive and only discover the disease after severe liver damage has occurred. Here, update your knowledge on the epidemiology, transmission and risk factors, diagnosis, clinical presentation, and management of chronic HCV. Insight on counseling and quality of life issues for infected patients is also included. PMID:11984417

  15. [Autoimmunization induced by interferon alpha therapy in chronic hepatitis C].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocca, Pierre; Codes, Liana; Chevallier, Michèle; Trépo, Christian; Zoulim, Fabien

    2004-11-01

    We report the case of a 56 year-old woman with post-transfusion chronic hepatitis C who presented with a severe ALT flare up associated with a rapid progression of liver fibrosis during interferon alpha 2b therapy. Several hypotheses were considered to explain the etiology of this ALT flare: there was no viral super infection by other hepatotropic viruses, no toxic hepatitis, no metabolic disease, and no other specific liver diseases could be identified. HLA typing showed a specific profile A1 B8 DR3 (risk factor of auto-immunization during interferon alpha therapy) with antinuclear antibodies and anti smooth muscle antibodies. This case suggests that auto-immunization induced by interferon alpha should be investigated in case of ALT flare that is not followed by an HCV breakthrough. PMID:15657545

  16. The role of the molecular biology laboratory in the management of chronic hepatitis B and C

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Karayiannis

    2013-01-01

    Molecular biology techniques are routinely used nowadays to diagnose and evaluate antiviral treatment of patients with chronic hepatitis B (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections. Current tools at our disposal include tests that quantify the amount of circulating virus in the blood, techniques that can analyse genomic sequences to determine viral genotypes or subtypes, or determine amino-acid substitutions that may confer resistance to existing antiviral drugs. What is more, continuously...

  17. A comparative review of HLA associations with hepatitis B and C viral infections across global populations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rashmi Singh; Rashmi Kaul; Anil Kaul; Khalid Khan

    2007-01-01

    Hepatitis B (HBV) and hepatitis C (HCV) viral infection or co-infection leads to risk of development of chronic infection, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Immigration and globalization have added to the challenges of public health concerns regarding chronic HBV and HCV infections worldwide. The aim of this study is to review existing global literature across ethnic populations on HBV and HCV related human leukocyte antigen (HLA) associations in relation to susceptibility, viral persistence and treatment. Extensive literature search was conducted to explore the HLA associations in HBV and HCV infections reported across global populations over the past decade to understand the knowledge status, weaknesses and strengths of this information in different ethnic populations. HLA DR13 is consistently associated with HBV clearance globally. HLADRB1*11/*12 alleles and DQB1*0301 are associated with HBV persistence but with HCV clearance worldwide. Consistent association of DRB1*03 and *07 is observed with HCV susceptibility and non-responsiveness to HBV vaccination across the population. HLA DR13 is protective for vertical HBV and HCV transmission in Chinese and Italian neonates, but different alleles are associated with their susceptibility in these populations. HLA class I molecule interactions with Killer cell immunoglobulin like receptors (KIR) of natural killer (NK) cells modulate HCV infection outcome via regulating immune regulatory cells and molecules. HLA associations with HBV vaccination, interferon therapy in HBV and HCV, and with extra hepatic manifestations of viral hepatitis are also discussed. Systematic studies in compliance with global regulatory standards are required to identify the HLA specific viral epitope, stage specific T cell populations interacting with different HLA alleles during disease progression and viral clearance ofchronic HBV or HCV infections among different ethnic populations. These studies would facilitate stage specific

  18. Behavior of the viral hepatitis type A according to risk factors in Trinidad municipality.

    OpenAIRE

    Martha Quesada Concepción; Ángel Alexis Rodríguez Fabelo; Yanelis Emilia Tabío Henry

    2010-01-01

    The viral hepatitis type A is the most common cause of all viral hepatitis presenting itself in endemic and epidemic forms where persist unfavorable environmental risk factors that keep a high incidence for this desease. A descriptive investigation was made with the objetive of determining the behavior of the viral hepatitis type A on the four health areas in Trinidad municipality in the period betwen january 1 st and 31 st , 2009. The sample was formed by 100 sick persons that keep the ...

  19. Resolution of chronic hepatitis C following parasitosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Valerie Byrnes; Sanjiv Chopra; Margaret J Koziel

    2007-01-01

    An inefficient cellular immune response likely leads to chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Resolution of chronic HCV infection in the absence of treatment is a rare occurrence. We report the case of a 39-year old white male with a 17-year history of chronic HCV infection, who eradicated HCV following a serious illness due to co-infection with Babesia (babesiosis), Borriela Borgdorferi (Lyme disease) and Ehrlichia (human granulocytic ehrlichiosis). We hypothesize that the cellular immune response mounted by this patient in response to his infection with all three agents but in particular Babesia was sufficient to eradicate HCV.

  20. Management of chronic hepatitis B in children: an unresolved issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Della Corte, Claudia; Nobili, Valerio; Comparcola, Donatella; Cainelli, Francesca; Vento, Sandro

    2014-05-01

    Although a rather benign course of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection during childhood has been described, 3-5% and 0.01-0.03% of chronic carriers develop cirrhosis or hepatocellular carcinoma before adulthood. Considering the whole lifetime, the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma rises to 9-24% and the incidence of cirrhosis to 2-3% per year. The aim of this article is to review the current knowledge regarding the natural history and treatment of chronic hepatitis B in children and to focus on critical aspects and unresolved questions in the management of childhood HBV infection. A literature search was carried out on MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Web of Science for articles published in English in peer-reviewed journals from January 1980 to February 2013. The search terms used included "Hepatitis B virus infection," "children," "HBV," "interferon," "lamivudine," "adefovir," "entecavir," and "tenofovir." Articles resulting from these searches and relevant references cited in the articles retrieved were reviewed. The current goals of therapy are to suppress viral replication, reduce liver inflammation, and reverse liver fibrosis. Therapeutic options for children are currently limited, and the risk for viral resistance to current and future therapies is a particular concern. Based on the data available at this time, it is the consensus of the panel that it is not appropriate to treat children in the immune-tolerant phase or in the inactive carrier state. For children in the immune-active or reactivation phases, liver histology can help guide treatment decisions. Outside of clinical trials, interferon is the agent of choice in most cases; currently, available nucleoside analogs are secondary therapies. PMID:24863185

  1. Core as a Novel Viral Target for Hepatitis C Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume Mousseau

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C virus (HCV infects over 130 million people worldwide and is a major cause of liver disease. No vaccine is available. Novel specific drugs for HCV are urgently required, since the standard-of-care treatment of pegylated interferon combined with ribavirin is poorly tolerated and cures less than half of the treated patients. Promising, effective direct-acting drugs currently in the clinic have been described for three of the ten potential HCV target proteins: NS3/NS4A protease, NS5B polymerase and NS5A, a regulatory phosphoprotein. We here present core, the viral capsid protein, as another attractive, non-enzymatic target, against which a new class of anti-HCV drugs can be raised. Core plays a major role in the virion’s formation, and interacts with several cellular proteins, some of which are involved in host defense mechanisms against the virus. This most conserved of all HCV proteins requires oligomerization to function as the organizer of viral particle assembly. Using core dimerization as the basis of transfer-of-energy screening assays, peptides and small molecules were identified which not only inhibit core-core interaction, but also block viral production in cell culture. Initial chemical optimization resulted in compounds active in single digit micromolar concentrations. Core inhibitors could be used in combination with other HCV drugs in order to provide novel treatments of Hepatitis C.

  2. Occult hepatitis B virus infection and cryptogenic chronic hepatitis in an area with intermediate prevalence of HBV infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohammad Javad Kaviani; Behzad Behbahani; Mohammad Jafar Mosallaii; Fatemeh Sari-Aslani; Seyed Alireza Taghavi

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To assess the possible role of occult HBV infection in the pathogenesis of chronic hepatitis in Iranian patients.METHODS: After exclusion of autoimmune, metabolic and viral etiologies, 104 consecutive adult patients with histologic and biochemical features of chronic hepatitis and negative HBsAg were enrolled in the study.Qualitative PCR with a sensitivity of 150 × 103 copies/L,using two primers for Pre-S and core regions was applied to measure presence of HBV DNA in serum of the patients.RESULTS: All 104 patients completed the study.Qualitative HBV DNA was positive in two patients (1.9%).CONCLUSION: Occult HBV infection has negligible role in the pathogenesis of cryptogenic chronic hepatitis in Iranian patients.

  3. Chronic Hepatitis C and Antiviral Treatment Regimens: Where Can Psychology Contribute?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evon, Donna M.; Golin, Carol E.; Fried, Michael W.; Keefe, Francis J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Our goal was to evaluate the existing literature on psychological, social, and behavioral aspects of chronic hepatitis C viral (HCV) infection and antiviral treatment; provide the state of the behavioral science in areas that presently hinder HCV-related health outcomes; and make recommendations for areas in which clinical psychology…

  4. Ketoprofen, peginterferon 2a and ribavirin for genotype 1 chronic hepatitis C: A phase II study

    OpenAIRE

    Gramenzi, Annagiulia; Cursaro, Carmela; Margotti, Marzia; Balsano, Clara; Spaziani, Alessandra; Anticoli, Simona; Loggi, Elisabetta; Salerno, Maddalena; Galli, Silvia; Furlini, Giuliano; Bernardi, Mauro; Andreone, Pietro

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the safety of adding ketoprofen to pegylated-interferon (PEG-IFN) with or without ribavirin and the effect on viral kinetics, STAT1 activity and expression of 2’-5’-oligoadenylate synthetase (2’-5’OAS) in genotype 1 chronic hepatitis C in a phase II study.

  5. Mononeuropathy Multiplex in a Patient with Chronic Active Hepatitis B

    OpenAIRE

    Nam, Tai Seung; Lee, Seung Han; Park, Man Seok; Choi, Kang Ho; Kim, Joon Tae; Choi, Seong Min; Kim, Byeong Chae; Kim, Myeong Kyu; Cho, Ki Hyun

    2010-01-01

    Background Mononeuropathy multiplex is a rare complication during the course of chronic hepatitis B, despite various neuropathies following acute hepatitis B having been reported previously. Case Report A 30-year-old man presented with sensorimotor symptoms in multiple peripheral nerves. The serological tests for hepatitis were consistent with chronic active hepatitis B. After treatment with oral prednisone combined with an antiviral agent, the sensory and motor symptoms improved and hepatiti...

  6. A scoring model for predicting the prognosis of severe viral hepatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING Hui-guo; XIANG Hai-ping; SHAN Jing; ZHOU Li; MA Bing; LIU Min; WANG Jun-tao

    2005-01-01

    @@ The prognosis of patients with severe viral hepatitis is concerned by clinicians, patients and their relatives. Many factors may influence on the prognosis of patients with this disease. Many studies on the prognosis of severe viral hepatitis by multiple logistic regression analysis have shown generally consistent results.1-4 Previouly we established a scoring model of severe viral hepatitis (SMSVH) by logistic regression analysis.1 The aim of this study was to estimate prospectively the 6-month survival rate of patients with severe viral hepatitis using SMSVH.

  7. Clinical study of hepatitis in children with special reference to viral markers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zankhana Parekh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available nfective hepatitis is a systemic viral infection marked by hepatic cell necrosis and hepatic inflammation which leads to a characteristic constellation of clinical, biochemical and histological changes. This exercise was done to study the epidemiology of infective hepatitis, presenting symptoms and signs, mode of transmission, complication and outcome and to study the role of various investigations with special focus on viral markers. We concluded that poor outcome related with viral hepatitis in children were HBsAg reactivity, higher SGPT and serum bilirubin levels, higher PT levels and development of encephalopathy. Anti HAV and anti HEV IgM markers are very sensitive test for diagnosing acute infection.

  8. Host and viral factors contributing to CD8+ T cell failure in hepatitis C virus infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Christoph Neumann-Haefelin; Hans Christian Spangenberg; Hubert E Blum; Robert Thimme

    2007-01-01

    Virus-specific CD8+ T cells are thought to be the major anti-viral effector cells in hepatitis C virus (HCV)infection. Indeed, viral clearance is associated with vigorous CD8+ T cell responses targeting multiple epitopes. In the chronic phase of infection, HCV-specific CD8+ T cell responses are usually weak, narrowly focused and display often functional defects regarding cytotoxicity, cytokine production, and proliferative capacity. In the last few years, different mechanisms which might contribute to the failure of HCV-specific CD8+ T cells in chronic infection have been identified,including insufficient CD4+ help, deficient CD8+ T cell differentiation, viral escape mutations, suppression by viral factors, inhibitory cytokines, inhibitory ligands, and regulatory T cells. In addition, host genetic factors such as the host's human leukocyte antigen (HLA) background may play an important role in the efficiency of the HCVspecific CD8+ T cell response and thus outcome of infection. The growing understanding of the mechanisms contributing to T cell failure and persistence of HCV infection will contribute to the development of successful immunotherapeutical and -prophylactical strategies.

  9. Nucleos(tide analogues treatment outcome in genotype B and C chronic hepatitis B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myo Nyein Aung

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Hepatitis B genotypes influence the course and severity of the disease. Aim: To compare the treatment outcome of chronic hepatitis B genotype B and C patients after treating with nucleos(tide analogues for six months. Patients and Methods: Forty chronic hepatitis B patients attending the liver clinic of Hospital for Tropical diseases, Bangkok, were studied in retrospective cohort design. Six genotype B patients (15% and thirty-four genotype C patients (85% were treated. Serum hepatitis B viral load , serum alanine amino transferase level, HBeAg status and alpha-feto protein level were measured at the time of starting nucleos(t analogues therapy, and six months later. Besides, achievement of undetectable viral load was assessed in patients with normal serum alanine amino transferase compared to patients with high serum alanine amino transferase level. Results: After six months of nucleos (t analogues treatment, achievement of undetectable hepatitis B viral load was higher in genotype B patients (66.7% than in genotype C patients (42.4% (Relative Risk=1.57, 0.79-3.14. Biochemical remission, HBeAg seroconversion and tumor marker levels between the two groups were not significantly different. Moreover, achievement of undetectable hepatitis B viral load was significantly higher in normal alanine amino transferase level (75% than in patients with high serum alanine amino transferase level (33.3% on nucleos(tide analogue treatment (Relative Risk=2.25, 1.20- 4.20. Conclusion: Chronic hepatitis B treatment outcome between genotype B and C were not significantly different. Patients with normalized serum alanine amino transferase level tend to achieve undetectable viral load after nucleoside analogues treatment.

  10. Multilaboratory Comparison of Hepatitis C Virus Viral Load Assays

    OpenAIRE

    Caliendo, A M; Valsamakis, A.; Zhou, Y.; Yen-Lieberman, B; Andersen, J; Young, S.; Ferreira-Gonzalez, A; Tsongalis, G. J.; Pyles, R.; Bremer, J W; Lurain, N. S.

    2006-01-01

    We report a multilaboratory evaluation of hepatitis C virus (HCV) viral load assays to determine their linear range, reproducibility, subtype detection, and agreement. A panel of HCV RNA samples ranging in nominal concentration from 1.0 to 7.0 log10 IU/ml was constructed by diluting a clinical specimen (genotype 1b). Replicates of the panel were tested in multiple laboratories using the Abbott TaqMan analyte-specific reagent (Abbott reverse transcription-PCR [RT-PCR]), Roche TaqMan RUO (Roche...

  11. In situ hybridization studies of hepatitis A viral RNA in patients with acute hepatitis A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In situ hybridization with oligonucleotide probes has been used to localise hepatitis A virus RNA genomic sequences in formalin-fixed and routinely processed human liver biopsies from three patients. Using radiolabelled Sulphur-35 antisense probes, viral genomic sequences were found in all three cases, but signal intensity was greatest in cases 1 and 2 with fulminant hepatitis, and was minimal in the third case of resolving hepatitis biopsied 2 months after acute illness. Localisation showed the viral RNA to be present in hepatocytes, sinusoidal cells and inflammatory cells in and around the portal tracts. Both cases showed signal in similar cell types, but the distribution of staining was predominantly periportal in case 1, whereas lobular staining was more apparent in case 2. Hybridization with sense polarity probes failed to detect any evidence of replicative intermediates of antigenomic viral RNA. The presence of hepatitis A RNA in phagocytic cells was confirmed using immunohistochemistryfor a macrophage marker, CD68, combined with in situ hybridization. In all cases the signal was predominantly cytoplasmic, and this was confirmed with the use of tritiated probes. (au)

  12. Analysis of hepatitis C viral dynamics using Latin hypercube sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachpute, Gaurav; Chakrabarty, Siddhartha P.

    2012-12-01

    We consider a mathematical model comprising four coupled ordinary differential equations (ODEs) to study hepatitis C viral dynamics. The model includes the efficacies of a combination therapy of interferon and ribavirin. There are two main objectives of this paper. The first one is to approximate the percentage of cases in which there is a viral clearance in absence of treatment as well as percentage of response to treatment for various efficacy levels. The other is to better understand and identify the parameters that play a key role in the decline of viral load and can be estimated in a clinical setting. A condition for the stability of the uninfected and the infected steady states is presented. A large number of sample points for the model parameters (which are physiologically feasible) are generated using Latin hypercube sampling. An analysis of the simulated values identifies that, approximately 29.85% cases result in clearance of the virus during the early phase of the infection. Results from the χ2 and the Spearman's tests done on the samples, indicate a distinctly different distribution for certain parameters for the cases exhibiting viral clearance under the combination therapy.

  13. Seroprevalence of anti-HAV among patients with chronic viral liver disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hyun Chin Cho; Seung Woon Paik; Yu Jin Kim; Moon Seok Choi; Joon Hyeok Lee; Kwang Cheol Koh; Byung Chul Yoo; Hee Jung Son; Seon Woo Kim

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the current seroprevalence of hepatitis A virus (HAV) antibodies in patients with chronic viral liver disease in Korea. We also tried to identify the factors affecting the prevalence of HAV antibodies.METHODS: We performed an analysis of the clinical records of 986 patients (mean age: 49 ± 9 years, 714males/272 females) with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV)or hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection who had undergone HAV antibody testing between January 2008 and December 2009.RESULTS: The overall prevalence of IgG anti-HAV was 86.61% (854/986) in patients with chronic liver disease and was 88.13% (869/986) in age- and gendermatched patients from the Center for Health Promotion.The anti-HAV prevalence was 80.04% (405/506)in patients with chronic hepatitis B, 86.96% (20/23)in patients with chronic hepatitis C, 93.78% (422/450)in patients with HBV related liver cirrhosis, and 100%(7/7) in patients with HCV related liver cirrhosis. The anti-HAV prevalence according to the decade of age was as follows: 20s (6.67%), 30s (50.86%), 40s (92.29%), 50s (97.77%), and 60s (100%). The anti-HAV prevalence was significantly higher in patients older than 40 years compared with that in patients younger than 40 years of age. Multivariable analysis showed that age ≥ 40 years, female gender and metropolitan cities as the place of residence were independent risk factors for IgG anti-HAV seropositivity.CONCLUSION: Most Korean patients with chronic liver disease and who are above 40 years of age have already been exposed to hepatitis A virus.

  14. Therapeutic approach of chronic Hepatitis C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaos V. Fotos

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic infection from the hepatitis C virus (HCV is one of the most common infectious diseases worldwide. It is estimated that more than 170 million people worldwide are infected by HCV. HCV is responsible for the 70% of cases of chronic hepatitis, the 60% of cases of hepatocellular cancer and the 30% of liver transplantations. Therapy of chronic infection from the HCV aims to the: a eradication of the virus from liver and blood and sustenance of undetectable serum HCV-RNA after the end of the treatment and b stabilization or improvement of liver histological status. In 80' physicians treated chronic hepatitis C by using interferon alpha (IFN-α, whereas few years later they added ribavirin to the treatment. The combination therapy of IFN-α and ribavirin had had better results, but many patients left untreated. In 90' IFN-α was replaced by pegylated interferon alpha (PEG-IFN-α, with or without the use of ribavirin. In this study the following questions are answered: a which patients should be treated? b what are the appropriate clinical and laboratory tests before treatment? c which is the most effective therapeutic scheme and which is its duration? and d which is the appropriate surveillance of the patients, especially after the end of the treatment? Additionally, there are mentioned the most common adverse effects of interferon and ribavirin treatment, which are in many cases the cause of altering the treatment.

  15. The role of the molecular biology laboratory in the management of chronic hepatitis B and C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Karayiannis

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Molecular biology techniques are routinely used nowadays to diagnose and evaluate antiviral treatment of patients with chronic hepatitis B (HBV and hepatitis C virus (HCV infections. Current tools at our disposal include tests that quantify the amount of circulating virus in the blood, techniques that can analyse genomic sequences to determine viral genotypes or subtypes, or determine amino-acid substitutions that may confer resistance to existing antiviral drugs. What is more, continuously evolving serological tests for the detection of viral antigens or their corresponding antibodies, have made diagnosis of disease as sensitive as possible. The present review will concentrate primarily on molecular diagnostics.

  16. Viral hepatitis in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Helena P. Pavan

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available From 1992 to 1995 we studied 232 (69% male, 87% Caucasian anti-human immunodeficiency virus (anti-HIV positive Brazilian patients, through a questionnaire; HIV had been acquired sexually by 50%, from blood by 32%, sexually and/or from blood by 16.4% and by an unknown route by 1.7%. Intravenous drug use was reported by 29%; it was the most important risk factor for HIV transmission. The alanine aminotransferase quotient (qALT was >1 for 40% of the patients, 93.6% had anti-hepatitis A virus antibody, 5.3% presented hepatitis B surface antigen, 44% were anti-hepatitis B core antigen positive and 53.8% were anti-hepatitis C virus (anti-HCV positive. The anti-HCV test showed a significant association with qALT>1. Patients for whom the probable HIV transmission route was blood had a 10.8 times greater risk of being anti-HCV positive than patients infected by other routes. Among 30 patients submitted to liver biopsy, 18 presented chronic hepatitis.

  17. Endotheliitis-like changes in chronic hepatitis C

    OpenAIRE

    Lory, J; Zimmermann, Astrid

    1997-01-01

    Liver biopsies in hepatitis C frequently show bile duct damage, lymphoid follicles, large and small droplet fat, hepatocyte multinucleation. Mallory bodylike material, and activation of sinusoidal inflammatory cells. Even though these lesions are useful parameters in the diagnosis of hepatitis C, their specificity remains uncertain. Endotheliitis-like changes of small portal veins have been described for various liver diseases, including viral hepatitis. Th...

  18. Education and counseling in the methadone treatment setting improves knowledge of viral hepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larios, Sandra E; Masson, Carmen L; Shopshire, Michael S; Hettema, Jennifer; Jordan, Ashly E; McKnight, Courtney; Young, Christopher; Khalili, Mandana; Seewald, Randy M; Min, Albert; Hengl, Nicholas; Sorensen, James L; Des Jarlais, Don C; Perlman, David C

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of an educational method of providing viral hepatitis education for methadone maintenance patients. Four hundred forty participants were randomly assigned to either a control or a motivationally-enhanced viral hepatitis education and counseling intervention. Viral hepatitis A (HAV), B (HBV), and C (HCV) knowledge tests were administered at baseline, following each of two education sessions (post-education), and at a 3-month follow-up assessment. Results indicated a significant increase in knowledge of HAV, HBV, and HCV over time. No differences were found in knowledge between the intervention groups in knowledge acquisition regarding any of the hepatitis viruses suggesting that a motivational interviewing style may not augment hepatitis knowledge beyond standard counseling. A two-session viral hepatitis education intervention effectively promotes hepatitis knowledge and can be integrated in methadone treatment settings. PMID:24462241

  19. Interleukins as one of possible markers for early diagnosis of viral hepatitis c at first year old children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Kirsanova

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of the research of improvement one of possible methods of early diagnostics of viral hepatitis C at first-year old children, who born from mothers with chronic viral hepatitis C, in blood anti-HCV IgG are revealed, based on the study of maintenance of blood serum interleukins in dynamic observation of children. Proven that for children with maternal antibodies to virus of hepatitis C gradual decrease of titer of anti-HCV IgG is marked on background of physiological maintenance of interleukins or their level doesn’t exceed the normal in 1,5-2 time. For children with own antibodies of anti-HCV IgG a few months prior to viral RNA and synthesis of anti-HCV IgМ in blood is observed increase of level of interleukins, especially ІL-6. At children with their own anti-HCV IgG antibodies for few months before the synthesis of anti-HCV IgM are increased levels of interleukins, particularly IL-6. Thus, the serum interleukins response is an important criterion in determining the conditioning of antibodies to virus hepatitis C and earlier diagnosis of viral hepatitis C for first-year old children. Among all interleukins the most specific early marker of viral hepatitis C is IL-6. To clarify the belonging antibodies and more early diagnostics viral hepatitis С to all first-year old children, who born from mothers with chronic viral hepatitis С, and whose blood had educed antibodies of anti-HCV IgG, it is recommended the more careful monitoring of titer of antibodies of class IgМ, IgG, PCR and level of interleukins in serum (especially ІL- 6.

  20. Use of immunoglobulin M antibody to hepatitis B core antigen in diagnosis of viral hepatitis.

    OpenAIRE

    Hawkes, R A; Boughton, C R; Ferguson, V; Lehmann, N I

    1980-01-01

    To determine the diagnostic value of hepatitis B core (HBc)-specific immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibody (anti-HBc IgM), the sera of six patients with known recent acute viral hepatitis B were examined for the presence of anti-HBc periodically for up to 21 months from the onset of the attack by a sensitive radioimmunoassay technique (CORAB, Abbott Laboratories). It was found that anti-HBc IgM was detectable for approximately 17 months from the onset of the illness. Hence the finding of anti-HBc I...

  1. Hepatitis B virus replication in acute glomerulonephritis with chronic active hepatitis.

    OpenAIRE

    Cadrobbi, P; Bortolotti, F; Zacchello, G.; Rinaldi, R; Armigliato, M; Realdi, G

    1985-01-01

    A 3 year old boy who had chronic active hepatitis type B with features of ongoing liver damage and active virus replication, developed acute membranous glomerulonephritis two years after the clinical onset of liver disease, when both hepatitis B e antigen and antibody were detectable in serum. After withdrawal of short term steroid treatment and resolution of hepatitis B virus replication, both glomerulonephritis and chronic hepatitis went into remission. Some months later hepatitis B surface...

  2. Transfusion-transmitted virus in association with hepatitis A-E viral infections in various forms of liver diseases in India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M Irshad; Y Sharma; I Dhar; J Singh; YK Joshi

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To describe the prevalence of transfusiontransmitted virus (TTV) infection in association with hepatitis A-E viral infections in different forms of liver diseases in North India.METHODS: Sera from a total number of:137 patients,including 37 patients with acute viral hepatitis (AVH), 37patients with chronic viral hepatitis (CVH), 31 patients with cirrhosis of liver and 32 patients with fulminant hepatic failure (FHF), were analyzed both for TTV-DNA and hepatitis A-E viral markers. Presence of hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV) and hepatitis E virus (HEV) infections was detected in different proportions in different groups. Moreover, TTV-DNA was simultaneously tested in 100 healthy blood donors also.RESULTS: None of the patients had hepatitis A virus (HAV) and hepatitis D virus (HDV) infections. Overall prevalence of TTV-DNA was detected in 27.1% cases with AVH, 18.9% cases with CVH, 48.4% cases with cirrhosis and 9.4% cases with FHF. TTV-DNA simultaneously tested in 100 healthy blood donors showed 27% positivity. On establishing a relation between TTV infection with other hepatitis viral infections, TTV demonstrated co-infection with HBV, HCV and HEV in these disease groups. Correlation of TTV with ALT level in sera did not demonstrate high ALT level in TTV-infected patients, suggesting that TTV does not cause severe liver damage.CONCLUSION: TTV infection is prevalent both in patients and healthy individuals in India. However, it does not have any significant correlation with other hepatitis viral infections, nor does it produce an evidence of severe liver damage in patients with liver diseases.

  3. A Study Of The Clinical and Biochemical Profile Of Acute Viral Hepatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Dabadghao, Varsha Shirish; Barure, Ram; Sharma, Suresh Kumar; Mangudkar, Sangram

    2015-01-01

    Aim: This study was performed to compare the clinical, biochemical and etiological properties of acute viral hepatitis (AVH) and to compare clinical and laboratory parameters of faeco-oraly transmitted hepatitis: hepatitis A+ hepatitis E (A+E) with hematologicaly transmitted: hepatitis B, C, D (B+C+D) hepatitis.Material and Methods: Biochemical and clinical data were collected from 40 patients with AVH. They were tested for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), IgM anti-Hepatitis A virus (HAV)...

  4. Peginterferon Treatment In Children: A Review Of Chronic Hepatitis B And Chronic Hepatitis C Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makbule EREN

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Despite of extensive blood product screening and national immunization programs, chronic hepatitis B and C infections continues to be a global problem with high mortality, morbidity and economic impact. Even though acquisition of these infections mostly occurs in childhood, major problems appear in adulthood. Cirrhosis and HCC are two major expected late events related to chronic hepatitis B and C infections. Rarely, children may also face these complications. To avoid these complications and increase the life expectancy in adults treatment of these two type infections should be started in childhood with appropriate patient selection. In contrast to children, adults are luckier in terms of treatment alternatives. They have the chance to use more potent antivirals with higher genetic barrier and pegylated form of interferons. Recently, the use of pegylated interferon and ribavirin combinations has been approved in children in Chronic HCV infection. However, chronic hepatitis B treatment in children is still dependent on the use of one type antiviral drug and conventional interferon. Treatment in early ages with an antiviral agent that has limited genetic barrier may block the chance of treatment or reduce the response rate in adulthood in chronic hepatitis B infection. This burden indicates the necessity of new therapeutic modalities in children. In this term pegylated interferons may be one of the optiones. In this article we aimed to reviewe the efficacy and safety of conventional and pegylated interferons, for the treatment of Hepatitis C and B infections in children.

  5. Risk Factors and Immune Response to Hepatitis E viral Infection among Acute Hepatitis Patients in Assiut, Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Seif Eldin, Salwa S.; Seddik, Ismail; Daef, Enas A; Shata, M.T.; Raafat, Marwa; Baky, Laila Abdel; Nafeh, MA

    2010-01-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection is a common cause of acute viral hepatitis (AVH) in Egypt. We aimed to identify risk factors of HEV among acute hepatitis cases, measure HEV specific immune response to differentiate between symptomatic and asymptomatic infections. The study included symptomatic acute hepatitis (AH) patients (n=235) and asymptomatic contacts (n=200) to HEV cases. They completed a lifestyle questionnaire, screened for common hepatotropic viruses. Blood and serum samples were c...

  6. Imaging Based Methods of Liver Fibrosis Assessment in Viral Hepatitis: A Practical Approach

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    Hicham Khallafi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Liver fibrosis represents the repair mechanism in liver injury and is a feature of most chronic liver diseases. The degree of liver fibrosis in chronic viral hepatitis infections has major clinical implications and presence of advanced fibrosis or cirrhosis determines prognosis. Treatment initiation for viral hepatitis is indicated in most cases of advanced liver fibrosis and diagnosis of cirrhosis entails hepatology evaluation for specialized clinical care. Liver biopsy is an invasive technique and has been the standard of care of fibrosis assessment for years; however, it has several limitations and procedure related complications. Recently, several methods of noninvasive assessment of liver fibrosis have been developed which require either serologic testing or imaging of liver. Imaging based noninvasive techniques are reviewed here and their clinical use is described. Some of the imaging based tests are becoming widely available, and collectively they are shown to be superior to liver biopsy in important aspects. Clinical utilization of these methods requires understanding of performance and quality related parameters which can affect the results and provide wrong assessment of the extent of liver fibrosis. Familiarity with the strengths and weaknesses of each modality is needed to correctly interpret the results in appropriate clinical context.

  7. Defective mutations of hepatitis D viruses in chronic hepatitis D patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jaw-Ching Wu; Sheng-Chieh Hsu; Shen-Yung Wang; Yi-Hsiang Huang; I-Jane Sheen; Hsuan-Hui Shih; Wan-Jr Syu

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To verify whether "defective" mutations existed in hepatitis D virus (HDV).METHODS: Hepatitis delta antigen (HDAg)-codingsequences were amplified using Pfu DNA polymerases with proof-reading activities from sera of five patients with chronic hepatitis D. Multiple colonies were sequenced for each patient. Pfu analyzed a total of 270 HDV clones.Three representative defective HDV clones were constructed in expression plasmids and transfected into a human hepatoma cell line. Cellular proteins were extracted and analyzed by Western blot.RESULTS: Four of five cases (80%) showed defective HDV genomes in their sera. The percentage of defective genomes was 3.7% (10/270). The majority (90%) of the defective mutations were insertions or deletions that resulted in frameshift and abnormal stop translation of the HDAg. The predicted mutated HDAg ranged from 45amino acids to >214 amino acids in length. Various domains of HDAg associated with viral replication or packaging were affected in different HDV isolates. Western blot analysis showed defected HDAg in predicted positions.CONCLUSION: "Defective" viruses do exist in chronic HDV infected patients, but represented as minor strains. The clinical significance of the "defected" HDV needs further study to evaluate.

  8. Integrating Viral Hepatitis Prevention Services into an Urban STD Clinic: Denver, Colorado

    OpenAIRE

    Subiadur, Julie; Harris, Jennie L.; Rietmeijer, Cornelis A.

    2007-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends integrating viral hepatitis prevention services with services for adults evaluated for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). The Denver Public Health STD clinic began hepatitis B vaccination in 1999, hepatitis C virus (HCV) antibody (anti-HCV) testing in 2000, and hepatitis A vaccination in 2002. Rapid human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing began in late 2004. Hepatitis B vaccinations peaked in 2003 (31/100 client visits) when a fu...

