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Sample records for chronic stress effects

  1. THE DELAYED EFFECTS OF CHRONIC UNPREDICTABLE STRESS ON ANXIETY MEASURES

    OpenAIRE

    Matuszewich, Leslie; Karney, Jared J.; Carter, Samantha R.; Janasik, Steven P.; O’Brien, Johanna L.; Friedman, Ross D.

    2006-01-01

    Previous research has found that exposure to unpredictable stress can augment anxiety in humans and animals. The appearance of anxiety symptoms in humans frequently develop after stress exposure has terminated, but few rodent studies have systematically examined the delayed anxiogenic effects of unpredictable stress. Therefore, the current study investigated whether anxiety-like behaviors in rats would increase at several time intervals following exposure to chronic unpredictable stress (CUS)...

  2. The Dichotomous Effect of Chronic Stress on Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razzoli, Maria; Bartolomucci, Alessandro

    2016-07-01

    Obesity and metabolic diseases are linked to chronic stress and low socioeconomic status. The mechanistic link between stress and obesity has not been clarified, partly due to the inherent complexity exemplified by the bidirectional effect of stress on eating and body weight. Recent studies focusing on adaptive thermogenesis and brown adipose tissue (BAT) function support a dichotomous relation to explain the impact of stress on obesity: stress promotes obesity in the presence of hyperphagia and unchanged BAT function; stress results in weight loss and/or obesity resistance in the presence of hypophagia, or when hyperphagia is associated with BAT recruitment and enhanced thermogenesis. Mechanistically dissecting the bidirectional effects of stress on metabolic outcomes might open new avenues for innovative pharmacotherapies for the treatment of obesity-associated diseases. PMID:27162125

  3. Epigenetic Effect of Chronic Stress on Dopamine Signaling and Depression

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    Sofia Moriam; Mahbub E. Sobhani

    2013-01-01

    Because of the complex causal factors leading to depression, epigenetics is of considerable interest for the understanding effect of stress in depression. Dopamine is a key neurotransmitter important in many physiological functions, including motor control, mood, and the reward pathway. These factors lead many drugs to target Dopamine receptors in treating depressive disorders. In this review, we try to portray how chronic stress as an epigenetic factor changes the gene regulation pattern by ...

  4. Effects of Chronic Central Arginine Vasopressin (AVP on Maternal Behavior in Chronically Stressed Rat Dams

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    Benjamin C. Nephew

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Exposure of mothers to chronic stressors during pregnancy or the postpartum period often leads to the development of depression, anxiety, or other related mood disorders. The adverse effects of mood disorders are often mediated through maternal behavior and recent work has identified arginine vasopressin (AVP as a key neuropeptide hormone in the expression of maternal behavior in both rats and humans. Using an established rodent model that elicits behavioral and physiological responses similar to human mood disorders, this study tested the effectiveness of chronic AVP infusion as a novel treatment for the adverse effects of exposure to chronic social stress during lactation in rats. During early (day 3 and mid (day 10 lactation, AVP treatment significantly decreased the latency to initiate nursing and time spent retrieving pups, and increased pup grooming and total maternal care (sum of pup grooming and nursing. AVP treatment was also effective in decreasing maternal aggression and the average duration of aggressive bouts on day 3 of lactation. Central AVP may be an effective target for the development of treatments for enhancing maternal behavior in individuals exposed to chronic social stress.

  5. Therapeutic effects of stress-programmed lymphocytes transferred to chronically stressed mice.

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    Scheinert, Rachel B; Haeri, Mitra H; Lehmann, Michael L; Herkenham, Miles

    2016-10-01

    Our group has recently provided novel insights into a poorly understood component of intercommunication between the brain and the immune system by showing that psychological stress can modify lymphocytes in a manner that may boost resilience to psychological stress. To demonstrate the influence of the adaptive immune system on mood states, we previously showed that cells from lymph nodes of socially defeated mice, but not from unstressed mice, conferred anxiolytic and antidepressant-like effects and elevated hippocampal cell proliferation when transferred into naïve lymphopenic Rag2(-/-) mice. In the present study, we asked whether similar transfer could be anxiolytic and antidepressant when done in animals that had been rendered anxious and depressed by chronic psychological stress. First, we demonstrated that lymphopenic Rag2(-/-) mice and their wild-type C57BL/6 mouse counterparts had similar levels of affect normally. Second, we found that following chronic (14days) restraint stress, both groups displayed an anxious and depressive-like phenotype and decreased hippocampal cell proliferation. Third, we showed that behavior in the open field test and light/dark box was normalized in the restraint-stressed Rag2(-/-) mice following adoptive transfer of lymph node cells from green fluorescent protein (GFP) expressing donor mice previously exposed to chronic (14days) of social defeat stress. Cells transferred from unstressed donor mice had no effect on behavior. Immunolabeling of GFP+ cells confirmed that tissue engraftment had occurred at 14days after transfer. We found GFP+ lymphocytes in the spleen, lymph nodes, blood, choroid plexus, and meninges of the recipient Rag2(-/-) mice. The findings suggest that the adaptive immune system may play a key role in promoting recovery from chronic stress. The data support using lymphocytes as a novel therapeutic target for anxiety states. PMID:27109071

  6. Chronic Kidney Disease—Effect of Oxidative Stress

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    Subha Palaneeswari Meenakshi Sundaram

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic kidney disease (CKD is a growing health problem with increasing incidence. The annual mortality of end-stage renal disease patients is about 9%, which is 10–20 fold higher than the general population, approximately 50% of these deaths are due to cardiovascular (CV disease. CV risk factors, such as diabetes, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia, are strongly associated with poor outcome. Many other nontraditional risk factors such as inflammation, infection, oxidative stress, anemia, and malnutrition are also present. In this review we will focus on the role of oxidative stress in chronic kidney disease.

  7. Effect of baclofen on morphine-induced conditioned place preference, extinction, and stress-induced reinstatement in chronically stressed mice

    OpenAIRE

    Meng, Shanshan; Quan, Wuxing; Xu QI; Su, Zhiqiang; Yang, Shanshan

    2013-01-01

    Rationale and Objective A stress-induced increase in excitability can result from a reduction in inhibitory neurotransmission. Modulation of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic transmission is an effective treatment for drug seeking and relapse. This study investigated whether baclofen, a GABAB receptor agonist, had an impact on morphine-induced conditioned place preference (CPP), extinction, and stress-induced relapse in chronically stressed mice. Methods Chronic stress was induced by restra...

  8. The Power of Exercise: Buffering the Effect of Chronic Stress on Telomere Length

    OpenAIRE

    Puterman, Eli; Lin, Jue; Blackburn, Elizabeth; O'Donovan, Aoife; Adler, Nancy; Epel, Elissa

    2010-01-01

    Background Chronic psychological stress is associated with detrimental effects on physical health, and may operate in part through accelerated cell aging, as indexed by shorter telomeres at the ends of chromosomes. However, not all people under stress have distinctly short telomeres, and we examined whether exercise can serve a stress-buffering function. We predicted that chronic stress would be related to short telomere length (TL) in sedentary individuals, whereas in those who exercise, str...

  9. Behavioral effects of chronic adolescent stress are sustained and sexually dimorphic

    OpenAIRE

    Bourke, Chase H.; Neigh, Gretchen N

    2011-01-01

    Evidence suggests that women are more susceptible to stress-related disorders than men. Animal studies demonstrate a similar female sensitivity to stress and have been used to examine the underlying neurobiology of sex-specific effects of stress. Although our understanding of the sex-specific effects of chronic adolescent stress has grown in recent years, few studies have reported the effects of adolescent stress on depressive-like behavior. The purpose of this study was to determine if a chr...

  10. Comparison of the effects of acute and chronic psychological stress on metabolic features in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fatemeh ROSTAMKHANI; Homeira ZARDOOZ; Saleh ZAHEDIASL; Babak FARROKHI

    2012-01-01

    This study was aimed to compare the effects of acute and chronic psychological stress on metabolic factors.Forty-two male Wistar rats were divided into control and stressed groups.Stress was applied by a communication box acutely (1 d) and chronically (15 and 30 d).Blood sampling was carried out by retro-orbital-puncture method.The plasma levels of glucose,cholesterol,triglyceride,insulin,and corticosterone were measured.In addition,feed and water intake,latency to eat and drink,adrenal and body weights were determined.Acute and chronic psychological stress did not significantly change basal plasma corticosterone levels.However,immediately (1 min) after acute exposure to stress,plasma corticosterone level increased compared to that before stress exposure.Acute stress increased plasma insulin levels significantly.Fifteen days of stress exposure resulted in plasma glucose increase.Chronic stress significantly increased feed intake,latency to eat,and adrenal weight compared to acute stress.The body weights of both control and stressed groups increased markedly during the experiment.Homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index did not change significantly in the stressed group.In conclusion,application of acute and chronic psychological stress leads to different metabolic and/or behavioral changes but the metabolic changes resulting from acute exposure to stress seem to be more pronounced.

  11. Post-training reward partially restores chronic stress induced effects in mice.

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    Sergiu Dalm

    Full Text Available Reduced responsiveness to positive stimuli is a core symptom of depression, known as anhedonia. In the present study, we assessed the expression of anhedonia in our chronic stress mouse model using a subset of read-out parameters. In line with this, we investigated in how far chronic stress would affect the facilitating effect of post-training self-administration of sugar, as we previously observed in naïve mice. Male C57BL/6J mice were repeatedly and at unpredictable times exposed to rats (no physical contact over the course of two weeks. Following novelty exploration, (non- spatial learning and memory processes with and without post-training sugar acting as reinforcer, emotionality, reward sensitivity and corticosterone levels were determined. We found that (1 the effects of chronic stress persisted beyond the period of the actual rat exposure. (2 Post-training self-administration of sugar as reinforcer improved spatial performance in naïve mice, whereas (3 in stressed mice sugar partially "normalized" the impaired performance to the level of controls without sugar. Chronic stress (4 increased behavioral inhibition in response to novelty; (5 induced dynamic changes in the pattern of circadian corticosterone secretion during the first week after rat stress and (6 increased the intake of sucrose and water. (7 Chronic stress and sugar consumed during spatial training facilitated the memory for the location of the sucrose bottle weeks later. Concluding, our chronic stress paradigm induces the expression of anhedonia in mice, at different levels of behavior. The behavioral inhibition appears to be long lasting in stressed mice. Interestingly, sugar consumed in close context with spatial learning partially rescued the stress-induced emotional and cognitive impairments. This suggests that reward can ameliorate part of the negative consequences of chronic stress on memory.

  12. Protective Effects of Carvacrol against Oxidative Stress Induced by Chronic Stress in Rat's Brain, Liver, and Kidney

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samarghandian, Saeed; Farkhondeh, Tahereh; Samini, Fariborz; Borji, Abasalt

    2016-01-01

    Restraint stress may be associated with elevated free radicals, and thus, chronic exposure to oxidative stress may cause tissue damage. Several studies have reported that carvacrol (CAR) has a protective effect against oxidative stress. The present study was designed to investigate the protective effects of CAR on restraint stress induced oxidative stress damage in the brain, liver, and kidney. For chronic restraint stress, rats were kept in the restrainers for 6 h every day, for 21 consecutive days. The animals received systemic administrations of CAR daily for 21 days. To evaluate the changes of the oxidative stress parameters following restraint stress, the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), and catalase (CAT) activities were measured in the brain, liver, and kidney. In the stressed animals that received vehicle, the MDA level was significantly higher (P < 0.001) and the levels of GSH and antioxidant enzymes were significantly lower than the nonstressed animals (P < 0.001). CAR ameliorated the changes in the stressed animals as compared with the control group (P < 0.001). This study indicates that CAR can prevent restraint stress induced oxidative damage. PMID:26904286

  13. Protective effects of myricetin on chronic stress-induced cognitive deficits.

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    Wang, Qi-Min; Wang, Gui-Lin; Ma, Ze-Gang

    2016-06-15

    The aim of the present study is to investigate the possible effects of chronic administration of myricetin, a natural flavonoid, on chronic stress-induced learning and memory deficits in mice. The mice were restrained daily 4 h/day for 21 days in well-ventilated plexiglass tubes without access to food and water. These animals were injected with myricetin or vehicle 40 min before each restraint stress over a period of 21 days. Then, spatial learning and memory of the mice were evaluated by the Morris water maze task. We did not observe a significant difference in the escape latency in mice subjected to repeated restraint stress, which indicates that learning ability was not affected by restraint stress. However, the spatial memory ability was significantly impaired in the repeatedly restrained mice. Myricetin administration specifically increased the time spent in the target quadrant in mice exposed to chronic stress in the probe trial as tested in the Morris water maze task. Further studies showed that myricetin treatment decreased plasma adrenocorticotrophic hormone levels of those mice subjected to repeated restraint stress. The effect of myricetin on the levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in hippocampus was also investigated. The result showed that myricetin normalized the decreased BDNF levels in mice subjected to repeated restraint stress. These findings provide more evidence that chronic administration of myricetin improves spatial memory in repeatedly restrained mice and BDNF signaling in the hippocampus may be involved in the protective effects of myricetin. PMID:27171032

  14. Lithium modulates the chronic stress-induced effect on blood glucose level of male rats

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    Popović Nataša

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study we examined gross changes in the mass of whole adrenal glands and that of the adrenal cortex, as well as the serum corticosterone and glucose level of mature male Wistar rats subjected to three different treatments: animals subjected to chronic restraint-stress, animals injected with lithium (Li and chronically stressed rats treated with Li. Under all three conditions we observed hypertrophy of whole adrenals, as well as the adrenal cortices. Chronic restraint stress, solely or in combination with Li treatment, significantly elevated the corticosterone level, but did not change the blood glucose level. Animals treated only with Li exhibited an elevated serum corticosterone level and blood glucose level. The aim of our study was to investigate the modulation of the chronic stress-induced effect on the blood glucose level by lithium, as a possible mechanism of avoiding the damage caused by chronic stress. Our results showed that lithium is an agent of choice which may help to reduce stress-elevated corticosterone and replenish exhausted glucose storages in an organism.

  15. Effects of acute and chronic administration of methylprednisolone on oxidative stress in rat lungs* **

    OpenAIRE

    Torres, Ronaldo Lopes; Torres, Iraci Lucena da Silva; Laste, Gabriela; Ferreira, Maria Beatriz Cardoso; Cardoso, Paulo Francisco Guerreiro; Belló-Klein, Adriane

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the effects of acute and chronic administration of methylprednisolone on oxidative stress, as quantified by measuring lipid peroxidation (LPO) and total reactive antioxidant potential (TRAP), in rat lungs. Methods: Forty Wistar rats were divided into four groups: acute treatment, comprising rats receiving a single injection of methylprednisolone (50 mg/kg i.p.); acute control, comprising rats i.p. injected with saline; chronic treatment, comprising rats receiving methy...

