WorldWideScience

Sample records for chronic toxicity results

  1. Lead Toxicity Resulting from Chronic Ingestion of Opium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalili, Mohammad

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available A 32-year-old man presented to the emergency department (ED with lower abdominal pain and constipation. He related chronic ingestion of large amounts of opium. Physical examination showed mild abdominal tenderness and gingival discoloration. Diagnostic studies showed a mild hypochromic, microcytic anemia with basophilic stippling of the red blood cells. Abdominal imaging showed no intra-abdominal pathology. A diagnosis of lead toxicity was confirmed through serum lead levels. The patient was put on chelation therapy and his signs and symptoms started to resolve. As a comprehensive search for other sources of lead was unsuccessful, opium adulterants were considered as the culprit. Chemical analysis of the opium confirmed this. Contaminated drugs have been reported as a source of exposure to toxins such as arsenic or lead. While other reports deal with patients from clinics, this report illustrates lead toxicity from ingestion of contaminated opium in the ED.[West J Emerg Med. 2009;10(4:244-246.

  2. Chronic Toxicity Study of

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    reports on effect of petroleum samples on blood and rats pathology are scanty. The current study therefore deals with the laematologica changes on rats induce by the chronic exposure to crude oil (bonny light). Kerosene and gasoline. MATERIALS AND METHODS. 71 male albino rats of 0.2kg body weight obtained.

  3. Optimizing the performance of Hyalella azteca in chronic toxicity tests: Results of feeding studies with various foods and feeding regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    The freshwater amphipod Hyalella azteca is a common organism used for sediment toxicity testing in the United States and elsewhere. Standard methods for 10-d and 42-d toxicity tests with H. azteca were last revised and published by USEPA/ASTM in 2000. Under the methods in the man...

  4. Chronic arsenic toxicity: Studies in West Bengal, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debendranath Guha Mazumder

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Chronic arsenic toxicity (arsenicosis as a result of drinking arsenic-contaminated groundwater is a major environmental health hazard throughout the world, including India. A lot of research on health effects, including genotoxic effect of chronic arsenic toxicity in humans, have been carried out in West Bengal during the last 2 decades. A review of literature including information available from West Bengal has been made to characterize the problem. Scientific journals, monographs, and proceedings of conferences with regard to human health effects, including genotoxicity, of chronic arsenic toxicity have been reviewed. Pigmentation and keratosis are the specific skin diseases characteristic of chronic arsenic toxicity. However, in West Bengal, it was found to produce various systemic manifestations, such as chronic lung disease, characterized by chronic bronchitis, chronic obstructive and/or restrictive pulmonary disease, and bronchiectasis; liver diseases, such as non cirrhotic portal fibrosis; polyneuropathy; peripheral vascular disease; hypertension; nonpitting edema of feet/hands; conjunctival congestion; weakness; and anemia. High concentrations of arsenic, greater than or equal to 200 μg/L, during pregnancy were found to be associated with a sixfold increased risk for stillbirth. Cancers of skin, lung, and urinary bladder are the important cancers associated with this toxicity. Of the various genotoxic effects of arsenic in humans, chromosomal aberration and increased frequency of micronuclei in different cell types have been found to be significant. Various probable mechanisms have been incriminated to cause DNA damage because of chronic arsenic toxicity. The results of the study in West Bengal suggest that deficiency in DNA repair capacity, perturbation of methylation of promoter region of p53 and p16 genes, and genomic methylation alteration may be involved in arsenic-induced disease manifestation in humans. P53 polymorphism has been

  5. Chronic fluoride toxicity: dental fluorosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denbesten, Pamela; Li, Wu

    2011-01-01

    Dental fluorosis occurs as a result of excess fluoride ingestion during tooth formation. Enamel fluorosis and primary dentin fluorosis can only occur when teeth are forming, and therefore fluoride exposure (as it relates to dental fluorosis) occurs during childhood. In the permanent dentition, this would begin with the lower incisors, which complete mineralization at approximately 2-3 years of age, and end after mineralization of the third molars. The white opaque appearance of fluorosed enamel is caused by a hypomineralized enamel subsurface. With more severe dental fluorosis, pitting and a loss of the enamel surface occurs, leading to secondary staining (appearing as a brown color). Many of the changes caused by fluoride are related to cell/matrix interactions as the teeth are forming. At the early maturation stage, the relative quantity of amelogenin protein is increased in fluorosed enamel in a dose-related manner. This appears to result from a delay in the removal of amelogenins as the enamel matures. In vitro, when fluoride is incorporated into the mineral, more protein binds to the forming mineral, and protein removal by proteinases is delayed. This suggests that altered protein/mineral interactions are in part responsible for retention of amelogenins and the resultant hypomineralization that occurs in fluorosed enamel. Fluoride also appears to enhance mineral precipitation in forming teeth, resulting in hypermineralized bands of enamel, which are then followed by hypomineralized bands. Enhanced mineral precipitation with local increases in matrix acidity may affect maturation stage ameloblast modulation, potentially explaining the dose-related decrease in cycles of ameloblast modulation from ruffle-ended to smooth-ended cells that occur with fluoride exposure in rodents. Specific cellular effects of fluoride have been implicated, but more research is needed to determine which of these changes are relevant to the formation of fluorosed teeth. As further

  6. Chronic Fluoride Toxicity: Dental Fluorosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    DenBesten, Pamela; Li, Wu

    2012-01-01

    Dental fluorosis occurs as a result of excess fluoride ingestion during tooth formation. Enamel fluorosis and primary dentin fluorosis can only occur when teeth are forming, and therefore fluoride exposure (as it relates to dental fluorosis) occurs during childhood. In the permanent dentition, this would begin with the lower incisors, which complete mineralization at approximately 2–3 years of age, and end after mineralization of the third molars. The white opaque appearance of fluorosed enamel is caused by a hypomineralized enamel subsurface; with more severe dental fluorosis, pitting and a loss of the enamel surface occurs, leading to secondary staining (appearing as a brown color). Many of the changes caused by fluoride are related to cell/matrix/mineral interactions as the teeth are forming. At the early maturation stage, the relative quantity of amelogenin protein is increased in fluorosed enamel in a dose-related manner. This appears to result from a delay in the removal of amelogenins as the enamel matures. In vitro, when fluoride is incorporated into the mineral, more protein binds to the forming mineral, and protein removal by proteinases is delayed. This suggests that altered protein/mineral interactions are in part responsible for retention of amelogenins and the resultant hypomineralization that occurs in fluorosed enamel. Fluoride also appears to enhance mineral precipitation in forming teeth, resulting in hypermineralized bands of enamel, which are then followed by hypomineralized bands. Enhanced mineral precipitation with local increases in matrix acidity may affect maturation stage ameloblast modulation, potentially explaining the doserelated decrease in cycles of ameloblast modulation from ruffleended to smooth-ended cells that occur with fluoride exposure in rodents. Specific cellular effects of fluoride have been implicated, but more research is needed to determine which of these changes are relevant to the formation of fluorosed teeth. As

  7. Chronic toxicity of silver to the sea urchin (Arbacia punctulata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Timothy J; Kramer, James R; Boeri, Robert L; Gorsuch, Joseph W

    2006-06-01

    The chronic toxicity of silver to the sea urchin (Arbacia punctulata) was determined in 30 per thousand salinity seawater during a three-part study: A fertilization test (1-h sperm exposure), a 48-h embryo test, and a 30-d adult test. Combined data from the three tests resulted in a lowest-observed-effect concentration of 19 microg/L, a no-observed-effect concentration of 8.6 microg/L, and a maximum acceptable toxicant concentration of 13 microg/L, based on measured concentrations of dissolved silver. The 96-h median effective concentration was 40 microg/L, and the acute to chronic toxicity ratio was 3.1. During the tests, measured concentrations of free ionic silver (Ag+) were only 0.0027 to 0.0046% of dissolved silver concentrations, as predicted by ion-speciation theory. Some measured Ag+ concentrations were lower than predicted, indicating the presence of other ligands in the seawater test media. These strong sulfide ligands were exuded by the exposed sea urchins into the seawater (where Ag-sulfide complexes formed) in amounts that increased in direct proportion to the silver concentration during the toxicity test. This suggests a toxicity-defense mechanism that functioned by modifying the chemistry of the surrounding external medium.

  8. Aluminium toxicity in chronic renal insufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savory, J; Bertholf, R L; Wills, M R

    1985-08-01

    Aluminium is a ubiquitous element in the environment and has been demonstrated to be toxic, especially in individuals with impaired renal function. Not much is known about the biochemistry of aluminium and the mechanisms of its toxic effects. Most of the interest in aluminium has been in the clinical setting of the haemodialysis unit. Here aluminium toxicity occurs due to contamination of dialysis solutions, and treatment of the patients with aluminium-containing phosphate binding gels. Aluminium has been shown to be the major contributor to the dialysis encephalopathy syndrome and an osteomalacic component of dialysis osteodystrophy. Other clinical disturbances associated with aluminium toxicity are a microcytic anaemia and metastatic extraskeletal calcification. Aluminium overload can be treated effectively by chelation therapy with desferrioxamine and haemodialysis. Aluminium is readily transferred from the dialysate to the patient's bloodstream during haemodialysis. Once transferred, the aluminium is tightly bound to non-dialysable plasma constituents. Very low concentrations of dialysate aluminium in the range of 10-15 micrograms/l are recommended to guard against toxic effects. Very few studies have been directed towards the separation of the various plasma species which bind aluminium. Gel filtration chromatography has been used to identify five major fractions, one of which is of low molecular weight and the others appear to be protein-aluminium complexes. Recommendations on aluminium monitoring have been published and provide 'safe' and toxic concentrations. Also, the frequency of monitoring has been addressed. Major problems exist with the analytical methods for measuring aluminium which result from inaccurate techniques and contamination difficulties. The most widely used analytical technique is electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry which can provide reliable measurements in the hands of a careful analyst.

  9. Optimizing the performance of the amphipod, Hyalella azteca, in chronic toxicity tests: Results of feeding studies with various foods and feeding regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    The freshwater amphipod, Hyalella azteca, is a common organism used for sediment toxicity testing. Standard methods for 10-d and 42-d sediment toxicity tests with H. azteca were last revised and published by USEPA/ASTM in 2000. While Hyalella azteca methods exist for sediment tox...

  10. Psychological treatment of patients with chronic toxic encephalopathy: lessons from studies of chronic fatigue and whiplash

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hout, Moniek S. E.; Wekking, Ellie M.; Berg, Ina J.; Deelman, Betto G.

    2003-01-01

    Chronic toxic encephalopathy (CTE), which can result from long-term exposure to organic solvents, is characterized by problems of attention and memory, fatigue and affective symptoms. There is little experience with (neuro)psychological treatment in this patient group. We reviewed treatment outcome

  11. Psychological treatment of patients with chronic toxic encephalopathy : Lessons from studies of chronic fatigue and whiplash

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hout, MSE; Wekking, EM; Berg, IJ; Deelman, BG

    2003-01-01

    Background. Chronic toxic encephalopathy (CTE), which can result from long-term exposure to organic solvents, is characterized by problems of attention and memory, fatigue and affective symptoms. There is little experience with (neuro)psychological treatment in this patient group. We reviewed

  12. Treating chronic arsenic toxicity with high selenium lentil diets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sah, Shweta [Department of Ecosystem and Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB T2N 4Z6 (Canada); Vandenberg, Albert [Department of Plant Sciences, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK S7N 5A8 (Canada); Smits, Judit, E-mail: judit.smits@ucalgary.ca [Department of Ecosystem and Public Health, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB T2N 4Z6 (Canada)

    2013-10-01

    Arsenic (As) toxicity causes serious health problems in humans, especially in the Indo-Gangetic plains and mountainous areas of China. Selenium (Se), an essential micronutrient is a potential mitigator of As toxicity due to its antioxidant and antagonistic properties. Selenium is seriously deficient in soils world-wide but is present at high, yet non-toxic levels in the great plains of North America. We evaluate the potential of dietary Se in counteracting chronic As toxicity in rats through serum biochemistry, blood glutathione levels, immunotoxicity (antibody response), liver peroxidative stress, thyroid response and As levels in tissues and excreta. To achieve this, we compare diets based on high-Se Saskatchewan (SK) lentils versus low-Se lentils from United States. Rats drank control (0 ppm As) or As (40 ppm As) water while consuming SK lentils (0.3 ppm Se) or northwestern USA lentils (< 0.01 ppm Se) diets for 14 weeks. Rats on high Se diets had higher glutathione levels regardless of As exposure, recovered antibody responses in As-exposed group, higher fecal and urinary As excretion and lower renal As residues. Selenium deficiency caused greater hepatic peroxidative damage in the As exposed animals. Thyroid hormones, triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4), were not different. After 14 weeks of As exposure, health indicators in rats improved in response to the high Se lentil diets. Our results indicate that high Se lentils have a potential to mitigate As toxicity in laboratory mammals, which we hope will translate into benefits for As exposed humans. - Highlights: • We reduce chronic arsenic toxicity in rats with a whole food solution. • High selenium lentils decrease liver damage and increase blood glutathione levels. • High selenium lentil diets increase urinary and fecal arsenic excretion. • High selenium lentil diets decrease arsenic levels in kidney, the storage organ. • High selenium lentil diets reverse arsenic suppression of the B cell

  13. Acute and chronic toxicity of veterinary antibiotics to Daphnia magna

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wollenberger, Leah; Halling-Sørensen, B.; Kusk, Kresten Ole

    2000-01-01

    The acute and chronic toxicity of nine antibiotics used both therapeutically and as growth promoters in intensive farming was investigated on the freshwater crustacean Daphnia magna. The effect of the antibiotics metronidazole (M), olaquindox (OL), oxolinic acid (OA), oxytetracycline (OTC...

  14. Chronic toxicity study of Hyptis suaveolens (L. Poit in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bunjong Chaorai

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The effect of water extract of Hyptis suaveolens (H. suaveolens was evaluated for 6-month chronic toxicity in Wistar rats. Control group received distilled water orally 10 ml/kg/day. The extract was orally given to five treatment groups at the doses of 5, 50, 250, 500 and 500 mg/kg/day for 6 months. The last group was served as the recovery group. Changes in the body weights, actual and relative organ weights were not significantly demonstrated in all groups throughout the study. The results of hematological, biochemical parameters and histopathological lesions showed that the extract did not produce any significant doserelated changes. Therefore, it may be concluded that the extract of H. suaveolens at the given doses did not produce any significant toxic effect in rats during 6-month period of the treatment.

  15. Relationship between acute and chronic toxicity for prevalent organic pollutants in Vibrio fischeri based upon chemical mode of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao H; Fan, Ling Y; Wang, Shuo; Wang, Yue; Yan, Li C; Zheng, Shan S; Martyniuk, Christopher J; Zhao, Yuan H

    2017-09-15

    Chemicals show diverse modes of action (MOAs) in aquatic organisms depending upon acute and chronic toxicity evaluations. Here, toxicity data for Vibrio fischeri involving 52 compounds for acute and chronic toxicity were used to determine the congruence of acute and chronic toxicity for assessing MOAs. Using toxic ratios, most of the compounds categorized into MOAs that included baseline, less inert or reactive compounds with acute toxicity were also categorized as baseline, less inert or reactive compounds with chronic toxicity. However, significantly different toxic effects were observed with acute and chronic toxicity for the reactive and specific-acting compounds. The acute-chronic toxic ratios were smaller and less variable for the baseline and less inert compounds, but were greater and more variable for the reactive and specific-acting compounds. Baseline and less inert compounds share same MOAs, but reactive and specific-acting compounds have different MOAs between acute and chronic toxicity. Bioconcentration processes cannot reach an equilibrium for highly hydrophilic and ionized compounds with short-term exposure, resulting in lower toxicity compared to long-term exposure. Pronounced differences for the antibiotics were not only due to the difference in bioconcentration, but also due to a predicted difference in MOAs during acute and chronic exposures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. National Air Toxic Assessments (NATA) Results

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The National Air Toxics Assessment was conducted by EPA in 2002 to assess air toxics emissions in order to identify and prioritize air toxics, emission source types...

  17. Influence of chloride on the chronic toxicity of sodium nitrate to Ceriodaphnia dubia and Hyalella azteca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soucek, David J; Dickinson, Amy

    2016-09-01

    While it has been well established that increasing chloride concentration in water reduces the toxicity of nitrite to freshwater species, little work has been done to investigate the effect of chloride on nitrate toxicity. We conducted acute and chronic nitrate (as sodium nitrate) toxicity tests with the cladoceran Ceriodaphnia dubia and the amphipod Hyalella azteca (chronic tests only) over a range of chloride concentrations spanning natural chloride levels found in surface waters representative of watersheds of the Great Lakes Region. Chronic nitrate toxicity test results with both crustaceans were variable, with H. azteca appearing to be one of the more sensitive invertebrate species tested and C. dubia being less sensitive. While the variability in results for H. azteca were to an extent related to chloride concentration in test water that was distinctly not the case for C. dubia. We concluded that the chloride dependent toxicity of nitrate is not universal among freshwater crustaceans. An additional sodium chloride chronic toxicity test with the US Lab strain of H. azteca in the present study suggested that when present as predominantly sodium chloride and with relatively low concentrations of other ions, there is a narrow range of chloride concentrations over which this strain is most fit, and within which toxicity test data are reliable.

  18. Acute and chronic toxicity of pawpaw (Carica papaya) seed powder ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-07-04

    Jul 4, 2008 ... Standard method for examination of wastewater and water (17th ed. Washington D.C.) Check the text; it is APHA. (1987).Reconcile, p. 8910. Ayotunde EO, Ofem BO (2005). Acute and Chronic Toxicity of Pawpaw. (Carica papaya) Seed Powder to Nile Tilapia Oreochromis niloticus. (linne 1757), Fingerlings.

  19. The neonicotinoid imidachloprid shows high chronic toxicity to mayfly nymphs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roessink, I.; Merga, L.B.; Zweers, A.J.; Brink, van den P.J.

    2013-01-01

    The present study evaluated the acute and chronic toxicity of imidacloprid to a range of freshwater arthropods. Mayfly and caddisfly species were most sensitive to short-term imidacloprid exposures (10 tests), whereas the mayflies showed by far the most sensitive response to long-term exposure of

  20. 40 CFR 797.1950 - Mysid shrimp chronic toxicity test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the test organisms, including the scientific name and method of verification, average length, age... concentrations, including method validations and reagent blanks. (12) The data records of the holding... apply to this guideline: (1) “Chronic toxicity test” means a method used to determine the concentration...

  1. Effect of Shodhana Treatment on Chronic Toxicity and Recovery of Aconite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, P.K.; Prajapati, P.K.; Shukla, V.J.; Ravishankar, B.

    2012-01-01

    Aconite is one of the poisonous plants used therapeutically in practice of Ayurveda after proper treatment called as ‘Shodhana’. To determine the effect of Shodhana treatment on chronic toxicity and to assess the effect of recovery period after chronic toxicity of aconite. Raw aconite (RV), urine treated aconite (SM), and milk treated aconite (SD) were administered in 6.25 mg/kg dose in Charles Foster strain albino rats for 90 days for chronic toxicity. Six rats from each were kept for another 30 days without test drugs treatment to observe recovery from chronic toxicity. RV was found to be highly toxic in chronic exposure, SM had no apparent toxicity, but SD had mild toxicity in kidney. The toxicities of RV and SD were reversible, but sudden withdrawal of SM caused adverse effects, suggestive of tapering withdrawal. Shodhana treatments remove toxic effects from raw aconite. Chronic toxicity of aconite is reversible. Confirmed the arrangement of abstract PMID:22736901

  2. Chronic Dermal Toxicity of Epoxy Resins I. Skin Carcinogenic Potency and General Toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holland, J.M.

    2001-01-16

    Epoxy resins are a diverse class of chemicals that differ in structure, physical properties, and, presumably, biological activity. The purpose of these experiments was to compare the chronic dermal toxicity and carcinogenicity of selected commercial epoxy resins and to determine the potential for positive synergistic carcinogenic interactions between different resins. This work is an extension and continuation of a Department of Energy sponsored program to evaluate epoxy resins for potential occupational health risks. The materials examined were chosen on the basis of their interest to the U.S. government. They are representative of the manufacturer's production at the time, and therefore the data are completely valid only for the specific production period. Results of the experimental exposures will be reported in two parts. This report describes the test materials, their chemical and physical characteristics and the experimental design. General (systemic) toxicity will be evaluated and the skin carcinogenicity of the materials compared. A subsequent report will provide morphological descriptions of skin and significant internal pathology induced by the various treatments.

  3. Chronic toxicity evaluation of Morinda citrifolia fruit and leaf in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamad Shalan, Nor Aijratul Asikin; Mustapha, Noordin M; Mohamed, Suhaila

    2017-02-01

    Noni (Morinda citrifolia) leaf and fruit are used as food and medicine. This report compares the chronic toxicity of Noni fruit and edible leaf water extracts (two doses each) in female mice. The 6 months study showed the fruit extract produced chronic toxicity effects at the high dose of 2 mg/ml drinking water, evidenced through deteriorated liver histology (hepatocyte necrosis), reduced liver length, increased liver injury marker AST (aspartate aminotransferase) and albumin reduction, injury symptoms (hypoactivity, excessive grooming, sunken eyes and hunched posture) and 40% mortality within 3 months. This hepatotoxicity results support the six liver injury reports in humans which were linked to chronic noni fruit juice consumption. Both doses of the leaf extracts demonstrated no observable toxicity. The hepatotoxicity effects of the M. citrifolia fruit extract in this study is unknown and may probably be due to the anthraquinones in the seeds and skin, which had potent quinone reductase inducer activity that reportedly was 40 times more effective than l-sulforaphane. This report will add to current data on the chronic toxicity cases of Morinda citrifolia fruit. No report on the chronic toxicity of Morinda citrifolia fruit in animal model is available for comparison. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Accuracy assessment of time-concentration-effect models in predicting chronic lethality from acute toxicity data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Foster L; Ellersieck, Mark R; Slaughter, Andrew R

    2011-03-01

    Acute-to-chronic (ACE) models (accelerated life testing, ALT; linear regression analysis, LRA) are used to estimate chemical concentrations resulting in low levels of chronic mortality from acute toxicity data, thereby greatly increasing the inferential value of acute data. We applied the ACE models to test data from 72 chemicals and 14 aquatic species (131 acute and 97 chronic tests) and then compared the results with reported chronic no observed effect concentrations (NOEC) and lowest observed effect concentrations (LOEC), as determined by traditional analysis of variance techniques. Acute-to-chronic models produced highly accurate chronic lethality estimates compared with reported chronic NOEC and LOEC values. Lethality estimates fell within two times reported NOEC-LOEC values 71% of the time and within five times 98% of the time. Therefore, ACE models are very appropriate for estimating chronic lethality from acute toxicity data when chronic data are absent and have high applicability in probability-based hazard and risk assessments. Copyright © 2010 SETAC.

  5. Acute and chronic aquatic toxicity of aromatic extracts. Summary of relevant test data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comber, M.I.H.; Den Haan, K.; Djemel, N.; Eadsforth, C.V.; King, D.; Parkerton, T.; Leon Paumen, M.; Dmytrasz, B.; Del Castillo, F.

    2013-09-15

    This report describes the experimental procedures and the results obtained in acute and chronic ecotoxicity tests on several aromatic extracts samples. The samples were tested for toxicity to the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), the crustacean zooplankter, Daphnia magna and the algae, Selenastrum capricornutum using water accommodated fractions. These results assist in determining the environmental hazard posed by aromatic extracts.

  6. [Acute and chronic toxicity of saponins from Argania spinosa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaoui, K; Belabbes, M; Cherrah, Y; Hassar, M; Charrouf, Z; Amarouch, H; Roquebert, J

    1998-01-01

    We evaluated the acute and chronic experimental toxicity of a water extract of saponins from Argania spinosa following oral and intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration in mice (Iops Ofa) and rats (Wistar). The DL50 obtained were 79 mg/kg for the i.p. route and 1,300 mg/kg for the oral route. For the chronic toxicity studies, we administred 100 and 200 mg/kg orally once a day during a 3 month period. There was a decrease in blood sugar in the third month of each therapy. Blood creatinine levels increased, thus evoking a renal pathology. A slight increase in transaminases levels was not significatif. Hematologic parameters were unchanged during the treatment and the histopathologic study showed hepatic glycogen decrease and a focal renal tube deterioration.

  7. Chlorpyrifos chronic toxicity in broilers and effect of vitamin C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Kammon

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to study chlorpyrifos chronic toxicity in broilers and the protective effect of vitamin C. Oral administration of 0.8 mg/kg body weight (bw (1/50 LD50 chlorpyrifos (Radar®, produced mild diarrhea and gross lesions comprised of paleness, flaccid consistency and slightly enlargement of liver. Histopathologically, chlorpyrifos produced degenerative changes in various organs. Oral administration of 100 mg/kg bw vitamin C partially ameliorated the degenerative changes in kidney and heart. There was insignificant alteration in biochemical and haematological profiles. It is concluded that supplementation of vitamin C reduced the severity of lesions induced by chronic chlorpyrifos toxicity in broilers.

  8. Chronic toxicity of chloroform to Japanese medaka fish.

    OpenAIRE

    Toussaint, M W; Rosencrance, A B; Brennan, L M; Beaman, J R; Wolfe, M J; Hoffmann, F J; Gardner, H S

    2001-01-01

    Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) were continually exposed in a flow-through diluter system for 9 months to measured chloroform concentrations of 0.017, 0.151, or 1.463 mg/L. Parameters evaluated were hepatocarcinogenicity, hepatocellular proliferation, hematology, and intrahepatic chloroform concentration. Histopathology was evaluated at 6 and 9 months. Chloroform was not hepatocarcinogenic to the medaka at the concentrations tested. Chronic toxicity was evidenced at these time points by sta...

  9. Role of Folic Acid on Symptoms of Chronic Arsenic Toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghose, Nelima; Majumdar, Kunal Kanti; Ghose, A. K.; Saha, C. K.; Nandy, A. K.; Mazumder, D. N. Guha

    2014-01-01

    Background: Chronic arsenic toxicity (Arsenicosis) due to drinking of arsenic contaminated ground water is a global problem. However, its treatment is unsatisfactory. Methylation of arsenic facilitates its urinary excretion. Persons with relatively lower proportion of urinary dimethyl arsenic acid (DMA) are found to have at greater risk of developing symptoms of arsenicosis including its complications. The biochemical pathway responsible for methylation of arsenic is a folate-dependent pathway. Studies in rodents and humans suggest that folate nutritional status influences the metabolism of arsenic. Methods: The present study compares the effect of giving folic acid on 32 arsenicosis patients during a 6-month period and comparing the results with clinical effect of taking only arsenic-free safe water on 45 age and sex-matched arsenic-affected people for the same period. Results: There was significant improvement of arsenical skin lesion score of both patients treated with folic acid (2.96 ± 1.46 to 1.90 ± 0.90, P arsenicosis cases could help in reducing clinical symptoms of arsenicosis. PMID:24554997

  10. Acute and chronic toxicity of lead in water and diet to the amphipod Hyalella azteca

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besser, J.M.; Brumbaugh, W.G.; Brunson, E.L.; Ingersoll, C.G.

    2005-01-01

    We evaluated the influence of waterborne and dietary lead (Pb) exposure on the acute and chronic toxicity of Pb to the amphipod Hyalella azteca. Test solutions were generated by a modified diluter with an extended (24-h) equilibration period. Acute (96-h) toxicity of Pb varied with water hardness in the range of 71 to 275 mg/L as CaCO3, despite similar dissolved Pb concentrations. Acute toxicity was greatest in soft test water, with less than 50% survival at the lowest dissolved Pb concentration (151 ??g/L). Survival also was significantly reduced in medium-hardness water but not in hard test water. In chronic (42-d) studies, amphipods were exposed to waterborne Pb and fed either a control diet or a diet equilibrated with waterborne Pb levels. For animals fed the control diet, the median lethal concentration (LC50) for Pb was 24 ??g/L (as dissolved Pb), and significant reductions in survival occurred at 16 ??g/L. Exposure to Pb-treated diets significantly increased toxicity across a wide range of dissolved Pb concentrations, with a LC50 of 16 ??g/L and significant reductions in growth and reproduction at 3.5 ??g/L. Significant effects on growth and reproduction occurred at dissolved Pb concentrations close to the current U.S. chronic water-quality criterion. Our results suggest that both aqueous- and dietary-exposure pathways contribute significantly to chronic Pb exposure and toxic effects in aquatic biota. ?? 2005 SETAC.

  11. Development of a Facile and High-Throughput Bioluminescence Assay Using Vibrio fischeri to Determine the Chronic Toxicity of Contaminated Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasuhoglu, Deniz; Westlund, Paul; Isazadeh, Siavash; Neamatallah, Sarah; Yargeau, Viviane

    2017-02-01

    Chronic toxicity testing using the luminescent bacterium, Vibrio fischeri, has recently been demonstrated to be a suitable bioassay for water quality monitoring. The toxicity evaluation is typically based on determining the EC50 at specific time points which may lead to overlooking the dynamic nature of luminescence response and limits information regarding the possible mechanisms of action of target compounds. This study investigated various approaches (standard, integral, and luminescence rate inhibition) to evaluate the chronic toxicity of three target compounds (atrazine, trimethoprim, and acetamiprid) using a 96-well plate based method. The chronic toxicity assay and the methods used for EC50 calculation provided in this work resulted in a high-throughput method of chronic toxicity testing and indicated lower EC50 than the values provided by the standard short term methods, indicating higher toxicity. This study emphasizes the need for additional chronic toxicity testing to further evaluate the toxicity of compounds or unknown samples.

  12. Effects of Body-Mind Training and Relaxation Stretching on Persons with Chronic Toxic Encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Lis; Andersen, Lars Bo

    2000-01-01

    Investigates the psychological and physical effects of training of body awareness and slow stretching on persons (N=8) with chronic toxic encephalopathy. Results show that electromyography on the frontalis muscle and state anxiety decreased, but no changes were observed in trait anxiety and in the creativity score. (Author/MKA)

  13. Acute and chronic toxicity of glyphosate compounds to glochidia and juveniles of Lampsilis siliquoidea (Unionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bringolf, Robert B; Cope, W Gregory; Mosher, Shad; Barnhart, M Chris; Shea, Damian

    2007-10-01

    Native freshwater mussels (family Unionidae) are among the most imperiled faunal groups in the world. Factors contributing to the decline of mussel populations likely include pesticides and other aquatic contaminants; however, there is a paucity of data regarding the toxicity of even the most globally distributed pesticides, including glyphosate, to mussels. Therefore, the toxicity of several forms of glyphosate, its formulations, and a surfactant (MON 0818) used in several glyphosate formulations was determined for early life stages of Lampsilis siliquoidea, a native freshwater mussel. Acute and chronic toxicity tests were performed with a newly established American Society of Testing and Materials (ASTM) standard guide for conducting toxicity tests with freshwater mussels. Roundup, its active ingredient, the technical-grade isopropylamine (IPA) salt of glyphosate, IPA alone, and MON 0818 (the surfactant in Roundup formulations) were each acutely toxic to L. siliquoidea glochidia. MON 0818 was most toxic of the compounds tested and the 48-h median effective concentration (0.5 mg/L) for L. siliquoidea glochidia is the lowest reported for any aquatic organism tested to date. Juvenile L. siliquoidea were also acutely sensitive to MON 0818, Roundup, glyphosate IPA salt, and IPA alone. Technical-grade glyphosate and Aqua Star were not acutely toxic to glochidia or juveniles. Ranking of relative chronic toxicity of the glyphosate-related compounds to juvenile mussels was similar to the ranking of relative acute toxicity to juveniles. Growth data from chronic tests was largely inconclusive. In summary, these results indicate that L. siliquoidea, a representative of the nearly 300 freshwater mussel taxa in North America, is among the most sensitive aquatic organisms tested to date with glyphosate-based chemicals and the surfactant MON 0818.

  14. Chronic toxicity of selected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons to algae and crustaceans using passive dosing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragin, Gail E; Parkerton, Thomas F; Redman, Aaron D; Letinksi, Daniel J; Butler, Josh D; Paumen, Miriam Leon; Sutherland, Cary A; Knarr, Tricia M; Comber, Mike; den Haan, Klaas

    2016-12-01

    Because of the large number of possible aromatic hydrocarbon structures, predictive toxicity models are needed to support substance hazard and risk assessments. Calibration and evaluation of such models requires toxicity data with well-defined exposures. The present study has applied a passive dosing method to generate reliable chronic effects data for 8 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) on the green algae Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata and the crustacean Ceriodaphnia dubia. The observed toxicity of these substances on algal growth rate and neonate production were then compared with available literature toxicity data for these species, as well as target lipid model and chemical activity-based model predictions. The use of passive dosing provided well-controlled exposures that yielded more consistent data sets than attained by past literature studies. Results from the present study, which were designed to exclude the complicating influence of ultraviolet light, were found to be well described by both target lipid model and chemical activity effect models. The present study also found that the lack of chronic effects for high molecular weight PAHs was consistent with the limited chemical activity that could be achieved for these compounds in the aqueous test media. Findings from this analysis highlight that variability in past literature toxicity data for PAHs may be complicated by both poorly controlled exposures and photochemical processes that can modulate both exposure and toxicity. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:2948-2957. © 2016 SETAC. © 2016 SETAC.

  15. Safety studies of homoeopathic drugs in acute, sub-acute and chronic toxicity in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surender Singh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Homoeopathic drugs are frequently recommended in day to day life as therapeutic agents by homoeopathic practitioners. However, safety of homoeopathic drugs remains a challenge because of the high variability of chemical components involved. Aim: The objective of the present study was to investigate the acute, subacute, and chronic oral toxicity of different homoeopathic drugs (Ferrum phosphoricum 3X, Ferrum phosphoricum 6X, Calcarea phosphoricum 6X, and Magnesium phosphoricum 6X in experimental models. Materials and Methods: In acute oral toxicity study, homoeopathic drugs were administered orally at 2000mg/kg body weight, and animals were observed for toxic symptoms till 10 days as per the OECD guidelines. For subacute and chronic toxicity study, homoeopathic drugs were administered for 28 and 180 days, respectively, as per the OECD guidelines. At the end of 28 and 180 days, the animals were sacrificed and toxicity parameters were assessed. Histopathological evaluation of different organs was also performed to assess any toxicity. Results: In acute toxicity study, no mortality was found at a dose of 2000 mg/kg which indicates that oral LD50of homoeopathic drugs were more than 2000 mg/kg. The administration of drugs at a dose of 70 mg/kg body weight for 28 and 180 days did not produce any significant change in haematological and biochemical parameters of male and female rats as compared to normal control group. No pathological changes were observed in histology of various organs of treated rats as compared to normal control animals. Conclusion: These homoeopathic drugs are safe & produce no toxicity when administered for longer duration.

  16. Acute and chronic toxicity and antimicrobial activity of the extract of Stryphnodendron adstringens (Mart. Coville

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna C. Almeida

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: This study evaluated the antimicrobial activity and acute or chronic toxicity of the extract of Stryphnodendron adstringens. The stem bark dry extract was obtained by static maceration with ethanol. Quantification of tannins was performed by the Folin-Denis method, which indicated a total tannin content of 32.7%. The antimicrobial activity of the dry extract of S. adstringens was evaluated by agar-based disk diffusion assay with Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922 and Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923 in the concentration of 200, 400 and 600μL/mL. The results indicated that 600μL/mL inhibited microbial growth, i.e. had antimicrobial activity against these species. Acute and chronic toxic effects of S. adstringens was evaluated in Wistar rats treated with 200, 400, 600 and 800mg/kg of extract, administrated by gavage. Liver degeneration was observed in the group of rats receiving 800mg/kg in chronic exposure, what may indicate some degree of toxicity at this concentration. However, no systemic toxicity was observed at lower doses. Considering the broad use of S. adstringens as a phytotherapeutic agent for various human and animal diseases and the livertoxicity observed at high concentrations, attention should be paid to the possible adverse effect of using the extract from this plant at high concentration.

  17. Chronic toxicity of the synthetic hormone 17alpha-ethinylestradiol to Chironomus tentans and Hyalella azteca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dussault, Eve B; Balakrishnan, Vimal K; Solomon, Keith R; Sibley, Paul K

    2008-12-01

    The chronic toxicity of the synthetic hormone 17alpha-ethinylestradiol (EE2) was investigated in two benthic invertebrates, the midge Chironomus tentans and the freshwater amphipod Hyalella azteca, in life-cycle water-only assays. In C. tentans, a 50% decrease in emergence was observed at a concentration of 1.5 mg/L; emergence was a more sensitive endpoint than survival, growth, or biomass. Reproduction was not significantly affected by EE2 exposure until a concentration of 3.1 mg/L, where emergence, and therefore reproduction, did not occur. In contrast, reproduction was the most sensitive endpoint in H. azteca (50% decrease in reproduction observed at a concentration of 0.36 mg/L). The sensitivity of the F1 generation to EE2 was also investigated with H. azteca, but was not different from the F0 generation. The data from the present study were combined with those from previous 10-d toxicity assays, to derive acute to chronic toxicity ratios (ACRs) for EE2. The ACRs calculated for EE2 were 13 for C. tentans and 16 for H. azteca, indicating that the application factors currently used in ecological risk assessment for the derivation of chronic toxicity are protective and conservative for these organisms. The results of the present study suggest that chronic toxicity was not mediated by disruption of endocrine pathways. Using a hazard quotient approach, the risk associated with sublethal exposure to EE2 was azteca and C. tentans, indicating that adverse effects are not expected, and that environmental exposure to EE2 likely poses a low risk to benthic invertebrates.

  18. Chronic phalaris toxicity in eastern grey kangaroos (Macropus giganteus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacci, B; Whiteley, P L; Barrow, M; Phillips, P H; Dalziel, J; El-Hage, C M

    2014-12-01

    Seven eastern grey kangaroos (Macropus giganteus) grazing pastures including Phalaris spp. in Victoria showed neurological deficits characterised by ataxia, head tremors and collapse. Gross examination of the brains and spinal cords of affected kangaroos showed a greenish discolouration in several regions of the grey matter. Histologically, intracytoplasmic accumulation of pigment granules was detected in the neurons, most prominently in the thalamus, brainstem and ventral horns of the spinal cord. Pigment granules were positive to stains used for identification of melanin, including Fontana-Masson stain and Schmorl's reaction. The combination of clinical signs and obvious neuronal pigmentation is consistent with chronic Phalaris spp. toxicity, a condition well documented in domestic ruminants. © 2014 Australian Veterinary Association.

  19. Chronic toxicity of tire and road wear particles to water- and sediment-dwelling organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panko, Julie M; Kreider, Marisa L; McAtee, Britt L; Marwood, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Tire and road wear particles (TRWP) consist of a complex mixture of rubber, and pavement released from tires during use on road surfaces. Subsequent transport of the TRWP into freshwater sediments has raised some concern about the potential adverse effects on aquatic organisms. Previous studies have shown some potential for toxicity for tread particles, however, toxicity studies of TRWP collected from a road simulator system revealed no acute toxicity to green algae, daphnids, or fathead minnows at concentrations up to 10,000 mg/kg under conditions representative of receiving water bodies. In this study, the chronic toxicity of TRWP was evaluated in four aquatic species. Test animals were exposed to whole sediment spiked with TRWP at concentrations up to 10,000 mg/kg sediment or elutriates from spiked sediment. Exposure to TRWP spiked sediment caused mild growth inhibition in Chironomus dilutus but had no adverse effect on growth or reproduction in Hyalella azteca. Exposure to TRWP elutriates resulted in slightly diminished survival in larval Pimephales promelas but had no adverse effect on growth or reproduction in Ceriodaphnia dubia. No other endpoints in these species were affected. These results, together with previous studies demonstrating no acute toxicity of TRWP, indicate that under typical exposure conditions TRWP in sediments pose a low risk of toxicity to aquatic organisms.

  20. Chronic toxicity of arsenic to the Great Salt Lake brine shrimp, Artemia franciscana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brix, Kevin V; Cardwell, Rick D; Adams, William J

    2003-02-01

    We determined the chronic toxicity of arsenic (sodium arsenate) to the Great Salt Lake brine shrimp, Artemia franciscana. Chronic toxicity was determined by measuring the adverse effects of arsenic on brine shrimp growth, survival, and reproduction under intermittent flow-through conditions. The study commenced with shrimp growth rather than an arsenic effect. This study represents one of the few full life cycle toxicity tests conducted with brine shrimp.

  1. Chronic toxicity of 14 phthalate esters to Daphnia magna and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhodes, J.E.; Adams, W.J. [ABC Labs., Inc., Columbia, MO (United States); Biddinger, G.R. [Exxon Biomedical Sciences Inc., Benecia, CA (United States); Robillard, K.A.; Gorsuch, J.W. [Eastman Kodak Co., Rochester, NY (United States)

    1995-11-01

    Chronic toxicity studies were performed with commercial phthalate esters and Daphnia magna (14 phthalates) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) (six phthalates). For the lower-molecular-weight phthalate esters--dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), and butylbenzyl phthalate (BBP)--the results of the studies indicated a general trend in which toxicity for both species increased as water solubility decreased. The geometric mean maximum acceptable toxicant concentration(GM-MATC) for D. magna ranged from 0.63 to 34.8 mg/L. For the higher-molecular-weight phthalate esters--dihexyl phthalate (DHP), butyl 2-ethylhexyl phthalate (BOP), di-(n-hexyl, n-octyl, n-decyl) phthalate (610P), di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), diisooctyl phthalate (DIOP), diisononyl phthalate (DINP), di-(heptyl, nonyl, undecyl) phthalate (711P), diisodecyl phthalate (DIDP), diundecyl phthalate (DUP), and ditridecyl phthalate (DTDP)--the GM-MATC values ranged from 0.042 to 0.15 mg/L. Survival was equally sensitive and sometimes more sensitive than reproduction. The observed toxicity to daphnids with most of the higher-molecular-weight phthalate esters appeared to be due to surface entrapment or a mode of toxicity that is not due to exposure to dissolved aqueous-phase chemical. Early life-stage toxicity studies with rainbow trout indicated that survival (DMP) and growth (DBP) were affected at 24 and 0.19 mg/L, respectively. This pattern of observed toxicity with the lower-molecular-weight phthalate esters and not the higher-molecular-weight phthalate esters is consistent with previously reported acute toxicity studies for several aquatic species.

  2. Unraveling the chronic toxicity of lead: an essential priority for environmental health.

    OpenAIRE

    Todd, A C; Wetmur, J G; Moline, J M; Godbold, J. H.; Levin, S. M.; Landrigan, P J

    1996-01-01

    Although population exposure to lead has declined, chronic lead toxicity remains a major public health problem in the United States affecting millions of children and adults. Important gaps exist in knowledge of the pathophysiology of chronic lead intoxication. These gaps have impeded development of control strategies. To close current gaps in knowledge of chronic lead toxicity, we propose an integrated, multidisciplinary, marker-based research program. This program combines a) direct measure...

  3. Low malathion concentrations influence metabolism in Chironomus sancticaroli (Diptera, Chironomidae in acute and chronic toxicity tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Rebechi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Low malathion concentrations influence metabolism in Chironomus sancticaroli (Diptera, Chironomidae in acute and chronic toxicity tests. Organophosphate compounds are used in agro-systems, and in programs to control pathogen vectors. Because they are continuously applied, organophosphates often reach water sources and may have an impact on aquatic life. The effects of acute and chronic exposure to the organophosphate insecticide malathion on the midge Chironomus sancticaroli are evaluated. To that end, three biochemical biomarkers, acetylcholinesterase (AChE, alpha (EST-α and beta (EST-β esterase were used. Acute bioassays with five concentrations of malathion, and chronic bioassays with two concentrations of malathion were carried out. In the acute exposure test, AChE, EST-α and EST-β activities declined by 66, 40 and 37%, respectively, at 0.251 µg L-1 and more than 80% at 1.37, 1.96 and 2.51 µg L-1. In chronic exposure tests, AChE and EST-α activities declined by 28 and 15% at 0.251 µg L-1. Results of the present study show that low concentrations of malathion can influence larval metabolism, indicating high toxicity for Chironomus sancticaroli and environmental risk associated with the use of organophosphates.

  4. Acute and chronic toxic effects of bisphenol A on Chlorella pyrenoidosa and Scenedesmus obliquus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Xiong, Bang; Sun, Wen-Fang; An, Shuai; Lin, Kuang-Fei; Guo, Mei-Jin; Cui, Xin-Hong

    2014-06-01

    The acute and chronic toxic effects of Bisphenol A (BPA) on Chlorella pyrenoidosa (C. pyrenoidosa) and Scenedesmus obliquus (S. obliquus) were not well understood. The indoor experiments were carried out to observe and analyze the BPA-induced changes. Results of the observations showed that in acute tests BPA could significantly inhibit the growth of both algae, whereas chronic exposure hardly displayed similar trend. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and Catalase (CAT) activities of both algae were promoted in all the treatments. Chlorophyll a synthesis of the two algae exhibited similar inhibitory trend in short-term treatments, and in chronic tests C. pyrenoidosa hardly resulted in visible influence, whereas in contrast, dose-dependent inhibitory effects of S. obliquus could be clearly observed. The experimental results indicated that the growth and Chlorophyll a syntheses of S.obliquus were more sensitive in response to BPA than that of C. pyrenoidosa, whereas for SOD andCAT activities, C. pyrenoidosa was more susceptible. This research provides a basic understanding of BPA toxicity to aquatic organisms. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Chronic toxicity of chloroform to Japanese medaka fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toussaint, M W; Rosencrance, A B; Brennan, L M; Beaman, J R; Wolfe, M J; Hoffmann, F J; Gardner, H S

    2001-01-01

    Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) were continually exposed in a flow-through diluter system for 9 months to measured chloroform concentrations of 0.017, 0.151, or 1.463 mg/L. Parameters evaluated were hepatocarcinogenicity, hepatocellular proliferation, hematology, and intrahepatic chloroform concentration. Histopathology was evaluated at 6 and 9 months. Chloroform was not hepatocarcinogenic to the medaka at the concentrations tested. Chronic toxicity was evidenced at these time points by statistically significant ([alpha] = 0.05) levels of gallbladder lesions and bile duct abnormalities in medaka treated with 1.463 mg/L chloroform. We assessed hepatocellular proliferation by exposing test fish to 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine in the aquarium water for 72 hr after 4 and 20 days of chloroform exposure; we then quantified area-labeling indices of the livers using computer-assisted image analysis. We observed no treatment-related increases in cellular proliferation. We analyzed cells in circulating blood in medaka after 6 months of chloroform exposure. Hematocrit, leukocrit, cell viability, and cell counts of treated fish were not significantly different from those of control fish. Using gas chromatography (GC), we evaluated intrahepatic concentrations of chloroform in fish after 9 months of exposure. Livers from the 0.151 and 1.463 mg/L chloroform-treated fish had detectable amounts of chloroform, but these levels were always lower than the aquaria concentrations of chloroform. Thus, it appeared that chloroform did not bioaccumulate in the liver. Unidentified presumptive metabolite peaks were found in the GC tracings of these fish livers. PMID:11171522

  6. Suboptimal performance on neuropsychological tests in patients with suspected chronic toxic encephalopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hout, MSE; Schmand, B; Wekking, EM; Hageman, G; Deelman, BG

    Suboptimal performance during neuropsychological testing can seriously complicate assessment in behavioral neurotoxicology. We present data on the prevalence of suboptimal performance in a group of Dutch patients with suspected chronic toxic encephalopathy (CTE) after long-term occupational exposure

  7. Suboptimal performance on neuropsychological tests in patients with suspected chronic toxic encephalopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hout, Moniek S. E.; Schmand, Ben; Wekking, Ellie M.; Hageman, Gerard; Deelman, Betto G.

    2003-01-01

    Suboptimal performance during neuropsychological testing can seriously complicate assessment in behavioral neurotoxicology. We present data on the prevalence of suboptimal performance in a group of Dutch patients with suspected chronic toxic encephalopathy (CTE) after long-term occupational exposure

  8. The Association between Toxic Exposures and Chronic Multisymptom Illness in Veterans of the Wars of Iraq and Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBeer, Bryann B.; Davidson, Dena; Meyer, Eric C.; Kimbrel, Nathan A.; Gulliver, Suzy B.; Morissette, Sandra B.

    2017-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to determine if post-9/11 veterans deployed to the Iraq and Afghanistan conflicts experienced toxic exposures and whether they are related to symptoms of Chronic Multisymptom Illness (CMI). Methods Data from 224 post-9/11 veterans who self-reported exposure to hazards in theater were analyzed using hierarchical regression. Results Of the sample, 97.2% endorsed experiencing one or more potentially toxic exposure. In a regression model, toxic exposures and CMI symptoms were significantly associated above and beyond covariates. Follow-up analyses revealed that pesticide exposures, but not smoke inhalation was associated with CMI symptoms. Conclusions These findings suggest that toxic exposures were common among military personnel deployed to the most recent conflicts, and appear to be associated with CMI symptoms. Additional research on the impact of toxic exposures on returning Iraq and Afghanistan Veterans’ health is needed. PMID:28045798

  9. Comparative chronic toxicity of imidacloprid, clothianidin, and thiamethoxam to Chironomus dilutus and estimation of toxic equivalency factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallaro, Michael C; Morrissey, Christy A; Headley, John V; Peru, Kerry M; Liber, Karsten

    2017-02-01

    Nontarget aquatic insects are susceptible to chronic neonicotinoid insecticide exposure during the early stages of development from repeated runoff events and prolonged persistence of these chemicals. Investigations on the chronic toxicity of neonicotinoids to aquatic invertebrates have been limited to a few species and under different laboratory conditions that often preclude direct comparisons of the relative toxicity of different compounds. In the present study, full life-cycle toxicity tests using Chironomus dilutus were performed to compare the toxicity of 3 commonly used neonicotinoids: imidacloprid, clothianidin, and thiamethoxam. Test conditions followed a static-renewal exposure protocol in which lethal and sublethal endpoints were assessed on days 14 and 40. Reduced emergence success, advanced emergence timing, and male-biased sex ratios were sensitive responses to low-level neonicotinoid exposure. The 14-d median lethal concentrations for imidacloprid, clothianidin, and thiamethoxam were 1.52 μg/L, 2.41 μg/L, and 23.60 μg/L, respectively. The 40-d median effect concentrations (emergence) for imidacloprid, clothianidin, and thiamethoxam were 0.39 μg/L, 0.28 μg/L, and 4.13 μg/L, respectively. Toxic equivalence relative to imidacloprid was estimated through a 3-point response average of equivalencies calculated at 20%, 50%, and 90% lethal and effect concentrations. Relative to imidacloprid (toxic equivalency factor [TEF] = 1.0), chronic (lethality) 14-d TEFs for clothianidin and thiamethoxam were 1.05 and 0.14, respectively, and chronic (emergence inhibition) 40-d TEFs were 1.62 and 0.11, respectively. These population-relevant endpoints and TEFs suggest that imidacloprid and clothianidin exert comparable chronic toxicity to C. dilutus, whereas thiamethoxam induced comparable effects only at concentrations an order of magnitude higher. However, the authors caution that under field conditions, thiamethoxam readily degrades to

  10. Toxicity test procedures for Hyalella azteca, and chronic toxicity of cadmium and pentachlorophenol to H. azteca, Gammarus fasciatus, and Daphnia magna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgmann, U; Ralph, K M; Norwood, W P

    1989-09-01

    Survival, growth, and reproduction of Hyalella azteca were determined under various test conditions. Reproduction by a cohort begins when the amphipods are 5 to 6 weeks old, peaks at 8 to 12 weeks, and then declines due to continuing adult mortality. Full life-cycle tests can be completed in 12 to 14 weeks at 25 degrees C. Reproduction is poor when only artificial plastic substrate is provided. A substrate of cotton gauze results in dramatic improvements in both reproduction and growth. Better reproduction can be obtained by culturing the amphipods in some sediments, but this makes weekly enumeration difficult. Increased mortality during chronic exposure to cadmium was observed at 1 microgram/L for H. azteca and 3.2 micrograms/L for Gammarus fasciatus. Reproduction during longer exposure was not reduced at concentrations lower than those causing increased mortality within six weeks. Chronic toxicity of pentachlorophenol was observed at 100 micrograms/L for both species. Chronic toxicity to Daphnia magna was similar to that of the amphipods for cadmium, but lower for pentachlorophenol. Amphipods are at least as sensitive as Daphnia to a variety of toxicants during chronic exposure.

  11. Comparative evaluation of acute and chronic toxicities of CuO nanoparticles and bulk using Daphnia magna and Vibrio fischeri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossetto, Ana Letícia de O F; Melegari, Silvia Pedroso; Ouriques, Luciane Cristina; Matias, William Gerson

    2014-08-15

    Copper oxide (CuO) has various applications, as highlighted by the incorporation of this compound as a biocide of antifouling paints for coating ships and offshore oil platforms. The objective of this study was to evaluate and compare the aquatic toxicity of CuO nanoparticles (NPs) and microparticles (MPs) through acute and chronic toxicity tests with the freshwater microcrustacean Daphnia magna and an acute toxicity test with the bioluminescent marine bacteria Vibrio fischeri. Acute toxicity results for D. magna in tests with CuO NPs (EC50, 48 h=22 mg L(-1)) were ten times higher than those for tests with CuO MPs (EC50, 48 h=223.6 mg L(-1)). In both periods of exposure of V. fischeri, the CuO NPs (EC50, 15m 248±56.39 - equivalent to 12.40%; EC50, 30 m 257.6±30.8 mg L(-1) - equivalent to 12.88%) were more toxic than the CuO MPs (EC50, 15m 2404.6±277.4 - equivalent to 60.10%; EC50, 30 m 1472.9±244.7 mg L(-1) - equivalent to 36.82%). In chronic toxicity tests, both forms of CuO showed significant effects (p<0.05) on the growth and reproduction parameters of the D. magna relative to the control. Additionally, morphological changes, such as lack of apical spine development and malformed carapaces in D. magna, were observed for organisms after the chronic test. The toxicity results demonstrate that CuO NPs have a higher level of toxicity than CuO MPs, emphasizing the need for comparative toxicological studies to correctly classify these two forms of CuO with identical CAS registration numbers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Development of protocols for chronic toxicity testing of Pacific marine species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langdon, C.J.; Seim, W.K.; Hoffman, R.L.; Weber, L.

    1990-03-01

    The development of a year-round capability for conducting short-term toxicity tests for estimating chronic-effect levels of toxic materials with a native Pacific coast fish and a native Pacific coast mysid shrimp was the goal of the project. In order to achieve acceptable sensitivity as a surrogate for chronic toxicity tests, targeting the reproductive portion of the mysid life cycle and all or part of the embryonic, larval, or early post-larval portion of the fish life cycle was deemed necessary. This targeting is consistent with conclusions based upon earlier work in developing similar tests with Atlantic coast, Gulf coast, and freshwater fish and invertebrates.

  13. The chronic toxicity of sodium bicarbonate, a major component of coal bed natural gas produced waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farag, Aïda M.; Harper, David D.

    2014-01-01

    Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) is the principal salt in coal bed natural gas produced water from the Powder River Structural Basin, Wyoming, USA, and concentrations of up to 3000 mg NaHCO3/L have been documented at some locations. No adequate studies have been performed to assess the chronic effects of NaHCO3 exposure. The present study was initiated to investigate the chronic toxicity and define sublethal effects at the individual organism level to explain the mechanisms of NaHCO3 toxicity. Three chronic experiments were completed with fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas), 1 with white suckers (Catostomus commersoni), 1 with Ceriodaphnia dubia, and 1 with a freshwater mussel, (Lampsilis siliquoidea). The data demonstrated that approximately 500 mg NaHCO3/L to 1000 mg NaHCO3/L affected all species of experimental aquatic animals in chronic exposure conditions. Freshwater mussels were the least sensitive to NaHCO3 exposure, with a 10-d inhibition concentration that affects 20% of the sample population (IC20) of 952 mg NaHCO3/L. The IC20 for C. dubia was the smallest, at 359 mg NaHCO3/L. A significant decrease in sodium–potassium adenosine triphosphatase (Na+/K+ ATPase) together with the lack of growth effects suggests that Na+/K+ ATPase activity was shut down before the onset of death. Several histological anomalies, including increased incidence of necrotic cells, suggested that fish were adversely affected as a result of exposure to >450 mg NaHCO3/L.

  14. Saltstone 3QCY15 TCLP Toxicity and UTS Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-12-09

    A Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF) waste form was prepared in the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) from a Tank 50H sample and Z-Area premix material for the third quarter of calendar year 2015 (3QCY15). After a 28 day cure, a sample of the SDF waste form was collected, and shipped to a certified laboratory for Toxic Characteristic and Universal Treatment Standards (UTS) analysis. The metals analysis is performed using the Toxic Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP).1 The 3QCY15 saltstone sample results meet South Carolina Hazardous Waste Management Regulations (SCHWMR) R.61-79.261.24 and R.61-79.268.48(a) requirements for a nonhazardous waste form with respect to RCRA metals and underlying hazardous constituents (UHC).

  15. Saltstone 2QCY15 TCLP toxicity and UTS results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, D. H. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-07-31

    A Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF) waste form was prepared in the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) from a Tank 50H sample and Z-Area premix material for the second quarter of calendar year 2015 (2QCY15). After a 28 day cure, a sample of the SDF waste form was collected, and shipped to a certified laboratory for Toxic Characteristic and Universal Treatment Standards (UTS) analysis. The metals analysis is performed using the Toxic Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP)¹. The 2QCY15 saltstone sample results meet South Carolina Hazardous Waste Management Regulations (SCHWMR) R.61-79.261.24 and R.61-79.268.48(a) requirements for a nonhazardous waste form with respect to RCRA metals and underlying hazardous constituents (UHC).

  16. Saltone 2QCY15 TCLP toxicity and UTS results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, D. H. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-08-01

    A Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF) waste form was prepared in the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) from a Tank 50H sample and Z-Area premix material for the second quarter of calendar year 2015 (2QCY15). After a 28 day cure, a sample of the SDF waste form was collected, and shipped to a certified laboratory for Toxic Characteristic and Universal Treatment Standards (UTS) analysis. The metals analysis is performed using the Toxic Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP)1. The 2QCY15 saltstone sample results meet South Carolina Hazardous Waste Management Regulations (SCHWMR) R.61-79.261.24 and R.61-79.268.48(a) requirements for a nonhazardous waste form with respect to RCRA metals and underlying hazardous constituents (UHC).

  17. Saltstone 4QCY14 TCLP Toxicity and UTS Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-03-25

    A Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF) waste form was prepared in the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) from a Tank 50H sample and Z-Area premix material for the fourth quarter of calendar year 2014 (4QCY14). After a 47 day cure, a sample of the SDF waste form was collected, and shipped to a certified laboratory for Toxic Characteristic and Universal Treatment Standards (UTS) analysis. The metals analysis is performed using the Toxic Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) . The 4QCY14 saltstone sample results show that the saltstone is Resource Conservation Recovery Act (RCRA) nonhazardous, but is greater than the universal treatment standard for land disposal. The Saltstone Production Facility (SPF) and SDF were in a maintenance outage during the 4QCY14. Thus no processing or disposal of saltstone, as characterized by this 4QCY14 sample, occurred.

  18. Saltstone 1QCY15 TCLP Toxicity and UTS Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States)

    2015-07-29

    A Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF) waste form was prepared in the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) from a Tank 50H sample and Z-Area premix material for the first quarter of calendar year 2015 (1QCY15). After a 28 day cure, a sample of the SDF waste form was collected, and shipped to a certified laboratory for Toxic Characteristic and Universal Treatment Standards (UTS) analysis. The metals analysis is performed using the Toxic Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP). The 1QCY15 saltstone sample results meet South Carolina Hazardous Waste Management Regulations (SCHWMR) R.61-79.261.24 and R.61-79.268.48(a) requirements for a nonhazardous waste form with respect to RCRA metals and underlying hazardous constituents (UHC).

  19. Saltstone 4QCY14 TCLP Toxicity and UTS Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, D. H. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-03-25

    A Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF) waste form was prepared in the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) from a Tank 50H sample and Z-Area premix material for the fourth quarter of calendar year 2014 (4QCY14). After a 47 day cure, a sample of the SDF waste form was collected, and shipped to a certified laboratory for Toxic Characteristic and Universal Treatment Standards (UTS) analysis. The metals analysis is performed using the Toxic Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) 1 . The 4QCY14 saltstone sample results show that the saltstone is Resource Conservation Recovery Act (RCRA) nonhazardous, but is greater than the universal treatment standard for land disposal. The Saltstone Production Facility (SPF) and SDF were in a maintenance outage during the 4QCY14. Thus no processing or disposal of saltstone, as characterized by this 4QCY14 sample, occurred.

  20. Acute and chronic toxicity of pawpaw (Carica papaya) seed powder ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-07-04

    Jul 4, 2008 ... Toxic reaction exhibited by the fish includes erratic movement, air gulping, loss of ... adversely affect the fertility of human males or other male mammals. ... surrounding environment of the fish and this may be deleterious.

  1. Chronic toxicity and body residues of the nonpolar narcotic 1,2,3,4-tetrachrlorobenzene in Chironomus riparius

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leslie, H.A.; Kraak, M.H.S.; Hermens, J.L.

    2004-01-01

    The use of internal concentrations as a dose parameter for baseline toxicity requires an understanding of the relationship between accumulation level and toxic effects, not only for acute but also for chronic exposure. In this study of chronic toxicity of the nonpolar narcotic

  2. Acute and chronic toxicity of neonicotinoids to nymphs of a mayfly species and some notes on seasonal differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van den Brink, Paul J; Van Smeden, Jasper M; Bekele, Robel S; Dierick, Wiebe; De Gelder, Daphne M; Noteboom, Maarten; Roessink, Ivo

    2016-01-01

    Mayfly nymphs are among the most sensitive taxa to neonicotinoids. The present study presents the acute and chronic toxicity of 3 neonicotinoids (imidacloprid, thiacloprid, and thiamethoxam) to a mayfly species (Cloeon dipterum) and some notes on the seasonality of the toxicity of imidacloprid to C. dipterum and 5 other invertebrate species. Imidacloprid and thiamethoxam showed equal acute and chronic toxicity to a winter generation of C. dipterum, whereas thiacloprid was approximately twice as toxic. The acute and chronic toxicity of imidacloprid was much higher for the C. dipterum summer generation than for the winter one. The acute toxicity differs by a factor of 20 for the 96-h 50% effective concentration (EC50) and by a factor of 5.4 for the chronic 28-d EC50. Temperature had only a slight effect on the sensitivity of C. dipterum to imidacloprid because we only found a factor of 1.7 difference in the 96-h EC50 between tests performed at 10 °C and 18 °C. The difference in sensitivity between summer and overwintering generations was also found for 3 other insect species. The results indicate that if the use and environmental fate of the 3 neonicotinoids are comparable, replacing imidacloprid by another neonicotinoid might not reduce the environmental impact on the mayfly nymph C. dipterum. The results also show the importance of reporting which generation is tested because sensitivity values of insects in the summer might be underestimated by the experiments performed with neonicotinoids and an overwintering population. © 2015 SETAC.

  3. Acute, chronic and reproductive toxicity of complex cyanobacterial blooms in Daphnia magna and the role of microcystins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smutná, Marie; Babica, Pavel; Jarque, Sergio; Hilscherová, Klára; Maršálek, Blahoslav; Haeba, Maher; Bláha, Ludek

    2014-03-01

    Toxic cyanobacterial blooms are a global threat to human health and aquatic biota. While the ecotoxicity of cyanobacterial toxins such as microcystins has been studied extensively, little is known about the risks they pose in the wild, i.e. within complex biomasses. In this work, crustaceans (Daphnia magna) were exposed to varying concentrations (0-405 mg d.w L(-1)) of eight complex cyanobacterial water bloom samples in a series of acute (48 h) and chronic (21 day) toxicity experiments. Further acute and chronic exposure assays were performed using aqueous extracts of the crude biomass samples and two fractions prepared by solid phase extraction (SPE) of the aqueous extracts. The cyanobacterial biomasses differed with respect to their dominant cyanobacterial species and microcystin contents. High acute toxicity was observed for 6 of the 8 crude biomass samples. Chronic exposure assays were performed using one complex biomass sample and its various subsamples/fractions. The complex biomass, the crude aqueous extract, and the microcystin-free SPE permeate all elicited similar and significant lethal effects, with LC50 values of around 35.6 mg biomass d.w L(-1) after 21 days. The cyanobacterial biomass samples also affected reproductive health, significantly increasing the time to the first brood (LOEC = 45 mg d.w L(-1) exposure) and inhibiting fecundity by 50% at 15 mg d.w L(-1). Conversely, the microcystin-containing C18-SPE eluate fraction had only weak effects in the chronic assay. These results indicate that cyanobacterial water blooms are highly toxic to zooplankton (both acutely and chronically) at environmentally relevant concentrations. However, the effects observed in the acute and chronic assays were independent of the samples' microcystin contents. Our results thus point out the importance of other cyanobacterial components such as lipopolysaccharides, various peptides and depsipeptides, polar alkaloid metabolites or other unidentified metabolites in the

  4. Effect of diet quality on chronic toxicity of aqueous lead to the amphipod Hyalella azteca

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besser, John M.; Ivey, Chris D.; Brumbaugh, William G.; Ingersoll, Christopher G.

    2016-01-01

    The authors investigated the chronic toxicity of aqueous Pb to the amphipod Hyalella azteca (Hyalella) in 42-d tests using 2 different diets: 1) the yeastþcereal leafþtrout pellet (YCT) diet, fed at the uniform low ration used in standard methods for sediment toxicity tests; and 2) a new diet of diatomsþTetraMin flakes (DT), fed at increasing rations over time, that has been optimized for use in Hyalella water-only tests. Test endpoints included survival, weight, biomass, fecundity, and total young. Lethal effects of Pb were similar for the DT and YCT tests (20% lethal concentration [LC20]¼13 mg/L and 15mg/L, respectively, as filterable Pb). In contrast, weight and fecundity endpoints were not significantly affected in the DT test at Pb concentrations up to 63 mg/L, but these endpoints were significantly reduced by Pb in the YCT test—and in a 2005 test in the same laboratory with a diet of conditioned Rabbit Chow (RC-2005). The fecundity and total young endpoints from the YCT and RC-2005 tests were considered unreliable because fecundity in controls did not meet test acceptability criteria, but both of these tests still produced lower Pb effect concentrations (for weight or biomass) than the test with the DT diet. The lowest biotic ligand model–normalized effect concentrations for the 3 tests ranged from 3.7mg/L (weight 20% effect concentration [EC20] for the RC-2005 test) to 8.2 mg/L (total young EC20 for the DT test), values that would rank Hyalella as the second or third most sensitive of 13 genera in a species sensitivity distribution for chronic Pb toxicity. These results demonstrate that toxicity tests with Hyalella fed optimal diets can meet more stringent test acceptability criteria for control performance, but suggest that results of these tests may underestimate sublethal toxic effects of Pb to Hyalella under suboptimal feeding regimes.

  5. Effect of diet quality on chronic toxicity of aqueous lead to the amphipod Hyalella azteca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besser, John M; Ivey, Chris D; Brumbaugh, William G; Ingersoll, Christopher G

    2016-07-01

    The authors investigated the chronic toxicity of aqueous Pb to the amphipod Hyalella azteca (Hyalella) in 42-d tests using 2 different diets: 1) the yeast + cereal leaf + trout pellet (YCT) diet, fed at the uniform low ration used in standard methods for sediment toxicity tests; and 2) a new diet of diatoms + TetraMin flakes (DT), fed at increasing rations over time, that has been optimized for use in Hyalella water-only tests. Test endpoints included survival, weight, biomass, fecundity, and total young. Lethal effects of Pb were similar for the DT and YCT tests (20% lethal concentration [LC20] = 13 μg/L and 15 μg/L, respectively, as filterable Pb). In contrast, weight and fecundity endpoints were not significantly affected in the DT test at Pb concentrations up to 63 µg/L, but these endpoints were significantly reduced by Pb in the YCT test-and in a 2005 test in the same laboratory with a diet of conditioned Rabbit Chow (RC-2005). The fecundity and total young endpoints from the YCT and RC-2005 tests were considered unreliable because fecundity in controls did not meet test acceptability criteria, but both of these tests still produced lower Pb effect concentrations (for weight or biomass) than the test with the DT diet. The lowest biotic ligand model-normalized effect concentrations for the 3 tests ranged from 3.7 μg/L (weight 20% effect concentration [EC20] for the RC-2005 test) to 8.2 μg/L (total young EC20 for the DT test), values that would rank Hyalella as the second or third most sensitive of 13 genera in a species sensitivity distribution for chronic Pb toxicity. These results demonstrate that toxicity tests with Hyalella fed optimal diets can meet more stringent test acceptability criteria for control performance, but suggest that results of these tests may underestimate sublethal toxic effects of Pb to Hyalella under suboptimal feeding regimes. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:1825-1834. Published 2015 Wiley Periodicals Inc

  6. Lithium Toxicity and Neurologic Effects: Probable Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome Resulting from Lithium Toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osamede Edokpolo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. We present the case of a patient who developed lithium toxicity with normal therapeutic levels, as a result of pharmacokinetic interaction with Valsartan, and probable Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome from the ensuing lithium toxicity. Case Presentation. A 59-year old black male with bipolar disorder maintained on lithium and fluphenazine therapy presented with a 2 week history of worsening confusion, tremor, and gait abnormality. He recently had his dose of Valsartan increased. At presentation, patient had signs of autonomic instability, he was confused, dehydrated, and had rigidity of upper extremities. Significant labs on admission were lithium level-1.2, elevated CK-6008, leukocytosis WBC-22, and renal impairment; Creatinine-4.1, BUN-35, HCO3-20.1, and blood glucose 145. CT/MRI brain showed old cerebral infarcts, and there was no evidence of an infective process. Lithium and fluphenazine were discontinued, his lithium levels gradually decreased, and he improved with supportive treatment including rehydration and correction of electrolyte imbalance. Conclusions. This case illustrates that lithium toxicity can occur within therapeutic levels, and the neurotoxic effect of lithium can include Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome. Clinicians should be aware of the risk associated with drug interactions with lithium.

  7. Chronic toxicity of unresolved complex mixtures (UCM) of hydrocarbons in marine sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scarlett, A.; Galloway, T.S. [Plymouth Univ., Drake Circus (United Kingdom). School of Biological Sciences; Rowland, S.J. [Plymouth Univ., Drake Circus (United Kingdom). School of Earth, Ocean and Environmental Sciences

    2007-08-15

    Background, Aim and Scope: Unresolved complex mixtures (UCM) of hydrocarbons, containing many thousands of compounds which cannot be resolved by conventional gas chromatography (GC), are common contaminants of sediments but little is known of their potential to affect sediment-dwelling organisms. Evidence exists for reduced health status in mussels, arising from aqueous exposure to aromatic UCM components acting through a narcotic mode of action. However, UCM contaminants in sediments may not be sufficiently bioavailable to elicit toxic effects. The aim of our study was therefore to measure the sublethal effects of chronic exposure to model UCM-dominated oils at environmentally realistic concentrations and compare this to effects produced by a UCM containing weathered crude oil. A further aim was to determine which, if any, fractions of the oils were responsible for any observed toxicity. Materials and Methods: Whole oils were spiked into estuarine sediment to give nominal concentrations of 500 {mu}g g-1 dry weight. Juveniles of the estuarine amphipod Corophium volutator were exposed to the contaminated sediment for 35 days and their survival, growth rate and reproductive success quantified. Using an effect-directed fractionation approach, the oils were fractionated into aliphatic and two aromatic fractions by open column chromatography and their toxicity assessed by further chronic exposures using juvenile C. volutator. Results: The growth rates of amphipods were reduced following exposure to the oils although this was only statistically significant for the weathered oil; reproductive success was reduced by all oil exposures. Sediment spiked with UCM fractions also caused reduced growth and reproduction but no particular fraction was found to be responsible for the observed toxicity. Survivorship was not affected by any oil or fraction. Discussion: The study showed that chronic exposure to sediments contaminated by UCM-dominated oils could have population level

  8. Multi-level assessment of chronic toxicity of estuarine sediments with the amphipod Gammarus locusta: I. Biochemical endpoints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuparth, Teresa; Correia, Ana D; Costa, Filipe O; Lima, Gláucia; Costa, Maria Helena

    2005-07-01

    We report on biomarker responses conducted as part of a multi-level assessment of the chronic toxicity of estuarine sediments to the amphipod Gammarus locusta. A companion article accounts for organism and population-level effects. Five moderately contaminated sediments from two Portuguese estuaries, Sado and Tagus, were assessed. Three of them were muddy and two were sandy sediments. The objective was to assess sediments that were not acutely toxic. Three of the sediments met this criterion, the other two were diluted (50% and 75%) with clean sediment until acute toxicity was absent. Following 28-d exposures, the amphipods were analysed for whole-body metal bioaccumulation, metallothionein induction (MT), DNA strand breakage (SB) and lipid peroxidation (LP). Two of the muddy sediments did not cause chronic toxicity. These findings were consistent with responses at organism and population levels that showed higher growth rates and improvement of reproductive traits for amphipods exposed to these two sediments. Two other sediments, one muddy and one sandy, exhibited pronounced chronic toxicity, affecting SB, MT induction (in muddy sediment), survival and reproduction. Potential toxicants involved in these effects were identified. The last sandy sediment exhibited some loss of DNA integrity, however growth was also enhanced. Present results, together with the organism/population-level data, and also benthic communities information, were analysed under a weight-of-evidence approach. By providing evidence of exposure (or lack of it) to contaminants in sediments, the biomarkers here applied assisted in distinguishing toxicants' impacts in test organisms from the confounding influence of other geochemical features of the sediments.