  9. Pretransplant Hepatitis B Viral Infection Increases Risk of Death After Kidney Transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeonghwan; Cho, Jang-Hee; Lee, Jong Soo; Ahn, Dong-Won; Kim, Chan-Duck; Ahn, Curie; Jung, In Mok; Han, Duck Jong; Lim, Chun Soo; Kim, Yon Su; Kim, Young Hoon; Lee, Jung Pyo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Clinical outcomes in kidney transplant recipients (KTRs) with hepatitis B virus (HBV) have not been thoroughly evaluated. Here, we investigated recent posttransplant clinical outcomes of KTRs with HBV and compared them with KTRs with hepatitis C virus (HCV) and seronegative KTRs. Of 3855 KTRs from April 1999 to December 2011, we enrolled 3482 KTRs who had viral hepatitis serology data; the patients were followed up for 89.1 ± 54.1 months. The numbers of recipients with HBV and HCV were 160 (4.6%) and 55 (1.6%), respectively. We analyzed the clinical outcomes, including overall mortality and graft failure, among patients who had undergone kidney transplantation. Patients with HBV showed poorer survival (P = 0.019; adjusted hazard ratio [HR] = 2.370; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.155–4.865) than KTRs without HBV. However, the graft survival of patients with chronic hepatitis B did not differ from that of patients without HBV. Hepatic complications were the primary causes of mortality of KTRs with HBV. Mortality significantly correlated with a higher grade of inflammation (P = 0.002) and with the use of lamivudine or adefovir antiviral treatment (P = 0.016). HBV-positive KTRs treated with the new-generation antiviral agent entecavir showed improved patient survival compared with KTRs receiving lamivudine (log-rank P = 0.050). HCV did not affect patient survival; however, it increased the incidence of graft failure (P = 0.010; adjusted HR = 2.899; 95% CI: 1.289–6.519). KTRs with HCV had an increased incidence of acute rejection (log-rank P = 0.005, crude HR = 2.144; 95% CI: 1.341–3.426; P = 0.001). KTRs with chronic hepatitis B may exhibit poor survival due to post-transplantation hepatic complications. Pretransplant histological liver evaluations and adequate antiviral management with potent nucleoside/nucleotide analogues are needed to improve the survival of KTRs with chronic hepatitis B even when liver

  10. T cell immunopathogenesis and immunotherapeutic strategies for chronic hepatitis B virus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukihiro Shimizu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis B is caused by the host immune response and T cells play a major role in the immunopathogenesis. More importantly, T cells not only destroy hepatocytes infected by hepatitis B virus (HBV, but also control HBV replication or eradicate HBV in a noncytolytic manner. Therefore, analysis of T cell immune response during acute and chronic HBV infection is important to develop a strategy for successful viral control, which could lead to immunotherapy for terminating persistent HBV infection. There have been many attempts at immunotherapy for chronic HBV infection, and some have shown promising results. High viral load has been shown to suppress antiviral immune responses and immunoinhibitory signals have been recently elucidated, therefore, viral suppression by nucleos(tide analogs, stimulation of antiviral immune response, and suppression of the immunoinhibitory signals must be combined to achieve desirable antiviral effects.

  11. Hepatitis B Virus Infection—Current Concepts of Chronicity and Immunity

    OpenAIRE

    Vyas, Girish N.; Blum, Hubert E.

    1984-01-01

    Among the three types of viral hepatitis agents—A, B and non-A, non-B—the hepatitis B virus (HBV) has been best characterized by immunologic and recombinant DNA technologies. The indefinite persistence of hepatitis B virus infection in 85% to 90% of perinatally infected infants and in about 10% of those infected later in life accounts for a worldwide epidemiologic reservoir of more than 200 million carriers who are at a high risk for the development of δ-infection, chronic liver disease and h...

  12. Nonvisualization of the gallbladder lumen on sonogram: a sign of acute viral hepatitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Six cases of nonvisulization of the gallbladder lumen in patients with acute viral hepatitis are presented. Follow-up ultrasonographic examinations done during the convalescent period in 2 patients showed normal gallbladders and this was correlated with improvement in enzyme levels. It is suggested that acute viral hepatitis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of nonvisualization of the gallbladder lumen on sonogram.

  13. PREVALENCE OF DIFFERENT VIRAL MARKERS IN PATIENTS OF ACUTE VIRAL HEPATITIS IN AND AROUND VISAKHAPATNAM : HOSPITAL BASED STUDY

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    Aruna Sree

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Acute viral hepatitis (AVH is a major public health problem and is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in the developing countries. AIM: The aim of the present study is to study the serological profile of acute viral hepatitis in children and adults admitted in King George Hospital, Visakhapatnam and also age and sex distribution of patients suffering from acute viral hepatitis and also comparing the etiological profile by studying serological markers of common viral agents. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Samples were collected from 80 individuals with jaundice and other clinical and biochemical evidences of acute viral hepatitis . They were tested for hepatitis surface antigen, HBcIgM, HAVIgM, HEVIgM, Antibodies to HCV by the enzyme - linked immuno sorbent assay. RESULTS: Out of the 80 viral hepatitis cases (47 adults+33 children. In adults 20(42.5% patients presented HBV (26.96% was identified as the most common cause of acute hepatitis followed by HEV14 (29.8%, HEV+HAV4 (8.5% and HAV 6(12.76%. Co - infections with more than one virus were present in 5cases; HAV - HEV co - infection being the most common. In children 16(48.5% presented with HAV, HAV+HEV11 (33.3%, HEV4 (12.12%, HBV1 (3.03% CONCLUSIONS: Vaccination of adults against hepatitis B is indicated, along with sexual education to decrease the incidence of hepatitis which is found as common etiological agent in adults. The incidence of HAV and HEV in children shows that there is need for improvement in sanitation and food habits.

  14. Telbivudine (Sebivo in patients with hepatitis B virus (HBV chronic infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viola Sacchi

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis B is the most common serious liver infection in the world, with about 350 million people who are infected with the hepatitis B virus (HBV and about 1 million deaths annually.Hepatitis B is characterized by an acute and a chronic phase, if the subject fails to produce adequate immune response.About 5-10% of adults infected with HBV go on to develop chronic infection and become chronic carriers (CHB; moreover, the liver damage, if not stopped, continues until cirrhosis or hepatocellular carcinoma. In the natural history of HBV infection, the most important event is HBeAg seroconversion, characterized by loss of HBeAg (a specific antigen of the virus and development of anti-HBe antibodies (HBeAg-positive patients. If the seroconversion has occurred early (when liver damage is not already significant and is maintained, long-term prognosis is excellent. The disease can follow a more aggressive course if active viral replication persists despite anti-HBe positivity. This state, characterized by continuing viral replication, has been termed as HBeAg-negative CHB, and is the most prevalent form in Italy. At the moment, there are 4 approved antiviral drug classes, with different antiviral efficacy, for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B: interferons, nucleoside analogues, nucleotide analogues, and cyclopents.The primary target of the treatment is a prolonged suppression of viral replication, in order to avoid long term complications and increase survival.

  15. Changing trend of viral hepatitis -- 'A twenty one year report from Pakistan medical research council research centre, Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre, Karachi'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine the frequency and pattern of Hepatitis B and C over the past twenty one years, in a liver research unit of Karachi. Retrospective analysis of the records of PMRC, Research Centre, Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre, Karachi, from 1987 to 2007 were reviewed. A special flow sheet was made where information of all patients with viral liver disease was entered. Patients having complete information of viral markers were included in the analysis. Cases with HBsAg, Anti HBc IgM positive and raised ALT were considered as acute Hepatitis B. HBs Ag/ Anti HBc IgG positive were considered as chronic Hepatitis B. Delta antibody positive with or without HBsAg were considered as Delta Hepatitis. Anti HCV positive and raised ALT more than ten times for less than 6 months were considered as acute Hepatitis C, whereas Anti HCV and HCV-RNA positive with or without raised ALT for more than six months were considered as chronic Hepatitis C. Anti HEV IgM and Anti HAV IgM positive were considered as acute Hepatitis E and A respectively. A total of 5193 cases fulfilling all criteria of viral hepatitis were seen in the past 21 years. Of the total 3247 (62.5 %) were males and 1946 (37.5 %) females giving a male to female ratio of 1.7:1 Hepatitis C was the most common infection seen in 2896 cases (55.8 %), followed by Hepatitis B in 1691 cases (32.6 %). Seventy five percent cases of Hepatitis B were males and 25 % females while 55% Hepatitis C cases were males and 45 % females. Hepatitis B was seen a decade earlier in different age groups than hepatitis C. Overall, out of the total 5193 cases, 2294 (44.2%) were of chronic hepatitis, 1430 (27.5%) cirrhosis, 1083 (20.8%) carriers and 346 (6.7%) had acute hepatitis (hepatitis B; 214 (61.8%), hepatitis C; 21 (6.0%). While hepatitis B and hepatitis C both were present in 3 (1.3%). Hepatitis E was 70 (20.2%) hepatitis A 12 (3.5%) and all markers were negative in 26 (7.5%) cases). Forty cases (0.8%) were of Hepatocellular carcinoma

  16. Cost-Effective Control of Chronic Viral Diseases: Finding the Optimal Level of Screening and Contact Tracing

    OpenAIRE

    Armbruster, Benjamin; Brandeau, Margaret L.

    2010-01-01

    Chronic viral diseases such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) afflict millions of people worldwide. A key public health challenge in managing such diseases is identifying infected, asymptomatic individuals so that they can receive antiviral treatment. Such treatment can benefit both the treated individual (by improving quality and length of life) and the population as a whole (through reduced transmission). We develop a compartmental model of a chronic, treatab...

  17. Prevalence of hepatitis A virus, hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, hepatitis D virus and hepatitis E virus as causes of acute viral hepatitis in North India: A hospital based study

    OpenAIRE

    Jain, P; Prakash, S.; Gupta, S; Singh, K.P.; Shrivastava, S; Singh, D. D.; Singh, J; Jain, A.

    2013-01-01

    Context: Acute viral hepatitis (AVH) is a major public health problem and is an important cause of morbidity and mortality. Aim: The aim of the present study is to determine the prevalence of hepatitis A virus (HAV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), hepatitis D virus (HDV) and hepatitis E virus (HEV) as causes of AVH in a tertiary care hospital of North India. Settings and Design: Blood samples and clinical information was collected from cases of AVH referred to the Grade I v...

  18. Current progress in the development of therapeutic vaccines for chronic hepatitis B virus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faezeh Ghasemi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Chronic hepatitis B is still a major public health issue despite the successful prophylactic vaccination attempts. Chronicity of hepatitis B virus(HBV is mainly due to its ability to debilitate host's immune system. Therefore, major measures have been taken to stop this process and help patients with chronic hepatitis B infection recover from their illness. While satisfactory results have been achieved using preventive HBV vaccines, a reliable and effective therapeutic treatment is still in need of extensive studies. Current treatments for chronic hepatitis B include direct antiviral agents and nucleoside/nucleotide analogs, which are not always effective and are also costly. In addition, due to the fact that chronic HBV is responsible for debilitation of the immune system, studies have focused on developing therapeutic vaccines to help host's immune system recover and limit the infection. Several approaches including but not restricted to recombinant peptide-based, DNA-based, viral vector-based, and cell-based approaches are currently in use to develop therapeutic vaccines against the chronic form of HBV infection. In the current review, the authors will first discuss the role of the immune system in chronic hepatitis B infection and will then focus on latest advancements in therapeutic vaccination of HBV especially the clinical trials that have been carried out so far.

  19. Serological profile of sporadic acute viral hepatitis in an area of hyper-endemic hepatitis B virus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayoola Ayobanji

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Located in the south western part of Saudi Arabia, the Gizan region is largely a rural community in which hepatitis B and chronic liver disease including hepatocellular carcinoma are highly prevalent. Aim of study: To determine the relative frequencies of acute hepatitis A, B, C and E in acute viral hepatitis in an area of hyperendemic hepatitis B infection. Methods and materials: In a prospective study 246 consecutive patients (179 males and 67 females diagnosed in a 2-year period were tested for markers of Hepatitis A virus (HAV, hepatitis B virus (HBV, hepatitis C (HCV and hepatitis E virus (HEV. Results: Of the patients tested, 131 (53.3% were children (< 10 years, and 42 (17% were 11 - 20 years in age. Ig M anti -HAV, IgM anti-HBV, anti- HCV and IgM anti-HEV were positive in 37%, 19.1%, 3.7% and 13.7% respectively. Markers of these viruses were absent in 24.4%. Among 131 children (< 10 years the commonest cause of AVH was HAV occurring in 57.3% of the cases. In adults (> 21 years HBV was found in 35.6% and IgM anti -HAV was detected in only 6.8%. In contrast to the age- related decline in the frequency of acute HA, the proportion of acute HE were similar in all age groups (13.7% in children, 16.7% in adolescents and 11.0% in adults. Conclusion: The study indicated that HAV is still a common cause of AVH particularly among children in Gizan. Acute 1-113 had a low occurrence among the children, evidently as a consequence of the integration of HB vaccine into the Saudi Arabian national EPI, 10 years ago. With the availability of combined HB and HA vaccines, It should be possible to graft the vaccination against HAV on to the existing program in Saudi Arabia. Affecting 13.4% of the group studied, sporadic HEV constitute a significant cause of AVH in this population. Until HEV vaccine becomes widely available, its prevention would be mainly by the improvement of socio - economic and hygienic standards of the population.

  20. Polymerase chain reaction for the diagnosis of viral hepatitis B and C.

    OpenAIRE

    Bréchot, C

    1993-01-01

    Polymerase chain reaction is a highly sensitive technique for the detection of hepatitis B virus-DNA and hepatitis C virus-RNA in serum, liver tissue, and peripheral mononuclear blood cells. In chronic hepatitis B, it is particularly useful for identification of infectious subjects who are hepatitis B surface antigen positive and anti-hepatitis B e antigen antibody-positive, and for follow up of hepatitis B virus infections in liver transplantation programmes. Polymerase chain reaction detect...

  1. Latent hepatitis B is a risk factor for hepatocellular carcinoma in patients with chronic hepatitis C

    OpenAIRE

    Reddy, Arvind; May, Elizabeth; Ehrinpreis, Murray; Mutchnick, Milton

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To study the potential association between hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC), cirrhosis and latent hepatitis B (LHB) infection, defined as the absence of detectable serum hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and the presence of hepatitis B core antibody (HBcAb).

  2. Significance of iron reduction for the therapy of chronic hepatitis C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nožić Darko

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. It has been established that many patients with chronic hepatitis C have elevated serum iron, feritin levels and iron deposits in the liver. Therefore, the liver damage due to hepatitis C virus may be aggravated with iron overload. In many studies higher levels of iron in the blood and the liver were connected with the decreased response to interferon-alfa therapy for chronic viral hepatitis C. Recent introduction of pegylated interferons plus ribavirin has improved the therapeutic response, so it is now possible to cure more than 50% of the patients. Case report. Three patients with chronic hepatitis C and iron overload were presented. Iron reduction therapy using phlebotomy or eritrocytapheresis with plasmapheresis was done at different times in regard to specific antiviral therapy or as a sole therapy. Conclusion. It has been shown that iron reduction, sole or combined with antiviral therapy, led to the deacreased aminotransferase serum activity and might have slow down the evolution of chronic hepatitis C viral infection.

  3. Evaluation of Biofield Modality on Viral Load of Hepatitis B and C Viruses

    OpenAIRE

    Trivedi, Mahendra Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Study background: Nowadays, hepatitis is a major challenge for clinical research, regulatory bodies, and clinicians who are trying to assess the more effectiveness of antiviral therapy against patients. Viral load count is the amount of particular viral DNA or RNA in a blood samples. It is one of the surrogate biomarker of hepatitis. High viral load indicates that the immune system is failed to fight against viruses. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of biofield modality o...

  4. Discrepancy between Serological and Virological Analysis of Viral Hepatitis in Hemodialysis Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Jer-Ming; Huang, Chung-Feng; Chen, Szu-Chia; Dai, Chia-Yen; Yeh, Ming-Lun; Huang, Jee-Fu; Kuo, Hsing-Tao; Chuang, Wan-Long; Yu, Ming-Lung; Hwang, Shang-Jyh; Chen, Hung-Chun

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aim: Viral hepatitis is a health threat for hemodialysis (HD) patients and it may be transmitted during treatment. Some patients categorized to have viral hepatitis were found to be non-viremic. To clarify the discrepancy between the serological tests in HD patients, we conducted the study. Methods: A total of 1681 HD patients was included. Blood samples were analyzed for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and anti-hepatitis C antibody (anti-HCV). Detection of hepatitis B viru...

  5. Bloodborne Viral Hepatitis Infections among Drug Users: The Role of Vaccination

    OpenAIRE

    Paolo Mezzelani; Paolo Civitelli; Gianluca Quaglio; Fabio Lugoboni

    2009-01-01

    Drug use is a prevalent world-wide phenomenon and hepatitis virus infections are traditionally a major health problem among drug users (DUs). HBV and HCV, and to a lesser extent HAV, are easily transmitted through exposure to infected blood and body fluids. Viral hepatitis is not inevitable for DUs. Licensed vaccines are available for hepatitis A and hepatitis B. The purpose of this overview is to show some epidemiological data about HBV and the other blood-borne viral hepatitis among DUs and...

  6. Viral hepatitis-associated intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma shares common disease processes with hepatocellular carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, C.H.; Chang, C. J.; Lin, Y J; Yeh, C N; Chen, M. F.; Hsieh, S Y

    2009-01-01

    Bile duct cells and hepatocytes differentiate from the same hepatic progenitor cells. To investigate the possible association of viral hepatitis B and C with intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC), we conducted a retrospective case–control study using univariate and multivariate logistic analyses to identify risk factors for ICC. Besides hepatic lithiasis (25.6%; P

  7. 78 FR 32392 - CDC/HRSA Advisory Committee on HIV, Viral Hepatitis and STD Prevention and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-30

    ... CDC/HRSA Advisory Committee on HIV, Viral Hepatitis and STD Prevention and Treatment In accordance... Administrator, HRSA, regarding activities related to prevention and control of HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis and... professionals and the public about HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis and other STDs. Matters To Be Discussed:...

  8. 78 FR 64221 - CDC/HRSA Advisory Committee on HIV, Viral Hepatitis and STD Prevention and Treatment; Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-28

    ... meeting. Name: CDC/HRSA Advisory Committee on HIV, Viral Hepatitis and STD Prevention and Treatment Dates... related to prevention and control of HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis and other STDs, the support of health care.../AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, and other STDs. Agenda: Agenda items include: (1) Affordable Care Act...

  9. Hepatitis E Virus Genotype 3 in Colombia: Survey in Patients with Clinical Diagnosis of Viral Hepatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendon, Julio; Hoyos, Maria Cristina; di Filippo, Diana; Cortes-Mancera, Fabian; Mantilla, Carolina; Velasquez, Maria Mercedes; Sepulveda, Maria Elsy; Restrepo, Juan Carlos; Jaramillo, Sergio; Arbelaez, Maria Patricia; Correa, Gonzalo; Navas, Maria-Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Background Hepatitis E virus is a major cause of outbreaks as well as sporadic hepatitis cases worldwide. The epidemiology of this enterically transmitted infection differs between developing and developed countries. The aims of this study were to describe HEV infection in Colombian patients and to characterize the genotype. Methods A prospective study was carried out on 40 patients aged over 15 with a clinical diagnosis of viral hepatitis, recruited from five primary health units in the city of Medellin, Colombia. Fecal samples obtained from the 40 consecutives cases were analyzed for HEV RNA using nested reverse transcription PCR for both ORF1 and ORF2-3. The amplicons were sequenced for phylogenetic analyses. Results Nine (22.5%) cases of HEV infection were identified in the study population. Three HEV strains obtained from patients were classified as genotype 3. No significant association was found between cases of Hepatitis E and the variables water drinking source, garbage collection system and contact with pigs. Conclusions This is the first prospective study of hepatitis E in Colombian patients. The circulation of the genotype 3 in this population is predictable considering the reports of the region and the identification of this genotype from pigs in the state of Antioquia, of which Medellin is the capital. Further studies are necessary to establish whether zoonotic transmission of HEV is important in Colombia. PMID:26886728

  10. Hepatitis B vs. hepatitis C infection on viral hepatitis-associated hepatocellular carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Hiotis Spiros P; Rahbari Nuh N; Villanueva Gerald A; Klegar Eunjie; Luan Wei; Wang Qin; Yee Herman T

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background To determine clinical-pathologic variables in patients with a new diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and underlying hepatitis B vs. C infection. Methods Patients presenting to a single urban hospital with a new diagnosis of HCC were entered into a clinical database. Variables including number and size of tumors, presence of metastases, serum alpha-Fetoprotein, hepatitis serologies, severity of hepatic dysfunction, and presence of cirrhosis were evaluated in 127 pa...

  11. Clinical Characteristics and Treatment for Patients with Occult Chronic hepatitis B

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    Objective To observe the clinical manifestations and assess direct antiviral effect for patients with occult hepatitis B in China. Methods The study includes 15 patients with occult hepatitis B and their medical history, family history, ifrst-diagnosis time, conifrmed-diagnosis time, laboratory report, anti-viral therapy and outcomes were analyzed. Results The average age of the patients is 38.67-year old (6 males and 9 females), 2 with acute hepatitis B (2/15, 13.3%), 13 with no hepatitis history (13/15, 86.6%), 8 with family history (8/15, 53.3%), 6 with no family history (6/15, 40%), 1 with unknown family history (1/15, 6.6%). Eight patients were treated with entecavir (0.5 mg/day, taken orally), with effective results and steady conditions;3 patients were treated with lamivudine (0.1 g/day, taken orally), 2 of them were prescribed to take adefovir dipivoxil additionally due to drug-resistance, the other one was treated with lamivudine continuously without drug-resistance;4 cases refused anti-viral therapy. One patient’s condition remained steady, 1 patient died of cirrhosis with portal hypertension and liver failure 5 years after ifrst-diagnosis, 1 patient progressed to hepatocellular carcinoma and accepted surgery operation treatment 5 years after ifrst-diagnosis, the other 1 patient progressed to compensatory cirrhosis 2 years after ifrst-diagnosis and is steady from then, which indicates that occult chronic hepatitis B can progress to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma without therapy in time. Conclusions The clinical characteristics of 15 cases with occult chronic hepatitis B showed that these patients with short latency, younger age when being-struck, and light damage to liver function. The efifcacy and drug-resistance of nucleos(t)ide-analogue (entecavir, lamivudine, adefovir dipivoxil) in treatment of patients with occult chronic hepatitis B are similar to chronic hepatitis B.

  12. Vinyl chloride-induced hepatic coproporphyrinuria with transition to chronic hepatic porphyria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doss, M.; Lange, C.E.; Veltman, G.

    1984-02-15

    A chronic hepatic disorder of porphyrin metabolism was found in 36 workers with vinyl chloride (VC)-induced hepatic injury following long-time industrial exposure. Pathologic porphyrinuria, especially secondary coproporphyrinuria with transition to subclinical chronic hepatic porphyria, is a consistent pathobiochemical parameter for the recognition of VC hepatic lesions. The porphyrinuria is of diagnostic value for the incipient toxic phase. Erythrocyte uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase activity studied in six cases with initial chronic hepatic porphyria was normal, suggesting that VC affects only this enzyme in the liver.

  13. ENDOTHELIUM LESION MARKERS AND THROMBOCYTE AGGREGATION IN CHRONIC HEPATITIS AND HEPATIC CIRRHOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Shchekotova

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim — to estimate endothelium lesion, quantity and thrombocyte aggregation function correlation in viral chronic hepatitis C (CHC and hepatic cirrhosis (HC.Materials and methods. 50 CHC patients and 28 HC patients were examined. Using IFA method the total nitric oxide, endothelin‑1, vasculoendothelial growth factor levels, Willebrand factor (vWF activity were investigated, blood plasma desquamated endotheliocyte (DEC number was calculated with Hladovec method, 1978, thrombocyte aggregation (TA with ADP, collagen, ristocetine was determined.Results. DEC and vWF demonstrated correlation in CHC (p = 0.014 and HC (p = 0.000004. In HC patients reliable correlation of all the investigated indices of endothelium lesion with the thrombocyte number and TA was detected, but in CHC patients no correlations were revealed. Thus, significant elevation of TA with ristocetine was noted only in CHC. Decrease in thrombocyte amount among CHC patients and,especially in HC, and heightened vWF activity could change true TA indices. The corrected TA, whose indices in hepatic diseases significantlyincreased, was calculated taking into account the correction factor vWF / thrombocytes that in CHC did not differ from that of healthy patients and in HC was essentially higher.Conclusion. Endothelium dysfunction markers in CH and HC demonstrate correlation with thrombocyte reduction and TA elevation. Determinationof corrected TA permits to reveal disturbances of thrombocyte hemostasis in the form of elevated aggregation in all CHC and HC patients.

  14. Acute viral hepatitis morbidity and mortality associated with hepatitis E virus infection: Uzbekistan surveillance data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margolis Harold S

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Uzbekistan, routine serologic testing has not been available to differentiate etiologies of acute viral hepatitis (AVH. To determine the age groups most affected by hepatitis E virus (HEV during documented AVH epidemics, trends in AVH-associated mortality rate (MR per 100,000 over a 15-year period and reported incidence of AVH over a 35-year period were examined. Methods Reported AVH incidence data from 1971 to 2005 and AVH-associated mortality data from 1981 to 1995 were examined. Serologic markers for infection with hepatitis viruses A, B, D, and E were determined from a sample of hospitalized patients with AVH from an epidemic period (1987 and from a sample of pregnant women with AVH from a non-epidemic period (1992. Results Two multi-year AVH outbreaks were identified: one during 1975–1976, and one during 1985–1987. During 1985–1987, AVH-associated MRs were 12.3–17.8 per 100,000 for the general population. Highest AVH-associated MRs occurred among children in the first 3 years of life (40–190 per 100,000 and among women aged 20–29 (15–21 per 100,000. During 1988–1995 when reported AVH morbidity was much lower in the general population, AVH-associated MRs were markedly lower among these same age groups. In 1988, AVH-associated MRs were higher in rural (21 per 100,000 than in urban (8 per 100,000 populations (RR 2.6; 95% CI 1.16–5.93; p Conclusion In the absence of the availability of confirmatory testing, inferences regarding probable hepatitis epidemic etiologies can sometimes be made using surveillance data, comparing AVH incidence with AVH-associated mortality with an eye to population-based viral hepatitis control measures. Data presented here implicate HEV as the probable etiology of high mortality observed in pregnant women and in children less than 3 years of age in Uzbekistan during 1985–1987. High mortality among pregnant women but not among children less than 3 years has been observed in

  15. Clinical significance of determination of changes of serum IL-2, sIL-2R, IL-13 and PDGF levels in patients with viral hepatitis B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To study the clinical significance of changes of serum IL-2, sIL-2R, IL-13 and platalet derived growth factor (PDGF) levels in patients with viral hepatitis B. Methods: Serum IL-2, sIL-2R (with RIA) and IL-13, PDGF (with ELISA) levels were determined in 1) 20 patients with acute hepatitis B 2) 90 patients with chronic hepatitis 3) 40 patients with advanced hepatitis and 4) 45 controls. Results: Serum levels of IL-2 were slightly lower in patients with acute hepatitis than those in controls but without significant differences (P>0.05). The levels were significantly lower in patients with chronic and advarced hepatitis than those in controls (P<0.05). Serum levels of sIL-2R were significantly higher in all the hepatitis patients (P<0.01) with the higher levels in the most advanced cases. Serum IL-13 and PDGF levels were also significantly higher in all the hepatitis patients than those in controls (P<0.05 and P<0.01), with higher levels in more advanced patients. Conclusion: Changes of serum levels of these cytokins were closely related to the disease process of viral hepatitis and might be of prognostic importance. (authors)

  16. Prevention and management of chronic Hepatitis B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamatha Bhat

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV infection affects an estimated 370 million people worldwide. HBV is endemic throughout the world, and insidiously causes liver damage over years and decades without any warning symptoms or signs. Up to 25-35% of infected individuals eventually die due to complications of liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC induced by HBV. Screening those individuals at risk of acquiring hepatitis B, and universal vaccination for prevention, would help in limiting the spread and public health repercussions of the virus. Although many new antiviral therapies have been developed for the management of hepatitis B, they still do not offer the possibility of cure. Most individuals who begin oral suppressive therapy will be indefinitely treated. Continuous suppression of HBV replication in individuals with advanced liver disease prolongs life, decreases the need for liver transplantation, and potentially reduces the risk for HCC. In this clinical review, we present a practical approach to prevention of HBV, its natural history and life cycle, as well as its management.

  17. The study on serologic index of hepatic fibrosis in viral hepatitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To explore the applicable value of hyaluronic acid (HA), collagen type IV(C-IV), N-terminal procollagen III(P III NP), laminin (LN), NAG and the PGA ratio (PT/GCT/Apo- A1) in the detection of diagnosis of liver fibrosis. Methods: Serum markers were studied in 217 patients (contain 82 pathologies) with viral hepatitis:(1)HA,C-IV, P III NP, LN were determined by radio-immunoassay. (2)NAG and PGA ratio were determined by biochemical auto-analyzer. Results: (1)Serum HA, NAG and PGA ratio elevated significantly with the progress of inflammation and fibrosis(P2-S3 fibrotic grades. (3) Serum LN remained unchanged in different histological grades, therefore it was not able to reflect the progress of inflammation and liver fibrosis. Conclusions: (1)Co-detection of serum HA, NAG and PGA ratio provides accurate and reliable indexes for the clinical diagnosis. Dynamic observation of their changes may be used to know the progress of disease and be used as reliable indexes to judge the therapeutic effect of antifibrotic drugs. (2) To some extent it is important to differentiate middle hepatitis from mild hepatitis of serum P III NP and C-IV, therefore these serum markers may be taken as indexes to reflect levels of hepatitis severity. (authors)

  18. [Reporting chronic hepatitis B and C in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, N.; Cowan, S.; Christensen, P.B.;

    2008-01-01

    are reported to the State Serum Institute (SSI) and to find out who makes the report and from these numbers to estimate the total number of patients in Denmark with chronic hepatitis B and C. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients with chronic hepatitis B or C who were reported to the SSI before June 20th 2006 were...... cross-referenced with patients included in the Danish Database of Hepatitis B and C (DANHEP) on the basis of their social security number. RESULTS: The study found that only 50% of patients monitored at Danish hospitals with chronic hepatitis B or C are registered with the SSI. Respectively 47% and 38...

  19. Comparison of clinical and laboratory characteristics of viral hepatitis A and E in Montenegro

    OpenAIRE

    Terzić Dragica; Mijović Gordana; Dupanović Brankica; Drašković Nenad; Švirtlih Neda

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Hepatitis E has many similarities in with hepatitis A concerning clinical picture, route of transmission and nonexistence of chronicity. Comparison of clinical and laboratory parameters of patients with hepatitis A and E to estimate characteristics of these diseases. Material and methods Total of 54 patients divided into two groups was investigated: 27 had hepatitis A, others had hepatitis E. Detailed history past, clinical examination, liver function tests and ultrasonography of...

  20. Interferon Alpha-2b Therapy in Chronic Hepatitis Delta

    OpenAIRE

    Keshvari, Maryam; Alavian, Seyed Moayed; Sharafi, Heidar; Karimi, Gharib; Gholami Fesharaki, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Background: Approximately 5% of hepatitis B virus (HBV) carriers are coinfected with hepatitis D virus (HDV). HBV/HDV coinfection is a major cause of cirrhosis and end stage liver disease in chronic HBsAg carriers. The only approved therapy for chronic hepatitis delta is interferon alpha (IFN α) in either pegylated or conventional forms. Although higher doses and longer durations of IFN α therapy in HBV/HDV coinfected patients are currently applied, yet treatment response is low. Objectives: ...

  1. Hepatitis C Viral Infection in Children: Updated Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a major medical challenge affecting around 200 million people worldwide. The main site of HCV replication is the hepatocytes of the liver. HCV is a positive enveloped RNA virus from the flaviviridae family. Six major HCV genotypes are implicated in the human infection. In developed countries the children are infected mainly through vertical transmission during deliveries, while in developing countries it is still due to horizontal transmission from adults. Minimal nonspecific and brief symptoms are initially found in approximately 15% of children. Acute and chronic HCV infection is diagnosed through the recognition of HCV RNA. The main objective for treatment of chronic HCV is to convert detected HCV viremia to below the detection limit. Children with chronic HCV infection are usually asymptomatic and rarely develop severe liver damage. Therefore, the benefits from current therapies, pegylated-Interferon plus ribavirin, must be weighed against their adverse effects. This combined treatment offers a 50-90% chance of clearing HCV infection according to several studies and on different HCV genotype. Recent direct acting antiviral (DAA) drugs which are well established for adults have not yet been approved for children and young adults below 18 years. The most important field for the prevention of HCV infection in children would be the prevention of perinatal and parenteral transmission. There are areas of focus for new lines of research in pediatric HCV-related disease that can be addressed in the near future.

  2. [Consequences of extrahepatic manifestations of hepatitis C viral infection (HCV)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawełczyk, Agnieszka

    2016-01-01

    The hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a primarily hepatotropic virus. However, numerous extrahepatic symptoms are observed in patients chronically infected with HCV, e.g. cryoglobulinemia, lymphoproliferative disorders, kidney diseases, disturbances of the central and peripheral nervous system, thyroid gland, pancreas, lymph nodes and pituitary gland, that develop at various times after the infection. Complex mechanisms underlie these processes, both molecular, related to direct effects of the virus on cells or tissues and indirect mechanisms, resulting from the response of the immune system to infection (via cytokines or oxidative stress), and from the antiviral treatment used. Understanding these mechanisms may contribute to the definition of new prognostic factors, important for the early diagnosis of the infection, which in turn may improve treatment efficacy. This paper is a review of the incidence of selected extrahepatic manifestations of HCV infection and their underlying pathogenetic mechanisms and risk factors. PMID:27117111

  3. Chronic hepatitis virus infection in patients with multiple myeloma: clinical characteristics and outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Jen Teng

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Cytotoxic agents and steroids are used to treat lymphoid malignancies, but these compounds may exacerbate chronic viral hepatitis. For patients with multiple myeloma, the impact of preexisting hepatitis virus infection is unclear. The aim of this study is to explore the characteristics and outcomes of myeloma patients with chronic hepatitis virus infection. METHODS: From 2003 to 2008, 155 myeloma patients were examined to determine their chronic hepatitis virus infection statuses using serologic tests for the hepatitis B (HBV and C viruses (HCV. Clinical parameters and outcome variables were retrieved via a medical chart review. RESULTS: The estimated prevalences of chronic HBV and HCV infections were 11.0% (n = 17 and 9.0% (n = 14, respectively. The characteristics of patients who were hepatitis virus carriers and those who were not were similar. However, carrier patients had a higher prevalence of conventional cytogenetic abnormalities (64.3% vs. 25.0%. The cumulative incidences of grade 3-4 elevation of the level of alanine transaminase, 30.0% vs. 12.0%, and hyperbilirubinemia, 20.0% vs. 1.6%, were higher in carriers as well. In a Kaplan-Meier analysis, carrier patients had worse overall survival (median: 16.0 vs. 42.4 months. The prognostic value of carrier status was not statistically significant in the multivariate analysis, but an age of more than 65 years old, the presence of cytogenetic abnormalities, a beta-2-microglobulin level of more than 3.5 mg/L, and a serum creatinine level of more than 2 mg/ dL were independent factors associated with poor prognosis. CONCLUSION: Myeloma patients with chronic hepatitis virus infections might be a distinct subgroup, and close monitoring of hepatic adverse events should be mandatory.

  4. A SELEX-screened aptamer of human hepatitis B virus RNA encapsidation signal suppresses viral replication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Feng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The specific interaction between hepatitis B virus (HBV polymerase (P protein and the ε RNA stem-loop on pregenomic (pg RNA is crucial for viral replication. It triggers both pgRNA packaging and reverse transcription and thus represents an attractive antiviral target. RNA decoys mimicking ε in P protein binding but not supporting replication might represent novel HBV inhibitors. However, because generation of recombinant enzymatically active HBV polymerase is notoriously difficult, such decoys have as yet not been identified. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we used a SELEX approach, based on a new in vitro reconstitution system exploiting a recombinant truncated HBV P protein (miniP, to identify potential ε decoys in two large ε RNA pools with randomized upper stem. Selection of strongly P protein binding RNAs correlated with an unexpected strong enrichment of A residues. Two aptamers, S6 and S9, displayed particularly high affinity and specificity for miniP in vitro, yet did not support viral replication when part of a complete HBV genome. Introducing S9 RNA into transiently HBV producing HepG2 cells strongly suppressed pgRNA packaging and DNA synthesis, indicating the S9 RNA can indeed act as an ε decoy that competitively inhibits P protein binding to the authentic ε signal on pgRNA. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study demonstrates the first successful identification of human HBV ε aptamers by an in vitro SELEX approach. Effective suppression of HBV replication by the S9 aptamer provides proof-of-principle for the ability of ε decoy RNAs to interfere with viral P-ε complex formation and suggests that S9-like RNAs may further be developed into useful therapeutics against chronic hepatitis B.