  16. The effect of Brazilian propolis on serum thyroid hormones in broilers reared under chronic heat stress

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    This experiment evaluated the effect of dietary supplement with green Brazilian propolis on serum thyroxin (T4) and tri-iodothyronine (T3) levels in broiler chickens exposed to chronic heat stress for 4 wks (from 15 to 42 d of age). Five hundred and four 15-d-old, male broiler chickens (Ross 708) w...

  17. Comparison of the Adulthood Chronic Stress Effect on Hippocampal BDNF Signaling in Male and Female Rats.

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    Niknazar, Somayeh; Nahavandi, Arezo; Peyvandi, Ali Asghar; Peyvandi, Hassan; Akhtari, Amin Shams; Karimi, Mohsen

    2016-08-01

    Studies show that gender plays an important role in stress-related disorders, and women are more vulnerable to its effect. The present study was undertaken to investigate differences in the change in expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and its tyrosine intracellular kinase-activating receptor (TrkB) genes in the male and female rats' hippocampus (HPC) under chronic mild repeated stress (CMRS) conditions. In this experiment, male and female Wistar rats were randomly divided into two groups: the CMRS and the control group. To induce stress, a repeated forced swimming paradigm was employed daily for adult male and female rats for 21 days. At the end of the stress phase, elevated plus maze (EPM) was used for measuring the stress behavioral effects. Serum corticosterone level was measured by ELISA. BDNF and TrkB gene methylation and protein expression in the HPC were detected using real-time PCR and Western blotting. Chronic stress in the adolescence had more effects on anxiety-like behavior and serum corticosterone concentration in female rats than males. Furthermore, stressed female rats had higher methylation levels and following reduced protein expression of BDNF but not TrkB compared to stressed male rats. These findings suggest that in exposure to a stressor, sex differences in BDNF methylation may be root cause of decreased BDNF levels in females and may underlie susceptibility to pathology development. PMID:26189832

  18. Effects of Active Mastication on Chronic Stress-Induced Bone Loss in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Azuma, Kagaku; Furuzawa, Manabu; Fujiwara, Shu; YAMADA, Kumiko; Kubo, Kin-Ya

    2015-01-01

    Chronic psychologic stress increases corticosterone levels, which decreases bone density. Active mastication or chewing attenuates stress-induced increases in corticosterone. We evaluated whether active mastication attenuates chronic stress-induced bone loss in mice. Male C57BL/6 (B6) mice were randomly divided into control, stress, and stress/chewing groups. Stress was induced by placing mice in a ventilated restraint tube (60 min, 2x/day, 4 weeks). The stress/chewing group was given a woode...

  19. Regulation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the chronic unpredictable stress rat model and the effects of chronic antidepressant treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Marianne H; Mikkelsen, Jens D; Hay-Schmidt, Anders;

    2010-01-01

    Chronic unpredictable stress (CUS) is a widely used animal model of depression. The present study was undertaken to investigate behavioral, physiological and molecular effects of CUS and/or chronic antidepressant treatment (venlafaxine or imipramine) in the same set of animals. Anhedonia, a core ...... of the dorsal hippocampus correlated with chronic antidepressant treatment emphasizing a role for BDNF in the mechanisms underlying antidepressant activity....

  20. The power of exercise: buffering the effect of chronic stress on telomere length.

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    Eli Puterman

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chronic psychological stress is associated with detrimental effects on physical health, and may operate in part through accelerated cell aging, as indexed by shorter telomeres at the ends of chromosomes. However, not all people under stress have distinctly short telomeres, and we examined whether exercise can serve a stress-buffering function. We predicted that chronic stress would be related to short telomere length (TL in sedentary individuals, whereas in those who exercise, stress would not have measurable effects on telomere shortening. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: 63 healthy post-menopausal women underwent a fasting morning blood draw for whole blood TL analysis by a quantitative polymerase chain reaction method. Participants completed the Perceived Stress Scale (Cohen et al., 1983, and for three successive days reported daily minutes of vigorous activity. Participants were categorized into two groups-sedentary and active (those getting Centers for Disease Control-recommended daily amount of activity. The likelihood of having short versus long telomeres was calculated as a function of stress and exercise group, covarying age, BMI and education. Logistic regression analyses revealed a significant moderating effect of exercise. As predicted, among non-exercisers a one unit increase in the Perceived Stress Scale was related to a 15-fold increase in the odds of having short telomeres (p<.05, whereas in exercisers, perceived stress appears to be unrelated to TL (B = -.59, SE = .78, p = .45. DISCUSSION: Vigorous physical activity appears to protect those experiencing high stress by buffering its relationship with TL. We propose pathways through which physical activity acts to buffer stress effects.

  1. Chronic stress effects in contralateral medial pterygoid muscle of rats with occlusion alteration.

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    Loyola, Bruno Melo; Nascimento, Glauce Crivelaro; Fernández, Rodrigo Alberto Restrepo; Iyomasa, Daniela Mizusaki; Pereira, Yamba Carla Lara; Leite-Panissi, Christie Ramos Andrade; Issa, João Paulo Mardegan; Iyomasa, Mamie Mizusaki

    2016-10-01

    Temporomandibular disorder (TMD) has a high prevalence in our society, characterized by a severe pain condition of the masticatory muscles and temporomandibular joint. Despite the indication of multiple factor initiators of TMD, there is still controversy about its etiology and its pathophysiology is poorly understood. Using rats as experimental animals we investigated the effect of unpredictable chronic stress with or without unilateral molar extraction on the contralateral medial pterygoid muscle. Our hypothesis is that these two factors induce changes in morphology, oxidative metabolism and oxidative stress of muscle fibers. Young adult male Wistar rats (±200g) were divided into four groups: a group with extraction and unpredictable chronic stress (E+US); with extraction and without stress (E+C); without extraction and with unpredictable chronic stress (NO+US); and a control group without either extraction or stress (NO+C). The animals were subjected to unilateral extraction of the upper left molars, under intraperitoneal anesthesia with 4% Xylazine (10mg/kg) and 10% Ketamine (80mg/kg) on day zero. The rats of groups E+US and NO+US were submitted to different protocols of stress, from the 14th day after the extraction. The protocols were different every day for five consecutive days, which were repeated from the 6th day for five days more. Contralateral medial pterygoid muscles were obtained on the 24th day after the start of the experiment for morphological, metabolic, capillary density, and oxidative stress analysis. The data from capillary density showed a decrease of capillaries in animals subjected to dental extraction, compared with those without extraction and an increase of laminin expression in the group submitted to the unpredictable chronic stress when compared to the unexposed to stress. SDH test revealed a decrease of light fibers in the group submitted to unilateral extraction of molars, compared with this area in the control group. In E+US and NO

  2. Unpredictable chronic mild stress not chronic restraint stress induces depressive behaviours in mice.

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    Zhu, Shenghua; Shi, Ruoyang; Wang, Junhui; Wang, Jun-Feng; Li, Xin-Min

    2014-10-01

    The chronic stress model was developed on the basis of the stress-diathesis hypothesis of depression. However, these behavioural responses associated with different stress paradigms are quite complex. This study examined the effects of two chronic stress regimens on anxiety-like and depressive behaviours. C57BL/6 mice were subjected to unpredictable chronic mild stress or to chronic restraint stress for 4 weeks. Subsequently, both anxiety-like behaviours (open field, elevated plus maze and novelty suppressed feeding) and depression-like behaviours (tail suspension, forced swim and sucrose preference) were evaluated. Both chronic stress models generated anxiety-like behaviours, whereas only unpredictable chronic mild stress could induce depressive behaviours such as increased immobility and decreased sucrose consumption. These results of the present study provide additional evidence on how chronic stress affects behavioural responses and point to the importance of the validity of animal models of chronic stress in studying depression. PMID:25089805

  3. Effects of prenatal exposure to chronic mild stress and toluene in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Karin; Andersen, Maibritt B; Hansen, Ase M;

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to elucidate whether prenatal chronic stress, in combination with exposure to a developmental neurotoxicant, would increase effects in the offspring compared with the effects of either exposure alone. Development and neurobehavioral effects were investigated in...... female offspring of pregnant rats (Mol:WIST) exposed to chronic mild stress (CMS) during gestational days (GD) 9-20, or 1500 ppm toluene, 6 h/day during gestational days 7-20, or a combination of the two. Prenatal CMS was associated with decreased thymic weight and increased auditory startle response....... The corticosterone response to restraint seemed modified by prenatal exposure to toluene. Lactational body weight was decreased in offsprings subjected to CMS, primarily due to effects in the combined exposure group. Cognitive function was investigated in the Morris water maze, and some indications of...

  4. Antidepressant-like effects of BCEF0083 in the chronic unpredictable stress models in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Lan-lan; MING Liang; MA Chuan-geng; CHENG Yan; JIANG Qin

    2005-01-01

    Background Up to now there have been no satisfactory drugs to treat psychiatric disorders, and now bioactive compound from entomagenous fungi (BCEF0083) is a new type of bioactive compound from entomopathogenic fungi. Our previous investigations have shown that BCEF has an inhibition effect on monoamine oxidase. So, BCEF may be a latent antidepressant. This study aimed at observing the antidepressant effects and its mechanism of BCEF in the chronic unpredictable stress models in mice. Methods The antidepressant effects of BCEF were examined on the chronic unpredictable stress models in mice. Sixty mice were randomly divided to six groups. Animals were housed and isolated except saline group. Mice were exposed to different stressors per day randomly from day 1 to day 21. Body weight were weighed on day 1,day 10 and on day 21 during the 21-day stress procedure. Awarding response was detected by using method of calculating the 24-hour consumption of saccharum water. Step through test was used to evaluate the behavioral response. AVP contents in plasma were also detected by using radioimmunoassays. Results Chronic unpredictable stress resulted in a significant decrease of the body weight and could apparently cause escape behavior disturbance and gradual reduction of sensitivity to reward in animal models. Drug treatment (BCEF 25, 50, 100 mg/kg) could significantly ameliorate the decreased body weight and effectively reverse the escape behavior disturbance. The gradual reduction of sensitivity to reward, the anhedonic state, was also effectively reversed by BCEF. BCEF (50, 100 mg/kg) could also effectively restore the AVP content in the plasma.Conclusions This evidence suggests that BCEF can effectively inhibit the depression behavior and show strong antidepressant effect. BCEF can effectively restore the plasma AVP release and this may be an important mechanism of its antidepressant effect.

  5. Effects of chronic variable stress on cognition and Bace1 expression among wild-type mice.

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    Cordner, Z A; Tamashiro, K L K

    2016-01-01

    Stressful life events, activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and glucocorticoids are now thought to have a role in the development of several neurodegenerative and psychiatric disorders including Alzheimer's disease (AD) through mechanisms that may include exacerbation of cognitive impairment, neuronal loss, and beta-amyloid (Aβ) and tau neuropathology. In the current study, we use a wild-type mouse model to demonstrate that chronic variable stress impairs cognitive function and that aged mice are particularly susceptible. We also find that stress exposure is associated with a 1.5- to 2-fold increase in the expression of Bace1 in the hippocampus of young adult mice and the hippocampus, prefrontal cortex and amygdala of aged mice. Further, the increased expression of Bace1 was associated with decreased methylation of several CpGs in the Bace1 promoter region. In a second series of experiments, exposure to environmental enrichment (EE) prevented the stress-related changes in cognition, gene expression and DNA methylation. Together, these findings re-affirm the adverse effects of stress on cognition and further suggest that aged individuals are especially susceptible. In addition, demonstrating that chronic stress results in decreased DNA methylation and increased expression of Bace1 in the brain may provide a novel link between stress, Aβ pathology and AD. Finally, understanding the mechanisms by which EE prevented the effects of stress on cognition and Bace1 expression will be an important area of future study that may provide insights into novel approaches to the treatment of AD. PMID:27404286

  6. Effect of chronic exposure to aspartame on oxidative stress in the brain of albino rats

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ashok Iyyaswamy; Sheeladevi Rathinasamy

    2012-09-01

    This study was aimed at investigating the chronic effect of the artificial sweetener aspartame on oxidative stress in brain regions of Wistar strain albino rats. Many controversial reports are available on the use of aspartame as it releases methanol as one of its metabolite during metabolism. The present study proposed to investigate whether chronic aspartame (75 mg/kg) administration could release methanol and induce oxidative stress in the rat brain. To mimic the human methanol metabolism, methotrexate (MTX)-treated rats were included to study the aspartame effects. Wistar strain male albino rats were administered with aspartame orally and studied along with controls and MTX-treated controls. The blood methanol level was estimated, the animal was sacrificed and the free radical changes were observed in brain discrete regions by assessing the scavenging enzymes, reduced glutathione, lipid peroxidation (LPO) and protein thiol levels. It was observed that there was a significant increase in LPO levels, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, GPx levels and CAT activity with a significant decrease in GSH and protein thiol. Moreover, the increases in some of these enzymes were region specific. Chronic exposure of aspartame resulted in detectable methanol in blood. Methanol per se and its metabolites may be responsible for the generation of oxidative stress in brain regions.