  9. Chronic toxicity of azoxystrobin to freshwater amphipods, midges, cladocerans, and mussels in water-only exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunz, James L.; Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Smalling, Kelly; Elskus, Adria; Kuivila, Kathryn

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the effects of fungicides on nontarget organisms at realistic concentrations and exposure durations is vital for determining potential impacts on aquatic ecosystems. Environmental concentrations of the fungicide azoxystrobin have been reported up to 4.6 μg/L in the United States and 30 μg/L in Europe. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the chronic toxicity of azoxystrobin in water-only exposures with an amphipod (Hyalella azteca; 42-d exposure), a midge (Chironomus dilutus; 50-d exposure), a cladoceran (Ceriodaphnia dubia; 7-d exposure), and a unionid mussel (Lampsilis siliquoidea; 28-d exposure) at environmentally relevant concentrations. The potential photo-enhanced toxicity of azoxystrobin accumulated by C. dubiaand L. siliquoidea following chronic exposures to azoxystrobin was also evaluated. The 20% effect concentrations (EC20s) based on the most sensitive endpoint were 4.2 μg/L for H. aztecareproduction, 12 μg/L for C. dubia reproduction and C. dilutus emergence, and >28 μg/L for L. siliquoidea. Hyalella azteca was more sensitive to azoxystrobin compared with the other 3 species in the chronic exposures. No photo-enhanced toxicity was observed for either C. dubia or L. siliquoidea exposed to ultraviolet light in control water following azoxystrobin tests. The results of the present study indicate chronic effects of azoxystrobin on 3 of 4 invertebrates tested at environmentally relevant concentrations. The changes noted in biomass and reproduction have the potential to alter the rate of ecological processes driven by aquatic invertebrates. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;9999:1–8. Published 2017 Wiley Periodicals Inc. on behalf of SETAC. This article is a US government work and, as such, is in the public domain in the United States of America.

  10. Chronic toxicity and carcinogenicity study of erythritol in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lina, B.A.R.; Bos-Kuijpers, M.H.M.; Til, H.P.; Bär, A.

    1996-01-01

    The potential toxicity and carcinogenicity of erythritol, a low-calorie sugar substitute, were examined in Wistar Crl:(WI) WU BR rats. Groups of 50 rats of each sex consumed diets with 0, 2, 5, or 10% erythritol, or 10% mannitol, for a period of 104-107 weeks. To each of these main groups, two

  11. Acute and chronic toxicity of pawpaw ( Carica papaya ) seed powder ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This experiment determined the toxicity of pawpaw seed powder to adult tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, the most cultivable fish species in Africa. The 96 h static bioassay experiment was conducted to determine the median lethal concentration (LC50) for adult Nile tilapia, to pawpaw seed, Carica papaya. Two hundred live ...

  12. ENANTIOSELECTIVE CHRONIC TOXICITY OF FIPRONIL TO CERIODAPHNIA DUBIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fipronil is a phenylpyrazole pesticide that has greatly increased in popularity in recent years. As a chiral molecule, fipronil is released into the environment as a 1:1 mixture (called a racemate) of its two enantiomers. Previous toxicity work has indicated that the enantiomer...

  13. Chronic toxicity of arsenic, cobalt, chromium and manganese to Hyalella azteca in relation to exposure and bioaccumulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norwood, W.P. [Department of Biology, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON N2L 3G1 (Canada) and Aquatic Ecosystems Protection Research Division, Environment Canada, P.O. Box 5050, Burlington, ON L7R 4A6 (Canada)]. E-mail: warren.norwood@ec.gc.ca; Borgmann, U. [Aquatic Ecosystems Protection Research Division, Environment Canada, P.O. Box 5050, Burlington, ON L7R 4A6 (Canada); Dixon, D.G. [Department of Biology, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON N2L 3G1 (Canada)

    2007-05-15

    Chronic toxicity of As, Co, Cr and Mn to Hyalella azteca can be described using a saturation-based mortality model relative to total-body or water metal concentration. LBC25s (total-body metal concentrations resulting in 25% mortality in 4 weeks) were 125, 103, 152 and 57,900 nmol g{sup -1} dry weight for As, Co, Cr and Mn respectively. LC50s (metal concentrations in water resulting in 25% mortality in 4 weeks) were 5600, 183, 731, and 197,000 nmol L{sup -1}, respectively. A hormesis growth response to As exposure was observed. Growth was a more variable endpoint than mortality for all four toxicants; however, confidence limits based on growth and mortality all overlapped, except Cr which had no effect on growth. Mn toxicity was greater in glass test containers compared to plastic. Bioaccumulation of As, Co, Cr, and Mn was strongly correlated with, and is useful for predicting, chronic mortality. - Chronic toxicity of As, Co, Cr and Mn to Hyalella azteca can be described using a saturation-based mortality model in relationship to total-body or water metal concentration.

  14. Acute and chronic toxic effects of chloramphenicol on Scenedesmus obliquus and Chlorella pyrenoidosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Sun, Wenfang; An, Shuai; Xiong, Bang; Lin, Kuangfei; Cui, Xinhong; Guo, Meijin

    2013-08-01

    The acute and chronic toxicological effects of Chloramphenicol (CAP) on Scenedesmus obliquus and Chlorella pyrenoidosa are not well understood. The indoor experiments were carried to observe and analyze the CAP induced changes. Results of the observations have showed that CAP exposure could significantly inhibit the growth of Scenedesmus obliquus in almost all the treated groups, while Chlorella pyrenoidosa exhibited less sensitivity. Chlorophyll-a syntheses of Scenedesmus obliquus were all inhibited by CAP exposure, while Chlorella pyrenoidosa displayed obvious stimulation effect. Catalase (CAT) and Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities of both algae were promoted in all the treatments. The experimental results indicated that the growth and Chlorophyll-a syntheses of Scenedesmus obliquus were more sensitive in response to CAP exposure than that of Chlorella pyrenoidosa. While for CAT and SOD activities, Chlorella pyrenoidosa showed more susceptible. This research provides a basic understanding of CAP toxicity to aquatic organisms.

  15. Acute and chronic toxicity of uranium compounds to Ceriodaphnia-Daphnia dubia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pickett, J.B.; Specht, W.L.; Keyes, J.L.

    1993-03-31

    A study to determine the acute and chronic toxicity of uranyl nitrate, hydrogen uranyl phosphate, and uranium dioxide to the organism Ceriodaphnia dubia was conducted. The toxicity tests were conducted by two independent environmental consulting laboratories. Part of the emphasis for this determination was based on concerns expressed by SCDHEC, which was concerned that a safety factor of 100 must be applied to the previous 1986 acute toxicity result of 0.22 mg/L for Daphnia pulex, This would have resulted in the LETF release limits being based on an instream concentration of 0.0022 mg/L uranium. The NPDES Permit renewal application to SCDHEC utilized the results of this study and recommended that the LETF release limit for uranium be based an instream concentration of 0.004 mg/L uranium. This is based on the fact that the uranium releases from the M-Area LETF will be in the hydrogen uranyl phosphate form, or a uranyl phosphate complex at the pH (6--10) of the Liquid Effluent Treatment Facility effluent stream, and at the pH of the receiving stream (5.5 to 7.0). Based on the chronic toxicity of hydrogen uranyl phosphate, a lower uranium concentration limit for the Liquid Effluent Treatment Facility outfall vs. the existing NPDES permit was recommended: The current NPDES permit ``Guideline`` for uranium at outfall M-004 is 0.500 mg/L average and 1.0 mg/L maximum, at a design flowrate of 60 gpm. It was recommended that the uranium concentration at the M-004 outfall be reduced to 0.28 mg/L average, and 0.56 mg/L, maximum, and to reduce the design flowrate to 30 gpm. The 0.28 mg/L concentration will provide an instream concentration of 0.004 mg/L uranium. The 0.28 mg/L concentration at M-004 is based on the combined flows from A-014, A-015, and A-011 outfalls (since 1985) of 1840 gpm (2.65 MGD) and was the flow rate which was utilized in the 1988 NPDES permit renewal application.

  16. Sub-Chronic Toxicity study of Aqueous extract of Clerodendrum Phlomidis Leaves

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta Reena; Duggal Sanjiv; Kapoor Bhupinder

    2012-01-01

    Clerodendrum phlomidis Linn. has been traditionally used for treatment of gynecological disturbances and for agricultural uses. It has been used in many Ayurvedic polyherbal formulations as an immunomodulatory agent. Irrespective of its widespread use, no data on subchronic toxicity has been described. The present study was designed to access sub-chronic toxicity of aqueous extract of Clerodendrum phlomidis leaves. Aqueous extract of Clerodendrum phlomidis leaves was given orally at doses of ...

  17. Method for assessing the chronic toxicity of marine and estuarine sediment-associated contaminants using the amphipod Corophium volutator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarlett, A; Rowland, S J; Canty, M; Smith, E L; Galloway, T S

    2007-06-01

    Acute sediment toxicity tests do not test key life stage events such as moulting and reproduction and therefore do not reveal the longer-term effects of contaminant exposure. A laboratory method is described for determining the chronic toxicity of contaminants associated with whole sediments. The test is conducted using neonates of the estuarine amphipod Corophium volutator at 15 degrees C, salinity 25 psu and a 12 h light:12 h dark photoperiod. The endpoints are survival and growth after 28 days and survival, growth and reproduction of amphipods upon termination of test i.e. reproduction within all control vessels (ca 75 days). The sediment chronic toxicity test was used to investigate the effects of sediments spiked with environmentally relevant preparations of slightly weathered Alaskan North Slope crude oil, including a water-accommodated-fraction (WAF) and a chemically-dispersed (Corexit 9527) WAF. Sediment oil concentrations were quantified using ultra-violet fluorescence. The amphipods exposed to chemically dispersed oil had higher mortality and lower growth rates than control-, Corexit 9527- and WAF-exposed organisms, resulting in reduced reproduction. The described method supplements the standard acute sediment test and would be particularly useful when long-term ecological effects are suspected but acute tests reveal no significant mortality. The sediment chronic test reported herein has shown that sediment that was not evidently toxic during 10-day acute tests could have population-level effects on sediment-dwelling amphipods.

  18. Acute and Chronic Toxicity of Soluble Fractions of Industrial Solid Wastes on Daphnia magna and Vibrio fischeri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia Flohr

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Industrial wastes may produce leachates that can contaminate the aquatic ecosystem. Toxicity testing in acute and chronic levels is essential to assess environmental risks from the soluble fractions of these wastes, since only chemical analysis may not be adequate to classify the hazard of an industrial waste. In this study, ten samples of solid wastes from textile, metal-mechanic, and pulp and paper industries were analyzed by acute and chronic toxicity tests with Daphnia magna and Vibrio fischeri. A metal-mechanic waste (sample MM3 induced the highest toxicity level to Daphnia magna(CE50,48 h=2.21%. A textile waste induced the highest toxicity level to Vibrio fischeri (sample TX2, CE50,30 min=12.08%. All samples of pulp and paper wastes, and a textile waste (sample TX2 induced chronic effects on reproduction, length, and longevity of Daphnia magna. These results could serve as an alert about the environmental risks of an inadequate waste classification method.

  19. Acute and chronic toxicity of boron to a variety of freshwater organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soucek, David J; Dickinson, Amy; Koch, Brian T

    2011-08-01

    Boron enters the aquatic environment from various sources, including weathering of borates, sewage effluents, coal combustion, use of cleaning compounds, and agrochemicals. The present study was designed to generate data on acute and chronic boron toxicity in support of an update of water quality standards in Illinois, USA. We examined the acute toxicity of boron to eight different freshwater organisms including a fish, an insect, two crustaceans, and four bivalve mollusks. To our knowledge, this is the first study to present data on the toxicity of boron to freshwater mollusks. We also sought to clarify whether hardness or pH affect boron toxicity to aquatic life, and to quantify chronic effect levels in two freshwater species. Sensitivity among the various species ranged widely, with the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) being the most sensitive. Neither pH nor hardness had a consistent effect on acute boron toxicity to two crustaceans (Ceriodaphnia dubia and Hyalella azteca), but we observed evidence that chloride reduces boron toxicity to H. azteca. The fathead minnow, while more acutely sensitive than the other species, had a lower acute to chronic ratio than did H. azteca, which had reduced reproduction at 13 mg/L. While we do not know the extent to which the eight tested species represent the range of sensitivities of native but untested species in Illinois, the current water quality standard for Illinois (1 mg/L) is conservative with regard to the native species tested thus far. Copyright © 2011 SETAC.

  20. Re-evaluation of metal bioaccumulation and chronic toxicity in Hyalella azteca using saturation curves and the biotic ligand model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borgmann, U.; Norwood, W.P.; Dixon, D.G

    2004-10-01

    Bioaccumulation by Hyalella of all metals studied so far in our laboratory was re-evaluated to determine if the data could be explained satisfactorily using saturation models. Saturation kinetics are predicted by the biotic ligand model (BLM), now widely used in modelling acute toxicity, and are a pre-requisite if the BLM is to be applied to chronic toxicity. Saturation models provided a good fit to all the data. Since these are mechanistically based, they provide additional insights into metal accumulation mechanisms not immediately apparent when using allometric models. For example, maximum Cd accumulation is dependent on the hardness of the water to which Hyalella are acclimated. The BLM may need to be modified when applied to chronic toxicity. Use of saturation models for bioaccumulation, however, also necessitates the need for using saturation models for dose-response relationships in order to produce unambiguous estimates of LC50 values based on water and body concentrations. This affects predictions of toxicity at very low metal concentrations and results in lower predicted toxicity of mixtures when many metals are present at low concentrations.

  1. Acute, sub-chronic oral toxicity studies and evaluation of antiulcer activity of Sooktyn in experimental animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phool Chandra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sooktyn (SKN, mineralo-herbal drug which is being used largely by the patients for its extremely good therapeutic value to treat the gastric ulcers. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the toxicity studies and antiulcer activity of SKN. Acute and sub-chronic toxicities were studied in male and female Wistar rats. A single acute SKN of 2 000 mg/kg was administered by oral gavage for acute toxicity. Sub-chronic doses were 400 and 800 mg/kg/day. The major toxicological end points examined included animal body weight and food intake, selected tissue weights, and detailed gross necropsy. In addition, we examined blood elements: hematocrit, hemoglobin concentration, erythrocyte count, total leukocyte count and MCH, MCHC and platelets as well as biochemical parameters: urea, sugar, alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, total proteins, and creatinine. Also, anti-ulcer activity was carried out by employing indomethacin, ethanol, pylorus ligation, and hypothermic-stress-induced ulcer models. LD 50 may be greater than 2 000 mg/kg (orally for SKN and there were no signs of toxicity on 28 days sub-chronic oral administration of 400 and 800 mg/kg of SKN in rats on the basis of blood elements and biochemical parameters. The ulcer indices decrease in all ulcer models with 66.62%, 61.24%, 80.18%, and 74.76% in indomethacin, ethanol, pylorus ligation, and hypothermic-stress-induced ulcer models, respectively. The results suggest that SKN has no signs of toxicity at 2 000 mg/kg body weight of rats orally; sub-chronically. The drug is safe and has antiulcer activity.

  2. Acute, sub-chronic oral toxicity studies and evaluation of antiulcer activity of Sooktyn in experimental animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Phool; Sachan, Neetu; Kishore, Kamal; Ghosh, Ashoke Kumar

    2012-04-01

    Sooktyn (SKN), mineralo-herbal drug which is being used largely by the patients for its extremely good therapeutic value to treat the gastric ulcers. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the toxicity studies and antiulcer activity of SKN. Acute and sub-chronic toxicities were studied in male and female Wistar rats. A single acute SKN of 2 000 mg/kg was administered by oral gavage for acute toxicity. Sub-chronic doses were 400 and 800 mg/kg/day. The major toxicological end points examined included animal body weight and food intake, selected tissue weights, and detailed gross necropsy. In addition, we examined blood elements: hematocrit, hemoglobin concentration, erythrocyte count, total leukocyte count and MCH, MCHC and platelets as well as biochemical parameters: urea, sugar, alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, total proteins, and creatinine. Also, anti-ulcer activity was carried out by employing indomethacin, ethanol, pylorus ligation, and hypothermic-stress-induced ulcer models. LD(50) may be greater than 2 000 mg/kg (orally) for SKN and there were no signs of toxicity on 28 days sub-chronic oral administration of 400 and 800 mg/kg of SKN in rats on the basis of blood elements and biochemical parameters. The ulcer indices decrease in all ulcer models with 66.62%, 61.24%, 80.18%, and 74.76% in indomethacin, ethanol, pylorus ligation, and hypothermic-stress-induced ulcer models, respectively. The results suggest that SKN has no signs of toxicity at 2 000 mg/kg body weight of rats orally; sub-chronically. The drug is safe and has antiulcer activity.

  3. Two-Year Chronic Toxicity Study in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-08-27

    LD C. 0- N. 00 C! cc ’. 0 C- Nl CD c n * co CD C;’. Ln Lo Ln fn ’. 1cC c; 0 N N cm0 w jL- v; c I’ioON0 17 r’-O COOr c.,J C’o co ŕ " C’, C9f COW ...Focal granulomatosis 1% Chronic abscesses 1% Integument Pyogenic granuloma 1% Abscess 1% Mammary Gland Cystic hyperplasia 1% Chronic mastiti I... mastitis 1 73 I Uterus *Neopl asms 1 73 Hydrometra 1 73 Multiple Distribution oF ter-tis 1 73 S~Integument Neoplasm 2 73 -4No Oran Speci :ied Neoplasm 6

  4. Development of a Chronic Toxicity Testing Method for Daphnia pulex

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-01

    Protection Agency YCT yeast , cereal leaves, and trout chow (from a commercial vendor) ERDC/EL SR-15-5 1 1 Introduction The chronic...cm with Milli-Q water) • YCT ( yeast , cereal leaves, trout chow) • ALG- algae, Selenastrum capricornutum(from a commercial vendor); also known as...screened holes (10 replicate beakers for each test concentration) • One modified Zumwalt box (Figures A1-A3) with water exchange system (optional) • One

  5. Evaluation of Chronic Nanosilver Toxicity to Adult Zebrafish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Pecoraro

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Nanotechnology is rapidly growing with nanoparticles produced and utilized in a wide range of commercial products worldwide. Among the different types of nanomaterials produced, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs occupy a predominant position and they are used in electronics, clothing, food industry, cosmetics and medical devices. Nanosilver has also showed excellent performance in antibacterial application. Nowadays, the increasing use of AgNPs has put the evidence on their possible toxicity to the human health and the impact on the environment. This paper focus on adverse effects of AgNPs in adult of Danio rerio. Fishes exposed to increasing concentrations (8, 45, and 70 μg/l silver nanoparticles (AgNPs, 25 nm in average diameter and after treatment for 30 days, was quickly euthanized in MS-222. We have evaluated bioaccumulation of AgNPs using ICP-MS and analyzed histological changes, biomarkers of oxidative damage and gene expression in the gut, liver and gills tissues of AgNPs-treated zebrafish. The histological analysis showed lesions of secondary lamellae of the gills with different degrees of toxicity such as hyperplasia, lamellar fusion, subepithelial edema, and even in some cases telangiectasia. Huge necrosis of the intestinal villi was found in the gut. No lesion was detected in the liver. The analysis revealed a high expression of metallothioneins 1 (MTs 1 in animals exposed to AgNPs compared to the control group. The ICP-MS analysis shows that the amount of particles absorbed in all treated samples is almost the same. We can affirm that AgNPs toxicity linked more to their size and state of aggregation than to their concentrations. Silver nanoparticles can damage gills and gut because they are able to pass through the mucosal barrier thanks to their small size. The damage is still reversible because it is not documented injury to the basal membrane.

  6. Sensitivity of mottled sculpins (Cottus bairdi) and rainbow trout (Onchorhynchus mykiss) to acute and chronic toxicity of cadmium, copper, and zinc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besser, John M.; Mebane, Christopher A.; Mount, David R.; Ivey, Chris D.; Kunz, James L.; Greer, I. Eugene; May, Thomas W.; Ingersoll, Christopher G.

    2007-01-01

    Studies of fish communities of streams draining mining areas suggest that sculpins (Cottus spp.) may be more sensitive than salmonids to adverse effects of metals. We compared the toxicity of zinc, copper, and cadmium to mottled sculpin (C. bairdi) and rainbow trout (Onchorhynchus mykiss) in laboratory toxicity tests. Acute (96-h) and early life-stage chronic (21- or 28-d) toxicity tests were conducted with rainbow trout and with mottled sculpins from populations in Minnesota and Missouri, USA, in diluted well water (hardness = 100 mg/L as CaCO3). Acute and chronic toxicity of metals to newly hatched and swim-up stages of mottled sculpins differed between the two source populations. Differences between populations were greatest for copper, with chronic toxicity values (ChV = geometric mean of lowest-observed-effect concentration and no-observed-effect concentration) of 4.4 μg/L for Missouri sculpins and 37 μg/L for Minnesota sculpins. Cadmium toxicity followed a similar trend, but differences between sculpin populations were less marked, with ChVs of 1.1 μg/L (Missouri) and 1.9 μg/L (Minnesota). Conversely, zinc was more toxic to Minnesota sculpins (ChV = 75 μg/L) than Missouri sculpins (chronic ChV = 219 μg/L). Species-average acute and chronic toxicity values for mottled sculpins were similar to or lower than those for rainbow trout and indicated that mottled sculpins were among the most sensitive aquatic species to toxicity of all three metals. Our results indicate that current acute and chronic water quality criteria for cadmium, copper, and zinc adequately protect rainbow trout but may not adequately protect some populations of mottled sculpins. Proposed water quality criteria for copper based on the biotic ligand model would be protective of both sculpin populations tested.

  7. Sensitivity of mottled sculpins (Cottus bairdi) and rainbow trout (Onchorhynchus mykiss) to acute and chronic toxicity of cadmium, copper, and zinc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besser, John M; Mebane, Christopher A; Mount, David R; Ivey, Chris D; Kunz, James L; Greer, I Eugene; May, Thomas W; Ingersoll, Christopher G

    2007-08-01

    Studies of fish communities of streams draining mining areas suggest that sculpins (Cottus spp.) may be more sensitive than salmonids to adverse effects of metals. We compared the toxicity of zinc, copper, and cadmium to mottled sculpin (C. bairdi) and rainbow trout (Onchorhynchus mykiss) in laboratory toxicity tests. Acute (96-h) and early life-stage chronic (21- or 28-d) toxicity tests were conducted with rainbow trout and with mottled sculpins from populations in Minnesota and Missouri, USA, in diluted well water (hardness = 100 mg/L as CaCO3). Acute and chronic toxicity of metals to newly hatched and swim-up stages of mottled sculpins differed between the two source populations. Differences between populations were greatest for copper, with chronic toxicity values (ChV = geometric mean of lowest-observed-effect concentration and no-observed-effect concentration) of 4.4 microg/L for Missouri sculpins and 37 microg/L for Minnesota sculpins. Cadmium toxicity followed a similar trend, but differences between sculpin populations were less marked, with ChVs of 1.1 microg/L (Missouri) and 1.9 microg/L (Minnesota). Conversely, zinc was more toxic to Minnesota sculpins (ChV = 75 microg/L) than Missouri sculpins (chronic ChV = 219 microg/L). Species-average acute and chronic toxicity values for mottled sculpins were similar to or lower than those for rainbow trout and indicated that mottled sculpins were among the most sensitive aquatic species to toxicity of all three metals. Our results indicate that current acute and chronic water quality criteria for cadmium, copper, and zinc adequately protect rainbow trout but may not adequately protect some populations of mottled sculpins. Proposed water quality criteria for copper based on the biotic ligand model would be protective of both sculpin populations tested.

  8. Standardization of a chronic sediment toxicity test with Chironomus riparius -- An EU collaboration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleming, R.; Grootelaar, L.; Guchte, C. van de [WRc Medmenham, Marlow (United Kingdom)]|[RIZA, Lelystad (Netherlands)

    1995-12-31

    Because of the need for sensitive measures of low level contaminants in European sediments, a chronic sediment toxicity test method, using Chironomus riparius has been developed as part of a collaborative program for the European Commission. The protocol is a partial life cycle test exposing the animals from egg stage to pre-emergence in sediment-water systems. In 1995 the protocol was ring tested in several laboratories in Europe, the US and Canada using the moth-proofer permethrin as a model substance. This was spiked into a natural sediment using a spiking protocol also developed in this program. Results of the ring test and details of the protocols will be presented.

  9. A chronic toxicity test for the tropical marine snail Nassarius dorsatus to assess the toxicity of copper, aluminium, gallium, and molybdenum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trenfield, Melanie A; van Dam, Joost W; Harford, Andrew J; Parry, David; Streten, Claire; Gibb, Karen; van Dam, Rick A

    2016-07-01

    Chronic toxicity test methods for assessing the toxicity of contaminants to tropical marine organisms are generally lacking. A 96-h chronic growth rate toxicity test was developed for the larval stage of the tropical dogwhelk, Nassarius dorsatus. Growth rates of N. dorsatus larvae were assessed following exposures to copper (Cu), aluminium (Al), gallium (Ga), and molybdenum (Mo). Exposure to Cu at 28 °C validated the sensitivity of the test method, with 10% (EC10) and 50% (EC50) effect concentrations of 4.2 μg/L and 7.3 μg/L Cu, respectively. The EC10 and EC50 values for Al (toxicity of Cu and Al was also assessed at 24 °C and 31 °C, representing average year-round water temperatures for subtropical and tropical Australian coastal environments. At 24 °C, the growth rate of control larvae was reduced by 52% compared with the growth rate at 28 °C and there was an increase in sensitivity to Cu (EC50 = 4.7 μg/L) but a similar sensitivity to Al (EC50 = 180 μg/L). At 31 °C the control growth rate increased by 35% from that measured at 28 °C and there was reduced sensitivity to both Cu and Al (EC50s = 8.5 μg/L and 642 μg/L, respectively). There was minimal toxicity resulting from Ga (EC50 = 4560 μg/L) and Mo (no effect at ≤7000 μg/L Mo). Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:1788-1795. © 2015 SETAC. © 2015 SETAC.

  10. Acute and sub-chronic oral toxicity studies of erythritol in Beagle dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eapen, Alex K; de Cock, Peter; Crincoli, Christine M; Means, Charlotte; Wismer, Tina; Pappas, Christopher

    2017-07-01

    Polyols, also known as sugar alcohols, are widely used in the formulation of tooth-friendly and reduced-calorie foods. Considering the significant health benefits of polyols in products formulated for human use, there is increased interest in evaluating potential uses in companion animal applications. Erythritol and xylitol are two polyols which are currently widely used in products ranging from reduced-sugar foods to personal care and cosmetics. Published studies have shown that both of these compounds are well-tolerated in rodents. Their toxicity profiles differ when comparing canine safety data. Doses of xylitol as low as 0.15 g/kg-BW in dogs can result in life-threatening hypoglycemia and acute liver failure, whereas erythritol is well-tolerated in dogs with reported No Adverse Effect Levels upwards of 5 g/kg-BW/day in repeat-dose studies. While pivotal studies substantiating the safe use of erythritol in humans have been published, there are limited published studies to support the safe use of erythritol in dogs. Here we present the results of an acute oral and a sub-chronic oral toxicity study in Beagle dogs. Given the potential health benefits of oral products formulated with erythritol and the data presented herein substantiating the safe use in dogs, erythritol can be safely used in products for canines. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Neurological manifestation of phenytoin toxicity, resulting from drug ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phenytoin toxicity masquerading as deterioration of neurological symptoms caused by interaction with chloramphenicol is a very rare but real risk. To the authors' knowledge only one such case occurring in humans has been reported in the English literature. No case of clinical phenytoin toxicity occurring at less than ...

  12. Acute toxicity resulting from human exposures to military smokes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulst, M. van; Langenberg, J.P.; Klerk, W.P.C. de; Alblas, M.J.

    2017-01-01

    The toxicity of smoke-generating ammunition can be established by looking at the complete hand grenade or only at the smoke composition. In this paper both approaches are described. The toxicity of a signalling smoke was assessed as a complete smoke hand grenade whereas for a 76 mm screening smoke

  13. Chronic toxicity of phenanthrene to the marine polychaete worm, Nereis (Neanthes) arenaceodentata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emery, V.L. Jr.; Dillon, T.M. [USAE Waterways Experiment Station, Vicksburg, MS (United States)

    1996-02-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are widely distributed in the environment. While environmental concentrations are generally below acutely, lethal levels, chronic, low level exposures may result in subtle sublethal effects. PAHs accumulate in bottom sediments and may represent a hazard to the benthos. Polychaetes are important members of this community. The objective of this study is to evaluate the chronic sublethal effects of one PAH, phenanthrene (PHN), on the polychaete worm, Nereis arenaceodentata. PHN was selected because of its high toxicity to marine invertebrates relative to other PAHs. The response of bivalves to heavy metals and other toxins has usually been determined by observing valve position. Since mussels close their valves to avoid noxious stimuli, experimental delivery of chemicals is uncertain. To obtain constant results. Preston employed plastic spacers to hold the valves apart. This obviates the observation of valve position as an index of response, and some other method is required. Electromyography of intact mussels is one such index, and is shown to be a simple, effective and quantitative measurement of activity. Experiments are reported on the effects of added mercury on salt water and fresh water species. Parts of this Nvork have appeared in brief form.

  14. Criteria for solvent-induced chronic toxic encephalopathy: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Hoek, J. A.; Verberk, M. M.; Hageman, G.

    2000-01-01

    In 1985, a WHO Working Group presented diagnostic criteria and a classification for solvent-induced chronic toxic encephalopathy (CTE). In the same year, the "Workshop on neurobehavioral effects of solvents" in Raleigh, N.C., USA introduced a somewhat different classification for CTE. The objective

  15. Acute and sub-chronic oral toxicity studies of methanol extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Acute and sub-chronic oral toxicity studies of methanol extract of Clinacanthus nutans in mice. Zainul Amiruddin Zakaria, Mohammad Hafiz Abdul Rahim, Norhafizah Mohtarrudin, Arifah Abdul Kadir, Manraj Singh Cheema, Zuraini Ahmad, Ching Siew Mooi, Siti Farah Md. Tohid ...

  16. Duration of Acute and Chronic Toxicity Testing in Animals (ICH S4A and S4B)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spindler, Per; Van Cauteren, Herman

    2013-01-01

    To support approval of pharmaceuticals for long term use in humans it is required that product safety is supported by acute and chronic toxicity studies in rodents and non-rodents. The duration of acute toxicity studies (S4A) and chronic rodent studies (S4B) were harmonised between the three ICH ...

  17. RESULTS OF SOLID PHASE SEDIMENT TOXICITY TESTS WITH REDUCED SEDIMENT VOLUMES FOR SEDIMENT TOXICITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Development and standardization of sediment toxicity test methods for freshwater organisms have been underway for several years. Both EPA and ASTM have published methods for assessing the short-term (e.g., 10-d) toxicity of sediments to two benthic freshwater organisms (Hyalella ...

  18. Evaluation of chronic toxicity of Kushta Sammulfar (calx of Arsenic trioxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athar Parvez Ansari

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Sammulfar (arsenic trioxide is a notorious poison and has extensively been studied for its toxicity. It is in use for various purposes for centuries and is used even today as a therapeutic agent in the form of kushta (calx in traditional systems of medicine, particularly Unani medicine, but without apparent safety data. The present study, therefore, was conducted to produce data for prolong use of calx of arsenic trioxide. The calx (test drug was prepared by the method described in National Formulary of Unani Medicine. The study was carried in healthy Wistar rats of either sex; weighing 150-250 g; 2-3 months of age, in a dose dependent manner, following the methods of Gupta et al. (2002, Ghosh (2008 and Klaassan (2008. The animals were divided into four groups of 10 animals each. Group I served as control, where as group II, III and IV were used for three dose levels of the test drug i.e. low (8.75 mg–1 kg, medium (17.50 mg–1 kg and higher (26.25 mg–1 kg. Standard parameters usually applied for chronic toxicity studies were considered. The study revealed dose dependent toxicity. Usual signs of chronic toxicity were observed during the study. Low dose of Kushta Sammulfar (KSF did not produce remarkable toxic effects. Mild to moderate toxicity was seen in KSF-II and KSF-III.

  19. MR imaging in solvent-induced chronic toxic encephalopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thuomas, K.AA. [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Environmental Medicine, Univ. Hospital, Linkoeping (Sweden); Moeller, C. [Dept. of Otolaryngology, Univ. Hospital, Linkoeping (Sweden); Oedkvist, L.M. [Dept. of Otolaryngology, Univ. Hospital, Linkoeping (Sweden); Flodin, U. [Dept. of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Univ. Hospital, Linkoeping (Sweden); Dige, N. [Dept. of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Univ. Hospital, Linkoeping (Sweden)

    1996-03-01

    To use MR to examine patients with CNS symptoms indicating chronic intoxication. Thirty-two subjects exposed to industrial solvents for 5 to 28 years and 40 age-matched, healthy controls were examined. All patients showed decreased signal in the basal ganglia on T2-weighted images. In 11 of the patients the white matter showed diffuse hyperintensity with loss of the grey-white matter discrimination and with distinct periventricular hyperintensities in 5 of the patients. The controls had no pathological changes in the brain. Although the relatively small number of patients may obscure the significance, findings observed on T2-weighted images were patchy periventricular hyperintensities and hypointensities in the basal ganglia. Fast spin-echo is a good technique with fast acquisition of images with true spin-echo contrast features. (orig.).

  20. Acute Toxicity Grade 3 and 4 After Irradiation in Children and Adolescents: Results From the IPPARCA Collaboration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pixberg, Caroline [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital of Muenster, Muenster (Germany); Koch, Raphael [Institute of Biostatistics and Clinical Research, University of Muenster, Muenster (Germany); Eich, Hans Theodor, E-mail: Hans.Eich@ukmuenster.de [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital of Muenster, Muenster (Germany); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Koeln, Koeln (Germany); Martinsson, Ulla [Department of Oncology, University Hospital, Uppsala (Sweden); Kristensen, Ingrid [Department of Radiation Physics, Skåne University Hospital, Lund (Sweden); Matuschek, Christiane [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital of Duesseldorf, Duesseldorf (Germany); Kortmann, Rolf-Dieter [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital of Leipzig, Leipzig (Germany); Pohl, Fabian [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Regensburg, Regensburg (Germany); Elsayad, Khaled [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital of Muenster, Muenster (Germany); Christiansen, Hans [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical School Hannover, Hannover (Germany); Willich, Normann [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital of Muenster, Muenster (Germany); Lindh, Jack [Department of Radiation Sciences, Umeå University, Umeå (Sweden); Steinmann, Diana [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital of Muenster, Muenster (Germany); Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical School Hannover, Hannover (Germany)

    2016-03-15

    Purpose: In the context of oncologic therapy for children, radiation therapy is frequently indicated. This study identified the frequency of and reasons for the development of high-grade acute toxicity and possible sequelae. Materials and Methods: Irradiated children have been prospectively documented since 2001 in the Registry for the Evaluation of Side Effects After Radiation in Childhood and Adolescence (RiSK) database in Germany and since 2008 in the registry for radiation therapy toxicity (RADTOX) in Sweden. Data were collected using standardized, published forms. Toxicity classification was based on Radiation Therapy Oncology Group/European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer criteria. Results: As of June 2013, 1500 children have been recruited into the RiSK database and 485 into the RADTOX registry leading to an analysis population of 1359 patients (age range 0-18). A total of 18.9% (n=257) of all investigated patients developed high-grade acute toxicity (grades 3/4). High-grade toxicity of the bone marrow was documented for 63.8% (n=201) of those patients, oral mucositis for 7.6% (n=24), and dermatitis for 7.6% (n=24). Patients with high-grade acute toxicity received concomitant chemotherapy more frequently (56%) than patients with no or lower acute toxicity (31.5%). In multivariate analyses, concomitant chemotherapy, diagnosis of Ewing sarcoma, and total radiation dose showed a statistically noticeable effect (P≤.05) on acute toxicity, whereas age, concomitant chemotherapy, Hodgkin lymphoma, Ewing sarcoma, total radiation dose, and acute toxicity influenced the time until maximal late toxicity. Conclusions: Generally, high-grade acute toxicity after irradiation in children and adolescence occurs in a moderate proportion of patients (18.9%). As anticipated, the probability of acute toxicity appeared to depend on the prescribed dose as well as concomitant chemotherapy. The occurrence of chronic toxicity correlates with the prior acute

  1. Toxicity assessment of zinc oxide nanoparticles using sub-acute and sub-chronic murine inhalation models

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Although ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) are used in many commercial products and the potential for human exposure is increasing, few in vivo studies have addressed their possible toxic effects after inhalation. We sought to determine whether ZnO NPs induce pulmonary toxicity in mice following sub-acute or sub-chronic inhalation exposure to realistic exposure doses. Methods Mice (C57Bl/6) were exposed to well-characterized ZnO NPs (3.5 mg/m3, 4 hr/day) for 2 (sub-acute) or 13 (sub-chronic) weeks and necropsied immediately (0 wk) or 3 weeks (3 wks) post exposure. Toxicity was assessed by enumeration of total and differential cells, determination of total protein, lactate dehydrogenase activity and inflammatory cytokines in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid as well as measurements of pulmonary mechanics. Generation of reactive oxygen species was assessed in the lungs. Lungs were evaluated for histopathologic changes and Zn content. Zn concentration in blood, liver, kidney, spleen, heart, brain and BAL fluid was measured. Results An elevated concentration of Zn2+ was detected in BAL fluid immediately after exposures, but returned to baseline levels 3 wks post exposure. Dissolution studies showed that ZnO NPs readily dissolved in artificial lysosomal fluid (pH 4.5), but formed aggregates and precipitates in artificial interstitial fluid (pH 7.4). Sub-acute exposure to ZnO NPs caused an increase of macrophages in BAL fluid and a moderate increase in IL-12(p40) and MIP-1α, but no other inflammatory or toxic responses were observed. Following both sub-acute and sub-chronic exposures, pulmonary mechanics were no different than sham-exposed animals. Conclusions Our ZnO NP inhalation studies showed minimal pulmonary inflammation, cytotoxicity or lung histopathologic changes. An elevated concentration of Zn in the lung and BAL fluid indicates dissolution of ZnO NPs in the respiratory system after inhalation. Exposure concentration, exposure mode and time post

  2. Acute and chronic toxicity studies on partially purified hypoglycemic preparation from water extract of bark ofFicus bengalensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, S; Shukla, R; Prabhu, K M; Aggrawal, S; Rusia, U; Murthy, P S

    2002-01-01

    Acute and chronic toxicity studies were conducted to assess toxicity of a partially purified preparation from the water extract of the bark ofFicus bengalensis, which was demonstrated in our earlier studies to have significant hypoglycemic and hypocholesteroiemic effect on alloxan induced, mild and severe diabetes in rabbits. LD(50) of this preparation was found to be ∼1 gm/kg in rats when given orally. For chronic toxicity studies 3 doses of aqueous preparation were given to 3 groups of rats. First group received 5 times ED(50) (50 mg/kg), second group 10 times ED(50) (100 mg/kg) and the third group 15 times ED(50) (150 mg/kg) for 3 months. Fourth group which served as control was given water. After three months, blood was collected for studying biochemical and hematological parameters. Blood glucose, serum cholesterol, liver and kidney function tests, haemoglobin, total and differential leukocyte count were determined. Animals were sacrificed and histopathological examination of liver, heart and kidneys was carried out. Results of the study showed that partially purified preparation fromFicus bengalensis is not toxic by all the above mentioned parameters.

  3. Effects in Plant Populations Resulting from Chronic Radiation Exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geras' kin, Stanislav A.; Volkova, Polina Yu.; Vasiliyev, Denis V.; Dikareva, Nina S.; Oudalova, Alla A. [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology, 249032, Obninsk (Russian Federation)

    2014-07-01

    Human industrial activities have left behind a legacy of ecosystems strongly impacted by a wide range of contaminants, including radionuclides. Phyto-toxic effects of acute impact are well known, but the consequences of long-term chronic exposure to low pollutant concentrations is neither well understood nor adequately included in risk assessments. To understand effects of real-world contaminant exposure properly we must pay attention to what is actually going on in the field. However, for many wildlife groups and endpoints, there are no, or very few, studies that link accumulation, chronic exposure and biological effects in natural settings. To fill the gaps, results of field studies carried out on different plant species (winter rye and wheat, spring barley, oats, Scots pine, wild vetch, crested hair-grass) in various radioecological situations (nuclear weapon testing, the Chernobyl accident, uranium and radium processing) to investigate effects of long-term chronic exposure to radionuclides are discussed. Because each impacted site developed in its own way due to a unique history of events, the experience from one case study is rarely directly applicable to another situation. In spite of high heterogeneity in response, we have detected several general patterns. Plant populations growing in areas with relatively low levels of pollution are characterized by the increased level of both cytogenetic alterations and genetic diversity. Accumulation of cellular alterations may afterward influence biological parameters important for populations such as health and reproduction. Presented data provide evidence that in plant populations inhabiting heavily contaminated territories cytogenetic damage were accompanied by decrease in reproductive ability. In less contaminated sites, because of the scarcity of data available, it is impossible to establish exactly the relationship between cytogenetic effects and reproductive ability. Radioactive contamination of the plants

  4. Influences of the coating on silver nanoparticle toxicity in a chronic test with Daphnia magna

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sakka, Y.; Mackevica, Aiga; Skjolding, Lars Michael

    2015-01-01

    Sources for differences in silver nanoparticle toxicity at standardized conditions can be numerous. They range from particle properties and their actual concentrations to differences in uptake or depuration by the test organisms. In the present study we compared the toxicity of two differently...... coated AgNP in a chronic Daphnia test. One type of AgNP was coated with citrate (cAgNP), the other AgNP were generally uncoated (pAgNP; p= pure), but sterically stabilized by an organic dispersant. Particles with a similar shape and diameter were chosen. The focus of the study was to relate observed...

  5. Voluntary Ingestion of Natural Cocoa Extenuated Hepatic Damage in Rats with Experimentally Induced Chronic Alcoholic Toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godwin Sokpor

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chronic ethanol ingestion causes hepatic damage imputable to an increasedoxidative stress engendered by alcoholic toxicity. Polyphenols in cocoa have antioxidant properties, and natural cocoa powder (NCP contains the highest levels of total antioxidant capacity when compared to all other kinds of edible cocoa products. This study tested the hypothesis that dietary supplementation with NCP mitigates hepatic injury resulting from chronic ethanol consumption. Three groups of eight randomized Sprague-Dawley rats were fed standardrat food and treated daily for 12 weeks as follows: (i the Ethanol-water group was given unrestricted access to 40% (v/v ethanol for 12 hours (at night followed by water for the remaining 12 hours (daytime, (ii the Ethanol-cocoa group had similarly unrestricted access to 40% ethanol for 12 hours followed by 2% (w/v NCP for 12 hours, and (iii the control group was not given alcohol and had unrestricted access to only water which was synchronously replenished every 12 hours as it was for the ethanol treated animals.Results: Qualitative structural liver damage evidenced by hepatocyte cytoplasmic fatty accumulation, nuclear alterations, and disruption of general liver micro-architecture, was severe in the ethanol-water group when compared with the ethanol-cocoa group of rats. Design-based stereologic assessment yielded a significantly greater volume (Tukey’s HSD, p = 0.0005 ofundamaged hepatocytes (9.61 ml, SD 2.18 ml in the ethanol-cocoa group as opposed to theethanol-water group of rats (2.34 ml, SD 1.21 ml. Control rats had 10.34 ml (SD 1.47 ml of undamaged hepatocytes, and that was not significantly greater (Tukey’s HSD, p=0.659 than the value for the ethanol-cocoa group of rats. Relative to controls, therefore, histomorphometryFunctional Foods in Health and Disease 2012, 2(5:166- 187 showed 93% hepatocyte preservation from alcoholic injury in rats that voluntarily imbibed NCP suspension compared with 23% in

  6. Acute and Chronic Toxicity of an Aqueous Fraction of the Stem Bark of Stryphnodendron adstringens (Barbatimão in Rodents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio Costa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Stryphnodendron adstringens has a high tannin content and is used as an antiseptic and antimicrobial and in the treatment of leucorrhea, gonorrhea, wound healing, and gastritis. The present study evaluated the toxic effects of the heptamer prodelphinidin (F2 from the stem bark of S. adstringens in rodents. In the acute toxicity test, the mice that received oral doses exhibited reversible effects, with an LD50 of 3.015 mg·kg−1. In the chronic toxicity test at 90 days, Wistar rats were treated with different doses of F2 (10, 100, and 200 mg·kg−1. In the biochemical, hematological, and histopathological examinations and open-field test, the different dose groups did not exhibit significant differences compared with controls. The present results indicate that F2 from the stem bark of S. adstringens caused no toxicity with acute and chronic oral treatment in rodents at the doses administered.

  7. Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor–Associated Cardiovascular Toxicity in Chronic Myeloid Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moslehi, Javid J.; Deininger, Michael

    2015-01-01

    For most patients with chronic myeloid leukemia, tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) have turned a fatal disease into a manageable chronic condition. Imatinib, the first BCR-ABL1 TKI granted regulatory approval, has been surpassed in terms of molecular responses by the second-generation TKIs nilotinib, dasatinib, and bosutinib. Recently, ponatinib was approved as the only TKI with activity against the T315I mutation. Although all TKIs are associated with nonhematologic adverse events (AEs), experience with imatinib suggested that toxicities are typically manageable and apparent early during drug development. Recent reports of cardiovascular AEs with nilotinib and particularly ponatinib and of pulmonary arterial hypertension with dasatinib have raised concerns about long-term sequelae of drugs that may be administered for decades. Here, we review what is currently known about the cardiovascular toxicities of BCR-ABL1 TKIs, discuss potential mechanisms underlying cardiovascular AEs, and elucidate discrepancies between the reporting of such AEs between oncology and cardiovascular trials. Whenever possible, we provide practical recommendations, but we concede that cause-directed interventions will require better mechanistic understanding. We suggest that chronic myeloid leukemia heralds a fundamental shift in oncology toward effective but mostly noncurative long-term therapies. Realizing the full potential of these treatments will require a proactive rational approach to minimize long-term cardiovascular and cardiometabolic toxicities. PMID:26371140

  8. Behavior and chronic toxicity of two differently stabilized silver nanoparticles to Daphnia magna

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sakka, Yvonne; Skjolding, Lars Michael; Mackevica, Aiga

    2016-01-01

    While differences in silver nanoparticle (AgNP) colloidal stability, surface potential, or acute aquatic toxicity for differently stabilized AgNP have often been reported, these have rarely been studied in long-term ecotoxicity tests. In the current study, we investigated the chronic toxicity of Ag...... compared to the detergent-stabilized AgNP (0.046 ± 0.006 μg Ag μg DW−1 and 0.023 ± 0.005 μg Ag μg DW−1, respectively). In accordance with this, the higher reproductive effects and mortality were found for the charge-stabilized than for the sterically-stabilized silver nanoparticles in 21-d tests...... for chronic toxicity. LOEC was 19.2 μg Ag L−1 for both endpoints for citrate-coated AgNP and >27.5 μg Ag L−1 (highest tested concentration for detergent-stabilized AgNP). This indicates a link between uptake and toxicity. The inclusion of additional short-term experiments on uptake and depuration...

  9. Chronic toxicity to quail and pheasants of some chlorinated insecticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWitt, J.B.

    1956-01-01

    Quantitative report of tests. 'Inclusion of 1 p.p.m, of aldrin, dieldrin, or endrin in diets fed growing quail resulted in high mortality rates, but the birds survived on diets containing 100 p.p.m, of DDT or 50 p.p.m. of strobane. Young pheasants survived on diets containing 50 p.p.m, of DDT or strobane, but failed to survive on diets containing 5 p.p.m, of aldrin, dieldrin, or endrin. No ill effects were noted when quail were fed winter diets containing 50 p.p.m, of strobane, or 1 p.p.m, of dieldrin or endrin, but nearly all birds died when fed diets containing 0.5 p.p.m, of aldrin. Mortality rates among pheasants fed 50 p.p.m, and of quail fed 100 p.p.m. of DDT were higher than for birds receiving normal diets, but none of the birds displayed symptoms characteristic of DDT poisoning. Egg production, fertility, and hatchability were relatively unaffected by inclusion of insecticides in diets fed breeding quail, but chicks from these matings showed high mortality rates even when reared on insecticide-free diets. Lowered viability of quail chicks was most pronounced in groups receiving DDT and strobane in the reproduction diets. Hatchability of pheasant eggs and viability of chicks were adversely affected by inclusion of aldrin, dieldrin, or endrin in the reproduction diets.'

  10. The chronic toxicity of CuO nanoparticles and copper salt to Daphnia magna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Nathalie; Vakurov, Alexander; Knapen, Dries; Blust, Ronny

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the effects of CuO nanoparticles and CuCl2·2H2O were tested on Daphnia magna under chronic exposure scenarios. During a 21-day exposure to the nanoparticles and salt, the reproduction was followed by a daily count of the number of offspring. After the exposure, the adult Daphnia length and uptake of copper was measured. The dissolved, nanoparticle and aggregated fractions were distinguished in the exposure medium. The results showed that only a small fraction of the nanoparticles dissolved, while the majority of the particles formed large aggregates (>450 nm). The dissolved fraction of the nanoparticles corresponded with the dissolved fraction of the copper salt. The effects of the nanoparticles (reproduction EC10: 0.546 mg Cu/l, EC20: 0.693 mg Cu/l, EC50: 1.041 mg Cu/l) on reproduction and length were much lower than the effects of the copper salts (reproduction EC10: 0.017 mg Cu/l, EC20: 0.019 mg Cu/l, EC50: 0.022 mg Cu/l). Based upon total body analysis, the Daphnia copper concentration appeared much higher when exposed to the nanoparticles than when exposed to the salt. These combined results indicate that the toxicity of CuO nanoparticles to D. magna is caused by copper ions formed during dissolution of the nanoparticles in the exposure medium. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. An ecological risk assessment of the acute and chronic toxicity of the herbicide picloram to the threatened bull trout (salvelinus confluentus) and the rainbow trout (onchorhyncus mykiss)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairchild, J.F.; Feltz, K.P.; Sappington, L.C.; Allert, A.L.; Nelson, K.J.; Valle, J.

    2009-01-01

    We conducted acute and chronic toxicity studies of the effects of picloram acid on the threatened bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) and the standard coldwater surrogate rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Juvenile fish were chronically exposed for 30 days in a proportional flow-through diluter to measured concentrations of 0, 0.30, 0.60, 1.18, 2.37, and 4.75 mg/L picloram. No mortality of either species was observed at the highest concentration. Bull trout were twofold more sensitive to picloram (30-day maximum acceptable toxic concentration of 0.80 mg/L) compared to rainbow trout (30-day maximum acceptable toxic concentration of 1.67 mg/L) based on the endpoint of growth. Picloram was acutely toxic to rainbow trout at 36 mg/L (96-h ALC50). The acute:chronic ratio for rainbow trout exposed to picloram was 22. The chronic toxicity of picloram was compared to modeled and measured environmental exposure concentrations (EECs) using a four-tiered system. The Tier 1, worst-case exposure estimate, based on a direct application of the current maximum use rate (1.1 kg/ha picloram) to a standardized aquatic ecosystem (water body of 1-ha area and 1-m depth), resulted in an EEC of 0.73 mg/L picloram and chronic risk quotients of 0.91 and 0.44 for bull trout and rainbow trout, respectively. Higher-tiered exposure estimates reduced chronic risk quotients 10-fold. Results of this study indicate that picloram, if properly applied according to the manufacturer's label, poses little risk to the threatened bull trout or rainbow trout in northwestern rangeland environments on either an acute or a chronic basis. ?? 2008 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  12. The Chronic Migraineur and Health Services: National Survey Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachholtz, Amy; Malone, Christopher; Bhowmick, Amrita

    2015-11-01

    Chronic migraine is a costly and highly disabling condition that impacts millions of people in the United States. While chronic migraine is hypothesized to result from more infrequent forms of migraine, the precise mechanism by which this develops is still being researched. This study sought to better characterize the treatment patterns, disorder characteristics, and medical and disability profile of the chronic migraine population using the largest dataset of chronic migraineurs ever collected. The survey was started by 8,359 individuals and 4,787 met the inclusion criteria for diagnosed chronic migraine The number of stressful life events participants experienced due to their migraines related to number of therapies tried (pmigraineurs may misattribute aspects of psychiatric or medical comorbidities to their chronic migraines. Further, the sample underutilized mental health services and were unsatisfied with their migraine treatments. Providers to chronic migraineurs should ensure that patients are receiving appropriate mental health care in order to alleviate psychological distress as well as to potentially lessen negative life events previously associated with migraine symptoms.

  13. Cognitive functioning in patients with suspected chronic toxic encephalopathy : evidence for neuropsychological disturbances after controlling for insufficient effort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hout, Mischa; Schmand, B; Wekking, E.M.; Deelman, B.G.

    Objectives: Chronic toxic encephalopathy (CTE) caused by long term occupational exposure to organic solvents is still a controversial disorder. Neuropsychological testing is the cornerstone for diagnosing the syndrome, but can be negatively influenced by motivational problems. In this nationwide

  14. Ecotoxicological effect of ketamine: Evidence of acute, chronic and photolysis toxicity to Daphnia magna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shih-Wei; Wang, Yu-Hsiang; Lin, Angela Yu-Chen

    2017-09-01

    Ketamine has been increasingly used in medicine and has the potential for abuse or illicit use around the world. Ketamine cannot be removed by conventional wastewater treatment plants. Although ketamine and its metabolite norketamine have been detected to a significant degree in effluents and aquatic environments, their ecotoxicity effects in aquatic organisms remain undefined. In this study, we investigated the acute toxicity of ketamine and its metabolite, along with the chronic reproductive toxicity of ketamine (5-100μg/L) to Daphnia magna. Multiple environmental scenarios were also evaluated, including drug mixtures and sunlight irradiation toxicity. Ketamine and norketamine caused acute toxicity to D. magna, with half lethal concentration (LC 50 ) values of 30.93 and 25.35mg/L, respectively, after 48h of exposure. Irradiated solutions of ketamine (20mg/L) significantly increased the mortality of D. magna; pre-irradiation durations up to 2h rapidly increased the death rate to 100%. A new photolysis byproduct (M.W. 241) of norketamine that accumulates during irradiation was identified for the first time. The relevant environmental concentration of ketamine produced significant reproductive toxicity effects in D. magna, as revealed by the reduction of the number of total live offspring by 33.6-49.8% (p ketamine concentration cannot be ignored and warrant further examination. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Impact of lead sub-chronic toxicity on recognition memory and motor activity of Wistar rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzaoui, F Z; Ahami, A O T; Khadmaoui, A

    2009-01-15

    The aim of this research was to investigate the impact of lead nitrate administered in drinking water during 90 days (sub-chronic toxicity), on body weight gain, motor activity, brain lead accumulation and especially on recognition memory of Wistar rats. Two groups of young female Wistar rats were used. Treated rats received 20 mg L(-1) of lead nitrate diluted in drinking water, while control rats received drinking water only, for 3 months. An evolution of body weight, motor activity, object recognition memory and measure of brain lead levels has been evaluated. The body weight was taken weekly, whereas the memory abilities and the motor activity are measured once every fortnight alternatively, by submitting rats to the Open Field (OF) test and to the Novel Object Recognizing (NOR) memory test. The results have shown a non significant effect in gain of body weight. However, a high significance was shown for horizontal activity (pmemory term (p<0.01), at the end of testing period and for brain lead levels (p<0.05) between studied groups.

  16. Fenugreek seeds, a hepatoprotector forage crop against chronic AlCl3 toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belaïd-Nouira Yosra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Having considered how bioavailable aluminium (Al may affect ecological systems and animals living there, especially cattle, and in search for a preventive dietary treatment against Al toxicity, we aimed to test the protective role of fenugreek seeds against chronic liver injury induced by aluminum chloride (AlCl3 in Wistar rats. Results Five months of AlCl3 oral exposure (500 mg/kg bw i.g for one month then 1600 ppm via drinking water caused liver atrophy, an inhibition of aspartate transaminase (AST, alanine transaminase (ALT and glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT, an enhancement of both lipid peroxidation and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH activity and an increase of total protein level in liver. Moreover, histopathological and histochemical examinations revealed moderate alterations in the hepatic parenchyma in addition to a disrupted iron metabolism. Co-administration of fenugreek seed powder (FSP at 5% in pellet diet during two months succeeded to antagonize the harmful effects of AlCl3 by restoring all tested parameters. Conclusion This study highlighted the hepatotoxicity of AlCl3 through biochemical and histological parameters in one hand and the hepatoprotective role of fenugreek seeds on the other hand. Thus this work could be a pilot study which will encourage farmers to use fenugreek seeds as a detoxifying diet supplement for domestic animals.

  17. Pulmonary toxicity and global gene expression changes in response to sub-chronic inhalation exposure to crystalline silica in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umbright, Christina; Sellamuthu, Rajendran; Roberts, Jenny R; Young, Shih-Houng; Richardson, Diana; Schwegler-Berry, Diane; McKinney, Walter; Chen, Bean; Gu, Ja Kook; Kashon, Michael; Joseph, Pius

    2017-01-01

    Exposure to crystalline silica results in serious adverse health effects, most notably, silicosis. An understanding of the mechanism(s) underlying silica-induced pulmonary toxicity is critical for the intervention and/or prevention of its adverse health effects. Rats were exposed by inhalation to crystalline silica at a concentration of 15 mg/m3, 6 hr/day, 5 days/week for 3, 6 or 12 weeks. Pulmonary toxicity and global gene expression profiles were determined in lungs at the end of each exposure period. Crystalline silica was visible in lungs of rats especially in the 12-week group. Pulmonary toxicity, as evidenced by an increase in lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity and albumin content and accumulation of macrophages and neutrophils in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), was seen in animals depending upon silica exposure duration. The most severe histological changes, noted in the 12-week exposure group, consisted of chronic active inflammation, type II pneumocyte hyperplasia, and fibrosis. Microarray analysis of lung gene expression profiles detected significant differential expression of 38, 77, and 99 genes in rats exposed to silica for 3-, 6-, or 12-weeks, respectively, compared to time-matched controls. Among the significantly differentially expressed genes (SDEG), 32 genes were common in all exposure groups. Bioinformatics analysis of the SDEG identified enrichment of functions, networks and canonical pathways related to inflammation, cancer, oxidative stress, fibrosis, and tissue remodeling in response to silica exposure. Collectively, these results provided insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying pulmonary toxicity following sub-chronic inhalation exposure to crystalline silica in rats.

  18. The chronic toxicity of molybdate to freshwater organisms. I. Generating reliable effects data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Schamphelaere, K.A.C., E-mail: karel.deschamphelaere@Ugent.be [Laboratory of Environmental Toxicology and Aquatic Ecology, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Ghent University (Belgium); Stubblefield, W. [Oregon State University, Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, 421 Weniger Hall, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); Rodriguez, P. [Centro de Investigacion Minera y Metalurgica (CIMM), Santiago (Chile); Vleminckx, K. [Department for Molecular Biomedical Research, Ghent University (Belgium); Janssen, C.R. [Laboratory of Environmental Toxicology and Aquatic Ecology, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Ghent University (Belgium)

    2010-10-15

    The European Union regulation on Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and Restriction of Chemical substances (REACH) (EC, 2006) requires the characterization of the chronic toxicity of many chemicals in the aquatic environment, including molybdate (MoO{sub 4}{sup 2-}). Our literature review on the ecotoxicity of molybdate revealed that a limited amount of reliable chronic no observed effect concentrations (NOECs) for the derivation of a predicted no-effect concentration (PNEC) existed. This paper presents the results of additional ecotoxicity experiments that were conducted in order to fulfill the requirements for the derivation of a PNEC by means of the scientifically most robust species sensitivity distribution (SSD) approach (also called the statistical extrapolation approach). Ten test species were chronically exposed to molybdate (added as sodium molybdate dihydrate, Na{sub 2}MoO{sub 4}.2H{sub 2}O) according to internationally accepted standard testing guidelines or equivalent. The 10% effective concentrations (EC10, expressed as measured dissolved molybdenum) for the most sensitive endpoint per species were 62.8-105.6 (mg Mo)/L for Daphnia magna (21 day-reproduction), 78.2 (mg Mo)/L for Ceriodaphnia dubia (7 day-reproduction), 61.2-366.2 (mg Mo)/L for the green alga Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata (72 h-growth rate), 193.6 (mg Mo)/L for the rotifer Brachionus calyciflorus (48 h-population growth rate), 121.4 (mg Mo)/L for the midge Chironomus riparius (14 day-growth), 211.3 (mg Mo)/L for the snail Lymnaea stagnalis (28 day-growth rate), 115.9 (mg Mo)/L for the frog Xenopus laevis (4 day-larval development), 241.5 (mg Mo)/L for the higher plant Lemna minor (7 day-growth rate), 39.3 (mg Mo)/L for the fathead minnow Pimephales promelas (34 day-dry weight/biomass), and 43.2 (mg Mo)/L for the rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss (78 day-biomass). These effect concentrations are in line with the few reliable data currently available in the open literature. The data

  19. Acute and chronic toxicity of neonicotinoids to nymphs of a mayfly species and some notes on seasonal differences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brink, Van den P.J.; Smeden, Van J.M.; Bekele, R.S.; Dierick, Wiebe; Gelder, De Daphne M.; Noteboom, Maarten; Roessink, Ivo

    2016-01-01

    Mayfly nymphs are among the most sensitive taxa to neonicotinoids. The present study presents the acute and chronic toxicity of 3 neonicotinoids (imidacloprid, thiacloprid, and thiamethoxam) to a mayfly species (Cloeon dipterum) and some notes on the seasonality of the toxicity of imidacloprid to

  20. The acute and chronic toxicity of major geochemical ions to Hyalella azteca Ion interactions and comparisons to other species

    Science.gov (United States)

    We have previously reported that the acute and chronic toxicities of major geochemical ions (Na, K, Ca, Mg, Cl, SO4, HCO3) to Ceriodaphnia dubia can involve multiple, independent mechanisms. The toxicities of K, Mg, and Ca salts were best related to the chemical activity of the c...

  1. The chronic toxicity of molybdate to marine organisms. I. Generating reliable effects data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heijerick, D.G., E-mail: Dagobert.heijerick@arche-consulting.be [ARCHE - Assessing Risks of Chemicals, Stapelplein 70 Bus 104, Gent (Belgium); Regoli, L. [International Molybdenum Association, 4 Heathfield Terrace, London, W4 4JE (United Kingdom); Stubblefield, W. [Oregon State University, Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, 421 Weniger Hall, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States)

    2012-07-15

    A scientific research program was initiated by the International Molybdenum Association (IMOA) which addressed identified gaps in the environmental toxicity data for the molybdate ion (MoO{sub 4}{sup 2-}). These gaps were previously identified during the preparation of EU-REACH-dossiers for different molybdenum compounds (European Union regulation on Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and Restriction of Chemical substances; EC, 2006). Evaluation of the open literature identified few reliable marine ecotoxicological data that could be used for deriving a Predicted No-Effect Concentration (PNEC) for the marine environment. Rather than calculating a PNEC{sub marine} using the assessment factor methodology on a combined freshwater/marine dataset, IMOA decided to generate sufficient reliable marine chronic data to permit derivation of a PNEC by means of the more scientifically robust species sensitivity distribution (SSD) approach (also called the statistical extrapolation approach). Nine test species were chronically exposed to molybdate (added as sodium molybdate dihydrate, Na{sub 2}MoO{sub 4}{center_dot}2H{sub 2}O) according to published standard testing guidelines that are acceptable for a broad range of regulatory purposes. The selected test organisms were representative for typical marine trophic levels: micro-algae/diatom (Phaeodactylum tricornutum, Dunaliella tertiolecta), macro-alga (Ceramium tenuicorne), mysids (Americamysis bahia), copepod (Acartia tonsa), fish (Cyprinodon variegatus), echinoderms (Dendraster exentricus, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus) and molluscs (Mytilus edulis, Crassostrea gigas). Available NOEC/EC{sub 10} levels ranged between 4.4 mg Mo/L (blue mussel M. edulis) and 1174 mg Mo/L (oyster C. gigas). Using all available reliable marine chronic effects data that are currently available, a HC{sub 5,50%} (median hazardous concentration affecting 5% of the species) of 5.74 (mg Mo)/L was derived with the statistical extrapolation approach, a

  2. Psychosocial and cognitive rehabilitation of patients with solvent-induced chronic toxic encephalopathy : A randomised controlled study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hout, Moniek S. E.; Wekking, Ellie M.; Berg, Ina J.; Deelman, Betto G.

    2008-01-01

    Background: There is little experience with the ( neuro) psychological treatment of patients with solvent-induced chronic toxic encephalopathy ( CSE). In this randomised controlled trial ( RCT), a treatment programme was evaluated based on previous outcome studies of patients with chronic fatigue,

  3. Psychosocial and cognitive rehabilitation of patients with solvent-induced chronic toxic encephalopathy: a randomised controlled study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hout, Moniek S. E.; Wekking, Ellie M.; Berg, Ina J.; Deelman, Betto G.

    2008-01-01

    There is little experience with the (neuro) psychological treatment of patients with solvent-induced chronic toxic encephalopathy (CSE). In this randomised controlled trial (RCT), a treatment programme was evaluated based on previous outcome studies of patients with chronic fatigue, whiplash and

  4. Comparative chronic toxicity of homo- and heterocyclic aromatic compounds to benthic and terrestrial invertebrates: Generalizations and exceptions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    León Paumen, M.; de Voogt, P.; van Gestel, C.A.M.; Kraak, M.H.S.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to elucidate consistent patterns in chronic polycyclic aromatic compound (PAC) toxicity to soil and sediment inhabiting invertebrates. Therefore we examined our experimental dataset, consisting of twenty-one chronic effect concentrations for two soil invertebrates

  5. Comparative chronic toxicity of homo- and heterocyclic aromatic compounds to benthic and terrestrial invertebrates: Generalizations and exceptions.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leon Paumen, M.; de Voogt, P.; van Gestel, C.A.M.; Kraak, M.H.S.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to elucidate consistent patterns in chronic polycyclic aromatic compound (PAC) toxicity to soil and sediment inhabiting invertebrates. Therefore we examined our experimental dataset, consisting of twenty-one chronic effect concentrations for two soil invertebrates

  6. Adjusting for mortality effects in chronic toxicity testing: Mixture model approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, S.C.D.; Smith, E.P.

    2000-01-01

    Chronic toxicity tests, such as the Ceriodaphnia dubia 7-d test are typically analyzed using standard statistical methods such as analysis of variance or regression. Recent research has emphasized the use of Poisson regression or more generalized regression for the analysis of the fecundity data from these studies. A possible problem in using standard statistical techniques is that mortality may occur from toxicant effects as well as reduced fecundity. A mixture model that accounts for fecundity and mortality is proposed for the analysis of data arising from these studies. Inferences about key parameters in the model are discussed. A joint estimate of the inhibition concentration is proposed based on the model. Confidence interval estimations via the bootstrap method is discussed. An example is given for a study involving copper and mercury.

  7. Acute and sub-chronic toxicity evaluations of aqueous extract from stem bark of Grewia mollis (Malvaceae in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pongri Adarki

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Different parts of Grewia mollis Juss. (Malvaceae are commonly used in folk medicine to treat several ailments, including diarrhea, ulcers, rickets, cough and fever. Although several studies have proved its therapeutic effectiveness, there are very few toxicological studies on the plant. Objectives: This study was carried out to evaluate the acute and sub-chronic toxicity of the aqueous extract of G. mollis stem bark (GM in animals. Methods: In the acute study, rats were orally administrated with GM at doses of 150, 300, 600, 1200, 2400, 4800 and 9600 mg/kg to determine the oral medial lethal dose (LD50. In the chronic study, rats received three doses of GM (150, 300 and 600 mg/kg for 28 days. After the treatments, food intake, body weights, biochemical, hematological and histopathological parameters were analyzed. Results: The LD50 was estimated to be >9600 mg/kg. No significant alterations in the animal’s body weight gain, relative organs weight, serum biochemical analysis, hematological or histopathological analyses of liver, kidneys, lungs, heart and spleen were observed. Conclusions: The results of this study provided evidence that oral administration of GM at dose of 600 mg/kg is relatively safe in rats and may not exert severe toxic effects.

  8. Chronic toxicity of parabens and their chlorinated by-products in Ceriodaphnia dubia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terasaki, Masanori; Abe, Ryoko; Makino, Masakazu; Tatarazako, Norihisa

    2015-01-01

    The chronic toxicity of 12 compounds of parabens and their chlorinated by-products was investigated using 7-day Ceriodaphnia dubia test under static renewal condition in order to generate information on how to disinfect by-products of preservatives that are discharged in aquatic systems. The mortality and inhibition of reproduction tended to increase with increasing hydrophobicity and decreased with the degree of chlorination of parabens. The EC50 values for mortality, offspring number, and first brood production ranged between 0.30-3.1, 0.047-12, and 1.3-6.3 mg L(-1) , respectively. For the number of neonates, the most sensitive endpoint, the no-observed-effect concentration (NOEC) and lowest-observed-effect concentration (LOEC) values ranged from 0.63 to 10 mg L(-1) and from 1.2 to 19 mg L(-1) , respectively. Methylparaben (MP), benzylparaben (BnP), and dichlorinated BnP (Cl2 BnP) elicited a significant decrease in offspring numbers even at their lowest concentration tested; the NOEC for these compounds was determined to be less than the lowest test concentration (1.3, 0.04, and 0.63 mg L(-1) for MP, BnP, and Cl2 BnP, respectively). Propylparaben (PP), chlorinated PP, isopropylparaben (iPP), and chlorinated iPP exhibited nonmonotonic concentration-dependent response; their NOEC and LOEC values could not be determined. The multivariate approach involving principal component analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis revealed four groups that corresponded to the toxicological profiles of parabens. Our results suggested that disinfection of parabens by chlorination could reduce aquatic toxicity of original compounds. The findings obtained in our study together with the data available on paraben concentrations in aquatic systems can be used to perform preliminary risk assessment by comparing the predicted environmental concentration (PEC) with the predicted no-effect concentration (PNEC) for the marine aquatic environment. The calculated PEC/PNEC ratios ranged from 0

  9. Treatment results of functional endoscopic sinus surgery in chronic sinusitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naraghi M

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Endoscopic sinus surgery has been used for diagnosis and treatment of chronic inflammatory diseases of paranasal sinuses since recent years. Materials and Methods: In this study 104 patients with chronic sinusitis (with or without polyps which were managed with endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS were followed for 6 to 24 months after surgery (24 patients refused to continue follow up and the recovery rate of symptoms were evaluated. Results: The effectiveness of this therapy is statistically approved and the most important symptom which diminished was nasal obstruction (from 95 percent to 18.5 percent, the least important symptom which diminished was anosmia (from 57 percent to 21 percent. Conclusion: This study confirmed the efficacy of functional endoscopic sinus surgery in improvement of chronic sinusitis symptoms.

  10. Chronic toxicity and oncogenicity of N-methylpyrrolidone (NMP) in rats and mice by dietary administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malley, L A; Kennedy, G L; Elliott, G S; Slone, T W; Mellert, W; Deckardt, K; Kuttler, K; Hildebrand, B; Banton, M I; Parod, R J; Griffiths, J C

    2001-11-01

    A two-year feeding study in rats and an 18-month feeding study in mice were conducted to evaluate the potential chronic toxicity and oncogenicity of NMP in Crl:CD (SD)BR rats and B6C3F1/CrlBR mice. Groups of 62 male and female rats were administered diets containing 0, 1600, 5000, or 15,000 ppm of NMP for approximately 2 years. Groups of 50 male and female mice were administered diets containing 0, 600, 1200, or 7200 ppm NMP for approximately 18 months. In vivo parameters were evaluated weekly during the first 3 months of the study, and every other week or monthly during the remainder of the study. For rats, an ophthalmoscopic examination was conducted prior to study start and near the end of the study. Periodically, blood samples were collected from rats and mice for determination of leukocyte differential counts, and from mice for red blood cell morphology. After approximately 2 years of dietary administration in rats and 18 months in mice, all surviving animals were sacrificed. Selected tissues were processed for morphological evaluation. Over the course of the two-year study in rats, test substance-related decrements in body weight and weight gain occurred in 15,000 ppm males and females, which correlated with decreased food consumption and food efficiency. A toxicologically significant, test substance-related increase in the incidence of severe chronic progressive nephropathy occurred in 15,000 ppm males. Several morphological changes noted grossly and/or microscopically were secondary to the increased severity of chronic progressive nephropathy. NMP was not oncogenic in male or female rats at dietary concentrations of 15,000 ppm and below. A test substance-related decrease in the percentage of 15,000 ppm males surviving to the end of the two-year study compared to the control group resulted from the higher incidence of severe chronic progressive nephropathy. However, a sufficient population of 15,000 ppm rats were at risk for potential oncogenicity, so the

  11. Comparing the effectiveness of chronic water column tests with the crustaceans Hyalella azteca (order: Amphipoda) and Ceriodaphnia dubia (order: Cladocera) in detecting toxicity of current-use insecticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deanovic, Linda A; Markiewicz, Dan; Stillway, Marie; Fong, Stephanie; Werner, Inge

    2013-03-01

    Standard U.S. Environmental Protection Agency laboratory tests are used to monitor water column toxicity in U.S. surface waters. The water flea Ceriodaphnia dubia is among the most sensitive test species for detecting insecticide toxicity in freshwater environments.Its usefulness is limited, however, when water conductivity exceeds 2,000 µS/cm (approximately 1 ppt salinity) and test effectiveness is insufficient. Water column toxicity tests using the euryhaline amphipod Hyalella azteca could complement C. dubia tests; however, standard chronic protocols do not exist. The present study compares the effectiveness of two water column toxicity tests in detecting the toxicity of two organophosphate (OP) and two pyrethroid insecticides: the short-term chronic C. dubia test, which measures mortality and fecundity, and a 10-d H. azteca test, which measures mortality and growth. Sensitivity was evaluated by comparing effect data, and end point variability was evaluated by comparing minimum significant differences. Tests were performed in synthetic water and filtered ambient water to quantify the influence of water matrix on effect concentrations. The H. azteca test detected pyrethroid toxicity far more effectively, while the C. dubia test was more sensitive to OPs. Among endpoints, H. azteca mortality was most robust. The results demonstrate that the H. azteca test is preferable when conductivity of water samples is 2,000 to 10,000 µS/cm or if contaminants of concern include pyrethroid insecticides. Copyright © 2012 SETAC.

