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Sample records for chronic tritiated water

  1. Historical Doses from Tritiated Water and Tritiated Hydrogen Gas Relesed to the Atmosphere from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Part 1. Description of Tritium Dose Model (DCART) for Chronic Releases from LLNL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, S

    2004-06-30

    DCART (Doses from Chronic Atmospheric Releases of Tritium) is a spreadsheet model developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) that calculates doses from inhalation of tritiated hydrogen gas (HT), inhalation and skin absorption of tritiated water (HTO), and ingestion of HTO and organically bound tritium (OBT) to adult, child (age 10), and infant (age 6 months to 1 year) from routine atmospheric releases of HT and HTO. DCART is a deterministic model that, when coupled to the risk assessment software Crystal Ball{reg_sign}, predicts doses with a 95th percentile confidence interval. The equations used by DCART are described and all distributions on parameter values are presented. DCART has been tested against the results of other models and several sets of observations in the Tritium Working Group of the International Atomic Energy Agency's Biosphere Modeling and Assessment Programme. The version of DCART described here has been modified to include parameter values and distributions specific to conditions at LLNL. In future work, DCART will be used to reconstruct dose to the hypothetical maximally exposed individual from annual routine releases of HTO and HT from all LLNL facilities and from the Sandia National Laboratory's Tritium Research Laboratory over the last fifty years.

  2. Forest Irrigation Of Tritiated Water: A Proven Tritiated Water Management Tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vangelas, Karen; Blount, Gerald; Kmetz, Thomas; Prater, Phil

    2012-11-08

    Tritium releases from the Old Radioactive Waste Burial Ground (ORWBG) at the SRS in South Carolina has impacted groundwater and surface water. Tritiated groundwater plumes discharge into Fourmile Branch which is a small tributary of the Savannah River, a regional water resource. Taking advantage of the groundwater flow paths and the local topography a water collection and irrigation system was constructed and has been used at the SRS for over a decade to reduce these tritiated water releases to Fourmile Branch. The tritiated water is transferred to the atmosphere by evaporation from the pond surface, and after irrigation, wetted surface evaporation and evapotranspiration through the forest vegetation. Over the last decade SRS has irrigated over 120,000,000 gallons of tritiated water, which diverted over 6000 curies away from Fourmile Branch and the Savannah River. The system has been effective in reducing the flux of tritiated groundwater by approximately 70%. Mass balance studies of tritium in the forest soils before operations and over the last decade indicate that approximately 90% of the tritiated water that is irrigated is transferred to the atmosphere. Dose studies indicate that exposure to site workers and offsite maximally exposed individual is very low, approximately 6 mrem/year and 0.004 mrem/year, respectively. To consistently meet the flux reduction goal of tritium into Fourmile Branch optimization activities are proposed. These efforts will increase irrigation capacity and area. An additional 17 acres are proposed for an expansion of the area to be irrigated and a planting of approximately 40 acres of pine forest plantations is underway to expand irrigation capacity. Co-mingled with the tritiated groundwater are low concentrations of chlorinated volatile organic compounds (cVOCs), and 1,4-dioxane. Research studies and SRS field data indicate the forest irrigation system may have an added benefit of reducing the mass of these co-contaminants via

  3. Percolation behavior of tritiated water into a soil packed bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honda, T.; Katayama, K.; Uehara, K.; Fukada, S. [Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Engineering Sciences, Kyushu University, Kasuga, Fukuoka (Japan); Takeishi, T. [Faculty of Engineering, Kyushu University, Motooka Nishi-ku, Fukuoka (Japan)

    2015-03-15

    A large amount of cooling water is used in a D-T fusion reactor. The cooling water will contain tritium with high concentration because tritium can permeate metal walls at high temperature easily. A development of tritium handling technology for confining tritiated water in the fusion facility is an important issue. In addition, it is also important to understand tritium behavior in environment assuming severe accidents. In this study, percolation experiments of tritiated water in soil packed bed were carried out and tritium behavior in soil was discussed. Six soil samples were collected in Hakozaki campus of Kyushu University. These particle densities were of the same degree as that of general soils and moisture contents were related to BET surface area. For two soil samples used in the percolation experiment of tritiated water, saturated hydraulic conductivity agreed well with the estimating value by Creager. Tritium retention ratio in the soil packed bed was larger than water retention. This is considered to be due to an effect of tritium sorption on the surface of soil particles. The isotope exchange capacity estimated by assuming that H/T ratio of supplied tritiated water and H/T ratio of surface water of soil particle was equal was comparable to that on cement paste and mortar which were obtained by exposure of tritiated water vapor. (authors)

  4. Plant water balance with tritiated water-tracing dynamical method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾文炳; 颉红梅; 魏宝文; 陈荷生; 冯金朝; 董家伦

    1996-01-01

    The conception of "metabolic pool" is introduced and an ecosystem model consisting of sand body metabolic pool, plant metabolic pool, atmospheric pool and their corresponding channels is established. In addition, the input and output terms of water balance including plant transpiration etc. are measured by tritiated water-tracing dynamical method, etc. and thus a water balance table is obtained. Finally, the plant water balance in the steppified desert environment of the Shapotou area at southeastern fringe of Tengger Desert in China is comprehensively analysed.

  5. Genetic and somatic effects in animals maintained on tritiated water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carsten, A.L.; Brooks, A.; Commerford, S.L.; Cronkite, E.P.

    1981-01-01

    The possible genetic (dominant lethal mutations (DLM) and cytogenetic changes in the regenerating liver) and somatic (hematopoietic stem cell changes, growth and nonspecific life time shortening) effects in mice maintained on tritiated water (HTO) over two generations was investigated. Results to date are summarized. (ACR)

  6. Tritium removal from tritiated water by organic functionalized SBA-15

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taguchi, A.; Kato, Y.; Akai, R.; Torikai, Y.; Matsuyama, M. [Hydrogen Isotope Research Center, University of Toyama, Gofuku, Toyama (Japan)

    2015-03-15

    The recovery of tritium from tritiated water is important for reducing tritium emissions to the environment and for recycling tritium. Meso-porous silicas (SBA-15) were modified by -COOH, -SO{sub 3}H and -NH{sub 2} groups and their tritium adsorption ability from tritiated water under solid-liquid sorption was investigated. The adsorption abilities and separation factor of organic functionalized SBAs were comparable to those of bare SBA. The desorption of water from bare SBA and -COOH functionalized SBA were studied by Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy using D{sub 2}O as a probe molecule. An interaction was observed for D{sub 2}O with -COOH group where the hydrogen bonds became weaker than D{sub 2}O with bare SBA. (authors)

  7. Separation of tritiated water using graphene oxide membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sevigny, Gary J. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Motkuri, Radha K. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Gotthold, David W. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Fifield, Leonard S. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Frost, Anthony P. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Bratton, Wesley [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-06-28

    In future nuclear fuel reprocessing plants and possibly for nuclear power plants, the cleanup of tritiated water will be needed for hundreds of thousands of gallons of water with low activities of tritium. This cleanup concept utilizes graphene oxide laminar membranes (GOx) for the separation of low-concentration (10-3-10 µCi/g) tritiated water to create water that can be released to the environment and a much smaller waste stream with higher tritium concentrations. Graphene oxide membranes consist of hierarchically stacked, overlapping molecular layers and represent a new class of materials. A permeation rate test was performed with a 2-µm-thick cast Asbury membrane using mixed gas permeability testing with zero air (highly purified atmosphere) and with air humidified with either H2O or D2O to a nominal 50% relative humidity. The membrane permeability for both H2O and D2O was high with N2 and O2 at the system measurement limit. The membrane water permeation rate was compared to a Nafion® membrane and the GOx permeation was approximately twice as high at room temperature. The H2O vapor permeation rate was 5.9 × 102 cc/m2/min (1.2 × 10-6 g/min-cm2), which is typical for graphene oxide membranes. To demonstrate the feasibility of such isotopic water separation through GOX laminar membranes, an experimental setup was constructed to use pressure-driven separation by heating the isotopic water mixture at one side of the membrane to create steam while cooling the other side. Several membranes were tested and were prepared using different starting materials and by different pretreatment methods. The average separation result was 0.8 for deuterium and 0.6 for tritium. Higher or lower temperatures may also improve separation efficiency but neither has been tested yet. A rough estimate of cost compared to current technology was also included as an indication of potential viability of the process. The relative process costs were based on the rough size of facility to

  8. Historical Doses from Tritiated Water and Tritiated Hydrogen Gas Released to the Atmosphere from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Part 2. LLNL Annual Site-specific Data, 1953 - 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, S R

    2005-03-07

    It is planned to use the tritium dose model, DCART (Doses from Chronic Atmospheric Releases of Tritium), to reconstruct dose to the hypothetical maximally exposed individual from annual routine releases of tritiated water (HTO) and tritiated hydrogen gas (HT) from all Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) facilities and from the Sandia National (SNL) Laboratory's Tritium Research Laboratory over the last fifty years. DCART has been described in Part 1 of ''Historical Doses From Tritiated Water And Tritiated Hydrogen Gas Released To The Atmosphere from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL)'' (UCRL-TR-205083). This report (Part 2) summarizes information about annual routine releases of tritium from LLNL (and SNL) since 1953. Historical records were used to derive facility-specific annual data (e.g., source terms, dilution factors, ambient air concentrations, meteorological data, including absolute humidity and rainfall, etc.) and their associated uncertainty distributions. These data will be used as input to DCART to calculate annual dose for each year of LLNL operations. Sources of information are carefully referenced, and assumptions are documented. Confidence on all data post-1974 is quite high. Prior to that, further adjustment to the estimated uncertainty may have to be made if more information comes to light.

  9. Solid-state detector system for measuring concentrations of tritiated water vapour and other radioactive gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, J. C.; Surette, R. A.; Wood, M. J.

    1999-08-01

    A detector system was built using a silicon photodiode plus preamplifier and a cesium iodide scintillator plus preamplifier that were commercially available. The potential of the system for measuring concentrations of tritiated water vapour in the presence of other radioactive sources was investigated. For purposes of radiation protection, the sensitivity of the detector system was considered too low for measuring tritiated water vapour concentrations in workplaces such as nuclear power plants. Nevertheless, the spectrometry capability of the system was used successfully to differentiate amongst some radioactive gases in laboratory tests. Although this relatively small system can measure radioactive noble gases as well as tritiated water vapour concentrations, its response to photons remains an issue.

  10. Separation of tritiated water from water using composite membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duncan, J.; Nelson, D.

    1996-10-01

    Polymeric composite membranes are being developed to remove tritium from contaminated water at DOE sites. Industrial membrane systems are being developed that have proven to be energy efficient, and membrane technologies such as reverse-osmosis have been well developed for desalination and other industrial/municipal applications. Aromatic polyphosphazene membranes are being investigated because they have excellent radiological, thermal, and chemical stability. The FY 1996 effort is directed toward delineating a potential mechanism, providing a statistical approach to data acquisition, refining a mass balance, and designing a staged array module.

  11. Selected bibliography on heavy water, tritiated water and hydrogen isotopes (1981-1992)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalakrishnan, V. T.; Sutawane, U. B.; Rathi, B. N.

    A selected bibliography on heavy water, tritiated water and hydrogen isotopes is presented. This bibliography covers the period 1981-1992 and is in continuation to Division's earlier report BARC-1192 (1983). The sources of information for this compilation are Chemical Abstracts, INIS Atom Index and also some scattered search through journals and reports available in our library. No claim is made towards exhaustiveness of this bibliography even though sincere attempts have been made for a wide coverage. The bibliography is arranged under the headings: (1) production, purification, recovery, reprocessing and storage; (2) isotope exchange; (3) isotope analysis; (4) properties; and (5) miscellaneous. Total number of references in the bibliography are 1762.

  12. Improving distillation method and device of tritiated water analysis for ultra high decontamination efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Hsin-Fa; Wang, Chu-Fang; Lin, Chien-Kung

    2015-12-01

    It is important that monitoring environmental tritiated water for understanding the contamination dispersion of the nuclear facilities. Tritium is a pure beta radionuclide which is usually measured by Liquid Scintillation Counting (LSC). The average energy of tritum beta is only 5.658 keV that makes the LSC counting of tritium easily be interfered by the beta emitted by other radionuclides. Environmental tritiated water samples usually need to be decontaminated by distillation for reducing the interference. After Fukushima Nucleaer Accident, the highest gross beta concentration of groundwater samples obtained around Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station is over 1,000,000 Bq/l. There is a need for a distillation with ultra-high decontamination efficiency for environmental tritiated water analysis. This study is intended to improve the heating temperature control for better sub-boiling distillation control and modify the height of the container of the air cooling distillation device for better fractional distillation effect. The DF of Cs-137 of the distillation may reach 450,000 which is far better than the prior study. The average loss rate of the improved method and device is about 2.6% which is better than the bias value listed in the ASTM D4107-08. It is proven that the modified air cooling distillation device can provide an easy-handling, water-saving, low cost and effective way of purifying water samples for higher beta radionuclides contaminated water samples which need ultra-high decontamination treatment.

  13. Assessment of intakes and radiation doses following exposure to tritiated water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudran, K.; Sawant, J.V.; Thampan, S.; Bangera, V.S. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Health Physics Div., Trombay, Bombay (India)

    1992-07-01

    Biological half-lives, (Tb) of tritium following exposure to tritiated water (HTO) are reported. Tb{sub 1} varied from 2.5 to 16 days with an average of 6.8 days. Equilibrium conditions existing between HTO concentrations in blood and urine at the time of voiding is demonstrated. Tb{sub 1}, is observed to be affected only marginally by age or body weight and significantly by ambient conditions like temperature and moisture content of the air. (author)

  14. High level tritiated water monitoring by Bremsstrahlung counting using a silicon drift detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niemes, S.; Sturm, M.; Michling, R.; Bornschein, B. [Institute for Technical Physics - ITEP, Tritium Laboratory Karlsruhe - TLK, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology - KIT, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2015-03-15

    The β-ray induced X-ray spectrometry (BIXS) is a promising technique to monitor the tritium concentration in a fuel cycle of a fusion reactor. For in-situ measurements of high level tritiated water by Bremsstrahlung counting, the characteristics of a low-noise silicon drift detector (SDD) have been examined at the Tritium Laboratory Karlsruhe (TLK). In static measurements with constant sample volume and tritium concentration, the Bremsstrahlung spectra of tritiated water samples in a concentration range of 0.02 to 15 MBq/ml have been obtained. The volume has been kept constant at 5 cm{sup 3}. The observed spectra are well above the noise threshold. In addition to X-rays induced by β-rays, the spectra feature X-ray fluorescence peaks of the surrounding materials. No indications of memory effects have been observed. A linear relation between the X-ray intensity and the tritium concentration was obtained and the lower detection limit of the setup has been determined to 1 MBq ml{sup -1}, assessed by the Curie criterion. In addition, the spectra obtained experimentally could be reproduced with high agreement by Monte-Carlo simulations using the GEANT4-tool-kit. It was found that the present detection system is applicable to non-invasive measurements of high-level tritiated water and the SDD is a convenient tool to detect the low energy Bremsstrahlung X-rays. (authors)

  15. Evaluation of tritiated water diffusion through the Toarcian clayey formation of the Tournemire experimental site (France).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motellier, S; Devol-Brown, I; Savoye, S; Thoby, D; Alberto, J-C

    2007-10-30

    Through-diffusion experiments with tritiated water were performed on argillaceous samples from various zones of the Tournemire test site. It was intended to evaluate the homogeneity of the transport property of unfracturated samples and the influence of the orientation and the nature of the samples (presence of an opened fracture or a pre-existing tectonic fracture filled with calcite and pyrite). Homogeneous values of the tritiated water (HTO) effective diffusion coefficients were deduced from experiments carried out when diffusion occurred parallel to the stratigraphic bedding, with an apparent sensitivity to experimental conditions. Anisotropy was significant, De(HTO) perpendicular to the bedding being 1/3 lower than that parallel to the bedding. The observed fractures of the samples created by mechanical stress and partial dehydration during sawing and the presence of a pre-existing opened fracture did not affect the effective diffusion coefficients of tritiated water, which is probably due to the healing ability of the clayey medium during the re-saturation phases of the equilibrium steps performed prior to the diffusion experiments. On the contrary, a significant decrease of this transport parameter was induced by the occurrence of a pre-existing tectonic fracture, which was assigned to the dense structure of the filling phases.

  16. An Estimate of the History of Tritium Inventory in Wood Following Irrigation with Tritiated Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, C.E.

    2001-06-15

    Some of the groundwater and surface water at the Savannah River Site (SRS) is contaminated with tritium as a legacy of nuclear materials production. An analysis of tritium remediation alternatives suggests that the most practical remediation alternative is to change in the path of tritium exposure to the public. Calculations based on many years of experience at the Savannah River Site indicate that a 40 percent reduction in dose can be achieved by releasing tritiated water to the atmosphere, as water vapor, as opposed to allowing it to flow off site in surface water streams.

  17. Steady-state leaching of tritiated water from silica gel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Das, H.A.; Hou, Xiaolin

    2009-01-01

    Aqueous leaching of tritium from silica gel, loaded by absorption of water vapor, makes part of reactor de-commissioning. It is found to follow the formulation of steady-state diffusion.......Aqueous leaching of tritium from silica gel, loaded by absorption of water vapor, makes part of reactor de-commissioning. It is found to follow the formulation of steady-state diffusion....

  18. Diffusive parameters of tritiated water (HTO) and U in chalk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Descostes, M.; Gandois, O.; Frasca, B.; Radwan, J.; Juery, A. [CEA Saclay, DEN DANS DPC SECR Lab Radionuclides Migration Measurements and Modeling, 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France); Descostes, M. [Univ Evry, CNRS, UMR CEA 8587, Evry (France); Pili, E. [CEA Bruyeres le Chatel, DIF, 91 (France)

    2009-06-15

    Complete text of publication follows: The feasibility of aquifer storage and recovery systems (ASR) to counteract short and long term imbalances between freshwater supply and demand is currently investigated for the metropolitan area of Perth, Western Australia. During the planned injection of oxic excess water into a deep anoxic aquifer the water quality evolution will depend on the extent and structure of the physical and geochemical heterogeneity and reactivity of the aquifer. A detailed geochemical characterisation was undertaken to determine amount and type of sedimentary reductants within different lithological facies. The incubation of sediment samples from the target aquifer for {approx} 52 days enabled quantification of their oxygen (O{sub 2}) consumption and CO{sub 2} production [1]. Data analysis, in particular the identification of key redox and acid buffering processes, was under-pinned by hydrogeochemical modelling. Results showed that the average measured reductive capacities (MRC) towards O{sub 2} consumption increased from the sand facies, followed by the siltstone facies, and the mud-stone/shale facies. This approach identified pyrite (20 - 100%), sedimentary organic matter (SOM; 3 - 56%), siderite (3 - 28%) and Fe(II)- aluminosilicates (8 - 55%) as the main O{sub 2} reductants. Minute amounts of carbonate acted as buffering minerals, while a bounding pH of 3 indicated acid buffering by K-feldspar dissolution. The supernatants showed elevated aqueous concentrations of Ni, Cd and Pb to be a potential risk for the quality of the recovered water. [1] Hartog, Griffioen and Van der Weijden (2002) Environmental Science and Technology 36(11), 2338-2344

  19. Damage of the mouse testis by tritiated water and 137Cs-gamma-rays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashiwabara, Shoji; Kashimoto, Naoki; Sanoh, Seigo; Uesaka, Toshihiro; Katoh, Osamu; Watanabe, Hiromitsu

    2003-09-01

    Tritiated water at 23.2, 46.3 or 92.5 MBq/animal and 137Cs-gamma-rays at 9.5 Gy (equivalent 370 MBq) or lower doses were administered to 6-week old male C3H/HeNCrj and C57BL/6NCrj mice, as well as F1 Crj: B6C3F1 (C3H x C57BL) progeny. Each set of six to ten animals were autopsied 30 days after the first irradiation. Testis weights were decreased dose dependently, relative values being highest in the C3H and lowest in the C57BL case, with B6C3F1 intermediate. Vacuolization in seminiferous tubules appeared in the 23.2 MBq group and increased with the dose. Focal pyknosis and karyomegaly were found at 46.3 MBq, while primary and secondary spermatocytes and spermatids disappeared with 92.5 MBq. Only a few spermatogonia and Sertoli cells remained after exposure to 9.5 Gy 137Cs-gamma-rays. Sizes of seminiferous tubules were decreased dose dependently, with no strain differences. When male B6C3F1 mice were irradiated with Cs-gamma-rays at 0.119 (equivalent 4.63 MBq tritiated water) or 2.38 Gy (equivalent 92.5 MBq tritiated water), body weights and size of the seminiferous tubules were decreased at both doses, and the larger dose also caused reduction of testis weight and abnormal sperm. However, all changes except for the alteration in weights had disappeared 1 month after the final irradiation. It is considered that the size of seminiferous tubules may be a good parameter for radiation damage in the testis.

  20. Inhibiting effect of tea catechins on the lipid peroxidation induced in tritiated water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubota, M. [Radiochemical Research Laboratory, University of Shizuoka, 836 Ohya, Shizuoka-shi 422-8529 (Japan); Takeuchi, Y. [Radiochemical Research Laboratory, University of Shizuoka, 836 Ohya, Shizuoka-shi 422-8529 (Japan); Okuno, K. [Radiochemical Research Laboratory, University of Shizuoka, 836 Ohya, Shizuoka-shi 422-8529 (Japan); Yoshioka, H. [Institute for Environmental Sciences, University of Shizuoka, 52-1 Yada, Shizuoka-shi 422-8526 (Japan); Yoshioka, H. [Radiochemical Research Laboratory, University of Shizuoka, 836 Ohya, Shizuoka-shi 422-8529 (Japan)]. E-mail: srhyosi@ipc.shizuoka.ac.jp

    2006-02-15

    Lipid peroxidation induced by {beta}-ray in tritiated water and the inhibiting effect of tea catechins on it were studied using a spin probe method. A hydrophobic spin probe, 16-doxylstearic acid (16NS), was incorporated into a liposome prepared from egg yolk phosphatidylcholine, which was dispersed in tritiated water; the catechins were added to the solution. The rate of the decrease of ESR intensity of 16NS was a measure of the peroxidation and of the inhibiting effect. Inhibiting activity increased with an increase in the concentration of the catechin. Inhibiting ability estimated from the slope of the curves was in the order of (-)-epicatechin gallate > (-)-epigallocatechin gallate > (-)-epicatechin > (-)-epigallocatechin. The activity decreased with increasing temperature and the temperature dependence increased with the catechin concentration. These results were explained by a model; the initiator of the peroxidation is the hydroxyl radical (OH) and catechin is adsorbed on the surface of the membrane and scavenges OH coming into there from the water phase. The activity depended on the ratio of the adsorbed catechin, namely the partition coefficient between the water and the lipid.

  1. Historical Doses from Tritiated Water and Tritiated Hydrogen Gas Released to the Atmosphere from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Part 1. Description of Tritium Dose Model (DCART) for Routine Releases from LLNL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, S R

    2006-09-27

    DCART (Doses from Chronic Atmospheric Releases of Tritium) is a spreadsheet model developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) that calculates doses from inhalation of tritiated hydrogen gas (HT), inhalation and skin absorption of tritiated water (HTO), and ingestion of HTO and organically bound tritium (OBT) to adult, child (age 10), and infant (age 6 months to 1 year) from routine atmospheric releases of HT and HTO. DCART is a deterministic model that, when coupled to the risk assessment software Crystal Ball{reg_sign}, predicts doses with a 95% confidence interval. The equations used by DCART are described and all distributions on parameter values are presented. DCART has been tested against the results of other models and several sets of observations in the Tritium Working Groups of the International Atomic Energy Agency's programs, Biosphere Modeling and Assessment and Environmental Modeling for Radiation Safety. The version of DCART described here has been modified to include parameter values and distributions specific to conditions at LLNL. In future work, DCART will be used to reconstruct dose to the hypothetical maximally exposed individual from annual routine releases of HTO and HT from all LLNL facilities and from the Sandia National Laboratory's Tritium Research Laboratory over the last fifty years.

  2. Measurement of the French national tritiated-water standard by helium-3 mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jean-Baptiste, P; Cassette, P; Fourré, E; Tartès, I; Dapoigny, A

    2014-05-01

    The (3)He ingrowth technique is based on the detection of the tritium radioactive daughter, (3)He, by mass spectrometry. Over the last three decades it has been used extensively in oceanography and groundwater studies for measurements of very low to ultra-low levels of tritium. To compare it with the best available methods of radioactive counting, we applied this method to measure the massic activity of a tritiated-water primary standard prepared by the French Laboratoire National Henri Becquerel (LNHB). One liter of a low-level tritium solution was prepared from a small aliquot of the LNHB standard by two-step gravimetric dilution with tritium-free groundwater. Sixteen samples of this solution were analyzed at the LSCE-Saclay noble gas facility, using the (3)He ingrowth method. The massic activity of the prepared solution was also measured by Liquid Scintillation Counting using the Quantulus LNHB counter and an internal calibration method with the LNHB tritiated water standard. All results agree within their standard uncertainty.

  3. Induction of specific-locus mutations in the mouse by tritiated water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, W.L.; Cumming, R.B.; Kelly, E.M.; Phipps, E.L.

    1978-01-01

    The results reported are the first obtained on transmtted gene mutations induced by tritium in any form in any mammal. They are, therefore, of obvious practical importance in the estimaton of the possible biological hazards of man-made tritium in the environment. Male mice were injected intraperitoneally with either 0.75 or 0.50 mCi per gram of body weight of tritiated water. They were then used in our standard specific-locus mutation test in which the treated wild-type stock of mice is mated to a stock homozygous for seven recessive marker genes. Mutations at any of the seven loci are scored in the offspring. The earlier matings provided information on the mutation frequency in germ cells irradiated in postspermatogonial stages, and the later matings gave the mutation frequency in treated spermatogonia. The spermatogonia are the important cells so far as human risks are concerned, and the mouse results for this germ-cell stage yielded a relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of approximately 2 for tritiated water compared with low-dose-rate gamma irradiation. There are various uncertainties involved in arriving at this figure, and the difference between it and l is probably not statistically significant. However, for risk estimation, it seems prudent to use the RBE value of 2, which is, after all, the best point estimate computed from the present data.

  4. Biological half-time of tritiated water: comparison of hyperthyroid and hypothyroid patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eberstadt, P.; Fernandez, M.V.G.; Gonzalez, O.

    1986-01-01

    The half-time values of tritiated water were explored in eleven hyperthyroid patients and in two hypothyroid ones. For reasons of comparability the numbers are expressed in days per square meter (d/m/sup 2/) of body surface. Against the estimated 5.4d/m/sup 2/ in normal subjects, the hyperthyroids reflected 3.9+-0.66 and the two determinations of hypothyroids were 6.42 and 7.13, respectively. During the study neither diagnostic nor therapeutic procedures were ever postponed. The half-time values are not representative of extreme conditions in hyper- or hypothyroids, but are sufficiently clear to indicate well-defined differences from normal people. The total exposure to radiation for the exploratory procedure was minimal, estimated at less than 12 mrem for the normal standard man.

  5. Damage of the Mouse Testis by Tritiated Water and <137>^Cs-γ-Rays

    OpenAIRE

    Kashiwabara, Shoji; Kashimoto, Naoki; Sanoh, Seigo; Uesaka, Toshihiro; Katoh, Osamu; WATANABE, HIROMITSU

    2003-01-01

    Tritiated water at 23.2, 46.3 or 92.5 MBq/animal and ^Cs-γ-rays at 9.5 Gy (equivalent 370 MBq) or lower doses were administered to 6-week old male C3H/HeNCrj and C57BL/6NCrj mice, as well as FI Crj: B6C3F1 (C3H × C57BL) progeny. Each set of six to ten animals were autopsied 30 days after the first irradiation. Testis weights were decreased dose dependently, relative values being highest in the C3H and lowest in the C57BL case, with B6C3F1 intermediate. Vacuolization in seminiferous tubules ap...

  6. Historical Doses from Tritiated Water and Tritiated Hydrogen Gas Released to the Atmosphere from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Part 5. Accidental Releases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, S

    2007-08-15

    Over the course of fifty-three years, LLNL had six acute releases of tritiated hydrogen gas (HT) and one acute release of tritiated water vapor (HTO) that were too large relative to the annual releases to be included as part of the annual releases from normal operations detailed in Parts 3 and 4 of the Tritium Dose Reconstruction (TDR). Sandia National Laboratories/California (SNL/CA) had one such release of HT and one of HTO. Doses to the maximally exposed individual (MEI) for these accidents have been modeled using an equation derived from the time-dependent tritium model, UFOTRI, and parameter values based on expert judgment. All of these acute releases are described in this report. Doses that could not have been exceeded from the large HT releases of 1965 and 1970 were calculated to be 43 {micro}Sv (4.3 mrem) and 120 {micro}Sv (12 mrem) to an adult, respectively. Two published sets of dose predictions for the accidental HT release in 1970 are compared with the dose predictions of this TDR. The highest predicted dose was for an acute release of HTO in 1954. For this release, the dose that could not have been exceeded was estimated to have been 2 mSv (200 mrem), although, because of the high uncertainty about the predictions, the likely dose may have been as low as 360 {micro}Sv (36 mrem) or less. The estimated maximum exposures from the accidental releases were such that no adverse health effects would be expected. Appendix A lists all accidents and large routine puff releases that have occurred at LLNL and SNL/CA between 1953 and 2005. Appendix B describes the processes unique to tritium that must be modeled after an acute release, some of the time-dependent tritium models being used today, and the results of tests of these models.

  7. The long term effects of {sup 137}Cs {gamma}-rays and tritiated water on induction on teratogenesis in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shoji, Shuneki [Hiroshima Univ., Research Institute for Radiation Biology and Medicine, Hiroshima (Japan)

    2003-07-01

    The purpose of the present study is to evaluate the teratogenesis caused by {sup 137}Cs {gamma}-rays radiation and tritiated water (tritium {beta}-rays, HTO) in rats under long-term exposures. Many congenital anomalies are caused by environmental factors, and it is likely that this assessment of teratogenesis will be very important in the future. Pregnant Donryu strain rats were irradiated with {sup 137}Cs {gamma}-rays on days 9-18 of gestation. The animals were sacrificed on day 18 of gestation and the contents of each uterine horn were examined. The numbers of surviving, dead and resorbed fetuses were recorded. The surviving fetuses were examined for external and visceral malformations. Also given here is a measure of the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of tritiated water (HTO) compared to that for {sup 137}Cs {gamma}-rays regarding the induction of developmental anomalies such as neurocristopathy in pregnant Donryu rats. Radiation exposures were approximately 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 Gy for both tritiated water and {sup 137}Cs {gamma}-rays. Teratogenesis was dose dependent for both radiation groups. Our studies show that {sup 137}Cs {gamma}-rays and HTO irradiation induce similar malformations of the cardiovascular, respiratory and skeletal systems in rat fetuses. However, a number of fetuses exhibiting growth retardation, general edema, persistent atrioventricular canal, eye defects, microcephaly and craniofacial defects following maternal exposure to HTO. These include hypoplasia of the pulmonary trunk (tetralogy of Fallot), DORV, ventricular septal defect, right aortic arch, coarctation of the aorta, aberrant right subclavian artery, hypoplasia of the thymus, craniofacial anomalies, hypoplasia or incomplete lungs and trachea, as well as limb and tail malformations in HTO syndrome. These results are similar to those found in human DiGeorge syndrome, which are considered pharyngeal arch syndromes related to a cephalic neutrocristopathy. A best estimation

  8. Historical Doses from Tritiated Water and Tritiated Hydrogen Gas Released to the Atmosphere from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Part 6. Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, S

    2007-09-05

    Throughout fifty-three years of operations, an estimated 792,000 Ci (29,300 TBq) of tritium have been released to the atmosphere at the Livermore site of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); about 75% was tritium gas (HT) primarily from the accidental releases of 1965 and 1970. Routine emissions contributed slightly more than 100,000 Ci (3,700 TBq) HT and about 75,000 Ci (2,800 TBq) tritiated water vapor (HTO) to the total. A Tritium Dose Reconstruction was undertaken to estimate both the annual doses to the public for each year of LLNL operations and the doses from the few accidental releases. Some of the dose calculations were new, and the others could be compared with those calculated by LLNL. Annual doses (means and 95% confidence intervals) to the potentially most exposed member of the public were calculated for all years using the same model and the same assumptions. Predicted tritium concentrations in air were compared with observed mean annual concentrations at one location from 1973 onwards. Doses predicted from annual emissions were compared with those reported in the past by LLNL. The highest annual mean dose predicted from routine emissions was 34 {micro}Sv (3.4 mrem) in 1957; its upper confidence limit, based on very conservative assumptions about the speciation of the release, was 370 {micro}Sv (37 mrem). The upper confidence limits for most annual doses were well below the current regulatory limit of 100 {micro}Sv (10 mrem) for dose to the public from release to the atmosphere; the few doses that exceeded this were well below the regulatory limits of the time. Lacking the hourly meteorological data needed to calculate doses from historical accidental releases, ingestion/inhalation dose ratios were derived from a time-dependent accident consequence model that accounts for the complex behavior of tritium in the environment. Ratios were modified to account for only those foods growing at the time of the releases. The highest dose from an

  9. Molecular and genotoxic effects in Mytilus galloprovincialis exposed to tritiated water at an elevated temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dallas, L.; Jha, A. [School of Biological Sciences, Plymouth University (United Kingdom); Bean, T.; Lyons, B. [Cefas Weymouth Laboratory (United Kingdom); Turner, A. [School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, Plymouth University (United Kingdom)

    2014-07-01

    Radioactive contaminants do not occur in isolation; organisms are also exposed to fluctuations in biological, biotic and physico-chemical factors, such as competition, other contaminants, salinity and temperature. Thermal discharge from nuclear facilities is considered to be one of the most important environmental issues surrounding these establishments, second only to the release of radionuclides. Cooling water from nuclear institutions is one of the major sources of tritium ({sup 3}H) to the aquatic environment; temperature is therefore an abiotic factor of particular concern when it comes to assessing the potential detrimental impacts of {sup 3}H exposure in marine species. In this context, we used a molecular approach to elucidate the potential mechanisms behind the genotoxicity of tritiated water (HTO) to marine mussels, at 'normal' and elevated temperatures. Mussels were exposed to control seawater or 15 MBq L{sup -1} HTO at 15 and 25 deg. C for 7 days, with haemolymph and gill tissue sampling (for comet assay to detect DNA strand breaks and gene expression analysis, respectively) after 0, 1, 12, 72 and 168 h. In addition, a Cu concentration of 40 μg L{sup -1} (previously established as genotoxic under these exposure conditions) was used concurrently as a positive control (at 15 deg. C). Tissue-specific accumulation of {sup 3}H was also determined, allowing the calculation of dose rates using the ERICA tool. Comparison of DNA strand breakage (DSB) as a function of time suggested that significant levels of DSB were induced earlier in haemocytes of mussels exposed to HTO at 25 deg. C compared to 15 deg. C (72 h vs. 168 h). Alterations in transcriptional expression of key genes also suggest that the 72 h time point is critical, with gill showing reduced expression of hsp70, hsp90, mt20, p53 and rad51 during HTO exposure at the elevated temperature. In contrast, HTO exposure at 15 deg. C resulted in significant up-regulation of the same genes after 72

  10. Computation and comparison of Pd-based membrane reactor performances for water gas shift reaction and isotope swamping in view of highly tritiated water decontamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santucci, Alessia, E-mail: alessia.santucci@enea.it [Associazione ENEA-Euratom sulla Fusione, C.R. ENEA Frascati, Via E. Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati, RM (Italy); Rizzello, Claudio [Tesi Sas, Via Bolzano 28, Roma (Italy); Tosti, Silvano [Associazione ENEA-Euratom sulla Fusione, C.R. ENEA Frascati, Via E. Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati, RM (Italy)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: • A dedicated detritiation process for highly tritiated water (HTW) has to be identified. • Water gas shift and isotopic swamping via Pd–Ag membrane reactor are possible processes. • A parametric analysis through two simulation codes is performed. • A comparison in terms of the decontamination factor is provided. -- Abstract: In a D–T fusion machine, due to the possible reaction between tritium and oxygen, some potential sources of highly tritiated water (HTW) can be identified. Therefore, a dedicated detritiation process has to be assessed either for economic and safety reasons. In this view, the use of a Pd-based membrane reactor performing isotopic exchange reactions can be considered since hydrogen isotopes exclusively permeate the Pd–Ag membrane and their exchange over the catalyst realizes the water detritiation. In this activity, the treatment of highly tritiated water, generated by an ITER-like machine (i.e. 2 kg of stoichiometric HTO containing up to 300 g of tritium), via a Pd-membrane reactor is studied in terms of decontamination capability. Especially, a parametric analysis of two processes (water gas shift and isotopic swamping) performed in a Pd-based membrane reactor is carried out by using two mathematical models previously developed and experimentally verified. Particularly, the effect of the reactor temperature, the membrane thickness, the reaction pressure and the protium sweep flow-rate is investigated. Moreover, a comparison in terms of the decontamination factor and the number of reactors necessary to detritiate the HTW are provided. Generally, the results reveal a higher decontamination capability of the WGS reaction respect with the IS (maximum DF values of about 120 and 1.6 in the case of WGS and IS, respectively). However some drawbacks, mainly related with the formation of tritiated species, can occur by performing the WGS.

  11. Micro-channel catalytic reactor integration in CAPER and research/development on highly tritiated water handling and processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demange, D.; Cristescu, I.; Fanghaenel, E.; Gramlich, N.; Le, T.L.; Michling, R.; Moosmann, H.; Simon, K.H.; Wagner, R.; Welte, S. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Technical Physics, Tritium Laboratory Karlsruhe, Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Glugla, M.; Shu, W.M.; Willms, R.S. [ITER Organization, Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    2015-03-15

    The CAPER facility of the Tritium Laboratory Karlsruhe has demonstrated the technology for the tokamak exhaust processing. CAPER has been significantly upgraded to pursue research/development programs towards highly tritiated water (HTW) handling and processing. The preliminary tests using a metal oxide reactor producing HTW afterward de-tritiated with PERMCAT were successful. In a later stage, a micro-channel catalytic reactor was installed in view of long term research program on HTW. The integration of this new system in CAPER was carried out along with a careful safety analysis due to high risk associated with such experiments. First experiments using the μ-CCR were performed trouble free, and HTW up to 360 kCi/kg was produced at a rate of 0.5 g/h. Such HTW was collected into a platinum zeolite bed (2 g of HTW for 20 g of Pt-zeolite), and in-situ detritiation was performed via isotopic exchange with deuterium. These first experimental results with tritium confirmed the potential for the capture and exchange method to be used for HTW in ITER. (authors)

  12. Historical Doses from Tritiated Water and Tritiated Hydrogen Gas Released to the Atmosphere from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Part 2. LLNL Annual Site-specific Data, 1953 - 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, S

    2007-08-15

    Historical information about tritium released routinely and accidentally from all Livermore Site Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) facilities and from the Tritium Research Laboratory of Sandia National Laboratories/California (SNL/CA) between 1953 through 2005 has been compiled and summarized in this report. Facility-specific data (annual release rates and dilution factors) have been derived from the historical information. These facility-specific data are needed to calculate annual doses to a hypothetical site-wide maximally exposed individual from routine releases of tritiated water (HTO) and tritiated hydrogen gas (HT) to the atmosphere. Doses can also be calculated from observed air tritium concentrations, and mean annual values for one air tritium sampling location are presented. Other historical data relevant to a dose reconstruction (e.g., meteorological data, including absolute humidity and rainfall) are also presented. Sources of information are carefully referenced, and assumptions are documented. Uncertainty distributions have been estimated for all parameter values. Confidence in data post-1974 is high.

  13. Limitation of tritium outgassing from tritiated solid waste drums

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liger, K.; Trabuc, P.; Lefebvre, X.; Troulay, M.; Perrais, C. [CEA, Centre de Cadarache, DEN/DTN/STPA/LIPC, Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    2015-03-15

    In the framework of the development of fusion thermonuclear reactors, tritiated solid waste is foreseen and will have to be managed. The management of tritiated waste implies limitations in terms of activity and tritium degassing. The degassing tritium can be under the form of tritiated hydrogen, tritiated water and, in some specific cases, negligible amount of tritiated volatile organic compound. Hence, considering the major forms of degassing tritium, CEA has developed a mixed-compound dedicated to tritium trapping in drums. Based on several experiments, the foreseen mixed compound is composed of MnO{sub 2}, Ag{sub 2}O, Pt and molecular sieve, the three first species having the ability to convert tritiated hydrogen into tritiated water and the last one acting as a trap for tritiated water. To assess the performance of the trapping mixture, experimental tests were performed at room temperature on tritiated dust composed of beryllium and carbon. It was shown that the metallic oxides mixture used for tritiated hydrogen conversion is efficient and that tritiated water adsorption was limited due to an inefficient regeneration of the molecular sieve prior to its use. Apart from this point, the tritium release from waste was reduced by a factor of 5.5, which can be improved up to 87 if the adsorption step is efficient.

  14. An innovative distillation device for tritiated water analysis with high decontamination factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Hsin-Fa; Wang, Chu-Fang; Wang, Jeng-Jong

    2013-11-01

    Institute of Nuclear Energy Research (INER) has designed an air-cooling distillation device and got a US patent. The decontamination factor (60)Co and (137)Cs is above 23,000. Tritium loss rate is one of testing items in ASTM D4107 Standard Test Method for Tritium in Drinking Water. In this study, the 3 levels (high, middle and low level) of tritium concentration of testing samples for the loss rate test were prepared similar to the concentrations reported in ASTM D4107. The loss rate of the high level is -2.37%, the middle is -2.31% and the low level is -2.47%. These results show that the air-cooling distillation device has good performance in the environmental water tritium analysis work.

  15. Synthesis of tritiated Lomoparan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaspersen, F.M.; Schlachter, I.H.G. (Organon International B.V., Oss (Netherlands)); Dedem, G.W.K. van (Diosynth B.V., Oss (Netherlands))

    1991-02-01

    Lomoparan (org. 10172) is a highly effective anti-thrombotic drug which is a mixture of low molecular weight glycosaminoglycuronans. Tritiated Org 10172 can be prepared through labelling of its subfractions and reconstitution of the original material. Two methods were applied: partial N-deacetylation with N{sub 2}H{sub 4}/HI0{sub 3} followed by reacetylation with tritiated acetic anhydride and, more easily, reduction of end groups with NaB{sup 3}H{sub 4}. (UK).

  16. Capture and isotopic exchange method for water and hydrogen isotopes on zeolite catalysts up to technical scale for pre-study of processing highly tritiated water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michling, R.; Braun, A.; Cristescu, I.; Dittrich, H.; Gramlich, N.; Lohr, N. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Glugla, M.; Shu, W.; Willms, S. [ITER Organization, Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    2015-03-15

    Highly tritiated water (HTW) may be generated at ITER by various processes and, due to the excessive radio toxicity, the self-radiolysis and the exceedingly corrosive property of HTW, a potential hazard is associated with its storage and process. Therefore, the capture and exchange method for HTW utilizing Molecular Sieve Beds (MSB) was investigated in view of adsorption capacity, isotopic exchange performance and process parameters. For the MSB, different types of zeolite were selected. All zeolite materials were additionally coated with platinum. The following work comprised the selection of the most efficient zeolite candidate based on detailed parametric studies during the H{sub 2}/D{sub 2}O laboratory scale exchange experiments (about 25 g zeolite per bed) at the Tritium Laboratory Karlsruhe (TLK). For the zeolite, characterization analytical techniques such as Infrared Spectroscopy, Thermogravimetry and online mass spectrometry were implemented. Followed by further investigation of the selected zeolite catalyst under full technical operation, a MSB (about 22 kg zeolite) was processed with hydrogen flow rates up to 60 mol*h{sup -1} and deuterated water loads up to 1.6 kg in view of later ITER processing of arising HTW. (authors)

  17. Contributions of the CEA-Valduc Centre control to the understanding of the transfers of atmospheric tritiated water into the different parts of the environment; Apports de la surveillance du Centre CEA-Valduc sur la connaissance des transferts de l'eau tritiee atmospherique dans les differents compartiments de l'environnement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guetat, P.; Vichot, L. [CEA Valduc, UMR, 21 - Is-sur-Tille (France); Tognelli, A. [CEA Bruyeres-le-Chatel, 91 (France)

    2009-07-01

    After a description of the geological environment of the Valduc Centre dedicated to tritium purification and tritiated waste processing and storage, this document presents the assessment of quantities of tritiated water released by the Valduc Centre and of their evolution in the hydro-geological environment. It provides in situ macroscopically observed data on the transfer mechanisms of water into the different parts of the environment and into the food chain by means. This is made possible by the exceptional traceability of tritiated water. Finally, a comparison between computational models and experimental measurements is given

  18. Tritium in the food chain. Intercomparison of model predictions of contamination in soil, crops, milk and beef after a short exposure to tritiated water vapour in air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barry, P. [PJS Barry (Canada)] [and others

    1996-09-01

    Future fusion reactors using tritium as fuel will contain large inventories of the gas. The possibility that a significant fraction of an inventory may accidentally escape into the atmosphere from this and other potential sources such as tritium handling facilities and some fission reactors e g, PWRs has to be recognized and its potential impact on local human populations and biota assessed. Tritium gas is relatively inert chemically and of low radiotoxicity but it is readily oxidized by soil organisms to the mixed oxide, HTO or tritiated water. In this form it is highly mobile, strongly reactive biologically and much more toxic. Models of how tritiated water vapour is transported through the biosphere to foodstuffs important to man are essential components of such an assessment and it is important to test the models for their suitability when used for this purpose. To evaluate such models, access to experimental measurements made after actual releases are needed. There have however, been very few accidental releases of tritiated water to the atmosphere and the experimental findings of those that have occurred have been used to develop the models under test. Models must nevertheless be evaluated before their predictions can be used to decide the acceptability or otherwise of designing and operating major nuclear facilities. To fulfil this need a model intercomparison study was carried out for a hypothetical release scenario. The study described in this report is a contribution to the development of model evaluation procedures in general as well as a description of the results of applying these procedures to the particular case of models of HTO transport in the biosphere which are currently in use or being developed. The study involved eight modelers using seven models in as many countries. In the scenario farmland was exposed to 1E10 Bq d/m{sup 3} of HTO in air during 1 hour starting at midnight in one case and at 10.00 a.m. in the other, 30 days before harvest of

  19. The Lack of Cytotoxic Effect and Radioadaptive Response in Splenocytes of Mice Exposed to Low Level Internal β-Particle Irradiation through Tritiated Drinking Water in Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Flegal

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Health effects of tritium, a β-emitter and a by-product of the nuclear industry, is a subject of significant controversy. This mouse in vivo study was undertaken to monitor biological effects of low level tritium exposure. Mice were exposed to tritiated drinking water (HTO at 10 KBq/L, 1 MBq/L and 20 MBq/L concentrations for one month. The treatment did not result in a significant increase of apoptosis in splenocytes. To examine if this low level tritium exposure alters radiosensitivity, the extracted splenocytes were challenged in vitro with 2 Gy γ-radiation, and apoptotic responses at 1 and 24 h were measured. No alterations in the radiosensitivity were detected in cells from mice exposed to tritium compared to sham-treated mice. In contrast, low dose γ-irradiation at 20 or 100 mGy, resulted in a significant increase in resistance to apoptotic cell death after 2 Gy irradiation; an indication of the radioadaptive response. Overall, our data suggest that low concentrations of tritium given to mice as HTO in drinking water do not exert cytotoxic effect in splenocytes, nor do they change cellular sensitivity to additional high dose γ-radiation. The latter may be considered as the lack of a radioadaptive response, typically observed after low dose γ-irradiation.

  20. Diffusion of Tritiated Water (HTO) and {sup 22}Na{sup +}-Ions through Non-Degraded Hardened Cement Pastes - II. Modelling Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jakob, A

    2002-12-01

    In this report, the procedure and the results of an inverse modelling study on the through-diffusion of tritiated water (HTO) and {sup 2}2Na{sup +}-ions are presented using high-porous hardened cement pastes with a water/cement ratio of 1.3 in the first stage of the cement degradation. For the analysis two alternative models were applied: 1) a diffusion model where a possible sorption of the tracer was entirely neglected, and 2) a diffusion model with linear sorption. The analysis of the through-diffusion phase allowed extracting values for the effective diffusion coefficient (D{sub e}) and the rock-capacity factor ({alpha}). Both models could fit the breakthrough curves equally well, and also mass-balance considerations did not allow to clearly preferring one of the two competing models to the other. But blind-predictions for tracer out-diffusion using the best-fit parameter values deduced from analysing the former through-diffusion phase gave a clear indication that linear sorption had to be included in the diffusion model. The extracted K{sub d} values for HTO are in excellent agreement with values from batch sorption experiments and are of the order of 0.8. 10{sup -3} m{sup 3}/kg. Those for {sup 2}2Na{sup +} are of the order of 1.0. 10{sup -3} m{sup 3}/kg and are by a factor of two larger than values from batch sorption experiments. The values for the effective diffusion coefficients for HTO are of the order of (2-3).10{sup -1}0 m{sup 2}/s, and those for sodium are roughly by a factor of two smaller than values for HTO. On the one hand, the observed tracer uptake could only partially be addressed to isotope exchange; the most obvious process which could account for the remaining part of the uptaken tracer mass is diffusion into a second type of porosity, the dead-end pores. On the other hand, the results and conclusions drawn are encouraging for future investigations; therefore no major deficiency concerning the applied equipment and the modelling methodology

  1. Study on Detritiation from Tritiated Light Water in 101 Heavy Water Research Reactor%101重水研究堆含氚轻水脱氚方案研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    康艺; 阮皓; 刁义荣; 胡石林

    2015-01-01

    101重水研究堆(HWRR)是中国第一座核反应堆 ,现已停堆进入退役准备期.其乏燃料水池和废水贮存罐中存有一定量的含氚轻水 ,含氚浓度较高 ,需进行脱氚处理.本文针对 HWRR含氚轻水的处理量和含氚浓度 ,分别评价了3种含氚水脱氚方案 :两种联合电解催化交换(C EC E1和C EC E2 )工艺和水蒸馏(WD)工艺.结果表明 ,与WD相比 ,CECE工艺的塔径和塔高更小 ,CECE电解槽的能耗也较WD工艺的蒸发器稍低 ;两种CECE工艺相比 ,顶部进天然水的CECE2工艺更适合处理HWRR的含氚轻水.%101 Heavy Water Research Reactor (HWRR) in CIAE is the first nuclear reactor constructed in China .It was permanently shut down and is preparing for decom-missioning .Since tritium concentration in the light water of spent fuel pool and wastewater tanks is high ,the detritiation has to be carried out .Considering the amount and the tritium concentration of the tritiated light water in HWRR ,three detritiation processes which are water distillation (WD) process and two combined electrolysis and catalytic exchange (CECE1 and CECE2) processes ,were evaluated for the recovery of tritium from the wastewater .It is found that the diameter and height of CECE column are much smaller than those of WD column ,and the energy consumption of the electro-lyzer in CECE process is smaller than that of evaporator in WD process .With the com-parison of CECE1 and CECE2 processes ,the CECE2 process with natural water fed to the top of the exchange column is more suitable for the treatment of tritiated light water of HWRR .

  2. Hydrogen effusion from tritiated amorphous silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kherani, N. P.; Liu, B.; Virk, K.; Kosteski, T.; Gaspari, F.; Shmayda, W. T.; Zukotynski, S.; Chen, K. P.

    2008-01-01

    Results for the effusion and outgassing of tritium from tritiated hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H:T) films are presented. The samples were grown by dc-saddle field glow discharge at various substrate temperatures between 150 and 300°C. The tracer property of radioactive tritium is used to detect tritium release. Tritium effusion measurements are performed in a nonvacuum ion chamber and are found to yield similar results as reported for standard high vacuum technique. The results suggest for decreasing substrate temperature the growth of material with an increasing concentration of voids. These data are corroborated by analysis of infrared absorption data in terms of microstructure parameters. For material of low substrate temperature (and high void concentration) tritium outgassing in air at room temperature was studied, and it was found that after 600h about 0.2% of the total hydrogen (hydrogen+tritium) content is released. Two rate limiting processes are identified. The first process, fast tritium outgassing with a time constant of 15h, seems to be related to surface desorption of tritiated water (HTO) with a free energy of desorption of 1.04eV. The second process, slow tritium outgassing with a time constant of 200-300h, appears to be limited by oxygen diffusivity in a growing oxide layer. This material of lowest H stability would lose half of the hydrogen after 60years.

  3. Preparation of Several Tritiated Macromolecular Compounds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN; Bao-jun; YU; Ning-wen; FAN; Cai-yun

    2015-01-01

    Tritiated compounds are widely used in drug metabolism and pharmacokinetic studies.They play an important role in new drug research.Isotope exchange method is a very effective method for the preparation of tritiated compounds.It is particularly suitable for labeling macromolecule

  4. Literature survey of tritiated waste characterization and disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, E.A.

    1996-09-06

    Characterizing, handling, and storing tritiated waste is challenging because of the physical and chemical properties of tritium. Tritium is soluble in many materials, including structural materials such as, stainless steel, structural steel, polymers, concrete and paints. Tritium permeates rapidly into these materials compared to other species, and so parts exposed to tritium are normally contaminated to some degree throughout the bulk. The relatively low kinetic energy of the {beta}-decay causes detecting tritium anywhere but very near the surface of materials to be impossible, because the {beta}-particle is absorbed by the material. Tritium readily exchanges with hydrogen in water vapor, and the resulting tritiated water can permeate polymers, concrete, oil, and the oxide surface films normally present on metals. Most of the tritium contamination in structural metals resides in the surface oxide film and in organic films at the surface, when metals are exposed to tritium at ambient temperature and pressure, whether the exposure is to gas or tritiated water. The most reliable method of assaying tritium is to dissolve samples in a proper liquid scintillant and use {beta}-scintillation counting. Other methods that require less time or are non-destructive (such as smear/counting) are significantly less reliable, but they can be used for routine waste characterization if sample dissolution/liquid scintillation counting is regularly employed to benchmark them.

  5. Tritiated amorphous silicon for micropower applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kherani, N.P. [Ontario Hydro Technologies, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)]|[Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Kosteski, T.; Zukotynski, S. [Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Shmayda, W.T. [Ontario Hydro Technologies, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    1995-10-01

    The application of tritiated amorphous silicon as an intrinsic energy conversion semiconductor for radioluminescent structures and betavoltaic devices is presented. Theoretical analysis of the betavoltaic application shows an overall efficiency of 18% for tritiated amorphous silicon. This is equivalent to a 330 Ci intrinsic betavoltaic device producing 1 mW of power for 12 years. Photoluminescence studies of hydrogenated amorphous silicon, a-Si:H, show emission in the infra-red with a maximum quantum efficiency of 7.2% at 50 K; this value drops by 3 orders of magnitude at a temperature of 300 K. Similar studies of hydrogenated amorphous carbon show emission in the visible with an estimated quantum efficiency of 1% at 300 K. These results suggest that tritiated amorphous carbon may be the more promising candidate for room temperature radioluminescence in the visible. 18 refs., 5 figs.

  6. Treatment of tritiated exhaust gases at the Tritium Laboratory Karlsruhe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutter, E.; Besserer, U. [Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH (Germany); Jacqmin, G. [NUKEM GmbH, Industreistr, Alzenau (Germany)

    1995-02-01

    The Tritium Laboratory Karlsruhe (TLK) accomplished commissioning; tritium involving activities will start this year. The laboratory is destined mainly to investigating processing of fusion reactor fuel and to developing analytic devices for determination of tritium and tritiated species in view of control and accountancy requirements. The area for experimental work in the laboratory is about 800 m{sup 2}. The tritium infrastructure including systems for tritium storage, transfer within the laboratory and processing by cleanup and isotope separation methods has been installed on an additional 400 m{sup 2} area. All tritium processing systems (=primary systems), either of the tritium infrastructure or of the experiments, are enclosed in secondary containments which consist of gloveboxes, each of them connected to the central depressurization system, a part integrated in the central detritiation system. The atmosphere of each glovebox is cleaned in a closed cycle by local detritiation units controlled by two tritium monitors. Additionally, the TLK is equipped with a central detritiation system in which all gases discharged from the primary systems and the secondary systems are processed. All detritiation units consist of a catalyst for oxidizing gaseous tritium or tritiated hydrocarbons to water, a heat exchanger for cooling the catalyst reactor exhaust gas to room temperature, and a molecular sieve bed for adsorbing the water. Experiments with tracer amounts of tritium have shown that decontamination factors >3000 can be achieved with the TLK detritiation units. The central detritiation system was carefully tested and adjusted under normal and abnormal operation conditions. Test results and the behavior of the tritium barrier preventing tritiated exhaust gases from escaping into the atmosphere will be reported.

  7. Pathways for Disposal of Commercially-Generated Tritiated Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halverson, Nancy V. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL). Environmental Sciences and Biotechnology

    2016-09-26

    From a waste disposal standpoint, tritium is a major challenge. Because it behaves like hydrogen, tritium exchanges readily with hydrogen in the ground water and moves easily through the ground. Land disposal sites must control the tritium activity and mobility of incoming wastes to protect human health and the environment. Consequently, disposal of tritiated low-level wastes is highly regulated and disposal options are limited. The United States has had eight operating commercial facilities licensed for low-level radioactive waste disposal, only four of which are currently receiving waste. Each of these is licensed and regulated by its state. Only two of these sites accept waste from states outside of their specified regional compact. For waste streams that cannot be disposed directly at one of the four active commercial low-level waste disposal facilities, processing facilities offer various forms of tritiated low-level waste processing and treatment, and then transport and dispose of the residuals at a disposal facility. These processing facilities may remove and recycle tritium, reduce waste volume, solidify liquid waste, remove hazardous constituents, or perform a number of additional treatments. Waste brokers also offer many low-level and mixed waste management and transportation services. These services can be especially helpful for small quantity tritiated-waste generators, such as universities, research institutions, medical facilities, and some industries. The information contained in this report covers general capabilities and requirements for the various disposal/processing facilities and brokerage companies, but is not considered exhaustive. Typically each facility has extensive waste acceptance criteria and will require a generator to thoroughly characterize their wastes. Then a contractual agreement between the waste generator and the disposal/ processing/broker entity must be in place before waste is accepted. Costs for tritiated waste

  8. Pathways for Disposal of Commercially-Generated Tritiated Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halverson, Nancy V. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL). Environmental Sciences and Biotechnology

    2016-09-26

    From a waste disposal standpoint, tritium is a major challenge. Because it behaves like hydrogen, tritium exchanges readily with hydrogen in the ground water and moves easily through the ground. Land disposal sites must control the tritium activity and mobility of incoming wastes to protect human health and the environment. Consequently, disposal of tritiated low-level wastes is highly regulated and disposal options are limited. The United States has had eight operating commercial facilities licensed for low-level radioactive waste disposal, only four of which are currently receiving waste. Each of these is licensed and regulated by its state. Only two of these sites accept waste from states outside of their specified regional compact. For waste streams that cannot be disposed directly at one of the four active commercial low-level waste disposal facilities, processing facilities offer various forms of tritiated low-level waste processing and treatment, and then transport and dispose of the residuals at a disposal facility. These processing facilities may remove and recycle tritium, reduce waste volume, solidify liquid waste, remove hazardous constituents, or perform a number of additional treatments. Waste brokers also offer many low-level and mixed waste management and transportation services. These services can be especially helpful for small-quantity tritiated-waste generators, such as universities, research institutions, medical facilities, and some industries. The information contained in this report covers general capabilities and requirements for the various disposal/processing facilities and brokerage companies, but is not considered exhaustive. Typically, each facility has extensive waste acceptance criteria and will require a generator to thoroughly characterize their wastes. Then a contractual agreement between the waste generator and the disposal/processing/broker entity must be in place before waste is accepted. Costs for tritiated waste

  9. DETERMINATION OF IN-VITRO LUNG SOLUBILITY AND INTAKE-TO-DOSE CONVERSION FACTOR FOR TRITIATED LANTHANUM NICKEL ALUMINUM ALLOY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farfan, E.; Labone, T.; Staack, G.; Cheng, Y.; Zhou, Y.; Varallo, T.