  7. Absent effect of zinc deficiency on the oxidative stress of erythrocytes in chronic uremic rats.

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    Chen, Shu-Ming; Wang, Ching-Chu; Lin, Fanny; Young, Tze-Kong

    2002-03-31

    Both anemia and zinc deficiency are commonly observed in patients with chronic uremia. Oxidative stress of red blood cells (RBC) has been suggested to participate in the development of anemia in these patients with chronic uremia due to reduced life span of RBC. Whether zinc deficiency aggravates the effect of oxidative stress on RBC of chronic uremia is still not understood. We thus performed the study to determine the influence of zinc deficiency on the oxidative stress of RBC in uremic rats. Zinc deficiency was induced by long-term dietary zinc deficiency. Five-sixth nephrectomy (5/6 Nx) was used to produce chronic uremia. Experiment was carried out in the following five groups: normal control (NL), chronic uremia (Nx), chronic uremia + dietary zinc deficiency (Nx-D), Nx-D + zinc supplement (Nx-DZ) and Chronic uremia + pair-fed (Nx-PF). Osmotic fragility and lipid peroxidation of RBC were used to evaluate the oxidative stress of RBC. Five weeks after 5/6 nephrectomy (Nx), 5/6 Nx rats present a syndrome of uremia to elevate the levels of plasma creatinine and urea, and reduce the level of plasma zinc (1.12 +/- 0.08 vs 1.35 +/- 0.05 ug/ml). But they does not find to produce anemia and to increase osmotic fragility and lipid peroxidation in RBC. Dietary zinc deficiency in Nx-D group produced severe anorexia and reduced plasma zinc and selenium levels and the activity of RBC-GPX. Yet in Nx-D rats, osmotic fragility and susceptibility of lipid peroxidation in red cells did not increase, because of the increase of plasma copper level (1.85 +/- 0.3 vs 1.41 +/- 0.05 microg/ml) and RBC-SOD activity (1.95 +/- 0.27 vs 0.78 +/- 0.05 unit/g Hb). Zinc supplement in Nx-D rats (Nx-DZ group) recovered the appetite and normalized the levels of plasma zinc, copper and selenium. Food restriction in 5/6 Nx rats (Nx-PF group) decreased plasma copper level and increased osmotic fragility of RBC and elevated the susceptibility of lipid peroxidation after stressing RBC with H2O2 Because

  8. Effects of administration of oral n-acetylcysteine on oxidative stress in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients in rural population

    OpenAIRE

    Kale SB; AB Patil; Anita Kale

    2016-01-01

    Background: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a common pulmonary disease and the fourth leading cause of death globally. Oxidative stress is an important attribute in the pathogenesis of COPD. Targeting oxidative stress would be a logical therapeutic approach for COPD and glutathione precursors like N-acetylcysteine (NAC) have shown therapeutic promise in the treatment of this chronic pathology. This study attempts to determine the dose related effects of NAC on the oxidative s...

  9. Aggravation of Chronic Stress Effects on Hippocampal Neurogenesis and Spatial Memory in LPA1 Receptor Knockout Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Castilla-Ortega, Estela; Hoyo-Becerra, Carolina; Pedraza, Carmen; Chun, Jerold; Rodríguez de Fonseca, Fernando; Estivill-Torrús, Guillermo; Santín, Luis J.

    2011-01-01

    Background The lysophosphatidic acid LPA1 receptor regulates plasticity and neurogenesis in the adult hippocampus. Here, we studied whether absence of the LPA1 receptor modulated the detrimental effects of chronic stress on hippocampal neurogenesis and spatial memory. Methodology/Principal Findings Male LPA1-null (NULL) and wild-type (WT) mice were assigned to control or chronic stress conditions (21 days of restraint, 3 h/day). Immunohistochemistry for bromodeoxyuridine and endogenous marker...

  10. The Effect of Chronic Mild Stress and Imipramine on the Markers of Oxidative Stress and Antioxidant System in Rat Liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duda, Weronika; Curzytek, Katarzyna; Kubera, Marta; Iciek, Małgorzata; Kowalczyk-Pachel, Danuta; Bilska-Wilkosz, Anna; Lorenc-Koci, Elżbieta; Leśkiewicz, Monika; Basta-Kaim, Agnieszka; Budziszewska, Bogusława; Regulska, Magdalena; Ślusarczyk, Joanna; Gruca, Piotr; Papp, Mariusz; Maes, Michael; Lasoń, Władysław; Antkiewicz-Michaluk, Lucyna

    2016-08-01

    Liver abnormalities have been reported to occur in up to 20 % of patients on a long-term therapy with the tricyclic antidepressant drug imipramine (IMI). The mechanism involved in this IMI-induced process is unknown but a contribution of oxidative stress is highly likely. Chronic mild stress (CMS) is widely used for modeling depressive-like behavior in rats. In the present study, we examined the effects of CMS and chronic IMI treatment, applied alone or in combination, on the levels of oxidative stress markers, such as reactive oxygen species (ROS), malondialdehyde (MDA), non-protein sulfhydryl groups, and sulfane sulfur as well as on activities of key antioxidant enzymes: catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and superoxide dismutase in the rat liver. Administration of IMI for 5 weeks to rats subjected to CMS resulted in a gradual significant reduction of anhedonia measured by sucrose intake, in a majority of animals (CMS IMI-reactive, CMS IMI-R), although about 20 % of rats did not respond to the IMI treatment (CMS IMI non-reactive, CMS IMI-NR). CMS-induced hepatic oxidative stress, estimated by increased ROS and MDA concentrations, was not prevented by the IMI administration, moreover, in CMS IMI-NR animals, the level of the marker of lipid peroxidation, i.e., MDA was increased in comparison to CMS-subjected rats and activity of antioxidant enzymes (GPx and CAT) was decreased compared to IMI-treated rats. The clinical significance of this observation remains to be established. PMID:26961706

  11. Hypericum perforatum treatment: effect on behaviour and neurogenesis in a chronic stress model in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuzzocrea Salvatore

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Extracts of Hypericum perforatum (St. John's wort have been traditionally recommended for a wide range of medical conditions, in particular mild-to-moderate depression. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of Hypericum perforatum treatment in a mouse model of anxiety/depressive-like behavior, induced by chronic corticosterone administration. Methods CD1 mice were submitted to 7 weeks corticosterone administration and then behavioral tests as Open Field (OF, Novelty-Suppressed Feeding (NSF, Forced Swim Test (FST were performed. Cell proliferation in hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG was investigated by both 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU and doublecortin (DCX immunohistochemistry techniques and stereological procedure was used to quantify labeled cells. Golgi-impregnation method was used to evaluate changes in dendritic spines in DG. Hypericum perforatum (30 mg/Kg has been administered for 3 weeks and then neural development in the adult hippocampus and behavioral changes have been examined. Results The anxiety/depressive-like state due to chronic corticosterone treatment was reversed by exogenous administration of Hypericum perforatum; the proliferation of progenitor cells in mice hippocampus was significantly reduced under chronic corticosterone treatment, whereas a long term treatment with Hypericum perforatum prevented the corticosterone-induced decrease in hippocampal cell proliferation. Corticosterone-treated mice exhibited a reduced spine density that was ameliorated by Hypericum perforatum administration. Conclusion These results provide evidence of morphological adaptations occurring in mature hippocampal neurons that might underlie resilient responses to chronic stress and contribute to the therapeutic effects of chronic Hypericum perforatum treatment.

  12. Protective Effects of Lentinan against T Lymphocytes Injury in Mice under Chronic Radiation Stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG; Yong; LI; Ming-chun; FU; Qing-jie

    2013-01-01

    Objective To study the effects of lentinan (LTN) on mice exposed to chronic radiation. Methods Animals were divided into three groups (n = 10), they were animals exposed to radiation (Rad), normal control animals (Ctr), and irradiated animals treated with LTN (Rad + LTN). Animal model of chronic radiation stress injury was induced by irradiating mice with 60 Co γ-ray for 6 weeks from Monday to Friday consecutively. Before radiation, the mice in Rad + LTN group were ip injected with 0.5 mL LTN (0.01 mg/mL), whereas mice in other groups were injected with 0.9% physiological saline. The effects of LTN treatment on irradiated mice were examined by histological analysis on the spleen. The cell numbers and viability of T lymphocytes, which were isolated from the spleen, were determined by Trypan blue staining. Nitric oxide (NO) production and interleukin-2 (IL-2) secretion in T lymphocytes were also measured. Results Chronic radiation significantly reduced the body weights and the spleen and thymus indexes, associated with reduced T lymphocytes viability and functions, and elevated NO production. Treatment with LTN significantly normalized the elevated NO production, and attenuated the negative outcomes resulting from radiation mentioned above. Conclusion The results suggest that radioprotective effect of LTN may be contributed by improved T lymphocytes viability and functions via regulating the NO and IL-2 production in T lymphocytes.

  13. Protective Effects of Lentinan against T Lymphocytes Injury in Mice under Chronic Radiation Stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yong; LI Ming-chun; FU Qing-jie

    2013-01-01

    Objective To study the effects of lentinan (LTN) on mice exposed to chronic radiation.Methods Animals were divided into three groups (n =10),they were animals exposed to radiation (Rad),normal control animals (Ctr),and irradiated animals treated with LTN (Rad + LTN).Animal model of chronic radiation stress injury was induced by irradiating mice with 60Co γ-ray for 6 weeks from Monday to Friday consecutively.Before radiation,the mice in Rad + LTN group were ip injected with 0.5 mL LTN (0.01 mg/mL),whereas mice in other groups were injected with 0.9% physiological saline.The effects of LTN treatment on irradiated mice were examined by histological analysis on the spleen.The cell numbers and viability of T lymphocytes,which were isolated from the spleen,were determined by Trypan blue staining.Nitric oxide (NO) production and interleukin-2 (IL-2) secretion in T lymphocytes were also measured.Results Chronic radiation significantly reduced the body weights and the spleen and thymus indexes,associated with reduced T lymphocytes viability and functions,and elevated NO production.Treatment with LTN significantly normalized the elevated NO production,and attenuated the negative outcomes resulting from radiation mentioned above.Conclusion The results suggest that radioprotective effect of LTN may be contributed by improved T lymphocytes viability and functions via regulating the NO and IL-2 production in T lymphocytes.

  14. Hypothalamic oxytocin mediates adaptation mechanism against chronic stress in rats

    OpenAIRE

    ZHENG, JUN; Babygirija, Reji; Bülbül, Mehmet; Cerjak, Diana; Ludwig, Kirk; Takahashi, Toku

    2010-01-01

    Accumulation of continuous life stress (chronic stress) often causes gastric symptoms. Although central oxytocin has antistress effects, the role of central oxytocin in stress-induced gastric dysmotility remains unknown. Solid gastric emptying was measured in rats receiving acute restraint stress, 5 consecutive days of repeated restraint stress (chronic homotypic stress), and 7 consecutive days of varying types of stress (chronic heterotypic stress). Oxytocin and oxytocin receptor antagonist ...

  15. Effect of Pueraria tuberosa tuber extract on chronic foot shock stress in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramanik, S S; Sur, T K; Debnath, P K; Bhattacharyya, D

    2010-12-01

    The present study was undertaken to explore the protective effects of tuberous root extract of Pueraria tuberosa on chronic foot shock stress (CS) induced physiological, neurobehavioral and neuropathological alterations. Male Wistar rats (120-150 g) were divided into seven groups, consisting of ten animals in each. Group I served as normal, group II as positive control, while group III-VII as test drug treated. P tuberosa tuber extract (PTE) was given to rats of groups III-VI at the doses of 50, 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg respectively, while group VII treated with Withania somnifera rhizome extract (WSE) (100 mg/kg) as reference drug. Group II (stress control) received only equivalent volume of distilled water (0.5 ml/100 g) orally. All the drugs were given orally once/day for 14 consecutive days. The last dose was given 1 h before study. Simultaneously, all the animals (except group I) were subjected to 1 h of foot-shock (2 mA) through a grid floor for those 14 days in a standard conditioning chamber with the escape route closed [Chronic stress (CS)]. Thereafter, the rats were placed on open-field and plus maze apparatus for studying the behavioral patterns of them, and the anxiolytic effects of the putative drug. Sexual activities of the animals were also studied. Finally, the animals were sacrificed and their ulcer formation in gastric mucosa was noted. Weights of adrenals and spleen were also taken. Further, plasma corticosterone levels were estimated spectroflurometrically. Results indicated that, CS significantly altered the behavioral patterns, decreased the sexual urge and activities, damaged the gastric mucosal layers, enhanced plasma corticosterone levels and increased adrenal glands and spleen weights. PTE and WSE showed significant anxiolytic activity, protected the gastric mucosa, lowered plasma corticosterone level (indicating HPA axis inhibition) and negated the hypertrophy of adrenals and spleen. PTE also enhanced the sexual urge and activities in

  16. Effects of chronic stress on the onset and progression of Huntington's disease in transgenic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Christina; Renoir, Thibault; Hannan, Anthony J

    2014-11-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is a neurodegenerative disease caused by a tandem repeat mutation encoding an expanded polyglutamine tract. Our previous work showed that memory deficits in HD transgenic mice could be accelerated by increased levels of stress hormone, while memory in WT mice remained unaffected. HD patients experience higher levels of stress compared to the general population and symptoms of HD also include motor, cognitive, psychiatric, sexual and olfactory abnormalities, and an associated decline in activities of daily living. Therefore we investigated the impact of a robust stressor (i.e. restraint) on the onset and progression of a range of behavioral phenotypes in R6/1 transgenic HD mice. Restraint was administered for 1h daily from 6weeks of age and continued until R6/1 mice were clearly motor symptomatic at 14weeks of age. Serum corticosterone levels in both R6/1 and WT littermates were elevated immediately after the last restraint session and weight gain was suppressed in restrained animals throughout the treatment period. Motor coordination and locomotor activity were enhanced by chronic restraint in males, regardless of genotype. However, there was no effect of restraint on motor performances in female animals. At 8weeks of age, olfactory sensitivity was impaired by restraint in R6/1 HD female mice, but not in WT mice. In male R6/1 mice, the olfactory deficit was exacerbated by restraint and olfaction was also impaired in male WT mice. The development of deficits in saccharin preference, Y-maze memory, nest-building and sexually-motivated vocalizations was unaffected by chronic restraint in R6/1 and had little impact on such behavioral performances in WT animals. We provide evidence that chronic stress can negatively modulate specific endophenotypes in HD mice, while the same functions were affected to a lesser extent in WT mice. This vulnerability in HD animals seems to be sex-specific depending on the stress paradigm used. It is hoped that our

  17. The effect of chronic peripheral nesfatin-1 application on blood pressure in normal and chronic restraint stressed rats: related with circulating level of blood pressure regulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayada, Ceylan; Turgut, Günfer; Turgut, Sebahat; Güçlü, Zuhal

    2015-01-01

    Nesfatin is a peptide secreted by peripheral tissues, central and peripheral nervous system. It is involved in the regulation of homeostasis. Although the effects of nesfatin-1 on nutrition have been studied widely in the literature, the mechanisms of nesfatin-1 action and also relations with other physiological parameters are still not clarified well. We aimed to investigate the effect of peripheral chronic nesfatin-1 application on blood pressure regulation in normal and in rats exposed to restraint immobilization stress. In our study, three month-old male Wistar rats were used. Rats were divided into 4 groups as Control, Stress, Control+Nesfatin-1, Nesfatin-1+Stress. Angiotensinogen, angiotensin converting enzyme 2, angiotensin II, endothelin-1, endothelial nitric oxide synthase, aldosterone, cortisol, nesfatin-1 levels were determined in plasma samples by ELISA. Our results have shown that chronic peripheral nesfatin-1 administration increases blood pressure in normal and in rats exposed to chronic restraint stress. Effect of nesfatin-1 on circulating level of angiotensinogen, angiotensin converting enzyme 2, angiotensin II, endothelin-1, endothelial nitric oxide synthase, aldosterone and cortisol has been identified. We can conclude that elevated high blood pressure after chronic peripheral nesfatin-1 administration in rats exposed to chronic restraint stress may be related to decreased plasma level of endothelial nitric oxide synthase concentration. PMID:25504061