  12. The potential acute and chronic toxicity of cyfluthrin on the soil model organism, Eisenia fetida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lingling; Yang, Da; Song, Yufang; Shi, Yi; Huang, Bin; Bitsch, Annette; Yan, Jun

    2017-10-01

    In this study, the acute (72h and 14 d) and chronic (28 d and 8 weeks) effects of cyfluthrin on earthworms were evaluated across different endpoints, which are mortality, growth, reproduction and enzyme activities. Cyfluthrin was rated as moderately toxic in 72-h filter paper test and low toxic in 14-day soil test. The exposure of earthworms to cyfluthrin-polluted soil for 8 weeks showed that growth of earthworms was inhibited by cyfluthrin, cocoon production and hatching were inhibited by 20-60mg/kg cyfluthrin. Moreover, 28-day soil test on the responses of enzymes associated with antioxidation and detoxification showed that the activities of catalase (CAT) and glutathione S- transferase (GST) were initially increased by cyfluthrin at 5-20mg/kg, but reduced at 30-60mg/kg, peroxidase (POD) was increased by 26-102% by cyfluthrin in the early period, except 5mg/kg on day 7, and ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) was increased by 29-335% by cyfluthrin after 3 days. Cyfluthrin degraded with a half-life of 24.8-34.8 d, showing the inconsistency between the continuous toxic responses of earthworms and degradation of cyfluthrin in soil. The variable responses of these indexes indicated that different level endpoints should be jointly considered for better evaluation of the environmental risk of contaminants in soil. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Sub-chronic toxicity study of a novel herbal-based formulation (Semelil on dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzamfar B

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Semelil (ANGIPARSTM, a novel herbal-based compound containing extract of Melilotus officinalis, was formulated for treatment of chronic wounds, especially diabetic foot ulcer. The purpose of this study was to investigate safety and toxicity effects of intramuscular administration of Semelil in dogs. "nPreliminary one-month study with Semelil was performed on 8 male and female dogs divided into 2 groups, test and control, four animals each. Semelil was administered intramuscularlyat a dose of 0.07 ml/kg body wt. once a day to the animals of the test group, while the control group received sterile saline. During experiments, general state of the animals including the dynamics of body weight changes, appetite, motor activity and behavior, hair condition, ECG parameters, rectal temperature of animals and data of hematological and biochemical tests were monitored for signs of toxicity and side-effects. Finally, morphology and histology analyses were performed using standard methods."nNo adverse health or toxicity effects were observed through the course of the study. No damaging consequences of Semelil injections on the functional state of main organs of the experimental animals were found. This observation gave a good evidence of a favorable safety profile compatible with potential therapeutic use of Semelil.

  14. Acute and chronic toxicity of Roundup Weathermax and Ignite 280 SL to larval Spea multiplicata and S. bombifrons from the Southern High Plains, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dinehart, Simon K., E-mail: simon.dinehart@okstate.ed [Department of Zoology, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK 74078 (United States); Smith, Loren M.; McMurry, Scott T. [Department of Zoology, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK 74078 (United States); Smith, Philip N.; Anderson, Todd A. [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Texas Tech University, Box 41163, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States); Haukos, David A. [U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, MS 2125, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States)

    2010-08-15

    Pesticides have been implicated in widespread amphibian declines. We assessed acute and chronic toxicity of two widely used herbicides to larval New Mexico (Spea multiplicata) and Plains (S. bombifrons) spadefoots from cropland and native grassland playas. Roundup WeatherMAX (WM) toxicity estimates (48- and 216-h LC{sub 50}; 48-h LC{sub 1}) for both species were similar to environmental concentrations expected from accidental overspray. Chronic (30-day) exposure to WM at predicted environmental concentrations (2.0 and 2.8 mg glyphosate acid equivalents/L) reduced survival of both species. Ignite 280 SL (IG) toxicity estimates (48-h LC{sub 50} and LC{sub 1}) for both species were above predicted environmental concentrations of 1.0 mg glufosinate/L. Chronic exposure to predicted environmental concentrations of IG did not reduce survival of either species. Toxicity test results suggest that at predicted environmental concentrations IG would not cause extensive mortalities among larval New Mexico and Plains spadefoots. However, WM may cause extensive mortality among larvae of these species. - Roundup WeatherMAX may cause extensive mortality among larval New Mexico and Plains spadefoots; it is unlikely that exposure to Ignite 280 SL would result in extensive mortalities.

  15. TBHQ Alleviated Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress-Apoptosis and Oxidative Stress by PERK-Nrf2 Crosstalk in Methamphetamine-Induced Chronic Pulmonary Toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yun; Gu, Yu-Han; Liu, Ming; Bai, Yang; Liang, Li-Ye; Wang, Huai-Liang

    2017-01-01

    Methamphetamine (MA) leads to cardiac and pulmonary toxicity expressed as increases in inflammatory responses and oxidative stress. However, some interactions may exist between oxidative stress and endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS). The current study is designed to investigate if both oxidative stress and ERS are involved in MA-induced chronic pulmonary toxicity and if antioxidant tertiary butylhydroquinone (TBHQ) alleviated ERS-apoptosis and oxidative stress by PERK-Nrf2 crosstalk. In this study, the rats were randomly divided into control group, MA-treated group (MA), and MA plus TBHQ-treated group (MA + TBHQ). Chronic exposure to MA resulted in slower growth of weight and pulmonary toxicity of the rats by increasing the pulmonary arterial pressure, promoting the hypertrophy of right ventricle and the remodeling of pulmonary arteries. MA inhibited the Nrf2-mediated antioxidative stress by downregulation of Nrf2, GCS, and HO-1 and upregulation of SOD2. MA increased GRP78 to induce ERS. Overexpression and phosphorylation of PERK rapidly phosphorylated eIF2α, increased ATF4, CHOP, bax, caspase 3, and caspase 12, and decreased bcl-2. These changes can be reversed by antioxidant TBHQ through upregulating expression of Nrf2. The above results indicated that TBHQ can alleviate MA-induced oxidative stress which can accelerate ERS to initiate PERK-dependent apoptosis and that PERK/Nrf2 is likely to be the key crosstalk between oxidative stress and ERS in MA-induced chronic pulmonary toxicity.

  16. TBHQ Alleviated Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress-Apoptosis and Oxidative Stress by PERK-Nrf2 Crosstalk in Methamphetamine-Induced Chronic Pulmonary Toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Methamphetamine (MA leads to cardiac and pulmonary toxicity expressed as increases in inflammatory responses and oxidative stress. However, some interactions may exist between oxidative stress and endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS. The current study is designed to investigate if both oxidative stress and ERS are involved in MA-induced chronic pulmonary toxicity and if antioxidant tertiary butylhydroquinone (TBHQ alleviated ERS-apoptosis and oxidative stress by PERK-Nrf2 crosstalk. In this study, the rats were randomly divided into control group, MA-treated group (MA, and MA plus TBHQ-treated group (MA + TBHQ. Chronic exposure to MA resulted in slower growth of weight and pulmonary toxicity of the rats by increasing the pulmonary arterial pressure, promoting the hypertrophy of right ventricle and the remodeling of pulmonary arteries. MA inhibited the Nrf2-mediated antioxidative stress by downregulation of Nrf2, GCS, and HO-1 and upregulation of SOD2. MA increased GRP78 to induce ERS. Overexpression and phosphorylation of PERK rapidly phosphorylated eIF2α, increased ATF4, CHOP, bax, caspase 3, and caspase 12, and decreased bcl-2. These changes can be reversed by antioxidant TBHQ through upregulating expression of Nrf2. The above results indicated that TBHQ can alleviate MA-induced oxidative stress which can accelerate ERS to initiate PERK-dependent apoptosis and that PERK/Nrf2 is likely to be the key crosstalk between oxidative stress and ERS in MA-induced chronic pulmonary toxicity.

  17. Modeling chronic dietary cadmium bioaccumulation and toxicity from periphyton to Hyalella azteca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golding, Lisa A; Borgmann, Uwe; Dixon, D George

    2011-07-01

    A chronic (28-d) Cd saturation bioaccumulation model was developed to quantify the Cd contribution from a natural periphyton diet to Cd in the freshwater amphipod Hyalella azteca. Bioaccumulation was then linked to chronic toxic effects. Juvenile H. azteca were exposed to treatments of Cd in water (3.13-100 nmol/L nominal) and food (389-26,300 nmol/g ash-free dry mass). Cadmium bioaccumulation, survival, and growth were recorded. Dietary Cd was estimated to contribute 21 to 31, 59 to 94, and 40 to 55% to bioaccumulated Cd in H. azteca exposed to treatments of Cd primarily in water, food, and food + water, respectively. Survival as a function of Cd lethal body concentration (679 nmol/g; 95% confidence limits, 617-747) was the most robust endpoint. Body concentration integrated all exposure routes. Based on the lethal body concentration, dietary Cd was predicted to contribute markedly (26-90%) to Cd in H. azteca. Cadmium concentration and food nutritional quality (biomass, chlorophyll a, total lipid, fatty acids, total protein) had no effect on H. azteca nutritional quality (total lipid, fatty acids, total protein) but did influence H. azteca dry weight. This research highlighted the importance of including a dietary component when modeling chronic effects of Cd and when refining endpoints for use in ecological risk assessment and water quality guidelines. Copyright © 2011 SETAC.

  18. [Treatment and results of therapy in chronic idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasić, J; Milenović, M; Drasković, S; Vukicević, T; Macukanović, L; Kitić, Lj; Bakić, M

    1994-01-01

    Basic principles in the therapy of chronic idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura are glucocorticoides and splenectomy. Other measures: Intravenous high doses gamma globulin therapy, attenuated androgenes, immunosupresive drugs and plasmaferesis are less effective. During the period of 1989-1992 we treated 34 patients. From 34 patients, 23 were women and 11 were men. We treated patients primarily by prednisolon approximaly for 2 - 4 weeks. Rarely we use doses of 3 mg/kg per day for short periods of time (5 to 10 days) or "pulse therapy" of 500 mg per day. Those doses may be effective in elevating platelet count if the response is poor. If response occurs, high dosages of steroides should be tareped to determine the amount that will maintain the platelet count in the range of 30x10(9)/l to 50x10(9)/l (to minimaze the toxic sade effects of steroides). If steroides are ineffective, we perform splenectomy. From 34 treated patients by glucocorticoides, in 16 we got remission and in 11 partial response. We discussed in detailes relationship duration of treatment with glucocorticoides and level of platelets, and also correlation duration of treatment with prognosis. From 6 splenectomized patients 3 were successful. In two patients we applied intravenous gamma globulin therapy and attenuated androgen successfuly. In one patients therapy with gamma globulin, immunosupresive drugs, androgen and other measures was ineffective. In one patients without splenectomy we administrated successfuly gamma globulin therapy and androgen for peroid of two years.

  19. [In vivoconfocal microscopic observation of corneal changes in patients with chronic Stevens-Johnson syndrome or toxic epidermal necrolysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, T T; Li, Y; Liu, J; Long, Q

    2017-03-11

    Objective: To describe corneal alterations visible on in vivo confocal microscopy in patients with debilitating ocular sequelae caused by Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) or toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN). Methods: Twenty-two eyes of 11 consecutive patients suffering from chronic SJS or TEN were studied using slit lamp and in vivo confocal microscopy in the Ophthalmology Outpatient Department of Peking Union Medical College Hospital from March 2014 to April 2015. Results: Dry eye with meibomian gland dysfunction (19 eyes of 10 patients, 86.4%) was the most frequent clinical sequelae. Two patients (3 eyes, 13.6%) had severe vison loss with corneal neovascularization and conjunctivization. One patient had asymmetric binocular disease. Corneal epithelial cells were observed at an active state in 10 patients (19 eyes, 86.4%) and corneal stromal cells at an active state in all patients (22 eyes, 100%). Twenty eyes (10 patients, 91%) were noted with abnormal nerve layout and 10 eyes (5 patients, 45.5%) with dendritic cell infiltration around pathological nerve damages. Numerous inflammory cells were observed in 6 eyes (3 patients, 27.3%). Conclusions: The corneas of patients with chronic ocular sequelae associated with SJS or TEN present a number of abnormalities. In vivo confocal microscopy is a potetial useful tool for therapeutic indications and for follow-up of the debilitating chronic ocular problems linked to SJS and TEN. (Chin J Ophthalmol, 2017, 53:177-181) .

  20. Practical Management of Toxicities Associated With Bosutinib in Patients With Philadelphia Chromosome-Positive Chronic Myeloid Leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoury, H J; Gambacorti-Passerini, C; Brümmendorf, T H

    2018-01-27

    Bosutinib (SKI-606) is an oral, dual Src/Abl tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) approved for treatment of patients with Philadelphia chromosome-positive (Ph+) chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) that is resistant or intolerant to prior TKI therapy or for whom other TKIs are not appropriate choices. The objective of this review is to provide a longitudinal summary of toxicities that may arise during treatment with second-line or later bosutinib in patients with Ph+ chronic phase CML and to provide strategies for managing these toxicities. As bosutinib is not currently indicated for newly diagnosed CML, toxicities associated with first-line treatment are not reviewed. Recognition and optimal management of these toxicities can facilitate patient compliance and affect treatment outcomes. © The Author 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society for Medical Oncology.

  1. Issues in the design and interpretation of chronic toxicity and carcinogenicity studies in rodents: approaches to dose selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhomberg, Lorenz R; Baetcke, Karl; Blancato, Jerry; Bus, James; Cohen, Samuel; Conolly, Rory; Dixit, Rakesh; Doe, John; Ekelman, Karen; Fenner-Crisp, Penny; Harvey, Paul; Hattis, Dale; Jacobs, Abigail; Jacobson-Kram, David; Lewandowski, Tom; Liteplo, Robert; Pelkonen, Olavi; Rice, Jerry; Somers, Diana; Turturro, Angelo; West, Webster; Olin, Stephen

    2007-01-01

    For more than three decades chronic studies in rodents have been the benchmark for assessing the potential long-term toxicity, and particularly the carcinogenicity, of chemicals. With doses typically administered for about 2 years (18 months to lifetime), the rodent bioassay has been an integral component of testing protocols for food additives, pesticides, pharmaceuticals, industrial chemicals, and all manner of byproducts and environmental contaminants. Over time, the data from these studies have been used to address an increasing diversity of questions related to the assessment of human health risks, adding complexity to study design and interpretation. An earlier ILSI RSI working group developed a set of principles for the selection of doses for chronic rodent studies (ILSI, 1997). The present report builds on that work, examining some of the issues that arise and offering new perspectives and approaches for putting the principles into practice. Dose selection is considered both from the prospective viewpoint of the choosing of dose levels for a study and from the retrospective interpretation of study results in light of the doses used. A main theme of this report is that the purposes and objectives of chronic rodent studies vary and should be clearly defined in advance. Dose placement, then, should be optimized to achieve study objectives. For practical reasons, most chronic studies today must be designed to address multiple objectives, often requiring trade-offs and innovative approaches in study design. A systematic approach to dose selection should begin with recognition that the design of chronic studies occurs in the context of a careful assessment of the accumulated scientific information on the test substance, the relevant risk management questions, priorities and mandates, and the practical limitations and constraints on available resources. A stepwise process is described. The aim is to increase insofar as possible the utility of an expensive and time

  2. Liver cirrhosis as a result of chronic hepatitis C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Sukhoruk

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of chronic hepatitis C in St. Petersburg is 124.4 per 100 000 population. The number of patients with liver cirrhosis is significant.Aim of this study: to examine the demographic, clinical and epidemiological characteristics of patients with cirrhosis in the results of chronic hepatitis C.Materials and methods: 100 patients with cirrhosis due to chronic hepatitis C in age 31–70 years were included. Patients with infection hepatitis viruses A and B, HIV, alcohol abuse, drug addicts, previously received antiviral therapy were excluded. Liver cirrhosis was diagnosed on the basis clinical, laboratory and instrumental investigations.Results: most patients (86,2% male and 81,7% female are socially adapted. In 23,2% of patients antibodies to hepatitis C virus were first detected simultaneously with the diagnosis of cirrhosis. Medical procedures were the most common route of infection (25,6% male and 57,1% female. Genotype 1 was dominant (65.7%. Viral load over 800 000 IU/ml was detected in 36,7% of patients. ALT activity was normal or not more than 2 upper limit of normal in 59% of patients, AST – 47%. Normal levels of total bilirubin were recorded in 37% of cases.Conclusions: the first detection of antibodies to hepatitis C virus at the stage of cirrhosis, absence of jaundice, normal or low cytolytic activity once again confirms the need for screening for markers of hepatitis C virus. Dominance of genotype 1 is probably due on the one hand with features routes of transmission, and the other – with the speed of transformation chronic hepatitis to cirrhosis.

  3. A combined dietary chronic toxicity and two-year carcinogenicity study of (2R,4R)-monatin salt in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brathwaite, Witty A; Crincoli, Christine M; Eapen, Alex K; Rihner, Marisa O; Nikiforov, Andrey I; Remick, Amera K

    2016-05-01

    In a combined chronic toxicity/carcinogenicity study, groups of Crl:CD(SD) rats were fed 0 (2 control groups), 5000, 20,000, or 40,000 ppm (2R,4R)-monatin salt (hereafter "R,R-monatin") in the diet for up to one year in the chronic toxicity phase and up to two years in the carcinogenicity phase. There were no adverse effects on survival, incidence of palpable masses, neoplasms, organ weights, or ophthalmic examinations. The only notable effect was statistically significantly lower mean body weights and body weight gains in all treated groups generally throughout the study, which were most likely a result of caloric dilution of the test diets. Effects of long-term R,R-monatin ingestion by rats were predominantly focused on the urinary system (i.e., clinical pathology alterations indicative of electrolyte and pH imbalances, increased incidence of renal calculi, mineralization and bone hyperostosis, and increased severity of chronic progressive nephropathy). The no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) for R,R-monatin from the chronic toxicity phase was 20,000 ppm (equivalent to an exposure level of 1080 mg/kg bw/day for males and 1425 mg/kg/day for females) and from the carcinogenicity phase was 5000 ppm (equivalent to an exposure level of 238 and 302 mg/kg bw/day for males and females, respectively). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Is Boric Acid Toxic to Reproduction in Humans? Assessment of the Animal Reproductive Toxicity Data and Epidemiological Study Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duydu, Yalçın; Başaran, Nurşen; Ustündağ, Aylin; Aydın, Sevtap; Undeğer, Ulkü; Ataman, Osman Yavuz; Aydos, Kaan; Düker, Yalçın; Ickstadt, Katja; Waltrup, Brita Schulze; Golka, Klaus; Bolt, Hermann Maximilian

    2016-01-01

    Boric acid and sodium borates are classified as toxic to reproduction in the CLP Regulation under "Category 1B" with the hazard statement of "H360FD". This classification is based on the reprotoxic effects of boric acid and sodium borates in animal experiments at high doses. However, boron mediated reprotoxic effects have not been proven in epidemiological studies so far. The epidemiological study performed in Bandırma boric acid production plant is the most comprehensive published study in this field with 204 voluntarily participated male workers. Sperm quality parameters (sperm morphology, concentration and motility parameters), FSH, LH and testosterone levels were determined in all participated employees as the reproductive toxicity biomarkers of males. However, boron mediated unfavorable effects on reproduction in male workers have not been determined even in the workers under very high daily boron exposure (0.21 mg B/kg-bw/day) conditions. The NOAEL for rat reproductive toxicity is equivalent to a blood boron level of 2020 ng/g. This level is higher than the mean blood boron concentration (223.89 ± 69.49 ng/g) of the high exposure group workers in Bandırma boric acid production plant (Turkey) by a factor of 9. Accordingly, classifying boric acid and sodium borates under "Category 1B" as "presumed reproductive human toxicant in the CLP regulation seems scientifically not reasonable. The results of the epidemiological studies (including the study performed in China) support for a down-classification of boric acid from the category 1B, H360FD to category 2, H361d, (suspected of damaging the unborn child).

  5. Short-term methods for estimating the chronic toxicity of effluents and receiving water to freshwater organisms. Third edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, P.A.; Klemm, D.J.; Lazorchak, J.M.; Norberg-King, T.J.; Peltier, W.H.

    1994-07-01

    This manual describes four short-term (four- to seven-day) methods for estimating the chronic toxicity of effluents and receiving waters to three freshwater species: The fathead minnow, Pimephales promelas, a daphnid, Ceriodaphnia dubia, and a green alga, Selenastrum capricornutum. The methods include single and multiple concentration static renewal and non-renewal toxicity tests for effluents and receiving waters. Also included are guidelines on laboratory safety, quality assurance, facilities, equipment and supplies; dilution water; effluent and receiving water sample collection, preservation, shipping, and holding; test conditions; toxicity test data analysis; report preparation; and organism culturing, holding, and handling.

  6. Biomarkers of Chronic Acrolein Inhalation Exposure in Mice: Implications for Tobacco Product-Induced Toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conklin, Daniel J; Malovichko, Marina V; Zeller, Iris; Das, Trinath P; Krivokhizhina, Tatiana V; Lynch, Blake H; Lorkiewicz, Pawel; Agarwal, Abhinav; Wickramasinghe, Nalinie; Haberzettl, Petra; Sithu, Srinivas D; Shah, Jasmit; O'Toole, Timothy E; Rai, Shesh N; Bhatnagar, Aruni; Srivastava, Sanjay

    2017-08-01

    Exposure to tobacco smoke, which contains several harmful and potentially harmful constituents such as acrolein increases cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Although high acrolein levels induce pervasive cardiovascular injury, the effects of low-level exposure remain unknown and sensitive biomarkers of acrolein toxicity have not been identified. Identification of such biomarkers is essential to assess the toxicity of acrolein present at low levels in the ambient air or in new tobacco products such as e-cigarettes. Hence, we examined the systemic effects of chronic (12 weeks) acrolein exposure at concentrations similar to those found in tobacco smoke (0.5 or 1 ppm). Acrolein exposure in mice led to a 2- to 3-fold increase in its urinary metabolite 3-hydroxypropyl mercapturic acid (3-HPMA) with an attendant increase in pulmonary levels of the acrolein-metabolizing enzymes, glutathione S-transferase P and aldose reductase, as well as several Nrf2-regulated antioxidant proteins. Markers of pulmonary endoplasmic reticulum stress and inflammation were unchanged. Exposure to acrolein suppressed circulating levels of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) and specific leukocyte subsets (eg, GR-1+ cells, CD19+ B-cells, CD4+ T-cells; CD11b+ monocytes) whilst other subsets (eg, CD8+ cells, NK1.1+ cells, Ly6C+ monocytes) were unchanged. Chronic acrolein exposure did not affect systemic glucose tolerance, platelet-leukocyte aggregates or microparticles in blood. These findings suggest that circulating levels of EPCs and specific leukocyte populations are sensitive biomarkers of inhaled acrolein injury and that low-level (<0.5 ppm) acrolein exposure (eg, in secondhand smoke, vehicle exhaust, e-cigarettes) could increase CVD risk by diminishing endothelium repair or by suppressing immune cells or both. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Evaluation of the sub-chronic toxicity of a standardized flavonoid extract of safflower in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhilin; Liu, Runzhe; Pu, Xiaoping; Sun, Yi; Zhao, Xin

    2017-04-01

    Carthamus tinctorius L., or safflower, is an annual herbaceous crop belonging to the family Asteraceae, which is cultivated throughout China and used as a traditional Chinese medicine. Our previous study revealed anti-Parkinson's disease effects of an isolated standardized safflower flavonoid extract (SAFE). The purpose of this study is to evaluate the potential sub-chronic toxicity of SAFE. Male and female Sprague Dawley rats received three doses of SAFE (100, 300, and 500 mg/kg) q.d. by gavage for four weeks. Body weights were measured during the experiment, and blood samples were collected once per week for hematological and serum biochemical parameters. Major organs were examined after execution and histopathological analyses were performed. Body weight gain in the administration groups showed no decline compared to the control group. However, there were changes in values of aspartate transaminase (p < 0.05), alanine transaminase (p < 0.05), and blood glucose (p < 0.05) between treatments. SAFE influenced parameters related to platelets in rats receiving SAFE for both sexes under different dosages (p < 0.05). No histopathological changes were observed. SAFE might have influence on conglomeration of platelets, transaminases, and blood glucose. SAFE caused no significant toxicity and further studies may be needed to ensure safety of SAFE. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Chronic glutamate toxicity in neurodegenerative diseases-what is the evidence?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela eMaher

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Together with aspartate, glutamate is the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain. Glutamate binds and activates both ligand-gated ion channels (ionotropic glutamate receptors and a class of G-protein coupled receptors (metabotropic glutamate receptors. Although the intracellular glutamate concentration in the brain is in the millimolar range, the extracellular glutamate concentration is kept in the low micromolar range by the action of excitatory amino acid transporters that import glutamate and aspartate into astrocytes and neurons. Excess extracellular glutamate may lead to excitotoxicity in vitro and in vivo in acute insults like ischemic stroke via the overactivation of ionotropic glutamate receptors. In addition, chronic excitotoxicity has been hypothesized to play a role in numerous neurodegenerative diseases including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Alzheimer’s disease and Huntington’s disease. Based on this hypothesis, a good deal of effort has been devoted to develop and test drugs that either inhibit glutamate receptors or decrease extracellular glutamate. In this review, we provide an overview of the different pathways that are thought to lead to an over-activation of the glutamatergic system and glutamate toxicity in neurodegeneration. In addition, we summarize the available experimental evidence for glutamate toxicity in animal models of neurodegenerative diseases.

  9. Chronic toxicity, genotoxic assay, and phytochemical analysis of four traditional medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castañeda Sortibrán, América; Téllez, María Guadalupe Ordaz; Ocotero, Verónica Muñoz; Carballo-Ontiveros, Marco Antonio; García, Angélica Méndez; Valdés, Rocio Jimena Jiménez; Gutiérrez, Elizabeth Romero; Rodríguez-Arnaiz, Rosario

    2011-09-01

    Four medicinal plants--Tecoma stans, Ligusticum porteri, Monarda austromontana, and Poliomintha longiflora, which are distributed in tropical and subtropical countries of the American continent--are widely used in folk medicine to treat diseases such as diarrhea and dysentery. In addition, T. stans and P. longiflora are extensively used as hypoglycemic agents, and M. austromontana and P. longiflora are used as condiments. The plants were collected, identified, dried, and pulverized. Solvent extraction was prepared by maceration of the plant samples, and the phytochemical composition of the extracts was determined by using standard analysis procedures. Phytochemical analysis showed the presence of triterpenoids/steroids, flavonoids, and phenols/tannins and, in L. porteri, traces of alkaloids. After the elimination of solvents in vacuo, the extracts were administrated to Drosophila larvae to test their toxicity and genotoxicity. Third instar larvae were chronically fed with the phytoextracts. The extract from L. porteri was toxic, whereas those from T. stans, P. longiflora, and M. austromontana were not. Genotoxic activities of the 4 plants were investigated by using the wing-spot assay of D. melanogaster. Mitomycin C was used as a positive control. No statistically significant increase was observed between treated sample series and a concurrent negative (water) or solvent control sample series.

  10. Deciphering the Differential Effective and Toxic Responses of Bupleuri Radix following the Induction of Chronic Unpredictable Mild Stress and in Healthy Rats Based on Serum Metabolic Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xiaoxia; Liang, Meili; Fang, Yuan; Zhao, Fang; Tian, Junsheng; Zhang, Xiang; Qin, Xuemei

    2018-01-01

    The petroleum ether fraction of Bupleuri Radix which is contained in the traditional Chinese medicine prescription of Xiaoyaosan (XYS) may have a therapeutic effect in depressed subjects based on the results of our previous study. It has been reported that Bupleuri Radix can cause liver toxicity following overdosing or long-term use. Therefore, this study aimed to decipher the differential effective and toxic responses of Bupleuri Radix in chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) (with depression) and healthy rats based on serum metabolic profiles. Serum metabolic profiles were obtained using the UHPLC- Q Exactive Orbitrap-MS technique. Our results demonstrated that the petroleum ether fraction of Bupleuri Radix (PBR) produces an antidepressant effect through regulating glycometabolism, amino acid metabolism, sphingolipid metabolism, glycerophospholipid metabolism, and fatty acid metabolism. It also induces more severe toxic reactions in the liver or kidney in healthy rats than in CUMS rats, which exhibited a comparatively mild drug-induced toxic reaction. The altered lysine degradation, sphingolipid metabolism, glycerophospholipid metabolism, fatty acid metabolism, and bile acid metabolism could be at least partly responsible for the PBR toxic responses in healthy rats. The differential effective and toxic response of PBR in CUMS rats and healthy rats provide a new standard for the more rational and safer application of clinical drugs in the future. PMID:29379441

  11. Deciphering the Differential Effective and Toxic Responses of Bupleuri Radix following the Induction of Chronic Unpredictable Mild Stress and in Healthy Rats Based on Serum Metabolic Profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoxia Gao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The petroleum ether fraction of Bupleuri Radix which is contained in the traditional Chinese medicine prescription of Xiaoyaosan (XYS may have a therapeutic effect in depressed subjects based on the results of our previous study. It has been reported that Bupleuri Radix can cause liver toxicity following overdosing or long-term use. Therefore, this study aimed to decipher the differential effective and toxic responses of Bupleuri Radix in chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS (with depression and healthy rats based on serum metabolic profiles. Serum metabolic profiles were obtained using the UHPLC- Q Exactive Orbitrap-MS technique. Our results demonstrated that the petroleum ether fraction of Bupleuri Radix (PBR produces an antidepressant effect through regulating glycometabolism, amino acid metabolism, sphingolipid metabolism, glycerophospholipid metabolism, and fatty acid metabolism. It also induces more severe toxic reactions in the liver or kidney in healthy rats than in CUMS rats, which exhibited a comparatively mild drug-induced toxic reaction. The altered lysine degradation, sphingolipid metabolism, glycerophospholipid metabolism, fatty acid metabolism, and bile acid metabolism could be at least partly responsible for the PBR toxic responses in healthy rats. The differential effective and toxic response of PBR in CUMS rats and healthy rats provide a new standard for the more rational and safer application of clinical drugs in the future.

  12. Development of Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship Models for Predicting Chronic Toxicity of Substituted Benzenes to Daphnia Magna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Deling; Liu, Jining; Wang, Lei; Yang, Xianhai; Zhang, Shenghu; Zhang, Yan; Shi, Lili

    2016-05-01

    The chronic toxicity of anthropogenic molecules such as substituted benzenes to Daphnia magna is a basic eco-toxicity parameter employed to assess their environmental risk. As the experimental methods are laborious, costly, and time-consuming, development in silico models for predicting the chronic toxicity is vitally important. In this study, on the basis of five molecular descriptors and 48 compounds, a quantitative structure-property relationship model that can predict the chronic toxicity of substituted benzenes were developed by employing multiple linear regressions. The correlation coefficient (R (2)) and root-mean square error (RMSE) for the training set were 0.836 and 0.390, respectively. The developed model was validated by employing 10 compounds tested in our lab. The R EXT (2) and RMSE EXT for the validation set were 0.736 and 0.490, respectively. To further characterizing the toxicity mechanism of anthropogenic molecules to Daphnia, comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA) and comparative molecular similarity indices analysis (CoMSIA) models were developed.

  13. Assessment of a new cell culture perfusion apparatus for in vitro chronic toxicity testing. Part 1 : technical description

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koppelstaetter, Christian; Jennings, Paul; Ryan, Michael P; Morin, Jean-Paul; Hartung, Thomas; Pfaller, Walter

    2004-01-01

    In vitro models for chronic toxicity, defined as a recurring exposure to compounds over a prolonged period of time, are still underrepresented in drug evaluation processes. The classical approach to cell culture is not readily suitable to long term repetitive applications. Therefore, we assessed the

  14. Assessment of acute and chronic toxicity of doxorubicin in human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louisse, Jochem; Wüst, Rob C I; Pistollato, Francesca; Palosaari, Taina; Barilari, Manuela; Macko, Peter; Bremer, Susanne; Prieto, Pilar

    2017-08-01

    The present study assesses acute and chronic toxicity of doxorubicin in human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CMs), with the aim to obtain in vitro biomarkers that can be used as readouts to predict in vivo cardiotoxicity. Possible acute toxicity was investigated by assessing effects on the beating rate and the field potential duration (FPD) of doxorubicin-exposed cardiomyocytes by measuring electrical activity using multi-electrode array (MEA) analyses. No effects on the beating rate and FPD were found at concentrations up to 6μM, whereas at 12μM no electrical activity was recorded, indicating that the cardiomyocytes stopped beating. Acute and chronic effects of doxorubicin on mitochondria, which have been reported to be affected in doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity, were assessed using high content imaging techniques. To this end hiPSC-CMs were exposed to 150 or 300nM doxorubicin using both single dosing (3h and 2days) and repetitive dosing (3 times, of 2days each), including washout studies to assess delayed effects (assessment at day 14) and effects on cell number, mitochondrial density, mitochondrial membrane potential, mitochondrial superoxide levels and mitochondrial calcium levels were assessed. No effects of doxorubicin were found on mitochondrial density and mitochondrial superoxide levels, whereas doxorubicin reduced cell survival and slightly altered mitochondrial membrane potential and mitochondrial calcium levels, which was most profound in the washout studies. Altogether, the results of the present study show that concentrations of doxorubicin in the micromolar range were required to affect electrical activity of hiPSC-CMs, whereas nanomolar concentrations already affected cell viability and caused mitochondrial disturbances. Integration of these data with other in vitro data may enable the selection of a series of in vitro biomarkers that can be used as readouts to screen chemicals for possible cardiotoxicity

  15. Healing effect on chronic gastric ulcers and short-term toxicity profile ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results of the present study show that in addition to the previously demonstrated cytoprotective antiulcer actions of the leaf methanol extract of O. suave, the extract also possesses potent healing effects against chronic gastric ulcers. Enhanced mucus production appears to play a significant role in the mode of action of ...

  16. Treatment and results of chronic toxoplasmosis. Analysis of 33 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cengir, S D; Ortaç, F; Söylemez, F

    1992-01-01

    Women who grew up in Turkey, where undercooked meat is part of the usual diet, have an increased risk of toxoplasmosis. This study covers treatment and prognosis of 33 cases with chronic toxoplasmosis. The study group was selected among the patients with a history of repeated abortions, recurrent preterm labor, stillbirths and babies with congenital anomaly after all other causative reasons were ruled out. IgG and IgM antibody titers were detected by Sabin-Feldman's dye test and indirect fluorescence antibody test. 33 patients, who had negative IgM and IgG antibody titers above 1/64, were accepted as having chronic toxoplasmosis and were included in our study group. These patients were treated with our pyrimethamine treatment protocol (Dinçer Formula) for 36 days before their pregnancies. IgG antibody titers were repeated in the 8th and the 20th week of pregnancy. With the exception of 7 cases, 24 patients (72.7%) still had IgG antibody titers of more than 1/64 and were given the same treatment protocol in the 8th week of pregnancy. Very early abortions occurred in 2 cases. Of 24 patients, 8 had antibody titers still above 1/64 and were treated with spiramycine. While 28 cases (84.8%) had healthy and living infants, pregnancies of 3 cases are still continuing. No teratogenic effects of pyrimethamine on the fetuses were seen. As a result, we can say that a patient who presents with complaints of repeated abortions, recurrent preterm labor or stillbirth should be investigated for toxoplasmosis during pregnancy; even if the IgG antibody test is normal before pregnancy, she should be treated with the protocol mentioned above before pregnancy and in the 8th week of pregnancy when chronic toxoplasmosis is diagnosed.

  17. Toxicity assessment due to sub-chronic exposure to individual and mixtures of four toxic heavy metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cobbina, Samuel J.; Chen, Yao [School of the Environment, Jiangsu University, Xuefu Rd. 301, Zhenjiang 212013, Jiangsu (China); Zhou, Zhaoxiang; Wu, Xueshan; Zhao, Ting [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Jiangsu University, Xuefu Rd. 301, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Zhang, Zhen [School of the Environment, Jiangsu University, Xuefu Rd. 301, Zhenjiang 212013, Jiangsu (China); Feng, Weiwei; Wang, Wei [School of Food and Biological Engineering, Jiangsu University, Xuefu Rd. 301, Zhenjiang 212013, Jiangsu (China); Li, Qian [School of Pharmacy, Jiangsu University, Xuefu Rd. 301, Zhenjiang 212013, Jiangsu (China); Wu, Xiangyang, E-mail: wuxy@ujs.edu.cn [School of the Environment, Jiangsu University, Xuefu Rd. 301, Zhenjiang 212013, Jiangsu (China); Yang, Liuqing, E-mail: yangliuqing@ujs.edu.cn [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Jiangsu University, Xuefu Rd. 301, Zhenjiang 212013 (China)

    2015-08-30

    Highlights: • Low dose single and mixtures of toxic metals had adverse effect on mice. • Metal mixtures exhibited higher toxicities compared to individual metals. • Mixtures of low dose Pb + Hg + Cd induced neuronal degeneration in brain of mice. • Exposure to Pb + Hg + As + Cd showed renal tubular necrosis in kidney. - Abstract: Humans are exposed to a cocktail of heavy metal toxicants in the environment. Though heavy metals are deleterious, there is a paucity of information on toxicity of low dose mixtures. In this study, lead (Pb) (0.01 mg/L), mercury (Hg) (0.001 mg/L), cadmium (Cd) (0.005 mg/L) and arsenic (As) (0.01 mg/L) were administered individually and as mixtures to 10 groups of 40 three-week old mice (20 males and 20 females), for 120 days. The study established that low dose exposures induced toxicity to the brain, liver, and kidney of mice. Metal mixtures showed higher toxicities compared to individual metals, as exposure to low dose Pb + Hg + Cd reduced brain weight and induced structural lesions, such as neuronal degeneration in 30-days. Pb + Hg + Cd and Pb + Hg + As + Cd exposure induced hepatocellular injury to mice evidenced by decreased antioxidant activities with marginal increases in MDA. These were accentuated by increases in ALT, AST and ALP. Interactions in metal mixtures were basically synergistic in nature and exposure to Pb + Hg + As + Cd induced renal tubular necrosis in kidneys of mice. This study underlines the importance of elucidating the toxicity of low dose metal mixtures so as to protect public health.

  18. Developing acute-to-chronic toxicity ratios for lead, cadmium, and zinc using rainbow trout, a mayfly, and a midge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mebane, C.A.; Hennessy, D.P.; Dillon, F.S.

    2008-01-01

    In order to estimate acute-to-chronic toxicity ratios (ACRs) relevant to a coldwater stream community, we exposed rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) in 96-h acute and 60+ day early-life stage (ELS) exposures. We also tested the acute and sublethal responses of a mayfly (Baetis tricaudatus) and a midge (Chironomus dilutus, formerly C. tentans) with Pb. We examine the statistical interpretation of test endpoints and the acute-to-chronic ratio concept. Increasing the number of control replicates by 2 to 3x decreased the minimum detectable differences by almost half. Pb ACR estimates mostly increased with increasing acute resistance of the organisms (rainbow trout ACRs choice of test endpoint and statistical analysis influenced ACR estimates by up to a factor of four. When calculated using the geometric means of the no- and lowest-observed effect concentrations, ACRs with rainbow trout and Cd were 0.6 and 0.95; Zn about 1.0; and for Pb 3.3 and 11. The comparable Pb ACRs for the mayfly and Chironomus were 5.2 and 51 respectively. Our rainbow trout ACRs with Pb were about 5-20x lower than earlier reports with salmonids. We suggest discounting previous ACR results that used larger and older fish in their acute tests. ?? 2007 GovernmentEmployee: U.S. Geological Survey.

  19. Baseline chronic kidney disease is associated with toxicity and survival in patients treated with targeted therapies for metastatic renal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouhaud, François-Xavier; Pfister, Christian; Defortescu, Guillaume; Giwerc, Anthony; Charbit, David; Gouerant, Sophie; Sabourin, Jean-Christophe; Di Fiore, Frédéric

    2015-09-01

    To assess the impact of baseline chronic kidney disease on targeted therapy (TT)-induced toxicities and survival in patients treated for metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC). Data from patients receiving first-line TT from January 2006 to June 2012 were collected retrospectively. TT side effects, time to treatment failure (TTF), and overall survival (OS) were analyzed according to the baseline glomerular filtration rate (GFR) calculated using the modification diet in renal disease formula. Hundred and two patients treated with sunitinib (N=67), sorafenib (N=24), or temsirolimus (N=11) were included. Forty-two patients (41%) had baseline chronic kidney disease with GFR less than 60 ml/min/1.73 m. Patients with GFR less than 60 were more likely to encounter severe (grade 3-4) TT-induced toxicities (79 vs. 32%, Prenal function impairment was significantly associated with higher median TTF and OS (respectively, 12 vs. 6 months for TTF, P=0.003; and 33 vs. 13 months for OS, P=0.001). On multivariate analysis, GFR less than 60 was identified as the only factor associated with a higher rate of severe toxicity: odds ratio=4.74 (1.67-13.41), P=0.003. Severe toxicity (P=0.05) was identified as an independent prognostic factor for OS and TTF. Baseline chronic kidney disease was associated with higher TT-induced toxicities, which were identified as a prognostic factor of higher survival in mRCC treatment. These results suggest that GFR measurement could be used to optimize the efficacy of TT in patients treated for an mRCC.

  20. Improving sediment-quality guidelines for nickel: development and application of predictive bioavailability models to assess chronic toxicity of nickel in freshwater sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vangheluwe, Marnix L. U.; Verdonck, Frederik A. M.; Besser, John M.; Brumbaugh, William G.; Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Schlekat, Christan E.; Rogevich Garman, Emily

    2013-01-01

    Within the framework of European Union chemical legislations an extensive data set on the chronic toxicity of sediment nickel has been generated. In the initial phase of testing, tests were conducted with 8 taxa of benthic invertebrates in 2 nickel-spiked sediments, including 1 reasonable worst-case sediment with low concentrations of acid-volatile sulfide (AVS) and total organic carbon. The following species were tested: amphipods (Hyalella azteca, Gammarus pseudolimnaeus), mayflies (Hexagenia sp.), oligochaetes (Tubifex tubifex, Lumbriculus variegatus), mussels (Lampsilis siliquoidea), and midges (Chironomus dilutus, Chironomus riparius). In the second phase, tests were conducted with the most sensitive species in 6 additional spiked sediments, thus generating chronic toxicity data for a total of 8 nickel-spiked sediments. A species sensitivity distribution was elaborated based on 10% effective concentrations yielding a threshold value of 94 mg Ni/kg dry weight under reasonable worst-case conditions. Data from all sediments were used to model predictive bioavailability relationships between chronic toxicity thresholds (20% effective concentrations) and AVS and Fe, and these models were used to derive site-specific sediment-quality criteria. Normalization of toxicity values reduced the intersediment variability in toxicity values significantly for the amphipod species Hyalella azteca and G. pseudolimnaeus, but these relationships were less clearly defined for the mayfly Hexagenia sp. Application of the models to prevailing local conditions resulted in threshold values ranging from 126 mg to 281 mg Ni/kg dry weight, based on the AVS model, and 143 mg to 265 mg Ni/kg dry weight, based on the Fe model

  1. Chronic TiO{sub 2} nanoparticle exposure to a benthic organism, Hyalella azteca: impact of solar UV radiation and material surface coatings on toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallis, Lindsay K. [Office of Research and Development, Mid-Continent Ecology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Duluth, MN, 55804 (United States); Diamond, Stephen A. [Nanosafe Inc., Blacksburg, VA, 24060 (United States); Ma, Hongbo [University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Zilber School of Public Health, Milwaukee, WI, 53211 (United States); Hoff, Dale J. [Office of Research and Development, Mid-Continent Ecology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Duluth, MN, 55804 (United States); Al-Abed, Souhail R. [National Risk Management Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH 45268 (United States); Li, Shibin, E-mail: lishibinepa@gmail.com [Office of Research and Development, Mid-Continent Ecology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Duluth, MN, 55804 (United States)

    2014-11-15

    There is limited information on the chronic effects of nanomaterials to benthic organisms, as well as environmental mitigating factors that might influence this toxicity. The present study aimed to fill these data gaps by examining various growth endpoints (weight gain, instantaneous growth rate, and total protein content) for up to a 21 d sediment exposure of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles (nano-TiO{sub 2}) to a representative benthic species, Hyalella azteca. An uncoated standard, P25, and an Al(OH){sub 3} coated nano-TiO{sub 2} used in commercial products were added to sediment at 20 mg/L or 100 mg/L Under test conditions, UV exposure alone was shown to be a greater cause of toxicity than even these high levels of nano-TiO{sub 2} exposure, indicating that different hazards need to be addressed in toxicity testing scenarios. In addition, this study showed the effectiveness of a surface coating on the decreased photoactivity of the material, as the addition of an Al(OH){sub 3} coating showed a dramatic decrease in reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. However, this reduced photoactivity was found to be partially restored when the coating had been degraded, leading to the need for future toxicity tests which examine the implications of weathering events on particle surface coatings. - Highlights: • Chronic toxicity of nano-TiO{sub 2} to a benthic organism (Hyalella azteca) was examined. • Phototoxicity was investigated through exposure of solar simulated radiation (SSR). • The degradation of a surface coating resulted in an increase in photoactivity. • In this testing scenario, UV had a larger impact than chemical exposure in toxicity.

  2. UVB dose-toxicity thresholds and steady-state DNA-photoproduct levels during chronic irradiation of inbred Xenopus laevis tadpoles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandelova, Iovanna; Hewitt, Stephen R; Rollins-Smith, Louise A; Hays, John B

    2006-01-01

    Environmental stressors that severely impact some species more than others can alter ecosystems and threaten biodiversity. Genotoxic stress, such as solar UV-B irradiance, may induce levels of DNA damage at rates that exceed repair capacities in some species but remain below repair capacities in other species. Repair rates would seem to establish toxicity thresholds. We used inbred Xenopus laevis tadpoles in the laboratory to test the hypothesis that balances between rates of induction of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs; the major UV-B photoproduct in DNA) and rates of CPD removal (repair) can determine UV-B toxicity thresholds. As rates of chronic UV-B irradiance were progressively increased by decreased shielding of lamps, survival decreased sharply over a relatively narrow range of dose rates. Apparent toxicity thresholds were associated with large increases in steady-state CPD levels. Induction at twice the measured removal (repair) rate produced sustained high CPDs and 100% mortality. Induction at one-half the removal rate resulted in negligible CPD levels and low mortality. Increased intensity of visible radiation available to drive CPD photoreactivation, mimicking interspecies variation in DNA repair capacity, reduced steady-state CPD levels and increased survival at UV-B dose rates that were previously toxic, resulting in increased thresholds of apparent toxicity. We suggest that threshold effects due to DNA repair should generally be considered in assessments of effects of genotoxic agents on species-specific population decreases and human health risks.

  3. Chronic laryngitis as a result of gastro esophageal reflux disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trajković Rada

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Reflux of gastric contents to the level of the pharynx and larynx is called laryngopharyngeal reflux, which can exist as such or laryngeal and pharyngeal reflux as separate entities, and in such form may lead to other diseases such as rhinitis, sinusitis, otitis media, and precancerous cancerous condition. To determine the relationship and impact of gastroesophageal reflux disease on the occurrence, frequency and duration of inflammatory processes and mucosal damage to the larynx. All patients were obtained anamnesticly, lab test done in all patients, indirect hipofaringo and laryngoscopy was performed in all patients. Based on the feedback reports gastroenterologists, we obtained data of gastroscopy. Results: 120 subjects were processed with dyspeptic symptoms. Based on history, all patients had some symptoms of upper respiratory tract disease.62 (51.66% male respondents and 58 (48.33% females. The average age of 54 years. In 82 (68.33% patients was increased salivation (one of the leading symptoms, of that number in 61 (74.39% participants laryngitis was present. In 68 (56.66% cases where the predominant symptom was cough, laryngitis was present in 26 (38.23%. In 70 (58.33% of patients with globus sensation, laryngitis was present in 38 (54.28% patients. Smoking has been represented with 65.83% (70 respondents, the percentage of patients with chronic laryngitis in this group was 69.62% (55 respondents. Been held after gastroscopy and otorinolaryngological examination in 62 (51.66% patients were diagnosed gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD, of which, in 43 (69.35% patients laryngitis was present. After a three-month follow-up of patients with therapy (H2 blockers, proton pump inhibitors and antacids 28 (65.11% subjects (total treated, showed an improvement. The results of this study indicate a significant correlation between gastroesophageal reflux disease and chronic laryngitis, as well as the favorable impact and effect of antacid therapy

  4. Results of Toxicity Studies Conducted on Outfall X-08 and Its Contributing Waste Streams, November 1999 - June 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Specht, W.L.

    2000-06-28

    This interim report summarizes the results of toxicity tests, Toxicity Identification Evaluations, and chemical analyses that have been conducted on SRS's NPDES Outfall X-08 and its contributing waste streams between November 1999 and June 2000.

  5. INTEGRAL ESTIMATION OF OXIDATIVE STATUS IN PATIENTS WITH ACUTE TOXIC HEPATITIS AND CHRONIC ALCOHOLIC LIVER DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Y. Shchupak

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Acute toxic hepatitis associated with acute poisoning with alcohol-containing disinfectants remains a medical and social problem.MATERIAL AND METHODS With an aid of chemiluminescence, we performed the integrated assessment of the oxidative status in the blood serum and homogenized liver biopsy tissue of 62 patients with the diagnosis «severe acute toxic hepatitis associated with the use of alcohol-containing disinfectants».RESULTS The research showed that at the onset of a disease, patients with acute toxic hepatitis had an expressed activation of free radical oxidation of the blood serum and biopsy tissue. This was indicated by almost double increase in the intensity of free radicals generation (Ssp. This signifi cantly increased production of peroxide (Sind-1 and hydroxyl radicals (Slum — 2.5 and 1.86 times, respectively; also, it increased concentration of lipid hydroperoxides (h almost three times, evidencing activation of the initial stage of lipid peroxidation There was no statistically signifi cant fall of figures indicating the liver parenchymal oxidative status 30 days after the admission. The same situation was observed 6 months after the beginning of the study.CONCLUSION Analyzing chemiluminescence scans of blood serums up to 30 days from admission, it is possible to conclude indirectly on a condition of the oxidative status in a liver parenchyma of patients.

  6. Fish toxicity tests with mixtures of more than two chemicals: a proposal for a quantitative approach and experimental results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koenemann, H.

    1981-01-01

    The problem of the toxic action of mixtures of many chemicals has been studied. Starting with the classification of Plackett and Hewlett, the types of mixtures for which toxicity can be predicted is discussed. A Mixture Toxicity Index (MTI) has been proposed as a quantification of the result of mixture toxicity experiments. Toxicity experiments with guppies have been conducted, using 6 mixtures of 3--50 chemicals. The toxicity of mixtures of simple similarly acting chemicals could be predicted by Concentration Addition. The concentrations of the separate chemicals in a mixture of 50 compounds giving 50% mortality, were 0.02 X LC50.

  7. Effects of Magnesium on the Phosphate Toxicity in Chronic Kidney Disease: Time for Intervention Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaguchi, Yusuke; Hamano, Takayuki; Isaka, Yoshitaka

    2017-02-06

    Magnesium, an essential mineral for human health, plays a pivotal role in the cardiovascular system. Epidemiological studies in the general population have found an association between lower dietary magnesium intake and an elevated risk of cardiovascular events. In addition, magnesium supplementation was shown to improve blood pressure control, insulin sensitivity, and endothelial function. The relationship between magnesium and cardiovascular prognosis among patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) has been increasingly investigated as it is becoming evident that magnesium can inhibit vascular calcification, a prominent risk of cardiovascular events, which commonly occurs in CKD patients. Cohort studies in patients receiving dialysis have shown a lower serum magnesium level as a significant risk for cardiovascular mortality. Interestingly, the cardiovascular mortality risk associated with hyperphosphatemia is alleviated among those with high serum magnesium levels, consistent with in vitro evidence that magnesium inhibits high-phosphate induced calcification of vascular smooth muscle cells. Furthermore, a harmful effect of high phosphate on the progression of CKD is also attenuated among those with high serum magnesium levels. The potential usefulness of magnesium as a remedy for phosphate toxicity should be further explored by future intervention studies.

  8. Pathological study of chronic pulmonary toxicity induced by intratracheally instilled Asian sand dust (kosa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naota, Misaki; Shiotsu, Shizuka; Shimada, Akinori; Kohara, Yukari; Morita, Takehito; Inoue, Kenichiro; Takano, Hirohisa

    2013-01-01

    Asian sand dust (ASD) events are associated with an increase in pulmonary morbidity and mortality. The number of ASD events has increased rapidly in the east Asian region since 2000. To study the chronic lung toxicity of ASD, saline suspensions of low doses (200 and 400 µg) and high doses (800 and 3,000 µg) of ASD were intratracheally instilled into ICR mice. Animals were sacrificed at 24 hr, 1 week, or 1, 2, or 3 months after instillation. Histopathological examination revealed that ASD induced acute inflammation at 24 hr after instillation. The acute inflammation was transient and subsided at 1 week and 1 month after instillation. At 2 and 3 months after instillation, focal infiltration of lymphocytes with accumulation of epithelioid macrophages, which is a suggestive finding of transformation to granuloma, and granuloma formation were occasionally observed. Aggregation of macrophages containing particles was observed in the pulmonary lymph nodes at 3 months after instillation in high-dose groups. Prolonged inflammatory foci (granuloma) and presence of ASD particles in pulmonary lymph nodes would have a chance to induce immunological modulation leading to adverse health effects in the exposed animals.

  9. Occurrence of Pineal Gland Tumors in Combined Chronic Toxicity/Carcinogenicity Studies in Wistar Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treumann, Silke; Buesen, Roland; Gröters, Sibylle; Eichler, Jens-Olaf; van Ravenzwaay, Bennard

    2015-08-01

    Pineal gland tumors are very rare brain lesions in rats as well as in other species including humans. A total of 8 (out of 1,360 examined) Wistar rats from 3 different combined chronic toxicity/carcinogenicity or mere carcinogenicity studies revealed pineal gland tumors. The tumors were regarded to be spontaneous and unrelated to treatment. The morphology and immunohistochemical evaluation led to the diagnosis malignant pinealoma. The main characteristics that were variably developed within the tumors were the following: cellular atypia, high mitotic index, giant cells, necrosis, Homer Wright rosettes, Flexner-Wintersteiner rosettes and pseudorosettes, positive immunohistochemical reaction for synaptophysin, and neuron-specific enolase. The pineal gland is not a protocol organ for histopathological examination in carcinogenicity studies. Nevertheless, the pineal gland can occasionally be encountered on the routine brain section or if it is the origin of a tumor protruding into the brain, the finding will be recorded. Therefore, although known to be a rare tumor in rats, pineal neoplasms should be included in the list of possible differential diagnoses for brain tumors, especially when the tumor is located in the region of the pineal body. © 2015 by The Author(s).

  10. Bosutinib Versus Imatinib for Newly Diagnosed Chronic Myeloid Leukemia: Results From the Randomized BFORE Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortes, Jorge E; Gambacorti-Passerini, Carlo; Deininger, Michael W; Mauro, Michael J; Chuah, Charles; Kim, Dong-Wook; Dyagil, Irina; Glushko, Nataliia; Milojkovic, Dragana; le Coutre, Philipp; Garcia-Gutierrez, Valentin; Reilly, Laurence; Jeynes-Ellis, Allison; Leip, Eric; Bardy-Bouxin, Nathalie; Hochhaus, Andreas; Brümmendorf, Tim H

    2018-01-20

    Purpose Bosutinib is a potent dual SRC/ABL kinase inhibitor approved for adults with Philadelphia chromosome-positive chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) resistant and /or intolerant to prior therapy. We assessed the efficacy and safety of bosutinib versus imatinib for first-line treatment of chronic-phase CML. Methods In this ongoing, multinational, phase III study, 536 patients with newly diagnosed chronic-phase CML were randomly assigned 1:1 to receive 400 mg of bosutinib once daily (n = 268) or imatinib (n = 268). Per protocol, efficacy was assessed in patients who were Philadelphia chromosome-positive with typical (e13a2/e14a2) transcripts (bosutinib, n = 246; imatinib, n = 241). Patients with Philadelphia chromosome-negative-/ BCR-ABL1-positive status and those with unknown Philadelphia chromosome status and/or atypical BCR-ABL1 transcript type were excluded from this population. Results The major molecular response (MMR) rate at 12 months (primary end point) was significantly higher with bosutinib versus imatinib (47.2% v 36.9%, respectively; P = .02), as was complete cytogenetic response (CCyR) rate by 12 months (77.2% v 66.4%, respectively; P = .0075). Cumulative incidence was favorable with bosutinib (MMR: hazard ratio, 1.34; P = .0173; CCyR: hazard ratio, 1.38; P bosutinib and six patients (2.5%) receiving imatinib experienced disease progression to accelerated/blast phase. Among treated patients, 22.0% of patients receiving bosutinib and 26.8% of patients receiving imatinib discontinued treatment, most commonly for drug-related toxicity (12.7% and 8.7%, respectively). Grade ≥ 3 diarrhea (7.8% v 0.8%) and increased ALT (19.0% v 1.5%) and AST (9.7% v 1.9%) levels were more common with bosutinib. Cardiac and vascular toxicities were uncommon. Conclusion Patients who received bosutinib had significantly higher rates of MMR and CCyR and achieved responses faster than those who received imatinib. Consistent with the known safety profile, GI events and

  11. Acute and sub-chronic toxicity studies of the aqueous extract from leaves of Cistus ladaniferus L. in mice and rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Kabbaoui, Mohamed; Chda, Alae; El-Akhal, Jamila; Azdad, Ouarda; Mejrhit, Najlae; Aarab, Lotfi; Bencheikh, Rachid; Tazi, Abdelali

    2017-09-14

    Cistus ladaniferus L. (C.ladaniferus) (Cistaceae) is an aromatic shrub native to the Mediterranean region. The leaves are widely used in traditional medicine throughout Morocco for the treatment of various diseases including, diabetes, diarrhea, inflammation, and skin ailments. However, to the best of our knowledge, no systematic study concerning its toxicity profile has been reported. The study carried out evaluates the potential toxicity of the aqueous extract from leaves of the C.ladaniferus (CL extract) shrub, through the method of acute and sub-chronic oral administration in mice and rats. During the acute toxicity study, male and female mice were orally administrated with CL aqueous extract at single doses of 500, 1000, 2000, 3000 and 5000mg/kg (n = 5/group/sex). Abnormal behavior, toxic symptoms, weight, and death were observed for 14 consecutive days to assess the acute toxicity. During the sub-chronic toxicity study, the aqueous extract was administered orally at doses of 500, 700 and 1000mg/kg (n = 6/group) daily to Wistar rats of both sexes for 90 days. The general behavior of the rats was observed daily, and their body weight was recorded weekly. A urinalysis, biochemical analysis, hematological analysis, macroscopic examination and histopathological examination of several organs were conducted at the end of the treatment period. During the acute toxicity test, when mice were administered doses of 3000 and 5000mg/kg, the CL extract produced a 10-30% mortality rate, respectively, and induced signs of toxicity. However, no mortality or adverse effect was noted at the doses of 1000 and 2000mg/kg. The median lethal dose (LD50) of the extract was estimated to be more than 5000mg/kg. In the subchronic study, the CL extract induced no mortality or treatment-related adverse effects with regard to body weight, general behavior, relative organ weights, urine, hematological, and biochemical parameters. Histopathological examination of vital organs showed normal

  12. LEVEL OF TOXICITY WATER AREA «TULENIY» AS A RESULT OF BIOASSAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. F. Sokolsky

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To determine the toxicity of marine waters area " tuleniy ".Location. Area " tuleniy ".Methods. Determining the level of toxicity of marine waters area "seal" method for biological testing was conducted according tothe guidelines approved by the Ministry of natural resources (guidance on the definition of ..., 2002; Dolzhenko, 1978. Guide prepared by the Center for Russian register of hydraulic structures and the state water cadastre of the MNR of Russia jointly with specialists of the Institute Committee of Russia and the UNION of ecological problems of the Ministry of Ukraine. The basis of the proposed system of marine toxicity biotests based on the results of generalization of experimental research based on the problem of pollution of water bodies and numerous literature data, making it possible to identify features of the response of aquatic organisms of different taxonomic groups to toxic impurities of different nature and origin. Experimental studies were conducted on the culture of marine unicellular algae Phaeodactylum tricornutum on planktonic crustacea Acartia tonsa, the larvae of the chironomid Chironomus gr.salinarius and juvenile guppies Poecillia reticulata Peters.Results. Comparative analysis of the results of research from 2001 to 2006 showed no acute toxic effect on the test object zooplankton and phytoplanton.Main conclusions. Throughout the study period (2001-2003, 2005-2006, you must allocate the spring of 2002, when it was recorded,the average of the lowest five years of research, the level of toxicity of water for the analyzed area.Considering the results of biological testing of the surveyed area by periods, it should be noted that the average level of toxicity of the waters did not undergo significant changes and were on the same level, not exceeding 17,6% (table. 1. According to the classification shown in table 2, the water in the surveyed area is assessed as "non-toxic".

  13. Safety assessment of widely used fermented virgin coconut oil (Cocos nucifera) in Malaysia: Chronic toxicity studies and SAR analysis of the active components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Ahmad H; Khan, Md Shamsuddin Sultan; Al-Rawi, Sawsan S; Ahamed, Mohamed B Khadeer; Majid, Aman Shah Bin Abdul; Al-Suede, Fouad Saleih R; Ji, Dan; Majid, Amin Malik Shah Abdul

    2016-11-01

    Fermented Virgin Coconut Oil (FVCO) is widely used in the Southeast Asia as food and traditional medicine. The objective of the present study is the evaluation of chronic safety of the commercialized FVCO of Malaysia and other Southeast Asian countries. A single dose of 5000 mg/kg of FVCO was administered orally in rats (each group, n = 5) for the acute toxicity study and 175, 550 and 2000 mg/kg for sub-chronic and chronic studies (each group, n = 10), respectively. The behavior, mortality, and body weight of the rats were assessed to determine the toxic effects of FVCO. The haematology, biochemistry and histopathology of the treated rats were evaluated. The treated rats were safe with the dose of 5000 mg/kg in acute, sub-chronic and chronic indication. Abnormal clinical signs and morphology (gross necroscopy), changes of organ weight, anomalous haematology and biochemistry indexes were not found in comparison with the control (p > 0.05). In general, food and water intake were higher in the treated rats related to control. It was concluded that the presence of the antioxidant active compounds of FVCO might be the reason of safety. The structure activity relationship (SAR) provides a comprehensive mechanism to determine the safety that is the presence of the electron donating phenolic groups, carbonyl groups, and carboxylic acid in the ortho and meta position of the aromatic rings. The SAR showed the antioxidant properties of myristic acid and lauric acid determined by GC-MS analysis. This result suggests the safety of FVCO for chronic use, nutritional activity that FVCO formulation complies the requirements of regulatory agencies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Plasma Lipid Profiling of Patients with Chronic Ocular Complications Caused by Stevens-Johnson Syndrome/Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Kosuke; Ueta, Mayumi; Maekawa, Keiko; Sotozono, Chie; Kinoshita, Shigeru; Saito, Yoshiro

    2016-01-01

    Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) and its severe variant, toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN), are drug-induced acute inflammatory vesiculobullous reactions of the skin and mucous membranes, including the ocular surface. Even after recovery from skin symptoms, some SJS/TEN patients continue to suffer with severe ocular complications (SOCs). Therefore, this study aims to understand the pathophysiology of chronic SOCs. Because plasma lipid profiling has emerged as a useful tool to understand pathophysiological alterations in the body, we performed plasma lipid profiling of 17 patients who suffered from SJS/TEN-associated chronic SOCs. A lipidomics approach yielded 386 lipid molecules and demonstrated that plasma levels of inflammatory oxylipins increased in patients with SJS/TEN-associated chronic SOCs. In addition, oxidized phosphatidylcholines and ether-type diacylglycerols increased in the patients with chronic SOCs, while phosphoglycerolipids decreased. When we compared these lipidomic profiles with those of patients with atopic dermatitis, we found that patients with chronic SOCs, specifically, had decreased levels of ether-type phosphatidylcholines (ePCs) containing arachidonic acid (AA), such as PC(18:0e/20:4) and PC(20:0e/20:4). To confirm our finding, we recruited additional patients, who suffered from SOC associated with SJS/TEN (up to 51 patients), and validated the decreased plasma levels of AA-containing ePCs. Our study provides insight into the alterations of plasma lipidomic profiles in chronic SOCs and into the pathophysiology of SJS/TEN-associated chronic SOCs.

  15. Cardioprotective Effect of Grape Seed Extract on Chronic Doxorubicin-Induced Cardiac Toxicity in Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasser Razmaraii

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of the present study was to determine the ability of grape seed extract (GSE as a powerful antioxidant in preventing adverse effect of doxorubicin (DOX on heart function. Methods: Male rats were divided into three groups: control, DOX (2 mg/kg/48h, for 12 days and GSE (100 mg/kg/24h, for 16 days plus DOX. Left ventricular (LV function and hemodynamic parameters were assessed using echocardiography, electrocardiography and a Millar pressure catheter. Histopathological analysis and in vitro antitumor activity were also evaluated. Results: DOX induced heart damage in rats through decreasing the left ventricular systolic and diastolic pressures, rate of rise/decrease of LV pressure, ejection fraction, fractional shortening and contractility index as demonstrated by echocardiography, electrocardiography and hemodynamic parameters relative to control group. Our data demonstrated that GSE treatment markedly attenuated DOX-induced toxicity, structural changes in myocardium and improved ventricular function. Additionally, GSE did not intervene with the antitumor effect of DOX. Conclusion: Collectively, the results suggest that GSE is potentially protective against DOX-induced toxicity in rat heart and maybe increase therapeutic index of DOX in human cancer treatment.

  16. Sub-Chronic Toxicity of the Hydroethanolic Leaf Extract of Telfairia occidentalis Hook. f. (Cucurbitaceae in Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abidemi J. Akindele

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Due to its nutritional and medicinal values, the leaf of Telfairia occidentalis Hook f. (Cucurbitaceae is consumed in different parts of Nigeria. Acute and sub-chronic toxicity of the hydroethanolic leaf extract of Telfairia occidentalis were investigated in this study. Methods: Sixty-four male rats were randomized into four different groups of 16 animals each and were separately administered 80, 400 and 2000 mg/kg T. occidentalis orally (p.o. for 60 days. Animals were sacrificed and blood samples were collected for hematological and biochemical analyses. Vital organs were harvested and evaluated for in vivo antioxidants and histopathological changes. Results: A significant (p < 0.05 reduction in weight of the testes, compared to the control group, was observed in the group treated with 2000 mg/kg extract. No significant change was observed in the weight of other vital organs relative to the control group. There were significant (p < 0.01 increases in sperm motility and count in the group administered 80 mg/kg extract and significant (p < 0.001 reductions in both parameters at 2000 mg/kg. There were significant increases in the levels of hemoglobin and packed cell volume at 80 and 2000 mg/kg of the extract. In respect of liver function parameters, significant reductions in aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase levels at doses of 400 and 2000 mg/kg relative to control were observed. Compared to control, the extract significantly reduced (p < 0.05 the level of total cholesterol (400 mg/kg and caused a significant increase in the level of high-density lipoprotein (80, 400 and 2000 mg/kg. Significant (p < 0.05 increase in the level of malondialdehyde, decrease in superoxide dismutase level and histopathological abnormalities were observed in the testes at 2000 mg/kg. Upon cessation of treatment with T. occidentalis for 30 days, the observed effects were reversed. Conclusions: The findings showed that the hydroethanolic

  17. Sub-Chronic Toxicity of the Hydroethanolic Leaf Extract of Telfairia occidentalis Hook. f. (Cucurbitaceae) in Male Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akindele, Abidemi J; Oladimeji-Salami, Joy A; Oyetola, Ramon A; Osiagwu, Daniel D

    2018-01-06

    Background: Due to its nutritional and medicinal values, the leaf of Telfairia occidentalis Hook f. (Cucurbitaceae) is consumed in different parts of Nigeria. Acute and sub-chronic toxicity of the hydroethanolic leaf extract of Telfairiaoccidentalis were investigated in this study. Methods: Sixty-four male rats were randomized into four different groups of 16 animals each and were separately administered 80, 400 and 2000 mg/kg T. occidentalis orally (p.o.) for 60 days. Animals were sacrificed and blood samples were collected for hematological and biochemical analyses. Vital organs were harvested and evaluated for in vivo antioxidants and histopathological changes. Results: A significant (p < 0.05) reduction in weight of the testes, compared to the control group, was observed in the group treated with 2000 mg/kg extract. No significant change was observed in the weight of other vital organs relative to the control group. There were significant (p < 0.01) increases in sperm motility and count in the group administered 80 mg/kg extract and significant (p < 0.001) reductions in both parameters at 2000 mg/kg. There were significant increases in the levels of hemoglobin and packed cell volume at 80 and 2000 mg/kg of the extract. In respect of liver function parameters, significant reductions in aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase levels at doses of 400 and 2000 mg/kg relative to control were observed. Compared to control, the extract significantly reduced (p < 0.05) the level of total cholesterol (400 mg/kg) and caused a significant increase in the level of high-density lipoprotein (80, 400 and 2000 mg/kg). Significant (p < 0.05) increase in the level of malondialdehyde, decrease in superoxide dismutase level and histopathological abnormalities were observed in the testes at 2000 mg/kg. Upon cessation of treatment with T. occidentalis for 30 days, the observed effects were reversed. Conclusions: The findings showed that the hydroethanolic leaf extract

  18. Estimating baseline toxicity of PAHs from marine chronically polluted sediments and bioaccumulation in target organs of fish hypothetically exposed to them: a new tool in risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojo-Nieto, Elisa; Perales, José Antonio

    2015-07-01

    In soils and sediments contaminated by Hydrophobic Organic Compounds (HOCs), the total concentrations are less indicative of potential exposure and distribution than the associated freely dissolved concentrations (Cfree) or chemical activity. Therefore, these two parameters are increasingly used to assess sediment contamination with regard to their (1) partitioning into the water column, (2) bioaccumulation and (3) baseline toxic potential. In this work, sediments from a chronically polluted coastal area, with similar total PAH concentrations, were studied using PDMS coated glass jars (obtaining Cfree(SW) and chemical activity) to predict baseline toxicity and potential bioaccumulation from these sediments. The results indicate that, on the one hand, the chemical activity of the sediments differed by up to one order of magnitude and was below the level at which lethal baseline toxicity is expected, but is still a cause for concern due to the presence of other pollutants and different mechanisms of action. On the other hand, the combination of Cfree measurements and Biota to Sediment Accumulation Factors (BSAFs) allowed concentrations in different target organs of benthic flatfish, hypothetically exposed to these chronically polluted sediments, to be estimated. This new approach allows us to predict the concentration in biological tissues under the study of Cfree(SW) in sediments, as a useful tool in risk assessment.

  19. Shifting cardiovascular care to nurses results in structured chronic care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouwens, Elvira; van Lieshout, Jan; van den Hombergh, Pieter; Laurant, Miranda; Wensing, Michel

    2014-07-01

    To explore nurse involvement in cardiovascular risk management (CVRM) in primary care and how this involvement was associated with the degree of structured chronic illness care. A cross-sectional observational study in 7 European countries. Five aspects of nurse involvement in CVRM and 35 specific components of structured chronic illness care were documented in 202 primary care practices in Austria, Belgium, Germany, the Netherlands, Slovenia, Spain, and Switzerland. An overall measure for chronic care management, range 0 to 5, was constructed, derived from elements of the Chronic Care Model (CCM). Random coefficient regression modeling was used to explore associations. A majority of practices involved nurses for organization of CVRM in administrative tasks (82.2 %), risk factor monitoring (78.5%) and patient education (57.1%). Fewer practices involved nurses in defining protocol and the organization for CVRM (45%) or diagnosis and treatment (34.6%). With an increasing number of tasks handled by nurses, overall median adoption of CCM increased from 2.7 (95% CI, 1.5-3.6) to 4.2 (95% CI, 3.8-4.1). When the number of nurse tasks increased by 1, the adoption of CCM increased by 0.13 (P involvement had high adoption of CCM, while variation of adoption of CCM across practices reduced substantially with an increasing level of nurse involvement. Nurses were involved in the delivery of CVRM in varying degrees. Higher involvement of nurses was associated with higher degree of structured chronic illness care, with less variation.

  20. Dynamics of microcystins-LR and -RR in the phytoplanktivorous silver carp in a sub-chronic toxicity experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie Liqiang; Xie Ping; Ozawa, Kazuhiko; Honma, Takamitsu; Yokoyama, Atsushi; Park, Ho-Dong

    2004-02-01

    A sub-chronic toxicity experiment was conducted to examine tissue distribution and depuration of two microcystins (microcystin-LR and microcystin -RR) in the phytoplanktivorous filter-feeding silver carp during a course of 80 days. Two large tanks (A, B) were used, and in Tank A, the fish were fed naturally with fresh Microcystis viridis cells (collected from a eutrophic pond) throughout the experiment, while in Tank B, the food of the fish were M. viridis cells for the first 40 days and then changed to artificial carp feed. High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) was used to measure MC-LR and MC-RR in the M. viridis cells, the seston, and the intestine, blood, liver and muscle tissue of silver carp at an interval of 20 days. MC-RR and MC-LR in the collected Microcystis cells varied between 268-580 and 110-292 {mu}g g{sup -1} DW, respectively. In Tank A, MC-RR and MC-LR varied between 41.5-99.5 and 6.9-15.8 {mu}g g{sup -1} DW in the seston, respectively. The maximum MC-RR in the blood, liver and muscle of the fish was 49.7, 17.8 and 1.77 {mu}g g{sup -1} DW, respectively. No MC-LR was detectable in the muscle and blood samples of the silver carp in spite of the abundant presence of this toxin in the intestines (for the liver, there was only one case when a relatively minor quantity was detected). These findings contrast with previous experimental results on rainbow trout. Perhaps silver carp has a mechanism to degrade MC-LR actively and to inhibit MC-LR transportation across the intestines. The depuration of MC-RR concentrations occurred slowly than uptakes in blood, liver and muscle, and the depuration rate was in the order of blood>liver>muscle. The grazing ability of silver carp on toxic cyanobacteria suggests an applicability of using phytoplanktivorous fish to counteract cyanotoxin contamination in eutrophic waters. - Silver carp are tolerant of cyanobacterial toxins, and might be used to control toxic algal blooms in highly eutrophic lakes.

  1. Chronic toxicity test with sea urchin Echinometra lucunter and Lytechinus variegatus (Echinodermata: Echinoidea), exposed to light-stick - flag paternoster used for longline surface fishing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cesar-Ribeiro, Caio; Palanch-Hans, Maria Fernanda

    2010-01-01

    .... The method used was a short chronic toxicity test where embryos of the sea urchins Echinometra lucunter and Lytechinus variegatus were exposed to a stock solution consisting of the supernatant formed...