  5. Prevalence and severity of acute viral hepatitis and fulminant hepatitis during pregnancy: A prospective study from north india

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beniwal M

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to find out the prevalence and severity of acute viral hepatitis and fulminant hepatitis during pregnancy in North India. The study was conducted on 97 consecutive pregnant patients in third trimester with acute viral hepatitis (AVH or fulminant hepatic failure (FHF. The patients were evaluated on the basis of history, examination, liver function profile and serological markers for hepatitis A,B,C and E viruses. Hepatitis E virus (HEV was the causative agent in 47.4% of the cases of viral hepatitis and 52.6% were caused by non-E viruses(HAV-5.2%,HBV-7.2%,HCV-0%,non A-E 47.4%. HEV was responsible for 36.2% of the cases of AVH and 75% of the cases of FHF. The mortality was 24.7% (24/97. All of them had FHF. Eighteen of 24 cases (75% who expired were HEV positive. The mortality rate was 39.1% in HEV group and 11.7% in non HEV group. Majority of patients (87.5% who expired had died undelivered. Hepatitis E was the commonest etiological agent in those who had fulminant disease during pregnancy and was associated with high mortality rate.

  6. Frequency distribution of HCV genotypes among chronic hepatitis C patients of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa

    OpenAIRE

    Azam Sadiq; Ali Ijaz; Ali Sajid; Ahmad Bashir

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) genotypes frequency is important for the predication of response to therapy and duration of treatment. Despite variable response rates experienced in the case of Interferon (IFN) -based therapies, there was scarcity of data on HCV genotypes frequency in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK). Study Design A total of 200 blood samples were collected from chronic HCV patients prior to the initiation of anti-viral therapy. The study population included patients from...

  7. End-of-Treatment-Response in Patients Treated for Hepatitis C Virus with Standard Interferon and Ribavirin Based on Viral Load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To determine the End-of-Treatment-Response (ETR) to standard interferon and ribavirin based regimen in patients of chronic hepatitis C and to compare the ETR response in low and high viral load groups. Study Design: Descriptive study. Place and Duration of Study: Virology Department, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology (AFIP), Rawalpindi, from March 2012 to May 2013. Methodology: Patients with chronic hepatitis C virus infection were included in the study. Pre-treatment viral load was determined by RoboGene Quantification kit. Based on viral load, the 400 patients were divided into two equal groups of low viral load (< 800,000 IU/ml) and high viral load (> 800,000 IU/ml). The patients were treated with standard interferon alpha (3 million units subcutaneously thrice weekly) and ribavirin (10.6 mg/kg body weight) for 6 months. ETR was measured using Sacace Biotechnologies Qualitative kit. Chi-square test was used to compare the ETR in the two viral load groups. P-value < 0.05 was considered as significant. Results: Out of 400 patients, 206 (51.5%) were males and 194 (48.5%) were females. Two hundred seventy (67.5%) patients achieved ETR and 130 (35.5%) failed to do so. In low viral load group, 145 (72.5%) patients achieved and 55 (27.5%) patients did not achieve ETR. In high viral load group, 123 (61.5%) patients achieved and 77 (38.5%) did not achieve ETR. The difference in ETR between low and high viral load groups was statistically significant (p=0.019). Conclusion: End-of-treatment-response in patients treated for hepatitis C virus with standard interferon and ribavirin was greater in patients with low viral load as compared to patients with high viral load. (author)

  8. Maintenance of T1 response as induced during PEG-IFNalpha plus ribavirin therapy controls viral replication in genotype-1 patients with chronic hepatitis C La respuesta inmune T1 inducida durante el tratamiento con PEG-IFNα mαs ribavirina controla la replicaciσn viral en pacientes con hepatitis crónica C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Trapero

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: to analyze the T1/T2 cytokine profile in CD8 T cells from peripheral blood mononuclear cells from patients with genotype-1 CHC during treatment with pegylated interferon (Peg-IFN α2a plus ribavirin (RBV. To correlate Th1/Th2 balance with virological response. Patients and methods: in this prospective longitudinal study, a total of 28 naïve genotype-1 CHC patients received Peg-IFNα2a (180 µg/week plus RBV (1-1.2 g/day for 48 weeks. All patients (mean age 45 ± 8 years completed treatment and follow-up: 12 (43% achieved a sustained virological response (SVR, 13 relapsed after end of treatment (47%, and only 3 (10% were non-responders. Sixteen healthy controls were also analyzed (mean age 39 ± 17 years. The production of IL-4, IIFNγ, and TTNFα by CD8 T cells was measured by intracytoplasmic detection using flow cytometry in both resting and stimulated cells with a phorbol ester. Statistics: Student's t test for independent values, χ2 test, and ANOVA test were used; relapsers and non-responders were joined to achieve a higher statistical power. Results: at third month during treatment, phorbol ester-stimulated-IL-4 levels tend to be lower in patients who presented with SVR versus those who did not (0.97 vs 2.58; p = 0.1. No statistically significant differences were found in IIFNγ and TTNFα levels at month 3. At EOT, the stimulated-IIFNγ production was significantly higher in patients with SVR (20 vs. 8; p Objetivos: analizar el perfil de citocinas T1/T2 producidas por los linfocitos T CD8+ de sangre periférica en pacientes con hepatitis crónica C (HCC y genotipo 1 durante el tratamiento con interferón pegilado (Peg-IFN α2a y ribavirina (RBV y compararlos con controles sanos. Correlacionar el balance T1/T2 con la respuesta virológica al tratamiento combinado. Pacientes y métodos: en este estudio prospectivo longitudinal se incluyeron 28 pacientes naïve con HCC genotipo 1 tratados con Peg-IFNα2a (180 µg/semana más RBV

  9. Gastric Emptying Time in Acute and Chronic Hepatitis B Patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anorexia, nausea, and vomiting are one of the most frequent symptoms in viral hepatitis patients. These may be due to poorly detoxified substances by dysfunctioned hepatocytes or by gastritis, but the pathophysiology is not totally understood. The symptoms interfere with adequate nutrient intake and are managed by metaclopramide, which accelerates gastric emptying. Thus delayed gastric emptying may well be a contributing factor to such symptoms. To determine such a relationship, we measured gastric emptying time in 11 normal subjects, 9 acute (AVH), and 12 chronic B viral hepatitis (CVH) patients. All were males with a mean age of 23 years. An egg was labeled with 0.5 mCi of 99mTc-sulfur colloid, fried, then eaten between 2 slices of bread with 100 cc of water. Anterior and posterior images were taken at 20 minute intervals over a 2 hour period. A geometric mean of activity pertaining to the gastric region was measured, and T1/2 was calculated from the time activity curve. T1/2 for normal the group was 57.8 ± 6.3 minutes while that for the AVH and CVH group was 58.2 ± 8.2 (p=0.40) and 64.1 ± 10.5 (p=0.09), respectively. There was 1 AVH patient and 4 CVH patients with prolonged T1/2. Anorexia and nausea was seen in 71% and 46% of the patients, respectively. 80% and 60% of the patients with prolonged T1/2 had anorexia and nausea, respectively.

  10. Hepatic microcirculatory disturbances in patients with chronic hepatitis B

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝菁华; 石军; 任万华; 韩国庆; 朱菊人; 王书运; 谢英渤

    2002-01-01

    Objective To document morphological changes in hepatic microcirculation in liver tissue with hepatitis B and the pathogenesis of hepatic microcirculatory disturbances. Methods Liver tissue samples were obtained from patients with hepatitis B by liver biopsy. These samples were examined with a light microscope and transmission electron microscope. Results Hepatic microcirculatory disturbances existed in patients with hepatitis B, including those with normal liver function, manifested by red blood cell aggregation in sinusoids seen under light microscope and sinusoidal capillarization seen under electron microscope. Weibel-Palade bodies in sinusoidal endothelial cells were seen in 26 out of 53 cases. Intimate contacts were found between lymphocyte/Kupffer cells and sinusoidal endothelial cells. Conclusions Hepatic microcirculatory disturbances exist in patients with hepatitis B .The appearance of Weibel-Palade bodies in sinusoidal endothelial cells may be a key step in the development of hepatic microcirculatory disturbances.

  11. The Molecular and Antigenic Tissue Impact of Viral Infections on Liver Transplant Patients with Neonatal Hepatitis

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Background: Pathogenesis of neonatal hepatitis relates to various underlying causes including viral infections. Both hepatotropic and non-hepatotropic viruses may induce liver failures in infants before birth, during delivery, or shortly after birth. Objectives: The tissue impact of HCMV, HSV, HBV, HCV, and rotavirus and adenovirus infections was evaluated in studied infants with neonatal hepatitis. Methods: The history of viral infections was analyzed in paraffin-embedded biopsy and autopsy ...

  12. Propuesta de algoritmo para el diagnóstico diferencial de la hepatitis viral aguda:

    OpenAIRE

    Olga Castillo de Febres; Maria de los R. Chacón de Petrola

    2009-01-01

    Proposing a flow diagram for the differential diagnosis of the acute viral hepatitis: description of key diagnostic elements.Clinical presentation of MN viral hepatitis shows similar characteristics regardless of the causal agent, for what it is fundamental to establish a specific diagnosis, on which the prognostic of the case will depend. Moreover, there exist great number of diagnostic tests, of complex interpretationand sequential interrelationship. Consequently, after a thorough literatur...

  13. [The use of a dried protein mixture in treating patients with viral hepatitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunaevskiĭ, G A; Karpenko, P A; Denisiako, E I; Tsimbal, A E; Iurkovskaia, N B

    1989-07-01

    The authors studied the effect of a dry protein mixture on the clinical course and protein and pigmentary metabolism, functional tests of the liver in 223 patients with viral hepatitis. It was found that this mixture favours reduction of the icteric period, more rapid restoration of the liver function and improves prognosis. The dry protein mixture is recommended to be included in dietotherapy of patients with viral hepatitis. PMID:2800480

  14. Hepatitis E virus: an underdiagnosed cause of chronic hepatitis in renal transplant recipients

    OpenAIRE

    Halleux, D; Kanaan, Nada; Kabamba-Mukadi, Benoît; Thomas, Isabelle; Hassoun, Ziad

    2012-01-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection can evolve to chronic hepatitis in immunocompromised patients leading to rapidly progressive cirrhosis. Proper diagnosis is therefore important, as reducing immunosuppressive therapy can allow clearance of the virus. We report a case of chronic HEV infection in a renal transplant recipient that went undiagnosed for many years, discuss the therapeutic options, and review the current available literature.

  15. New pandemics: HIV and AIDS, HCV and chronic hepatitis, Influenza virus and flu

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen Éric A; Wainberg Mark A; Dubuisson Jean; Gatignol Anne; Darlix Jean-Luc

    2007-01-01

    Abstract New pandemics are a serious threat to the health of the entire world. They are essentially of viral origin and spread at large speed. A meeting on this topic was held in Lyon, France, within the XIXth Jacques Cartier Symposia, a series of France-Québec meetings held every year. New findings on HIV and AIDS, on HCV and chronic hepatitis, and an update on influenza virus and flu were covered during this meeting on December 4 and 5, 2006. Aspects of viral structure, virus-host interacti...

  16. Interleukin-16 Gene Polymorphisms Are Considerable Host Genetic Factors for Patients’ Susceptibility to Chronic Hepatitis B Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Sara Romani; Seyed Masoud Hosseini; Seyed Reza Mohebbi; Shabnam Kazemian; Shaghayegh Derakhshani; Mahsa Khanyaghma; Pedram Azimzadeh; Afsaneh Sharifian; Mohammad Reza Zali

    2014-01-01

    Host genetic background is known as an important factor in patients’ susceptibility to infectious diseases such as viral hepatitis. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of genetic polymorphisms of interleukin-16 (IL-16) cytokine on susceptibility of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infected patients to develop chronic HBV infection. Genotyping was conducted using PCR followed by enzymatic digestion and RFLP (restriction fragment length polymorphism) analysis. We genotyped three single nuc...

  17. Theoretical basis of a beneficial role for vitamin D in viral hepatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Khanh vinh qu(o)c L(u)(o)ng; Lan Thi Hoàng Nguy(e)n

    2012-01-01

    Abnormal bone metabolism and dysfunction of the calcium-parathyroid hormone-vitamin D axis have been reported in patients with viral hepatitis.Some studies suggested a relationship between vitamin D and viral hepatitis.Genetic studies have provided an opportunity to identify the proteins that link vitamin D to the pathology of viral hepatitis (i.e.,the major histocompatibility complex class Ⅱ molecules,the vitamin D receptor,cytochrome P450,the renin-angiotensin system,apolipoprotein E,liver X receptor,toll-like receptor,and the proteins regulated by the Sp1 promoter gene).Vitamin D also exerts its effects on viral hepatitis via non-genomic factors,i.e.,matrix metalloproteinase,endothelial vascular growth factor,prostaglandins,cyclooxygenase-2,and oxidative stress.In conclusion,vitamin D could have a beneficial role in viral hepatitis.Calcitriol is best used for viral hepatitis because it is the active form of the vitamin D3 metabolite.

  18. Usefulness of screening ultrasonography for hepatocellular carcinoma detection: chronic hepatitis versus hepatic cirrhosis caused by hepatitis B virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the usefulness of screening liver ultrasonography (US) for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) detection in patients with chronic hepatitis or hepatic cirrhosis caused by hepatitis B virus (HBV). A retrospective study was performed with 1,189 patients with clinical hepatopathy caused by HBV who underwent screening liver US for HCC detection at least twice. All patients were followed up with liver US examinations (mean, 8.3 times), CT, or MR for at least 3 months (range, 3-102 months; mean, 47 months) for the detection of HCC. The study population was divided into two groups: chronic hepatitis (n=492) and hepatic cirrhosis (n=697), which was further divided into two groups with (n=156) or without (n=541) evident shrinkage. The radiologic examinations that had detected HCC for the first time were analyzed and compared between the groups. Among 20 (4.1%) patients with chronic hepatitis and 132 (18.9%) patients with hepatic cirrhosis diagnosed as HCC, screening US was the modality of detection in 17 (85.0%) of 20 patients with chronic hepatitis and 76 (57.6%) of 132 patients with hepatic cirrhosis (p=0.038, Chi-square test). The detection rate of HCC on screening US between the chronic hepatitis and hepatic cirrhosis with evident shrinkage (51.4%, 19/37) showed a significant difference (p=0.027, Chi-square test). For chronic liver disease caused by HBV, screening US for HCC detection is more useful in patients with chronic hepatitis than with hepatic cirrhosis with evident shrinkage

  19. Development of Viral Vectors for Gene Therapy for Chronic Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Huang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic pain is a major health concern that affects millions of people. There are no adequate long-term therapies for chronic pain sufferers, leading to significant cost for both society and the individual. The most commonly used therapy for chronic pain is the application of opioid analgesics and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, but these drugs can lead to addiction and may cause side effects. Further studies of the mechanisms of chronic pain have opened the way for development of new treatment strategies, one of which is gene therapy. The key to gene therapy is selecting safe and highly efficient gene delivery systems that can deliver therapeutic genes to overexpress or suppress relevant targets in specific cell types. Here we review several promising viral vectors that could be applied in gene transfer for the treatment of chronic pain and further discuss the possible mechanisms of genes of interest that could be delivered with viral vectors for the treatment of chronic pain.

  20. Impact of liver steatosis on response to pegylated interferon therapy in patients with chronic hepatitis B

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fehmi Ate(s); Mehmet Yaln(i)z; Saadet Alan

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the impact of liver steatosis upon response to given therapy in chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients. METHODS: 84 consecutive CHB patients treated with 48-wk PEGylated interferon (PEG-IFN) therapy were enrolled. Baseline characteristics and sustained viral response (SVR) to PEG-IFN therapy were evaluated. RESULTS: Mean body mass index (BMI) was 27.36 ± 4.4 kg/m2. Six (7.1%) had hypertension and three (3.5%) had diabetes mellitus. Steatosis was present in 22.6% (19/84) of liver biopsy samples. Age, BMI, and triglyceride levels of the patients with hepatic steatosis were significantly higher than those without hepatic steatosis (P 0.05). CONCLUSION: Occurrence of hepatic steatosis is significantly high in CHB patients and this association leads to a trend of decreased, but statistically insignificant, SVR rates to PEG-IFN treatment.

  1. Sustained viral response of a case of acute hepatitis C virus infection via needle-stick injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Takayuki Kogure; Yu Nakagome; Masashi Ninomiya; Tooru Shimosegawa; Yoshiyuki Ueno; Noriatsu Kanno; Koji Fukushima; Yoko Yamagiwa; Futoshi Nagasaki; Eiji Kakazu; Yasunori Matsuda; Osamu Kido

    2006-01-01

    A 29-year-old nurse with a hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection caused by needle-stick injury was treated with interferon-beta starting about one year after the onset of acute hepatitis. The patient developed acute hepatitis C with symptoms of general fatigues, jaundice, and ascites 4 wk after the needle-stick injury. When these symptoms were presented, the patient was pregnant by artificial insemination. She hoped to continue her pregnancy.After delivery, biochemical liver enzyme returned to normal levels. Nevertheless, HCV RNA was positive and the pathological finding indicated a progression to chronicity. The genotype was 1b with low viral load.Daily intravenous injection of interferon-beta at the dosage of six million units was started and continued for eight weeks. HCV was eradicated without severe adverse effects. In acute hepatitis C, delaying therapy is considered to reduce the efficacy but interferon-beta therapy is one of the useful treatments for hepatitis C infection in chronic phase.

  2. Prevalence of Hepatitis A virus (HAV and Hepatitis E virus (HEV in the patients presenting with acute viral hepatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Joon

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hepatitis A virus (HAV and Hepatitis E virus (HEV are both enterically transmitted, resulting in acute viral hepatitis (AVH in developing countries. They pose major health problems in our country. This study was done to determine prevalence of HAV and HEV in patients presenting with AVH and the co-infection of HAV and HEV in these patients. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study of 2-years duration was conducted in the Department of Microbiology, KMC, Mangalore. A non-random sampling of 958 patients presenting with AVH was considered in the study. On the basis of history, serum samples were analysed for IgM anti-HAV and IgM anti-HEV for the detection of HAV and HEV, respectively using commercially available ELISA kits. Data collected was analysed by using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS version 11.5. Results: The seroprevalence of HAV- and HEV-positive patients were 19.31% and 10.54%, respectively. The seroprevalence of both HAV and HEV in patients with acute viral hepatitis was 11.5%. The prevalence of HAV and HEV among males (68% and 31% was higher than in females (31% and 20% and was predominantly seen among young adults. These infections were predominantly seen during end of monsoons and beginning of winter. Conclusion: Though the prevalence of HAV is much higher than that of HEV, co-infection rate of 11.5% mandates the screening for HEV which will be of immense importance in pregnant women and improving levels of personal hygiene among higher socio-economic population. These data will be essential for planning of future vaccination strategies and for better sanitation programme in this part of the country.

  3. Association of Mutations in the Basal Core Promoter and Pre-core Regions of the Hepatitis B Viral Genome and Longitudinal Changes in HBV Level in HBeAg Negative Individuals: Results From a Cohort Study in Northern Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Besharat, Sima; Poustchi, Hossein; Mohamadkhani, Ashraf; Katoonizadeh, Aezam; Moradi, Abdolvahab; Roshandel, Gholamreza; Freedman, Neal David; Malekzadeh, Reza

    2015-01-01

    Background: Although certain HBV mutations are known to affect the expression of Hepatitis e antigen, their association with HBV viral level or clinical outcomes is less clear. Objectives: We evaluated associations between different mutations in the Basal Core promoter (BCP) and Pre-core (PC) regions of HBV genome and subsequent changes in HBV viral DNA level over seven years in a population of untreated HBeAg negative chronic hepatitis B (CHB) participants in Northeast of Iran. Materials and...

  4. Chronic hepatitis B virus in the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gish, Robert G; Sollano, Jose D; Lapasaran, Alex; Ong, Janus P

    2016-05-01

    Multiple studies have shown a high prevalence of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) infection in the Philippines, not only in high-risk populations but also in the general population. The most recent national study estimated HBsAg seroprevalence to be 16.7%, corresponding to an estimated 7.3 million CHB adults. The factors underlying the high prevalence of CHB and its sequelae include the inadequate use of vaccination for prevention and the lack of treatment for many Filipinos. Because without medical monitoring and treatment of CHB the risk of progression to liver failure and death is 25-30%, the ultimate medical and societal costs will be very high if the Philippines fails to properly address hepatitis B infection. It will be very important to move forward with programs that can help to ensure universal vaccination of newborns, screening and vaccination nationwide, and monitoring and treatment for CHB persons. It will also be crucial to address transmission of HBV in the health-care setting (via contaminated needles and syringes and inadequately sterilized hospital equipment) and via injection drug use and tattooing. Because of the relatively low average per capita income and the lack of coverage by PhilHealth of outpatient visits and medications, there is an urgent need to move forward with a nationally supported program that includes education for both the general public and health-care workers on liver disease and screening for hepatitis viruses, followed by, as appropriate, vaccination or treatment, with expanded government coverage for these for all those who could not otherwise afford it. PMID:26643262

  5. Pharmacoeconomics applied to chronic hepatitis C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Franciosi Tatsch

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Life expectancy has increased over the last century as it had never been before. This is the result of a combination of many favorable variables such as level of education, improved socio-economic environment and development of medicine. However, new improvements demand heavy investment. Thus, the incorporation of medical technology became a health and economic issue. The pharmacoeconomic knowledge field is being developed to help in the analysis of medical costs and patient needs. The applies to hepatitic C, a common and chronic worldwide disease. In this article, the authors describe the rational behind this type of health economic analysis and review a hepatitis C model. Overall, in a non-Brazilian scenario, it was demonstrated that peginterferon alfa-2a (40KD is cost effective in the treatment of HCV disease.

  6. Association between HLA class Ⅱ gene and susceptibility or resistance to chronic hepatitis B

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ye-Gui Jiang; Yu-Ming Wang; Tong-Hua Liu; Jun Liu

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the association between the polymorphism of HLA-DRB1, -DQA1 and -DQB1 alleles and viral hepatitis B.METHODS: HLA-DRB1, -DQA1 and -DQB1 alleles in 54patients with chronic hepatitis B, 30 patients with acute hepatitis B and 106 normal control subjects were analyzed by using the polymerase chain reaction/sequence specific primer (PCR/SSP) technique.RESULTS: The allele frequency of HLA-DRB1*0301 in the chronic hepatitis B group was markedly higher than that in the normal control group (17.31% VS 5.67%), there was a significant correlation between them (χ2= 12.3068,Pc=0.0074, RR=4.15). The allele frequency of HLADQA1*0501 in the chronic hepatitis B group was significantly higher than that in the normal control group (25.96% VS 13.68%), there was a significant correlation between them (χ2=9.2002, PC=0.0157, RR=2.87). The allele frequency of HLA-DQB1*0301 in the chronic hepatitis B group was notably higher than that in the normal control group (35.58%vs 18.87%), there was a significant correlation between them (χ2=15.5938, PC=0.0075, RR=4.07). The allele frequency of HLA-DRB1*1101/1104 in the chronic hepatitis B group was obviously lower than that in the normal control group (0.96% VS 13.33%), there was a significant correlation between them (χ2=11.9206, PC=0.0145, RR=18.55). The allele frequency of HLA-DQA1*0301 in the chronic hepatitis B group was remarkably lower than that in the normal control group (14.42% VS30%), there was a significant correlation between them (χ2=8.7396, Pc=0.0167, RR=0.35).CONCLUSION: HLA-DRB1*0301, HLA-DQA1*0501 and HLA-DQB1*0301 are closely related with susceptibility to chronic hepatitis B, and HLA-DRB1*1101/1104 and HLADQA1*0301 are closely related with resistance to chronic hepatitis B. These findings suggest that host HLA class Ⅱ gene is an important factor determining the outcome of HBV infection.

  7. Treatment of viral hepatitis in China: better clinical research and improved practice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Jing; JIA Ji-dong

    2009-01-01

    @@ Hepatitis virus infection, especially chronic infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV), is a serious issue to global public health. Although the prevalence of HBsAg in the general population has been declined dramatically in China due to universal HBV vaccination in newborns, chronic hepatitis B and hepatitis C are still the main causes of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) that are responsible for a high rate of morbidity and mortality.1,2 HBV- and HCV-related end-stage liver disease are also the leading indications of liver transplantation in China.

  8. The Role of Serum Leptin and IL-6 Levels in Post Viral Hepatitis Cirrhotic patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chronic liver disease is characterized by numerous metabolic alterations resulting in the clinical picture of malnutrition or even cachexia and contributing to complications such as hepatic encephalopathy and ascites. Leptin is a hormone that plays an important role in regulating energy intake and expenditure including appetite and metabolism. Interleukin-6 (IL-6), on the other hand, is generally considered to be one of the important cytokines that regulate immunologic and metabolic actions. The aim of the present study was to investigate serum leptin and IL-6 levels in liver cirrhosis, as well as to determine their levels in relation to liver functions and lipid profile. This study was conducted on 25 patients with post- viral hepatic cirrhosis compared to 20 healthy matched individuals served as controls with the same age and sex. The severity of the disease assessed with Child-Pugh criteria yielded 8 patients (3 women, 5 men) with stage A, 10 patients (4 women, 6 men) with stage B and 7 patients (2 women, 5 men) with stage C. Compared to controls, body mass index (BMI) was decreased and reached statistical significance in group C liver cirrhosis (P< 0.05). Also, serum leptin level was highly significantly decreased in the three groups, while IL-6 level showed highly significant increase. Leptin level negatively correlated with aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and total bilirubin and positively correlated with serum albumin, triglycerides (TG), cholesterol and low density lipoprotein (LDL). In contrast, serum IL-6 level positively correlated with parameters of liver functions and negatively correlated with parameters of lipid profile. Additionally, there was highly significant negative correlation between serum leptin and IL-6 levels (P < 0.001) in post-hepatic cirrhotic patients. We concluded that leptin and IL-6 have important role in diagnosis and prognosis of patients with post-hepatic liver cirrhosis

  9. Bloodborne Viral Hepatitis Infections among Drug Users: The Role of Vaccination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Mezzelani

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Drug use is a prevalent world-wide phenomenon and hepatitis virus infections are traditionally a major health problem among drug users (DUs. HBV and HCV, and to a lesser extent HAV, are easily transmitted through exposure to infected blood and body fluids. Viral hepatitis is not inevitable for DUs. Licensed vaccines are available for hepatitis A and hepatitis B. The purpose of this overview is to show some epidemiological data about HBV and the other blood-borne viral hepatitis among DUs and to summarize and discuss use of hepatitis vaccinations in this population. Successful vaccination campaigns among DUs are feasible and well described. We try to focus on the most significant results achieved in successful vaccination programs as reported in scientific literature. Vaccination campaigns among DUs represent a highly effective form of health education and they are cost-saving.

  10. A Review: Progress of Prevention and Control on Viral Hepatitis in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO XIUCHAN; WU YIQUN

    1999-01-01

    @@ There are six types of viral hepatitis, namely, A, B, C, D, E and G. Two types are mainly classified according to the routes of transmission. Hepatitis types A and E are transmitted by gastrointestinal tract (stool-mouth transmission). The others (B, C, D and G)are transmitted by parenteral route, the most common of which is blood transmission.

  11. Infección crónica por el VHB Chronic Hepatitis B Virus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Carretero

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Existen muchos factores implicados en la patogénesis de la infección crónica por el virus de la hepatitis B (VHB, como por ejemplo características del virus, la ingesta de etanol, la coinfección con otros virus (VHC, VIH, VHD, e intervenciones terapéuticas como el uso de fármacos citotóxicos o inmunosupresores, o agentes antivirales específicos. Las características clínicas, patológicas y serológicas de la hepatitis crónica por VHB, además, son muy heterogéneas. Se puede reconocer la infección crónica por VHB ante la persistencia del antígeno Australia (HBsAg durante más de seis meses. La presencia de HBeAg se suele asociar a la replicación viral activa y puede ser medida por la cantidad de DNA-VHB presente en el suero o bien por la expresión hepática de HBcAg. El daño hepático que se produce en la hepatitis crónica por VHB no es tanto por el efecto del virus sobre los hepatocitos sino por la reacción inmune que éste provoca en el huésped. Por ello puede verse cierta correlación inversamente proporcional entre la intensidad de la replicación viral y el grado de inflamación hepática. La presencia de hepatitis crónica activa en la biopsia inicial no se ha asociado al desarrollo de cirrosis así como tampoco el diagnóstico histológico de hepatitis crónica persistente puede asegurar que se vaya a desarrollar cirrosis en un futuro.Many factors are involved in the pathogenesis of chronic hepatitis B virus infection (HBV, such as, for example, characteristics of the virus, ethanol intake, coinfection with other viruses (HCV, HIV, HDV, and therapeutic interventions such as the use of cytotoxic drugs or immunosuppressors, or specific antiviral agents. The clinical, pathological and serological characteristics of chronic hepatitis B virus infection are besides very heterogeneous. Chronic HBV infection can be recognised facing persistence of the Australia antigen (HBsAg for more than six months. The presence of HBeAg is

  12. Extrahepatic manifestations of chronic hepatitis C virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacoub, Patrice; Comarmond, Cloe; Domont, Fanny; Savey, Léa; Desbois, Anne C; Saadoun, David

    2016-02-01

    During hepatitis C virus (HCV) chronic infection, extrahepatic manifestations are frequent and polymorphous. This article reports on a large cohort of patients with HCV-related autoimmune or lymphoproliferative disorders, from mixed cryoglobulinemia vasculitis to frank lymphomas. The relationship between HCV infection and such immune-related diseases has been formally demonstrated by epidemiological, clinical, immunological and pathological data, and results of therapeutic trials. More recently, other nonliver-related HCV disorders have been reported, including cardiovascular (i.e. stroke, ischemic heart disease), renal, metabolic and central nervous system diseases. For these manifestations, most evidence comes from large epidemiological studies; there is a need for mechanistic studies and therapeutic trials for confirmation. Beyond the risk of developing liver complications, that is, cirrhosis and liver cancer, patients with HCV infection have an increased risk of morbidity and mortality related to nonliver diseases. HCV chronic infection should be analyzed as a systemic disease in which extrahepatic consequences increase the weight of its pathological burden. The need for effective viral eradication measures is underlined. PMID:26862398

  13. Acute Herpes Sımplex Viral Hepatitis in an Immunocompetent Adult

    OpenAIRE

    Fikri Canoruç; Mehmet Dursun; Abdullah Altıntaş; Kadim Bayan; Şerif Yılmaz

    2006-01-01

    Herpes simplex viral hepatitis is uncommon in immunocompetent subjects. It is a difficult diagnosis to establish because of the high absence rate of mucocutaneous involvement. We report here a 38-year-old woman who was diagnosed to have herpes simplex virus hepatitis. The patient was neither pregnant nor immunocompromised. She got well in a short period only by a supportive treatment. Herpes simplex virus should be included in differential diagnosis of acute hepatitis even in immunocompetent ...

  14. Outcomes and management of viral hepatitis and human immunodeficiency virus co-infection in liver transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Congly, Stephen E; Doucette, Karen E; Coffin, Carla S

    2014-01-01

    Liver transplantation for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) positive patients with viral hepatitis co-infection is increasingly offered in many North American and European liver transplant centers. Prior studies have demonstrated acceptable post-transplant outcomes and no increased risk of HIV complications in patients co-infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV). However, liver transplantation in HIV positive patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) has poorer outcomes overall, requiring careful s...

  15. Chronic Viral Infection and Primary Central Nervous System Malignancy

    OpenAIRE

    Saddawi-Konefka, Robert; Crawford, John R.

    2010-01-01

    Primary central nervous system (CNS) tumors cause significant morbidity and mortality in both adults and children. While some of the genetic and molecular mechanisms of neuro-oncogenesis are known, much less is known about possible epigenetic contributions to disease pathophysiology. Over the last several decades, chronic viral infections have been associated with a number of human malignancies. In primary CNS malignancies, two families of viruses, namely polyomavirus and herpesvirus, have be...

  16. [Novel treatments for hepatitis C virus infection in chronic kidney disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabrizi, Fabrizio; Messa, Piergiorgio

    2016-01-01

    Recent evidence has been accumulated showing a negative impact of chronic hepatitis C virus infection on survival in patients with chronic kidney disease. Moreover, it appears that anti-HCV positive status has been associated with an increased risk of developing chronic kidney disease in the adult general population. These reports have emphasized the need for safe and effective therapies for hepatitis C virus infection in the chronic kidney disease population. Treatment of HCV has made considerable progress with the approval of interferon-free, direct-acting antiviral drug-based combination therapies among patients with intact kidneys; but a paucity of information exists regarding chronic kidney disease patients. The first published report on the antiviral treatment of hepatitis C among patients with chronic kidney disease (stage 4-5) and HCV genotype 1 concerns the combination of grazoprevir (NS3/4A protease inhibitor) and elbasvir (NS5A inhibitor); excellent safety and efficacy (sustained viral response, 94.3% 115/122) have been reached. In another study, the 3-D regimen (ombitasvir/ paritaprevir/ ritonavir/ dasabuvir with or without ribavirin) has been administered to CKD (stage 4-5) patients with genotype 1 (n=20); the rate of sustained viral response was excellent (90%, 18/20) and no patients discontinued treatment due to adverse events. Preliminary data on the combined treatment of sofosbuvir (NS5B inhibitor) and simeprevir (NS3/4A inhibitor) has given a viral response of 89% (34/38), but the size of the study group (n=38 patients with end-stage renal disease) was small. Thus, the evidence in the medical literature concerning use of DAAs in CKD population is encouraging even if it has a preliminary nature. Also, several points need to be addressed regarding the use of DAAs in CKD population including their impact on survival, costs, and drug-drug interactions. PMID:27545640

  17. Current concepts in the treatment of canine chronic hepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honeckman, Adam

    2003-11-01

    Chronic hepatitis is a common disorder in dogs seen by general practitioners. Several new drugs have been marketed for treating this disease. Unfortunately, there are few controlled studies that examine the efficacy of these medications for the treatment of canine chronic hepatitis. A rational therapeutic approach can be implemented based on histopathologic findings of a liver biopsy. A liver biopsy is essential for establishing a definitive diagnosis and guiding the optimal therapy. The biopsy allows characterizing the inflammatory process, quantitating hepatic copper concentrations, and determining if fibrosis is present. Copper associated hepatopathy is treated with zinc and copper chelators. Idiopathic chronic hepatitis is thought to be immune mediated. The treatment of idiopathic chronic hepatitis consists of controlling inflammation (prednisone, azathioprine), reversing fibrosis (colchicine), and protecting against oxidant damage (vitamin E, ursodeoxycholic acid, S-adenosylmethionine). The prognosis for chronic hepatitis is quite variable. Dogs with end-stage disease have a poor prognosis, while dogs diagnosed earlier can have a mean survival of years. Early diagnosis and intervention are key to the successful treatment of dogs with chronic hepatitis. PMID:14738204

  18. TT viral infection through blood transfusion: retrospective investigation on patients in a prospective study of post-transfusion hepatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sien Sing Yang; Chi Hwa Wu; Tzu Hsiu Chen; Yang Yang Huang; Ching Shan Huang

    2000-01-01

    AIM To investigate the role of blood transfusion in TT viral infection (TTV).METHODS We retrospectively studied serum samples from 192 transfusion recipients who underwent cardiovascular surgery and blood transfusion between July 1991 and June 1992. All patients had a follow-up every other week for at least 6 months after transfusion. Eighty recipients recipents blood before screening donors for hepatitis C antibody (anti-HCV), and 112 recipients reveiver screened blood.Recipients with alanine aminotransferase level > 2.5 times the upper normal limit were tested for serological markers for viral hepatitis A, B,C, G, Epstein-Barr virus and cytomegalovirus.TTV infection was defined by the positivity for serum TTV DNA using the polymerase chain reaction method. RESULTS Eleven and three patients, who reveiver anti-HCV unscreened and screened blood, respectively, had serum ALT levels >90 IU/L. Five patients (HCV and TTV: 1; HCV,HGV, and TTV: 1; TTV: 2; and CMV and TTV: 1 )were positive for TTV DNA, and four of them had sero-conversion of TTV DNA. CONCLUSION TTV can be transmitted via blood transfusion. Two recipients infected by TTV alone may be associated with the hepatitis.However, whether TTV was the causal agent remains unsettled, and further studies are necessary to define the role of TTV infection in chronic hepatitis.