  18. [Effect of chronic social stress on lipid metabolism in golden Syrian hamsters].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahaĭko, A L; Voronina, L M; Kaliman, P A; Strel'chenko, K V

    2008-01-01

    The changes of total lipids, lipoproteins and their fractions, free fatty acids, triacylglyceroles, free and esterified cholesterol levels and parameters of its metabolism in the blood serum and liver, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and lysosomal lipase activity in the liver, and also post-heparin lipases activity in blood of hamsters with chronic social stress are investigated. Is has been shown, that in stressed animals the prevalence in early terms of chronic stress lipolysis above lipogenesis is observed. In later terms of chronic stress the lipogenesis activation is also observed which, alongside with active lipolysis, can cause hyperlipidemia in blood. The latter phenomenon is obviously more characteristic of males, while in females the main source of fatty acids in blood is probably lipolysis in the liver. Proatherogenic redistribution of lipoprotein fractions, which was observed at chronic stress, becomes complicated by changes of their transformations processes under blood lipases action, in particular, lipases disbalance: by increasing of hepatic lipase activity without lipoprotein lipase activity increase. The increase of CETP activity in HDL, which is observed at stress, can be accompanied by atherogenic LDLB accumulation in the blood plasma. The chronic social stress is proatherogenic owing to lipid and lipoprotein metabolism changes, which lead to the shift of balance during lipids transport and their use by tissues. PMID:19140458

  19. Hippocampal cytogenesis and spatial learning in senile rats exposed to chronic variable stress: effects of previous early life exposure to mild stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Jauregui-Huerta

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we exposed adult rats to chronic variable stress and tested the hypothesis that previous early-life exposure to stress changes the manner in which older subjects respond to aversive conditions. To this end, we analyzed the cytogenic changes in the hippocampus and hippocampal-dependent spatial learning performance. The experiments were performed on 18-month-old male rats divided into 4 groups as follows: Control (old rats under standard laboratory conditions, Early-life stress (old rats who were exposed to environmental noise from postnatal days 21 to 35, Chronic variable stress + Early-life stress (old rats exposed to a chronic stress protocol who were previously exposed to the early-life noise stress and Chronic variable stress (old rats who were exposed only to the chronic stress protocol. The Morris Water Maze (MWM was employed to evaluate the spatial learning abilities of the rats at the end of the experiment. Immunohistochemistry against 5’Bromodeoxiuridine (BrdU and glial fibrillar acidic protein (GFAP was also conducted in the DG, CA1, CA2 and CA3 regions of the hippocampus. We confocally analyzed the cytogenic (BrdU-labeled cells and astrogenic (BrdU+GFAP-labeled cells changes produced by these conditions. Using this procedure, we found that stress diminished the total number of BrdU+ cells over the main proliferative area of the hippocampus (i.e., the dentate gyrus but increased the astrocyte phenotypes (GFAP+BrdU. The depleted BrdU+ cells were restored when the senile rats also experienced stress at the early stages of life. The MWM assessment demonstrated that stress also impairs the ability of the rats to learn the task. This impairment was not present when the stressful experience was preceded by the early-life exposure. Thus, our results support the idea that previous exposure to mild stressing agents may have beneficial effects on aged subjects.

  20. Longevity factor klotho and chronic psychological stress

    OpenAIRE

    Prather, A A; Epel, E S; Arenander, J; Broestl, L; Garay, B I; Wang, D; Dubal, D B

    2015-01-01

    Chronic psychological stress is associated with accelerated aging and premature morbidity and mortality; however, the biology linking chronic psychological stress and its maladaptive effects remains largely unknown. Klotho is a pleiotropic hormone that regulates the aging process and promotes better brain and body health. Whether klotho is linked to psychosocial stress or its negative impact in humans has not been investigated. To address this gap, we recruited 178 healthy women who were eith...

  1. Antidepressant-Like Effects of Cordycepin in a Mice Model of Chronic Unpredictable Mild Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Tianzhu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cordycepin (3′-deoxyadenosine, a major bioactive component isolated from Cordyceps militaris, has multiple pharmacological activities. This study is attempted to investigate whether cordycepin (COR possesses beneficial effects on chronic unpredictable mild stress- (CUMS- induced behavioral deficits (depression-like behaviors and explore the possible mechanisms. ICR mice were subjected to chronic unpredictable mild stress for 42 consecutive days. Then, COR and fluoxetine (FLU, positive control drug were administered for 21 consecutive days at the last three weeks of CUMS procedure. The classical behavioral tests, open field test (OFT, sucrose preference test (SPT, tail suspension test (TST, and forced swimming test (FST, were applied to evaluate the antidepressant effects of COR. Then the serotonin (5-HT and noradrenaline (NE concentrations in hippocampal were evaluated by HPLC; tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α and interleukin-6 (IL-6 in hippocampal were evaluated, and the proteins of TNF-α, IL-6, NF-κBP65 5-HT receptor (5-HTR, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF in hippocampal were evaluated by Western blot. Our results indicated that 6 weeks of CUMS exposure induced significant depression-like behavior, with low 5-HT and NE levels, high TNF-α and IL-6 in brain and high hippocampal TNF-α, IL-6, P-NF-κBP65, and 5-HTR levels, and low BDNF expression levels. Whereas, chronic COR (20, 40 mg/kg treatments reversed the behavioral deficiency induced by CUMS exposure, treatment with COR normalized the change of TNF-α, IL-6, 5-HT, and NE levels, which demonstrated that COR could partially restore CUMS-induced 5-HT receptor impairments and inflammation. Besides, hippocampal BDNF expressions were also upregulated after COR treatments. In conclusion, COR remarkably improved depression-like behavior in CUMS mice and its antidepressant activity is mediated, at least in part, by the upregulating BDNF and downregulating 5-HTR levels and

  2. The Effect of Synchronized Running Activity with Chronic Stress on Passive Avoidance Learning and Body Weight in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Maryam Radahmadi; Hojjatallah Alaei; Mohammad R Sharifi; Nasrin Hosseini

    2013-01-01

    Background: Different stressors induce learning and memory impairment and physical activity influence learning and memory enhancement. In this research, we investigated the effect of synchronized running activity with stress on acquisition and retention time of passive avoidance test. Methods: Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups as follows: Control (Co), Sham (Sh), Exercise (Ex), Stress (St), synchronized exercise with stress (St and Ex) groups. Chronic restraint stres...

  3. The effect of synchronized running activity with chronic stress on passive avoidance learning and body weight in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Radahmadi

    2013-01-01

    Results: Our results showed that: (1 Exercise under no stress provides beneficial effects on memory acquisition and retention time compared to Control group; especially retention time had significantly (P < 0.05 increased in exercised group. (2 Chronic stress with and without synchronized exercise significantly (P < 0.01, P < 0.05, respectively impaired acquisition and retention time. (3 Body weight differences were significantly (P < 0.01, P < 0.001 and P < 0.001 lower than Control group in exercise, stress and synchronized exercise with stress groups, respectively. (4 Adverse effects of restraint stress (psychical stress were probably greater than physical activity effects on learning, memory and weight loss. Conclusions: The data confirmed that synchronized exercise with stress had not significantly protective role in improvement of passive avoidance acquisition and retention time; hence it did not significantly improve learning and memory deficit in stressed rats; whereas exercise alone could improve memory deficit in rats.

  4. Effects of Chronic Forced Swim Stress with Different Session on the Interphase and Termination of Phase 2 in the Formalin Test

    OpenAIRE

    Sina Pozesh; Elaheh Erami; Hassan Azhdari Zarmehri; Nima Heidari; Elmira Ghasemi

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Stress have bidirectional effects on pain threshold and behaviours. Whereas acute stress often results in analgesia, chronic stress can trigger hyperalgesia/allodynia. The formalin test as an inflammation model, consist of three phases and the effects of repeated forced swim stress with different session numbers on these phases have not been investigated. Therefore, in this study the effects of chronic forced swim stress with different intensities evaluated in formalin test were...

  5. Lymphocytes from Chronically Stressed Mice Confer Antidepressant-Like Effects to Naive Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Brachman, Rebecca A.; Lehmann, Michael L.; Maric, Dragan; Herkenham, Miles

    2015-01-01

    We examined whether cells of the adaptive immune system retain the memory of psychosocial stress and thereby alter mood states and CNS function in the host. Lymphocytes from mice undergoing chronic social defeat stress or from unstressed control mice were isolated and adoptively transferred into naive lymphopenic Rag2−/− mice. Changes in affective behavior, hippocampal cell proliferation, microglial activation states, and blood cytokine levels were examined in reconstituted stress-naive mice....

  6. Chronic restraint-induced stress has little modifying effect on radiation hematopoietic toxicity in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Both radiation and stresses cause detrimental effects on humans. Besides possible health effects resulting directly from radiation exposure, the nuclear plant accident is a cause of social psychological stresses. A recent study showed that chronic restraint-induced stresses (CRIS) attenuated Trp53 functions and increased carcinogenesis susceptibility of Trp53-heterozygous mice to total-body X-irradiation (TBXI), having a big impact on the academic world and a sensational effect on the public, especially the residents living in radioactively contaminated areas. It is important to investigate the possible modification effects from CRIS on radiation-induced health consequences in Trp53 wild-type (Trp53wt) animals. Prior to a carcinogenesis study, effects of TBXI on the hematopoietic system under CRIS were investigated in terms of hematological abnormality in the peripheral blood and residual damage in the bone marrow erythrocytes using a mouse restraint model. Five-week-old male Trp53wt C57BL/6J mice were restrained 6 h per day for 28 consecutive days, and TBXI (4 Gy) was given on the 8th day. Results showed that CRIS alone induced a marked decrease in the red blood cell (RBC) and the white blood cell (WBC) count, while TBXI caused significantly lower counts of RBCs, WBCs and blood platelets, and a lower concentration of hemoglobin regardless of CRIS. CRIS alone did not show any significant effect on erythrocyte proliferation and on induction of micronucleated erythrocytes, whereas TBXI markedly inhibited erythrocyte proliferation and induced a significant increase in the incidences of micronucleated erythrocytes, regardless of CRIS. These findings suggest that CRIS does not have a significant impact on radiation-induced detrimental effects on the hematopoietic system in Trp53wt mice. (author)

  7. Effects of prenatal exposure to chronic mild stress and toluene in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, K. S.; Andersen, Maud Bering; Hansen, A. M.;

    2005-01-01

    female offspring of pregnant rats (Mol:WIST) exposed to chronic mild stress (CMS) during gestational days (GD) 9-20, or 1500 ppm toluene, 6 h/day during gestational days 7-20, or a combination of the two. Prenatal CMS was associated with decreased thymic weight and increased auditory startle response...

  8. Protective Effects of Crocus Sativus L. Extract and Crocin against Chronic-Stress Induced Oxidative Damage of Brain, Liver and Kidneys in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Bandegi, Ahmad Reza; Rashidy-Pour, Ali; Vafaei, Abbas Ali; Ghadrdoost, Behshid

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Chronic stress has been reported to induce oxidative damage of the brain. A few studies have shown that Crocus Sativus L., commonly known as saffron and its active constituent crocin may have a protective effect against oxidative stress. The present work was designed to study the protective effects of saffron extract and crocin on chronicstress induced oxidative stress damage of the brain, liver and kidneys.

  9. Chronic Psychosocial Stress and Hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    Spruill, Tanya M.

    2010-01-01

    Genetic and behavioral factors do not fully explain the development of hypertension, and there is increasing evidence suggesting that psychosocial factors may also play an important role. Exposure to chronic stress has been hypothesized as a risk factor for hypertension, and occupational stress, stressful aspects of the social environment, and low socioeconomic status have each been studied extensively. The study of discrimination is a more recent and rapidly growing area of investigation and...

  10. Effects of acute and chronic social defeat stress are differentially mediated by the dynorphin/kappa-opioid receptor system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donahue, Rachel J; Landino, Samantha M; Golden, Sam A; Carroll, F Ivy; Russo, Scott J; Carlezon, William A

    2015-10-01

    Accumulating evidence indicates that kappa-opioid receptors (KORs) and their endogenous ligand, dynorphin (DYN), can play important roles in regulating the effects of stress. Here, we examined the role of KOR systems in the molecular and behavioral effects of acute (1-day) and chronic (10-day) social defeat stress (SDS) in mice. We found that acute SDS increased DYN mRNA levels within the nucleus accumbens, a key element of brain dopamine (DA) systems. In contrast, chronic SDS produced long-lasting decreases in DYN mRNA levels. We then examined whether disruption of KOR function would affect development of SDS-induced depressive-like behaviors, as measured in the intracranial self-stimulation and social interaction tests. Ablation of KORs from DA transporter-expressing neurons delayed the development of SDS-induced anhedonia in the intracranial self-stimulation test, suggesting increased stress resilience. However, administration of the long-lasting KOR antagonist JDTic (30 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) before the SDS regimen did not affect anhedonia, suggesting that disruption of KOR function outside DA systems can oppose stress resilience. Social avoidance behavior measured after the 10-day SDS regimen was not altered by ablation of KORs in DA transporter-expressing neurons or by JDTic administration before testing. Our findings indicate that KORs expressed in DA systems regulate the effects of acute, but not chronic, social stress. PMID:26110224

  11. Antidepressant-like effects of oleoylethanolamide in a mouse model of chronic unpredictable mild stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Peng; Yu, Hai-Ling; Tian-Lan; Zhang, Feng; Quan, Zhe-Shan

    2015-06-01

    Oleoylethanolamide (OEA) is an endocannabinoid analog that belongs to a family of endogenous acylethanolamides. Increasing evidence suggests that OEA may act as an endogenous neuroprotective factor and participate in the control of mental disorder-related behaviors. In this study, we examined whether OEA is effective against depression and investigated the role of circulating endogenous acylethanolamides during stress. Mice were subjected to 28days of chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS), and during the last 21days, treated with oral OEA (1.5-6mg/kg) or 6mg/kg fluoxetine. Sucrose preference and open field test activity were used to evaluate depression-like behaviors during CUMS and after OEA treatment. Weights of the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus were determined, and the adrenal index was measured. Furthermore, changes in serum adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), corticosterone (CORT) and total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and lipid peroxidation product malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex were detected. Our findings indicate that OEA normalized sucrose preferences, locomotion distances, rearing frequencies, prefrontal cortex and hippocampal atrophy, and adrenal indices. In addition, OEA reversed the abnormalities of BDNF and MDA levels and SOD activities in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex, as well as changes in serum levels of ACTH, CORT, and T-AOC. The antidepressant effects of OEA may be related to the regulation of BDNF levels in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex, antioxidant defenses, and normalizing hyperactivity in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA). PMID:25864425

  12. Gestational chronic mild stress: Effects on acoustic startle in male offspring of rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, K.S.; Mandrup, Karen; Kjaer, S.L.;

    2011-01-01

    from dams exposed to chronic mild stress (CMS) during gestation. In humans, decreased PPI has been reported to be associated with anxiety. Because of its potential translational value across species, the modulation of startle reactivity may be a useful tool in examining altered emotional reactivity......An increasing number of scientific studies indicate that maternal stress during pregnancy influences fetal development of the nervous system and thereby the behavioural phenotype. We have previously reported attenuated prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the startle reaction in adult female rats derived...... following prenatal insults. The present study aimed at investigating whether prenatally stressed male offspring would display altered startle phenotype. Stress was induced by maternal gestational exposure to alternating procedures, i.e. CMS. At the age of 3 months, half of the offspring were blood sampled...