    2011-11-11

    A sample of tritiated lanthanum nickel aluminum alloy (LaNi4.25Al0.75 or LANA.75) similar to that used at the Savannah River Site Tritium Facilities was analyzed to estimate the particle size distribution of this metal tritide powder and the rate, at which this material dissolves in the human respiratory tract after it is inhaled. This information is used to calculate the committed effective dose received by a worker after inhaling the material. These doses, which were calculated using the same methodology given in the DOE Tritium Handbook, are presented as inhalation intake-to-dose conversion factors (DCF). The DCF for this metal tritide is less than the DCF for tritiated water and radiation worker bioassay programs designed for tritiated water are adequate to monitor for intakes of this material.

  10. Water metabolism in rats subjected to chronic alcohol administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parlesak, Alexandr; Pohl, C.; Bode, J.C.;

    2004-01-01

    AIM: While the diuretic action of acute ingestion of alcohol has been studied extensively, the effect of chronic alcohol consumption has received less attention. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of chronic alcohol consumption on the balance of water intake and excretion ...

  11. Tritium NMR in the analysis of tritiated compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaspersen, F.M.; Funke, C.W.; Vader, Jan; Wagenaars, G.N. (Organon Int. B.V., Oss (Netherlands). Akzo-Pharma Div.)

    1993-05-01

    An overview is given of the possibilities of [sup 3]H NMR in the characterisation of [sup 3]H-labelled compounds. This technique gives information on the identity of the tritiated compounds, the position of the tritium, the distribution of the label and even the radiochemical purity of the labelled products. (author).

  12. Techniques and Facilities for Handling and Packaging Tritiated Liquid Wastes for Burial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhinehammer, T. B.; Mershad, E. A.

    1974-06-01

    Methods and facilities have been developed for the collection, storage, measurement, assay, solidification, and packaging of tritiated liquid wastes (concentrations up to 5 Ci/ml) for disposal by land burial. Tritium losses to the environment from these operations are less than 1 ppm. All operations are performed in an inert gas-purged glovebox system vented to an effluent removal system which permits nearly complete removal of tritium from the exhaust gases prior to their dischardge to the environment. Waste oil and water from tritium processing areas are vacuum-transferred to glovebox storage tanks through double-walled lines. Accommodations are also available for emptying portable liquid waste containers and for removing tritiated water from molecular sieve beds with heat and vacuum. The tritium concentration of the collected liquids is measured by an in-line calorimeter. A low-volume metering pump is used to transfer liquids from holding tanks to heavy walled polyethylene drums filled with an absorbent or cement for solidification. Final packaging of the sealed polyethylene drums is in either an asphalt-filled combination 30- and 55- gallon metal drum package or a 30-gallon welded stainless steel container.

  13. The Use of Tritiated Wastewater from NPP Cernavoda in Agigea Black Sea Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varlam, C.; Stefanescu, I.; Faurescu, I.; Vagner, I.; Dobrinescu, D.

    2009-04-01

    Danube-Black Sea Channel is situated in the south east part of Romania. It takes its waters from Danube upstream of Cernavoda town, and flows into the Black Sea at Agigea. The main uses of the channel are numerous, but it can be mentioned navigation and nuclear power generation - Cernavoda Nuclear Power Plant. Maximum weigh carrying of the canal is 70 million t/year. Agigea is the most important harbor of the Channel and due to intensive activity the accidents can happened any time. In this study we propose to use tritiated liquid effluents from CANDU type NPP Cernavoda as a tracer, to study dilution factor between fresh water of the canal and the Black Sea waters. Tritiated water can be used to simulate the transport and dispersion of solutes in Danube-Black Sea Channel because they have the same physical characteristics as water. Measured tracer-response curves produced from injection of a known quantity of soluble tracer provide an efficient method of obtaining necessary data. We established tritium level in monitored zone Agigea-Black Sea by monthly samples and precipitation during may 2005- may 2006. The average tritium concentration for Black Sea near Agigea location was 12.5 +/- 2.2 TU. During the NPP evacuation we establish inside Agigea canal lock a well mixed tritium concentration of 174.07 +/- 6.2 TU. Using waters lock as a tracer we establish dilution factor of 1: 4.28 inside Agigea harbor, and dilution factor of 1:2.17 in open sea. This experimental parameter can be used in dispersion simulation for Agigea - Black Sea area.

  14. Marked reduction in the number of platelet-tritiated imipramine binding sites in geriatric depression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemeroff, C.B.; Knight, D.L.; Krishnan, R.R.; Slotkin, T.A.; Bissette, G.; Melville, M.L.; Blazer, D.G.

    1988-10-01

    The number (Bmax) and affinity (Kd) of platelet-tritiated imipramine binding sites was determined in young and middle-aged controls 50 years of age and younger (n = 25), elderly normal controls over 60 years of age (n = 18), patients who fulfilled DSM-III criteria for major depression who were under 50 years of age (n = 29), patients who fulfilled DSM-III criteria for major depression who were 60 years of age and older (n = 19), and patients who fulfilled both DSM-III criteria for primary degenerative dementia and National Institute of Neurological and Communicative Disorders and Stroke-Alzheimer's Disease and Related Disorders Association criteria for probable Alzheimer's disease (n = 13). Both groups of depressed patients (under 50 and over 60 years of age) exhibited significant reductions (decreases 42%) in the number of platelet-tritiated imipramine binding sites with no change in affinity, when compared with their age-matched controls. There was little overlap in Bmax values between the elderly depressed patients and their controls. The patients with probable Alzheimer's disease showed no alteration in platelet-tritiated imipramine binding. There was no statistically significant relationship between postdexamethasone plasma cortisol concentrations and tritiated imipramine binding. These results indicate that platelet-tritiated imipramine binding may have potential utility as a diagnostic adjunct in geriatric depression, and moreover that the reduction in the number of platelet-tritiated imipramine binding sites is not due to hypercortisolemia.

  15. RECOVERY OF A TRITIATED LANA SAMPLE FOR DOSE CONVERSION FACTOR DETERMINATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staack, G.

    2010-11-12

    The purpose of this work is to develop a technical basis for both estimating the dose of a worker exposed to respirable tritiated LaNi{sub 4.25}Al{sub 0.75} (LANA) and implementing hazard appropriate controls. Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has agreed to provide Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute (LRRI) with a tritiated LANA sample. LRRI will determine the particle size distribution (PSD) as well as perform dissolution rate studies on the sample in serum ultrafiltrate (SUF), a simulated lung fluid. The rate of tritium release from the sample will be measured over a three month period. Tritium release rate information will be used to calculate a DCF for respirable tritiated LANA.

  16. Synthesis of tritiated sex pheromones of the processionary moth Thaumetopoea pityocampa and the Egyptian armyworm Spodoptera littoralis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerrero, Angel; Feixas, Joan [CID (CDIC), Biological Organic Chemistry Dept., Barcelona (Spain)

    1996-10-01

    Synthesis of tritiated sex phenomones of the processionary moth Thaumetopoea pityocampa and the Egyptian armyworm Spodoptera littoralis has been accomplished by a simple route involving tritiated sodium borohydride reduction of the corresponding aldehyde followed by acetylation of the resulting radiolabelled alcohol. The process occurs with high chemical and radiochemical yields and the compounds have been used in pheromone catabolism studies. (author).

  17. Bacterial incorporation of tritiated thymidine and populations of bacteriophagous fauna in the rhizosphere of wheat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Henrik; Griffiths, Bryan; Christensen, Søren

    1992-01-01

    Bacterial and microfaunal populations, and bacterial productivity measured by tritiated thymidine (3HTdr) incorporation, in the rhizosphere of wheat seedlings were measured. Soil from planted pots was fractionated into rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere (bulk) soil, while unplanted soil was taken fr...

  18. High specific activity tritiation of the pyridazin-3-one histamine H{sub 3} receptor inverse agonist CEP-27088

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrews, Joseph R. [PerkinElmer Health Sciences, Inc. 940 Winter St. Waltham, MA 02451 (United States); Filer, Crist N., E-mail: crist.filer@perkinelmer.com [PerkinElmer Health Sciences, Inc. 940 Winter St. Waltham, MA 02451 (United States); Maniscalco, Mario [PerkinElmer Health Sciences, Inc. 940 Winter St. Waltham, MA 02451 (United States); Becknell, Nadine C.; Hudkins, Robert L. [Discovery Research, Cephalon, Inc. 145 Brandywine Parkway, West Chester, PA 19380 (United States)

    2012-03-15

    Methods are presented to tritiate and characterize radioligand (3). - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This paper addresses a useful compound to study the histamine-3 receptor. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The compound is a member of the pyridazin-3-one heterocycle class. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In particular, the paper describes the installation of tritium in the compound of interest. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Furthermore, tritium NMR has been employed to characterize the tritiated compound.

  19. Tissue distribution of tritiated digoxin and quabain in mice. [Testing tritium-labeled radiopharmaceuticals in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klopper, J.F.; Atkins, H.L.

    1976-01-01

    Tissue concentration of tritiated digoxin in human subjects appears to be selective in that after a single dose of the radioactive tracer a myocardial concentration of digoxin on an average 24 to 30 times higher than the serum concentration is reached. In patients studied 3.5 to 84 hours after administration of tritiated digoxin, the dose in the heart was found to vary between 1.95 to 4.83 percent. Should it be possible to label digoxin or another cardiac glycoside with a suitable gamma-emitting tracer, its use as a cardiac imaging agent should thus be feasible. This study was undertaken to determine the tissue distribution in mice of tritiated digoxin at various time intervals post injection; and to determine if these values showed any correlation to the previously determined human data. A preliminary study in mice using /sup 3/H-digitoxin revealed no selective uptake in the heart with high uptakes in the liver and gut. Since ouabain has a more rapid clinical onset of action than digoxin, its tissue distribution was included in the study and compared to that of digoxin.

  20. Effects of water chemistry on the chronic toxicity of lead to the cladoceran, Ceriodaphnia dubia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mager, Edward M; Brix, Kevin V; Gerdes, Robert M; Ryan, Adam C; Grosell, Martin

    2011-03-01

    As the first step toward parameterization of a chronic lead (Pb) biotic ligand model (BLM) for Ceriodaphnia dubia, 7-d toxicity tests were performed in waters modified to evaluate the influences of hardness, DOM (as Suwannee River NOM and Aldrich humic acid (HA)), pH (buffered with 4 mM MOPS) and alkalinity on the chronic toxicity of Pb. Calculated EC(20)s for the control base water test and each of the most extreme modified test waters were as follows in μg L(-1) Pb (95% confidence interval): base water control=45 (14-53), 5 mM CaSO(4)=22 (12-30), 32 mg L(-1) DOM=523 (388-573), 2.5 mM NaHCO(3)=73 (21-120) and pH 6.4 buffered with MOPS=3.9 μg L(-1) Pb (1-5). Results indicate that hardness does not protect against chronic toxicity of Pb to C. dubia, whereas HA does protect at the highest concentration tested (597 μM). Additionally, our findings suggest that low pH increases the chronic toxicity of Pb whereas increased alkalinity is protective. The findings reported herein support the need for a chronic Pb BLM as an alternative approach to hardness-based regulations.

  1. Acute and chronic toxicity of lead in water and diet to the amphipod Hyalella azteca

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besser, J.M.; Brumbaugh, W.G.; Brunson, E.L.; Ingersoll, C.G.

    2005-01-01

    We evaluated the influence of waterborne and dietary lead (Pb) exposure on the acute and chronic toxicity of Pb to the amphipod Hyalella azteca. Test solutions were generated by a modified diluter with an extended (24-h) equilibration period. Acute (96-h) toxicity of Pb varied with water hardness in the range of 71 to 275 mg/L as CaCO3, despite similar dissolved Pb concentrations. Acute toxicity was greatest in soft test water, with less than 50% survival at the lowest dissolved Pb concentration (151 ??g/L). Survival also was significantly reduced in medium-hardness water but not in hard test water. In chronic (42-d) studies, amphipods were exposed to waterborne Pb and fed either a control diet or a diet equilibrated with waterborne Pb levels. For animals fed the control diet, the median lethal concentration (LC50) for Pb was 24 ??g/L (as dissolved Pb), and significant reductions in survival occurred at 16 ??g/L. Exposure to Pb-treated diets significantly increased toxicity across a wide range of dissolved Pb concentrations, with a LC50 of 16 ??g/L and significant reductions in growth and reproduction at 3.5 ??g/L. Significant effects on growth and reproduction occurred at dissolved Pb concentrations close to the current U.S. chronic water-quality criterion. Our results suggest that both aqueous- and dietary-exposure pathways contribute significantly to chronic Pb exposure and toxic effects in aquatic biota. ?? 2005 SETAC.

  2. Reaction of fresh water zooplankton community to chronic radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osipov, D.; Pryakhin, E. [Urals Research Center for Radiation Medicine - URCRM (Russian Federation); Ivanov, I. [FSUE Mayak PA (Russian Federation)

    2014-07-01

    The characteristic features of ecological community as a whole and cenosis of zooplankton organisms as part of it determine the intensity of the processes of self-purification of water and the formation of a particular body of water. Identifying features of the structure and composition of the zooplankton community of aquatic ecosystems exposed to different levels of radiation exposure, it is necessary to identify patterns of changes in zooplankton and hydro-biocenosis as a whole. Industrial reservoirs, the storage of liquid low-level radioactive waste 'Mayak' for decades, have high radiation load. A large range of levels of radioactive contamination (total volume beta-activity in water varies from 2.2x10{sup 3} to 2.3x10{sup 7} Bq/l, total volume alpha-activity - from 2.6x10{sup -1} to 3.1x10{sup 3} Bq/l) provides a unique opportunity to study ecosystems in a number of reservoirs with increasing impact of radiation factor. We studied five reservoirs that were used as the storage of low-and intermediate-level liquid radioactive waste pond and one comparison water body. In parallel with zooplankton sampling water samples were collected for hydro-chemical analysis. 41 indicators were analysed in order to assess the water chemistry. To determine the content of radionuclides in the various components of the ecosystem samples were collected from water, bottom sediments and plankton. Sampling of zooplankton for the quantitative analysis was performed using the method of weighted average auto bathometer. Apshteyn's plankton net of the surface horizon was used for qualitative analysis of the species composition of zooplankton. Software package ERICA Assessment Tool 2012 was used for the calculation of the absorbed dose rate. Species diversity and biomass of zooplankton, the share of rotifers in the number of species, abundance and biomass decrease with the increase of the absorbed dose rate and salinity. The number of species in a sample decreases with the

  3. Pharmacokinetics of tritiated ouabain, digoxin and digitoxin in guinea-pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proppe, D

    1975-01-01

    1. Elimination rates of tritiated ouabain, digoxin and digitoxin after single intravenous administrations were investigated in guinea-pigs, the total radioactivity in whole blood being traced for a period of up to 2 weeks. 2. In the initial rapid phase of elimination between 2 and 30 min following intravenous glycoside administration, the concentration decline of radioactivity in the blood was found to be identical for the three glycosides investigated, this part of the elimination curve displaying a hyperbolic shape. 3. During this early elimination phase, rapid metabolic degradation and excretion of digoxin had already taken place. The maximum concentration of radioactivity in the bile was reached 4 min following intravenous administration of 3H-digoxin. The positive inotropic response occurred in the cat heart-lung preparation 1.5 min after intravenous injection of a therapeutic dose of digoxin, indicating a quick occupation of binding sites in the tissues. 4. The biological half-lives of tritiated ouabain, digoxin and digitoxin averaged 11 h, 2.5 days and 4.1 days, respectively, as determined by the terminal exponential elimination phase, in guinea-pigs. This terminal phase was attained 6-12, 7-24, and 24-48 h after administration of ouabain, digoxin and digitoxin, respectively. 5. The findings reveal that in guinea-pig, as has been demonstrated in man, the elimination rates of the three glycosides increase according to their hydrophobic properties. 6. The biological half-lives of tritiated ouabain, digoxin and digitoxin obtained in the guinea-pig closely resemble those found in healthy man.

  4. Acute and chronic toxicity of sodium sulfate to four freshwater organisms in water-only exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ning; Dorman, Rebecca A; Ingersoll, Christopher G; Hardesty, Doug K; Brumbaugh, William G; Hammer, Edward J; Bauer, Candice R; Mount, David R

    2016-01-01

    The acute and chronic toxicity of sulfate (tested as sodium sulfate) was determined in diluted well water (hardness of 100 mg/L and pH 8.2) with a cladoceran (Ceriodaphnia dubia; 2-d and 7-d exposures), a midge (Chironomus dilutus; 4-d and 41-d exposures), a unionid mussel (pink mucket, Lampsilis abrupta; 4-d and 28-d exposures), and a fish (fathead minnow, Pimephales promelas; 4-d and 34-d exposures). Among the 4 species, the cladoceran and mussel were acutely more sensitive to sulfate than the midge and fathead minnow, whereas the fathead minnow was chronically more sensitive than the other 3 species. Acute-to-chronic ratios ranged from 2.34 to 5.68 for the 3 invertebrates but were as high as 12.69 for the fish. The fathead minnow was highly sensitive to sulfate during the transitional period from embryo development to hatching in the diluted well water, and thus, additional short-term (7- to 14-d) sulfate toxicity tests were conducted starting with embryonic fathead minnow in test waters with different ionic compositions at a water hardness of 100 mg/L. Increasing chloride in test water from 10 mg Cl/L to 25 mg Cl/L did not influence sulfate toxicity to the fish, whereas increasing potassium in test water from 1 mg K/L to 3 mg K/L substantially reduced the toxicity of sulfate. The results indicate that both acute and chronic sulfate toxicity data, and the influence of potassium on sulfate toxicity to fish embryos, need to be considered when environmental guidance values for sulfate are developed or refined.

  5. Pre-operational safety appraisal Tritiated Scrap Recovery Facility, Mound facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dauby, J.J.; Flanagan, T.M.; Metcalf, L.W.; Rhinehammer, T.B.

    1996-07-01

    The purpose of this report is to identify, assess, and document the hazards which are associated with the proposed operation of the Tritiated Scrap Recovery Facility at Mound Facility. A Pre-operational Safety Appraisal is a requirement as stated in Department of Energy Order 5481.1, Safety Analysis and Review System. The operations to be conducted in the new Tritiated Scrap Waste Recovery Facility are not new, but a continuation of a prime mission of Mound`s i.e. recovery of tritium from waste produced throughout the DOE complex. The new facility is a replacement of an existing process started in the early 1960`s and incorporates numerous design changes to enhance personnel and environmental safety. This report also documents the safety of a one time operation involving the recovery of tritium from material obtained by the Department of Energy from the State of Arizona. This project will involve the processing of 240,000 curies of tritium contained in glass ampoules that were to be used in items such as luminous dial watches. These were manufactured by the now defunct American Atomics Corporation, Tucson, Arizona.

  6. Biological half-lives and organ distribution of tritiated 8-lysine-vasopressin and 1-deamino-8-D-arginine-vasopressin in Brattleboro rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janaky, T.; Laczi, F.; Laszlo, F.A.

    1982-01-01

    The biological half-lives and organ distribution of tritiated 8-lysine-vasopressin and 1-deamino-8-D-arginine-vasopressin were determined in R-Amsterdam rats and in homozygous and heterozygous Brattleboro rats with hereditary central diabetes insipidus. It was found that the biological half-lives of (/sup 3/H)LVP and (/sup 3/H)dDAVP in the Brattleboro rats did not differ significantly from that found in the control R-Amsterdam rats. The half-life of (/sup 3/H)dDAVP proved longer than that of (/sup 3/H)LVP in all three groups of animals. In the case of (/sup 3/H)LVP the highest radioactivities were observed in the neurohypophyses, adenohypophyses, and kidneys of both the R-Amsterdam and Brattleboro rats. The accumulation of tritiated material was higher in the small intestine of the Brattleboro rats than in that of the R-Amsterdam animals. In all three groups of rats, (/sup 3/H)dDAVP was accumulated to the greatest extent in the kidney and the small intestine. The kidney and small intestine contained less radioactivity in homozygous Brattleboro rats than in the controls. There was only a slight radioactivity accumulation in the adenohypophysis and neurohypophysis. From the results it was concluded that the decrease in the rate of enzymatic decomposition may play a role in the increased duration of antidiuretic action of dDAVP. The results have led to the conclusion that the accelerated elimination of vasopressin and its pathologic organ accumulation are probably not involved in the water metabolism disturbance of Brattleboro rats with hereditary diabetes insipidus.

  7. Electrochemical impedance spectrometry using Inconel 690, zircaloy 4, 316Ti steel, 17-4-PH, UR52N et URSB8. Simulation in tritiated water. Tome 1; Spectrometrie d`impedance electrochimique sur inconel 690, zircaloy 4, aciers 316Ti, 17-4-PH, UR52N, UR45N et URSB8. Simulation en eau tritiee. Tome 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellanger, G.

    1994-11-01

    The redox potential of {sup 3} H{sub 2}O, as well as the corrosion potentials in this medium are found, abnormally, in the trans-passive region. This is completely different from the behavior in the chemical industry or in the water in nuclear powers. With such behavior, there will be breakdowns of the protective oxide layers, and in the presence of chloride there will be immediate pitting. Polarization and electrochemical impedance spectrometry curves are presented and discussed. These curves make it possible to ascertain the corrosion domains and to compare the kinetics of different stainless alloys. These corrosion kinetics and the corrosion potentials provide a classification of the steels studied here: Inconel 690, zircaloy 4, 316 Ti steel, 17-4-PH, UR52N et URSB8. From the results it can be concluded that URSB8 has the best corrosion resistance. (author). 279 figs., tabs.

  8. Health hazards and mitigation of chronic poisoning from arsenic in drinking water: Taiwan experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chien-Jen

    2014-01-01

    There are two endemic areas of long-term exposure to arsenic from drinking water in Taiwan. Residents in the southwestern and northeastern endemic areas started using high-arsenic artesian well water in the early 1910s and late 1940s, respectively. Public water supply system using surface water was implemented in southwestern and northeastern endemic areas in the 1970s and 1990s, respectively. Systemic health hazards of long-term exposure to arsenic in drinking water have been intensively investigated since the 1960s, especially after 1985 in Taiwan. Several diseases have been well documented to be associated with chronic arsenic poisoning from drinking water showing a dose-response relation. They include characteristic skin lesions like hyperpigmentation or depigmentation, hyperkeratosis in palms and soles, and Bowen disease, peripheral vascular disease (specifically blackfoot disease), ischemic heart disease, cerebral infarction, microvascular diseases, abnormal peripheral microcirculation, carotid atherosclerosis, QT prolongation and increased dispersion in electrocardiography, hypertension, goiter, diabetes mellitus, cataract (specifically posterior subcapsular lens opacity), pterygium, slow neural conduction, retarded neurobehavioral development, erectile dysfunction, and cancers of the skin, lung, urinary bladder, kidney, and liver. The method of choice to mitigate arsenic poisoning through drinking water is to use safe drinking water from uncontaminated sources.

  9. Comparison of short-term chronic and chronic silver toxicity to fathead minnows in unamended and sodium chloride-amended waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naddy, Rami B; Rehner, Anita B; McNerney, Gina R; Gorsuch, Joseph W; Kramer, James R; Wood, Chris M; Paquin, Paul R; Stubblefield, William A

    2007-09-01

    The chronic (early life stage [ELS]) and short-term chronic (STC) toxicity of silver (as silver nitrate) to fathead minnows (FHM) was determined concurrently in flow-through exposures (33 volume additions/d). Paired ELS (approximately 30 d) and STC (7 d) studies were conducted with and without the addition of 60 mg/L Cl (as NaCl). The paired studies in unamended water were later repeated using standard flow conditions (9 volume additions/d). The purpose of the paired studies was to determine if short-term chronic endpoints can be used to predict effects in ELS studies. For each experiment, a "split-chamber" design (organisms were held in a common exposure chamber) allowed the direct comparison between short-term and chronic exposures. It appeared that the chronic toxicity of silver was mitigated to some extent by NaCl addition. The maximum acceptable toxicant concentration for growth in the ELS study was 0.53 microg dissolved Ag/L under standard flow conditions. Early life stage and STC endpoints in all three studies typically agreed within a factor of two. Whole-body sodium and silver concentrations measured in individual fathead minnows during these studies showed an increase in silver body burdens and a decrease in sodium concentration. These results indicate that the STC study could be used as a surrogate test to estimate chronic toxicity and that the mechanism of chronic silver toxicity may be the same as for acute toxicity.

  10. Synthesis and distribution of tritiated N,N`-dibenzoyl-1,3-diaminopropan-2-ol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambert, D.M.; Gallez, Bernard [Universite Catholique de Louvain, Dept. des Sciences Pharmaceutiques, Bruxelles (Belgium)

    1996-10-01

    Tritiated N,N`-dibenzoyl-1,3-diaminopropan-2-ol, a compound mimicking a diacylglycerol moiety used as a lipid drug carrier was prepared from N,N`-dibenzoyl-1,3-diaminopropan-2-ol by isotopic exchange in the presence of rhodium chloride. Preliminary preparation of the deuterated analog was made in order to assess the position of the substitution. A biodistribution study was carried out in mice after intravenous administration. Five minutes after administration, the level found in the brain was about 9% of the injected dose per g organ. This value decreases to 1 % 3 hours after administration while at the same time radioactive levels measured in the urine increased. (author).

  11. Autoradiographic analysis of tritiated imipramine binding in the human brain post mortem: effects of suicide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gross-Isseroff, R.; Israeli, M.; Biegon, A.

    1989-03-01

    In vitro quantitative autoradiography of high-affinity tritiated imipramine binding sites was performed on brains of 12 suicide victims and 12 matched controls. Region-specific differences in imipramine binding were found between the two groups. Thus, the pyramidal and molecular layers of the cornu ammoni hippocampal fields and the hilus of the dentate gyrus exhibited 80%, 60%, and 90% increases in binding in the suicide group, respectively. The postcentral cortical gyrus, insular cortex, and claustrum had 45%, 28%, and 75% decreases in binding in the suicide group, respectively. No difference in imipramine binding was observed in prefrontal cortical regions, in the basal ganglia, and in mesencephalic nuclei. No sex and postmortem delay effects on imipramine binding were found. Imipramine binding was positively correlated with age, the effect of age being most pronounced in portions of the basal ganglia and temporal cortex.

  12. Theoretical investigation of the mechanism of tritiated methane dehydrogenation reaction using nickel-based catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Liang; Li, Jiamao; Deng, Bing; Yang, Yong; Wang, Heyi [Institute of Nuclear Physics and Chemistry, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China); Li, Weiyi [School of Physics and Chemistry, Xihua University, Chengdu 610065 (China); Li, Shuo, E-mail: lishuo@cqut.edu.cn [School of Chemical Engineering, Chongqing University of Technology, Chongqing 400054 (China); Tan, Zhaoyi, E-mail: tanzhaoyi@caep.cn [Institute of Nuclear Physics and Chemistry, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China)

    2015-06-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Four-step dehydrogenation of CT{sub 4} catalyzed by Ni to form Ni–C by releasing T{sub 2}. • The process of Ni + CT{sub 4} → NiCT{sub 2} + T{sub 2} is more achievable than that of NiCT{sub 2} → NiC + T{sub 2}. • TNiCT → T{sub 2}NiC step is the RDS with the rate constant of k = 2.8 × 10{sup 13} exp(−313,136/RT). • The hydrogen isotope effect value of k{sub H}/k{sub T} is 2.94, and k{sub D}/k{sub T} is 1.39. • CH{sub 4} and CD{sub 4} dehydrogenations are likely to occur, accompanied by the CT{sub 4} cracking. - Abstract: The mechanism of tritiated methane dehydrogenation reaction catalyzed by nickel-based catalyst was investigated in detail by density functional theory (DFT) at the B3LYP/[6-311++G(d, p), SDD] level. The computational results indicated that the dehydrogenation of tritiated methane is endothermic. The decomposition of tritiated methane catalyzed by Ni to form Ni-based carbon (Ni–C) after a four-step dehydrogenation companied with releasing tritium. After the first and second dehydrogenation steps, Ni + CT{sub 4} formed NiCT{sub 2}. After the third and fourth dehydrogenation steps, NiCT{sub 2} formed NiC. The first and second steps of dehydrogenation occurred on both the singlet and triplet states, and the lowest energy route is Ni + CT{sub 4} → {sup 1}COM → {sup 1}TS1 → {sup 3}IM1 → {sup 3}TS2 → {sup 3}IM2. The third and fourth steps of dehydrogenation occurred on both the singlet and quintet states, and the minimum energy reaction pathway appeared to be IM3 → {sup 1}TS4 → {sup 5}IM4 → {sup 5}TS5 → {sup 5}IM5 → {sup 5}pro + T{sub 2}. The fourth step of dehydrogenation TNiCT → T{sub 2}NiC was the rate-determining step of the entire reaction with the rate constant of k{sub 2} = 2.8 × 10{sup 13} exp(−313,136/RT) (in cm{sup 3} mol{sup −1} s{sup −1}), and its activation energy barrier was calculated to be 51.8 kcal/mol. The Ni-catalyzed CH{sub 4} and CD{sub 4} cracking

  13. Characterization of chemically tritiated microcystin-Lr and its distribution in mouse. Interim report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, N.A.; Miura, G.A.; Matson, C.F.; Dinterman, R.E.; Pace, J.G.

    1989-02-14

    Chemically tritiated microcystin-LR (specific activity 194 mCi/mmol), purified to 95% by C-18 reverse-phase HPLC, exhibited the same retention time and ultraviolet absorption profile as unlabeled toxin. Acid-hydrolyzed /sup 3/H toxin yielded tritiated glutamate and beta-methylasparate. Stability of the nonexchangeable /sup 3/H toxin in saline and urine was 93% after 42 days stored at 22, 4, or -20 C. In blood the breakdown of toxin was temperature- and time-dependent (63% at 22 C, 28 days). Unlabled toxin was stable for 42 days stored at either 4 or -20 C in saline. The LD 50 (mouse, i.p.) of /sup 3/H microcystin-LR and unlabeled toxin was the same (75 micrograms/kg 65-90 and 65 micrograms/kg 53-80, respectively). From 3-90 min after i.p. injection of 70 micrograms/kg (3)H microcystin-LR there was a slow absorption of toxin from the peritoneal cavity and efficient accumulation in liver. The elimination half-life of the plasma concentration curve was 29 min. Tritium distribution in tissue at death or 6 hr post injection was similar for all doses (13-101 ug/kg). At 101 micrograms/kg, liver contained 56 plus or minus 1%, intestine 7 plus or minus 1%, kidney 0.9 plus or minus 0.2% and carcass 10 plus or minus 1% of the injected dose. Heart, spleen, lung and skeletal muscle contained < 1% of the radiolabel.

  14. Drinking water quality and chronic kidney disease of unknown etiology (CKDu): synergic effects of fluoride, cadmium and hardness of water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasana, Hewa M S; Aluthpatabendi, Dharshani; Kularatne, W M T D; Wijekoon, Pushpa; Weerasooriya, Rohan; Bandara, Jayasundera

    2016-02-01

    High prevalence of chronic kidney disease of unknown etiology (CKDu) in some regions of the world is suspected mainly due to a toxin-mediated renal failure. We examined the incidence of CKDu and potable chemical water quality in a CKDu-affected region. This region has been identified as a high-risk zone for CKDu (location: latitude: 8.3500°-9.0000°, longitude: 80.3833°-81.3000°, North Central Province, NCP, Sri Lanka) by the World Health Organization (WHO). However, within this macro-region, small pockets of CKDu non-prevalence zones do exist; notably, the residents in those pockets consume spring water. Therefore, the drinking water quality of four areas, namely high-CKDu-prevalence areas (zone I), low-CKDu-prevalence area (zone II), the CKDu-free isolated pockets (zone III) and control areas (controls) were examined for F, Al, Cd, and As, and hardness and the statistical analysis were carried out to probe possible correlations among these parameters. The fluoride and hardness concentrations of water in zone III and control areas are much lower compared to zones I and II, and the water hardness is ~61 mg/L CaCO3. In zones I and II, the harness of drinking water is ~121-180 mg/L CaCO3; however, Al, Cd and As concentrations are almost comparable and below WHO recommendations. In most of the locations in zones I and II, the F concentration in drinking water is higher than the WHO recommendations. The peculiar distribution patterns of CKDu point to a synergic effect of trace elements in water for etiology of the disease.

  15. Nephrotoxic contaminants in drinking water and urine, and chronic kidney disease in rural Sri Lanka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rango, Tewodros, E-mail: tg67@duke.edu [Division of Earth and Ocean Sciences, Nicholas School of the Environment, Duke University, Durham, NC (United States); Jeuland, Marc [Sanford School of Public Policy and Duke Global Health Institute, Duke University, Durham, NC (United States); Institute of Water Policy, National University of Singapore (Singapore); Manthrithilake, Herath; McCornick, Peter [International Water Management Institute, Colombo (Sri Lanka)

    2015-06-15

    Chronic kidney disease of unknown (“u”) cause (CKDu) is a growing public health concern in Sri Lanka. Prior research has hypothesized a link with drinking water quality, but rigorous studies are lacking. This study assesses the relationship between nephrotoxic elements (namely arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), and uranium (U)) in drinking water, and urine samples collected from individuals with and/or without CKDu in endemic areas, and from individuals without CKDu in nonendemic areas. All water samples – from a variety of source types (i.e. shallow and deep wells, springs, piped and surface water) – contained extremely low concentrations of nephrotoxic elements, and all were well below drinking water guideline values. Concentrations in individual urine samples were higher than, and uncorrelated with, those measured in drinking water, suggesting potential exposure from other sources. Mean urinary concentrations of these elements for individuals with clinically diagnosed CKDu were consistently lower than individuals without CKDu both in endemic and nonendemic areas. This likely stems from the inability of the kidney to excrete these toxic elements via urine in CKDu patients. Urinary concentrations of individuals were also found to be within the range of reference values measured in urine of healthy unexposed individuals from international biomonitoring studies, though these reference levels may not be safe for the Sri Lankan population. The results suggest that CKDu cannot be clearly linked with the presence of these contaminants in drinking water. There remains a need to investigate potential interactions of low doses of these elements (particularly Cd and As) with other risk factors that appear linked to CKDu, prior to developing public health strategies to address this illness. - Highlights: • Drinking water in rural Sri Lanka contains low levels of inorganic nephrotoxicants • Urinary nephrotoxicants are consistent with reference levels from

  16. The chronic toxicity of sodium bicarbonate, a major component of coal bed natural gas produced waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farag, Aida M.; Harper, David D.

    2014-01-01

    Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) is the principal salt in coal bed natural gas produced water from the Powder River Structural Basin, Wyoming, USA, and concentrations of up to 3000 mg NaHCO3/L have been documented at some locations. No adequate studies have been performed to assess the chronic effects of NaHCO3 exposure. The present study was initiated to investigate the chronic toxicity and define sublethal effects at the individual organism level to explain the mechanisms of NaHCO3 toxicity. Three chronic experiments were completed with fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas), 1 with white suckers (Catostomus commersoni), 1 with Ceriodaphnia dubia, and 1 with a freshwater mussel, (Lampsilis siliquoidea). The data demonstrated that approximately 500 mg NaHCO3/L to 1000 mg NaHCO3/L affected all species of experimental aquatic animals in chronic exposure conditions. Freshwater mussels were the least sensitive to NaHCO3 exposure, with a 10-d inhibition concentration that affects 20% of the sample population (IC20) of 952 mg NaHCO3/L. The IC20 for C. dubia was the smallest, at 359 mg NaHCO3/L. A significant decrease in sodium–potassium adenosine triphosphatase (Na+/K+ ATPase) together with the lack of growth effects suggests that Na+/K+ ATPase activity was shut down before the onset of death. Several histological anomalies, including increased incidence of necrotic cells, suggested that fish were adversely affected as a result of exposure to >450 mg NaHCO3/L.

  17. Acute and chronic oral toxicity of standardized water extract from the fruit of Phyllanthus emblica Linn.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Jaijoy

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Phyllanthus emblica Linn. (Euphorbiaceae is an herbal plant commonly used in Asian traditional medicine systems for treatment of many disorders. In the present study, we investigated for the first time acute and chronic toxicity of the standardized water extract of P. emblica fruit. The water extract of P. emblica was prepared according to the Thai Herbal Pharmacopoeia and standardized to 20% gallic acid. For studying acute toxicity study, single oral dose of 5000 mg water extract /kg body weight was administered to Sprague Dawley rats (five females, five males. The results showed no toxicity in terms of general behavior change, mortality, or change in gross appearance of internal organs (LD50 > 5,000 mg/kg. Chronic toxicity was studied by daily oral dose (ten females, ten males of 300, 600 and 1,200 mg/kg for 270 days. The results showed slightly significant differences in the body and organ weights between the control and treatment groups. In addition, the rats were analyzed for final body and organ weights, necropsy, and hematological, blood chemical and histopathological parameters. Hematological analysis and clinical blood chemistry revealed slightly changes, but were within the normal limits. No gross or histopathology findings were observed in the treatment groups. Altogether, the standardized water extract from the fruit of P. emblica did not produce acute and chronic toxicity in its traditional uses. Industrial relevance: Traditional medicine is still stronghold of more than 50% of the world population, especially in developing countries. Nowadays, a number of medicinal plants (such as Phyllanthus emblica Linn. are commercially available on local markets as a tonic, food and/or dietary supplement product commonly used for clinical management of several conditions. Despite the widespread use of this plant, there is still little literature on the scientific evaluation of their toxicity. Results of the current study provide

  18. Teratogenic effects on tritiated water and tritium simulator on rat embryos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Juing-Yi; Satow, Yukio

    1987-01-01

    Five groups of pregnant rats were injected intraperitoneally with HTO containing 50, 75, 100, 125 and 150 mCi HTO/300 g b.w. on day 9 of gestation. To obtain accurate RBE values of HTO in rats, five groups of pregnant rats were exposed to Cs-137 ..gamma..-rays on days 9 - 18 of gestation at decreasing doses in accordance with body tritium concentration exponential decrease by tritium simulator. The rats were sacrificed on day 18 and the offspring were examined for external and visceral malformations (Sperm day = day 0). Teratogenicity and effects on fetal growth were dosage-dependent in both radiation groups. Thirteen (4.0 %) of the 327 survived embryos from control litters was grossly malformed. Malformations were seen at the highest incidence of 100 % of the survived embryos and 81.3 % of implanted ones in the group given 100 mCi (4.0 Gy) of HTO on day 9 of gestation. Growth retardation and generalized edema were observed in experimental embryos. By the tritium simulator accumulated doses of Cs-137 ..gamma..-rays irradiation at 6.8 Gy induced of 98.4 % malformation of survival embryos and 71.7 % of the implanted ones on day 9 of gestation. Both radiations (HTO and Cs-137 ..gamma..-rays) induced similar anomalies of the cardiovascular, respiratory and skeletal system in rat embryos. These included VSD, hypoplasia of the pulmonary trunk, right aortic arch, riding aorta, coarctation of the aorta, aberrant right subclavian artery, hypoplasia or incomplete of the lungs as well as limb and tail malformation. Only a number of embryos given HTO exhibited persistent atrioventricular canal and malformation of the eye. In the present study, comparisons between HTO and tritium similator showed the teratogenic effect of RBE to be greater than 1.8 and to reach approximately 2.6. It is proposed that RBE of HTO increased to over 3 in the low dose range. (J.P.N.).

  19. Kinetics of Chronic Oxidation of NBG-17 Nuclear Graphite by Water Vapor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Contescu, Cristian I [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Burchell, Timothy D [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Mee, Robert [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    2015-05-01

    This report presents the results of kinetic measurements during accelerated oxidation tests of NBG-17 nuclear graphite by low concentration of water vapor and hydrogen in ultra-high purity helium. The objective is to determine the parameters in the Langmuir-Hinshelwood (L-H) equation describing the oxidation kinetics of nuclear graphite in the helium coolant of high temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGR). Although the helium coolant chemistry is strictly controlled during normal operating conditions, trace amounts of moisture (predictably < 0.2 ppm) cannot be avoided. Prolonged exposure of graphite components to water vapor at high temperature will cause very slow (chronic) oxidation over the lifetime of graphite components. This behavior must be understood and predicted for the design and safe operation of gas-cooled nuclear reactors. The results reported here show that, in general, oxidation by water of graphite NBG-17 obeys the L-H mechanism, previously documented for other graphite grades. However, the characteristic kinetic parameters that best describe oxidation rates measured for graphite NBG-17 are different than those reported previously for grades H-451 (General Atomics, 1978) and PCEA (ORNL, 2013). In some specific conditions, certain deviations from the generally accepted L-H model were observed for graphite NBG-17. This graphite is manufactured in Germany by SGL Carbon Group and is a possible candidate for the fuel elements and reflector blocks of HTGR.

  20. Evaluation of chronic arsenic poisoning due to consumption of contaminated ground water in West Bengal, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asutosh Ghosh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chronic arsenic poisoning is an important public health problem and most notable in West Bengal and Bangladesh. In this study different systemic manifestations in chronic arsenic poisoning were evaluated. Methods: A nonrandomized, controlled, cross-sectional, observational study was carried out in Arsenic Clinic, Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education and Research, Kolkata, West Bengal, over a period of 1 year 4 months. Seventy-three cases diagnosed clinically, consuming water containing arsenic ≥50 μg/L and having hair and nail arsenic level >0.6 μg/L, were included. Special investigations included routine parameters and organ-specific tests. Arsenic levels in the drinking water, hair, and nail were measured in all. Twenty-five nonsmoker healthy controls were evaluated. Results: Murshidabad and districts adjacent to Kolkata, West Bengal, were mostly affected. Middle-aged males were the common sufferers. Skin involvement was the commonest manifestation (100%, followed by hepatomegaly [23 (31.5%] with or without transaminitis [7 (9.58%]/portal hypertension [9 (12.33%]. Restrictive abnormality in spirometry [11 (15.06%], bronchiectasis [4 (5.47%], interstitial fibrosis [2 (2.73%], bronchogenic carcinoma [2 (2.73%], oromucosal plaque [7 (9.58%], nail hypertrophy [10 (13.69%], alopecia [8 (10.95%], neuropathy [5 (6.84%], and Electrocardiography abnormalities [5 (6.84%] were also observed. Conclusions: Mucocutaneous and nail lesions, hepatomegaly, and restrictive change in spirometry were the common and significant findings. Other manifestations were characteristic but insignificant.

  1. Changes in serum thioredoxin among individuals chronically exposed to arsenic in drinking water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yuanyuan; Gao, Yanhui; Zhao, Lijun [Center for Endemic Disease Control, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Harbin Medical University, Key Lab of Etiology and Epidemiology, Education Bureau of Hei Long Jiang Province and Ministry of Health (23618104), Harbin 150081 (China); Wei, Yudan [Department of Community Medicine, Mercer University School of Medicine, Macon 31207, GA (United States); Feng, Hongqi; Wang, Cheng; Wei, Wei; Ding, Yunpeng [Center for Endemic Disease Control, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Harbin Medical University, Key Lab of Etiology and Epidemiology, Education Bureau of Hei Long Jiang Province and Ministry of Health (23618104), Harbin 150081 (China); Sun, Dianjun, E-mail: hrbmusdj@163.com [Center for Endemic Disease Control, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Harbin Medical University, Key Lab of Etiology and Epidemiology, Education Bureau of Hei Long Jiang Province and Ministry of Health (23618104), Harbin 150081 (China)

    2012-02-15

    It is well known that oxidative damage plays a key role in the development of chronic arsenicosis. There is a complex set of mechanisms of redox cycling in vivo to protect cells from the damage. In this study, we examined the differences in the levels of serum thioredoxin1 (TRX1) among individuals exposed to different levels of arsenic in drinking water and detected early biomarkers of arsenic poisoning before the appearance of skin lesions. A total of 157 subjects from endemic regions of China were selected and divided into arsenicosis group with skin lesions (total intake of arsenic: 8.68–45.71 mg-year) and non-arsenicosis group without skin lesions, which further divided into low (0.00–1.06 mg-year), medium (1.37–3.55 mg-year), and high (4.26–48.13 mg-year) arsenic exposure groups. Concentrations of serum TRX1 were analyzed by an ELISA method. Levels of water arsenic and urinary speciated arsenics, including inorganic arsenic (iAs), monomethylated arsenic (MMA), and dimethylated arsenic (DMA), were determined by hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry. Our results showed that the levels of serum TRX1 in arsenicosis patients were significantly higher than that of the subjects who were chronically exposed to arsenic, but without skin lesions. A positive correlation was seen between the levels of serum TRX1 and the total water arsenic intake or the levels of urinary arsenic species. The results of this study indicate that arsenic exposure could significantly change the levels of human serum TRX1, which can be detected before arsenic-specific dermatological symptoms occur. This study provides further evidence on revealing the mechanism of arsenic toxicity. -- Highlights: ► Three regions are selected as the areas affected by endemic arsenicosis of China. ► We first examine changes in serum TRX1 among individuals exposed to arsenic. ► A positive correlation was seen between serum TRX1 and total water arsenic intake. ► The same relationship

  2. Sertindole, in contrast to clozapine and olanzapine, does not disrupt water maze performance after acute or chronic treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Didriksen, Michael; Kreilgaard, Mads; Arnt, Jørn

    2006-01-01

    Cognitive deficits in schizophrenia are associated with poor functional outcome, and may be further aggravated by treatment with antipsychotics. In the present study the acute and chronic (3 weeks of treatment) effects of clozapine, olanzapine, and sertindole on performance in the Morris water ma...

  3. The water channel aquaporin-1 contributes to renin cell recruitment during chronic stimulation of renin production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinning, Anne R; Jensen, Boye L; Schweda, Frank; Machura, Katharina; Hansen, Pernille B L; Stubbe, Jane; Gramsbergen, Jan Bert; Madsen, Kirsten

    2014-12-01

    Both the processing and release of secretory granules involve water movement across granule membranes. It was hypothesized that the water channel aquaporin (AQP)1 directly contributes to the recruitment of renin-positive cells in the afferent arteriole. AQP1(-/-) and AQP1(+/+) mice were fed a low-salt (LS) diet [0.004% (wt/wt) NaCl] for 7 days and given enalapril [angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI), 0.1 mg/ml] in drinking water for 3 days. There were no differences in plasma renin concentration at baseline. After LS-ACEI, plasma renin concentrations increased markedly in both genotypes but was significantly lower in AQP1(-/-) mice compared with AQP1(+/+) mice. Tissue renin concentrations were higher in AQP1(-/-) mice, and renin mRNA levels were not different between genotypes. Mean arterial blood pressure was not different at baseline and during LS diet but decreased significantly in both genotypes after the addition of ACEI; the response was faster in AQP1(-/-) mice but then stabilized at a similar level. Renin release after 200 μl blood withdrawal was not different. Isoprenaline-stimulated renin release from isolated perfused kidneys did not differ between genotypes. Cortical tissue norepinephrine concentrations were lower after LS-ACEI compared with baseline with no difference between genotypes. Plasma nitrite/nitrate concentrations were unaffected by genotype and LS-ACEI. In AQP1(-/-) mice, the number of afferent arterioles with recruitment was significantly lower compared with AQP1(+/+) mice after LS-ACEI. We conclude that AQP1 is not necessary for acutely stimulated renin secretion in vivo and from isolated perfused kidneys, whereas recruitment of renin-positive cells in response to chronic stimulation is attenuated or delayed in AQP1(-/-) mice.

  4. The chronic kidney disease Water Intake Trial (WIT): results from the pilot randomised controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, William F; Sontrop, Jessica M; Huang, Shih-Han; Gallo, Kerri; Moist, Louise; House, Andrew A; Weir, Matthew A; Garg, Amit X

    2013-01-01

    Background and objectives Increased water intake may benefit kidney function. Prior to initiating a larger randomised controlled trial (RCT), we examined the safety and feasibility of asking adults with chronic kidney disease (CKD) to increase their water intake. Design, setting, participants and measurements Beginning in October 2012, we randomly assigned 29 adults with stage 3 CKD (estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) 30–60 mL/min/1.73 m2 and albuminuria) to one of the two groups of water intake: hydration (n=18) or standard (n=11). We asked the hydration group to increase their water intake by 1.0–1.5 L/day (in addition to usual intake, depending on sex and weight) for 6 weeks, while the control group carried on with their usual intake. Participants collected a 24 h urine sample at baseline and at 2 and 6 weeks after randomisation. Our primary outcome was the between-group difference in change in 24 h urine volume from baseline to 6 weeks. Results (63%)of participants were men, 81% were Caucasians and the average age was 61 years (SD 14 years). The average baseline eGFR was 40 mL/min/1.73 m2 (SD 11 mL/min/1.73 m2); the median albumin to creatinine ratio was 19 mg/mmol (IQR 6–74 mg/mmol). Between baseline and 6-week follow-up, the hydration group's average 24 h urine volume increased by 0.7 L/day (from 2.3 to 3.0 L/day) and the control group's 24 h urine decreased by 0.3 L/day (from 2.0 to 1.7 L/day; between-group difference in change: 0.9 L/day (95% CI 0.4 to 1.5; p=0.002)). We found no significant changes in urine, serum osmolality or electrolyte concentrations, or eGFR. No serious adverse events or changes in quality of life were reported. Conclusions A pilot RCT indicates adults with stage 3 CKD can successfully and safely increase water intake by up to 0.7 L/day in addition to usual fluid intake. Trial registration Registered with Clinical Trials—government identifier NCT01753466. PMID:24362012

  5. A new method for determining the metabolic activity of specific bacterial populations in soil using tritiated leucine and immunomagnetic separation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sengeløv, Gitte; Sørensen, Søren Johannes; Frette, Lone

    2000-01-01

    A new assay, using immunomagnetic separation and uptake of tritiated leucine ([3H]-Leu), was developed for measuring the in situ metabolic activity of specific bacterial populations in soil. Such assays are needed to assess the role individual species play in diverse microbial soil communities....... The method was optimized using Pseudomonas putida KT2440¿:¿:Tc+/TOL::gfp inoculated into soil microcosms. Inoculated soil samples were incubated with [3H]-Leu followed by an immunomagnetic separation to recover the target bacteria. Radiolabel incorporated by the target bacteria was then measured. Incubation...

  6. Arsenic in Drinking Water, Transition Cell Cancer and Chronic Cystitis in Rural Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostafa, Mohammad Golam; Cherry, Nicola

    2015-10-28

    In earlier analyses, we demonstrated dose-response relationships between renal and lung cancer and local arsenic concentrations in wells used by Bangladeshi villagers. We used the same case-referent approach to examine the relation of arsenic to biopsy confirmed transition cell cancer (TCC) of the ureter, bladder or urethra in these villagers. As the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has conclude that arsenic in drinking water causes bladder cancer, we expected to find higher risk with increasing arsenic concentration. We used histology/cytology results from biopsies carried out at a single clinic in Dhaka, Bangladesh from January 2008 to October 2011. We classified these into four groups, TCC (n = 1466), other malignancies (n = 145), chronic cystitis (CC) (n = 844) and other benign (n = 194). Arsenic concentration was estimated from British Geological Survey reports. Odds ratios were calculated by multilevel logistic regression adjusted for confounding and allowing for geographic clustering. We found no consistent trend for TCC with increasing arsenic concentration but the likelihood of a patient with benign disease having CC was significantly increased at arsenic concentrations >100 µg/L. We conclude that the expected relationship of TCC to arsenic was masked by over-matching that resulted from the previously unreported relationship between arsenic and CC. We hypothesize that CC may be a precursor of TCC in high arsenic areas.

  7. Arsenic in Drinking Water, Transition Cell Cancer and Chronic Cystitis in Rural Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Golam Mostafa

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In earlier analyses, we demonstrated dose-response relationships between renal and lung cancer and local arsenic concentrations in wells used by Bangladeshi villagers. We used the same case-referent approach to examine the relation of arsenic to biopsy confirmed transition cell cancer (TCC of the ureter, bladder or urethra in these villagers. As the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC has conclude that arsenic in drinking water causes bladder cancer, we expected to find higher risk with increasing arsenic concentration. We used histology/cytology results from biopsies carried out at a single clinic in Dhaka, Bangladesh from January 2008 to October 2011. We classified these into four groups, TCC (n = 1466, other malignancies (n = 145, chronic cystitis (CC (n = 844 and other benign (n = 194. Arsenic concentration was estimated from British Geological Survey reports. Odds ratios were calculated by multilevel logistic regression adjusted for confounding and allowing for geographic clustering. We found no consistent trend for TCC with increasing arsenic concentration but the likelihood of a patient with benign disease having CC was significantly increased at arsenic concentrations >100 µg/L. We conclude that the expected relationship of TCC to arsenic was masked by over-matching that resulted from the previously unreported relationship between arsenic and CC. We hypothesize that CC may be a precursor of TCC in high arsenic areas.

  8. Sensitivity and specificity of tritiated thymidine incorporation and ELISPOT assays in identifying antigen specific T cell immune responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MacLeod Beth

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Standardization of cell-based immunologic monitoring is becoming increasingly important as methods for measuring cellular immunity become more complex. We assessed the ability of two commonly used cell-based assays, tritiated thymidine incorporation (proliferation and IFN-gamma ELISPOT, to predict T cell responses to HER-2/neu, tetanus toxoid (tt, and cytomegalovirus (CMV antigens. These antigens were determined to be low (HER-2/neu, moderate (tt, and robustly (CMV immunogenic proteins. Samples from 27 Stage II, III, and IV HER-2/neu positive breast cancer patients, vaccinated against the HER-2/neu protein and tt, were analyzed by tritiated thymidine incorporation and IFN-gamma ELISPOT for T cell response. Results Linear regression analysis indicates that both stimulation index (SI (p = 0.011 and IFN-gamma secreting precursor frequency (p Conclusion These data underscore the importance of taking into consideration the performance characteristics of assays used to measure T cell immunity. This consideration is particularly necessary when determining which method to utilize for assessing responses to immunotherapeutic manipulations in cancer patients.

  9. Water and sodium restriction on cardiovascular disease in young chronic hemodialysis patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG Xue; WANG Wei; LI Han

    2013-01-01

    Background Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is an independent predictor of morbidity and mortality in chronic hemodialysis (CHD) patients.It remains unclear whether efforts to correct fluid overload in young CHD can reverse LVH.This prospective single-center cohort study evaluated left ventricular masses index (LVMI) evolution in fluid overloaded young CHD patients with or without water-sodium control.Methods A total of t06 young patients aged between 22 and 44 years on CHD were enrolled in this prospective,control study.Patients were divided into three groups according to the percentage of interdialytic weight gain (PIDWG (%) =100% × (predialysis weight-dry weight)/dry weight) at baseline.Thirty-six patients with PIDWG more than 5% received health education to restrict water-sodium intake strictly (Group I).Other 36 patients with comparable fluid status levels (the PIDWG more than 5%) did not receive health education to restrict water-sodium intake strictly (Group Ⅱ) and those with PIDWG less than 5% (Group Ⅲ,n=34) were served as controls.Echocardiographic studies were performed to evaluate LVMI at baseline and then after 1,3 and 6 months.The total follow-up time was 6 months.Results There was no significant difference in clinical data (such as age,gender,aetiology of renal failure and nutritional state,etc.) among the three groups at baseline.At baseline,the prevalence of LVH in Group Ⅰ,Ⅱ and Ⅲ was 75.0%,72.2% and 55.9%,respectively.LVMI was directly correlated with PIDWG (r =0.779,P <0.01).After 6 months,the PIDWG in Group I decreased in mean by (3.77±1.09)%,and LVMI decreased in mean by (27.59±12.15) g/m2.The prevalence of LVH decreased in mean by 25.0%,and the blood pressure decreased in mean by (14.69±11.50) mmHg/(7.14±7.51) mmHg.The medication category and total medication frequency of hypotensive drugs significantly decreased in Group I at 6 months.However the urine volume and the levels of serum creatinine and serum

  10. Effects of chronic produced water exposure on the expression of some immune-related genes of juvenile Atlantic cod

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez Casanova, J.; Hamoutene, D.; Samuelson, S.; Burt, K.; King, T. [Fisheries and Oceans Canada, St. John' s, NL (Canada); Lee, K. [Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Dartmouth, NS (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    This study assessed the impacts of exposure to processed water produced by offshore oil operators on immune-related genes of juvenile Atlantic cod exposed to processed water for a period of 22 weeks. The study investigated the influence of processed water concentrations on growth parameters; food consumption; plasma cortisol; respiratory burst activity (RB); and mRNA expression. The study showed that the RB of circulating leukocytes was significantly elevated. Significant up-regulation of the mRNA expression of microglobulin, immunoglobulin light chain, and interleukins was observed in some fish. The down-regulation of the interferon stimulated gene was also observed. The study indicated that chronic exposure to significant amounts of processed water causes modulations of the immune system of juvenile Atlantic cod.

  11. Depressed patients have decreased binding of tritiated imipramine to platelet serotonin ''transporter''

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul, S.M.; Rehavi, M.; Skolnick, P.; Ballenger, J.C.; Goodwin, F.K.

    1981-12-01

    The high-affinity tritiated (3H) imipramine binding sites are functionally (and perhaps structurally) associated with the presynaptic neuronal and platelet uptake sites for serotonin. Since there is an excellent correlation between the relative potencies of a series of antidepressants in displacing 3H-imipramine from binding sites in human brain and platelet, we have examined the binding of 3H-imipramine to platelets from 14 depressed patients and 28 age- and sex-matched controls. A highly significant decrease in the number of 3H-imipramine binding sites, with no significant change in the apparent affinity constants, was observed in platelets from the depressed patients compared with the controls. These results, coupled with previous studies showing a significant decrease in the maximal uptake of serotonin in platelets from depressed patients, suggest that an inherited or acquired deficiency of the serotonin transport protein or proteins may be involved in the pathogenesis of depression.

  12. Sublethal and Reproductive Effects of Acute and Chronic Exposure to Flowback and Produced Water from Hydraulic Fracturing on the Water Flea Daphnia magna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blewett, Tamzin A; Delompré, Perrine L M; He, Yuhe; Folkerts, Erik J; Flynn, Shannon L; Alessi, Daniel S; Goss, Greg G

    2017-02-13

    Hydraulic fracturing is an industrial process allowing for the extraction of gas or oil. To fracture the rocks, a proprietary mix of chemicals is injected under high pressure, which later returns to the surface as flowback and produced water (FPW). FPW is a complex chemical mixture consisting of trace metals, organic compounds, and often, high levels of salts. FPW toxicity to the model freshwater crustacean Daphnia magna was characterized utilizing acute (48 h median lethal concentrations; LC50) and chronic (21 day) exposures. A decrease in reproduction was observed, with a mean value of 18.5 neonates produced per replicate over a 21 day chronic exposure to 0.04% FPW, which was a significant decrease from the average of 64 neonates produced in the controls. The time to first brood was delayed in the highest FPW (0.04%) treatment. Neonates exhibited an LC50 of 0.19% of full-strength FPW, making them more sensitive than adults, which displayed an LC50 value of 0.75%. Quantitative PCR highlighted significant changes in expression of genes encoding xenobiotic metabolism (cyp4) and moulting (cut). This study is the first to characterize chronic FPW toxicity and will help with the development of environmental monitoring and risk assessment of FPW spills.