  2. Chronic toxicity of verapamil on juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss): effects on morphological indices, hematological parameters and antioxidant responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhi-Hua; Velisek, Josef; Zlabek, Vladimir; Grabic, Roman; Machova, Jana; Kolarova, Jitka; Li, Ping; Randak, Tomas

    2011-01-30

    In this study, the toxic effects of verapamil (VRP) were studied on juvenile rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, by chronic semi-static bioassay. Fish were exposed to sublethal concentrations of VRP (0.5, 27 and 270 μg/L) for 0, 21 and 42 d. Multiple biomarkers were measured, including morphological indices, hematological parameters and antioxidant responses of different tissues (brain, gill, liver, muscle and intestine). Based on the results, there was no significant change in all parameters measured in fish exposed to VRP at environmental related concentration, but VRP-induced stress in fish exposed to higher concentrations reflected the significant changes of physiological and biochemical responses. Through principal component analysis and integrated biomarker response assessment, effects induced by VRP-stress in each test group were distinguished. Additionally, all parameters measured in this study displayed various dependent patterns to VRP concentrations and exposure time using two-way ANOVA statistic analysis. In short, the multiple responses in fish indicated that VRP induced physiological stress and could be used as potential biomarkers for monitoring residual VRP in aquatic environment; but molecular and genetic mechanisms of these physiological responses in fish are not clear and need to be further studied. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. A sub-chronic toxicity evaluation of a natural astaxanthin-rich carotenoid extract of Paracoccus carotinifaciens in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toyohisa Katsumata

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Astaxanthin is believed to be beneficial to human health because it possesses strong antioxidant properties. A natural astaxanthin-rich carotenoid extract (ARE was produced by a well-controlled fermentation of a natural bacteria Paracoccus carotinifaciens, followed by the extraction and enrichment of the final product comprising mixture of carotenoids that is predominantly astaxanthin. The aim of this study was to evaluate the sub-chronic toxicity of the ARE using 6 week old Sprague-Dawley SPF rats [Crl:CD(SD]. The test article was suspended in olive oil and administered daily to the rats by oral gavage for 13 weeks at doses of 0 (olive oil, 250, 500 or 1000 mg/kg/day. Each group consisted of 10 animals of each sex. No deaths occurred and no treatment-related changes were observed in the detailed clinical observations, manipulative tests, grip strength, motor activity, body weights, food consumption, ophthalmology, urinalysis, hematology, blood chemistry, organ weight, necropsy or histopathology. Dark-red feces were observed throughout the administration period in all treated groups due to excretion of the colored test article. Based on these results, it was concluded that the no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL for ARE was at least 1000 mg/kg/day for male and female rats, respectively.

  4. A sub-chronic toxicity evaluation of a natural astaxanthin-rich carotenoid extract of Paracoccus carotinifaciens in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsumata, Toyohisa; Ishibashi, Takashi; Kyle, David

    2014-01-01

    Astaxanthin is believed to be beneficial to human health because it possesses strong antioxidant properties. A natural astaxanthin-rich carotenoid extract (ARE) was produced by a well-controlled fermentation of a natural bacteria Paracoccus carotinifaciens, followed by the extraction and enrichment of the final product comprising mixture of carotenoids that is predominantly astaxanthin. The aim of this study was to evaluate the sub-chronic toxicity of the ARE using 6 week old Sprague-Dawley SPF rats [Crl:CD(SD)]. The test article was suspended in olive oil and administered daily to the rats by oral gavage for 13 weeks at doses of 0 (olive oil), 250, 500 or 1000 mg/kg/day. Each group consisted of 10 animals of each sex. No deaths occurred and no treatment-related changes were observed in the detailed clinical observations, manipulative tests, grip strength, motor activity, body weights, food consumption, ophthalmology, urinalysis, hematology, blood chemistry, organ weight, necropsy or histopathology. Dark-red feces were observed throughout the administration period in all treated groups due to excretion of the colored test article. Based on these results, it was concluded that the no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) for ARE was at least 1000 mg/kg/day for male and female rats, respectively.

  5. Chronic Pelvic Pain and Infertility Resulting from Unrecognized Retained Laminaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wesley Nilsson

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. In 2013, the abortion rate in the United States was found to be 200 abortions per 1,000 live births. Of these, the CDC estimates that nearly 49% were performed using unsafe measures. Even when these procedures are safely performed, patients are at risk for immediate or delayed complications. In second-trimester terminations, mechanical dilation with an osmotic dilator is common to allow for delivery of the fetus. The Japanese seaweed Laminaria japonica is used to achieve this purpose. Case. A 28-year-old primigravida presented with chronic pelvic pain and infertility. She had irregular menstrual cycles and reported scant yellow discharge. A transvaginal ultrasound revealed an abnormally appearing endometrium with an elongated structure suspicious for a foreign body. The patient reported a voluntary termination of pregnancy twelve years earlier, for which laminaria were placed prior to the dilation and extraction. She underwent an operative hysteroscopy confirming our suspicion for retained laminaria. The pathology report demonstrated chronic severe endometritis and plant based material. Conclusion. Retained laminaria are associated with chronic pelvic pain and chronic infertility. Since they can be difficult to detect on conventional imaging, proper counting prior to insertion and after removal is an essential physician responsibility.

  6. Chronic kidney disease screening: Results of the 2013 World ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is on the rise globally due to the increase in prevalence of common risk factors. Screening for CKD risk factors is important for early detection and institution of measures to retard its progression. This study aimed to determine the markers of CKD and its risk factors in a selected ...

  7. Shifting cardiovascular care to nurses results in structured chronic care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nouwens, E.; Lieshout, J. van; Hombergh, P. van den; Laurant, M.; Wensing, M.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To explore nurse involvement in cardiovascular risk management (CVRM) in primary care and how this involvement was associated with the degree of structured chronic illness care. STUDY DESIGN: A cross-sectional observational study in 7 European countries. METHODS: Five aspects of nurse

  8. Long-term smoking results in haemostatic dysfunction in chronic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Smoking has been known to cause endothelial dysfunction and bronchial carcinoma and duration of smoking has been implicated in the effects of smoking on regular smokers. This study evaluated the effects of long-term smoking on some coagulation markers in chronic smokers. Materials and Methods: A ...

  9. Mercury and Air Toxics Standards Analysis Deconstructed: Changing Assumptions, Changing Results

    OpenAIRE

    Beasley, Blair; Woerman, Matt; Paul, Anthony; Burtraw, Dallas; Palmer, Karen

    2013-01-01

    Several recent studies have used simulation models to quantify the potential effects of recent environmental regulations on power plants, including the Mercury and Air Toxics Standards (MATS), one of the US Environmental Protection Agency’s most expensive regulations. These studies have produced inconsistent results about the effects on the industry, making general conclusions difficult. We attempt to reconcile these differences by representing the variety of assumptions in these studies with...

  10. European medicinal and edible plants associated with subacute and chronic toxicity part I: Plants with carcinogenic, teratogenic and endocrine-disrupting effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristanc, Luka; Kreft, Samo

    2016-06-01

    In recent decades, the use of herbal medicines and food products has been widely embraced in many developed countries. These products are generally highly accepted by consumers who often believe that "natural" equals "safe". This is, however, an oversimplification because several botanicals have been found to contain toxic compounds in concentrations harmful to human health. Acutely toxic plants are in most cases already recognised as dangerous as a result of their traditional use, but plants with subacute and chronic toxicity are difficult or even impossible to detect by traditional use or by clinical research studies. In this review, we systematically address major issues including the carcinogenicity, teratogenicity and endocrine-disrupting effects associated with the use of herbal preparations with a strong focus on plant species that either grow natively or are cultivated in Europe. The basic information regarding the molecular mechanisms of the individual subtypes of plant-induced non-acute toxicity is given, which is followed by a discussion of the pathophysiological and clinical characteristics. We describe the genotoxic and carcinogenic effects of alkenylbenzenes, pyrrolizidine alkaloids and bracken fern ptaquiloside, the teratogenicity issues regarding anthraquinone glycosides and specific alkaloids, and discuss the human health concerns regarding the phytoestrogens and licorice consumption in detail. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Meta-Analysis of Fish Early Life Stage Tests - Association of Toxic Ratios and Acute-To-Chronic Ratios with Modes of Action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholz, Stefan; Schreiber, Rene; Armitage, James

    2018-01-01

    Fish early life stage (FELS) tests (OECD test guideline 210) are widely conducted to estimate chronic fish toxicity. In these tests, fish are exposed from the embryonic to the juvenile life stage. In order to analyse whether certain modes of action are related to high toxic ratios (TR, i.e., rati...

  12. Burden of disease resulting from lead exposure at toxic waste sites in Argentina, Mexico and Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caravanos, Jack; Carrelli, Jonathan; Dowling, Russell; Pavilonis, Brian; Ericson, Bret; Fuller, Richard

    2016-06-23

    Though lead contaminated waste sites have been widely researched in many high-income countries, their prevalence and associated health outcomes have not been well documented in low- and middle-income countries. Using the well-established health metric disability-adjusted life year (DALY) and an exposure assessment method developed by Chatham-Stephens et al., we estimated the burden of disease resulting from exposure to lead at toxic waste sites in three Latin American countries in 2012: Argentina, Mexico and Uruguay. Toxic waste sites identified through Pure Earth's Toxic Sites Identification Program (TSIP) were screened for lead in both biological and environmental sample media. Estimates of cardiovascular disease incidence and other outcomes resulting from exposure to lead were utilized to estimate DALYs for each population at risk. Approximately 316,703 persons in three countries were at risk of exposure to pollutants at 129 unique sites identified through the TSIP database. Exposure to lead was estimated to result in between 51,432 and 115,042 DALYs, depending on the weighting factor used. The estimated burden of disease caused by exposure to lead in this analysis is comparable to that estimated for Parkinson's disease and bladder cancer in these countries. Lead continues to pose a significant public health risk in Argentina, Mexico, and Uruguay. The burden of disease in these three countries is comparable with other widely recognized public health challenges. Knowledge of the relatively high number of DALYs associated with lead exposure may be used to generate support and funding for the remediation of toxic waste sites in these countries and others.

  13. Assessing the chronic toxicity of copper and aluminium to the tropical sea anemone Exaiptasia pallida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trenfield, Melanie A; van Dam, Joost W; Harford, Andrew J; Parry, David; Streten, Claire; Gibb, Karen; van Dam, Rick A

    2017-05-01

    The world's most productive bauxite mines and alumina refineries are located in tropical or sub-tropical regions. The discharge water from alumina refineries can contain elevated aluminium (Al, sea anemone Exaiptasia pallida. Asexual reproduction and growth rates of E. pallida were assessed using the number of lacerates produced and oral disc diameter. The comparative sensitivity of E. pallida was assessed through exposure to a commonly-used reference toxicant, copper (Cu) at 28°C, with asexual reproduction toxicity estimates of 10% (EC10) and 50% (EC50) effect concentrations, calculated as 8.8µg/L (95% confidence limits (CL): 1-18µg/L) and 35µg/L Cu (95% CL: 30-39µg/L), respectively. Growth rate was a suitable additional endpoint (EC50=35µg/L Cu, 95% CL: 23-49µg/L). The EC10 and EC50 for Al (total fraction, based on reproduction) at 28°C were 817µg/L (95% CL: 440-1480µg/L) and 2270µg/L (95% CL: 1600-3900µg/L), respectively. The toxicity of Cu and Al was also assessed at 24°C and 31°C, representing average year-round water temperatures for sub-tropical and tropical Australian coastal environments. Changing the temperature from 28°C to 24°C or 31°C resulted in up to 45% less reproduction of anemones and increased their sensitivity to Cu (EC50s at 24°C=21µg/L, 95% CL: 17-26µg/L and at 31°C=23µg/L, 95% CL: 21-25µg/L). Sensitivity to Al was reduced at 24°C with an EC50 of 8870µg/L (95% CL: 6200-NC). An EC50 for Al at 31°C could not be calculated. This test is a reliable and sensitive addition to the suite of standardised tests currently developed for tropical marine species. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Comparison of four chronic sediment toxicity tests using selected marine/estuarine tests species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sims, I.; Fleming, R. [WRc Medmenham, Marlow (United Kingdom)

    1995-12-31

    Several draft standard guidelines exist for acute marine/estuarine sediment bioassays which measure lethality over a 4 to 14 day exposure period. Although these are very useful tools for certain applications, such tests may not be useful for discriminating between sediments with the low levels of contaminants most likely to be found in UK estuaries. For this application, chronic sediment bioassays are required which allow the measurement of both lethal and sublethal effects (growth, development and reproduction). Some chronic bioassays are currently being developed for estuarine sediments by workers in Europe, America and Canada. The objectives of the study presented here were to compare four bioassays, currently in development, in terms of their sensitivity to sediment-bound lindane and to differences in particle size. The test species selected for the study were Corophium volutator, Arenicola marina, Macoma Balthica and Neanthes arenaceodentata. Three sediment types were used: high, medium and low percentage of fine material, These were achieved using mixtures of silica sand and a fine, natural, estuarine sediment, and spiked with lindane using a spiking protocol developed at WRc. The results of the study will be presented.

  15. Comparative chronic toxicity of three neonicotinoids on New Zealand packaged honey bees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozii, Ivanna V.; Koziy, Roman V.; Epp, Tasha; Simko, Elemir

    2018-01-01

    Background Thiamethoxam, clothianidin, and imidacloprid are the most commonly used neonicotinoid insecticides on the Canadian prairies. There is widespread contamination of nectar and pollen with neonicotinoids, at concentrations which are sublethal for honey bees (Apis mellifera Linnaeus). Objective We compared the effects of chronic, sublethal exposure to the three most commonly used neonicotinoids on honey bee colonies established from New Zealand packaged bees using colony weight gain, brood area, and population size as measures of colony performance. Methods From May 7 to July 29, 2016 (12 weeks), sixty-eight colonies received weekly feedings of sugar syrup and pollen patties containing 0 nM, 20 nM (median environmental dose), or 80 nM (high environmental dose) of one of three neonicotinoids (thiamethoxam, clothianidin, and imidacloprid). Colonies were weighed at three-week intervals. Brood area and population size were determined from digital images of colonies at week 12. Statistical analyses were performed by ANOVA and mixed models. Results There was a significant negative effect (-30%, p80%) statistical power to detect an effect. Conclusions Chronic exposure of honey bees to high environmental doses of neonicotinoids has negative effects on honey production. Brood area appears to be less sensitive to detect sublethal effects of neonicotinoids. PMID:29293609

  16. Development of biotic ligand models for chronic manganese toxicity to fish, invertebrates, and algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Adam; Lofts, Stephen; Merrington, Graham; Brown, Bruce; Stubblefield, William; Harlow, Keven

    2011-11-01

    Ecotoxicity tests were performed with fish, invertebrates, and algae to investigate the effect of water quality parameters on Mn toxicity. Models were developed to describe the effects of Mn as a function of water quality. Calcium (Ca) has a protective effect on Mn toxicity for both fish and invertebrates, and magnesium (Mg) also provides a protective effect for invertebrates. Protons have a protective effect on Mn toxicity to algae. The models derived are consistent with models of the toxicity of other metals to aquatic organisms in that divalent cations can act as competitors to Mn toxicity in fish and invertebrates, and protons act as competitors to Mn toxicity in algae. The selected models are able to predict Mn toxicity to the test organisms to within a factor of 2 in most cases. Under low-pH conditions invertebrates are the most sensitive taxa, and under high-pH conditions algae are most sensitive. The point at which algae become more sensitive than invertebrates depends on the Ca concentration and occurs at higher pH when Ca concentrations are low, because of the sensitivity of invertebrates under these conditions. Dissolved organic carbon concentrations have very little effect on the toxicity of Mn to aquatic organisms. Copyright © 2011 SETAC.

  17. Acute and sub-chronic oral toxicity studies of the extracts from herbs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The variables included were body weights; feed consumption, organ weights, hematology and blood clinical chemistry, and histopathology were performed. Acute toxicity test revealed that, the limit dose of 2,000 mg/kg did not cause any mortality or symptoms of toxicity in all rats during the observation period. In the ...

  18. [Intermittent thrombolytic treatment. Results during severe, chronic arterial diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiessinger, J N; Aiach, M; Lagneau, P; Cormier, J M; Housset, E

    1975-04-20

    38 patients with severe chronic arteritis of the lower limbs were treated with streptokinase intermittently. All had been refused for surgical operation. One patient died, 4 others had early interruption of treatment. Eleven of the 38 patients had efficient thrombolysis confirmed by arteriography. The facts confirm the possibility of thrombolysis during chronic arterial disease. The fact that the aggravation was recent was favourable factor in prognosis. The eleven patients improved, had severe aggravation of symptomes for less than 2 months. Thus thrombolytic treatment has a place of choice in the treatment of severe arterial disease where surgery is impossible, or dangerous, owing to the uncertain state of the vascular bed below the lesion. Efficacious, it permits reconstructive surgery in cases where it had been at first refused. The use of intermittent treatment, apart from advantages of confort and cost, seems to increase the efficacy of treatment.

  19. Multi-linear regression analysis, preliminary biotic ligand modeling, and cross species comparison of the effects of water chemistry on chronic lead toxicity in invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esbaugh, A J; Brix, K V; Mager, E M; De Schamphelaere, K; Grosell, M

    2012-03-01

    The current study examined the chronic toxicity of lead (Pb) to three invertebrate species: the cladoceran Ceriodaphnia dubia, the snail Lymnaea stagnalis and the rotifer Philodina rapida. The test media consisted of natural waters from across North America, varying in pertinent water chemistry parameters including dissolved organic carbon (DOC), calcium, pH and total CO(2). Chronic toxicity was assessed using reproductive endpoints for C. dubia and P. rapida while growth was assessed for L. stagnalis, with chronic toxicity varying markedly according to water chemistry. A multi-linear regression (MLR) approach was used to identify the relative importance of individual water chemistry components in predicting chronic Pb toxicity for each species. DOC was an integral component of MLR models for C. dubia and L. stagnalis, but surprisingly had no predictive impact on chronic Pb toxicity for P. rapida. Furthermore, sodium and total CO(2) were also identified as important factors affecting C. dubia toxicity; no other factors were predictive for L. stagnalis. The Pb toxicity of P. rapida was predicted by calcium and pH. The predictive power of the C. dubia and L. stagnalis MLR models was generally similar to that of the current C. dubia BLM, with R(2) values of 0.55 and 0.82 for the respective MLR models, compared to 0.45 and 0.79 for the respective BLMs. In contrast the BLM poorly predicted P. rapida toxicity (R(2)=0.19), as compared to the MLR (R(2)=0.92). The cross species variability in the effects of water chemistry, especially with respect to rotifers, suggests that cross species modeling of invertebrate chronic Pb toxicity using a C. dubia model may not always be appropriate. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Chronic TiO2 nanoparticle exposure to a benthic organism, Hyalella azteca: Impact of solar UV radiation and material surface coatings on toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    The present study examined the chronic toxicity of TiO2 nanoparticles (nano-TiO2) to a representative benthic species, Hyalella azteca, using an industry standard, P25, and a coated nano-TiO2 used in commercial products. There is limited information on the chronic effects of nano...

  1. Selected streambed sediment compounds and water toxicity results for Westside Creeks, San Antonio, Texas, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crow, Cassi L.; Wilson, Jennifer T.; Kunz, James L.

    2016-12-01

    IntroductionThe Alazán, Apache, Martínez, and San Pedro Creeks in San Antonio, Texas, are part of a network of urban tributaries to the San Antonio River, known locally as the Westside Creeks. The Westside Creeks flow through some of the oldest neighborhoods in San Antonio. The disruption of streambed sediment is anticipated during a planned restoration to improve and restore the environmental condition of 14 miles of channelized sections of the Westside Creeks in San Antonio. These construction activities can create the potential to reintroduce chemicals found in the sediments into the ecosystem where, depending on hydrologic and environmental conditions, they could become bioavailable and toxic to aquatic life. Elevated concentrations of sediment-associated contaminants often are measured in urban areas such as San Antonio, Tex. Contaminants found in sediment can affect the health of aquatic organisms that ingest sediment. The gradual accumulation of trace elements and organic compounds in aquatic organisms can cause various physiological issues and can ultimately result in death of the aquatic organisms; in addition, subsequent ingestion of aquatic organisms can transfer the accumulated contaminants upward through the food chain (a process called biomagnification).The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the San Antonio River Authority, collected sediment samples and water samples for toxicity testing from sites on the Westside Creeks as part of an initial characterization of selected contaminants in the study area. Samples were collected in January 2014 during base-flow conditions and again in May 2104 after a period of stormwater runoff (poststorm conditions). Sediment samples were analyzed for selected constituents, including trace elements and organic contaminants such as pesticides, brominated flame retardants, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). In addition, as an indicator of ecological health (and

  2. Assessment of chronic toxicity and carcinogenicity in rats of Wingstay 100, a rubber antioxidant/antiozonant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iatropoulos, M J; Williams, G M; Wang, C X; Brunnemann, K D; Leber, A P

    1997-08-01

    The chronic toxicity and carcinogenicity of Wingstay 100 (W 100), a rubber antioxidant/antiozonant, were studied in Fischer 344 (F 344) rats in two chronic studies. Earlier genetic studies indicated that the product had weak activity in a bacterial mutation assay, but lacked activity in chromosomal aberration assays. In an one year study, both genders of F 344 rats were exposed to 53, 310 or 1900 ppm in NIH-07 diet for 52 weeks, and sacrifices were made at 38, 52 and 64 weeks. No test substance related deaths occurred, although the high dose of 1900 ppm caused a decrease in body weight gain and food consumption in both genders. Red blood cell mean corpuscular volume was significantly increased at 38 weeks, accompanied by a significant decrease in mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration. At 52 weeks, the red blood cell count and hemoglobin values were also significantly decreased in high dose animals of both genders. Total bilirubin and cholesterol were increased in high dose animals of 38 and 52-week sacrifices. During the 3 month recovery, hematology parameters, bilirubin and cholesterol returned to control values. Total protein was reduced in high dose animals of both genders, throughout the entire exposure and recovery periods. W 100 also produced increases in relative liver, spleen, heart and kidney weights in high dose animals. Both genders of all W 100 groups exhibited significant increases in urothelial cell proliferation (measured by PCNA) and adaptive hyperplasia. No regenerative hyperplasia, preneoplasia, or neoplasia were present. There was microscopic evidence of extramedullary erythropoiesis in the spleen and liver of high dose animals in both genders, otherwise no other pertinent microscopic finding was evident. In parallel, an accelerated bioassay (ABA) was conducted, which is a mechanistic initiation/promotion carcinogenicity study designed to assess tumor induction and promotion potential of a test substance in major organs of carcinogenesis. The

  3. NMR-based metabolomics approach to study the chronic toxicity of crude ricin from castor bean kernels on rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Pingping; Wang, Junsong; Dong, Ge; Wei, Dandan; Li, Minghui; Yang, Minghua; Kong, Lingyi

    2014-07-29

    Ricin, a large, water soluble toxic glycoprotein, is distributed majorly in the kernels of castor beans (the seeds of Ricinus communis L.) and has been used in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) or other folk remedies throughout the world. The toxicity of crude ricin (CR) from castor bean kernels was investigated for the first time using an NMR-based metabolomic approach complemented with histopathological inspection and clinical chemistry. The chronic administration of CR could cause kidney and lung impairment, spleen and thymus dysfunction and diminished nutrient intake in rats. An orthogonal signal correction partial least-squares discriminant analysis (OSC-PLSDA) of metabolomic profiles of rat biofluids highlighted a number of metabolic disturbances induced by CR. Long-term CR treatment produced perturbations on energy metabolism, nitrogen metabolism, amino acid metabolism and kynurenine pathway, and evoked oxidative stress. These findings could explain well the CR induced nephrotoxicity and pulmonary toxicity, and provided several potential biomarkers for diagnostics of these toxicities. Such a (1)H NMR based metabolomics approach showed its ability to give a systematic and holistic view of the response of an organism to drugs and is suitable for dynamic studies on the toxicological effects of TCM.

  4. Osteomyelitis resulting from chronic filamentous fungus olecranon bursitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llinas, Laura; Olenginski, Thomas P; Bush, David; Gotoff, Robert; Weber, Valerie

    2005-10-01

    We describe a case of Phaeoacremonium olecranon osteomyelitis. The patient, initially felt to have traumatic olecranon bursitis, was found to have an indolent filamentous fungus cultured from the olecranon bursa. In retrospect, x-rays revealed bony erosion, which heightened the index of suspicion for infection in this particular case. Surgical bursal excision was performed and antifungal therapy was administered with clinical resolution. This case emphasizes that aspiration, synovial fluid analysis, and culture of bursal fluid is essential in excluding typical and atypical causes of chronic bursitis.

  5. Immunosafety and chronic toxicity evaluation of monomethoxypoly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(lactic acid) polymer micelles for paclitaxel delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chang; Shen, Yan; Sun, Chunmeng; Nihad, Cheraga; Tu, Jiasheng

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the physicochemical properties, immunosafety and chronic toxicity of monomethoxypoly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(lactic acid) (mPEG-PLA), a copolymer used as a carrier for paclitaxel (PTX) delivery. The H-Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (H-NMR), dynamic light scattering and fluorescence probe technique were conducted to determine the physicochemical properties of mPEG-PLA copolymer. PTX-loaded polymeric micelles were characterized regarding their particle size, entrapment efficiency (EE), drug loading (DL), in vitro drug release and hemolysis rate. The complement activation in human serum and mast cells degranulation were performed by ELISA and RBL-2H3 cell line in vitro, respectively. The chronic toxicity study was carried out on beagle dogs. The optimized PTX-loaded mPEG-PLA (40/60) micelles showed a particle size of 37 nm and EE of 98.0% with a DL of 17.0% w/w. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analyses showed that mPEG-PLA (40/60) micelles have spherical shape with dense core. In vitro release study showed a sustained release for 24 h, and the hemolysis study revealed that mPEG-PLA (40/60) was a safe nanocarrier for intravenous administration. mPEG-PLA (40/60) showed a lower complement activation ability compared to mPEG-PLA (50/50) and Cremophor® EL (Cr EL). Furthermore, the chronic toxicity of PTX-loaded mPEG-PLA (40/60) micelles was significantly lower than those of mPEG-PLA (50/50) and Cr EL.

  6. Relationship Between Radiation-Induced Apoptosis of T Lymphocytes and Chronic Toxicity in Patients With Prostate Cancer Treated by Radiation Therapy: A Prospective Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foro, Palmira, E-mail: pforo@parcdesalutmar.cat [Department of Radiation Oncology, Parc de Salut Mar, Barcelona (Spain); Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona (Spain); Algara, Manuel [Department of Radiation Oncology, Parc de Salut Mar, Barcelona (Spain); Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona (Spain); Lozano, Joan [Department of Radiation Oncology, Parc de Salut Mar, Barcelona (Spain); Rodriguez, Nuria; Sanz, Xavier [Department of Radiation Oncology, Parc de Salut Mar, Barcelona (Spain); Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona (Spain); Torres, Erica [Pathology Department, Parc de Salut Mar, Barcelona (Spain); Carles, Joan [Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain); Department of Oncology, Hospital Vall d' Hebron, Barcelona (Spain); Reig, Anna; Membrive, Ismael [Department of Radiation Oncology, Parc de Salut Mar, Barcelona (Spain); Quera, Jaume [Department of Radiation Oncology, Parc de Salut Mar, Barcelona (Spain); Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona (Spain); Fernandez-Velilla, Enric; Pera, Oscar [Department of Radiation Oncology, Parc de Salut Mar, Barcelona (Spain); Lacruz, Marti [Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona (Spain); Radiation Protection Department, Parc de Salut Mar, Barcelona (Spain); Bellosillo, Beatriz [Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona (Spain); Pathology Department, Parc de Salut Mar, Barcelona (Spain)

    2014-04-01

    Purpose: To assess the correlation of radiation-induced apoptosis in vitro of CD4 and CD8 T lymphocytes with late toxicity of prostate cancer patients treated with radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: 214 patients were prospectively included in the study. Peripheral blood was drawn from patients before treatment and irradiated with 8 Gy. The percentage of CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes that underwent radiation-induced apoptosis was assessed by flow cytometry. Toxicity and mortality were correlated in 198 cases with pretreatment apoptosis and clinical and biological variables by use of a Cox proportional hazards model. Results: The mean percentage of CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocyte radiation-induced apoptosis was 28.58% (±14.23) and 50.76% (±18.9), respectively. Genitourinary (GU) toxicity was experienced by 39.9% of patients, while gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity was experienced by 19.7%. The probability of development of GU toxicity was nearly doubled (hazard ratio [HR] 1.99, P=.014) in those patients in whom the percentage of in vitro radiation-induced apoptosis of CD4+ T-lymphocytes was ≤28.58%. It was also almost double in patients who received doses ≥50 Gy in 65% of the bladder volume (V65 ≥50) (HR 1.92, P=.048). No correlation was found between GI toxicity and any of the variables studied. The probability of death during follow-up, after adjustment for different variables, was 2.7 times higher in patients with a percentage of CD8+ T lymphocyte apoptosis ≤50.76% (P=.022). Conclusions: In conclusion, our study shows, in the largest prospective cohort of prostate cancer patients undergoing radiation therapy, that in vitro radiation-induced apoptosis of CD4+ T lymphocytes assessed before radiation therapy was associated with the probability of developing chronic GU toxicity. In addition, the radiation dose received in the urinary bladder (V65 ≥50) affected the occurrence of GU toxicity. Finally, we also demonstrate that radiation-induced apoptosis of

  7. One-year chronic toxicity of madder color in F344 rats--induction of preneoplastic/neoplastic lesions in the kidney and liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Kaoru; Shibutani, Makoto; Masutomi, Naoya; Toyoda, Kazuhiro; Takagi, Hironori; Takahashi, Miwa; Fujimoto, Hitoshi; Hirose, Masao; Nishikawa, Akiyoshi

    2008-10-01

    To evaluate chronic toxicity of madder color (MC), a natural food colorant extracted from the roots of Rubia tinctorum L., F344 rats were fed diet containing 0%, 0.2%, 1.0% or 5.0% MC for 53 weeks. Hematological changes including anemia and serum biochemical alterations indicating hepatotoxicity were demonstrated at 5.0% in both sexes. Relative weights of the liver were significantly increased from 1.0% in both sexes, and those of the kidney were significantly increased from 1.0% in males and from 0.2% in females. Histopathologically, atypical renal tubule hyperplasias were increased at 1.0% or higher in both sexes in association with increase of cell proliferative activity in the tubules. A renal cell adenoma was observed in a male rat receiving 5.0% MC. In addition, glutathione S-transferase placental form-positive liver cell foci were significantly increased at 5.0% in both sexes. These results indicate that MC has chronic toxicity targeting kidney, liver and blood cells. Moreover, the results strongly suggest that MC may have the carcinogenic potential in the kidney and the liver.

  8. Modifying Foods and Feeding Regimes to Optimize the Performance of Hyalella azteca during Chronic Toxicity Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    The amphipod Hyalella azteca is commonly used to assess the toxicity of sediments and waters. However, laboratories have reported varying success in maintaining healthy cultures and in obtaining consistent growth and reproduction (where applicable), especially during tests...

  9. Assessment of chronic toxicity and carcinogenicity in an accelerated cancer bioassay in rats of Nifurtimox, an antitrypanosomiasis drug.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iatropoulos, M J; Wang, C X; von Keutz, E; Williams, G M

    2006-07-01

    The chronic toxicity and carcinogenicity of Nifurtimox (NFX), a 5-nitrofuran derivative used in the treatment of American trypanosomiasis, were studied in male and female Wistar rats in an accelerated cancer bioassay (ACB). The ACB is a mechanistic initiation/promotion chronic toxicity and carcinogenicity bioassay designed to assess potential carcinogenic activity of a test substance in critical organs and tissues of rodents in which human carcinogens are active. The organs studied were liver, lungs, urinary bladder (UB), mammary gland (MG), bone marrow, spleen, kidneys, colon, stomach and any grossly observed lesions. NFX is a genotoxin which has been reported previously to exert a variable degree of carcinogenic activity in rat liver, kidney, UB and MG. The present study was undertaken to assess whether NFX has initiating activity in these four named target sites. In the initiation phase, groups of 20 Wistar rats were given NFX daily in the diet at 0.2% for the first 12 weeks of the study to assess initiating activity, followed by promoters (PROs) for four organs for an additional 24 weeks. NFX was compared to the following known initiators (INs) for each of these four tissues: diethylnitrosamine (DEN) for liver and kidney, N-butyl-N(4-hydroxybutyl)nitrosamine (BBN) for UB and 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) for MG. PROs included phenobarbital (PB) for liver and kidney, nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) for UB, and diethylstilbestrol (DES) for MG. NFX was also administered continuously without PROs for 40 weeks. At the end of dosing (40 weeks) and at the end of recovery (52 weeks), animals were sacrificed and subjected to complete gross and histopathological examinations, along with evaluations of body weight gain over time and terminal body weights. Mortality was highest with DEN+PB (group 6) (40%), followed by BBN+NTA (group 7) (15%) and NFX+DES (group 5) and DMBA+DES (group 8) (10% each). The same groups also showed significant reductions in body weight gain

  10. ASSESSMENT OF TOXICITY DUE TO INTRAVENOUS ADMINISTRATION OF HEROIN CUT WITH CAFFEINE IN A CHRONIC CITALOPRAM CONSUMER.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nunziata Barbera

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the case of a 26 year old male heroin addict and chronic user of high doses of citalopram, who was found dead at his home. Toxicological analysis showed that the young man was in a state of chronic citalopram intoxication. The low opioid concentration detected excluded heroin overdose as the cause of death. The heroin used by the man was characterized by a low percentage of opiates (heroin 0.1%, acetylcodeine 0.8%; 6-MAM 1.19%, codeine 0.2% and a high percentage of cutting substances (caffeine 38%, acetaminophen 29%. The pathogenetic mechanism underlying the man’s death was reconstructed through the integrated evaluation of analytical and pathological data together with consideration of the toxic effects of intravenous injection of heroin cut with a significant amount of caffeine (although non-lethal in the presence of high citalopram concentrations.

  11. European survey of chronic pain patients: results for Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller-Schwefe, G H H

    2011-11-01

    This ongoing pan-European patient survey is being conducted to explore how chronic pain patients perceive their condition and the coping strategies they use to help deal with the pain. Participating doctors - general practitioners (GPs), pain specialists and orthopaedists - selected patients suffering from chronic pain who routinely visited their practices. Doctors provided details of individual pain diagnoses and treatment which were entered into a questionnaire. Each patient then answered additional questions about pain experience, pain therapy, possible areas for improvement and any coping strategies used. Completed questionnaires were sent to a healthcare-focused global consultancy for analysis and evaluation. The most common diagnosis was chronic back pain, in 61% of the 6435 patients. Using a five-point verbal rating scale (VRS), 70% of participants rated the intensity of their pain as moderate or severe. Approximately half were receiving monotherapy. The more intense the pain was, the higher the percentage of patients receiving combination therapy. The most frequently used combinations were NSAIDs/non-opioids with weak or strong opioids. Approximately two out of three patients received non-pharmacological treatment in addition to their pain medication. Almost all the patients (90%) perceived their pain intensity to be higher than it should be under successful pain management, and 30% were dissatisfied with their current treatment. Insufficient pain relief was the reason in most cases, but 29% of dissatisfied responders cited the side effects of medication. About half the patients identified a medium to high need for improvement in their ability to work, sleep and carry out general activities. For each specialisation, the more severe the pain, the fewer patients who were satisfied with their current pain treatment. More patients with severe and extreme pain were satisfied with treatment by a pain specialist than with a GP or orthopaedist. For all three

  12. p53 modulates the effect of ribosomal protein S6 kinase1 (S6K1) on cisplatin toxicity in chronic myeloid leukemia cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Ling-Yi; Kan, Wai-Ming

    2017-05-01

    Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is characterized by the expression of the oncoprotein, BCR-ABL. BCR-ABL inhibitors revolutionized CML chemotherapy while blast crisis (BC) CML patients are less responsive. Since suppression of ribosomal protein S6 kinase1 (S6K1) phosphorylation reverses the resistance to BCR-ABL inhibitor in CML cells and S6K1 inhibitors augment cisplatin toxicity in lung cancer cells, we speculated that combination of S6K1 inhibitor and cisplatin may be beneficial for eliminating BC CML cells. To our surprise, S6K1 inhibition decreased cisplatin-induced DNA damage and cell death only in p53-/- BC CML cells but not in p53+/+ BC CML cells. During the progression of CML, p53 expression either decreases or mutates. Moreover, the expression of p53 affects drug response of CML cells. Our results confirmed that S6K1 inhibition reversed cisplatin toxicity is dependent on p53 expression in CML cells. Moreover, p53 attenuated the phosphorylation and localization of S6K1 via attenuating 3-phosphoinositide dependent protein kinase-1 (PDK1) phosphorylation. Furthermore, S6K1 acts via DNA-PKcs to regulate H2AX phosphorylation and PARP cleavage, respectively. Taken together, our results suggest that p53/PDK1/S6K1 is a novel pathway regulating cisplatin toxicity in BC CML cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Comparative proteomic analysis reveals heart toxicity induced by chronic arsenic exposure in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qingyu; Xi, Guochen; Alamdar, Ambreen; Zhang, Jie; Shen, Heqing

    2017-10-01

    Arsenic is a widespread metalloid in the environment, which poses a broad spectrum of adverse effects on human health. However, a global view of arsenic-induced heart toxicity is still lacking, and the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear. By performing a comparative quantitative proteomic analysis, the present study aims to investigate the alterations of proteome profile in rat heart after long-term exposure to arsenic. As a result, we found that the abundance of 81 proteins were significantly altered by arsenic treatment (35 up-regulated and 46 down-regulated). Among these, 33 proteins were specifically associated with cardiovascular system development and function, including heart development, heart morphology, cardiac contraction and dilation, and other cardiovascular functions. It is further proposed that the aberrant regulation of 14 proteins induced by arsenic would disturb cardiac contraction and relaxation, impair heart morphogenesis and development, and induce thrombosis in rats, which is mediated by the Akt/p38 MAPK signaling pathway. Overall, these findings will augment our knowledge of the involved mechanisms and develop useful biomarkers for cardiotoxicity induced by environmental arsenic exposure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Are laboratory derived toxicity results informative for field situations? Case study on earthworm populations contaminated with heavy metals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klok, T.C.; Thissen, J.

    2009-01-01

    The relevance of laboratory tests on toxicants for field situations is often disputed given that laboratory tests are conducted under, next to the toxicant stress, optimal conditions which are not expected in field situations. In this paper we confront the results of laboratory tests on growth,

  15. [Sub-chronic toxicity and test of eye irritability of leaf aqueous extract from Plantago major (plantaginaceae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García González, Mildred; Coto Morales, Teresita; Soto Rodríguez, Gerardo A; Pazos, Liliana

    2003-01-01

    For the sub-chronic toxicity an aqueous preparation of Plantago major leaves was tested in 20 male NGP mice, with an average weight of 20.15 g and separated in two groups of ten individuals each. The dose used was 2000 mg/kg and the control group received 0.5 ml of distilled water. The extract administration was done daily during five days at week for a total period of 40 days. Signs of sub-chronic toxicity were observed in the days two and 12 of treatment. No significant change in corporal weight was observed. The ocular irritation was tested in five New Zeland male rabbits, with an average weight of 3.640 kg. The dose used was a 200 microliters the preparation (100 mg/ml) of Plantago major leaves, instill into the right eye and the control was used the left eye instill 200 microliters of distilled water. The administration was done daily during five days. The extract shows no significant irritation during the observation period.

  16. Dredged Material Analysis Tools; Performance of Acute and Chronic Sediment Toxicity Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-07-01

    1998) found more significant endpoint reductions in chronic than in acute tests using Corophium spp. to assess dredged material, stating that...J. Stronkhorst. 1998. Ecotoxicity assessment of contaminated dredged material with the marine amphipod Corophium volutator. Archives of

  17. Beta-cell glucose toxicity, lipotoxicity, and chronic oxidative stress in type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, R Paul; Harmon, Jamie; Tran, Phuong Oanh T; Poitout, Vincent

    2004-02-01

    The relentless decline in beta-cell function frequently observed in type 2 diabetic patients, despite optimal drug management, has variously been attributed to glucose toxicity and lipotoxicity. The former theory posits hyperglycemia, an outcome of the disease, as a secondary force that further damages beta-cells. The latter theory suggests that the often-associated defect of hyperlipidemia is a primary cause of beta-cell dysfunction. We review evidence that patients with type 2 diabetes continually undergo oxidative stress, that elevated glucose concentrations increase levels of reactive oxygen species in beta-cells, that islets have intrinsically low antioxidant enzyme defenses, that antioxidant drugs and overexpression of antioxidant enzymes protect beta-cells from glucose toxicity, and that lipotoxicity, to the extent it can be attributable to hyperlipidemia, occurs only in the context of preexisting hyperglycemia, whereas glucose toxicity can occur in the absence of hyperlipidemia.

  18. Environmental properties of long-chain alcohols. Structure-activity Relationship for Chronic Aquatic Toxicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaefers, Christoph; Sanderson, Hans; Boshof, Udo

    2009-01-01

    of toxicity to C15 alcohol were not in line with lower chain lengths due to the lack of toxicity below the level of water solubility. When omitting C15, the slope of most (Q)SARs approach -1, being consistent with the expectation of a non-polar narcotic mode of action. Further testing at higher chain lengths...... substances and the need to test as close as possible to their water solubility limits. Test concentrations were determined by GC-MS before and after test solution renewal. Whereas apparent toxicity based on survival and reproduction increased with increasing C-chain lengths up to C14, observations...... is not sensible due to progressively lower solubility, at remaining biodegradability. Effects on mortality and reproduction are not expected below the level of water solubility. © 2008 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved....

  19. Mechanisms of the Testis Toxicity Induced by Chronic Exposure to Mequindox

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qianying Liu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Mequindox (MEQ is a synthetic antimicrobial agent widely used in China since the 1980s. Although the toxicity of MEQ is well recognized, its testis toxicity has not been adequately investigated. In the present study, we provide evidence that MEQ triggers oxidative stress, mitochondrion dysfunction and spermatogenesis deficiency in mice after exposure to MEQ (0, 25, 55, and 110 mg/kg in the diet for up to 18 months. The genotoxicity and adrenal toxicity may contribute to sperm abnormalities caused by MEQ. Moreover, using LC/MS-IT-TOF analysis, two metabolites, 3-methyl-2-(1-hydroxyethyl quinoxaline-N4-monoxide (M4 and 3-methyl-2-(1-hydroxyethyl quinoxaline-N1-monoxide (M8, were detected in the serum of mice, which directly confirms the relationship between the N→O group reduction metabolism of MEQ and oxidative stress. Interestingly, only M4 was detected in the testes, suggesting that the higher reproductive toxicity of M4 than M8 might be due to the increased stability of M4-radical (M4-R compared to M8-radical (M8-R. Furthermore, the expression of the blood-testis barrier (BTB-associated junctions such as tight junctions, gap junctions and basal ectoplasmic specializations were also examined. The present study demonstrated for the first time the role of the M4 in testis toxicity, and illustrated that the oxidative stress, mitochondrion dysfunction and interference in spermatogenesis, as well as the altered expression of BTB related junctions, were involved in the reproductive toxicity mediated by MEQ in vivo.

  20. Assessing the environmental hazard of individual and combined pharmaceuticals: acute and chronic toxicity of fluoxetine and propranolol in the crustacean Daphnia magna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varano, Valentina; Fabbri, Elena; Pasteris, Andrea

    2017-08-01

    Pharmaceuticals are widespread emerging contaminants and, like all pollutants, are present in combination with others in the ecosystems. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the toxic response of the crustacean Daphnia magna exposed to individual and combined pharmaceuticals. Fluoxetine, a selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitor widely prescribed as antidepressant, and propranolol, a non-selective β-adrenergic receptor-blocking agent used to treat hypertension, were tested. Several experimental trials of an acute immobilization test and a chronic reproduction test were performed. Single chemicals were first tested separately. Toxicity of binary mixtures was then assessed using a fixed ratio experimental design. Five concentrations and 5 percentages of each substance in the mixture (0, 25, 50, 75, and 100%) were tested. The MIXTOX model was applied to analyze the experimental results. This tool is a stepwise statistical procedure that evaluates if and how observed data deviate from a reference model, either concentration addition (CA) or independent action (IA), and provides significance testing for synergism, antagonism, or more complex interactions. Acute EC50 values ranged from 6.4 to 7.8 mg/L for propranolol and from 6.4 to 9.1 mg/L for fluoxetine. Chronic EC50 values ranged from 0.59 to 1.00 mg/L for propranolol and from 0.23 to 0.24 mg/L for fluoxetine. Results showed a significant antagonism between chemicals in both the acute and the chronic mixture tests when CA was adopted as the reference model, while absence of interactive effects when IA was used.

  1. Is mercury in Tibetan Medicine toxic? Clinical, neurocognitive and biochemical results of an initial cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallon, Sarah; Dory, Yahav; Barghouthy, Yazeed; Tamdin, Tsewang; Sangmo, Rigzin; Tashi, Jamyang; Yangdon, Sonam; Yeshi, Tenzin; Sadutshang, Tsetan; Rotenberg, Michal; Cohen, Elinor; Harlavan, Yehudit; Sharabi, Galit; Bdolah-Abram, Tali

    2017-02-01

    Mercury an important therapeutic substance in Tibetan Medicine undergoes complex "detoxification" prior to inclusion in multi-ingredient formulas. In an initial cross-sectional study, patients taking Tibetan Medicine for various conditions were evaluated for mercury toxicity. Two groups were identified: Group 1, patients taking " Tsothel" the most important detoxified mercury preparation and Group 2, patients taking other mercury preparations or mercury free Tibetan Medicine. Atomic fluorescence spectrometry of Tibetan Medicine showed mercury consumption 130 µg/kg/day (Group 1) and 30 µg/kg/day (Group 2) ( P ≤ 0.001), levels above EPA (RfDs) suggested threshold (0.3 µg/kg /day) for oral chronic exposure. Mean duration of Tibetan Medicine treatment was 9 ± 17 months (range 3-116) (Group 1) and 5 ± 1.96 months (range 1-114) (Group 2) (NS) with cumulative days of mercury containing Tibetan Medicine, 764 days ± 1214 (range 135-7330) vs. 103 days ± 111 (range 0-426), respectively ( P ≤ 0.001). Comparison of treatment groups with healthy referents (Group 3) not taking Tibetan Medicine showed no significant differences in prevalence of 23 non-specific symptoms of mercury toxicity, abnormal neurological, cardiovascular and dental findings and no correlation with mercury exposure variables; consumption, cumulative treatment days, blood/ urine Hg. Liver and renal function tests in treatment groups were not significantly increased compared to referents, with mean urine Beta2 Microglobulin within the normal range and not significantly associated with Hg exposure variables after correcting for confounding variables. Neurocognitive testing showed no significant intergroup differences for Wechsler Memory Scale, Grooved Pegboard, Visual Retention, but Group1 scores were better for Mini-Mental, Brief Word Learning, Verbal Fluency after correcting for confounding variables. These results suggest mercury containing Tibetan Medicine does not

  2. Chronic Arsenic Toxicity from Drinking Well Water in a Rural Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Mohammad Kazemifar

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Drinking water is the most important cause of poisoning in the world. Iran is one of the countries with arsenic-contaminated water upper limit of normal. In this study, we decided to determine the effects of chronic arsenic poisoning on demographic, clinical and laboratory features of people. Methods: This descriptive-sectional study carried out on all people resided in Shahidabad Village, Qazvin Province in 2015. All of them were evaluated in terms of demographic features, blood pressure, diabetes, dermatologic, and neurologic lesions, and fasting blood sugar. People with exclusion criteria were excluded. The data were analyzed by SPSS software and descriptive statistics. Results: Out of 400 subjects, 278 (69.5% females and 122 (30.5% males, 88 (22% people had positive urine test for arsenic and 312 (78% subjects had negative urine test. The mean age of them was 48.9± 16.6 yr. The mean age and duration of residence in the region in arsenic positive group were significantly higher than arsenic negative group (P<0.05. Blood pressure, history of diabetes, dermatologic and neurologic lesions, and fasting blood sugar had no significant differences between two groups. Conclusion: Although there were no significant differences between two groups in terms of many clinical and laboratory findings but the prevalence of 22% of poisoning with arsenic in the selected population reveals the necessity of screening, preventive measures and appropriate treatments in people exposed to arsenic contamination.

  3. Pulmonary toxicity of chronic exposure to tobacco and biomass smoke in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omer Tamer Dogan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to examine the separate and combined effects of tobacco and biomass smoke exposure on pulmonary histopathology in rats. INTRODUCTION: In addition to smoking, indoor pollution in developing countries contributes to the development of respiratory diseases. METHODS: Twenty-eight adult rats were divided into four groups as follows: control group (Group I, no exposure to tobacco or biomass smoke, exposed to tobacco smoke (Group II, exposed to biomass smoke (Group III, and combined exposure to tobacco and biomass smoke (Group IV. After six months the rats in all four groups were sacrificed. Lung tissue samples were examined under light microscopy. The severity of pathological changes was scored. RESULTS: Group II differed from Group I in all histopathological alterations except intraparenchymal vascular thrombosis. There was no statistically significant difference in histopathological changes between the subjects exposed exclusively to tobacco smoke (Group II and those with combined exposure to tobacco and biomass smoke (Group IV. The histopathological changes observed in Group IV were found to be more severe than those in subjects exposed exclusively to biomass smoke (Group III. DISCUSSION: Chronic exposure to tobacco and biomass smoke caused an increase in severity and types of lung injury. CONCLUSION: Exposure to cigarette smoke caused serious damage to the respiratory system, particularly with concomitant exposure to biomass smoke.

  4. Multi-level assessment of chronic toxicity of estuarine sediments with the amphipod Gammarus locusta: II. Organism and population-level endpoints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Filipe O; Neuparth, Teresa; Correia, Ana D; Costa, Maria Helena

    2005-07-01

    This study aimed to test the performance of the amphipod Gammarus locusta (L.) in chronic sediment toxicity tests. It constitutes part of a multi-level assessment of chronic toxicity of estuarine sediments, integrating organism and population-level endpoints with biochemical markers responses. Here we account for organism and population-level effects, while biomarker responses were reported in a companion article. Five moderately contaminated sediments from Sado and Tagus estuaries were tested, comprising 3 muddy and 2 sandy sediments. These sediments either did not show acute toxicity or were diluted with control sediment as much as required to remove acute toxicity. Subsequent chronic tests consisted of 28-day exposures with survival, individual growth and reproductive traits as endpoints. Two of the muddy sediments induced higher growth rates in the amphipods, and improved reproductive traits. This was understood to be a consequence of the amount of organic matter in the sediment, which was nutritionally beneficial to the amphipods, while concurrently decreasing contaminant bioavailability. Biomarker responses did not reveal toxicant-induced stress in amphipods exposed to these sediments. One of the sandy sediments was acutely toxic at 50% dilution, but in contrast stimulated amphipod growth when diluted 75%. This was presumed to be an indication of a hormetic response. Finally the two remaining contaminated sediments showed pronounced chronic toxicity, affecting survival and reproduction. The sex ratio of survivors was highly biased towards females, and offspring production was severely impaired. The particulars of the responses of this amphipod were examined, as well as strengths versus limitations of the sediment test. This study illustrates the utility of this chronic test for toxicity assessment of contaminated estuarine sediments, with potential application all along Atlantic Europe.

  5. Results of Water and Sediment Toxicity Tests and Chemical Analyses Conducted at the Central Shops Burning Rubble Pit Waste Unit, January 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Specht, W.L.

    1999-06-02

    , iron, lead and vanadium were below the TRVs. Metal concentrations in the sediment exceeded the TRVs for arsenic, chromium, copper, and mercury but not for antimony and lead. The results of the water toxicity tests indicated no evidence of acute toxicity in any of the samples. The results of the chronic toxicity tests indicated possible reproductive impairment at two locations. However, the results appear to be anomalous, since the toxicity was unrelated to concentration, and because the concentrations of pCOCs were similar in the toxic and the non-toxic samples. The results of the sediment toxicity tests indicated significant mortality in all but one sample, including the background reference sediment. When the results of the CSBRP sediment toxicity tests were statistically compared to the result from the background reference sediment, there was no significant mortality. These results suggest that the surface water and sediment at the CSBRP Operable Unit are not toxic to the biota that inhabit the wetland and the settling basin.

  6. Comprehensive characterization of the acute and chronic toxicity of the neonicotinoid insecticide thiamethoxam to a suite of aquatic primary producers, invertebrates, and fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finnegan, Meaghean C; Baxter, Leilan R; Maul, Jonathan D; Hanson, Mark L; Hoekstra, Paul F

    2017-10-01

    Thiamethoxam is a neonicotinoid insecticide used widely in agriculture to control a broad spectrum of chewing and sucking insect pests. Recent detection of thiamethoxam in surface waters has raised interest in characterizing the potential impacts of this insecticide to aquatic organisms. We report the results of toxicity testing (acute and chronic) conducted under good laboratory practices for more than 30 freshwater species (insects, molluscs, crustaceans, algae, macrophytes, and fish) and 4 marine species (an alga, a mollusc, a crustacean, and a fish). As would be anticipated for a neonicotinoid, aquatic primary producers and fish were the least sensitive organisms tested, with acute median lethal and effect concentrations (LC50/EC50) observed to be ≥80 mg/L in all cases, which far exceeds surface water exposure concentrations. Tested molluscs, worms, and rotifers were similarly insensitive (EC50 ≥ 100 mg/L), except for Lumbriculus sp., with an EC50 of 7.7 mg/L. In general, insects were the most sensitive group in the study, with most acute EC50 values  5.5 mg/L). The most sensitive chronic response was for Chironomus riparius, with a 30-d no-observed-effect concentration (NOEC; emergence) of 0.01 mg/L. Observed toxicity to the tested marine organisms was comparable to that of freshwater species. We used the reported data to construct species sensitivity distributions for thiamethoxam, to calculate 5% hazard concentrations (HC5s) for acute data (freshwater invertebrates), and compared these with measured concentrations from relevant North American surface waters. Overall, based on acute toxicity endpoints, the potential acute risk to freshwater organisms was found to be minimal (likelihood of exceeding HC5s < 1%). Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:2838-2848. © 2017 The Authors. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of SETAC. © 2017 The Authors. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry published by

  7. 16 CFR 1500.135 - Summary of guidelines for determining chronic toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... “sufficient evidence” criteria of developmental or reproductive toxicity in animals. The Food and Drug... exposure is above the “acceptable daily intake” (“ADI”). The ADI is based on the risks posed by the... risks and the ADI to children and adults, and assessment of risk. (1) Assessment of Exposure. An...

  8. Retained Lumbar Bullet: A Case Report of Chronic Lead Toxicity and Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustamante, Nirma D; Macias-Konstantopoulos, Wendy L

    2016-07-01

    Lead toxicity from retained bullet fragments is difficult to both predict and diagnose, but important to treat early, given the potential severity of disease. Blood lead levels > 25 μg/dL and 40 μg/dL are considered toxic in children and adults, respectively. Symptoms may range from nonspecific constitutional symptoms to seizures and coma. Chelation is the mainstay therapy for lead poisoning and levels to treat depend on patient age, blood lead levels, and the presence of symptoms. CASE  We present the case of a woman with symptoms of severe lead toxicity from 20-year-old retained bullet fragments. She had been seen by multiple providers for evaluation of each symptom, but a unifying diagnosis had not been found. After identifying this complication, she was treated appropriately and more serious complications were prevented. WHY SHOULD AN EMERGENCY PHYSICIAN BE AWARE OF THIS?: We present this case to increase awareness among emergency physicians of lead toxicity in patients with a seemingly unrelated constellation of symptoms and a history of a previous gunshot wound with retained bullet or bullet fragments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. [Results of a multicenter trial of serenoa repens extract (permixon) in patients with chronic abacterial prostatitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopatkin, N A; Apolikhin, O I; Sivkov, A V; Aliaev, Iu G; Komiakov, B K; Zhuravlev, V N; Oshchepkov, V N; Vinarov, A Z; Bazhenov, I V; Medvedev, A A; Spivak, L G; Eliseenko, A G

    2007-01-01

    Chronic prostatitis (CP) morbidity now makes up 8 to 35% in males aged 20-40 years (N.A. Lopatkin et al., 1998; O.L. Tiktinsky, 1999). In general population CP incidence rate is 5 to 8% (J.C. Nickel, 1999). Phytotherapy is now widely practiced in CP. A multicenter trial conducted by the authors demonstrates high efficacy ofpermixon in the treatment of chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome. The results of 6-month follow-up are presented.

  10. Liver and kidney toxicity in chronic use of opioids: An experimental ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this study, histopathological and biochemical changes due to chronic usage of morphine or tramadol in liver and kidney were assessed in rats. Thirty male Wistar rats (180–220 g) were included and divided into three groups. Normal saline (1 ml) was given intraperitoneally as placebo in the control group ( = 10).

  11. Liver and kidney toxicity in chronic use of opioids: An experimental ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    In this study, histopathological and biochemical changes due to chronic usage of morphine or tramadol in liver and kidney were assessed in rats. Thirty male Wistar rats (180–220 g) were included and divided into three groups. Normal saline (1 ml) was given intraperitoneally as placebo in the control group (n = 10).

  12. Chronic toxicity of diphenhydramine hydrochloride and erythromycin thiocyanate to Daphnia, Daphnia magna, in a continuous exposure test system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinertz, Jeffery R.; Schreier, Theresa M.; Bernardy, Jeffry A.; Franz, Jeanne L.

    2011-01-01

    Diphenhydramine hydrochloride (DH; Benadryl(TM), an over-the-counter antihistamine) and erythromycin thiocyanate (ET; a commonly used macrolide antibiotic) are pharmaceutical compounds whose chronic toxicity to Daphnia magna had not been characterized. Continuous exposure to DH concentrations about 5 times greater than the maximum reported environmental concentration of 0.023 μg/L for 21 days or to ET concentrations about 40 times the maximum reported environmental concentration of 6 μg/L for 21 days did not significantly impact D. magna survival and production. In this study the no observable effect concentration for DH was 0.12 μg/L and for ET was 248 μg/L.

  13. Mercury chronic toxicity might be associated to some cases of hydrocephalus in adult humans?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva Sieger, Federico A; Díaz Silva, Gustavo A; Ardila, Gustavo Pradilla; García, Ronald G

    2012-07-01

    Mercury accumulates in nervous tissue causing neurological and psychiatric manifestations. Numerous clinical findings have been described in patients that suffered chronic mercury intoxication. Some findings, such as hydrocephalus, have been described only in experimental studies. Following, we present a case of 50 year-old man with a 3-month history of severe frontal headache episodes and vision loss together with a history of asthenia, anorexia, muscle pain, fatigue and neuropsychiatric symptoms. The magnetic resonance imaging showed hydrocephalus and stenosis of aqueduct of Sylvius. This patient reported that he worked as laboratory metallurgic auxiliary for over 30 years. During this time, he had been chronically exposed to elemental mercury. The metals whole blood test was normal, except by his blood mercury level that was 61.5 μg/L (normal ~1 μg/L). In our best knowledge, hydrocephalus and stenosis of aqueduct of Sylvius have been described only in animals exposed to methylmercury during their gestation. We think that this case of hydrocephalus might be associated with the chronic mercury exposure and therefore this etiology must be taken in account in a patient with hydrocephalus of unknown etiology. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Dose and time-dependent sub-chronic toxicity study of hydroethanolic leaf extract of Flabellaria paniculata Cav. (Malpighiaceae in rodents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abidemi James Akindele

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Flabellaria paniculata Cav. (Malpighiaceae is a climbing shrub, the preparations of which are used in the treatment of wounds and ulcers in Nigeria and Ghana. This study investigated the sub-chronic toxicity profile of the hydroethanolic leaf extract of Flabellaria paniculata (HLE-FP. HLE-FP was administered p.o. (20, 100 and 500 mg/kg for 30 and 60 days to different groups of rats. Control animals received 10 ml/kg distilled water. In the group of animals for reversibility study, HLE-FP administration ceased on the 60th day and animals were monitored for a further 15 days. Results showed that oral treatment with HLE-FP for 30 days caused significant (p0.05 differences in relative organ weights between control and treatment groups were observed. HLE-FP-treated rats showed significant (p< 0.05 increases in Hb, PCV and RBC on day 30 and significant (p< 0.05 increases in MCV and MCH indices on day 60 compared to control. There were significant (p< 0.05 elevations in serum K+, urea and creatinine compared to control. The liver function tests showed slightly but non-significant alterations when compared to control. Biochemical findings were supported by histopathological observations of vital organs including the kidney and liver. Toxicities observed in respect of kidney function were irreversible at 15 days of stoppage of treatment. In the acute toxicity study, HLE-FP given p.o. caused no lethality at 5000 mg/kg but behavioural manifestations like restlessness, generalized body tremor, feed and water refusal were observed. The i.p. LD50 was estimated to be 2951.2 mg/kg. Findings in this study showed that HLE-FP is relatively non-toxic on acute exposure and generally safe on sub-chronic administration, but could be deleterious on the kidneys on prolonged oral exposure at a high dose. Thus, caution should be exercised with i

  15. Development and validation of a metal mixture bioavailability model (MMBM) to predict chronic toxicity of Ni-Zn-Pb mixtures to Ceriodaphnia dubia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nys, Charlotte; Janssen, Colin R; De Schamphelaere, Karel A C

    2017-01-01

    Recently, several bioavailability-based models have been shown to predict acute metal mixture toxicity with reasonable accuracy. However, the application of such models to chronic mixture toxicity is less well established. Therefore, we developed in the present study a chronic metal mixture bioavailability model (MMBM) by combining the existing chronic daphnid bioavailability models for Ni, Zn, and Pb with the independent action (IA) model, assuming strict non-interaction between the metals for binding at the metal-specific biotic ligand sites. To evaluate the predictive capacity of the MMBM, chronic (7d) reproductive toxicity of Ni-Zn-Pb mixtures to Ceriodaphnia dubia was investigated in four different natural waters (pH range: 7-8; Ca range: 1-2 mM; Dissolved Organic Carbon range: 5-12 mg/L). In each water, mixture toxicity was investigated at equitoxic metal concentration ratios as well as at environmental (i.e. realistic) metal concentration ratios. Statistical analysis of mixture effects revealed that observed interactive effects depended on the metal concentration ratio investigated when evaluated relative to the concentration addition (CA) model, but not when evaluated relative to the IA model. This indicates that interactive effects observed in an equitoxic experimental design cannot always be simply extrapolated to environmentally realistic exposure situations. Generally, the IA model predicted Ni-Zn-Pb mixture toxicity more accurately than the CA model. Overall, the MMBM predicted Ni-Zn-Pb mixture toxicity (expressed as % reproductive inhibition relative to a control) in 85% of the treatments with less than 20% error. Moreover, the MMBM predicted chronic toxicity of the ternary Ni-Zn-Pb mixture at least equally accurately as the toxicity of the individual metal treatments (RMSEMix = 16; RMSEZn only = 18; RMSENi only = 17; RMSEPb only = 23). Based on the present study, we believe MMBMs can be a promising tool to account for the effects of water

  16. BCR SIGNALING INHIBITORS: AN OVERVIEW OF TOXICITIES ASSOCIATED WITH IBRUTINIB AND IDELALISIB IN PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC LYMPHOCYTIC LEUKEMIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Falchi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The B-cell receptor signaling inhibitors ibrutinib and idelalisib are revolutionizing the treatment landscape of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL and other B-cell malignancies. These oral agents, both alone and in combination with other drugs, have shown remarkable clinical activity in relapsed or refractory CLL across all risk groups, and have been approved by the Food and Drug Administration for this indication. Preliminary data suggest that an even greater benefit can be expected in treatment-naïve CLL patients. Both ibrutinib and idelalisib are well tolerated by most patients, including older, frailer individuals. Toxicities are usually mild and self-resolving. Clinicians must, however, be aware of a number of peculiar adverse events, the effects of which can be severe enough to limit the clinical use of these agents. In this review, we survey the salient aspects of the pharmacology of these agents, as well as clinical experience regarding their use for the treatment of patients with CLL. Our foci will be both the most common and the most clinically significant toxicities associated with these drugs.

  17. BCR Signaling Inhibitors: an Overview of Toxicities Associated with Ibrutinib and Idelalisib in Patients with Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falchi, Lorenzo; Baron, Jessica M; Orlikowski, Carrie Anne; Ferrajoli, Alessandra

    2016-01-01

    The B-cell receptor (BCR) signaling inhibitors ibrutinib and idelalisib are revolutionizing the treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and other B-cell malignancies. These oral agents, both alone and in combination with other drugs, have shown remarkable clinical activity in relapsed or refractory CLL across all risk groups, and have been approved by the Food and Drug Administration for this indication. Preliminary data suggest that an even greater benefit can be expected in treatment-naïve CLL patients. Both ibrutinib and idelalisib are well tolerated by most patients, including older, frailer individuals. Toxicities are usually mild and self-resolving. Clinicians must, however, be aware of a number of peculiar adverse events, the effects of which can be severe enough to limit the clinical use of these agents. In this review, we survey the salient aspects of the pharmacology and clinical experience with the use of BCR signaling inhibitors for the treatment of patients with CLL. We next focus on both the most common and the most clinically significant toxicities associated with these drugs.

  18. Multiple linear regression models for predicting chronic aluminum toxicity to freshwater aquatic organisms and developing water quality guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeForest, David K; Brix, Kevin V; Tear, Lucinda M; Adams, William J

    2018-01-01

    The bioavailability of aluminum (Al) to freshwater aquatic organisms varies as a function of several water chemistry parameters, including pH, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and water hardness. We evaluated the ability of multiple linear regression (MLR) models to predict chronic Al toxicity to a green alga (Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata), a cladoceran (Ceriodaphnia dubia), and a fish (Pimephales promelas) as a function of varying DOC, pH, and hardness conditions. The MLR models predicted toxicity values that were within a factor of 2 of observed values in 100% of the cases for P. subcapitata (10 and 20% effective concentrations [EC10s and EC20s]), 91% of the cases for C. dubia (EC10s and EC20s), and 95% (EC10s) and 91% (EC20s) of the cases for P. promelas. The MLR models were then applied to all species with Al toxicity data to derive species and genus sensitivity distributions that could be adjusted as a function of varying DOC, pH, and hardness conditions (the P. subcapitata model was applied to algae and macrophytes, the C. dubia model was applied to invertebrates, and the P. promelas model was applied to fish). Hazardous concentrations to 5% of the species or genera were then derived in 2 ways: 1) fitting a log-normal distribution to species-mean EC10s for all species (following the European Union methodology), and 2) fitting a triangular distribution to genus-mean EC20s for animals only (following the US Environmental Protection Agency methodology). Overall, MLR-based models provide a viable approach for deriving Al water quality guidelines that vary as a function of DOC, pH, and hardness conditions and are a significant improvement over bioavailability corrections based on single parameters. Environ Toxicol Chem 2018;37:80-90. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  19. Comparative oxidative stress, metallothionein induction and organ toxicity following chronic exposure to arsenic, lead and mercury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, S; Flora, G; Bhatnagar, P; Flora, S J S

    2014-06-22

    Globally, arsenic, mercury and lead constitutes as the three most hazardous environmental toxicants perturbing imbalance in pro—oxidant and antioxidant homeostasis. Individual toxicity of these environmental toxicants is well known but there is lack of comparative data on variables indicative of oxidative stress. We thus investigated the effects of chronic exposure to sodium arsenite, mercuric chloride and lead acetate on blood and tissue oxidative stress, metal concentration and metallothionein (MT) contents. Male rats were exposed to sodium arsenite, mercuric chloride and lead acetate (0.05 mg/kg each, orally, once daily) for 6 months. Arsenic, mercury and lead exposure led to a significant inhibition of blood δ—aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) activity and glutathione level supported by increased thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS). The level of inhibition was more pronounced in case of lead followed by mercury and arsenic. These metals/ metalloid significantly increased reactive oxygen species (ROS), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity accompanied by a decreased superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase and reduced and oxidized glutathione (GSH and GSSG) levels in blood and tissues. Mercury alone produced a significant induction of hepatic and renal MT concentrations. Serum transaminases, lactate dehydrogenase and alkaline phosphatase activities increased significantly on exposure to arsenic and mercury exposure suggesting liver injury which was less pronounced in case of lead exposure. These biochemical alterations were supported by increased arsenic, mercury and lead concentrations in blood and soft tissues. The present study suggests that exposure to sodium arsenite and mercuric chloride lead to more pronounced oxidative stress and hepatotoxicity while lead acetate caused significant alterations in haem synthesis pathway compared to two other thiol binding metal/metalloid.

  20. Protective Effect of White-fleshed Peach (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch) on Chronic Nicotine-induced Toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Jeong; Park, Kwang-Kyun; Chung, Won-Yoon; Lee, Sun Kyoung; Kim, Ki-Rim

    2017-03-01

    Nicotine is a major toxic component of tobacco smoke and has been recognized as a risk factor to induce oxidative tissue damage, which is a precursor to cardiovascular diseases, lung-related diseases, and cancers. Peaches (Prunus persica) have been used for the treatment of degenerative disorders, such as hypermenorrhea, dysmenorrhea, and infertility in Asian countries. In this study, we investigated the effects of white-fleshed peach on the excretion of nicotine metabolites and 1-hydroxypyrene in smokers and chronic nicotine-induced tissue damages in mice. The concentrations of cotinine and 1-hydroxypyrene were measured in urine of smokers before or after intake of white-fleshed peaches. In addition, ICR mice were injected with nicotine (5 mg/kg body weight) and then orally administered with white-fleshed peach extracts (WFPE) (250 or 500 mg/kg body weight) for 36 days. The oxidative stress parameters and the activities of antioxidant enzymes were measured in liver and kidney tissues. Also, histological changes and nitrotyrosine expression were assessed. Intake of white-fleshed peaches increased the urinary concentration of nicotine metabolites and 1-hydroxypyrene in 91.67% and 83.33% of smokers, respectively. WFPE decreased the malondialdehyde levels and recovered the activities of antioxidant enzymes in nicotine-injected mice. In addition, WFPE inhibited nitrotyrosine expression and inflammatory responses in the liver, kidney, and lung tissues of nicotine-treated mice. White-fleshed peaches may increase the metabolism of toxic components in tobacco smoke in smokers and protect normal tissues against nicotine toxicity in mice. Therefore, supplementation of white-fleshed peaches might be beneficial to smokers.

  1. [Study on sub-chronic toxicity of powered milk containing transgenic human alpha-lactalbumin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhi, Yuan; Liu, Haibo; Geng, Guiying; Wang, Huiling; Yang, Hua; Feng, Xiaolian; Gao, Peng; Yu, Qiang; Feng, Yongquan; Xu, Haibin

    2011-07-01

    To investigate the potential toxic or adverse effect of transgenic human alpha-lactalbumin powered milk on rats. Weanling Wistar rats were randomly divided into seven groups according the weight: three transgenic milk powder (T) groups, three non-transgenic milk powder (N) groups and the control (C) group. The diets of T groups contain 15%, 30% and 60% transgenic human alpha-lactalbumin milk powder. The diets of N groups contain 15%, 30% and 60% non-transgenic human alpha-lactalbumin milk powder for 90 days. The diet of C group contains only basic feed. Haematological and biochemical parameters was measured during the study (at 45th and 90th of the experiment). At the end of the 90th day, organ tissues analysis was performed. There were no transgenic human alpha-lactalbumin related adverse effects on the body weight, food intake, food consumption, hematology,serum biochemistry, as well as histopathology. There were no signs of toxic and adverse effects for transgenic human alpha-lactalbumin powdered milk on rats.

  2. Chronic toxicity and three-generation reproduction study of styrene monomer in the drinking water of rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beliles, R.P.; Butala, J.H.; Stack, C.R.; Makris, S.

    1985-10-01

    Chronic toxicity and reproductive performance were evaluated in groups of rats receiving styrene monomer in their drinking water at nominal concentrations of 0, 125, or 250 ppm. Fifty male and 70 female rats in each test group and 76 males and 104 females in the control group were placed on a 2-year study and followed for observations of general health which included measurement of body weight, food and water consumption, hemograms, clinical chemistries, urinalysis, and histopathological examination. Ten males and 20 females from each group in the study were mated to produce F1 pups. These pups were subsequently mated to produce three generations of offspring, all maintained on styrene-treated drinking water. For each generation, the following were evaluated: fertility, litter size, pup viability, pup survival, sex ratio, pup body weight, weanling liver and kidney weight, and marrow cytogenetics. Except for a statistically significant reduction in water consumption for styrene-treated rats, no treatment-related changes, including mortality patterns, were reported for animals in the chronic study. The data evaluated for reproductive performance also showed no evidence of styrene-related changes. It was concluded that the administration of styrene in the drinking water of rats for 2 years produced no deleterious dose-related effects or decrements in reproductive performance.

  3. Field testing for toxic algae with a microarray: initial results from the MIDTAL project

    OpenAIRE

    McCoy, G.R.; Raine, R.; Medlin, L.; Chen, J.; Kooistra, W.; Barra, L.; Ruggiero, M.V.; Graneli, E.; Hagström, J.A.; Salomon, P.S.; Reguera, B.; Rodríguez, F.; Escalera, L.; Edvardsen, B.; Dittami, S.M.

    2013-01-01

    One of the key tasks in MIDTAL (MIcroarrays for the Detection of Toxic ALgae) is to demonstrate the applicability of microarrays to monitor harmful algae across a broad range of ecological niches and toxic species responsible for harmful algal events. Water samples are collected from a series of sites used in national phytoplankton and biotoxin monitoring across Europe. The samples are filtered; rRNA is extracted, labelled with a fluorescent dye and applied to a mi...

  4. Radiation dose limits and liver toxicities resulting from multiple yttrium-90 radioembolization treatments for hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Joseph Y; Rhee, Thomas K; Atassi, Bassel; Gates, Vanessa L; Kulik, Laura; Mulcahy, Mary F; Larson, Andrew C; Ryu, Robert K; Sato, Kent T; Lewandowski, Robert J; Omary, Reed A; Salem, Riad

    2007-11-01

    To assess the relationship between cumulative hepatic lobar radiation dose and liver toxicities in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) treated with multiple sessions of yttrium-90 radioembolization. Forty-one patients with HCC (age range, 46-82 years) underwent radioembolization with 90Y. Patients were classified according to the Okuda scoring system. All patients received single liver lobar treatments on two or more occasions according to standard clinical 90Y embolization protocol. Cumulative radiation dose to each liver lobe was measured and patients were followed to assess liver toxicities. Statistical analysis was performed with the Student t test and Kaplan-Meier analysis. Patients with Okuda stage I disease received more treatments than those with Okuda stage II disease (mean, 2.65 vs 2.24; Por=1 toxicity; P<.005). No correlation between cumulative radiation dose and liver toxicities existed in patients with Okuda stage II disease. The maximum tolerated dose was between 222 and 390 Gy. Median survival times were 660 and 431 days for patients with Okuda stage I and stage II disease, respectively. Patients with HCC can tolerate high cumulative radiation doses with 90Y therapy. Compared with patients with Okuda stage II disease, patients with Okuda stage I disease tolerate a higher cumulative radiation dose without liver toxicity, but liver toxicities increase with increasing cumulative radiation doses.