  19. Hepatitis A and B Superimposed on Chronic Liver Disease: Vaccine-Preventable Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Keeffe, Emmet B.

    2006-01-01

    A number of studies have demonstrated that the acquisition of hepatitis A or hepatitis B in patients with chronic liver disease is associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality. Superimposition of acute hepatitis A in patients with chronic hepatitis C has been associated with a particularly high mortality rate, and chronic hepatitis B virus coinfection with hepatitis C virus is associated with an accelerated progression of chronic liver disease to cirrhosis, decompensated liver diseas...

  20. 67 cases of chronic hepatitis C treatment process and follow-up serum ALT, viral load and the change of liver fibrosis indexes%67例慢性丙型肝炎治疗过程及随访中血清ALT、病毒载量及肝纤维化指标的变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方玉才; 王秋英; 潘统桧; 杨燕飞; 高晓磊

    2014-01-01

    目的 观察聚乙二醇干扰素α-2b联合利巴韦林治疗慢性丙型肝炎过程中肝功能、病毒复制及肝纤维化指标的改变情况.方法 检测67例慢性丙型肝炎患者在干扰素联合利巴韦林治疗开始(0周)、结束(48周)和停药12周(60周)时血清丙氨酸转氨酶(ALT)、丙肝病毒核糖核酸(HCV RNA)、透明质酸(HA)、Ⅲ型前胶原肽(PCⅢ)、Ⅳ型胶原(Ⅳ-C)和层粘连蛋白(LN)水平.结果 治疗后完全应答组(CR-S,43/67) ALT、HCV RNA及血清4项纤维化指标均显著下降(P <0.05或P<0.01),部分应答组(CR-R,13/67)和无应答组(NR,11/67) ALT、HCV RNA及血清4项纤维化指标变化不明显,反跳甚至更高.结论 聚乙二醇干扰素α-2b联合利巴韦林治疗慢性丙型肝炎约65%患者完全应答,随着肝细胞炎症的改善,病毒RNA滴度、肝纤维化指标水平明显下降,表明干扰素联合利巴韦林能抑制HCV RNA复制,调节机体免疫功能,减轻肝脏炎症反应,改善肝功能,减少肝纤维化.%Objective Observation of polyethylene glycol (peg) interferon alpha 2 b plus ribavirin treatment of chronic hepatitis C liver function,viral replication and liver fibrosis index in the process of change.Methods Detection of 67 cases of chronic hepatitis C patients in the treatment with interferon plus ribavirin end of week (0),(48 weeks) and drug withdrawal 12 weeks (60 weeks) in serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT),hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA (HCV RNA),hyaluronic acid (HA),a former Ⅲ type collagen peptide (PC Ⅲ),collagen type Ⅳ (Ⅳ-C) and laminin (LN) level. Results Complete response after treatment group (CR-S,43/67) ALT,4 items of HCV RNA and serum fibrosis indexes were significantly decreased (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01),part of the response group (CR-R,13/67) and no answer (NR,11/67) ALT,4 items of HCV RNA and serum fibrosis index change is not obvious,bounce is even higher.Conclusion Polyethylene glycol interferon alpha 2 b plus ribavirin treatment

  1. Precore/basal core promoter mutants and hepatitis B viral DNA levels as predictors for liver deaths and hepatocellular carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Myron J Tong; Lawrence M Blatt; Jia-Horng Kao; Jason Tzuying Cheng; William G Corey

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To conduct a retrospective study in 400 chronic hepatitis B patients in order to identify hepatitis B viral factors associated with complications of liver disease or development of hepatocellular carcinoma.METHODS: The mean follow-up time was 83.6 ± 39.6mo. Alpha-fetoprotein test and abdominal ultrasound were used for cancer surveillance. Hepatitis B basal core promoter mutants, precore mutants, genotypes,hepatitis B viral DNA (HBV DNA) level and hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) were measured. Univariate analysis and logistic regression were used to assess odds ratios for viral factors related to liver deaths and hepatocellular carcinoma development.RESULTS: During follow-up, 38 patients had liver deaths not related to hepatocellular carcinoma. On multivariate analysis, older age [odds ratio: 95.74 (12.13-891.31);P < 0.0001], male sex [odds ratio: 7.61 (2.20-47.95);P = 0.006], and higher log10 HBV DNA [odds ratio:4.69 (1.16-20.43); P < 0.0001] were independently predictive for these liver related deaths. Also, 31 patients developed hepatocellular carcinoma. Multivariate analysis showed that older age [odds ratio: 26.51 (2.36-381.47);P = 0.007], presence of precore mutants [odds ratio:4.23 (1.53-19.58); P = 0.02] and presence of basal core promoter mutants [odds ratio: 2.93 (1.24-7.57); P =0.02] were independent predictors for progression to hepatocellular carcinoma.CONCLUSION: Our results show that high levels of baseline serum HBV DNA are associated with nonhepatocellular carcinoma-related deaths of liver failure,while genetic mutations in the basal core promoter and precore regions are predictive for development of hepatocellular carcinoma.

  2. PREVALENCE OF HEPATITIS B AND C VIRAL MARKERS AMONG THE TRIBAL POPULATION OF NILGIRIS, TAMIL NADU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishnasamy Narayanasamy, Senthilkumar Ramalingam, Sathishkumar Elumalai, Jaya Lakshmi, Ramachandar S, Rameshkumar Manickam

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis B virus and C viruses (HBV and HCV, respectively infects the liver which results in a wide range of disease outcomes. Worldwide, over 7% (350 million and 3% (170 million people are chronically infected with HBV and HCV, respectively.[1] HBV is transmitted through exposure to infective blood, semen, and other body fluids or through infected mothers to infants at the time of birth. Transmission may also occur through transfusions of HBV-contaminated blood and blood products, contaminated injections during medical procedures, and through transfusions of HCV-contaminated blood and blood products, contaminated injections during medical procedures, and through injection drug use. Sexual transmission is also possible.[2] Individuals with chronic hepatitis B and/or C virus infection remain infectious to others and are at risk of serious liver disease such as liver cirrhosis or hepatocellular cancer (HCC. [3,4] Study reports revealed that HBV and/or HCV infections are the major causes of morbidity and mortality in HIV positive population related to liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma.[5,6] Though studies on the prevalence of HBV (rarely on HCV among tribal population in India were available[7,8], there is no recent reports from southern part of India. Hence, the present study was conducted to assess the prevalence of HBV and HCV among tribal population in Kotagiri, Nilgiris. After obtaining the informed consent, blood samples (5 ml each from a total of 196 participants (103 males and 93 females were collected and sera were separated on site. Samples which showed positive for HBsAg and anti-HCV by rapid test were confirmed by ELISA technique using commercial kits Reliable Pro-detect Biomedical Ltd, India and Erba Lisa, Germany, respectively. Of the 196 individuals screened, none of them was positive for the viral markers. Several studies from India reported varying range of HBsAg and anti-HCV positivity among general and tribal

  3. Genus Phyllanthus for chronic hepatitis B virus infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, J; Lin, Haili; McIntosh, H

    2001-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of genus Phyllanthus for chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection we performed a systematic review of randomized clinical trials. Randomized trials comparing genus Phyllanthus vs. placebo, no intervention, general nonspecific treatment, other herbal medicine, ...

  4. Chronic hepatitis E infection in lung transplant recipients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riezebos-Brilman, Annelies; Puchhammer-Stockl, Elisabeth; van der Weide, Hinke Y.; Haagsma, Elizabeth B.; Jaksch, Peter; Bejvl, Isabella; Niesters, Hubert G.; Verschuuren, Erik A. M.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hepatitis E virus (HEV) genotype 3 has been identified in patients with autochthonous HEV infections in developed countries and is currently being recognized as an emerging zoonotic pathogen. HEV infection may lead to a chronic hepatitis in immune-compromised patients. METHODS: We studie

  5. Ribavirin with or without alpha interferon for chronic hepatitis C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaergard, L L; Krogsgaard, K; Gluud, C

    2002-01-01

    Hepatitis C is a major cause of liver-related morbidity and mortality. Ribavirin plus interferon combination therapy is presently considered the optimal treatment of interferon naive patients with chronic hepatitis C, but its role in relapsers and non-responders to previous interferon therapy...

  6. Diagnosis of chronic active hepatitis in a miniature schnauzer

    OpenAIRE

    Hendrix, Alana D.

    2004-01-01

    A 12-year-old male castrated miniature schnauzer was presented with a history of abdominal distension. Serum biochemical analysis and abdominal ultrasonography indicated hepatic disease. A wedge biopsy provided a diagnosis of chronic active hepatitis. A therapeutic regime was initiated to improve the quality of life and slow the progression of this disease is described.

  7. Characterization of hepatitis C virus isolates from chronically infected patients

    OpenAIRE

    Kleter, Bernhard

    1995-01-01

    textabstractThe function of the liver is to keep the human body in physiological equilibrium. This equilibrium is regulated by several metabolic pathways such as the production of plasma proteins and detoxification. Inflammation of the liver is known as hepatitis and as entity it has been recognized since the days of Hippocrates. The most important etiology of hepatitis is viral infection of the liver.

  8. Evidence for Protection against Chronic Hepatitis C Virus Infection in Chimpanzees by Immunization with Replicating Recombinant Vaccinia Virus▿

    OpenAIRE

    Youn, Jin-Won; Hu, Yu-Wen; Tricoche, Nancy; Pfahler, Wolfram; Shata, Mohamed Tarek; Dreux, Marlene; Cosset, François-Loic; Folgori, Antonella; Lee, Dong-Hun; Brotman, Betsy; Prince, Alfred M.

    2008-01-01

    Given the failures of nonreplicating vaccines against chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, we hypothesized that a replicating viral vector may provide protective immunity. Four chimpanzees were immunized transdermally twice with recombinant vaccinia viruses (rVV) expressing HCV genes. After challenge with 24 50% chimpanzee infective doses of homologous HCV, the two control animals that had received only the parental VV developed chronic HCV infection. All four immunized animals resolved...

  9. Relationship between serum and hepatic 7S fragments of type IV collagen in chronic liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suou, T; Yamada, S; Hosho, K; Yoshikawa, N; Kawasaki, H

    1996-05-01

    We evaluated the mechanism of increased serum concentrations of the 7S fragment of the N-terminal domain of type IV collagen (7S collagen) in chronic liver disease. We measured the concentrations of hepatic-free and deposited 7S collagens after extraction with Tris-HCl buffer and bacterial collagenase, then compared them with the serum levels in 8 normal controls and 48 patients with chronic liver disease. The hepatic 7S collagen levels extracted with Tris-HCl buffer and collagenase accounted for 7% and 93%, respectively, of the total 7S collagen levels in normal controls. Both hepatic 7S collagen levels as well as serum levels increased in accordance with the progress of liver disease. Serum levels of 7S collagen showed a closer correlation with the hepatic 7S collagen levels extracted with Tris-HCl buffer (r = .822), compared with those extracted with collagenase (r = .382). On the other hand, the histological degrees of liver fibrosis were highly correlated with the hepatic collagenase-extracted 7S collagen levels (r = .822), compared with serum and the hepatic Tris-HCl buffer-extracted levels (r = .478 and r = .537, respectively). Although there was no difference in serum and hepatic 7S collagen levels between B and C viral patients, the serum and hepatic Tris-HCl buffer-extracted 7S collagen levels were higher in patients with alcoholic cirrhosis than patients with viral cirrhosis. However, the hepatic collagenase-extracted levels were similar in both groups. Gel filtration demonstrated that the serum and hepatic Tris-HCl buffer-extracted 7S collagens were mainly eluted in the macromolecular 7S collagen-reactive fraction in cirrhosis, whereas the hepatic collagenase-extracted 7S collagen was eluted in the authentic 7S collagen-reactive fraction. The results suggest that serum 7S collagen levels are not a particularly reliable measure of hepatic fibrosis but reflect the enhanced metabolism, especially synthesis of type IV collagen in the liver. PMID:8621148

  10. Insulin resistance and response to antiviral therapy in chronic hepatitis C: mechanisms and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Campo, José A; López, Reyes Aparcero; Romero-Gómez, Manuel

    2010-01-01

    Insulin resistance has been found to be an independent factor predicting sustained response to peginterferon plus ribavirin in patients with chronic hepatitis C. Insulin resistance seems to be involved in decreased sensitivity to interferon and could block interferon intracellular signaling. Insulin resistance promotes steatosis and fibrosis progression, induces pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion and increases adipose tissue, decreasing interferon availability. Moreover, suppressor of cytokines 3 and protein tyrosine-phosphatase seems to be able to block interferon and insulin signaling, building a feed-forward loop. Insulin resistance can be treated with exercise, diet or through the use of drugs that improve insulin sensitivity, like biguanides or glitazones. A recent controlled, randomized, double-blind clinical trial (TRIC-1) examined the effect of adding metformin to standard therapy in the treatment of hepatitis C. This study demonstrated that women infected with hepatitis C virus genotype 1 and HOMA >2 treated with metformin showed a greater drop in viral load during the first 12 weeks and a doubled sustained viral response in comparison with females receiving placebo. Pioglitazone has been used in previous nonresponders and naïve patients with disappointing results in two pilot trials. The mechanisms by which the virus promotes insulin resistance seems to be genotype-dependent and could explain, at least in part, the discrepancies between insulin sensitizers. Insulin resistance is a new target in the challenging management of chronic hepatitis C. PMID:20460925

  11. The long-term effect of treatment with interferon-alpha 2a in chronic hepatitis B

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogsgaard, K

    1998-01-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the long-term effects of interferon-alpha 2a (IFN-alpha 2a) vs no treatment in patients with chronic hepatitis B and to determine whether viral clearance, following therapy or occurring spontaneously, was sustained. Patients originating from three previously...... published multicentre, randomized, controlled trials were analysed. Information about survival and response during long-term follow-up was available in 340 (73%) and 308 (66%) of 469 randomized patients respectively. Response to therapy (viral clearance) was defined as: loss of hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA...... and loss of hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) and improvement in alanine aminotransferase level. Scheduled treatment-free follow-up was 12 months in all studies. Median long-term follow-up time after inclusion in the individual studies was 4.7 years (range: 0.2-7.5 years). Viral clearance after IFN...

  12. Therapeutic vaccination and immunomodulation in the treatment of chronic hepatitis B: preclinical studies in the woodchuck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosinska, Anna D; Liu, Jia; Lu, Mengji; Roggendorf, Michael

    2015-02-01

    Infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) may lead to subclinical, acute or chronic hepatitis. In the prevaccination era, HBV infections were endemic due to frequent mother to child transmission in large regions of the world. However, there are still estimated 240 million chronic HBV carriers today and ca. 620,000 patients die per year due to HBV-related liver diseases. Recommended treatment of chronic hepatitis B with interferon-α and/or nucleos(t)ide analogues does not lead to satisfactory results. Induction of HBV-specific T cells by therapeutic vaccination or immunomodulation may be an innovative strategy to overcome virus persistence. Vaccination with commercially available HBV vaccines in patients with or without therapeutic reduction of viral load did not result in effective immune control of HBV infection, suggesting that combination of antiviral treatment with new formulations of therapeutic vaccines is needed. The woodchuck (Marmota monax) and its HBV-like woodchuck hepatitis virus are a useful preclinical animal model for developing new therapeutic approaches in chronic hepadnaviral infections. Several innovative approaches combining antiviral treatments using nucleos(t)ide analogues, with prime-boost vaccination using DNA vaccines, new hepadnaviral antigens or recombinant adenoviral vectors were tested in the woodchuck model. In this review, we summarize these encouraging results obtained with these therapeutic vaccines. In addition, we present potential innovations in immunostimulatory strategies by blocking the interaction of the inhibitory programmed death receptor 1 with its ligand in this animal model. PMID:25535101

  13. Assessment of specific IgM antibodies to core antigen of hepatitis B virus in acute and chronic hepatitis B using immunoradiometric assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A group of 24 patients with acute viral hepatitis B was assessed for specific antibodies against the ''core'' antigen class IgM (HBcAB IgM) during 1st-4th week of the illness. These specific antibodies were positive in all patients, the mean titre being 10-5. The high content of these antibodies persisted for 1-2 months after the onset of the disease. The assessment of specific antibodies against ''core'' antigen class IgM was also made in a group of 39 patients with chronic hepatitis. In these patients positive HBcAb IgM with a lower content were found (titre 10-3) than in the group with acute viral hepatitis B. Based on the results the conclusion is made that specific antibodies HBcAb class IgM are, in addition to the estimation of the surface antigen of the hepatitis B virus (HBsAg), one more indicator of acute viral hepatitis B. The assessment is diagnostically valuable, in particular in acute hepatitis of obscure etiology, in acute jaundice of obscure etiology for the period of low and short-term antigenemia. (author). 6 figs., 1 tab., 14 refs

  14. Correlation of hepatospleno-scintigraphic findings with HBe antigenicity in chronic hepatitis B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioimmunoassay plays an important role in diagnosing the hepatitis B and in clinical assessment of the course of the disease as well. Among a number of antigens, antibodies and enzymes related with hepatitis, HBe Ag, DNA polymerase, IgM-HBc-antibody, δ Ag have been known as useful indicators of ongoing infectivity of hepatitis B. The present study has been undertaken to correlate the HBe antigenicity with hepatospleno-scintigraphic findings in hepatitis. The study covered a 10 month period from September 1982 through to July 1983. We reviewed and analyzed the hepatospeno-scintgraphic findings and the results of radioimmuassays in 32 patients of chronic hepatitis seen at St. Mary Hospital, Catholic Medical College. Hepatitis B was diagnosed either when HBs Ag was positive or Anti-HBc wa positive even if HBs Ag was negative. We classified the HBe antigenicity into two groups of HBe Ag(+) and HBe(-) and analyzed the scintgraphic findings in terms of liver size, motting, splenomegaly and splenic shift. From the present study, it is concluded that the activity of hepatitis B can not be assessed by the findings of hepatospleno-scintigram so far as the activity is determined on the basis of the positive HBe Ag, which has been believed to indicated continuing viral replication

  15. Evaluación de la fibrosis hepática en la hepatitis crónica por virus C mediante la aplicación prospectiva del Sabadell's NIHCED score: Sabadell's Non Invasive, Hepatitis C Related-Cirrhosis Early Detection Score Prospective evaluation of liver fibrosis in chronic viral hepatitis C infection using the Sabadell NIHCED: non-invasive hepatitis C related cirrhosis early detection index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Bejarano

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: la hepatitis crónica por VHC cursa de forma asintomática desarrollando cirrosis hepática y sus complicaciones en un 20-40% de los casos. En estudios previos se ha demostrado que la fibrosis avanzada es un factor pronóstico fundamental. El método gold standard para la valoración del grado de fibrosis es la biopsia hepática. Nuestro grupo ha validado un índice predictivo, el NIHCED (Sabadell's Non Invasive, Hepatitis C related-Cirrosis Early Detection Score, basado en datos demográficos, analíticos y ecográficos para determinar la presencia de cirrosis. Objetivo: nuestro objetivo es el de evaluar si el NIHCED predice la presencia de fibrosis avanzada en los pacientes con hepatitis crónica por virus C. Material y métodos: estudio prospectivo donde se incluyeron pacientes con hepatitis crónica por VHC. Se les realizó una biopsia hepática y el NIHCED. El grado de fibrosis se correlacionó con el valor del NIHCED mediante curva de ROC y el coeficiente de correlación de Spearman. Resultados: se incluyeron un total de 321 pacientes (ratio hombre/mujer 1,27 con una edad media de 48 ± 14 años. La biopsia hepática mostró que 131 (30,5% no tenían fibrosis o era expansión portal, mientras que 190 (69,5% tenían fibrosis avanzada o cirrosis. Para un punto de corte de 6 puntos, la sensibilidad fue del 72%, especificidad del 76,3%, VPP del 81%, VPN del 63,7% y una precisión diagnóstica del 72,5%, con un área bajo la curva fue de 0,787 y un coeficiente de correlación de Spearman de r = 0,65. Conclusiones: el NIHCED predice la presencia de fibrosis avanzada en un elevado porcentaje de pacientes sin necesidad de realizar biopsia hepática.Introduction: liver disease resulting from chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV infection follows an asymptomatic course towards cirrhosis and its complications in 20-40% of cases. Earlier studies demonstrated that advanced fibrosis is a prognostic factor. The "gold standard" for the evaluation

  16. Apoptosis pathway of liver cells in chronic hepatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nai-Ling Chen; Zhen-Qiu Zhou; Ling Bai; Lin Li; Pei-Lan Chen; Chang Zhang; Chao-Ying Liu; Tao Deng; Hao Chen; Ke-Ming Jia

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To study the pathway of apoptosis in chronic liver disease and the role of mitochondria in programmed cell death.METHODS: Liver biopsy specimens from 72 cases of chronic hepatitis and 29 cases of post hepatitis cirrhosis were studied. The pro-apoptotic protein Fas, FasL, Bax and the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, Bcl-2α were studied immunohistochemically by SP method. Specimens from 15 cases of chronic hepatitis and post hepatitis cirrhosis were examined for their ultramicrostructures with special attention to their mitochondrial changes. Specimens from 3 normal adults (demised in traffic accidents) were used as control.RESULTS: The expression of proapoptotic proteins (Fas,FasL, Bax) in hepatocytes was significantly higher in the chronic hepatitis group than in the cirrhosis group (P<0.001).In the study of ultramicrostructure 364 hepatocytes were examined, from 12 cases of chronic hepatitis (including 10mild cases, 1 moderate case and 1 severe case). Out of 364 hepatocytes 40 (11.0%) hepatocytes were found with various kinds of destruction in their mitochondria. Rupture of the outer membrane of mitochondria and the leakage of matrix from the intermembrane space were definitely demonstrated. The ultramicrostructural changes of mitochondria in the chronic hepatitis group were statistically higher than that in normal adults control group (χ2=4.32, P<0.05).CONCLUSION: The result of the study was in support of the current view that the apoptotic process in chronic hepatitis patients were largely along the intrinsic pathway (mitochondrial pathway), given that the intrinsic and extrinsic pathways could interlinked (converged) at some point on their progression, also it is impossible at present to exclude the possibility that the two pathways could be chosen by hepatocytes in parallel simultaneously.

  17. Hyaluronic acid levels predict risk of hepatic encephalopathy and liver-related death in HIV/viral hepatitis coinfected patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peters, Lars; Mocroft, Amanda; Soriano, Vincent;

    2013-01-01

    Whereas it is well established that various soluble biomarkers can predict level of liver fibrosis, their ability to predict liver-related clinical outcomes is less clearly established, in particular among HIV/viral hepatitis co-infected persons. We investigated plasma hyaluronic acid's (HA...

  18. Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth in patients with chronic hepatitis C

    OpenAIRE

    K. V. Zhdanov; D. A. Gusev; S. M. Zacharenko; K. V. Kozlov; A. S. Sigidayev; M. V. Kurtukov; V. S. Sukachev

    2014-01-01

    In order to estimate the frequency of detection of bacterial overgrowth syndrome in patients with chronic hepatitis C, find a possible relationship between development dysbiotic changes in the small intestine and over chronic hepatitis C were examined 80 patients (68 males and 12 females). In addition to standard laboratory tests for all patients was performed hydrogen breath test with a load of lactulose and fibrogastroduodenoscopy and hepatic biopsy with subsequent histological examination ...

  19. Sarcoidosis and chronic hepatitis C: treatment with prednisone and colchicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Eduardo Guimarães; Guimarães, Tais Ferreira; Bottino, Caroline Bertolini; D'Acri, Antonio Macedo; Lima, Ricardo Barbosa; Martins, Carlos José

    2016-04-01

    Sarcoidosis is a disease which still has uncertain etiology. Possible environmental causes are cited in the literature, like organic and inorganic particles and infectious agents. Recent studies have demonstrated the occurrence of sarcoidosis in patients with chronic C hepatitis; however, this association remains without statistical or causal evidence. In this report a case of sarcoidosis associated with chronic hepatitis C will be described, with subcutaneous lesions, considered rare, and good response to treatment with colchicine and prednisone. The hepatitis C virus was isolated in sarcoid tissue and the association between the two diseases will be discussed. PMID:27192527

  20. Correlation of Tc-99m GSA hepatic studies with biopsies in patients with chronic active hepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomiguchi, S; Kira, T; Oyama, Y; Nabeshima, M; Nakashima, R; Tsuji, A; Kojima, A; Takahashi, M; Yoshimatsu, S; Sagara, K

    1995-08-01

    To determine whether scintigraphic findings of Tc-99m DTPA-galactosyl-HSA (GSA) correspond to histopathologic findings, Tc-99m GSA hepatic scintigraphy and biopsy were compared in 65 patients with chronic active hepatitis. After injecting 185 MBq of Tc-99m GSA, anterior images were obtained at 5 minutes and 15 minutes. Scintigrams were classified into three grades according to the extent of visualization of the cardiac blood pool on 5 minute and 15 minute images. Biopsies were subjectively graded for findings of necrosis and fibrosis. Scintigraphic grades on 5 minute images were correlated with hepatic necrosis and fibrosis and those on 15-minute images with hepatic fibrosis. Scintigraphic abnormalities of Tc-99m GSA correlated well with histopathologic abnormalities, especially with hepatic fibrosis and necrosis in patients with chronic active hepatitis. PMID:7586877

  1. Hepatic lipogranulomas in patients with chronic liver disease: Association with hepatitis C and fatty liver disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Henry; C; Bodenheimer; David; J; Clain; Albert; D; Min; Neil; D; Theise

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To study the significance and clinical implication of hepatic lipogranuloma in chronic liver diseases, including fatty liver disease and hepatitis C. METHODS: A total of 376 sequential, archival liver biopsy specimens were reviewed. Lipogranuloma, steatosis and steato-fibrosis were evaluated with combined hematoxylin and eosin and Masson’s trichrome staining. RESULTS: Fifty-eight (15.4%) patients had lipogranuloma, including 46 patients with hepatitis C, 14 patients with fatty liver disease, and 5 pati...

  2. Study of Xiaozhang Recipe Combined with Lamivudine in Treatment of 84 Chronic Viral Hepatitis B Patients with Compensated Liver Cirrhosis%消胀方联合拉米夫定治疗84例乙型肝炎肝硬化代偿期的临床疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周振华; 李曼; 黄凌鹰; 周碧霞; 孙学华; 高月求

    2011-01-01

    目的 评价消胀方治疗乙型肝炎肝硬化代偿期患者的临床疗效.方法 84例乙型肝炎肝硬化代偿期患者按前瞻性队列研究方法分为治疗组与对照组.治疗组在拉米夫定抗病毒基础上以消胀方(由太子参、白术、陈皮、白茅根、泽泻、泽兰、鳖甲、牡蛎、鸡内金、大腹皮组成),每日1剂,水煎分2次口服;对照组在拉米夫定抗病毒基础上治以扶正化瘀胶囊(主要由丹参、桃仁、绞股蓝、冬虫夏草、五味子组成),每次5粒,每日3次,餐前30 min口服,疗程均为12个月.观察并比较治疗前后两组患者的中医证候积分、慢性肝病疾病特异性量表(CLDQ)评分、肝功能、乙肝病毒DNA(HBV DNA),同时对所有患者进行治疗前后B超检查,记录门静脉内径(MPV)、脾静脉内径(SPV)、脾脏长度及厚度的变化.结果 治疗后两组患者中医证候积分、CLDQ评分较治疗前均明显降低(P<0.01),且治疗组积分较对照组亦明显减少(P<0.05,P<0.01);两组患者Child-Pugh分级治疗后均明显下降(P<0.01),但组间比较差异无统计学意义;两组患者肝功能较治疗前均明显改善(P<0.01),且治疗组改善较对照组明显(P<0.01);B超结果显示,治疗组患者MPV、SPV、脾长度、脾厚度均有明显降低(P<0.01),对照组仅脾厚度有明显降低(P<0.01);两组患者HBV DNA较治疗前均明显降低(P<0.01),且治疗组降低较为明显(P<0.01).结论 消胀方联合拉米夫定可改善乙型肝炎肝硬化代偿期患者的肝功能、HBV DNA,降低患者的中医证候积分及CLDQ积分,在一定程度上改善患者肝功能Child-Pugh分级,具有较好的疗效.%Objective To assess the clinical efficacy of Xiaozhang Recipe (XR) in treatment of chronic viral hepatitis B patients with compensated liver cirrhosis. Methods Based on the anti-viral effects of lamivudine, 84 chronic viral hepatitis B patients with compensated liver

  3. Hepatitis C virus infection and risk of coronary artery disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roed, Torsten; Lebech, Anne-Mette; Kjaer, Andreas; Weis, Nina

    2012-01-01

    Several chronic infections have been associated with cardiovascular diseases, including Chlamydia pneumoniae, human immunodeficiency virus and viral hepatitis. This review evaluates the literature on the association between chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and the risk of coronary artery...

  4. New treatment for hepatitis C in chronic kidney disease, dialysis, and transplant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabrizi, Fabrizio; Martin, Paul; Messa, Piergiorgio

    2016-05-01

    The evidence that chronic hepatitis C plays a detrimental role in survival among patients on maintenance dialysis or renal transplant recipients promotes the antiviral treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV) among chronic kidney disease patients. Also, it seems that HCV infection is associated with an increased risk of developing chronic kidney disease in the adult general population. Interferon-based regimens have provided limited efficacy and safety among chronic kidney disease patients, whereas the advent of the new direct-acting antivirals for the treatment of hepatitis C (launched over the past 5 years) has given the opportunity to reach sustained virologic response rates of 90% for many patient groups. Unfortunately, poor information exists regarding the antiviral treatment of hepatitis C in the chronic kidney disease population. The first published data on the treatment of hepatitis C among patients with chronic kidney disease (stage 4-5) and HCV genotype 1 regard the grazoprevir (NS3/4A protease inhibitor) and elbasvir (NS5A inhibitor) combination; excellent efficacy (sustained viral response, 94.3%; 115/122) and safety have been achieved. Preliminary evidence on the combined treatment of sofosbuvir (NS5B inhibitor) and simeprevir (NS3/4A inhibitor) has given a viral response of 89%, but the size of the study group (n = 38 patients with end-stage renal disease) was small. Some phase 2 and 3 clinical trials based on other antiviral combinations (3D regimen, sofosbuvir/ledipasvir, or other sofosbuvir-containing approaches) are ongoing. Thus, the antiviral regimens based on direct-acting antivirals promise to play a pivotal role in the eradication of hepatitis C among kidney disease patients. Direct-acting antivirals are very expensive; in an era of cost containment this is a crucial point either in developed and developing countries. Adverse drug reactions resulting from concomitantly administered medications are another ongoing concern for patients

  5. Acute hepatitis due to dengue virus in a chronic hepatitis patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.J Souza

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of acute hepatitis caused by dengue virus, with a significant increase in aspartate transferase and alanine transferase levels in a chronic hepatitis patient attended at the Cane Sugar Planters Hospital of Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ.

  6. Hepatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1993-01-01

    930140 Hepatocyte stimulator peptide and itsclinical significance in viral hepatitis.ZHOUWeiping(周卫平),et al.Instit Viral Hepatitis,Chongqing Med Univ,630010.Chin J InternMed 1992;31(10):626-628.Hepatocyte stimulator peptide(HSP)is anewly developed hepatic stimulator substance.Its monoclonal antibodies have been obtained inour laboratory.In this study,HSP was deter-mined in the sera of 315 subjects including pa-

  7. TYPE A VIRAL HEPATITIS: EFFECT OF CHLORINE ON INFECTIVITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of (HOCl) treatment on the infectivity of hepatitis A virus (HAV). Prodromal chimpanzee feces, shown to induce hepatitis in marmosets (Saginus sp.), was clarified (JA 20/8K/30 min/5C), the virus precipitated with 7% PEG 6000...

  8. Role of Diet in Management of Different Forms of Chronic Hepatitis in Young Adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    M.M.H.Osfor, El Minshawy O***, M.S.S.Arbid* , and Nabila El-lithey

    2003-01-01

    Introduction young adolescence liver disorder have in general mode of presentation distinct from that in adult population. Chronic hepatitis especially hepatitis C and B are the most common etiological agents of cirrhosis in Egypt The aim of work is to explore the role of diet in treatment of chronic hepatitis in young adolescence Patients and methods 110 patients with chronic hepatitis were classified into 3 groups : group I 46 patients with chronic hepatitis C, group II 37 patients with chr...