  13. Acute and chronic toxicity studies on partially purified hypoglycemic preparation from water extract of bark ofFicus bengalensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, S; Shukla, R; Prabhu, K M; Aggrawal, S; Rusia, U; Murthy, P S

    2002-01-01

    Acute and chronic toxicity studies were conducted to assess toxicity of a partially purified preparation from the water extract of the bark ofFicus bengalensis, which was demonstrated in our earlier studies to have significant hypoglycemic and hypocholesteroiemic effect on alloxan induced, mild and severe diabetes in rabbits. LD(50) of this preparation was found to be ∼1 gm/kg in rats when given orally. For chronic toxicity studies 3 doses of aqueous preparation were given to 3 groups of rats. First group received 5 times ED(50) (50 mg/kg), second group 10 times ED(50) (100 mg/kg) and the third group 15 times ED(50) (150 mg/kg) for 3 months. Fourth group which served as control was given water. After three months, blood was collected for studying biochemical and hematological parameters. Blood glucose, serum cholesterol, liver and kidney function tests, haemoglobin, total and differential leukocyte count were determined. Animals were sacrificed and histopathological examination of liver, heart and kidneys was carried out. Results of the study showed that partially purified preparation fromFicus bengalensis is not toxic by all the above mentioned parameters.

  14. Chronic endemic regional hydroarsenicism. The manifestations of arsenic poisoning caused by drinking water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grinspan, D.; Biagini, R.

    1985-01-01

    This report deals with endemic chronic arsenical intoxication (HACRE) observed in several provinces in Argentina. Similar reports come from Chili, Mexico, Brasil, Bolivia, Peru and Japan. HACRE patients show no systemic, symptoms and specific manifestations are palmoplantar keratoderma, multiple cutaneous epitheliomas, mainly Bowen-type and respiratory or digestive carcinomas. The authors emphasize that these specific manifestations of HACRE are worth knowing for their possible social incidence.

  15. ACUTE AND CHRONIC TOXICITY OF PHENYL QUINOLINE ON WATER FLEA DAPHNIA MAGNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hildebrando Ayala

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aquatic ecotoxicological determination of phytonematicide products using the zooplanktonic cladoceran Daphnia magna is important for environmental risk assessment. Evaluations were made of the acute median lethal concentration (LC50 of phenyl quinoline on D. magna, that was 4.12 ug i.a. L-1 at 48 h of exposure. The chronic effects of phenyl quinoline in the mortality rate of the cladoceran D. magna at 17 d of exposure, with 0.18 ug ai L-1 of LOEC (Lowest Observed Effect Concentration and 0.072 ug ai L-1 of NOEC (No Observed Effect Concentration were determined. Evaluations of the chronic effect of phenyl quinoline on three parameters of growth of D. magna (total length, antenna length and caudal length to 17 d of exposure, only showed significant differences in length of the antenna between the control and 0.072 ug ai L-1 been this the value of LOEC and thus the lower concentration 0.0288 ug ai L-1, the NOEC value for phenyl quinoline. The ratio between acute and chronic toxicity (RAC for the relationship showed acute 48 h exposure on mortality NOEC 17 d a value of 57.22, and for the ratio of acute NOEC on of the length of the antenna to 17 d was a value of 143. The environmental risk assessment (ERA shows that the PEC (Probable Effect Concentration / PNEC (Predicted No-Effect Concentration for acute assay was 582 524 and for the PEC / PNEC for chronic test was 83 333 333. These results demonstrate that phenyl quinoline has a high impact on aquatic biota represented by the trophic level that belongs to D. magna, and therefore shows that the substance is a candidate for a comprehensive ecotoxicological assessment.

  16. Metabolic profiles in serum of mouse after chronic exposure to drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Wu, Bing; Zhang, Xuxiang; Li, Aimin; Cheng, Shupei

    2011-08-01

    The toxicity of Nanjing drinking water on mouse (Mus musculus) was detected by (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabonomic method. Three groups of mice were fed with drinking water (produced by Nanjing BHK Water Plant), 3.8 μg/L benzo(a)pyrene as contrast, and clean water as control, respectively, for 90 days. It was observed that the levels of lactate, alanine, and creatinine in the mice fed with drinking water were increased and that of valine was decreased. The mice of drinking water group were successfully separated from control. The total concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), phthalates (PAEs), and other organic pollutants in the drinking water were 0.23 μg/L, 4.57 μg/L, and 0.34 μg/L, respectively. In this study, Nanjing drinking water was found to induce distinct perturbations of metabolic profiles on mouse including disorders of glucose-alanine cycle, branched-chain amino acid and energy metabolism, and dysfunction of kidney. This study suggests that metabonomic method is feasible and sensitive to evaluate potential toxic effects of drinking water.

  17. Association between type 2 diabetes and chronic arsenic exposure in drinking water: A cross sectional study in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Islam Md

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic exposure to high level of inorganic arsenic in drinking water has been associated with Type 2 Diabetes (T2D. Most research has been ecological in nature and has focused on high levels of arsenic exposure with few studies directly measuring arsenic levels in drinking water as an index of arsenic exposure. The effect of low to moderate levels of arsenic exposure on diabetes risk is largely unknown thus our study is adding further knowledge over previous works. Methods This cross sectional study was conducted in 1004 consenting women and men from 1682 eligible participants yielding a participation rate of 60%. These participants are aged >30 years and were living in Bangladesh and had continuously consumed arsenic-contaminated drinking water for at least 6 months. T2D cases were diagnosed using glucometer following the new diagnostic criteria (Fasting Blood Glucose > 126 mg/dl from the WHO guideline (WHO 2006, or a self-reported physician diagnosis of type 2 diabetes. Association between T2D and chronic arsenic exposure was estimated by multiple logistic regression with adjustment for age, sex, education, Body Mass Index (BMI and family history of T2D. Results A total of 1004 individuals participated in the study. The prevalence of T2D was 9% (95% CI 7-11%. After adjustment for diabetes risk factors, an increased risk of type 2 diabetes was observed for arsenic exposure over 50 μg/L with those in the highest category having almost double the risk of type 2 diabetes (OR=1.9 ; 95% CI 1.1-3.5. For most levels of arsenic exposure, the risk estimates are higher with longer exposure; a dose–response pattern was also observed. Conclusions These findings suggest an association between chronic arsenic exposure through drinking water and T2D. Risks are generally higher with longer duration of arsenic exposure. The risk of T2D is highest among those who were exposed to the highest concentration of arsenic for more than 10 years.

  18. Effects of water deprivation on renal hydroelectrolytic excretion in chronically Trypanosoma cruzi-infected rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.T. Rosa

    1995-03-01

    Full Text Available The effect of an 8 hour-period of water deprivation on fluid and electrolyte renal excretion was investigated in male Wistar rats infected with the strain São Felipe (12SF of Trypanosoma cruzi, in comparison with age and sex matched non-infected controls. The median percent reductions in the urinary flow (-40% v -63% and excretion ofsodium (-57% v-79% were smaller in chagasic than in control rats, respectively. So, chagasic rats excreted more than controls. On the other hand, the median percent decrement in the clearance of creatinine was higher in chagasic (-51% than in controls (-39%. Thus, chagasic rats showed some disturbed renal hydroelectrolytic responses to water deprivation, expressed by smaller conservation, or higher excretion of water and sodium in association with smaller glomerularfiltration rate. This fact denoted an elevation in the fractional excretion of sodium and water.

  19. Tritiated thymidine autoradiographic study on the influence of sensory and sympathetic innervation on periodontal wound healing in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wucherpfennig, A L; Chiego, D J; Avery, J K

    1990-01-01

    Understanding of wound healing mechanisms is important in designing preventive and therapeutic approaches to inflammatory periodontal diseases, which are a major cause of dental morbidity. In this study, cell proliferation was assessed after an experimental gingival wound; this was preceded by either resection of 3 mm of the inferior alveolar nerve, total extirpation of the superior cervical ganglion, trauma to those structures or sham operations. At different times, animals were pulsed with 0.5 microCi/g body weight of tritiated thymidine; histological sections were processed for quantitative autoradiography of different compartments of the periodontium. Wounding led to a significant increase in cell proliferation in the epithelial layer, the fibroblast compartment and the periodontal ligament, but not in the alveolar crest compartment. Sympathetic denervation significantly enhanced this response in the epithelial layer, the fibroblast compartment and the alveolar crest, whereas sensory denervation only modified the response in the fibroblast layer. Thus it appears that sympathetic innervation plays an important role in the regulation of cell proliferation in the periodontium and that pharmacological modulation of sympathetic activity should be further studied as a therapeutic approach in periodontal disease.

  20. Tritiation of delta opioid-receptor selective antagonist dipeptide ligands with extraordinary affinity containing 2', 6'dimethyltyrosine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kertész, I.; Tóth, G.; Balboni, G.; Guerrini, R.; Salvadori, S.

    1999-01-01

    Recently a new class of δ opioid antagonists has been discovered by using Tyr-Tic sequence. The substitution of Tyr1 by Dmt resulted in a new analogue (H-Dmt-Tic-OH) with enhanced affinity and selectivity. Because of its excellent property we chose it for labelling with tritium. At the same time peptides containing Tic at position 2 undergo spontaneous diketopiperazine formation in some solvents, and they lose some of their binding ability. To avoid this unwanted side-reaction we synthetized the N-methylated analogue (N,N(Me)2-Dmt-Tic-OH), and it was more stable under storage condition, but δ affinity declined moderately. On the basis of this information we prepared diiodinated analogues of these dipeptides. Catalytic dehalotritiation of precursors resulted in tritiated peptides. High specific radioactivity, 44.67 Ci/mmol with [3H]Dmt-Tic-OH and 59.88 Ci/mmol with N,N(Me)2-[3H]Dmt-Tic-OH were achieved.

  1. Tritiation of delta opioid-receptor selective antagonist dipeptide ligands with extraordinary affinity containing 2‧, 6‧dimethyltyrosine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kertész, I.; Tóth, G.; Balboni, G.; Guerrini, R.; Salvadori, S.

    1999-01-01

    Recently a new class of δ opioid antagonists has been discovered by using Tyr-Tic sequence. The substitution of Tyr1 by Dmt resulted in a new analogue (H-Dmt-Tic-OH) with enhanced affinity and selectivity. Because of its excellent property we chose it for labelling with tritium. At the same time peptides containing Tic at position 2 undergo spontaneous diketopiperazine formation in some solvents, and they lose some of their binding ability. To avoid this unwanted side-reaction we synthetized the N-methylated analogue (N,N(Me)2-Dmt-Tic-OH), and it was more stable under storage condition, but δ affinity declined moderately. On the basis of this information we prepared diiodinated analogues of these dipeptides. Catalytic dehalotritiation of precursors resulted in tritiated peptides. High specific radioactivity, 44.67 Ci/mmol with [3H]Dmt-Tic-OH and 59.88 Ci/mmol with N,N(Me)2-[3H]Dmt-Tic-OH were achieved.

  2. Effects of acute and chronic exposition on larvae of pejerrey Odontesthes Argentinensis to water soluble fraction (WSF) of crude oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gusmao, Emeline P.; Rodrigues, Ricardo V.; Moreira, Caue B.; Seyffert, Bianca; Ignacio, Gabriela; Fillmann, Gilberto; Sampaio, Luis A.; Miranda-Filho, Kleber C. [Fundacao Universidade do Rio Grande (FURG), RS (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Petroleum is considered one of the greatest marine water pollutants, but there have been few studies on the impact of oil on biota. The water-soluble fraction (WSF) of a crude oil contains a mixture of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), phenols and heterocyclic compounds. Marine 'pejerrey' Odontesthes argentinensis (Teleostei: Atherinopsidae) is a important commercial species in Brazilian southern region and has great potential for mariculture. The aim of this study was to investigate the lethal and sub-lethal effects of the WSF crude oil exposition on the early life stages of O. argentinensis using acute (96 hours) and chronic (21 days) toxicity tests. Water-soluble fraction of heavy crude oil was prepared using a ratio of one part crude oil to nine parts filtered seawater and mixing for 24 h. Newly hatched larvae and 17 days old larvae were used for the tests, respectively. According to the results, median lethal concentration (LC50) was estimated in 55.0% of the WSF and safe level was estimated in 5.5% of WSF. These data can be used as a tool in environmental conservation studies. Heavy crude oil WSF presented total PAHs of 197.83 ng/mL and total BTEX of 106.1 {mu}g/L. (author)

  3. Vibrio alginolyticus Associated Chronic Myringitis Acquired in Mediterranean Waters of Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citil, Burak Ekrem; Derin, Serhan; Sankur, Funda; Sahan, Murat; Citil, Mahmut Ugur

    2015-01-01

    Vibrio alginolyticus was originally classified as biotype 2 of Vibrio parahaemolyticus. Most clinical isolates are recovered from superficial wounds or the external ear infections. V. alginolyticus is acknowledged to be nearly nonpathogenic in humans. The reason for presence of V. alginolyticus's virulence is uncertain. We describe a chronic myringitis case in a 47-year-old female due to V. alginolyticus. According to her anamnesis, it was detected that she had sea bathing history in Mugla Coast in Turkey. Pure isolation of V. alginolyticus was obtained from external auditory canal's culture. Investigation and antimicrobial susceptibility of the isolate were performed by the automatized BD Phoenix system and Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method, respectively. The bacteria were sensitive to all antibiotics. This case was presented to pay attention to Vibrio alginolyticus infections. PMID:26605095

  4. Vibrio alginolyticus Associated Chronic Myringitis Acquired in Mediterranean Waters of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burak Ekrem Citil

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Vibrio alginolyticus was originally classified as biotype 2 of Vibrio parahaemolyticus. Most clinical isolates are recovered from superficial wounds or the external ear infections. V. alginolyticus is acknowledged to be nearly nonpathogenic in humans. The reason for presence of V. alginolyticus’s virulence is uncertain. We describe a chronic myringitis case in a 47-year-old female due to V. alginolyticus. According to her anamnesis, it was detected that she had sea bathing history in Mugla Coast in Turkey. Pure isolation of V. alginolyticus was obtained from external auditory canal’s culture. Investigation and antimicrobial susceptibility of the isolate were performed by the automatized BD Phoenix system and Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method, respectively. The bacteria were sensitive to all antibiotics. This case was presented to pay attention to Vibrio alginolyticus infections.

  5. [Biochemical effects of chronic peroral administration of carbon nanotubes and activated charcoal in drinking water in rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khripach, L V; Rakhmanin, Iu A; Mikhajlova, R I; Knyazeva, T D; Koganova, Z I; Zhelezniak, E V; Savostikova, O N; Alekseeva, A V; Kameneckaya, D V; Ryzhova, I N; Kruglova, E V; Revazova, T L

    2014-01-01

    Chronic 6-month experiment was carried out in rats, which received drinking water with multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), diameter of 15-40 nm, length ≥ 2 mkm) or activated charcoal (AC, diameter of 10-100 mkm), blood samples of the animals were used for assessment of biochemical markers. Both coal compounds induced the appearance of signs of oxidative stress 2 weeks after the beginning of the experiment and alteration of serum markers of liver and renal damage, as well as changes of cortisol and protein serum concentrations later Thus, despite of known high (asbest-like) inhalation toxicity of carbon nanotubes in comparison with other carbon allotrops (fullerenes and black carbon), we have found similar effects of MWCNTs and carbon microparticles in orally treated rats.

  6. Multi-trace elements level in drinking water and the prevalence of multi-chronic arsenical poisoning in residents in the west area of Iran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barati, A.H., E-mail: ah_barati@yahoo.com [Department of Medical Physics, Faculty of Medicine, Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, P.O.Box-66135-756, Pasdaran Street, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Maleki, A. [Department of Environmental Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Alasvand, M. [Department of Medical Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2010-03-01

    First, we determined the levels of 8 trace elements (As, Se, Hg, Cd, Ag, Mn, Cr and Pb) in 530 village drinking water sources by graphite furnace or flame atomic absorption spectroscopy method, in Kurdistan Province in the west of Iran. The results showed that the level of As, Cd and Se in 28 village drinking water sources exceeded WHO or National Standard limits. The levels of concentration of arsenic in drinking water ranged from 42 to 1500 {mu}g/L. Then in a cross-sectional survey, 587 people from 211 households were chosen for clinical examinations of multi-chronic arsenical poisoning including pigment disorders, keratosis of palms and soles, Mee's line in fingers and nails and the gangrene as a systemic manifestation. Of 587 participants, 180 (30.7%) participants were affected by representing the type of chronic arsenical poisoning. The prevalence of Mee's line, keratosis, and pigment disorders were 86.1%, 77.2% and 67.8% respectively. Therefore, the prevalence of Mee's line between inhabitants was higher than the other disorders. The results show a strong linear relationship between arsenic exposure and occurrence of multi-chronic arsenical poisoning (R{sup 2} = 0.76). The association between age for more than 40 years and gender for more than 60 years with chronic arsenical poisoning is significant (p < 0.05). Also, there is a relationship between subjects who were affected with disorders and duration of living in the village. Except for gangrene disorder, the odds ratio of prevalence of other disorders with arsenic exposure level in drinking water show a highly significant relationship between arsenic content and the risk of chronic disorders (p < 0.01). These results confirm the need to further study trace elements in drinking waters, food products and other samples in this area and the relationship to other chronic diseases arising out of arsenicosis.

  7. Multi-linear regression analysis, preliminary biotic ligand modeling, and cross species comparison of the effects of water chemistry on chronic lead toxicity in invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esbaugh, A J; Brix, K V; Mager, E M; De Schamphelaere, K; Grosell, M

    2012-03-01

    The current study examined the chronic toxicity of lead (Pb) to three invertebrate species: the cladoceran Ceriodaphnia dubia, the snail Lymnaea stagnalis and the rotifer Philodina rapida. The test media consisted of natural waters from across North America, varying in pertinent water chemistry parameters including dissolved organic carbon (DOC), calcium, pH and total CO(2). Chronic toxicity was assessed using reproductive endpoints for C. dubia and P. rapida while growth was assessed for L. stagnalis, with chronic toxicity varying markedly according to water chemistry. A multi-linear regression (MLR) approach was used to identify the relative importance of individual water chemistry components in predicting chronic Pb toxicity for each species. DOC was an integral component of MLR models for C. dubia and L. stagnalis, but surprisingly had no predictive impact on chronic Pb toxicity for P. rapida. Furthermore, sodium and total CO(2) were also identified as important factors affecting C. dubia toxicity; no other factors were predictive for L. stagnalis. The Pb toxicity of P. rapida was predicted by calcium and pH. The predictive power of the C. dubia and L. stagnalis MLR models was generally similar to that of the current C. dubia BLM, with R(2) values of 0.55 and 0.82 for the respective MLR models, compared to 0.45 and 0.79 for the respective BLMs. In contrast the BLM poorly predicted P. rapida toxicity (R(2)=0.19), as compared to the MLR (R(2)=0.92). The cross species variability in the effects of water chemistry, especially with respect to rotifers, suggests that cross species modeling of invertebrate chronic Pb toxicity using a C. dubia model may not always be appropriate.

  8. Acute and chronic effects of growth hormone on renal regulation of electrolyte and water homeostasis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dimke, H.; Flyvbjerg, A.; Frische, S.

    2007-01-01

    For decades, growth hormone (GH) has been known to influence electrolyte and water handling in humans and animals. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the GH-induced anti-natriuretic and anti-diuretic effects have remained elusive. This review will examine the existing literature on renal e

  9. Ecological study on chronic kidney disease and arsenic in drinking water in districts of Guanacaste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darner Mora-Alvarado

    2015-06-01

    Recommendations: cross sectional and case/control studies should be done, without neglecting any hypothesis regarding the common risk factors in the CKD affected districts, including exposure to pesticides, high temperature, heavy metals (including total-As in drinking water agrochemicals, agricultural occupation, among others.

  10. Influence of dissolved organic carbon on toxicity of copper to a unionid mussel (Villosa iris) and a cladoceran (Ceriodaphnia dubia) in acute and chronic water exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ning; Mebane, Christopher A; Kunz, James L; Ingersoll, Christopher G; Brumbaugh, William G; Santore, Robert C; Gorsuch, Joseph W; Arnold, W Ray

    2011-09-01

    Acute and chronic toxicity of copper (Cu) to a unionid mussel (Villosa iris) and a cladoceran (Ceriodaphnia dubia) were determined in water exposures at four concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC; nominally 0.5, 2.5, 5, and 10 mg/L as carbon [C]). Test waters with DOC concentrations of 2.5 to 10 mg C/L were prepared by mixing a concentrate of natural organic matter (Suwannee River, GA, USA) in diluted well water (hardness 100 mg/L as CaCO(3) , pH 8.3, DOC 0.5 mg C/L). Acute median effect concentrations (EC50s) for dissolved Cu increased approximately fivefold (15-72 µg Cu/L) for mussel survival in 4-d exposures and increased about 11-fold (25-267 µg Cu/L) for cladoceran survival in 2-d exposures across DOC concentrations from 0.5 to 10 mg C/L. Similarly, chronic 20% effect concentrations (EC20s) for the mussel in 28-d exposures increased about fivefold (13-61 µg Cu/L for survival; 8.8-38 µg Cu/L for biomass), and the EC20s for the cladoceran in 7-d exposures increased approximately 17-fold (13-215 µg Cu/L) for survival or approximately fourfold (12-42 µg Cu/L) for reproduction across DOC concentrations from 0.5 to 10 mg C/L. The acute and chronic values for the mussel were less than or approximately equal to the values for the cladoceran. Predictions from the biotic ligand model (BLM) used to derive the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's ambient water quality criteria (AWQC) for Cu explained more than 90% of the variation in the acute and chronic endpoints for the two species, with the exception of the EC20 for cladoceran reproduction (only 46% of variation explained). The BLM-normalized acute EC50s and chronic EC20s for the mussel and BLM-normalized chronic EC20s for the cladoceran in waters with DOC concentrations of 2.5 to 10 mg C/L were equal to or less than the final acute value and final chronic value in the BLM-based AWQC for Cu, respectively, indicating that the Cu AWQC might not adequately protect the mussel from acute and

  11. Development of tritiated vapor absorbent applicable to the atmospheric detritiation system in a nuclear facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwai, Yasunori; Yamanishi, Toshihiko

    2010-09-01

    The combination of hydrogen oxidation reactor packed noble metal catalysts and water vapor absorber has been applied to the atmospheric detritiation system of the tritium handling facility. Commercial synthetic zeolite such as molecular sieve 5A has been used as an adsorbent of ADS absorber. In the case of application of molecular sieve 5A to the ADS absorber of a large-scale tritium handling facility such as a future fusion plant, an absorber becomes huge due mainly to the difficulty in dehydration from molecular sieve 5A. Hence, application of CaY Faujasite-type zeolite with a high framework silica-to-alumina ratio to the adsorbent for atmospheric detritiation system was investigated. It was clear that the dehydration behavior at room temperature was significantly improved using CaY zeolite. In contrast, detritiation factor for CaY zeolite with a high framework silica-to-alumina ratio depended strongly on the space velocity through the absorber. To apply CaY zeolite with a high framework SiO(2)/Al(2)O(3) ratio to the ADS absorbent, the space velocity less than 250h(-1) was recommended to maintain the detritiation factor more than 1000. The steep increase in water adsorption at the relative pressure lower than 0.05 is a feature of synthetic zeolite with calcium cation. However, such an increase was not observed in water adsorption on CaY zeolite with a framework SiO(2)/Al(2)O(3) ratio more than 7.0. Consequently, the CaY zeolite with the framework SiO(2)/Al(2)O(3) ratio of 5.0 is a promising candidate as absorbent of ADS absorber.

  12. Comparing the effectiveness of chronic water column tests with the crustaceans Hyalella azteca (order: Amphipoda) and Ceriodaphnia dubia (order: Cladocera) in detecting toxicity of current-use insecticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deanovic, Linda A; Markiewicz, Dan; Stillway, Marie; Fong, Stephanie; Werner, Inge

    2013-03-01

    Standard U.S. Environmental Protection Agency laboratory tests are used to monitor water column toxicity in U.S. surface waters. The water flea Ceriodaphnia dubia is among the most sensitive test species for detecting insecticide toxicity in freshwater environments.Its usefulness is limited, however, when water conductivity exceeds 2,000 µS/cm (approximately 1 ppt salinity) and test effectiveness is insufficient. Water column toxicity tests using the euryhaline amphipod Hyalella azteca could complement C. dubia tests; however, standard chronic protocols do not exist. The present study compares the effectiveness of two water column toxicity tests in detecting the toxicity of two organophosphate (OP) and two pyrethroid insecticides: the short-term chronic C. dubia test, which measures mortality and fecundity, and a 10-d H. azteca test, which measures mortality and growth. Sensitivity was evaluated by comparing effect data, and end point variability was evaluated by comparing minimum significant differences. Tests were performed in synthetic water and filtered ambient water to quantify the influence of water matrix on effect concentrations. The H. azteca test detected pyrethroid toxicity far more effectively, while the C. dubia test was more sensitive to OPs. Among endpoints, H. azteca mortality was most robust. The results demonstrate that the H. azteca test is preferable when conductivity of water samples is 2,000 to 10,000 µS/cm or if contaminants of concern include pyrethroid insecticides.

  13. Dual Impact of Tolvaptan on Intracellular and Extracellular Water in Chronic Kidney Disease Patients with Fluid Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Takahiro; Murakami, Takuya; Igarashi, Yusuke; Okabe, Kyochika; Kobayashi, Takahisa; Takeda, Shin-ichi; Saito, Takako; Sekiguchi, Chuji; Miyazawa, Yasuharu; Akimoto, Tetsu; Saito, Osamu; Muto, Shigeaki; Nagata, Daisuke

    2016-01-01

    Objective Tolvaptan, an oral selective V2-receptor antagonist, is a water diuretic that ameliorates fluid retention with a lower risk of a worsening renal function than conventional loop diuretics. Although loop diuretics predominantly decrease extracellular water (ECW) compared with intracellular water (ICW), the effect of tolvaptan on fluid distribution remains unclear. We therefore examined how tolvaptan changes ICW and ECW in accordance with the renal function. Methods Six advanced chronic kidney disease patients (stage 4 or 5) with fluid retention were enrolled in this study. Tolvaptan (7.5 mg/day) added to conventional diuretic treatment was administered to remove fluid retention. The fluid volume was measured using a bioimpedance analysis device before (day 0) and after (day 5 or 6) tolvaptan treatment. Results Body weight decreased by 2.6%±1.3% (64.4±6.5 vs. 62.8±6.3 kg, p=0.06), and urine volume increased by 54.8%±23.9% (1,215±169 vs. 1,709±137 mL/day, p=0.03) between before and after tolvaptan treatment. Tolvaptan significantly decreased ICW (6.5%±1.5%, p=0.01) and ECW (7.5%±1.4%, p=0.02), which had similar reduction rates (p=0.32). The estimated glomerular filtration rate remained unchanged during the treatment (14.6±2.8 vs. 14.9±2.7 mL/min/1.732 m, p=0.35). Conclusion Tolvaptan ameliorates body fluid retention, and induces an equivalent reduction rate of ICW and ECW without a worsening renal function. Tolvaptan is a novel water diuretic that has a different effect on fluid distribution compared with conventional loop diuretics. PMID:27725533

  14. Chronic sensitivity of white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to cadmium, copper, lead, or zinc in laboratory water-only exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ning; Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Dorman, Rebecca A.; Brumbaugh, William G.; Mebane, Christopher A.; Kunz, James L.; Hardesty, Douglas K.

    2014-01-01

    Chronic toxicity of cadmium, copper, lead, or zinc to white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) was evaluated in water-only exposures started with newly hatched larvae or approximately 1-mo-old juveniles. The 20% effect concentration (EC20) for cadmium from the sturgeon tests was higher than the EC20 from the trout tests, whereas the EC20 for copper, lead, or zinc for the sturgeon were lower than those EC20s for the trout. When the EC20s from the present study were included in compiled toxicity databases for all freshwater species, species mean chronic value for white sturgeon was in a relatively low percentile of the species sensitivity distribution for copper (9th percentile) and in the middle percentile for cadmium (55th percentile), zinc (40th percentile), or lead (50th percentile). However, the species mean chronic value for rainbow trout was in a high percentile for copper, lead, and zinc (∼68th–82nd percentile), but in a low percentile for cadmium (23rd percentile). The trout EC20s for each of the 4 metals and the sturgeon EC20s for cadmium or lead were above US Environmental Protection Agency chronic ambient water quality criteria (AWQC) or Washington State chronic water quality standards (WQS), whereas the sturgeon EC20s for copper or zinc were approximately equal to or below the chronic AWQC and WQS. In addition, acute 50% effect concentrations (EC50s) for copper obtained in the first 4 d of the chronic sturgeon test were below the final acute value used to derive acute AWQC and below acute WQS for copper.

  15. Chronic sensitivity of white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to cadmium, copper, lead, or zinc in laboratory water-only exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ning; Ingersoll, Christopher G; Dorman, Rebecca A; Brumbaugh, William G; Mebane, Christopher A; Kunz, James L; Hardesty, Doug K

    2014-10-01

    Chronic toxicity of cadmium, copper, lead, or zinc to white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) was evaluated in water-only exposures started with newly hatched larvae or approximately 1-mo-old juveniles. The 20% effect concentration (EC20) for cadmium from the sturgeon tests was higher than the EC20 from the trout tests, whereas the EC20 for copper, lead, or zinc for the sturgeon were lower than those EC20s for the trout. When the EC20s from the present study were included in compiled toxicity databases for all freshwater species, species mean chronic value for white sturgeon was in a relatively low percentile of the species sensitivity distribution for copper (9th percentile) and in the middle percentile for cadmium (55th percentile), zinc (40th percentile), or lead (50th percentile). However, the species mean chronic value for rainbow trout was in a high percentile for copper, lead, and zinc (∼68th-82nd percentile), but in a low percentile for cadmium (23rd percentile). The trout EC20s for each of the 4 metals and the sturgeon EC20s for cadmium or lead were above US Environmental Protection Agency chronic ambient water quality criteria (AWQC) or Washington State chronic water quality standards (WQS), whereas the sturgeon EC20s for copper or zinc were approximately equal to or below the chronic AWQC and WQS. In addition, acute 50% effect concentrations (EC50s) for copper obtained in the first 4 d of the chronic sturgeon test were below the final acute value used to derive acute AWQC and below acute WQS for copper.

  16. CHRONIC ZINC SCREENING WATER EFFECT RATIO FOR THE H-12 OUTFALL, SAVANNAH RIVER SITE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coughlin, D.; Looney, B.; Millings, M.

    2009-01-13

    In response to proposed Zn limits for the NPDES outfall H-12, a Zn screening Water Effects Ratio (WER) study was conducted to determine if a full site-specific WER is warranted. Using standard assumptions for relating the lab results to the stream, the screening WER data were consistent with the proposed Zn limit and suggest that a full WER would result in a similar limit. Addition of a humate amendment to the outfall water reduced Zn toxicity, but the toxicity reduction was relatively small and unlikely to impact proposed Zn limits. The screening WER data indicated that the time and expense required to perform a full WER for Zn is not warranted.

  17. Benefit of warm water immersion on biventricular function in patients with chronic heart failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kardassis Dimitris

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Regular physical activity and exercise are well-known cardiovascular protective factors. Many elderly patients with heart failure find it difficult to exercise on land, and hydrotherapy (training in warm water could be a more appropriate form of exercise for such patients. However, concerns have been raised about its safety. The aim of this study was to investigate, with echocardiography and Doppler, the acute effect of warm water immersion (WWI and effect of 8 weeks of hydrotherapy on biventricular function, volumes and systemic vascular resistance. A secondary aim was to observe the effect of hydrotherapy on brain natriuretic peptide (BNP. Methods Eighteen patients [age 69 ± 8 years, left ventricular ejection fraction 31 ± 9%, peakVO2 14.6 ± 4.5 mL/kg/min] were examined with echocardiography on land and in warm water (34°C. Twelve of these patients completed 8 weeks of control period followed by 8 weeks of hydrotherapy twice weekly. Results During acute WWI, cardiac output increased from 3.1 ± 0.8 to 4.2 ± 0.9 L/min, LV tissue velocity time integral from 1.2 ± 0.4 to 1.7 ± 0.5 cm and right ventricular tissue velocity time integral from 1.6 ± 0.6 to 2.5 ± 0.8 cm (land vs WWI, p There was no change in the cardiovascular response or BNP after 8 weeks of hydrotherapy. Conclusion Hydrotherapy was well tolerated by all patients. The main observed cardiac effect during acute WWI was a reduction in heart rate, which, together with a decrease in afterload, resulted in increases in systolic and diastolic biventricular function. Although 8 weeks of hydrotherapy did not improve cardiac function, our data support the concept that exercise in warm water is an acceptable regime for patients with heart failure.

  18. Carcinogenicity and chronic toxicity of hydrazine monohydrate in rats and mice by two-year drinking water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Michiharu; Kano, Hirokazu; Suzuki, Masaaki; Katagiri, Taku; Umeda, Yumi; Fukushima, Shoji

    2016-04-01

    The carcinogenicity and chronic toxicity of hydrazine monohydrate was examined by administrating hydrazine monohydrate in drinking water to groups of 50 F344/DuCrj rats and 50 Crj:BDF1 mice of both sexes for two years. The drinking water concentration of hydrazine monohydrate was 0, 20, 40 or 80 ppm (wt/wt) for male and female rats and male mice; and 0, 40, 80 or 160 ppm for female mice. Survival rates of each group of males and females rats and mice were similar to the respective controls, except female rats administered 80 ppm. Two-year administration of hydrazine monohydrate produced an increase in the incidences of hepatocellular adenomas and carcinomas in rats of both sexes along with hepatic foci. In mice, the incidences of hepatocellular adenomas and carcinomas were increased in females, and significantly increased incidences of hepatocellular adenomas in females administered 160 ppm were observed. Thus, hydrazine monohydrate is carcinogenic in two species, rats and mice. Additionally, non-neoplastic renal lesions in rats and mice and non-neoplastic nasal lesions in mice were observed.

  19. Chronic pancreatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronic pancreatitis - chronic; Pancreatitis - chronic - discharge; Pancreatic insufficiency - chronic; Acute pancreatitis - chronic ... alcohol abuse over many years. Repeated episodes of acute ... chronic pancreatitis. Genetics may be a factor in some cases. ...

  20. Chronic Exposure to Water-Pipe Smoke Induces Alveolar Enlargement, DNA Damage and Impairment of Lung Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abderrahim Nemmar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim: Epidemiological evidence indicates that water-pipe smoking (WPS adversely affects the respiratory system. However, the mechanisms underlying its effects are not well understood. Recent experimental studies reported the occurrence of lung inflammation and oxidative stress following acute and subacute exposure to WPS. Here, we wanted to verify the extent of inflammation and oxidative stress in mice chronically-exposed to WPS and to evaluate, for the first time, its effect on alveolar injury and DNA damage and their association with impairment of lung function. Methods: Mice were nose-only exposed to mainstream WPS (30 min/day; 5 days/week for 6 consecutive months. Control mice were exposed using the same protocol to atmospheric air only. At the end of the exposure period, several respiratory parameters were assessed. Results: In bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, WPS increased neutrophil and lymphocyte numbers, lactate dehydrogenase, myeloperoxidase and matrix metallopeptidase 9 activities, as well as several proinflammatory cytokines. In lung tissue, lipid peroxidation, reactive oxygen species, superoxide dismutase activity and reduced glutathione were all increased by WPS exposure. Along with oxidative stress, WPS exposure significantly increased lung DNA damage index. Histologically the lungs of WPS-exposed mice had foci of mixed inflammatory cells infiltration in the interalveolar interstitium which consisted of neutrophils, lymphocytes and macrophages. Interestingly, we found dilated alveolar spaces and alveolar ducts with damaged interalveolar septae, and impairment of lung function following WPS exposure. Conclusion: We show the persistence of lung inflammation and oxidative stress in mice chronically-exposed to WPS and demonstrate, for the first time, the occurrence of DNA damage and enlargement of alveolar spaces and ducts associated with impairment of lung function. Our findings provide novel mechanistic elucidation for the

  1. Effects from offshore oil production: chronic exposure of fish to produced water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holth, Tor Fredrik

    2009-07-01

    The results of this study demonstrated that environmentally relevant levels of components of produced water may affect condition factor, maturation, biochemical processes and gene expression in fish. The usefulness of bile PAH and AP metabolite measurements to evaluate exposure was demonstrated in two fish species. The development of bio marker responses was shown to depend on exposure regime as well as exposure period. Lysosomal stability (LMS) in cod kidney was related to dose, the effects were observed early (within two weeks) and remained at a stable level throughout the exposure period in fish receiving both continuous and pulsed exposure. Thus, LMS appeared to be a useful marker for effects in Atlantic cod. Formation of DNA adducts in female cod liver was also related to dose, but in contrast to LMS, more than 16 weeks was required for formation of significant levels. This parameter may therefore be underestimated following short-term exposures, such as most offshore fish caging studies (often 4-6 weeks). Although a time-dependent increase was observed, it also required a continuous exposure regime, which is not often observed in the environment. Other bio markers were demonstrated either to adapt or appeared to be insensitive to the exposures. CYP1A activity (EROD) in female cod was responsive on occasion, but a reduction of activity over time was observed. Protein levels of vitellogenin and hepatic CYP1A in zebra fish, as well as AOX in cod kidneys, were not affected in the current study. Gene transcription of several distinct cellular mechanisms was clearly affected in both species, and a predominance of differentially expressed genes in zebra fish was down regulated. This indicated that down-regulation of responsive pathways may be as important or more important than up-regulation. As both presence and absence of effects following pulsed exposure were apparent (DNA adduct formation; oocyte maturation; condition factor), the effects of exposure regime on

  2. Effects of chronic dietary exposure to trace elements on banded water snakes (Nerodia fasciata)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hopkins, W.A.; Roe, J.H.; Snodgrass, J.W.; Staub, B.P.; Jackson, B.P.; Congdon, J.D. [University of Georgia, Aiken, SC (USA). Savannah River Ecology Lab.

    2002-07-01

    Little currently is known about the accumulation or effects of contaminants on reptiles. To date, most studies examining reptile exposure to trace elements report tissue burdens of field-captured animals. but seldom provide insight into the dose, duration, or mode of exposure involved. For two years, juvenile banded water snakes (Nerodia fasciata) were fed with prey items collected from a coal ash-contaminated site that contained elevated levels of As, Cd, Cu, Se, Sr, and V. With the exception of Cu, snakes accumulated significant concentrations of elements, usually in a dose-dependent manner. Accumulation varied significantly among liver, kidney, and gonads, and in most cases between sexes. Selenium accumulation was most notable, greatly exceeding established toxicity thresholds for other vertebrates. Despite the high concentrations of pollutants accumulated, snakes exposed to the contaminated diet survived through the study and exhibited normal food consumption, growth. condition factor, overwinter survival and mass loss, metabolic rate, and gonadosomatic index. The results of this study confirm that diet can be a significant route of exposure to trace elements in snakes and indicate that further studies on snakes are warranted to better understand their responses to contaminants.

  3. Growth and Histopathological Effects of Chronic Exposition of Marine Pejerrey Odontesthes argentinensis Larvae to Petroleum Water-Soluble Fraction (WSF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gusmao, Emeline Pereira; Rodrigues, Ricardo Vieira; Moreira, Caue Bonucci [Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Aquicultura, Laboratorio de Piscicultura Estuarina e Marinha, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande, Rio Grande (Brazil); Romano, Luis Alberto; Sampaio, Luis Andre [Laboratorio de Piscicultura Estuarina e Marinha, Instituto de Oceanografia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande, Rio Grande (Brazil); Miranda-Filho, Kleber Campos [Escola de Veterinaria, Departamento de Zootecnia, Laboratorio de Aquacultura, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte (Brazil)], e-mail: kmiranda2010@ufmg.br

    2012-07-15

    The water-soluble fraction (WSF) of petroleum contains a mixture of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, volatile hydrocarbons, phenols, and heterocyclic compounds, considered deleterious to aquatic biota. Marine 'pejerrey' Odontesthes argentinensis (Teleostei: Atherinopsidae) has a great commercial importance in local fisheries and a high potential for aquaculture. The aim of this study was to evaluate the histopathological effects in 'pejerrey' larvae exposed to different concentrations of petroleum WSF. The chronic toxicity test was conducted with newly hatched larvae exposed for 21 days to sublethal concentrations of WSF (2.5, 5, 10, and 20 % of WSF), plus one control. Survival and growth were significantly lower in the highest concentration. Several histopathological changes were found in the gills (e.g., hyperplasia, aneurysms, edema, and necrosis), kidney (e.g., nuclear alterations, decrease in the hematopoietic cells), and liver (e.g., hypertrophy, karyorrhexis, and karyopyknosis). An index of branchial lesion was proposed to standardize gill lesions to different pollutants.

  4. A reproducible technique combining tritiated thymidine autoradiography with immunodetection of bromodeoxyuridine for double labelling studies of cell proliferation in paraffin sections of tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hume, W J

    1990-05-01

    A method is described to combine tritiated thymidine autoradiography with immunoperoxidase detection of bromodeoxyuridine on the same paraffin sections. It overcomes the varied technical artefacts we encountered when first attempting to combine these techniques and results in preparations with extremely low peroxidase and autoradiographic backgrounds. In particular, we find it is important to avoid the use of detergents during immunostaining, otherwise grain counts are reduced and autoradiograph exposures need to be greatly increased, and to avoid excessive peroxidase staining which makes it difficult to visualize silver grains in the overlying emulsion. The advantages of a method to remove emulsion films using acid-alcohol, allowing the same sections to be dipped twice with a long and a short autoradiographic exposure, are presented. The routine combination of high quality tritiated thymidine autoradiography with clean immunoperoxidase staining of bromodeoxyuridine-positive nuclei provides a new and powerful cell kinetic, double-labelling method to augment existing techniques e.g. by labelling the same cells undergoing DNA synthesis in successive cell cycles.

  5. Carbon dioxide insufflation or warm-water infusion for unsedated colonoscopy: A randomized controlled trial in patients with chronic constipation in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoling Xu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The effect of carbon dioxide (CO 2 insufflation and warm-water infusion during colonoscopy on patients with chronic constipation remains unknown. We evaluated CO 2 insufflation and warm-water irrigation versus air insufflation in unsedated patients with chronic constipation in China. Patients and Methods: This randomized, single-center, controlled trial enrolled 287 consecutive patients, from January 2014 to January 2015, who underwent colonoscopy for chronic constipation. Patients were randomized to CO 2 insufflation, warm-water irrigation and air insufflation colonoscopy insertion phase groups. Pain scores were assessed by the visual analog scale (VAS. The primary outcome was real-time maximum insertion pain, recorded by an unblinded nurse assistant. At discharge, the recalled maximum insertion pain was recorded. Meanwhile, patients were requested to select the VAS at 0, 10, 30, and 60 min after the procedure. In addition, cecal intubation and withdrawal time, total procedure time, and adjunct measures were recorded. Results: A total of 287 patients were randomized. The correlation between real-time and recalled maximum insertion pain ((Pearson coefficient r = 0.929; P < 0.0001 confirmed internal validation of the primary outcome. The mean real-time maximum pain scores during insertion 2.9 ± 2.1 for CO 2 , 2.7 ± 1.9 for water achieved a significantly lower pain score compared with air (5.7 ± 2.5 group (air vs CO 2 P < 0.001; air vs water P < 0.001. However, no significant pain score differences were found between the patients in the CO 2 and water groups (CO 2 vs water, P = 0.0535. P values in painless colonoscopy and only discomfort colonoscopy (pain 1-2 were, respectively, 6 (6.4% and 8 (8.5% for air; 17 (17.7% and 29 (30.2% for CO 2 ; 16 (16.5% and 31 (31.9% for water. At 0, 10, 30, and 60 min postprocedure, pain scores showed in the CO 2 and water groups had significantly reduced than in air group. Insertion time was signi

  6. Tritiation of mianserin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Favier, J.S.; Wallaart, J.; Kaspersen, F.M. (Organon International B.V., Oss (Netherlands). Drug Metabolism R and D Labs.)

    1982-10-01

    Labelling of mianserin in the N-methyl group or the piperazine ring results in changes in the physical properties of the molecule. Using deuterium it is shown that mianserin can be labelled at metabolically stable positions without introducing isotope effects by exchange under alkaline conditions (at C/sub 10/) or by reductive dechlorination (at C/sub 12/ or C/sub 13/). (13-/sup 3/H)-mianserin with a specific activity of 16 Ci.mmol/sup -1/ was synthesized by reductive dehalogenation of 13-chloromianserin using /sup 3/H/sub 2/. The position of the label was confirmed by /sup 3/H-NMR spectroscopy.

  7. [INDICES OF THE OXIDATIVE STATUS IN CHRONIC ADMINISTRATION OF COLLOID CARBONATE CALCIUM PRAPARATION WITH FAUCET AND LOW-MINERALIZED DRINKING WATER IN RATS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khripach, L V; Mikhaylova, R I; Koganova, Z I; Knyazeva, T D; Alekseeva, A V; Savostikova, O N; Ryzhova, I N; Kruglova, E V; Revzova, T L

    2015-01-01

    There are discussed the changes of an array of indices of the oxidative status in chronic administration of colloidal calcium carbonate preparation with faucet and low-mineralized drinking water to rats. Slight differences between significant effects of administration of 3 and 30 mg/L of preparation permit to suggest that the process of its incoming delivery into organism of rats has a bottleneck in the nature of total capacity of macrophages of intestinal lymphoid tissue to absorption of particles.

  8. Validation of a chronic dietary cadmium bioaccumulation and toxicity model for Hyalella azteca exposed to field-contaminated periphyton and lake water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golding, Lisa A; Borgmann, Uwe; Dixon, D George

    2011-11-01

    A model previously developed in the laboratory to predict chronic bioaccumulation and toxicity of cadmium to Hyalella azteca from a diet of periphyton was validated by comparing predictions with measurements of Cd in two exposure scenarios: laboratory-cultured H. azteca exposed for 28 d to field-contaminated water and periphyton, and Cd measured in field-collected H. azteca. In both exposure scenarios, model predictions of bioaccumulation were shown to be robust; however, effects on Cd bioaccumulation from complexation with dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and inhibition of Cd bioaccumulation by Ca²⁺ must be incorporated into the model to permit its wider application. The model predicted that 80 to 84% of Cd in H. azteca came from periphyton when H. azteca were chronically exposed to dissolved Cd in lake water at 2.63 to 3.01 nmol/L and periphyton at 1,880 to 2,630 nmol/g ash-free dry mass. Dietary Cd contributed markedly to the model-predicted decrease in 28-d survival to 74% at environmental Cd concentrations in food and water. In reality, survival decreased to 10%. The lower than predicted survival likely was due to the higher nutritional quality of periphyton used to develop the model in the laboratory compared with the field-collected periphyton. Overall, this research demonstrated that Cd in a periphyton diet at environmental concentrations can contribute to chronic toxicity in H. azteca.

  9. Abnormal white matter microstructure and increased extracellular free-water in the cingulum bundle associated with delusions in chronic schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lena K.L. Oestreich, PhD

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: These findings suggest that state and trait delusions in chronic schizophrenia are associated with microstructural processes, such as myelin abnormalities (as indicated by decreased FAT and increased RDT in the cingulum bundle and that state delusions are additionally associated with extracellular processes such as neuroinflammation or atrophy (as indicated by increased FW in the left cingulum bundle.

  10. Acute and chronic sensitivity of white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to cadmium, copper, lead, or zinc in laboratory water-only exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Contributions by Wang, Ning; Calfee, Robin D.; Beahan, Erinn; Brumbaugh, William G.; Dorman, Rebecca A.; Hardesty, Doug K.; Kunz, James L.; Little, Edward E.; Mebane, Christopher A.; Puglis, Holly J.

    2014-01-01

    White sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) are experiencing poor recruitment in the trans boundary reach of the upper Columbia River in eastern Washington State. Limited toxicity data indicated that early life stages of white sturgeon are sensitive to metals. In acute 4-day (d) exposures with larval white sturgeon, previous studies have reported that the 4-day median lethal concentrations (LC50) based on biotic ligand model (BLM) normalization for copper were below the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency national recommended acute water-quality criterion. In previously published chronic 66-d exposures starting with newly fertilized eggs of white sturgeon, 20-percent lethal effect concentrations (LC20s) for copper, cadmium, or zinc generally were within a factor of two of the chronic values of the most sensitive fish species in the databases of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency water-quality criteria (WQC) for the three metals. However, there were some uncertainties in the chronic exposures previously performed with white sturgeon, including (1) low control survival (37 percent), (2) more control fish tested in each replicate compared to other treatments, (3) limited replication of treatments (n=2), (4) lack of reported growth data (such as dry weight), and (5) wide dilution factors for exposure concentrations (6- to 8-fold dilutions). The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency concluded that additional studies are needed to generate more toxicity data to better define lethal and sublethal toxicity thresholds for metals for white sturgeon. The objective of the study was to further evaluate the acute and chronic toxicity of cadmium, copper, lead, or zinc to early life stages of white sturgeon in water-only exposures. Toxicity tests also were performed with commonly tested rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) under similar test conditions to determine the relative sensitivity between white sturgeon and rainbow trout to these metals. Toxicity data generated from

  11. Chronic Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    You have two kidneys, each about the size of your fist. Their main job is to filter wastes and excess water out of ... help control blood pressure, and make hormones. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) means that your kidneys are damaged ...

  12. Overview of Chronic Oral Toxicity Values for Chemicals Present in Hydraulic Fracturing Fluids, Flowback and Produced Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    as part of EPA's Hydraulic Fracturing Drinking Water Assessment, EPA is summarizing existing toxicity data for chemicals reported to be used in hydraulic fracturing fluids and/or found in flowback or produced waters from hydraulically fractured wells

  13. Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... www.girlshealth.gov/ Home Nutrition Nutrition basics Water Water Did you know that water makes up more ... to drink more water Other drinks How much water do you need? top Water is very important, ...

  14. Electrolysed reduced water decreases reactive oxygen species-induced oxidative damage to skeletal muscle and improves performance in broiler chickens exposed to medium-term chronic heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azad, M A K; Kikusato, M; Zulkifli, I; Toyomizu, M

    2013-01-01

    1. The present study was designed to achieve a reduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced oxidative damage to skeletal muscle and to improve the performance of broiler chickens exposed to chronic heat stress. 2. Chickens were given a control diet with normal drinking water, or diets supplemented with cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL) or grape seed extract (GSE), or a control diet with electrolysed reduced water (ERW) for 19 d after hatch. Thereafter, chickens were exposed to a temperature of either 34°C continuously for a period of 5 d, or maintained at 24°C, on the same diets. 3. The control broilers exposed to 34°C showed decreased weight gain and feed consumption and slightly increased ROS production and malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations in skeletal muscle. The chickens exposed to 34°C and supplemented with ERW showed significantly improved growth performance and lower ROS production and MDA contents in tissues than control broilers exposed to 34°C. Following heat exposure, CNSL chickens performed better with respect to weight gain and feed consumption, but still showed elevated ROS production and skeletal muscle oxidative damage. GSE chickens did not exhibit improved performance or reduced skeletal muscle oxidative damage. 4. In conclusion, this study suggests that ERW could partially inhibit ROS-induced oxidative damage to skeletal muscle and improve growth performance in broiler chickens under medium-term chronic heat treatment.

  15. Assessing plasma lipid levels, body weight, and hepatic and renal toxicity following chronic oral administration of a water soluble phytostanol compound, FM-VP4, to gerbils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasan, K M; Najafi, S; Wong, J; Kwong, M; Pritchard, P H

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to determine the effect of a FM-VP4 when incorporated into the diet or drinking water on plasma lipids, body weight, and hepatic and renal function following chronic oral administration to gerbils. Gerbils were administered water and food daily containing either no FM-VP4 (controls; n=6), 2% or 4% FM-VP4 incorporated into the gerbil diet (n=6 each treatment group) or 2% or 4% FM-VP4 dissolved in the drinking water (n=6 each treatment group). Body weight and food and water intake were monitored weekly. Following 8 weeks of this regiment blood was obtained via a cardiac puncture and all animals were sacrificed humanely. Plasma obtained from this blood was analyzed for total cholesterol, total triglyceride and high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol levels by standard enzymatic and precipitation techniques. Low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol levels were determined by the Friedewald equation. The plasma was also analyzed for changes in hepatic enzyme (aspartate aminotransferase [AST] and alanine aminotransferase [ALT]) and plasma creatinine (renal function) concentrations. 2% and 4% FM-VP4 administration incorporated both into the diet and in the drinking water resulted in a significant decrease in total plasma cholesterol and LDL cholesterol concentration compared to controls. Animals administered 4% FM-VP4 in either their diet or drinking water had significantly lower body weight following the 8 weeks of treatment compared to the other groups. Significant differences in daily water intake was observed in all treatment groups with the exception of the 2% FM-VP4 in diet group compared to controls. Significant differences in daily food intake were observed in gerbils administered 2% FM-VP4 in the drinking water and 4% FM-VP4 in the diet and drinking water groups compared to controls. A significant decrease in total plasma triglyceride concentration was observed in gerbils administered 4% FM-VP4 in their drinking water compared

  16. Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML)

    Science.gov (United States)

    CML; Chronic myeloid leukemia; Chronic granulocytic leukemia; Leukemia - chronic granulocytic ... Chronic myelogenous leukemia is grouped into phases: Chronic Accelerated Blast crisis The chronic phase can last for ...

  17. CHRONIC EXPOSURE TO DIBROMOACETIC ACID, A WATER DISINFECTION BY-PRODUCT, DIMINISHES PRIMORDIAL FOLLICLES IN THE RABBIT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exposure to dibromoacetic acid (DBA), a commonly occurring water disinfection by-product, has detrimental effects on spermatogenesis and fertility in rats and rabbits. Despite indications of important reproductive consequences of DBA exposure in males, reproductive sequelae follo...

  18. Double labelling of tissue combining tritiated thymidine autoradiography with immunodetection of bromodeoxyuridine: the autoradiographic significance of inhibition of thymidine incorporation into DNA by bromodeoxyuridine given simultaneously

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hume, W.J.; Thompson, J. (Leeds Univ. (UK). School of Dentistry)

    1989-09-01

    The authors describe a method for combining tritiated thymidine (({sup 3}H)TdR) autoradiography with immunoperoxidase detection of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) in paraffin-embedded tissues, which was used to examine, in mouse tongue epithelium, the inhibition of incorporation into DNA of ({sup 3}H)TdR by simultaneous injection of BrdU in the doses that both compounds are likely to be used in cell proliferation studies. The inhibition of uptake into DNA of ({sup 3}H)TdR from 0.23 to 1.85 MBq (6.25 to 50 {mu}Ci) per animal, produced by a simultaneous injection of 2.5 mg BrdU shows a linear, dose-dependent relationship. Provided the injected dose (in {mu}Ci per animal) multiplied by the autoradiographic exposure time (in days) is greater than a value of 700, then all cells that are labelled after incorporation of ({sup 3}H)TdR alone are also labelled after simultaneous double labelling, despite the latter producing a lower average grain count. (author).

  19. Use of tritiated thymidine as a marker to compare the effects of matrix proteins on adult human vascular endothelial cell attachment: implications for seeding of vascular prostheses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasson, J.E.; Wiebe, D.H.; Sharefkin, J.B.; D' Amore, P.A.; Abbott, W.M.

    1986-11-01

    We have developed a technique to measure attachment of adult human vascular endothelial cells to test surfaces with tritiated thymidine used as a marker. With this technique, we measured attachment of adult human vascular endothelial cells to a series of extracellular matrix proteins, including fibronectin-coated (10 micrograms/cm/sup 2/), laminin-coated (10 micrograms/cm/sup 2/), and collagen-coated (1% gelatin) surfaces because of the role of these proteins in promoting cell attachment and growth. For a typical experiment, in the presence of serum, initial attachment (at 1 hour) was greatest on fibronectin-coated (63%) and gelatin-coated (60%) tissue culture plastic (polystyrene) and was least on laminin-coated (28%) or untreated polystyrene (18%). The data suggest that fibronectin, either alone, or with a more complex combination of extracellular components may need to be present on prosthetic surfaces to produce maximal cell attachment and subsequent growth to confluence in vivo. The described method of measuring attachment is independent of surface properties, ensures complete recovery of cells, and will allow systematic exploration of those properties that best support human endothelial cell attachment to vascular prosthetic surfaces.

  20. Glyphosate, Hard Water and Nephrotoxic Metals: Are They the Culprits Behind the Epidemic of Chronic Kidney Disease of Unknown Etiology in Sri Lanka?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Channa Jayasumana

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The current chronic kidney disease epidemic, the major health issue in the rice paddy farming areas in Sri Lanka has been the subject of many scientific and political debates over the last decade. Although there is no agreement among scientists about the etiology of the disease, a majority of them has concluded that this is a toxic nephropathy. None of the hypotheses put forward so far could explain coherently the totality of clinical, biochemical, histopathological findings, and the unique geographical distribution of the disease and its appearance in the mid-1990s. A strong association between the consumption of hard water and the occurrence of this special kidney disease has been observed, but the relationship has not been explained consistently. Here, we have hypothesized the association of using glyphosate, the most widely used herbicide in the disease endemic area and its unique metal chelating properties. The possible role played by glyphosate-metal complexes in this epidemic has not been given any serious consideration by investigators for the last two decades. Furthermore, it may explain similar kidney disease epidemics observed in Andra Pradesh (India and Central America. Although glyphosate alone does not cause an epidemic of chronic kidney disease, it seems to have acquired the ability to destroy the renal tissues of thousands of farmers when it forms complexes with a localized geo environmental factor (hardness and nephrotoxic metals.

  1. Glyphosate, hard water and nephrotoxic metals: are they the culprits behind the epidemic of chronic kidney disease of unknown etiology in Sri Lanka?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasumana, Channa; Gunatilake, Sarath; Senanayake, Priyantha

    2014-02-20

    The current chronic kidney disease epidemic, the major health issue in the rice paddy farming areas in Sri Lanka has been the subject of many scientific and political debates over the last decade. Although there is no agreement among scientists about the etiology of the disease, a majority of them has concluded that this is a toxic nephropathy. None of the hypotheses put forward so far could explain coherently the totality of clinical, biochemical, histopathological findings, and the unique geographical distribution of the disease and its appearance in the mid-1990s. A strong association between the consumption of hard water and the occurrence of this special kidney disease has been observed, but the relationship has not been explained consistently. Here, we have hypothesized the association of using glyphosate, the most widely used herbicide in the disease endemic area and its unique metal chelating properties. The possible role played by glyphosate-metal complexes in this epidemic has not been given any serious consideration by investigators for the last two decades. Furthermore, it may explain similar kidney disease epidemics observed in Andra Pradesh (India) and Central America. Although glyphosate alone does not cause an epidemic of chronic kidney disease, it seems to have acquired the ability to destroy the renal tissues of thousands of farmers when it forms complexes with a localized geo environmental factor (hardness) and nephrotoxic metals.

  2. [Radiation situation prognosis for deep space: reactions of water and living systems to chronic low-dose ionizing irradiation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ushakov, I B; Tsetlin, V V; Moisa, S S

    2013-01-01

    The authors review the findings of researches into the effects of low-dose ionizing irradiation on diverse biological objects (embryonic Japanese quails, Aspergillus niger, Spirostomum ambiguum Ehrbg., mesenchymal stem cells from mouse marrow, dry higher plants seeds, blood lymphocytes from pilots and cosmonauts). Model experiments with chronic exposure to ionizing radiation doses comparable with the measurements inside orbital vehicles and estimations for trips through the interplanetary space resulted in morphological disorders (embryonic Japanese quails, Aspergillus niger), radiation hormesis (Aspergillus niger, MSCs from mouse marrow), increase in the seed germination rate, inhibition of Spirostomum spontaneous activity, DNA damages, chromosomal aberrations, and increase of the blood lymphocytes reactivity to additional radiation loading. These facts give grounds to assume that the crucial factor in the radiation outcomes is changes in liquid medium. In other words, during extended orbiting within the magnetosphere region and interplanetary missions ionizing radiation affects primarily liquids of organism and, secondarily, its morphofunctional structures.

  3. Effect of sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) on in vitro percutaneous penetration of water, hydrocortisone and nickel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frankild, S; Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Nielsen, Gunnar

    1995-01-01

    as membrane in static in vitro penetration cells. Simultaneous application of SLS together with 1 of the tracer compounds showed, after 48 h, a significant dose-effect relationship between SLS concentration (0.25%, 2% and 10%) and penetration of tritiated water or nickel (p ... or hydrocortisone. Pretreatment of the skin with SLS for 2 h using 3 concentrations (0.25%, 4% and 10%) showed, after 48 h, a significant dose-effect relationship between SLS treatment and penetration of tritiated water or nickel (p .../damaging effect on the skin barrier. It should be kept in mind that the model uses a dead skin membrane without the barrier repair mechanisms of live skin....