  5. Protective Effects of Tinospora cordifolia on Hepatic and Gastrointestinal Toxicity Induced by Chronic and Moderate Alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Bhawana; Dabur, Rajesh

    2016-01-01

    Heavy alcohol intake depletes the plasma vitamins due to hepatotoxicity and decreased intestinal absorption. However, moderate alcohol intake is often thought to be healthy. Therefore, effects of chronic moderate alcohol intake on liver and intestine were studied using urinary vitamin levels. Furthermore, effects of Tinospora cordifolia water extract (TCE) (hepatoprotective) on vitamin excretion and intestinal absorption were also studied. In the study, asymptomatic moderate alcoholics (n = 12) without chronic liver disease and healthy volunteers (n = 14) of mean age 39 ± 2.2 (mean ± SD) were selected and divided into three groups. TCE treatment was performed for 14 days. The blood and urine samples were collected on Day 0 and 14 after treatment with TCE and analyzed. In alcoholics samples, a significant increase in the levels of gamma-glutamyl transferase, aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, Triglyceride, Cholesterol, HDL and LDL (P alcoholic samples; however, TCE intervention restored the CA and biotin levels. Vitamin metabolism biomarkers, i.e. homocysteine and xanthurenic acid, were also normalized after TCE intervention. Overall data depict that moderate alcohol intake is also hepatotoxic and decreases intestinal absorption. However, TCE treatment effectively increased the intestinal absorption and retaining power of liver that regulated alcohol-induced multivitamin deficiency. © The Author 2015. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  6. Aliskiren prevents the toxic effects of peritoneal dialysis fluids during chronic dialysis in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Pérez-Martínez

    Full Text Available The benefits of long-term peritoneal dialysis (PD in patients with end-stage renal failure are short-lived due to structural and functional changes in the peritoneal membrane. In this report, we provide evidence for the in vitro and in vivo participation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS in the signaling pathway leading to peritoneal fibrosis during PD. Exposure to high-glucose PD fluids (PDFs increases damage and fibrosis markers in both isolated rat peritoneal mesothelial cells and in the peritoneum of rats after chronic dialysis. In both cases, the addition of the RAAS inhibitor aliskiren markedly improved damage and fibrosis markers, and prevented functional modifications in the peritoneal transport, as measured by the peritoneal equilibrium test. These data suggest that inhibition of the RAAS may be a novel way to improve the efficacy of PD by preventing inflammation and fibrosis following peritoneal exposure to high-glucose PDFs.

  7. The chronic toxicity of methiocarb to grackles, doves, and quail and reproductive effect in quail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schafer, E W; Brunton, R B; Lockyer, N F; Cunningham, D J

    1975-12-01

    Methiocarb (4-methylthio-3, 5-xylyl N-methyl carbamate, Mesurol, Bay (3744), a bird repellent, was fed in concentrations of 100 to 1,000 ppm to common grackles (Quiscalus quiscula), mourning doves (Zenaida macroura), and breeding pairs of coturnix quail (Coturnix coturnix) to investigate the possibility of cumulative intoxication. Although aversion to treated diets was readily apparent in most of the tests, the 28- to 30-day median lethal concentration (LC50) was determined to be greater than 100 ppm for grackles, 630 ppm (95% confidence limits, 480-830 ppm) for doves, and greater than 1,000 ppm for coturnix quail. Methiocarb appeared to be noncumulative when measured by an index of chronicity: birds consumed several LD50 doses during a day's feeding, and when deaths occurred, they appeared to be due to acute intoxication. Egg production and live chick production were not affected in coturnix fed 100 ppm but were reduced at 316 and 1,000 ppm.

  8. Results of treatment of chronic osteomyelitis by "gutter procedure and muscle flap transposition operation".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokalp, Mehmet Ata; Guner, Savas; Ceylan, Mehmet Fethi; Doğan, Ali; Sebik, Ahmet

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the outcomes of creation of a gutter and muscle flap transposition method for the treatment of long-bone chronic osteomyelitis. A total of thirty chronic osteomyelitis patients (thirty-one extremities), who had undergone the gutter creation and muscle flap transposition procedure between 2005 and 2009, were included in the study (19 male, 11 female; mean age 24.4 years; age range 2-75 years). Osteomyelitis of the long bones involved the femur in 13 patients, the tibia in 13, the humerus in 2, the fibula in 2 and the ulna in 1 patients, respectively. All the patients received post-operative antibiotic therapy of at least 6 weeks. The mean follow-up period was 28.7 months (6-53 months). At the end of this follow-up period, the patients were evaluated using clinical, laboratory and screening methods. Complete pain relief, disappearance of toxic symptoms, improvement in radiological findings, fistula closure and return of the blood parameters to normal ranges were accepted as successful treatment when all the afore-mentioned had been fulfilled. According to these criteria, 29 of the 30 patients had been cured. The gutter creation and muscle flap transposition method in the treatment of long-bone chronic osteomyelitis may be a successful mode of therapy when performed correctly and supported by long-term antibiotherapy.

  9. Chronic Toxicity Of High Molecular Weight Polynuclear Aromatic Hydrocarbon- Pyrene On Freshwater Cyanobacterium Anabaena Fertlissima Rao

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jignasha G Patel

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to determine the consequences of Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon – Pyrene in response to growth, pigments and metabolic study on Anabaena fertilissima Rao. Test organisms were treated at different doses and encountered LC50 (Lethal concentration at which 50% growth reduction occur concentration separately at 1.5 mg/l, 3.0 mg/l and 6.0 mg/l respectively for Anabaena fertilissima Rao. The influence of Pyrene on growth, pigments, release of metabolites such as carbohydrates, protein, amino acid, phenols was carried out. The test doses caused a concentration dependent decrease in pigments like carotenoids and phycobilliproteins and showed more sensitivity to pyrene. Depletion of carbohydrate by 13% to 81% and proteins by 47% to 93% was encountered with rise in pyrene concentrations after 16th day of exposure. However, phenols were found to rise by 27% to 50% with increased pyrene concentrations on the contrary, amino acids were reported to decline by 79% to 92%. This study therefore suggests high molecular weight pyrene that decreases in metabolite content and enzyme activity can be used as a signal of PAHs toxicity in cyanobacteria. International Journal of Environment, Volume-2, Issue-1, Sep-Nov 2013, Pages 175-183 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v2i1.9220

  10. Evaluation of distant results after lamivudine discontinuation in children with chronic hepatitis B.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lech Chyczewski

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to estimate distant results after discontinuation of long term lamivudine treatment in children with chronic hepatitis B. Furthermore, the emergence of HBV polymerase gene variants in YMDD motif during therapy was examined. Additionally, the most commonly occurring type of mutation in the polymerase YMDD region were investigated. The study involved 27 HBeAg positive children with chronic hepatitis B. Children included to lamivudine therapy were previously treated without effects with interferon alpha.

  11. The sub-chronic toxicity of regular White Spirit in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo, Juan-Carlos; Adenuga, M David; Mckee, Richard H

    2014-10-01

    Hydrocarbon solvents are mostly complex substances (UVCB) with carbon numbers in the range of approximately C5-C20. One of the most common types is a C9-C14 aliphatic solvent containing approximately 20% aromatics and commonly known as White Spirit in Europe and mineral spirits in the US. In previous repeated inhalation toxicity studies, White Spirit was reported to cause minimal systemic effects in most animal species with few effects other than male rat-specific kidney changes at levels up to approximately 2000mg/m(3). In the present study male and female rats were exposed to White Spirit vapors, 6h/day, 5days/week for 13weeks at levels of approximately 2000, 4000, or 8000mg/m(3) to assess the potential for effects at higher exposure levels. All of the rats survived the treatment period. In life observations were largely restricted to acute central nervous system (CNS) effects in the high exposure group. Terminal body weights of high exposure groups animals were significantly below control values. Statistically significant differences in the clinical and hematological observations were small and within normal physiological limits. Weights of some organs including liver, spleen and kidneys were elevated, but microscopic examination indicated that the only pathological effects were changes in the kidneys of the male rats, consistent with an α2u-globulin-mediated process, which is gender and species-specific and not relevant to humans. The overall no observed adverse effect level (NOAEC) was 4000mg/m(3). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. MRI findings in acute hyperammonemic encephalopathy resulting from decompensated chronic liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sureka, Jyoti; Jakkani, Ravi Kanth; Panwar, Sanuj

    2012-06-01

    Hyperammonemic encephalopathy is a type of metabolic encephalopathy with diversified etiology. Hyperammonemia is the end result of several metabolic disorders such as congenital deficiencies of urea cycle enzymes, hepatic encephalopathy, Reye's syndrome and other toxic encephalopathies. Non-specific clinical presentation poses a great challenge in early diagnosis of this entity. Irrespective of the underlying etiology, hyperammonemia causes a distinctive pattern of brain parenchymal injury. The cingulate gyrus and insular cortex are more vulnerable to this type of toxic insult. Characteristic magnetic resonance imaging findings in combination with laboratory parameters can help to differentiate this entity from other metabolic encephalopathy and thus aiding in early diagnosis and treatment.

  13. ACUTE AND CHRONIC TOXICITY OF ALUMINUM TO A UNIONID MUSSEL (LAMPSILIS SILIQUOIDEA) AND AN AMPHIPOD (HYALELLA AZTECA) IN WATER-ONLY EXPOSURES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ning; Ivey, Chris D; Brunson, Eric L; Cleveland, Danielle; Ingersoll, Chris G; Stubblefield, William A; Cardwell, Allison S

    2017-05-05

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) is reviewing the protectiveness of the national ambient water quality criteria (WQC) for aluminum (Al) and compiling a toxicity dataset to update the WQC. Freshwater mussels are one of the most imperiled groups of animals in the world, but little is known about the sensitivity of mussels to Al. The objective of the present study was to evaluate acute 96-h and chronic 28-d toxicity of Al to a unionid mussel (Lampsilis siliquoidea) and a commonly tested amphipod (Hyalella azteca) at a pH of 6 and water hardness of 100 mg/L as CaCO3 . Acute 50% effect concentration (EC50) for survival of both species was >6,200 µg total Al/L. The EC50 was greater than all acute values in the USEPA acute Al dataset for freshwater species at pH range of 5.0 to azteca) as the 5th most sensitive species, indicating the two species were sensitive to Al in chronic exposures. The USEPA proposed acute and chronic WQC for Al would adequately protect the mussel and amphipod tested; however, inclusion of the chronic data from the present study and recalculation of the chronic criterion would likely lower the proposed chronic criterion. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  14. Chronic toxicity of copper to five benthic invertebrates in laboratory-formulated sediment: sensitivity comparison and preliminary risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Yblin E; De Schamphelaere, Karel A C; Nguyen, Lien T H; Janssen, Colin R

    2007-11-15

    Five benthic organisms commonly used for sediment toxicity testing were chronically (28 to 35 days) exposed to copper in standard laboratory-formulated sediment (following Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development guidelines) and lethal and sub-lethal toxicities were evaluated. Sub-lethal endpoints considered were reproduction and biomass production for Lumbriculus variegatus, growth and reproduction for Tubifex tubifex, growth and emergence for Chironomus riparius, and growth for Gammarus pulex and Hyalella azteca. Expressed on whole-sediment basis the observed lethal sensitivity ranking (from most to least sensitive) was: G. pulex>L. variegatus>H. azteca=C. riparius=T. tubifex, with median chronic lethal concentrations (LC50) between 151 and 327 mg/kg dry wt. The sub-lethal sensitivity ranking (from most to least sensitive, with the most sensitive endpoint between parentheses): C. riparius (emergence)>T. tubifex (reproduction)=L. variegatus (reproduction)>G. pulex (growth)>H. azteca (growth), with median effective concentrations (EC50) between 59.2 and 194 mg/kg dry wt. No observed effect concentrations (NOEC) or 10% effective concentrations (EC10) for the five benthic invertebrates were used to perform a preliminary risk assessment for copper in freshwater sediment by means of (a) the "assessment factor approach" or (b) the statistical extrapolation approach (species sensitivity distribution). Depending on the data (NOEC or EC10) and the methodology used, we calculated a Predicted No Effect Concentration (PNEC) for sediment between 3.3 and 47.1 mg Cu/dry wt. This range is similar to the range of natural (geochemical) background concentrations of copper in sediments in Europe, i.e. 90% of sediments have a concentration between 5 and 49 mg Cu/kg dry wt. A detailed analysis of the outcome of this preliminary exercise highlighted that multiple issues need to be explored for achieving a scientifically more sound risk assessment and for the development of

  15. Investigation of Chronic Toxic and Carcinogenic Effects of Gasoline Engine Exhausts Deriving from Fuel without and with Ferrocene Additive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, L; Ernst, H; Koch, W; Bartsch, W; Bellmann, B; Creutzenberg, O; Hoymann, H G; Dasenbrock, C; Heinrich, U

    2000-01-01

    Chronic toxic and carcinogenic effects of gasoline engine exhaust inhalation were investigated in rats. The exhaust from the combustion of commercial fuel containing 30 ppm ferrocene additive was compared to exhaust from the same fuel without ferrocene. This study was part of a procedure to get a special authorization for the use of ferrocene as gasoline additive according to the German Gasoline Lead Act. To generate the exhausts, pairs of engines of the same type and age were operated on computer-controlled test benches in a combined urban-freeway driving cycle. The engines were equipped with three-way catalysts and lambda sensors. Rats inhaled the exhausts after dilution at ratios of about 1.20 and 1:40 for 18 h/day, 5 days/wk for 12 mo (chronic toxicity study) or for 24 mo followed by 6 mo of clean air (carcinogenicity study). The limiting factor for the exhaust concentration was the relative humidity of the exposure atmosphere. At defined intervals, body weight and food consumption, parameters of clinical chemistry, hematology, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), and mechanical lung function were measured, as well as lung clearance and particle retention in the lungs. In the high-dose groups and the controls the complete organ/tissue spectrum was investigated histopathologically, and in the low-dose groups the respiratory tract. Only slight exposure-related effects could be detected, like a loss in the background iron content of the cell pellet of the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and cytoplasmic inclusions and goblet-cell hyperplasias in the nasal cavity. Between the clean-air controls and the exhaust-exposed groups, no exposure-related differences occurred in body weight development, mortality incidences, or any of the clinical investigations. Ninety-two to 94% of the animals developed age-related tumors, predominantly in the mammary glands, uterus, adrenals, thyroid, and pituitary. In the respiratory tract a total of five tumors was found: one in the controls and

  16. Gastrointestinal toxicity of vorinostat: reanalysis of phase 1 study results with emphasis on dose-volume effects of pelvic radiotherapy

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bratland, Ase

    2011-04-08

    Abstract Background In early-phase studies with targeted therapeutics and radiotherapy, it may be difficult to decide whether an adverse event should be considered a dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) of the investigational systemic agent, as acute normal tissue toxicity is frequently encountered with radiation alone. We have reanalyzed the toxicity data from a recently conducted phase 1 study on vorinostat, a histone deacetylase inhibitor, in combination with pelvic palliative radiotherapy, with emphasis on the dose distribution within the irradiated bowel volume to the development of DLT. Findings Of 14 eligible patients, three individuals experienced Common Terminology Criteria of Adverse Events grade 3 gastrointestinal and related toxicities, representing a toxicity profile vorinostat has in common with radiotherapy to pelvic target volumes. For each study patient, the relative volumes of small bowel receiving radiation doses between 6 Gy and 30 Gy at 6-Gy intervals (V6-V30) were determined from the treatment-planning computed tomography scans. The single patient that experienced a DLT at the second highest dose level of vorinostat, which was determined as the maximum-tolerated dose, had V6-V30 dose-volume estimates that were considerably higher than any other study patient. This patient may have experienced an adverse radiation dose-volume effect rather than a toxic effect of the investigational drug. Conclusions When reporting early-phase trial results on the tolerability of a systemic targeted therapeutic used as potential radiosensitizing agent, radiation dose-volume effects should be quantified to enable full interpretation of the study toxicity profile. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00455351

  17. Interpreting in vitro developmental toxicity test battery results: The consideration of toxicokinetics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosgra, S.; Westerhout, J.

    2015-01-01

    In the EU collaborative project ChemScreen an alternative, in vitro assay-based test strategy was developed to screen compounds for reproductive toxicity. A toxicokinetic modeling approach was used to allow quantitative comparison between effective concentrations in the in vitro test battery and

  18. Ecological interpretation of short-term toxicity results: Development of a population model for Arbacia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munns, W.R. Jr.; Nacci, D.E. [SAIC, Narragansett, RI (United States); Walker, H.A. [Environmental Protection Agency, Narragansett, RI (United States); Johnston, R.K. [NCCOSC, Narragansett, RI (United States). RDTE Division

    1994-12-31

    The Arbacia punctulata fertilization and larval development tests are used extensively in regulatory and research programs to evaluate toxicity associated with contaminants in aqueous media. These short-term assays are inexpensive, easy to use, and provide information regarding the effects of environmental contaminants on critical life history stages of the sea urchin. Despite substantial consideration of the precision of assay methods, and a clear understanding of the statistical significance of treatment differences, an appreciation of the ecological significance of treatment effects is lacking. To address this problem, a stage classified population projection model was developed to relate short-term test endpoints to potential effects at the population level. The model was applied to evaluate population-level effects using short-term toxicity data obtained in an estuarine ecological risk assessment conducted for Portsmouth Naval Shipyard, Kittery, Maine. The model also was used to examine which test endpoints provide useful information relative to population growth dynamics. Population modeling approaches can be extremely valuable in extrapolating single species toxicity information to higher level ecological endpoints and for identifying appropriate measurement endpoints during toxicity test development.

  19. [Non-Hodgkin lymphoma: Excellent results at the expense of the high toxicity of the treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baena-Gómez, M A; Mora Matilla, M; Lassaletta Atienza, A; Andión Catalán, M; Hernández Marqués, C; Madero López, L

    2015-06-01

    Lymphomas are the third malignancy in children, and within them non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) accounts for just 7% of cancers in children under 15 years old. Chemotherapy is currently the treatment of choice. The objective of this study is to analyze the toxicity caused by the treatment in pediatric patients diagnosed with NHL. A retrospective study was conducted on patients diagnosed with mature B-cell NHL, treated according to the LMB protocol 2001, from January 2007 to February 2014. Data concerning the diagnosis, treatment and toxicities that developed in the patients during the same period were collected. A total of 20 mature B-cell NHL cases were diagnosed: 16 Burkitt lymphomas, 2 diffuse large cell lymphomas and 2 mature leukemias. Almost two-thirds (65%) of patients were classified in a high grade stage (iii-iv) at diagnosis. Serious infectious processes, severe myelosuppression, liver abnormalities, and mucositis were the most frequent toxicities. Overall survival was 95% (19/20). One patient died of causes unrelated to the illness. Despite the excellent survival rate, most patients diagnosed with NHL mature B cells experience grade iii and iv toxicities during treatment. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Aerobic Bioremediation of PAH Contaminated Soil Results in Increased Genotoxicity and Developmental Toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chibwe, Leah; Geier, Mitra C; Nakamura, Jun; Tanguay, Robert L; Aitken, Michael D; Simonich, Staci L Massey

    2015-12-01

    The formation of more polar and toxic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) transformation products is one of the concerns associated with the bioremediation of PAH-contaminated soils. Soil contaminated with coal tar (prebioremediation) from a former manufactured gas plant (MGP) site was treated in a laboratory scale bioreactor (postbioremediation) and extracted using pressurized liquid extraction. The soil extracts were fractionated, based on polarity, and analyzed for 88 PAHs (unsubstituted, oxygenated, nitrated, and heterocyclic PAHs). The PAH concentrations in the soil tested, postbioremediation, were lower than their regulatory maximum allowable concentrations (MACs), with the exception of the higher molecular weight PAHs (BaA, BkF, BbF, BaP, and IcdP), most of which did not undergo significant biodegradation. The soil extract fractions were tested for genotoxicity using the DT40 chicken lymphocyte bioassay and developmental toxicity using the embryonic zebrafish (Danio rerio) bioassay. A statistically significant increase in genotoxicity was measured in the unfractionated soil extract, as well as in four polar soil extract fractions, postbioremediation (p soil extract fraction, postbioremediation (p soil extract fractions in embryonic zebrafish, both pre- and postbioremediation. The increased toxicity measured postbioremediation is not likely due to the 88 PAHs measured in this study (including quinones), because most were not present in the toxic polar fractions and/or because their concentrations did not increase postbioremediation. However, the increased toxicity measured postbioremediation is likely due to hydroxylated and carboxylated transformation products of the 3- and 4-ring PAHs (PHE, 1MPHE, 2MPHE, PRY, BaA, and FLA) that were most degraded.

  1. Acute and chronic toxicity of chlorine dioxide (ClO2) and chlorite (ClO2-) to rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svecevicius, Gintaras; Syvokiene, Janina; Stasiŭnaite, Prane; Mickeniene, Liongina

    2005-09-01

    Chlorite (ClO2-) is a primary decomposition product when chlorine dioxide (ClO2) is added during water treatment; therefore the toxic effects of both compounds on aquatic organisms are possible. Limited data are available concerning their toxicity to fish. The aim of this study was to investigate sensitivity of rainbow trout to acute and chronic toxicity of chlorine dioxide and chlorite, and to estimate the Maximum-Acceptable-Toxicant-Concentration (MATC) of those compounds in fish. The acute and chronic toxicity of chlorine dioxide and chlorite to larval and adult rainbow trout was investigated in 96-hour to 20-day laboratory exposures evaluating the wide range spectrum of biological indices under semi-static conditions. Median lethal concentration (96-hour LC50) values derived from the tests were: 2.2 mg/l for larvae; 8.3 mg/l for adult fish and 20-day LC50 for larvae was 1.6 mg/l of chlorine dioxide, respectively. Chlorite was found to be from 48 to 18 times less acutely toxic to larvae and adult fish, correspondingly. Both chemical compounds induced similar toxic effects in rainbow trout larvae during chronic tests (they affected cardio-respiratory and growth parameters), but chlorine dioxide had a higher toxic potency than chlorite. A significant decrease in the heart rate and respiration frequency of larvae was established. However, within an increase in exposure duration recovery of cardio-respiratory responses was seen to have occurred in larvae exposed to chlorite. Meanwhile, in larvae exposed to chlorine dioxide, a significant decrease in cardio-respiratory responses remained during all 20-day chronic bioassays. Chlorine dioxide also more strongly affected growth parameters of rainbow trout larvae at much lower test concentrations. Decreased rate of yolk-sack resorption occurred only in the tests with chlorine dioxide. Maximum-Acceptable-Toxicant-Concentration (MATC) of 0.21 mg/l for chlorine dioxide and of 3.3 mg/l for chlorite to fish was derived from

  2. Prevalence estimates of chronic kidney disease in Canada: results of a nationally representative survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Paul; Vasa, Priya; Brenner, Darren; Iglar, Karl; McFarlane, Phil; Morrison, Howard; Badawi, Alaa

    2013-01-01

    Background: Chronic kidney disease is an important risk factor for death and cardiovascular-related morbidity, but estimates to date of its prevalence in Canada have generally been extrapolated from the prevalence of end-stage renal disease. We used direct measures of kidney function collected from a nationally representative survey population to estimate the prevalence of chronic kidney disease among Canadian adults. Methods: We examined data for 3689 adult participants of cycle 1 of the Canadian Health Measures Survey (2007–2009) for the presence of chronic kidney disease. We also calculated the age-standardized prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors by chronic kidney disease group. We cross-tabulated the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) with albuminuria status. Results: The prevalence of chronic kidney disease during the period 2007–2009 was 12.5%, representing about 3 million Canadian adults. The estimated prevalence of stage 3–5 disease was 3.1% (0.73 million adults) and albuminuria 10.3% (2.4 million adults). The prevalence of diabetes, hypertension and hypertriglyceridemia were all significantly higher among adults with chronic kidney disease than among those without it. The prevalence of albuminuria was high, even among those whose eGFR was 90 mL/min per 1.73 m2 or greater (10.1%) and those without diabetes or hypertension (9.3%). Awareness of kidney dysfunction among adults with stage 3–5 chronic kidney disease was low (12.0%). Interpretation: The prevalence of kidney dysfunction was substantial in the survey population, including individuals without hypertension or diabetes, conditions most likely to prompt screening for kidney dysfunction. These findings highlight the potential for missed opportunities for early intervention and secondary prevention of chronic kidney disease. PMID:23649413

  3. Toxicity reduction of surfactant submitted to electron beam irradiation. Preliminary results; Reducao da toxicidade de surfactante submetido a irradiacao com feixe de eletrons. Resultados preliminares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moraes, Maria Cristina F. de; Borrely, Sueli Ivone; Sampa, Maria Helena de Oliveira; Oikawa, Hiroshi; Romaneli, Maria Fernanda [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: mariacristinafm@uol.com.br

    2002-07-01

    The present paper aims the comprehension of ionizing radiation effects on surfactants and the improvement of sewage and industrial effluents where detergents are discharged. The surfactant related problems may include acute and chronic toxicity, decreasing the dissolved oxygen in the waterways, and reducing the biodegradability capacity. In this sense, ionizing radiation has been applied to LAS and to industrial effluents for acute toxicity reduction associated to the surfactants degradation. Radiation effects were preliminarily evaluated by the acute toxicity reduction when 3 kGy, 6 kGy and 9 kGy radiation doses were applied to surfactant (DSS). Toxicity studies were carried out with D.similis and with V. fischeri which evidenced an important acute toxicity removal by 79% for 6,0 kGy. An important pH reduction was followed by conductivity increasing as radiation dose was implemented. (author)

  4. [On the chronic toxicity of labetalol (AH-5158); a combined alpha-and beta-adrenoceptor-blocking agent (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimpo, K; Yokoi, Y; Fujiwara, S; Togashi, H; Tanabe, T

    1981-02-01

    Chronic toxicity and recovery tests of labetalol hydrochloride, alpha-and beta-adrenoceptor blocking agent, were carried out using male and female Wistar strain rats. The drug was orally administered at 50, 100 or 200 mg/kg/day for 9 months. In all the drug-treated groups, increase in salivation was observed from immediately after to 15 minutes after dosing through treatment period. Suppression of body weight gain was observed in male rats in the 200 mg/kg/day group. Food comsumption tended to be higher in all the drug-treated groups than in the control group. Similar trend was seen also in water comsumption, and increase in urine volume was noted in the groups treated with 100 and 200 mg/kg/day. In the serum biochemical examination, dose-dependent elevation in potassium level was noted in all drug-treated groups, but the values were within the range of physiological variation. In the 100 and 200 mg/kg/day groups, an increase was observed in the absolute heart weight and in its relative weight against body weight. Major abnormalities found in histopathological findings were; swelling of parenchymatous cells in liver and kidney, swelling of fibers and swelling or proliferation of interstitial cells in cardiac and skeletal muscles, and congestion in spleen. No notable abnormality was found in any examination item in the recovery test.

  5. Blastocystis hominis and Endolimax nana Co-Infection Resulting in Chronic Diarrhea in an Immunocompetent Male.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Mitanshu; Tan, Christopher Bryan; Rajan, Dhyan; Ahmed, Shadab; Subramani, Krishnaiyer; Rizvon, Kaleem; Mustacchia, Paul

    2012-05-01

    Blastocystis hominis and Endolimax nana exist as two separate parasitic organisms; however co-infection with the two individual parasites has been well documented. Although often symptomatic in immunocompromised individuals, the pathogenicity of the organisms in immunocompetent subjects causing gastrointestinal symptoms has been debated, with studies revealing mixed results. Clinically, both B. hominis and E. nana infection may result in acute or chronic diarrhea, generalized abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, flatulence and anorexia. We report the case of a 24-year-old immunocompetent male presenting with chronic diarrhea and abdominal pain secondary to B. hominis and E. nana treated with metronidazole, resulting in symptom resolution and eradication of the organisms. Our case illustrates that clinicians should be cognizant of both B. hominis and E. nana infection as a cause of chronic diarrhea in an immunocompetent host. Such awareness will aid in a timely diagnosis and possible parasitic eradication with resolution of gastrointestinal symptoms.

  6. Blastocystis hominis and Endolimax nana Co-Infection Resulting in Chronic Diarrhea in an Immunocompetent Male

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitanshu Shah

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Blastocystis hominis and Endolimax nana exist as two separate parasitic organisms; however co-infection with the two individual parasites has been well documented. Although often symptomatic in immunocompromised individuals, the pathogenicity of the organisms in immunocompetent subjects causing gastrointestinal symptoms has been debated, with studies revealing mixed results. Clinically, both B. hominis and E. nana infection may result in acute or chronic diarrhea, generalized abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, flatulence and anorexia. We report the case of a 24-year-old immunocompetent male presenting with chronic diarrhea and abdominal pain secondary to B. hominis and E. nana treated with metronidazole, resulting in symptom resolution and eradication of the organisms. Our case illustrates that clinicians should be cognizant of both B. hominis and E. nana infection as a cause of chronic diarrhea in an immunocompetent host. Such awareness will aid in a timely diagnosis and possible parasitic eradication with resolution of gastrointestinal symptoms.

  7. [The results in chronic ischemia of the lower limbs. The Granada-90 Geriatric Angiology Study (2)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peñafiel Marfil, R; García Rospide, V; Moreno Padilla, F; González Ríos, F J; Ros Die, E

    1992-01-01

    Results of a study about the chronic ischaemia of the lower limbs and its correlation with age, sex and previous diagnosis, are presented. Also, a comparison between previous diagnosis and results following the methodology exposed, was made. Study group included 433 older patients, randomizadely selected and permanent residents of some geriatric centers of the Oriental Andalucy.

  8. Results of Toxicity Identification Evaluations (TIE`S) conducted on the A-01 outfall and its contributory waste streams, July 1996--February 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Specht, W.L.

    1997-03-01

    Toxicity tests were conducted at nine locations during the summer of 1996. The results indicated that A-01B, A-01C, A-03, A-04, A-05 and A-01 were toxic to the test species, Ceriodaphnia dubia, while A-01A, A-06, and WE-01 were not toxic. Beginning in August 1996, Toxicity Identification Evaluations (TIE`s) were initiated on all toxic outfalls in order to identify the toxicants responsible for the observed toxicity. A complete TIE was performed on A-01 because it is the regulatory compliance point for all of the combined waste streams that were tested. Only the portions of a TIE that are related to metal and chlorine toxicity were performed on the remaining locations because existing data indicated that metals and chlorine were present in potentially toxic quantities at these locations, and there was no evidence that other toxicants would be expected to be present in toxic amounts. The results of the TIE`s indicate that metals are responsible for most of the toxicity at all of the outfalls that were toxic and that chlorine contributed to the toxicity at two of the outfalls. Specifically, the toxicity at A-01B, A-01C, and A-01 was due to copper; the toxicity at A-03 was due to primarily to copper, although zinc also contributed to the toxicity; the toxicity at A-04 was due primarily to copper, with residual chlorine and zinc contributing to the toxicity; and the toxicity at A-05 was due primarily to copper, with residual chlorine contributing to the toxicity. A-03 was the most toxic outfall, with 100% mortality occurring at concentrations as low as 12.5% effluent. A-03 was found to have concentrations of copper, lead, and zinc that exceeded EPA water quality criteria by approximately two orders of magnitude. The metal concentrations at A-01 and WE-01, which is located approximately 0.5 miles downstream from A-01 were similar. However, A-01 was toxic, while WE-01 was not.

  9. An assessment of two-step linear regression and a multifactor probit analysis as alternatives to acute to chronic ratios in the estimation of chronic response from acute toxicity data to derive water quality guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaughter, Andrew R; Palmer, Carolyn G; Muller, Wilhelmine J

    2007-04-01

    In aquatic ecotoxicology, acute to chronic ratios (ACRs) are often used to predict chronic responses from available acute data to derive water quality guidelines, despite many problems associated with this method. This paper explores the comparative protectiveness and accuracy of predicted guideline values derived from the ACR, linear regression analysis (LRA), and multifactor probit analysis (MPA) extrapolation methods applied to acute toxicity data for aquatic macroinvertebrates. Although the authors of the LRA and MPA methods advocate the use of extrapolated lethal effects in the 0.01% to 10% lethal concentration (LC0.01-LC10) range to predict safe chronic exposure levels to toxicants, the use of an extrapolated LC50 value divided by a safety factor of 5 was in addition explored here because of higher statistical confidence surrounding the LC50 value. The LRA LC50/5 method was found to compare most favorably with available experimental chronic toxicity data and was therefore most likely to be sufficiently protective, although further validation with the use of additional species is needed. Values derived by the ACR method were the least protective. It is suggested that there is an argument for the replacement of ACRs in developing water quality guidelines by the LRA LC50/5 method.

  10. Provider confidence in opioid prescribing and chronic pain management: results of the Opioid Therapy Provider Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Amy Cs; Moman, Rajat N; Moeschler, Susan M; Eldrige, Jason S; Hooten, W Michael

    2017-01-01

    Many providers report lack of confidence in managing patients with chronic pain. Thus, the primary aim of this study was to investigate the associations of provider confidence in managing chronic pain with their practice behaviors and demographics. The primary outcome measure was the results of the Opioid Therapy Provider Survey, which was administered to clinicians attending a pain-focused continuing medical education conference. Nonparametric correlations were assessed using Spearman's rho. Of the respondents, 55.0% were women, 92.8% were white, and 56.5% were physicians. Primary care providers accounted for 56.5% of the total respondents. The majority of respondents (60.8%) did not feel confident managing patients with chronic pain. Provider confidence in managing chronic pain was positively correlated with 1) following an opioid therapy protocol (P=0.001), 2) the perceived ability to identify patients at risk for opioid misuse (P=0.006), and 3) using a consistent practice-based approach to improve their comfort level with prescribing opioids (Pconfidence was negatively correlated with the perception that treating pain patients was a "problem in my practice" (P=0.005). In this study, the majority of providers did not feel confident managing chronic pain. However, provider confidence was associated with a protocolized and consistent practice-based approach toward managing opioids and the perceived ability to identify patients at risk for opioid misuse. Future studies should investigate whether provider confidence is associated with measurable competence in managing chronic pain and explore approaches to enhance appropriate levels of confidence in caring for patients with chronic pain.

  11. Preliminary safety assessment of Yarrowia lipolytica extracellular lipase: results of acute and 28-day repeated dose oral toxicity studies in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turki, Saoussen; Jabloun, Zeineb; Mrabet, Ghada; Marouani, Ammar; Thonart, Philippe; Diouani, Mohammed Fethi; Ben Abdallah, Fethi; Amara, Abdelkader; Rejeb, Ahmed; Kallel, Héla

    2010-01-01

    Interest in extracellular lipase sourced from the non conventional yeast Yarrowia lipolytica has increased over the last decade. The enzyme was recently suggested as a good candidate for pancreatic exocrine insufficiency treatment. However, there is still a lack of oral safety evaluation data. In this work, we conducted acute and 28-day repeated dose toxicity studies in rats. Both male and female rats were first orally treated with fungal lipase at either single or repeated doses. The results demonstrated that neither single dose nor chronic administration of lipase was associated with mortality or abnormalities in general conditions, behavior and growth. Except a decrease in urine pH and a dose-unrelated increase of triglycerides observed in males, chronic administration of lipase resulted in similar hematological, blood biochemical and urine parameters to those of untreated animals. Minor histopathological changes were observed in lungs and livers of treated and untreated animals but they were considered of no toxicological significance. This study provides, for the first time, safety data on Yarrowia lipolytica extracellular lipase that support its use as a pharmaceutical. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. HPV DNA Positivity Rate and Evaluation of Cytopatological Results in Patients with Chronic Vaginal Discharge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Güler Ateşer

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: There are new publications stating that chronic infection may facilitate dysplastic changes and persistence of human papillomavirus (HPV-DNA positivity. Frequency of this coincidence and cervical cytological and pathological examination results were investigated in patients with chronic vaginal discharge. Methods: One hundred three patients, who were treated at least 3 times for chronic mucopurulent discharge with accessible HPV DNA results, were analyzed retrospectively. Risk factors were identified for HPV DNA positivity. HPV DNA positive-patients were divided into two groups (positive and negative according to the presence and absence of HPV DNA. The results of cytopatological and histopathological examinations and risk factors were compared between the two groups. Results: The mean age of the patients was 35±9 years. Sixty-four percent of the patients were positive for HPV DNA. Of the HPV DNA positive patients, 41% had abnormal cytological findings, 16% had cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN. Of the HPV DNA-negative patients, 16% had abnormal cytological findings and, 2 patients had CIN. There was no statistically significant difference in cervical cytological abnormalities and CIN between HPV-DNA positive and negative groups. Conclusion: In our study, the rates of HPV DNA positivity and abnormal cytopathological results among patients with chronic vaginal discharge were found to be higher than that reported in the literature. (The Me­di­cal Bul­le­tin of Ha­se­ki 2014; 52: 93-7

  13. Development and application of the adverse outcome pathway framework for understanding and predicting chronic toxicity: II. A focus on growth impairment in fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groh, Ksenia J; Carvalho, Raquel N; Chipman, James K; Denslow, Nancy D; Halder, Marlies; Murphy, Cheryl A; Roelofs, Dick; Rolaki, Alexandra; Schirmer, Kristin; Watanabe, Karen H

    2015-02-01

    Adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) organize knowledge on the progression of toxicity through levels of biological organization. By determining the linkages between toxicity events at different levels, AOPs lay the foundation for mechanism-based alternative testing approaches to hazard assessment. Here, we focus on growth impairment in fish to illustrate the initial stages in the process of AOP development for chronic toxicity outcomes. Growth is an apical endpoint commonly assessed in chronic toxicity tests for which a replacement is desirable. Based on several criteria, we identified reduction in food intake to be a suitable key event for initiation of middle-out AOP development. To start exploring the upstream and downstream links of this key event, we developed three AOP case studies, for pyrethroids, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and cadmium. Our analysis showed that the effect of pyrethroids and SSRIs on food intake is strongly linked to growth impairment, while cadmium causes a reduction in growth due to increased metabolic demands rather than changes in food intake. Locomotion impairment by pyrethroids is strongly linked to their effects on food intake and growth, while for SSRIs their direct influence on appetite may play a more important role. We further discuss which alternative tests could be used to inform on the predictive key events identified in the case studies. In conclusion, our work demonstrates how the AOP concept can be used in practice to assess critically the knowledge available for specific chronic toxicity cases and to identify existing knowledge gaps and potential alternative tests. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. SUB CHRONIC TOXICITY TEST FROM ALKOHOL EXTRACT PALIASA LEAVES (Kleinhovia Hospita Linn TO HEPAR/LIVER AND KIDNEY OF EXPERIMENTAL MICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raflizar Raflizar

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Paliasa leaves used to be a traditional medicine for hepatic/ lever desease, so need to maintain the secure & health from the user of this medicine, the aim of the research is to find the dava of ub chronic toxicity from 70% alcohol extract paliasa leaves for experimental mice. The research use amount 30 of 40 months white male mice wistar strain, which have weight in average (SD about 208,75 ±17,47 gr. The extract was given by oral through the spuit for 12 weeks ( 3 months for every mice. After that, all of mice had been killed by ether liquid, andfor histology examination, the blood had been taken from the mice's heart, liver & kidney. The research had been conduct with completed random design includes 5 treatments & 6 repeats. Each treatment includes give the mice aquades with dosage 0 mg/kg body weight (control for 1st group paliasa leaves extract with dosage 250 mg/kg body weight for 2nd group, 3rd group with dosage 500 mg/kg body weight, 4th group with dosage 750 mb/kg body weight & for 5th group with dosage 1000 mg/kg body weight. SGOT, SGPT, Bilirubin direct& indirect, creatinin, ureum kidney & liver cell destruction had been measured from all of groups. The result shows that from eight parameters, in statistically, there are no significant differences between each treatment. The conclution is paliasa leaves extract still save in every treatment dosage. Key words : Toxicity, Electract Paliasa Leaves, Kidney

  15. Raltegravir, tenofovir, and emtricitabine in an HIV-Infected patient with HCV chronic hepatitis, NNRTI intolerance and protease inhibitors-induced severe liver Toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ortu F

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background in HIV-infected patients with HCV-related chronic hepatitis, liver impairment and drug toxicity may substantially reduce the number of possible therapeutic options. Case Description we here describe the case of an HCV-HIV coinfected woman who had repeated severe episodes of drug-related liver toxicity with indinavir, saquinavir, fosamprenavir, and darunavir, with minimal further therapeutic options left in this class. Previous treatment-limiting side effects with efavirenz and nevirapine also precluded use of non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors. Introduction of an integrase-inhibitor regimen based on raltegravir, tenofovir, and emtricitabine allowed a prompt achievement of undetectable viral load and a substantial rise of CD4 count to high levels, with no subsequent episodes of hepatic toxicity, and no other side effects. Conclusions given the relatively common prevalence of HCV-related chronic hepatitis among people with HIV, raltegravir might represent an important alternative option for a substantial number of patients who cannot be treated with protease inhibitors or NNRTI because of drug-related hepatic toxicity.

  16. Effect of imbalanced nutrients and immigration on Prymnesium parvum community dominance and toxicity: Results from in-lake microcosm experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Errera, R.M.; Roelke, D.L.; Kiesling, R.L.; Brooks, B.W.; Grover, J.P.; Schwierzke, L.; Urena-Boeck, F.; Baker, J.W.; Pinckney, J.L.

    2008-01-01

    Prymnesium parvum, a haptophyte species, forms harmful blooms, including those that have caused severe fish kills in Texas, USA, over the past 6 yr. We studied P. parvum dynamics using in situ microcosm experiments at Lake Possum Kingdom, Texas, during 3 seasons (fall 2004, winter and spring 2005). Experimental treatments included full and partial nutrient enrichment (encompassing nitrogen [N] and phosphorus [P] deficient treatments), P. parvum immigration and combinations of these factors. In the control and N and P deficient treatments, P. parvum populations dominated the community, but only in the N deficient treatments did P. parvum experience a significant growth in the population. In contrast, when nutrients were not limiting, P. parvum tended to lose its competitive edge to other taxa such as chlorophytes, euglenophytes and diatoms, which then dominated the community. Population growth of P. parvum was also stimulated through immigration, but only during the winter experiment, a period of the year when bloom initiation is common. This finding suggests that movement into the water column may be an important process leading to P. parvum bloom initiation. Toxicity of P. parvum to fish was also affected by the nutrient changes: during conditions of no nutrient addition P. parvum was most toxic; intermediate toxicity was observed under N and P deficient conditions, and full nutrient enrichments resulted in nearly non-toxic conditions. ?? Inter-Research 2008.

  17. Amiodarone concentrations in plasma and fat tissue during chronic treatment and related toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafuente-Lafuente, Carmelo; Alvarez, Jean-Claude; Leenhardt, Antoine; Mouly, Stéphane; Extramiana, Fabrice; Caulin, Charles; Funck-Brentano, Christian; Bergmann, Jean-François

    2009-01-01

    AIMS To determine if amiodarone, highly lipophilic, accumulates in excess with respect to dose in fat tissue during long-term administration, and study if plasma and fat tissue concentrations are correlated with adverse effects. METHODS Trough concentrations of amiodarone and N-desethyl-amiodarone were measured simultaneously in plasma and fat tissue, in 30 consecutive patients treated with amiodarone for 3 months to 12 years. Subcutaneous adipose tissue was obtained by needle aspiration from lumbar and abdominal areas. Concentrations were measured by liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. RESULTS Plasma levels of amiodarone and N-desethyl-amiodarone were significantly correlated with daily maintenance doses (R = 0.52, P = 0.003). Amiodarone concentrations in fat tissue were four to 226 times (mean 55) higher than in plasma, and well correlated with plasma levels (R = 0.68, P amiodarone and N-desethyl-amiodarone in adipose tissue did not significantly increase with higher total cumulated doses or longer treatment duration. Nine of 12 patients who had received amiodarone for ≥2 years developed clinically important adverse effects, predominantly hypothyroidism (n = 6), compared with two of 18 patients treated for less time (relative risk 6.75; 95% confidence interval 1.8, 26). The incidence of those adverse effects was not significantly associated with amiodarone concentrations, whether in plasma or in adipose tissue. CONCLUSIONS We found no evidence of excessive or unexpected accumulation of amiodarone in fat tissue on long-term administration. Late amiodarone adverse effects, particularly hypothyroidism, are associated with longer exposure times, but do not seem to be explained by higher concentrations in plasma or in fat tissue. PMID:19552745

  18. Squamous cell carcinoma resulting from chronic osteomyelitis: a retrospective study of 8 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qinghu; Cui, Haomin; Dong, Jinlei; He, Yu; Zhou, Dongsheng; Zhang, Peng; Liu, Ping

    2015-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma is a severe malignant tumor but was rare in the chronic osteomyelitis. The purpose of this study was to present the results from a retrospective study the cases of squamous cell carcinoma arising from chronic osteomyelitis. Between 1974 and 2010, eight cases of squamous cell carcinoma after chronic osteomyelitis were treated. The patients had an average age of 55 years (range 45 to 66 years), with a male predominance (6 men and 2 woman). We analyzed the time up to cancerization, localization and histopathological types of the carcinoma, and types and results of the treatment. The mean delay between the initial injury and the diagnosis of malignant transformation was 28 years (range 8 to 50 years). The carcinoma resulted from tibia osteomyelitis in six cases, femur in one case and ankle in one case. The pathological examination showed two cases of a well-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma with bone invasion and six cases of invasive squamous cell carcinoma. Curative amputation was performed in all patients but one who refused. No recurrence or metastasis occurred during follow-up time. Amputation appears to be an effective treatment method in squamous carcinoma secondary to chronic osteomyelitis.

  19. Provider confidence in opioid prescribing and chronic pain management: results of the Opioid Therapy Provider Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pearson AC

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Amy CS Pearson,1 Rajat N Moman,2 Susan M Moeschler,3 Jason S Eldrige,3 W Michael Hooten3 1Department of Anesthesiology & Perioperative Medicine, Mayo School of Graduate Medical Education, Mayo Clinic, 2Mayo Clinic School of Medicine, 3Department of Anesthesiology & Perioperative Medicine, Mayo College of Medicine, Rochester, MN, USA Introduction: Many providers report lack of confidence in managing patients with chronic pain. Thus, the primary aim of this study was to investigate the associations of provider confidence in managing chronic pain with their practice behaviors and demographics.Materials and methods: The primary outcome measure was the results of the Opioid Therapy Provider Survey, which was administered to clinicians attending a pain-focused continuing medical education conference. Nonparametric correlations were assessed using Spearman’s rho.Results: Of the respondents, 55.0% were women, 92.8% were white, and 56.5% were physicians. Primary care providers accounted for 56.5% of the total respondents. The majority of respondents (60.8% did not feel confident managing patients with chronic pain. Provider confidence in managing chronic pain was positively correlated with 1 following an opioid therapy protocol (P=0.001, 2 the perceived ability to identify patients at risk for opioid misuse (P=0.006, and 3 using a consistent practice-based approach to improve their comfort level with prescribing opioids (P<0.001. Provider confidence was negatively correlated with the perception that treating pain patients was a “problem in my practice” (P=0.005.Conclusion: In this study, the majority of providers did not feel confident managing chronic pain. However, provider confidence was associated with a protocolized and consistent practice-based approach toward managing opioids and the perceived ability to identify patients at risk for opioid misuse. Future studies should investigate whether provider confidence is associated with measurable

  20. Pattern analysis of patients with temporomandibular disorders resulting from unilateral mastication due to chronic periodontitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of the present study was to perform a pattern analysis in patients with temporomandibular disorder (TMD) resulting from unilateral mastication due to chronic periodontitis. Methods Thirty participants with signs or symptoms of TMD who engaged in unilateral mastication due to periodontitis-related discomfort (test group) were selected. Another 30 subjects exhibiting signs or symptoms of TMD resulting from unilateral mastication not due to chronic periodontitis (control group) were also recruited. An interview-based questionnaire was administered, and an examination of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) with determination of periodontal status was performed. Results The duration of unilateral mastication was significantly longer in the control group than in the test group. There was a significant negative correlation between the duration of unilateral mastication and the Community Periodontal Index score. Using the Research Diagnostic Criteria for TMD (RDC/TMD) axis I algorithms, all the subjects were assigned to 3 main groups. The test group exhibited significantly a higher diagnostic distribution of group III (arthralgia, osteoarthritis, or osteoarthrosis), and in both the test and control groups, the number of diagnoses was larger for the non-chewing side. The control group showed a significantly higher diagnostic distribution of group I (myofacial pain), and in both the test and control groups, the number of diagnoses was larger for the chewing side. Conclusions The results of the present study indicate that unilateral mastication due to chronic periodontitis could induce not only pain but also structural TMJ changes if adequate treatment is not administered and supported within a short time from the onset of the condition. Therefore, immediate treatment of chronic periodontitis is recommended to prevent not only the primary progress of periodontal disease, but also secondary TMJ-related problems. Furthermore, subjects who have suffered chronic

  1. Chronic antidepressant treatments resulted in altered expression of genes involved in inflammation in the rat hypothalamus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alboni, Silvia; Benatti, Cristina; Montanari, Claudia; Tascedda, Fabio; Brunello, Nicoletta

    2013-12-05

    To gain insight into the possible immune targets of antidepressant, we evaluated the expression of several inflammatory mediators in the hypothalamus of rats chronically (28 days) treated with the serotonin selective reuptake inhibitor fluoxetine (5mg/kg, i.p.) or the tricyclic compound imipramine (15 mg/kg, i.p.). We focused our attention on the hypothalamus as it plays a key role in determining many of the somatic symptoms experienced by depressed patients. This brain region, critical also for expression of motivated behaviours, participates in the control of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity and in stress response as well as coordinates physiological functions such as sleep and food intake that have been found altered in a high percentage of depressed patients. Notably, hypothalamus is a key structure for brain cytokine expression and function as it integrates signals from the neuro, immune, endocrine systems. By means of quantitative Real Time PCR experiments we demonstrated that a chronic treatment with either fluoxetine or imipramine resulted in a reduction of IL-6 and IFN-γ mRNAs and increased IL-4 mRNA expression in the rat hypothalamus. Moreover, we demonstrated that hypothalamic expression of members of IL-18 system was differentially affected by chronic antidepressant treatments. Chronically administered fluoxetine decreased IL-8 and CX3CL1 hypothalamic expression, while a chronic treatment with imipramine decreased p11 mRNA. Our data suggest that a shift in the balance of the inflammation toward an anti-inflammatory state in the hypothalamus may represent a common mechanism of action of both the chronic treatments with fluoxetine and imipramine. © 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Predictive Modelling of Toxicity Resulting from Radiotherapy Treatments of Head and Neck Cancer

    CERN Document Server

    Dean, Jamie A; Harrington, Kevin J; Nutting, Christopher M; Gulliford, Sarah L

    2014-01-01

    In radiotherapy for head and neck cancer, the radiation dose delivered to the pharyngeal mucosa (mucosal lining of the throat) is thought to be a major contributing factor to dysphagia (swallowing dysfunction), the most commonly reported severe toxicity. There is a variation in the severity of dysphagia experienced by patients. Understanding the role of the dose distribution in dysphagia would allow improvements in the radiotherapy technique to be explored. The 3D dose distributions delivered to the pharyngeal mucosa of 249 patients treated as part of clinical trials were reconstructed. Pydicom was used to extract DICOM (digital imaging and communications in medicine) data (the standard file formats for medical imaging and radiotherapy data). NumPy and SciPy were used to manipulate the data to generate 3D maps of the dose distribution delivered to the pharyngeal mucosa and calculate metrics describing the dose distribution. Multivariate predictive modelling of severe dysphagia, including descriptions of the d...

  3. Enhancement of pigment concentrations in Dunaliella tertiolecta as a result of copper toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lustigman, B.K.

    1986-11-01

    The addition of copper to coastal waters through the disposal of complex effluents has been increasing. Copper is a well known algicide. It binds to the cell membrane, effects permeability mechanisms and attaches to SH groups on vital enzymes. The ability of algae to withstand copper toxicity varies greatly. The green flagellate, Dunaliella tertiolecta has previously been shown to be highly resistant to copper. Its ability to withstand high concentrations of copper promotes growth of Dunaliella in coastal waters contaminated with increased copper concentrations. Dunaliella tertiolecta possesses chlorophylls a and b, small amounts of alpha- and greater amounts of beta-carotene as well as neoxanthin, zeaxanthin and lutein. This study was undertaken to determine the effect of lethal and sublethal concentrations of copper on the growth and production of chlorophyll and carotenoids in Dunaliella tertiolecta.

  4. Test Results for a Non-toxic, Dual Thrust Reaction Control Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Philip J.; Veith, Eric M.; Turpin, Alicia A.

    2005-01-01

    A non-toxic, dual thrust reaction control engine (RCE) was successfully tested over a broad range of operating conditions at the Aerojet Sacramento facility. The RCE utilized LOX/Ethanol propellants; and was tested in steady state and pulsing modes at 25-lbf thrust (vernier) and at 870-lbf thrust (primary). Steady state vernier tests vaned chamber pressure (Pc) from 0.78 to 5.96 psia, and mixture ratio (MR) from 0.73 to 1.82, while primary steady state tests vaned Pc from 103 to 179 psia and MR from 1.33 to 1.76. Pulsing tests explored EPW from 0.080 to 10 seconds and DC from 5 to 50 percent at both thrust levels. Vernier testing accumulated a total of 6,670 seconds of firing time, and 7,215 pulses, and primary testing accumulated a total of 2,060 seconds of firing time and 3,646 pulses.

  5. Sediment toxicity test results for the Urban Waters Study 2010, Bellingham Bay, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biedenbach, James M.

    2011-01-01

    The Washington Department of Ecology annually determines the quality of recently deposited sediments in Puget Sound as a part of Ecology's Urban Waters Initiative. The annual sediment quality studies use the Sediment Quality Triad (SQT) approach, thus relying on measures of chemical contamination, toxicity, and benthic in-faunal effects (Chapman, 1990). Since 2002, the studies followed a rotating sampling scheme, each year sampling a different region of the greater Puget Sound Basin. During the annual studies, samples are collected in locations selected with a stratified-random design, patterned after the designs previously used in baseline surveys completed during 1997-1999 (Long and others, 2003; Wilson and Partridge, 2007). Sediment samples were collected by personnel from the Washington Department of Ecology, in June of 2010 and shipped to the U. S. Geological Survey (USGS) laboratory in Corpus Christi, Texas (not shown), where the tests were performed. Sediment pore water was extracted with a pneumatic apparatus and was stored frozen. Just before testing, water-quality measurements were made and salinity adjusted, if necessary. Tests were performed on a dilution series of each sample consisting of 100-, 50-, and 25-percent pore-water concentrations. The specific objectives of this study were to: * Extract sediment pore water from a total of 30 sediment samples from the Bellingham Bay, Washington area within a day of receipt of the samples. * Measure water-quality parameters (salinity, dissolved oxygen, pH, sulfide, and ammonia) of thawed pore-water samples before testing and adjust salinity, temperature and dissolved oxygen, if necessary, to obtain optimal ranges for the test species. * Conduct the fertilization toxicity test with pore water using sea urchin (Stronylocentrotus purpuratus) (S. purpuratus) gametes. * Perform quality control assays with reference pore water, dilution blanks and a positive control dilution series with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS

  6. Results of Surgical Treatment of Chronic Patellar Tendinosis (Jumper's Knee): A Systematic Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockmeyer, Matthias; Diehl, Nora; Schmitt, Cornelia; Kohn, Dieter M; Lorbach, Olaf

    2015-12-01

    To review the literature concerning surgical treatment options for chronic patellar tendinosis (jumper's knee), a common problem among athletes. When conservative treatment fails, surgical treatment is required. Systematic review of the literature concerning the results of current surgical treatment options for chronic patellar tendinosis. All articles of studies with an evidence level ≥IV from January 2000 until February 2015 presenting the surgical outcome after arthroscopic as well as open treatment of chronic patellar tendinosis were included. The literature research of the PubMed database was performed using the following key words: "patellar" and "tendinitis," "tendonitis," "tendinosis" or "tendinopathy"; "inferior patellar pole"; "jumper's knee"; "surgical treatment" and "open" or "arthroscopic patellar tenotomy." A systematic review of the literature was performed especially to point out the effectiveness of arthroscopic treatment of chronic patellar tendinosis. The results revealed good clinical results for arthroscopic as well as open treatment of chronic patellar tendinosis that is refractory to conservative treatment in athletes. An average success rate of 87% was found for the open treatment group and of 91% for the arthroscopic treatment group. However, after open surgery, the mean time of return to the preinjury level of activity is 8 to 12 months, with a certain number of patients/athletes who cannot return to the preinjury level of activity. Minimally invasive, arthroscopically assisted or all-arthroscopic procedures may lead to a significantly faster return to sporting activities and may, therefore, be the preferred method of surgical treatment. Level IV, systematic review of Level I-IV studies. Copyright © 2015 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Evaluation of Methacholine Challenge Test Results in Chronic Cough Patients Referring to Clinic of Pulmonary Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derakhshan Deilami Gholamreza

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Chronic cough is a common problem in patients visiting physicians and its prevalence in different populations range from 3 to 40%. Postnasal drip, asthma and gastroesophageal reflux are the known cause of chronic cough. Although diagnosis of asthma is usually made by clinical signs and spirometeric results, methacholine challenge test is a good diagnostic test in patients who show normal physical examination and spirometeric results. In this study, the results of methacholine challenge test in chronic cough patients are investigated. This is a cross sectional study performed on patients suffering from chronic cough (over 8 weeks, who went to Pulmonary Disease Clinic of Imam Khomeini Hospital in 2006. Postnasal drip, gastroesophageal reflux was evaluated and ruled out in all patients. Then they were tested by methacholine inhalation using low to high doses of methacholine. The results of test was defined as 20% fall in FEV1 and its relationship with age, sex, history of allergic disease, family history of asthma and smoking status was investigated. 81 patients (36 female and 45 male entered this study who had mean age of 32.5 ± 13.06 years. 81.5% of patients had never smoked or closed contact with smokers, 6.2% were passive smokers, 8.6% were smokers and 3.7% had quit smoking. 37% had suffered from chronic cough less than 6 months, 11% for 6-11 months and 52% for more than 12 months. In 26% of patients, family history of asthma was present and 34.5% had a history of one type of allergy. In 29.5% the results of methacholine challenge test was positive, among them 45.8% showed an intense response and 54.2% a moderate response. The test results and its intensity had no statistically significant relationship with age, sex, smoking status, the duration of cough and family history of asthma, but the relationship between methacholine challenge test and the history of allergic disease was significant. Methacholine challenge test can be used as a

  8. A chronic toxicity study of diphenylarsinic acid in F344 rats in drinking water for 52 weeks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Takashi; Gi, Min; Yamano, Shotarou; Fujioka, Masaki; Tatsumi, Kumiko; Kawachi, Satoko; Ishii, Naomi; Doi, Kenichiro; Kakehashi, Anna; Wanibuchi, Hideki

    2017-01-01

    Diphenylarsinic acid (DPAA), a chemical warfare-related neurotoxic organic arsenical, is present in the groundwater and soil in some regions of Japan due to illegal dumping after World War II. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the potential toxicity of DPAA when administered to rats in their drinking water for 52 weeks. DPAA was administered to groups 1-4 at concentrations of 0, 5, 10, and 20ppm in their drinking water for 52 weeks. There were no significant differences in the final body weights between the control groups and the treatment groups in male or female rats. In serum biochemistry, in females 20ppm DPAA significantly increased alkaline phosphatase and γ-glitamyl transferase compared to controls, and 10 and 20ppm DPAA significantly increased total cholesterol compared to controls. Absolute and relative liver weights were significantly increased in females treated with 20ppm DPAA compared to the control group. Dilation of the common bile duct outside the papilla of Vater and stenosis of the papilla of Vater was observed in all male and female rats administered 20ppm DPAA. The incidence of intrahepatic bile duct hyperplasia was significantly increased in male and female rats treated with 20ppm DPAA compared to the control groups. These results suggest that DPAA is toxic to the bile duct epithelium in rats. The no-observed adverse effect levels of DPAA were estimated to be 10ppm (0.48mg/kg b.w./day) for males and 5ppm (0.35mg/kg b.w./day) for females under the conditions of this study. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. Acute and sub-chronic toxicity studies of three plants used in Cameroonian ethnoveterinary medicine: Aloe vera (L.) Burm. f. (Xanthorrhoeaceae) leaves, Carica papaya L. (Caricaceae) seeds or leaves, and Mimosa pudica L. (Fabaceae) leaves in Kabir chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nghonjuyi, Ndaleh Wozerou; Tiambo, Christian Keambou; Taïwe, Germain Sotoing; Toukala, Jean Paul; Lisita, Frederico; Juliano, Raquel Soares; Kimbi, Helen Kuokuo

    2016-02-03

    Aloe vera (L.) Burm. f. (Xanthorrhoeaceae), Carica papaya L. (Caricaceae) and Mimosa pudica L. (Fabaceae) are widely used in the Cameroonian ethnoveterinary medicine as a panacea, and specifically for gastrointestinal disorders as well as an anthelmintic and antibacterial. The present study evaluated the potential toxicity of the hydroalcoholic extracts of Aloe vera leaves, Carica papaya leaves or seeds, and Mimosa pudica leaves after acute and sub-chronic administration in chicks. For the acute toxicity test a single administration of each of the four hydroalcoholic extracts was given orally at doses ranging from 40 to 5120 mg/kg (n=5/group/sex). In the sub-chronic study, these extracts were given orally as a single administration to chicks at doses of 80, 160, 320 and 640 mg/kg/day for 42 days. The anti-angiogenic properties of these extracts (5-320 µg/mg) were investigated in the chick chorioallantoic membrane in vivo. In the acute toxicity test, none of the four studied hydroalcoholic extracts induced mortality or significant behavioural changes. The sub-acute treatment with the four plant extracts did not alter either the body weight gain or the food and water consumption. However, the results indicated that Aloe vera leaf extract acute treatment by oral route at doses up to 2560 mg/kg did not produce death in 50% (5/10) of chicks during 24h or 14 days of observation, but 20% (2/10) chicks died. The haematological and biochemical analyses did not show significant differences in any of the parameters examined in female or male groups, with the exception of a transient rise in white blood cell counts at high doses (640 mg/kg). Additionally, these extracts did not have the potential for anti-angiogenic effects through the inhibition of neo-angiogenesis in the chick chorioallantoic membrane in vivo. The results showed that the therapeutic use of the hydroalcoholic extracts of Aloe vera leaves, Carica papaya leaves or seeds and Mimosa pudica leaves had very low

  10. Validation of a chronic dietary cadmium bioaccumulation and toxicity model for Hyalella azteca exposed to field-contaminated periphyton and lake water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golding, Lisa A; Borgmann, Uwe; Dixon, D George

    2011-11-01

    A model previously developed in the laboratory to predict chronic bioaccumulation and toxicity of cadmium to Hyalella azteca from a diet of periphyton was validated by comparing predictions with measurements of Cd in two exposure scenarios: laboratory-cultured H. azteca exposed for 28 d to field-contaminated water and periphyton, and Cd measured in field-collected H. azteca. In both exposure scenarios, model predictions of bioaccumulation were shown to be robust; however, effects on Cd bioaccumulation from complexation with dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and inhibition of Cd bioaccumulation by Ca²⁺ must be incorporated into the model to permit its wider application. The model predicted that 80 to 84% of Cd in H. azteca came from periphyton when H. azteca were chronically exposed to dissolved Cd in lake water at 2.63 to 3.01 nmol/L and periphyton at 1,880 to 2,630 nmol/g ash-free dry mass. Dietary Cd contributed markedly to the model-predicted decrease in 28-d survival to 74% at environmental Cd concentrations in food and water. In reality, survival decreased to 10%. The lower than predicted survival likely was due to the higher nutritional quality of periphyton used to develop the model in the laboratory compared with the field-collected periphyton. Overall, this research demonstrated that Cd in a periphyton diet at environmental concentrations can contribute to chronic toxicity in H. azteca. Copyright © 2011 SETAC.

  11. Arthroscopic subcapital realignment osteotomy in chronic and stable slipped capital femoral epiphysis: early results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Dutra Roos

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate the clinical and radiographic outcomes, as well as the complications of arthroscopic subcapital realignment osteotomy in chronic and stable slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE. As indicated by the literature review, this is the first time this type of arthroscopic osteotomy was described. METHODS: Between June 2012 and December 2014, seven patients were submitted to arthroscopic subcapital realignment osteotomy in chronic and stable SCFE. The mean age was 11 years and 4 months, and the mean follow-up period was 16.5 months (6-36. Clinical results were evaluated using the Modified Harris Hip Score (MHHS, which was measured pre- and postoperatively. Radiographs were evaluated using the Southwick quantitative classification and the epiphysis-diaphysis angle (pre- and postoperatively. Complications were assessed. RESULTS: The mean preoperative MHHS was 35.8 points, and 97.5 points post-operatively (p < 0.05. Radiographically, five patients were classified as Southwick classification grade II and two as grade III. The mean correction of the epiphysis-diaphysis angle was 40°. No immediate postoperatively complications were observed. One patient presented femoral head avascular necrosis, without collapse or chondrolysis at the most recent follow-up (22 months. CONCLUSION: The arthroscopic technique presented for subcapital realignment osteotomy in chronic and stable SCFE showed satisfactory clinical and radiographic outcomes in a 16.5 months follow-up period.

  12. [The results and toxicity of organ preservation treatment for locoregionally advanced laryngeal and hypopharyngeal cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiprian, Dorota; Kawecki, Andrzej; Jarząbski, Andrzej; Michalski, Wojciech; Pawłowska-Sendułka, Beata

    2011-01-01

    The most frequent malignant tumor of the head and neck region is a squamous cell cancer of the larynx. Squamous cell cancer of the hypopharynx is diagnosed rarely, but it has poorer prognosis than laryngeal cancer. The surgical treatment, especially in advanced disease, is a laryngectomy with the definitive tracheostomy, what negatively influenced the quality of life. Therefore, oncologists have been interested in new alternative methods of conservative treatment from many years. The evaluation of efficacy and toxicity of the organ preservation treatment in patients with locally advanced laryngeal and hypopharyngeal cancer. The patients with diagnosed squamous cell laryngeal and hypopharyngeal cancer in III and IVa clinical status were treated with concomitant radiochemotherapy with intention of the organ preservation. Conformal 3D radiotherapy and SIB-IMRT technique was applied in all cases. Concomitant chemotherapy consisted of cisplatin in daily dose100mg/m(2) given two times during irradiation (1 and 22 day of treatment) or once weekly in dose 40mg/m(2). Between January 2004 and November 2008 146 patients were treated with this method. There were 83 patients diagnosed with laryngeal cancer and 62 patients with hypopharyngeal cancer in this group. The median follow up is 42 months. Five years overall survival is 75% and disease free survivak is 63%. Three years laryngectomy free survival (LFS) is 82% and 5-years LFS is 76%. This group of patients is alive with larynx preservations. In 17.3% patients local recurrence was observed (4.5% regional recurrence and 1.8% locoregional). Those patients underwent salvage surgery or were treated with palliative chemotherapy. No severe life risking early and late complications were observed. Only 7% of patients have required temporary tracheostomy because of difficulties in breathing due to larynx edema. We can conclude that organ preservation treatment is a valuable alternative to surgical procedure in patients diagnosed

  13. Chronic toxicity of erythromycin thiocyanate to Daphnia magna in a flow-through, continuous exposure test system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinertz, J.R.; Schreier, T.M.; Bernardy, J.A.

    2011-01-01

    Approval of a new animal drug application for AQUAMYCIN 100?? (erythromycin thiocyanate; ET) to treat freshwater salmonid species with bacterial kidney disease is being pursued in the US. As part of the approval process, ETs impact on an aquatic environment had to be described in an environmental assessment. The environmental assessment was lacking data to characterize the effect ET would have on a chronically exposed aquatic invertebrate organism. A major step to fulfilling the environmental assessment was completed after conducting a comprehensive study continuously exposing Daphnia magna to ET for 21 days. Results indicated that the no observable effect concentration for ET was 179 ??g/L. ?? 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC (outside the USA).

  14. Final Analysis of Efficacy and Safety of Omacetaxine Mepesuccinate in Patients With Chronic Phase (CP) or Accelerated Phase (AP) Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (CML): 24-Month Minimum Follow-Up Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortes, Jorge; Kantarjian, Hagop M.; Rea, Delphine; Wetzler, Meir; Lipton, Jeffrey H.; Akard, Luke; Khoury, H. Jean; Michallet, Mauricette; Guerci-Bresler, Agnès; Chuah, Charles; Hellmann, Andrzej; Digumarti, Raghunadharao; Parikh, Purvish M.; Legros, Laurence; Warzocha, Krzysztof; Baccarani, Michele; Li, Elizabeth; Munteanu, Mihaela; Nicolini, Franck E.

    2017-01-01

    Background Omacetaxine, a protein synthesis inhibitor, is indicated in the US for the treatment of patients with chronic (CP) or accelerated phase (AP) chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) with resistance and/or intolerance to two or more tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Methods This final analysis, with 24-month follow-up, includes additional efficacy and safety analyses to assess the benefit of long-term omacetaxine administration (1.25 mg/m2 bid for 14 days q 28 days followed by 7 days q 28 days) in CP- and AP-CML patients receiving >3 cycles. Results Eighteen percent of CP-CML patients achieved major cytogenetic response (MCyR) with a median duration 12.5 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 3.5-not reached [NR]); responses were maintained for ≥12 months in 3 of 14 responders and median overall survival (OS) was 40.3 months (95% CI, 23.8-not reached). In patients with AP-CML, 14% achieved or maintained major hematologic response for a median of 4.7 months (95% CI, 3.6-NR); MCyR was not achieved and median OS was 14.3 months (95% CI, 6.7–18.7). In patients with CP- or AP-CML who received >3 cycles of treatment (n=50 and 14, respectively), median OS was 49.3 months (95% CI, 23.8-NR) and 24.6 months (95% CI, 12–37.2), respectively. Grade ≥3 hematologic toxicity was the major side effect (79%/73% in CP-CML/AP-CML), with discontinuation due to toxicity in 10% of CP and 5% of AP patients. Conclusions These results suggest that long-term administration of omacetaxine is feasible with dose adjustments to manage toxicities, and that omacetaxine provides durable benefit in some patients. PMID:25586015

  15. Chronic TiO₂ nanoparticle exposure to a benthic organism, Hyalella azteca: impact of solar UV radiation and material surface coatings on toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallis, Lindsay K; Diamond, Stephen A; Ma, Hongbo; Hoff, Dale J; Al-Abed, Souhail R; Li, Shibin

    2014-11-15

    There is limited information on the chronic effects of nanomaterials to benthic organisms, as well as environmental mitigating factors that might influence this toxicity. The present study aimed to fill these data gaps by examining various growth endpoints (weight gain, instantaneous growth rate, and total protein content) for up to a 21 d sediment exposure of TiO2 nanoparticles (nano-TiO2) to a representative benthic species, Hyalella azteca. An uncoated standard, P25, and an Al(OH)3 coated nano-TiO2 used in commercial products were added to sediment at 20 mg/L or 100 mg/L Under test conditions, UV exposure alone was shown to be a greater cause of toxicity than even these high levels of nano-TiO2 exposure, indicating that different hazards need to be addressed in toxicity testing scenarios. In addition, this study showed the effectiveness of a surface coating on the decreased photoactivity of the material, as the addition of an Al(OH)3 coating showed a dramatic decrease in reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. However, this reduced photoactivity was found to be partially restored when the coating had been degraded, leading to the need for future toxicity tests which examine the implications of weathering events on particle surface coatings. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Chronic idiopathic anal pain. Results of a diagnostic-therapeutic protocol in a colorectal referral unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armañanzas, Laura; Arroyo, Antonio; Ruiz-Tovar, Jaime; López, Alberto; Santos, Jair; Moya, Pedro; Gómez, María Amparo; Candela, Fernando; Calpena, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    Chronic idiopathic anal pain (CIAP) remains a diagnosis of exclusion. Its study and management still lack a standardized protocol. The aim of this study is to evaluate the results obtained with the diagnostic-therapeutic protocol established in our service. We performed a retrospective study of patients diagnosed with CIAP at the Colorectal Unit of the General University Hospital of Elche, between 2005 and 2011. We evaluated 57 patients with a diagnosis of chronic anal pain for functional anorectal disease (FAD). After the application of our diagnostic protocol, final diagnosis of chronic anal pain (CAP) was achieved in 43 cases (75%), including 22 cases of descending perineum syndrome, 12 of proctalgia fugax, 2 of pudendal neuritis and 7 of coccydynia. In 14 patients exclusion diagnosis of CIAP was established. Among the therapies used on patients with CIAP, biofeedback combined with conservative measures improved symptoms in 43% of the cases. Sacral nerve stimulation was assessed in patients who did not respond to other treatments. Through proper anamnesis, physical examination and complementary tests, a specific diagnosis of the cause of CAP by FAD can be achieved, reducing exclusion diagnosis of CIAP to 25% of cases. Conservative measures combined with biofeedback achieved an improvement in pain in more than 40% of the cases of CIAP in our study. Sacral nerve stimulation can be considered as a treatment option in refractory cases. Copyright © 2013 AEC. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Arthroscopic subcapital realignment osteotomy in chronic and stable slipped capital femoral epiphysis: early results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roos, Bruno Dutra; Assis, Marcelo Camargo de; Roos, Milton Valdomiro; Camisa Júnior, Antero; Lima, Ezequiel Moreno Ungaretti; Pagani, Rodolfo Cavanus

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the clinical and radiographic outcomes, as well as the complications of arthroscopic subcapital realignment osteotomy in chronic and stable slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE). As indicated by the literature review, this is the first time this type of arthroscopic osteotomy was described. Between June 2012 and December 2014, seven patients were submitted to arthroscopic subcapital realignment osteotomy in chronic and stable SCFE. The mean age was 11 years and 4 months, and the mean follow-up period was 16.5 months (6-36). Clinical results were evaluated using the Modified Harris Hip Score (MHHS), which was measured pre- and postoperatively. Radiographs were evaluated using the Southwick quantitative classification and the epiphysis-diaphysis angle (pre- and postoperatively). Complications were assessed. The mean preoperative MHHS was 35.8 points, and 97.5 points post-operatively (p epiphysis-diaphysis angle was 40°. No immediate postoperatively complications were observed. One patient presented femoral head avascular necrosis, without collapse or chondrolysis at the most recent follow-up (22 months). The arthroscopic technique presented for subcapital realignment osteotomy in chronic and stable SCFE showed satisfactory clinical and radiographic outcomes in a 16.5 months follow-up period.