  9. Early serological diagnosis of viral hepatitis A using radiosaturation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The possibility was verified of utilizing the determination of specific IgM class antibodies to hepatitis A virus using the method of radiosaturation analysis, for early ethiological diagnosis of hepatitis A. The determination was made using the HAVAB-M kit by Abbott. A high and verifiable presence was found of these antibodies in the first to third weeks of the duration of the disease, positivity was observed up to day 125 from the onset of the diseases. Reliability of the determination of specific IgM antibodies to hepatitis A virus is high. Specific IgM antibodies to hepatitis A, determined using the radiosaturation analysis are a sensitive and specific indicator of the disease. The determination will mainly be used to advantage for identifying patients suffering from the anicteric form of the disease without any clinical manifestations, will substantially improve the ethiological diagnosis of acute hepatitis. (author)

  10. Hepatitis B virus enhancer Ⅰ in chronic carriers resistant to interferon treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Jing-yu; H. W. Han

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To study the structural and preliminary functional characterization of the hepatitis B virus(HBV) enhancer Ⅰ in patients with chronic hepatitis B treated with interferon (IFN). METHODS The characteristics of the HBV enhancer Ⅰ in 12chronic carrier who were treated with alpha interferon was detected by the methods of molecular biology including PCR, cloning of PCR products, sequencing and cell culture.RESULTS Four of 6 patients cleared viral DNA; all 6 in this group also seroconverted from e antigen to antibody. Prior to therapy, the HBV enhancer Ⅰ region demonstrated many point mutations in all 6 patients who became nonresponders, compared to patients who responded to interferon. The mutated sequences, many of which were within regions of transcription factor binding, were significantly more active than the corresponding wild type sequences in reporter gene assays. CONCLUSION These results imply that the mutations found in nonresponders appear to render the virus less sensitive to interferon.

  11. Viral hepatitis B and C outbreak related to parenteral treatment at an oncological department in Slovakia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kološová, A; Gašparovič, J

    2016-06-01

    The Regional Public Health Authority was notified about four cases of viral hepatitis (B and C) among patients with pre-event history of hospitalization at an oncological ward. An outbreak investigation was commenced in response. Forty-seven cases of viral hepatitis B and C in 39 patients hospitalized during the period from September 2009 to July 2010 were registered. We found an association between parenteral treatment and disease (hepatitis B: χ(2) = 49.53; P < 0.001; hepatitis C: χ(2) = 22.42; P < 0.001). Despite using disposable materials, there remains a risk of transmission of bloodborne virus infections in hospitals due to poor adherence to standard procedures. PMID:26944899

  12. Micro-RNA-122 Levels in Acute Liver Failure and Chronic Hepatitis C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubin, Perry H.; Yuan, Hejun; Devine, Robert K.; Hynan, Linda S.; Jain, Mamta K.; Lee, William M.

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNA-122 (miR-122) is the foremost liver-related micro-RNA, but its role in the hepatocyte is not fully understood. To evaluate whether circulating levels of miR-122 are elevated in chronic-HCV for a reason other than hepatic injury, we compared serum level in patients with chronic hepatitis C to other forms of liver injury including patients with acute liver failure and healthy controls. MiR-122 was quantitated using sera from 35 acute liver failure patients (20 acetaminophen-induced, 15 other etiologies), 39 chronic-HCV patients and 12 controls. In parallel, human genomic DNA (hgDNA) levels were measured to reflect quantitatively the extent of hepatic necrosis. Additionally, six HIV–HCV co-infected patients, who achieved viral clearance after undergoing therapy with interferon and ribavirin, had serial sera miR-122 and hgDNA levels measured before and throughout treatment. Serum miR-122 levels were elevated approximately 100-fold in both acute liver failure and chronic-HCV sera as compared to controls (P<0.001), whereas hgDNA levels were only elevated in acute liver failure patients as compared to both chronic-HCV and controls (P<0.001). Subgroup analysis showed that chronic-HCV sera with normal aminotransferase levels showed elevated miR-122 despite low levels of hepatocyte necrosis. All successfully treated HCV patients showed a significant Log10 decrease in miR-122 levels ranging from 0.16 to 1.46, after sustained viral response. Chronic-HCV patients have very elevated serum miR-122 levels in the range of most patients with severe hepatic injury leading to acute liver failure. Eradication of HCV was associated with decreased miR-122 but not hgDNA. An additional mechanism besides hepatic injury may be active in chronic-HCV to explain the exaggerated circulating levels of miR-122 observed. PMID:24895202

  13. Chronic hepatitis C in i. v. drug abusers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukač-Radončić Elvira

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In our work we present the clinical, biochemical, serologic and pathohistologic characteristics of chronic HCV infection in i. v. drag abusers treated in the Clinic for infections diseases in Kragujevac, in period of 3 years (2007-2009. year. In 17 i. v. drug abusers were examined, 13 men and 4 women, with chronic hepatitis C. Average age was 26,82 years. Duration of i. v. drug use was different from 1 year to 11 years. All patients were without com- plaints. Regarding functional liver tests level of amino-transferases was elevated: AST --50,37 Ш and ALT - 97,3 7U/1, total bilimbin was normal. On pathohistologic examination in 12 was found minimal chronic hepatitis, in 3 very active chronic hepatitis with pronounced piece meal necrosis and bridging necrosis, one patient was cirrhosis.

  14. Virus and Host Testing to Manage Chronic Hepatitis B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Grace Lai-Hung; Wong, Vincent Wai-Sun; Chan, Henry Lik-Yuen

    2016-06-01

    Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a major cause of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma worldwide. The past 50 years have seen rapid developments in HBV testing. Beginning from traditional serologic tests, the availability of sensitive HBV DNA assays allows a thorough understanding of the virology and natural history of chronic HBV infection. Quantification of hepatitis B surface antigen levels reflects the amount and transcriptional activities of covalently closed circular DNA in the liver and may be used to evaluate the stage of disease and guide antiviral therapy. The natural history of chronic HBV infection is also a manifestation of the interaction between the host and the virus, and recent genomic works have shed light on the host-virus relationship and may provide novel tests in the future. This review highlights recent advances in the application of HBV tests in the management of chronic hepatitis B. PMID:27190319

  15. Is liver biopsy mandatory in children with chronic hepatitis C?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Liver biopsy is considered the most accurate means to estimate the necroinflammatory activity and the extent of fibrosis. However, histology evaluation is an invasive procedure associated with risk to the patient, risk of sampling error and diagnostic inconsistencies due to inter- and intra-observer error. On the basis of histological studies performed so far, chronic hepatitis C in children appears morphologically benign in the majority of cases.At the Pediatric Liver Unit of our university, a total of 67 children with chronic hep, atitis C underwent liver biopsy.Liver biopsy was repeated 5.5 years after the initial histological evaluation in 21 children. On a total number of 88 liver biopsies, micronodular cirrhosis was detected only in one genotype 1b-infected obese child. Since liver histology investigation of a child with chronic hepatitis C has few chances to highlight severe lesions, we question how liver biopsy helps in the management of children with chronic hepatitis C.

  16. Angiogenic output in viral hepatitis, C and B, and HCV-associated hepatocellular carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed A. Abdel Mohsen

    2014-09-01

    Conclusion: The increased hepatic angiogenesis in chronic HCV and HBV could provide the molecular basis for liver carcinogenesis and contribute to the increased risk of HCC in patients with cirrhosis due to HCV and/or HBV.

  17. Plasma and urine biomarkers in acute viral hepatitis E

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aggarwal Rakesh

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hepatitis E, caused by the hepatitis E virus (HEV, is endemic to developing countries where it manifests as waterborne outbreaks and sporadic cases. Though generally self-limited with a low mortality rate, some cases progress to fulminant hepatic failure (FHF with high mortality. With no identified predictive or diagnostic markers, the events leading to disease exacerbation are not known. Our aim is to use proteomic tools to identify biomarkers of acute and fulminant hepatitis E. Results We analyzed proteins in the plasma and urine of hepatitis E patients and healthy controls by two-dimensional Differential Imaging Gel Electrophoresis (DIGE and mass spectrometry, and identified over 30 proteins to be differentially expressed during acute hepatitis E. The levels of one plasma protein, transthyretin, and one urine protein, alpha-1-microglobulin (α1m, were then quantitated by enzyme immunoassay (EIA in clinical samples from a larger group of patients and controls. The results showed decreased plasma transthyretin levels (p Conclusion Our results demonstrate the utility of characterizing plasma and urine proteomes for signatures of the host response to HEV infection. We predict that plasma transthyretin and urine α1m could be reliable biomarkers of acute hepatitis E. Besides the utility of this approach to biomarker discovery, proteome-level changes in human biofluids would also guide towards a better understanding of host-virus interaction and disease.

  18. Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Induced Synthesis of a Novel Viral Factor Mediates Efficient Replication of Genotype-1 Hepatitis E Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Vidya P; Anang, Saumya; Subramani, Chandru; Madhvi, Abhilasha; Bakshi, Karishma; Srivastava, Akriti; Shalimar; Nayak, Baibaswata; Ct, Ranjith Kumar; Surjit, Milan

    2016-04-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) causes acute hepatitis in many parts of the world including Asia, Africa and Latin America. Though self-limiting in normal individuals, it results in ~30% mortality in infected pregnant women. It has also been reported to cause acute and chronic hepatitis in organ transplant patients. Of the seven viral genotypes, genotype-1 virus infects humans and is a major public health concern in South Asian countries. Sporadic cases of genotype-3 and 4 infection in human and animals such as pigs, deer, mongeese have been reported primarily from industrialized countries. Genotype-5, 6 and 7 viruses are known to infect animals such as wild boar and camel, respectively. Genotype-3 and 4 viruses have been successfully propagated in the laboratory in mammalian cell culture. However, genotype-1 virus replicates poorly in mammalian cell culture and no other efficient model exists to study its life cycle. Here, we report that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress promotes genotype-1 HEV replication by inducing cap-independent, internal initiation mediated translation of a novel viral protein (named ORF4). Importantly, ORF4 expression and stimulatory effect of ER stress inducers on viral replication is specific to genotype-1. ORF4 protein sequence is mostly conserved among genotype-1 HEV isolates and ORF4 specific antibodies were detected in genotype-1 HEV patient serum. ORF4 interacted with multiple viral and host proteins and assembled a protein complex consisting of viral helicase, RNA dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), X, host eEF1α1 (eukaryotic elongation factor 1 isoform-1) and tubulinβ. In association with eEF1α1, ORF4 stimulated viral RdRp activity. Furthermore, human hepatoma cells that stably express ORF4 or engineered proteasome resistant ORF4 mutant genome permitted enhanced viral replication. These findings reveal a positive role of ER stress in promoting genotype-1 HEV replication and pave the way towards development of an efficient model of the

  19. mTOR in Viral Hepatitis and Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Function and Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Zhuo Wang; Wei Jin; Hongchuan Jin; Xian Wang

    2014-01-01

    As the fifth most common cancer in men and the eighth most common cancer in women, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide, with standard chemotherapy and radiation being minimally effective in prolonging survival. Virus hepatitis, particularly HBV and HCV infection is the most prominent risk factor for HCC development. Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway is activated in viral hepatitis and HCC. mTOR inhibitors have been tested successfu...

  20. Hepatitis C viral infection in a Chinese hemodialysis unit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Han; WANG Shi-xiang

    2010-01-01

    differences in age, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), ALT, or between HCV-RNA positive group and HCV-RNA negative group. But the dialysis duration in the HCV-RNA positive group was significantly longer than that in the HCV-RNA negative group. All the 20HCV-RNA negative patients were asymptomatic. Two of the 12 HCV-RNA positive patients had low activity. None of the 32 cases with HCV positive markers had cirrhosis.Conclusions A high prevalence of HCV infection in MHD patients is related to blood transfusion and kidney transplantation. Occult HCV infection is present in MHD patients. Chronic hepatitis C among MHD patients is mild in disease activity, and is not progressive, perhaps due to immunological abnormalities in these patients.

  1. Expression of the hepatitis B virus genome in chronic hepatitis B carriers and patients with hepatocellular carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors examined the methylation status of CCGG sites in hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA to determine whether methylation could be responsible for the selective expression of the HBV surface gene in chronic hepatitis B infection and hepatocellular carcinoma. Infected liver tissue from patients with low levels of viral replication was analyzed for HBV DNA copy number per haploid cell genome. Total cellular DNA, with sufficient HBV DNA, was digested with the restriction endonucleases Msp I and Hpa II, to determine whether the HBV DNA was methylated, or HindIII, to determine whether the HBV DNA was integrated or episomal. The cleavage fragments were analyzed by Southern blotting and hybridization to 32P-labeled HBV DNA. In replicative chronic hepatitis B, hypomethylation of the HBV genome correlated with HBV expression in both virions and infected tissue. In carriers with nonreplicative infection, it was difficult to ascertain the role of methylation as copy number was low. HBV DNA copy number was also low in 17 out of 29 of the rumor tissues tested and as many as 14 out of 16 of the adjacent non-neoplastic tissues tested. Integrated sequences were hypermethylated in the PLC/PRF/5 cell line and in six of the tumor tissues suggesting that methylation plays a role in HBV gene repression. However, since DNA from five other tumors was hypomethylated, the belief that methylation per se is an absolute determinant of HBV core gene repression does not hold for human hepatocellular carcinoma tissue

  2. Fatal hepatitis E viral infection in pregnant women in Ghana: a case series

    OpenAIRE

    Bonney Joseph Humphrey; Kwame-Aryee Robert A; Obed Samuel; Tamatey Ama; Barnor Jacob; Armah Naa; Oppong Samuel; Osei-Kwesi Mubarak

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Viral infections during pregnancy can pose serious threats to mother and fetus from the time of conception to the time of delivery. These lead to congenital defects, spontaneous abortion and even death. The definitive diagnosis and management of pregnancy-related viral infections may be challenging especially in less resourced countries. Case presentation We present clinical and laboratory responses to the diagnosis and management of three cases of fulminant hepatitis seco...

  3. Hepatitis B Virus Core Protein Stimulates the Proteasome-Mediated Degradation of Viral X Protein

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jung-Hwan; Kang, Seongman; Kim, Joon; Ahn, Byung-Yoon

    2003-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) X protein (HBx) plays an essential role in viral replication and in the development of hepatocellular carcinoma. HBx has the ability to transactivate the expression of all HBV proteins, including the viral core protein HBc. Consistent with its regulatory role, HBx is relatively unstable and is present at low levels in the cell. We report here that the level of HBx was significantly reduced by the coexpression of HBc in cultured human hepatoma cells, whereas the level o...

  4. Vaccine, Transmission and Treatment: An Exploratory Study of Viral Hepatitis Knowledge among Attendees of a Metropolitan Australian University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopwood, Max; Brener, Loren; Wilson, Hannah

    2012-01-01

    Aim: A cross-sectional study was conducted to explore knowledge of viral hepatitis among attendees of an Australian metropolitan university. Method: A short survey enquiring into viral hepatitis A, B and C (HAV, HBV and HCV, respectively) was administered to a convenience sample of people at a campus in Sydney, Australia during September 2011.…

  5. 77 FR 66469 - CDC/HRSA Advisory Committee on HIV, Viral Hepatitis and STD Prevention and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-05

    ... Client Level Data Update; (3) Viral Hepatitis Action Plan and Implementation Update; (4) Update on... Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention, CDC, 1600 Clifton Road NE., Mailstop E-07... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention CDC/HRSA Advisory Committee on HIV,...

  6. Ribavirin monotherapy for chronic hepatitis C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brok, J; Gluud, L L; Gluud, C

    2005-01-01

    Hepatitis C is a major cause of liver-related morbidity and mortality. The disease progresses without symptoms for several decades. Ribavirin monotherapy may represent a treatment for some patients.......Hepatitis C is a major cause of liver-related morbidity and mortality. The disease progresses without symptoms for several decades. Ribavirin monotherapy may represent a treatment for some patients....

  7. Efficient Extraction of Viral DNA and Viral RNA by the Chemagic Viral DNA/RNA Kit Allows Sensitive Detection of Cytomegalovirus, Hepatitis B Virus, and Hepatitis G Virus by PCR

    OpenAIRE

    Kleines, Michael; Schellenberg, Kirsten; Ritter, Klaus

    2003-01-01

    The Chemagic Viral DNA/RNA kit was evaluated for extraction of cytomegalovirus (CMV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), and hepatitis G virus (HGV) by using the QIAamp DNA Blood Mini kit and the QIAamp Viral RNA Mini kit as reference protocols. The extraction efficiencies of the different kits for CMV DNA and HBV DNA were not distinguishable, but the extraction efficiency for HGV RNA was better with the Chemagen protocol. All clinical specimens tested HBV DNA- or HGV RNA-positive after QIAGEN protocol...

  8. An investigation of an outbreak of viral hepatitis B in Modasa town, Gujarat, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Disha A Patel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Most outbreaks of viral hepatitis in India are caused by hepatitis E. Recently in the year 2009, Modasa town of Sabarkantha district in Gujarat witnessed the outbreak of hepatitis B. Purpose: An attempt was made to study the outbreak clinically and serologically, to estimate the seropositivity of hepatitis B Virus among the cases and their contacts and to know the seroprevalence of hepatitis B envelope antigen (HBeAg and IgM antibody against hepatitis B core antigen (IgM HBcAb out of all the Hepatitis B surface Antigen (HBsAg positive ones. Materials and Methods: Eight hundred and fifty-six (856 cases and 1145 contacts were evaluated for hepatitis B markers namely HBsAg, HBeAg and IgM HBcAb by enzyme-linked immuno Sorbent Assay (ELISA test. Results: This outbreak of viral hepatitis B in Modasa, Gujarat was most likely due to unsafe injection practices. Evidence in support of this was collected by Government authorities. Most of the patients and approximately 40% of the surveyed population gave history of injections in last 1.5-6 months. Total 664/856 (77.57% cases and 20/1145 (1.75% contacts were found to be positive for HBsAg. 53.41% of the positive cases and 52.93% of the positive contacts were HBeAg-positive and thus in a highly infectious stage. Conclusions: Inadequately sterilized needles and syringes are an important cause of transmission of hepatitis B in India. Our data reflects the high positivity rate of a hepatitis B outbreak due to such unethical practices. There is a need to strengthen the routine surveillance system, and to organise a health education campaign targeting all health care workers including private practitioners, especially those working in rural areas, as well as the public at large, to take all possible measures to prevent this often fatal infection.

  9. An Investigation of an Outbreak of Viral Hepatitis B in Modasa Town, Gujarat, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Disha A; Gupta, Praveg A; Kinariwala, Deepa M; Shah, Hetal S; Trivedi, Grishma R; Vegad, Mahendra M

    2012-01-01

    Background: Most outbreaks of viral hepatitis in India are caused by hepatitis E. Recently in the year 2009, Modasa town of Sabarkantha district in Gujarat witnessed the outbreak of hepatitis B. Purpose: An attempt was made to study the outbreak clinically and serologically, to estimate the seropositivity of hepatitis B Virus among the cases and their contacts and to know the seroprevalence of hepatitis B envelope antigen (HBeAg) and IgM antibody against hepatitis B core antigen (IgM HBcAb) out of all the Hepatitis B surface Antigen (HBsAg) positive ones. Materials and Methods: Eight hundred and fifty-six (856) cases and 1145 contacts were evaluated for hepatitis B markers namely HBsAg, HBeAg and IgM HBcAb by enzyme-linked immuno Sorbent Assay (ELISA) test. Results: This outbreak of viral hepatitis B in Modasa, Gujarat was most likely due to unsafe injection practices. Evidence in support of this was collected by Government authorities. Most of the patients and approximately 40% of the surveyed population gave history of injections in last 1.5–6 months. Total 664/856 (77.57%) cases and 20/1145 (1.75%) contacts were found to be positive for HBsAg. 53.41% of the positive cases and 52.93% of the positive contacts were HBeAg-positive and thus in a highly infectious stage. Conclusions: Inadequately sterilized needles and syringes are an important cause of transmission of hepatitis B in India. Our data reflects the high positivity rate of a hepatitis B outbreak due to such unethical practices. There is a need to strengthen the routine surveillance system, and to organise a health education campaign targeting all health care workers including private practitioners, especially those working in rural areas, as well as the public at large, to take all possible measures to prevent this often fatal infection. PMID:22529628

  10. Inorganic Nanoparticle as a Carrier for Hepatitis B Viral Capsids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekhtyar, Yu.; Romanova, M.; Kachanovska, A.; Skrastiņa, D.; Reinhofa, R.; Pumpens, P.; Patmalnieks, A.

    Virus like particles (VLP) are used to transport immune response-modulating agents to target cells to treat them. In order to deliver a high concentration of VLP to the cell, a number of VLP can be attached to a nanoparticle to be used as a nanolorry. In this study, SiO2 nanoparticles were attached to Hepatitis B VLP. Spectrophotometry measurements, electron, and fluorescent microscopy evidence showed that the SiO2 - Hepatitis B VLP complexes were formed.

  11. Antiviral Activity of Bacillus sp. Isolated from the Marine Sponge Petromica citrina against Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus, a Surrogate Model of the Hepatitis C Virus

    OpenAIRE

    Clarice Weis Arns; Cláudia Beatriz Afonso de Menezes; Bárbara Pereira da Silva; Eduardo Furtado Flores; Fabiana Fantinatti-Garboggini; Marina Aiello Padilla; Juliana Cristina Santiago Bastos; Luciana Konecny Kohn

    2013-01-01

    The Hepatitis C virus causes chronic infections in humans, which can develop to liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. The Bovine viral diarrhea virus is used as a surrogate model for antiviral assays for the HCV. From marine invertebrates and microorganisms isolated from them, extracts were prepared for assessment of their possible antiviral activity. Of the 128 tested, 2 were considered active and 1 was considered promising. The best result was obtained from the extracts produced fro...

  12. Is pegylated interferon superior to interferon, with ribavarin, in chronic hepatitis C genotypes 2/3?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ijaz S Jamall; Shafaq Yusuf; Maimoona Azhar; Selene Jamall

    2008-01-01

    Over the past decade,significant improvements have been made in the treatment of chronic hepatitis C(CHC),especially with the introduction of combined therapy using both interferon and ribavarin.The optimal dose and duration of treatment is still a matter of debate and,importantly,the efficacy of this combined treatment varies with the viral genotype responsible for infection.In general,patients infected with viral genotypes 2 or 3 more readily achieve a sustained viral response than those infected with viral genotype 1.The introduction of a pegylated version of interferon in the past decade has produced better clinical outcomes in patients infected with viral genotype 1.However,the published literature shows no improvement in clinical outcomes in patients infected with viral genotypes 2 or 3 when they are treated with pegylated interferon as opposed to nonpegylated interferon,both given in combination with ribavarin.This is significant because the cost of a 24-wk treatment with pegylated interferon in lessdeveloped countries is between six and 30 times greater than that of treatment with interferon.Thus,clinicians need to carefully consider the cost-versusbenefit of using pegylated interferon to treat CHC,particularly when there is no evidence for clinically measurable benefits in patients with genotypes 2 and 3 infections.

  13. Relevance of chronic hepatitis E in liver transplant recipients: a real-life setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galante, A; Pischke, S; Polywka, S; Luetgehethmann, M; Suneetha, P V; Gisa, A; Hiller, J; Dienes, H P; Nashan, B; Lohse, A W; Sterneck, M

    2015-08-01

    The chronic course of hepatitis E virus (HEV) infections in orthotopic liver transplant (OLT) recipients has been described previously, but prospectively collected data are rare. We aimed to study the role of chronic hepatitis E in OLT in a real-life setting. Therefore, 287 adult OLT recipients (169 male [59%], median age 56 years) were prospectively tested by HEV polymerase chain reaction assay (lower level of detection = 10 IU/mL), irrespective of their level of liver enzymes. In 4 patients (1.4%), chronic HEV infection was diagnosed. All 4 patients were male, and their age (median 48.5 years), the time since transplantation (median 45.5 months), and bilirubin level (median 0.6 mg/dL) did not differ significantly from the total cohort. However, alanine transaminase and aspartame transaminase levels were significantly higher in HEV-infected patients (75-646 U/L, median 216 U/L and 68-317 U/L, median 108 U/L) than in non-infected patients (6-617 U/L, median 41 and 6-355 U/L, median 36; P = 0.004 and 0.040, Mann-Whitney test). In 3 patients, liver biopsy was performed and revealed signs of inflammation and chronic liver disease, as enlarged densely infiltrated portal tracts with mild-to-moderate interface hepatitis. All infected patients were treated with ribavirin with the starting dose adjusted to renal function (400-800 mg/day). In 2 patients, dose reduction was necessary. Transaminases normalized in all 4 patients, and all patients cleared their infection within 3 months of ribavirin treatment. However, 1 patient experienced viral relapse 12 weeks after discontinuation. Ribavirin medication was re-started and viral clearance occurred within 8 weeks and persisted. Sequence analysis of the HEV genome of this patient revealed that he was infected with an HEV variant, which recently has been shown to have a reduced response to ribavirin in cell culture. The risk of chronic HEV infections in OLT recipients in low-endemic countries should not be overestimated. No case

  14. Epidemiology of viruses causing chronic hepatitis among populations from the Amazon Basin and related ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Echevarría José M.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available On the last twenty years, viral hepatitis has emerged as a serious problem in almost all the Amerindian communities studied in the Amazon Basin and in other Amazon-related ecological systems from the North and Center of South America. Studies performed on communities from Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Peru and Venezuela have shown a high endemicity of the hepatitis B virus (HBV infection all over the region, which is frequently associated to a high prevalence of infection by hepatitis D virus among the chronic HBV carriers. Circulation of both agents responds mainly to horizontal virus transmission during childhood through mechanisms that are not fully understood. By contrast, infection by hepatitis C virus (HCV, which is present in all the urban areas of South America, is still very uncommon among them. At the moment, there is not data enough to evaluate properly the true incidence that such endemicity may have on the health of the populations affected. Since viral transmission might be operated by mechanisms that could not be acting in other areas of the World, it seems essential to investigate such mechanisms and to prevent the introduction of HCV into these populations, which consequences for health could be very serious.

  15. 慢性乙型肝炎合并肝脂肪变的相关因素及对肝脏炎症和纤维化的影响%Correlating factors of chronic viral hepatitis B patients with liver steatosis and the affects of hepatic steatosis to liver inflammation and fibrosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    强春倩; 徐学彩; 王莉; 刘友德; 郎振为; 邹志强

    2011-01-01

    Objective To identify factors associated with hepatic steatosis in chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients and clarify the affects of hepatic steatosis to liver inflammation and fibrosis . Methods 306 consecutive CHB patients with satisfied liver biopsy were included in this study , who were admitted to our hospital from July 2008 to December 2009. 165 cases with steatosis 5% in hepatocytes were divided to CHB associated with steatosis group. Association of gender, age, body mass index (BMI) , blood lipid and blood sugar with hepatic steatosis were analyzed by logistic regression. The relationship of steatotic degree with hepatic inflammation and fibrosis were analyzed. Results Higher BMI and male sex were the factors associated with steatosis in CHB [ OR{95% C/)were 1. 269( 1.161-1. 387)and 1.938(1.089-3.447), respectively]. The degree of hepatic steatosis has no relation to the grades of inflammation and fibrotic stages (x =6. 374 ,P =0. 605 and X = 8. 428 ,P =0. 393 ). Conclusions Higher BMI and male sex are the factors associated with steatosis in CHB. Liver steatosis does not aggravate hepatic inflammation and fibrosis .%目的 探讨慢性乙型肝炎合并肝脂肪变的相关因素及发生脂肪变对肝脏炎症和纤维化的影响.方法 病例选自2008年7月至2009年12月有肝活组织检查的慢性乙型肝炎患者306例,肝组织中脂肪变肝细胞<5%小叶内肝细胞者为慢性乙型肝炎组,共有165例.脂肪变肝细胞>5%小叶内肝细胞者为慢性乙型肝炎合并脂肪肝组,共有141例.用t检验比较两组患者血糖、血脂和体重指数的差异,对肝脂肪变可能相关因素如性别、年龄、体重指数、血脂、血糖等进行Logistic多因素回归分析,用x2检验分析不同程度的肝脂肪变对肝脏炎症、纤维化的影响.结果 高体重指数和男性是慢性乙型肝炎患者合并肝细胞脂肪变的危险因素,脂肪变的程度与肝脏炎症和纤维化分级无相关性(x2 =6.374,P

  16. Influence of occult hepatitis B virus infection in chronic hepatitis C outcomes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Conrado M Fernandez-Rodriguez; Maria Luisa Gutierrez; José Luis Lledó; Maria Luisa Casas

    2011-01-01

    Persistence of hepatitis B virus-DNA in the sera, peripheral blood mononuclear cells or in the liver of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)-negative patients with or without serological markers of previous exposure (antibodies to HBsAg and/or to HB-core antigen) defines the entity called occult hepatitis B infection (OBI). Co-infection with hepatitis B and hepatitis C viruses is frequent in highly endemic areas. While this co-infection increases the risk of liver disease progression, development of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma and also increases the rate of therapeutic failure to interferon-based treatments than either virus alone, a potentially negative effect of OBI on clinical outcomes and of therapeutic response to current antiviral regimes of patients with chronic hepatitis C remains inconclusive.

  17. Chronic Epstein-Barr virus-related hepatitis in immunocompetent patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mihaela Petrova; Maria Muhtarova; Maria Nikolova; Svetoslav Magaev; Hristo Taskov; Diana Nikolovska; Zahariy Krastev

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To investigate reactivated Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)infection as a cause for chronic hepatitis.METHODS: Patients with occasionally established elevated serum aminotransferases were studied. HIV,HBV and HCV-infections were excluded as well as any other immunosuppressive factors, metabolic or toxic disorders.EBV viral capsid antigen (VCA) IgG and IgM, EA-R and EA-D IgG and Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen (EBNA) were measured using IFA kits. Immunophenotyping of whole blood was performed by multicolor flow cytometry.CD8+ T cell responses to EBV and PHA were determined according to the intracellular expression of IFN-γ.RESULTS: The mean alanine aminotransferase (ALT)and gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (GGTP) values exceeded twice the upper normal limit, AST/ALT ratio <1. Serology tests showed reactivated EBV infection in all patients. Absolute number and percentages of T, B and NK cells were within the reference ranges. Fine subset analysis, in comparison to EBV+ healthy carriers, revealed a significant decrease of naive T cells (P < 0.001),accompanied by increased percentage of CD45RA- (P< 0.0001), and terminally differentiated CD28-CD27-CD8+ T cells (P < 0.01). Moderately elevated numbers of CD38 molecules on CD8+ T cells (P < 0.05) proposed a low viral burden. A significantly increased percentage of CD8+ T cells expressing IFN-γ in response to EBV and PHA stimulation was registered in patients, as compared to controls (P < 0.05). Liver biopsy specimens from 5 patients revealed nonspecific features of low-grade hepatitis.CONCLUSION: Chronic hepatitis might be a manifestation of chronic EBV infection in the lack of detectable immune deficiency; the expansion of CD28-CD27 and increase of functional EBV-specific CD8+ T cells being the only surrogate markers of viral activity.

  18. Association between Celiac Disease and Chronic Hepatitis C Virus Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Garg, Ashish; Reddy, Chandrasekhar; Duseja, Ajay; Chawla, Yogesh; Radha K. Dhiman

    2011-01-01

    Celiac disease affects the proximal small intestine and is caused by a local immune response to dietary gluten. Celiac disease usually presents with chronic diarrhea; however, presentations with elevated hepatic transaminase levels in blood or with iron-deficiency anemia have been described. Celiac disease has been reported to be associated with autoimmune liver diseases. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) can also initiate autoimmune disease process. Therefore, HCV infection and celiac disease may occu...

  19. Copper-associated chronic hepatitis in the Labrador retriever

    OpenAIRE

    Hoffmann, G.

    2008-01-01

    This thesis describes copper-associated chronic hepatitis as a new disease in the Labrador. A study of 143 dogs that were prospectively assessed for clinical parameters, laboratory results, and liver copper concentrations, as well as histologic signs of inflammation revealed that more than two thirds of family members from dogs with CACH have liver copper concentrations above the normal reference range. In addition almost half of these clinically normal dogs with elevated hepatic copper conce...

  20. Nationwide Experience of Treatment with Protease Inhibitors in Chronic Hepatitis C Patients in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sølund, Christina; Krarup, Henrik; Ramirez, Santseharay; Thielsen, Peter; Røge, Birgit T; Lunding, Suzanne; Barfod, Toke S; Madsen, Lone G; Tarp, Britta; Christensen, Peer B; Gerstoft, Jan; Laursen, Alex L; Bukh, Jens; Weis, Nina

    2014-01-01

    patients. Thus, treatment response and development of viral resistance during triple therapy in a routine clinical setting needs to be determined. The aims of this study were to investigate treatment outcome and identify sequence variations after triple therapy in patients with chronic HCV genotype 1...... infection in a routine clinical setting. METHODS: 80 patients, who initiated and completed triple therapy in Denmark between May 2011 and November 2012, were included. Demographic data and treatment response were obtained from the Danish Database for Hepatitis B and C. Direct sequencing and clonal analysis...

  1. Chronic hepatitis C virus infection and post-liver transplantation diabetes mellitus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yun Ma; Wen-Wei Yan

    2005-01-01

    Patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection have a significantly increased prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus compared to controls or HBV-infected patients.Moreover, the incidence rate of post-liver transplantation diabetes mellitus (PTDM) also appears to be higher among patients with HCV infection. PTDM is often associated with direct viral infection, autoimmune disorders, and immunosuppressive regimen. Activation of tumor necrosis factor-α may be the link between HCV infection and diabetes. In this article, we reviewed the epidemiologic association between HCV infection and PTDM, highlighting the most recent pathophysiologic insights into the mechanisms underlying this association.

  2. Ketoprofen, peginterferon 2a and ribavirin for genotype 1 chronic hepatitis C: A phase II study

    OpenAIRE

    Annagiulia Gramenzi, Carmela Cursaro, Marzia Margotti, Clara Balsano, Alessandra Spaziani, Simona Anticoli, Elisabetta Loggi, Maddalena Salerno, Silvia Galli, Giuliano Furlini, Mauro Bernardi, Pietro Andreone

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the safety of adding ketoprofen to pegylated-interferon (PEG-IFN) with or without ribavirin and the effect on viral kinetics, STAT1 activity and expression of 2’-5’-oligoadenylate synthetase (2’-5’OAS) in genotype 1 chronic hepatitis C in a phase II study.METHODS: Forty-five patients were studied: fifteen were randomized to PEG-IFN plus ribavirin (PR), 16 to PEG-IFN plus ketoprofen and 14 to PR and ketoprofen. The molecular study of IFN-dependent signal transduction was condu...