  4. CHRONIC EXPOSURE TO DIBROMOACETIC ACID, A WATER DISINFECTION BY-PRODUCT, DIMINISHES PRIMORDIAL FOLLICLE POPULATIONS IN THE RABBIT

    Science.gov (United States)

    To determine if dibromoacetic acid (DBA) affects folliculogenesis, four groups of female Dutch-belted rabbits were exposed daily to 0, 1, 5, or 50 mg DBA/kg body wt. in drinking water beginning in utero from gestation day 15 throughout life. Functionality of the endocrine axis w...

  5. Development of a chronic noncancer oral reference dose and drinking water screening level for sulfolane using benchmark dose modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Chad M; Gaylor, David W; Tachovsky, J Andrew; Perry, Camarie; Carakostas, Michael C; Haws, Laurie C

    2013-12-01

    Sulfolane is a widely used industrial solvent that is often used for gas treatment (sour gas sweetening; hydrogen sulfide removal from shale and coal processes, etc.), and in the manufacture of polymers and electronics, and may be found in pharmaceuticals as a residual solvent used in the manufacturing processes. Sulfolane is considered a high production volume chemical with worldwide production around 18 000-36 000 tons per year. Given that sulfolane has been detected as a contaminant in groundwater, an important potential route of exposure is tap water ingestion. Because there are currently no federal drinking water standards for sulfolane in the USA, we developed a noncancer oral reference dose (RfD) based on benchmark dose modeling, as well as a tap water screening value that is protective of ingestion. Review of the available literature suggests that sulfolane is not likely to be mutagenic, clastogenic or carcinogenic, or pose reproductive or developmental health risks except perhaps at very high exposure concentrations. RfD values derived using benchmark dose modeling were 0.01-0.04 mg kg(-1) per day, although modeling of developmental endpoints resulted in higher values, approximately 0.4 mg kg(-1) per day. The lowest, most conservative, RfD of 0.01 mg kg(-1) per day was based on reduced white blood cell counts in female rats. This RfD was used to develop a tap water screening level that is protective of ingestion, viz. 365 µg l(-1). It is anticipated that these values, along with the hazard identification and dose-response modeling described herein, should be informative for risk assessors and regulators interested in setting health-protective drinking water guideline values for sulfolane.

  6. Biogeochemical response of organic-rich freshwater marshes in the Louisiana delta plain to chronic river water influx

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swarzenski, C.M.; Doyle, T.W.; Fry, B.; Hargis, T.G.

    2008-01-01

    To help evaluate effects of Mississippi River inputs to sustainability of coastal Louisiana ecosystems, we compared porewater and substrate quality of organic-rich Panicum hemitomon freshwater marshes inundated by river water annually for more than 30 years (Penchant basin, PB) or not during the same time (Barataria basin, BB). In the marshes receiving river water the soil environment was more reduced, the organic substrate was more decomposed and accumulated more sulfur. The porewater dissolved ammonium and orthophosphate concentrations were an order of magnitude higher and sulfide and alkalinity concentrations were more than twice as high in PB compared with BB marshes. The pH was higher and dissolved iron concentrations were more than an order of magnitude lower in PB marshes than in BB marshes. The influx of nutrient-rich river water did not enhance end-of-year above-ground standing biomass or vertical accretion rates of the shallow substrate. The differences in porewater chemistry and substrate quality are reasonably linked to the long-term influx of river water through biogeochemical processes and transformations involving alkalinity, nitrate and sulfate. The key factor is the continual replenishment of alkalinity, nitrate and sulfate via overland flow during high river stage each year for several weeks to more than 6 months. This leads to a reducing soil environment, pooling of the phytotoxin sulfide and inorganic nutrients in porewater, and internally generated alkalinity. Organic matter decomposition is enhanced under these conditions and root mats degraded. The more decomposed root mat makes these marshes more susceptible to erosion during infrequent high-energy events (for example hurricanes) and regular low-energy events, such as tides and the passage of weather fronts. Our findings were unexpected and, if generally applicable, suggest that river diversions may not be the beneficial mitigating agent of wetland restoration and conservation that they are

  7. Validation of the doubly-labeled water (H/sup 3/H/sup 18/O) method for measuring water flux and energy metabolism in tenebrionid beetles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, P.D.

    1981-01-01

    Doubly-labeled water (H/sup 3/H/sup 18/O) has been used to determine water flux and energy metabolism in a variety of vertebrates. This study examines the applicability of this technique to arthropods. The theory of the technique depends upon the assumption that doubly-labeled water introduced into the animal's body water equilibrates with water and carbon dioxide by the action of carbonic anhydrase. Tritium (/sup 3/H) is lost from the animal only with water while oxygen-18 is lost with both water and carbon dioxide. The difference bwtween the rates of loss of the two isotopes is proportional to CO/sub 2/ loss rate. Validation of the use of tritiated water for measuring water flux was accomplished by comparing gravimetric measurements of water gain with flux rates determined by loss of tritiated water. At room humidity, an overestimate for influx calculated from labeled water calculations was found, averaging 12 mg H/sub 2/O (g.d)/sup -1/. Comparison of CO/sub 2/ loss rate determined isotopically with rates of CO/sub 2/ loss determined by standard metabolic rates also yielded overestimates for the isotopic technique, overestimates ranging between 20 and 30%. The relevance of this for studies using labeled water for studying water fluxes and free metabolism of free-ranging arthropods is discussed.

  8. Chronic cholecystitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cholecystitis - chronic ... Most of the time, chronic cholecystitis is caused by repeated attacks of acute (sudden) cholecystitis. Most of these attacks are caused by gallstones in the gallbladder. These ...

  9. Chronic Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pain. Psychotherapy, relaxation and medication therapies, biofeedback, and behavior modification may also be employed to treat chronic pain. × ... pain. Psychotherapy, relaxation and medication therapies, biofeedback, and behavior modification may also be employed to treat chronic pain. ...

  10. Chronic Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a problem you need to take care of. Chronic pain is different. The pain signals go on ... there is no clear cause. Problems that cause chronic pain include Headache Low back strain Cancer Arthritis ...

  11. Chronic prostatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Le, Brian; Schaeffer, Anthony J.

    2011-01-01

    Chronic prostatitis can cause pain and urinary symptoms, and usually occurs without positive bacterial cultures from prostatic secretions (known as chronic abacterial prostatitis or chronic pelvic pain syndrome [CP/CPPS]). Bacterial infection can result from urinary tract instrumentation, but the cause and natural history of CP/CPPS are unknown.

  12. Chronic prostatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Erickson, Bradley A.; Schaeffer, Anthony J.; Le, Brian

    2008-01-01

    Chronic prostatitis can cause pain and urinary symptoms, and usually occurs without positive bacterial cultures from prostatic secretions (known as chronic abacterial prostatitis or chronic pelvic pain syndrome, CP/CPPS). Bacterial infection can result from urinary tract instrumentation, but the cause and natural history of CP/CPPS are unknown.

  13. Associations of arsenic metabolites, methylation capacity, and skin lesions caused by chronic exposure to high arsenic in tube well water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Linsheng; Chai, Yuanqing; Yu, Jiangping; Wei, Binggan; Xia, Yajuan; Wu, Kegong; Gao, Jianwei; Guo, Zhiwei; Cui, Na

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the interaction between skin lesion status and arsenic methylation profiles, the concentrations and proportions of arsenic metabolites in urine and arsenic methylation capacities of study subjects were determined. The results showed that the mean urinary concentrations of iAs (inorganic arsenic), MMA (monomethylarsonic acid), DMA (dimethylarsinic acid), and TAs (total arsenic) were 75.65, 68.78, 265.81, and 410.24 μg/L, respectively, in the skin lesions subjects. The highest values were observed in the multiple skin lesions subjects. Higher %iAs and %MMA, and lower %DMA, PMI (primary methylation index), and SMI (secondary methylation index) were found in skin lesions subjects. The multiple skin lesions subjects had highest %iAs and %MMA, and lowest %DMA, PMI, and SMI. The prevalence of skin lesions strongly, positively correlated with arsenic levels in drinking water. The elder persons also had higher frequency of skin lesions compared with younger persons. It can be concluded that arsenic levels in drinking water significantly affected the prevalence of skin lesions. Male subjects usually had higher proportions of skin lesions when compared with female subjects. Moreover, it may be concluded that MMA was significantly related to single skin lesion, whereas DMA and iAs were associated with multiple skin lesions. It seemed that MMA had greater toxicity to hyperkeratosis, whereas DMA and iAs had higher toxicity to depigmentation or pigmentation. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 32: 28-36, 2017.

  14. General Tritium Labelling of Gentamicin C by catalytic hydrogen exchange Reaction with Tritiated Water; Marcado general con tritio de la Gentamicina C por intercambio catalitico con agua triatiada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suarez, C.; Diaz, D.; Paz, D.

    1991-07-01

    Gentamicin C was labelled with tritium by means of a PtO2 catalyzed hydrogen exchange reaction. Under the conditions of the exchange (100 mg of gentamicin, basic form, 0,3 ml H2O-3H, and 50 mg of prereduced PtO2) the radiochemical yield was 0,24, 0,38 and 0,48 % at 120 degree celsius, for 8, 16 and 24 hours respectively. Chemical yield for purified gentamicin was about 60 %. Purification was accomplished with a cellulose column eluted with the lower phase of chloroform-methanol 17 % ammonium hydroxide (2:1:1, v/v) . Chemical purity, determined by HPLC, was 96,5 % and radiochemical one was 95. Main exchange degradation products show biological activity. (Author) 12 refs.

  15. Trends in chronic marine oil pollution in Danish waters assessed using 22 years of beached bird surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Jørn Lennart; Durinck, Jan; Skov, Henrik

    2007-09-01

    Beached bird surveys provide an important tool for monitoring the level of oil pollution at sea, which is the most significant observable cause of death for a large number of waterbird species and pose a serious threat to wintering seabird populations. Linear regression analyses of oil rates from the Danish 22 year dataset show a decline in the oil pollution level in offshore areas of the eastern North Sea and Skagerrak and in near-shore parts of the Kattegat; but a worsening in the offshore areas of the Kattegat. These results raise concern for species such as common scoter, velvet scoter, eider and razorbill, for which the Kattegat serves as a globally important wintering area. It is recommended that surveillance for oil spills is intensified in inner Danish waters, and that action is taken to make responses towards offenders faster, and penalties for oil seepage higher.

  16. Human health risk assessment with spatial analysis: Study of a population chronically exposed to arsenic through drinking water from Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navoni, J.A., E-mail: jnavoni@ffyb.uba.ar [Cátedra de Toxicología y Química Legal, Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Junín 956, C1113AAD Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires (Argentina); De Pietri, D., E-mail: depietrid@hotmail.com [Dirección Nacional de Determinantes de la Salud e Investigación, Ministerio de Salud de la Nación, Av. 9 de Julio 1925, C1073ABA Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Olmos, V. [Cátedra de Toxicología y Química Legal, Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Junín 956, C1113AAD Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Gimenez, C. [Cátedra Química Analítica I, Universidad Nacional del Chaco Austral. Cmte., Fernández 755 (3700), Pres. Roque Sáenz Peña, Chaco (Argentina); Bovi Mitre, G. [Grupo INQA (Investigación Química Aplicada) Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias, Universidad Nacional de Jujuy, Alberdi 47, piso 1, San Salvador de Jujuy, Jujuy CP 4600 (Argentina); and others

    2014-11-15

    Arsenic (As) is a ubiquitous element widely distributed in the environment. This metalloid has proven carcinogenic action in man. The aim of this work was to assess the health risk related to As exposure through drinking water in an Argentinean population, applying spatial analytical techniques in addition to conventional approaches. The study involved 650 inhabitants from Chaco and Santiago del Estero provinces. Arsenic in drinking water (Asw) and urine (UAs) was measured by hydride generation atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Average daily dose (ADD), hazard quotient (HQ), and carcinogenic risk (CR) were estimated, geo-referenced and integrated with demographical data by a health composite index (HI) applying geographic information system (GIS) analysis. Asw covered a wide range of concentration: from non-detectable (ND) to 2000 μg/L. More than 90% of the population was exposed to As, with UAs levels above the intervention level of 100 μg/g creatinine. GIS analysis described an expected level of exposure lower than the observed, indicating possible additional source/s of exposure to inorganic arsenic. In 68% of the locations, the population had a HQ greater than 1, and the CR ranged between 5·10{sup −5} and 2,1·10{sup −2}. An environmental exposure area through ADD geo-referencing defined a baseline scenario for space-time risk assessment. The time of residence, the demographic density and the potential health considered outcomes helped characterize the health risk in the region. The geospatial analysis contributed to delimitate and analyze the change tendencies of risk in the region, broadening the scopes of the results for a decision-making process. - Highlights: • Risk assessment (RA) to As using deterministic procedures • Integration of RA through deterministic procedures with GIS tools • Analysis of the time-space behavior of the risk area • Analysis of As effect outcomes through HI • Broaden the scopes of deterministic approaches.

  17. Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leopold, Luna Bergere; Baldwin, Helene L.

    1962-01-01

    What do you use water for?If someone asked you this question you would probably think right away of water for drinking. Then you would think of water for bathing, brushing teeth, flushing the toilet. Your list would get longer as you thought of water for cooking, washing the dishes, running the garbage grinder. Water for lawn watering, for play pools, for swimming pools, for washing the car and the dog. Water for washing machines and for air conditioning. You can hardly do without water for fun and pleasure—water for swimming, boating, fishing, water-skiing, and skin diving. In school or the public library, you need water to wash your hands, or to have a drink. If your home or school bursts into flames, quantities of water are needed to put it out.In fact, life to Americans is unthinkable without large supplies of fresh, clean water. If you give the matter a little thought, you will realize that people in many countries, even in our own, may suffer from disease and dirt simply because their homes are not equipped with running water. Imagine your own town if for some reason - an explosion, perhaps - water service were cut off for a week or several weeks. You would have to drive or walk to a neighboring town and bring water back in pails. Certainly if people had to carry water themselves they might not be inclined to bathe very often; washing clothes would be a real chore.Nothing can live without water. The earth is covered by water over three-fourths of its surface - water as a liquid in rivers, lakes and oceans, and water as ice and snow on the tops of high mountains and in the polar regions. Only one-quarter of our bodies is bone and muscle; the other three-fourths is made of water. We need water to live, and so do plants and animals. People and animals can live a long time without food, but without water they die in a few days. Without water, everything would die, and the world would turn into a huge desert.

  18. Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Lead Poisoning Prevention Training Center (HHLPPTC) Training Tracks Water Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir For information about lead in water in Flint, MI, please visit http://www.phe. ...

  19. Preparation of a tritiated ginkgolide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strømgaard, Kristian; Suehiro, Makiko; Nakanishi, Koji

    2004-01-01

    Ginkgolide B, a constituent of the tree Ginkgo biloba, was radiolabeled with the beta-emitter tritium ([(3)H]) in two steps from ginkgolide C. First, a triflate precursor was prepared utilizing the selective reactivity of 7-OH in ginkgolide C; the triflate was then reduced with sodium borotritide...

  20. [Chronicity, chronicization, systematization of delusions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trapet, P; Fernandez, C; Galtier, M C; Gisselmann, A

    1984-05-01

    Chronicity in psychopathology is indicative of a term, a decay. Chronicization only leads the way to this term. Here, chronicization is taken literally as an inscription in the time course of delusions. The mechanism of systematization seems to be a central mark in the approach to chronic delusions. It is not an alienation or an irreversible closing but an attempted accommodation with reality in the life of psychotic subjects, irrespective of the delusional structure. The role of therapy and drug treatment as a follow-up may in that case assume another meaning.

  1. Chronic pancreatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Kocher, Hemant M.; Froeling, Fieke EM

    2008-01-01

    Chronic pancreatitis is characterised by long-standing inflammation of the pancreas owing to a wide variety of causes, including recurrent acute attacks of pancreatitis. Chronic pancreatitis affects 3–9 people in 100,000; 70% of cases are alcohol-induced.

  2. Chronic pancreatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Kocher, Hemant M.; Kadaba, Raghu

    2011-01-01

    Chronic pancreatitis is characterised by long-standing inflammation of the pancreas due to a wide variety of causes, including recurrent acute attacks of pancreatitis. Chronic pancreatitis affects between 3 and 9 people in 100,000; 70% of cases are alcohol-induced.

  3. Chronic benzylamine administration in the drinking water improves glucose tolerance, reduces body weight gain and circulating cholesterol in high-fat diet-fed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iffiú-Soltész, Zsuzsa; Wanecq, Estelle; Lomba, Almudena; Portillo, Maria P; Pellati, Federica; Szöko, Eva; Bour, Sandy; Woodley, John; Milagro, Fermin I; Alfredo Martinez, J; Valet, Philippe; Carpéné, Christian

    2010-04-01

    Benzylamine is found in Moringa oleifera, a plant used to treat diabetes in traditional medicine. In mammals, benzylamine is metabolized by semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase (SSAO) to benzaldehyde and hydrogen peroxide. This latter product has insulin-mimicking action, and is involved in the effects of benzylamine on human adipocytes: stimulation of glucose transport and inhibition of lipolysis. This study examined whether chronic, oral administration of benzylamine could improve glucose tolerance and the circulating lipid profile without increasing oxidative stress in overweight and pre-diabetic mice. The benzylamine diffusion across the intestine was verified using everted gut sacs. Then, glucose handling and metabolic markers were measured in mice rendered insulin-resistant when fed a high-fat diet (HFD) and receiving or not benzylamine in their drinking water (3600micromol/(kgday)) for 17 weeks. HFD-benzylamine mice showed lower body weight gain, fasting blood glucose, total plasma cholesterol and hyperglycaemic response to glucose load when compared to HFD control. In adipocytes, insulin-induced activation of glucose transport and inhibition of lipolysis remained unchanged. In aorta, benzylamine treatment partially restored the nitrite levels that were reduced by HFD. In liver, lipid peroxidation markers were reduced. Resistin and uric acid, surrogate plasma markers of metabolic syndrome, were decreased. In spite of the putative deleterious nature of the hydrogen peroxide generated during amine oxidation, and in agreement with its in vitro insulin-like actions found on adipocytes, the SSAO-substrate benzylamine could be considered as a potential oral agent to treat metabolic syndrome.

  4. Ear infection - chronic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middle ear infection - chronic; Otitis media - chronic; Chronic otitis media; Chronic ear infection ... up. When this happens, infection can occur. A chronic ear infection develops when fluid or an infection ...

  5. [Chronic hepatitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa Barrios, R

    1995-01-01

    Medical literature about chronic hepatitis is reviewed. This unresolving disease caused by viruses, drugs or unknown factors may progress to in cirrhosis and hepatocarcinoma. A classification based on liver biopsy histology into chronic persistent and chronic active types has been largely abandoned and emphasis is placed on recognizing the etiology of the various types. One is associated with continuing hepatitis B virus infection; another is related to chronic hepatitis C virus infection and the third is termed autoinmune, because of the association with positive serum autoantibodies. A fourth type with similar clinical functional and morphologic features is found with some drug reactions. Long term corticoesteroid therapy is usually successful in autoinmune type. Associations between antibodies to liver-kidney microsomes and the hepatitis C virus can cause diagnostic difficulties. Antiviral treatment of chronic hepatitis B and C with interpheron alfa is employed, controlling symptoms and abnormal biochemistry and the progression to cirrhosis and liver cancer in 30 to 40% patients. Alternative therapies or combinations with interpheron are being evaluated waiting for final results.

  6. Chronic arsenic poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Alan H

    2002-03-10

    Symptomatic arsenic poisoning is not often seen in occupational exposure settings. Attempted homicide and deliberate long-term poisoning have resulted in chronic toxicity. Skin pigmentation changes, palmar and plantar hyperkeratoses, gastrointestinal symptoms, anemia, and liver disease are common. Noncirrhotic portal hypertension with bleeding esophageal varices, splenomegaly, and hypersplenism may occur. A metallic taste, gastrointestinal disturbances, and Mee's lines may be seen. Bone marrow depression is common. 'Blackfoot disease' has been associated with arsenic-contaminated drinking water in Taiwan; Raynaud's phenomenon and acrocyanosis also may occur. Large numbers of persons in areas of India, Pakistan, and several other countries have been chronically poisoned from naturally occurring arsenic in ground water. Toxic delirium and encephalopathy can be present. CCA-treated wood (chromated copper arsenate) is not a health risk unless burned in fireplaces or woodstoves. Peripheral neuropathy may also occur. Workplace exposure or chronic ingestion of arsenic-contaminated water or arsenical medications is associated with development of skin, lung, and other cancers. Treatment may incklude the use of chelating agents such as dimercaprol (BAL), dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA), and dimercaptopanesulfonic acid (DMPS).

  7. PENGARUH KONSUMSI MINUMAN BEROKSIGEN TERHADAP INFLAMASI DAN KAPASITAS ANTIOKSIDAN PENDERITA PENYAKIT-PARU-OBSTRUKTIF-KRONIK (PPOK [Influence of Oxygenated Water Consumption in Chronic-Obstructive-Pulmonary-Disease (COPD Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fransiska Rungkat Zakaria

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD is one of the leading cause of death in the world that represents an important public health problem. Oxygenated water is water added with high concentration of oxygen such that the oxygen concentration is higher than normal water. The objective of this study was to assess the influence of oxygenated water consumption on the alteration of proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL1-β, and IL6 and antioxidant capacity of COPD patients. Sixteen COPD patients were allowed to drink 385 mL oxygenated water two times a day for 21 days. The alteration of proinflammatory cytokines and antioxidant capacity are measured by comparing plasma concentration before and after intervention. The results suggest that oxygenated water consumption significantly reduce proinflammatory cytokines plasma (TNF-α, IL1-β, and IL6 at 5% significance level with 81.25% of respondents having lower TNF-α, 75% of respondents with lower IL-1β, and 62.25% of respondents having lower the IL-6 in plasma concentration after 21 days intervention. There were 43.75% of respondents with decreased antioxidant capacity concentration. However, it was not significant at the 5% level significance. Decrease in antioxidant capacity was probably a resulted from poordiet and drugs consumption during the intervention period.

  8. Chronic stress impairs performance, energy metabolism and welfare indicators in European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax): The combined effects of fish crowding and water quality deterioration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santos, G.A.; Schrama, J.W.; Mamauag, R.E.P.; Rombout, J.H.W.M.; Verreth, J.A.J.

    2010-01-01

    Rearing fish at high densities may act as a chronic stressor leading to a reduced performance. We hypothesise that this is due to an increase in energy requirements for maintenance and altered energy partitioning. To test this hypothesis, European seabass (mean initial weight 82.1 g) were stocked at

  9. Chronic gastritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipponen, Pentti; Maaroos, Heidi-Ingrid

    2015-06-01

    Prevalence of chronic gastritis has markedly declined in developed populations during the past decades. However, chronic gastritis is still one of the most common serious pandemic infections with such severe killing sequelae as peptic ulcer or gastric cancer. Globally, on average, even more than half of people may have a chronic gastritis at present. Helicobacter pylori infection in childhood is the main cause of chronic gastritis, which microbial origin is the key for the understanding of the bizarre epidemiology and course of the disease. A life-long and aggressive inflammation in gastritis results in destruction (atrophic gastritis) of stomach mucosa with time (years and decades). The progressive worsening of atrophic gastritis results subsequently in dysfunctions of stomach mucosa. Atrophic gastritis will finally end up in a permanently acid-free stomach in the most extreme cases. Severe atrophic gastritis and acid-free stomach are the highest independent risk conditions for gastric cancer known so far. In addition to the risks of malignancy and peptic ulcer, acid-free stomach and severe forms of atrophic gastritis may associate with failures in absorption of essential vitamins, like vitamin B12, micronutrients (like iron, calcium, magnesium and zinc), diet and medicines.

  10. Chronic Bronchitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... breathing. You may also have other tests. Chronic bronchitis is a long-term condition that keeps coming back or never goes away completely. If you smoke, it is important to quit. Treatment can help with your symptoms. It often includes ...

  11. Chronic Pancreatitis in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Information > Children/Pediatric > Chronic Pancreatitis in Children test Chronic Pancreatitis in Children What symptoms would my child ... pancreatitis will develop diabetes in adolescence. Who gets chronic pancreatitis? Those at risk for chronic pancreatitis are ...

  12. Chronic Beryllium Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Science Education & Training Home Conditions Chronic Beryllium Disease Chronic Beryllium Disease Make an Appointment Find a Doctor ... MD, MSPH, FCCP (February 01, 2016) What is chronic beryllium disease (CBD)? Chronic beryllium disease (CBD) is ...

  13. Chronic motor tic disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronic vocal tic disorder; Tic - chronic motor tic disorder ... Chronic motor tic disorder is more common than Tourette syndrome . Chronic tics may be forms of Tourette syndrome. Tics usually start ...

  14. Chronic Pelvic Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Chronic Pelvic Pain Home For Patients Search FAQs Chronic Pelvic Pain ... Pelvic Pain FAQ099, August 2011 PDF Format Chronic Pelvic Pain Gynecologic Problems What is chronic pelvic pain? What ...

  15. Chronic thyroiditis (Hashimoto disease)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto thyroiditis; Chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis; Autoimmune thyroiditis; Chronic autoimmune thyroiditis; Lymphadenoid goiter - Hashimoto; Hypothyroidism - Hashimoto; Type 2 polyglandular autoimmune ...

  16. Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyneuropathy - chronic inflammatory; CIDP; Chronic inflammatory polyneuropathy; Guillain-Barré - CIDP ... Health care providers also consider CIDP as the chronic form of Guillain-Barré syndrome. The specific triggers ...

  17. Dealing with chronic cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000933.htm Dealing with chronic cancer To use the sharing features on this ... be controlled for a period of time. Controlling Chronic Cancer When you have a chronic cancer, the ...

  18. Volume adaptation in chronic liver disease: on the static and dynamic location of water, salt, protein and red cells in cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl

    2004-01-01

    . The pattern and temporal relations of plasma and blood volume expansion are important for pathophysiological, diagnostic and therapeutic purposes and depend highly on the type of load (water, saline, oncotic material, red blood cells). In some aspects patients with cirrhosis respond differently from healthy...

  19. Chronic mucus hypersecretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harmsen, L; Thomsen, S F; Sylvan Ingebrigtsen, Truls;

    2010-01-01

    Chronic mucus hypersecretion (CMH) is a common condition in patients with chronic respiratory diseases. Little is known about the incidence, prevalence and determinants of CMH in younger individuals....

  20. Chronic urticaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Sachdeva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic urticaria (CU is a disturbing allergic condition of the skin. Although frequently benign, it may sometimes be a red flag sign of a serious internal disease. A multitude of etiologies have been implicated in the causation of CU, including physical, infective, vasculitic, psychological and idiopathic. An autoimmune basis of most of the ′idiopathic′ forms is now hypothesized. Histamine released from mast cells is the major effector in pathogenesis and it is clinically characterized by wheals that have a tendency to recur. Laboratory investigations aimed at a specific etiology are not always conclusive, though may be suggestive of an underlying condition. A clinical search for associated systemic disease is strongly advocated under appropriate circumstances. The mainstay of treatment remains H1 antihistaminics. These may be combined with complementary pharmacopeia in the form of H2 blockers, doxepin, nifedipine and leukotriene inhibitors. More radical therapy in the form of immunoglobulins, plasmapheresis and cyclophosphamide may be required for recalcitrant cases. Autologous transfusion and alternative remedies like acupuncture have prospects for future. A stepwise management results in favorable outcomes. An update on CU based on our experience with patients at a tertiary care centre is presented.

  1. Monitoring acute and chronic water column toxicity in the Northern Sacramento-San Joaquin Estuary, California, USA, using the euryhaline amphipod, Hyalella azteca: 2006 to 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Inge; Deanovic, Linda A; Markiewicz, Dan; Khamphanh, Manisay; Reece, Charles K; Stillway, Marie; Reece, Charissa

    2010-10-01

    After the significant population decline of several pelagic fish species in the Northern Sacramento-San Joaquin (SSJ) Estuary (CA, USA) in 2002, a study was performed to monitor water column toxicity using the amphipod Hyalella azteca. From January 1, 2006 to December 31, 2007, water samples were collected biweekly from 15 to 16 sites located in large delta channels and main-stem rivers, selected based on prevalent distribution patterns of fish species of concern. Ten-day laboratory tests with H. azteca survival and relative growth as toxicity endpoints were conducted. The enzyme inhibitor piperonyl butoxide ([PBO], 25 µg/L) was added to synergize or antagonize pyrethroid or organophosphate (OP) insecticide toxicity, respectively. Significant amphipod mortality was observed in 5.6% of ambient samples. Addition of PBO significantly changed survival or growth in 1.1% and 10.1% of ambient samples, respectively. Sites in the Lower Sacramento River had the largest number of acutely toxic samples, high occurrence of PBO effects on amphipod growth (along with sites in the South Delta), and the highest total ammonia/ammonium concentrations (0.28 ± 0.15 mg/L). Ammonia/ammonium, or contaminants occurring in mixture with these, likely contributed to the observed toxicity. Pyrethroid insecticides were detected at potentially toxic concentrations. Overall, results of this study identified specific areas and contaminants of concern and showed that water in the Northern SSJ Estuary was at times acutely toxic to sensitive invertebrates.

  2. Presence of UV filters in surface water and the effects of phenylbenzimidazole sulfonic acid on rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) following a chronic toxicity test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabicova, Katerina; Fedorova, Ganna; Burkina, Viktoriia; Steinbach, Christoph; Schmidt-Posthaus, Heike; Zlabek, Vladimir; Kocour Kroupova, Hana; Grabic, Roman; Randak, Tomas

    2013-10-01

    UV filters belong to a group of compounds that are used by humans and are present in municipal waste-waters, effluents from sewage treatment plants and surface waters. Current information regarding UV filters and their effects on fish is limited. In this study, the occurrence of three commonly used UV filters - 2-phenylbenzimidazole-5-sulfonic acid (PBSA), 2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone (benzophenone-3, BP-3) and 5-benzoyl-4-hydroxy-2-methoxy-benzenesulfonic acid (benzophenone-4, BP-4) - in South Bohemia (Czech Republic) surface waters is presented. PBSA concentrations (up to 13μgL(-1)) were significantly greater than BP-3 or BP-4 concentrations (up to 620 and 390ngL(-1), respectively). On the basis of these results, PBSA was selected for use in a toxicity test utilizing the common model organism rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Fish were exposed to three concentrations of PBSA (1, 10 and 1000µgL(-1)) for 21 and 42 days. The PBSA concentrations in the fish plasma, liver and kidneys were elevated after 21 and 42 days of exposure. PBSA increased activity of certain P450 cytochromes. Exposure to PBSA also changed various biochemical parameters and enzyme activities in the fish plasma. However, no pathological changes were obvious in the liver or gonads.

  3. Comparative evaluation of the antiproliferative effect of cyclosporin A and gamma-interferon on normal and HPV-transformed keratinocytes by cell counting, MTT assay and tritiated thymidine incorporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marionnet, A V; Lizard, G; Chardonnet, Y; Schmitt, D

    1997-02-01

    We compared three techniques, the MTT tetrazolium assay, cell counting, and tritiated thymidine ([3H]TdR) incorporation assay to measure the antiproliferative effect of cyclosporin A (CsA) and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) on normal human skin keratinocyte cultures (NHK) used at the second passage and human papilomavirus type 16- and 18-transformed cell lines (EK16 and EK18) exposed continuously to the drugs for 3 days. The three techniques showed that under CsA (0.5 and 8 micrograms/ml) and IFN-gamma (5 and 160 U/ml) treatments the cells remained viable and that the growth of keratinocytes was inhibited. For IFN-gamma, the MTT colorimetric assay consistently underestimated its growth inhibitory activity as compared to cell counting or [3H]TdR incorporation, whatever the cells used. For high doses of CsA, MTT and cell counting gave similar percentages, of inhibitory activity whatever the cells; MTT underestimated this activity as compared to [3H]TdR incorporation only in NHK and EK18 cells, whereas similar results were obtained with EK16 cells. In conclusion, this investigations shows that MTT sensitivity differed with the drug and also according to the keratinocyte cultures. The MTT test is clearly not appropriate for study of IFN-gamma treatment whatever the keratinocytes used. Such discrepancies indicate that the MTT test should be done with care on cultures to measure the effects of drugs on cell growth; the growth inhibition should be carefully considered and it would be best if two different methods were used.

  4. Chronic exposure to arsenic in drinking water can lead to resistance to antimonial drugs in a mouse model of visceral leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Meghan R; Wyllie, Susan; Raab, Andrea; Feldmann, Joerg; Fairlamb, Alan H

    2013-12-03

    The Indian subcontinent is the only region where arsenic contamination of drinking water coexists with widespread resistance to antimonial drugs that are used to treat the parasitic disease visceral leishmaniasis. We have previously proposed that selection for parasite resistance within visceral leishmaniasis patients who have been exposed to trivalent arsenic results in cross-resistance to the related metalloid antimony, present in the pentavalent state as a complex in drugs such as sodium stibogluconate (Pentostam) and meglumine antimonate (Glucantime). To test this hypothesis, Leishmania donovani was serially passaged in mice exposed to arsenic in drinking water at environmentally relevant levels (10 or 100 ppm). Arsenic accumulation in organs and other tissues was proportional to the level of exposure and similar to that previously reported in human liver biopsies. After five monthly passages in mice exposed to arsenic, isolated parasites were found to be completely refractory to 500 μg · mL(-1) Pentostam compared with the control passage group (38.5 μg · mL(-1)) cultured in vitro in mouse peritoneal macrophages. Reassessment of resistant parasites following further passage for 4 mo in mice without arsenic exposure showed that resistance was stable. Treatment of infected mice with Pentostam confirmed that resistance observed in vitro also occurred in vivo. We conclude that arsenic contamination may have played a significant role in the development of Leishmania antimonial resistance in Bihar because inadequate treatment with antimonial drugs is not exclusive to India, whereas widespread antimonial resistance is.

  5. Prevalence of symptoms of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and of fluorescent antinuclear antibodies associated with chronic exposure to trichloroethylene and other chemicals in well water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kilburn, K.H.; Warshaw, R.H. (Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles (United States))

    1992-02-01

    Criteria for the recognition of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) were applied to 362 subjects exposed to trichloroethylene, trichloroethane, inorganic chromium, and other chemicals in water obtained from wells in an industrially contaminated aquifer in Tucson, Arizona. Their antinuclear autoantibodies were measured by fluorescence (FANA) in serum. Ten patients with clinical SLE and/or other collagen-vascular diseases were considered separately. Results were compared to an Arizona control group, to published series, and to laboratory controls. Frequencies of each of 10 ARA symptoms were higher in exposed subjects than in any comparison group except those with clinical SLE. The number of subjects with 4 or more symptoms was 2.3 times higher compared to referent women and men. FANA titers > 1:80 was approximately 2.3 times higher in women but equally frequent in men as in laboratory controls. ARA score and FANA rank were correlated with a coefficient (cc) of .1251, r{sup 2} = .0205 in women and this correlation was almost statistically significant in men cc = .1282, r{sup 2} = .0253. In control men and women neither correlation was significant. Long-term low-dose exposure to TCE and other chemicals in contaminated well water significantly increased symptoms of lupus erthematosus as perceived by the ARA score and the increased FANA titers.

  6. Chronic pain after hysterectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandsborg, B.; Nikolajsen, L.; Kehlet, H.;

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Chronic pain is a well-known adverse effect of surgery, but the risk of chronic pain after gynaecological surgery is less established. METHOD: This review summarizes studies on chronic pain following hysterectomy. The underlying mechanisms and risk factors for the development of chronic...... post-hysterectomy pain are discussed. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Chronic pain is reported by 5-32% of women after hysterectomy. A guideline is proposed for future prospective studies Udgivelsesdato: 2008/3...

  7. Chronic pain after hysterectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandsborg, B; Nikolajsen, L; Kehlet, Henrik;

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Chronic pain is a well-known adverse effect of surgery, but the risk of chronic pain after gynaecological surgery is less established. METHOD: This review summarizes studies on chronic pain following hysterectomy. The underlying mechanisms and risk factors for the development of chronic...... post-hysterectomy pain are discussed. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Chronic pain is reported by 5-32% of women after hysterectomy. A guideline is proposed for future prospective studies. Udgivelsesdato: 2008-Mar...

  8. A pilot study of low-moderate drinking water arsenic contamination and chronic diseases among reproductive age women in Timiş County, Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butts, Celeste D; Bloom, Michael S; Neamtiu, Iulia A; Surdu, Simona; Pop, Cristian; Anastasiu, Doru; Fitzgerald, Edward F; Gurzau, Eugen S

    2015-11-01

    We conducted a pilot study of associations between drinking water contaminated by inorganic arsenic (iAs), mostly 63, 95%CI 0.81-3.04, p = 0.094), which was stronger for women living at their current residence ≥ 10 years (OR = 2.47, 95%CI 0.87-10.43, p = 0.058). Confounder-adjusted associations were also suggested for iAs with kidney disease (OR = 1.32, 95%CI 0.77-2.21, p = 0.265) and with high blood pressure (OR = 1.36, 95%CI 0.68-2.39, p = 0.300). A post hoc power analysis indicated the need for a larger study with more statistical power.

  9. Light water detritiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fedorchenko, O.A.; Aleksee, I.A.; Bondarenko, S.D.; Vasyanina, T.V. [B.P. Konstantinov Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute of National Research Centre ' Kurchatov Institute' , Gatchina (Russian Federation)

    2015-03-15

    Hundreds of thousands of tons of tritiated light water have been accumulating from the enterprises of nuclear fuel cycles around the world. The Dual-Temperature Water-Hydrogen (DTWH) process looks like the only practical alternative to Combined Electrolysis and Catalytic Exchange (CECE). In DTWH power-consuming lower reflux device (electrolytic cell) is replaced by a so-called 'hot tower' (LPCE column operating at conditions which ensure relatively small value of elementary separation factor α(hot)). In the upper, cold tower, the tritium transfers from hydrogen to water while in the lower, hot tower - in the opposite direction - from water to hydrogen. The DTWH process is much more complicated compared to CECE; it must be thoroughly computed and strictly controlled by an automatic control system. The use of a simulation code for DTWH is absolutely important. The simulation code EVIO-5 deals with 3 flows inside a column (hydrogen gas, water vapour and liquid water) and 2 simultaneous isotope exchange sub-processes (counter-current phase exchange and co-current catalytic exchange). EVIO-5 takes into account the strong dependence of process performance on given conditions (temperature and pressure). It calculates steady-state isotope concentration profiles considering a full set of reversible exchange reactions between different isotope modifications of water and hydrogen (12 molecular species). So the code can be used for simulation of LPCE column operation for detritiation of hydrogen and water feed, which contains H and D not only at low concentrations but above 10 at.% also. EVIO-5 code is used to model a Tritium Removal Facility with a throughput capacity of about 400 m{sup 3}/day. Simulation results show that a huge amount of wet-proofed catalyst is required (about 6000 m{sup 3}), mainly (90%) in the first stage. One reason for these large expenses (apart from a big scale of the problem itself) is the relatively high tritium separation factor in the

  10. [Chronic otitis mediaChronic Otitis Media].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohles, N; Schulz, T; Eßer, D

    2015-11-01

    There are 2 different kinds of chronic otitis media: Otitis media chronica mesotympanalis and otitis media chronica epitympanalis (cholesteatoma). The incidence of chronic otitis media as reported in literature differs in a wide range. The incidence rates vary between 0.45 and 46%. Both, otitis media chronica mesotympanalis and cholesteatoma, lead to eardrum perforation due to lengthy and recurring inflammations. Furthermore, chronic otitis media is characterized by frequently recurring otorrhea and conductive hearing loss.

  11. Sub-chronic effects of nitrate in drinking water on red-legged partridge (Alectoris rufa): oxidative stress and T-cell mediated immune function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Estival, Jaime; Martínez-Haro, Mónica; Martín-Hernando, M A Paz; Mateo, Rafael

    2010-07-01

    In order to evaluate the effects of nitrates on birds, we have exposed captive red-legged partridges to nitrates concentrations of 0 (control), 100 (dwell water in farming areas) or 500 mg/l (fertirrigation level). The cellular immune response, plasma biochemistry, methemoglobin concentration (metHb), and oxidative stress biomarkers in blood and tissues were studied after two weeks of exposure. Several blood parameters such as aspartate aminotransferase, creatinine phosphokinase and lactate dehydrogenase activities and magnesium level decreased with nitrate exposure, whereas alkaline phosphatase activity and creatinine level increased. The oxidant effect of nitrates was evidenced by the increase in blood metHb, accompanied by the lipid peroxidation of red blood cells, the increased levels of oxidized glutathione (GSH) in liver, and the generation of oxidative DNA damage in plasma lymphocytes. GSH in erythrocytes was negatively correlated with blood metHb. The cellular immune function was slightly lower at partridges exposed to nitrates. These results suggest that adverse effects of nitrates on birds occur at concentrations potentially present in the field.

  12. Water-soluble lipopolymer delivery of N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptor 2B siRNA relieves chronic neuropathic pain in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianhua Lu; Yuanxiang Tao; Xue Yang; Weifeng Tu; Hao Chen; Jiaxiang Xiong; Chungui Hu

    2011-01-01

    Spinal dorsal horn N-Methyl-D-aspartic acid receptor 2B (NR2B) overexpression plays an important role in the production and maintenance of neuropathic pain. Because small interfering RNA (siRNA) can inhibit NR2B expression, siRNA may provide a novel approach to treat neuropathic pain and possibly nerve injury. However, an efficient and safe vector for NR2B siRNA has not been discovered. This study shows that a water soluble lipopolymer (WSLP) comprised of low molecular weight polyethyleneimine (PEI) and cholesterol can deliver siRNA targeting NR2B for the treatment of neuropathic pain. Results show that intrathecal injection of WSLP/siRNA complexes for 3 days inhibit NR2B gene expression with reductions in mRNA and protein levels by 59% and 54%, respectively, compared with control rats (P < 0.01). Injection of WSLP complexed with scrambled siRNA, or PEI with siRNA did not show this inhibitory effect. Moreover, injection of WSLP/siRNA complexes significantly relieved neuropathic pain at 3, 7, 12, and 21 days, while injection of WSLP with scrambled siRNA or PEI with siRNA did not. These results demonstrate that WSLP can efficiently deliver siRNA targeting NR2B in vivo and relieve neuropathic pain.

  13. 彩超水囊引导下A型肉毒毒素治疗慢性偏头痛%Botulinum Toxin Type A Injection Under Color Ultrasound with Water Capsule Guidance for Treatment of Chronic Migraine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋金辉; 丁旭东; 肖红琼; 黄瓅; 张贵斌

    2012-01-01

    目的:观察彩超水囊引导下A型肉毒毒素治疗慢性偏头痛的临床疗效和不良反应.方法:选取64例慢性偏头痛患者应用彩超水囊引导下A型肉毒毒素进行颅周肌肉注射治疗,记录患者治疗前后偏头痛发作频率、持续时间、严重程度、止痛药使用情况及恢复状况,并行VAS、MIDAS及SF-36评分.结果:所有患者经彩超水囊引导下A型肉毒毒素治疗后,慢性偏头痛发作频率、持续时间、严重程度均较治疗前明显下降(P<0.01),止痛药物的使用较治疗前减少(P<0.01),疗效可维持至少3月,且不良反应轻微.结论:彩超水囊引导下A型肉毒毒素颅周肌肉注射治疗慢性偏头痛发作临床疗效显著,不良反应轻微,值得临床推广.%Objective To observe the clinical efficacy and safety of local injection of botulinum toxin A( BTX-A) under color ultrasound with water capsule guidance in patients with chronic migraine(CM). Methods Sixty-four patients with CM were treated with BTX-A under color ultrasound and water capsule guidance. The frequency, duration and severity of CM, medication usage of painkiller as well as side effects in patients with CM were recorded by the use of questionnaire,and were compared before and 6 months after treatment. Results Compared with those before treatments,the frequency,duration and severity of CM in patients at 6 month after treatment of BTX-A under color ultrasound and water capsule guidance were reduced significantly(P <0.01) ,and so were the frequency of medication usage of painkiller and the side effects. The therapeutic effects could last for at least 3 months. Conclusion BTX-A under color ultrasound and water capsule guidance has therapeutic effects on CM with few side effects.

  14. Chronic Dehydration and Regularly Drinking Water to Mitigate Age-Related Cognitive Impairment%慢性脱水与老年认知损伤及饮水干预

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李婷; 强敏; 赫荣乔

    2012-01-01

    Age-related cognitive impairment undergoes a continuous progression:pre-mild cognitive impairment(preMCI),mild cognitive impairment(MCI)and Alzheimer’s disease(AD). So far,chronic dehydration is regarded as a common symptom for the patients with age-related cognitive impairment,in particular of those with AD. Monitored with an infrared-CCD camera,a marked decrease in the drinking frequency(P65 years old)and in the hippocampus of Alzheimer’s patients. Regularly drinking water relieves not only chronic dehydration for aging people,but also significantly decreases the concentration of endogenous formaldehyde, which may offer protection of central nervous system. Therefore,building the habit to regularly drink water should be emphasized at the early stage to relieve chronic dehydration and scavenge cytotoxic metabolic products including formaldehyde for aging people,which might be beneficial to mitigate age-related cognitive impairment at its early stage.%老年认知损伤被认为是一个连续发展的病理生理学过程,包括轻度认知损伤前期(pre-mild cognitive impairment,pre-MCI)、轻度认知损伤(mild cognitive impairment,MCI)、阿尔茨海默病(Alzheimer’s disease, AD)三个阶段,慢性脱水是老年性痴呆患者共同具有的一种特征。红外线摄像监控C57 BL/6小鼠饮水频率和饮水量的结果显示,老龄鼠的饮水频率和饮水量均较年轻对照组显著减少(P65岁)而逐渐升高,且AD病人脑内甲醛含量也显著升高。研究表明,甲醛代谢失调所造成的中枢神经系统慢性损伤被认为是老年认知损伤的原因之一,合理饮水不但可以改善老龄化人群的慢性脱水状态,同时能够明显降低体内的甲醛浓度,防止甲醛过量对中枢神经系统的危害,因此,合理饮水习惯的建立,被认为是减缓中老年人慢性脱水和体内细胞毒性代谢产物累积的方法之一,也可能在某种程度上,起

  15. 从气血水探讨中医药治疗慢性心力衰竭%To Cure Chronic Heart Failure by Qi Blood Water Theory of Chinese Medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑国玉; 张明

    2011-01-01

    心力衰竭(简称心衰)是各种心脏疾病终末阶段的复杂临床综合征,5年存活率与恶性肿瘤相仿,正成为21世纪最重要的心血管疾病.慢性心衰严重影响病人的生活质量,同时也给国家和家庭带来沉重的经济负担.日本汉方医家吉益南涯继承家父衣钵,深研仲景著作,提出气血水理论,丰富和发展了中医辨证论治.为此,文章借鉴气血水理论,探讨中医药防治慢性心衰,发挥中医药特色,为人类健康做出贡献.%Heart failure (CHF)is the end stage of various heart diseases, the complex clinical syndrome similar to 5-year survival and cancer are the most important 21st century, cardiovascular disease.Heart failure not only seriously affects patients of quality life, but also results of a heavy economic burden for family and government. Japan Medicine, south career, inherit the mantle of his father, and deeply research of treatise on exogenous febrile diseases, put forward theory of blood water, enriched and developed the syndrome differentiation. Therefore, this article draw blood water theory of Chinese traditional medicine chronic heart failure, and play characteristics of Chinese traditional medicine, to contribute to human health.

  16. Simultaneous Determination of Four Tanshinones by UPLC-TQ/MS and Their Pharmacokinetic Application after Administration of Single Ethanol Extract of Danshen Combined with Water Extract in Normal and Adenine-Induced Chronic Renal Failure Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Die Cai

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Salvia miltiorrhiza, one of the major traditional Chinese medicines, is commonly used and the main active ingredients—tanshinones—possess the ability to improve renal function. In this paper, the UPLC-TQ/MS method of simultaneously determining four tanshinones—tanshinone IIA, dihydrotanshinone I, tanshinone I, and cryptotanshinone—was established and applied to assess the pharmacokinetics in normal and chronic renal failure (CRF rat plasma. The pharmacokinetics of tanshinones in rats were studied after separately intragastric administration of Salvia miltiorrhiza ethanol extract (SMEE (0.65 g/kg, SMEE (0.65 g/kg combined with Salvia miltiorrhiza water extract (SMWE (1.55 g/kg. The results showed Cmax and AUC0–t of tanshinone IIA, tanshinone I, cryptotanshinone reduced by 50%~80% and CLz/F increased by 2~4 times (p < 0.05 in model group after administrated with SMEE. Nevertheless, after intragastric administration of a combination of SMWE and SMEE, the Cmax and AUC0–t of four tanshinones were upregulated and CLz/F was downregulated, which undulated similarity from the model group to the normal group with compatibility of SMEE and SMWE. These results hinted that SMWE could improve the bioavailability of tanshinones in CRF rats, which provides scientific information for further exploration the mechanism of the combination of SMWE and SMEE and offers a reference for clinical administration of Salvia miltiorrhiza.

  17. Chronic Treatment with a Water-Soluble Extract from the Culture Medium of Ganoderma lucidum Mycelia Prevents Apoptosis and Necroptosis in Hypoxia/Ischemia-Induced Injury of Type 2 Diabetic Mouse Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meiyan Xuan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes mellitus has been known to increase systemic oxidative stress by chronic hyperglycemia and visceral obesity and aggravate cerebral ischemic injury. On the basis of our previous study regarding a water-soluble extract from the culture medium of Ganoderma lucidum mycelia (designed as MAK, which exerts antioxidative and neuroprotective effects, the present study was conducted to evaluate the preventive effects of MAK on apoptosis and necroptosis (a programmed necrosis induced by hypoxia/ischemia (H/I in type 2 diabetic KKAy mice. H/I was induced by a combination of unilateral common carotid artery ligation with hypoxia (8% O2 for 20 min and subsequent reoxygenation. Pretreatment with MAK (1 g/kg, p.o. for a week significantly reduced H/I-induced neurological deficits and brain infarction volume assessed at 24 h of reoxygenation. Histochemical analysis showed that MAK significantly suppressed superoxide production, neuronal cell death, and vacuolation in the ischemic penumbra, which was accompanied by a decrease in the numbers of TUNEL- or cleaved caspase-3-positive cells. Furthermore, MAK decreased the expression of receptor-interacting protein kinase 3 mRNA and protein, a key molecule for necroptosis. These results suggest that MAK confers resistance to apoptotic and necroptotic cell death and relieves H/I-induced cerebral ischemic injury in type 2 diabetic mice.

  18. Chronic Kidney Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Room? What Happens in the Operating Room? Chronic Kidney Diseases KidsHealth > For Kids > Chronic Kidney Diseases Print ... re talking about your kidneys. What Are the Kidneys? Your kidneys are tucked under your lower ribs ...

  19. Diet - chronic kidney disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002442.htm Diet - chronic kidney disease To use the sharing features on this page, ... make changes to your diet when you have chronic kidney disease. These changes may include limiting fluids, eating a ...

  20. Chronic granulomatous disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    CGD; Fatal granulomatosis of childhood; Chronic granulomatous disease of childhood; Progressive septic granulomatosis ... In chronic granulomatous disease (CGD), immune system cells called phagocytes are unable to kill some types of bacteria and ...

  1. Chronic mucus hypersecretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli; von Linstow, Marie-Louise; Nepper-Christensen, Steen;

    2005-01-01

    To investigate if chronic mucus hypersecretion (CMH) can be used as a marker of asthma in young adults.......To investigate if chronic mucus hypersecretion (CMH) can be used as a marker of asthma in young adults....

  2. Chronic tophaceous gout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thappa D

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available A rare case of chronic tophaceous gout, in a 27-year-old female on diuretics for chronic congestive cardiac failure with characteristic histopathological and radiological changes is reported.

  3. Chronic Pancreatitis in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... maintaining good health. Can chronic pancreatitis give my child cancer? If your child has chronic pancreatitis, he or she will be at an increased risk of developing pancreatic cancer compared to the general population. The degree of ...

  4. People Experiencing Chronic Homelessness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Goals Ending Chronic Homelessness Share This: Ending Chronic Homelessness Last updated on January 19, 2017 We can ... the USICH newsletter. We know how to end homelessness. Let's do it, together. Sign up for our ...

  5. Iron-catalysed tritiation of pharmaceuticals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pony Yu, Renyuan; Hesk, David; Rivera, Nelo; Pelczer, István; Chirik, Paul J.

    2016-01-01

    A thorough understanding of the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of a drug in animal models is a critical component of drug discovery and development. Such studies are performed in vivo and in vitro at various stages of the development process—ranging from preclinical absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion (ADME) studies to late-stage human clinical trials—to elucidate a drug molecule’s metabolic profile and to assess its toxicity. Radiolabelled compounds, typically those that contain 14C or 3H isotopes, are one of the most powerful and widely deployed diagnostics for these studies. The introduction of radiolabels using synthetic chemistry enables the direct tracing of the drug molecule without substantially altering its structure or function. The ubiquity of C-H bonds in drugs and the relative ease and low cost associated with tritium (3H) make it an ideal radioisotope with which to conduct ADME studies early in the drug development process. Here we describe an iron-catalysed method for the direct 3H labelling of pharmaceuticals by hydrogen isotope exchange, using tritium gas as the source of the radioisotope. The site selectivity of the iron catalyst is orthogonal to currently used iridium catalysts and allows isotopic labelling of complementary positions in drug molecules, providing a new diagnostic tool in drug development.

  6. Lithium clearance in chronic nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamper, A L; Holstein-Rathlou, N H; Leyssac, P P

    1989-01-01

    1. Lithium clearance measurements were made in 72 patients with chronic nephropathy of different aetiology and moderate to severely reduced renal function. 2. Lithium clearance was strictly correlated with glomerular filtration rate, and there was no suggestion of distal tubular reabsorption...... clearance data were independent of whether renal disease was of primarily glomerular or tubular origin and, further, were not influenced by long-term conventional antihypertensive treatment. 6. It is concluded that, even with a reduced kidney function, the data are compatible with the suggestion...... that lithium clearance may be a measure of the delivery of sodium and water from the renal proximal tubule. With this assumption it was found that adjustment of the sodium excretion in chronic nephropathy initially takes place in the distal parts of the nephron (loop of Henle, distal tubule and collecting duct...

  7. Lithium clearance in chronic nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamper, A L; Holstein-Rathlou, N H; Leyssac, P P

    1989-01-01

    1. Lithium clearance measurements were made in 72 patients with chronic nephropathy of different aetiology and moderate to severely reduced renal function. 2. Lithium clearance was strictly correlated with glomerular filtration rate, and there was no suggestion of distal tubular reabsorption...... of lithium or influence of osmotic diuresis. 3. Fractional reabsorption of lithium was reduced in most patients with glomerular filtration rates below 25 ml/min. 4. Calculated fractional distal reabsorption of sodium was reduced in most patients with glomerular filtration rates below 50 ml/min. 5. Lithium...... that lithium clearance may be a measure of the delivery of sodium and water from the renal proximal tubule. With this assumption it was found that adjustment of the sodium excretion in chronic nephropathy initially takes place in the distal parts of the nephron (loop of Henle, distal tubule and collecting duct...

  8. Approaching chronic sinusitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarber, Kathleen M; Dion, Gregory Robert; Weitzel, Erik K; McMains, Kevin C

    2013-11-01

    Chronic sinusitis is a common disease that encompasses a number of syndromes that are characterized by sinonasal mucosal inflammation. Chronic sinusitis can be defined as two or more of the following symptoms lasting for more than 12 consecutive weeks: discolored rhinorrhea, postnasal drip, nasal obstruction, facial pressure or pain, or decreased sense of smell. Chronic sinusitis is further classified as chronic sinusitis with polyposis, chronic sinusitis without polyposis, or allergic fungal sinusitis using physical examination, and histologic and radiographic findings. Treatment methods for chronic sinusitis are based upon categorization of the disease and include oral and inhaled corticosteroids, nasal saline irrigations, and antibiotics in selected patients. Understanding the various forms of chronic sinusitis and managing and ruling out comorbidities are key to successful management of this common disorder.

  9. Biofilms in chronic wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Garth A; Swogger, Ellen; Wolcott, Randall; Pulcini, Elinor deLancey; Secor, Patrick; Sestrich, Jennifer; Costerton, John W; Stewart, Philip S

    2008-01-01

    Chronic wounds including diabetic foot ulcers, pressure ulcers, and venous leg ulcers are a worldwide health problem. It has been speculated that bacteria colonizing chronic wounds exist as highly persistent biofilm communities. This research examined chronic and acute wounds for biofilms and characterized microorganisms inhabiting these wounds. Chronic wound specimens were obtained from 77 subjects and acute wound specimens were obtained from 16 subjects. Culture data were collected using standard clinical techniques. Light and scanning electron microscopy techniques were used to analyze 50 of the chronic wound specimens and the 16 acute wound specimens. Molecular analyses were performed on the remaining 27 chronic wound specimens using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and sequence analysis. Of the 50 chronic wound specimens evaluated by microscopy, 30 were characterized as containing biofilm (60%), whereas only one of the 16 acute wound specimens was characterized as containing biofilm (6%). This was a statistically significant difference (p<0.001). Molecular analyses of chronic wound specimens revealed diverse polymicrobial communities and the presence of bacteria, including strictly anaerobic bacteria, not revealed by culture. Bacterial biofilm prevalence in specimens from chronic wounds relative to acute wounds observed in this study provides evidence that biofilms may be abundant in chronic wounds.

  10. The Prevalence of Chronic Diseases by Exposure to Nitrates from Environmental Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Beatrice Severin; Floarea Damaschin; Ileana Ion; Cecilia Adumitresi; Victoria Oancea; Broasca V.; Mocanu Elena; Chirila S.

    2014-01-01

    The study aims to analyze the health effects caused by chronic exposure to elevated levels of nitrates in the water in order to improve prevention of some diseases. We analyze water quality from two villages of Constanta County in the period 2006-2012 and we take data about chronic diseases from family doctors of these localities. Analyzes on water samples were made in the laboratory of the Public Health Department. We found a significant increase of prevalence for chronic diseases in localit...

  11. Chronic Inflammatory Polyneuropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Thirteen children with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy monitored between 1975 and 2005 are reported from Centre hospitalier universitaire Sainte-Justine, Montreal, Canada.

  12. Diel patterns of water potential components for the crassulacean acid metabolism plant Opuntia ficus-indica when well-watered or droughted

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldstein, G.; Ortega, J.K.E.; Nerd, A.; Nobel, P.S. (Univ. of California, Los Angeles (United States))

    1991-01-01

    Under well-watered conditions, chlorenchyma acidity in cladodes of Opuntia ficus-indica increased substantially at night, fully accounting for the 0.26-megapascal nocturnal increase in osmotic pressure in the outer 2 millimeters. Osmotic pressure in the inner part of the chlorenchyma and in the water-storage parenchyma did not change significantly over 24-hour periods. Three months of drought decreased nocturnal acid accumulation by 73% and essentially abolished transpiration; also, 27% of the chlorenchyma water and 61% of the parenchyma water was lost during such drought, but the average tissue osmotic pressure was little affected. Turgor pressure was maintained in the chlorenchyma after 3 months of drought, although it decreased sevenfold in the water-storage parenchyma compared with the well-watered condition. Moreover, the nocturnal increases in turgor pressure of about 0.08 megapascal in the outer part of the chlorenchyma was also unchanged by such drought. The water potential magnitudes favored water movement from the parenchyma to the chlorenchyma at the end of the night and in the reverse direction during the late afternoon. Experiments with tritiated water support this pattern of water movement, which is also in agreement with predictions based on electric-circuit analog models for Crassulacean acid metabolism plants.