  18. Schema therapy for chronic depression: Results of a multiple single case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renner, Fritz; Arntz, Arnoud; Peeters, Frenk P M L; Lobbestael, Jill; Huibers, Marcus J H

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to test the effects of individual schema therapy (ST) for patients with chronic depression. Using a multiple-baseline single case series design, patients with chronic major depressive disorder (N = 25) first entered a 6-24 weeks baseline phase; this phase functioned as a no-treatment control condition. Then, patients started a 12 week exploration phase during which symptoms and underlying schemas were explored; this phase functioned as an attention control condition. Next, patients received up to 65 sessions of individual ST. The Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI-II) and the Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology (QIDS) were the primary outcome measures. The BDI-II was assessed once a week during all phases of the study resulting in 100 repeated assessments per participant on average. Mixed regression analysis was used to contrast change in symptoms during the intervention with change in symptoms during the baseline and exploration control phases. When compared to the no-treatment control period, the intervention had a significant, large effect on depressive symptoms (Cohen's d BDI-II = 1.30; Cohen's d QIDS = 1.22). Effects on secondary continuous outcomes were moderate to large. The small sample size and lack of a control group. These findings provide evidence that ST might be an effective treatment for patients with chronic depression. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Chronic posterior sternoclavicular joint fracture dislocations in children and young adults: results of surgical management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, Beverlie L; Bae, Donald S; Waters, Peter M

    2014-01-01

    Posterior sternoclavicular joint (SCJ) fracture dislocations in children and young adults can be missed on initial examination or could fail closed treatment. We hypothesize that surgical interventions (open reduction and ligamentous reconstruction or medial clavicle resection depending on the clinical scenario) are safe treatment options in patients with symptomatic chronic posteriorly displaced SCJ injuries. A retrospective review was conducted of all patients younger than 25 years of age who underwent surgical treatment for chronic posteriorly displaced SCJ injuries at our institution from January 1, 1999 to December 31, 2011. Chronic injuries were defined as those presenting and/or treated at a minimum of 6 weeks from the causative injury. Indications for surgery included symptomatic posterior SCJ dislocations or posteriorly angulated physeal fractures that did not remodel and were refractory to nonoperative treatment. Subjective patient outcomes were obtained by mailed survey and telephone contact. Outcomes included a Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand score, patient-rated levels of pain and/or disability, SCJ stability, and symptom improvement. Seven patients met the inclusion criteria and all patients reported postoperative improvement or complete resolution of pain at last clinical follow-up (mean, 13 mo). At average 5.5 years follow-up, all respondents (n=4) reported that their injury did not interfere with normal social activities or daily activities. No patients reported difficulty with employment; however, all patients reported mild difficulty with return to their level of athletic activity before SCJ fracture dislocation. Patients rated their level of pain or disability as 1.5 on a 10-point scale. Surgical intervention can reliably provide pain relief and facilitate successful return to activities including work in patients with symptomatic chronic posterior SCJ fracture dislocations. However, patients must be counseled that they may experience

  20. An animal model of schizophrenia based on chronic LSD administration: old idea, new results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marona-Lewicka, Danuta; Nichols, Charles D; Nichols, David E

    2011-09-01

    Many people who take LSD experience a second temporal phase of LSD intoxication that is qualitatively different, and was described by Daniel Freedman as "clearly a paranoid state." We have previously shown that the discriminative stimulus effects of LSD in rats also occur in two temporal phases, with initial effects mediated by activation of 5-HT(2A) receptors (LSD30), and the later temporal phase mediated by dopamine D2-like receptors (LSD90). Surprisingly, we have now found that non-competitive NMDA antagonists produced full substitution in LSD90 rats, but only in older animals, whereas in LSD30, or in younger animals, these drugs did not mimic LSD. Chronic administration of low doses of LSD (>3 months, 0.16 mg/kg every other day) induces a behavioral state characterized by hyperactivity and hyperirritability, increased locomotor activity, anhedonia, and impairment in social interaction that persists at the same magnitude for at least three months after cessation of LSD treatment. These behaviors, which closely resemble those associated with psychosis in humans, are not induced by withdrawal from LSD; rather, they are the result of neuroadaptive changes occurring in the brain during the chronic administration of LSD. These persistent behaviors are transiently reversed by haloperidol and olanzapine, but are insensitive to MDL-100907. Gene expression analysis data show that chronic LSD treatment produced significant changes in multiple neurotransmitter system-related genes, including those for serotonin and dopamine. Thus, we propose that chronic treatment of rats with low doses of LSD can serve as a new animal model of psychosis that may mimic the development and progression of schizophrenia, as well as model the established disease better than current acute drug administration models utilizing amphetamine or NMDA antagonists such as PCP. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Treatment of Idiopathic Chronic Orchialgia with Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation (TENS:A Preliminary Result

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekrem Akdeniz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Unilateral or bilateral testicular pain lasting more than 3 months is called as chronic orchialgia. Aproximately 25-50% of chronic orchialgia is idiopatic origin. This study aimed the effectiveness of Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation (TENS therapy due to Idiopathic Chronic Orchialgia (ICO. Methods: Five patients were included into this study with ICO that diagnosed with physical examination, urine analyses, urinary system x-ray film, and scrotal doppler ultrasound. Medical history revealed that multiple conservative therapy attempts failed to alleviate the pain. Two of the patients had right sided ICO. Traditional TENS device is placed to the most painful points. TENS applied 3 times in a week with duration 30 minutes for 4 weeks. Before and after TENS application, patients were evaluated by using Visual Analog Scale (VAS at first and third months. Results: Median age of patients was 26.20±2.38 (22-30. Mean VAS value was 6.52 ± 0.89 before the procedure. After 1 month VAS value was 3.82 ± 0.83 (p0.05. None of the patients needed any analgesics after during the one month. No complications, hyperemia or hypoesthesia of the scrotal or penile skin, occurred after the procedure. Conclusion: TENS reduces pain by increasing endorphin release in the spinal cord dorsal horn. TENS is very effective method for first 1 month in patients with ICO but its effect reduces by the time. There is no standard therapeutic protocol for idiopathic chronic orchialgia. Therefore TENS may be an alternative for patients who do not benefit from medical therapy and do not want invasive procedures. Short-term use of TENS and low number of the patients are the limitations of this study. Randomized, placebo-controlled, and longer follow-up period studies are needed to better assess the efficacy of TENS for ICO.

  2. Disability Weights for Chronic Mercury Intoxication Resulting from Gold Mining Activities: Results from an Online Pairwise Comparisons Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steckling, Nadine; Devleesschauwer, Brecht; Winkelnkemper, Julia; Fischer, Florian; Ericson, Bret; Krämer, Alexander; Hornberg, Claudia; Fuller, Richard; Plass, Dietrich; Bose-O'Reilly, Stephan

    2017-01-10

    In artisanal small-scale gold mining, mercury is used for gold-extraction, putting miners and nearby residents at risk of chronic metallic mercury vapor intoxication (CMMVI). Burden of disease (BoD) analyses allow the estimation of the public health relevance of CMMVI, but until now there have been no specific CMMVI disability weights (DWs). The objective is to derive DWs for moderate and severe CMMVI. Disease-specific and generic health state descriptions of 18 diseases were used in a pairwise comparison survey. Mercury and BoD experts were invited to participate in an online survey. Data were analyzed using probit regression. Local regression was used to make the DWs comparable to the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) study. Alternative survey (visual analogue scale) and data analyses approaches (linear interpolation) were evaluated in scenario analyses. A total of 105 participants completed the questionnaire. DWs for moderate and severe CMMVI were 0.368 (0.261-0.484) and 0.588 (0.193-0.907), respectively. Scenario analyses resulted in higher mean values. The results are limited by the sample size, group of interviewees, questionnaire extent, and lack of generally accepted health state descriptions. DWs were derived to improve the data basis of mercury-related BoD estimates, providing useful information for policy-making. Integration of the results into the GBD DWs enhances comparability.

  3. Application of a unique test design to determine the chronic toxicity of boron to the aquatic worm Lumbriculus variegatus and fatmucket mussel Lampsilis siliquoidea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Scott; Lockwood, Rick; Harrass, Michael C

    2014-01-01

    The chronic (21- and 28-day) toxicity of boron was determined for two freshwater benthic macroinvertebrates: the fatmucket mussel Lampsilis siliquoidea and the aquatic worm Lumbriculus variegatus. The rapid depletion of boric acid from spiked sediments in tests using flow-through overlying waters was addressed by constant addition of boric acid to overlying water at concentrations matching those of the targeted porewater exposures. This proved highly successful in maintaining constant whole-sediment and sediment porewater boron concentrations. Boron sublethal 25 % inhibition concentration values based on porewater concentrations were 25.9 mg B/L (L. variegatus) and 38.5 mg B/L (L. siliquoidea), indicating similar test organism sensitivity. Expressed as dry whole-sediment values, the respective L. variegatus and L. siliquoidea sublethal (growth) IC25 values for whole-sediment exposures were 235.5 mg B/kg sediment dry weight (dw) and 310.6 mg B/kg dw. The worm lethality-based end points indicated greater sensitivity than the sublethal end points, bringing into question the validity of a "lethality" end point for L. variegatus given its fragmentation mode of reproduction. For comparison, water-only mussel exposures were tested resulting in an IC25 value of 34.6 mg B/L, which was within 20 % of the porewater value. This suggests that the primary route of boron exposure was through the aqueous phase. The results of this study indicated that for test materials that are readily water soluble, standard sediment test designs may be unsuitable, but water-only exposures can provide toxicological data representative of sediment tests.

  4. Toxicity assessment of zinc oxide nanoparticles using sub-acute and sub-chronic murine inhalation models

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Adamcakova-Dodd, Andrea; Stebounova, Larissa V; Kim, Jong Sung; Vorrink, Sabine U; Ault, Andrew P; O'Shaughnessy, Patrick T; Grassian, Vicki H; Thorne, Peter S

    2014-01-01

    Although ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) are used in many commercial products and the potential for human exposure is increasing, few in vivo studies have addressed their possible toxic effects after inhalation...

  5. Overview of Chronic Oral Toxicity Values for Chemicals Present in Hydraulic Fracturing Fluids, Flowback and Produced Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    as part of EPA's Hydraulic Fracturing Drinking Water Assessment, EPA is summarizing existing toxicity data for chemicals reported to be used in hydraulic fracturing fluids and/or found in flowback or produced waters from hydraulically fractured wells

  6. Sub-chronic oral toxicity study in Sprague-Dawley rats with hypoxia mimetic cobalt chloride towards the development of promising neutraceutical for oxygen deprivation

    OpenAIRE

    Shrivastava, Kalpana; Bansal, Anju; Singh, Bhagwat; Sairam, Mustoori; Ilavazhagan, Govindaswamy

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The present study evaluates the toxicity from sub-chronic administration of CoCl2 (12.5 mg cobalt kg-1 BW for seven days) to male Sprague-Dawley rats in view of the beneficial effects of CoCl2 in animals and for developing efficacious therapeutic regimen in humans. 32 rats weighing 200?25g were used for all experiments. Blood was collected for hematological and biochemical analysis and various organs were dissected after perfusion of animals under anesthesia for other anal...

  7. Uncovering the exposure mechanisms of sunken heavy oil that makes it chronically toxic to early life stages of fish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, J.; Young, G.; Lemire, B.; Hodson, P. [Queen' s Univ., Kingston, ON (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    A train derailment in 2005 caused the release of 150,000 litres of No. 6 heavy fuel oil into a lake in Alberta. The oil is a residue of the crude oil refinement process and contains 3-4 ringed alkylated forms of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) that are known to cause sub-lethal toxic responses during the early life stages of rainbow trout. Because the oil does not disperse well, oil patches still persist in near-shore sediments of the lake where fish spawn. This study assessed how the behaviour of heavy oil in water interacts with exposure and toxicity to the early life stages of fish. Daily renewal tests with heavy fuel oil coated on glass plate demonstrated higher levels of toxicity to trout embryos than oil that was mechanically or chemically dispersed. A flow-through oil gravel column was used to assess whether the toxic constituents of the heavy oil are transferred quickly enough to cause toxicity. The aim of the study was to develop exposure and toxicity test methods that accurately reflect the behaviour of heavy oil after a spill.

  8. Chronic toxicity of five metals to the polar marine microalga Cryothecomonas armigera - Application of a new bioassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppel, Darren J; Gissi, Francesca; Adams, Merrin S; King, Catherine K; Jolley, Dianne F

    2017-09-01

    The paucity of ecotoxicological data for Antarctic organisms is impeding the development of region-specific water quality guidelines. To address this limitation, toxicity testing protocols need to be developed to account for the unique physiology of polar organisms, in particular their slow growth rates. In this study, a toxicity test protocol was developed to investigate the toxicities of five metals to the polar marine microalga Cryothecomonas armigera. The concentrations which reduced population growth rate by 10% (EC10) after 24-d for Cu, Pb, Zn, Cd and Ni were 21.6, 152, 366, 454, and 1220 μg.L-1, respectively. At the concentrations used in tests, only Cu and Ni were sufficiently toxic to enable the derivation of EC50 values of 63.1 and 1570 μg.L-1 respectively. All metals affected C. armigera's cellular physiology including cellular chlorophyll a fluorescence, cell complexity and size, and lipid concentrations. However, no changes to cellular membrane permeability were observed. The reduction in cellular lipid concentrations was a more sensitive indicator of toxicity for Cd, Ni, and Pb than growth rate inhibition, with EC10 values of 89, 894, and 11 μg.L-1, respectively, highlighting its potential as a sensitive measure of metal toxicity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Streptococcal toxic shock syndrome occurred during postoperative radiotherapy in a cancer patient with preexisting lymphedema and chronic illness -case report-

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Ji Young; Oh, Yoon Kyeong; Kim, Dong Min [Chosun University College of Medicine, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-12-15

    A case is reported of a man with malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH) in right thigh who developed streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (STSS) during postoperative radiotherapy. Before radiotherapy, a patient complained wax and wane lymphedema following wide excision of tumor mass which was confirmed as MFH. He took some nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug (NSAID) for about one month. He suffered preexisting hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, diabetes and well-controlled hypertension. The patient received conventional radiotherapy to right thigh with a total dose of 32.4 Gy at 1.8 Gy per day. At last radiotherapy fraction, cutaneous erythematous inflammation was suddenly developed at his affected thigh. At that time, he also complained of oliguria, fever and chills. The patient was consulted to internal medicine for adequate evaluation and management. The patient was diagnosed as suggested septic shock and admitted without delay. At admission, he showed hypotension, oliguria, constipation, abnormal renal and liver function. As a result of blood culture, Streptococcus pyogenes was detected. The patient was diagnosed to STSS. He was treated with adequate intravenous antibiotics and fluid support. STSS is one of oncologic emergencies and requires immediate medical intervention to prevent loss of life. In this patient, underlying HCV infection, postoperative lymphedema, prolonged NSAID medication, and radiotherapy may have been multiple precipitating factors of STSS.

  10. The surgical treatment of chronic intestinal ischemia: results of a recent series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illuminati, G; Caliò, F G; D'Urso, A; Papaspiropoulos, V; Mancini, P; Ceccanei, G

    2004-04-01

    Due to the rarity of the condition, large and prospective series defining the optimal method of digestive arteries revascularization, for the treatment of chronic intestinal ischemia, are lacking. The aim of this consecutive sample clinical study was to test the hypothesis that flexible application of different revascularization methods, according to individual cases, will yield the best results in the management of chronic intestinal ischemia. Eleven patients, of a mean age of 56 years, underwent revascularization of 11 digestive arteries for symptomatic chronic mesenteric occlusive disease. Eleven superior mesenteric arteries and one celiac axis were revascularized. The revascularization techniques included retrograde bypass grafting in 7 cases, antegrade bypass grafting in 2, percutaneous arterial angioplasty in 1, and arterial reimplantation in one case. The donor axis for either reimplantation or bypass grafting was the infrarenal aorta in 4 cases, an infrarenal Dacron graft in 4, and the celiac aorta in one case. Grafting materials included 5 polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and 3 Dacron grafts. Concomitant procedures included 3 aorto-ilio-femoral grafts and one renal artery revascularization. Mean follow-up duration was 31 months. There was no operative mortality. Cumulative survival rate was 88.9% at 36 months (SE 12.1%). Primary patency rate was 90% at 36 months (SE 11.6%). The symptom free rate was 90% at 36 months (SE 11.6%). Direct reimplantation, antegrade and retrograde bypass grafting, all allow good mid-term results: the choice of the optimal method depends on the anatomic and general patient's status. Associated infrarenal and renal arterial lesions can be safely treated in the same time of digestive revascularization. Angioplasty alone yields poor results and should be limited to patients at poor risk for surgery.

  11. Manifestation of tranexamic acid toxicity in chronic kidney disease and kidney transplant patients: A report of four cases and review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Terry King-Wing; Chow, Kai Ming; Kwan, Bonnie Ching-Ha; Leung, Chi Bon; Szeto, Cheuk Chun; Li, Philip Kam-Tao

    2017-04-01

    Tranexamic acid (TXA) is a synthetic anti-fibrinolytic agent commonly used for the prevention and treatment of bleeding disorders. The aim of this study is to describe the clinical manifestation of TXA toxicity in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. From 2005 to 2014, we encountered four CKD patients who experienced severe complications related to TXA. Clinical manifestations and outcome of these patients were recorded. We then performed a qualitative literature review of published cases of TXA toxicity in CKD patients in the PubMed database from 1 January 1972 to 31 December 2015. In our centre, two peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients developed neurotoxicity after intravenous TXA use for surgical bleeding and one PD patient developed neurotoxicity after oral TXA use for post-polypectomy colonic bleeding. One kidney transplant recipient developed acute obstructive uropathy due to retention of blood clot at the pelvi-ureteric junction of graft kidney after taking oral TXA for menorrhagia. Dosage of TXA was not adjusted according to renal function in all cases. All of them recovered without permanent disability after TXA was stopped. From our literature search, we identified two cases of neurotoxicity (one PD, one stage 4 CKD patient), one case of retinal toxicity in a haemolysis (HD) patient, one case of ligneous conjunctivitis in a CKD patient, and one case of toxic epidermal necrolysis in a CKD patient. Neurotoxicity is a very common clinical manifestation of TXA toxicity in CKD patients. Thrombotic complication is rare. Dosage adjustment of TXA is essential in CKD patients. © 2016 Asian Pacific Society of Nephrology.

  12. Efficacy of interferon for chronic hepatitis C virus-related hepatitis in kidney transplant candidates on hemodialysis: results after transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casanovas-Taltavull, T; Baliellas, C; Benasco, C; Serrano, T T; Casanova, A; Pérez, J L; Guerrero, L; González, M T; Andres, E; Gil-Vernet, S; Casais, L A

    2001-04-01

    Interferon-alpha (IFN) may have undesirable effects on a functioning graft. The aim of this study was to evaluate IFN treatment in kidney transplant candidates during the hemodialysis period as well as the results after transplantation. A total of 29 noncirrhotic hemodialysis patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection (based on long-term rise in ALT, HCV serology, HCV RNA by polymerase chain reaction methods, and histological evidence) were included. Tolerability to IFN treatment, pre- and posttransplantation therapeutic results, and long-term outcome were recorded. IFN regimen consisted of 3 million units (MU) times per week after hemodialysis sessions for 6 months, followed by 1.5 MU after each hemodialysis session for an additional 6 months. All patients gave informed consent for participation. IFN therapy was fairly well tolerated. Adverse effects due to IFN toxicity, renal disease, or causes related to the immunological properties of IFN were observed in 24% of patients. At the end of treatment, ALT had normalized in 23/28 patients (82.1%), and HCV RNA had cleared in 23/28 patients (82.1%). During follow-up, HCV RNA was persistently negative in 18 patients (64%, including transplant recipients). A total of 14 patients (nine HCV RNA-negative) received a kidney transplant. Mean follow-up after the procedure was 41 +/- 28 months. In all, 12 patients had a functioning graft, one had acute vascular rejection, and one died of carcinoma. All transplanted patients maintained normal ALT levels, and eight remained HCV RNA-negative. Treatment results in our study population were better than those observed in the general population. The long-term response achieved, which was maintained after transplantation, supports the use of IFN for HCV hepatitis in kidney transplant candidates under hemodialysis.

  13. Building a Foundation on Sand: The Demise of Leaders Resulting from Toxic Followership

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-26

    perceived or actual, towards specific subordinate leaders resulting in alienating un-favored subordinates. This favoritism also establishes fertile ...US Army. For example, he redesigned the American saddle based on the Hungarian design that improved horse and rider endurance—and his design became

  14. Toxic Effects of Chronic Mercury Exposure on the Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer and Macular and Choroidal Thickness in Industrial Mercury Battery Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekinci, Metin; Ceylan, Erdinç; Keleş, Sadullah; Çağatay, Halil Hüseyin; Apil, Aytekin; Tanyıldız, Burak; Uludag, Gunay

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to evaluate the toxic effects of mercury on retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (RNFLT), macular thickness (MT), and choroidal thickness (CT) by using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) in battery industry workers who had been chronically exposed to mercury. Material/Methods Battery factory workers (n=31) and healthy non-factory employee controls (n=15) participated in the study. Participants were divided into 3 groups: Group 1 (n=15) was factory workers who had worked for more than 5 years in a mercury battery factory; Group 2 (n=16) was factory worker who had worked for less than 5 years in a mercury battery factory; and Group 3 (n=15) was healthy non-employees. Systemic symptoms were recorded. Ophthalmic examination included best-corrected visual acuity test, color vision test, full ophthalmologic examination, and SD-OCT of the RNLF, macula, and choroid. To determine mercury exposure, venous blood samples were collected and mercury levels were assessed. Results In our study group the most common systemic symptoms were insomnia (67.7%) and fatigue (67.7%). There were no significant differences between Group 1 and Group 2, but there were significant differences between Group 3 and both Group 1 and Group 2 in best-corrected visual acuity values (1=2mercury levels, and duration (mean ±SD, range) of mercury exposure(1>2>3). OCT values of RNFLTs, MTs, and CTs of all 3 groups were statistically different from each another (1mercury. PMID:25056093

  15. A 5-year Evaluation and Results of Treatment of Chronic Llocked Dislocations of the Shoulder Joint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syawash Mirsaid Ghazi

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Background:Chronic neglected dislocation of the shoulder joint can be defined as a neglected dislocation for more than a 3 week period.However, it has been shown that the negligence could range from a 24 hour period to 6 months1. Depending on age,signs, symptoms,etiology and types of dislocation, conservative treatment or surgical intervention could be considered.Methods: In this study, 16 patients (13 were male and 3 were female were treated with chronic shoulder dislocations, 3 of which had bilateral dislocations. The age of this group ranged from 13-65 years with a mean age of 34 years. These patients were treated by closed or open reduction, either anterior, posterior or both approaches. Of 19 dislocations, 6 were anterior unilateral, 7 posterior unilateral, 1 anterior bilateral and 2 posterior bilateral dislocations. The mean period between dislocations and treatments was 3 months (from 4 weeks to 11 months,And the mean follow up period was 40 months (from 21 months to 5 years.Results: This study has shown that treatment varies according to pathology. In  this study the mean size of head defects was 35% and the extent of severity determined the approach. Findings at the last follow up were assessed according to Rowe and Zarins score and of the 19 shoulders assessed, 9 showed good and 10 showed excellent results. There was no recurrence of the dislocation in any patient.Conclusion:In some selected instances, open reduction of a chronic locked neglected shoulder dislocation of a 6 months period or more in young patients is recommended.This method is, however, contraindicated in elderly patients; in such cases a shoulder prosthesis is indicated.  

  16. Ecological modelling and toxicity data coupled to assess population recovery of marine amphipod Gammarus locusta: Application to disturbance by chronic exposure to aniline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de los Santos, Carmen B; Neuparth, Teresa; Torres, Tiago; Martins, Irene; Cunha, Isabel; Sheahan, Dave; McGowan, Tom; Santos, Miguel M

    2015-06-01

    A population agent-based model of marine amphipod Gammarus locusta was designed and implemented as a basis for ecological risk assessment of chemical pollutants impairing life-history traits at the individual level. We further used the model to assess the toxic effects of aniline (a priority hazardous and noxious substance, HNS) on amphipod populations using empirically-built dose-response functions derived from a chronic bioassay that we previously performed with this species. We observed a significant toxicant-induced mortality and adverse effects in reproductive performance (reduction of newborn production) in G. locusta at the individual level. Coupling the population model with the toxicological data from the chronic bioassay allowed the projection of the ecological costs associated with exposure to aniline that might occur in wild populations. Model simulations with different scenarios indicated that even low level prolonged exposure to the HNS aniline can have significant long-term impacts on G. locusta population abundance, until the impacted population returns to undisturbed levels. This approach may be a useful complement in ecotoxicological studies of chemical pollution to transfer individual-collected data to ecological-relevant levels. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Hearing loss and heavy metal toxicity in a Nicaraguan mining community: audiological results and case reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, J E; Jastrzembski, B G; Buckey, J C; Enriquez, D; MacKenzie, T A; Karagas, M R

    2013-01-01

    We measured fingernail metal levels, Békésy-type pure-tone thresholds and distortion product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) levels in 59 subjects residing in the gold mining community of Bonanza, Nicaragua. Auditory testing revealed widespread hearing loss in the cohort. Nail metal concentrations (mercury, lead, aluminum, manganese and arsenic) far exceeded reference levels. No relationship was found between metal levels and auditory test results for the group as a whole. Statistically significant relationships were found between DPOAE response amplitudes and metal concentrations in a subgroup with less than 40 h per week of significant noise exposure; however, conclusions regarding these relationships should be tempered by the large number of analyses performed. Several young individuals with high metal levels reported neurological symptoms and had poor hearing. The data suggest that metal levels in artisanal mining communities present a significant public health problem and may affect hearing. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. RESULTS OF POSTERIOR MYECTOMY FOR THE TREATMENT OF CHILDREN WITH CHRONIC CONSTIPATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyvasteh, Mehran; Askarpour, Shahnam; Talaiezadeh, Abdol-Hassan; Imani, Mohammad-Reza; Javaherizadeh, Hazhir

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the result of posterior myectomy in children with chronic constipation who underwent to this surgery. Forty eight children with chronic constipation who did not respond to diet, laxative, or enema were included. Children with abnormal barium enema showing transitional zone were excluded. Children with documented metabolic disease diabetes, and hypothyroidism were also excluded. All patients underwent posterior myectomy. Children were followed during 1 year after surgery regarding frequency of fecal evacuation, fecal consistency, straining during defecation, and diameter of feces. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 13.0 (Chicago, IL, USA). Of 48 cases that underwent surgery, 21 were male and 27 were female. Age range was 1.5 to 11 years old. Mean duration of constipation before surgery was 22.79±17.08 (range 6-48 months). Mean duration of medical treatment was 14.90±10.31 (range= 6-48 months). Fecal consistency, feces diameter, number of bowel movements and straining during defecation were compared before and after surgery. The results were statistically significant ( P constipation after surgery for 1 year. Ganglion cells were absent in 32 cases. Ganglion cells were present in seven children. Proximal ganglion cell was found in nine cases Treatment response was not different between cases according to status of ganglion cell in biopsy. Fecal consistency, feces diameter, number of bowel movements, and straining for defecation were improved after posterior myectomy. Another study with more sample is required for better evaluation of treatment.

  19. Prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in Fez, Morocco: results from the BOLD study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Rhazi, K; Nejjari, C; BenJelloun, M C; El Biaze, M; Attassi, M; Garcia-Larsen, V

    2016-01-01

    To present population-estimated prevalence of spirometrically confirmed chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in adults (age ⩾40 years), living in the city of Fez, Morocco. Following the Burden of Lung Disease (BOLD) methodology, population-based sampling plans were used for the recruitment of eligible adults. The study collected questionnaire data on respiratory symptoms, medical history, health status, exposure to risk factors for COPD and quality of life. Post-bronchodilator spirometry was performed and COPD and its stages were defined according to Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) guidelines. Among 768 individuals with valid data and acceptable quality post-bronchodilator spirometry results, the overall prevalence of stage 1 or higher COPD was 12.6%. The prevalence of GOLD stage 2 or higher COPD was 7.9%. The population-estimated prevalence of lower limit of normal (LLN) modified stage 1 or higher COPD was 8% among non-smokers, and it increased with number of pack-years (17.8% for >20 pack-years vs. 3.8% for prevalence of physician-diagnosed COPD was 3.2%; this was associated with an increase in smoking pack-years. These results emphasise the urgent need to take necessary measures to reduce the prevalence of tobacco smoking.

  20. The Results of Intraosseous Drilling and Decompression in the Treatment of Chronic Anterior Knee Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saberi S

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anterior knee pain is one of the most common complaints of patients in orthopedic clinics. The first step in the treatment of this problem is conservative treatment which includes administration of anti-inflammatory drugs, exercise and changes in life style. Many patients respond well to these measures in about six months, but a small number of patients may not respond to the conservative treatment; therefore, surgical procedures such as Maquet osteotomy or lateral retinacular release may be needed in these cases. The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of intraosseous drilling and decompression of patella in the treatment of chronic anterior knee pain.Methods : This study was performed as a case series on ten patients with chronic anterior knee pain attending the Orthopedic Clinic of Imam Khomeini Hospital, in Tehran, Iran in 2009-2010. Eight of the patients were male and the rest were female. The patients met the inclusion criteria and were followed up for at least 12 months after the surgery. Results : The mean age of the patients was 27.8±4.66 yr and their mean BMI was 22.5±1.71 kg/m2. The mean pain severity before the interventions was 8.2±0.78 based on VAS but it decreased to 2.5±1.26 post-surgically. An average reduction of 5.7 scores were noticed in pain severity depicting a significant reduction of pain (P<0.0001.Conclusion: It may be concluded that intraosseous drilling and decompression of patella is a safe and effective method in the treatment of chronic anterior knee pain not responding to conservative treatment.

  1. Accompanying conditions in patients with chronic spontaneous urticaria and urticarial vasculitis: Results of a retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevgi Akarsu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Design: Chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU, the most common form of chronic urticaria, is characterized by spontaneous wheals and/or angioedema lasting longer than six weeks. Urticarial vasculitis (UV is a small vessel vasculitis; but is also included in the various classification systems of chronic urticaria by some authors. The aim of our study was to evaluate the frequency of accompanying conditions, and to compare the demographic, clinical and laboratory features of patients with CSU and UV. Materials and Methods: In this study, the files of CSU (n=146 and UV (n=43 patients who had been hospitalized between January 2010-December 2013 were retrospectively reviewed in terms of demographic data, disease-specific history, accompanying diseases, medications and laboratory findings. Results: When comparing between the two groups for statistical differences, it was found that the frequencies of personal atopy and angioedema were significantly higher in patients with CSU; however, the patients with UV had significantly higher rates for female gender and the presence of systemic symptoms compared to those with CSU. It was determined that the mean values for erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C-reactive protein, as well as the rates of antinuclear antibody positivity and hypocomplementemia were significantly higher in the UV group, compared with those in the CSU group. Accompanying factors were determined as infections, medications, autoimmune diseases and malignities in order of frequency in both CSU and UV groups, but only the frequency of autoimmune diseases was significantly higher in patients with UV group. Conclusion: Although various authors have reported that a large number (up to 40-60% of patients with UV may present only with wheals (clinically indistinguishable from CSU; we assumed that it would be more appropriate to be considered UV as a priority in patients especially who had systemic symptom, autoimmune disease

  2. Spatial and temporal variation in results of purple urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus) toxicity tests with zinc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, B.M.; Anderson, B.S.; Hunt, J.W. [Univ. of California, Santa Cruz, CA (United States). Inst. of Marine Sciences

    1998-03-01

    Purple urchins (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus) were maintained in year-round spawning condition in the laboratory for use in fertilization and larval development experiments designed to assess temporal variability in response to zinc. Results of these tests were compared to those from tests using gametes obtained from a field-collected population. Fertilization and larval development tests were also conducted comparing field-collected purple urchins from three geographically distinct groups on the West Coast of the United States. Fertilization tests conducted to assess temporal variability produced variable median effects concentrations (EC50s) ranging from 4.1 to >100 {micro}g/L zinc. Larval development tests did not demonstrate significant differences in response to zinc between geographically distinct purple urchin populations. Fertilization test variability was examined in terms of sperm concentration and sperm collection method during two seasons. Reduced variability was found with dry sperm collection in tests conducted in March 1995 but increased again in tests conducted in June 1995, regardless of sperm collection method. Increased variability in response to zinc may be caused by seasonal temperature effects.

  3. Stereotactic ablative radiotherapy for small lung tumors with a moderate dose. Favorable results and low toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duncker-Rohr, V.; Nestle, U. [Universitaetsklinikum Freiburg (Germany); Momm, F. [Ortenau Klinikum Offenburg (Germany)] [and others

    2013-01-15

    Background: Stereotactic ablative body radiotherapy (SBRT, SABR) is being increasingly applied because of its high local efficacy, e.g., for small lung tumors. However, the optimum dosage is still under discussion. Here, we report data on 45 lung lesions [non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) or metastases] in 39 patients treated between 2009 and 2010 by SABR. Patients and methods: SABR was performed with total doses of 35 Gy (5 fractions) or 37.5 Gy (3 fractions) prescribed to the 60% isodose line encompassing the planning target volume. Three-monthly follow-up CT scans were supplemented by FDG-PET/CT if clinically indicated. Results: The median follow-up was 17 months. Local progression-free survival rates were 90.5% (all patients), 95.0% (NSCLC), and 81.8% (metastases) at 1 year. At 2 years, the respective local progression-free survival rates were 80.5%, 95.0%, and 59.7%. Overall survival rates were 71.1% (all patients), 65.4% (NSCLC), and 83.3% (metastases) at 1 year. Overall survival rates at 2 years were 52.7%, 45.9%, and 66.7%, respectively. Acute side effects were mild. Conclusion: With the moderate dose schedule used, well-tolerated SABR led to favorable local tumor control as in other published series. Standardization in reporting the dose prescription for SABR is needed to allow comparison of different series in order to determine optimum dosage. (orig.)

  4. Chronic toxicity of 1,3,5-triazine herbicides in the postembryonic development of the western clawed frog Silurana tropicalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saka, Masahiro; Tada, Noriko; Kamata, Yoichi

    2018-01-01

    Seven 1,3,5- triazine (s-triazine) herbicides (ametryn, prometryn, dimethametryn, simazine, atrazine, propazine, and cyanazine) were tested using an amphibian (Silurana tropicalis) metamorphosis assay focusing on morphometric, gravimetric, and thyroid-histological endpoints. Premetamorphic tadpoles were exposed to each s-triazine at 2 concentrations between 1/1000 and 1/10 of the 96-h acute toxicity values, until all tadpoles in the control group reached either the late prometamorphosic stages or the initial stage of metamorphic climax. All s-triazines tested induced significant retardation in growth and development at the higher concentrations (0.2-1.0mg/L), and some of them induced similar effects even at the lower concentrations (0.02-0.1mg/L) while each showing a linear dose-response. Total size of the thyroid glands tended to be reduced corresponding to the delayed development, but without showing histomorphological lesions typical of anti-thyroid chemicals. These consistent results suggest that the s-triazines can act as a chemical stressor inhibiting tadpole growth and development, possibly without disrupting the thyroid axis. In addition, tadpoles exhibiting spinal curvatures appeared in either one or both of the lower and higher concentration groups for each s-triazine tested. The incidence rate in the s-triazine exposure groups where tadpoles with scoliosis were observed ranged from 3.3% to 63.3%, some of which were significantly higher than that in the respective control groups (0-6.7%). It is speculated that the s-triazines may promote to occur axial malformations in developing tadpoles. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Feasibility of robotic radical prostatectomy for medication refractory chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome: Initial results

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    Sameer Chopra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Four patients diagnosed with chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS, met criteria for National Institute of Health (NIH Category III prostatitis, failed multiple medicinal treatments and underwent robotic radical prostatectomy (RRP. Median operative time (range: 157 (127–259 min. Validated functional questionnaires responses and NIH CP symptom index (NIH-CPSI score were collected for each patient's status at different time points pre- and post-operatively. Median decreases (range were: International Prostate Symptom Score - 14 (1–19; Sexual Health Inventory for Men - 6 (−14–22; and NIH-CPSI total - 23.5 (13–33. Median length of follow-up (range was 34 (24–43 months. RRP appears to be an option for carefully selected patients with medication-refractory CP/CPPS who understand that baseline sexual function may not be restored postoperatively.

  6. Pregnancy in patients on chronic dialysis: a single center experience and combined analysis of reported results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Ching-Yu; Ting, I-Wen; Lin, Tzu-Hung; Lee, Chien-Nan

    2008-02-01

    Pregnancy is rare in patients on chronic dialysis, with only a 30-50% rate of successful delivery reported in a previous review article. The pregnancy outcome has improved in recent decades, but data on pregnancy outcome are limited due to the small sample size of previous case series. This study investigated the pregnancy outcome in patients on chronic dialysis over the past 15 years in a single center, and also performed a combined analysis of results of individual cases from previously reported series to obtain overall estimates of rates of successful delivery. Medical records for a total of 13 pregnancies in 13 women undergoing chronic dialysis (10 on hemodialysis and 3 on peritoneal dialysis) during the period from 1990 to 2006 in our hospital were retrospectively reviewed. Data on the changes in dialysis regimen, medical complications, obstetric conditions, and perinatal problems were collected. An electronic search of PubMed identified 10 case series studies and 12 case reports published after 1990 with adequate individual information available. Pooled data from a total of 131 cases, including our patients (117 hemodialysis and 14 peritoneal dialysis), were analyzed using the chi(2)-test and the t-test to compare the rate of successful delivery and birth weight in the hemodialysis group and the peritoneal dialysis group, and in pregnancies with conception prior to and those with conception after starting dialysis. Among the 10 pregnant women who decided to continue their pregnancies in our hospital, 5 delivered live newborns and 5 pregnancies ended with intra-uterine fetal demise or neonatal death. The overall rate of successful delivery was 70.9% (83 out of 117) in patients on hemodialysis and 64.2% (9/14) in patients on peritoneal dialysis. The birth weight for these groups was 1483+/-116 and 1623+/-320 g, respectively. The difference in the rates of successful delivery in these two groups was not significant (p=0.61). However, the birth weight was

  7. [HIGH-RISK CHRONICALLY ILL PATIENTS: DIAGNOSTICS, RESULTS AND NURSING INTERVENTIONS UPON DISCHARGE].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez López, Constancio; Martinez de Pinillos, Rafael López; Pereira Torres, Ana Isabel; San Pedro, Ana Isabel Castro; Heras Agudo, Dolores; Robledo González, Ascensión; Olmo Alonso, Carmen; Trujillo Orcha, Natalia

    2015-10-01

    It is after the implementation of the new nursing evaluation/ planning care registers (PCE) in the medical record and the updating of the document/circuit of the All-clear Ensuing Care Report (ICCA) with NANDA, NOC, NIC (NNN) in the first months of the year 2013, that we are contemplating the fulfillment of a descriptive/cross-section study so as to know diagnostics, results and nursing interventions upon discharge of high-risk chronically ill patients and qualitatively in medical hospitalization units and in palliative care. The results obtained at a quantitative level, with an implementation degree of 83 and 94 per cent, respectively, are extremely encouraging. Regarding the quality of care planning, we have identified for the first time in our hospital both the NANDA, the NOC and NIC with the prevalence degree in the units studied.

  8. Results of the Treatment of Chronic, Refractory CRPS with Ketamine Infusions: a Preliminary Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puchalski, P; Zyluk, A

    2016-06-01

    Chronic, refractory complex regional pain syndrome remains very difficult to treat. A sub-anaesthetic low-dose ketamine has shown promise in advanced CRPS. We investigated the efficacy of ketamine in anaesthetic dosage in chronic, refractory CRPS patients that had failed available standard therapies. 5 female patients, aged a mean of 34 years with long-standing, a mean of 8 years', CRPS received ketamine in anaesthetic dosage over 10 days. The patients received 1-5 ketamine courses. The effect of gradual pain reduction was observed beginning on the 4(th)-5(th) day of treatment, associated with a decrease in the intensity of the allodynia (pain at light touch). No improvement in function (finger range of motion, grip strength) of the affected hands was noted in any patient. This beneficial analgesic effect was confined to 1.5-2.5 months after treatment and then pain relapsed to the baseline level. The results of this study show a short-term analgesic effect for this therapy, with no effect on movement and function of the affected limbs. Nevertheless, this method brings hope to the most severely ill patients who cannot be offered any other reasonable treatment option. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  9. The association between diabetes mellitus, glucose, and chronic musculoskeletal complaints. Results from the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study

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    Zwart John-Anker

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The relationship between diabetes mellitus (DM and chronic musculoskeletal complaints (MSCs is unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between DM, non-fasting glucose and chronic MSCs defined as pain and/or stiffness ≥ 3 months during the past year in the general adult population. Methods The results were based on cross-sectional data from 64,785 men and women (aged ≥ 20 years who participated in the Nord-Trøndelag Health Survey, which included 1,940 individuals with known DM. Associations were assessed using multiple logistic regression, estimating prevalence odds ratio (OR with 95% confidence intervals (CIs. Results High non-fasting glucose was associated with a lower prevalence of chronic MSCs compared to a low glucose level. DM was associated with higher prevalence of chronic MSCs, in particular chronic widespread MSCs. In the multivariate analysis, adjusting for glucose level, BMI, age, gender and physical activity, chronic widespread MSCs was 1.6 times more likely (OR = 1.6, 95% CI 1.2–2.2 among individuals Conclusion In this cross-sectional study a high non-fasting glucose was associated with lower prevalence of chronic MSCs. Among individuals with known DM chronic widespread MSCs were more likely.

  10. Epidemiology of chronic renal disease in the Galician population: results of the pilot Spanish EPIRCE study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otero, Alfonso; Gayoso, Pilar; Garcia, Fernando; de Francisco, Angel L

    2005-12-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a major social health problem because of the aging of the population, the high incidence of diabetes mellitus, and the epidemic of silent CKD resulting from inadequate diagnosis of early chronic renal insufficiency The sociodemographic, baseline characteristics and CKD prevalence measured by the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease formula were studied in a randomly selected sample of people aged 20 years or older in the general population. We report the results of the analysis of the EPIRCE (Estudio Epidemiológico de la Insuficiencia Renal en España) pilot study performed in Galicia, Spain, in the last quarter of 2004. Baseline characteristics, sociodemographic characteristics, and results of a clinical examination and blood variables were collected from 237 patients who fulfilled the study's inclusion and exclusion criteria. The mean age of the sample was 49.58 years (95% confidence interval, 47.39-51.76). The prevalence of Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative grade 3 CKD was 5.1%, but the coexistence of an albumin/creatinine ratio>30 mg/g with grade 1 to 2 CKD raised the final rate to 12.7% in this population. We found a high prevalence of hypertension (31.5%), isolated systolic hypertension (20.1%), diabetes mellitus (8%), obesity (13.1%), smoking habit (22.7%), high atherogenic index (30.8%), and high alcohol intake (24%). Risk factors significantly associated with renal disease were age [P=0.018; odds ratio (OR) 2.7], hypertension (P=0.023; OR 2.13), pulse pressure (P=0.04; OR 0.10), diabetes mellitus (P=0.08; OR 4.48), obesity (P=0.000; OR 7.7), and insulin resistance index (P=0.04; OR 4.95). The prevalence of CKD and conventional cardiovascular risk factors is high in this randomly selected sample of the general population. Secondary preventive measures are needed to detect chronic kidney impairment as early as possible and to reduce the incidence and mortality arising from the associated comorbidities.

  11. Chronic sublethal effects of San Francisco Bay sediments on nereis (neanthes) arenaceodentata; effect of food ration on sediment toxicity. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, D.W.; Dillon, T.M.

    1993-09-01

    This report is designed to address concerns regarding the effect of food ration on toxicity during chronic sublethal sediment bioassays. To this end, a contaminated San Francisco Bay sediment and a clean control sediment were evaluated in a chronic sublethal test under a series of different food rations, with the marine polychaete worm Nereis (Neanthes) arenaceodentata. Animals were exposed from early juvenile stage through the onset of gametogenesis. Treatments were 2.OX, 1.OX, 0.5X, and 0.25X where X is the recommended food ration for laboratory cultures. Test end points were survival, growth, and reproduction. The contaminated sediment was a composite of several cores taken to project depth (38 ft (11.6 m) below mean low water mark) from an area in Oakland Inner Harbor known to be contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and metals. Comparisons were made with a clean control sediment. The control sediment is used in the laboratory cultures of N. arenaceodentata and was collected from Sequim, WA. Mean percent survival of Neanthes was high (>90 percent) in both the contaminated and control sediment across all food ration treatments. Individual wet weights were significantly reduced with decreasing food ration in both contaminated and control sediments. Significant differences in wet weight between sediment types were observed at the 1.OX, 0.5X, and 0.25X rations. Reproduction (fecundity and emergent juvenile (EJ) production) was also Chronic sublethal, Neanthes, Dredged material, San Francisco Bay, Food ration, Sediment.

  12. RESULTS OF POSTERIOR MYECTOMY FOR THE TREATMENT OF CHILDREN WITH CHRONIC CONSTIPATION

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    Mehran PEYVASTEH

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives - The aim of this study was to evaluate the result of posterior myectomy in children with chronic constipation who underwent to this surgery. Methods - Forty eight children with chronic constipation who did not respond to diet, laxative, or enema were included. Children with abnormal barium enema showing transitional zone were excluded. Children with documented metabolic disease diabetes, and hypothyroidism were also excluded. All patients underwent posterior myectomy. Children were followed during 1 year after surgery regarding frequency of fecal evacuation, fecal consistency, straining during defecation, and diameter of feces. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 13.0 (Chicago, IL, USA. Results - Of 48 cases that underwent surgery, 21 were male and 27 were female. Age range was 1.5 to 11 years old. Mean duration of constipation before surgery was 22.79±17.08 (range 6-48 months. Mean duration of medical treatment was 14.90±10.31 (range= 6-48 months. Fecal consistency, feces diameter, number of bowel movements and straining during defecation were compared before and after surgery. The results were statistically significant ( P <0.001. Of all cases, 52% continued treatment of constipation after surgery for 1 year. Ganglion cells were absent in 32 cases. Ganglion cells were present in seven children. Proximal ganglion cell was found in nine cases Treatment response was not different between cases according to status of ganglion cell in biopsy. Conclusion - Fecal consistency, feces diameter, number of bowel movements, and straining for defecation were improved after posterior myectomy. Another study with more sample is required for better evaluation of treatment.

  13. Bosutinib versus imatinib in newly diagnosed chronic-phase chronic myeloid leukemia: results from the BELA trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortes, Jorge E; Kim, Dong-Wook; Kantarjian, Hagop M; Brümmendorf, Tim H; Dyagil, Irina; Griskevicius, Laimonas; Malhotra, Hemant; Powell, Christine; Gogat, Karïn; Countouriotis, Athena M; Gambacorti-Passerini, Carlo

    2012-10-01

    Bosutinib is an oral Src/Abl tyrosine kinase inhibitor. The phase III Bosutinib Efficacy and Safety in Newly Diagnosed Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (BELA) trial compared bosutinib with imatinib in newly diagnosed, chronic-phase chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). A total of 502 patients were randomly assigned 1:1 to bosutinib 500 mg per day or imatinib 400 mg per day. The complete cytogenetic response (CCyR) rate at 12 months was not different for bosutinib (70%; 95% CI, 64% to 76%) versus imatinib (68%; 95% CI, 62% to 74%; two-sided P = .601); therefore, the study did not achieve its primary end point. The major molecular response (MMR) rate at 12 months was higher with bosutinib (41%; 95% CI, 35% to 47%) compared with imatinib (27%; 95% CI, 22% to 33%; two-sided P bosutinib compared with imatinib (two-sided P bosutinib compared with 10 patients (4%) on imatinib. A total of three CML-related deaths occurred on the bosutinib arm compared with eight on the imatinib arm. The safety profiles of bosutinib and imatinib were distinct; GI and liver-related events were more frequent with bosutinib, whereas neutropenia, musculoskeletal disorders, and edema were more frequent with imatinib. This ongoing trial did not meet its primary end point of CCyR at 12 months, despite the observed higher MMR rate at 12 months, faster times to CCyR and MMR, fewer on-treatment transformations to accelerated/blast phase, and fewer CML-related deaths with bosutinib compared with imatinib. Each drug had a distinct safety profile.

  14. Monitoring acute and chronic water column toxicity in the Northern Sacramento-San Joaquin Estuary, California, USA, using the euryhaline amphipod, Hyalella azteca: 2006 to 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Inge; Deanovic, Linda A; Markiewicz, Dan; Khamphanh, Manisay; Reece, Charles K; Stillway, Marie; Reece, Charissa

    2010-10-01

    After the significant population decline of several pelagic fish species in the Northern Sacramento-San Joaquin (SSJ) Estuary (CA, USA) in 2002, a study was performed to monitor water column toxicity using the amphipod Hyalella azteca. From January 1, 2006 to December 31, 2007, water samples were collected biweekly from 15 to 16 sites located in large delta channels and main-stem rivers, selected based on prevalent distribution patterns of fish species of concern. Ten-day laboratory tests with H. azteca survival and relative growth as toxicity endpoints were conducted. The enzyme inhibitor piperonyl butoxide ([PBO], 25 µg/L) was added to synergize or antagonize pyrethroid or organophosphate (OP) insecticide toxicity, respectively. Significant amphipod mortality was observed in 5.6% of ambient samples. Addition of PBO significantly changed survival or growth in 1.1% and 10.1% of ambient samples, respectively. Sites in the Lower Sacramento River had the largest number of acutely toxic samples, high occurrence of PBO effects on amphipod growth (along with sites in the South Delta), and the highest total ammonia/ammonium concentrations (0.28 ± 0.15 mg/L). Ammonia/ammonium, or contaminants occurring in mixture with these, likely contributed to the observed toxicity. Pyrethroid insecticides were detected at potentially toxic concentrations. Overall, results of this study identified specific areas and contaminants of concern and showed that water in the Northern SSJ Estuary was at times acutely toxic to sensitive invertebrates. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 2010;29:2190-2199. © 2010 SETAC.

  15. Comparison of 5 IU and 10 IU tuberculin test results in patients on chronic dialysis

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    H Tayebi Khosroshahi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Immunocompromised patients such as those with end-stage kidney failure under-going hemodialysis (HD are at increased risk of developing tuberculosis (TB. For this reason, routine TB screening of HD patients with tuberculin test has been recommended. The Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC has recommended that patients with chronic renal failure should undergo annual skin testing for TB with tuberculin [purified protein derivative (PPD], with an induration of ≥10 mm at 48 h depicting a positive reaction. The aim of this study was to compare the results of two different doses of PPD in dialysis patients. This descriptive and comparative multicenter study was performed on 255 patients on chronic dialysis in Tabriz, Iran. These patients did not have the PPD test done within the preceding one year. Patients were divided into two groups randomly and conventional or double-dose tuberculin test was performed using the Mantoux technique with 5 IU (group 1 and 10 IU (group 2 of PPD. Results were interpreted 48-72 h after injection. Patients were divided into those with less than 10 mm and those with ≥10 mm duration. Mean age was 44.6 ± 15 years (M/F = 1.5/1. The mean duration on dialysis was 39 ± 7 months. There was no significant difference regarding the age, gender, dura-tion on dialysis, causes of chronic kidney disease, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, C-reactive protein and serum albumin between the two groups. The mean induration was 4.6 mm and 7.7 mm in groups 1 and 2, respectively. There was induration ≥10 mm in 19.6% and 25.5% of group 1 and 2, respectively, which showed a significant difference (P <0.05. In conclusion, because of the high frequency of TB in dialysis patients, an annual tuberculin test may be recommended. Our study showed that the double-dose tuberculin test may be a better substitute to the conventional test in dialysis patients.

  16. Echoguided drug infiltration in chronic prostatitis: results of a multi-centre study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guercini, Federico; Pajoncini, Cinzia; Bard, Robert; Fiorentino, Francesco; Bini, Vittorio; Costantini, Elisabetta; Porena, Massimo

    2005-06-01

    In chronic prostatitis there are many causes that may provoke a therapeutical failure of a systemic antibiotic treatment. At the moment a consensus has not been reached on the efficacy of the many therapeutical options that are available with not one of these approaches being efficacious in all patients. In our view the main causes of treatment failure are the well-known hurdle to antibiotic diffusion inside the glandular parenchyma associated with the so-called intraprostatic bacterial biofilms and the possible presence of local auto-immune reactions. Given this background, we tested ultrasound guided intraprostate infiltration of a cocktail of antibiotics and betamethasone, for a therapeutical options. 320 patients, referred to us because of symptoms indicative of chronic prostatitis, were enrolled in this study. The inclusion criteria were the severity of the symptoms and the failure of repeated cycles of antibiotics in the previous 12 months. At the initial consultation patients completed the NIH Prostatitis Symptoms Index (NIH-CPSI). All underwent: a) digital rectal examination (DRE), b) transrectal prostatic ultrasound scan (TRUS), c) uroflowmetry, d) cultures of first voiding and after prostatic massage urine and cultures of sperm for saprophytic and pathogen germs, yeasts and protozoa, e) DNA amplification with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) on urine and sperm, for Chlamydia trachomatis, Mycoplasmas (Ureaplasma urealyticum and Mycoplasma hominis), Gonococcus, HPV and HCV Patients on the basis of laboratory results received a cocktail of antibiotics associated with betamethasone. The cocktail was administered as prostate infiltration. Administration was repeated after 7 and 14 days. Final assessment of the efficacy of therapy included not only the NIH-CPSI scores but also the patient's subjective judgement expressed as a "percentage overall improvement". The percentage judgements were arbitrarily divided into 4 classes: 0-30% no improvement (Class I); 30

  17. Loving-kindness meditation for chronic low back pain: results from a pilot trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, James W; Keefe, Francis J; Lynch, Thomas R; Carson, Kimberly M; Goli, Veeraindar; Fras, Anne Marie; Thorp, Steven R

    2005-09-01

    Loving-kindness meditation has been used for centuries in the Buddhist tradition to develop love and transform anger into compassion. This pilot study tested an 8-week loving-kindness program for chronic low back pain patients. Patients (N = 43) were randomly assigned to the intervention or standard care. Standardized measures assessed patients' pain, anger, and psychological distress. Post and follow-up analyses showed significant improvements in pain and psychological distress in the loving-kindness group, but no changes in the usual care group. Multilevel analyses of daily data showed that more loving-kindness practice on a given day was related to lower pain that day and lower anger the next day. Preliminary results suggest that the loving-kindness program can be beneficial in reducing pain, anger, and psychological distress in patients with persistent low back pain. Clinicians may find loving-kindness meditation helpful in the treatment of patients with persistent pain.

  18. Results of toxicity tests and chemical analyses conducted on sediments collected from the TNX Outfall Delta Operable Unit, July 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Specht, W.L.

    2000-02-11

    In order to provide unit specific toxicity data that will be used to address critical uncertainty in the ecological risk assessment (ERA) for the TNX Outfall Delta Operable Unit (TNXOD OU), sediments were collected from eight locations in the Inner Swamp portion of the operable unit and two unit specific background locations. These samples were analyzed for total mercury, total uranium, and sediment toxicity.

  19. Treatment of Idiopathic Chronic Orchialgia with Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation (TENS):A Preliminary Result

    OpenAIRE

    Ekrem Akdeniz; Mustafa Suat Bolat; Sevda Akdeniz

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Unilateral or bilateral testicular pain lasting more than 3 months is called as chronic orchialgia. Aproximately 25-50% of chronic orchialgia is idiopatic origin. This study aimed the effectiveness of Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation (TENS) therapy due to Idiopathic Chronic Orchialgia (ICO). Methods: Five patients were included into this study with ICO that diagnosed with physical examination, urine analyses, urinary system x-ray film, and scrotal doppler ultrasound. Me...

  20. CLINICAL RESULTS FROM THE TREATMENT OF CHRONIC SKIN WOUNDS WITH PLATELET RICH PLASMA (PRP

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    Pencho Kossev

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To show platelet rich plasma (PRP application of chronic skin wounds and to evaluate the results from the treatment. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 14 patients with problematic skin wounds had been treated at the clinic for a period of five years (from May 2009 to December 2014 with the following patient sex ratio: male patients - 5 and female patients - 9. Average age - 48,5 (30-76. Patients with Type 2 Diabetes - 4, with decubitus ulcers - 6, traumatic - 8, with infection - 5. Based on a scheme developed by us, all cases were treated by administering platelet-rich plasma, derived by PRGF Endoret system. Follow-up period was within 4 - 6 months (4,5 on average. RESULTS: The results have been evaluated based on the following functional scoring systems - Total wound score, Total anatomic score and Total score (20. The baseline values at the very beginning of the follow-up period were as follows: Total wound score - 12 p.; Total anatomic score - 10 p., Total score - 17 p. By the end of the treatment period the score was 0 p., which means excellent results, i.e. complete healing of the wounds. CONCLUSION: We believe that the application of PRP may become optimal therapy in the treatment of difficult to heal wounds around joints, bone, subject tendons, plantar surface of the foot, etc., as it opens new perspectives in the field of human tissue regeneration.

  1. Tenofovir therapy in chronic hepatitis B infection: 48-week results from Izmir Province, Turkey

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    Şükran Köse

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The goal of therapy in chronic hepatitis B infection (CHB is to impede liver injury by suppressing viral replication.The study was aimed to determine the efficacy of tenofovir (TDF in CHB infection for 48 weeks.Materials and methods: We retrospectively analyzed the data of 45 CHB patients treated by tenofovir. The patientswere divided into two groups based on their hepatitis B e antigen status (HBeAg. Those who were eligible to therapyreceived TDF 300 mg once daily for 48 weeks. Serum alanine aminotransferase levels (ALT, hepatitis B virus DNA (HBVDNA, and viral serological markers were checked at three-month intervals. Liver biopsy scores were determined in allpatients.Results: The mean age ± standard deviation (SD was 35.8 ± 17.0 years, 26 (57.8 % were male, and seven patients(15.5% were treatment-experienced by a nucleos(tide analogue before TDF. HBeAg was positive in 17 (37.8% patients.At week 48 among HBeAg positive (HBeAg + patients’ biochemical and virological response rates at month-3, -6 and-12 were 64.7%, and 100%, 70.6%, and 94.1%, and 88.2%, and 64.7%, respectively. The serological response in HBeAg+ patients was 29.4%. For HBeAg negative (HBeAg - patients; biochemical, and virological response rates were 64.3%,and 96.4% at month 3; 82.1%, and 96.4% at month 6; and 100%, and 85.7% at month 12, respectively. At week 48 bothgroups had significant virological response (p<0.001.Conclusion: Treatment in CHB with TDF leads to HBV DNA suppression without evident resistance for 48-week, and iswell tolerated. J Microbiol Infect Dis 2012; 2(3: 87-92Key words: Hepatitis B, chronic, tenofovir disoproxil

  2. Comparison of clinical results of pharmaceutical and surgical therapy in patients with severe chronic heart failure

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    Kotsoeva О.Т.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the presented paper is a meta-analysis of clinical studies on the comparative effectiveness of pharmaceutical therapy and surgical treatment such as cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT, cardiac resynchronization therapy with cardioversion-defibrillation (CRT-D, circulatory support system and heart transplantation in patients with severe chronic heart failure (CHF. Material and Methods. Results of 41 clinical studies (29799 patients with severe CHF were included in a meta-analysis. Data search was conducted in the following databases: Medline, Medscape, Pubmed, and websites dedicated to clinical research (National Institutes of Health, Clinical Center, ClinicalStudyResults.org, ClinicalTrials.gov. Results. As compared with pharmaceutical therapy, surgical treatment of severe CHF is better to reduce fatal risk, incidence of decompensation of CHF, frequency of cardiac arrhythmias, the need to perform or re-perform heart transplantation. It is also shown that CRT better reduced the mortality from progression of heart failure than heart transplantation. Both pharmaceutical therapy and surgical treatment improved functional class of CHF and quality of patients' life, but does not affect the left ventricular ejection fraction. Conclusion. It was found out that there was a number of significant advantages of surgical treatment of severe CHF, compared with pharmaceutical therapy. However, it is still a number of unresolved issues (particularly in relation to heart transplantation on the effectiveness comparing pharmaceutical and surgical therapies of severe CHF

  3. Pathological study of chronic pulmonary toxicity induced by intratracheally instilled Asian sand dust (Kosa): possible association of fibrosis with the development of granulomatous lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Akinori; Kohara, Yukari; Naota, Misaki; Kobayashi, Yoshimi; Morita, Takehito; Inoue, Kenichiro; Takano, Hirohisa

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to Asian sand dust (ASD) is associated with enhanced pulmonary morbidity and mortality, and the reporting of such cases has rapidly increased in East Asia since 2000. The purpose of the study was to assess chronic lung toxicity induced by ASD. A total of 174 ICR mice were randomly divided into 5 control and 17 exposure groups. Suspensions of low dose (0.2, 0.4 mg) and high dose (3.0 mg) of ASD particles in saline were intratracheally instilled into ICR mice, followed by sacrifice at 24 hours, 1 week, and 1, 2, 3 and 4 months after instillation. Paraffin sections of lung tissues were stained with hematoxylin and eosin and by immunohistochemistry to detect α-smooth muscle actin, collagen III, matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1), CD3, CD20, immunoglobulin G, interleukin-1β and inducible nitric oxide synthase. A lung histological examination revealed similar patterns in the lesions of the groups treated with high (3.0 mg) or low dose (0.4 mg) of ASD. Acute inflammation was observed 24 h after treatment and subsided after 1 week; persistent granulomatous changes were observed at 2 months, focal lymphocytic infiltration at 3 months, and granuloma formation at 4 months. An increase in the size of granulomatous lesions was observed over time and was accompanied by collagen deposition in the lesions. The cytoplasm of macrophages in inflammatory lesions showed positive immunolabeling for MMP-9 at 24 h, 1 and 2 months after instillation of 3.0 mg of ASD. Positive immunolabeling for TIMP-1 was demonstrated in the cytoplasm of macrophages at 2 and 4 months after instillation of 3.0 mg of ASD. These findings suggest association between the expression of MMP-9 and TIMP-1 with the development of lung granulomatous lesions. These findings suggest that collagen deposition resulting from the altered regulation of extracellular matrix is associated with granuloma formation in the lungs of mice treated with ASD.

  4. CHRONIC TOXICITY OF ALUMINUM, AT A PH OF 6, TO FRESHWATER ORGANISMS: EMPIRICAL DATA FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF INTERNATIONAL REGULATORY STANDARDS/CRITERIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardwell, Allison S; Adams, William J; Gensemer, Robert W; Nordheim, Eirik; Santore, Robert C; Ryan, Adam C; Stubblefield, William A

    2017-07-01

    The chemistry, bioavailability, and toxicity of aluminum (Al) in the aquatic environment is complex and affected by a wide-range of water quality characteristics (pH, hardness, dissolved organic carbon). Data gaps in Al ecotoxicology exist for pH ranges representative of natural surface waters (pH 6-8). To address these gaps, a series of chronic toxicity tests were performed at pH 6 with eight freshwater species, including two fish (Pimephales promelas and Danio rerio); an oligochaete (Aeolosoma sp.); a rotifer (Brachionus calyciflorus); a snail (Lymnaea stagnalis); an amphipod (Hyalella azteca); a midge (Chironomus riparius); and an aquatic plant (Lemna minor). The 10% effect concentrations (EC10s as µg total Al/L) ranged from 98 for D. rerio to 2,175 for L. minor. From these data and additional published data, species-sensitivity distributions (SSDs) were developed to derive concentrations protective of 95% of tested species (i.e., HC5-50). A generic HC5-50 (not adjusted for bioavailability) of 74.4 µg total Al/L was estimated using the SSD. An Al specific biotic ligand model (BLM) was used to develop SSDs normalized for bioavailability based upon site-specific water quality characteristics. Normalized HC5-50s ranged from 93.7 to 534 µg total Al/L for waters representing a range of European ecoregions, while a chronic HC5 calculated using USEPA aquatic life criteria methods (i.e., a Continuous Criterion Concentration [CCC]) was 125 µg total Al/L when normalized to Lake Superior water in the US. HC5-50 and CCC values for site-specific waters other than those presented here can be obtained using the Al BLM. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  5. Evaluation of acute and chronic toxicity of DSS and LAS surfactants undergoing the irradiation with electron beam; Avaliacao da toxicidade aguda e cronica dos surfactantes DSS e LAS submetidos a irradiacao com feixe de eletrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romanelli, Maria Fernanda

    2004-07-01

    Surfactants are synthetic organic compounds widely used in cosmetic, food, textile, dyers and paper production industries and in particular detergents and others cleaning products industries. The world consumption is nearly 8 million tons per year. One of the main environmental issues coming from the use of these compounds is their toxicity that compromises the biological treatment of effluents and the quality of receiving waters. The objective of this work was the application of ionizing radiation by electron beam in the degradation and reduction of acute and chronic toxicities of surfactants sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS), dodecyl p-benzenesulfonate acid (LAS) and sodium dodecyl p-benzenesulfonate (LAS). This treatment technology has been studied as a pre-treatment for effluents containing toxic and non-biodegradable compounds, before the biological treatment. Two acute toxicity assays were employed, one with the micro-crustacean Daphnia similis and the other with the luminescent bacterium Vibrio fischeri along with a chronic toxicity assay with the micro-crustacean Ceriodaphnia dubia (just for SDS and acid LAS) for the non-irradiated and irradiated samples and radiation doses 3.0 kGy, 6.0 kGy, 9.0 kGy and 12.0 kGy. Physical-chemical parameters were evaluated for the following up the degradation of the surfactant molecules. The reductions of acute toxicity varied between 72.49% and 90.98% for SDS, 18.22% and 78.98% for acid LAS and 82.66% and 94.26% for sodium LAS. For the chronic toxicity, the reduction percentages varied between 64.03% and 83.01% for SDS and 47.48% and 64.91% for acid LAS. When one considers the application of the electron beam as a pre-treatment of effluents containing high concentrations of surfactants, the toxicity is an essential parameter allowing the further biological treatment of these effluents. (author)

  6. Acute and Chronic Toxicity, Cytochrome P450 Enzyme Inhibition, and hERG Channel Blockade Studies with a Polyherbal, Ayurvedic Formulation for Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debendranath Dey

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ayurvedic plants are known for thousands of years to have anti-inflammatory and antiarthritic effect. We have recently shown that BV-9238, a proprietary formulation of Withania somnifera, Boswellia serrata, Zingiber officinale, and Curcuma longa, inhibits LPS-induced TNF-alpha and nitric oxide production from mouse macrophage and reduces inflammation in different animal models. To evaluate the safety parameters of BV-9238, we conducted a cytotoxicity study in RAW 264.7 cells (0.005–1 mg/mL by MTT/formazan method, an acute single dose (2–10 g/kg bodyweight toxicity study and a 180-day chronic study with 1 g and 2 g/kg bodyweight in Sprague Dawley rats. Some sedation, ptosis, and ataxia were observed for first 15–20 min in very high acute doses and hence not used for further chronic studies. At the end of 180 days, gross and histopathology, blood cell counts, liver and renal functions were all at normal levels. Further, a modest attempt was made to assess the effects of BV-9238 (0.5 µg/mL on six major human cytochrome P450 enzymes and 3H radioligand binding assay with human hERG receptors. BV-9238 did not show any significant inhibition of these enzymes at the tested dose. All these suggest that BV-9238 has potential as a safe and well tolerated anti-inflammatory formulation for future use.

  7. Airborne concentrations of toxic metals resulting from the use of low melting point lead alloys to construct radiotherapy shielding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullough, E C; Senjem, D H

    1981-01-01

    Determinations of airborne concentrations of lead, cadmium, bismuth, and tin were made above vessels containing a "fusible" lead alloy (158 degrees F melting point) commonly used for construction of radiotherapy blocks. Fume concentrations were determined by collection on a membrane filter and analysis by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Samples were obtained for alloy temperatures of 200 degrees, 400 degrees, and 600 degrees F. In all instances, concentrations were much lower than the applicable occupational limits for continuous exposure. The results of this study indicate that the use of a vented hood as a means of reducing air concentrations of toxic metals above and near vessels containing low temperature melting point lead allows commonly used in construction of radiotherapy shields appears unjustifiable. However, proper handling procedures should be observed to avoid entry into the body via alternate pathways (e.g., ingestion or skin absorption). Transmission data of a non-cadmium containing lead alloy with a melting point of 203 degrees F was ascertained and is reported on.

  8. Preventing Chronic Pain: A Human Systems Approach-Results From a Massive Open Online Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fricton, James; Anderson, Kathleen; Clavel, Alfred; Fricton, Regina; Hathaway, Kate; Kang, Wenjun; Jaeger, Bernadette; Maixner, William; Pesut, Daniel; Russell, Jon; Weisberg, Mark B; Whitebird, Robin

    2015-09-01

    Chronic pain conditions are the top reason patients seek care, the most common reason for disability and addiction, and the biggest driver of healthcare costs; their treatment costs more than cancer, heart disease, dementia, and diabetes care. The personal impact in terms of suffering, disability, depression, suicide, and other problems is incalculable. There has been much effort to prevent many medical and dental conditions, but little effort has been directed toward preventing chronic pain. To address this deficit, a massive open online course (MOOC) was developed for students and healthcare professionals. "Preventing Chronic Pain: A Human Systems Approach" was offered by the University of Minnesota through the online platform Coursera. The first offering of this free open course was in the spring of 2014 and had 23 650 participants; 53% were patients or consumers interested in pain. This article describes the course concepts in preventing chronic pain, the analytic data from course participants, and postcourse evaluation forms.

  9. Preventing Chronic Pain: A Human Systems Approach—Results From a Massive Open Online Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Kathleen; Clavel, Alfred; Fricton, Regina; Hathaway, Kate; Kang, Wenjun; Jaeger, Bernadette; Maixner, William; Pesut, Daniel; Russell, Jon; Weisberg, Mark B.; Whitebird, Robin

    2015-01-01

    Chronic pain conditions are the top reason patients seek care, the most common reason for disability and addiction, and the biggest driver of healthcare costs; their treatment costs more than cancer, heart disease, dementia, and diabetes care. The personal impact in terms of suffering, disability, depression, suicide, and other problems is incalculable. There has been much effort to prevent many medical and dental conditions, but little effort has been directed toward preventing chronic pain. To address this deficit, a massive open online course (MOOC) was developed for students and healthcare professionals. “Preventing Chronic Pain: A Human Systems Approach” was offered by the University of Minnesota through the online platform Coursera. The first offering of this free open course was in the spring of 2014 and had 23 650 participants; 53% were patients or consumers interested in pain. This article describes the course concepts in preventing chronic pain, the analytic data from course participants, and postcourse evaluation forms. PMID:26421231

  10. Risk factors for atrophic chronic gastritis in a European population: results of the Eurohepygast study

    OpenAIRE

    2002-01-01

    Background and aims: The development of atrophic chronic gastritis (ACG) is multifactorial, involving environment as well as host responses to Helicobacter pylori infection. The aim of this study was to determine factors involved in ACG in a European dyspeptic population.

  11. Early Results of a Rotation Flap to Treat Chronic Anal Fissures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meheshinder Singh

    2005-07-01

    Conclusion: Rotation flap is a simple, safe and appropriate modality for treating chronic anal fissures. Donor site problems are avoided using this approach. It should be the treatment of choice, particularly in patients who are at risk of incontinence.

  12. Star fruit toxicity: a cause of both acute kidney injury and chronic kidney disease: a report of two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeysekera, R A; Wijetunge, S; Nanayakkara, N; Wazil, A W M; Ratnatunga, N V I; Jayalath, T; Medagama, A

    2015-12-17

    Star fruit (Averrhoa carambola) is commonly consumed as a herbal remedy for various ailments in tropical countries. However, the dangers associated with consumption of star fruit are not commonly known. Although star fruit induced oxalate nephrotoxicity in those with existing renal impairment is well documented, reports on its effect on those with normal renal function are infrequent. We report two unique clinical presentation patterns of star fruit nephrotoxicity following consumption of the fruit as a remedy for diabetes mellitus-the first, in a patient with normal renal function and the second case which we believe is the first reported case of chronic kidney disease (CKD) due to prolonged and excessive consumption of star fruits. The first patient is a 56-year-old female diabetic patient who had normal renal function prior to developing acute kidney injury (AKI) after consuming large amount of star fruit juice at once. The second patient, a 60-year-old male, also diabetic presented with acute on chronic renal failure following ingestion of a significant number of star fruits in a short duration with a background history of regular star fruit consumption over the past 2-3 years. Both had histologically confirmed oxalate induced renal injury. The former had histological features of acute tubulo-interstitial disease whilst the latter had acute-on-chronic interstitial disease; neither had histological evidence of diabetic nephropathy. Both recovered over 2 weeks without the need for haemodialysis. These cases illustrate the importance of obtaining the patient's detailed history with respect to ingestion of herbs, traditional medication and health foods such as star fruits especially in AKI or CKD of unknown cause.

  13. Cardiovascular toxicities of BCR-ABL tyrosine kinase inhibitors in chronic myeloid leukemia: preventive strategies and cardiovascular surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghel, Nazanin; Delgado, Diego Hernan; Lipton, Jeffrey Howard

    2017-01-01

    Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) have revolutionized the treatment and outcomes of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). Despite their significant impact on the management of CML, there is growing evidence that TKIs may cause cardiovascular and/or metabolic complications. In this review, we present the current evidence regarding the cardiovascular safety profiles of BCR-ABL TKIs. Methodological challenges of studies that reported the cardiovascular safety of TKIs are discussed. We also propose management strategies for cardiovascular surveillance and risk factor modification during treatment with these agents.

  14. Activating seniors to improve chronic disease care: Results from a pilot intervention study

    OpenAIRE

    Frosch, DL; Rincon, D.; Ochoa, S; Mangione, CM

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the effect of an activation intervention delivered in community senior centers to improve health outcomes for chronic diseases that disproportionately affect older adults. Design: Two-group quasi-experimental study. Setting: Two Los Angeles community senior centers. Participants: One hundred sixteen senior participants. Intervention: Participants were invited to attend group screenings of video programs intended to inform about and motivate self-management of chronic c...