  13. Hypothalamic oxytocin mediates adaptation mechanism against chronic stress in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jun; Babygirija, Reji; Bülbül, Mehmet; Cerjak, Diana; Ludwig, Kirk; Takahashi, Toku

    2010-10-01

    Accumulation of continuous life stress (chronic stress) often causes gastric symptoms. Although central oxytocin has antistress effects, the role of central oxytocin in stress-induced gastric dysmotility remains unknown. Solid gastric emptying was measured in rats receiving acute restraint stress, 5 consecutive days of repeated restraint stress (chronic homotypic stress), and 7 consecutive days of varying types of stress (chronic heterotypic stress). Oxytocin and oxytocin receptor antagonist were administered intracerebroventricularly (icv). Expression of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) mRNA and oxytocin mRNA in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus was evaluated by real-time RT-PCR. The changes of oxytocinergic neurons in the PVN were evaluated by immunohistochemistry. Acute stress delayed gastric emptying, and the delayed gastric emptying was completely restored after 5 consecutive days of chronic homotypic stress. In contrast, delayed gastric emptying persisted following chronic heterotypic stress. The restored gastric emptying following chronic homotypic stress was antagonized by icv injection of an oxytocin antagonist. Icv injection of oxytocin restored delayed gastric emptying induced by chronic heterotypic stress. CRF mRNA expression, which was significantly increased in response to acute stress and chronic heterotypic stress, returned to the basal levels following chronic homotypic stress. In contrast, oxytocin mRNA expression was significantly increased following chronic homotypic stress. The number of oxytocin-immunoreactive cells was increased following chronic homotypic stress at the magnocellular part of the PVN. Icv injection of oxytocin reduced CRF mRNA expression induced by acute stress and chronic heterotypic stress. It is suggested that the adaptation mechanism to chronic stress may involve the upregulation of oxytocin expression in the hypothalamus, which in turn attenuates CRF expression. PMID:20689056

  14. Effects of Chronic Mild Stress in Female Bax Inhibitor-1-Gene Knockout Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Sui, Zhi-Yan; Chae, Han-Jung; Huang, Guang-Biao; Zhao, Tong; Shrestha Muna, Sushma; Chung, Young-Chul

    2012-01-01

    Objective The anti-apoptotic protein Bax inhibitor-1 (BI-1) is a regulator of apoptosis linked to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, and BI-1-/- mice exhibit increased sensitivity to tissue damage. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of BI-1 in the pathogenesis of chronic mild stress (CMS)-induced depression-like behaviors in BI-1-/- mice. Methods We delivered CMS for 2 or 6 weeks in BI-1-knockout and wild-type mice. Control groups of BI-1-knockout and wild-type mice were le...

  15. Chronic stress among adults in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Hapke, Ulfert; Maske, Ulrike; Scheidt-Nave, Christa; Bode, Liv; Schlack, Robert; Busch, Markus

    2013-01-01

    The German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults (DEGS1) was conducted from 2008–2011 and comprised interviews, examinations and tests. The target population was the resident population of Germany aged 18–79 years. A total of 8,152 persons participated. Chronic stress was assessed to examine its effects on health and mental wellbeing. The Screening Scale of the Trier Inventory for the Assessment of Chronic Stress was used to assess stress burden among participants up to the age o...

  16. Hypothalamic circuit regulating colonic transit following chronic stress in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimoto, Sazu; Cerjak, Diana; Babygirija, Reji; Bulbul, Mehmet; Ludwig, Kirk; Takahashi, Toku

    2012-03-01

    Although acute stress accelerates colonic transit, the effect of chronic stress on colonic transit remains unclear. In this study, rats received repeated restraint stress (chronic homotypic stress) or various types of stress (chronic heterotypic stress) for 5 and 7 days, respectively. Vehicle saline, oxytocin (OXT), OXT receptor antagonist or corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) receptor antagonists were administered by intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection prior to restraint stress for 90 min. Immediately after the stress exposure, the entire colon was removed and the geometric center (GC) of Na51CrO4 (a nonabsorbable radioactive marker; 0.5 μCi) distribution was calculated to measure the transit. Gene expression of OXT and CRF in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) was evaluated by in situ hybridization. Accelerated colonic transit with the acute stressor was no longer observed following chronic homotypic stress. This restored colonic transit was reversed by ICV injection of an OXT antagonist. In contrast, chronic heterotypic stress significantly accelerated colonic transit, which was attenuated by ICV injection of OXT and by a CRF receptor 1 antagonist. OXT mRNA expression in the PVN was significantly increased following chronic homotypic stress, but not chronic heterotypic stress. However, CRF mRNA expression in the PVN was significantly increased following acute and chronic heterotypic stress, but not chronic homotypic stress. These results indicate that central OXT and CRF play a pivotal role in mediating the colonic dysmotility following chronic stress in rats. PMID:21936687

  17. EFFECTS OF CHRONIC STRESS ON THE ACTIVITIES OF SOD, GSH-Px AND MDA LEVEL IN FEMALE RATS' BRAIN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王莹; 杨东伟; 谢雯; 庞炜; 蒋马莉; 韩太真

    2002-01-01

    Objective To observe the effects of chronic emotional stress on the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and malonialdehyde (MDA) level in female rats' brain. Methods The rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: normal control group (group N), emotional stress group (group E), emotional stress + pregnancy group (group E+P) and regularly drinking group (group R). Emotional stress in rats was induced by training rats with empty drinking bottles. Having been finished the stress procedure, the brain was taken out and homogenized. Then the activities of SOD, GSH-Px and MDA level were measured. Results Compared to group N, both the activities of SOD in brain tissues of group E and group E+P were significantly decreased (P<0.05 and P<0.01, respectively) while the MDA level increased (P<0.05). However, the extent of changes in group E+P was more obvious than that in E. GSH-Px activities in E+P and E were significantly changed. However, the GSH-Px activity in E+P was decreased (P<0.05) while the activity in E increased (P<0.05).Conclusion The chronic emotional stress can reduce the antioxidative system by decreasing the antioxidative enzyme activity and potentiating the lipid peroxidation in the brain. It is also suggested that the combination of emotional stress and pregnancy can augment the oxidative damage in rats' brain.

  18. THE EFFECTS OF ACUTE AND CHRONIC STRESS ON ERYTHROCYTE DYNAMIC IN COMBINATION WITH ß–ADRENERGIC RECEPTORS BLOCKADE IN RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucian Hritcu

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available : 3 consecutive days propranolol hydrochloride administration (5 mg/kg b.w., subcutaneous injections under acute and chronic stress conditions causes changes of peripheral erythrocyte distribution in rats. The effects of acute stress and its combination with ȕ-adrenergic receptor blockade on erythrocyte dynamic were more pregnant beside the effects of chronic stress and its combination with ȕ-adrenergic receptor blockade, respectively. ȕ-adrenergic mechanisms were shown to be involved in regulation of erythrocyte dynamic in acute and chronic stress response.

  19. Sex Differences and Chronic Stress Effects on the Neural Circuitry Underlying Fear Conditioning and Extinction

    OpenAIRE

    Farrell, Mollee R.; SENGELAUB, DALE R.; Wellman, Cara L.

    2013-01-01

    There are sex differences in the rates of many stress-sensitive psychological disorders such as post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). As medial prefrontal cortex and amygdala are implicated in many of these disorders, understanding differential stress effects in these regions may shed light on the mechanisms underlying sex-dependent expression of disorders like depression and anxiety. Prefrontal cortex and amygdala are key regions in the neural circuitry underlying fear conditioning and exti...

  20. Effects of chronic treatment with methylphenidate on oxidative stress and inflammation in hippocampus of adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motaghinejad, Majid; Motevalian, Manijeh; Shabab, Behnaz

    2016-04-21

    Methylphenidate (MPH) is a central stimulant, prescribed for the treatment of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. The long-term behavioral consequences of MPH treatment are unknown. In this study, the oxidative stress and neuroinflammation induced by various doses of MPH were investigated. Forty adult male rats were divided into 5 groups; and treated with different doses of MPH for 21 days. Twenty four hours after drug treatment, Open Field Test (OFT) was performed in all animals. At the end of the study, blood cortisol level (BCL) was measured and hippocampus was isolated and oxidative stress and inflammation parameters and histological changes were analyzed. Chronic MPH at all doses decreased central square entries, number of rearing, ambulation distance and time spent in central square in OFT. BCL increased in doses 10 and 20mg/kg of MPH. Furthermore, MPH in all doses markedly increased lipid peroxidation, mitochondrial oxidized glutathione (GSSG) level, Interleukin 1β (IL-1β) and Tumor Necrosis Factor α (TNF-α) in isolated hippocampus. MPH (10 and 20mg/kg) treated groups had decreased mitochondrial reduced glutathione (GSH) content, and reduced superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione reductase (GRx) activities. 10 and 20mg/kg of MPH change cell density and morphology of cells in Dentate Gyrus (DG) and CA1 areas of hippocampus. Chronic treatment with high doses of MPH can cause oxidative stress, neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration in hippocampus of adult rats. PMID:26687276

  1. Stress, intrusive imagery, and chronic distress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Discusses the nature of stress in the context of problems with its definition and sources of confusion regarding its usefulness and specificity. Stress can be defined as a negative emotional experience accompanied by predictable biochemical, physiological, and behavioral changes that are directed toward adaptation either by manipulating the situation to alter the stressor or by accommodating its effects. Chronic stress is more complex than most definitions suggest and is clearly not limited to situations in which stressors persist for long periods of time. Responses may habituate before a stressor disappears or may persist long beyond the physical presence of the stressor. This latter case, in which chronic stress and associated biobehavioral changes outlast their original cause, is considered in light of research at Three Mile Island and among Vietnam veterans. The role of intrusive images of the stressor or uncontrollable thoughts about it in maintaining stress is explored

  2. Effects of Electroacupuncture at Auricular Concha Region on the Depressive Status of Unpredictable Chronic Mild Stress Rat Models

    OpenAIRE

    Ru-Peng Liu; Ji-Liang Fang; Pei-Jing Rong; Yufeng Zhao; Hong Meng; Hui Ben; Liang Li; Zhan-Xia Huang; Xia Li; Ying-Ge Ma; Bing Zhu

    2013-01-01

    To explore new noninvasive treatment options for depression, this study investigated the effects of electroacupuncture (EA) at the auricular concha region (ACR) of depression rat models. Depression in rats was induced by unpredictable chronic mild stress (UCMS) combined with isolation for 21 days. Eighty male Wistar rats were randomly assigned into four groups: normal, UCMS alone, UCMS with EA-ACR treatment, and UCMS with EA-ear-tip treatment. Rats under inhaled anesthesia were treated once d...

  3. The Effect of Synchronized Forced Running with Chronic Stress on Short, Mid and Long- term Memory in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Radahmadi, Maryam; Alaei, Hojjatallah; Sharifi, Mohammad-Reza; Hosseini, Nasrin

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Impairment of learning and memory processes has been demonstrated by many studies using different stressors. Other reports suggested that exercise has a powerful behavioral intervention to improve cognitive function and brain health. In this research, we investigated protective effects of treadmill running on chronic stress–induced memory deficit in rats. Methods Fifty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups (n=10) as follows: Control (Co), Sham (Sh), Stress (St), Exer...

  4. Adaptogenic effect of Morus alba on chronic footshock-induced stress in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nade Vandana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective : The objective of the present study was to evaluate the adaptogenic property of the ethyl acetate-soluble fraction of methanol extract of Morus alba roots against a rat model of chronic stress (CS. Materials and Methods : Rats were exposed to stress procedure for 21 days. The stress procedure was mild, unpredictable footshock, administered for 1 h once daily for 21 days. Rats were administered with the ethyl acetate soluble fraction of methanol extract of M. alba roots (25, 50 and 100 mg/kg p.o 1 h before footshock for 21 days and behavioral parameters were evaluated for cognitive dysfunction and depression using elevated plus maze and despair swim test, respectively. On day 21, rats were sacrificed immediately after stress and blood was collected for biochemical estimation. The adrenal gland and spleen were dissected for organ weight and the stomach was dissected for ulcer score. Results : CS significantly induced cognitive deficit, mental depression and hyperglycemia and increased blood corticosterone levels, gastric ulcerations and adrenal gland weight, but decreased the splenic weight. Pre-treatments with the ethyl acetate soluble fraction of methanol extract of M. alba roots (25, 50 and 100 mg/kg, p.o. significantly attenuated the CS-induced perturbations. Diazepam (1 mg/kg, p.o. was used as the standard antistress drug. Conclusion : The results indicate that M. alba possesses significant adaptogenic activity, indicating its possible clinical utility as an antistress agent.

  5. Chronic stimulation of alpha-2A-adrenoceptors with guanfacine protects rodent prefrontal cortex dendritic spines and cognition from the effects of chronic stress

    OpenAIRE

    Hains, Avis Brennan; Yabe, Yoko; Arnsten, Amy F.T.