  13. Diel Patterns of Water Potential Components for the Crassulacean Acid Metabolism Plant Opuntia ficus-indica when Well-Watered or Droughted 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Guillermo; Ortega, Joseph K. E.; Nerd, Avinoam; Nobel, Park S.

    1991-01-01

    Under well-watered conditions, chlorenchyma acidity in cladodes of Opuntia ficus-indica increased substantially at night, fully accounting for the 0.26-megapascal nocturnal increase in osmotic pressure in the outer 2 millimeters. Osmotic pressure in the inner part of the chlorenchyma and in the water-storage parenchyma did not change significantly over 24-hour periods. Three months of drought decreased nocturnal acid accumulation by 73% and essentially abolished transpiration; also, 27% of the chlorenchyma water and 61% of the parenchyma water was lost during such drought, but the average tissue osmotic pressure was little affected. Turgor pressure was maintained in the chlorenchyma after 3 months of drought, although it decreased sevenfold in the water-storage parenchyma compared with the well-watered condition. Moreover, the nocturnal increases in turgor pressure of about 0.08 megapascal in the outer part of the chlorenchyma was also unchanged by such drought. The water potential magnitudes favored water movement from the parenchyma to the chlorenchyma at the end of the night and in the reverse direction during the late afternoon. Experiments with tritiated water support this pattern of water movement, which is also in agreement with predictions based on electric-circuit analog models for Crassulacean acid metabolism plants. PMID:16667964

  14. Coping with Chronic Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Having a long-term, or chronic, illness can disrupt your life in many ways. You may often be tired and in pain. Your illness might affect your ... able to work, causing financial problems. For children, chronic illnesses can be frightening, because they may not ...

  15. Chronic Postoperative Roseomonas Endophthalmitis▿

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Kuan-Jen; Lai, Chi-Chun; Kuo, Ya-Hui; WU, WEI-CHI; CHEN, TUN-LU

    2008-01-01

    We report one case with chronic postoperative endophthalmitis caused by Roseomonas species. Roseomonas spp. induced chronic endophthalmitis, which might result in misdiagnosis and delayed treatment and causes ocular damage and severe visual loss. This report is the first one related to a case with postoperative endophthalmitis secondary to Roseomonas infection.

  16. Chronic postoperative Roseomonas endophthalmitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kuan-Jen; Lai, Chi-Chun; Kuo, Ya-Hui; Wu, Wei-Chi; Chen, Tun-Lu

    2009-01-01

    We report one case with chronic postoperative endophthalmitis caused by Roseomonas species. Roseomonas spp. induced chronic endophthalmitis, which might result in misdiagnosis and delayed treatment and causes ocular damage and severe visual loss. This report is the first one related to a case with postoperative endophthalmitis secondary to Roseomonas infection.

  17. [Chronic pancreatitis, acute pancreatitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabuchi, T; Katada, N; Nishimura, D; Hoshino, H; Shimizu, F; Suzuki, R; Sano, H; Kato, K

    1998-11-01

    MRCP has been recognized as a safe and noninvasive diagnostic method. In the present study we evaluated the usefulness of MRCP in diagnosis of chronic and acute pancreatitis. Two-dimensional fast asymmetric spin-echo (FASE) MRCP was performed in 40 patients with chronic pancreatitis and 13 with acute pancreatitis. In 29 patients (72.5%) with chronic pancreatitis and 9 (66.7%) with acute pancreatitis, main pancreatic duct (MPD) was visualized entirely. MRCP could demonstrate the characteristic findings of chronic pancreatitis such as dilatation and irregularity of MPD in most cases. In acute pancreatitis, MRCP indicated that MPD was normal in diameter, but irregular in configuration compared with that of the control group. MRCP may facilitate the diagnosis of chronic and acute pancreatitis.

  18. The Chronic Responsibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Iben M; Frederiksen, Kirsten; Beedholm, Kirsten

    2016-01-01

    This article reports on the results of a Fairclough-inspired critical discourse analysis aiming to clarify how chronically ill patients are presented in contemporary Danish chronic care policies. Drawing on Fairclough’s three-dimensional framework for analyzing discourse, and using Dean’s concepts...... of governmentality as an interpretative lens, we analyzed and explained six policies published by the Danish Health and Medicines Authority between 2005 and 2013. The analysis revealed that discourses within the policy vision of chronic care consider chronically ill patients’ active role, lifestyle, and health...... behavior to be the main factors influencing susceptibility to chronic diseases. We argue that this discursive construction naturalizes a division between people who can actively manage responsible self-care and those who cannot. Such discourses may serve the interests of those patients who are already...

  19. Chronic gastritis - an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varbanova, Mariya; Frauenschläger, Katrin; Malfertheiner, Peter

    2014-12-01

    Helicobacter pylori is the main aetiologic factor for chronic gastritis worldwide. The degree of inflammation and the evolution of this form of chronic gastritis can vary largely depending on bacterial virulence factors, host susceptibility factors and environmental conditions. Autoimmune gastritis is another cause of chronic inflammation in the stomach, which can occur in all age groups. This disease presents typically with vitamin B12 deficiency and pernicious anaemia. The presence of anti-parietal cell antibodies is highly specific for the diagnosis. The role of H. pylori as a trigger for autoimmune gastritis remains uncertain. Other rare conditions for chronic gastritis are chronic inflammatory conditions such as Crohn's disease or on the background of lymphocytic or collagenous gastroenteropathies.

  20. Chronic granulomatous disease associated with chronic glomerulonephritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frifelt, J J; Schønheyder, Henrik Carl; Valerius, Niels Henrik

    1985-01-01

    A boy with chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) developed glomerulonephritis at the age of 12 years. The glomerulonephritis progressed to terminal uraemia at age 15 when maintenance haemodialysis was started. The clinical course was complicated by pulmonary aspergillosis and Pseudomonas septicaemia...... from which he eventually died. The glomerulonephritis was of unknown origin, and a possible relationship between CGD and glomerulonephritis is discussed....

  1. What Is Chronic Myeloid Leukemia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (CML) About Chronic Myeloid Leukemia What Is Chronic Myeloid Leukemia? Cancer starts when cells ... their treatment is the same as for adults. What is leukemia? Leukemia is a cancer that starts ...

  2. What Is Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL) About Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia What Is Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia? Cancer starts when cells ... body, including the lymph nodes, liver, and spleen. What is leukemia? Leukemia is a cancer that starts ...

  3. Chronic administration of quercetin prevent spatial learning and memory deficits provoked by chronic stress in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Hadis Said; Goudarzi, Iran; Lashkarbolouki, Taghi; Abrari, Kataneh; Elahdadi Salmani, Mahmoud

    2014-08-15

    There are several reports that cognitive impairment is observed in stress related disorders and chronic stress impairs learning and memory. However, very few studies have looked into the possible ways of preventing this stress-induced deficit. This research study was conducted to evaluate the effects of quercetin, a natural flavonoid, with strong antioxidant and free radical scavenger properties, on chronic stress induced learning and memory deficits and oxidative stress in hippocampus. For chronic stress, rats were restrained daily for 6h/day (from 9:00 to 15:00) for 21 days in well-ventilated plexiglass tubes without access to food and water. The animals were injected with quercetin or vehicle 60 min before restraint stress over a period of 21 days. Then, rats trained with six trials per day for 6 consecutive days in the water maze. On day 28, a probe test was done to measure memory retention. In addition, oxidative stress markers in the hippocampus were evaluated. Results of this study demonstrated that chronic stress exposure rats exhibited higher escape latency during training trials and reduced time spent in target quadrant, higher escape location latency and average proximity in probe trial test. Quercetin (50mg/kg) treatment during restraint stress (21 days) markedly decreased escape latency and increased time spent in target quadrant during Morris water maze task. In comparison to vehicle treated group, chronic-stress group had significantly higher malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, significantly higher superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and significantly lower glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity in the hippocampus. Quercetin treatment caused a significant decrease in the hippocampus MDA levels and improves SOD and GPx activities in stressed animals. Finally, quercetin significantly decreased plasma corticosterone levels in stressed animals. Based on results of this study, chronic stress has detrimental effects on learning and memory and quercetin treatment

  4. Chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Carlos AC; Gimenez, Andréa; Kuranishi, Lilian; Storrer, Karin

    2016-01-01

    Hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HSP) is a common interstitial lung disease resulting from inhalation of a large variety of antigens by susceptible individuals. The disease is best classified as acute and chronic. Chronic HSP can be fibrosing or not. Fibrotic HSP has a large differential diagnosis and has a worse prognosis. The most common etiologies for HSP are reviewed. Diagnostic criteria are proposed for both chronic forms based on exposure, lung auscultation, lung function tests, HRCT findings, bronchoalveolar lavage, and biopsies. Treatment options are limited, but lung transplantation results in greater survival in comparison to idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Randomized trials with new antifibrotic agents are necessary. PMID:27703382

  5. Chronic hepatitis E: A brief review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Arvind; R; Murali; Vikram; Kotwal; Saurabh; Chawla

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis E viral infection has traditionally been considered an acute, self-limited, water borne disease similar to hepatitis A, endemic to developing countries. However, over the past decade, zoonotic transmission and progression to chronicity in human patients has been identified, resulting in persistently elevated transaminase levels, progressive liver injury and cirrhosis. In addition to liver injury, neurological, renal and rheumatological manifestations have also been reported. Chronic hepatitis E occurs mainly in immunosuppressed individuals such as transplant recipients, human immunodeficiency virus patients with low CD4 counts and in patients with hematological malignancies receiving chemotherapy. Diagnosis is established by persistent elevation of hepatitis E virus RNA in the stool or serum. This population often requires treatment with antiviral agents, particularly ribavirin, as spontaneous clearance with reduction in immunosuppression occurs only in about a third of the patients. The purpose of this review, is to further discuss the clinical presentation, and recent advances in diagnosis, treatment and prophylaxis of chronic hepatitis E.

  6. Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is a disorder that causes extreme fatigue. This fatigue is not the kind of tired feeling that ... activities. The main symptom of CFS is severe fatigue that lasts for 6 months or more. You ...

  7. Chronic sinusitis (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and cartilage and lined with a mucous membrane. Sinusitis occurs when the membranes becomes inflamed and painful, ... a result of a blocked sinus opening. Chronic sinusitis is often caused by inflammation and blockage due ...

  8. Chronic Condition Data Warehouse

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The CMS Chronic Condition Data Warehouse (CCW) provides researchers with Medicare and Medicaid beneficiary, claims, and assessment data linked by beneficiary across...

  9. Zabofloxacin for chronic bronchitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocsis, B; Szabo, D

    2016-09-01

    Treatment of lower respiratory tract infection poses as an ongoing challenge among respiratory tract diseases. Bacterial infections are causes of acute exacerbations in chronic bronchitis and indications for antibacterial therapy. Several antibiotics were applied to treat bacterial infections in chronic bronchitis, among them fluoroquinolones are considered potent, broad-spectrum agents with excellent tissue penetration. This monograph focuses on zabofloxacin, a novel fluoroquinolone agent recently approved and launched in South Korea, and summarizes the drug's antibacterial efficacy, pharmacokinetic properties and toxicity. Recent advances concerning fluoroquinolones in chronic bronchitis will be discussed, along with a comparison between zabofloxacin and moxifloxacin. Zabofloxacin has proved to be noninferior to moxifloxacin against major community-acquired Gram-positive and Gram-negative respiratory tract pathogens and found to be well tolerated in both oral and parenteral administrations. These features can make it a potential antimicrobial agent in therapy of chronic bronchitis and other lower respiratory tract infections.

  10. Living with Chronic Bronchitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Topics » Bronchitis » Living With Chronic Bronchitis Explore Bronchitis What Is... Other Names Causes Who Is at Risk Signs & Symptoms Diagnosis Treatments Prevention Living With Clinical Trials Links Related Topics ...

  11. Chronic Critical Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the patient’s situation and on the hospital and city. Do Chronically Critically Ill Patients Regain the Ability ... as the patient. You may feel stress, worry, sadness, or fatigue. Some families worry about financial burdens. ...

  12. Chronic Conditions Dashboard

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The CMS Chronic Conditions Dashboard presents statistical views of information on the prevalence, utilization and Medicare spending for Medicare beneficiaries with...

  13. Chronic Myeloproliferative Neoplasms Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... way to treat some chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms. Platelet apheresis Platelet apheresis is a treatment that uses a special machine ... using interferon alfa or pegylated interferon alpha . Platelet apheresis . A clinical trial of a new treatment. Check ...

  14. Chronic penile strangulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopes Roberto I

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic penile strangulation is exceedingly rare with only 5 cases previously reported. We report an additional case of progressive penile lymphedema due to chronic intermittent strangulation caused by a rubber band applied to the penile base for 6 years. A 49-year-old man presented incapacity to exteriorize the glans penis. For erotic purposes, he had been using a rubber-enlarging band placed in the penile base for 6 years. With chronic use, he noticed that his penis swelled. Physical examination revealed lymphedema of the penis, phimosis and a stricture in the penile base. The patient was submitted to circumcision and the lymphedema remained stable 10 months postoperatively. Chronic penile incarceration usually causes penile lymphedema and urinary disturbance. Treatment consists of removal of foreign devices and surgical treatment of lymphedema.

  15. Chronic Illness & Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is present. For More Information Share Chronic Illness & Mental Health Download PDF Download ePub Order a free hardcopy ... For more information, see the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) booklet on Depression at http://www.nimh. ...

  16. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and oxygen therapy Right-sided heart failure or cor pulmonale (heart swelling and heart failure due to chronic ... PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 44. Read More Cor pulmonale Dilated cardiomyopathy Heart failure - overview Lung disease Patient ...

  17. Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... CKD treated? Kidney-friendly diet for CKD What causes chronic kidney disease (CKD)? Anyone can get CKD. Some people are ... and high blood pressure are the most common causes of CKD. If you have diabetes or high blood pressure, ...

  18. Sleep and Chronic Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Sleep About Us About Sleep Key Sleep Disorders Sleep ... Sheets Data & Statistics Projects and Partners Resources Events Sleep and Chronic Disease Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ...

  19. Chronic Conditions PUF

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Chronic Conditions PUFs are aggregated files in which each record is a profile or cell defined by the characteristics of Medicare beneficiaries. A profile is...

  20. Chronic inflammatory demyelinative polyneuropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Said, Gérard; Krarup, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Chronic inflammatory demyelinative polyneuropathy (CIDP) is an acquired polyneuropathy presumably of immunological origin. It is characterized by a progressive or a relapsing course with predominant motor deficit. The diagnosis rests on the association of non-length-dependent predominantly motor ...

  1. Chronic dysimmune neuropathies: Beyond chronic demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khadilkar Satish

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The spectrum of chronic dysimmune neuropathies has widened well beyond chronic demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP. Pure motor (multifocal motor neuropathy, sensorimotor with asymmetrical involvement (multifocal acquired demylinating sensory and motor neuropathy, exclusively distal sensory (distal acquired demyelinating sensory neuropathy and very proximal sensory (chronic immune sensory polyradiculopathy constitute the variants of CIDP. Correct diagnosis of these entities is of importance in terms of initiation of appropriate therapy as well as prognostication of these patients. The rates of detection of immune-mediated neuropathies with monoclonal cell proliferation (monoclonal gammopathy of unknown significance, multiple myeloma, etc. have been facilitated as better diagnostic tools such as serum immunofixation electrophoresis are being used more often. Immune neuropathies associated with malignancies and systemic vasculitic disorders are being defined further and treated early with better understanding of the disease processes. As this field of dysimmune neuropathies will evolve in the future, some of the curious aspects of the clinical presentations and response patterns to different immunosuppressants or immunomodulators will be further elucidated. This review also discusses representative case studies.

  2. Relationship between methylation capacity and skin lesions among patients chronically exposed to arsenic through drinking water%饮水型地方性砷中毒患者皮肤损伤与甲基化代谢关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李昕; 李冰; 刘世宜; 孙贵范

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨饮水型砷中毒患者皮肤损伤与甲基化代谢能力的关系.方法 依据诊断标准对某饮水型砷中毒病区患者症状进行分级,测定血中无机砷(iAs)、甲基砷(MMA)、二甲基砷(DMA)含量并计算百分比(iAs%、MMA%、DMA%),以iAs、MMA及DMA的总和表示总砷(tAs)水平,以(MMA+ DMA)/tAs及DMA/(MMA+ DMA)分别计算一甲基化率(FMR)和二甲基化率(SMR)水平.结果 患者血中形态砷和甲基化指标水平在性别间差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);轻、中、重度患者FMR水平差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);中度及重度患者SMR水平[(0.36±0.11)、(0.37±0.08)]均低于轻度患者(0.48±0.11),MMA% [(0.50 ±0.06)、(0.52±0.03)]均高于轻度患者(0.41 ±0.09);SMR水平与患者皮肤损伤症状等级之间呈负相关(r=-0.429,P<0.05).结论 SMR水平下降及MMA%水平增高与砷性皮肤损伤关系密切.%Objective To explore the relationship between methylation capacity and skin lesions among the patients chronically exposed to arsenic through drinking water. Methods Patients with arsenic related skin lesions were graded according to the Chinese Standard of Diagnosis for Endemic Arsenicosis. Levels of inorganic arsenic (iAs) .monomethyl-ated arsenic (MMA) , dimethylated arsenic (DMA) in blood were detected by atomic absorption spectrophotometer with an arsenic speciation pretreatment system. iAs% , MMA% , and DMA% were calculated. Total arsenic ( tAs) , the first methylation ratio(FMR) and the second methylation ratio( SMR) were calculated as iAs + MMA + DMA, (MMA + DMA)/tAs and DMA/(MMA + DMA) Respectively. Results There were no significant gender differences in the level of iAs,MMA,DMA,tAs,iAs% ,MMA% ,DMA% ,FMR,and SMR. No significant difference in FMR was found among the mild, moderate and advanced group of skin lesions. SMR of moderate and advanced group (0.36 ±0.11, 0. 37 ± 0. 08) were markedly lower than that of mild (0. 48 ± 0. 11) , while MMA% of moderate

  3. Tolerance and chronic rejection.

    OpenAIRE

    Womer, K. L.; Lee, R S; Madsen, J. C.; Sayegh, M H

    2001-01-01

    The most common cause of chronic allograft loss is an incompletely understood clinicopathological entity called chronic rejection (CR). Recent reports suggest an improvement in long-term renal allograft survival, although it is not clear from these data whether a true reduction of biopsy-proven CR has occurred. Although newer immunosuppressive medications have greatly reduced the incidence of acute rejection (AR) in the early post-transplantation period, the ideal therapy for both AR and CR w...

  4. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    2008430 Effect of gas exchange at maximal intensity on exercise capacity in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. WANG Haoyan(王浩彦), et al. Dept Respir Dis, Beijing Friendship Hosp, Capital Med Sci Univ, Beijing 100050. Chin J Tuberc Respir Dis 2008;31(6):414-416. Objective To investigate the effect of gas exchange at maximal intensity on exercise capacity in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).

  5. Experimental chronic periodontitis morphogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Schneider S.A.

    2011-01-01

    Morphogenesis of periodontium tissue in a model of chronic periodontitis was studied. Adult Wistar rats wereused in a model; chronic periodontitis was developed through mastication-related loading decrease. Histological assessmentof periodontium tissue was conducted at Days 7, 14, 21 and 30. It was demonstrated that dystrophic tissue changes prevailover the inflammatory one in this particular experimental model. The structural elements of periodontium were involved intothe pathologic process ...

  6. Understanding chronic heart failure

    OpenAIRE

    Fenton, Matthew; Burch, Michael

    2007-01-01

    The key principles of chronic heart failure and the development of clinical management strategies are described. The physiological changes in chronic heart failure and the clinical management of children with heart failure are considered, but the treatment of heart failure related to congenital heart disease or the intensive care management of heart failure are not mentioned as both topics require consideration in their own right. A greater understanding of the maladaptive responses to chroni...

  7. Treatment of Chronic Cough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soni, Resha S; Ebersole, Barbara; Jamal, Nausheen

    2017-01-01

    Objective Chronic cough remains a challenging condition, especially in cases where it persists despite comprehensive medical management. For these particular patients, there appears to be an emerging role for behavior modification therapy. We report a series of patients with refractory chronic cough to assess if there is any benefit of adding behavioral therapy to their treatment regimen. Study Design A case series with planned chart review of patients treated for chronic cough. Setting The review was performed with an outpatient electronic health record system at a tertiary care center. Subjects and Methods The charts of all patients treated for chronic cough by a single laryngologist over a 30-month period were analyzed. Patients' response to treatment and rate of cough improvement were assessed for those with refractory chronic cough who underwent behavior modification therapy. Results Thirty-eight patients with chronic cough were initially treated empirically for the most common causes of cough, of which 32% experienced improvement. Nineteen patients who did not significantly improve with medical management underwent behavior modification therapy with a speech-language pathologist. Of these patients, 84% experienced resolution or marked improvement of their symptoms. Conclusion Behavioral therapy may be underutilized in practice and could lead to improvement of otherwise recalcitrant cough.

  8. Analysis of production reactor response during a postulated Loss-of-River Water event using CONTAIN/SR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Kula, K.R.; Wooten, L.A. (Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)); Jenkins, T.B. (Concord Associates, Inc., Knoxville, TN (United States))

    1992-06-01

    This report discusses the CONTAIN/SR computer code, developed at the Savannah River Technology Center and Sandia National Laboratories for Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) applications, which is used to analyze K Reactor plant conditions following a design basis earthquake to assist post-accident recovery planning. The postulated event, a Loss-of-River Water (LORW) accident, requires analysis of the K Reactor confinement system assuming seismic event-caused loss of forced air flow through Radiologically Controlled (RCAs) and other building areas, including adjoining personnel and auxiliary equipment zones. The CONTAIN/SR code calculations predict the expected environment in the K Reactor building with a seismically-qualified flow path for natural circulation, under design basis conditions specifying a 50 gal/min leak of tritiated heavy water. Despite loss of active fan flow, preferential air flow patterns are calculated to flow from clean'' areas towards the RCAs. Ventilation characteristics of the building reduce tritiated water vapor concentrations to habitable levels, assuming plastic suits and clean breathing air supplies are available. Unprotected dose rates to recovery workers in the heat exchanger zone of the building will range from 120 mrem/hour to 780 mrem/hour, depending on evaporation conditions near spilled heavy-water pools. It is concluded habitability issues for recovery are not driven by temperature concerns in reactor building zones. However, the results indicate radiological suits with cool air supplies will assure adequate conditions for operators and recovery teams, and mitigate tritium uptake hazards from splashing or other direct contact mechanisms.

  9. Analysis of production reactor response during a postulated Loss-of-River Water event using CONTAIN/SR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Kula, K.R.; Wooten, L.A. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Jenkins, T.B. [Concord Associates, Inc., Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1992-06-01

    This report discusses the CONTAIN/SR computer code, developed at the Savannah River Technology Center and Sandia National Laboratories for Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) applications, which is used to analyze K Reactor plant conditions following a design basis earthquake to assist post-accident recovery planning. The postulated event, a Loss-of-River Water (LORW) accident, requires analysis of the K Reactor confinement system assuming seismic event-caused loss of forced air flow through Radiologically Controlled (RCAs) and other building areas, including adjoining personnel and auxiliary equipment zones. The CONTAIN/SR code calculations predict the expected environment in the K Reactor building with a seismically-qualified flow path for natural circulation, under design basis conditions specifying a 50 gal/min leak of tritiated heavy water. Despite loss of active fan flow, preferential air flow patterns are calculated to flow from ``clean`` areas towards the RCAs. Ventilation characteristics of the building reduce tritiated water vapor concentrations to habitable levels, assuming plastic suits and clean breathing air supplies are available. Unprotected dose rates to recovery workers in the heat exchanger zone of the building will range from 120 mrem/hour to 780 mrem/hour, depending on evaporation conditions near spilled heavy-water pools. It is concluded habitability issues for recovery are not driven by temperature concerns in reactor building zones. However, the results indicate radiological suits with cool air supplies will assure adequate conditions for operators and recovery teams, and mitigate tritium uptake hazards from splashing or other direct contact mechanisms.

  10. Chronic prostatitis: Current concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ram Vaidyanathan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Chronic prostatitis (CP is a common condition. It causes significant suffering to the patients and constitutes a sizeable workload for the urologists. The purpose of this review is to describe the currently accepted concepts regarding the aspects of CP. Materials and Methods: Relevant papers on the epidemiology, etiology, diagnosis, evaluation and management of CP were identified through a search of MEDLINE using text terms "prostatitis", "chronic prostatitis" and "chronic pelvic pain syndrome". The list of articles thus obtained was supplemented by manual search of bibliographies of the identified articles and also by exploring the MEDLINE option "Related Articles". Results: The salient points of the relevant articles on each aspect of CP have been summarized in the form of a non-systematic narrative review. Conclusion: Chronic prostatitis is caused by a variety of infective and non-infective factors and is characterized by a rather long remitting and relapsing clinical course. The diagnosis is based on symptoms comprising pain and nonspecific urinary and/or ejaculatory disturbances and microbiological tests to localize bacteria and/or leucocytes in segmented urinary tract specimens. The contemporary classification was proposed by the National Institutes of Health/National Institute of Diabetes Digestive Kidney Diseases (NIH/NIDDK. National Institutes of Health - Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index (NIH-CPSI is the patient evaluation tool used extensively in clinical practice and research. Management should be individualized, multimodal and of an appropriate duration.

  11. Autoantibodies in chronic pancreatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rumessen, J J; Marner, B; Pedersen, N T

    1985-01-01

    In 60 consecutive patients clinically suspected of having chronic pancreatitis the serum concentration of the immunoglobulins (IgA, IgG, IgM), the IgG- and IgA-type non-organ-specific autoantibodies against nuclear material (ANA), smooth and striated muscle, mitochondria, basal membrane, and reti......In 60 consecutive patients clinically suspected of having chronic pancreatitis the serum concentration of the immunoglobulins (IgA, IgG, IgM), the IgG- and IgA-type non-organ-specific autoantibodies against nuclear material (ANA), smooth and striated muscle, mitochondria, basal membrane......, and reticulin, and the IgG- and IgA-type pancreas-specific antibodies against islet cells, acinus cells, and ductal cells (DA) were estimated blindly. In 23 of the patients chronic pancreatitis was verified, whereas chronic pancreatitis was rejected in 37 patients (control group). IgG and IgA were found...... in significantly higher concentrations in the patients with chronic pancreatitis than in the control group but within the normal range. ANA and DA occurred very frequently in both groups but with no statistical difference. Other autoantibodies only occurred sporadically. The findings of this study do not support...

  12. Management of chronic paronychia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vineet Relhan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic paronychia is an inflammatory disorder of the nail folds of a toe or finger presenting as redness, tenderness, and swelling. It is recalcitrant dermatoses seen commonly in housewives and housemaids. It is a multifactorial inflammatory reaction of the proximal nail fold to irritants and allergens. Repeated bouts of inflammation lead to fibrosis of proximal nail fold with poor generation of cuticle, which in turn exposes the nail further to irritants and allergens. Thus, general preventive measures form cornerstone of the therapy. Though previously anti-fungals were the mainstay of therapy, topical steroid creams have been found to be more effective in the treatment of chronic paronychia. In recalcitrant cases, surgical treatment may be resorted to, which includes en bloc excision of the proximal nail fold or an eponychial marsupialization, with or without nail plate removal. Newer therapies and surgical modalities are being employed in the management of chronic paronychia. In this overview, we review recent epidemiological studies, present current thinking on the pathophysiology leading to chronic paronychia, discuss the challenges chronic paronychia presents, and recommend a commonsense approach to management.

  13. Chronic daily headaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fayyaz Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic Daily Headache is a descriptive term that includes disorders with headaches on more days than not and affects 4% of the general population. The condition has a debilitating effect on individuals and society through direct cost to healthcare and indirectly to the economy in general. To successfully manage chronic daily headache syndromes it is important to exclude secondary causes with comprehensive history and relevant investigations; identify risk factors that predict its development and recognise its sub-types to appropriately manage the condition. Chronic migraine, chronic tension-type headache, new daily persistent headache and medication overuse headache accounts for the vast majority of chronic daily headaches. The scope of this article is to review the primary headache disorders. Secondary headaches are not discussed except medication overuse headache that often accompanies primary headache disorders. The article critically reviews the literature on the current understanding of daily headache disorders focusing in particular on recent developments in the treatment of frequent headaches.

  14. Fluoride-induced chronic renal failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lantz, O; Jouvin, M H; De Vernejoul, M C; Druet, P

    1987-08-01

    Renal fluoride toxicity in human beings is difficult to assess in the literature. Although experimental studies and research on methoxyflurane toxicity have shown frank renal damage, observations of renal insufficiency related to chronic fluoride exposure are scarce. We report a case of fluoride intoxication related to potomania of Vichy water, a highly mineralized water containing 8.5 mg/L of fluoride. Features of fluoride osteosclerosis were prominent and end-stage renal failure was present. The young age of the patient, the long duration of high fluoride intake, and the absence of other cause of renal insufficiency suggest a causal relationship between fluoride intoxication and renal failure.

  15. Chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pereira CA

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Carlos AC Pereira,1 Andréa Gimenez,2 Lilian Kuranishi,2 Karin Storrer 2 1Interstitial Lung Diseases Program, 2Pulmonology Postgraduate, Federal University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil Abstract: Hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HSP is a common interstitial lung disease resulting from inhalation of a large variety of antigens by susceptible individuals. The disease is best classified as acute and chronic. Chronic HSP can be fibrosing or not. Fibrotic HSP has a large differential diagnosis and has a worse prognosis. The most common etiologies for HSP are reviewed. Diagnostic criteria are proposed for both chronic forms based on exposure, lung auscultation, lung function tests, HRCT findings, bronchoalveolar lavage, and biopsies. Treatment options are limited, but lung transplantation results in greater survival in comparison to idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Randomized trials with new antifibrotic agents are necessary. Keywords: interstitial lung diseases, extrinsic allergic alveolitis, diffuse lung disease, lung immune response, HRCT, farmers lung

  16. Chronic pelvic floor dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Dee; Sarton, Julie

    2014-10-01

    The successful treatment of women with vestibulodynia and its associated chronic pelvic floor dysfunctions requires interventions that address a broad field of possible pain contributors. Pelvic floor muscle hypertonicity was implicated in the mid-1990s as a trigger of major chronic vulvar pain. Painful bladder syndrome, irritable bowel syndrome, fibromyalgia, and temporomandibular jaw disorder are known common comorbidities that can cause a host of associated muscular, visceral, bony, and fascial dysfunctions. It appears that normalizing all of those disorders plays a pivotal role in reducing complaints of chronic vulvar pain and sexual dysfunction. Though the studies have yet to prove a specific protocol, physical therapists trained in pelvic dysfunction are reporting success with restoring tissue normalcy and reducing vulvar and sexual pain. A review of pelvic anatomy and common findings are presented along with suggested physical therapy management.

  17. Omalizumab for chronic urticaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ivyanskiy, Ilya; Sand, Carsten; Thomsen, Simon Francis

    2012-01-01

    urticaria. We present a case series of 19 patients with chronic urticaria treated in a university department with omalizumab and give an overview of the existing literature comprising an additional 59 cases as well as a total of 139 patients enrolled in two randomized controlled trials comparing omalizumab...... with placebo. The collective evidence points to omalizumab as a safe and effective treatment option for patients with chronic urticaria who do not sufficiently respond to standard therapy as recommended by existing guidelines.......Omalizumab is a recombinant humanized monoclonal antibody that blocks the high-affinity Fc receptor of IgE. Omalizumab has been approved for the treatment of moderate to severe asthma; however, there is currently more and more data showing promising results in the management also of chronic...

  18. Adsorption characteristics of water vapor on honeycomb adsorbents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wajima, Takaaki; Munakata, Kenzo; Takeishi, Toshiharu; Hara, Keisuke; Wada, Kouhei; Katekari, Kenichi; Inoue, Keita; Shinozaki, Yohei; Mochizuki, Kazuhiro; Tanaka, Masahiro; Uda, Tatsuhiko

    2011-10-01

    Recovery of tritium released into working areas in nuclear fusion plants is a key issue of safety. A large volume of air from tritium fuel cycle or vacuum vessel should be processed by air cleanup system (ACS). In ACS, tritium gas is oxidized by catalysts, and then tritiated water vapor is collected by adsorbents. This method can remove tritium effectively, whereas high throughput of air causes high-pressure drop in catalyst and adsorbent beds. In this study, the applicability of honeycomb-type adsorbents, which offers a useful advantage in terms of their low-pressure drop, to ACS was examined, in comparison with conventional pebble-type adsorbent. Honeycomb-type adsorbent causes far less pressure drop than pebble-type adsorbent beds. Adsorption capacity of water vapor on a honeycomb-type adsorbent is slightly lower than that on a pebble-type adsorbent, while adsorption rate of water vapor on honeycomb-type adsorbent is much higher than that of pebble-type adsorbent.

  19. [Histaminergic angioedema and chronic urticaria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacard, Florence; Nosbaum, Audrey; Bensaid, Benoit; Nicolas, Jean-François; Augey, Frédéric; Goujon, Catherine; Bérard, Frédéric

    2015-01-01

    Most angioedemas are histaminergic and correspond to deep urticarial swelling. Recurrent histaminergic angioedema led to the diagnosis of chronic urticaria, even when there are no superficial associated hives. Chronic urticaria is a benign disease, and autoimmune in 40 % of cases. The occurrence of angioedema in chronic urticaria is not a sign of severity. The occurrence of angioedema in chronic urticaria is associated with a longer duration of urticarial disease. NSAIDs and/or systemic corticotherapy are classic triggers of angioedema in chronic urticaria. In the absence of clinical endpoints, there is no need to make further assessment in chronic urticaria good responders to antihistamines.

  20. Components of evaporative water loss in the desert tenebrionid beetles, Eleodes armata and Cryptoglossa verrucosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, P.D.

    1981-01-01

    Water loss in Eleodes armata and Cryptoglossa verrucosa increased with increasing temperature and decreasing vapor activity (a/sub v/). Rates of evaporative water loss were always about 4 times greater in E. armata than in C. verrucosa at the different temperatures and 0.0 a/sub v/, while as a/sub v/ increased the ratio of E. armata loss to C. verrucosa decreased from 4 at 0.0 a/sub v/ to about 2 at 0.94 a/sub v/. A method for determining mesothoracic spiracular, sub-elytral abdominal, and cuticular water loss rates was described and validated for living E. armata. Sub-elytral abdominal water loss through the caudal opening was 8.0 mg H/sub 2/O (g.d)/sup -1/, meso-thoracic spiracular water loss was approximately 7.9 mg H/sub 2/O (g.d)/sup -1/, and cuticular loss was 26.2 mg H/sub 2/O (g.d)/sup -1/ at 30 C and 0.0 a/sub v/. Evaporative water loss was shown to have two unidirectional components, efflux and influx, for both beetles with the use of tritiated water (H/sup 3/HO). Efflux was independent of a/sub v/, while influx increased linearly with a/sub v/, with both components having lower rates in C. verrucosa compared to E. armata.

  1. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease - adults - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    COPD - adults - discharge; Chronic obstructive airways disease - adults - discharge; Chronic obstructive lung disease - adults - discharge; Chronic bronchitis - adults - discharge; Emphysema - adults - discharge; Bronchitis - ...

  2. Chronic pancreatitis in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Penny

    2012-08-01

    Chronic pancreatitis used to be considered uncommon in dogs, but recent pathological and clinical studies have confirmed that it is in fact a common and clinically significant disease. Clinical signs can vary from low-grade recurrent gastrointestinal signs to acute exacerbations that are indistinguishable from classical acute pancreatitis. Chronic pancreatitis is a significant cause of chronic pain in dogs, which must not be underestimated. It also results in progressive impairment of endocrine and exocrine function and the eventual development of diabetes mellitus or exocrine pancreatic insufficiency or both in some affected dogs at end stage. The etiology is unknown in most cases. Chronic pancreatitis shows an increased prevalence in certain breeds, and recent work in English Cocker Spaniels suggests it is part of a polysystemic immune-mediated disease in this breed. The histological and clinical appearance is different in different breeds, suggesting that etiologies may also be different. Diagnosis is challenging because the sensitivities of the available noninvasive tests are relatively low. However, with an increased index of suspicion, clinicians will recognize more cases that will allow them to institute supportive treatment to improve the quality of life of the patient.

  3. Acetaminophen for Chronic Pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ennis, Zandra Nymand; Dideriksen, Dorthe; Vaegter, Henrik Bjarke;

    2016-01-01

    strategies for acetaminophen use in chronic pain in both Embase and PubMed, 1,551 hits were obtained. Following cross-reference searches of both trials and 38 reviews, seven studies comparing acetaminophen in continuous dosing regimens of more than two weeks with placebo were included. The review...

  4. Refractory chronic migraine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martelletti, Paolo; Katsarava, Zaza; Lampl, Christian

    2014-01-01

    The debate on the clinical definition of refractory Chronic Migraine (rCM) is still far to be concluded. The importance to create a clinical framing of these rCM patients resides in the complete disability they show, in the high risk of serious adverse events from acute and preventative drugs...

  5. Diagnosing chronic rhinosinusitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, B; Thilsing, T; Baelum, J;

    2013-01-01

    The European Position Paper on Rhinosinusitis and Nasal Polyps (EP3OS) incorporates symptomatic and endo- scopic criteria in the clinical diagnosis of chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS), while in epidemiological studies the definition is based on symptoms only. The aim of this study was to evaluate the...

  6. Chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wedman, Jan; van Weissenbruch, Ranny

    2005-01-01

    We report what is, to our best knowledge, the first case of chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis (CRMO) in which the frontal and sphenoid bones were involved. Characterized by a prolonged and fluctuating course of osteomyelitis at different sites, CRMO is self-limited, although sequelae can oc

  7. CHRONIC PROBLEM FAMILIES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    STONE, EDWARD

    THE REPORT POINTS OUT THAT, IN GENERAL, CHRONIC PROBLEM PARENTS GREW UP IN ENVIRONMENTS OF EMOTIONAL IMPOVERISHMENT, INCONSISTENCY, CONFUSION, AND DISORDER, OFTEN WITH DEPRIVATION OF FOOD, CLOTHING, AND SHELTER. THESE PARENTS CATEGORIZE PEOPLE AS THOSE WHO GIVE AND THOSE WHO TAKE. THEY BLAME THEIR PROBLEMS ON EXTERNAL CIRCUMSTANCES NOT UNDER THEIR…

  8. Chronic blood pressure control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brands, Michael W

    2012-10-01

    Chronic blood pressure is maintained within very narrow limits around an average value. However, the multitude of physiologic processes that participate in blood pressure control present a bewildering array of possibilities to explain how such tight control of arterial pressure is achieved. Guyton and Coleman and colleagues addressed this challenge by creating a mathematical model that integrated the short- and long-term control systems for overall regulation of the circulation. The hub is the renal-body fluid feedback control system, which links cardiac function and vascular resistance and capacitance with fluid volume homeostasis as the foundation for chronic blood pressure control. The cornerstone of that system is renal sodium excretory capability, which is defined by the direct effect of blood pressure on urinary sodium excretion, that is, "pressure natriuresis." Steady-state blood pressure is the pressure at which pressure natriuresis balances sodium intake over time; therefore, renal sodium excretory capability is the set point for chronic blood pressure. However, this often is misinterpreted as dismissing, or minimizing, the importance of nonrenal mechanisms in chronic blood pressure control. This article explains the renal basis for the blood pressure set point by focusing on the absolute dependence of our survival on the maintenance of sodium balance. Two principal threats to sodium balance are discussed: (1) a change in sodium intake or renal excretory capability and (2) a change in blood pressure. In both instances, circulatory homeostasis is maintained because the sodium balance blood pressure set point is reached.

  9. Chronic Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the feet and ankles Causes & Risk FactorsWhat causes CKD?The most common causes of CKD are high blood pressure, diabetes and heart disease. ... caused by CKD.How else is CKD treated?Chronic kidney disease can cause other problems. Talk with your doctor about how ...

  10. EBV CHRONIC INFECTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eligio Pizzigallo

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The infection from Epstein-Barr virus (EBV or virus of infectious mononucleosis, together with other herpesviruses’ infections, represents a prototype of persistent viral infections characterized by the property of the latency. Although the reactivations of the latent infection are associated with the resumption of the viral replication and eventually with the “shedding”, it is still not clear if this virus can determine chronic infectious diseases, more or less evolutive. These diseases could include some pathological conditions actually defined as “idiopathic”and characterized by the “viral persistence” as the more credible pathogenetic factor. Among the so-called idiopathic syndromes, the “chronic fatigue syndrome” (CFS aroused a great interest around the eighties of the last century when, just for its relationship with EBV, it was called “chronic mononucleosis” or “chronic EBV infection”. Today CFS, as defined in 1994 by the CDC of Atlanta (USA, really represents a multifactorial syndrome characterized by a chronic course, where reactivation and remission phases alternate, and by a good prognosis. The etiopathogenetic role of EBV is demonstrated only in a well-examined subgroup of patients, while in most of the remaining cases this role should be played by other infectious agents - able to remain in a latent or persistent way in the host – or even by not infectious agents (toxic, neuroendocrine, methabolic, etc.. However, the pathogenetic substrate of the different etiologic forms seems to be the same, much probably represented by the oxidative damage due to the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines as a response to the triggering event (infectious or not infectious. Anyway, recently the scientists turned their’s attention to the genetic predisposition of the subjects affected by the syndrome, so that in the last years the genetic studies, together with those of molecular biology, received a great impulse

  11. Screening for Chronic Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding Task Force Recommendations Screening for Chronic Kidney Disease The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (Task Force) has issued a final recommendation on Screening for Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) . This recommendation ...

  12. Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyneuropathy (CIDP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and abnormal sensations. CIDP is closely related to Guillain-Barre syndrome and it is considered the chronic counterpart ... and abnormal sensations. CIDP is closely related to Guillain-Barre syndrome and it is considered the chronic counterpart ...

  13. Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS): Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... CDC.gov . Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS) Share Compartir Symptoms On this Page Primary Symptoms Other Symptoms What's ... a doctor distinguish CFS from other illnesses. Primary Symptoms As the name chronic fatigue syndrome suggests , fatigue ...

  14. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V K Vijayan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The global prevalence of physiologically defined chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD in adults aged >40 yr is approximately 9-10 per cent. Recently, the Indian Study on Epidemiology of Asthma, Respiratory Symptoms and Chronic Bronchitis in Adults had shown that the overall prevalence of chronic bronchitis in adults >35 yr is 3.49 per cent. The development of COPD is multifactorial and the risk factors of COPD include genetic and environmental factors. Pathological changes in COPD are observed in central airways, small airways and alveolar space. The proposed pathogenesis of COPD includes proteinase-antiproteinase hypothesis, immunological mechanisms, oxidant-antioxidant balance, systemic inflammation, apoptosis and ineffective repair. Airflow limitation in COPD is defined as a postbronchodilator FEV1 (forced expiratory volume in 1 sec to FVC (forced vital capacity ratio <0.70. COPD is characterized by an accelerated decline in FEV1. Co morbidities associated with COPD are cardiovascular disorders (coronary artery disease and chronic heart failure, hypertension, metabolic diseases (diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome and obesity, bone disease (osteoporosis and osteopenia, stroke, lung cancer, cachexia, skeletal muscle weakness, anaemia, depression and cognitive decline. The assessment of COPD is required to determine the severity of the disease, its impact on the health status and the risk of future events (e.g., exacerbations, hospital admissions or death and this is essential to guide therapy. COPD is treated with inhaled bronchodilators, inhaled corticosteroids, oral theophylline and oral phosphodiesterase-4 inhibitor. Non pharmacological treatment of COPD includes smoking cessation, pulmonary rehabilitation and nutritional support. Lung volume reduction surgery and lung transplantation are advised in selected severe patients. Global strategy for the diagnosis, management and prevention of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

  15. Defining and Measuring Chronic Conditions

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-05-20

    This podcast is an interview with Dr. Anand Parekh, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Deputy Assistant Secretary for Health, and Dr. Samuel Posner, Preventing Chronic Disease Editor in Chief, about the definition and burden of multiple chronic conditions in the United States.  Created: 5/20/2013 by Preventing Chronic Disease (PCD), National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 5/20/2013.

  16. Treating Chronic Myeloid Leukemia by Phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Myeloid Leukemia (CML) Treating Chronic Myeloid Leukemia Treating Chronic Myeloid Leukemia by Phase Treatment options for people ... a stem cell donor with matching tissue type. Chronic phase The standard treatment for chronic phase CML ...

  17. Water, Water Everywhere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeler, Rusty

    2009-01-01

    Everybody knows that children love water and how great water play is for children. The author discusses ways to add water to one's playscape that fully comply with health and safety regulations and are still fun for children. He stresses the importance of creating water play that provides children with the opportunity to interact with water.

  18. [Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franques, J; Azulay, J-P; Pouget, J; Attarian, S

    2010-06-01

    Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP) is a demyelinating chronic neuropathy of immune origin whose diagnosis is based upon clinical, biological and electrophysiological data; previously critical to the diagnosis the nerve biopsy is now restricted to the rare situations where accurate diagnosis cannot be reached using these data alone. CIDP are mainly idiopathic, but a few associated diseases must be sought for as they require specific attention. Such associated diseases must particularly be discussed when the manifestations are severe or resistant to immunomodulating or immunosuppressive agents. Indeed, idiopathic CIDP are usually responsive to these treatments. The effectiveness of these treatments is limited by the importance of the secondary axonal loss. The dependence or the resistance may sometimes justify the association of several immunomodulating treatments. A single randomized controlled trial support the use of cytotoxic drugs and none with rituximab.

  19. Chronic intestinal pseudoobstruction syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeon, Kyung Mo; Seo, Jeong Kee; Lee, Yong Seok [Seoul National University Children' s Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1992-03-15

    Chronic intestinal pseudoobstruction syndrome is a rare clinical condition in which impaired intestinal peristalsis causes recurrent symptoms of bowel obstruction in the absence of a mechanical occlusion. This syndrome may involve variable segments of small or large bowel, and may be associated with urinary bladder retention. This study included 6 children(3 boys and 3 girls) of chronic intestinal obstruction. Four were symptomatic at birth and two were of the ages of one month and one year. All had abdominal distension and deflection difficulty. Five had urinary bladder distension. Despite parenteral nutrition and surgical intervention(ileostomy or colostomy), bowel obstruction persisted and four patients expired from sepses within one year. All had gaseous distension of small and large bowel on abdominal films. In small bowel series, consistent findings were variable degree of dilatation, decreased peristalsis(prolonged transit time) and microcolon or microrectum. This disease entity must be differentiated from congenital megacolon, ileal atresia and megacystis syndrome.

  20. Bilateral chronic subdural hematoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen-Ranberg, Nina Christine; Poulsen, Frantz Rom; Bergholt, Bo

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Bilateral chronic subdural hematoma (bCSDH) is a common neurosurgical condition frequently associated with the need for retreatment. The reason for the high rate of retreatment has not been thoroughly investigated. Thus, the authors focused on determining which independent predictors...... are associated with the retreatment of bCSDH with a focus on surgical laterality. METHODS In a national database of CSDHs (Danish Chronic Subdural Hematoma Study) the authors retrospectively identified all bCSDHs treated in the 4 Danish neurosurgical departments over the 3-year period from 2010 to 2012....... Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to determine the relationship between retreatment of bCSDH and clinical, radiological, and surgical variables. RESULTS Two hundred ninety-one patients with bCSDH were identified, and 264 of them underwent unilateral (136 patients) or bilateral (128 patients...

  1. Chronic pneumonitis of infancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abe, Katsumi; Kamata, Noriko; Okazaki, Eiwa [Department of Radiology, Tokyo Metropolitan Komagome Hospital, 3-18-22 Honkomagome, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8677 (Japan); Moriyama, Sachiko; Funata, Nobuaki [Department of Pathology, Tokyo Metropolitan Komagome Hospital, 3-18-22 Honkomagome, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8677 (Japan); Takita, Junko; Yamada, Hideo; Takayama, Naohide [Department of Pediatrics, Tokyo Metropolitan Komagome Hospital, 3-18-22 Honkomagome, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8677 (Japan)

    2002-07-01

    Chronic pneumonitis of infancy (CPI) is a very rare lung disease in infants and young children. We report a 33-day-old infant with CPI, focusing on the radiologic aspects of the disease. Chest radiographs showed variable and non-specific appearances including ground-glass shadowing, consolidation, volume loss, and hyperinflation. Dense alveolar opacities progressed as CPI advanced. The radiologic features of our case reflected pathologic changes. (orig.)

  2. Renal failure (chronic)

    OpenAIRE

    Clase, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    Chronic renal failure is characterised by a gradual and sustained decline in renal clearance or glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Continued progression of renal failure will lead to renal function too low to sustain healthy life. In developed countries, such people will be offered renal replacement therapy in the form of dialysis or renal transplantation. Requirement for dialysis or transplantation is termed end-stage renal disease (ESRD).Diabetes, glomerulonephritis, hypertension, pyelone...

  3. Chronic Stress and Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    to the cannabinoid CB(1) receptor agonist HU-210 following chronic stress. European Journal of Pharmacology, 499(3), 291-295. Holscher, C. (1999...learning and memory, has the highest concentration of GC receptors in the brain and is involved in the stress response. Extensive research has... receptor levels than stressed male rodents (Konkle, 2003; Figueiredo, 2002; Handa, 1994). Males and females react to stress differently, so two models

  4. EBV CHRONIC INFECTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delia Racciatti

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available

    The infection from Epstein-Barr virus (EBV or virus of infectious mononucleosis, together with other herpesviruses’ infections, represents a prototype of persistent viral infections characterized by the property of the latency. Although the reactivations of the latent infection are associated with the resumption of the viral replication and eventually with the “shedding”, it is still not clear if this virus can determine chronic infectious diseases, more or less evolutive. These diseases could include some pathological conditions actually defined as “idiopathic”and characterized by the “viral persistence” as the more credible pathogenetic factor. Among the so-called idiopathic syndromes, the “chronic fatigue syndrome” (CFS aroused a great interest around the eighties of the last century when, just for its relationship with EBV, it was called “chronic mononucleosis” or “chronic EBV infection”.

    Today CFS, as defined in 1994 by the CDC of Atlanta (USA, really represents a multifactorial syndrome characterized by a chronic course, where reactivation and remission phases alternate, and by a good prognosis

  5. [Chronic endemic regional hydroarsenicism: a challenge for diagnosis and prevention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marisa, Gaioli; González, Daniel E; Amoedo, Diego

    2009-10-01

    Arsenic (As) is a semimetal that is widely distributed in nature, in water and soil. In Argentine, the contamination of both waterways and groundwater represents the main environmental problem caused by this element. Chronic As poisoning is known as Chronic endemic regional hydroarsenicism (C.E.R.HA.). Long-term exposure to low concentrations of the element from the prenatal period onward results in the well-known symptoms of chronic As poisoning. CERHA develops progressively, compromising different organs and systems, most importantly the skin. One of the most important complications of CERHA is de development of neoplasias, mainly skin tumors. Childhood environmental health is a challenge in the new millennium and health care professionals play a fundamental role in the protection against environmental hazards such as chronic arsenic poisoning.

  6. Chronic Prostatitis/Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome Diagnosis and Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cem Nedim Yuceturk

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Chronic prostatitis is a chronic syndrome that effects men with a wide range of age. The etiology, natural history and appropriate therapy models are still unclear. According to the classification of National Institutes of Health; 4 types of prostatitis were defined; acute bacterial prostatitis (category I, chronic bacterial prostatitis (category II, chronic nonbacterial prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (category III and asymptomatic prostatitis (category IV.Since microorganisms can only be isolated from a small percent of patients, empiric treatment is given to the most of the men. Multidisciplinary approach to the patients with suspected chronic prostatitis will help clinicians to play an active role in the treatment and prevent unnecessary medical therapies. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2014; 23(4.000: 691-702

  7. Smoking water pipe is injurious to lungs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sivapalan, Pradeesh; Ringbæk, Thomas; Lange, Peter

    2014-01-01

    This review describes the pulmonary consequences of water pipe smoking. Smoking water pipe affects the lung function negatively, is significantly associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and increases the risk of lung infections. Case reports suggest that regular smokers of water pipe...

  8. Chronic radiation syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akleyev, Alexander V. [Urals Research Centre for Radiation Medicine, Chelyabinsk (Russian Federation). Clinical Dept.

    2014-04-01

    Comprehensive analysis of chronic radiation syndrome, covering epidemiology, pathogenesis, pathoanatomy, diagnosis and treatment. Based on observations in a unique sample of exposed residents of the Techa riverside villages in the Urals. Casts new light on the condition. Of value for all practitioners and researchers with an interest in chronic radiation syndrome. This book covers all aspects of chronic radiation syndrome (CRS) based on observations in a unique sample of residents of the Techa riverside villages in the southern Urals who were exposed to radioactive contamination in the 1950s owing to releases of liquid radioactive wastes from Mayak Production Association, which produced plutonium for weapons. In total, 940 cases of CRS were diagnosed in this population and these patients were subjected to detailed analysis. The opening chapters address the definition and classification of CRS, epidemiology and pathogenesis, covering molecular and cellular mechanisms, radioadaptation, and the role of tissue reactions. The pathoanatomy of CRS during the development and recovery stages is discussed for all organ systems. Clinical manifestations of CRS at the different stages are then described in detail and the dynamics of hematopoietic changes are thoroughly examined. In the following chapters, principles of diagnosis (including assessment of the exposure doses to critical organs) and differential diagnosis from a wide range of other conditions are discussed and current and potential treatment options, described. The medical and social rehabilitation of persons with CRS is also covered. This book, which casts new light on the condition, will be of value for all practitioners and researchers with an interest in CRS.

  9. Approaching chronic cough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulose, Vijo; Tiew, Pei Yee; How, Choon How

    2016-02-01

    Chronic cough is one of the most common reasons for referral to a respiratory physician. Although fatal complications are rare, it may cause considerable distress in the patient's daily life. Western and local data shows that in patients with a normal chest radiograph, the most common causes are postnasal drip syndrome, postinfectious cough, gastro-oesophageal reflux disease and cough variant asthma. Less common causes are the use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, smoker's cough and nonasthmatic eosinophilic bronchitis. A detailed history-taking and physical examination will provide a diagnosis in most patients, even at the primary care level. Some cases may need further investigations or specialist referral for diagnosis.

  10. Chronic cough in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta, Rigoberto; Bahna, Sami L

    2014-08-01

    Cough is probably the most common cause of seeking medical care in pediatric practice. Most acute cough is caused by infection and usually resolves within less than 4 weeks. If it lasts longer, it is considered chronic and deserves investigation to identify the underlying cause, which can be almost any of a wide variety of illnesses of the respiratory tract and certain extrathoracic conditions. This review provides an optimal approach for diagnosis through a skillful history taking, physical examination, and selection of appropriate tests.

  11. ESPEN guidelines on chronic intestinal failure in adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pironi, L; Arends, J.; Bozzetti, F.; Cuerda, C.; Gillanders, L.; Jeppesen, P.B.; Joly, F.; Kelly, D.; Lal, S.; Staun, M.; Szczepanek, K.; Gossum, A. van; Wanten, G.J.A.; Schneider, S.M.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Chronic Intestinal Failure (CIF) is the long-lasting reduction of gut function, below the minimum necessary for the absorption of macronutrients and/or water and electrolytes, such that intravenous supplementation is required to maintain health and/or growth. CIF is the rarest org

  12. The Chronic Poverty Report 2005

    OpenAIRE

    The Chronic Poverty Research Centre, CPRC

    2005-01-01

    The report examines what chronic poverty is and why it matters, who the chronically poor are, where they live, what causes poverty to be persistent and what should be done about it. It argues that approaches to development policy must acknowledge the agency of the chronically poor themselves in overcoming their poverty. But they also need real commitment, matched by actions and resources, to support their efforts to attain their rights and overcome the obstacles that trap them in poverty.

  13. Treatment Strategies for Chronic Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan M Lord

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The treatment of chronic somatic pain, including pain referred to the head, neck, shoulder girdle and upper limb from somatic structures, is addressed. Levels of evidence for the various treatments that have been prescribed for chronic whiplash associated disorders are considered. The challenge to find a treatment strategy for chronic pain after whiplash that completely relieves the condition and prevents its sequelae is reviewed.

  14. Late and chronic Lyme disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donta, Sam T

    2002-03-01

    This article reviews the late and chronic manifestations of Lyme disease. Special attention is given to the chronic manifestations of the disease, detailing its pathogenesis, clinical spectrum, and laboratory criteria for the diagnosis. Based on experimental evidence and experience, approaches to the successful treatment of the late and chronic disease are outlined. Much additional work is needed to improve the understanding of the underlying pathophysiology of the disease, its diagnosis and treatment.

  15. Chronic avulsive injuries of childhood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donnelly, L.F.; Helms, C.A. [Dept. of Radiology, Duke Univ. Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Bisset, G.S. III [Dept. of Radiology, Duke Univ. Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States)]|[Department of Pediatrics, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Squire, D.L. [Department of Pediatrics, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States)

    1999-03-01

    Children and adolescents are prone to avulsive injuries related to a combination of their propensity for great strength, ability to sustain extreme levels of activity, and immature growing apophyses. Appropriate interpretation of imaging studies showing chronic avulsive injuries is essential so that the irregularity and periostitis that can be associated with chronic avulsions is not misinterpreted as probable malignancy. This article reviews the chronic avulsive injuries of childhood. (orig.) With 12 figs., 8 refs.

  16. Understanding Biofilms in Chronic Sinusitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajudeen, Bobby A; Schwartz, Joseph S; Palmer, James N

    2016-02-01

    Chronic sinusitis is a burdensome disease that has substantial individual and societal impact. Although great advances in medical and surgical therapies have been made, some patients continue to have recalcitrant infections. Microbial biofilms have been implicated as a cause of recalcitrant chronic sinusitis, and recent studies have tried to better understand the pathogenesis of chronic sinusitis as it relates to microbial biofilms. Here, we provide an overview of biofilms in chronic sinusitis with emphasis on pathogenesis, treatment, and future directions. In addition, recent evidence is presented, elucidating the role of bitter taste receptors as a possible key factor leading to biofilm formation.

  17. Diagnostic dilemmas in chronic urticaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toubi, E; Grattan, C; Zuberbier, T

    2015-06-01

    The European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI)/Global Allergy and Asthma European Network (GA(2) LEN)/European Dermatology Forum (EDF)/World Allergy Organization (WAO) recently published updated recommendations for the classification, diagnosis and management of chronic urticaria (CU). This article discusses several cases of CU that provide examples of how the recommendations in the guidelines can be implemented in the diagnosis of chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU) (also called chronic idiopathic urticaria [CIU]), chronic inducible urticaria (CINDU) or CU with comorbidities.

  18. Chronic diseases and mental disorder.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhaak, P.F.M.; Heijmans, M.J.W.M.; Peters, L.; Rijken, M.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to achieve a better understanding of the relationship between chronic medical illness and mental distress. Therefore, the association between chronic medical illness and mental distress was analysed, taking into account the modifying effects of generic disease characteristi

  19. Anemia in Chronic Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... High Blood Pressure Heart Disease Mineral & Bone Disorder Anemia in Chronic Kidney Disease What is anemia? Anemia is a condition in which the body ... function as well as they should. How is anemia related to chronic kidney disease? Anemia commonly occurs ...

  20. Chronic Kidney Disease and Medicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from our online catalog. Alternate Language URL Español Chronic Kidney Disease and Medicines: What You Need to Know Page ... What you need to know Because you have chronic kidney disease, you should take steps to protect your kidneys. ...

  1. Obinutuzumab in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupuis, Jehan

    2015-09-01

    Obinutuzumab is the second next-generation monoclonal anti-CD20 antibody (after ofatumumab) to enter clinical practice in chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Its superiority in association with chlorambucil as compared with chlorambucil alone has led to its approval as a first-line treatment for chronic lymphocytic leukemia, for patients who are not candidates for a more intensive treatment.