  15. Ameliorative Effect of Chronic Supplementation of Protocatechuic Acid Alone and in Combination with Ascorbic Acid in Aniline Hydrochloride Induced Spleen Toxicity in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khairnar, Upasana; Upaganlawar, Aman; Upasani, Chandrashekhar

    2016-01-01

    Background. Present study was designed to evaluate the protective effects of protocatechuic acid alone and in combination with ascorbic acid in aniline hydrochloride induced spleen toxicity in rats. Materials and Methods. Male Wistar rats of either sex (200-250 g) were used and divided into different groups. Spleen toxicity was induced by aniline hydrochloride (100 ppm) in drinking water for a period of 28 days. Treatment group received protocatechuic acid (40 mg/kg/day, p.o.), ascorbic acid (40 mg/kg/day, p.o.), and combination of protocatechuic acid (20 mg/kg/day, p.o.) and ascorbic acid (20 mg/kg/day, p.o.) followed by aniline hydrochloride. At the end of treatment period serum and tissue parameters were evaluated. Result. Rats supplemented with aniline hydrochloride showed a significant alteration in body weight, spleen weight, feed consumption, water intake, hematological parameters (haemoglobin content, red blood cells, white blood cells, and total iron content), tissue parameters (lipid peroxidation, reduced glutathione, and nitric oxide content), and membrane bound phosphatase (ATPase) compared to control group. Histopathology of aniline hydrochloride induced spleen showed significant damage compared to control rats. Treatment with protocatechuic acid along with ascorbic acid showed better protection as compared to protocatechuic acid or ascorbic acid alone in aniline hydrochloride induced spleen toxicity. Conclusion. Treatment with protocatechuic acid and ascorbic acid in combination showed significant protection in aniline hydrochloride induced splenic toxicity in rats.

  16. Lung toxicity after radiation in childhood: Results of the International Project on Prospective Analysis of Radiotoxicity in Childhood and Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoppel, Gerhild; Eich, Hans-Theodor; Matuschek, Christiane; Kortmann, Rolf-Dieter; Meyer, Frank; Martinsson, Ulla; Nilsson, Kristina; Kristensen, Ingrid; Vordermark, Dirk; Willich, Normann; Christiansen, Hans; Koch, Raphael; Steinmann, Diana

    2017-11-01

    This study presents the evaluation of acute and late toxicities of the lung in children and adolescents after irradiation in terms of dose-volume effects. Irradiated children and adolescents in Germany have prospectively been documented since 2001 in the "Registry for the Evaluation of Side-Effects after Radiotherapy in Childhood and Adolescence (RiSK)"; in Sweden since 2008 in the RADTOX registry. Up to April 2012, 1,392 children were recruited from RiSK, and up to June 2013, 485 from the RADTOX-registry. Of these patients, 295 were irradiated to the lung. Information about acute toxicity was available for 228 patients. 179 patients have been documented concerning late toxicity (≥grade 1: n = 28). The acute toxicity rate was noticeably higher in children irradiated with 5-20Gy (p < 0.05). In the univariate analysis, a shorter time until late toxicity was noticeably associated with irradiation with 5-15Gy (p < 0.05). Acute and late toxicities appear to be correlated with higher irradiation volumes and low doses. Our data indicate that similar to the situation in adult patients, V5, V10, V15 and V20 should be kept as low as possible (e.g., at least V5 < 50%, V10 and V15 < 35% and V20 < 30%) in children and adolescents to lower the risk of toxicity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Chronic kidney disease in Polish elderly population aged 75+: results of the WOBASZ Senior Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zdrojewski, Łukasz; Król, Ewa; Rutkowski, Bolesław; Piotrowski, Walerian; Pająk, Andrzej; Drygas, Wojciech; Zdrojewski, Tomasz

    2017-04-01

    Kidney filtration decreases with age, which results in an increased frequency of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in the elderly population. The purpose of the study was to assess the prevalence and epidemiology of CKD in the Polish elderly population. A representative sample of the Polish elderly population, composed of 918 people (F 452, M 466) in the age of ≥75 years, was chosen. All participants had their history, anthropometric measures and biochemical parameters (creatinine, fasting glucose, complete cholesterol) evaluated. CKD was diagnosed when eGFR was population was 26.9% (F 32.0%, M 15.8%), which gives an estimated number of 495,590 (95% CI 396,363-594,817) patients in the study subpopulation. The majority of these people were in the G3A category-70.1%, while the remaining fell under the G3B-25.7%, G4-3.1% and G5-1.1% categories. Disease awareness among the participants was found to be at 17%. Arterial hypertension (AH) was more frequent in people with CKD (91.0 vs. 80.3%, P increased the chances of developing CKD (OR 1.87, P population was 26.9%. 2. Awareness of CKD is low. 3. DM, increasing age and AH did not increase the risk of CKD. 4. Coexistence of cardiovascular diseases increased the risk of having CKD.

  18. [Results of monotherapy with terazosin (kornam) in chronic infectious prostatitis patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopatkin, N A; Apolikhin, O I; Sivkov, A V; Oshchepkov, V N; Egorov, A A

    2002-01-01

    To evaluate effectiveness of alpha 1-adrenoblockers (a1-AB) in patients with chronic non-infectious prostatitis (CP). a1-AB effectiveness was studied in 28 volunteers with non-infectious CP (type IIIA). All the patients received terazosin (kornam, Slovenia) in a dose 5 mg/day after dose titration for 2-3 weeks (the initial dose was 1 mg/day). The assessment of the efficiency was standard with the use of frequency and severity of symptoms scales as well as questionnaire NIH CPSI. Symptomatic improvement was achieved in 27 patients (96%). Dysuria and intensity of pain diminished in 24 (82%) and 26 (93%) patients. Voiding disorders proved most sensitive to a1-AB. Quality of life rose 2-fold. Probability of the recurrence 1 month after terazosin therapy was 0.29, after 6 months--0.43. Recurrent dysuria occurred in 33%, pain--in 58%. Terazosin monotherapy in patients with non-infectious CP results in reduction of the symptoms severity and pollakiuria frequency, frequency of recurrences and in improvement of quality of life. a1-AB in CP do not prevent recurrence in half the cases but the symptoms severity in recurrent disease is much weaker.

  19. Comparison of results after fluoroquinolones and combination therapies in type IIIA chronic prostatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altintas, R; Oguz, F; Beytur, A; Ediz, C; Gunes, A; Ozer, A

    2013-01-01

    We investigated retrospectively the clinical outcomes of the patients with type iii inflammatory chronic prostatitis, who were treated with fluoroquinolones with and without an α-blocker between 2009-2011. Diagnosis was established with medical history (symptoms presented longer than 3 months within previous 6 months), physical examination, Meares-Stamey test and the questionnaire of the NIH-CPSI. The responses to the treatment were assessed with uroflowmetry test and the questionnaire of NIH-CPSI at initial and after 4 weeks of the treatment. The patients with incomplete data and treatment and who treated with α-blockers and/or antibiotics in the period 4 weeks prior to the therapy started in our clinic and had any surgery of lower urinary tract previously were excluded. The patients were classified under 6 groups; group1=ciprofloxacin, group2=ofloxacin, group3=levofloxacin, group4=ciprofloxacin+tamsulosin, group5=ofloxacin+tamsulosin, group 6=levofloxacin+tamsulosin. Wilcoxon Signed Ranks and Kruskal Wallis test were used for comparison of results. Mann Whitney U test with Bonferroni correction made was used as posthoc (P<.05). The median scores of NIH-CPSI decreased significantly in all groups (P<.05). Levofloxacin reduced the median total scores of NIH-CPSI more than ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin monotherapies. The combination therapies were better than antibiotic therapies alone and best result was obtained in levofloxacin+tamsulosin combination. Tamsulosin+fluoroquinolone (especially tamsulosin+levofloxacin) combinations yielded better results in both NIH-CPSI scores and peak flow rates. Copyright © 2012 AEU. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  20. Applicability of the assessment of chronic illness care (ACIC instrument in Germany resulting in a new questionnaire: questionnaire of chronic illness care in primary care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campbell Stephen

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Chronic Care Model (CCM is an evidence based, population based approach to improve care for people with chronic conditions. The Assessment of Chronic Illness Care (ACIC instrument is widely used to measure to what extent within a healthcare system the CCM is implemented. The aim of this study was to translate and culturally adapt the ACIC Instrument for the German healthcare system. Methods For translating the ACIC instrument, principles of Good Practice for the Translation and Cultural Adaptation Process by the ISPOR Task Force were followed. Focus groups were additionally conducted with general practitioners to adapt the items culturally. Results The ACIC instrument can not be used in the German healthcare system easily due to a multifaceted understanding of words, different levels of knowledge of the CCM and fundamental differences between health systems. Conclusions As following the CCM leads to benefits for patients with chronic illnesses, measuring to which extent it is implemented is of major interest. A new questionnaire using the CCM as its theoretical basis, sensitive to the healthcare systems of the host country has to be created. Knowledge transfer between countries by using an instrument from a different healthcare system can lead to a completely new questionnaire.

  1. Toxicity of ozone. III. Chronic toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mittler, S.; King, M.; Burkhardt, B.

    1957-01-01

    Repeated exposure of rats to 2.4 ppM O/sub 3/ (16 hr/day or 4 hr/day, 4 to 5 days/wk) induced some edema and hemorrhage. Maximum lung damage occurred at about 32 hr accumulated exposure with some adaptation noted after that. Weight gain of young rats decreased with increased O/sub 3/ exposure. Twenty of 102 mice died after 241 days of continuous 2.4 ppM O/sub 3/. Ozone did not change hematocrit or hemoglobin.

  2. Chronic kidney disease in older people with intellectual disability: results of the HA-ID study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Winter, C F; Echteld, M A; Evenhuis, H M

    2014-03-01

    With increasing longevity and cardiovascular events, chronic kidney disease may also become a significant problem in older people with intellectual disability (ID). We studied prevalence and associations of chronic kidney disease as part of the Healthy Ageing and Intellectual Disability (HA-ID) study, a large Dutch cross-sectional study among people with ID aged 50 years and over, using creatinine and cystatin-C measurement in plasma. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was calculated using the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) and Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) equations. Equations based on creatinine (as the MDRD equation) may underestimate kidney dysfunction in people with sarcopenia, because low muscle mass leads to a low creatinine production. Therefore, also prevalence of chronic kidney disease was studied in the sarcopenic group, using different GFR equations. Prevalence of chronic kidney disease, among 635 participants, was 15.3%, which equals prevalence in the general Dutch population. In the group of participants with sarcopenia (n=82), the CKD-EPI equation based on creatinine and cystatin-C gave a higher prevalence of chronic kidney disease than did the MDRD equation, but confidence intervals were very wide. Chronic kidney disease was associated with higher age, Down syndrome, obesity, hypercholesterolemia and hypothyroid disease. GFR should be measured in all older people with ID and polypharmacy, and in older people with ID and Down syndrome as part of the regular health checks. Moreover, if sarcopenia is present and information on GFR is required, this should not be measured based on creatinine only, but additional measures, such as cystatin-C, should be taken into account. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Cardiovascular toxicities of BCR-ABL tyrosine kinase inhibitors in chronic myeloid leukemia: preventive strategies and cardiovascular surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aghel N

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Nazanin Aghel,1 Diego Hernan Delgado,1 Jeffrey Howard Lipton2 1Division of Cardiology, Peter Munk Cardiac Centre, Toronto General Hospital, University Health Network,University of Toronto, 2Department of Medical Oncology and Hematology, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, University Health Network, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada Abstract: Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs have revolutionized the treatment and outcomes of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML. Despite their significant impact on the management of CML, there is growing evidence that TKIs may cause cardiovascular and/or metabolic complications. In this review, we present the current evidence regarding the cardiovascular safety profiles of BCR-ABL TKIs. Methodological challenges of studies that reported the cardiovascular safety of TKIs are discussed. We also propose management strategies for cardiovascular surveillance and risk factor modification during treatment with these agents. Keywords: BCR-ABL, tyrosine kinase inhibitor, peripheral arterial disease, cardiovascular disease, adverse event 

  4. Combined chronic anterior cruciate ligament and posterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: functional and clinical results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denti, Matteo; Tornese, Davide; Melegati, Gianluca; Schonhuber, Herbert; Quaglia, Alessandro; Volpi, Piero

    2015-10-01

    Multiligamentous injury to the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) and the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) is an uncommon but debilitating event. Patients with combined ligament injuries typically complain of painful, debilitating knee instability that restricts their sports and daily activities. The purpose of this retrospective study was to evaluate functional and clinical outcomes of patients with chronic ACL and PCL deficiency who underwent simultaneous single-stage arthroscopic reconstruction of the central pivot. Medical records of 20 consecutive patients with chronic ACL and PCL deficiency who underwent simultaneous single-stage arthroscopic reconstruction of the central pivot were retrospectively reviewed. All patients had received either an allograft (group A) or a semitendinosus-gracilis graft for ACL repair and a bone-patellar tibial-bone graft for PCL repair (group B). Functional outcomes, after the initial follow-up period at 24-month FU, were assessed with concentric isokinetic knee extensor-flexor testing at 60 and 180°/s. The secondary aim was to compare long-term clinical recovery by the administration of the IKDC (International Knee Document Committee) Knee Ligament Evaluation Form, the Lysholm Knee Scoring Scale and the Cincinnati Knee Rating Scale. The mean per cent quadriceps strength deficit in the operated as compared to the healthy knee was 13.5 % in group A and 15 % in group B (angular velocity 60°/s) and 13.5 % in group A and 9.4 % in group B (angular velocity 180°/s). The mean per cent flexor strength deficit in the operated as compared to the healthy knee was 10.4 % in group A and 12.3 % in group B (angular velocity 60°/s) and 12.2 % in group A and 9 % in group B (angular velocity of 180°/s). The flexor-quadriceps ratio was 49.4 % in group A and 48.8 % in group B in the healthy knee and 53.2 % in group A and 53.8 % in group B in the operated knee (angular velocity 60°/s) and 63.9 % in group A and 60.7 % in group B in

  5. Growth hormone plus resistance exercise attenuate structural changes in rat myotendinous junctions resulting from chronic unloading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Curzi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Myotendinous junctions (MTJs are specialized sites on the muscle surface where forces generated by myofibrils are transmitted across the sarcolemma to the extracellular matrix. At the ultrastructural level, the interface between the sarcolemma and extracellular matrix is highly folded and interdigitated at these junctions. In this study, the effect of exercise and growth hormone (GH treatments on the changes in MTJ structure that occur during muscle unloading, has been analyzed. Twenty hypophysectomized rats were assigned randomly to one of five groups: ambulatory control, hindlimb unloaded, hindlimb unloaded plus exercise (3 daily bouts of 10 climbs up a ladder with 50% body wt attached to the tail, hindlimb unloaded plus GH (2 daily injections of 1 mg/kg body wt, i.p., and hindlimb unloaded plus exercise plus GH. MTJs of the plantaris muscle were analyzed by electron microscopy and the contact between muscle and tendon was evaluated using an IL/B ratio, where B is the base and IL is the interface length of MTJ’s digit-like processes. After 10 days of unloading, the mean IL/B ratio was significantly lower in unloaded (3.92, unloaded plus exercise (4.18, and unloaded plus GH (5.25 groups than in the ambulatory control (6.39 group. On the opposite, the mean IL/B ratio in the group treated with both exercise and GH (7.3 was similar to control. These findings indicate that the interaction between exercise and GH treatments attenuates the changes in MTJ structure that result from chronic unloading and thus can be used as a countermeasure to these adaptations.

  6. Scintigraphic test of gastric emptying and motility: preliminary results in patients with chronic gastritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hausmann, T. [Abt. Nuklearmedizin und Spezielle Biophysik, Medizinische Hochschule Hannover (Germany); Mueller-Schauenburg, W. [Abt. Nuklearmedizin, Univ. Tuebingen (Germany); Goeke, M. [Abt. Gastroenterologie und Hepatologie, Medizinische Hochschule Hannover (Germany); Luebeck, M. [Abt. Nuklearmedizin, Univ.-Krankenhaus Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany); Gratz, K.F. [Abt. Nuklearmedizin und Spezielle Biophysik, Medizinische Hochschule Hannover (Germany); Meier, P. [Abt. Gastroenterologie und Hepatologie, Medizinische Hochschule Hannover (Germany); Manns, M. [Abt. Gastroenterologie und Hepatologie, Medizinische Hochschule Hannover (Germany); Hundeshagen, H. [Abt. Nuklearmedizin und Spezielle Biophysik, Medizinische Hochschule Hannover (Germany)

    1995-11-01

    To record gastric peristalsis using a conventional scintigraphic gastric emptying test the frame rate was increased to 1 frame per 3 s at 10, 30, and 50 min postprandially. The gastric contraction frequency was obtained from the first harmonic of a Fourier transform of a gastric region of interest (ROI) curve. The propagation of gastric contractions was better revealed from computed functional images of the phase and amplitude distribution as compared with the multiple scintigraphic images. The maximal count-rate changes per pixel were calculated as an estimate of the most prominent regional contractile activity of the gastric wall. Among 12 patients with chronic gastritis the group with more severe dyspeptic complaints (n = 6) had significantly higher count-rate changes per pixel when compared with the group with minor complaints (20.0, 21.1 and 14.2 vs 12.9, 12.0, and 10.4 counts/pixel X s at 10, 30, and 50 min. respectively; p < 0.05). The mean half-times of gastric emptying (61, SD 11 vs 54, SD 13 min) and the mean gastric contraction frequencies (2.99, SD 0.19; 3.09, SD 0.33; 3.07, SD 0.10 vs 3.15, SD 0.15; 3.17, SD 0.13; 3.23, SD 0.20 cycles/min at 10, 30, and 50 min, respectively) did not show significant differences between both groups. Our preliminary results agree with the hypothesis of the occurrence of more powerful, nonexpulsive gastric-wall contractions in patients with more severe dyspeptic complaints. Hence, additional quantification of gastric motility allowed a more detailed evaluation of gastric-motor-activity disorders that were for so long not accessible to conventional gastric-emptying tests. (orig.)

  7. Relationship between serum leptin and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in US adults: Results from NHANESIII

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    Sueblinvong, Viranuj; Liangpunsakul, Suthat

    2014-01-01

    Background Recent studies suggest an important role for leptin in respiratory immune responses and pathogenesis of inflammatory respiratory diseases. There has been an interest to explore if leptin plays any role in the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Objective We conducted the population-based study to evaluate the relationship between serum leptin and COPD in NHANES III (3rd U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey participants). Participants and Design 6,415 adults who had fasting serum leptin and underwent spirometry measurement constituted our study group. Main Outcome Measures Serum leptin levels were compared (i) between subjects with normal lung function and those with COPD and (ii) among COPD subjects with different severities. Results Among male participants, 2,257 were controls and 680 had COPD. Compared to controls, COPD subjects were older (62 vs. 43 yrs), had higher prevalence of smokers (78% vs. 58%), lower BMI (26.3 vs. 26.9), and higher serum leptin levels (6.6 vs. 5.9). For female participants, 2,918 were controls and 560 had COPD. Those with COPD were older (60 vs. 43 yrs) and lower BMI (26.9 vs. 27.7). No differences in serum leptin levels were observed. The independent predictors of COPD in both genders were age, BMI, and smoking, but not serum leptin. There were no differences in serum leptin among COPD subjects with different severities. Conclusions We did not find any significant difference in the levels of serum leptin in subjects with COPD. Our data provide indirect evidence against a major role for serum leptin in the pathogenesis of COPD in humans. PMID:25118115

  8. Renal parenchymal histopathology predicts life-threatening chronic kidney disease as a result of radical nephrectomy.

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    Sejima, Takehiro; Honda, Masashi; Takenaka, Atsushi

    2015-01-01

    The preoperative prediction of post-radical nephrectomy renal insufficiency plays an important role in the decision-making process regarding renal surgery options. Furthermore, the prediction of both postoperative renal insufficiency and postoperative cardiovascular disease occurrence, which is suggested to be an adverse consequence caused by renal insufficiency, contributes to the preoperative policy decision as well as the precise informed consent for a renal cell carcinoma patient. Preoperative nomograms for the prediction of post-radical nephrectomy renal insufficiency, calculated using patient backgrounds, are advocated. The use of these nomograms together with other types of nomograms predicting oncological outcome is beneficial. Post-radical nephrectomy attending physicians can predict renal insufficiency based on the normal renal parenchymal pathology in addition to preoperative patient characteristics. It is suggested that a high level of global glomerulosclerosis in nephrectomized normal renal parenchyma is closely associated with severe renal insufficiency. Some studies showed that post-radical nephrectomy severe renal insufficiency might have an association with increased mortality as a result of cardiovascular disease. Therefore, such pathophysiology should be recognized as life-threatening, surgically-related chronic kidney disease. On the contrary, the investigation of the prediction of mild post-radical nephrectomy renal insufficiency, which is not related to adverse consequences in the postoperative long-term period, is also promising because the prediction of mild renal insufficiency might be the basis for the substitution of radical nephrectomy for nephron-sparing surgery in technically difficult or compromised cases. The deterioration of quality of life caused by post-radical nephrectomy renal insufficiency should be investigated in conjunction with life-threatening matters. © 2014 The Japanese Urological Association.

  9. Urinary uromodulin excretion predicts progression of chronic kidney disease resulting from IgA nephropathy.

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    Jingjing Zhou

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Uromodulin, or Tamm-Horsfall protein, is the most abundant urinary protein in healthy individuals. Recent studies have suggested that uromodulin may play a role in chronic kidney diseases. We examined an IgA nephropathy cohort to determine whether uromodulin plays a role in the progression of IgA nephropathy. METHODS: A total of 344 IgA nephropathy patients were involved in this study. Morphological changes were evaluated with the Oxford classification of IgA nephropathy. Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA measured the urinary uromodulin level on the renal biopsy day. Follow up was done regularly on 185 patients. Time-average blood pressure, time-average proteinuria, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR and eGFR decline rate were caculated. Association between the urinary uromodulin level and the eGFR decline rate was analyzed with SPSS 13.0. RESULTS: We found that lower baseline urinary uromodulin levels (P = 0.03 and higher time-average proteinuria (P = 0.04 were risk factors for rapid eGFR decline in a follow-up subgroup of the IgA nephropathy cohort. Urinary uromodulin level was correlated with tubulointerstitial lesions (P = 0.016. Patients that had more tubular atrophy/interstitial fibrosis on the surface had lower urinary uromodulin levels (P = 0.02. CONCLUSIONS: Urinary uromodulin level is associated with interstitial fibrosis/tubular atrophy and contributes to eGFR decline in IgA nephropathy.

  10. Antimony Toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundar, Shyam; Chakravarty, Jaya

    2010-01-01

    Antimony toxicity occurs either due to occupational exposure or during therapy. Occupational exposure may cause respiratory irritation, pneumoconiosis, antimony spots on the skin and gastrointestinal symptoms. In addition antimony trioxide is possibly carcinogenic to humans. Improvements in working conditions have remarkably decreased the incidence of antimony toxicity in the workplace. As a therapeutic, antimony has been mostly used for the treatment of leishmaniasis and schistosomiasis. The major toxic side-effects of antimonials as a result of therapy are cardiotoxicity (~9% of patients) and pancreatitis, which is seen commonly in HIV and visceral leishmaniasis co-infections. Quality control of each batch of drugs produced and regular monitoring for toxicity is required when antimonials are used therapeutically. PMID:21318007

  11. Cigarette tar content and symptoms of chronic bronchitis: results of the Scottish Heart Health Study.

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    Brown, C A; Crombie, I K; Smith, W C; Tunstall-Pedoe, H

    1991-12-01

    The aim was to determine if there was a relationship between cigarette tar yield and rates of chronic cough and chronic phlegm. 22 districts across Scotland were used for the Scottish Heart Health Study (SHHS) which was conducted between 1984 and 1986 and from which the data for this analysis were obtained. 10,359 men and women aged 40-59 years were studied. Of these, 2801 current cigarette smokers whose brand of cigarette smoked was known were selected. Data on self reported smoking habits and prevalence of chronic cough and chronic phlegm were obtained from the SHHS. Tar yield was divided into three groups: low (less than or equal to 12 mg/cigarette); middle (13-14 mg/cigarette); high (greater than or equal to 15 mg/cigarette). The average tar yield consumed per person was 13.2 mg/cigarette. Women in the middle and high tar groups had smoked for longer and had significantly higher breath carbon monoxide levels, serum thiocyanate levels, serum cotinine levels, and daily cigarette consumption than the women in the low tar group. This pattern was not seen in men for any of these five smoking variables. Rates of chronic cough and chronic phlegm were higher with higher tar yield of cigarettes smoked for women (low tar v high tar: p less than 0.001) but not for men. Daily cigarette consumption and the number of years of smoking were the most significant risk factors for chronic cough and chronic phlegm for both men and women. Tar was still a significant risk factor (p less than 0.05) for women after controlling for these two risk factors and social class. Both sexes show strong effects of daily cigarette consumption and years of smoking on respiratory symptoms; women show an additional effect of cigarette tar content while men do not. The spread of tar yield in both sexes was small but there were more women on low tar cigarettes and this may have enabled a weak effect of tar to be seen better in them. On the other hand, tar level in women was confounded with other

  12. The effect of socio-economic predictors of chronic diseases in Ghana: results of a nationwide survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeed, Bashiru I I; Abdul-Aziz, A R; Nguah, Samuel Blay; Zhao, Xicang

    2013-06-16

    Socio-economic predictors of chronic diseases in Ghana are not well understood and their influence has been relatively overlooked. This paper seeks to examine the influence of socio-economic predictors of chronic diseases in Ghanaians three different age groups. The data employed in the study were drawn from Global Ageing and Adult Health survey conducted in Ghana by SAGE and was based on the design for the World Health Survey. The survey was conducted in 2007 and collected data on socio-economic characteristics and other variables of the individuals interviewed. The overall results suggest that chronic diseases in relatively older Ghanaians reflects social and economic exposures with the differentials observed only partially explained by current social and economic conditions. Our results were by and large very much expected from the current medical knowledge available.

  13. Imbalance of kallikrein-kinin system in chronic pancreatitis combined with obesity and results of its comprehensive correction

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    L.S. Babinets

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background. Chronic pancreatitis is one of the most common diseases in general therapeutic practice. Significant role in the onset and progression of chronic pancreatitis is played by the activation of the kallikrein-kinin system (KKS, which is involved in the development of inflammation, blood coagulation and fibrinolysis, immune responses, the formation of pain, etc. Objective: to investigate the dynamics of indicators of the kallikrein-kinin system when using metadoxine in the comprehensive therapy of patients with chronic biliary pancreatitis associated with obesity. Materials and methods. 75 patients with chronic biliary pancreatitis combined with obesity were examined. They were divided into 2 groups. The first group (30 people received the standard treatment. The second group (45 people received the standard treatment and metadoxine. Results. Analyzing the results, it has been found a reliable positive dynamics of KKS indices in both groups after the treatment. However, patients in the second group showed a more significant positive dynamics of KKS parameters: the level of proteolytic activity has decreased by 9.0 %, the kallikrein — by 20.0 %, a1-proteinase inhibitor — by 7.2 %, and prekallikrein has increased by 6.4 %, a2-macroglobulin — by 10.8 %, kininase II — by 10.7 % as compared to group 1. Conclusions. The use of methadoxine in the comprehensive therapy of patients with chronic biliary pancreatitis associated with obesity contributed to a significant increase in the effectiveness of conventional treatment.

  14. The toxicity of inhaled methanol vapors.

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    Kavet, R; Nauss, K M

    1990-01-01

    Methanol could become a major automotive fuel in the U.S., and its use may result in increased exposure of the public to methanol vapor. Nearly all of the available information on methanol toxicity in humans relates to the consequences of acute, rather than chronic, exposures. Acute methanol toxicity evolves in a well-understood pattern and consists of an uncompensated metabolic acidosis with superimposed toxicity to the visual system. The toxic properties of methanol are rooted in the factors that govern both the conversion of methanol to formic acid and the subsequent metabolism of formate to carbon dioxide in the folate pathway. In short, the toxic syndrome sets in if formate generation continues at a rate that exceeds its rate of metabolism. Current evidence indicates that formate accumulation will not challenge the metabolic capacity of the folate pathway at the anticipated levels of exposure to automotive methanol vapor.

  15. Prolonged Exposure Treatment of Chronic PTSD in Juvenile Sex Offenders: Promising Results from Two Case Studies

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    Hunter, John A.

    2010-01-01

    Prolonged exposure (PE) was used to treat chronic PTSD secondary to severe developmental trauma in two adolescent male sex offenders referred for residential sex offender treatment. Both youth were treatment resistant prior to initiation of PE and showed evidence of long-standing irritability and depression/anxiety. Clinical observation and…

  16. Diet, Lifestyle and Chronic Widespread Pain: Results from the 1958 British Birth Cohort Study

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    Elizabeth G VanDenKerkhof

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To examine the relationship between diet and lifestyle, and chronic widespread pain (CWP. If persons with CWP have dietary and lifestyle habits consistent with an increased risk of cancer or cardiovascular disease, it may partially explain evidence in the literature suggesting an association between CWP and these diseases.

  17. Exploring the Impact of Chronic Tic Disorders on Youth: Results from the Tourette Syndrome Impact Survey

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    Conelea, Christine A.; Woods, Douglas W.; Zinner, Samuel H.; Budman, Cathy; Murphy, Tanya; Scahill, Lawrence D.; Compton, Scott N.; Walkup, John

    2011-01-01

    Prior research has demonstrated that chronic tic disorders (CTD) are associated with functional impairment across several domains. However, methodological limitations, such as data acquired by parental report, datasets aggregated across child and adult samples, and small treatment-seeking samples, curtail interpretation. The current study explored…

  18. Hypoadiponectinemia and the presence of metabolic syndrome in patients with chronic kidney disease: results from the KNOW-CKD study

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    Chang-Yun Yoon

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In patients with chronic kidney disease, metabolic syndrome has been demonstrated to be the culprit behind diverse complications. Adiponectin is known to have anti-atherogenic and cardio-protective effects. Meanwhile, the relationship between adiponectin and metabolic syndrome in patients with chronic kidney disease has not been clarified. The aim of this study was to elucidate the relationship between adiponectin level and metabolic syndrome in patients with chronic kidney disease. Methods The KoreaN Cohort Study for Outcome in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease is a cohort study that enrolled subjects with chronic kidney disease throughout South Korea. From February 2011 to July 2014, data were collected from 1332 patients with chronic kidney disease. Results The mean age of the patients was 53.5 years and 803 patients (60.7% were men. The median adiponectin level was 10.7 μg/mL and 585 (44.3% patients had metabolic syndrome. In multiple linear regression analysis, log adiponectin was positively associated with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels (β = 0.006, whereas it was negatively associated with serum albumin (β = −0.284, triglyceride (log β = −0.288, high sensitivity C-reactive protein (log β = −0.058 levels and estimated glomerular filtration rate (β = −0.005. Multiple logistic regression analysis indicated that low adiponectin level was independently associated with a higher risk of metabolic syndrome (per 1 μg/mL increase; odds ratio = 0.953, 95% confidence interval = 0.898–0.970, P < 0.001 after adjustment for multiple confounding factors. Conclusions Hypoadiponectinemia is independently associated with the presence of metabolic syndrome in patients with chronic kidney disease.

  19. Comparison of chronic mixture toxicity of nickel-zinc-copper and nickel-zinc-copper-cadmium mixtures between Ceriodaphnia dubia and Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nys, Charlotte; Van Regenmortel, Tina; Janssen, Colin R; Blust, Ronny; Smolders, Erik; De Schamphelaere, Karel A C

    2017-04-01

    Although aquatic organisms in the environment are exposed to mixtures of metals, risk assessment for metals is most commonly performed on a metal-by-metal basis. To increase the knowledge about chronic mixture effects, the authors investigated whether metal mixture effects are dependent on the biological species, mixture composition, and metal concentration ratio. The authors evaluated the effects of quaternary Ni-Zn-Cu-Cd and ternary Ni-Zn-Cu mixtures on 48-h algal growth rate (Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata) and 7-d daphnid reproduction (Ceriodaphnia dubia) using a ray design. Single metals were 3-fold to 42-fold more toxic for C. dubia than for P. subcapitata, based on the 50% effective concentration expressed as free metal activity, the range representing different metals. Statistical analysis of mixture effects showed that the ternary and quaternary mixture effects were antagonistic on algal growth relative to the concentration addition (CA) model, when the analysis was based on dissolved concentrations and on free metal ion activities. Using the independent action (IA) model, mixture effects in both rays were statistically noninteractive for algal growth when the analysis was based on dissolved concentrations; however, the interactions shifted toward antagonism when based on free ion activities. The ternary Ni-Zn-Cu mixture acted antagonistically on daphnid reproduction relative to both reference models, either expressed as free ion activities or dissolved concentrations. When Cd was added to the mixture, however, the mixture effects shifted toward noninteractivity for daphnids. The metal concentration ratio did not significantly influence the magnitude of observed antagonistic effects. Regardless of statistical interactions observed, based on the present study, CA and in most instances also IA can serve as a protective model for ternary Ni-Zn-Cu and quaternary Ni-Zn-Cu-Cd toxicity to both species. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:1056-1066. © 2016 SETAC.

  20. Outcomes of patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia treated with first-line idelalisib plus rituximab after cessation of treatment for toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Philip A; Stingo, Francesco; Keating, Michael J; Ferrajoli, Alessandra; Burger, Jan A; Wierda, William G; Kadia, Tapan M; O'Brien, Susan M

    2016-08-15

    More active therapies are needed for older and unfit patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) who are not eligible for chemoimmunotherapy with fludarabine, cyclophosphamide, and rituximab. The phosphyotidylinositol-3-kinase δ inhibitor idelalisib is effective in patients with treatment-naive and relapsed/refractory CLL as monotherapy and in combination with rituximab, but it can be associated with treatment-limiting adverse events, particularly diarrhea/colitis. The outcomes for patients who cease treatment for adverse events have not been previously described. The authors analyzed long-term follow-up data from 40 treatment-naïve patients aged ≥65 years who received treatment at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center on a phase 2 study of idelalisib plus rituximab for CLL. In patients who permanently ceased treatment because of toxicity, the time to subsequent disease progression was analyzed according to baseline characteristics. Fifteen patients permanently ceased therapy (PCT) because of toxicity (PCTTOX ), most commonly diarrhea/colitis (n = 7), at a median of 11 months after commencing treatment. PCTTOX was associated with a higher risk of subsequent disease progression (hazard ratio, 6.61; 95% confidence interval, 1.77-16.15) relative to that observed in patients who remained on therapy. Ten patients subsequently progressed, and 7 required salvage therapy; 5 patients remained progression-free at a median of 23.3 months (range, 8.5-28.6 months). Patients who were positive for ζ-associated protein-70 had more rapid disease progression after treatment cessation (P = .048). There were no CLL-related deaths. PCTTOX is the major determinant of PFS in patients who receive first-line idelalisib-based treatment. However, a subgroup of patients with favorable biologic characteristics has prolonged PFS, even after PCTTOX . The absence of CLL-related deaths indicates that salvage treatment is generally successful after PCTTOX . Cancer 2016

  1. Experimental chronic copper toxicity in sheep: biochemical and haematological studies during the development of lesions in the liver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishmael, J.; Gopinath, C.; Howell, J.McC.

    1972-01-01

    Eight sheep were dosed repeatedly with copper sulfate in order to induce chronic copper poisoning. This object was achieved in 7 animals and several had repeated haemolytic episodes. Raised blood copper levels were found only immediately before or during haemolysis and both plasma copper and red cell copper fractions were increased at this time. An increase in the concentration of sorbitol dehydrogenase, arginase and glutamate-oxaloacetate transaminase was detected in the serum one week after the start of dosing and by 2 weeks 5 animals also showed an increased serum glutamate dehydrogenase concentration. Subsequently the enzyme levels fluctuated and in some instances fell to near the pre-dosing range. A marked increase in serum enzyme activity occurred immediately prior to the haemolytic crisis. Serum bilirubin levels followed a similar trend and the highest values were recorded during haemolytic episodes. Reduced bromsulphthalein clearance occurred several weeks before haemolysis and particularly low rates of clearance were recorded in the 2 weeks prior to haemolytic crises. Haemolysis was associated with neutrophilia, Heinz body formation and high blood urea levels. Post mortem markedly elevated copper levels were found in the liver and kidneys and slightly elevated copper levels were found in the spinal cord. Liver zinc levels were raised, kidney iron levels were markedly increased but spinal cord iron levels were decreased. 26 references, 5 figures, 1 table.

  2. Ethacrynic acid exhibits selective toxicity to chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells by inhibition of the Wnt/beta-catenin pathway.

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    Desheng Lu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Aberrant activation of Wnt/beta-catenin signaling promotes the development of several cancers. It has been demonstrated that the Wnt signaling pathway is activated in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL cells, and that uncontrolled Wnt/beta-catenin signaling may contribute to the defect in apoptosis that characterizes this malignancy. Thus, the Wnt signaling pathway is an attractive candidate for developing targeted therapies for CLL. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The diuretic agent ethacrynic acid (EA was identified as a Wnt inhibitor using a cell-based Wnt reporter assay. In vitro assays further confirmed the inhibitory effect of EA on Wnt/beta-catenin signaling. Cell viability assays showed that EA selectively induced cell death in primary CLL cells. Exposure of CLL cells to EA decreased the expression of Wnt/beta-catenin target genes, including LEF-1, cyclin D1 and fibronectin. Immune co-precipitation experiments demonstrated that EA could directly bind to LEF-1 protein and destabilize the LEF-1/beta-catenin complex. N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC, which can react with the alpha, beta-unsaturated ketone in EA, but not other anti-oxidants, prevented the drug's inhibition of Wnt/beta-catenin activation and its ability to induce apoptosis in CLL cells. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our studies indicate that EA selectively suppresses CLL survival due to inhibition of Wnt/beta-catenin signaling. Antagonizing Wnt signaling in CLL with EA or related drugs may represent an effective treatment of this disease.

  3. Acute versus chronic loss of mammalian Azi1/Cep131 results in distinct ciliary phenotypes.

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    Emma A Hall

    Full Text Available Defects in cilium and centrosome function result in a spectrum of clinically-related disorders, known as ciliopathies. However, the complex molecular composition of these structures confounds functional dissection of what any individual gene product is doing under normal and disease conditions. As part of an siRNA screen for genes involved in mammalian ciliogenesis, we and others have identified the conserved centrosomal protein Azi1/Cep131 as required for cilia formation, supporting previous Danio rerio and Drosophila melanogaster mutant studies. Acute loss of Azi1 by knock-down in mouse fibroblasts leads to a robust reduction in ciliogenesis, which we rescue by expressing siRNA-resistant Azi1-GFP. Localisation studies show Azi1 localises to centriolar satellites, and traffics along microtubules becoming enriched around the basal body. Azi1 also localises to the transition zone, a structure important for regulating traffic into the ciliary compartment. To study the requirement of Azi1 during development and tissue homeostasis, Azi1 null mice were generated (Azi1(Gt/Gt. Surprisingly, Azi1(Gt/Gt MEFs have no discernible ciliary phenotype and moreover are resistant to Azi1 siRNA knock-down, demonstrating that a compensation mechanism exists to allow ciliogenesis to proceed despite the lack of Azi1. Cilia throughout Azi1 null mice are functionally normal, as embryonic patterning and adult homeostasis are grossly unaffected. However, in the highly specialised sperm flagella, the loss of Azi1 is not compensated, leading to striking microtubule-based trafficking defects in both the manchette and the flagella, resulting in male infertility. Our analysis of Azi1 knock-down (acute loss versus gene deletion (chronic loss suggests that Azi1 plays a conserved, but non-essential trafficking role in ciliogenesis. Importantly, our in vivo analysis reveals Azi1 mediates novel trafficking functions necessary for flagellogenesis. Our study highlights the

  4. HCV Treatment Initiation in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease: Results from ERCHIVES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butt, Adeel; Ren, Yanjie; Puenpatom, Amy; Arduino, Jean Marie; Kumar, Ritesh; Abou-Samra, Abdul-Badi

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background Newer directing antiviral agents against HCV (DAAs) are safe and efficacious in persons with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Whether availability of these newer DAAs has resulted in more persons with CKD initiating HCV treatment remains unknown. Methods We identified HCV+ persons in ERCHIVES. We excluded HIV+ and HBsAg+ and those with missing HCV RNA and eGFR data. We determined the CKD stage according to National Kidney Foundation criteria. We determined the number of persons initiated on any of the approved DAA-regimen (defined as >14 days of DAA prescription). Logistic regression analyses was used to determine factors associated with treatment initiation. Results Among 76,513 evaluable persons, 21.1% initiated DAA treatment. Initiation rates differed significantly by CKD stage: 21.1% (15,136/68,469) for eGFR>90mL/minute/1.73m2 and CKD stage-2; 14.0% 9853/6,086) for CKD stage 3; and 7.6% (148/1,958) for CKD stage-4/5. Those with CKD stage-3 were 35% less likely and those with CKD stage-4/5 were 65% less likely to initiate treatment with a DAA compared with those with baseline eGFR>90mL/minute/1.73m2. Those with Body Mass Index (BMI)>30 were more likely to initiate treatment (OR 1.24, 95% CI 1.19,1.29). Treatment initiation was less likely in HCV genotype 2 or 3 and those with diabetes (OR 0.82, 95% CI 0.78,0.86), cardiovascular disease (OR 0.73, 95% CI 0.68,0.78), alcohol abuse or dependence (OR 0.75, 95% CI 0.72,0.78) or cirrhosis (OR 0.85, 95% CI 0.80,0.89) at baseline. Conclusion Persons with more advanced CKD are less likely to receive treatment for HCV. Strategies are needed to improve treatment rates in the HCV/CKD population. Disclosures A. Butt, Merck: Investigator, Grant recipient. A. Puenpatom, Merck: Employee, Salary. J. M. Arduino, Merck: Employee, Salary. R. Kumar, Merck: Employee, Salary

  5. Are chronic diseases related to height? Results from the Portuguese National Health Interview Survey.

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    Perelman, Julian

    2014-12-01

    This paper analyze the association between height and chronic diseases in Portugal and the extent to which this relationship is mediated by education. The sample upon which the analysis is based comprised those participants in the 2005/2006 Portuguese National Health Interview Survey (n=28,433) aged 25-79. Logistic regressions measured the association of height with ten chronic diseases, adjusting for age, lifestyle, education, and other socioeconomic factors. Among women, an additional centimeter in stature significantly decreased the prevalence of asthma, chronic pain, and acute cardiac disease, by 0.057, 0.221, and 0.033 percentage points, respectively. Also, mental disorders were significantly less prevalent in the last quartile of height. Among men, an additional centimeter in height was associated with a 0.074 lower prevalence of asthma, and men in the last quartile of height were significantly less at risk of acute cardiovascular disease. There was no significant association between height and the risk of diabetes, high blood pressure, cancer, and pulmonary diseases. As for the impact of education, women with a tertiary level were on average 5.3cm taller than those with no schooling; among men, the difference was almost 9cm. Adjusting for education reduced the height-related excess risk of ill health by 36% on average among men, and by 7% among women. The analysis indicates that there is a significant association of height with several chronic conditions, and that education plays a mediating role in the height-health connection. By emphasizing the role of height and education as determinants of chronic conditions, this paper also highlights the role of conditions related to childhood health and socioeconomic background. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Epidemiology of chronic rhinosinusitis: results from a cross-sectional survey in seven Chinese cities.

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    Shi, J B; Fu, Q L; Zhang, H; Cheng, L; Wang, Y J; Zhu, D D; Lv, W; Liu, S X; Li, P Z; Ou, C Q; Xu, G

    2015-05-01

    Chronic sinusitis (CRS) is a common otorhinolaryngologic disease that is frequently encountered in everyday practice, but there is a lack of precise data regarding the prevalence of CRS in developing countries. We performed a national investigation in China to determine the prevalence and associated factors of CRS. We conducted a cross-sectional investigation in 2012. A stratified four-stage sampling method was used to select participants randomly from seven cities in mainland China. All participants were interviewed face-to-face via a standardized questionnaire. Unconditional logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine the association between smoking and sinusitis after adjusting for socio-demographic factors. This study included a total of 10 636 respondents from seven cities. The overall prevalence of CRS was 8.0% and ranged from 4.8% to 9.7% in seven centres. Chronic sinusitis affected approximately 107 million people in mainland China. Chronic sinusitis was particularly prevalent among people with specific medical conditions, including allergic rhinitis, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and gout. The prevalence was slightly higher among males (8.79%) than females (7.28%) (P = 0.004), and the prevalence varied by age group, ethnicity and marital status and education (P  0.05). Both second-hand tobacco smoke and active smoking were independent risk factors for CRS (P = 0.001). Chronic sinusitis is an important public health problem in China. Our study provides important information for the assessment of the economic burden of CRS and the development and promotion of public health policies associated with CRS particularly in developing countries. © 2015 The Authors. Allergy Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Macrophage activation associated with chronic murine cytomegalovirus infection results in more severe experimental choroidal neovascularization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott W Cousins

    Full Text Available The neovascular (wet form of age-related macular degeneration (AMD leads to vision loss due to choroidal neovascularization (CNV. Since macrophages are important in CNV development, and cytomegalovirus (CMV-specific IgG serum titers in patients with wet AMD are elevated, we hypothesized that chronic CMV infection contributes to wet AMD, possibly by pro-angiogenic macrophage activation. This hypothesis was tested using an established mouse model of experimental CNV. At 6 days, 6 weeks, or 12 weeks after infection with murine CMV (MCMV, laser-induced CNV was performed, and CNV severity was determined 4 weeks later by analysis of choroidal flatmounts. Although all MCMV-infected mice exhibited more severe CNV when compared with control mice, the most severe CNV developed in mice with chronic infection, a time when MCMV-specific gene sequences could not be detected within choroidal tissues. Splenic macrophages collected from mice with chronic MCMV infection, however, expressed significantly greater levels of TNF-α, COX-2, MMP-9, and, most significantly, VEGF transcripts by quantitative RT-PCR assay when compared to splenic macrophages from control mice. Direct MCMV infection of monolayers of IC-21 mouse macrophages confirmed significant stimulation of VEGF mRNA and VEGF protein as determined by quantitative RT-PCR assay, ELISA, and immunostaining. Stimulation of VEGF production in vivo and in vitro was sensitive to the antiviral ganciclovir. These studies suggest that chronic CMV infection may serve as a heretofore unrecognized risk factor in the pathogenesis of wet AMD. One mechanism by which chronic CMV infection might promote increased CNV severity is via stimulation of macrophages to make pro-angiogenic factors (VEGF, an outcome that requires active virus replication.

  8. Further effort is needed to improve management of chronic pain in primary care. Results from the Arkys project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaetano Piccinocchi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of chronic pain is challenging. The Arkys project was initiated in Italy to assist general practitioners (GPs in the management of chronic pain. The main objective of this study was to determine the usefulness of Arkys for selecting new therapeutic strategies. An online interactive questionnaire for assessing pain and guiding therapeutic decisions was made available to GPs participating to Arkys. The GPs were invited to complete the questionnaire for each patient who presented moderate-severe chronic pain, and to decide on a new analgesic treatment based on the information provided by the questionnaire. Two hundred and forty four GPs participated with a total of 3035 patients. Patients (mean age 68.9 years had mostly chronic non-cancer pain (87.7%. In 42.3%, pain had neuropathic components. Only 53.6% of patients were in treatment with analgesics (strong opioids, 38.9%; NSAIDs, 32.6%; weak opioids, 25.6%; anti-epileptics, 17.3%; paracetamol, 14.9%. Use of the questionnaire resulted in the prescription of analgesics to all patients and in increased prescription of strong opioids (69.7%. NSAID prescription decreased (12.8%, while anti-epileptics use remained stable. These findings show that current management of chronic pain in primary care is far from optimal and that efforts are needed to educate GPs and improve guideline implementation.

  9. [The place of cardiac glycosides in the treatment of chronic heart failure. Part II. Results of small studies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidorenko, B A; Preobrazhenskiĭ, D V; Sharoshina, I A; Bataraliev, T A; Pershukov, I V; Makhmutkhodzhaev, S A

    2005-01-01

    In a series of papers the authors analyze literature data on the use of cardiac glycosides for long term treatment of chronic heart failure. Part II is devoted to analysis of results of small controlled studies of pharmacological effects of low dose digoxin in patients with sinus rhythm. Low dose digoxin improves exercise tolerance and lowers risk of decompensation of heart failure but produces no substantial effect on contractility of left ventricular myocardium. Therefore its favorable action on clinical course and outcomes of chronic heart failure is most probably related to modulation of neuro-humoral systems. Retrospective analysis of some trials shows that digoxin is able to increase mortality of survivors of acute myocardial infarction. Hence great care is required when digoxin is used for long term treatment of chronic heart failure due to systolic left ventricular dysfunction after myocardial infarction.

  10. Outcomes of osteopathic manual treatment for chronic low back pain according to baseline pain severity: results from the OSTEOPATHIC Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licciardone, John C; Kearns, Cathleen M; Minotti, Dennis E

    2013-12-01

    To assess response to osteopathic manual treatment (OMT) according to baseline severity of chronic low back pain (LBP). The OSTEOPATHIC Trial used a randomized, double-blind, sham-controlled, 2×2 factorial design to study OMT for chronic LBP. A total of 269 (59%) patients reported low baseline pain severity (LBPS) (Osteopathic manual treatment was consistently associated with benefits in all other secondary outcomes in patients with HBPS, although the statistical significance and clinical relevance of results varied. The large effect size for OMT in providing substantial pain reduction in patients with chronic LBP of high severity was associated with clinically important improvement in back-specific functioning. Thus, OMT may be an attractive option in such patients before proceeding to more invasive and costly treatments. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Education and screening for chronic kidney disease in Indian youth: pilot program results

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    Rao PS

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Panduranga S Rao,1 Julie A Wright Nunes,1 Brenda W Gillespie,2 Rachel L Perlman,1 Rajan Ravichandran3 1Division of Nephrology, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan Health System, 2Department of Biostatistics, School of Public Health, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA; 3Department of Nephrology, Madras Institute of Nephrology, Madras Institute of Orthopedics and Trauma Hospitals, Chennai, India Background: There is a paucity of information on kidney education and screening programs in Indian youth.Methods: Participants (n=2,158 from Chennai colleges were educated about the kidneys and chronic kidney disease (CKD and screened in a pilot program from April to May 2013. This entailed: 1 a presentation and educational video and 2 an on-site assessment of weight, blood pressure, and demographic information. Urinalysis (UA kits were distributed and returned in ≤48 hours. We examined participant characteristics and their association with dipstick proteinuria using logistic regression.Results: The mean (standard deviation [SD] age was 18.9 (1.6 years, and 1,451 (68% were men. Mean (SD body mass index (BMI was 21.9 (4.3 kg/m2; 745 (36% had a BMI consistent with being overweight or obese. Mean (SD systolic blood pressure (SBP was 118.7 (13.1 mm Hg, and 94 (5% of the participants had SBP ≥140. Mean (SD diastolic blood pressure (DBP was 70.9 (11.4 mm Hg, with 119 participants (6% having ≥90 mm Hg. A total of 136 participants had glycosuria (UA≥1+ and 120 (6% had proteinuria (UA≥1+. In unadjusted analyses, sex (odds ratio [OR]=1.64 [confidence interval, CI 1.06–2.55]; p=0.026 men vs. women and age (OR=1.13 per year [CI 1.01–1.26]; p=0.032 were significantly associated with proteinuria. In the analysis adjusted for age, sex, SBP, DBP, glycosuria, and BMI, age remained independently associated with higher odds for proteinuria (OR=1.14 per year [1.02–1.29]; p=0.026. Males showed a trend of higher risk compared

  12. Keloid and Hypertrophic Scars Are the Result of Chronic Inflammation in the Reticular Dermis

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    Rei Ogawa

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Keloids and hypertrophic scars are caused by cutaneous injury and irritation, including trauma, insect bite, burn, surgery, vaccination, skin piercing, acne, folliculitis, chicken pox, and herpes zoster infection. Notably, superficial injuries that do not reach the reticular dermis never cause keloidal and hypertrophic scarring. This suggests that these pathological scars are due to injury to this skin layer and the subsequent aberrant wound healing therein. The latter is characterized by continuous and histologically localized inflammation. As a result, the reticular layer of keloids and hypertrophic scars contains inflammatory cells, increased numbers of fibroblasts, newly formed blood vessels, and collagen deposits. Moreover, proinflammatory factors, such as interleukin (IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α are upregulated in keloid tissues, which suggests that, in patients with keloids, proinflammatory genes in the skin are sensitive to trauma. This may promote chronic inflammation, which in turn may cause the invasive growth of keloids. In addition, the upregulation of proinflammatory factors in pathological scars suggests that, rather than being skin tumors, keloids and hypertrophic scars are inflammatory disorders of skin, specifically inflammatory disorders of the reticular dermis. Various external and internal post-wounding stimuli may promote reticular inflammation. The nature of these stimuli most likely shapes the characteristics, quantity, and course of keloids and hypertrophic scars. Specifically, it is likely that the intensity, frequency, and duration of these stimuli determine how quickly the scars appear, the direction and speed of growth, and the intensity of symptoms. These proinflammatory stimuli include a variety of local, systemic, and genetic factors. These observations together suggest that the clinical differences between keloids and hypertrophic scars merely reflect differences in the intensity, frequency

  13. Late results of mucosal proctectomy and colo-anal sleeve anastomosis for chronic irradiation rectal injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Browning, G.G.P.; Varma, J.S.; Smith, A.N.; Small, W.P.; Duncan, W.

    1987-01-01

    Ten patients with severe chronic irradiation injury to the rectum were treated by mucosal proctectomy and colo-anal sleeve anastomosis. The indications were: recurrent rectal bleeding (five), stricture (three), fistula (one) and intractable pain (one). Overall follow-up has ranged from 8 to 77 months (mean 40 months). In the present survivors (n=7) the follow-up ranges from 18 to 77 months (mean 52 months). Six patients have been followed up for more than 3 years and four for more than 5 years. There was no operative mortality. Three anastomotic strictures occurred but the protecting stoma could be closed in all but one patient. Continence was acceptable although urgency and frequency of defaecation were troublesome symptoms. The operation is recommended for life-threatening, haemorrhagic chronic irradiation injury to the rectum.

  14. Mucinous Adenocarcinoma Arising in Chronic Perianal Fistula: Good Results with Neoadjuvant Chemoradiotherapy Followed by Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa D. Santos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic perianal fistulas are a common clinical condition. However, their evolution to adenocarcinoma is rare. We report the case of a 48-year-old man with perianal chronic fistulas, who developed two perianal ulcerated lesions near the external orifices of the fistulas, which extended proximally as a pararectal tumor. No intestinal lesion was seen at endoscopic examination. Histopathological biopsy indicated mucinous adenocarcinoma. Staging was performed by pelvic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and thoracoabdominal CT scan. The patient underwent a laparoscopic colostomy followed by neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy and then laparoscopic abdominoperineal resection followed by adjuvant therapy. We have seen a favorable outcome with no recurrence at 3 years of follow-up.

  15. Chronic disease management in general practice: results from a national study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Darker, C

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this study was to provide baseline data on chronic disease management (CDM) provision in Irish general practice (GP). The survey instrument was previously used in a study of primary care physicians in 11 countries, thus allowing international comparisons. The response rate was 72% (380\\/527).The majority of GPs (240\\/380; 63%) reported significant changes are needed in our health care system to make CDM work better. Small numbers of routine clinical audits are being performed (95\\/380; 25%). Irish GPs use evidence based guidelines for treatment of diabetes (267\\/380; 71%), asthma \\/ COPD (279\\/380; 74%) and hypertension (297\\/380; 79%), to the same extent as international counterparts. Barriers to delivering chronic care include increased workload (379\\/380; 99%), lack of appropriate funding (286\\/380; 76%), with GPs interested in targeted payments (244\\/380; 68%). This study provides baseline data to assess future changes in CDM.

  16. In silico prediction of drug toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dearden, John C.

    2003-02-01

    It is essential, in order to minimise expensive drug failures due to toxicity being found in late development or even in clinical trials, to determine potential toxicity problems as early as possible. In view of the large libraries of compounds now being handled by combinatorial chemistry and high-throughput screening, identification of putative toxicity is advisable even before synthesis. Thus the use of predictive toxicology is called for. A number of in silico approaches to toxicity prediction are discussed. Quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARs), relating mostly to specific chemical classes, have long been used for this purpose, and exist for a wide range of toxicity endpoints. However, QSARs also exist for the prediction of toxicity of very diverse libraries, although often such QSARs are of the classification type; that is, they predict simply whether or not a compound is toxic, and do not give an indication of the level of toxicity. Examples are given of all of these. A number of expert systems are available for toxicity prediction, most of them covering a range of toxicity endpoints. Those discussed include TOPKAT, CASE, DEREK, HazardExpert, OncoLogic and COMPACT. Comparative tests of the ability of these systems to predict carcinogenicity show that improvement is still needed. The consensus approach is recommended, whereby the results from several prediction systems are pooled. It is simply amazing that we can formulate any kind of QSAR. The (desired activity) is only the starting point. The truly formidable problem is that of toxicity, especially the difficult long-term toxicities resulting from chronic usage''. (Hansch & Leo [1])

  17. Activating seniors to improve chronic disease care: results from a pilot intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frosch, Dominick L; Rincon, David; Ochoa, Socorro; Mangione, Carol M

    2010-08-01

    To evaluate the effect of an activation intervention delivered in community senior centers to improve health outcomes for chronic diseases that disproportionately affect older adults. Two-group quasi-experimental study. Two Los Angeles community senior centers. One hundred sixteen senior participants. Participants were invited to attend group screenings of video programs intended to inform about and motivate self-management of chronic conditions common in seniors. Moderated discussions reinforcing active patient participation in chronic disease management followed screenings. Screenings were scheduled over the course of 12 weeks. One center was assigned by coin toss to an encouragement condition in which participants received a $50 gift card if they attended at least three group screenings. Participants in the nonencouraged center received no incentive for attendance. Validated study measures for patient activation, physical activity, and health-related quality of life were completed at baseline and 12 weeks and 6 months after enrollment. Participants attending the encouraged senior center were more likely to attend three or more group screenings (77.8% vs 47.2%, P=.001). At 6-month follow-up, participants from either center who attended three or more group screenings (n=74, 64%) reported significantly greater activation (P<.001), more minutes walking (P<.001) and engaging in vigorous physical activity (P=.006), and better health-related quality of life (Medical Outcomes Study 12-item Short-Form Survey (SF-12) mental component summary, P<.001; SF-12 physical component summary, P=.002). Delivering this pilot intervention in community senior centers is a potentially promising approach to activating seniors that warrants further investigation for improving chronic disease outcomes. © 2010, Copyright the Authors. Journal compilation © 2010, The American Geriatrics Society.

  18. Preliminary results of ozone therapy as a possible treatment for patients with chronic hepatitis C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaky, Saad; Kamel, Sherif Ebrahiem; Hassan, Magda Shahata; Sallam, Nadia Abdel; Shahata, Mohamad Ahmad; Helal, Shaaban Redwan; Mahmoud, Heba

    2011-03-01

    Medical ozone is more bactericidal, fungicidal, and virucidal than any other natural substance. Some studies proved that ozone infused into donated blood samples can kill viruses 100% of the time. Ozone, because of its special biologic properties, has theoretical and practical attributes to make it a potent hepatitis C virus (HCV) inactivator, which suggests an important role in the therapy for hepatitis C. The study aim is to evaluate the role of ozone therapy in decreasing HCV ribonucleic acid (HCV RNA) load and its effect on the liver enzymes among patients with chronic hepatitis C. This study included 52 patients with chronic hepatitis C (positive polymerase chain reaction [PCR] for HCV RNA and raised serum alanine transaminase [ALT] for more than 6 months). All patients were subjected to meticulous history taking and clinical examination. Complete blood count, liver function tests, and abdominal ultrasonography were requested for all patients. The ozone group included 40 patients who received major autohemotherapy, minor autohemotherapy, and rectal ozone insufflation. The other 12 patients (conventional group) received silymarin and/or multivitamins. There were significant improvements of most of the presenting symptoms of the patients in the ozone group in comparison to the conventional group. ALT and aspartate transaminase (AST) levels normalized in 57.5% and 60% in the ozone group, respectively, in comparison to 16.7% and 8% in the conventional group, respectively. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for HCV RNA was negative among 25% and 44.4% after 30 and 60 sessions of ozone therapy, respectively, in comparison to 8% among the conventional group. Ozone therapy significantly improves the clinical symptoms associated with chronic hepatitis C and is associated with normalized ALT and AST levels among a significant number of patients. Ozone therapy is associated with disappearance of HCV RNA from the serum (-ve PCR for HCV RNA) in 25%-45% of patients with

  19. [Results of treatment with peginterferon plus ribavirin in patients with chronic hepatitis C].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizarro, Carolina; Venegas, Mauricio; Hola, Karen; Smok, Gladys; Brahm, Javier

    2011-06-01

    The current treatment recommendation for chronic hepatitis C virus infection is the combination of peginterferon and ribavirin for 24 or 48 weeks, depending on the viral genotype. The aim of the therapy is to obtain a sustained virological response. To report our experience in the treatment of chronic hepatitis C. Analysis of 52 patients treated between September 2000 and June 2009. Patients with genotype 1 or 5 were treated with peginterferon alpha 2a (180 ug/week) and ribavirin (1000 mg/day for those weighing less than 75 kg and 1200 mg/day for those weighing more than 75 kg) during 48 weeks. Patients with genotypes 2 and 3 were treated for 24 weeks with the same dose of peginterferon and ribavirin 800 mg/day. Viral genotypes 1, 2, 3 and 5 were present in 81, 4, 11 and 4% of patients, respectively. Twenty four patients (46 %), 18 with genotype 1, achieved a sustained viral response. Age was the only variable that influenced the response to treatment. Approximately half of the patients with chronic hepatitis C, achieve a sustained viral response with peginterferon and ribavirin.

  20. Acute and chronic toxicity of imidacloprid to the aquatic invertebrates Chironomus tentans and Hyalella azteca under constant- and pulse-exposure conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoughton, Sarah J; Liber, Karsten; Culp, Joseph; Cessna, Allan

    2008-05-01

    The toxicity of imidacloprid, a nicotinic mimic insecticide, to the aquatic invertebrates Chironomus tentans and Hyalella azteca, was first evaluated in static 96-hour tests using both technical material (99.2% pure) and Admire, a commercially available formulated product (240 g a.i. L(-1)). The 96-h lethal concentration (LC)50 values for technical imidacloprid and Admire were 65.43 and 17.44 microg/L, respectively, for H. azteca, and 5.75 and 5.40 microg/L, respectively, for C. tentans. Admire was subsequently used in 28-day chronic tests with both species. Exposure scenarios consisted of a constant- and a pulse-exposure regime. The pulse exposure lasted for four days, after which time the animals were transferred to clean water for the remaining 24 days of the study. Assessments were made on both day 10 and day 28. In the C. tentans under constant exposure, larval growth on day 10 was significantly reduced at 3.57 microg/L imidacloprid, the lowest-observed-effect concentration (LOEC). The no-observed-effect concentration (NOEC) and LOEC for the 28-day exposure duration (adult survival and emergence) were 1.14 and greater than 1.14 mug/L, respectively; the associated LC50 and LC25 were 0.91 and 0.59 microg/L, respectively. The LOEC for the pulse treatment was greater than 3.47 microg/L, but the day 10 LC25 was 3.03 microg/L. In the H. azteca tests, the day 10 and 28 constant exposure, as well as the day 28 pulse exposure, LOEC (survival) values were similar at 11.95, 11.46, and 11.93 microg/L, respectively. The day 10 and 28 constant exposure effective concentration (EC)25s (dry weight) were also similar, at 6.22 and 8.72 microg/L, respectively, but were higher than the pulse-exposure day 10 LOEC and EC25 (dry weight) values of 3.53 and 2.22 microg/L, respectively. Overall, C. tentans was more sensitive to acute and chronic imidacloprid exposure, but less sensitive to a single pulse, than H. azteca. Chronic, low-level exposure to imidacloprid may therefore reduce

  1. A CHRONIC INHALATION STUDY OF METHYL BROMIDE TOXICITY IN B6C3F1 MICE. (FINAL REPORT TO THE NATIONAL TOXICOLOGY PROGRAM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HABER, S.B.

    1987-06-26

    This report provides a detailed account of a two year chronic inhalation study of methyl bromide toxicity in B6C3Fl mice conducted for the National Toxicology Program. Mice were randomized into three dose groups (10, 33 and 100 ppm methyl bromide) and one control group (0 ppm) per sex and exposed 5 days/week, 6 hours/day, for a total of 103 weeks. Endpoints included body weight; clinical signs and mortality, and at 6, 15 and 24 months of exposure, animals were sacrificed for organ weights, hematology and histopathology. In addition, a subgroup of animals in each dosage group was monitored for neurobehavioral and neuropathological changes. After only 20 weeks of exposure, 48% of the males and 12% of the females in the 100 ppm group had died. Exposures were terminated in that group and the surviving mice were observed for the duration of the study. Exposure of B6C3Fl mice to methyl bromide, even for only 20 weeks, produced significant changes in growth rate, mortality, organ weights and neurobehavioral functioning. These changes occurred in both males and females, but were more pronounced in males.

  2. Chronic toxicity test with sea urchin Echinometra lucunter and Lytechinus variegatus (Echinodermata: Echinoidea, exposed to light-stick - flag paternoster used for longline surface fishing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caio Cesar-Ribeiro

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the chronic toxicity of a mixture of light-stick chemicals and water was tested. The light-stick is used in fishery activities to catch swordfish. The tubes were collected on the beaches of the Costa dos Coqueiros - BA, Brazil, in the period from 14th to 31st July 2007. The method used was a short chronic toxicity test where embryos of the sea urchins Echinometra lucunter and Lytechinus variegatus were exposed to a stock solution consisting of the supernatant formed from a mixture of sea water and the orange-colored light-stick chemical. After a preliminary test, concentrations defined were 0.002, 0.003, 0.01, 0.02, 0.1, 1.0% of stock solution. The final test ran for 36 hours for E. Lucunter and 24 hours for L. variegatus with 4 replicates for each concentration. The value of EC50 - 36h was 0.062% with confidence limits ranging from 0.042 to 0.079% and the EC50 - 24h was 0.011% with confidence limits ranging from 0.009 to 0.014%, i.e., the chemical mix present in the light-stick is potentially toxic. So, as these flags are commonly used for fishing there is potential danger in their disposal in the open ocean.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a toxicidade crônica da água do mar em contato com o líquido contido no light-stick, sinalizador utilizado em pesca de espinhel de superfície para a captura de espadarte. Os tubos foram coletados nas praias da Costa dos Coqueiros - BA, no período de 14 a 31 de Julho de 2007. O método utilizado para a verificação da toxicidade crônica foi o teste de curta duração com embriões de ouriço-do-mar Echinometra lucunter e Lytechinus variegatus, os ensaios foram realizados com solução estoque que consiste do sobrenadante formado a partir de uma mistura de água do mar com o líquido do sinalizador de coloração laranja. Após um teste preliminar as concentrações definidas foram 0.002; 0.003; 0.01; 0.02; 0.1; 1.0%. O teste definitivo teve duração de 36 horas para E. lucunter e 24

  3. Chronic and acute ammonia toxicity in mudskippers, Periophthalmodon schlosseri and Boleophthalmus boddaerti: brain ammonia and glutamine contents, and effects of methionine sulfoximine and MK801.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ip, Yuen K; Leong, Mavis W F; Sim, Mei Y; Goh, Gillian S; Wong, Wai P; Chew, Shit F

    2005-05-01

    .9 micromol g(-1), respectively), while the glutamine level remained relatively low (3.93 and 2.67 micromol g(-1), respectively). Thus, glutamine synthesis and accumulation in the brain was not the major cause of death in these two mudskippers confronted with acute ammonia toxicity. Indeed, MSO, at a dosage (100 microg g(-1) fish) protective for rats, did not protect B. boddaerti against acute ammonia toxicity, although it was an inhibitor of GS activities from the brains of both mudskippers. In the case of P. schlosseri, MSO only prolonged the time to death but did not reduce the mortality rate (100%). In addition, MK801 (2 microg g(-1) fish) had no protective effect on P. schlosseri and B. boddaerti injected with a lethal dose of CH3COONH4, indicating that activation of NMDA receptors was not the major cause of death during acute ammonia intoxication. Thus, it can be concluded that there are major differences in mechanisms of chronic and acute ammonia toxicity between brains of these two mudskippers and mammalian brains.

  4. Using robot fully assisted functional movements in upper-limb rehabilitation of chronic stroke patients: preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caimmi, Marco; Chiavenna, Andrea; Scano, Alessandro; Gasperini, Giulio; Giovanzana, Chiara; Molinari Tosatti, Lorenzo; Molteni, Franco

    2017-06-01

    Robotic rehabilitation is promising to promote function in stroke patients. The assist as needed training paradigm has shown to stimulate neuroplasticity but often cannot be used because stroke patients are too impaired to actively control the robot against gravity. To verify whether a rehabilitation intervention based on robot fully assisted reaching against gravity (RCH) and hand-to-mouth (HTM) can promote upper-limb function in chronic stroke. Cohort study. Chronic stroke outpatients referring to the robotic rehabilitation lab of a rehabilitation centre. Ten chronic stroke patients with mild to moderate upper-limb hemiparesis. Patients underwent 12 sessions (3 per week) of robotic treatment using an end-effector robot Every session consisted of 20 minutes each of RCH and HtM; movements were fully assisted, but patients were asked to try to actively participate. The Fugl-Meyer Assessment (FMA) was the primary outcome measure; Medical Research Council and Modified Ashworth Scale were the secondary outcome measures. All patients, but one, show functional improvements (FMA section A-D, mean increment 7.2±3.9 points, Probotic intervention based on functional movements, fully assisted, can be effective in promoting function in chronic stroke patients. These results are promising considering the short time of the intervention (1 month) and the time from the stroke event, which was large (27±20 months). A larger study, comprehensive of objective instrumental measures, is necessary to confirm the results. This intervention could be extended even to subacute stroke and other neurological disorders.

  5. Predictors of Grade 3 or Higher Late Bowel Toxicity in Patients Undergoing Pelvic Radiation for Cervical Cancer: Results From a Prospective Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chopra, Supriya, E-mail: schopra@actrec.gov.in [Department of Radiation Oncology, Advanced Centre for Treatment Research and Education in Cancer (ACTREC), Tata Memorial Centre, Kharghar, Navi Mumbai, Maharashtra (India); Dora, Tapas [Department of Radiation Oncology, Advanced Centre for Treatment Research and Education in Cancer (ACTREC), Tata Memorial Centre, Kharghar, Navi Mumbai, Maharashtra (India); Chinnachamy, Anand N. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Tata Memorial Hospital, Tata Memorial Centre, Parel, Mumbai, Maharashtra (India); Thomas, Biji [Department of Radiation Oncology, Advanced Centre for Treatment Research and Education in Cancer (ACTREC), Tata Memorial Centre, Kharghar, Navi Mumbai, Maharashtra (India); Kannan, Sadhna [Epidemiology and Clinical Trials Unit, Advanced Centre for Treatment Research and Education in Cancer (ACTREC), Tata Memorial Centre, Kharghar, Navi Mumbai, Maharashtra (India); Engineer, Reena; Mahantshetty, Umesh [Department of Radiation Oncology, Tata Memorial Hospital, Tata Memorial Centre, Parel, Mumbai, Maharashtra (India); Phurailatpam, Reena; Paul, Siji N. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Advanced Centre for Treatment Research and Education in Cancer (ACTREC), Tata Memorial Centre, Kharghar, Navi Mumbai, Maharashtra (India); Shrivastava, Shyam Kishore [Department of Radiation Oncology, Tata Memorial Hospital, Tata Memorial Centre, Parel, Mumbai, Maharashtra (India)

    2014-03-01

    Purpose: The present study investigates relationship between dose–volume parameters and severe bowel toxicity after postoperative radiation treatment (PORT) for cervical cancer. Methods and Materials: From June 2010 to December 2012, a total of 71 patients undergoing PORT were included. Small bowel (SB) and large bowel (LB) loops were contoured 2 cm above the target volume. The volume of SB and LB that received 15 Gy, 30 Gy, and 40 Gy was calculated (V15 SB, V15 LB, V30 SB, V30 LB, V40 SB, V 40 LB). On follow-up, bowel toxicity was scored using Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE), version 3.0. A reciever operating characteristic (ROC) curve identified volume thresholds that predicted for grade 3 or higher toxicity with highest specificity. All data was dichotomized across these identified cut-off values. Univariate and multivariate analysis was performed using SPSS, version 15. Results: The median patient age was 47 years (range, 35-65 years). Of the 71 patients, 46 received image-guided intensity modulated radiation therapy, and 25 received conformal radiation (50 Gy in 25 fractions for 5 weeks). Overall, 63 of 71 patients received concurrent chemotherapy. On a median follow-up of 18 months (range, 8-29 months), grade 2 or higher bowel toxicity was seen in 22 of 71 patients (30.9%) and grade 3 or higher bowel toxicity was seen in 9 patients (12.6%). On univariate analysis, V15 SB <275 cc (P=.01), V30 SB <190 cc (P=.02), V40 SB <150 cc (P=.01), and V15 LB <250 cc (P=.03), and V40 LB <90 cc (P=.04) predicted for absence of grade 3 or higher toxicity. No other patient- or treatment-related factors were statistically significant. On multivariate analysis, only V15 SB (P=.002) and V15 LB (P=.03) were statistically significant. Conclusions: V 15 Gy SB and LB are independent predictors of late grade 3 or higher toxicity. Restricting V15 SB and V15 LB to <275 cc and <250 cc can reduce grade 3 or higher toxicity to less than 5%.

  6. Attitudes toward the use of animals in chronic versus acute pain research: results of a web-based forum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ormandy, Elisabeth H; Griffin, Gilly

    2016-09-01

    When asked about the use of animals in biomedical research, people often state that the research is only acceptable if pain and distress are minimised. However, pain is caused when the aim is to study pain itself, resulting in unalleviated pain for many of the animals involved. Consequently, the use of animals in pain research is often considered contentious. To date, no research has explored people's views toward different types of animal-based pain research (e.g. chronic or acute pain). This study used a web-based survey to explore people's willingness to support the use of mice in chronic versus acute pain research. The majority of the participants opposed the use of mice for either chronic (68.3%) or acute (63.1%) pain research. There was no difference in the levels of support or opposition for chronic versus acute pain research. Unsupportive participants justified their opposition by focusing on the perceived lack of scientific merit, or the existence of non-animal alternatives. Supporters emphasised the potential benefits that could arise, with some stating that the benefits outweigh the costs. The majority of the participants were opposed to pain research involving mice, regardless of the nature and duration of the pain inflicted, or the perceived benefit of the research. A better understanding of public views toward animal use in pain research may provide a stronger foundation for the development of policy governing the use of animals in research where animals are likely to experience unalleviated pain. 2016 FRAME.