  3. Hepatitis C, Chronic Renal Failure, Control Is Possible!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed-Moayed Alavian

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C virus (HCV infection has come to the top of virus-induced liver diseases in many parts of the world. In Iran, it seems that HCV prevalence in general population is less than one percent, which is much lower than in most of the regional countries(1. However, the infection is emerging in Iran mostly due to problem of intravenous drug abuse and needle-sharing in the country (2, 3. The patients receiving maintenance transfusion such as chronic renal failure (CRF patients and the patients with thalassemia major are the other population who are at the high risk of HCV acquisition although compulsory blood screening has been able to remarkably decrease the HCV incidence in these patients (4. The prevalence of HCV infection among CRF patients on hemodialysis in Tehran, the capital of Iran, was around 13 percent in 2002 (5. There is no valid data regarding HCV incidence rate among CRF patients in country. However, according to the most recent official report of Management of Special Diseases and Transplantation Center (MSDT, the prevalence of HCV infection among patients on hemodialysis in the whole country has decreased from 14.4% in 1999 to 4.5% in 2005. Various reasons might be responsible for this reduction such as blood screening; developing technology of alternative modalities instead of transfusion in Iran like producing domestic Erythropoietin which has been resulted in decreasing transfusion; early transplantation; and training health staffs. On the other hand, the other reason such as mortality ofHCV infected CRF patients should not be neglected. Although there is no data in this regard in Iran, a meta-analysis, demonstrated that HCV infected patients on dialysis have an increased risk of mortality compared to HCV negative cases (6. Therefore, with the lack of data defining incidence rate in Iran, the reduction of HCV prevalence in the country should not overlook the necessity of designing a comprehensive strategy to control HCV

  4. Detection of viral hepatitis B markers by radioimmunoassay in medical personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of revealing B markers of viral hepatitis (VHB) in medical personnel in the city of Zaporozhe by radioimmunoassay method are presented. By the frequency of revealing two markers (HB sAg and anti-HBs) risk groups are indicated depending on the profession, age (length of service) of medical personnel

  5. Detection of hepatitis A viral antigen by radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With coded samples, the effectiveness and specificity of a micro-SPIRA procedure for rapidly and quantitatively detecting type A hepatitis-associated antigen in large numbers of specimens from infected liver, stool, or serum has been demonstrated. Samples which were judged to be negative by IEM were found to contain significant levels of HAV antigen by this immunoradiometric technique. The detection of significant levels of HAV antigen in infected chimpanzees supports epidemiologic evidence of viremia during the acute stage of the disease. The results of this study suggest that the diagnosis of type A hepatitis by a convention serologic procedure may now be at hand. (auth)

  6. Use of N-Acetylcysteine in Children with Fulminant Hepatic Failure Caused by Acute Viral Hepatitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To determine the efficacy of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) in children aged > 1 month to 16 years admitted with Fulminant Hepatic Failure (FHF) secondary to Acute Viral Hepatitis (AVH) in a tertiary care center of a developing country. Study Design: Analytical study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Paediatrics, The Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan, from January 2007 to December 2011. Methodology: Medical records of children (> 1 month - 16 years) with FHF admitted with AVH of known etiology who received NAC were reviewed retrospectively. Liver function tests (mean ± SD) at baseline, 24 hours after NAC and before or at the time of discharge/death were recorded and compared via using repeated measures ANOVA(r-ANOVA). Efficacy of NAC is defined in improvement in biochemical markers, liver function test and discharge disposition (survived or died). Mortality associated risk factors were identified by using logistic regression analysis. P-value and 95 percentage confidence interval were recorded. Results: Forty children (mean age was 80 ± 40 months) with FHF secondary to AVH received NAC. Majority were males (n=25; 63 percentage). Vomiting (75 percentage) and jaundice (65 percentage) were the main presenting symptoms, one-third had hypoglycemic, while 40 percentage had altered sensorium at the time of admission. There was significant statistical difference in liver enzymes and prothrombin time on admission comparing at discharge in children received NAC (p < 0.001). Fifteen (38 percentage) children died. Severe vomiting (Odds Ratio (OR) 0.22, 95 percentage Confidence Interval (CI) 0.05 - 0.8), jaundice (OR 9.3, CI 1.1 - 82.6), inotropic support (OR 20.6, CI 3.5 - 118.3) and mechanical ventilation (OR 4.3, CI 1.1 - 16.6) at the time of admission are associated with risk factors for mortality in children with FHF secondary to AVH. Conclusion: NAC used in children with FHF secondary to AVH is associated with markedly improved liver function

  7. Glucose intolerance in Chinese patients with chronic hepatitis C

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liang-Kung Chen; Shinn-Jang Hwang; Shih-Tzer Tsai; Jiing-Chyuan Luo; Shou-Dong Lee; Full-Young Chang

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the prevalence and the risk factors of glucose intolerance in Chinese patients with chronic hepatitis C and to evaluate the relationship between interferon (IFN)treatment and glucose intolerance in these patients.METHODS: Prospective cross-sectional study was done to evaluate the prevalence of glucose intolerance in Chinese patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection from the outpatient clinic of Department of Family Medicine, Taipei Veterans General Hospital. Chronic hepatitis C was defined as persistent presence of anti-HCV and persistent elevation of liver transaminase for at least 1.5 folds for at least 6 months. Moreover, patients were further categorized into normal fasting glucose and glucose intolerance (diabetes mellitus (DM) and impaired fasting glucose) according to the diagnostic criteria of American Diabetic Association. RESULTS: Totally, 359 Chinese patients with chronic hepatitis C were enrolled (212 males and 147 females, mean age=58.1±13.0 years). One hundred and twenty-three patients (34.3 %) had various forms of IFN treatment. One hundred and twenty-five patients (34.6 %)had glucose intolerance, including 99 patients (27.6 %) with DM and 26 patients (7.0 %) with impaired fasting glucose.Tn comparison with those with normal fasting glucose levels,patients with chronic hepatitis C with glucose intolerance were significantly older, had a significantly higher body mass index, and they were more likely to suffer from obesity, to have family history of diabetes and to have had previous IFN treatment. Stepwise multivariate logistic regression revealed significantly that age ≥ 57 years, obesity,previous history of IFN treatment and the presence of family history of diabetes were independent risk factors associated with the presence of glucose intolerance in chronic hepatitis C patients.CONCLUSION: In conclusion, 34.6 % of Chinese patients with chronic hepatitis C had glucose intolerance. Chronic hepatitis C patients who

  8. Pegylated interferons in the treatment of chronic hepatitis C

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张福奎

    2003-01-01

    Purpose To review the efficacy and safety of pegylated interferons (peginterferons) in the treatment of chronic hepatitis C.Data sources An English language literature search (MEDLINE 1988-2001) was performed and a total of 19 original articles related to the issue were selected.Data extraction After careful review of the selected papers, the meaningful results and conclusions were extracted using scientific criteria. The papers reviewed pertained mainly to the efficacy and safety profiles of peginterferons in the treatment of chronic hepatitis C.

  9. Sexual dysfunction and dissatisfaction in chronic hepatitis C patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Cópio Fábregas

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The prevalence of sexual dysfunction (SD and dissatisfaction with sexual life (DSL in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus infection (CHC was jointly investigated via a thorough psychopathological analysis, which included dimensions such as fatigue, impulsiveness, psychiatric comorbidity, health-related quality of life (HRQL and sociodemographic and clinical characteristics. Methods Male and female CHC patients from an outpatient referral center were assessed using the Brief Fatigue Inventory, the Barrat Impulsiveness Scale, the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, the Hamilton Anxiety Scale (HAM-A, and the World Health Organization Quality of Life Scale-Brief Version (WHOQOL-BREF. Structured psychiatric interviews were performed according to the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview. SD was assessed based on specific items in the BDI (item 21 and the HAM-A (item 12. DSL was assessed based on a specific question in the WHOQOL-BREF (item 21. Multivariate analysis was performed according to an ordinal linear regression model in which SD and DSL were considered as outcome variables. Results SD was reported by 60 (57.1% of the patients according to the results of the BDI and by 54 (51.4% of the patients according to the results of the HAM-A. SD was associated with older age, female gender, viral genotype 2 or 3, interferon-α use, impulsiveness, depressive symptoms, antidepressant and benzodiazepine use, and lower HRQL. DSL was reported by 34 (32.4% of the patients and was associated with depressive symptoms, anxiety symptoms, antidepressant use, and lower HRQL. Conclusions The prevalence of SD and DSL in CHC patients was high and was associated with factors, such as depressive symptoms and antidepressant use. Screening and managing these conditions represent significant steps toward improving medical assistance and the HRQL of CHC patients.

  10. Quality of Life in Chronic Hepatitis B and C Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abitin Heidarzadeh

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Chronic hepatitis B and C are prevalent diseases, especially in developing countries. In many of the patients they cause limitations in physical and mental functions and finally cause reduction in their life quality. We wanted to assess the quality of life in these patients.Methods: This research was done on 74 chronic hepatitis B and C patients of Rasht which their diseases were confirmed by serologic and histologic methods and their hepatic enzymes including AST & ALT was two times more than normal range for at least 6 months. Cross-sectional questionnaire survey performed in October 2003 till Jully 2004 in Gastrointestinal & Liver Diseases Research Center of Rasht (north city of Iran, Razi hospital. The questionnaires consisted of 29 questions that were given to the patients and they were let free to complete it. Results: The individuals under survey consisted of 15 (20.27% chronic hepatitis B patients and 59 (79.72% chronic hepatitis C patients. 54 (72.79% ones were male and 20 (27.02% were female. Total adjusted score (up to 100 points of life quality was 54.4 ± 22.5. No meaningful difference was seen between two sexes based on total score of life quality. Also, in different fields of life quality no significant difference was seen between two genders, except the systemic signs that the average of adjusted score of females (43 ± 28 was less than males (63 ± 27 that means meaningful statistical difference (P < 0.007.Conclusions: Generally, it seems that chronic hepatitis B and C have untoward life qualities which could result from concern of decrease of social support or fear of society or decrease in patronage of the family or friends and it is mandate to be concerned when furnishing services to these patients.

  11. Hepatic fatty acid composition differs between chronic hepatitis C patients with and without steatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arendt, Bianca M; Mohammed, Saira S; Aghdassi, Elaheh; Prayitno, Nita R; Ma, David W L; Nguyen, Augustin; Guindi, Maha; Sherman, Morris; Heathcote, E Jenny; Allard, Johane P

    2009-04-01

    Hepatic fatty acid (FA) composition may influence steatosis development in patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC). In a cross-sectional study, we compared the hepatic FA profile in hepatitis C patients with (n = 9) and without (n = 33) steatosis (> or =5% of hepatocytes involved). FA composition of hepatic and RBC total lipids was measured by gas chromatography. Lipid peroxidation and antioxidants in liver and plasma, blood biochemistry, and nutritional status were also assessed. Patients with steatosis had more fibrosis, higher necroinflammatory activity of their hepatitis C infection, were more often infected with genotype 3, and had lower serum cholesterol. Monounsaturated FA in the liver were higher and trans FA were lower in patients with steatosis. Lower stearic acid and higher oleic acid in hepatic total lipids suggested higher Delta9-desaturase activity. alpha-Linolenic acid in the liver was higher and the ratios of long-chain PUFA:essential FA precursors were lower for (n-3) and (n-6) PUFA. Plasma vitamin C was lower in steatosis, but RBC FA composition and other parameters did not differ. We conclude that hepatic FA composition is altered in patients with hepatitis C and steatosis, probably due to modulation of enzymatic elongation and desaturation. Oxidative stress or nutritional status does not seem to play a predominant role for development of steatosis in CHC. PMID:19211827

  12. Dissecting the dendritic cell controversy in chronic hepatitis B virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehring, Adam J; Ann D'Angelo, June

    2015-05-01

    Therapeutic vaccines to boost endogenous T-cell immunity rely on the stimulatory capacity of dendritic cells (DCs). The functionality of DCs in chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection has been a long-standing debate. Therefore, we have attempted to summarize multiple studies investigating DC function in chronic HBV patients to determine whether common observations can be drawn. We found that the frequency and function of ex vivo-tested myeloid and plasmacytoid DCs were largely intact in patients with HBV infection and similar to those of healthy donor DCs. The main exception was reduced IFN-α production by plasmacytoid DC from chronic HBV patients. This reduced IFN-α production correlated with liver inflammation in multiple studies but not with viral load, suggesting that viral antigens have little effect on DC function. The majority of the confusion about DC function arises from studies reporting the reduced function of healthy donor DCs exposed to various sources of HBV in vitro. These direct effects of viral antigens are in contrast to data from HBV-infected patients. The variations in the assays used and areas that require further investigation are also covered. PMID:25363524

  13. Antiviral Activity of Marine Actinobacteria against Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus, a Surrogate Model of the Hepatitis C Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Cristina Santiago Bastos

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Hepatitis C virus (Flaviviridae family, Hepacivirus genus represents a major public health problem worldwide and it is responsible for chronic infections in humans, which can develop to liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. As this virus does not replicate efficiently in cell culture and in animals, bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV is used as a surrogate model for screening assays of antiviral activity, and mechanism of action assays. From marine invertebrates and their microorganisms isolated, we prepared extracts and fractions, and we isolated substances for assessment of their possible antiviral activity. Of the 71 tested, seven were considered promising presenting protection percentage of more than 80%. The best inhibition results were obtained from the extracts produced by the Gordonia bacteria samples with 99.9% inhibition and by Micrococcus with 99% inhibition. Furthermore, most of the extracts selected by the protection percentage showed selectivity index values considered promising, especially the extracts of the bacteria Williansia (SI=27 and Brachybacterium (SI=39. On the action mechanism, most of the promising extracts showed activity in the inhibition of intracellular replication steps, although it has been observed action of different extracts in several stages of viral replicative cycle. Thus, various extracts stood out and may lead to the development of drugs that ensure an alternative therapy for the treatment of hepatitis C.

  14. Viral hepatitis and HIV-associated tuberculosis: Risk factors and TB treatment outcomes in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Likanonsakul Sirirat

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The occurrence of tuberculosis (TB, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, and viral hepatitis infections in the same patient poses unique clinical and public health challenges, because medications to treat TB and HIV are hepatotoxic. We conducted an observational study to evaluate risk factors for HBsAg and/or anti-HCV reactivity and to assess differences in adverse events and TB treatment outcomes among HIV-infected TB patients. Methods Patients were evaluated at the beginning, during, and at the end of TB treatment. Blood samples were tested for aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, total bilirubin (BR, complete blood count, and CD4+ T lymphocyte cell count. TB treatment outcomes were assessed at the end of TB treatment according to international guidelines. Results Of 769 enrolled patients, 752 (98% had serologic testing performed for viral hepatitis: 70 (9% were reactive for HBsAg, 237 (31% for anti-HCV, and 472 (63% non-reactive for both markers. At the beginning of TB treatment, 18 (26% patients with HBsAg reactivity had elevated liver function tests compared with 69 (15% patients non-reactive to any viral marker (p = 0.02. At the end of TB treatment, 493 (64% were successfully treated. Factors independently associated with HBsAg reactivity included being a man who had sex with men (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 2.1; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.1–4.3 and having low TB knowledge (AOR, 1.8; CI, 1.0–3.0. Factors most strongly associated with anti-HCV reactivity were having injection drug use history (AOR, 12.8; CI, 7.0–23.2 and living in Bangkok (AOR, 15.8; CI, 9.4–26.5. The rate of clinical hepatitis and death during TB treatment was similar in patients HBsAg reactive, anti-HCV reactive, both HBsAg and anti-HCV reactive, and non-reactive to any viral marker. Conclusion Among HIV-infected TB patients living in Thailand, markers of viral hepatitis infection, particularly hepatitis C virus

  15. Chronic hepatitis C and fibrosis: evidences for possible estrogen benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liana Codes

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The main injury caused by hepatitis C virus is the hepatic fibrosis, as a result of a chronic inflammatory process in the liver characterized by the deposit of components from the extracellular matrix. The fibrosis development leads to the modification of the hepatic architecture, of the hepatocellular function and to irregularities in the microcirculation. The tissue remodeling process observed in fibrosis has stellate cells, located at the space of Disse, as main acting agents. These cells, in response to a harmful stimulus, undergo phenotypic changes from non-proliferating cells to proliferating cells that express a- smooth-muscle actin (a-SMA, a process called as transdifferentiation. There are evidences that the oxidative stress is involved in the chronic liver disease and serves as bond between the injury and the hepatic fibrosis. A number of studies suggest that the estrogen, at physiological levels, presents an antifibrogenic action probably through an antioxidant effect, decreasing the levels of lipid peroxidation products in the liver and blood, thus inhibiting the myofibroblastic transformation of stellate cells and contributing for gender-associated differences in relation to the fibrosis development. The aim of this paper was to describe data from literature concerning the interaction between chronic hepatitis C and estrogens, pregnancy, use of oral contraceptives, menopause and hormone reposition therapy.

  16. Risk Factors of Viral Hepatitis B among Egyptian Blood Donors

    OpenAIRE

    Awadalla, HI; Ragab, MH; Osman, MA; Nassar, NA; Cairo, Egypt.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Surveillance of infectious disease markers in the blood donor population is important in recognizing trends in prevalence and incidence of transfusion related infections in asymptomatic volunteer blood donors. Subjects & Methods: It is a community base cross sectional study. Subjects of study are volunteers to donate blood. Samples were collected from blood donors and questionnaire was designed to collect the risk factors data. The prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HB...

  17. Pegylated Interferon (Alone or With Ribavirin for Chronic Hepatitis C in Haemodialysis Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Espinosa

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Hepatitis C virus infection remains prevalent among patients undergoing long-term haemodialysis and has a detrimental impact on survival in this population. Antiviral therapy for chronic hepatitis C in haemodialysis patients is still a challenge to clinicians. The aim of the current study is to evaluate the efficacy and safety of therapy with pegylated interferon, alone or combined with ribavirin, for chronic hepatitis C among patients undergoing long-term hemodialysis. Methods: We conducted a retrospective, multicenter cohort trial with monotherapy (pegylated interferon (n=21 or combined antiviral therapy (pegylated interferon plus ribavirin (n=5 for chronic hepatitis C in patients undergoing long-term haemodialysis. Results: Sustained virological response was obtained in eleven (42% patients. Seven (26.9% patients interrupted prematurely the antiviral treatment due to serious side-effects, the most frequent cause of treatment withdrawal being hematological (n=3. HCV RNA load was lower in responder than non-responder patients, 5.44 (3.45; 6.36 vs. 5.86 (4.61; 6.46 log10 copies/mL, even if the difference was not significant (P=0.099. Blood transfusion requirement was greater in patients on combined antiviral therapy than those on pegylated interferon alone, 100% (5/5 vs. 0% (0/21, P=0.0001. No difference in sustained viral response occurred between patients on combined antiviral therapy and those on pegylated interferon monotherapy [40% (2/5 vs. 42.8% (9/21, P=0.90]. Conclusions: Results from this study showed that pegylated interferon alone or with ribavirin is unsatisfactory in terms of efficacy and safety. Prospective trials based on interferon-free regimens (i.e., sofosbuvir plus ribavirin or sofosbuvir plus daclatasvir are under way in patients with hepatitis C receiving long-term hemodialysis.

  18. Antibody to Hepatitis B Core Antigen Levels in the Natural History of Chronic Hepatitis B

    OpenAIRE

    Jia, Wei; Song, Liu-Wei; Fang, Yu-Qing; Xiao-feng WU; Liu, Dan-Yang; Xu, Chun; Wang, Xiao-Mei; Wang, Wen; Lv, Dong-Xia; Li, Jun; Deng, Yong-Qiong; Wang, Yan; Huo, Na; Yu, Min; Xi, Hong-Li

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Previous studies have revealed antibody to hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc) levels as a predictor of treatment response in hepatitis B early antigen (HBeAg)-positive chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients in both interferon and nucleos(t)ide analog therapy cohorts. However, there is no information about anti-HBc levels in the natural history of CHB. This study aimed to define anti-HBc levels of different phases in the natural history of CHB. Two hundred eleven treatment-naive CHB pati...

  19. An update on the strategies used for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemente, Maria Grazia; Vajro, Pietro

    2016-05-01

    Chronic hepatitis B (CHB) in children shows a variety of clinical presentations, which influence its natural course and treatment options. This report provides an overview of the ongoing strategies in pediatric CHB management. Interferon-α represents the first choice of treatment in children showing HBV replication and hepatic inflammation (immune active CHB), while the recommendation is to monitor inactive/immune-tolerant children (normal transaminases and low/absent viral replication). When circumstances preclude the use of Interferon-α and in cases of compensated/decompensated cirrhosis, entecavir for children above 2 years of age or tenofovir for children above 12 years of age are the nucleos(t)ide analogues recommended by the most recent guidelines. PMID:26752166

  20. Influence of iron on the severity of hepatic fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis C

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tsung-Jung Lin; Li-Ying Liao; Shyr-Yi Lin; Chih-Lin Lin; Ting-An Chang

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the association among hepatic fibrosis, serum iron indices, and hepatic iron stores in patients with Chronic Hepatitis C (CHC). METHODS: Thirty-two CHC patients were included in our study. The histological degree of fibrosis and inflammation activity was assessed according to the Metavir system. The serum iron indices including ferritin, iron and transferrin saturation were measured. Hepatic iron deposition was graded by Peris' stain. RESULTS: The CHC patients with severe hepatic fibrosis (n = 16) were significantly older than CHC patientswith mild fibrosis (n = 16) (P = 0.024). The serum iron indices, increased serum iron store and positive hepatic iron stain were not significantly different between the two groups. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, the age at biopsy was an independent predictor of severe hepatic fibrosis (Odds ratio = 1.312; P = 0.035). The positive hepatic iron stain was significantly associated with the values of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) (P = 0.017), ferritin (P = 0.008), serum iron (P= 0.019) and transferrin saturation (P = 0.003). The ferritin level showed significant correlation with the value of ALT (r = 0.531; P = 0.003), iron (r = 0.467; P = 0.011) and transferrin saturation (r = 0.556; P = 0.002). CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that the severity of hepatitis C virus (HCV)-related liver injury is associated with patient age at biopsy. Both serum iron indices and hepatic iron deposition show correlation with serum indices of chronic liver disease but are not related to grade and stage of liver histology.

  1. A new transmissible agent causing acute hepatitis, chronic hepatitis and cirrhosis in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrett, W F; O'Neil, B W

    1985-06-15

    There is a hepatitis of dogs which occurs in acute, persistent and chronic forms. Histological studies of spontaneous cases suggested that several apparently diverse hepatic diseases might be stages of one process. This was also implied by follow up studies and case histories: acute non-lethal episodes were followed later by the development of chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis and liver failure. Serum was taken and homogenates of liver were made from three field cases representing different putative temporal stages of the complex. These were injected into experimental dogs and a hepatitis was induced in all. The cytopathological and histological changes were the same in all animals and were identical to field cases. Acute lethal disease and persistent infections were produced. Two second passages were carried out and an identical condition was induced, characterised by recurrent episodes of subclinical hepatitis and persistent infection. It is suggested that the disease might be named canine acidophil cell hepatitis in view of the pathognomonic cytopathology. Specific morphological criteria have been established for this hepatitis. PMID:4024428

  2. New pandemics: HIV and AIDS, HCV and chronic hepatitis, Influenza virus and flu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatignol, Anne; Dubuisson, Jean; Wainberg, Mark A; Cohen, Éric A; Darlix, Jean-Luc

    2007-01-01

    New pandemics are a serious threat to the health of the entire world. They are essentially of viral origin and spread at large speed. A meeting on this topic was held in Lyon, France, within the XIXth Jacques Cartier Symposia, a series of France-Québec meetings held every year. New findings on HIV and AIDS, on HCV and chronic hepatitis, and an update on influenza virus and flu were covered during this meeting on December 4 and 5, 2006. Aspects of viral structure, virus-host interactions, antiviral defenses, drugs and vaccinations, and epidemiological aspects were discussed for HIV and HCV. Old and recent data on the flu epidemics ended this meeting. PMID:17270043

  3. New pandemics: HIV and AIDS, HCV and chronic hepatitis, Influenza virus and flu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cohen Éric A

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract New pandemics are a serious threat to the health of the entire world. They are essentially of viral origin and spread at large speed. A meeting on this topic was held in Lyon, France, within the XIXth Jacques Cartier Symposia, a series of France-Québec meetings held every year. New findings on HIV and AIDS, on HCV and chronic hepatitis, and an update on influenza virus and flu were covered during this meeting on December 4 and 5, 2006. Aspects of viral structure, virus-host interactions, antiviral defenses, drugs and vaccinations, and epidemiological aspects were discussed for HIV and HCV. Old and recent data on the flu epidemics ended this meeting.

  4. Racial differences in responses to therapy with interferon in chronic hepatitis C. Consensus Interferon Study Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, K R; Hoofnagle, J H; Tong, M J; Lee, W M; Pockros, P; Heathcote, E J; Albert, D; Joh, T

    1999-09-01

    The likelihood of a sustained response to a course of interferon in patients with chronic hepatitis C correlates with several clinical and viral factors, including age, viral genotype and initial levels of hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA in serum. The role of race and ethnicity has not been assessed. We evaluated the association of race with response to interferon in a large randomized, controlled trial using either consensus interferon (9 microg) or interferon alfa-2b (3 million units) given three times weekly for 24 weeks. African-American patients participating in the study were similar to white patients in mean age (43 vs. 42 years) and baseline levels of HCV RNA (3.6 vs. 3.0 million copies/mL) but had lower rates of cirrhosis (5% vs. 12%) and more frequently had viral genotype 1 (88% vs. 66%: P =.004). Most strikingly, the rates of end-of-treatment and sustained virological responses were lower among the 40 African-American patients (5% and 2%) than among the 380 white patients (33% and 12%) (P =.04 and.07). Rates of response among Hispanic and Asian-American patients were not statistically different than non-Hispanic white patients. Median viral levels decreased by week 24 of therapy by 2.5 logs in white patients (from 3.0 to 0.012 million copies/mL) but by only 0.5 logs among African- American patients (from 3.6 to 1.8 million copies/mL). Thus, there are marked racial differences in virological responses to interferon in hepatitis C that must be considered in assessing trials of interferon therapy and in counseling patients regarding treatment. The differences in response rates are as yet unexplained. PMID:10462387

  5. Antiviral combination therapy in chronic hepatitis B

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.A. de Man (Robert)

    1990-01-01

    textabstractAn outbreak of parenterally transmitted hepatitis was probably first recorded in 1885 by Lurman who reported the occurrence of jaundice among personnel of a Bremen factory after revaccination against smallpox. Of 1289 individuals vaccinated in one day, 191 developed jaundice 2 to 8 month

  6. Rare inborn errors associated with chronic hepatitis B virus infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Qiang; Peng, Liang; Huang, Weijun;

    2012-01-01

    Chronic hepatitis B (CHB) is a major global health issue. The role of rare genetic variants in CHB has not been elucidated. We aimed to identify rare allelic variants predisposing to CHB. We performed exome sequencing in 50 CHB patients who had no identifiable risk factors for CHB and 40 controls...

  7. Copper-associated chronic hepatitis in the Labrador retriever

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoffmann, G.

    2008-01-01

    This thesis describes copper-associated chronic hepatitis as a new disease in the Labrador. A study of 143 dogs that were prospectively assessed for clinical parameters, laboratory results, and liver copper concentrations, as well as histologic signs of inflammation revealed that more than two third

  8. Regulatory T Cells in Chronic Hepatitis B Virus Infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.N. Stoop (Jeroen Nicolaas)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractWorldwide 400 million people suffer from chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and approximately 1 million people die annually from HBV-related disease. To clear HBV, an effective immune response, in which several cell types and cytokines play a role, is important. It is known that p

  9. Liver stiffness measurements in patients with HBV vs HCV chronic hepatitis:A comparative study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ioan; Sporea; Roxana; Sirli; Alexandra; Deleanu; Adriana; Tudora; Alina; Popescu; Manuela; Curescu; Simona; Bota

    2010-01-01

    AIM:To assess the values of liver stiffness (LS) in pa-tients with hepatitis B virus (HBV) chronic hepatitis and to compare them with those in patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) chronic hepatitis. METHODS: The study included 140 patients with HBV chronic hepatitis, and 317 patients with HCV chronic hepatitis, in which LS was measured (FibroScan-Echo-sens) and liver biopsy was performed in the same session (assessed according to the Metavir score). RESULTS:According to the Metavir score of the 140 HBV p...

  10. Attenuated viral hepatitis in Trem1-/- mice is associated with reduced inflammatory activity of neutrophils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozik, Jan-Hendrik; Trautmann, Tanja; Carambia, Antonella; Preti, Max; Lütgehetmann, Marc; Krech, Till; Wiegard, Christiane; Heeren, Joerg; Herkel, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    TREM1 (Triggering Receptor Expressed on Myeloid Cells 1) is a pro-inflammatory receptor expressed by phagocytes, which can also be released as a soluble molecule (sTREM1). The roles of TREM1 and sTREM1 in liver infection and inflammation are not clear. Here we show that patients with hepatitis B virus (HBV) or hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection manifest elevated serum levels of sTREM1. In mice, experimental viral hepatitis induced by infection with Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis Virus (LCMV)-WE was likewise associated with increased sTREM1 in serum and urine, and with increased TREM1 and its associated adapter molecule DAP12 in the liver. Trem1-/- mice showed accelerated clearance of LCMV-WE and manifested attenuated liver inflammation and injury. TREM1 expression in the liver of wild-type mice was mostly confined to infiltrating neutrophils, which responded to LCMV by secretion of CCL2 and TNF-α, and release of sTREM1. Accordingly, the production of CCL2 and TNF-α was decreased in the livers of LCMV-infected Trem1-/- mice, as compared to LCMV-infected wildtype mice. These findings indicate that TREM1 plays a role in viral hepatitis, in which it seems to aggravate the immunopathology associated with viral clearance, mainly by increasing the inflammatory activity of neutrophils. PMID:27328755

  11. Role of microbubble ultrasound contrast agents in the non-invasive assessment of chronic hepatitis C-related liver disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Scott Grier; Adrian KP Lim; Nayna Patel; Jeremy FL Cobbold; Howard C Thomas; Isobel J Cox; Simon D Taylor-Robinson

    2006-01-01

    Patients who are chronically infected with the hepatitis C virus often develop chronic liver disease and assessment of the severity of liver injury is required prior to considering viral eradication therapy. This article examines the various assessment methods currently available from gold standard liver biopsy to serological markers and imaging. Ultrasound is one of the most widely used imaging modalities in clinical practice and is already a first-line diagnostic tool for liver disease. Microbubble ultrasound contrast agents allow higher resolution images to be obtained and functional assessments of microvascular change to be carried out. The role of these agents in quantifying the state of hepatic injury is discussed as a viable method of determining the stage and grade of liver disease in patients with hepatitis C. Although currently confined to specialist centres, the availability of microbubble contrast-enhanced ultrasound will inevitably increase in the clinical setting.

  12. Tenofovir therapy in chronic hepatitis B infection: 48-week results from Izmir Province, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şükran Köse

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The goal of therapy in chronic hepatitis B infection (CHB is to impede liver injury by suppressing viral replication.The study was aimed to determine the efficacy of tenofovir (TDF in CHB infection for 48 weeks.Materials and methods: We retrospectively analyzed the data of 45 CHB patients treated by tenofovir. The patientswere divided into two groups based on their hepatitis B e antigen status (HBeAg. Those who were eligible to therapyreceived TDF 300 mg once daily for 48 weeks. Serum alanine aminotransferase levels (ALT, hepatitis B virus DNA (HBVDNA, and viral serological markers were checked at three-month intervals. Liver biopsy scores were determined in allpatients.Results: The mean age ± standard deviation (SD was 35.8 ± 17.0 years, 26 (57.8 % were male, and seven patients(15.5% were treatment-experienced by a nucleos(tide analogue before TDF. HBeAg was positive in 17 (37.8% patients.At week 48 among HBeAg positive (HBeAg + patients’ biochemical and virological response rates at month-3, -6 and-12 were 64.7%, and 100%, 70.6%, and 94.1%, and 88.2%, and 64.7%, respectively. The serological response in HBeAg+ patients was 29.4%. For HBeAg negative (HBeAg - patients; biochemical, and virological response rates were 64.3%,and 96.4% at month 3; 82.1%, and 96.4% at month 6; and 100%, and 85.7% at month 12, respectively. At week 48 bothgroups had significant virological response (p<0.001.Conclusion: Treatment in CHB with TDF leads to HBV DNA suppression without evident resistance for 48-week, and iswell tolerated. J Microbiol Infect Dis 2012; 2(3: 87-92Key words: Hepatitis B, chronic, tenofovir disoproxil

  13. LIVER FUNCTION ABNORMALITIES IN HIV POSITIVE INDIVIDUALS WITH VIRAL HEPATITIS CO-INFECTION

    OpenAIRE

    Sudagar Singh; Vasanthan,; Vengadakrishnan; Damodharan

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Liver enzyme elevations are common in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients, and their diagnosis and management becomes a challenge because of complex pathogenic mechanisms. Liver enzyme abnormalities may be worsened by hepatitis B (HBV) or hepatitis C (HCV) infection, which each have their own risks for chronic immune-mediated liver disease along with direct cytotoxicity. OBJECTIVES: The present study was done to identify various liver function abno...

  14. 131I-Bromsulphalein in the evaluation of hepatic function during reconvalescence after viral hepatitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The combined use of biochemical and radionuclide tests (the clearance of 13+1I-bromsulphalein) made it possible to reveal significant differences in 53 patients in the time of complete reparation of hepatic function and the period of reconvalescence after hepatitis A and B. The period of reconvalescence in patients with hepatitis B was more prolonged. Dynamic observation and appropriate treatment is recommended for these patients

  15. Value of computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging for assessing severity of liver cirrhosis secondary to viral hepatitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to assess the value of abdominal CT and MRI in determining the severity of cirrhosis secondary to hepatitis compared to Child-Pugh classification. Materials and methods: The study included 23 patients who were clinically and histologically diagnosed with chronic liver disease secondary to viral hepatitis. Each patient underwent dynamic abdominal CT imaging and MRI within the same week. CT and MRI findings were retrospectively reviewed. The same parameters were used from the CT and the MR images for each patient. The parameters included liver volume index (posterior segment of the right lobe, medial and lateral segments of the left lobe), spleen volume index, ascites, portosystemic collaterals, contour irregularities of the liver and confluent fibrosis within the liver. The findings were compared with the patients' Child-Pugh grades. Multiple regression analysis was used for statistical analysis. Results: On MRI, liver volume index (P = 0.0001), and ascites (P = 0.009) were strongly correlated with Child-Pugh grades. With CT, only ascites was correlated with Child-Pugh grades (P = 0.002). Conclusion: This study indicates that liver volume index on MRI, and ascites on CT and MRI are good indicators of clinical severity of cirrhosis secondary to hepatitis. To show the effect of the other parameters, more research is needed with larger patient groups

  16. Antiviral Activity of Bacillus sp. Isolated from the Marine Sponge Petromica citrina against Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus, a Surrogate Model of the Hepatitis C Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarice Weis Arns

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The Hepatitis C virus causes chronic infections in humans, which can develop to liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. The Bovine viral diarrhea virus is used as a surrogate model for antiviral assays for the HCV. From marine invertebrates and microorganisms isolated from them, extracts were prepared for assessment of their possible antiviral activity. Of the 128 tested, 2 were considered active and 1 was considered promising. The best result was obtained from the extracts produced from the Bacillus sp. isolated from the sponge Petromica citrina. The extracts 555 (500 µg/mL, SI>18 and 584 (150 µg/mL, SI 27 showed a percentage of protection of 98% against BVDV, and the extract 616, 90% of protection. All of them showed activity during the viral adsorption. Thus, various substances are active on these studied organisms and may lead to the development of drugs which ensure an alternative therapy for the treatment of hepatitis C.