  2. [Histopathologic study of chronic sinusitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayoff, M; Parache, R M; Bodelet, B; Gazel, P

    1983-01-01

    The conventional histopathology of the sinus is a criterium for the therapeutic indication, since it is possible to distinguish between granulomatous chronic sinusitis, chronic sinusitis with oedema and nasal polyposis. Each one of these clinical pictures has his own etiology and requires a specific therapeutic approach.

  3. [Chronic pyelonephritis in polycystic kidney].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todorov, V; Penkova, S; Monov, A

    1989-01-01

    The characteristics of chronic pyelonephritis are studied in 37 patients out of a total of 53 patients with proved renal polycystosis. A group of 71 patients with chronic pyelonephritis selected at random are used as a control group. The frequency of chronic pyelonephritis among the patients with renal polycystosis is 69.8%. The difference between the mean age of the patients with renal polycystosis and chronic pyelonephritis and the patients with renal polycystosis without chronic pyelonephritis is 8.6 years. A significant difference is established between these two groups of patients concerning the frequency of symptomatic hypertension--89.2% for the patients with renal polycystosis and chronic pyelonephritis and 45% for the patients with uncomplicated renal polycystosis. A similar difference is established also for the renal failure--respectively 64.9% and 37.5%. The frequency of hypertension and chronic renal failure is lower in the control group of patients. 59% of the patients with renal polycystosis and chronic pyelonephritis have significant bacteriuria, E. coli and Proteus being the most frequently isolated bacteria but Pseudomonas shows the highest drug resistance. The isolated bacteria are most sensitive to nitroxoline and aminoglycoside antibiotics.

  4. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... term that is used to include chronic bronchitis, emphysema, or a combination of both conditions. Asthma is also a disease where it is difficult ... with COPD to also have some degree of asthma. What is chronic ... back to their original size. In emphysema, the walls of some of the alveoli have ...

  5. Pharmacologic Agents for Chronic Diarrhea

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Kwang Jae

    2015-01-01

    Chronic diarrhea is usually associated with a number of non-infectious causes. When definitive treatment is unavailable, symptomatic drug therapy is indicated. Pharmacologic agents for chronic diarrhea include loperamide, 5-hydroxytryptamine type 3 (5-HT3) receptor antagonists, diosmectite, cholestyramine, probiotics, antispasmodics, rifaximin, and anti-inflammatory agents. Loperamide, a synthetic opiate agonist, decreases peristaltic activity and inhibits secretion, resulting in the reductio...

  6. [Brain changes in patients on chronic hemodialysis recorded by computed axial tomography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todorov, V; Penkova, S; Boneva, R; Kiuchukov, G

    1988-01-01

    The brain changes in patients with chronic renal failure treated by chronic hemodialysis were studied with the help of computed tomography. The results showed the development of internal hydrocephalus in the patients in whose treatment "hard" water was used. In some of these patients the hydrocephalus was accompanied by clinical manifestations of the "disequilibrium" syndrome and the "hard water" syndrome. The patients dialyzed with "soft" water showed no brain changes and clinical signs. Hydrocephalus is probably the main pathogenetic factor for the development of the "hard water" syndrome which later develops in dialysis encephalopathy.

  7. Refractory chronic cluster headache

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitsikostas, Dimos D; Edvinsson, Lars; Jensen, Rigmor H

    2014-01-01

    Chronic cluster headache (CCH) often resists to prophylactic pharmaceutical treatments resulting in patients' life damage. In this rare but pragmatic situation escalation to invasive management is needed but framing criteria are lacking. We aimed to reach a consensus for refractory CCH definition...... for clinical and research use. The preparation of the final consensus followed three stages. Internal between authors, a larger between all European Headache Federation members and finally an international one among all investigators that have published clinical studies on cluster headache the last five years....... Eighty-five investigators reached by email. Proposed criteria were in the format of the International Classification of Headache Disorders III-beta (description, criteria, notes, comments and references). Following this evaluation eight drafts were prepared before the final. Twenty-four (28...

  8. [Chronic occupational metallic mercurialism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, Marcília de Araújo Medrado

    2003-02-01

    This is a review on current knowledge of chronic occupational mercurialism syndrome. Major scientific studies and reviews on clinical manifestation and physiopathology of mercury poisoning were evaluated. The search was complemented using Medline and Lilacs data. Erethism or neuropsychological syndrome, characterized by irritability, personality change, loss of self-confidence, depression, delirium, insomnia, apathy, loss of memory, headaches, general pain, and tremors, is seen after exposure to metallic mercury. Hypertension, renal disturbances, allergies and immunological conditions are also common. Mercury is found in many different work processes: industries, gold mining, and dentistry. As prevention measures are not often adopted there is an increasing risk of mercury poisoning. The disease has been under diagnosed even though 16 clinical forms of mercury poisoning are described by Brazilian regulations. Clinical diagnosis is important, especially because abnormalities in the central nervous, renal and immunological systems can be detected using current medical technology, helping to develop the knowledge and control measures for mercurialism.

  9. Chronic hypophosphatemic osteopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koppers, B.; Schmid, L.; Hofmann, E.; Sauer, E.

    1980-07-01

    The process of chronic hypophosphatemic vitamine D-resistant rickets is described by observation of two cases. With the male patient - our first case - the disease was sporadic and had not been recognized for a long time. In his early adulthood it manifested itself as Umbauzonen (pseudofractures) in the larger context of active osteomalacia. It was possible to observe the pseudofractures before and while the patient was medicamentously treated. High doses of vitamine D 3 and dosage of phosphate mitigated the complaints although with respect to the radiological, scintigraphical, humoral and histological findings there was only slow improvement or no improvement at all. The patient's daughter is affected by the disease as well. In her case the pathological signs of her bones became better when treated with vitamine D 3.

  10. Chronic endometritis and infertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyun Jong; Kim, You Shin; Yoon, Tae Ki

    2016-01-01

    Chronic endometritis (CE) is a condition involving the breakdown of the peaceful co-existence between microorganisms and the host immune system in the endometrium. A majority of CE cases produce no noticeable signs or mild symptoms, and the prevalence rate of CE has been found to be approximately 10%. Gynecologists and pathologists often do not focus much clinical attention on CE due to the time-consuming microscopic examinations necessary to diagnose CE, its mild clinical manifestations, and the benign nature of the disease. However, the relationship between CE and infertility-related conditions such as repeated implantation failure and recurrent miscarriage has recently emerged as an area of inquiry. In this study, we reviewed the literature on the pathophysiology of CE and how it may be associated with infertility, as well as the literature regarding the diagnosis and treatment of CE. In addition, we discuss the value of hysteroscopic procedures in the diagnosis and treatment of CE. PMID:28090456

  11. Tracer injection techniques in flowing surface water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wörman, A.

    2009-04-01

    Residence time distributions for flowing water and reactive matter are commonly used integrated properties of the transport process for determining technical issues of water resource management and in eco-hydrological science. Two general issues for tracer techniques are that the concentration-vs-time relation following a tracer injection (the breakthrough curve) gives unique transport information in different parts of the curve and separation of hydromechanical and reactive mechanisms often require simultaneous tracer injections. This presentation discusses evaluation methods for simultaneous tracer injections based on examples of tracer experiments in small rivers, streams and wetlands. Tritiated water is used as a practically inert substance to reflect the actual hydrodynamics, but other involved tracers are Cr(III)-51, P-32 and N-15. Hydromechanical, in-stream dispersion is reflected as a symmetrical spreading of the spatial concentration distribution. This requires that the transport distance over water depth is larger than about five times the flow Peclet number. Transversal retention of both inert and reactive solutes is reflected in terms of the tail of the breakthrough curve. Especially, reactive solutes can have a substantial magnification of the tailing behaviour depending on reaction rates or partitioning coefficients. To accurately discriminate between the effects of reactions and hydromechanical mixing its is relevant to use simultaneous injections of inert and reactive tracers with a sequential or integrated evaluation procedure. As an example, the slope of the P-32 tailing is consistently smaller than that of a simultaneous tritium injection in Ekeby wetland, Eskilstuna. The same applies to N-15 injected in the same experiment, but nitrogen is affected also by a systematic loss due to denitrification. Uptake in stream-bed sediments can be caused by a pumping effect arising when a variable pressure field is created on the stream bottom due to bed

  12. Mozart's chronic subdural hematoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, M E

    1993-11-01

    No commemoration of the bicentennial of Mozart's death would be complete without some consideration of that premature yet predictable demise. Mozart's premonitions of death are well known and apparently played a role in the composition of the K.626 Requiem and perhaps other works. His death has traditionally been ascribed to infectious causes, chiefly rheumatic fever or post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis, exacerbated by intemperance and chronic penury. Pathology has been difficult because of his supposed burial in a pauper's grave, the location and contents of which were later supposedly lost. Mozart's burial place in St. Mark's Cemetery in Vienna was known and, in the parlance of the day, "reorganized" a decade later, as the occupants of plots were disinterred to make room for the more recently decreased. A skull believed to the Mozart's was saved by the successor of the gravedigger who had supervised Mozart's burial, and then passed into the collections of the anatomist Josef Hyrtl, the municipality of Salzburg, and the Mozarteum museum (Salzburg). Forensic reconstruction of soft tissues related to this skull reveals substantial concordance with Mozart's portraits. The skull suggests premature closure of the metopic suture, which has been suggested on the basis of his physiognomy. A left temporal fracture and concomitant erosions raise the question of chronic subdural hematoma, which would be consistent with several falls in 1789 and 1790 and could have caused the weakness, headaches, and fainting he experienced in 1790 and 1791. Aggressive bloodletting to treat suspected rheumatic fever could have decompensated such a lesion to produce his death on December 5, 1791.

  13. Lack of micronucleus induction activity of ethyl tertiary-butyl ether in the bone marrow of F344 rats by sub-chronic drinking-water treatment, inhalation exposure, or acute intraperitoneal injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguchi, Tadashi; Kamigaito, Tomoyuki; Katagiri, Taku; Kondou, Hitomi; Yamazaki, Kazunori; Aiso, Shigetoshi; Nishizawa, Tomoshi; Nagano, Kasuke; Fukushima, Shoji

    2013-01-01

    Ethyl tertiary-butyl ether (ETBE) is an oxygenated gasoline additive synthesized from ethanol and isobutene that is used to reduce CO2 emissions. To support the Kyoto Protocol, the production of ETBE has undergone a marked increase. Previous reports have indicated that exposure to ETBE or methyl tertiary-butyl ether resulted in liver and kidney tumors in rats and/or mice. These reports raise concern about the effects of human exposure being brought about by the increased use of ETBE. The present study was conducted to evaluate the genotoxicity of ETBE using micronucleus induction of polychromatic erythrocytes in the bone marrow of male and female rats treated with ETBE in the drinking-water at concentrations of 0, 1,600, 4,000 or 10,000 ppm or exposed to ETBE vapor at 0, 500, 1,500 or 5,000 ppm for 13 weeks. There were no significant increases in micronucleus induction in either the drinking water-administered or inhalation-administered groups at any concentration of ETBE; although, in both groups red blood cells and hemoglobin concentration were slightly reduced in the peripheral blood in rats administered the highest concentration of ETBE. In addition, two consecutive daily intraperitoneal injections of ETBE at doses of 0, 250, 500 or 1,000 mg/kg did not increase the frequency of micronucleated bone marrow cells in either sex; all rats receiving intraperitoneal injections of ETBE at a dose of 2,000 mg/kg died after treatment day 1. These data suggest that ETBE is not genotoxic in vivo.

  14. [Conservative therapy of chronic sinusitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiss, Michael; Reiss, Gilfe

    2012-01-01

    The chronic rhinosinusitis is defined as chronic inflammation of the nose and nasal sinuses, with or without nasal polyps. Patients suffering from chronic rhinosinusitis report about nasal obstruction and secretion, olfactory impairment, head and facial pain. These symptoms cause also considerable impact on quality of life. Therefore, an adequate rhinological diagnostics as well as therapies are essential. This paper reviews the pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic therapy of chronic rhinosinusitis. First choice of therapy should be topical glucocorticoids. The application of glucocorticoids causes anti-inflammatory and certain curative effects. Hypertonic salt solutions improve nasal symptoms. Long-term therapy with oral macrolides might improve median to severe symptoms of chronic rhinosinusitis without nasal polyps. An additional therapy with antihistamines is possible in patients with an allergy. Adaptive desensitization in patients suffering from analgesic-intolerance associating among other with nasal polyps is currently the single causal therapy. Therefore, frequency of endonasal revision surgery is reduced after desensitization.

  15. Understanding anemia of chronic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraenkel, Paula G

    2015-01-01

    The anemia of chronic disease is an old disease concept, but contemporary research in the role of proinflammatory cytokines and iron biology has shed new light on the pathophysiology of the condition. Recent epidemiologic studies have connected the anemia of chronic disease with critical illness, obesity, aging, and kidney failure, as well as with the well-established associations of cancer, chronic infection, and autoimmune disease. Functional iron deficiency, mediated principally by the interaction of interleukin-6, the iron regulatory hormone hepcidin, and the iron exporter ferroportin, is a major contributor to the anemia of chronic disease. Although anemia is associated with adverse outcomes, experimental models suggest that iron sequestration is desirable in the setting of severe infection. Experimental therapeutic approaches targeting interleukin-6 or the ferroportin-hepcidin axis have shown efficacy in reversing anemia in either animal models or human patients, although these agents have not yet been approved for the treatment of the anemia of chronic disease.

  16. Microbial Biofilms and Chronic Wounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, Amin; Wright, J. Barry; Schultz, Gregory; Burrell, Robert; Nadworny, Patricia

    2017-01-01

    Background is provided on biofilms, including their formation, tolerance mechanisms, structure, and morphology within the context of chronic wounds. The features of biofilms in chronic wounds are discussed in detail, as is the impact of biofilm on wound chronicity. Difficulties associated with the use of standard susceptibility tests (minimum inhibitory concentrations or MICs) to determine appropriate treatment regimens for, or develop new treatments for use in, chronic wounds are discussed, with alternate test methods specific to biofilms being recommended. Animal models appropriate for evaluating biofilm treatments are also described. Current and potential future therapies for treatment of biofilm-containing chronic wounds, including probiotic therapy, virulence attenuation, biofilm phenotype expression attenuation, immune response suppression, and aggressive debridement combined with antimicrobial dressings, are described. PMID:28272369

  17. Skin manifestations and comorbidities of chronic arsenicosis due to contaminated drinking water and their risk factors%慢性饮水型砷中毒患者皮肤表现和合并疾病及影响因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩建文; 狄震; 张巧丽; 刘佳; 乌日嘎; 智艳平; 乌日娜

    2016-01-01

    目的:分析慢性饮水型砷中毒患者的皮肤表现、合并疾病以及可能的影响因素。方法对内蒙古95例慢性饮水型砷中毒患者的人口学特征、皮肤表现、合并疾病进行流行病学调查和分析。建立logistic回归模型,分析性别、年龄、开始饮用高砷水年龄、水砷浓度及饮用高砷水时间年龄与皮肤表现、合并疾病间的相关性。结果95例患者中共有77例患者发生色素沉着,75例发生色素减退,93例发生掌跖部皮肤角化,27例患者发生皮肤癌,其中多发性皮肤癌8例。合并结核5例、高血压15例、类风湿性关节炎2例、脑梗死4例、冠心病7例、内脏恶性肿瘤3例、肝硬化6例、贫血2例。回归分析发现色素沉着与水砷浓度相关(OR=0.32,95%CI=0.10~0.98);校正OR=0.27,95%CI=0.08~0.90)。冠心病的发生与饮用高砷水时间具有相关性(OR=6.41,95%CI=1.09~37.88;校正OR=8.55,95%CI=1.212~60.41)。肝硬化的发生与水砷浓度具有相关性(OR=24.67,95%CI=2.69~226.57;校正OR=22.51,95%CI=2.38~213.11)。结论慢性砷中毒患者色素代谢异常、掌跖部皮肤角化、皮肤癌发生率高。水砷浓度、饮用高砷水时间不同对人体可能产生不同的影响。%Objective To investigate skin manifestations and comorbidities of chronic arsenicosis due to conta⁃minated drinking water, and to explore their possible risk factors. Methods Data about demographic characteristics, skin manifestations and comorbidities were collected from 95 patients with chronic arsenicosis due to contaminated drinking water in Inner Mongolia, and retrospectively analyzed. A logistic regression model was established to analyze associations of skin manifestations and comorbidities with patients′ gender, age, age at onset of drinking of arsenic⁃contaminated water, arsenic concentrations in water and duration of arsenic exposure. Results Among the 95 patients, 77 had

  18. Biological assessment of the enhancement of tritium excretion by administration of diuretics and excessive water in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunugita, Naoki; Dohi, Seitaro; Yamamoto, Hisao; Norimura, Toshiyuki; Tsuchiya, Takehiko (University of Occupational and Environmental Health, Kitakyushu (Japan))

    1990-12-01

    This study was undertaken to determine whether or not the administration of diuretics and excess water after tritium exposure would have any positive reducing effect not only on the retention of tritium but also on the radiation damage of hematopoietic tissue in mice. When mice were treated with diuretics and excess water for a few days after injection of tritiated water (HTO), radioactivity within the body fluid and tissues was reduced, and the number of colony-forming units (CFU-s), clonability of splenic T cells and proliferative activity assayed by Concanavalin-A blastogenesis were increased in comparison with those in the controls. When the mice were injected with a large dose of HTO (811 MBq/mouse) to assay survival, no mice treated with diuretic and excess water died 80 days after injection, while 80% of the controls died during the first month. The final committed dose in the mice treated early with diuretics was calculated to be 60% of that in the controls. These results suggest that treatment with diuretics and excess water is useful for practical purposes when a human is accidentally exposed to tritium. (author).

  19. Chronic Myeloid Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Blood is composed of plasma and cells. Plasma. Plasma is largely made up of water in which many chemicals are dissolved. These chemicals ... some blood cancers, or those who have received treatment (such as chemotherapy) for cancer, often have low neutrophil counts. People with low neutrophil counts are ...

  20. Chronic Exposure to Arsenic in Drinking Water Causes Alterations in Locomotor Activity and Decreases Striatal mRNA for the D2 Dopamine Receptor in CD1 Male Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Leticia Moreno Ávila

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic exposure has been associated with sensory, motor, memory, and learning alterations in humans and alterations in locomotor activity, behavioral tasks, and neurotransmitters systems in rodents. In this study, CD1 mice were exposed to 0.5 or 5.0 mg As/L of drinking water for 6 months. Locomotor activity, aggression, interspecific behavior and physical appearance, monoamines levels, and expression of the messenger for dopamine receptors D1 and D2 were assessed. Arsenic exposure produced hypoactivity at six months and other behaviors such as rearing and on-wall rearing and barbering showed both increases and decreases. No alterations on aggressive behavior or monoamines levels in striatum or frontal cortex were observed. A significant decrease in the expression of mRNA for D2 receptors was found in striatum of mice exposed to 5.0 mg As/L. This study provides evidence for the use of dopamine receptor D2 as potential target of arsenic toxicity in the dopaminergic system.

  1. Adjusting to Chronic Health Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helgeson, Vicki S; Zajdel, Melissa

    2017-01-03

    Research on adjustment to chronic disease is critical in today's world, in which people are living longer lives, but lives are increasingly likely to be characterized by one or more chronic illnesses. Chronic illnesses may deteriorate, enter remission, or fluctuate, but their defining characteristic is that they persist. In this review, we first examine the effects of chronic disease on one's sense of self. Then we review categories of factors that influence how one adjusts to chronic illness, with particular emphasis on the impact of these factors on functional status and psychosocial adjustment. We begin with contextual factors, including demographic variables such as sex and race, as well as illness dimensions such as stigma and illness identity. We then examine a set of dispositional factors that influence chronic illness adjustment, organizing these into resilience and vulnerability factors. Resilience factors include cognitive adaptation indicators, personality variables, and benefit-finding. Vulnerability factors include a pessimistic attributional style, negative gender-related traits, and rumination. We then turn to social environmental variables, including both supportive and unsupportive interactions. Finally, we review chronic illness adjustment within the context of dyadic coping. We conclude by examining potential interactions among these classes of variables and outlining a set of directions for future research.

  2. Common Questions About Chronic Prostatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, James D; Garrett, W Allan; McCurry, Tyler K; Teichman, Joel M H

    2016-02-15

    Chronic prostatitis is relatively common, with a lifetime prevalence of 1.8% to 8.2%. Risk factors include conditions that facilitate introduction of bacteria into the urethra and prostate (which also predispose the patient to urinary tract infections) and conditions that can lead to chronic neuropathic pain. Chronic prostatitis must be differentiated from other causes of chronic pelvic pain, such as interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome and pelvic floor dysfunction; prostate and bladder cancers; benign prostatic hyperplasia; urolithiasis; and other causes of dysuria, urinary frequency, and nocturia. The National Institutes of Health divides prostatitis into four syndromes: acute bacterial prostatitis, chronic bacterial prostatitis (CBP), chronic nonbacterial prostatitis (CNP)/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CPPS), and asymptomatic inflammatory prostatitis. CBP and CNP/CPPS both lead to pelvic pain and lower urinary tract symptoms. CBP presents as recurrent urinary tract infections with the same organism identified on repeated cultures; it responds to a prolonged course of an antibiotic that adequately penetrates the prostate, if the urine culture suggests sensitivity. If four to six weeks of antibiotic therapy is effective but symptoms recur, another course may be prescribed, perhaps in combination with alpha blockers or nonopioid analgesics. CNP/CPPS, accounting for more than 90% of chronic prostatitis cases, presents as prostatic pain lasting at least three months without consistent culture results. Weak evidence supports the use of alpha blockers, pain medications, and a four- to six-week course of antibiotics for the treatment of CNP/CPPS. Patients may also be referred to a psychologist experienced in managing chronic pain. Experts on this condition recommend a combination of treatments tailored to the patient's phenotypic presentation. Urology referral should be considered when appropriate treatment is ineffective. Additional treatments include pelvic

  3. Inventory of tritium concentration of waters in the Manche department; Inventaire des concentrations en tritium des eaux du Departement de La Manche

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    For the inventory of water tritium concentration in the Manche department, it is the complementarity that animated the work opened during year 2001. To answer to a commune sensitivity such water quality, particularly drinking water at tap, the A.C.R.O. laboratory brought its know how to make and its technical means in the area of tritium analysis and the general council brought its know how to make and its logistics means in matter of sanitary control. This collaboration has allowed to supply an indication on the tritium content of the distribution waters of thirty of the most important cities of the department. Then, it allowed to inform on the radiological situation (in relation with the tritium presence) of coast waters and principal rivers waters. More than 160 controls have been realised between the months of march 2001 and february 2002. Only the tritium under the shape of tritiated water has been measured. The measures have been made by liquid scintillation according to the regulatory agreement. (N.C.)

  4. Laryngeal hypersensitivity in chronic cough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, J H; Menon, A

    2015-12-01

    Patients with chronic cough often report symptoms arising in the throat, in response to non-specific stimuli. Accordingly, the concept of a 'hypersensitivity' of the larynx in chronic cough has evolved over the past ten years. Patients with cough and laryngeal hypersensitivity frequently report features that overlap other laryngeal dysfunction syndromes, including a tendency for the vocal cords to inappropriately adduct. The mechanisms underlying laryngeal hypersensitivity in chronic cough are currently unclear, however recent studies provide new clinical and physiological techniques to aid detection and monitoring of laryngeal hypersensitivity. This review provides an overview of the current state of knowledge in this field.

  5. Multimodal Treatment of Chronic Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Rebecca; Stacey, Brett

    2016-01-01

    Most patients with chronic pain receive multimodal treatment. There is scant literature to guide us, but when approaching combination pharmacotherapy, the practitioner and patient must weigh the benefits with the side effects; many medications have modest effect yet carry significant side effects that can be additive. Chronic pain often leads to depression, anxiety, and deconditioning, which are targets for treatment. Structured interdisciplinary programs are beneficial but costly. Interventions have their place in the treatment of chronic pain and should be a part of a multidisciplinary treatment plan. Further research is needed to validate many common combination treatments.

  6. Drinking Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the safest water supplies in the world, but drinking water quality can vary from place to place. It ... water supplier must give you annual reports on drinking water. The reports include where your water came from ...

  7. [Chronic ataxia in childhood].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erazo Torricelli, Ricardo

    2013-01-01

    Chronic ataxias are an heterogeneous group of disorders that affect the child at different ages. Thus, the congenital forms, generally non progressive are observed from first months of life and are expressed by hypotonia and motor delay long before the ataxia became evident. The cerebral magnetic resonance images (MRI) may be diagnostic in some pictures like Joubert syndrome. The group of progressive hereditary ataxias, usually begin after the infant period. The clinical signs are gait instability and ocular apraxia that can be associated with oculocutaneous telangiectasias (ataxia-telangiesctasia) or with sensory neuropathy (Friedreich ataxia). In this review are briefly described congenital ataxias and in more detailed form the progressive hereditary ataxias autosomal recessive, autosomal dominants and mitochondrials. The importance of genetic study is emphasized, because it is the key to obtain the diagnosis in the majority of these diseases. Although now there are no treatments for the majority of progressive hereditary ataxias, some they have like Refsum disease, vitamine E deficiency, Coenzyme Q10 deficiency and others, thus the diagnosis in these cases is even more important. At present the diagnosis of childhood hereditary ataxia not yet treatable is fundamental to obtain suitable handling, determine a precise outcome and to give to the family an opportune genetic counseling.

  8. [Chronic pain in geriatrics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennes, B

    2001-06-01

    Pain is frequent in communicative or no-communicative, ambulatory, institutionalized or hospitalized veterans. It is associated with severe comorbidity so much more than chronic pain could be neglected and expressed of atypical manner or masked by the absence of classical symptoms in particular in case of dementia or of sensory disorders. Pain detection by clinic examination or by pain assessment's methods and adequate approach by pharmacological and non pharmacological therapies are essential for correct pain management. On pharmacological plan, the strategy of the O.M.S. landings is applicable owing to a more particular attention to secondary effects and drugs interactions. AINS must be manipulated with prudence. There are no reasons to exclude opioides from the therapeutic arsenal but with a reduction of the starting doses, a regular adaptation and a very attentive survey. In drugs of landing 2, tramadol reveals itself as efficient and better tolerated as the codeine and dextropropoxyphene has to be to avoid. The obtaining of a satisfactory result depends on a regular assessment of the pain in a context of polydisciplinar approach (physicians, nurses, paramedicals, other care givers).

  9. [Chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, F; Eckardt, A; Kessler, S

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to give a detailed description of the so-called "chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis" (CRMO). The clinical, radiological and histopathological results of an analysis of 29 cases (15 children/adolescents and 14 adults) are presented and correlated to current data from the literature. We could delinate the following points: 1. CRMO is a systemic aseptic inflammation of the bone marrow (Osteitis), it can occur polytopically and association with pustulous dermatologic symptoms is possible. 2. It is not a rare disease 3. Osteomyelitis is probably "reactive" and a plasma-cell sclerotic process with ist own characteristic histologic three-phase course. 4. We could observe 5 specific types of localization which can be documented by X-ray or bone scan. 5. Accompanying arthritis os often present, especially "sympathetic coxitis". 6. The use of drugs in treatment of CRMO (i.e. azithromycin, calcitonin, and bisphosphonates) is discussed. In conclusion we want to point out, that 1. 99mTC bone scan should always be performed when there is suspicion for CRMO to reveal the pattern of affection, 2. the rheumatologist and dermatologist should be contacted, 3. operation is normally not necessary for treatment of the mostly self-limitin disease, and 4. the term "SAPHO syndrome" should be avoided, further differentiation of the diagnosis is necessary.

  10. Chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roderick, Marion R; Ramanan, Athimalaipet V

    2013-01-01

    Chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis (CRMO) is an autoinflammatory bone disease occurring primarily in children and adolescents. Episodes of systemic inflammation occur due to immune dysregulation without autoantibodies, pathogens or antigen-specific T cells. CRMO is characterised by the insidious onset of pain with swelling and tenderness over the affected bones. Clavicular involvement was the classical description; however, the metaphyses and epiphyses of long bones are frequently affected. Lesions may occur in any bone, including vertebrae. Characteristic imaging includes bone oedema, lytic areas, periosteal reaction and soft tissue reaction. Biopsies from affected areas display polymorphonuclear leucocytes with osteoclasts and necrosis in the early stages. Subsequently, lymphocytes and plasma cells predominate followed by fibrosis and signs of reactive new bone forming around the inflammation. Diagnosis is facilitated by the use of STIR MRI scanning, potentially obviating the need for biopsy and unnecessary long-term antibiotics due to incorrect diagnosis. Treatment options include non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and bisphosphonates. Biologics have been tried in resistant cases with promising initial results. Gene identification has not proved easy although research in this area continues. Early descriptions of the disease suggested a benign course; however, longer-term follow up shows that it can cause significant morbidity and longer-term disability. Although it has always been thought of as very rare, the prevalence is likely to be vastly underestimated due to poor recognition of the disease.

  11. Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kipps, Thomas J.; Stevenson, Freda K.; Wu, Catherine J.; Croce, Carlo M.; Packham, Graham; Wierda, William G.; O’Brien, Susan; Gribben, John; Rai, Kanti

    2017-01-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) is a malignancy of CD5+ B cells that is characterized by the accumulation of small, mature-appearing lymphocytes in the blood, marrow and lymphoid tissues. Signalling via surface immunoglobulin, which constitutes the major part of the B cell receptor, and several genetic alterations play a part in CLL pathogenesis, in addition to interactions between CLL cells and other cell types, such as stromal cells, T cells and nurse-like cells in the lymph nodes. The clinical progression of CLL is heterogeneous and ranges from patients who require treatment soon after diagnosis to others who do not require therapy for many years, if at all. Several factors, including the immunoglobulin heavy-chain variable region gene (IGHV) mutational status, genomic changes, patient age and the presence of comorbidities, should be considered when defining the optimal management strategies, which include chemotherapy, chemoimmunotherapy and/or drugs targeting B cell receptor signalling or inhibitors of apoptosis, such as BCL-2. Research on the biology of CLL has profoundly enhanced our ability to identify patients who are at higher risk for disease progression and our capacity to treat patients with drugs that selectively target distinctive phenotypic or physiological features of CLL. How these and other advances have shaped our current understanding and treatment of patients with CLL is the subject of this Primer. PMID:28102226

  12. Chronic fluorosis: The disease and its anaesthetic implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhuri S Kurdi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic fluorosis is a widespread disease-related to the ingestion of high levels of fluoride through water and food. Prolonged ingestion of fluoride adversely affects the teeth, bones and other organs and alters their anatomy and physiology. Fluoride excess is a risk factor in cardiovascular disease and other major diseases, including hypothyroidism, diabetes and obesity. Although anaesthesiologists may be aware of its skeletal and dental manifestations, other systemic manifestations, some of which may impact anaesthetic management are relatively unknown. Keeping this in mind, the topic of chronic fluorosis was hand searched from textbooks, scientific journals and electronically through Google, PubMed and other scientific databases. This article concentrates on the effect of chronic fluorosis on various organ systems, its clinical features, diagnosis and the anaesthetic implications of the disease.

  13. Chronic fluorosis: The disease and its anaesthetic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurdi, Madhuri S

    2016-01-01

    Chronic fluorosis is a widespread disease-related to the ingestion of high levels of fluoride through water and food. Prolonged ingestion of fluoride adversely affects the teeth, bones and other organs and alters their anatomy and physiology. Fluoride excess is a risk factor in cardiovascular disease and other major diseases, including hypothyroidism, diabetes and obesity. Although anaesthesiologists may be aware of its skeletal and dental manifestations, other systemic manifestations, some of which may impact anaesthetic management are relatively unknown. Keeping this in mind, the topic of chronic fluorosis was hand searched from textbooks, scientific journals and electronically through Google, PubMed and other scientific databases. This article concentrates on the effect of chronic fluorosis on various organ systems, its clinical features, diagnosis and the anaesthetic implications of the disease. PMID:27053777

  14. Pregnancy and chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davison, John M; Lindheimer, Marshall D

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews the association of chronic renal disease and pregnancy. Included are discussions of guidelines for counseling pregnant women with underlying chronic renal disease who are considering conceiving as well as management of those already pregnant. Specifically highlighted are recent studies that question the validity of using estimated glomerular filtration rate and other formulae and questions of whether we should strive to replace the classic counseling approaches based primarily on serum creatinine levels with guidelines based on chronic kidney disease classification. The article concludes with a review as well as a critique of recent research on the prevalence of preeclampsia in women with underlying chronic renal disease, as well as if women with preeclampsia and underlying kidney disease have accelerated courses toward end-stage renal disease.

  15. Nitazoxanide for chronic hepatitis C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikolova, Kristiana; Gluud, Christian; Grevstad, Berit

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C infection is a disease of the liver caused by the hepatitis C virus. The estimated number of chronically infected people with hepatitis C virus worldwide is about 150 million people. Every year, another three to four million people acquire the infection. Chronic hepatitis C......) and ribavirin was the approved standard treatment for chronic hepatitis C. In 2011, first-generation direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) have been licensed, for use in combination with peginterferon and ribavirin for treating hepatitis C virus genotype 1 infection. Nitazoxanide is another antiviral drug with broad...... antiviral activity and may have potential as an effective alternative, or an addition to standard treatment for the treatment of the hepatitis C virus. OBJECTIVES: To assess the benefits and harms of nitazoxanide in people with chronic hepatitis C virus infection. SEARCH METHODS: We searched The Cochrane...

  16. Chronic Conditions among Medicare Beneficiaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The data used in the chronic condition reports are based upon CMS administrative enrollment and claims data for Medicare beneficiaries enrolled in the...

  17. Treatment of chronic inflammatory neuropathies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Eftimov

    2015-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the efficacy of existing and alternative treatments in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP) and multifocal motor neuropathy (MMN) and explores predictors of treatment response in patients with CIDP treated with corticosteroids. The efficacy of intra

  18. Chronic diseases in elderly men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten Frost Munk; Wraae, Kristian; Gudex, Claire

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: prevalence estimates for chronic diseases and associated risk factors are needed for priority setting and disease prevention strategies. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to estimate the self-reported and clinical prevalence of common chronic disorders in elderly men. STUDY......-reported data on risk factors and disease prevalence were compared with data from hospital medical records. RESULTS: physical inactivity, smoking and excessive alcohol intake were reported by 27, 22 and 17% of the study population, respectively. Except for diabetes, all the chronic diseases investigated......: the study showed a high prevalence of detrimental life style factors including smoking, excessive alcohol consumption and physical inactivity in elderly Danish men. Except for diabetes and respiratory disease, chronic diseases were underreported and in particular erectile dysfunction and osteoporosis were...

  19. Tai chi and chronic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Philip W H

    2012-01-01

    In the last 2 decades, a growing body of research aimed at investigating the health benefits of Tai Chi in various chronic health conditions has been recognized in the literature. This article reviewed the history, the philosophy, and the evidence for the role of Tai Chi in a few selected chronic pain conditions. The ancient health art of Tai Chi contributes to chronic pain management in 3 major areas: adaptive exercise, mind-body interaction, and meditation. Trials examining the health benefit of Tai Chi in chronic pain conditions are mostly low quality. Only 5 pain conditions were reviewed: osteoarthritis, fibromyalgia, rheumatoid arthritis, low back pain, and headache. Of these, Tai Chi seems to be an effective intervention in osteoarthritis, low back pain, and fibromyalgia. The limitations of the Tai Chi study design and suggestions for the direction of future research are also discussed.

  20. Trulance Approved for Chronic Constipation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... news/fullstory_163171.html Trulance Approved for Chronic Constipation Drug designed to stimulate upper gastrointestinal tract To ... U.S. Food and Drug Administration to treat persistent constipation of unknown (idiopathic) cause in adults. Some 42 ...

  1. The Ubiquity of Chronic Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Claudia; Fleischer, Soraya; Rui, Taniele

    2016-01-01

    This is a review of five different books dealing with some aspect of what might be termed a "chronic illness" - Alzheimer's disease, lupus, addiction, erectile dysfunction, and leprosy. The array of different subjects examined in these books points to the negotiable limits of this hugely open category. What exactly constitutes an "illness"? Why not use a less biomedical term instead: "disturbance", "problem", or simply "condition"? And how are we to understand "chronic" - simply as the flipside of "acute" or "curable"?

  2. Occupational chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Omland, Oyvind; Würtz, Else Toft; Aasen, Tor Børvig

    2014-01-01

    Occupational-attributable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) presents a substantial health challenge. Focusing on spirometric criteria for airflow obstruction, this review of occupational COPD includes both population-wide and industry-specific exposures.......Occupational-attributable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) presents a substantial health challenge. Focusing on spirometric criteria for airflow obstruction, this review of occupational COPD includes both population-wide and industry-specific exposures....

  3. Status of Chronic Oxidation Studies of Graphite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Contescu, Cristian I. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Mee, Robert W. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    2016-05-01

    Graphite will undergo extremely slow, but continuous oxidation by traces of moisture that will be present, albeit at very low levels, in the helium coolant of HTGR. This chronic oxidation may cause degradation of mechanical strength and thermal properties of graphite components if a porous oxidation layer penetrates deep enough in the bulk of graphite components during the lifetime of the reactor. The current research on graphite chronic oxidation is motivated by the acute need to understand the behavior of each graphite grade during prolonged exposure to high temperature chemical attack by moisture. The goal is to provide the elements needed to develop predictive models for long-time oxidation behavior of graphite components in the cooling helium of HTGR. The tasks derived from this goal are: (1) Oxidation rate measurements in order to determine and validate a comprehensive kinetic model suitable for prediction of intrinsic oxidation rates as a function of temperature and oxidant gas composition; (2) Characterization of effective diffusivity of water vapor in the graphite pore system in order to account for the in-pore transport of moisture; and (3) Development and validation of a predictive model for the penetration depth of the oxidized layer, in order to assess the risk of oxidation caused damage of particular graphite grades after prolonged exposure to the environment of helium coolant in HTGR. The most important and most time consuming of these tasks is the measurement of oxidation rates in accelerated oxidation tests (but still under kinetic control) and the development of a reliable kinetic model. This report summarizes the status of chronic oxidation studies on graphite, and then focuses on model development activities, progress of kinetic measurements, validation of results, and improvement of the kinetic models. Analysis of current and past results obtained with three grades of showed that the classical Langmuir-Hinshelwood model cannot reproduce all

  4. Neurovascular Unit in Chronic Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radu, Beatrice Mihaela; Bramanti, Placido; Osculati, Francesco; Flonta, Maria-Luisa; Radu, Mihai; Bertini, Giuseppe; Fabene, Paolo Francesco

    2013-01-01

    Chronic pain is a debilitating condition with major socioeconomic impact, whose neurobiological basis is still not clear. An involvement of the neurovascular unit (NVU) has been recently proposed. In particular, the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and blood-spinal cord barrier (BSCB), two NVU key players, may be affected during the development of chronic pain; in particular, transient permeabilization of the barrier is suggested by several inflammatory- and nerve-injury-based pain models, and we argue that the clarification of molecular BBB/BSCB permeabilization events will shed new light in understanding chronic pain mechanisms. Possible biases in experiments supporting this theory and its translational potentials are discussed. Moving beyond an exclusive focus on the role of the endothelium, we propose that our understanding of the mechanisms subserving chronic pain will benefit from the extension of research efforts to the NVU as a whole. In this view, the available evidence on the interaction between analgesic drugs and the NVU is here reviewed. Chronic pain comorbidities, such as neuroinflammatory and neurodegenerative diseases, are also discussed in view of NVU changes, together with innovative pharmacological solutions targeting NVU components in chronic pain treatment. PMID:23840097

  5. Chronic Constipation: Current Treatment Options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis Wing Cheong Liu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic constipation is a common functional gastrointestinal disorder that affects patients of all ages. In 2007, a consensus group of 10 Canadian gastroenterologists developed a set of recommendations pertaining to the management of chronic constipation and constipation-dominant irritable bowel syndrome. Since then, tegaserod has been withdrawn from the Canadian market. A new, highly selective serotonin receptor subtype 4 agonist, prucalopride, has been examined in several large, randomized, placebo-controlled trials demonstrating its efficacy and safety in the management of patients with chronic constipation. Additional studies evaluating the use of stimulant laxatives, polyethylene glycol and probiotics in the management of chronic constipation have also been published. The present review summarizes the previous recommendations and new evidence supporting different treatment modalities – namely, diet and lifestyle, bulking agents, stool softeners, osmotic and stimulant laxatives, prucalopride and probiotics in the management of chronic constipation. A brief summary of lubiprostone and linaclotide is also presented. The quality of evidence is presented by adopting the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation system. Finally, a management pyramid for patients with chronic constipation is proposed based on the quality of evidence, impact of each modality on constipation and on general health, and their availabilities in Canada.

  6. Chronic Cough in Otorhinolaryngologic Routine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palheta Neto, Francisco Xavier

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The chronic cough is sometimes manifested as an imprecise symptom, but of great importance for both the diagnosis and the prognosis. In an otorhinolaryngologic approach, several illnesses that can occur with it can be numbered, including 2 of the 3 main causes of chronic cough. Objective: To identify the main otorhinolaryngologic diseases showing the chronic cough as one of their manifestations. Method: A literature's revision was performed in several scientific articles, specialized books and consultation in Birene and Scielo databases. Literature's revision: cough production in the upper airways is usually associated with an inflammatory reaction by stimulating sensitive receptors of these areas or by mechanic stimulus. The main cause of the chronic cough in the otorhinolaryngology day-to-day is the post-nasal drip, gathering together by itself 02 of the most common diseases: rhinitis and sinusitis. Laryngitis as a result of gastroesophageal reflux (GER stands out in the index of chronic cough etiology, but it is not as severe as GER . Neoplasias are also somewhat frequent causes of cough, and the difficulty in diagnosing the cough cause is common in this disease group. Motility disorder, laryngeal irritation persistence, parasitic disease and injuries by inhalation of toxic products were also found as a cause of cough for longer than 03 months. Conclusion:Chronic cough is a frequent and important finding in otorhinolaryngology and cannot be underestimated, and a careful anamnesis is the best way to determine the etiology and perform a correct treatment for the patient's disease.

  7. Guideline of Chronic Urticaria Beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fine, Lauren M; Bernstein, Jonathan A

    2016-09-01

    Urticaria is a relatively common condition that if chronic can persist for weeks, months or years and affect quality of life significantly. The etiology is often difficult to determine, especially as it becomes chronic. Many cases of chronic urticaria are thought to be autoimmune, although there is no consensus that testing for autoimmunity alters the diagnostic or management strategies or outcomes. Many times, urticaria is easily managed with antihistamines and/or short courses of oral corticosteroids, but too often control is insufficient and additional therapies must be added. For years, immune modulating medications, such as cyclosporine and Mycophenolate Mofetil, have been used in cases refractory to antihistamines and oral corticosteroids, although the evidence supporting their efficacy and safety has been limited. Omalizumab was recently approved for the treatment of chronic urticaria unresponsive to H1-antagonists. This IgG anti-IgE monoclonal antibody has been well demonstrated to safely and effectively control chronic urticaria at least partially in approximately 2/3 of cases. However, the mechanism of action and duration of treatment for omalizumab is still unclear. It is hoped that as the pathobiology of chronic urticaria becomes better defined, future therapies that target specific mechanistic pathways will be developed that continue to improve the management of these often challenging patients.

  8. Neurovascular Unit in Chronic Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatrice Mihaela Radu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic pain is a debilitating condition with major socioeconomic impact, whose neurobiological basis is still not clear. An involvement of the neurovascular unit (NVU has been recently proposed. In particular, the blood-brain barrier (BBB and blood-spinal cord barrier (BSCB, two NVU key players, may be affected during the development of chronic pain; in particular, transient permeabilization of the barrier is suggested by several inflammatory- and nerve-injury-based pain models, and we argue that the clarification of molecular BBB/BSCB permeabilization events will shed new light in understanding chronic pain mechanisms. Possible biases in experiments supporting this theory and its translational potentials are discussed. Moving beyond an exclusive focus on the role of the endothelium, we propose that our understanding of the mechanisms subserving chronic pain will benefit from the extension of research efforts to the NVU as a whole. In this view, the available evidence on the interaction between analgesic drugs and the NVU is here reviewed. Chronic pain comorbidities, such as neuroinflammatory and neurodegenerative diseases, are also discussed in view of NVU changes, together with innovative pharmacological solutions targeting NVU components in chronic pain treatment.

  9. Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van den Bergh, Peter Y K; Rajabally, Yusuf A

    2013-06-01

    Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP) is the most common autoimmune neuropathy. The diagnosis depends on the clinical presentation with a progressive or relapsing course over at least 2 months and electrophysiological evidence of primary demyelination. Whereas typical CIDP is quite easily recognizable because virtually no other neuropathies present with both distal and proximal motor and sensory deficit, atypical CIDP, focal and multifocal variants in particular, may represent a difficult diagnostic challenge. CIDP very likely is an underdiagnosed condition as suggested also by a positive correlation between prevalence rates and sensitivity of electrophysiological criteria. Since no 'gold standard' diagnostic marker exists, electrophysiological criteria have been optimized to be at the same time as sensitive and as specific as possible. Additional supportive laboratory features, such as increased spinal fluid protein, MRI abnormalities of nerve segments, and in selected cases nerve biopsy lead to the correct diagnosis in the large majority of the cases. Objective clinical improvement following immune therapy is also a useful parameter to confirm the diagnosis. The pathogenesis and pathophysiology of CIDP remain poorly understood, but the available evidence for an inflammatory origin is quite convincing. Steroids, intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG), and plasma exchange (PE) have been proven to be effective treatments. IVIG usually leads to rapid improvement, which is useful in severely disabled patients. Repeat treatment over regular time intervals for many years is often necessary. The effect of steroids is slower and the side-effect profile may be problematic, but they may induce disease remission more frequently than IVIG. An important and as of yet uncompletely resolved issue is the evaluation of long-term outcome to determine whether the disease is still active and responsive to treatment.

  10. The intestinal ecosystem in chronic functional constipation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoppi, G; Cinquetti, M; Luciano, A; Benini, A; Muner, A; Bertazzoni Minelli, E

    1998-08-01

    Chronic functional constipation is common in infants, and the bacterial composition of stools in this condition is not known. The study aims were to: (i) investigate the composition of the intestinal ecosystem in chronic functional constipation; (ii) establish whether the addition of the water-holding agent calcium polycarbophil to the diet induces an improvement in constipation; and (iii) determine the composition of the intestinal ecosystem after the use of this agent. In total, 42 children (20F, 22M; mean age: 8.6 +/- 2.9 y) were studied. Twenty-eight children with functional chronic constipation without anatomical disorders were treated double-blind in random sequence for 1 month with an oral preparation of calcium polycarbophil (0.62 g/twice daily) or placebo. Intestinal flora composition was evaluated by standard microbiological methods and biochemical assays on faecal samples collected before and after treatment. Fourteen healthy children were studied as controls. The results show that (i) the constipated children presented a significant increase in clostridia and bifidobacteria in faeces compared to healthy subjects--different species of clostridia and enterobacteriaceae were frequently isolated; no generalized overgrowth was observed; Clostridia outnumbered bacteroides and E. coli mean counts by 2-3log, while bacteroides and E. coli counts were similar (5-6 log10/g fresh faeces); these intestinal disturbances could be defined as a dysbiosis, i.e. a quantitative alteration in the relative proportions of certain intestinal bacterial species. (ii) Clinical resolution of constipation was achieved only in 43% of treated children and an improvement in 21% (one bowel movement every 2 d). (iii) Calcium polycarbophil treatment induced no significant changes in the composition of the intestinal ecosystem, nor in blood chemistry parameters.

  11. Zhang Qi's Experience in Treating Chronic Renal Failure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Qi-zhan; XU Da-ji; MA Yu-peng

    2008-01-01

    @@ Chronic renal failure is a result of the parenchymatous injury of kidney and progressive exacerbation due to many reasons.It is a svstematic clinical syndrome caused by the disturbance in excreting metabolites,adjusting water-electrolyte and acid-base balance as well as production and inactivation of active substances of endocrine.Prof Zhang Qi has rich clinical experience in treating renal failure.A report follows.

  12. Chronic fatigue and chronic fatigue syndrome: shifting boundaries and attributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, A R

    1998-09-28

    The subjective symptom of "fatigue" is one of the most widespread in the general population and is a major source of healthcare utilization. Prolonged fatigue is often associated with neuropsychological and musculoskeletal symptoms that form the basis of several syndromal diagnoses including chronic fatigue syndrome, fibromyalgia, and neurasthenia, and is clearly not simply the result of a lack of force generation from the muscle. Current epidemiologic research in this area relies predominantly on self-report data to document the prevalence and associations of chronic fatigue. Of necessity, this subjective data source gives rise to uncertain diagnostic boundaries and consequent divergent epidemiologic, clinical, and pathophysiologic research findings. This review will highlight the impact of the case definition and ascertainment methods on the varying prevalence estimates of chronic fatigue syndrome and patterns of reported psychological comorbidty. It will also evaluate the evidence for a true postinfective fatigue syndrome.

  13. Water Contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search The CDC Other Uses and Types of Water Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported ... Statistics Training & Education Policy & Recommendations Fast Facts Healthy Water Sites Healthy Water Drinking Water Healthy Swimming Global ...

  14. Measurement of tritiated norepinephrine metabolism in intact rat brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levitt, M.; Kowalik, S.; Barkai, A.I. (New York State Psychiatric Inst., New York (USA))

    1983-06-01

    A procedure for the study of NE metabolism in the intact rat brain is described. The method involves ventriculocisternal perfusion of the adult male rat with artificial CSF containing (/sup 3/H)NE. Radioactivity in the perfusate associated with NE and its metabolites 3,4-dihydroxymandelic acid (DOMA), 3,4-dihydroxphenylethyleneglycol (DHPG), 3-methoxy-4-hydroxymandelic acid (VMA), 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylethyleneglycol (MHPG), and normetanephrine (NMN) is separated using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). After 80 min the radioactivity in the perfusate reaches an apparent steady-state. Analysis of the steady-state samples shows higher activity in the fractions corresponding to DHPG and MHPG than in those corresponding to DOMA and VMA, confirming glycol formation as the major pathway of NE metabolism in the rat brain. Pretreatment with an MAO inhibitor (tranylcypromine) results in a marked decrease in the deaminated metabolites DHPG and MHPG and a concurrent increase in NMN. The results indicate this to be a sensitive procedure for the in vivo determination of changes in NE metabolism.

  15. Tritiation and Stability Measurements of Nitroxide for Betavoltaic Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    semiconductor depletion region. The goal is to synthesize a compound with an effective surface activity (from one side) of 30 mCi/cm2 where it can be used...energy into usable electrical energy through semiconductor energy conversion devices. In general, they are typically more efficient ranging from 1% to... semiconductor energy conversion devices. So far, the overall energy conversion efficiency ranges from 0.1%–2% depending on the beta radioisotope source.4–6

  16. Management of chronic refractory cough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Peter G; Vertigan, Anne E

    2015-12-14

    Chronic refractory cough (CRC) is defined as a cough that persists despite guideline based treatment. It is seen in 20-46% of patients presenting to specialist cough clinics and it has a substantial impact on quality of life and healthcare utilization. Several terms have been used to describe this condition, including the recently introduced term cough hypersensitivity syndrome. Key symptoms include a dry irritated cough localized around the laryngeal region. Symptoms are not restricted to cough and can include globus, dyspnea, and dysphonia. Chronic refractory cough has factors in common with laryngeal hypersensitivity syndromes and chronic pain syndromes, and these similarities help to shed light on the pathophysiology of the condition. Its pathophysiology is complex and includes cough reflex sensitivity, central sensitization, peripheral sensitization, and paradoxical vocal fold movement. Chronic refractory cough often occurs after a viral infection. The diagnosis is made once the main diseases that cause chronic cough have been excluded (or treated) and cough remains refractory to medical treatment. Several treatments have been developed over the past decade. These include speech pathology interventions using techniques adapted from the treatment of hyperfunctional voice disorders, as well as the use of centrally acting neuromodulators such as gabapentin and pregabalin. Potential new treatments in development also show promise.

  17. Periodontitis in Chronic Heart Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fröhlich, Hanna; Herrmann, Kristina; Franke, Jennifer; Karimi, Alamara; Täger, Tobias; Cebola, Rita; Katus, Hugo A; Zugck, Christian; Frankenstein, Lutz

    2016-08-01

    Periodontal disease has been associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events. The purpose of our study was to investigate whether a correlation between periodontitis and chronic heart failure exists, as well as the nature of the underlying cause. We enrolled 71 patients (mean age, 54 ± 13 yr; 56 men) who had stable chronic heart failure; all underwent complete cardiologic and dental evaluations. The periodontal screening index was used to quantify the degree of periodontal disease. We compared the findings to those in the general population with use of data from the 4th German Dental Health Survey. Gingivitis, moderate periodontitis, and severe periodontitis were present in 17 (24%), 17 (24%), and 37 (52%) patients, respectively. Severe periodontitis was more prevalent among chronic heart failure patients than in the general population. In contrast, moderate periodontitis was more prevalent in the general population (P <0.00001). The severity of periodontal disease was not associated with the cause of chronic heart failure or the severity of heart failure symptoms. Six-minute walking distance was the only independent predictor of severe periodontitis. Periodontal disease is highly prevalent in chronic heart failure patients regardless of the cause of heart failure. Prospective trials are warranted to clarify the causal relationship between both diseases.

  18. [Chronic polyradiculoneuritis and its frontiers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallat, J M; Tabaraud, F; Magy, L; Macian, F

    2002-12-01

    The Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyradiculoneuropathies (CIDP) constitute a syndrome whose incidence is difficult to evaluate, and is probably underestimated. In the course of this presentation, we deliberately restricted discussion to issues raised in recent years concerning the extent of this syndrome. We discuss diagnostic criteria, especially electrophysiological ones. As the criteria proposed by the ad hoc committee of the American Academy of Neurology in 1991 have been questioned due to lack of sensitivity, new ones have been proposed recently. We briefly discuss the different types of chronic dysimmune demyelinating neuropathy: not only the CIDP, but also the Lewis and Sumner syndrome or multifocal inflammatory demyelinating neuropathy and the multiple conduction block neuropathies. At last, we point out the consistent finding of axonal involvement in the course of a chronic demyelinating neuropathy; over time, it can become pre-dominant, which may make diagnosis difficult by suggesting a chronic axonal neuropathy that may be assumed to be primary. Consideration of these points may help clinicians recognize more chronic dysimmune neuropathies, for which immunosuppressive therapy has been found to be effective.

  19. Ionic interactions in the water zone at oil well-sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleven, R.

    1996-11-01

    The aim of this doctoral thesis has been to obtain a better understanding of ionic behaviour in a water zone of sedimentary rock exposed to sea-water based drilling fluid and completion fluid. Interaction processes addressed have been ion exchange on the surface of the reservoir rocks and precipitation of divalent cations with sulphate ions from the sea water. Clay minerals are focused on because of their ability to conduct electricity through ion-exchange reactions. The most important parameters that the distribution of ions around a borehole depends upon are suggested to be (1) the ability of the sedimentary rocks to sorb/desorb ions, (2) the effect of added solutions on the sorption/desorption processes, (3) the mobility of ions. The first of four enclosed papers studies ionic interaction, mainly on homo-ionic clay mineral - salt solution, in batch experiments under pH, ionic strength and temperature conditions likely to occur in the field. Paper II investigates the use of tritiated water as a reference tracer in miscible displacement processes in porous sandstone cores. Ionic interaction processes during drilling of oil wells with conventional KCl bentonite mud tagged with HTO were studied by means of measured ionic and HTO concentration of water sampled in the near well-bore region. A tracer method was developed and ``tracer diagrams`` illustrate sorption/desorption processes. The water analyses, sampling procedure, and tracer techniques are presented in the third paper. Paper IV compares the interpretation of laboratory data and field data. 173 refs., 47 figs., 22 tabs.

  20. Aminoadamantanes for chronic hepatitis C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lamers, Mieke H; Broekman, Mark; Drenth, Joost Ph

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Around 3% of the world's population (approximately 160 million people) are chronically infected with hepatitis C virus. The proportion of infected people who develop clinical symptoms varies between 5% and 40%. Combination therapy with pegylated interferon-alpha plus ribavirin...... response in genotype 1 infected patients to at least 70%. There is therefore an unmet need for drugs that can achieve a higher proportion of sustained virological response. Aminoadamantanes are antiviral drugs used for treatment of patients with chronic hepatitis C. OBJECTIVES: To assess the beneficial...... and harmful effects of aminoadamantanes for patients with chronic hepatitis C infection by conducting a systematic review with meta-analyses of randomised clinical trials, as well as trial sequential analyses. SEARCH METHODS: We conducted electronic searches of the Cochrane Hepato-Biliary Group Controlled...

  1. [Neurosurgical treatment of chronic pain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontaine, D; Blond, S; Mertens, P; Lanteri-Minet, M

    2015-02-01

    Neurosurgical treatment of pain used two kind of techniques: 1) Lesional techniques interrupt the transmission of nociceptive neural input by lesionning the nociceptive pathways (drezotomy, cordotomy, tractotomy…). They are indicated to treat morphine-resistant cancer pain and few cases of selected neuropathic pain. 2) Neuromodulation techniques try to decrease pain by reinforcing inhibitory and/or to limit activatory mechanisms. Chronic electrical stimulation of the nervous system (peripheral nerve stimulation, spinal cord stimulation, motor cortex stimulation…) is used to treat chronic neuropathic pain. Intrathecal infusion of analgesics (morphine, ziconotide…), using implantable pumps, allows to increase their efficacy and to reduce their side effects. These techniques can improve, sometimes dramatically, selected patients with severe and chronic pain, refractory to all other treatments. The quality of the analgesic outcome depends on the relevance of the indications.

  2. Peripheral neuromodulation in chronic migraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perini, F; De Boni, A

    2012-05-01

    Patients with chronic migraines are often refractory to medical treatment. Therefore, they might need other strategies to modulate their pain, according to their level of disability. Neuromodulation can be achieved with several tools: meditation, biofeedback, physical therapy, drugs and electric neurostimulation (ENS). ENS can be applied to the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord), either invasively (cortical or deep brain) or non-invasively [cranial electrotherapy stimulation, transcranial direct current stimulation and transcranial magnetic stimulation]. Among chronic primary headaches, cluster headaches are most often treated either through deep brain stimulation or occipital nerve stimulation because there is a high level of disability related to this condition. ENS, employed through several modalities such as transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation, interferential currents and pulsed radiofrequency, has been applied to the peripheral nervous system at several sites. We briefly review the indications for the use of peripheral ENS at the site of the occipital nerves for the treatment of chronic migraine.

  3. Pharmacological challenges in chronic pancreatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Anne Estrup; Brokjaer, Anne; Fischer, Iben Wendelboe Deleuran

    2014-01-01

    Drug absorption in patients with chronic pancreatitis might be affected by the pathophysiology of the disease. The exocrine pancreatic insufficiency is associated with changes in gastrointestinal intraluminal pH, motility disorder, bacterial overgrowth and changed pancreatic gland secretion....... Together these factors can result in malabsorption and may also affect the efficacy of pharmacological intervention. The lifestyle of chronic pancreatitis patients may also contribute to gastrointestinal changes. Many patients limit their food intake because of the pain caused by eating and in some cases...... food intake is more or less substituted with alcohol, tobacco and coffee. Alcohol and drug interaction are known to influence the pharmacokinetics by altering either drug absorption or by affecting liver metabolism. Since patients suffering from chronic pancreatitis experience severe pain, opioids...