  7. The involvement of sirtuin 1 and heme oxygenase 1 in the hepatoprotective effects of quercetin against carbon tetrachloride-induced sub-chronic liver toxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemelo, Mighty Kgalalelo; Pierzynová, Aneta; Kutinová Canová, Nikolina; Kučera, Tomáš; Farghali, Hassan

    2017-05-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate the therapeutic potential of quercetin in a sub-chronic model of hepatotoxicity. The roles of putative antioxidant enzymes, sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) and heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1), in hepatoprotection were also addressed. Sub-chronic liver injury was induced in rats by intraperitoneal administration of 0.5 ml/kg carbon tetrachloride (CTC), once every 3 days, for 2 weeks. Some CTC rats were concurrently treated with 100 mg/kg quercetin, intragastrically, once every day, for 2 weeks. The effects of these drugs in the liver were evaluated by biochemical, histological, immunohistochemical and molecular biological studies. CTC triggered oxidative damage to the liver as unanimously shown by altered biochemical parameters and liver morphology. Furthermore, CTC highly upregulated HO-1 and SIRT1 expression levels. Concomitant treatment of rats with quercetin downregulated SIRT1 expression and ameliorated the hepatotoxic effects of CTC. However, quercetin did not have any significant effect on HO-1 expression and bilirubin levels. Collectively, these results suggest that the antioxidant and cytoprotective effects of quercetin in CTC treated rats were SIRT1 mediated and less dependent on HO-1. Thus, pharmacologic modulation of SIRT1 could provide a logic therapeutic approach in sub-chronic hepatotoxicity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. A study of toxic emissions from a coal-fired power plant: Niles Station Boiler No. 2. Volume 1, Sampling/results/special topics: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    This study was one of a group of assessments of toxic emissions from coal-fired power plants, conducted for US Department of Energy, Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (DOE-PETC) during 1993. The motivation for those assessments was the mandate in the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments that a study be made of emissions of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) from electrical utilities. The results of this study will be used by the US Environmental Protection Agency to evaluate whether regulation of HAPs emissions from utilities is warranted. This report is organized in two volumes. Volume 1: Sampling/Results/Special Topics describes the sampling effort conducted as the basis for this study, presents the concentration data on toxic chemicals in the several power plant streams, and reports the results of evaluations and calculations conducted with those data. The Special Topics section of Volume 1 reports on issues such as comparison of sampling methods and vapor/particle distributions of toxic chemicals. Volume 2: Appendices include field sampling data sheets, quality assurance results, and uncertainty calculations. The chemicals measured at Niles Boiler No. 2 were the following: five major and 16 trace elements, including mercury, chromium, cadmium, lead, selenium, arsenic, beryllium, and nickel; acids and corresponding anions (HCl, HF, chloride, fluoride, phosphate, sulfate); ammonia and cyanide; elemental carbon; radionuclides; volatile organic compounds (VOC); semivolatile compounds (SVOC) including polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), and polychlorinated dioxins and furans; and aldehydes.

  9. Efficacy of bendamustine in patients with relapsed or refractory chronic lymphocytic leukemia: results of a phase I/II study of the German CLL Study Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann, Manuela A; Goebeler, Maria E; Herold, Michael; Emmerich, Bertold; Wilhelm, Martin; Ruelfs, Corinna; Boening, Lothar; Hallek, Michael J

    2005-10-01

    Although bendamustine has been used for more than 30 years in the treatment of lymphoma, little is known about the optimal dosing schedule in relapsed or refractory B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Various dose and treatment schedules have been used empirically, and several phase II studies have shown impressive efficacy. To determine the maximal tolerated dose, dose-limiting toxicity and the optimal therapeutic dose of bendamustine for further phase III clinical trials the GCLLSG designed a phase I/II study for pre-treated CLL patients. Sixteen patients (median age 67 years) with relapsed or refractory CLL were enrolled. All patients had been pre-treated with a median of three different regimens. Bendamustine was given at a starting dose of 100 mg/m2 on day 1 and 2, repeated every 3-4 weeks. Major toxicities were leukocytopenia (CTC grade 3+4) in 8/16 and infections (CTC grade 3+4) in 7/16 patients. Six patients had dose-limiting toxicity which led to dose de-escalation from 100 to 70 mg/m2 in three patients. The maximum tolerated dose was 70 mg/m2. According to NCI-WG criteria, 9/16 patients (56%) responded to therapy, seven to doses results, the recommended optimal therapeutic dose of bendamustine in refractory CLL is 70 mg/m2 on days 1 and 2 every 4 weeks.

  10. Toxic effects of chronic mercury exposure on the retinal nerve fiber layer and macular and choroidal thickness in industrial mercury battery workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekinci, Metin; Ceylan, Erdinç; Keleş, Sadullah; Cağatay, Halil Hüseyin; Apil, Aytekin; Tanyıldız, Burak; Uludag, Gunay

    2014-07-24

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the toxic effects of mercury on retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (RNFLT), macular thickness (MT), and choroidal thickness (CT) by using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) in battery industry workers who had been chronically exposed to mercury. Battery factory workers (n=31) and healthy non-factory employee controls (n=15) participated in the study. Participants were divided into 3 groups: Group 1 (n=15) was factory workers who had worked for more than 5 years in a mercury battery factory; Group 2 (n=16) was factory worker who had worked for less than 5 years in a mercury battery factory; and Group 3 (n=15) was healthy non-employees. Systemic symptoms were recorded. Ophthalmic examination included best-corrected visual acuity test, color vision test, full ophthalmologic examination, and SD-OCT of the RNLF, macula, and choroid. To determine mercury exposure, venous blood samples were collected and mercury levels were assessed. In our study group the most common systemic symptoms were insomnia (67.7%) and fatigue (67.7%). There were no significant differences between Group 1 and Group 2, but there were significant differences between Group 3 and both Group 1 and Group 2 in best-corrected visual acuity values (1=2mercury levels, and duration (mean ±SD, range) of mercury exposure(1>2>3). OCT values of RNFLTs, MTs, and CTs of all 3 groups were statistically different from each another (1exposure to mercury.

  11. A cross-sectional comparative study on chronic ocular manifestations of Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis in Chinese eyes: a 15-year case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Loraine L W; Ng, Alex L K; Chow, Sharon S W; Choy, Bonnie N K; Shih, Kendrick C; Wong, Ian Y H; Chan, Johnny C Y; Lai, Jimmy S M

    2017-05-25

    To compare the chronic ocular manifestations in Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis patients from a 15-year cohort. All SJS and TEN patients admitted to our burn intensive care unit between 1999 and 2014 were invited for assessment. Slit-lamp examination was performed, and ocular condition was graded according to the Sotozono scoring System, which depended on the extent of cornea, conjunctiva and lid involvement. Tear osmolarity was also measured. A total of 18 SJS and 4 TEN cases with an average of 92 and 135 months from disease onset were included. The average age of onset was 46.4 ± 16.6 in SJS and 43.5 ± 19.3 in TEN patients. The LogMAR visual acuity was 0.209 ± 0.591 in SJS and 0.489 ± 0.688 in TEN patients (p = 0.048). The average total Sotozono score was 3.75 ± 7.32 in SJS and 6.88 ± 9.49 in TEN (p = 0.358). Neither the age of onset (p = 0.787), length of follow-up (p = 0.256) nor disease type (SJS vs TEN, p = 0.188) predicted the Sotozono score. There was a statistically significant correlation between Sotozono score and LogMAR VA (r s  = 0.437, p = 0.003). The average total Sotozono score was higher in the TEN group than in the SJS group, but the difference was not statistically significant. Nevertheless, the score correlated with the visual acuity which was statistically worse in the TEN group.

  12. Self-reported chronic diseases and health status and health service utilization - Results from a community health survey in Singapore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Pradeep

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To report the extent of self-reported chronic diseases, self-rated health status (SRH and healthcare utilization among residents in 1-2 room Housing Development Board (HDB apartments in Toa Payoh. Materials & methods The study population included a convenience sample of residents from 931 housing development board (HDB units residing in 1-2 room apartments in Toa Payoh. Convenience sampling was used since logistics precluded random selection. Trained research assistants carried out the survey. Results were presented as descriptive summary. Results Respondents were significantly older, 48.3% reported having one or more chronic diseases, 32% have hypertension, 16.8% have diabetes, and 7.6% have asthma. Median SRH score was seven. Hospital inpatient utilization rate were highest among Indian ethnic group, unemployed, no income, high self-rated health (SRH score, and respondents with COPD, renal failure and heart disease. Outpatient utilization rate was significantly higher among older respondents, females, and those with high SRH scores (7-10. Conclusions The findings confirming that residents living in 1-2 room HDB apartments are significantly older, with higher rates of chronic diseases, health care utilization than national average, will aid in healthcare planning to address their needs.

  13. Long-term changes in cognitive bias and coping response as a result of chronic unpredictable stress during adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren eChaby

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Animals that experience adverse events in early life often have life-long changes to their physiology and behavior. Long-term effects of stress during early life have been studied extensively, but less attention has been given to the consequences of negative experiences solely during the adolescent phase. Adolescence is a particularly sensitive period of life when regulation of the glucocorticoid stress hormone response matures and specific regions in the brain undergo considerable change. Aversive experiences during this time might, therefore, be expected to generate long-term consequences for the adult phenotype. Here we investigated the long-term effects of exposure to chronic unpredictable stress during adolescence on adult decision making, coping response, cognitive bias, and exploratory behavior in rats. Rats exposed to chronic unpredictable stress (e.g. isolation, crowding, cage tilt were compared to control animals that were maintained in standard, predictable conditions throughout development. Unpredictable stress during adolescence resulted in a suite of long-term behavioral and cognitive changes including a negative cognitive bias (F1,12 = 5.000, P < 0.05, altered coping response (T1,14 = 2.216, P = 0.04, and accelerated decision making (T1,14 = 3.245, P = 0.01. Exposure to chronic stress during adolescence also caused a short-term increase in boldness behaviors; in a novel object test 15 days after the last stressor, animals exposed to chronic unpredictable stress had decreased latencies to leave a familiar shelter and approach a novel object (T1,14 = 2.240, P = 0.04; T1,14 = 2.419, P = 0.03, respectively. The results showed that stress during adolescence has long-term impacts on behavior and cognition that affect the interpretation of ambiguous stimuli, behavioral response to adverse events, and how animals make decisions. Stress during adolescence also induced short-term changes in the way animals moved around a novel environment.

  14. Chronic disease risk factors in rural Australia: results from the Greater Green Triangle risk factor surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laatikainen, Tiina; Janus, Edward; Kilkkinen, Annamari; Heistaro, Sami; Tideman, Philip; Baird, Andrew; Tirimacco, Rosy; Whiting, Malcolm; Franklin, Lucinola; Chapman, Anna; Kao-Philpot, Anna; Dunbar, James

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this article was to assess the level and prevalence of major chronic disease risk factors among rural adults. Two cross-sectional surveys were carried out in 2004 and 2005 in the southeast of South Australia and the southwest of Victoria. Altogether 891 randomly selected persons aged 25 to 74 years participated in the studies. Surveys included a self-administered questionnaire, physical measurements, and a venous blood specimen for lipid analyses. Two thirds of participants had cholesterol levels>or=5.0 mmol/L. The prevalence of high diastolic blood pressure (>or=90 mm Hg) was 22% for men and 10% for women in southeast of South Australia, and less than 10% for both sexes in southwest of Victoria. Two thirds of participants were overweight or obese (body mass index>or=25 kg/m2). About 15% of men and slightly less women were daily smokers. The abnormal risk factor levels underline the need for targeted prevention activities in the Greater Green Triangle region. Continuing surveillance of levels and patterns of risk factors is fundamentally important for planning and evaluating preventive activities.

  15. Chronic pancreatitis. Diagnosis, therapy and follow-up results; Chronische Pankreatitis. Diagnostik, Therapie und Langzeitergebnisse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moessner, J. [Medizinische Klinik und Poliklinik 2, Zentrum fuer Innere Medizin, Univ. Leipzig (Germany)

    1996-09-01

    The incidence of chronic pancreatitis is increasing in industrialized countries due to the steady increase of alcohol abuse. The pathogenesis of this disease is still incompletely understood. A cure is not possible. The knowledge of the patients history and a thorough clinical investigation together with the availability of a wide array of laboratory tests and imaging procedures enable the physician to characterize the stage of the disease. Exact knowledge of the present pancreatic morphology, potential complications of the disease, and knowledge about the present exocrine and endocrine function capacity are prerequisites for adequate therapeutic decision making. The therapeutic possibilities include termination of alcohol abuse, various options of treatment of pain according to the various pathogenetic possibilities leading to pain, pancreatic digestive enzyme supplementation, treatment of diabetes, and either endoscopic or surgical treatments of complications of the disease. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die Inzidenz der chronischen Pankreatitis nimmt in den Industrienationen aufgrund der Zunahme des Alkoholabusus an Haeufigkeit zu. Die Diagnose der chronischen Pankreatitis wird oft spaet gestellt. Eine Heilung ist noch nicht moeglich. Eine detailierte Anamnese, Beurteilung der Klinik, Laborparameter, Pankreasfunktionsanalysen und eine ganze Palette unterschiedlicher bildgebender Verfahren ermoeglichen eine Charakterisierung des jeweiligen Krankheitszustandes. Dies ist die Voraussetzung zur differenzierten Einleitung einer medikamentoesen und/oder interventionellen endoskopischen und/oder chirurgischen Therapie. Wie bei jedem nicht heilbaren chronischen Krankheitsbild ist eine stadiengerechte Therapie erforderlich. (orig.)

  16. Home Palliative Care for Patients with Advanced Chronic Kidney Disease: Preliminary Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teruel, José L.; Rexach, Lourdes; Burguera, Victor; Gomis, Antonio; Fernandez-Lucas, Milagros; Rivera, Maite; Diaz, Alicia; Collazo, Sergio; Liaño, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Healthcare for patients with advanced chronic kidney disease (ACKD) on conservative treatment very often poses healthcare problems that are difficult to solve. At the end of 2011, we began a program based on the care and monitoring of these patients by Primary Care Teams. ACKD patients who opted for conservative treatment were offered the chance to be cared for mainly at home by the Primary Care doctor and nurse, under the coordination of the Palliative Care Unit and the Nephrology Department. During 2012, 2013, and 2014, 76 patients received treatment in this program (mean age: 81 years; mean Charlson age-comorbidity index: 10, and mean glomerular filtration rate: 12.4 mL/min/1.73 m2). The median patient follow-up time (until death or until 31 December 2014) was 165 days. During this period, 51% of patients did not have to visit the hospital’s emergency department and 58% did not require hospitalization. Forty-eight of the 76 patients died after a median time of 135 days in the program; 24 (50%) died at home. Our experience indicates that with the support of the Palliative Care Unit and the Nephrology Department, ACKD patients who are not dialysis candidates may be monitored at home by Primary Care Teams. PMID:27417813

  17. Professional commitment to changing chronic illness care: results from disease management programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemmens, Karin; Strating, Mathilde; Huijsman, Robbert; Nieboer, Anna

    2009-08-01

    The aim of this exploratory study was to investigate to what extent primary care professionals are able to change their systems for delivering care to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients and what professional and organizational factors are associated with the degree of process implementation. Quasi-experimental design with 1 year follow-up after intervention. Three regional COPD management programmes in the Netherlands, in which general practices cooperated with regional hospitals. All participating primary care professionals (n = 52). COPD management programme. Professional commitment, organizational context and degree of process implementation. Professionals significantly changed their systems for delivering care to COPD patients, namely self-management support, decision support, delivery system design and clinical information systems. Associations were found between organizational factors, professional commitment and changes in processes of care. Group culture and professional commitment appeared to be, to a moderate degree, predictors of process implementation. COPD management was effective; all processes improved significantly. Moreover, theoretically expected associations between organizational context and professional factors with the implementation of COPD management were indeed confirmed to some extent. Group culture and professional commitment are important facilitators.

  18. Chronic kidney disease management in the United Kingdom: NEOERICA project results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, P E; O'Donoghue, D J; de Lusignan, S; Van Vlymen, J; Klebe, B; Middleton, R; Hague, N; New, J; Farmer, C K T

    2007-07-01

    Early identification of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) may allow health-care systems to implement interventions aimed at decreasing disease progression and eventual morbidity and mortality. Primary care in the United Kingdom is computerized suggesting a separate screening program for CKD may not be necessary because identifying data already populates primary care databases. Our study utilized a data set of 163 demographic, laboratory, diagnosis, and prescription variables from 130 226 adults in the regions of Kent, Manchester, and Surrey. The patients were 18 years of age and older in a 5-year study period culminating in November 2003. Estimated glomerular filtration rate was calculated from the four-variable Modification of Diet in Renal Disease equation using calibrated creatinine levels. A valid creatinine value was recorded in almost 30% of this cohort. The age-standardized prevalence of stage 3-5 CKD was 10.6% for females and 5.8% for males. In these patients, the odds ratio for hypertension was 2.1, for diabetes 1.33, and for cardiovascular disease 1.69. Only 20% of the diabetic people with stage 3-5 CKD had a blood pressure less than or equal to 130/80 mm Hg. The proportion of patients with anemia significantly rose as renal function declined. We suggest that stage 3-5 CKD is easily detected in existing computerized records. The associated comorbidity and management is readily available enabling intervention and targeting of specialist resources.

  19. Home Palliative Care for Patients with Advanced Chronic Kidney Disease: Preliminary Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José L. Teruel

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Healthcare for patients with advanced chronic kidney disease (ACKD on conservative treatment very often poses healthcare problems that are difficult to solve. At the end of 2011, we began a program based on the care and monitoring of these patients by Primary Care Teams. ACKD patients who opted for conservative treatment were offered the chance to be cared for mainly at home by the Primary Care doctor and nurse, under the coordination of the Palliative Care Unit and the Nephrology Department. During 2012, 2013, and 2014, 76 patients received treatment in this program (mean age: 81 years; mean Charlson age-comorbidity index: 10, and mean glomerular filtration rate: 12.4 mL/min/1.73 m2. The median patient follow-up time (until death or until 31 December 2014 was 165 days. During this period, 51% of patients did not have to visit the hospital’s emergency department and 58% did not require hospitalization. Forty-eight of the 76 patients died after a median time of 135 days in the program; 24 (50% died at home. Our experience indicates that with the support of the Palliative Care Unit and the Nephrology Department, ACKD patients who are not dialysis candidates may be monitored at home by Primary Care Teams.

  20. Long-term results of splenectomy in adult chronic immune thrombocytopenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Yue; Wang, Shixuan; Xue, Feng; Liu, Xiaofan; Zhang, Lei; Li, Huiyuan; Yang, Renchi

    2017-03-01

    We performed this study in adult patients with chronic primary immune thrombocytopenia to explore the long-term efficacy and safety of splenectomy. Data of 174 patients who underwent splenectomy in our hospital from 1994 to 2014 were analyzed. After splenectomy, 126 (72.4%) patients achieved a complete response (CR) and 28 (16.1%) achieved a response (R). Thirty-two (20.8%) responders relapsed with a median time of 24 months. Compared with non-responders and recurrent patients, the stable responders were younger and had higher preoperation and postoperation peak platelet count, later peak platelet count emergence time, and more megakaryocytes. Corticosteroid-dependent patients were more likely to response to splenectomy than those refractory to corticosteroid. We performed a relapse-free survival analysis among the 154 responders. In univariate analyses, corticosteroid dependent and time from diagnosis to splenectomy ≤24 months showed predictive value to persistent response. But only corticosteroid dependent was a significant predictor in multivariate analysis. The 30-d complication rate after the surgery was 25.9%. There were five (2.9%) patients experienced thrombosis and three (1.7%) refractory patients died during follow-up. Splenectomy was a safe treatment with a cure rate of 58.0%. Corticosteroid dependent showed predictive value to persistent response. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Secondary hyperparathyroidism in chronic dialysis patients: results of the Italian FARO survey on treatment and mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brancaccio, Diego; Cozzolino, Mario; Cannella, Giuseppe; Messa, Piergiorgio; Bonomini, Mario; Cancarini, Giovanni; Caruso, Maria Rosa; Cascone, Carmelo; Costanzo, Anna Maria; di Luzio Paparatti, Umberto; Mazzaferro, Sandro

    2011-01-01

    Vitamin D receptor activator (VDRA) therapy has been shown to be associated with reduced mortality rates in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT). However, differences between VDRAs in their ability to reduce both all-cause and cardiovascular-related mortality rates are not yet fully elucidated. The objective of the current analysis was to determine the effect of VDRA therapy on mortality in an Italian dialysis population, observed prospectively every 6 months for 18 months. Patients were investigated for all-cause and cardiovascular-related mortality risk adjusted for various demographic, clinical, and/or SHPT treatment variables. The cumulative probabilities of all-cause and cardiovascular-related mortality were lower for patients who received any VDRA treatment compared with those who did not (p < 0.001) regardless of all measured variables. Additionally, patients who received paricalcitol and/or cinacalcet (with or without VDRAs) compared with calcitriol showed a significant improvement in both all-cause and cardiovascular-related mortality (p < 0.001). Cinacalcet with or without VDRAs was not associated with a further decrease of mortality hazard ratios compared with paricalcitol monotherapy. VDRA therapy (associated or not with cinacalcet) was associated with improved survival in dialysis patients, independent of demographic and clinical variables. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Predictors of exacerbations in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease--results from the Bergen COPD cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunnar R Husebø

    Full Text Available COPD exacerbations accelerate disease progression.To examine if COPD characteristics and systemic inflammatory markers predict the risk for acute COPD exacerbation (AECOPD frequency and duration.403 COPD patients, GOLD stage II-IV, aged 44-76 years were included in the Bergen COPD Cohort Study in 2006/07, and followed for 3 years. Examined baseline predictors were sex, age, body composition, smoking, AECOPD the last year, GOLD stage, Charlson comorbidity score (CCS, hypoxemia (PaO21 AECOPD last year before baseline [1.65 (1.24-2.21], GOLD III [1.36 (1.07-1.74], GOLD IV [2.90 (1.98-4.25], chronic cough [1.64 (1.30-2.06] and use of inhaled steroids [1.57 (1.21-2.05]. For AECOPD duration more than three weeks, significant predictors after adjustment were: hypoxemia [0.60 (0.39-0.92], years since inclusion [1.19 (1.03-1.37], AECOPD severity; moderate [OR 1.58 (1.14-2.18] and severe [2.34 (1.58-3.49], season; winter [1.51 (1.08-2.12], spring [1.45 (1.02-2.05] and sTNF-R1 per SD increase [1.16 (1.00-1.35].Several COPD characteristics were independent predictors of both AECOPD frequency and duration.

  3. Radioembolization results in longer time-to-progression and reduced toxicity compared with chemoembolization in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, Riad; Lewandowski, Robert J; Kulik, Laura; Wang, Edward; Riaz, Ahsun; Ryu, Robert K; Sato, Kent T; Gupta, Ramona; Nikolaidis, Paul; Miller, Frank H; Yaghmai, Vahid; Ibrahim, Saad M; Senthilnathan, Seanthan; Baker, Talia; Gates, Vanessa L; Atassi, Bassel; Newman, Steven; Memon, Khairuddin; Chen, Richard; Vogelzang, Robert L; Nemcek, Albert A; Resnick, Scott A; Chrisman, Howard B; Carr, James; Omary, Reed A; Abecassis, Michael; Benson, Al B; Mulcahy, Mary F

    2011-02-01

    Chemoembolization is one of several standards of care treatment for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Radioembolization with Yttrium-90 microspheres is a novel, transarterial approach to radiation therapy. We performed a comparative effectiveness analysis of these therapies in patients with HCC. We collected data from 463 patients who were treated with transarterial locoregional therapies (chemoembolization or radioembolization) over a 9-year period. We excluded patients who were not appropriate for comparison and analyzed data from 245 (122 who received chemoembolization and 123 who received radioembolization). Patients were followed for signs of toxicity; all underwent imaging analysis at baseline and follow-up time points. Overall survival was the primary outcome measure. Secondary outcomes included safety, response rate, and time-to-progression. Uni- and multivariate analyses were performed. Abdominal pain and increased transaminase activity were more frequent following chemoembolization (P 1000 patients would be required to establish equivalence of survival times between patients treated with these two therapies. Copyright © 2011 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Insufficient tetanus vaccination status in patients with chronic leg ulcers. Results of a prospective investigation in 100 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korber, A; Graue, N; Rietkotter, J; Kreuzfelder, E; Grabbe, S; Dissemond, J

    2008-01-01

    Tetanus disease is caused by Clostridium tetani and is one of the most common infectious diseases worldwide. Despite international recommendations for patients with a chronic leg ulcer, there has been a distinctive lack of protection provided by vaccination for these patients in the past decades. Within the context of our prospective clinical investigation we consecutively determined the concentrations of immunoglobulin G antibodies against C. tetani in 100 patients with a chronic leg ulcer between January 2005 and November 2006. A total of 38 patients were male, and 62 were female. Their mean age was 71 years (25-94). In a total of 47% (n = 47; 13 male, 34 female, mean age: 76 years) of the patients, insufficient immunoglobulin G antibody concentrations were detected. Particularly the subanalysis indicated an insufficient tetanus protection provided by vaccination in 70% of the people aged >or=80 years. A chronic wound, e.g. in the form of a leg ulcer, is known as a potential entrance for C. tetani. Unlike acute wounds, however, it is hardly ever considered to be a reason for assessment of the tetanus immune status. The results of our investigation clarify that particularly elderly people suffering from a leg ulcer have to be tested for tetanus protection provided by vaccination more strictly than ever, and if necessary, vaccinations have to be renewed. Copyright 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Effects of chronic Rhodiola Rosea supplementation on sport performance and antioxidant capacity in trained male: preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parisi, A; Tranchita, E; Duranti, G; Ciminelli, E; Quaranta, F; Ceci, R; Cerulli, C; Borrione, P; Sabatini, S

    2010-03-01

    Rhodiola Rosea, is an adaptogen plant which has been reported to promote fatty acids utilisation, to ameliorate antioxidant function, and to improve body resistance to physical strenuous efforts. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects on physical performance as well as on the redox status of a chronic Rhodiola Rosea supplementation in a group of competitive athletes during endurance exercise. Following a chronic supplementation with Rhodiola Rosea for 4 weeks, 14 trained male athletes underwent a cardio-pulmonary exhaustion test and blood samples to evaluate their antioxidant status and other biochemical parameters. These data were compared with those coming from the same athletes after an intake of placebo. The evaluation of physical performance parameters showed that HR Max, Borg Scale level, VO(2) max and duration of the test were essentially unaffected by Rhodiola Rosea assumption. On the contrary, Rhodiola Rosea intake reduced, in a statistically significative manner, plasma free fatty acids levels. No effect on blood glucose was found. Blood antioxidant status and inflammatory parameters resulted unaffected by Rhodiola Rosea supplementation. Blood lactate and plasma creatine kinase levels were found significantly lower (PRhodiola Rosea treated subjects when compared to the placebo treated group. Chronic Rhodiola Rosea supplementation is able to reduce both lactate levels and parameters of skeletal muscle damage after an exhaustive exercise session. Moreover this supplementation seems to ameliorate fatty acid consumption. Taken together those observation confirm that Rhodiola Rosea may increase the adaptogen ability to physical exercise.

  6. Chronic Kidney Disease in Panama: Results From the PREFREC Study and National Mortality Trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno Velásquez, Ilais; Castro, Franz; Gómez, Beatriz; Cuero, César; Motta, Jorge

    2017-11-01

    The magnitude of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in Panama has yet to be described. We investigated the association between sociodemographic and cardiovascular exposures with CKD in 2 Panamanian provinces. Further, we analyzed national trends of CKD mortality from 2001 to 2014. Data were derived from Prevalencia de Factores de Riesgo de Enfermedad Cardiovascular (PREFREC [Survey on Risk Factors Associated With Cardiovascular Disease]), a cross-sectional study designed to analyze the prevalence of risk factors associated with cardiovascular disease. Biomarkers of kidney function were measured in 3590 participants. CKD was defined as an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of <60 ml/min/1.73 m 2 and/or albuminuria ≥30 mg/g creatinine. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for CKD were calculated using logistic regression. We calculated age-standardized CKD mortality rates in the country using the National Mortality Register. Annual percentage change and 95% CIs were estimated to evaluate the trends over time. The prevalence of CKD was 12% (reduced eGFR: 3.3%; albuminuria; 9.9%). CKD was associated with hypertension (OR: 1.8; 95% CI: 1.2-2.7), age 60 years or older (OR: 1.9; 95% CI: 1.2-2.9), and previous myocardial infarction (OR: 2.4; 95% CI: 1.0-5.7), whereas monthly family income was inversely associated with CKD (OR: 0.4; 95% CI: 0.1-0.9) (adjusted). A sustained increase in the trend of CKD mortality was observed from 2001 to 2006, followed by a decreasing trend in subsequent years. Coclé province had the highest adjusted mortality rate. CKD poses a significant health problem for Panama. Health inequalities and an increase of cardiometabolic risk factors warrant robust epidemiological surveillance, improved diagnosis, and treatment. Further national studies aimed to address geographical disparities are necessary.

  7. Chronic exposure to ozone and nitric acid vapor results in increased levels of rat pulmonary putrescine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sindhu, R.K.; Kikkawa, Yutaka [Department of Pathology, College of Medicine, University of California at Irvine, Irvine (United States); Mautz, W.J. [Department of Community and Environmental Medicine, University of California at Irvine, Irvine, CA (United States)

    1998-06-01

    In the past decade, there has been growing public concern for the human health effects of exposure to environmental pollutants. Ozone (O{sub 3}) is one of the most reactive components of photochemical air pollution. Despite extensive investigations by many laboratories on the functional, biochemical, and cellular effects of O{sub 3} exposure in humans, animals, and in vitro systems, questions remain concerning the potential adverse effects to human health represented by chronic near-ambient exposure to this environmental pollutant. In the present investigation, the influence of inhalation of O{sub 3} and nitric acid (HNO{sub 3}) vapor on polyamine levels was examined in rat lungs. Male F344/N rats were exposed nose-only to 0.15 ppm O{sub 3} and 50 {mu}g/m{sup 3} HNO{sub 3} vapor alone and in combination for 4 hours/day, 3 days/week for a total of 40 weeks. At this time the animals were sacrificed and their lungs were examined for polyamine contents. Exposure to O{sub 3} and O{sub 3} plus HNO{sub 3} vapor caused a significant increase in the putrescine content of the lung compared to the air-exposed controls (P < 0.05). The concentrations of pulmonary spermidine and spermine were not significantly increased by exposure to either O{sub 3} or HNO{sub 3} vapor alone or in combination compared to the air-exposed controls. The role of polyamines in repair and anti-inflammatory processes has been discussed. (orig.) (orig.) With 1 fig., 1 tab., 30 refs.

  8. Socioeconomic status and self-reported chronic diseases among Argentina’s adult population: results based on multivariate probability models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Viego

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background. Hypertension, diabetes and hypercholesterolemia are the most frequent and diagnosed chronic diseases in Argentina. They contribute largely to the burden of chronic disease and they are strongly influenced by a small number of risk factors. These risk factors are all modifiable at the population and individual level and offer major prospects for their prevention. We are interested in socioeconomic determinants of prevalence of those 3 specific diseases. Design and methods. We estimate 3-equation probit model, combined with 3 separate probit estimations and a probit-based Heckman correction considering possible sample selection bias. Estimations were carried out using secondary self-reported data coming from the 2013 Risk Factor National Survey. Results. We find a negative association between socioeconomic status and prevalence of hypertension, cholesterolemia and diabetes; main increases concentrate in the transition from low to high SES in hypertension and diabetes. In cholesterol, the major effect takes place when individual crosses from low to middle SES and then vanishes. Anyway, in Argentina SES exhibit and independent effect on chronic diseases apart from those based on habits and body weight. Conclusions. Public strategies to prevent chronic diseases must be specially targeted at women, poorest households and the least educated individuals in order to achieve efficacy. Also, as the probability of having a condition related to excessive blood pressure, high levels of cholesterol or glucose in the blood do not increase proportionally with age, so public campaigns promoting healthy diets, physical activity and medical checkups should be focused on young individuals to facilitate prophylaxis.

  9. Abnormal Resting-State Functional Connectivity in Patients with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: Results of Seed and Data-Driven Analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gay, Charles W; Robinson, Michael E; Lai, Song; O'Shea, Andrew; Craggs, Jason G; Price, Donald D; Staud, Roland

    2016-02-01

    Although altered resting-state functional connectivity (FC) is a characteristic of many chronic pain conditions, it has not yet been evaluated in patients with chronic fatigue. Our objective was to investigate the association between fatigue and altered resting-state FC in myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS). Thirty-six female subjects, 19 ME/CFS and 17 healthy controls, completed a fatigue inventory before undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging. Two methods, (1) data driven and (2) model based, were used to estimate and compare the intraregional FC between both groups during the resting state (RS). The first approach using independent component analysis was applied to investigate five RS networks: the default mode network, salience network (SN), left frontoparietal networks (LFPN) and right frontoparietal networks, and the sensory motor network (SMN). The second approach used a priori selected seed regions demonstrating abnormal regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in ME/CFS patients at rest. In ME/CFS patients, Method-1 identified decreased intrinsic connectivity among regions within the LFPN. Furthermore, the FC of the left anterior midcingulate with the SMN and the connectivity of the left posterior cingulate cortex with the SN were significantly decreased. For Method-2, five distinct clusters within the right parahippocampus and occipital lobes, demonstrating significant rCBF reductions in ME/CFS patients, were used as seeds. The parahippocampal seed and three occipital lobe seeds showed altered FC with other brain regions. The degree of abnormal connectivity correlated with the level of self-reported fatigue. Our results confirm altered RS FC in patients with ME/CFS, which was significantly correlated with the severity of their chronic fatigue.

  10. Risks for Opioid Abuse and Dependence Among Recipients of Chronic Opioid Therapy: Results from the TROUP Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edlund, Mark J.; Martin, Bradley C.; Fan, Ming-Yu; Devries, Andrea; Braden, Jennifer B.; Sullivan, Mark D.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To estimate the prevalence of and risk factors for opioid abuse/dependence in long-term users of opioids for chronic pain, including risk factors for opioid abuse/dependence that can potentially be modified to decrease the likelihood of opioid abuse/dependence, and non-modifiable risk factors for opioid abuse/dependence that may be useful for risk stratification when considering prescribing opioids. Methods We used claims data from two disparate populations, one national, commercially insured population (HealthCore) and one state-based, publicly insured (Arkansas Medicaid). Among users of chronic opioid therapy, we regressed claims-based diagnoses of opioid abuse/dependence on patient characteristics, including physical health, mental health and substance abuse diagnoses, sociodemographic factors, and pharmacological risk factors. Results Among users of chronic opioid therapy, 3% of both the HealthCore and Arkansas Medicaid samples had a claims-based opioid abuse/dependence diagnosis. There was a strong inverse relationship between age and a diagnosis of opioid abuse/dependence. Mental health and substance use disorders were associated with an increased risk of opioid abuse/dependence. Effects of substance use disorders were especially strong, although mental health disorders were more common. Concerning opioid exposure; lower days supply, lower average doses, and use of Schedule III-IV opioids only, were all associated with lower likelihood of a diagnosis of opioid abuse/dependence. Conclusion Opioid abuse and dependence are diagnosed in a small minority of patients receiving chronic opioid therapy, but this may underestimate actual misuse. Characteristics of the patients and of the opioid therapy itself are associated with the risk of abuse and dependence. PMID:20634006

  11. Chronic instability of the anterior tibiofibular syndesmosis of the ankle. Arthroscopic findings and results of anatomical reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swierstra Bart A

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The arthroscopic findings in patients with chronic anterior syndesmotic instability that need reconstructive surgery have never been described extensively. Methods In 12 patients the clinical suspicion of chronic instability of the syndesmosis was confirmed during arthroscopy of the ankle. All findings during the arthroscopy were scored. Anatomical reconstruction of the anterior tibiofibular syndesmosis was performed in all patients. The AOFAS score was assessed to evaluate the result of the reconstruction. At an average of 43 months after the reconstruction all patients were seen for follow-up. Results The syndesmosis being easily accessible for the 3 mm transverse end of probe which could be rotated around its longitudinal axis in all cases during arthroscopy of the ankle joint, confirmed the diagnosis. Cartilage damage was seen in 8 ankles, of which in 7 patients the damage was situated at the medial side of the ankle joint. The intraarticular part of anterior tibiofibular ligament was visibly damaged in 5 patients. Synovitis was seen in all but one ankle joint. After surgical reconstruction the AOFAS score improved from an average of 72 pre-operatively to 92 post-operatively. Conclusions To confirm the clinical suspicion, the final diagnosis of chronic instability of the anterior syndesmosis can be made during arthroscopy of the ankle. Cartilage damage to the medial side of the tibiotalar joint is often seen and might be the result of syndesmotic instability. Good results are achieved by anatomic reconstruction of the anterior syndesmosis, and all patients in this study would undergo the surgery again if necessary.

  12. A contribution to the controversy over dimethyl sulfoxide toxicity: anesthesia monitoring results in patients treated with Onyx embolization for intracranial aneurysms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pamuk, A.G.; Aypar, U. [Hacettepe University Hospital, Department of Anesthesia, Sihhiye, Ankara (Turkey); Saatci, I.; Cekirge, H.S. [Hacettepe University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Ankara (Turkey)

    2005-05-01

    Onyx injection is a new technique for embolization of cerebral aneurysms that is involved in a controversy about the 'toxicity' of its solvent, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). We retrospectively studied 38 patients treated for aneurysms with the liquid polymer, Onyx. Induction was with propofol, fentanyl and vecuronium, and anesthesia was maintained with isoflurane in O{sub 2} and N{sub 2}O. The patients were given 500 ml of fluid after induction, and bradycardia was prevented in order to keep patients hyperdynamic. Electrocardiography (ECG), non-invasive blood pressure (NIBP), pulse oximetry, core temperatures, invasive blood pressure (BP), etCO{sub 2}, and urine output were monitored throughout the intervention. Heart rate and BP changes in response to balloon inflation, DMSO injection, Onyx injection and balloon deflation were recorded. The patients were followed with serial neurological examinations, computerized tomography and/or magnetic resonance imaging postoperatively for evidence of any neurological injury. Cumulative DMSO doses were always well under previously implicated doses for systemic toxicity. No changes implicating toxic reactions were observed during DMSO and Onyx injections. Balloon-induced changes returned to baseline within 1 min of balloon deflation. Technique-related permanent morbidity occurred in two patients (worsening of cranial nerve palsies in one and monocular blindness in another) and intracranial hemorrhage with resulting death in one patient. All patients showed a tendency to oxygen desaturation, but this finding did not cause any clinical consequence. Anesthesiologists need to be vigilant in monitoring patients treated with techniques that are new or are being developed. We have seen no evidence of toxicity or any anesthetic complications in our group of patients, our only clinical concern being a tendency to oxygen desaturation, which may be explained by the inhalational elimination of DMSO. (orig.)

  13. Chronic Q fever in the Netherlands 5 years after the start of the Q fever epidemic: results from the Dutch chronic Q fever database

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kampschreur, L.M.; Delsing, C.E.; Groenwold, R.H.; Wegdam-Blans, M.C.; Bleeker-Rovers, C.P.; Jager-Leclercq, M.G. De; Hoepelman, A.I.; Kasteren, M.E.E. van; Buijs, J.; Renders, N.H.; Nabuurs-Franssen, M.H.; Oosterheert, J.J.; Wever, P.C.

    2014-01-01

    Coxiella burnetii causes Q fever, a zoonosis, which has acute and chronic manifestations. From 2007 to 2010, the Netherlands experienced a large Q fever outbreak, which has offered a unique opportunity to analyze chronic Q fever cases. In an observational cohort study, baseline characteristics and

  14. REAL TIME PCR IDENTIFICATION FOR TARGET ADJUNCTIVE ANTIBIOTIC THERAPY OF SEVERE CHRONIC PERIODONTITIS. PART I - CLINICAL RESULTS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamen Kotsilkov

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The periodontal pathology is of great social importance due to the vast distribution in the human population. The adjunctive antibiotic administration could improve the healing in such cases but the latest data of the continuingly growing antibiotic resistance requires more precise approaches of antibiotic selection. The contemporary molecular diagnostic methods could offer the required precision for the microbiological identification in order to achieve better control of the periodontitis. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to compare the microbiological effectiveness of adjunctive antibiotic administration with the mechanical periodontal therapy. METHODS: 30 patients with severe chronic periodontitis were enrolled in this study and were divided in 3 groups: Control group – with mechanical debridement only. Test group 1 – with combined adjunctive antibiotic administration using Amoxicillin+ Metronidazole. Test group 2 – with target antibiotic administration according to the resuts from the Real Time PCR identification. RESULTS: A considerable improvement of the periodontal status was reported in all treatment groups. The most positive results were in the group with target antibiotic administration were all tested clinical parameters showed the best improvement with statistically significant changes in sites with PD7mm and CAL>5mm. CONCLUSION: The adjunctive antibiotic administration demonstrates better clinical effectiveness concerning the reduction of the severely affected sites in cases with severe generalized chronic periodontitis compared to the mechanical therapy alone. From all examined groups the target approach has statistically significant better results. These results suggest that this approach is recommended in cases with high prevalence of deep pockets.

  15. Toxic material advisory report - 2-mercaptoethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernholc, N. M.; White, O. Jr.; Baloyi, R. S.; Silverstein, B. D.

    1983-03-01

    A review of the animal toxicity data for 2-ME is presented. The results revealed that chronic inhalation exposures at a concentration of 6 mg/m/sup 3/ produced decreased oxygen consumption, lymphopenia, and neutrophilia. Comparison of acute toxicity data for 2-ME with data of structurally similar compounds suggests that 2-ME may be 2.3 times more toxic than butanethiol (TLV = 0.5 ppM), 6.5 times more toxic than ethanethiol, and 6 times more toxic than propanethiol (TLV = 0.5 ppM) via oral administration but may be comparable to propanethiol and less toxic than butanethiol and ethanethiol by the inhalation route of exposure. The TLVs for ethanethiol, methanethiol, and butanethiol were based on discomfort to human volunteers rather than toxicity. Since 2-ME has many effects similar to those of the thiols discussed and its odor threshold falls in the range of other thiols, by analogy the exposure limit for 2-ME should be comparable to the TLVs for butanethiol and ethanethiol. An interim exposure limit (IEL) of 0.5 ppM for a time-weighted average concentration during an 8-hour work shift is recommended. As with other thiols, a nuisance problem due to 2-ME odors and complaints of odor may serve as a primary reason for controlling workplace concentrations.

  16. The toxicity of aluminium in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exley, C

    2016-06-01

    We are living in the 'aluminium age'. Human exposure to aluminium is inevitable and, perhaps, inestimable. Aluminium's free metal cation, Alaq(3+), is highly biologically reactive and biologically available aluminium is non-essential and essentially toxic. Biologically reactive aluminium is present throughout the human body and while, rarely, it can be acutely toxic, much less is understood about chronic aluminium intoxication. Herein the question is asked as to how to diagnose aluminium toxicity in an individual. While there are as yet, no unequivocal answers to this problem, there are procedures to follow to ascertain the nature of human exposure to aluminium. It is also important to recognise critical factors in exposure regimes and specifically that not all forms of aluminium are toxicologically equivalent and not all routes of exposure are equivalent in their delivery of aluminium to target sites. To ascertain if Alzheimer's disease is a symptom of chronic aluminium intoxication over decades or breast cancer is aggravated by the topical application of an aluminium salt or if autism could result from an immune cascade initiated by an aluminium adjuvant requires that each of these is considered independently and in the light of the most up to date scientific evidence. The aluminium age has taught us that there are no inevitabilities where chronic aluminium toxicity is concerned though there are clear possibilities and these require proving or discounting but not simply ignored. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Chronic spinal pain and physical-mental comorbidity in the United States: results from the national comorbidity survey replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Von Korff, Michael; Crane, Paul; Lane, Michael; Miglioretti, Diana L; Simon, Greg; Saunders, Kathleen; Stang, Paul; Brandenburg, Nancy; Kessler, Ronald

    2005-02-01

    This paper investigates comorbidity between chronic back and neck pain and other physical and mental disorders in the US population, and assesses the contributions of chronic spinal pain and comorbid conditions to role disability. A probability sample of US adults (n=5692) was interviewed. Chronic spinal pain, other chronic pain conditions and selected chronic physical conditions were ascertained by self-report. Mood, anxiety and substance use disorders were ascertained with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). Role disability was assessed with questions about days out of role and with impaired role functioning. The 1 year prevalence of chronic spinal pain was 19.0%. The vast majority (87.1%) of people with chronic spinal pain reported at least one other comorbid condition, including other chronic pain conditions (68.6%), chronic physical conditions (55.3%), and mental disorders (35.0%). Anxiety disorders showed as strong an association with chronic spinal pain as did mood disorders. Common conditions not significantly comorbid with chronic spinal pain were diabetes, heart disease, cancer, and drug abuse. Chronic spinal pain was significantly associated with role disability after controlling for demographic variables and for comorbidities. However, comorbid conditions explained about one-third of the gross association of chronic spinal pain with role disability. We conclude that chronic spinal pain is highly comorbid with other pain conditions, chronic diseases, and mental disorders, and that comorbidity plays a significant role in role disability associated with chronic spinal pain. The societal burdens of chronic spinal pain need to be understood and managed within the context of comorbid conditions.

  18. Intravascular disorders of microcirculation in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: the results of clinical and morphological examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiodorova, Tatiana A.

    1999-05-01

    We have evaluated the results of clinical and morphological study of microcirculation and its intravascular factors in 120 patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD). Conjunctival biomicroscopy with quantitative evaluation of microcirculatory changes we performed. This data were compared with the results of laboratory study of erythrocytes and thrombocytes aggregation, some plasma hemostasis indices and morphological examination of microcirculation. The results of conjunctival biomicroscopy showed the close correlation between the clinical severity of the disease, the degree of respiratory failure and the degree of microcirculatory disorders. Progress of the disease with the development of respiratory failure and cor pulmonale was characterized by the expansion of the process of erythrocytes aggregation to the whole parts of the microcirculatory bad and was associated with perivascular hemorrhages. In some patients with severe COPD laboratory data showed chronic disseminated intravascular microcoagulation (DVS-syndrome). Intravascular platelets, erythrocytes and mixed aggregates which completely cork the vessels and compressed endothelium were uncovered by electron microscopy. Platelets membrane injuring with its degranulation was seen. This discovered correlation between microcirculatory abnormalities in lungs and in conjunctiva in patients with COPD demonstrate that this abnormalities of microcirculation are prevalent. This allows to use in clinical accessible and informative method of conjunctival biomicroscopy to estimate the condition of microcirculation in this pathology.

  19. Five-Year Biochemical Results, Toxicity, and Patient-Reported Quality of Life After Delivery of Dose-Escalated Image Guided Proton Therapy for Prostate Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryant, Curtis, E-mail: cbryant@floridaproton.org [University of Florida Health Proton Therapy Institute, Jacksonville, Florida (United States); Smith, Tamara L.; Henderson, Randal H.; Hoppe, Bradford S.; Mendenhall, William M.; Nichols, R. Charles; Morris, Christopher G. [University of Florida Health Proton Therapy Institute, Jacksonville, Florida (United States); Williams, Christopher R. [Department of Urology, University of Florida College of Medicine, Jacksonville, Florida (United States); Su, Zhong; Li, Zuofeng; Lee, Derek; Mendenhall, Nancy P. [University of Florida Health Proton Therapy Institute, Jacksonville, Florida (United States)

    2016-05-01

    Purpose: To report clinical outcomes in patients treated with image guided proton therapy (PT) for localized prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: The medical records of 1327 men were reviewed. Each man was enrolled on an outcomes tracking study. Dual enrollment on a prospective clinical trial was allowed. Each patient was treated for localized prostate cancer with PT at our institution between 2006 and 2010. Ninety-eight percent of patients received 78 Gy (radiobiological equivalent [RBE]) or higher; 18% received androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). The 5-year freedom from biochemical progression (FFBP), distant metastasis-free survival, and cause-specific survival rates are reported for each risk group. Data on patient-reported quality of life and high-grade toxicities were prospectively collected and reported. A multivariate analysis was performed to identify clinical predictors of biochemical failure and urologic toxicity. Results: The median follow-up time was 5.5 years. The 5-year FFBP rates were 99%, 94%, and 74% in low-risk, intermediate-risk, and high-risk patients, respectively. The actuarial 5-year rates of late grade 3+ Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 4.0, gastrointestinal (GI) and genitourinary (GU) toxicity were 0.6% and 2.9%, respectively. Multivariate analysis showed a significant correlation between grade 3+ GU toxicity and pretreatment prostate reductive procedures (P<.0001), prostate volume (P=.0085), pretreatment α-blockers (P=.0067), diabetes (P=.0195), and dose–volume histogram parameters (P=.0208). The median International Prostate Symptom Scores pretreatment scores and scores at 5 years after treatment were 7 and 7, respectively. The mean Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite (EPIC) scores significantly declined for sexual summary for patients not receiving ADT (from 67 to 53) between baseline and 5 years. Conclusions: Image guided PT provided excellent biochemical control rates for patients with

  20. Impact of Sequencing Radiation Therapy and Chemotherapy on Long-Term Local Toxicity for Early Breast Cancer: Results of a Randomized Study at 15-Year Follow-Up

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinnarò, Paola; Giordano, Carolina; Farneti, Alessia [Department of Radiation Oncology, Regina Elena National Cancer Institute, Rome (Italy); Strigari, Lidia; Landoni, Valeria [Department of Physics, Regina Elena National Cancer Institute, Rome (Italy); Marucci, Laura; Petrongari, Maria Grazia [Department of Radiation Oncology, Regina Elena National Cancer Institute, Rome (Italy); Sanguineti, Giuseppe, E-mail: sanguineti@ifo.it [Department of Radiation Oncology, Regina Elena National Cancer Institute, Rome (Italy)

    2016-07-15

    Purpose: To compare long-term late local toxicity after either concomitant or sequential chemoradiation therapy after breast-conserving surgery. Methods and Materials: From 1997 to 2002, women aged 18 to 75 years who underwent breast-conserving surgery and axillary dissection for early breast cancer and in whom CMF (cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, and 5-fluorouracil) chemotherapy was planned were randomized between concomitant and sequential radiation therapy. Radiation therapy was delivered to the whole breast through tangential fields to 50 Gy in 20 fractions over a period of 4 weeks, followed by an electron boost. Surviving patients were tentatively contacted and examined between March and September 2014. Patients in whom progressive disease had developed or who had undergone further breast surgery were excluded. Local toxicity (fibrosis, telangiectasia, and breast atrophy or retraction) was scored blindly to the treatment received. A logistic regression was run to investigate the effect of treatment sequence after correction for several patient-, treatment-, and tumor-related covariates on selected endpoints. The median time to cross-sectional analysis was 15.7 years (range, 12.0-17.8 years). Results: Of 206 patients randomized, 154 (74.8%) were potentially eligible. Of these, 43 (27.9%) refused participation and 4 (2.6%) had been lost to follow-up, and for 5 (3.2%), we could not restore planning data; thus, the final number of analyzed patients was 102. No grade 4 toxicity had been observed, whereas the number of grade 3 toxicity events was low (<8%) for each item, allowing pooling of grade 2 and 3 events for further analysis. Treatment sequence (concomitant vs sequential) was an independent predictor of grade 2 or 3 fibrosis according to both the National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (odds ratio [OR], 4.05; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.34-12.2; P=.013) and the SOMA (Subjective, Objective, Management and Analytic

  1. Final Results of Local-Regional Control and Late Toxicity of RTOG 9003: A Randomized Trial of Altered Fractionation Radiation for Locally Advanced Head and Neck Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beitler, Jonathan J., E-mail: jjbeitl@emory.edu [Winship Cancer Institute of Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Zhang, Qiang [Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Statistical Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Fu, Karen K. [University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California (United States); Trotti, Andy [H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center at the University of South Florida, Tampa, Florida (United States); Spencer, Sharon A. [University of Alabama at Birmingham Medical Center, Birmingham, Alabama (United States); Jones, Christopher U. [Radiological Associates of Sacramento, Sacramento, California (United States); Garden, Adam S. [MD Anderson Cancer Center, University of Texas, Houston, Texas (United States); Shenouda, George [McGill University, Montréal, Quebec (Canada); Harris, Jonathan [Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Statistical Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Ang, Kian K. [MD Anderson Cancer Center, University of Texas, Houston, Texas (United States)

    2014-05-01

    Purpose: To test whether altered radiation fractionation schemes (hyperfractionation [HFX], accelerated fractionation, continuous [AFX-C], and accelerated fractionation with split [AFX-S]) improved local-regional control (LRC) rates for patients with squamous cell cancers (SCC) of the head and neck when compared with standard fractionation (SFX) of 70 Gy. Methods and Materials: Patients with stage III or IV (or stage II base of tongue) SCC (n=1076) were randomized to 4 treatment arms: (1) SFX, 70 Gy/35 daily fractions/7 weeks; (2) HFX, 81.6 Gy/68 twice-daily fractions/7 weeks; (3) AFX-S, 67.2 Gy/42 fractions/6 weeks with a 2-week rest after 38.4 Gy; and (4) AFX-C, 72 Gy/42 fractions/6 weeks. The 3 experimental arms were to be compared with SFX. Results: With patients censored for LRC at 5 years, only the comparison of HFX with SFX was significantly different: HFX, hazard ratio (HR) 0.79 (95% confidence interval 0.62-1.00), P=.05; AFX-C, 0.82 (95% confidence interval 0.65-1.05), P=.11. With patients censored at 5 years, HFX improved overall survival (HR 0.81, P=.05). Prevalence of any grade 3, 4, or 5 toxicity at 5 years; any feeding tube use after 180 days; or feeding tube use at 1 year did not differ significantly when the experimental arms were compared with SFX. When 7-week treatments were compared with 6-week treatments, accelerated fractionation appeared to increase grade 3, 4 or 5 toxicity at 5 years (P=.06). When the worst toxicity per patient was considered by treatment only, the AFX-C arm seemed to trend worse than the SFX arm when grade 0-2 was compared with grade 3-5 toxicity (P=.09). Conclusions: At 5 years, only HFX improved LRC and overall survival for patients with locally advanced SCC without increasing late toxicity.

  2. Long-term Results of Chronic Achilles Tendon Ruptures Repaired With V-Y Tendon Plasty and Fascia Turndown.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guclu, Berk; Basat, H Cagdas; Yildirim, Tugrul; Bozduman, Omer; Us, Ali Kemal

    2016-07-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the long-term follow-up results of V-Y tendon plasty with fascia turndown, for repairing chronic Achilles tendon ruptures. Seventeen patients (12 males, 5 females), who were diagnosed with chronic Achilles tendon rupture and met the inclusion criteria, were included in the study. These patients received treatment by means of V-Y tendon plasty with fascia turndown from January 1995 to December 2001. Clinical outcomes of the patients were assessed by using isokinetic strength testing, questioning the patient regarding residual discomfort, pain, or swelling and having the ability to perform heel rises and using American Orthopaedic Foot & Ankle Society's (AOFAS's) Ankle-Hind Foot Scale score. Mean follow-up duration was 16 years (13-18 years). Mean time from the injury to operative treatment was 7 months. Mean operative defect of Achilles tendon in neutral position after debridement was 6 cm. During the follow-up, the mean calf atrophy was 3.4 cm. The mean 30 degrees/s plantarflex and 120 degrees/s plantarflex peak torques were 89 and 45 Nm, respectively. The mean 30 degrees/s plantarflex peak torque deficiency was 16%. The mean 120 degrees/s plantarflex peak torque deficiency was 17%. The average peak torque deficiency was 17%. The pre- and postoperative mean AOFAS Ankle-Hindfoot Scale scores were 64 and 95, respectively. No patient had a rerupture. Superficial wound infection was treated with oral antibiotic therapy in 2 patients (11%). The V-Y tendon plasty with fascia turndown for repairing chronic Achilles tendon ruptures yielded results comparable with the literature regarding clinical outcomes. This method did not require synthetic materials for augmentation and was an economic alternative compared to other repair methods. Level III, retrospective comparative study. © The Author(s) 2016.

  3. Chronic toxicity of ZnO nanoparticles, non-nano ZnO and ZnCl{sub 2} to Folsomia candida (Collembola) in relation to bioavailability in soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kool, Pauline L., E-mail: pauline.kool@falw.vu.nl [Department of Animal Ecology, Faculty of Earth and Life Sciences, VU University, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands); Diez Ortiz, Maria [Department of Animal Ecology, Faculty of Earth and Life Sciences, VU University, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands); Pole de Recherche ROVALTAIN en Toxicologie Environnementale et Ecotoxicologie, Batiment Rhovalparc, BP 15173, 26958 Valence Cedex 9 (France); Gestel, Cornelis A.M. van [Department of Animal Ecology, Faculty of Earth and Life Sciences, VU University, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2011-10-15

    The chronic toxicity of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NP) to Folsomia candida was determined in natural soil. To unravel the contribution of particle size and free zinc to NP toxicity, non-nano ZnO and ZnCl{sub 2} were also tested. Zinc concentrations in pore water increased with increasing soil concentrations, with Freundlich sorption constants K{sub f} of 61.7, 106 and 96.4 l/kg (n = 1.50, 1.34 and 0.42) for ZnO-NP, non-nano ZnO and ZnCl{sub 2} respectively. Survival of F. candida was not affected by ZnO-NP and non-nano ZnO at concentrations up to 6400 mg Zn/kg d.w. Reproduction was dose-dependently reduced with 28-d EC50s of 1964, 1591 and 298 mg Zn/kg d.w. for ZnO-NP, non-nano ZnO and ZnCl{sub 2}, respectively. The difference in EC50s based on measured pore water concentrations was small (7.94-16.8 mg Zn/l). We conclude that zinc ions released from NP determine the observed toxic effects rather than ZnO particle size. - Highlights: > ZnO nanoparticles and non-nano ZnO were equally toxic to Folsomia candida in soil. > Pore water from soil spiked with ZnO nanoparticles showed saturation with zinc suggesting aggregation. > Pore water based EC50 values for ZnO nanoparticles and ZnCl{sub 2} were similar. > ZnO nanoparticle toxicity in soil was most probably due to Zn dissolution from the nanoparticles. - ZnO nanoparticle toxicity to springtails in soil can be explained from Zn dissolution but not from particle size.

  4. [False positive results of HIV virus tests in patients undergoing chronic hemodialysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ujhelyi, E; Gál, G; Makó, J; Füst, G; Büki, B; Nagy, K; Ferenc, D T; Dietrich, M P; Hengster, P; Mayer, V

    1989-01-08

    The sera of 173 haemodialysis patients treated in two dialysis centers in Hungary were tested for the presence of HIV (HTLV III/LAV) antibodies. Four different commercial enzyme immunoassay (EIA) kits and two types (CEM/LAV, and H9/HTLV III) of indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) were used. The Western blot technique was applied as confirmatory test in the study. No confirmed positive results were found in any of the cases. However, in 15 patients (8.7%) false positive (not confirmable by the Western blot assay) results were obtained in at least one but mostly in all of the three type 1 EIA kits (ORGANON, ELECTRONUCLEONICS, SORIN) applied. In 4 patients, the IFA assay also gave false positive results which could be repeated in sequential samples taken from the same patients. Increased reactivity in the control plate (coated with a concentrate of cellular material shed by uninfected H9 cell line) of the SORIN kit was found only in a few false positive samples and no fluorescence with the uninfected H9 or CEM cells was observed in any of the sera showing a false positive IFA. These results indicate that the false positive anti-HIV results frequently observable in haemodialysis patients are not simply the consequence of the presence of antibodies reacting with the uninfected H9 and/or CEM cells but they are most probably due to antibodies against antigens expressed on these cells only after infection with the human immunodeficiency virus.

  5. Effect of pain neuroscience education and dry needling on chronic elbow pain as a result of cyberchondria: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anandkumar, Sudarshan

    2015-03-01

    This case report describes a 31-year-old male who presented with complaints of chronic pain in his right elbow. Detailed subjective examination revealed that the patient had searched Google for extensive online information relating to his pain, ultimately self-labeling with various diagnoses. After researching in YouTube, the patient self-treated with ice, exercises, neural mobilization, self-massage and taping, all resulting in a failed outcome. Clinical findings revealed trigger points in his right brachioradialis muscle with added symptoms of central pain. This is a potential first-time description of physical therapy management of brachioradialis myofascial pain syndrome with superadded central pain caused as a result of cyberchondria where the patient used the Internet for arriving at a wrong self-diagnosis and incorrect self-treatment with failed or worsening pain outcomes leading to pain sustenance or chronicity. Physical therapy consisted of Pain Neuroscience Education, dry needling and exercise therapy. The patient was completely pain free and fully functional at the end of the sixth session, which was maintained at a one-month follow-up.

  6. Identification of causes of oil sands coke leachate toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puttaswamy, N.; Liber, K. [Saskatchewan Univ., Regina, SK (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    The potential causes of oil sands coke leachate toxicity were investigated. Chronic 7-day toxicity tests were conducted to demonstrate that oil sands coke leachates (CL) are acutely toxic to Ceriodaphnia dubia (C. dubia). CLs were generated in a laboratory to perform toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) tests in order to investigate the causes of the CL toxicity. The coke was subjected to a 15-day batch leaching process at 5.5 and 9.5 pH values. The leachates were then filtered and used for chemical and toxicological characterization. The 7-day estimates for the C. dubia survival were 6.3 for a pH of 5.5 and 28.7 per cent for the 9.5 CLs. The addition of EDTA significantly improved survival and reproduction in a pH of 5.5 CL, but not in a pH of 9.5 CL. The toxicity of the pH 5.5 CL was removed with a cationic resin treatment. The toxicity of the 9.5 pH LC was removed using an anion resin treatment. Toxicity re-appeared when nickel (Ni) and vanadium (V) were added back to the resin-treated CLs. Results of the study suggested that Ni and V were acting as primary toxicants in the pH 5.5 CL, while V was the primary cause of toxicity in the pH 9.5 CL.

  7. Human Toxicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jolliet, Olivier; Fantke, Peter

    2015-01-01

    This chapter reviews the human toxicological impacts of chemicals and how to assess these impacts in life cycle impact assessment (LCIA), in order to identify key processes and pollutants. The complete cause-effect pathway – from emissions of toxic substances up to damages on human health...... on characterisation factors means that results should by default be reported and interpreted in log scales when comparing scenarios or substance contribution! We conclude by outlining future trends in human toxicity modelling for LCIA, with promising developments for (a) better estimates of degradation halflives, (b......) the inclusion of ionization of chemicals in human exposure including bioaccumulation, (c) metal speciation, (d) spatialised models to differentiate the variability associated with spatialisation from the uncertainty, and (e) the assessment of chemical exposure via consumer products and occupational settings...

  8. Acute toxicity from baking soda ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, S H; Stone, C K

    1994-01-01

    Sodium bicarbonate is an extremely well-known agent that historically has been used for a variety of medical conditions. Despite the widespread use of oral bicarbonate, little documented toxicity has occurred, and the emergency medicine literature contains no reports of toxicity caused by the ingestion of baking soda. Risks of acute and chronic oral bicarbonate ingestion include metabolic alkalosis, hypernatremia, hypertension, gastric rupture, hyporeninemia, hypokalemia, hypochloremia, intravascular volume depletion, and urinary alkalinization. Abrupt cessation of chronic excessive bicarbonate ingestion may result in hyperkalemia, hypoaldosteronism, volume contraction, and disruption of calcium and phosphorus metabolism. The case of a patient with three hospital admissions in 4 months, all the result of excessive oral intake of bicarbonate for symptomatic relief of dyspepsia is reported. Evaluation and treatment of patients with acute bicarbonate ingestion is discussed.

  9. Different fractionation schedules of radiotherapy in locally advanced head and neck malignancy: A prospective randomized study to compare the results of treatment and toxicities of different protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipanjan Majumder

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Altered fractionated radiotherapy may have better result than conventional radiotherapy and concomitant chemoradiotherapy to treat locally advanced head and neck cancers. Aims: Evaluation of the response and toxicities in different fractionated radiotherapy schedules in locally advanced head and neck cancer. Materials and Methods: Sixty four histologically proved patients of locally advanced head and neck cancer were included in the study according to protocol and were randomized into three arms. Arm A (n = 21 received 66 Gy in 33 fractions (5 fractions/week from Monday to Friday single fraction daily in 6½ weeks along with concomitant chemotherapy (injection Cisplatin 30 mg/m 2 intravenous once weekly for 6 weeks. Arm B (n = 21 received 66 Gy in 33 fractions (6 fractions per week single fraction daily in 5½ weeks, and arm C ( n = 22 received late hyperfractionation after 3 weeks; 30 Gy in 15 fractions in 3 weeks followed by 1.4 Gy twice daily (time gap between 2 fractions were 6 hours for 15 days with a total of 72 Gy in 6 weeks. Response to treatment, compliance, and toxicities were compared in all the three arms. Statistical Analysis Used: Frequency table and chi square tests done. Results: Baseline data were comparable in all the three arms. Complete response in arm A, arm B, and arm C were 15%, 26.315%, and 23.81%, respectively ( P = 0.339. Grade 1 Neutropenia in arm A was 15%, arm B was 26.32%, and arm C was nil (P = 0.0486. Conclusion: Altered fractionation and concurrent chemoradiation showed similar response with comparable acute toxicities except nutropenia, which was significantly higher in arm B.

  10. [Tapentadol prolonged release for severe chronic pain. Results of a non-interventional study involving general practitioners and internists].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwittay, A; Schumann, C; Litzenburger, B C; Schwenke, K

    2012-10-04

    This prospective, non-interventional study involving general practitioners and internists in Germany investigated the administration of tapentadol prolonged release (Palexia retard) for the treatment of severe chronic pain in routineclinical practice over a 3-month observation period. Collected data included tapentadol PR dosage, previous and concomitant analgesic treatment, pain intensity, sleep and quality of life parameters, and tolerability of tapentadol PR. Effectiveness was analyzed for 3134 patients; additionally, a subgroup analysis was performed in 1331 patients with WHO III pretreatment. A total of 97.8% of all patients received analgesic long-term pretreatment, 42.5% of those strong opioids. Switching to tapentadol PR resulted in a mean pain reduction of 3.9 points from 7.0 +/- 1.5 at baseline to 3.1 +/- 1.8 at end of observation (NRS-11, 11-point pain scale; descriptive p value or = 50% at end of observation. A total of 89.4% of the patients attained either their intended pain reduction and/or an additional individual treatment goal at end of observation; both were established at start of tapentadol PR treatment. This was accompanied by a significant decrease in pain-related impairments of daily activities and an improvement in quality of life (descriptive p value tapentadol PR. In particular, good effectiveness of tapentadol PR treatment was reported for various pain indications in patients who had already previously been treated with strong opioids. A clinically relevant pain reduction > or = 50% was achieved in 67.2% of these patients. Tapentadol PR can be considered an alternative therapy to classical opioids for the treatment of severe chronic pain. Particularly for severe chronic pain requiring long-term medication, a reduction of common opioid side-effects with tapentadol PR therapy could contribute to better patient compliance.

  11. Scapular dyskinesis and SICK syndrome in patients with a chronic type III acromioclavicular dislocation. Results of rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbone, Stefano; Postacchini, Roberto; Gumina, Stefano

    2015-05-01

    Scapular dyskinesis has been related to acromioclavicular injuries. A rehabilitation protocol has been studied in order to treat scapular dyskinesis, but it has not yet been evaluated. This rehabilitation programme was adopted to improve the shoulder function, thereby improving the scapular dyskinesis in patients with chronic acromioclavicular dislocation. Twenty-four patients diagnosed with chronic type III acromioclavicular dislocation and scapular dyskinesis that have already been conservatively treated were enrolled in the rehabilitation protocol and analysed. Fourteen of these patients had a Scapular Inferior Coracoid dysKinesis (SICK) Syndrome. The adopted rehabilitation protocol consisted of 12 strengthening and stretching exercises of the scapulae. The final follow-ups were performed after 6 weeks, 6 months and 12 months using clinical measurements of scapular position and clinical evaluation of the scapular motion. In order to evaluate the SICK scapula syndrome, we used the SICK Scapula Rating Scale. The shoulder function was evaluated with a Constant Score and a Subjective Shoulder Value. After 12 months, the follow-up concluded that the scapular dyskinesis was no longer present in 18/23 patients (78.2 %). SICK scapula syndrome was observed in 4/8 patients with a scapular malposition. The Scapula Rating Scale score in 4 patients with SICK scapula was 7.5 points. After 12 months of rehabilitation, the mean Constant Score and Subjective Shoulder Value grew up to 85 points. The scapular dyskinesis and SICK syndrome secondary to chronic type III AC dislocation can be treated with the proposed rehabilitation protocol resulting in positive improvements of the shoulder function within 6 weeks; however, patients that do not respond to the rehabilitation programme will not improve with extended rehabilitation time. It is important to advise patients of the specific exercises for the prevention/treatment of scapular dyskinesis in the rehabilitation programme after

  12. Long-term results of radiotherapy in patients with chronic palmo-plantar eczema or psoriasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sumila, M.; Notter, M.; Bodis, S.; Gruber, G. [State Hospital, Aarau (Switzerland). Inst. of Radiation Oncology; Itin, P. [State Hospital, Aarau (Switzerland). Dept. of Dermatology

    2008-04-15

    Background and Purpose: Radiotherapy (RT) is well accepted for therapy-refractory palmo-plantar eczema or psoriasis, despite of lacking evidence regarding beneficial long term effects. Furthermore, the optimal irradiation dose is unknown. We evaluated the outcome of RT with two different RT single/total dose (SD/TD) treatment policies. Patients and Methods: 28 consecutive patients with therapy-refractory eczema (n = 22) or psoriasis (n = 6) of palms and/or soles were irradiated twice a week either with a D{sub max} SD of 1 Gy (6/98-5/03; median TD: 12 Gy) or 0.5 Gy (6/03-7/04; median TD: 5 Gy). Median age was 52 years (27-71), median follow-up 20 months (4-76). Totally 88 regions were treated, 49 with 1 Gy, 39 with 0.5 Gy SD. Eight different symptoms were scored from 0 (absent) -3 (severe), giving a possible sum score of 0-24. Patients' rating of RT result was also documented (worse/stable/better/complete remission). Results: The sum score was 15 (6-23) before RT, 2 (0-16) at the end of RT, and 1 (0-21) at last follow-up, respectively. The improvement was highly significant in both treatment regimens. Better or complete remission by the patients were reported in 44 and 39 (= 83 out of 88) localisations, that was often stable during the follow-up. 5 (6%) regions in 3 (11%) patients didn't benefit from RT. Conclusion: RT reveals excellent results in palmo-plantar eczema or psoriasis. We recommend a SD of 0.5 Gy twice a week up to a TD of 4-5 Gy. (orig.)

  13. Chronic fatigue syndrome associated with a psychotic state resulting in multiple murders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghahramani, M; Gooriah, V

    1995-01-01

    A 28-year-old, ambitious, academically successful Asian man with a zeal for hard work develops infectious mononucleosis and its resultant lethargy and fatigue. He becomes depressed, then develops symptoms of mania before turning floridly psychotic. In his psychotic state he develops grandiose delusions about being the second son of God after Christ and takes it upon himself to rid the world of all evil by defeating the anti-Christ. He kills four people and seriously injures a fifth. He is arrested and found not guilty by reason of insanity. He remains a diagnostic puzzle for a long time before starting to respond to neuroleptic medication.

  14. Protective effect of alpha glucosyl hesperidin (G-hesperidin) on chronic vanadium induced testicular toxicity and sperm nuclear DNA damage in male Sprague Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijaya Bharathi, B; Jaya Prakash, G; Krishna, K M; Ravi Krishna, C H; Sivanarayana, T; Madan, K; Rama Raju, G A; Annapurna, A

    2015-06-01

    The study was conducted to evaluate the vanadium-induced testicular toxicity and its effect on sperm parameters, sperm nuclear DNA damage and histological alterations in Sprague Dawley rats and to assess the protective effect of G-hesperidin against this damage. Treatment of rats with vanadium at a dose of 1 mg kg bw(-1) for 90 days resulted in significant reduction in serum testosterone levels, sperm count and motility. Further, a parallel increase in abnormal sperm morphology and adverse histopathological changes in testis was also associated with vanadium administration when compared to normal control. Moreover, sperm chromatin dispersion assay revealed that vanadium induces sperm nuclear DNA fragmentation. A marked increase in testicular malondialdehyde levels and decreased activity of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase and catalase indicates vanadium-induced oxidative stress. Co-administration of G-hesperidin at a dose of 25 and 50 mg kg bw(-1) significantly attenuated the sperm parameters and histological changes by restoring the antioxidant levels in rat testis. These results suggested that vanadium exposure caused reduced bioavailability of androgens to the tissue and increased free radical formation, thereby causing structural and functional changes in spermatozoa. G-hesperidin exhibited antioxidant effect by protecting the rat testis against vanadium-induced oxidative damage, further ensures antioxidant potential of bioflavonoids. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  15. Interactive videogame as rehabilitation tool of patients with chronic respiratory diseases: preliminary results of a feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzoleni, Stefano; Montagnani, Giulia; Vagheggini, Guido; Buono, Lorenzo; Moretti, Francesca; Dario, Paolo; Ambrosino, Nicolino

    2014-10-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of an interactive videogame (IV) system in addition to a supervised pulmonary rehabilitation programme (PRP) in patients with chronic respiratory diseases. Randomised Controlled Trial comparing standard PRP (20 patients, control group: CG), and PRP + sessions of interactive videogame-aided exercises (20 patients, experimental group: EG). Lung and respiratory muscle function, arterial blood gases, exercise capacity, dyspnoea, health status and health-related quality of life (HRQL) and emotional response were measured before and after PRP. A questionnaire on acceptability of the PRP was administered. Exercise capacity, dyspnoea and HRQL significantly improved in both groups after the PRP, whereas the EG showed a greater improvement in six-minute walk test and transitional dyspnoea index than the CG. No difference in psychological status or acceptability of PRP was observed between the two groups. The addition of IV training was more effective for improving some parameters of exercise tolerance and dyspnoea, although did not result in better psychological status nor it was better accepted than the standard