    2015-01-01

    The prefrontal cortex (PFC) provides top-down regulation of behavior, cognition, and emotion, including spatial working memory. However, these PFC abilities are greatly impaired by exposure to acute or chronic stress. Chronic stress exposure in rats induces atrophy of PFC dendrites and spines that correlates with working memory impairment. As similar PFC grey matter loss appears to occur in mental illness, the mechanisms underlying these changes need to be better understood. Acute stress expo...

  6. Effect of gum arabic on oxidative stress and inflammation in adenine-induced chronic renal failure in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badreldin H Ali

    Full Text Available Inflammation and oxidative stress are known to be involved in the pathogenesis of chronic kidney disease in humans, and in chronic renal failure (CRF in rats. The aim of this work was to study the role of inflammation and oxidative stress in adenine-induced CRF and the effect thereon of the purported nephroprotective agent gum arabic (GA. Rats were divided into four groups and treated for 4 weeks as follows: control, adenine in feed (0.75%, w/w, GA in drinking water (15%, w/v and adenine+GA, as before. Urine, blood and kidneys were collected from the rats at the end of the treatment for analysis of conventional renal function tests (plasma creatinine and urea concentration. In addition, the concentrations of the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-α and the oxidative stress markers glutathione and superoxide dismutase, renal apoptosis, superoxide formation and DNA double strand break frequency, detected by immunohistochemistry for γ-H2AX, were measured. Adenine significantly increased the concentrations of urea and creatinine in plasma, significantly decreased the creatinine clearance and induced significant increases in the concentration of the measured inflammatory mediators. Further, it caused oxidative stress and DNA damage. Treatment with GA significantly ameliorated these actions. The mechanism of the reported salutary effect of GA in adenine-induced CRF is associated with mitigation of the adenine-induced inflammation and generation of free radicals.

  7. Chronic stress, cortical plasticity and neuroecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reser, Jared Edward

    2016-08-01

    Prolonged psychological stress and accompanying elevations in blood cortisol are known to induce hypometabolism and decreasing synaptic density in the hippocampus and the prefrontal cortex (PFC). This article evaluates and explores evidence supporting the hypothesis that these, and other, selective effects of prolonged stress constitute a neuroecological program that adaptively modifies behavior in mammals experiencing adverse conditions. Three complementary hypotheses are proposed: (1) chronic stress signifies that the prevailing environment is life-threatening, indicating that the animal should decrease activity in brain areas capable of inhibiting the stress axis; (2) stress signifies that the environment is unpredictable, that high-level cognition may be less effective, and that the animal should increase its reliance on defensive, procedural and instinctual behaviors mediated by lower brain centers; and (3) stress indicates that environmental events are proving difficult to systemize based on delayed associations, and thus the maintenance of contextual, task-relevant information in the PFC need not be maintained for temporally-extended periods. Humans, along with countless other species of vertebrates, have been shown to make predictive, adaptive responses to chronic stress in many systems including metabolic, cardiovascular, neuroendocrine, and even amygdalar and striatal systems. It is proposed in this article that humans and other mammals may also have an inducible, cerebrocortical response to pronounced stress that mediates a transition from time-intensive, explicit (controlled/attentional/top-down) processing of information to quick, implicit (automatic/preattentive/bottom-up) processing. PMID:27334119

  8. Evaluation of the protective effects of tocotrienol-rich fraction from palm oil on the dentate gyrus following chronic restraint stress in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saiful Bhari Talip

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to chronic restraint stress has been shown to cause a number of morphological changes in the hippocampal formation of rats. Tocotrienol, an isoform of vitamin E, exhibits numerous health benefits, different from those of tocopherol. Recent studies have demonstrated that tocotrienol prevents stress-induced changes in the gastric mucosa, thus indicating that it may also protect other organs such as the brain from the damaging effects of stress. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the protective effect of tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF extracted from palm oil on the dentate gyrus of rats following exposure to chronic restraint stress. Thirty-six male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into four groups: control, stress, tocotrienol and combination of stress and tocotrienol. Animals were stressed by restraining them for 5 hours every day for 21 consecutive days. TRF was administered via oral gavage at a dose of 200 mg/kg body weight. Our results showed that the plasma corticosterone level was significantly increased in response to stress, compared to the control. The results confirmed previous findings that chronic restraint stress suppresses cellular proliferation and reduces granule cell number in the dentate gyrus. However, TRF supplementation failed to prevent or minimize these stress-induced changes. Therefore, we conclude that TRF at the current dosage is not effective in preventing the morphological changes in the dentate gyrus induced by chronic restraint stress.

  9. Opposing actions of chronic stress and chronic nicotine on striatal function in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Salas, Ramiro; De Biasi, Mariella

    2008-01-01

    Stress is a major risk factor in drug addiction development and relapse. Virtually all drugs of abuse act by increasing extracellular dopamine levels in the striatum. To gain an understanding of the interaction between stress and drug exposure, we studied the effects of concomitant chronic nicotine and chronic stress exposure on mouse striatal dopamine levels.

  10. Airway oxidative stress in chronic cough

    OpenAIRE

    Koskela, Heikki O; Purokivi, Minna K

    2013-01-01

    Background The mechanisms of chronic cough are unclear. Many reactive oxygen species affect airway sensory C-fibres which are capable to induce cough. Several chronic lung diseases are characterised by cough and oxidative stress. In asthma, an association between the cough severity and airway oxidative stress has been demonstrated. The present study was conducted to investigate whether airway oxidative stress is associated with chronic cough in subjects without chronic lung diseases. Methods ...

  11. Effect of Celastrus paniculatus seed oil (Jyothismati oil on acute and chronic immobilization stress induced in swiss albino mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Lekha

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Stress alters the homeostasis and is produced by several factors. Immobilization stress induced due to reduced floor area provided for the mobility results in the imbalance of oxidant and antioxidant status. The modern computer savvy world decreases human mobility in the working environment, leading to the formation of oxygen free radicals and if left untreated might result in severe health problems like hypertension, cardiovascular disease, premature aging and brain dysfunction. Hence, modern medicines rely upon the medicinal plants for some drugs with zero side effects. In this context, Jyothismati oil (JO, extracted from Celastrus paniculatus seeds, was used to treat acute and chronic immobilization induced experimentally. C. paniculatus plant is considered to be rich in antioxidant content and so the seed oil extract′s efficacy was tested against immobilization stress in albino mice. The animals were kept in a restrainer for short and long durations, grouped separately and fed with the drug. Animals were sacrificed and the samples were analyzed. The antioxidant enzyme levels of the animals regained and markedly increased in the acute and chronic immobilized groups, respectively. The results suggested that the extract of C. paniculatus seed was highly efficacious in reducing the stress induced by least mobility for hours.

  12. The Effects of Oxytocin on Cognitive Defect Caused by Chronic Restraint Stress Applied to Adolescent Rats and on Hippocampal VEGF and BDNF Levels

    OpenAIRE

    Dayi, Ayfer; Cetin, Ferihan; Sisman, Ali Riza; Aksu, Ilkay; Tas, Aysegul; Gönenc, Sevil; Uysal, Nazan

    2015-01-01

    Background Because brain development continues during adolescence, the effects of chronic stress on hippocampal changes that occur during that period are permanent. Oxytocin, which is synthesized in the hypothalamus and has many receptors in brain regions, including the hippocampus, may affect learning-memory. This study aimed to investigate chronic restraint stress on hippocampal functions, and hippocampal vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)...

  13. Effect of chronic social defeat stress on behaviors and dopamine receptor in adult mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Guang-Biao; Zhao, Tong; Gao, Xiao-Lei; Zhang, Hong-Xing; Xu, Yu-Ming; Li, Hao; Lv, Lu-Xian

    2016-04-01

    Victims of bullying often undergo depression, low self-esteem, high anxiety and post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms. The social defeat model has become widely accepted for studying experimental animal behavior changes associated with bullying; however, differences in the effects in susceptible and unsusceptible individuals have not been well studied. The present study investigated the effects of social defeat stress on behavior and the expression of dopamine receptors D1 and D2 in the brains of adult mice. Adult mice were divided into susceptible and unsusceptible groups after 10days of social defeat stress. Behavioral tests were conducted, and protein levels in the brains were assessed by Western blotting. The results indicate that all mice undergo decreased locomotion and increased anxiety behavior. However, decreased social interaction and impaired memory performance were only observed in susceptible mice. A significantly decreased expression of D1 was observed in the prefrontal cortex and amygdala of susceptible mice only. No significant differences in D2 expression were shown between control and defeated mice in any area studied. These data indicate that depression-like behavior and cognition impairment caused by social defeat stress in susceptible mice may be related to changes in the dopamine receptor D1. PMID:26655446

  14. Chronic Unpredictable Stress Promotes Neuronal Apoptosis in the Cerebral Cortex

    OpenAIRE

    Bachis, Alessia; Cruz, Maria Idalia; Nosheny, Rachael L.; Mocchetti, Italo

    2008-01-01

    Stress-mediated loss of synaptogenesis in the hippocampus appears to play a role in depressive and mood disorders. However, little is known about the effect of stress/depression on the plasticity and survival of cortical neurons. In this report, we have examined whether chronic stress increases the vulnerability of neurons in the rat cortex. We have used a chronic unpredictable mild stress (CMS) as a rat model of depression. CMS (5 weeks treatment) produced anedonia and increased corticostero...

  15. Chronic Stress and Adolescents' Mental Health : Modifying Effects of Basal Cortisol and Parental Psychiatric History. The TRAILS Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zandstra, Anna Roos E.; Hartman, Catharina A.; Nederhof, Esther; van den Heuvel, Edwin R.; Dietrich, Andrea; Hoekstra, Pieter J.; Ormel, Johan

    2015-01-01

    Large individual differences in adolescent mental health following chronic psychosocial stress suggest moderating factors. We examined two established moderators, basal cortisol and parental psychiatric history, simultaneously. We hypothesized that individuals with high basal cortisol, assumed to in

  16. Effect of Chronic Administration of Forskolin on Glycemia and Oxidative Stress in Rats with and without Experimental Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ríos-Silva, Mónica; Trujillo, Xóchitl; Trujillo-Hernández, Benjamín; Sánchez-Pastor, Enrique; Urzúa, Zorayda; Mancilla, Evelyn; Huerta, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    Forskolin is a diterpene derived from the plant Coleus forskohlii. Forskolin activates adenylate cyclase, which increases intracellular cAMP levels. The antioxidant and antiinflammatory action of forskolin is due to inhibition of macrophage activation with a subsequent reduction in thromboxane B2 and superoxide levels. These characteristics have made forskolin an effective medication for heart disease, hypertension, diabetes, and asthma. Here, we evaluated the effects of chronic forskolin administration on blood glucose and oxidative stress in 19 male Wistar rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes compared to 8 healthy male Wistar rats. Rats were treated with forskolin, delivered daily for 8 weeks. Glucose was assessed by measuring fasting blood glucose in diabetic rats and with an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in healthy rats. Oxidative stress was assessed by measuring 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8‑OHdG) in 24-h urine samples. In diabetic rats, without forskolin, fasting blood glucose was significantly higher at the end than at the beginning of the experiment (8 weeks). In both healthy and diabetic rats, forskolin treatment lowered the fasting glucose at the end of the experiment but no effect was found on oral glucose tolerance. The 8-OHdG levels tended to be less elevated in forskolin-treated than in untreated group. Our results showed that chronic administration of forskolin decreased fasting blood glucose levels; however, the reductions of 8-OHdG were not statistically significant. PMID:24688307

  17. Electroacupuncture pretreatment exhibits anti-depressive effects by regulating hippocampal proteomics in rats with chronic restraint stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhuo Guo; Xu-hui Zhang; Ya Tu; Tian-wei Guo; Yun-chu Wu; Xue-qin Yang; Lan Sun; Xin-jing Yang; Wen-yue Zhang; Yu Wang

    2015-01-01

    The clinical effect of electroacupuncture on depression is widely recognized. However, the signal transduction pathways and target proteins involved remain unclear. In the present study, rat models of chronic restraint stress were used to explore the mechanism by which electroacupuncture alleviates depression. Rats were randomly divided into control, model, and electroacupuncture groups. Chronic restraint stress was induced in the model and elec-troacupuncture groups by restraining rats for 28 days. In the electroacupuncture group, electroacupuncture pretreatment atBaihui (GV20) andYintang (GV29) acupoints was per-formed daily (1 mA, 2 Hz, discontinuous wave, 20 minutes) prior to restraint for 28 days. Open ifeld tests and body weight measurements were carried out to evaluate the depressive symptoms at speciifc time points. On day 28, the crossing number, rearing number, and body weights of the model group were signiifcantly lower than those in the control group. Behavior test results indicated that rat models of depressive-like symptoms were successfully established by chronic restraint stress combined with solitary raising. On day 28, an isobaric tag for a relative and abso-lute quantitation-based quantitative proteomic approach was performed to identify differentially expressed proteins in hippocampal samples obtained from the model and electroacupuncture groups. The potential function of these differential proteins was predicted through the use of the Cluster of Orthologous Groups of proteins (COG) database. Twenty-seven differential pro-teins (uncharacteristic proteins expected) were selected from the model and electroacupuncture groups. In addition to unknown protein functions, COG are mainly concentrated in general prediction function, mechanism of signal transduction, amino acid transport and metabolism groups. This suggests that electroacupuncture improved depressive-like symptoms by regulating differential proteins, and most of these related proteins

  18. Involvement of glutamatergic neurotransmission in the antidepressant-like effect of zinc in the chronic unpredictable stress model of depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manosso, Luana M; Moretti, Morgana; Colla, André R; Ribeiro, Camille M; Dal-Cim, Tharine; Tasca, Carla I; Rodrigues, Ana Lúcia S