  4. Chronic renal disease in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramin, Susan M; Vidaeff, Alex C; Yeomans, Edward R; Gilstrap, Larry C

    2006-12-01

    The purpose of this review was to examine the impact of varying degrees of renal insufficiency on pregnancy outcome in women with chronic renal disease. Our search of the literature did not reveal any randomized clinical trials or meta-analyses. The available information is derived from opinion, reviews, retrospective series, and limited observational series. It appears that chronic renal disease in pregnancy is uncommon, occurring in 0.03-0.12% of all pregnancies from two U.S. population-based and registry studies. Maternal complications associated with chronic renal disease include preeclampsia, worsening renal function, preterm delivery, anemia, chronic hypertension, and cesarean delivery. The live birth rate in women with chronic renal disease ranges between 64% and 98% depending on the severity of renal insufficiency and presence of hypertension. Significant proteinuria may be an indicator of underlying renal insufficiency. Management of pregnant women with underlying renal disease should ideally entail a multidisciplinary approach at a tertiary center and include a maternal-fetal medicine specialist and a nephrologist. Such women should receive counseling regarding the pregnancy outcomes in association with maternal chronic renal disease and the effect of pregnancy on renal function, especially within the ensuing 5 years postpartum. These women will require frequent visits and monitoring of renal function during pregnancy. Women whose renal disease is further complicated by hypertension should be counseled regarding the increased risk of adverse outcome and need for blood pressure control. Some antihypertensives, especially angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin-receptor blockers, should be avoided during pregnancy, if possible, because of the potential for both teratogenic (hypocalvaria) and fetal effects (renal failure, oliguria, and demise).

  5. Prevention Of Chronic Renal Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fejzi Alushi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available It is easier to prevent a disease than to cure it. This postulate is a foundation stone of the contemporary medicine, furthermore its mission. The Chronic Kidney Diseases (CKD, amongst them the Chronic Pyelonephrites (CP and the mass kidney reduction  take an important  place in human pathologies in general, and in particular in renal ones. The Chronic Pyelonephrites  are chronic renal pathologies, which on one side are of various causes and on the other side are multi systemic. At the same time they tend, earlier or later, depending on their course, to bring the patient towards the Chronic Kidney Insufficiency  in stage of uremia, consequently in need of substitution therapies e.g. dialysis, peritoneum dialysis or transplant. It is worthy to emphasize that from the prevention and correct cure of CP make profit the patients, the family, the state and in the last analyses  the entire society, because in that way the budget expense destined for the fore going substitution cures, dialysis, peritoneum dialysis or transplant, is considerably  reduced. The same should be mentioned  in relation to the CP and the mass kidney reduction, speaking about our country, which are still at the first place as the very cause of Chronic Kidney  Insufficiencies (CRI, later on advancing toward uremia and terminal uremia along with its grave consequences. In general  the very foundation of the CP is on  the  infections of urinary roads, in particular on the complicated ones, among them it should be mentioned-congenital kidney anomalies, renal calculosis  so much present in our country, and pathologies of segment or vesical-ureteral reflux, and rarely the pathologies of prostate.

  6. Effect of ethanol on the water permeability of controlled release films composed of ethyl cellulose and hydroxypropyl cellulose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Mikael; Hjärtstam, Johan; Berndtsson, Jolina; Stading, Mats; Larsson, Anette

    2010-11-01

    The robustness of controlled release formulations when co-ingested with alcohol is a current concern expressed by regulatory authorities, especially with regard to dose dumping. One such controlled release formulation commonly used is film coating composed of ethyl cellulose (EC) and hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC). The aim of this study was to investigate how the presence of ethanol in the dissolution medium affects the water permeability of such films. Film samples were prepared in various EC-HPC compositions, and the effect of different ethanol concentrations in the dissolution medium on the permeability was studied using a modified Ussing chamber and tritiated water. It was found that the effect of ethanol on the film permeability varied depending on the composition of the films. The results were interpreted in terms of swelling of the EC in the films, where the swelling increased with increasing ethanol concentration. Thus, for films with low HPC content (non-interconnected pores), the water permeability of the films increased with increasing ethanol concentration as the diffusion through the ethyl cellulose increased due to swelling. However, for films with higher HPC content (having interconnected pores through the films), the permeability decreased, likely due to the swelling of the ethyl cellulose blocking the pores. The interpretation of the results was supported by dynamic mechanic analysis and SEM analysis.

  7. L-tyrosine improves neuroendocrine function in a mouse model of chronic stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhihua Wang; Jinghua Li; Zhiming Wang; Lingyan Xue; Yi Zhang; Yingjie Chen; Jun Su; Zhongming Li

    2012-01-01

    Adult BALB/c mice, individually housed, were stimulated with nine different stressors, arranged randomly, for 4 continuous weeks to generate an animal model of chronic stress. In chronically stressed mice, spontaneous locomotor activity was significantly decreased, escape latency in the Morris water maze test was prolonged, serum levels of total thyrotropin and total triiodothyronine were significantly decreased, and dopamine and norepinephrine content in the pallium, hippocampus and hypothalamus were significantly reduced. All of these changes were suppressed, to varying degrees, by L-tyrosine supplementation. These findings indicate that the neuroendocrine network plays an important role in chronic stress, and that L-tyrosine supplementation has therapeutic effects.

  8. A Study of Anorectal Manometry in Patients with Chronic Idiopathic Constipation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    To study the changes of anorectal motility in patients with chronic idiopathic constipation, anorectal motility was investigated by water-perfused manometric system in 30 patients with chronic idiopathic constipation and 18 healthy subjects. Our results showed that there was no significant difference between the constipation group and the control group in anal sphincteric resting pressure and anal maximal squeezing pressure. The minimum relaxation volume, the rectal defecatory threshold, the rectal maximal tolerable volume and the rectal compliance in the patients were significantly higher than those in the controls (P< 0. 01 or P< 0. 05). It is concluded that patients with chronic idiopathic constipation have anorectal motility disturbances.

  9. Management of chronic visceral pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Anne E; Farmer, Adam D; Olesen, Søren S

    2016-01-01

    ' symptoms, adopting an empathic approach and taking time to educate patients. To optimize treatment and outcomes in chronic visceral pain we need to move away from approaches exclusively based on dealing with peripheral nociceptive input toward more holistic strategies, taking into account alterations......Despite marked differences in underlying pathophysiology, the current management of visceral pain largely follows the guidelines derived from the somatic pain literature. The effective management of patients with chronic visceral pain should be multifaceted, including both pharmacological...... in central pain processing....

  10. Bendamustine Plus Alemtuzumab for Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-20

    Recurrent Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage III Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage III Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Stage IV Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage IV Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma

  11. A critical review of chronic stress effects on spatial learning and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Cheryl D

    2010-06-30

    The purpose of this review is to evaluate the effects of chronic stress on hippocampal-dependent function, based primarily upon studies using young, adult male rodents and spatial navigation tasks. Despite this restriction, variability amongst the findings was evident and how or even whether chronic stress influenced spatial ability depended upon the type of task, the dependent variable measured and how the task was implemented, the type and duration of the stressors, housing conditions of the animals that include accessibility to food and cage mates, and duration from the end of the stress to the start of behavioral assessment. Nonetheless, patterns emerged as follows: For spatial memory, chronic stress impairs spatial reference memory and has transient effects on spatial working memory. For spatial learning, however, chronic stress effects appear to be task-specific: chronic stress impairs spatial learning on appetitively motivated tasks, such as the radial arm maze or holeboard, tasks that evoke relatively mild to low arousal components from fear. But under testing conditions that evoke moderate to strong arousal components from fear, such as during radial arm water maze testing, chronic stress appears to have minimal impairing effects or may even facilitate spatial learning. Chronic stress clearly impacts nearly every brain region and thus, how chronic stress alters hippocampal spatial ability likely depends upon the engagement of other brain structures during behavioral training and testing.

  12. Acute stress does not affect the impairing effect of chronic stress on memory retrieval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamile Ozbaki

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: Due to the prevalence and pervasiveness of stress in modern life and exposure to both chronic and acute stresses, it is not clear whether prior exposure to chronic stress can influence the impairing effects of acute stress on memory retrieval. This issue was tested in this study. Materials and Methods: Adult male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to the following groups: control, acute, chronic, and chronic + acute stress groups. The rats were trained with six trials per day for 6 consecutive days in the water maze. Following training, the rats were either kept in control conditions or exposed to chronic stress in a restrainer 6 hr/day for 21 days. On day 22, a probe test was done to measure memory retention. Time spent in target and opposite areas, platform location latency, and proximity were used as indices of memory retention. To induce acute stress, 30 min before the probe test, animals received a mild footshock. Results: Stressed animals spent significantly less time in the target quadrant and more time in the opposite quadrant than control animals. Moreover, the stressed animals showed significantly increased platform location latency and proximity as compared with control animals. No significant differences were found in these measures among stress exposure groups. Finally, both chronic and acute stress significantly increased corticosterone levels. Conclusion: Our results indicate that both chronic and acute stress impair memory retrieval similarly. Additionally, the impairing effects of chronic stress on memory retrieval were not influenced by acute stress.

  13. Chronic Venous Disease under pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.W.I. Reeder (Suzan)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractIn chapter 1 we provide a general introduction of this thesis. Chronic venous disease (CVD) is a common medical condition that affects 2-64% of the worldwide population and leads to leg ulcers in 1% of the Western population. Venous leg ulceration (VLU) has an unfavorable prognosis with

  14. Electroacupuncture treatment of chronic insomniacs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RUAN Jing-wen; WANG Chu-huai; LIAO Xin-xue; YAN Ying-shuo; HU Yue-hua; RAO Zhong-dong; WEN Ming; ZENG Xiao-xiang; LAI Xin-sheng

    2009-01-01

    Background Due to the quick rhythm of life and work pressure, more and more people suffer from sleep quality problems. In this study, we investigated the effect of electroacupuncture on sleep quality of chronic insomniacs and the safety of electroacupuncture therapy.Methods Four courses of electroacupuncture treatment were applied to 47 patients. With pre-treatment and post-treatment self-control statistical method, Pittsburgh sleep quality index (PSQI) scores were used for evaluating sleep quality. Polysomnogram was used for detecting insomniacs' changes in sleep architecture. The safety of electroacupuncture was evaluated by monitoring the self-designed adverse events and side effects during treatment and post-treatment.Results Electroacupuncture considerably improved insomniacs' sleep quality and social function during the daytime.Electroacupuncture had certain repairing effect on the disruption in sleep architecture. At the same time,electroacupuncture prolonged slow wave sleep (SWS) time and relatively rapid eye movement sleep (REM sleep) time.There was no hangover, addiction or decrements in vigilance during the daytime (incidence rate was 0). However,insomnia rebound rate was about 23% within one month.Conclusions These results suggest that electroacupuncture has beneficial effect on sleep quality improvement in the patients with chronic insomnia, which may be associated with repairing sleep architecture, reconstructing sleep continuity,as well as prolonging SWS time and REM sleep time. Electroacupuncture treatment for chronic insomnia is safe.Therefore, electroacupuncture therapy could be a promising avenue of treatment for chronic insomnia.

  15. [Chronic prostatitis and Bechterew's disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohlicek, J; Svec, V

    1977-11-01

    A group of patients between 35 and 65 years old with chronic prostatitis were examined for the presence of Becherew's disease. In this connection the New York and Roman criterions for morbus Bechterew were applied. There were found one ankyosing spondylarthritis, one ankylosis of the sacroiliac joint, and 11 times a tentative sacroileitis were stated. Altogether the proved and tentative findings were only 3.68 per cent of all examinations. In our countries the morbus Bechterew is found in 0,21 per cent of the normal population. So the protion of the Bechterew's disease in patients with chronic prostatitis is indeed a little higher than average, but not so frequent as often pretended in recent times. After a second series 58 patients being treated because of Bechterew's disease of different stages and different terms were examined for the possibility of a simultaneously elapsing chronic prostatitis. A chronic prostatitis was found in 38 per cent of these patients which correspondents to the incidence published in literature for the medium-age manhood. Nobody of the test persons had complaints on the part of the urologenital tract.

  16. Treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrajoli, Alessandra; O'Brien, Susan M

    2004-04-01

    Treatment options for patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia have changed over the past two decades. This article reviews the experience accumulated with the use of alkylating agents alone and in combination; purine analogues alone and in combination and monoclonal antibodies such as rituximab, and alemtuzumab alone and in combination. The results obtained with different treatment strategies are summarized, compared, and reviewed.

  17. [Operative treatment of chronic pleuritis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duzhyĭ, I D; Hres'ko, I Ia; Chumak, S O; Elastal, R Z

    2008-09-01

    Basing on the literature data and own experience, grounded on results of follow-up on 2000 patients, suffering an acute pleuritis and performance of more than 200 operative interventions--pleurectomy, the clinic-radiological classification of chronic pleuritis, mostly answering the practical health care necessities, was proposed by the authors.

  18. Chronic sphenoid rhinosinusitis: management challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charakorn N

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Natamon Charakorn, Kornkiat Snidvongs Department of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University and King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital, Bangkok, Thailand Abstract: Chronic sphenoid rhinosinusitis is a spectrum of inflammatory diseases in isolated sphenoid sinus which may persist over a period of 12 weeks. It is a different entity from other types of rhinosinusitis because clinical presentations include headache, visual loss or diplopia, and patients may or may not have nasal obstruction or nasal discharge. Nasal endoscopic examination is useful, and computed tomography is mandatory. The disease requires comprehensive knowledge and appropriate imaging technique for diagnosis. To treat patients with chronic sphenoid rhinosinusitis, surgical treatment with endoscopic transnasal sphenoidotomy is often required. As there are no recent updated reviews of chronic sphenoid rhinosinusitis, in this article, we review the anatomy of the sphenoid sinus and its clinical relationship with the clinical signs and symptoms of the disease, the imaging findings of each diagnosis and the comprehensive surgical techniques. Keywords: sphenoid sinus, sphenoid sinusitis, chronic, rhinosinusitis, fungal rhinosinusitis, mucocele

  19. Management of chronic hand eczema

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diepgen, Thomas L.; Agner, Tove; Aberer, Werner; Berth-Jones, John; Cambazard, Frederic; Elsner, Peter; McFadden, John; Coenraads, Pieter Jan

    2007-01-01

    Hand eczema (HE) is one of the most frequent skin diseases and has often a chronically relapsing course with a poor prognosis resulting in a high social and economic impact for the individual and the society. In this article, we highlight the results of an expert workshop on the 'management of sever

  20. Fibromyalgia and Chronic Pain Syndromes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choy, Ernest; Clauw, Daniel J.; Goldenberg, Don L.; Harris, Richard E.; Helfenstein, Milton; Jensen, Troels Staehelin; Noguchi, Koichi; Silverman, Stuart L.; Ushida, Takahiro; Wang, Guochun

    2016-01-01

    This manuscript, developed by a group of chronic pain researchers and clinicians from around the world, aims to address the state of knowledge about fibromyalgia (FM) and identify ongoing challenges in the field of FM and other chronic pain syndromes that may be characterized by pain centralization/amplification/hypersensitivity. There have been many exciting developments in research studies of the pathophysiology and treatment of FM and related syndromes that have the potential to improve the recognition and management of patients with FM and other conditions with FM-like pain. However, much of the new information has not reached all clinicians, especially primary care clinicians, who have the greatest potential to use this new knowledge to positively impact their patients’ lives. Furthermore, there are persistent misconceptions about FM and a lack of consensus regarding the diagnosis and treatment of FM. This paper presents a framework for future global efforts to improve the understanding and treatment of FM and other associated chronic pain syndromes, disseminate research findings, identify ways to enhance advocacy for these patients, and improve global efforts to collaborate and reach consensus about key issues related to FM and chronic pain in general. PMID:27022674

  1. Children, Sports, and Chronic Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Barry

    1990-01-01

    Discusses four chronic diseases (cystic fibrosis, congenital heart disease, rheumatoid arthritis, and asthma) that affect American children. Many have their physical activities unnecessarily restricted, though sports and exercise can actually alleviate symptoms and improve their psychosocial development. Physicians are encouraged to prescribe…

  2. Lymphocyte 'homing' and chronic inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Yasuhiro; Kobayashi, Motohiro

    2015-07-01

    Chronic inflammation is a response to prolonged exposure to injurious stimuli that harm and destroy tissues and promote lymphocyte infiltration into inflamed sites. Following progressive accumulation of lymphocytes, the histology of inflamed tissue begins to resemble that of peripheral lymphoid organs, which can be referred to as lymphoid neogenesis or formation of tertiary lymphoid tissues. Lymphocyte recruitment to inflamed tissues is also reminiscent of lymphocyte homing to peripheral lymphoid organs. In the latter, under physiological conditions, homing receptors expressed on lymphocytes adhere to vascular addressin expressed on high endothelial venules (HEVs), initiating a lymphocyte migration process composed of sequential adhesive interactions. Intriguingly, in chronic inflammation, HEV-like vessels are induced de novo, despite the fact that the inflamed site is not originally lymphoid tissue, and these vessels contribute to lymphocyte recruitment in a manner similar to physiological lymphocyte homing. In this review, we first describe physiological lymphocyte homing mechanisms focusing on vascular addressins. We then describe HEV-like vessel-mediated pathogenesis seen in various chronic inflammatory disorders such as Helicobacter pylori gastritis, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), autoimmune pancreatitis and sclerosing sialadenitis, as well as chronic inflammatory cell neoplasm MALT lymphoma, with reference to our work and that of others.

  3. Hyperglycemia, tumorigenesis, and chronic inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shu-Chun; Yang, Wei-Chung Vivian

    2016-12-01

    Hyperglycemia is the most prominent sign that characterizes diabetes. Hyperglycemia favors malignant cell growth by providing energy to cancer cells. Clinical studies also showed an increased risk of diabetes being associated with different types of cancers. In addition, poorly regulated glucose metabolism in diabetic patients is often found with increased levels of chronic inflammatory markers, e.g., interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and emerging evidence has highlighted activation of the immune response in the progression and development of cancer cells. Therefore, uncontrolled proinflammatory responses could conceivably create a chronic inflammatory state, promoting a tumor-favorable microenvironment and potentially triggering immune overactivation and cancer growth. To further understand how hyperglycemia contributes to immune overactivation, the tumor microenvironment and the development of chronic inflammation-associated tumors may provide insights into tumor biology and immunology. This paper provides a brief introduction to hyperglycemia-associated diseases, followed by a comprehensive overview of the current findings of regulatory molecular mechanisms of glycosylation on proteoglycans in the extracellular matrix under hyperglycemic conditions. Then, the authors discuss the role of hyperglycemia in tumorigenesis (particularly in prostate, liver, colorectal, and pancreatic cancers), as well as the contribution of hyperglycemia to chronic inflammation. The authors end with a brief discussion on the future perspectives of hyperglycemia/tumorigenesis and potential applications of alternative/effective therapeutic strategies for hyperglycemia-associated cancers.

  4. Water, Water Everywhere, But...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Cliff

    Materials for teaching a unit on water pollution are provided in this teaching package. These materials include: (1) a student reading booklet; (2) a reference booklet listing a variety of popular chemical, biological, and physical tests which can be performed on a local waterway and providing information about the environmental effects and toxic…

  5. Water citizenship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paerregaard, Karsten; Stensrud, Astrid Bredholt; Andersen, Astrid Oberborbeck

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the implementation of Peru’s new water law and discusses how it produces new forms of water citizenship. Inspired by the global paradigm of “integrated water resources management,” the law aims to include all citizens in the management of the country’s water resources...... by embracing a “new water culture.” We ask what forms of water citizenship emerge from the new water law and how they engage with local water practices and affect existing relations of inequality. We answer these questions ethnographically by comparing previous water legislation and how the new law currently...... is negotiated and contested in three localities in Peru’s southern highlands. We argue that the law creates a new water culture that views water as a substance that is measurable, quantifiable, and taxable, but that it neglects other ways of valuing water. We conclude that water citizenship emerges from...

  6. Chronic Kidney Disease and Kidney Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Education Visitor Information RePORT NIH Fact Sheets Home > Chronic Kidney Disease and Kidney Failure Small Text Medium Text Large Text Chronic Kidney Disease and Kidney Failure YESTERDAY One third of diabetic ...

  7. Pregabalin for Pain Treatment in Chronic Pancreatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Søren Schou; Bowense, S; Wilder-Smith, Oliver

    2011-01-01

    Intractable pain usually dominates the clinical presentation of chronic pancreatitis (CP). Slowing of electroencephalogram (EEG) rhythmicity has been associated with abnormal cortical pain processing in other chronic pain disorders. The aim of this study was to investigate the spectral distribution...

  8. Helping a Child Manage a Chronic Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160011.html Helping a Child Manage a Chronic Illness Feeling they have control over their ... News) -- Children and teens who feel confident handling a chronic illness on their own appear better able ...

  9. Chronic Fatigue Syndrome in Gulf War Veterans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Enter ZIP code here Enter ZIP code here Chronic Fatigue Syndrome in Gulf War Veterans Gulf War ... and be at least 10 percent disabling. About Chronic Fatigue Syndrome CFS is an unexplained, severe and ...

  10. Chronic Condition Public Use File (PUF)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This release contains the Chronic Conditions Public Use Files (PUF) with information from Medicare claims. The CMS Chronic Conditions PUF is an aggregated file in...

  11. Effects of Mindfulness Meditation on Chronic Pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    la Cour, Peter; Petersen, Marian

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This randomized controlled clinical trial investigated the effects of mindfulness meditation on chronic pain. DESIGN: A total of 109 patients with nonspecific chronic pain were randomized to either a standardized mindfulness meditation program (mindfulness-based stress reduction [MBSR...

  12. Communication About Chronic Critical Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Judith E.; Mercado, Alice F.; Camhi, Sharon L.; Tandon, Nidhi; Wallenstein, Sylvan; August, Gary I.; Morrison, R. Sean

    2008-01-01

    Background Despite poor outcomes, life-sustaining treatments including mechanical ventilation are continued for a large and growing population of patients with chronic critical illness. This may be owing in part to a lack of understanding resulting from inadequate communication between clinicians and patients and families. Our objective was to investigate the informational needs of patients with chronic critical illness and their families and the extent to which these needs are met. Methods In this prospective observational study conducted at 5 adult intensive care units in a large, university-affiliated hospital in New York, New York, 100 patients with chronic critical illness (within 3–7 days of elective tracheotomy for prolonged mechanical ventilation) or surrogates for incapacitated patients were surveyed using an 18-item questionnaire addressing communication about chronic critical illness. Main outcome measures included ratings of importance and reports of whether information was received about questionnaire items. Results Among 125 consecutive, eligible patients, 100 (80%) were enrolled; questionnaire respondents included 2 patients and 98 surrogates. For all items, more than 78% of respondents rated the information as important for decision making (>98% for 16 of 18 items). Respondents reported receiving no information for a mean (SD) of 9.0 (3.3) of 18 items, with 95% of respondents reporting not receiving information for approximately one-quarter of the items. Of the subjects rating the item as important, 77 of 96 (80%) and 69 of 74 (93%) reported receiving no information about expected functional status at hospital discharge and prognosis for 1-year survival, respectively. Conclusions Many patients and their families may lack important information for decision making about continuation of treatment in the chronic phase of critical illness. Strategies for effective communication in this clinical context should be investigated and implemented. PMID

  13. Water pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Institute, Marine

    2013-01-01

    Students will learn about what causes water pollution and how to be environmentally aware. *Note: Students should understand the concept of the water cycle before moving onto water pollution (see Lesson Plan “Oceans all Around Us”).

  14. Healthy Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Outbreaks* Top 5 Causes - Drinking Water Outbreaks Giardia Legionella Shigella Norovirus Campylobacter Top 5 Causes - Recreational Water Outbreaks Cryptosporidium Pseudomonas Shigella Legionella Norovirus For a complete listing of water-related ...

  15. Parasites: Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tropical Diseases Laboratory Diagnostic Assistance [DPDx] Parasites Home Water Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Parasites can live in natural water sources. When outdoors, treat your water before drinking ...

  16. Water Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Water Safety KidsHealth > For Parents > Water Safety Print A ... best measure of protection. previous continue Making Kids Water Wise It's important to teach your kids proper ...

  17. Chinese medicinal herbs for chronic hepatitis B

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, J; McIntosh, H; Lin, Haili

    2001-01-01

    Chronic hepatitis B is a serious health problem worldwide. Chinese medicinal herbs are widely used for treatment of chronic hepatitis B in China and many clinical trials have been conducted. This systematic review is to assess the efficacy and safety of Chinese medicinal herbs for chronic hepatitis...

  18. Shared genetic factors underlie chronic pain syndromes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vehof, Jelle; Zavos, Helena M. S.; Lachance, Genevieve; Hammond, Christopher J.; Williams, Frances M. K.

    2014-01-01

    Chronic pain syndromes (CPS) are highly prevalent in the general population, and increasingly the evidence points to a common etiological pathway. Using a large cohort of twins (n = 8564) characterized for chronic widespread musculoskeletal pain (CWP), chronic pelvic pain (PP), migraine (MIG), dry e

  19. Chronic arsenic poisoning in the north of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cebrian, M.E.; Albores, A.; Aguilar, M.; Blakely, E.

    1983-01-01

    We compared the prevalence of signs and symptoms of chronic arsenic poisoning in two rural populations. The arsenic concentration in the drinking water of the exposed population was 0.41 mg/l, and 0.007 mg/l in the control population. The arsenic was present mainly (70%) in its pentavalent form. The objective was to quantitate health effects and risks derived from chronic ingestion of arsenic in contaminated water. In the exposed population, 21.6% of the sample, showed at least one of the cutaneous signs of chronic arsenic poisoning against 2.2% in the control town. Non-specific symptoms were more prevalent in the exposed population and they occurred more frequently in those individuals with skin signs. The relative risk of suffering a particular manifestation of poisoning, ranged from 1.9 to 36 times higher in the exposed population. We estimated the risks above mentioned, which were derived from exposure to minute quantities of arsenic in a known proportion of its oxidation states during a life time period.

  20. Chronic arsenic poisoning: a global health issue -- a report of multiple primary cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walvekar, R R; Kane, S V; Nadkarni, M S; Bagwan, I N; Chaukar, D A; D'Cruz, A K

    2007-02-01

    Chronic arsenic (As) poisoning is a worldwide public health problem. Effects of prolonged exposure to high levels of As in drinking water have been observed and documented in various epidemiological studies from all over the world. The non-malignant cutaneous effects of chronic exposure to inorganic As are well known. A case presenting with multiple cutaneous cancers as well as an internal lung primary in a patient exposed to toxic levels of As in the drinking water is discussed along with a review of literature.

  1. Chronic pain management: nonpharmacological therapies for chronic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ku-Lang; Fillingim, Roger; Hurley, Robert W; Schmidt, Siegfried

    2015-05-01

    Nonpharmacologic therapies have become a vital part of managing chronic pain (CP). Although these can be used as stand-alone therapies, nonpharmacologic treatments often are used to augment and complement pharmacologic treatments (ie, multimodal therapy). Nonpharmacologic approaches can be classified as behavioral, cognitive, integrative, and physical therapies. Core principles in developing a treatment plan are explaining the nature of the CP condition, setting appropriate goals, and developing a comprehensive treatment approach and plan for adherence. Clinicians should become familiar with these interventions so that they can offer patients flexibility in the pain management approach. Effective noninvasive treatment modalities for CP include behavioral therapy for short-term pain relief; cognitive behavioral therapy for reducing long-term pain and disability; hypnosis as adjunctive therapy; guided imagery, diaphragmatic breathing, and muscle relaxation, especially for cancer-related pain; mindfulness-based stress reduction for patients with chronic low back pain; acupuncture for multiple pain conditions; combination manipulation, manual therapy, endurance exercise, stretching, and strengthening for chronic neck pain; animal-assisted therapy; and S-adenosyl-L-methionine for joint pain. Guidelines for use of these treatment modalities are based on expert panel recommendations in combination with data from randomized controlled trials.

  2. Water uptake and water supply

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sonneveld, C.; Voogt, W.

    2009-01-01

    The water uptake and the water supply do not directly affect the mineral absorption of plants. However, many connections exist between the management of minerals and water. The most evident of those connections are following

  3. Uptake of deuterium by dead leaves exposed to deuterated water vapor in a greenhouse at daytime and nighttime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Momoshima, N. [Faculty of Science, Kumamoto University, 2-39 Kurokami, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan)]. E-mail: momoenv@sci.kumamoto-u.ac.jp; Matsushita, R. [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kumamoto University, 2-39 Kurokami, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan); Nagao, Y. [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kumamoto University, 2-39 Kurokami, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan); Okai, T. [Graduate School of Engineering, Kyushu University, 6-10 Hakozaki, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8581 (Japan)

    2006-07-01

    Dead leaves were exposed to deuterated water vapor (D{sub 2}O) as a substitute of tritiated water (HTO) in a greenhouse at daytime and nighttime to examine uptake and release of tritium by dead leaves because they cover a wide area of the forest floor and are therefore a major target material to be exposed when HTO is atmospherically derived to the forest. The dead cedar needles showed faster uptake and faster release rates during and after the exposure than the fresh ones, and the equilibrium concentration of the dead cedar needles was about two times higher than the fresh ones, indicating a quick response and a high buffering potential of dead leaves. The relation between uptake of D{sub 2}O and number of stoma was examined for dead deciduous leaves; the species with larger number of stoma accumulated more D{sub 2}O at the daytime and nighttime exposures. However, drying of the dead leaves suppressed D{sub 2}O uptake greatly at daytime, suggesting stomata's opening and closing controls the D{sub 2}O uptake of dead leaves.

  4. Chronic Pancreatitis and Neoplasia: Correlation or Coincidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. N. Zografos

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Any link between pancreatic carcinoma and chronic pancreatitis could reflect the malignant potential of a chronic inflammatory process. Four patients with ductal adenocarcinomas had a long history of pancreatic pain (median duration 5 years and showed clearcut evidence of chronic pancreatitis “downstream” of the tumour. Four were alcoholics and two heavy smokers. These four cases arose within a surgical series of approximately 250 patients with chronic pancreatitis, giving an incidence of 1.6 per cent. The incidence and anatomical distribution of carcinoma and chronic pancreatitis could possibly be consistent with a casual relationship.

  5. Magnetic resonance images of chronic patellar tendinitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bodne, D.; Quinn, S.F.; Murray, W.T.; Cochran, C.; Bolton, T.; Rudd, S.; Lewis, K.; Daines, P.; Bishop, J.

    1988-01-01

    Chronic patellar tendinitis can be a frustrating diagnostic and therapeutic problem. This report evaluates seven tendons in five patients with chronic patellar tendinitis. The etiologies included 'jumper's knee' and Osgood-Schlatter disease. In all cases magnetic resonance images (MRI) showed thickening of the tendon. Some of the tendons had focal areas of thickening which helped establish the etiology. All cases had intratendinous areas of increased signal which, in four cases, proved to be chronic tendon tears. MRI is useful in evaluating chronic patellar tendinitis because it establishes the diagnosis, detects associated chronic tears, and may help determine appropriate rehabilitation. (orig.)

  6. Prevalence of maternal chronic diseases during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jølving, Line Riis; Nielsen, Jan; Kesmodel, Ulrik Schiøler

    2016-01-01

    chronic diseases were chronic lung diseases/asthma (1.73%), thyroid disorders (1.50%) and anxiety and personality disorders (1.33%). Taking increasing maternal age at birth into account, the relative risk for women to have a chronic disease from 2009 to 2013 was 4.14 (95% CI 4.05-4.22), compared...... pregnancy. We aimed to analyze the prevalence of chronic diseases during pregnancy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This register-based cohort study included all women giving birth in Denmark between 1989 and 2013 based on data from Danish health registers. Maternal chronic diseases included 23 disease categories...

  7. Endothelins in chronic liver disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, S; Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl

    1996-01-01

    This review describes recent progress in the accumulation of knowledge about the endothelins (ETs), a family of vasoactive 21-amino acid polypeptides, in chronic liver disease. Particular prominence is given to the dynamics of ET-1 and ET-3 and their possible relation to the disturbed circulation...... and neurohumoral dysregulation found in cirrhosis. Recent studies have shown that the ET system is highly activated in most cirrhotic patients. Circulating ET-1 and ET-3 levels have a positive relation to the severity of the disease and fluid retention, with the highest values recorded in patients with functional....... In addition, marked associations with disturbance of systemic haemodynamics and with abnormal distribution of blood volume have been reported. Although the pathophysiological importance of the ET system in chronic liver disease is not completely understood, similarities to other vasopressive...

  8. Endothelins in chronic liver disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Søren; Henriksen, Jens Henrik

    1996-01-01

    This review describes recent progress in the accumulation of knowledge about the endothelins (ETs), a family of vasoactive 21-amino acid polypeptides, in chronic liver disease. Particular prominence is given to the dynamics of ET-1 and ET-3 and their possible relation to the disturbed circulation....... In addition, marked associations with disturbance of systemic haemodynamics and with abnormal distribution of blood volume have been reported. Although the pathophysiological importance of the ET system in chronic liver disease is not completely understood, similarities to other vasopressive...... and neurohumoral dysregulation found in cirrhosis. Recent studies have shown that the ET system is highly activated in most cirrhotic patients. Circulating ET-1 and ET-3 levels have a positive relation to the severity of the disease and fluid retention, with the highest values recorded in patients with functional...

  9. Vouchers for chronic disease care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Jennifer J; Segal, Leonie

    2008-08-01

    This paper explores the economic implications of vouchers for chronic disease management with respect to achieving objectives of equity and efficiency. Vouchers as a payment policy instrument for health care services have a set of properties that suggest they may address both demand-side and supply-side issues, and contribute to equity and efficiency. They provide a means whereby health care services can be targeted at selected groups, enabling consumer choice of provider, and encouraging competition in the supply of health services. This analysis suggests that, when structured appropriately, vouchers can support consumers to choose services that will meet their health care needs and encourage competition among providers. Although they may not be appropriate across the entire health care system, there are features of vouchers that make them a potentially attractive option, especially for the management of chronic disease.

  10. Chronic folliculitis in Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumarasinghe S

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic folliculitis (CF is a chronic infection of hair follicles leading to atrophy and loss of the affected hairs. This study was done on 51 patients with CF presenting at the Dermatology Clinic at General Hospital Matara, Sri Lanka, to identify specific clinical features and aetiological factors, and to study histopathology. Pus cultures were done on 25 cases. Biopsies were done on 6 patients. CF was commoner in males (59%; 76% were under 34 years, and 39% had occupational exposure to possible irritants. Thirty five precent admitted of scrubbing legs with rough objects. Ichthyosis vulgaris was evident in 47%. All pus cultures revealed Staphylococcus aureus. Clinical features and histopathological features were similar to those described by Harman (1968. Rough scrubbing, ichthyosis and occupational exposure to irritants may be aetiologically relevant.

  11. Clinicomicrobiological study of chronic paronychia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guha P

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 261 digits affected in 100 patients of chronic paronychia were studied for clinical features. The bacteriological and mycological flora have been examined in 25 cases of the above 100 cases which were most severely affected. Aerobic bacteria were found in all cases. Staphylococcus aureus was seen in 60 percent. Klebsiella in 16 percent, Escherichia coli in 12 percent, Pseudomonas aeruginosa in 12 percent, Proteus mirabillis in 8 percent, Staphylococcus epidermidis in 4 percent and Streptococcus viridans in 4 percent. Culture for fungus revealed Candida albicans in 64 percent and other species such as C. krusei, C. stellatoides, C. viswanathi, C. parapsilosis and C. tropicalis were present in 1 case each. No fungus was detected in 4 cases(16percent. The present investigation was designed to compare the bacterial and mycotic flora of the nail folds of patients of chronic paronychia with that of western countries.

  12. Management of chronic Achilles tendinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    Tendons transmit force between muscles and bones and, when stretched, store elastic energy that contributes to movement.(1) The tendinous portion of the gastrocnemius and soleus muscles merge to form the Achilles tendon, which is the largest and strongest in the body, but one of the most frequently injured.(2,3) Conservative management options for chronic Achilles tendinopathy include eccentric (lengthening) exercises, extracorporeal shockwave therapy (ESWT), topical nitroglycerin, low level laser therapy, orthoses, splints or injections (e.g. corticosteroids, hyperosmolar dextrose, polidocanol, platelet-rich plasma), while a minority of patients require surgery (using open, percutaneous or endoscopic methods).(4-8) Here we assess the management options for patients with chronic Achilles tendinopathy (lasting over 6 weeks).

  13. [Pharmacological treatment of chronic pain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willimann, Patrick

    2011-09-01

    The pharmacological treatment of chronic pain differs from acute pain management. In chronic non-cancer pain patients pharmacological treatment is only one element of an interdisciplinary approach. Not pain reduction only but gain in physical and social functioning is mandatory for continuation of therapy. The developpement of a strategy is the most important and difficult step toward an individual and sustained pharmacological pain treatment. Simple practical guidelines can help to find an individual therapeutic straight. Outcome parameters have to be determined. Check-ups for discontinuation of the therapy have to be done periodically. Exact documentation of effect and side effects prevents ungrateful and potential dangerous treatments. The WHO ladder remains the cornerstone of pharmacological pain treatment. Further analgesics as antidepressants and anticonvulsants are important in treatment of neuropathic or mixed pain states. Special considerations have to be done in opioid treatment of non-cancer pain regarding the lack of evidence in long term outcome and possible side effects and risks.

  14. Management of chronic visceral pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olesen, Anne E; Farmer, Adam D; Olesen, Søren S; Aziz, Qasim; Drewes, Asbjørn M

    2016-10-01

    Despite marked differences in underlying pathophysiology, the current management of visceral pain largely follows the guidelines derived from the somatic pain literature. The effective management of patients with chronic visceral pain should be multifaceted, including both pharmacological and psychological interventions, thereby providing a mechanism-orientated approach to treatment. Patients can frequently become disenfranchised, and subsequently disengaged, with healthcare providers leading to repeated consultations. Thus, a key aspect of management is to break this cycle by validating patients' symptoms, adopting an empathic approach and taking time to educate patients. To optimize treatment and outcomes in chronic visceral pain we need to move away from approaches exclusively based on dealing with peripheral nociceptive input toward more holistic strategies, taking into account alterations in central pain processing.

  15. Chronic radiation enteritis and malnutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Gwilym James; Brooke, Rachael; De Silva, Aminda Niroshan

    2013-07-01

    Radiation enteritis is defined as the loss of absorptive capacity of the intestine following irradiation, which is most commonly seen after radiotherapy for pelvic and abdominal malignancies. It is divided into acute and chronic forms and usually presents with diarrhea and malabsorption. Malnutrition is a common complication of chronic radiation enteritis (CRE). We reviewed the etiology, prevalence, symptoms, diagnosis and management of CRE and CRE with malnutrition in this article. Functional short bowel syndrome as a cause of malnutrition in CRE is also considered. The diagnostic work-up includes serum markers, endoscopy, cross-sectional imaging and the exclusion of alternative diagnoses such as recurrent malignancy. Management options of CRE include dietary manipulation, anti-motility agents, electrolyte correction, probiotics, parenteral nutrition, surgical resection and small bowel transplantation. Treatment may also be required for coexisting conditions including vitamin B12 deficiency, bile acid malabsorption and depression.

  16. Nitric oxide and chronic colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew B Grisham

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Nitric oxide (NO is thought to play an important role in modulating the inflammatory response by virtue of its ability to affect bloodflow, leukocyte function and cell viability. The objective of this study was to assess the role that NO may play in mediating the mucosal injury and inflammation in a model of chronic granulomatous colitis using two pharmacologically different inhibitors of nitric oxide synthase (NOS. Chronic granulomatous colitis with liver and spleen inflammation was induced in female Lewis rats via the subserosal (intramural injection of peptidoglycan/polysaccharide (PG/PS derived from group A streptococci. Chronic NOS inhibition by oral administration of NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME (15 µmol/kg/day or amino-guanidine (AG (15 µmol/ kg/day was found to attenuate the PG/PS-induced increases in macroscopic colonic inflammation scores and colonic myeloperoxidase activity. Only AG -- not L-NAME – attenuated the PG/PS-induced increases in colon dry weight. Both L-NAME and AG significantly attenuated the PG/PS-induced increases in spleen weight whereas neither was effective at significantly attenuating the PG/PS-induced increases in liver weight. Although both L-NAME and AG inhibited NO production in vivo, as measured by decreases in plasma nitrite and nitrate levels, only AG produced significantly lower values (38±3 versus 83±8 µM, respectively, P<0.05. Finally, L-NAME, but not AG, administration significantly increased mean arterial pressure from 83 mmHg in colitic animals to 105 mmHg in the PG/PS+ L-NAME-treated animals (P<0.05. It is concluded that NO may play an important role in mediating some of the pathophysiology associated with this model of chronic granulomatous colitis.

  17. DIAGNOSIS AND MANAGEMENT CHRONIC INSOMNIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.A Dian Puspitha Candra

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Insomnia is defined as difficulty to start sleeping, maintain it, or low quality sleeping, if the condition persist for more than one month, it is called chronic insomnia. Diagnosis is made through anamnesa and sleep wake diaries, aktigraphy, polisomnography. Pharmachologycally drugs that have been used to treat insomnia are benzodiazepin reseptor agonis, antihistamine, antidepressant. Non pharmacological ways include behavioural intervention for insomnia, give significant result in decreasing sleep latency, reducing awakness duration during the night and improving total sleeping time.

  18. Tackling chronic migraine: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carod-Artal FJ

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Francisco Javier Carod-Artal Neurology Department, Raigmore Hospital, Inverness, UK; Universitat Internacional de Catalunya, Barcelona, Spain Abstract: In the last decade, several diagnostic criteria and definitions have been proposed for chronic migraine (CM. The third edition of the International Classification of Headache Disorders–3 beta, published in 2013, has revised CM diagnostic criteria. CM is defined as “headache occurring on 15 or more days per month for more than 3 months, which has the features of migraine headache on at least 8 days per month.” Patients who meet the criteria for CM and for medication-overuse headache should be given both diagnoses. Worldwide, CM prevalence ranges 1%–3%, and its incidence has been estimated to be 2.5% per year. CM is associated with disability and poor quality of life. Modifiable risk factors include (among others: migraine progression (defined as an increase in frequency and severity of migraine attacks; medication and caffeine overuse; obesity; stressful life events; and snoring. CM patients have a significantly higher frequency of some comorbid conditions, including chronic pain, psychiatric disorders, respiratory illness, and some vascular risk factors. Management includes identification and control of comorbidities and risk factors that predispose to CM; treatment and prevention for medication overuse; early treatment for migraine attacks; and an adequate preventive therapy for CM. Several randomized controlled clinical trials have shown the efficacy of topiramate, amitriptyline, onabotulinumtoxinA, and cognitive-behavioral therapy in CM. Keywords: chronic daily headache, chronic migraine, epidemiology, medication overuse headache, risk factors, treatment

  19. Biomarkers in chronic adult hydrocephalus

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    Kitchen Neil D

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Awareness of the importance of chronic adult hydrocephalus has been raised again with the recent emergence of epidemiological studies. It is estimated that between 5 and 10% of patients suffering from dementia might, in fact, have chronic hydrocephalus. Although, surgical diversion of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF represents the only known procedure able to treat the symptoms of this condition, the selection of surgical patients has always been problematic. In the last 40 years, we have become wiser in using appropriate diagnostic tests for the selection of these patients; however, the area of biological markers has so far been overlooked in this condition, in contrast to that for other neurodegenerative disorders and dementias. Biomarkers are biological substances that may be used to indicate either the onset or the presence, and the progression of a clinical condition, being closely linked to its pathophysiology. In such a setting they might assist in the more appropriate selection of patients for shunt surgery. In this article, we have reviewed research carried out in the last 25 years regarding the identification of serum and CSF biomarkers for chronic hydrocephalus, discussed the potential for each one, and finally discussed the limitations for use, as well as future directions and possibilities in this field. It is concluded that tumour-necrosis factor, tau protein, lactate, sulfatide and neurofilament triple protein are the most promising CSF markers for chronic hydrocephalus. At present however, none of these meet the criteria required to justify a change clinical practice. In the future, collaborative multi-centre projects will be needed to obtain more substantial data that overcome the problems that arise from small individual and uncoordinated studies.

  20. Chronic sphenoid rhinosinusitis: management challenge

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Natamon Charakorn, Kornkiat Snidvongs Department of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University and King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital, Bangkok, Thailand Abstract: Chronic sphenoid rhinosinusitis is a spectrum of inflammatory diseases in isolated sphenoid sinus which may persist over a period of 12 weeks. It is a different entity from other types of rhinosinusitis because clinical presentations include headache, visual loss or diplop...

  1. Uveitis in juvenile chronic arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanski, J J

    1990-01-01

    About 20% of patients with juvenile chronic arthritis develop uveitis which is frequently bilateral. Risk factors for uveitis are: female gender, pauciarticular onset of arthritis, presence of circulating antinuclear antibodies, and the antigens HLA-DW5 and HLA-DPw2. The visual prognosis in patients with uveitis is good in 25% and fair in 50%. The remaining 25% develop cataract and/or glaucoma. The management of glaucoma is unsatisfactory, but the results of cataract surgery by lensectomy are good.

  2. Conversations with chronic schizophrenic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, R

    1979-02-01

    An account is given of some of the topics discussed during a small informal weekly open group meeting of chronic schizophrenic patients, based on occasional notes compiled over eleven years. The main feature of the patients' condition as displayed was poverty--clinical, social, behavioural, material and financial--and certain features suggested an organic aetiology. Reasons are given for considering that the patients' condition was predominantly caused by schizophrenia rather than by institutionalism.

  3. Comprehensive management of chronic pain in haemophilia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, G; Tachdjian, R; Baumann, K; Panopoulos, G

    2014-03-01

    Chronic pain, most often due to haemophilic arthropathy, is a pervasive problem in persons with haemophilia (PWH) that adversely impacts function and quality of life. PWH with inhibitors and older PWH may be especially vulnerable to progressive arthropathy and resulting chronic pain. The development of chronic pain from acute pain involves a complex interplay of biological and psychosocial factors that may all contribute to the perpetuation of chronic pain and the outcome of therapy. In the absence of evidence-based guidelines, an individualized, multimodal approach to chronic pain management is proposed, as it is in individuals without haemophilia who have chronic pain. Pharmacological treatment is central to the management of chronic pain and must be modified based on pain intensity, ongoing response to therapy and the risk for adverse events. Non-pharmacological interventions, including physiotherapy, complementary treatments and surgical (e.g. orthopaedic) or other invasive procedures, may be integral to chronic pain management in this population. Ongoing psychosocial assessment is critical to identify those factors that may be contributing to the perpetuation of chronic pain or acting as barriers to effective management. Additional study is needed to identify optimal pharmacological treatments for chronic pain in PWH based on the unique pathophysiology of haemophilic arthropathy and on risk profile. Systematic determination of the particular psychosocial factors impacting the experience and management of chronic pain in PWH would likewise add value to the treatment of this pervasive problem.

  4. Chronic Daily Headache - A Reappraisal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chakravarty A

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic Daily Headache (CDH generally refers to frequent headache occuring more than 15 days/month for over three months. Such headaches may be primary or secondary - the latter referring to headaches related to identifiable intra and extracranial vascular or other pathologies or systemic illnesses. The primary type may be subclassified as short and long lasting ones, depending upon whether the headache spells are more or less than four hours in duration. The present review would deal with the four major types of long lasting primary CDH which include Chronic migraine (CM, Chronic tension type headache (CTTH, New daily persistent headache (NDPH and Hemicrania continua (HC. The first part of the article would focus on the clinical pattern recognising features of these types. The relationship of medication overuse to CM would be critically evaluated. In the second part, the status of CDH in the recently proposed classification of headache disorders by the International Headache Society would be briefly evaluated. In the next section the clinical Profile or CDH in Indian patients would be highlighted based on available published data. Lastly, the pathophysiology of this vexing condition would be discussed specially in relation to CM and postulating on how it may evolve from episodic migraine.

  5. Meditation's impact on chronic illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonadonna, Ramita

    2003-01-01

    Meditation is becoming widely popular as an adjunct to conventional medical therapies. This article reviews the literature regarding the experience of chronic illness, theories about meditation, and clinical effects of this self-care practice. Eastern theories of meditation include Buddhist psychology. The word Buddha means the awakened one, and Buddhist meditators have been called the first scientists, alluding to more than 2500 years of precise, detailed observation of inner experience. The knowledge that comprises Buddhist psychology was derived inductively from the historical figure's (Prince Siddhartha Gautama) diligent self-inquiry. Western theories of meditation include Jungian, Benson's relaxation response, and transpersonal psychology. Clinical effects of meditation impact a broad spectrum of physical and psychological symptoms and syndromes, including reduced anxiety, pain, and depression, enhanced mood and self-esteem, and decreased stress. Meditation has been studied in populations with fibromyalgia, cancer, hypertension, and psoriasis. While earlier studies were small and lacked experimental controls, the quality and quantity of valid research is growing. Meditation practice can positively influence the experience of chronic illness and can serve as a primary, secondary, and/or tertiary prevention strategy. Health professionals demonstrate commitment to holistic practice by asking patients about use of meditation, and can encourage this self-care activity. Simple techniques for mindfulness can be taught in the clinical setting. Living mindfully with chronic illness is a fruitful area for research, and it can be predicted that evidence will grow to support the role of consciousness in the human experience of disease.

  6. NAFLD and Chronic Kidney Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcuccilli, Morgan; Chonchol, Michel

    2016-04-14

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common cause of chronic liver disease in developed countries and it is now considered a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Evidence linking NAFLD to the development and progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is emerging as a popular area of scientific interest. The rise in simultaneous liver-kidney transplantation as well as the significant cost associated with the presence of chronic kidney disease in the NAFLD population make this entity a worthwhile target for screening and therapeutic intervention. While several cross-sectional and case control studies have been published to substantiate these theories, very little data exists on the underlying cause of NAFLD and CKD. In this review, we will discuss the most recent publications on the diagnosis of NAFLD as well new evidence regarding the pathophysiology of NAFLD and CKD as an inflammatory disorder. These mechanisms include the role of obesity, the renin-angiotensin system, and dysregulation of fructose metabolism and lipogenesis in the development of both disorders. Further investigation of these pathways may lead to novel therapies that aim to target the NAFLD and CKD. However, more prospective studies that include information on both renal and liver histology will be necessary in order to understand the relationship between these diseases.

  7. Superoxide dismutases in chronic gastritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Švagelj, Dražen; Terzić, Velimir; Dovhanj, Jasna; Švagelj, Marija; Cvrković, Mirta; Švagelj, Ivan

    2016-04-01

    Human gastric diseases have shown significant changes in the activity and expression of superoxide dismutase (SOD) isoforms. The aim of this study was to detect Mn-SOD activity and expression in the tissue of gastric mucosa, primarily in chronic gastritis (immunohistochemical Helicobacter pylori-negative gastritis, without other pathohistological changes) and to evaluate their possible connection with pathohistological diagnosis. We examined 51 consecutive outpatients undergoing endoscopy for upper gastrointestinal symptoms. Patients were classified based on their histopathological examinations and divided into three groups: 51 patients (archive samples between 2004-2009) with chronic immunohistochemical Helicobacter pylori-negative gastritis (mononuclear cells infiltration were graded as absent, moderate, severe) divided into three groups. Severity of gastritis was graded according to the updated Sydney system. Gastric tissue samples were used to determine the expression of Mn-SOD with anti-Mn-SOD Ab immunohistochemically. The Mn-SOD expression was more frequently present in specimens with severe and moderate inflammation of gastric mucosa than in those with normal mucosa. In patients with normal histological finding, positive immunoreactivity of Mn-SOD was not found. Our results determine the changes in Mn-SOD expression occurring in the normal gastric mucosa that had undergone changes in the intensity of chronic inflammatory infiltrates in the lamina propria.

  8. THROMBOENDARTERECTOMY FOR CHRONIC PULMONARY THROMBOEMBOLISM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hua Ren; Pi-xiong Su; Chao-ji Zhang; Song Gu; Heng Zhang; Chen Wang

    2005-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the improving reliability and safety of thromboendarterectomy and perioperative management for chronic pulmonary thromboembolism. Methods The clinical data of 12 cases with chronic pulmonary thromboembolism, who underwent thromboendarterec tomy assisted by low flow or circulation arrest with deep hypothermia, were reviewed retrospectively. Results Pulmonary artery pressure decreased 20 to 40 mmHg immediately after surgical procedures in 9 cases. The postoperative pulmonary edema at various degrees happened in 12 cases, among them, 1 died of severe lung infection and pulmonary re-embolism at 19 days postoperation. Computed tomography pulmonary angiography and angiography of 11 cases indicated that the original obstruction of pulmonary artery disappeared. During the follow-up period of 2 months to 5 years, the clinical symptoms and activity was improved. Conclusion Thromboendarterectomy is an effective treatment for chronic pulmonary thromboembolism. The outcome of the surgical procedure needs to be further investigated and followed up regularly according to an evaluative system, because it might be influenced by multiple factors.

  9. Ultrasonography in chronic renal failure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buturovic-Ponikvar, Jadranka E-mail: jadranka.buturovic@mf.uni-lj.si; Visnar-Perovic, Alenka

    2003-05-01

    Many chronic renal diseases lead to the final common state of decrease in renal size, parenchymal atrophy, sclerosis and fibrosis. The ultrasound image show a smaller kidney, thinning of the parenchyma and its hyperechogenicity (reflecting sclerosis and fibrosis). The frequency of renal cysts increases with the progression of the disease. Ultrasound generally does not allow for the exact diagnosis of an underlying chronic disease (renal biopsy is usually required), but it can help to determine an irreversible disease, assess prognosis and avoid unnecessary diagnostic or therapeutic procedures. The main exception in which the ultrasound image does not show a smaller kidney with parenchymal atrophy is diabetic nephropathy, the leading cause of chronic and end-stage renal failure in developed countries in recent years. In this case, both renal size and parenchymal thickness are preserved until end-stage renal failure. Doppler study of intrarenal vessels can provide additional information about microvascular and parenchymal lesions, which is helpful in deciding for or against therapeutic intervention and timely planning for optimal renal replacement therapy option.

  10. [Nutrition and chronic renal failure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayúcar Ruiz de Galarreta, A; Cordero Lorenzana, M L; Martínez-Puga y López, E; Gómez Seijo, A; Escudero Alvarez, E

    2000-01-01

    The causes of malnutrition in chronic terminal kidney failure are reviewed in the situation both before and after dialysis, as are the malnutrition rates in both circumstances and their treatment. Malnutrition has a high prevalence in terminal kidney patients, partly as a result of the therapeutic restriction on calories and proteins, but also due to the metabolic reactions typical of the disease and to anorexia. In patients subjected to dialytical methods, certain other mechanisms are added. In addition to malnutrition, there are alterations in the metabolism of calcium, phosphorus and potassium, as well as lipids, thus limiting nutritional therapy's ability to restore the nutritional status to normal. An awareness of energy expenditure in chronic terminal kidney failure and the consequences of malnutrition have led to new challenges in nutritional therapy, both in the dose and quality of the proteins, with a debate raging over the advantages of ketoanalogues, and also in the methods for providing nutrients. The ideal nutritional method for repletion is oral administration, but this can be enhanced with artificial support such as oral supplements, parenteral nutrition during dialysis or such alternatives as enteral nutrition at home in the case of chronic kidney problems in children, using percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG), in order to nourish the patients and minimize growth disorders.

  11. Induction of Chromosome Aberrations in Human Lymphocytes by Irradiation WithβParticles From Low-Doses Tritiated Water%低剂量氚水β射线对人体外周血淋巴细胞染色体的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓冰; 成琼; 杜阳; 杨勇

    2014-01-01

    通过染色体非稳定性畸变来研究低剂量氚水β射线的生物效应。将人体外周血与氚水混合培养24 h和48 h,共培养72 h后获细胞得到与氚水作用后染色体畸变的频率并与相同剂量下60 Coγ射线的细胞效应对比。将实验结果进行回归方程拟合,得到 HTOβ射线的最佳回归方程Y=(0.001±0.004)+(0.062±0.018)D+(0.053±0.010)D2(n=3,r2=0.995,P<0.01);通过比较 HTO 与γ射线的最佳回归方程可知,方程系数的主要区别在b值,提示在低剂量的情况下β射线诱发畸变的能力更强。将60 Coγ射线作为参考可得 HTOβ射线的相对生物效能(RBE)最大值出现在0.06 Gy,为2.17,RBE值随着剂量的增大而减小。%The yield of unstable chromosome aberration induced in human lymphocytes byβparticles from low-doses HTO has been measured.HTO was mixed with heparinised blood in various amounts so that dose of 6.24×10-4 Gy to 1.23 Gy were delivered in 24 h and 48 h. After culturing for 72 h,the dicentric yield was measured as a function of dose to the blood and compared with data from 60 Coγradiation.Using a linear-quadratic dose-effect relation to fit the experimental data,a significant linear contribution Y=(0.001 ±0.004)+(0.062 ± 0.0 1 8 )D+(0.0 5 3 ± 0.0 1 0 )D2 (n=3 ,r2=0.9 9 5 ,P<0.0 1 )was found.The main difference between the coefficients forβandγradiation is in the b values,indicating that HTOβrays are more efficient,particularly at low doses.In accord with the theory of dual radiation,the RBE of HTOβparticles relative toγrays is 2.17 at 0.06 Gy and decreases with increasing dose.

  12. Water, mineral waters and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petraccia, Luisa; Liberati, Giovanna; Masciullo, Stefano Giuseppe; Grassi, Marcello; Fraioli, Antonio

    2006-06-01

    The authors focus on water resources and the use of mineral waters in human nutrition, especially in the different stages of life, in physical activity and in the presence of some morbid conditions. Mineral water is characterized by its purity at source, its content in minerals, trace elements and other constituents, its conservation and its healing properties recognized by the Ministry of Health after clinical and pharmacological trials. Based on total salt content in grams after evaporation of 1l mineral water dried at 180 degrees C (dry residues), mineral waters can be classified as: waters with a very low mineral content, waters low in mineral content, waters with a medium mineral content, and strongly mineralized waters. Based on ion composition mineral waters can be classified as: bicarbonate waters, sulfate waters, sodium chloride or saltwater, sulfuric waters. Based on biological activity mineral waters can be classified as: diuretic waters, cathartic waters, waters with antiphlogistic properties. Instructions for use, doses, and current regulations are included.

  13. Challenges of linking chronic dehydration and fluid consumption to health outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Lawrence E

    2012-11-01

    The purpose of this article is to review the effects of chronic mild dehydration and fluid consumption on specific health outcomes including obesity. The electronic databases PubMed and Google Scholar were searched for relevant literature published from the time of their inception to 2011, with results restricted to studies performed on human subjects and reports in the English language. Key words included the following: dehydration, hypohydration, water intake, fluid intake, disease, and the names of specific disease states. Strength of evidence categories were described for 1) medical conditions associated with chronic dehydration or low daily water intake, and 2) randomized-controlled trials regarding the effects of increased water consumption on caloric intake, weight gain, and satiety. This process determined that urolithiasis is the only disorder that has been consistently associated (i.e., 11 of 13 publications) with chronic low daily water intake. Regarding obesity and type 2 diabetes, evidence suggests that increased water intake may reduce caloric intake for some individuals. Recommendations for future investigations include measuring total fluid intake (water + beverages + water in solid food), conducting randomized-controlled experiments, identifying novel hydration biomarkers, and delineating hydration categories.

  14. Gut microbiome and chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Hans C; Eng, Charis; Shoskes, Daniel A

    2017-01-01

    Analysis of the human microbiome continues to reveal new and previously unrealized associations between microbial dysbiosis and disease. Novel approaches to bacterial identification using culture-independent methods allow practitioners to discern the presence of alterations in the taxa and diversity of the microbiome and identify correlations with disease processes. While some of these diseases that have been extensively studied are well-defined in their etiology and treatment methods (colorectal cancer), others have provided much more significant challenges in both diagnosis and treatment. One such condition, chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS), has several etiological and potentiating contributions from infection, inflammation, central nervous system (CNS) changes, stress, and central sensitization-all factors that play important roles in the crosstalk between the human body and its microbiome. No singular cause of CP/CPPS has been identified and it is most likely a syndrome with multifactorial causes. This heterogeneity and ambiguity are sources of significant frustration for patients and providers alike. Despite multiple attempts, treatment of chronic prostatitis with monotherapy has seen limited success, which is thought to be due to its heterogeneous nature. Phenotypic approaches to both classify the disease and direct treatment for CP/CPPS have proven beneficial in these patients, but questions still remain regarding etiology. Newer microbiome research has found correlations between symptom scores and disease severity and the degree of dysbiosis in urine and gut (stool) microbiomes in these patients as compared to un-afflicted controls. These findings present potential new diagnostic and therapeutic targets in CP/CPPS patients.