  17. Nutritional Support Treatment for Severe Chronic Hepatitis and Posthepatitic Cirrhosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIN Huimin; LI Hongtao; XING Mingyou; WU Chunming; LI Guojun; SONG Jianxin

    2006-01-01

    The therapeutic effectiveness of nutritional support in the treatment of severe chronic hepatitis and posthepatitic cirrhosis was evaluated. 143 patients with severe chronic hepatitis and 83 with posthepatitic cirrhosis were evaluated with SGA for assessing the nutritional status before the treatment. Patients with severe chronic hepatitis were divided into three groups: group A subject to enteral nutrition (EN) and parenteral nutrition (PN), group B subject to comprehensive treatment (CT) +PN; group C subject to CT+ EN. The patients with posthepatitic cirrhosis were divided into two groups: group D receiving CT and group E receiving CT+PN+EN. The function of liver and kidney and nutritional status were monitored to assess the therapy in 6 weeks. The results showed before treatment, over 90 % patients had moderate to severe malnutrition. After nutritional support, the liver function (ALT, T-biil) and nutritional status (TP, TC) in group A was improved significantly as compared with that in groups B and C (P<0.05). Compared with group D,the values of TP and Alb were increased significantly in group E (P<0.05), but the levels of ALT, AST and T-bil had no obvious change. It was suggested that most patients with severe chronic hepatitis or posthepatitic cirrhosis had malnutrition to varying degrees. The nutritional support treatment could obviously improve the nutritional status of these patients, and was helpful to ameliorate the liver function of the patients with severe chronic hepatitis. Among the methods of nutritional support treatment, PN combined with EN had the best effectiveness.

  18. A case of hepatic portal venous gas due to viral gastroenteritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirmanesh M

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Michael Mirmanesh,1 Quoc-Sy Nguyen,1 Alexey Markelov2 1Drexel University College of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USA; 2Department of Surgery, Easton Hospital, Easton, PA, USA Introduction: Hepatic portal venous gas is the presence of gas within the portal venous system that can result from a variety of insults to the gastrointestinal system, and which may be a diagnostic clue to ominous abdominal pathologies, such as acute bowel ischemia or necrosis. Case: We report a case of a 71-year-old man with acute onset abdominal pain whose initial radiologic testing showed extensive portal venous gas. The patient was managed conservatively with resolution of portal venous gas on day 2 of hospitalization. The findings were consistent with a final diagnosis of hepatic portal venous gas caused by viral gastroenteritis. Conclusion: History and physical examination along with presenting signs and symptoms, in conjunction with imaging studies, are vital to delineate the cause of hepatic portal venous gas. In the absence of alarming signs and symptoms, hepatic portal venous gas can be conservatively managed without the need for invasive surgical exploration. Keywords: hepatic portal venous gas, portal venous gas, portal venous air, hepatic venous gas, hepatic venous air, gastroenteritis

  19. Viral hepatitis in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Helena P. PAVAN; Francisco Hideo Aoki; Dinaida Teresa Monteiro; Neiva Sellan L. Gonçales; Cecília Amélia F. Escanhoela; Fernando L. Gonçales Júnior

    2003-01-01

    From 1992 to 1995 we studied 232 (69% male, 87% Caucasian) anti-human immunodeficiency virus (anti-HIV) positive Brazilian patients, through a questionnaire; HIV had been acquired sexually by 50%, from blood by 32%, sexually and/or from blood by 16.4% and by an unknown route by 1.7%. Intravenous drug use was reported by 29%; it was the most important risk factor for HIV transmission. The alanine aminotransferase quotient (qALT) was >1 for 40% of the patients, 93.6% had anti-hepatitis A virus ...

  20. Core as a Novel Viral Target for Hepatitis C Drugs

    OpenAIRE

    Guillaume Mousseau; Snyder, John K.; Arthur Donny Strosberg; Virginia Takahashi; Smitha Kota

    2010-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infects over 130 million people worldwide and is a major cause of liver disease. No vaccine is available. Novel specific drugs for HCV are urgently required, since the standard-of-care treatment of pegylated interferon combined with ribavirin is poorly tolerated and cures less than half of the treated patients. Promising, effective direct-acting drugs currently in the clinic have been described for three of the ten potential HCV target proteins: NS3/NS4A protease, NS5B...

  1. [A Case of Severe Chronic Active Epstein-Barr Virus Infection with Aplastic Anemia and Hepatitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ja In; Lee, Sung Won; Han, Nam Ik; Ro, Sang Mi; Noh, Yong Sun; Jang, Jeong Won; Bae, Si Hyun; Choi, Jong Young; Yoon, Seung Kew

    2016-01-25

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) causes various acute and chronic diseases. Chronic active EBV infection (CAEBV) is characterized by infectious mononucleosis-like symptoms that persist for more than 6 months with high viral loads in peripheral blood and/or an unusual pattern of anti-EBV antibodies. Severe CAEBV is associated with poor prognosis with severe symptoms, an extremely high EBV-related antibody titer, and hematologic complications that often include hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis. However, CAEBV which led to the development of aplastic anemia (AA) has not been reported yet. A 73-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital with intermittent fever, general weakness and elevated liver enzymes. In the serologic test, EBV-related antibody titer was elevated, and real-time quantitative-PCR in peripheral blood showed viral loads exceeding 10(4) copies/μg DNA. Liver biopsy showed characteristic histopathological changes of EBV hepatitis and in situ hybridization with EBV-encoded RNA-1 was positive for EBV. Pancytopenia was detected in peripheral blood, and the bone marrow aspiration biopsy showed hypocellularity with replacement by adipocytes. AA progressed and the patient was treated with prednisolone but deceased 8 months after the diagnosis due to multiple organ failure and opportunistic infection. Herein, we report a rare case of severe CAEBV in an adult patient accompanied by AA and persistent hepatitis. PMID:26809631

  2. Predictors of hepatic steatosis in HBeAg-negative chronic hepatitis B patients and their diagnostic values in hepatic fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui-dan Zheng, Cheng-run Xu, Li Jiang, Ai-xia Dou, Kun Zhou, Lun-gen Lu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate predictors of hepatic steatosis in HBeAg-negative chronic hepatitis B (CHB patients and their diagnostic values in hepatic inflammation and fibrosis. Methods: A total of 106 HBeAg-negative CHB patients with clinically and pathologically proven steatosis and 98 patients without steatosis were recruited into this study. The levels of fasting blood glucose (FBG, fasting insulin (FINS, triglyceride (TG, cholesterol (CHOL, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, albumin (Alb, globulin (Glb, HBV DNA, body mass index (BMI, homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR and pathological changes of the liver in inflammation, fibrosis and fatty deposition were examined in all patients. Results: The levels of BMI, HOMA-IR, FBG, insulin, TG, and CHOL were significantly higher in patients with steatosis than those without steatosis (all P<0.05. But ALT, AST and HBV DNA levels were significantly lower in patients with steatosis (all P<0.05. Logistic regression analysis showed that only FINS was a significant predictor for hepatic steatosis (P<0.05; FINS and Glb were significant predictors for hepatic inflammation (all P<0.05; BMI and TC were significant predictors for hepatic fibrosis (all P<0.05. Conclusions: Hepatic steatosis, a common disease in HBeAg-negative CHB patients, was positively associated with BMI, FBG, FINS, TG, TC, GGT, ALP and HOMA-IR. In these patients, the prevalence of hepatic inflammation and fibrosis was also increased.

  3. Predictors of hepatitis B virus genotype and viraemia in HIV-infected patients with chronic hepatitis B in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soriano, Vincent; Mocroft, Amanda; Peters, Lars; Rockstroh, Juergen; Antunes, Francisco; Kirkby, Nikolai; de Wit, Stephane; Monforte, Antonella d'Arminio; Flisiak, Robert; Lundgren, Jens

    2010-01-01

    Both natural history and treatment outcome of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection are influenced by genotypes and viral load. Information about factors determining HBV genotype distribution and viraemia in HIV/HBV-co-infected patients is scarce....

  4. Hepatic microRNA expression is associated with the response to interferon treatment of chronic hepatitis C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuroda Masahiko

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HCV infection frequently induces chronic liver diseases. The current standard treatment for chronic hepatitis (CH C combines pegylated interferon (IFN and ribavirin, and is less than ideal due to undesirable effects. MicroRNAs (miRNAs are endogenous small non-coding RNAs that control gene expression by degrading or suppressing the translation of target mRNAs. In this study we administered the standard combination treatment to CHC patients. We then examined their miRNA expression profiles in order to identify the miRNAs that were associated with each patient's drug response. Methods 99 CHC patients with no anti-viral therapy history were enrolled. The expression level of 470 mature miRNAs found their biopsy specimen, obtained prior to the combination therapy, were quantified using microarray analysis. The miRNA expression pattern was classified based on the final virological response to the combination therapy. Monte Carlo Cross Validation (MCCV was used to validate the outcome of the prediction based on the miRNA expression profile. Results We found that the expression level of 9 miRNAs were significantly different in the sustained virological response (SVR and non-responder (NR groups. MCCV revealed an accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity of 70.5%, 76.5% and 63.3% in SVR and non-SVR and 70.0%, 67.5%, and 73.7% in relapse (R and NR, respectively. Conclusions The hepatic miRNA expression pattern that exists in CHC patients before combination therapy is associated with their therapeutic outcome. This information can be utilized as a novel biomarker to predict drug response and can also be applied to developing novel anti-viral therapy for CHC patients.

  5. Influence of host resistance on viral adaptation: hepatitis C virus as a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plauzolles A

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Anne Plauzolles,1 Michaela Lucas,2,3 Silvana Gaudieri41Centre for Forensic Science, 2School of Medicine and Pharmacology, Harry Perkins Institute, 3School of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, 4School of Anatomy, Physiology and Human Biology, University of Western Australia, Perth, WA, AustraliaAbstract: Genetic and cellular studies have shown that the host's innate and adaptive immune responses are an important correlate of viral infection outcome. The features of the host's immune response (host resistance reflect the coevolution between hosts and pathogens that has occurred over millennia, and that has also resulted in a number of strategies developed by viruses to improve fitness and survival within the host (viral adaptation. In this review, we discuss viral adaptation to host immune pressure via protein–protein interactions and sequence-specific mutations. Specifically, we will present the “state of play” on viral escape mutations to host T-cell responses in the context of the hepatitis C virus, and their influence on infection outcome.Keywords: hepatitis C virus, viral adaptation, immune escape, adaptive immune response

  6. Hepatitis B-Related Concerns and Anxieties Among People With Chronic Hepatitis B in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajarizadeh, Behzad; Richmond, Jacqui; Ngo, Naomi; Lucke, Jayne; Wallace, Jack

    2016-01-01

    Background The psychological wellbeing of people with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) may be negatively affected due to the chronic and transmissible nature of the disease, and possible serious complications (e.g. cirrhosis and liver cancer). There are limited data investigating concerns and anxieties among people living with CHB. Objectives This study examined feelings about having hepatitis B among people with CHB, including hepatitis B-related concerns and anxieties. Patients and Methods Using convenience sampling, people with CHB attending four public liver clinics and one general practice in three Australian jurisdictions between April and September 2013 completed a self-administered questionnaire about their feelings about having hepatitis B. Results Ninety-three people completed the survey. Mean age was 45 years, 57% were men, and 93% were born overseas (75% from Asia). Seventy-six percent of participants reported having hepatitis B-related concerns and anxieties. The most common concerns were of developing liver cancer (57%), and infecting other people (53%). Thirty-five percent of participants were unwilling to talk to anyone about their hepatitis B while 25% changed how they lived as a result of having hepatitis B. Lower educational level was associated with feeling scared of hepatitis B (adjusted Odds Ratio [OR]: 4.04; 95%CI: 1.09, 14.90; P = 0.04), and an unwillingness to talk to anyone about hepatitis B (adjusted OR: 4.41; 95%CI: 1.09, 17.83; P = 0.04). Very good English proficiency was associated with a higher likelihood of participants changing how they lived (adjusted OR: 12.66; 95%CI: 2.21, 72.42; P psychological support needs as an essential component of comprehensive care.

  7. Antiviral combination therapy in chronic hepatitis B

    OpenAIRE

    Man, Robert

    1990-01-01

    textabstractAn outbreak of parenterally transmitted hepatitis was probably first recorded in 1885 by Lurman who reported the occurrence of jaundice among personnel of a Bremen factory after revaccination against smallpox. Of 1289 individuals vaccinated in one day, 191 developed jaundice 2 to 8 months after administration of glycerinated human lymph preparations. The illness usually began with fatigue,anorexia and gastrointestinal complaints followed by jaundice and often pruritus; it generall...

  8. Viral genome imaging of hepatitis C virus to probe heterogeneous viral infection and responses to antiviral therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanan, Vyas; Trehan, Kartik; Ong, Mei-Lyn; Luna, Joseph M; Hoffmann, Hans-Heinrich; Espiritu, Christine; Sheahan, Timothy P; Chandrasekar, Hamsika; Schwartz, Robert E; Christine, Kathleen S; Rice, Charles M; van Oudenaarden, Alexander; Bhatia, Sangeeta N

    2016-07-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a positive single-stranded RNA virus of enormous global health importance, with direct-acting antiviral therapies replacing an immunostimulatory interferon-based regimen. The dynamics of HCV positive and negative-strand viral RNAs (vRNAs) under antiviral perturbations have not been studied at the single-cell level, leaving a gap in our understanding of antiviral kinetics and host-virus interactions. Here, we demonstrate quantitative imaging of HCV genomes in multiple infection models, and multiplexing of positive and negative strand vRNAs and host antiviral RNAs. We capture the varying kinetics with which antiviral drugs with different mechanisms of action clear HCV infection, finding the NS5A inhibitor daclatasvir to induce a rapid decline in negative-strand viral RNAs. We also find that the induction of host antiviral genes upon interferon treatment is positively correlated with viral load in single cells. This study adds smFISH to the toolbox available for analyzing the treatment of RNA virus infections. PMID:27128351

  9. Quantitative Measurement of Serum Hepatitis B Surface Antigen Using an Immunoradiometric Assay in Chronic Hepatitis B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurement of serum hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg) levels is important for the management of chronic hepatitis D patients in terms of monitoring response to antiviral therapy. This study aimed to evaluate the diagnostic performance of a new diagnostic kit, which quantitatively measures serum HBsAg level using an immunoradiometric assay (IRMA) based method. Measurements were compared with those obtained using a chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay (CMIA) based method. The blood samples of 96 patients with chronic hepatitis B were used in this study. Copy numbers of serum hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA were determined in 23 of these samples. The correlation between and the concordance of IRMA and CMIA results were determined using Pearson's correlation coefficients. P values of 0.05 were considered to be statistically significant throughout. Laboratory diagnoses based on CMIA. Furthermors, serum HBsAg levels by IRMA were found to be highly correlated with those determined by CMIA (correlation coefficient R2=0.838, P2=0.067, P=0.316 by IRMA, and R2=0.101, P=0.215 by CMIA). The diagnostic performance of the investigated IRMA method of determining HBsAg levels was found to be comparable with that of a CMIA based method in chronic hepatitis B patients

  10. Quantitative Measurement of Serum Hepatitis B Surface Antigen Using an Immunoradiometric Assay in Chronic Hepatitis B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Hyun Woo; Lee, Ho Young; Kim, Seog Gyun; Kim, Won; Jung, Wong Jin; Kang, Keon Wook; Chung, June Key; Lee, Myung Chul; Lee, Dong Soo [Seoul National Univ. Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-03-15

    Measurement of serum hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg) levels is important for the management of chronic hepatitis D patients in terms of monitoring response to antiviral therapy. This study aimed to evaluate the diagnostic performance of a new diagnostic kit, which quantitatively measures serum HBsAg level using an immunoradiometric assay (IRMA) based method. Measurements were compared with those obtained using a chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay (CMIA) based method. The blood samples of 96 patients with chronic hepatitis B were used in this study. Copy numbers of serum hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA were determined in 23 of these samples. The correlation between and the concordance of IRMA and CMIA results were determined using Pearson's correlation coefficients. P values of 0.05 were considered to be statistically significant throughout. Laboratory diagnoses based on CMIA. Furthermors, serum HBsAg levels by IRMA were found to be highly correlated with those determined by CMIA (correlation coefficient R{sup 2=}0.838, P<0.001). Serum HBsAg level and serum HBV DNA copies were found to be linearly related by both methods (R{sup 2=}0.067, P=0.316 by IRMA, and R{sup 2=}0.101, P=0.215 by CMIA). The diagnostic performance of the investigated IRMA method of determining HBsAg levels was found to be comparable with that of a CMIA based method in chronic hepatitis B patients.

  11. Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth in patients with chronic hepatitis C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. V. Zhdanov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to estimate the frequency of detection of bacterial overgrowth syndrome in patients with chronic hepatitis C, find a possible relationship between development dysbiotic changes in the small intestine and over chronic hepatitis C were examined 80 patients (68 males and 12 females. In addition to standard laboratory tests for all patients was performed hydrogen breath test with a load of lactulose and fibrogastroduodenoscopy and hepatic biopsy with subsequent histological examination of biopsy. It was found that bacterial overgrowth syndrome, according to the hydrogen breath test detected 40% of patients with chronic hepatitis C, and the severity of it increases with the progression of the pathological process in the liver tissue. urthermore, in patients with endoscopic signs of catarrhal duodenitis according fibrogastroduodenoscopy, the level of molecular hydrogen when the hydrogen breath test at the appropriate stages of measurement was significantly lower, which may be due to the lack of saccharolytic and / or the predominance of proteolytic flora in the development of bacterial overgrowth syndrome.

  12. Hepatitis virales agudas en un hospital de adultos, de 1992 a 2001

    OpenAIRE

    José Acuña; Elizabeth Umaña; Mauricio Saldarriaga; Jorge Mora; Fernando Brenes; Alfredo Martén

    2003-01-01

    Justificación y objetivos: Debido al cambio de la distribución etiológica de las hepatitis virales agudas, percibido en la práctica clínica diaria en el ámbito nacional y confirmado en otros países, se hizo evidente la necesidad de realizar un análisis casuístico de las infecciones virales hepáticas agudas en nuestro país. Se puso enfasis en el virus productor de hepatitis Acuya presentación clínica es más severa en adultos en comparación con los niños. Métodos: Se registraron todos los casos...

  13. Therapeutic vaccination in chronic hepatitis B: preclinical studies in the woodchuck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosinska, Anna D; Zhang, Ejuan; Lu, Mengji; Roggendorf, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Recommended treatment of chronic hepatitis B with interferon-α and/or nucleos(t)ide analogues does not lead to a satisfactory result. Induction of HBV-specific T cells by therapeutic vaccination or immunotherapies may be an innovative strategy to overcome virus persistence. Vaccination with commercially available HBV vaccines in patients did not result in effective control of HBV infection, suggesting that new formulations of therapeutic vaccines are needed. The woodchuck (Marmota monax) is a useful preclinical model for developing the new therapeutic approaches in chronic hepadnaviral infections. Several innovative approaches combining antiviral treatments with nucleos(t)ide analogues, DNA vaccines, and protein vaccines were tested in the woodchuck model. In this paper we summarize the available data concerning therapeutic immunization and gene therapy using recombinant viral vectors approaches in woodchucks, which show encouraging results. In addition, we present potential innovations in immunomodulatory strategies to be evaluated in this animal model. PMID:21188201

  14. Therapeutic Vaccination in Chronic Hepatitis B: Preclinical Studies in the Woodchuck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna D. Kosinska

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Recommended treatment of chronic hepatitis B with interferon-α and/or nucleos(tide analogues does not lead to a satisfactory result. Induction of HBV-specific T cells by therapeutic vaccination or immunotherapies may be an innovative strategy to overcome virus persistence. Vaccination with commercially available HBV vaccines in patients did not result in effective control of HBV infection, suggesting that new formulations of therapeutic vaccines are needed. The woodchuck (Marmota monax is a useful preclinical model for developing the new therapeutic approaches in chronic hepadnaviral infections. Several innovative approaches combining antiviral treatments with nucleos(tide analogues, DNA vaccines, and protein vaccines were tested in the woodchuck model. In this paper we summarize the available data concerning therapeutic immunization and gene therapy using recombinant viral vectors approaches in woodchucks, which show encouraging results. In addition, we present potential innovations in immunomodulatory strategies to be evaluated in this animal model.

  15. Knowledge of viral hepatitis among Puerto Rican adults: implications for prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto-Salgado, Marievelisse; Suárez, Erick; Ortiz, Ana P; Adrovet, Sandra; Marrero, Edmir; Meléndez, Marytere; Colón, Héctor M; Albizu, Carmen; Del C Santos, María; Torres, Esther; Pérez, Cynthia M

    2011-08-01

    Although primary prevention of HAV and HBV can be achieved through vaccination, the burden of HCV can only be reduced through behavioral interventions to reduce its risk factors. This study evaluated knowledge regarding transmission, clinical manifestations and prevention of viral hepatitis in Puerto Rico. We assessed the level of knowledge about HAV (six questions), HBV (12 questions) and HCV (eight questions) among non-institutionalized Puerto Rican adults aged 21-64 years. Demographic characteristics and self-reported knowledge of these infections were determined through a face-to-face interview. A mean knowledge score was computed by summing correct responses to each scale. Mean knowledge scores according to demographics were compared using ANOVA or the Kruskal-Wallis test. Mean knowledge scores for HAV, HBV and HCV infections were 2.6 ± 1.5, 6.1 ± 2.4, and 3.6 ± 1.1, respectively. For HAV and HBV infections, the mean knowledge score significantly (P counseling received and number of sources of information. However, for HCV infection the mean knowledge score significantly increased with decreasing age, increased educational level and increased annual family income. Contrary to HBV, a higher HAV and HCV knowledge score was observed among individuals with history of vaccination for HAV and HBV, seropositive status for HAV and HCV, and history of drug use. A sizeable proportion of adults in this study demonstrated an inadequate level of knowledge, especially about transmission routes. Health education must be focused on transmission and prevention methods, including the availability of a vaccine for HAV and HBV, especially among those with chronic liver disease. PMID:21125319

  16. Chronic Schistosoma japonicum infection reduces immune response to vaccine against hepatitis B in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B and schistosomiasis are most prevalent in Africa and Asia, and co-infections of both are frequent in these areas. The immunomodulation reported to be induced by schistosome infections might restrict immune control of hepatitis B virus (HBV leading to more severe viral infection. Vaccination is the most effective measure to control and prevent HBV infection, but there is evidence for a reduced immune response to the vaccine in patients with chronic schistosomiasis japonica. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this paper, we demonstrate in a mouse model that a chronic Schistosoma japonicum infection can inhibit the immune response to hepatitis B vaccine (HBV vaccine and lead to lower production of anti-HBs antibodies, interferon-γ (IFN-γ and interleukin-2 (IL-2. After deworming with Praziquantel (PZQ, the level of anti-HBs antibodies gradually increased and the Th2-biased profile slowly tapered. At 16 weeks after deworming, the levels of anti-HBs antibodies and Th1/Th2 cytokines returned to the normal levels. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The results suggest that the preexisting Th2-dominated immune profile in the host infected with the parasite may down-regulate levels of anti-HBs antibodies and Th1 cytokines. To improve the efficacy of HBV vaccination in schistosome infected humans it may be valuable to treat them with praziquantel (PZQ some time prior to HBV vaccination.

  17. Antiviral therapy for chronic hepatitis B: Combination of nucleoside analogs and interferon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Satoru; Hagiwara; Naoshi; Nishida; Masatoshi; Kudo

    2015-01-01

    The ideal goal of chronic hepatitis B(CHB) treatment should be suppression of emergence of hepatocellular carcinoma through the disappearance of hepatitis B s antigen(HBs Ag) rather than the control of serum hepatitis B virus-DNA level. For this purpose, various types of combination therapies using nucleoside analogs(NAs) and interferon(IFN) have been conducted. The therapeutic effects of combination of two different kinds of agents are better than those of the monotherapy using NAs or IFN alone, probably because different pharmaceutical properties might act in a coordinated manner. Recently, combination therapies with NAs and IFN and sequential therapies with NAs administration followed by IFN therapy have been routinely employed. We previously reported that combination therapy using entecavir(ETV) and pegylated(PEG)-IFN showed antiviral effects in 71% of CHB patients; the effect of this combination was better than that using lamivudine(LAM) and PEG-IFN. This is partially explained by the better antiviral effects of ETV than those of LAM. In our analysis, the cohort of CHB consisted of the patients who showed a flare-up of hepatitis before antiviral therapy, and their baseline HBs Ag levels were relatively low. Therefore, in addition to the combination of the agents, the appropriate selection of patients is critical to achieve a good viral response.

  18. Chronic erosive seropositive arthritis in a patient with chronic hepatitis C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L P Ananjeva

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Joint syndrome evolution was prospectively followed up in a 49-year-old woman who had serum hepatitis in 1990. When she came to a rheumatologist for the first time in 1999 she complained of occasional joint pain. She did not have joint inflammatory changes at that time but chronic hepatitis С was revealed at the examination. Hepatitis С diagnosis was confirmed by morphological and repeated virological evaluations. During antiviral treatment the pt developed symmetrical polyarthritis involving hand joints. Elevation of cryoglobuline, rheumatoid factor and antinuclear antibodies level was revealed. During the next year polyarthritis recurred and later acquired undulatory course with periods of exacerbation and stabilization. Attempts of treatment with sulfasalazine failed due to transaminase elevation. In 2006 ulnar deviation appeared and rheumatoid factor level remained elevated. MRI showed multiple erosions of carpal bones. Considering features of joint syndrome development joint damage in this pt was regarded as arthritis associated with chronic hepatitis C.

  19. APLASTIC ANEMIA ET CAUSA OF SUSPECT VIRAL HEPATITIS INFECTION: A CASE REPORT

    OpenAIRE

    I Wayan Wawan Lismana

    2014-01-01

    Aplastic anemia is anemia that occurs because of a failure of hematopoiesis is relatively rarebut can be life threatening. The cause of aplastic anemia itself is still largely unknown oridiopathic. Minority of cases mainly due to a virus infection, one of which is viral hepatitishas long been known to cause symptoms of aplastic anemia. This report discusses thesuspected aplastic anemia caused by hepatitis virus infection. Course of the disease or theprognosis of aplastic anemia varies, but a ...

  20. Evaluation on Anti-hepatitis Viral Activity of Vitis vinifer L

    OpenAIRE

    Long Ma; Haibo Li; Jun Zhao; Tao Liu

    2010-01-01

    Suosuo grape (Vitis vinifer L) is traditionally used as a therapeutic agent for measles and hepatitis by the ethnic Uighurs. This work aimed to investigate the anti-HBV effect of total triterpene (VTT), total flavonoids (VTF) and total polysaccharides (VTP) from Suosuo grape, and their synergistic effects were also tested. The viral antigens of cellular secretion, HBsAg and HBeAg, were determined by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).The quantity of HBV-DNA released in the supernatant ...

  1. Positive serology for viral hepatitis and donor self-exclusion in Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia De Luca Maccarini

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Despite the great advances in serological testing for transfusion-transmitted infections, the selection of blood donors by blood bank operators remains the only way to avoid transmission within the testing window period. Part of this selection is the self-exclusion form, on which the donors can exclude their blood from donation without any explanation. This study assessed the clinical and epidemiological characteristics related to positivity for viral hepatitis and to the use of the confidential self-exclusion (CSE form. Methods This transversal study analyzed the data collected from blood donors' files in a hospital in Southern Brazil. Univariate and multivariate analyses identified the clinical and epidemiological variables related to positive serologies of viral hepatitis and to whether the donor was self-excluded. Results Of the 3,180 donors included in this study, 0.1% tested positive for HBsAg, 2.1% for anti-HBc, and 0.9% for anti-HCV. When the 93 donors with positive serologies for viral hepatitis were compared with those who were negative, a greater proportion of the positive serology group was found to have had a history of blood transfusions (OR=4.908; 95%CI=1.628 - 14.799; p<0.01, had repeatedly donated (OR=2.147; 95%CI=1.236 - 3.729; p<0.01, and used the CSE form for self-exclusion (OR=7.139; 95%CI=2.045 - 24.923; p<0.01. No variables were independently associated with self-exclusion. Conclusions A history of blood transfusion, repeated donations, and self-exclusion are factors that should be considered during viral hepatitis screenings in blood banks.

  2. HBeAg and not genotypes predicts viral load in patients with hepatitis B in Denmark: a nationwide cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krarup, Henrik Bygum; Andersen, Stig; Madsen, Poul Henning; Christensen, Peer Brehm; Laursen, Alex Lund; Bentzen-Petersen, Anne; Møller, Jørn Munkhof; Weis, Nina Margrethe

    2011-01-01

    To explore the influence of HBV genotype on viral load in patients with HBV infection, and to investigate the relation to gender, age and country of origin or antibodies against hepatitis Be antigen (anti-HBe).......To explore the influence of HBV genotype on viral load in patients with HBV infection, and to investigate the relation to gender, age and country of origin or antibodies against hepatitis Be antigen (anti-HBe)....

  3. HBeAg and not genotypes predicts viral load in patients with hepatitis B in Denmark: A nationwide cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krarup, Henrik; Andersen, Stig; Madsen, Poul Henning; Christensen, Peer Brehm; Laursen, Alex Lund; Bentzen-Petersen, Anne; Møller, Jørn M; Weis, Nina; Nielsen, Henrik Ib; Tage-Jensen, U.

    2011-01-01

    To explore the influence of HBV genotype on viral load in patients with HBV infection, and to investigate the relation to gender, age and country of origin or antibodies against hepatitis Be antigen (anti-HBe).......To explore the influence of HBV genotype on viral load in patients with HBV infection, and to investigate the relation to gender, age and country of origin or antibodies against hepatitis Be antigen (anti-HBe)....

  4. Serum hyaluronic acid as a noninvasive marker of hepatic fibrosis in chronic hepatitis B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geramizadeh Bita

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Chronic hepatitis B is a serious global health problem. Liver biopsy is currently recommended as the gold standard for the evaluation of the degree of fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis B. This procedure, however, is invasive and has potential complications. In this study, we attempted to validate the level of hyaluronic acid as a simple laboratory test to discriminate between patients with and without significant fibrosis in chronic hepatitis B. Methods: This study included 93 patients with chronic hepatitis B who had undergone percutaneous liver biopsy from 2003 to 2006. At the time of biopsy, a sample of serum was taken for the hyaluronic acid (HA assay. Histological assessment consisted of the semiquantitative analysis of the degree of fibrosis according to the criteria proposed by the Ishak system. These findings were then compared by using statistical analysis. Results: HA levels and stage groups of fibrosis were well correlated (Spearman r = 0.945, P < 0.005. There was a significant increase in HA levels when considering S0 to S6. The mean values of HA concentrations were 59.7 ± 10.5 ng/mL for stages 0-2, 149.4 ± 15.9 ng/mL for stages 3-4 , and 284.5 ± 14.5 ng/mL for the last group (stages 5-6. There were significant differences between the three groups. Serum HA levels of cases with extensive fibrosis were significantly higher than in those with mild and moderate fibrosis ( P = 0.0001, P = 0.0005, and P = 0.0001, respectively. Conclusion: Serum HA level is a precise predictor of extensive liver fibrosis in chronic hepatitis B. HA is well correlated with the stage of fibrosis and can reflect the severity of fibrosis. Thus, it can be used as a noninvasive test to monitor these patients.

  5. Liver Stiffness Measurement among Patients with Chronic Hepatitis B and C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Karen M; Mössner, Belinda K; Hansen, Janne F; Jarnbjer, Erik F; Pedersen, Court; Christensen, Peer B

    2014-01-01

    viral hepatitis and valid LSM using Fibroscan. Information about liver biopsy, antiviral treatment, and clinical outcome was obtained from medical records and national registers. The study included 845 patients: 597 (71%) with hepatitis C virus (HCV), 235 (28%) with hepatitis B virus (HBV) and 13 (2...

  6. Outbreak of duck viral hepatitis in duckling flocks in Poland - case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozdru Wojciech

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the aetiologic agent causing deaths in two flocks of Pekin ducklings at the age of 12 d in Poland. on the basis of clinical symptoms and pathological changes, viral hepatitis infection was suspected in the birds. During the necropsy, liver sections were collected, from which total cellular RNA was isolated. Then, real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR was performed using primers complementary to the pre-S region of the duck hepatitis virus genome. In all liver samples, the presence of a 530 bp PCR product was detected. The RT-PCR demonstrated the presence of genetic material of duck hepatitis virus type 1 (DH type 1 in the examined ducklings.

  7. Hepatocellular carcinoma, human immunodeficiency virus and viral hepatitis in the HAART era

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Douglas C Macdonald; Mark Nelson; Mark Bower; Thomas Powles

    2008-01-01

    The incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is rising. HCC in HIV almost invariably occurs in the context of hepatitis C virus (HCV) or hepatitis B virus (HBV) co-infection and, on account of shared modes of transmission, this occurs in more than 33% and 10% of patients with HIV worldwide respectively. It has yet to be clearly established whether HIV directly accelerates HCC pathogenesis or whether the rising incidence is an epiphenomenon of the highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) era, wherein the increased longevity of patients with HIV allows long-term complications of viral hepatitis and cirrhosis to develop. Answering this question will have implications for HCC surveillance and the timing of HCV/HBV therapy, which in HIV co-infection presents unique challenges. Once HCC develops, there is growing evidence that HIV co-infection should not preclude conventional therapeutic strategies, including liver transplantation.

  8. Immunoglobulin M-specific serologic testing in an outbreak of foodborne viral hepatitis, type A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osterholm, M T; Kantor, R J; Bradley, D W; Hall, W N; Francis, D P; Aaron, H C; Washburn, J W; Velde, D

    1980-07-01

    Ninety-seven symptomatic and five asymptomatic infections with viral hepatitis, type A (102 cases) were identified in members, guests and employees of a private country club in an outbreak associated with consuming food and ice prepared or handled by an employee of the club's kitchen pantry. Twenty-three symptomatic persons were tested by differential radioimmunoassay for immunoglobulin M (IgM) (acute-phase) hepatitis A antibody (anti-HAV) and all 23 were documented to be infected with hepatitis A virus (HAV). Forty-one member/guest cases had only a single exposure at the county club. Their incubation periods ranged from 21 to 40 days, with a mean of 30 days. The exposure of these single-day patrons occurred over a 14-day period. The index case was not icteric and only moderately symptomatic and was diagnosed retrospectively to have viral hepatitis, type A by serologic determination of IgM anti-HAV in blood samples. Four items implicated in disease transmission were potato salad, hot dogs, molded salmon and ice handled by the index case. Serologic screening of controls did not appear to alter the conclusions of the food item analysis. PMID:6249120

  9. Integration of hepatitis B vaccination into national immunisation programmes. Viral Hepatitis Prevention Board.

    OpenAIRE

    Van Damme, P; Kane, M.; Meheus, A

    1997-01-01

    Hepatitis B is a major public health problem even though safe and effective vaccines have been available for over 10 years. Because hepatitis B infection is largely asymptomatic with long term complications occurring after many years it has not received the attention it deserves. Strategies to immunise those at high risk have failed to control the disease. Delegates to the World Health Assembly of the World Health Organisation recommended in May 1992 that all countries should integrate hepati...