    2016-03-01

    Stress and excessive glutamatergic neurotransmission have been implicated in the pathophysiology of depression. Therefore, this study was aimed at investigating the influence of zinc on depressive-like behavior induced by chronic unpredictable stress (CUS), on alterations in glutamate-induced toxicity and immunocontent of proteins involved in the control of glutamatergic neurotransmission in the hippocampus of mice. Mice were subjected to CUS procedure for 14 days. From the 8th to the 14th day, mice received zinc chloride (ZnCl2) (10 mg/kg) or fluoxetine (10 mg/kg, positive control) once a day by oral route. CUS caused a depressive-like behavior evidenced by the increased immobility time in the tail suspension test (TST), which was prevented by treatment with ZnCl2 or fluoxetine. Ex vivo exposure of hippocampal slices to glutamate (10 mM) resulted in a significant decrease on cell viability; however, neither CUS procedure nor drug treatments altered this reduction. No alterations in the immunocontents of GLT-1 and GFAP or p-Akt were observed in any experimental group. The ratio of p-Akt/AKT was also not altered in any group. However, Akt immunocontent was increased in stressed mice and in animals treated with ZnCl2 (stressed or non-stressed mice) and EAAC1 immunocontent was increased in stressed mice treated with ZnCl2, fluoxetine or vehicle and in non-stressed mice treated with ZnCl2 and fluoxetine. These findings indicate a robust effect of zinc in reversing behavioral alteration induced by CUS in mice, through a possible modulation of the glutamatergic neurotransmission, extending literature data regarding the mechanisms underlying its antidepressant-like action. PMID:26747027

  19. Adolescent vulnerability to cardiovascular consequences of chronic social stress: Immediate and long-term effects of social isolation during adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Fábio C; Duarte, Josiane O; Leão, Rodrigo M; Hummel, Luiz F V; Planeta, Cleopatra S; Crestani, Carlos C

    2016-01-01

    It has been demonstrated that disruption of social bonds and perceived isolation (loneliness) are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Adolescence is proposed as a period of vulnerability to stress. Nevertheless, the impact of chronic social stress during this ontogenic period in cardiovascular function is poorly understood. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare the impact in cardiovascular function of social isolation for 3 weeks in adolescent and adult male rats. Also, the long-term effects of social isolation during adolescence were investigated longitudinally. Social isolation reduced body weight in adolescent, but not in adult animals. Disruption of social bonds during adolescence increased arterial pressure without affecting heart rate and pulse pressure (PP). Nevertheless, social isolation in adulthood reduced systolic arterial pressure and increased diastolic arterial pressure, which in turn decreased PP without affecting mean arterial pressure. Cardiovascular changes in adolescents, but not adults, were followed by facilitation of both baroreflex sensitivity and vascular reactivity to the vasodilator agent acetylcholine. Vascular responsiveness to either the vasodilator agent sodium nitroprusside or the vasoconstrictor agent phenylephrine was not affected by social isolation. Except for the changes in body weight and baroreflex sensitivity, all alterations evoked by social isolation during adolescence were reversed in adulthood after moving animals from isolated to collective housing. These findings suggest a vulnerability of adolescents to the effects of chronic social isolation in cardiovascular function. However, results indicate minimal cardiovascular consequences in adulthood of disruption of social bonds during adolescence. PMID:25914339

  20. Effects of several degrees of chronic social defeat stress on emotional and spatial memory in CD1 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monleón, Santiago; Duque, Aranzazu; Vinader-Caerols, Concepción

    2016-03-01

    In the present study, the effects of several degrees of CSDS (Chronic Social Defeat Stress) on emotional and spatial memory in mice were evaluated in separate experiments. Male CD1 mice were randomly assigned to four experimental groups (n=10-12) for each experiment: NS (non-stressed), S5, S10 and S20 (5, 10 and 20 sessions of CSDS, respectively). The S groups underwent the corresponding number of agonistic encounters (10min each) over a 20-day period. 24h after the last session of CSDS, mice performed the inhibitory avoidance (Experiment 1) or the Morris water maze test (Experiment 2). In both experiments, animals were also evaluated in the elevated plus maze for 5min to obtain complementary measures of locomotor activity and emotionality. The results showed that the highest degree of CSDS had impairing effects on inhibitory avoidance, while there were no significant differences between groups in the water maze. The S20 group exhibited higher anxiety levels in the elevated plus maze. No variations in locomotor activity were observed in any experiment. In conclusion, CSDS has a greater impact on emotional memory than on spatial memory. These negative effects of CSDS on memory do not seem to be secondary to the motor or emotional effects of stress. PMID:26679824

  1. Antidepressant-like effects and possible mechanisms of amantadine on cognitive and synaptic deficits in a rat model of chronic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Mei; Zhang, Yuan; Chen, Xiaoyu; Zhang, Tao

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine whether amantadine (AMA), as a low-affinity noncompetitive N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist, is able to improve cognitive deficits caused by chronic stress in rats. Male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: control, control + AMA, stress and stress + AMA groups. The chronic stress model combined chronic unpredictable stress (CUS) with isolated feeding. Animals were exposed to CUS continued for 21 days. AMA (25 mg/kg) was administrated p.o. for 20 days from the 4th day of CUS to the 23rd. Weight and sucrose consumption were measured during model establishing period. Spatial memory was evaluated using the Morris water maze (MWM) test. Following MWM testing, both long-term potentiation (LTP) and depotentiation were recorded in the hippocampal CA1 region. NR2B and postsynaptic density protein 95 (PSD-95) proteins were measured by Western-blot analysis. AMA increased weight and sucrose consumption of stressed rats. Spatial memory and reversal learning in stressed rats were impaired relative to controls, whereas AMA significantly attenuated cognitive impairment. AMA also mitigated the chronic stress-induced impairment of hippocampal synaptic plasticity, in which both the LTP and depotentiation were significantly inhibited in stressed rats. Moreover, AMA enhanced the expression of hippocampal NR2B and PSD-95 in stressed rats. The data suggest that AMA may be an effective therapeutic agent for depression-like symptoms and associated cognitive disturbances. PMID:26466744

  2. Protective effect of Habenaria intermedia tubers against acute and chronic physical and psychological stress paradigms in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PV Habbu

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to evaluate the adaptogenic activity of ethanol (EtHI, ethyl acetate (EAHI fractions of Habenaria intermedia D. Don, Orchidaceae (HI, tubers using immobilization induced acute stress (AS, chronic stress (CS and swimming induced stress in experimental animals. The tested doses of EtHI (100 and 200 mg/kg, p.o. and higher dose of EAHI (200 mg/kg, p.o. normalized altered serum biochemical parameters and the severity of ulcers in both AS and CS. EAHI and EtHI restored the hyperthrophy of adrenal gland and atrophy of spleen and thymus gland in AS and CS. Greater swimming time was noted in the mice pretreated with EtHI and EAHI. Levels of adrenal ascorbic acid and cortisol were restored significantly. EAHI exhibited prominent scavenging effect of DPPH, hydroxyl radical and lipid peroxidation in vitro. Phytochemical studies resulted in the isolation of scopoletin and gallic acid as marker compounds. Our results proved the traditional claim of HI as anti-stress/adaptogen in Ayurvdea.

  3. Evaluation of the protective effects of tocotrienol-rich fraction from palm oil on the dentate gyrus following chronic restraint stress in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Saiful Bhari Talip; Mohd Asnizam Asari; Aaijaz Ahmed Khan; Kuttulebbai Nainamohamed Salam Sirajudeen

    2013-01-01

    Exposure to chronic restraint stress has been shown to cause a number of morphological changes in the hippocampal formation of rats. Tocotrienol, an isoform of vitamin E, exhibits numerous health benefits, different from those of tocopherol. Recent studies have demonstrated that tocotrienol prevents stress-induced changes in the gastric mucosa, thus indicating that it may also protect other organs such as the brain from the damaging effects of stress. Therefore, the aim of the present study w...

  4. Perceived chronic stress, health and cognition

    OpenAIRE

    Öhman, Lena

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this licentiate thesis was to examine consequences of chronic stress for stressrelated diseases and to investigate the chronic stress – cognition relationship. In the first study data covering ten years was used from the Betula Prospective Cohort Study (Nilsson et al., 1997). Based on the ratings on a stress scale, matched samples between 40 and 65 years of age were divided into a high and low stress group. The reported incidence of cardiovascular, diabetes, psychiatric, tumor, and...

  5. Pervasive and opposing effects of Unpredictable Chronic Mild Stress (UCMS) on hippocampal gene expression in BALB/cJ and C57BL/6J mouse strains

    OpenAIRE

    Malki, Karim; Mineur, Yann S.; Tosto, Maria Grazia; Campbell, James; Karia, Priya; Jumabhoy, Irfan; Sluyter, Frans; Crusio, Wim E.; Schalkwyk, Leonard C

    2015-01-01

    Background BALB/cJ is a strain susceptible to stress and extremely susceptible to a defective hedonic impact in response to chronic stressors. The strain offers much promise as an animal model for the study of stress related disorders. We present a comparative hippocampal gene expression study on the effects of unpredictable chronic mild stress on BALB/cJ and C57BL/6J mice. Affymetrix MOE 430 was used to measure hippocampal gene expression from 16 animals of two different strains (BALB/cJ and...

  6. Sex Differences in the Effects of Acute and Chronic Stress and Recovery after Long-Term Stress on Stress-Related Brain Regions of Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Yanhua; ter Horst, Gert J.; Wichmann, Romy; Bakker, Petra; Liu, Aihua; Li, Xuejun; Westenbroek, Christel

    2008-01-01

    Studies show that sex plays a role in stress-related depression, with women experiencing a higher vulnerability to its effect. Two major targets of antidepressants are brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and cyclic adenosine monophosphate response element–binding protein (CREB). The aim of this study was to investigate the levels of CREB, phosphorylation of CREB (pCREB), and BDNF in stress-related brain regions of male and female rats after stress and recovery. CREB and pCREB levels were...

  7. Effects of Combination Tocopherols and Alpha Lipoic Acid Therapy on Oxidative Stress and Inflammatory Biomarkers in Chronic Kidney Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Ramos, Luis F.; Kane, Jane; McMonagle, Ellen; Le, Phuong; Wu, Pingsheng; Shintani, Ayumi; Ikizler, T. Alp; Himmelfarb, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    Increased oxidative stress and inflammation are highly prevalent in chronic kidney disease (CKD), yet few studies have investigated whether oral antioxidant therapy can alter markers of inflammation or oxidative stress in CKD. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether a combination of mixed tocopherols and alpha lipoic acid (ALA) would alter biomarkers of oxidative stress and inflammation in subjects with Stage 3–4 CKD.

  8. Effect of Spirulina Intervention on Oxidative Stress, Antioxidant Status, and Lipid Profile in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Ismail

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective. Oxidative stress is intimately associated with many diseases, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Study objectives include a comparison of the oxidative stress, antioxidant status, and lipid profile between COPD patients and controls and evaluation of the effect of spirulina intervention on oxidative stress, antioxidant status, and lipid profile of COPD patients. Methods. 30 patients with COPD and 20 controls with no respiratory problems were selected. Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease criteria were served as the basis of COPD diagnosis. The serum content of malondialdehyde (MDA, lipid hydroperoxide, glutathione (GSH, vitamin C, cholesterol, triglyceride (TG, and high density lipoprotein (HDL was measured. The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, and glutathione-s-transferase (GST was also measured. Two different doses, (500 × 2 mg and (500 × 4 mg spirulina, were given to two groups, each of which comprises 15 COPD patients. Results. All targeted blood parameters have significant difference (P=0.000 between COPD patients and controls except triglyceride (TG. Spirulina intake for 30 and 60 days at (500 × 2 mg dose has significantly reduced serum content of MDA, lipid hydroperoxide, and cholesterol (P=0.000 while increasing GSH, Vit C level (P=0.000, and the activity of SOD (P=0.000 and GST (P=0.038. At the same time, spirulina intake for 30 and 60 days at (500 × 4 mg dose has favorable significant effect (P=0.000 on all targeted blood parameters except for HDL (P=0.163.

  9. Effects of prenatal exposure to a mild chronic variable stress on body weight, preweaning mortality and rat behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cabrera R.J.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Early stimulation has been shown to produce long-lasting effects in many species. Prenatal exposure to some strong stressors may affect development of the nervous system leading to behavioral impairment in adult life. The purpose of the present work was to study the postnatal harmful effects of exposure to variable mild stresses in rats during pregnancy. Female Holtzman rats were submitted daily to one session of a chronic variable stress (CVS during pregnancy (prenatal stress; PS group. Control pregnant rats (C group were undisturbed. The pups of PS and C dams were weighed and separated into two groups 48 h after delivery. One group was maintained with their own dams (PS group, N = 70; C group, N = 36 while the other PS pups were cross-fostered with C dams (PSF group, N = 47 and the other C pups were cross-fostered with PS dams (CF group, N = 58. Pups were undisturbed until weaning (postnatal day 28. The male offspring underwent motor activity tests (day 28, enriched environment tests (day 37 and social interaction tests (day 42 in an animal activity monitor. Body weight was recorded on days 2, 28 and 60. The PS pups showed lower birth weight than C pups (Duncan's test, P<0.05. The PS pups suckling with their stressed mothers displayed greater preweaning mortality (C: 23%, PS: 60%; c2 test, P<0.05 and lower body weight than controls at days 28 and 60 (Duncan's test, P<0.05 and P<0.01, respectively. The PS, PSF and CF groups showed lower motor activity scores than controls when tested at day 28 (Duncan's test, P<0.01 for PS group and P<0.05 for CF and PSF groups. In the enriched environment test performed on day 37, between-group differences in total motor activity were not detected; however, the PS, CF and PSF groups displayed less exploration time than controls (Duncan's test, P<0.05. Only the PS group showed impaired motor activity and impaired social behavior at day 42 (Duncan's test, P<0.05. In fact, CVS treatment during gestation plus

  10. Increased Risk Taking in Relation to Chronic Stress in Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceccato, Smarandita; Kudielka, Brigitte M.; Schwieren, Christiane

    2016-01-01

    Chronic stress is a public health problem that affects a significant part of the population. While the physiological damage it causes is under ongoing scrutiny, its behavioral effects have been overlooked. This is one of the first studies to examine the relation between chronic stress and decision-making, using a standard lottery paradigm. We measured risk taking in the gain domain through binary choices between financially incentivized lotteries. We then measured self-reported chronic stress with the Trier Inventory for the Assessment of Chronic Stress (TICS). We additionally collected hair samples in a subsample of volunteers, in order to quantify accumulation of the stress hormone cortisol. We discovered a significant positive, though modest, correlation between self-reported chronic stress and risk taking that is stronger for women than for men. This confirms part of the findings in acute stress research that show a connection between higher stress and increased risk taking. However, unlike the biologically-based results from acute stress research, we did not identify a significant relation between hair cortisol and behavior. In line with previous literature, we found a clear gender difference in risk taking and self-reports: women generally take less risk and report slightly higher stress levels than men. We conclude that perceived chronic stress can impact behavior in risky situations. PMID:26858663

  11. Predictable Chronic Mild Stress Improves Mood, Hippocampal Neurogenesis and Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Parihar, Vipan K; Hattiangady, Bharathi; Kuruba, Ramkumar; Shuai, Bing; Shetty, Ashok K.