  15. Physical Activity and Chronic Prostatitis/Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ran; Chomistek, Andrea K.; Dimitrakoff, Jordan D.; Giovannucci, Edward L.; Willett, Walter C.; Rosner, Bernard A.; Wu, Kana

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS) is a prevalent urologic disorder among men, but its etiology is still poorly understood. Our objective was to examine the relationship between physical activity and incidence of CP/CPPS in a large cohort of male health professionals. Methods We conducted a prospective cohort study among men in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study followed from 1986 to 2008. The study population included 20,918 men who completed all CP/CPPS questions on the 2008 questionnaire. Leisure-time physical activity, including type and intensity of activity, was measured by questionnaire in 1986. A National Institute of Health Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index pain score was calculated based on the responses on the 2008 questionnaire. Participants with pain scores ≥ 8 were considered CP/CPPS cases (n=689). Results Higher leisure-time physical activity was associated with lower risk of CP/CPPS. The multivariable-adjusted odds ratio (OR) comparing >35.0 to ≤3.5 MET-h/wk of physical activity was 0.72 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.56, 0.92, p for trend <0.001). Observed inverse associations between physical activity and CP/CPPS were similar for both moderate- and vigorous-intensity activities. Sedentary behavior, measured as time spent watching television, was not associated with risk of CP/CPPS (p for trend 0.64). Conclusions Findings from this study, the first large scale and most comprehensive study to date on this association, suggest that higher levels of leisure-time physical activity may lower risk of CP/CPPS in middle-aged and older men. PMID:25116086

  16. Endoplasmic reticulum stress is chronically activated in chronic pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sah, Raghuwansh P; Garg, Sushil K; Dixit, Ajay K; Dudeja, Vikas; Dawra, Rajinder K; Saluja, Ashok K

    2014-10-03

    The pathogenesis of chronic pancreatitis (CP) is poorly understood. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress has now been recognized as a pathogenic event in many chronic diseases. However, ER stress has not been studied in CP, although pancreatic acinar cells seem to be especially vulnerable to ER dysfunction because of their dependence on high ER volume and functionality. Here, we aim to investigate ER stress in CP, study its pathogenesis in relation to trypsinogen activation (widely regarded as the key event of pancreatitis), and explore its mechanism, time course, and downstream consequences during pancreatic injury. CP was induced in mice by repeated episodes of acute pancreatitis (AP) based on caerulein hyperstimulation. ER stress leads to activation of unfolded protein response components that were measured in CP and AP. We show sustained up-regulation of unfolded protein response components ATF4, CHOP, GRP78, and XBP1 in CP. Overexpression of GRP78 and ATF4 in human CP confirmed the experimental findings. We used novel trypsinogen-7 knock-out mice (T(-/-)), which lack intra-acinar trypsinogen activation, to clarify the relationship of ER stress to intra-acinar trypsinogen activation in pancreatic injury. Comparable activation of ER stress was seen in wild type and T(-/-) mice. Induction of ER stress occurred through pathologic calcium signaling very early in the course of pancreatic injury. Our results establish that ER stress is chronically activated in CP and is induced early in pancreatic injury through pathologic calcium signaling independent of trypsinogen activation. ER stress may be an important pathogenic mechanism in pancreatitis that needs to be explored in future studies.

  17. Effects of Chronic Stress on Cognition in Male SAMP8 Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinhua Wang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Chronic stress can lead to cognitive impairment. Senescence-accelerated mouse prone 8 (SAMP8 is a naturally occurring animal model that is useful for investigating the neurological mechanisms of Alzheimer's disease. Here we investigated the impact and mechanisms of chronic stress on cognition in male SAMP8 mice. Methods: Male 6-month- old SAMP8 and SAMR1 (senescence-accelerated mouse resistant 1 mice strains were randomly divided into 4 groups. Mice in the unpredictable chronic mild stress (UCMS groups were exposed to diverse stressors for 4 weeks. Then, these mice performed Morris water maze (MWM test to assess the effect of UCMS on learning and memory. To explore the neurological mechanisms of UCMS on cognition in mice, we evaluated changes in the expression of postsynaptic density 95 (PSD95 and synaptophysin (SYN, which are essential proteins for synaptic plasticity. Five mice from each group were randomly chosen for reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR and western blotting analysis of SYN and PSD95. Results: The Morris water maze experiment revealed that the cognitive ability of the SAMP8 mice decreased with brain aging, and that chronic stress aggravated this cognitive deficit. In addition, chronic stress decreased the mRNA and protein expression of SYN and PSD95 in the hippocampus of the SAMP8 mice; however, the SAMR1 mice were unaffected. Conclusion: Our results demonstrate that decreased cognition and synaptic plasticity are related to aging. Moreover, we show that chronic stress aggravated this cognitive deficit and decreased SYN and PSD95 expression in the SAMP8 mice. Furthermore, the SAMP8 mice were more vulnerable to the detrimental effects of chronic stress on cognition than the SAMR1 mice. Our results suggest that the neurological mechanisms of chronic stress on cognition might be associated with a decrease in hippocampal SYN and PSD95 expression, which is critical for structural synaptic

  18. PROVANN: Model System for Chronic Exposure of Larval and Adult Fish to Releases from Offshore Petroleum Platforms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, M.; Rye, H. [IKU Petroleumsforskning A/S, Trondheim (Norway); Melbye, A.; Johnsen, S.

    1996-12-31

    Produced water from offshore oil and gas production platforms contains a variety of hydrocarbons, heavy metals, and production chemicals. Vertical and horizontal mixing generally brings concentrations in discharge plumes below level associated with acute effects within 500 or 1000 m of the source. Chronic effects outside this region remain a potential problem. The purpose of PROVANN, the system of models described in this paper, is to assess the potential for chronic effects from produced water. The preliminary focus is on potential bioaccumulation and boimagnification of produced water constituents in the marine food web. Other possible types of chronic effects, such as reduced fecundity, or pheromone response interference, can also be assessed to the extent that such effects may be correlated with exposure. PROVANN simulates 3-dimensional transport, dilution, and degradation of chemicals released into the water, from one or more simultaneous sources. 8 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. Effects of chronic parasitosis on women's health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiso, R

    1997-07-01

    Parasitic diseases are closely related to the lack of sanitation (unavailability of potable water, inadequate disposal of human waste, lack of latrines) or the absence of personal hygiene. They are also closely linked to warm and humid climates, and are therefore considered tropical diseases. This chapter addresses chronic hookworm parasitosis and malaria, and their effect on women's health. Of all Helminthes, hookworms cause the most severe anemia because of iron deficiency due to chronic blood loss. Worldwide, an estimated 51% of pregnant women suffer from anemia-almost twice as many as non-pregnant women. In severe cases (Hb deficiency affects the fetus, causes retarded intrauterine growth, and reduces fetal ability to absorb iron provided by the mother. Hookworms are nematodes that infect roughly 1 billion people. Their preferred habitat is the jejunum, where they attach to the mucous tissue to feed, and secrete an anticoagulant causing bleeding. Hookworm infections often begin in childhood. The worm enters the body through the skin and reaches the highest number at the end of adolescence and young adulthood. Little attention has been given to the treatment of pregnant women because of unavailability of safe antiparasitic drugs and fear of teratogenesis. However, there are new treatments, and the anthelminthic drugs may be administered in schools and organized women's groups in communities. During pregnancy anthelminthic treatment can improve maternal, fetal and infant health. Treatment given every 4 months has been shown to interrupt the transmission cycle of the parasite and help to improve the iron status of all women. Therapeutic strategies should be linked to other measures, such as promoting the use of shoes, introduction of potable water, education and treatment of the population at large, especially the school-age population. An estimated 267 million people are annually infected by malaria, a parasitic disease caused by Protozoa of the genus Plasmodium

  20. Water Reuse: Using Reclaimed Water For Irrigation

    OpenAIRE

    Haering, Kathryn C.; Evanylo, Gregory K.; Benham, Brian Leslie, 1960-; Goatley, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Describes water reuse and reclaimed water, explains how reclaimed water is produced, options for water reuse, water reuse regulations, and agronomic concerns with water reuse, and provides several case studies of water reuse.

  1. [Neuroendocrine changes in chronic cardiac insufficiency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeger, P; Cohen-Solal, A; Dahan, M; Juliard, J M; Charlier, P; Gourgon, R

    1988-02-01

    Throughout the course of chronic congestive heart failure cardiac and peripheral compensatory mechanisms are at play, most of them under the influence of the neuroendocrine system. The reserves of heart rate and contractility are regulated essentially by the noradrenergic system (NAS), but this mechanism is partial and transient owing to the gradual decrease in the density and sensitivity of myocardial beta-adrenergic receptors induced by overstimulation. Adaptation of the heart to exercise may be reduced. This escape phenomenon is also observed with almost all cardiotonic drugs which interfere with cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), in contrast with the paradoxically favourable effects of beta-blockers in small doses or of drugs that are both agonists and antagonists of beta-adrenergic receptors. The mechanisms which contribute to the induction of left ventricular hypertrophy are imperfectly known. The noradrenergic system and the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) are probably not the only ones involved. The setting in action of Frank-Sterling heterometric regulation, at first during exercise then permanently, requires an increase in filling pressure obtained by venous constriction (predominantly controlled by the NAS) and, mostly, by an increase in circulating blood volume. NAS and RAAS intervene in the kidneys to produce water-and-salt retention.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  2. Chronic pelvic pain: comorbidity between chronic musculoskeletal pain and vulvodynia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Biasi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Chronic pelvic pain (CPP is a common condition that has a major impact on the quality of life of both men and women. Male CPP is usually attributable to well-defined urogenital conditions (most frequently infectious/non infectious prostatic diseases or musculoskeletal or bowel diseases, whereas the features of female CPP are much more complex and are of particular clinical and epidemiological importance. It is a multifactorial syndrome that can be due to diseases of the urogenital, gastrointestinal, or musculoskeletal systems, or to neurological or neuropsychiatric disorders. It is not always easy to identify its predominant pathogenesis, although it often occurs as a central sensitization syndrome triggered by an initial stimulus which is no longer detectable and only manifests itself clinically through pain. In this respect, there are some very interesting relationships between vulvodynia and fibromyalgic syndrome, as identified in a preliminary study of women with chronic musculoskeletal pain in which it was demonstrated that vulvar pain plays an important role, although it is often overlooked and undiagnosed.

  3. Nonpharmacologic Management of Chronic Insomnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maness, David L; Khan, Muneeza

    2015-12-15

    Insomnia affects 10% to 30% of the population with a total cost of $92.5 to $107.5 billion annually. Short-term, chronic, and other types of insomnia are the three major categories according to the International Classification of Sleep Disorders, 3rd ed. The criteria for diagnosis are difficulty falling asleep, difficulty staying asleep, or early awakening despite the opportunity for sleep; symptoms must be associated with impaired daytime functioning and occur at least three times per week for at least one month. Factors associated with the onset of insomnia include a personal or family history of insomnia, easy arousability, poor self-reported health, and chronic pain. Insomnia is more common in women, especially following menopause and during late pregnancy, and in older adults. A comprehensive sleep history can confirm the diagnosis. Psychiatric and medical problems, medication use, and substance abuse should be ruled out as contributing factors. Treatment of comorbid conditions alone may not resolve insomnia. Patients with movement disorders (e.g., restless legs syndrome, periodic limb movement disorder), circadian rhythm disorders, or breathing disorders (e.g., obstructive sleep apnea) must be identified and treated appropriately. Chronic insomnia is associated with cognitive difficulties, anxiety and depression, poor work performance, decreased quality of life, and increased risk of cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality. Insomnia can be treated with nonpharmacologic and pharmacologic therapies. Nonpharmacologic therapies include sleep hygiene, cognitive behavior therapy, relaxation therapy, multicomponent therapy, and paradoxical intention. Referral to a sleep specialist may be considered for refractory cases.

  4. Managing acute and chronic pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skipworth, James R A; Shankar, Arjun; Pereira, Stephen P

    2010-10-01

    Pancreatitis may be acute or chronic. Although both can be caused by similar aetiologies, they tend to follow distinct natural histories. Around 80% of acute pancreatitis (AP) diagnoses occur secondary to gallstone disease and alcohol misuse. AP is commonly associated with sudden onset of upper abdominal pain radiating to the back that is usually severe enough to warrant the patient seeking urgent medical attention. Onset of pain may be related to a recent alcohol binge or rich, fatty meal. The patient may appear unwell, be tachycardic and have exquisite tenderness in the upper abdomen. Overall, 10-25% of AP episodes are classified as severe, leading to an associated mortality rate of 7.5%. Disease severity is best predicted from a number of clinical scoring systems which can be applied at diagnosis in association with repeated clinical assessment, measurement of acute inflammatory markers, and CT. All patients with suspected AP should be referred urgently. Chronic pancreatitis (CP) follows continued, repetitive or sustained injury to the pancreas and 70% of diagnoses occur secondary to alcohol abuse. The characteristic presenting feature of CP is insidious progression of chronic, severe, upper abdominal pain, radiating to the back, caused by a combination of progressive pancreatic destruction, inflammation and duct obstruction. Signs and symptoms include weight loss and steatorrhoea and later on diabetes. CP patients may also present with recurrent episodes mimicking AP, both symptomatically and metabolically. Diagnosis of CP should be based on symptom profile, imaging and assessment of exocrine and endocrine pancreatic function. CT should be the first-line imaging investigation.

  5. Chronic urticaria and Helicobacter pylori

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadav Mukesh

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Helicobacter pylori (HP have recently emerged as a novel eliciting factor for chronic urticaria (CU. The possible association between HP and CU has enormous potential, as eradicating HP could cure CU. Aims and Objectives: We conducted a study to assess the prevalence of HP infection and effect of bacterium eradication on skin lesions in patients of chronic idiopathic urticaria (CIU. Settings and Design: Four hundred sixty patients of CU attending the allergy clinic, SMS hospital, Jaipur during the period February 6, 2004, to February 6, 2006, were screened for possible eliciting factors. Patients with CIU were enrolled and others were excluded. Materials and Methods: Sixty-eight patients of CIU and similar number of age and sex matched controls, attending the allergy clinic, SMS Hospital, Jaipur were enrolled in the study. All patients underwent endoscopy with antral biopsy for urease and histopathology to identify HP-associated gastritis. Infected patients were given HP eradication therapy. Eradication of bacterium was confirmed by fecal antigen assay. Subjective response to treatment was judged using chronic urticaria quality-of-life questionnaire (CU-Q 2 oL while objective response to treatment was judged by need for ′rescue medication′ (antihistaminics. Statistical Analysis: Data were analyzed using Chi square and paired′t′ test for their level of significance. Results: HP associated gastritis was present in 48 (70.58% patients, out of which 39 (81.25% patients responded to eradication therapy. Ten (50.00% patients without HP associated gastritis showed response to symptomatic therapy. Overall 49 (72.05% patients responded and 19 (27.94% showed no response. The value of χ2 was 28.571 (P = 0.003, which showed significant association between presence of HP and response to eradication regimen. Conclusion: The response of HP eradication therapy in infected patients of CIU is significant. HP should be included in diagnostic

  6. Chronic mycobacterial meningitis due to Mycobacterium chelonae: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmanzadeh, Shokrallah; Honarvar, Negin; Goodarzi, Hamed; Khosravi, Azar Dokht; Nashibi, Roohangiz; Serajian, Amir Arsalan; Hashemzadeh, Mohammad

    2014-10-01

    We report a case of chronic meningitis due to Mycobacterium chelonae. This organism is a rapidly growing Mycobacterium (RGM) and can be found worldwide in environmental sources such as soil, dust, and water. M. chelonae is an uncommon cause of meningitis; the majority of infections caused by this organism are localized cutaneous or soft tissue infections, and rarely lung infections. The organism is indistinguishable phenotypically, so we applied PCR based on the rpoB gene sequence followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) for molecular identification. The subsequent sequencing of RFLP products revealed 99.7% similarity with M. chelonae.

  7. Chronic mycobacterial meningitis due to Mycobacterium chelonae: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shokrallah Salmanzadeh

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of chronic meningitis due to Mycobacterium chelonae. This organism is a rapidly growing Mycobacterium (RGM and can be found worldwide in environmental sources such as soil, dust, and water. M. chelonae is an uncommon cause of meningitis; the majority of infections caused by this organism are localized cutaneous or soft tissue infections, and rarely lung infections. The organism is indistinguishable phenotypically, so we applied PCR based on the rpoB gene sequence followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP for molecular identification. The subsequent sequencing of RFLP products revealed 99.7% similarity with M. chelonae.

  8. Vascular Dysfunction in Patients with Chronic Arsenosis Can Be Reversed by Reduction of Arsenic Exposure

    OpenAIRE

    Pi, Jingbo; Yamauchi, Hiroshi; Sun, Guifan; Yoshida, Takahiko; Aikawa, Hiroyuki; Fujimoto, Wataru; Iso, Hiroyasu; Cui, Renzhe; Waalkes, Michael P.; Kumagai, Yoshito

    2004-01-01

    Chronic arsenic exposure causes vascular diseases associated with systematic dysfunction of endogenous nitric oxide. Replacement of heavily arsenic-contaminated drinking water with low-arsenic water is a potential intervention strategy for arsenosis, although the reversibility of arsenic intoxication has not established. In the present study, we examined urinary excretion of cyclic guanosine 3′,5′-monophosphate (cGMP), a second messenger of the vasoactive effects of nitric oxide, and signs an...

  9. Treatment of refractory chronic urticaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aayushi Mehta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic spontaneous urticaria is a distressing disease encountered frequently in clinical practice. The current mainstay of therapy is the use of second-generation, non-sedating antihistamines. However, in patients who do not respond satisfactorily to these agents, a variety of other drugs are used. This article examines the available literature for frequently used agents including systemic corticosteroids, leukotriene receptor antagonists, dapsone, sulfasalazine, hydroxychloroquine, H2 antagonists, methotrexate, cyclosporine A, omalizumab, autologous serum therapy, and mycophenolate mofetil, with an additional focus on publications in Indian literature.

  10. Perspectives on "chronic Lyme disease".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Phillip J

    2008-07-01

    There is much controversy about the treatment of Lyme disease with respect to 2 poorly defined entities: "chronic Lyme disease" and "posttreatment Lyme disease syndrome." In the absence of direct evidence that these conditions are the result of a persistent infection, some mistakenly advocate extended antibiotic therapy (>/=6 months), which can do great harm and has resulted in at least 1 death. The purpose of this brief report is to review what is known from clinical research about these conditions to assist both practicing physicians and lawmakers in making sound and safe decisions with respect to treatment.

  11. Chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maisonneuve, Patrick; Lowenfels, Albert B

    2002-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer deaths in the USA in both sexes. Early diagnosis is difficult and the overall mortality rate is high. Individuals at high risk for pancreatic cancer include smokers, and persons with all forms of chronic alcoholic, metabolic, tropical or hereditary pancreatitis. The duration of exposure to inflammation seems to be the major factor involved in the transition from benign to malignant condition. Smoking, which appears to further accelerate the carcinogenic transformation, remains the strongest risk factor amenable to preventive intervention.

  12. Myeloperoxidase in Chronic Kidney Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Madhusudhana Rao, A.; Anand, Usha; Anand, C. V.

    2010-01-01

    Numerous lines of evidence implicate a role of myeloperoxidase (MPO) in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease (CVD). It is a well accepted fact that patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are at an increased risk for CVD. MPO is a pro-oxidant enzyme which could be involved in the increased susceptibility of these patients to CVD. Hence, the levels of plasma MPO was determined in healthy controls as well as in patients with CKD [stratified with the level of their kidney failure as CKD...

  13. Chronic Venous Disease under pressure

    OpenAIRE

    Reeder, Suzan

    2013-01-01

    textabstractIn chapter 1 we provide a general introduction of this thesis. Chronic venous disease (CVD) is a common medical condition that affects 2-64% of the worldwide population and leads to leg ulcers in 1% of the Western population. Venous leg ulceration (VLU) has an unfavorable prognosis with regard to non-healing and recurrence rates. Annually 6% of the total healthcare costs are spent on the treatment of venous diseases. CVD results from ambulatory venous hypertension and is the conse...

  14. Branding water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolnicar, Sara; Hurlimann, Anna; Grün, Bettina

    2014-06-15

    Branding is a key strategy widely used in commercial marketing to make products more attractive to consumers. With the exception of bottled water, branding has largely not been adopted in the water context although public acceptance is critical to the implementation of water augmentation projects. Based on responses from 6247 study participants collected between 2009 and 2012, this study shows that (1) different kinds of water - specifically recycled water, desalinated water, tap water and rainwater from personal rainwater tanks - are each perceived very differently by the public, (2) external events out of the control of water managers, such as serious droughts or floods, had a minimal effect on people's perceptions of water, (3) perceptions of water were stable over time, and (4) certain water attributes are anticipated to be more effective to use in public communication campaigns aiming at increasing public acceptance for drinking purposes. The results from this study can be used by a diverse range of water stakeholders to increase public acceptance and adoption of water from alternative sources.

  15. Wasted waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemczynowicz, J

    1996-11-01

    This article presents the increasing mismanagement of water as a result of increasing delivery of water volume, water pollution, and water wasting. One example of water mismanagement is irrigation, through which 67% of water is withdrawn from the hydrological cycle. In addition, reports from European communities reveal that pesticides from agriculture worsen the existing underground pollution. Furthermore, a 25% drop in land productivity was observed in Africa due to erosion, salinization, water logging, and desertification. Also, 23% of withdrawn water goes to industries, which are the major polluters. Since 1900 about 250,000 tons of cadmium have been produced worldwide, which eventually enter and harm the aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Moreover, high mercury levels were observed in Malaysia's Kelang River in the late 1980s, and river pollution in Thailand and Malaysia is recorded to be 30-100 times higher than accepted levels. Aside from that, the human race must also understand that there is a connection between water scarcity and water quality. When there is water pollution, it is expected that many people will suffer diarrheal diseases and intestinal parasite infections, which will further increase the mortality rate to 3.3 million per year. Realizing the severity of the problem, it is suggested that the human race must learn to recycle water like stormwater to prevent scarcity with drinking water.

  16. Neuropsychological functioning in chronic Lyme disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westervelt, Holly James; McCaffrey, Robert J

    2002-09-01

    Lyme disease is currently the most common vector-borne illness in the United States. The disease is multisystemic, and chronic disease, in particular, may be associated with neuropsychological deficits. However, to date, only a few empirical studies exist, which examine the neuropsychological sequelae associated with chronic Lyme disease. A review of the literature shows that the deficits observed in adults with chronic Lyme disease are generally consistent with the deficits that can be seen in processes with primarily frontal systems involvement. These observations are generally consistent with neuroradiologic findings. The clinical presentation in chronic Lyme disease and the nature of the neuropsychological deficits are discussed, as are several central issues in understanding neuropsychological functioning in chronic Lyme disease, such as the impact of chronic illness, response to treatment, and the relationship between neuropsychological performance and depression, fatigue, and neurological indicators of disease.

  17. New Directions in Chronic Disease Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hun-Sung Kim

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A worldwide epidemic of chronic disease, and complications thereof, is underway, with no sign of abatement. Healthcare costs have increased tremendously, principally because of the need to treat chronic complications of non-communicable diseases including cardiovascular disease, blindness, end-stage renal disease, and amputation of extremities. Current healthcare systems fail to provide an appropriate quality of care to prevent the development of chronic complications without additional healthcare costs. A new paradigm for prevention and treatment of chronic disease and the complications thereof is urgently required. Several clinical studies have clearly shown that frequent communication between physicians and patients, based on electronic data transmission from medical devices, greatly assists in the management of chronic disease. However, for various reasons, these advantages have not translated effectively into real clinical practice. In the present review, we describe current relevant studies, and trends in the use of information technology for chronic disease management. We also discuss limitations and future directions.

  18. Potential Deleterious Effects of Vasopressin in Chronic Kidney Disease and Particularly Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, E.; Boertien, W. E.; Zietse, R.; Gansevoort, R. T.

    2011-01-01

    The antidiuretic hormone vasopressin is crucial for regulating free water clearance in normal physiology. However, it has also been hypothesized that vasopressin has deleterious effects on the kidney. Vasopressin is elevated in animals and patients with chronic kidney disease. Suppression of vasopre

  19. Acute and chronic aquatic toxicity of aromatic extracts. Summary of relevant test data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comber, M.I.H.; Den Haan, K.; Djemel, N.; Eadsforth, C.V.; King, D.; Parkerton, T.; Leon Paumen, M.; Dmytrasz, B.; Del Castillo, F.

    2013-09-15

    This report describes the experimental procedures and the results obtained in acute and chronic ecotoxicity tests on several aromatic extracts samples. The samples were tested for toxicity to the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), the crustacean zooplankter, Daphnia magna and the algae, Selenastrum capricornutum using water accommodated fractions. These results assist in determining the environmental hazard posed by aromatic extracts.

  20. HYPOTHALAMIC BLOOD-FLOW REMAINS UNALTERED FOLLOWING CHRONIC NITRIC-OXIDE SYNTHASE BLOCKADE IN RATS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BENYO, Z; SZABO, C; STUIVER, BT; BOHUS, B; SANDOR, P

    1995-01-01

    The effect of the chronic oral application of N-G-nitro-L-arginine methyl eater (L-NAME), a potent inhibitor of nitric oxide (NO) production, was studied on hypothalamic blood flow (HBF) and hypothalamic nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity in rats. L-NAME was dissolved in the drinking water, in a c

  1. Is acute recurrent pancreatitis a chronic disease?

    OpenAIRE

    Mariani, Alberto; Testoni, Pier Alberto

    2008-01-01

    Whether acute recurrent pancreatitis is a chronic disease is still debated and a consensus is not still reached as demonstrated by differences in the classification of acute recurrent pancreatitis. There is major evidence for considering alcoholic pancreatitis as a chronic disease ab initio while chronic pancreatitis lesions detectable in biliary acute recurrent pancreatitis (ARP) seem a casual association. Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene mutation, hereditary a...

  2. Eccentric Strengthening for Chronic Lateral Epicondylosis

    OpenAIRE

    Wen, Dennis Y.; Schultz, Brian J.; Schaal, Bob; Graham, Scott T.; Kim, Byung Sung

    2011-01-01

    Background: Effective treatments for chronic lateral epicondylosis have not been studied adequately. Eccentric overload exercises have been used with success for other chronic tendinopathy, mainly Achilles and patellar. Hypothesis/Purpose: To compare a wrist extensor eccentric strengthening exercise program with a wrist extensor stretching/modality program for the treatment of chronic lateral epicondylosis. The authors hypothesized that the eccentric strengthening program would produce more f...

  3. [Chronic inflammatory bowel diseases in cats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghermai, A K

    1989-01-01

    The aetiology of chronic idiopathic intestinal inflammation is unknown. It is characterized by a diffuse infiltration with inflammatory cells into the intestinal mucosa and sometimes submucosa. Cats with chronic intermittent vomiting and diarrhoea, later on accompanied by anorexia and weight loss, are presented. Definitive diagnosis can be obtained by intestinal biopsy only. An immune pathogenesis is suspected, which is supported by the fact, that chronic inflammatory bowel disease responds to steroid therapy.

  4. Chronic pain after inguinal hernia repair

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    : BACKGROUND: Chronic post herniorrhaphy groin pain is defined as pain lasting > 6 months after surgery, which is one of the most important complication occurring after inguinal hernia repair, occurs with greater frequency than previously thought. Chronic groin pain is one of the most significant complications following inguinal hernia repair, and majority of chronic pain has been attributed to ilioinguinal nerve entrapment. Various other factors are involved in development of...

  5. HBV Vaccination in Chronic Renal Failure Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Mir-davood Omrani; Mohammad Hassan Khadem Ansari

    2006-01-01

    HBV infection in chronic renal failure (CRF) becomes chronic in 30 to 60% compared with less than 10% in nonuremic patients. Immunological dysfunction in patients on hemodialysis may be related to imbalanced cytokine systems, such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF-|α|) and interleukin (IL) 6,1 by retention of renal metabolite in uremia and chronic inflammation and have a poor immunological reaction to T-cell-dependent antigens, like hepatitis B vaccination. Immunocompromised patients who are unre...

  6. Water Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, H. J. M.

    1975-01-01

    Deals with water pollution in the following categories: a global view, self purification, local pollution, difficulties in chemical analysis, and remedies for water pollution. Emphasizes the extent to which man's activities have modified the cycles of certain elements. (GS)

  7. Multiple chronic conditions and life expectancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    DuGoff, Eva H; Canudas-Romo, Vladimir; Buttorff, Christine

    2014-01-01

    condition. A 67-year-old individual with no chronic conditions will live on average 22.6 additional years. A 67-year-old individual with 5 chronic conditions and ≥10 chronic conditions will live 7.7 fewer years and 17.6 fewer years, respectively. The average marginal decline in life expectancy is 1.8 years...... and increasing numbers of comorbid conditions. CONCLUSIONS: Social Security and Medicare actuaries should account for the growing number of beneficiaries with multiple chronic conditions when determining population projections and trust fund solvency....

  8. Oriental Medical Treatment of chronic Acalculous Cholecystitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hae-Yeon Lee

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Chronic acalculous cholecystitis gets possession of about 12 to 13 percent of patients with chronic cholecystitis. Pathologically it is characterised by chronic inflammation and thickening of the gallbladder wall but doesn't come across stones. Clinical symptoms are vague and include abdominal discomfort and distension, nausea, flatulence and intolerance of fatty foods. A patient on chronic acalculous cholecystitis diagnosed from his clinical symtoms and abdominal ultrasonogram was treated by Geonbihwan, acupuncture and herbal acupuncture. Satisfactory symptomatic improvement was achieved and findings of abdominal ultrasonogram came also normal.

  9. Susceptibility to chronic inflammation: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasef, Noha Ahmed; Mehta, Sunali; Ferguson, Lynnette R

    2017-03-01

    Chronic inflammation is defined by the persistence of inflammatory processes beyond their physiological function, resulting in tissue destruction. Chronic inflammation is implicated in the progression of many chronic diseases and plays a central role in chronic inflammatory and autoimmune disease. As such, this review aims to collate some of the latest research in relation to genetic and environmental susceptibilities to chronic inflammation. In the genetic section, we discuss some of the updates in cytokine research and current treatments that are being developed. We also discuss newly identified canonical and non-canonical genes associated with chronic inflammation. In the environmental section, we highlight some of the latest updates and evidence in relation to the role that infection, diet and stress play in promoting inflammation. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the latest research to build on our current understanding of chronic inflammation. It highlights the complexity associated with chronic inflammation, as well as provides insights into potential new targets for therapies that could be used to treat chronic inflammation and consequently prevent disease progression.

  10. Vitamin D deficiency in chronic idiopathic urticaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Movahedi, Masoud; Tavakol, Marzieh; Hirbod-Mobarakeh, Armin; Gharagozlou, Mohammad; Aghamohammadi, Asghar; Tavakol, Zahra; Momenzadeh, Kaveh; Nabavi, Mohammad; Dabbaghzade, Abbas; Mosallanejad, Asieh; Rezaei, Nima

    2015-04-01

    Chronic urticaria is the most common skin diseases, characterized by chronic cutaneous lesions which severely debilitates patients in several aspects of their everyday life. Vitamin D is known to exert several actions in the immune system and to influence function and differentiation of mast cells, central role players in the pathogenesis of chronic idiopathic urticaria. This study was performed to evaluate the relationship between vitamin D levels and susceptibility to chronic idiopathic urticaria. One hundred and fourteen patients with chronic idiopathic urticaria were recruited in this study along with one hundred and eighty seven sex-matched and age-matched healthy volunteers as the control group. For each patient, urticaria activity score was calculated and autologous serum skin test was done. Vitamin D metabolic statue was measured in serum as 25 hydroxyvitamin D using enzyme immunoassay method. Patients with chronic idiopathic urticaria significantly showed lower levels of vitamin D. Vitamin D deficiency was significantly associated with increased susceptibility to chronic idiopathic urticaria. There was a significant positive correlation between vitamin D levels and urticaria activity score. This study showed that patients with chronic idiopathic urticaria had reduced levels of vitamin D, while vitamin D deficiency could increase susceptibility to chronic idiopathic urticaria.

  11. Neurodegenerative Properties of Chronic Pain: Cognitive Decline in Patients with Chronic Pancreatitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongsma, M.L.A.; Postma, S.A.E.; Souren, P.M.; Arns, M.W.; Gordon, E.; Vissers, K.C.P.; Wilder-Smith, O.H.G.; Rijn, C.M. van; Goor, H. van

    2011-01-01

    Chronic pain has been associated with impaired cognitive function. We examined cognitive performance in patients with severe chronic pancreatitis pain. We explored the following factors for their contribution to observed cognitive deficits: pain duration, comorbidity (depression, sleep disturbance),

  12. Water Ways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahrling, Peter

    2007-01-01

    In many communities, schools are among the largest facilities and house the highest concentrations of daytime population. They create a huge demand for water. Even in regions with abundant water supplies, an increase in demand stresses local capacity, and water becomes more expensive. However, with the help of innovative products that reduce water…

  13. Water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquatic animals are healthiest and grow best when environmental conditions are within certain ranges that define, for a particular species, “good” water quality. From the outset, successful aquaculture requires a high-quality water supply. Water quality in aquaculture systems also deteriorates as an...

  14. Anemia of Chronic Liver Diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Hyun Chung; Lee, Jhung Sang; Koh, Chang Soon; Lee, Mun Ho [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1971-09-15

    The pathogenetic mechanisms of anemia in patients with chronic liver disease were observed. Seventeen patients with moderate to advanced hepatic diseases were studied by various methods. Only patients without previous blood loss were included : 14 had cirrhosis, 2 had active chronic hepatitis, and one had inferior vena cava obstruction with associated liver cirrhosis. The followings were the results: 1. The anemia based on red blood cell count, Hb., and Ht. was found in 76.5-78.6% of the patients. 2. Red cell indices indicated that normo-macrocytic and normochromic anemia was present is the majority of the patients. 3. No evidence of megaloblastic anemia was found on the basis of the morphological examinations. 4. Serum iron, TIBC, % saturation and iron content in the bone marrow indicated that iron deficiency anemia was present in about half of the patients. 5. In the view of the erythrocyte dynamics, primary increase in the red cell destruction was ascribed to the cause of the anemia. 6. Decrease in the red cell survival time was not correlated with MCV, % saturation and S.L. ratio. Also, hemoglobin level was not correlated with MCV, % saturation and T{sub 50} Cr. Therefore, multiple causes may be involved in the pathogenesis of the anemia. 7. Anemia as determined by the red cell volume was found in only 60% of the patients. It may be possible that hemodilutional anemia is present.

  15. Nutrition in chronic critical illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pingleton, S K

    2001-03-01

    Nutritional management of patients with respiratory failure can be a model of nutritional management in chronically critically ill patients. This model requires recognition of the differing metabolic states of starvation and hypermetabolism. Starvation can result in malnutrition, with adverse effect on respiratory muscle strength, ventilatory drive, and immune defense mechanisms. General nutritional goals include preservation of lean body mass by providing adequate energy and positive nitrogen balance. General nutritional prescriptions for both states include a substrate mix of 20% protein, 60% to 70% carbohydrates, and 20% to 30% fat. Positive nitrogen balance is difficult to attain in hypermetabolic patients and energy requirements are increased compared with starved patients. Enteral nutrition should be the mode of initial nutrient delivery unless the gastrointestinal tract is nonfunctional. Monitoring of nutritional support is essential. Complications of nutritional support are multiple. Nutritional hypercapnia is an important complication in a chronically critically ill patient. Outcomes of selected long-term acute patients are poor, with only 8% of patients fully functional 1 year after discharge. Appropriate nutritional therapy is one aspect of management of these patients that has the possibility of optimizing function and survival.

  16. Chronic Metabolic Acidosis Destroys Pancreas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Melamed

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available One primary reason for the current epidemic of digestive disorders might be chronic metabolic acidosis, which is extremely common in the modern population. Chronic metabolic acidosis primarily affects two alkaline digestive glands, the liver, and the pancreas, which produce alkaline bile and pancreatic juice with a large amount of bicarbonate. Even small acidic alterations in the bile and pancreatic juice pH can lead to serious biochemical/biomechanical changes. The pancreatic digestive enzymes require an alkaline milieu for proper function, and lowering the pH disables their activity. It can be the primary cause of indigestion. Acidification of the pancreatic juice decreases its antimicrobial activity, which can lead to intestinal dysbiosis. Lowering the pH of the pancreatic juice can cause premature activation of the proteases inside the pancreas with the potential development of pancreatitis.The acidification of bile causes precipitation of the bile acids, which irritate the entire biliary system and create bile stone formation. Aggressive mixture of the acidic bile and the pancreatic juice can cause erratic contractions of the duodenum’s walls and subsequent bile reflux into the stomach and the esophagus. Normal exocrine pancreatic function is the core of proper digestion. Currently, there is no effective and safe treatment for enhancing the exocrine pancreatic function. Restoring normal acid-base homeostasis can be a useful toolfor pathophysiological therapeutic approaches for various gastrointestinal disorders. There is strong research and practical evidence that restoring the HCO3 - capacity in the blood can improve digestion.

  17. Glucocorticoids, chronic stress, and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallman, Mary F; Pecoraro, Norman C; La Fleur, Susanne E; Warne, James P; Ginsberg, Abigail B; Akana, Susan F; Laugero, Kevin C; Houshyar, Hani; Strack, Alison M; Bhatnagar, Seema; Bell, Mary E

    2006-01-01

    Glucocorticoids either inhibit or sensitize stress-induced activity in the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, depending on time after their administration, the concentration of the steroids, and whether there is a concurrent stressor input. When there are high glucocorticoids together with a chronic stressor, the steroids act in brain in a feed-forward fashion to recruit a stress-response network that biases ongoing autonomic, neuroendocrine, and behavioral outflow as well as responses to novel stressors. We review evidence for the role of glucocorticoids in activating the central stress-response network, and for mediation of this network by corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF). We briefly review the effects of CRF and its receptor antagonists on motor outflows in rodents, and examine the effects of glucocorticoids and CRF on monoaminergic neurons in brain. Corticosteroids stimulate behaviors that are mediated by dopaminergic mesolimbic "reward" pathways, and increase palatable feeding in rats. Moreover, in the absence of corticosteroids, the typical deficits in adrenalectomized rats are normalized by providing sucrose solutions to drink, suggesting that there is, in addition to the feed-forward action of glucocorticoids on brain, also a feedback action that is based on metabolic well being. Finally, we briefly discuss the problems with this network that normally serves to aid in responses to chronic stress, in our current overindulged, and underexercised society.

  18. Muscle histochemistry in chronic alcoholism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. Ferraz

    1989-06-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-two chronic acoholic patients were assessed by neurologic examination and muscle biopsy. The patients manifested proximal muscular weakness to a variable extent. One case presented as an acute bout of myopathy, according to the Manual Muscle Test, MMT. The most prominent histologic feature observed was muscle atrophy (95.3% better evidenced through the ATPase stain with the predominance of type II A fibers (71.4%. Lack of the mosaic pattern (type grouping seen in 76% of the cases and an important mitochondrial proliferation with intrasarcoplasmatic lipid accumulation in 63% of the patients. In case of acute presentation of muscle weakness the. pathological substrate is quite different, i.e. presence of myositis mainly interstitial characterized by lymphoplasmocytic infiltrate and several spots of necrosis like Zencker degeneration. Based on histologic criteria, our data suggest that: the main determinant of muscle weakness seen in chronic alcoholic patients is neurogenic in origin (alcoholic polineuropathy; the direct toxic action of ethanol under the skeletal muscle is closely related to the mitochondrial metabolism; the so-called acute alcoholic myopathy has probably viral etiology.

  19. Kangfuyan capsule combined with five water and cefazolin sodium on inflammatory cytokines in chronic pelvic in-flammatory disease and blood rheology%康妇炎胶囊联合五水头孢唑林钠对慢性盆腔炎血液流变学及炎性细胞因子的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高守阳; 田秀娟; 王俊容; 曹璐

    2016-01-01

    目的:观察康妇炎胶囊联合五水头孢唑林钠对慢性盆腔炎患者血液流变学及炎性细胞因子的影响。方法选择2014年3月—2016年3月吉林大学中日联谊医院妇产科诊治慢性盆腔炎患者200例作为研究对象,采用随机数字表法分成对照组和观察组各100例。所有患者月经干净后开始治疗,对照组给予五水头孢唑林钠2.0g 溶于生理盐水100 ml 中静脉滴注,1次/日,疗程为14 d。观察组患者在给予相同剂量五水头孢唑林钠静脉滴注的同时,加用康妇炎胶囊1.2 g 口服,每天2次,14 d 为1个疗程,2组均连续治疗观察3个月经周期。观察结束后,比较2组治疗效果以及血液流变学和细胞因子的变化。结果观察组总有效率为88.0%,显著高于对照组的77.0%(χ2=4.19, P =0.04);与治疗前比较,2组血浆黏度和全血低切/高切黏度均显著降低( t 对照组=9.76、11.78、17.28, P 均<0.05;t 观察组=10.27、12.43、18.31, P 均<0.05);与对照组比较,观察组血浆黏度和全血黏度(低切/高切)均显著降低( t =6.15、11.79、3.45, P <0.05)。与治疗前比较,2组治疗后细胞因子 IL-2和 IL-10均显著升高,TNF-α均显著降低(t对照组=11.76、14.18、11.28, P <0.05; t 观察组=12.27、15.43、12.31, P <0.05),且观察组改善优于对照组( t =3.99、5.79、9.14, P 均<0.05)。结论康妇炎胶囊联合五水头孢唑林钠对慢性盆腔炎的治疗效果优于单纯西药治疗。%Objective To observe the effect of Kangfuyan capsule combined with cefazolin sodium for five water and inflammatory cytokines of blood rheology in patients with chronic pelvic inflammatory disease.Methods From March 2014 to March 2016, 100 cases of CPI patients from the department of gynecology, Chinese Japanese friendship hospital of

  20. Piped water consumption in Ghana: A case study of temporal and spatial patterns of clean water demand relative to alternative water sources in rural small towns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulinkina, Alexandra V; Kosinski, Karen C; Liss, Alexander; Adjei, Michael N; Ayamgah, Gilbert A; Webb, Patrick; Gute, David M; Plummer, Jeanine D; Naumova, Elena N

    2016-07-15

    Continuous access to adequate quantities of safe water is essential for human health and socioeconomic development. Piped water systems (PWSs) are an increasingly common type of water supply in rural African small towns. We assessed temporal and spatial patterns in water consumption from public standpipes of four PWSs in Ghana in order to assess clean water demand relative to other available water sources. Low water consumption was evident in all study towns, which manifested temporally and spatially. Temporal variability in water consumption that is negatively correlated with rainfall is an indicator of rainwater preference when it is available. Furthermore, our findings show that standpipes in close proximity to alternative water sources such as streams and hand-dug wells suffer further reductions in water consumption. Qualitative data suggest that consumer demand in the study towns appears to be driven more by water quantity, accessibility, and perceived aesthetic water quality, as compared to microbiological water quality or price. In settings with chronic under-utilization of improved water sources, increasing water demand through household connections, improving water quality with respect to taste and appropriateness for laundry, and educating residents about health benefits of using piped water should be prioritized. Continued consumer demand and sufficient revenue generation are important attributes of a water service that ensure its function over time. Our findings suggest that analyzing water consumption of existing metered PWSs in combination with qualitative approaches may enable more efficient planning of community-based water supplies and support sustainable development.

  1. Caffeine prevents cognitive impairment induced by chronic psychosocial stress and/or high fat-high carbohydrate diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzoubi, K H; Abdul-Razzak, K K; Khabour, O F; Al-Tuweiq, G M; Alzubi, M A; Alkadhi, K A

    2013-01-15

    Caffeine alleviates cognitive impairment associated with a variety of health conditions. In this study, we examined the effect of caffeine treatment on chronic stress- and/or high fat-high carbohydrate Western diet (WD)-induced impairment of learning and memory in rats. Chronic psychosocial stress, WD and caffeine (0.3 g/L in drinking water) were simultaneously administered for 3 months to adult male Wistar rats. At the conclusion of the 3 months, and while the previous treatments continued, rats were tested in the radial arm water maze (RAWM) for learning, short-term and long-term memory. This procedure was applied on a daily basis to all animals for 5 consecutive days or until the animal reaches days to criterion (DTC) in the 12th learning trial and memory tests. DTC is the number of days that the animal takes to make zero error in two consecutive days. Chronic stress and/or WD groups caused impaired learning, which was prevented by chronic caffeine administration. In the memory tests, chronic caffeine administration also prevented memory impairment during chronic stress conditions and/or WD. Furthermore, DTC value for caffeine treated stress, WD, and stress/WD groups indicated that caffeine normalizes memory impairment in these groups. These results showed that chronic caffeine administration prevented stress and/or WD-induced impairment of spatial learning and memory.

  2. Characterization of the intragranular water regime within subsurface sediments: Pore volume, surface area, and mass transfer limitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, Michael B.; Stoliker, Deborah L.; Davis, James A.; Zachara, John M.

    2011-10-01

    Although "intragranular" pore space within grain aggregates, grain fractures, and mineral surface coatings may contain a relatively small fraction of the total porosity within a porous medium, it often contains a significant fraction of the reactive surface area, and can thus strongly affect the transport of sorbing solutes. In this work, we demonstrate a batch experiment procedure using tritiated water as a high-resolution diffusive tracer to characterize the intragranular pore space. The method was tested using uranium-contaminated sediments from the vadose and capillary fringe zones beneath the former 300A process ponds at the Hanford site (Washington). Sediments were contacted with tracers in artificial groundwater, followed by a replacement of bulk solution with tracer-free groundwater and the monitoring of tracer release. From these data, intragranular pore volumes were calculated and mass transfer rates were quantified using a multirate first-order mass transfer model. Tritium-hydrogen exchange on surface hydroxyls was accounted for by conducting additional tracer experiments on sediment that was vacuum dried after reaction. The complementary ("wet" and "dry") techniques allowed for the simultaneous determination of intragranular porosity and surface area using tritium. The Hanford 300A samples exhibited intragranular pore volumes of ˜1% of the solid volume and intragranular surface areas of ˜20%-35% of the total surface area. Analogous experiments using bromide ion as a tracer yielded very different results, suggesting very little penetration of bromide into the intragranular porosity.

  3. Characterization of the intragranular water regime within subsurface sediments: pore volume, surface area, and mass transfer limitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, Michael B.; Stoliker, Deborah L.; Davis, James A.; Zachara, John M.

    2011-01-01

    Although "intragranular" pore space within grain aggregates, grain fractures, and mineral surface coatings may contain a relatively small fraction of the total porosity within a porous medium, it often contains a significant fraction of the reactive surface area, and can thus strongly affect the transport of sorbing solutes. In this work, we demonstrate a batch experiment procedure using tritiated water as a high-resolution diffusive tracer to characterize the intragranular pore space. The method was tested using uranium-contaminated sediments from the vadose and capillary fringe zones beneath the former 300A process ponds at the Hanford site (Washington). Sediments were contacted with tracers in artificial groundwater, followed by a replacement of bulk solution with tracer-free groundwater and the monitoring of tracer release. From these data, intragranular pore volumes were calculated and mass transfer rates were quantified using a multirate first-order mass transfer model. Tritium-hydrogen exchange on surface hydroxyls was accounted for by conducting additional tracer experiments on sediment that was vacuum dried after reaction. The complementary ("wet" and "dry") techniques allowed for the simultaneous determination of intragranular porosity and surface area using tritium. The Hanford 300A samples exhibited intragranular pore volumes of ~1% of the solid volume and intragranular surface areas of ~20%–35% of the total surface area. Analogous experiments using bromide ion as a tracer yielded very different results, suggesting very little penetration of bromide into the intragranular porosity.

  4. Chronic in vivo stability assessment of carbon fiber microelectrode arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Paras R.; Zhang, Huanan; Robbins, Matthew T.; Nofar, Justin B.; Marshall, Shaun P.; Kobylarek, Michael J.; Kozai, Takashi D. Y.; Kotov, Nicholas A.; Chestek, Cynthia A.

    2016-12-01

    Objective. Individual carbon fiber microelectrodes can record unit activity in both acute and semi-chronic (∼1 month) implants. Additionally, new methods have been developed to insert a 16 channel array of carbon fiber microelectrodes. Before assessing the in vivo long-term viability of these arrays, accelerated soak tests were carried out to determine the most stable site coating material. Next, a multi-animal, multi-month, chronic implantation study was carried out with carbon fiber microelectrode arrays and silicon electrodes. Approach. Carbon fibers were first functionalized with one of two different formulations of PEDOT and subjected to accelerated aging in a heated water bath. After determining the best PEDOT formula to use, carbon fiber arrays were chronically implanted in rat motor cortex. Some rodents were also implanted with a single silicon electrode, while others received both. At the end of the study a subset of animals were perfused and the brain tissue sliced. Tissue sections were stained for astrocytes, microglia, and neurons. The local reactive responses were assessed using qualitative and quantitative methods. Main results. Electrophysiology recordings showed the carbon fibers detecting unit activity for at least 3 months with average amplitudes of ∼200 μV. Histology analysis showed the carbon fiber arrays with a minimal to non-existent glial scarring response with no adverse effects on neuronal density. Silicon electrodes showed large glial scarring that impacted neuronal counts. Significance. This study has validated the use of carbon fiber microelectrode arrays as a chronic neural recording technology. These electrodes have demonstrated the ability to detect single units with high amplitude over 3 months, and show the potential to record for even longer periods. In addition, the minimal reactive response should hold stable indefinitely, as any response by the immune system may reach a steady state after 12 weeks.

  5. Estimation of water turnover rates of captive West Indian manatees (Trichechus manatus) held in fresh and salt water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, R M; Worthy, G A; Byers, F M

    1999-01-01

    The ability of West Indian manatees (Trichechus manatus) to move between fresh and salt water raises the question of whether manatees drink salt water. Water turnover rates were estimated in captive West Indian manatees using the deuterium oxide dilution technique. Rates were quantified in animals using four experimental treatments: (1) held in fresh water and fed lettuce (N=4), (2) held in salt water and fed lettuce (N=2), (3) acutely exposed to salt water and fed lettuce (N=4), and (4) chronically exposed to salt water with limited access to fresh water and fed sea grass (N=5). Animals held in fresh water had the highest turnover rates (145+/-12 ml kg-1 day-1) (mean +/- s.e.m.). Animals acutely exposed to salt water decreased their turnover rate significantly when moved into salt water (from 124+/-15 to 65+/-15 ml kg-1 day-1) and subsequently increased their turnover rate upon re-entry to fresh water (146+/-19 ml kg-1 day-1). Manatees chronically exposed to salt water had significantly lower turnover rates (21+/-3 ml kg-1 day-1) compared with animals held in salt water and fed lettuce (45+/-3 ml kg-1 day-1). Manatees chronically exposed to salt water and fed sea grass had very low turnover rates compared with manatees held in salt water and fed lettuce, which is consistent with a lack of mariposia. Manatees in fresh water drank large volumes of water, which may make them susceptible to hyponatremia if access to a source of Na+ is not provided.

  6. Chronic lead intoxication; Chronische Bleiintoxikation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wieseler, B.; Leng, G. [Duesseldorf Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Hygiene; Lenz, S.; Schultz, C. [Klinikum Remscheid GmbH, Remscheid (Germany); Wilhelm, M. [Bochum Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Hygiene, Sozial- und Umweltmedizin

    1999-02-01

    The case of a female 68 years old patient is described. Here, a chronic lead intoxication was diagnosed after a two year old medical history with increasing attacks of colic-like abdominal pain often described as life-threatening. After repeated hospitalizations and intensive search for the cause of the symptoms, porphyria and anemia was found to be a sign of a chronic lead poisoning. The blood lead concentrations were always about a level of 600 {mu}g/L. The source of exposure could not be found by now. Neither home inspection nor environmental investigations have shown a recent source of lead intake by the patient. However, a possible occupational source of lead exposure at a blast furnace was established by anamnesis for 1952 to 1962. Thus, osteoporosis induced lead mobilisation was suspected. Noticeable are the results of the six abdominal survey radiographies taken during hospitalization within one year; three radiographies were taken following clinical admission and three before discharge of the patient. In comparison, the course shows a chronic relapsing alimentary supply from metallic particles of unknown genesis. The patient was treated with the sodium salt of 2,3-dimercapto-1-propansulfonic acid (DMPS, Dimaval{sup TM}). She was free of complain afterwards. Following therapy, the blood lead concentrations fell under a level of 400 {mu}m/L, but after several weeks the lead level raised up to the original level of 600 {mu}g/L. (orig.) [Deutsch] Es wird eine 68jaehrige Patientin vorgestellt, bei der nach fast zweijaehriger Krankengeschichte, die gekennzeichnet war durch rezidivierende, teils als lebensbedrohlich geschilderte Bauchkoliken, eine chronische Bleiintoxikation diagnostiziert wurde. Erst nach wiederholten stationaeren Krankenhausaufenthalten mit intensiver Suche nach der Krankheitsursache wurden das Krankheitsbild und die Laborwerte durch Zusatzuntersuchungen ergaenzt, so dass sich in der festgestellten Porphyrie und Anaemie die Diagnose der

  7. Chronic toxicity study of Hyptis suaveolens (L. Poit in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bunjong Chaorai

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The effect of water extract of Hyptis suaveolens (H. suaveolens was evaluated for 6-month chronic toxicity in Wistar rats. Control group received distilled water orally 10 ml/kg/day. The extract was orally given to five treatment groups at the doses of 5, 50, 250, 500 and 500 mg/kg/day for 6 months. The last group was served as the recovery group. Changes in the body weights, actual and relative organ weights were not significantly demonstrated in all groups throughout the study. The results of hematological, biochemical parameters and histopathological lesions showed that the extract did not produce any significant doserelated changes. Therefore, it may be concluded that the extract of H. suaveolens at the given doses did not produce any significant toxic effect in rats during 6-month period of the treatment.

  8. SURFACE WATER POLLUTION WITH HEAVY METALS IN THE LOWER CATCHMENT OF JIU RIVER BASIN, ACCORDING TO THE WATER FRAMEWORK DIRECTIVE (2000/60/EC)

    OpenAIRE

    ADINA SANDA ŞERBAN

    2011-01-01

    Surface water pollution with heavy metals in the lower catchment of Jiu river basin, according to the Water Framework Directive (2000/60/EC). The Water Framework Directive establishes a single transparent, effective and coherent water policy by defining a strategy to combat pollution by requiring specific action programs.Chemical pollution of surface water presents a threat to the aquatic environment with acute and chronic toxicity to aquatic organisms, accumulation in the ecosystem and losse...

  9. Ribavirin monotherapy for chronic hepatitis C infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brok, Jesper; Gluud, Lise L; Gluud, Christian

    2006-01-01

    Adding ribavirin to interferon improves treatment response for patients with chronic hepatitis C, but the effects of ribavirin monotherapy are unclear. We conducted a systematic review to assess the benefits and harms of ribavirin monotherapy for patients with chronic hepatitis C....

  10. Benzodiazepine pathways in the chronically ill

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Hulten, Rolf; Heerdink, Eibert R.; Bakker, Albert; Leufkens, Hubert G.

    1999-01-01

    The association between patterns of use of benzodiazepines and chronic somatic morbidity was examined by applying the Chronic Disease Score (CDS). In the only pharmacy in a Dutch community, 6921 patients with data available covering a 10-year period (1983-1992) were included. In 1992, two-thirds of

  11. Syndrome Analysis: Chronic Alcoholism in Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendorf, James E.

    1990-01-01

    Provides outline narrative of most possible outcomes of regular heavy alcohol use, regular alcohol abuse, or chronic alcoholism. A systems analysis approach is used to expose conditions that may result when a human organism is subjected to excessive and chronic alcohol consumption. Such an approach illustrates the detrimental effects which alcohol…

  12. Chronic bronchitis in an elderly population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, Peter; Parner, Jan; Prescott, Eva

    2003-01-01

    in order to describe the prevalence and prognostic implications of chronic bronchitis in individuals 65 years or older we analysed data from The Copenhagen City Heart Study.......in order to describe the prevalence and prognostic implications of chronic bronchitis in individuals 65 years or older we analysed data from The Copenhagen City Heart Study....

  13. [Computed tomographic semiotics of chronic subdural hematomas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    El'-Kadi, Kh A; Likhterman, L B; Kornichenko, V N

    1990-01-01

    Analysis of the results of investigation of 72 patients with verified chronic subdural hematomas (CSH) has revealed their CT dense characteristics, the peculiarities of their structure compared with the time of their formation, the patients' age, the clinical stage of disease, and operative findings. Direct and indirect CT signs of uni- and bilateral hemispherical chronic subdural hematomas were described.

  14. Comorbidity of chronic diseases in general practice.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schellevis, F.G.; Velden, J. van der; Lisdonk, E. van de; Eijk, J.T.M. van; Weel, C. van

    1993-01-01

    With the increasing number of elderly people in The Netherlands the prevalence of chronic diseases will rise in the next decades. It is recognized in general practice that many older patients suffer from more than one chronic disease (comorbidity). The aim of this study is to describe the extent of

  15. Muscle strength in patients with chronic pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wilgen, C.P.; Akkerman, L.; Wieringa, J.; Dijkstra, P.U.

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To analyse the influence of chronic pain on muscle strength. Design: Muscle strength of patients with unilateral nonspecific chronic pain, in an upper or lower limb, were measured according to a standardized protocol using a hand-held dynamometer. Before and after muscle strength measurem

  16. Urea synthesis in patients with chronic pancreatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamberg, Ole; Sonne, J; Larsen, S

    2001-01-01

    Up-regulation of urea synthesis by amino acids and dietary protein intake may be impaired in patients with chronic pancreatitis (CP) due to the reduced glucagon secretion. Conversely, urea synthesis may be increased as a result of the chronic inflammation. The aims of the study were to determine...

  17. Chronic diseases among older cancer patients.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deckx, L.D.; Akker, M.A. van der; Metsemakers, J.M.; Knottnerus, A.K.; Schellevis, F.G.; Buntinx, F.B.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: With the growing number of older cancer patients, the burden of chronic diseases among older cancer patients will become increasingly important. Chronic diseases often interfere with treatment decisions and prognosis for cancer patients. However, little is known about the occurrence of

  18. Hypertrophic osteoarthropathy of chronic inflammatory bowel disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oppenheimer, D.A.; Jones, H.H.

    1982-12-01

    The case of a 14-year old girl with painful periostitis and ulcerative colitis is reported. The association of chronic inflammatory bowel disease with osteoarthropathy is rare and has previously been reported in eight patients. The periosteal reaction found in association with inflammatory bowel disease is apparently related to a chronic disease course and may cause extreme localized pain.

  19. Reported barriers to evaluation in chronic care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knai, Cécile; Nolte, Ellen; Brunn, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    The growing movement of innovative approaches to chronic disease management in Europe has not been matched by a corresponding effort to evaluate them. This paper discusses challenges to evaluation of chronic disease management as reported by experts in six European countries....

  20. Pharmacological management of pain in chronic pancreatitis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Esch, A.A.J.; Wilder-Smith, O.H.G.; Jansen, J.B.M.J.; Goor, H. van; Drenth, J.P.H.

    2006-01-01

    Pain is the major presenting symptom of chronic pancreatitis. Patients with chronic pancreatitis experience substantial impairments in health-related quality of life. Pain may be considered as the most important factor affecting the quality of life. The pathogenesis of pancreatic pain is poorly unde