  10. Chronic Hepatitis E Infection Resulting in Graft Failure in a Liver Transplant Tourist

    OpenAIRE

    Kiat-Hon Lim; Jason Pik-Eu Chang; Chee-Kiat Tan; Lynette Lin-Ean Oon; Boon-Huan Tan; Hoe-Nam Leong; Hui-Hui Tan

    2011-01-01

    Hepatitis E, usually an acute hepatitis in the immunocompetent, has a chronic form described in immunocompromised hosts. We report the clinical course and outcome of an adult liver transplant recipient whose posttransplant period was complicated by chronic hepatitis E, Epstein-Barr virus infection, and cellular rejection of the graft.

  11. Fulminant hepatitis B reactivation leading to liver transplantation in a patient with chronic hepatitis C treated with simeprevir and sofosbuvir: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Ende, Alexander R.; Kim, Nina H.; Yeh, Matthew M.; Harper, Jason; Landis, Charles S.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Hepatitis B and C coinfection is commonly seen in clinical practice. In coinfected individuals, high levels of hepatitis C viremia are often associated with low levels of serum hepatitis B DNA. Hepatitis B reactivation in hepatitis C-infected patients treated with pegylated interferon and ribavirin has been reported, but severe or fulminant reactivation is uncommon. Hepatitis C treatment-associated hepatitis B reactivation in patients with chronic hepatitis C and isolated core an...

  12. Analysis of clinical and pathological features of chronic hepatitis B in combination with hepatic steatosis in the elderly

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董红筠

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the clinical and pathological characters of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) in combination with hepatic steatosis in the elderly.Methods Totally223 elderly patients with CHB and hepatic steatosis diagnosed by liver biopsy were retrospectively analyzed and220 non-elderly patients with CHB and hepatic steatosis were randomly selected as control group.Clinical and pathological features and change in liver histology were compared between the two groups.Results The inci-

  13. Evaluación de la fibrosis hepática en la hepatitis crónica por virus C mediante la aplicación prospectiva del Sabadell's NIHCED score: Sabadell's Non Invasive, Hepatitis C Related-Cirrhosis Early Detection Score Prospective evaluation of liver fibrosis in chronic viral hepatitis C infection using the Sabadell NIHCED: non-invasive hepatitis C related cirrhosis early detection) index

    OpenAIRE

    Bejarano, G.; Vergara, M.; Gil, M.; B. Dalmau; Puig, J. (Josep); M. R. Bella; Suárez, D.; Calvet, X

    2009-01-01

    Introducción: la hepatitis crónica por VHC cursa de forma asintomática desarrollando cirrosis hepática y sus complicaciones en un 20-40% de los casos. En estudios previos se ha demostrado que la fibrosis avanzada es un factor pronóstico fundamental. El método gold standard para la valoración del grado de fibrosis es la biopsia hepática. Nuestro grupo ha validado un índice predictivo, el NIHCED (Sabadell's Non Invasive, Hepatitis C related-Cirrosis Early Detection Score), basado en datos demog...

  14. Adiponectin serum level in chronic hepatitis C infection andtherapeutic profile

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Valentina Peta; Carlo Torti; Natasa Milic; Alfredo Focà; Ludovico Abenavoli

    2015-01-01

    Hepatic steatosis is commonly seen in the patients withchronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. HCV is closelyassociated with lipid metabolism, and viral steatosis ismore common in genotype 3 infection owing to a directcytopathic effect of HCV core protein. In non-genotype3 infection, hepatic steatosis is considered largely tobe the result of the alterations in host metabolism;metabolic steatosis is primarily linked with HCV genotype1. Adipose tissue secretes different hormonesinvolved in glucose and lipid metabolisms. It has beendemonstrated that adipocytokines are involved in thepathogenesis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, as thedecreased plasma adiponectin levels, a soluble matrixprotein expressed by adipoctyes and hepatocyte, areassociated with liver steatosis. Various studies haveshown that steatosis is strongly correlated negativelywith adiponectin in the patients with HCV infection.The role of adiponectin in hepatitis C virus inducedsteatosis is still not completely understood, but therelationship between adiponectin low levels and liversteatosis is probably due to the ability of adiponectinto protect hepatocytes from triglyceride accumulationby increasing β-oxidation of free fatty acid and thusdecreasing de novo free fatty acid production.

  15. Hepatic miR-29ab1 expression modulates chronic hepatic injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogure, Takayuki; Costinean, Stefan; Yan, Irene; Braconi, Chiara; Croce, Carlo; Patel, Tushar

    2012-11-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, regulatory non-coding RNAs that have potent effects on gene expression. Several miRNA are deregulated in cellular processes involved in human liver diseases and regulation of cellular processes. Recent studies have identified the involvement of miR-29 in hepatic fibrosis and carcinogenesis. Although several targets of miR-29 have been identified, there is limited information regarding the cell-type specific roles of miR-29 in the liver, and we sought to evaluate the role of this miRNA in hepatic pathobiology. We report the generation of a tissue-specific knockout mouse to evaluate the role of miR-29 in hepatic fibrosis and carcinogenesis in response to injury. We hypothesized that miR-29 contributes to the hepatocyte driven response to chronic cellular injury that results in fibrosis. In support of this hypothesis, fibrosis and mortality were enhanced in miR29 knockout mice in response to carbon tetrachloride. Genome-wide gene expression analysis identified an over-representation of genes associated with fibrosis. The oncofetal RNA H19 was modulated in a miR-29 dependent manner following exposure to carbon tetrachloride in vivo. The impact of a hepatocyte specific miR-29 knockout on survival following chronic hepatic injury in vivo implicates this miRNA as a potential target for intervention. These results provide evidence of the involvement of miR-29 in chronic hepatic injury, and suggest a role for deregulated hepatocyte expression of miR-29 in the response to hepatic injury, fibrosis and carcinogenesis. PMID:22469499

  16. Predictors of response to antiviral therapy in patients with chronic hepatitis C from Pakistani population

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hafsa Aziz; Muhammad Amin Athar; Shahnaz Murtaza; Javaid Irfan; Yasir Waheed; Iram Bilal; Abida Raza

    2011-01-01

    Background Hepatitis C virus (HCV) constitutes a major public health issue around the world, especially in developing countries like Pakistan. In this study, we assessed outcome of interferon (INF) treatment in chronic hepatitis C patients categorized by gender, age, and viral load.Methods In this study, 750 HCV positive patients with genotype 3 were selected, out of which 616 completed the entire treatment. Their personal history, pro-treatment HCV RNA and serum alanine transaminase (ALT) was quantified.Patients were treated with combination therapy of INF-α 2b three million units (thrice a week) plus ribavirin (1000-1200mg per day) for 24 weeks. After 24 weeks their HCV RNA and serum ALT level was quantified.Results Out of the 616 patients, 391 (63.5%) responded to therapeutic regimen (INF-α 2b plus ribavirin). Among the responders, 27.1% were men and 36.4% were women. Best treatment response was observed in patients having Iow viral load <8×105 IU/ml and age ≤40 years than patients having Iow viral load and age >40 years (73.2% vs. 60.3%, P=0.05).Conclusions Better response to IFN-α 2b plus ribavirin was observed in patients with lower viral RNA and younger age.It suggests that all patients considered for treatment should have quantification of serum HCV RNA level. The result can be used to counsel patients on the likelihood of response and may influence the patient's decision on treatment.

  17. Chronic hepatitis C presenting with a diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallager, Sofie; Weis, Nina

    2014-01-01

    Chronic hepatitis C (CHC) affects around 16,000 individuals in Denmark of whom about 50% are diagnosed. In the presence of CHC and cirrhosis the annual risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is 1-5%. We report on two patients who presented with disseminated HCC at the time of CHC diagnosis. At the...... time of diagnosis only non-curative treatment was available. An earlier diagnosis of CHC could potentially have led to a cure and prevention of HCC....

  18. Chronic granulomatous disease with recurrent hepatic abscesses in an adult

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is a condition of inability to deal with bacterial and fungal infections, due to defective respiratory burst in neutrophils leading to recurrent cutaneous and visceral infections. Usually a disease of childhood, but patients nowadays may survive to adulthood and diagnosis might be difficult if not considered. We describe a 20-year-old female with previously undiagnosed CGD, presenting with recurrent cutaneous and hepatic abscesses. (author)

  19. Hepatoprotective effects of antioxidants in chronic hepatitis C

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ricardo; Moreno-Otero; María; Trapero-Marugán

    2010-01-01

    We have read with interest the paper published in issue 2, volume 16 of World Journal of Gastroenterology 2010 by Nakamura et al, demonstrating that the antioxidant resveratrol (RVT) enhances hepatitis C virus (HCV) replication, consequently, they conclude that RVT is not a suitable antioxidant therapy for HCV chronic infection. The data raise some concern regarding the use of complementary and alternative medicine since the most frequent supplements taken by these patients are antioxidants or agents that m...

  20. Chronic hepatitis C: This and the new era of treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertino, Gaetano; Ardiri, Annalisa; Proiti, Maria; Rigano, Giuseppe; Frazzetto, Evelise; Demma, Shirin; Ruggeri, Maria Irene; Scuderi, Laura; Malaguarnera, Giulia; Bertino, Nicoletta; Rapisarda, Venerando; Di Carlo, Isidoro; Toro, Adriana; Salomone, Federico; Malaguarnera, Mariano; Bertino, Emanuele; Malaguarnera, Michele

    2016-01-18

    Over the last years it has started a real revolution in the treatment of chronic hepatitis C. This occurred for the availability of direct-acting antiviral agents that allow to reach sustained virologic response in approximately 90% of cases. In the near future further progress will be achieved with the use of pan-genotypic drugs with high efficacy but without side effects. PMID:26807205

  1. Iron metabolism in chronic hepatitis C patients on antiviral treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. V. Zhdanov

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the present research studying dynamics of the parameters describing a metabolism of iron at chronic hepatitis С patients on a combined antiviral therapy peg-interferon-2а and ribavirin. Has served 50 patients chronic hepatitis C (anti-HCV “+”, РНК HCV “+”, 1b genotype in the age from 18 till 59 years, on the average 33±1,5years, at various stages of disease and stages of monitoring antiviral treatments. To patients the parameters describing a metabolism of iron (serum iron, transferrin, ferritin, haptoglobin, ceruplasmin, total iron binding capacity, transferrin saturation by iron were defined. The sustain virology response (SVR was estimated - definition RNA HCV in half a year after end of treatment (72 week. It was carried out liver biopsy with the subsequent estimation of a degree of inflammatory activity and fibrosis on system METAVIR. Therapy peg-interferon-2а and ribavirin was accompanied by decrease serum iron, transferrin, ferritin, ceruplasmin, haptoglobin, transferrin saturation by iron irrespective of the answer to treatment. Thus, SVR directly correlated with higher level of iron and ceruplasmin of blood before therapy, on its background and during supervision. Normalization of biochemical activity chronic hepatitis C and positive morphological dynamics correspond with the parameters describing changes in a metabolism of iron at its patients, possibly, were compensatory-adaptive and to some extent endogen antiviral reaction of an organism of the person on HCV - infection. 

  2. Chinese Consensus on Combination Therapy of Chronic Hepatitis B

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    In May 2011,editorial boards of Chinese Journal of Experimental and Clinical Infectious Diseases (Electronic Edition),Chinese Journal of Liver Diseases (Electronic Edition) and Infection International (Electronic Edition) organized an expert committee to form an expert consensus on antiviral combination therapy of chronic hepatitis B (CHB).The consensus publication promoted and standardized the combination therapy concept of chronic hepatitis B.Clinical evidence of combination therapy for CHB is incomplete.The concept of combination therapy is gradually extended,from combination of antiviral drugs plus antiviral drugs,to antiviral drugs plus hepatoprotective drugs,and antiviral drugs plus immunomodulatory drugs.Therefore,editorial boards once again asked experts to analyze the new clinical evidence,and form the expert consensus on combination therapy of chronic hepatitis B.The formulation of this consensus is according to the principles of evidence-based medicine.Large number of clinical studies of combination therapy is still in progress.This consensus can not fully answer all the problems encountered in the combination therapy of CHB.With the progress of clinical practice of antiviral therapy,and the accumulation of evidence in combination therapy,the expert committee will update the consensus timely.

  3. Delta Hepatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Fulya Gunsar

    2012-01-01

    Hepatitis delta virus (HDV) is a defective RNA virus that requires HBsAg for replication and transmission. It can cause acute or chronic hepatitis. Chronic infection with HDV is one of the most severe and difficult to treat forms of viral hepatitis. It has been estimated that there is a total of 15-20 million HDV carriers in the world. This review focuses on two fundamental aspects of HDV infection. On the one hand, epidemiological data are summarized, which are essential to understand the re...

  4. Seroprevalencia de hepatitis viral B en estudiantes universitarios en Abancay, Perú Seroprevalence of viral hepatitis B in university students in Abancay, Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max Carlos Ramírez-Soto

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Para determinar la prevalencia de marcadores serológicos de hepatitis viral B en estudiantes universitarios de la ciudad de Abancay, realizamos un estudio transversal en 240 estudiantes de tres universidades, entre enero a octubre de 2010. Previo consentimiento informado, se llenó, por cada estudiante, una ficha epidemiológica y se tomó una muestra sanguínea para determinar la presencia de HBsAg, anti-HBcAg total, anti-HBe, HBeAg e IgM anti-HBc por el método de ELISA. Se encontró una prevalencia de 2,5 % (seis seropositivos para el HBsAg y 28,3 % (68 seropositivos para los anticuerpos Anti-HBcAg. El sexo masculino estuvo asociado con la presencia del anti-HBcAg (OR = 2,0; IC 95 %, 1,2- 3,6. No se encontró la presencia del HBeAg e IgM anti-HBc; los seis portadores del HBsAg fueron anti-HBe positivos. En conclusión, la infección por hepatitis B sigue siendo un problema de salud pública en Abancay, con una prevalencia importante en estudiantes universitarios.To determine the prevalence of serological markers of viral hepatitis B in university students of the city of Abancay, we performed a cross-sectional study on 240 students from three universities, from January to October 2010. Informed consent was requested to every student, an epidemiological record was filled, and a venous blood sample was drawn to determine the presence of HBsAg, total anti - HBcAg, anti - HBe, HBeAg and IgM Anti - HBc by ELISA. A prevalence of 2.5% (six positive samples was found for HBsAg and of 28.3% (68 positive samples for anti - HbcAg antibodies. The male sex was associated with the presence of anti - HBcAg (OR = 2.0, 95% CI, 1.2 to 3.6. We did not found HBeAg or IgM anti - HBc, however, the 6 HBsAg carriers were anti - HBe positive. In conclusion hepatitis B infection is still a public health problem in Abancay, with a significant prevalence in university students

  5. Sequence elements correlating with circulating viral load in genotype 1b hepatitis C virus infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The correlation between hepatitis C virus (HCV) genomic sequences and circulating HCV RNA levels was assessed to investigate the genetic elements affecting viral load. The interferon sensitivity-determining region (ISDR) sequence and the serum viral load were strongly correlated in 226 patients examined. Analysis of the entire HCV genome from six patients (three with a high and the others with a low viral load) with similar ISDR sequences identified several candidate residues associated with viral load. The amino acid (aa) sequences of these candidate residues and flanking regions in 67 additional patients revealed that only the residue at aa 962 varied significantly between the HCV patients with low and high serum loads (P 0.042). At this position, alanine was observed more frequently in the patients with a high viral load. In conclusion, our results strongly suggest that serum HCV RNA loads are inversely correlated with amino acid substitutions in the ISDR, and aa 962 was identified as a possible second determinant of serum HCV RNA load

  6. Clinical Factors and Viral Load Influencing Severity of Acute Hepatitis A.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun Woong Lee

    Full Text Available Clinical manifestations of hepatitis A virus (HAV infection vary from mild to fulminant hepatic failure (FHF in adults. We investigated the relationship between laboratory findings, including viral load, and clinical outcomes in patients with acute hepatitis A (AHA and evaluated predictive factors for severe acute hepatitis (s-AH.We analyzed the clinical manifestations of AHA in 770 patients. Patients with a prothrombin time (PT of less than 40% of normal were classified as s-AH and included 4 patients with FHF, 11 patients with acute renal failure, and 3 patients with prolonged jaundice (n = 128. Other patients were defined as mild acute hepatitis (m-AH (n = 642. Serum samples were obtained from 48 patients with acute hepatitis A. Among them, 20 with s-AH, and 28 with m-AH, were tested for HAV RNA titer.In a multivariate analysis, age (HR = 1.042, P = 0.041, peak creatinine (HR = 4.014, P = 0.001, bilirubin (HR = 1.153, P = 0.003, alanine aminotransferase (ALT (HR = 1.001, P < 0.001, initial lactate dehydrogenase (LDH (HR = 1.000, P = 0.045 and total cholesterol (HR = 0.978, P < 0.001 were independent factors for s-AH. Serum HAV RNA was detected in 20/20 (100% patients with s-AH and 22/28 (78.6% patients with m-AH. In a multivariate analysis of the 48 patients who were tested for HAV RNA, peak ALT (HR = 1.001, P = 0.004 and HAV RNA titer (HR = 2.076, P = 0.012 were independent factors for s-AH.Clinical factors including age, peak creatinine, bilirubin, ALT, initial LDH and total cholesterol were independent factors for s-AH in a multivariate analysis. In particular, HAV load strongly correlated with the severity of hepatitis A.

  7. Role of hepatitis C virus in chronic liver disease occurring after orthotopic liver transplantation.

    OpenAIRE

    Pastore, M; Willems, M.; Cornu, C.; Buts, Jean-Paul; REDING, Raymond; de Ville de Goyet, J; Rahier, Jacques; Otte, Jean-Bernard; Yapo, Séverin; Sokal, Etienne

    1995-01-01

    Paediatric orthotopic liver transplant recipients may develop chronic hepatitis after surgery. To investigate the role of hepatitis C virus in this pathology a cohort of 249 paediatric orthotopic liver transplant recipients was studied. Sixteen children (6.4%) were found to have chronic hepatitis C virus hepatitis after orthotopic liver transplantation. All but one of them had serum transaminase values which were persistently raised two to eight times the upper limit of normal. Thirteen were ...

  8. Serum arylesterase and paraoxonase activity in patients with chronic hepatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Suleyman Sirri Kilic; Suleyman Aydin; Nermin Kilic; Fazilet Erman; Suna Aydin; (I)lhami Celik

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the relationship between serum paraoxonase (PON1), AST, ALT, GGT, and arylesterase (AE) activity alterations and the degree of liver damage in patients with chronic hepatitis.METHODS: We studied 34 chronic hepatitis patients and 32 control subjects, aged between 35 and 65 years,in the Department of Infection and Clinical Microbiology at the Firat University School of Medicine. Blood samples were collected from subjects between 8:00 and 10:00 a.m. following a 12-h fast. Baseline and salt-stimulated PON1 activities were measured by the hydrolysis of paraoxon. Phenyl acetate was used as the substrate and formed phenol was measured spectrophotometrically at 270 nm after the addition of a 10-fold diluted serum sample in AE activity measurements.RESULTS: The results of this investigation revealed that the levels of AE activity decreased from 132±52 to 94±36 (29%), baseline PON1 activity from 452±112 to 164±67 (64%), salt-stimulated PON1 activity from 746±394 to 294±220 (61%), HDL from 58.4±5.1 to 47.2±5.6(20%), triglyceride from 133±51.2 to 86±34.0 (35%),while a slight increase in the level of LDL (from 163±54.1 to 177.3±56.0; 9%) and significant increases in the levels of AST (from 29±9.3 to 98±44), ALP (from 57.2±13.1 to 91±38.1), ALT (from 27.9±3.32 to 89±19.1), GGT (from 24.3±2.10 to 94±48.2), total bilirubin (from 0.74±0.02 to 1.36±0.06; 84%) and direct bilirubin (from 0.18±0.01 to 0.42±0.04; 133%) were detected.However, the levels of albumin, total protein, cholesterol,and uric acid were almost the same in chronic hepatitis and the control subjects.CONCLUSION: Low PON1 and AE activity may contribute to the increased liver dysfunction in chronic hepatitis patients by reducing the ability of HDL to retard LDL oxidation and might be clinically useful for monitoring the disease of chronic hepatitis.

  9. Association of laboratory parameters with viral factors in patients with hepatitis C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaliq Saba

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and Aims HCV infection may lead to hepatic fibrosis. In this study, we tried to determine whether there is any correlation of HCV genotypes and viral load to the clinical parameters such as ALT, AST, ALP, bilirubin, Hb level, patient's age and gender; and then correlated this association with disease progression in liver biopsy samples. Methods In cross-sectional and observational study, 6048 serum HCV RNA positive patients were chosen. The study consists of 53 months from March 2006 to September 2010. Patients were divided into three cohorts to validate our data. Statistical analysis and correlation of lab parameters with viral factors was determined by using SPSS version 16. Results The most prevalent genotype was 3 (70.9% followed by 1 (13.3% and 4 (7.4%, collectively. During Univariate analysis, in all cohorts; serum bilirubin, ALP, ALT and AAR showed significant correlation with genotypes, however multivariate analysis showed that all genotypes except 4a have no association with host biochemical markers. Disease progression was also independent of all genotypes. Serum ALP, ALT, bilirubin and viremea levels were significantly elevated in patients with genotype 4a. Viral load showed negative association with serum bilirubin (r = -0.112, P = 0.000 and ALP levels (r = -0.098, P = 0.000. We observed positive correlation of ALP and bilirubin levels, while negative associations of viral load with HCV liver disease progression. Conclusion Disease progression seems independent of the genotypes. Relationship between ALP and bilirubin with viral load may be an attractive marker to guess disease progression in patients with hepatitis C.

  10. Epidemiology of hepatitis E virus in China: results from the Third National Viral Hepatitis Prevalence Survey, 2005-2006.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiyuan Jia

    Full Text Available In China, hepatitis E virus (HEV is prevalent and causes disease, but its epidemiological profile is not well understood. We used a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to detect total antibodies to hepatitis E virus in 15,862 serum samples collected during the Third National Viral Hepatitis Prevalence Survey. The results were analyzed to calculate estimates of HEV seroprevalence and to examine the effects of some putative risk factors. The seroprevalence of HEV in the general Chinese population during the period from 2005 through 2006 was 23.46% (95% confidence interval [CI], 18.41%-28.50%. The farming population, the age group of 15-60 year olds, and those living in the Midwest or Mideast region and in Xinjiang province had the highest seroprevalence estimates. The prevalence of HEV is high in China. The seroprevalence rate of HEV shows an unbalanced distribution among areas with different geographic location and economic development levels. The characteristics of the distribution associated may be due to the route of HEV transmission (via contaminated water or animal reservoirs. Within the same region, the seroprevalence of HEV is generally increased with age.

  11. HepG2 cells support viral replication and gene expression of hepatitis C virus genotype 4 in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mostafa K El-Awady; Moataza H Omran; Wael T El-Garf; Said A Goueli; Ashraf A Tabll; Yasmine S El-Abd; Mahmoud M Bahgat; Hussein A Shoeb; Samar S Youssef; Noha G Bader El Din; El-Rashdy M Redwan; Maha El-Demellawy

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To establish a cell culture system with longterm replication of hepatitis C virus (HCV) genome and expression of viral antigens in vitro. METHODS: HepG2 cell line was tested for its susceptibility to HCV by incubation with a serum from a patient with chronic hepatitis C. Cells and supernatant were harvested at various time points during the culture. Culture supernatant was tested for its ability to infect naive cells. The presence of minus (antisense) RNA strand, and the detection of core and E1 antigens in cells were examined by RT-PCR and immunological techniques (flow cytometry and Western blot) respectively. RESULTS: The intracellular HCV RNA was first detected on d 3 after infection and then could be consistently detected in both cells and supernatant over a period of at least three months. The fresh cells could be infected with supernatant from cultured infected cells. Flow cytometric analysis showed surface and intracellular HCV antigen expression using in house made polyclonal antibodies (anti-core, and anti-E1). Western blot analysis showed the expression of a cluster of immunogenic peptides at molecular weights extended between 31 and 45 kDa in an one month old culture of infected cells whereas this cluster was undetectable in uninfected HepG2 cells. CONCLUSION: HepG2 cell line is not only susceptible to HCV infection but also supports its replication in vitro. Expression of HCV structural proteins can be detected in infected HepG2 cells. These cells are also capable of shedding viral particles into culture media which in turn become infectious to uninfected cells.

  12. Hepatitis B virus replication within the human spleen.

    OpenAIRE

    Di Bisceglie, A M; Hoofnagle, J H

    1990-01-01

    Southern blot analysis of splenic DNA from three patients with chronic hepatitis B revealed the presence of replicative intermediate forms of viral DNA. Hepatitis B viral RNA was detected in splenic RNA from two cases. Thus, hepatitis B virus appears to replicate in the human spleen, although at a lower level than in the liver.

  13. Improved Survival in Patients with Viral Hepatitis-Induced Hepatocellular Carcinoma Undergoing Recommended Abdominal Ultrasound Surveillance in Ontario: A Population-Based Retrospective Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Thein, Hla-Hla; Campitelli, Michael A.; Yeung, Latifa T.; Zaheen, Ahmad; Yoshida, Eric M; Earle, Craig C

    2015-01-01

    The optimal schedule for ultrasonographic surveillance of patients with viral hepatitis for the detection of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains unclear owing to a lack of reliable studies. We examined the timing of ultrasonography in patients with viral hepatitis-induced HCC and its impact on survival and mortality risk while determining predictors of receiving surveillance before HCC diagnosis. A population-based retrospective cohort analysis of patients with viral hepatitis-induced HCC ...

  14. Serum Hyperamylasemia as a prognostic indicator of acute viral hepatitis and cirrhosis of liver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Kaur

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Liver disease is a condition that causes liver inflammation or tissue damage and affects liver function. Liver functions tests are abnormal in various liver diseases such as hepatitis, cirrhosis and end stage liver disease. The study of pancreatic enzymes for prognostic purpose in evolving liver disease is gaining ground and act as prognostic indicator for liver diseases. Present study has been planned to assess the serum amylase status in 50 patients of acute viral hepatitis and 50 patients of cirrhosis of liver in comparison to 50 normal healthy control subjects. Levels of serum amylase were determined by CNP- G3 kinetic method. The serum levels of amylase were significantly raised (p<0.0001 in patients compared to control group and levels were observed to be constantly increased with increased severity of liver diseases. The probable cause of variation in serum amylase enzymes in acute viral hepatitis and cirrhosis of liver is its anatomical proximity and common egress system through Ampulla of vater into the duodenum.

  15. Effect of Hepatitis B Vaccination in Patients with Chronic Hepatitis C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To assess the effects of hepatitis B vaccination on the antibody titer in patients with chronic hepatitis C and to compare it with response in normal healthy subjects. Study Design: Interventional study. Place and Duration of Study: Shifa International Hospital, Islamabad, Pakistan, from January 2007 to January 2012. Methodology: Hepatitis vaccination (Heberbiovac-HB 20) was given intramuscularly to the patients of chronic hepatitis C (HCV group) and normal healthy subjects (control group) at 0, 1 and 6 months intervals. Anti-HBs titer was determined after second and third injection to assess the antibody response. Results: There were 46 patients in the HCV group and 45 patients in the control group. Mean age was 40.9 A +- 9.8 years in the HCV group and 33.18 A +- 8.35 years in the control group. Weight was 67.04 A +- 13.5 kg in the HCV group and 71.78 A +- 14.63 kg in the control group. Height was 162.45 A +- 9.06 cm in the HCV group and 167.03 A +- 7.83 cm in the control group. Anti-HBs antibody levels after the second injection were 253.89 A +- 76.76 mlU/mL in the HCV group and 245.81 A +- 72.65 mlU/mL in the control group (p=0.172). After third injection, the antibody levels were slightly higher in both groups. Conclusion: In patients with chronic hepatitis C and normal healthy subjects, Heberbiovac HB in standard dosage gave sero-protective levels in both groups and antibody titers were not significantly different in control and HCV group. (author)

  16. HBV rtA181位点突变的病毒学特点及临床耐药研究%A retrospective study on the viral characteristics and antiviral therapeutic regimens effect in chronic hepatitis B patients with rtA181 mutations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武静; 黄潇潇; 刘寿荣

    2014-01-01

    目的 回顾性研究HBV rtA181位点突变模式与临床核苷(酸)类似物耐药的关系及挽救治疗效果.方法 核苷(酸)类似物治疗过程中发现HBV rtA181位点突变的45例慢性乙型肝炎或肝硬化患者,检测其血清HBV DNA水平,PCR产物直接测序检测HBV变异模式及基因型,收集突变前用药史及突变后的挽救治疗方案及疗效相关资料.结果 HBV rtA181位点共发现三种突变形式,其突变率分别为rtA181T 66.67% (30/45),rtA181V 31.11% (14/45),rtA181S 2.22% (1/45),rtA181T多见于HBV C基因型患者(P<0.05);涉及rtA181的HBV突变模式共发现13种,多位点联合突变率为57.78% (26/45),其中rtA181与rt236位点联合突变率为40.00% (18/45),与rt204位点联合突变率为22.2% (10/45),多位点突变患者较单位点突变患者有病毒载量分布更高的趋势,但差异无统计学意义(P>0.05),多位点突变与基因型及突变形式无关(P>0.05);发生rtA181突变的患者97.78% (44/45)有拉米夫定(LAM)和(或)阿德福韦酯(ADV)治疗史,另外1例有替比夫定(LdT)治疗史.其后的挽救治疗采用加用或换用恩替卡韦(ETV)、LAM联合ADV以及LdT联合ADV均能在一个月内将HBV DNA降低2个lg值,继续随访效果最显著的方法为加用或换用ETV.结论 HBVrtA181位点突变模式多样,与LAM、ADV或LdT长期单药或序贯治疗有关,加用或换用ETV可取得显著的挽救治疗效果.%Objective To investigate the mutation patterns of hepatitis B virus in chronic hepatitis B patients with rtA181 mutations.Methods Forty-five chronic hepatitis or cirrhosis patients undergoing nucleos(t)ide analogues treatment were found HBV rtA181 locus mutation.Their serum HBV DNA levels were detected,HBV P gene was amplified and PCR products were sequenced to analyze genotype as well as mutation patterns.The information of medication history,salvage regimen and efficacy were collected.Results Three mutation forms of HBV rtA181 were found in

  17. Changes in serum and histology of patients with chronic hepatitis B after interferon alpha-2b treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong-Lei Han; Zhen-Wei Lang

    2003-01-01

    AIM: Chronic hepatitis B is a serious health problem.Interferon has long been used to treat Chronic hepatitis B.To evaluate the effects of interferon on chronic hepatitis Bbetter, we designed the study to investigate the changes insera and liver histology of patients with chronic hepatitis Bafter interferon alpha-2b treatment.METHODS: Twenty-four patients with chronic hepatitis Bwere enrolled in this study. They all received interferon alpha-2b treatment as following: 3 million units, i.m.. t.i.w., for 18weeks. Sera of all patients were obtained respectively forevaluation of ALT, HBsAg, HBcAg, HBeAg, HBV DNA andTIMP-1 before and afterinterferon treatment, also a liverbiopsy pre- and post-treatment was performed forcomparison of HAI, HBsAg, HBcAg, HBeAg, TIMP-1 andactivated HSC in the liver tissue.RESULTS: Patients who had normalization of serum ALTand seroconversion of HBeAg and/or HBV DNA (blothybridization) after treatment were defined as responders.The response rate in this study group was 37.5 % (7/24).Compared to pretreatment, the serum HBV DNA and TIMP-1 decreased significantly (P<0.05), so did the HAI, HBo Ag,HBeAg, TIMP-1 and activated HSC (P<0.05).CONCLUSION: The significant decrease in HBV DNA insera, the seroconversion of HBeAg, and the decrease ofviral expression in liver indicated that interferon alpha-2btreatment can inhibit viral replication. The normalization ofALT in sera and the improvement of HAI in liver showedthat interferon alpha-2b can improve the liver histology ofpatients with chronic hepatitis B. At the same time, interferonalpha-2b treatment can reduce the TIMP-1 in serum andliver and decrease the number of activated HSC, which mayallievate or inhibit hepatic fibrosis. Although the responserate was unsatisfactory, interferon play a benefical role onpatients with chronic hepatitis B in other respects. We stillneed further studies to improve the therapy effects.

  18. Chlordecone potentiates hepatic fibrosis in chronic liver injury induced by carbon tetrachloride in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabet, Elise; Genet, Valentine; Tiaho, François; Lucas-Clerc, Catherine; Gelu-Simeon, Moana; Piquet-Pellorce, Claire; Samson, Michel

    2016-07-25

    Chronic liver damage due to viral or chemical agents leads to a repair process resulting in hepatic fibrosis. Fibrosis may lead to cirrhosis, which may progress to liver cancer or a loss of liver function, with an associated risk of liver failure and death. Chlordecone is a chlorinated pesticide used in the 1990s. It is not itself hepatotoxic, but its metabolism in the liver triggers hepatomegaly and potentiates hepatotoxic agents. Chlordecone is now banned, but it persists in soil and water, resulting in an ongoing public health problem in the Caribbean area. We assessed the probable impact of chlordecone on the progression of liver fibrosis in the population of contaminated areas, by developing a mouse model of chronic co-exposure to chlordecone and a hepatotoxic agent, carbon tetrachloride (CCl4). After repeated administrations of chlordecone and CCl4 by gavage over a 12-week period, we checked for liver damage in the exposed mice, by determining serum liver transaminase (AST, ALT) levels, histological examinations of the liver and measuring the expression of genes encoding extracellular matrix components. The co-exposure of mice to CCl4 and chlordecone resulted in significant increases in ALT and AST levels. Chlordecone also increased expression of the Col1A2, MMP-2, TIMP-1 and PAI-1 genes in CCl4-treated mice. Finally, we demonstrated, by quantifying areas of collagen deposition and alpha-SMA gene expression, that chlordecone potentiated the hepatic fibrosis induced by CCl4. In conclusion, our data suggest that chlordecone potentiates hepatic fibrosis in mice with CCl4-induced chronic liver injury. PMID:26853152

  19. Molecular Testing in the Diagnosis and Management of Chronic Hepatitis B

    OpenAIRE

    Valsamakis, Alexandra

    2007-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is an enveloped virus with a small (3.2-kb) partially double-stranded DNA genome that causes acute and chronic infections. The impact of these infections on public health worldwide is enormous, with an estimated prevalence of 2 billion acute infections and 360 million chronic infections globally. This review focuses on chronic hepatitis B and the molecular assays used in its diagnosis and management. Background information, including that about features of the hepatiti...

  20. Depressive symptoms and cognitive dysfunctions in patients with chronic hepatitis B

    OpenAIRE

    Pavić Slađana; Švirtlih Neda; Delić Dragan; Radovanović-Špurnić Aleksandra

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Pronounced symptoms of depression and disorders of cognitive functions can be observed in patients with chronic hepatitis B. Objective. The objective of the study was evaluation of the severity of symptoms and predictive factors for depression and the existence of cognitive disorders in patients with chronic hepatitis B. Methods. A total of 150 respondents were included in this prospective study (50 patients with chronic hepatitis B, 50 patien...