    2009-01-01

    Maintenance of neurogenesis in the adult hippocampus is important for functions such as mood and memory. As exposure to unpredictable chronic stress (UCS) results in decreased hippocampal neurogenesis, enhanced depressive- and anxiety-like behaviors and memory dysfunction, it is believed that declined hippocampal neurogenesis mainly underlies the behavioral and cognitive abnormalities after UCS. However, the effects of predictable chronic mild stress (PCMS) such as the routine stress experien...

  12. Effects of Chronic Restraint Stress on Body Weight, Food Intake, and Hypothalamic Gene Expressions in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Jeong, Joo Yeon; Lee, Dong Hoon; Kang, Sang Soo

    2013-01-01

    Background Stress affects body weight and food intake, but the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. Methods We evaluated the changes in body weight and food intake of ICR male mice subjected to daily 2 hours restraint stress for 15 days. Hypothalamic gene expression profiling was analyzed by cDNA microarray. Results Daily body weight and food intake measurements revealed that both parameters decreased rapidly after initiating daily restraint stress. Body weights of stressed mice the...

  13. The bio-distribution of the antidepressant clomipramine is modulated by chronic stress in mice: Effects on behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgia eBalsevich

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Major depression is one of the most common psychiatric disorders, severely affecting the quality of life of millions of people worldwide. Despite the availability of several classes of antidepressants, treatment efficacy is still very variable and many patients do not respond to the treatment. Clomipramine (CMI, a classical and widely used antidepressant, shows widespread interindividual variability of efficacy, while the environmental factors contributing to such variability remain unclear. We investigated whether chronic stress modulates the bio-distribution of CMI, and as a result the behavioral response to CMI treatment in a mouse model of chronic social defeat stress. Our results show that stress exposure increased anxiety-like and depressive-like behaviors and altered the stress response. Chronic defeat stress furthermore significantly altered CMI bio-distribution. Interestingly, CMI bio-distribution highly correlated with anxiety-like and depressive-like behaviors only under basal conditions. Taken together, we provide first evidence demonstrating that chronic stress exposure modulates CMI bio-distribution and behavioral responses. This may contribute to CMI’s broad interindividual variability, and is especially relevant in clinical practice.

  14. Effects of Chronic Forced Swim Stress with Different Session on the Interphase and Termination of Phase 2 in the Formalin Test

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    Sina Pozesh

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Stress have bidirectional effects on pain threshold and behaviours. Whereas acute stress often results in analgesia, chronic stress can trigger hyperalgesia/allodynia. The formalin test as an inflammation model, consist of three phases and the effects of repeated forced swim stress with different session numbers on these phases have not been investigated. Therefore, in this study the effects of chronic forced swim stress with different intensities evaluated in formalin test were performed in adult male Wistar rats. Methods: In this study, the formalin test (50 μL, 2% was used to evaluate the effects of repeated swim stress with different duration and sessions on nociceptive responses. Animals were initially submitted to 6 minutes in day with different sessions (3, 5 and 10 days of forced swim stress and after 24 hours of the last session, animals were submitted to formalin injection in hind paw to evaluate nociceptive behaviours. Results: Exposing animals to 3 days for 6 minutes had an increasing effect on formalin-induced pain behavior only in the final stage of phase 2. This data showed that increase session number of stress have same effect on nociceptive behaviours in termination of phase 2. Moreover increasing exposure to forced swim stress for 5 and 10 sessions effected nociceptive behaviours in interphase. Conclusion: These findings suggest that increase sessions of chronic forced swim stress (3,5 and 10 days effect on the nociceptive behaviours and significantly increase interphase of the Formalin Test. which could be related to modulating mechanism during this phase.

  15. Sex Differences in the Effects of Acute and Chronic Stress and Recovery after Long-Term Stress on Stress-Related Brain Regions of Rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lin, Yanhua; Ter Horst, Gert J.; Wichmann, Romy; Bakker, Petra; Liu, Aihua; Li, Xuejun; Westenbroek, Christel

    2009-01-01

    Studies show that sex plays a role in stress-related depression, with women experiencing a higher vulnerability to its effect. Two major targets of antidepressants are brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and cyclic adenosine monophosphate response element-binding protein (CREB). The aim of this

  16. Stress effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This chapter reviews the manner in which the influence of stress on a composite Cu/Ti-Nb superconductor brings about a deterioration of its electrical properties and those of the magnet wound from it. Training and electrical fatigue are considered. Static and dynamic stress effects are discussed as are dynamic stress effects -- repeated tension. The authors also examine dynamic stress effects--tension-compression. Several extensive case studies have been undertaken of the effects of both static and dynamic tensile and compressive stresses on the current-carrying properties of composite superconductors. Single-core and multi-filamentary Cu- or Al-stabilized monoliths, as well as cables, have been investigated and several representative studies are reviewed

  17. Protective Effect of Natural Honey, Urtica diocia and Their Mixture against Oxidative Stress Caused by Chronic Ethanol Consumption.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.M.F Edrees*, F.G.EL-Said and E.T.Salem

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is increasing implicating oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of chronic pancreatitis. The aim of this study is to investigate affect alcohol addiction and role of some protecting agent. Material and methods: Forty eight rats (Rattus norvigicus were divided into 8 groups. Honey (2.5 g /kg b.w, Urtica dioica (250 mg/kg and Alcohol orally administered at dose (20% exceeds by 2.5% weekly. Results: Ethanol feeding results in increasing serum glucose, total lipids, cholesterol, Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL, triglycerides, urea, liver Glucose-6-Phosphatase (G6Pase, pancreas and liver Malondialdehyde (MDA, Protein Carbonyl (PC. While a decrease were noted in serum insulin, High Density Lipoprotein (HDL, total Protein, Na, K, Ca, Mg, Cu, liver glycogen, pancreas and liver Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase (G6PD, Glutathione-S-Transferase (GST, Reduced Glutathione (GSH, Catalase (CAT, Superoxide Dismutase (SOD. Conclusion: Administration of honey, urtica or both with alcohol prevent to great extent the lesions caused by only chronic alcohol administration. Consequently, honey and urtica administration are useful to minimize the hazardous effects resulting from ethanol abuse

  18. Effects of chronic multiple stress on learning and memory and the expression of Fyn, BDNF, TrkB in the hippocampus of rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xiao-heng; LIU Neng-bao; ZHANG Min-hai; ZHOU Yan-ling; LIAO Jia-wan; LIU Xiang-qian; CHEN Hong-wei

    2007-01-01

    Background The effect of chronic stress on cognitive functions has been one of the hot topics in neuroscience. But there has been much controversy over its mechanism. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of chronic multiple stress on spatial learning and memory as well as the expression of Fyn, BDNF and TrkB in the hippocampus of rats.Methods Adult rats were randomly divided into control and chronic multiple stressed groups. Rats in the multiple stressed group were irregularly and alternatively exposed to situations of vertical revolution, sleep expropriation and restraint lasting for 6 weeks, 6 hours per day with night illumination for 6 weeks. Before and after the period of chronic multiple stresses, the performance of spatial learning and memory of all rats was measured using the Morris Water Maze (MWM). The expression of Fyn, BDNF and TrkB proteins in the hippocampus was assayed by Western blotting and immunohistochemical methods. The levels of Fyn and TrkB mRNAs in the hippocampus of rats were detected by RT-PCR technique.Results The escape latency in the control group and the stressed group were 15.63 and 8.27 seconds respectively.The performance of spatial learning and memory of rats was increased in chronic multiple stressed group (P<0.05). The levels of Fyn, BDNF and TrkB proteins in the stressed group were higher than those of the control group (P<0.05). The results of immunoreactivity showed that Fyn was present in the CA3 region of the hippocampus and BDNF positive particles were distributed in the nuclei of CA1 and CA3 pyramidal cells as well as DG granular cells. Quantitative analysis indicated that level of Fyn mRNA was also upregulated in the hippocampus of the stressed group (P<0.05).Conclusions Chronic multiple stress can enhance spatial learning and memory function of rats. The expression of Fyn,BDNF and TrkB proteins and the level of Fyn mRNA are increased in the stessed rat hippocampus. These suggest that Fyn and BDNF

  19. Chronic and Episodic Stress in Children of Depressed Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feurer, Cope; Hammen, Constance L; Gibb, Brandon E

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine chronic and episodic stress in children of mothers with and without a history of major depressive disorder (MDD) during the children's lives. Participants were 255 mothers selected according to their history of MDD (present vs. absent during child's life) and their children (age 8-14; 53% girls, 81% Caucasian). Mothers' and children's histories of MDD were assessed using diagnostic interviews, and their depressive symptoms were assessed via self-report measures. Children's levels of chronic and episodic stress were assessed using a semistructured contextual threat interview. Children of mothers with a history of recurrent MDD, compared to single MDD or no depression, experienced more chronic stress within several domains including peers, mother-child relations, and other family member relations as well as greater episodic dependent interpersonal stress. Each of these group differences was maintained after excluding children with a history of MDD themselves and controlling for their current depressive symptoms. However, only the group difference in chronic peer stress was maintained when controlling for mothers' current depression. The results suggest that children exposed to recurrent maternal MDD experience higher levels of both chronic and episodic stress, at least some of which they contribute to themselves (dependent interpersonal stress) and which is at least partially independent of the effects of children's depression. In addition, much of this stress is associated primarily with current depression in the mother, though it appears that chronic peer stress may remain elevated even after the remission of maternal depression. PMID:25496371

  20. Oxidative Stress Adaptation with Acute, Chronic and Repeated Stress

    OpenAIRE

    Pickering, Andrew. M.; Vojtovich, Lesya; Tower, John; Davies, Kelvin J. A.

    2012-01-01

    Oxidative stress adaptation or hormesis is an important mechanism by which cells and organisms respond to, and cope with, environmental and physiological shifts in the level of oxidative stress. Most studies of oxidative stress adaption have been limited to adaptation induced by acute stress. In contrast, many if not most environmental and physiological stresses are either repeated or chronic. In this study we find that both cultured mammalian cells, and the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster,...

  1. Chronic and acute effects of stress on energy balance: are there appropriate animal models?

    OpenAIRE

    Harris, Ruth B. S.

    2014-01-01

    Stress activates multiple neural and endocrine systems to allow an animal to respond to and survive in a threatening environment. The corticotropin-releasing factor system is a primary initiator of this integrated response, which includes activation of the sympathetic nervous system and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. The energetic response to acute stress is determined by the nature and severity of the stressor, but a typical response to an acute stressor is inhibition of food...

  2. High-Speed Imaging Reveals Opposing Effects of Chronic Stress and Antidepressants on Neuronal Activity Propagation through the Hippocampal Trisynaptic Circuit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens Stepan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Antidepressants (ADs are used as first-line treatment for most stress-related psychiatric disorders. The alterations in brain circuit dynamics that can arise from stress exposure and underlie therapeutic actions of ADs remain, however, poorly understood. Here, enabled by a recently developed voltage-sensitive dye imaging assay in mouse brain slices, we examined the impact of chronic stress and concentration-dependent effects of eight clinically used ADs (belonging to different chemical/functional classes on evoked neuronal activity propagations through the hippocampal trisynaptic circuitry (HTC: perforant path - dentate gyrus - area CA3 - area CA1. Exposure of mice to chronic social defeat stress led to markedly weakened activity propagations (“HTC-Waves”. In contrast, at concentrations in the low micromolar range, all ADs, which were bath applied to slices, caused an amplification of HTC-Waves in CA regions (invariably in area CA1. The fast-acting “antidepressant” ketamine, the mood stabilizer lithium, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF exerted comparable enhancing effects, whereas the antipsychotic haloperidol and the anxiolytic diazepam attenuated HTC-Waves. Collectively, we provide direct experimental evidence that chronic stress can depress neuronal signal flow through the HTC and demonstrate shared opposing effects of ADs. Thus, our study points to a circuit-level mechanism of ADs to counteract stress-induced impairment of hippocampal network function. However, the observed effects of ADs are impossible to depend on enhanced neurogenesis.

  3. Effect of Chronic Exposure to Prometryne on Oxidative Stress and Antioxidant Response in Red Swamp Crayfish (Procambarus clarkii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alžběta Stará

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate effects of the triazine herbicide prometryne on red swamp crayfish on the basis of oxidative stress, antioxidant indices in hepatopancreas and muscle, and histopathology of hepatopancreas. Crayfish were exposed to prometryne concentrations of 0.51 μg L−1, 0.144 mg L−1, and 1.144 mg L−1 for 11 and 25 days. Indices of oxidative stress (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS, and antioxidant parameters (superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, and glutathione reductase (GR in crayfish muscle and hepatopancreas were measured. Chronic exposure to prometryne did not showed the impact of oxidative damage to cells. Changes activity of the antioxidant enzymes SOD, CAT, and GR were observed in all tested concentrations to prometryne for 11 and 25 days (P<0.01 as compared with the control group. We did not see any differences in histopatological examination to hepatopancreas. Prolonged exposure of prometryne did not result in oxidative damage to cell lipids and proteins, but it led to changes in antioxidant activity in crayfish tissues. Changes in antioxidant systems were also observed in the environmental prometryne concentration of 0.51 μg L−1. The results suggest that antioxidant responses may have potential as biomarkers for monitoring residual triazine herbicides in aquatic environments.

  4. The Interaction of Chronic Restraint Stress and Voluntary Alcohol Intake: Effects on Spatial Memory in Male Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Gomez, Juan L.; Lewis, Michael J; Luine, Victoria N.

    2012-01-01

    Alcohol consumption and exposure to stressful life events activate similar neural pathways and thus result in several comparable physiological and behavioral effects. Alcoholics in treatment claim that life-stressors are the leading cause of continued drinking or relapse. However, few studies have investigated the interactive effects of stress and alcohol on cognitive behavior. The effects of restraint stress, alcohol, and stress in combination with alcohol were examined on a spatial memory t...

  5. Effect of supplementation of prebiotic mannan-oligosaccharides and probiotic mixture on growth performance of broilers subjected to chronic heat stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    The present study was aimed at elucidating the effects of supplementing mannan-oligosaccharides (MOS) and probiotic mixture (PM) on growth performance, intestinal histology, and corticosterone concentrations in broilers kept under chronic heat stress (HS). Four hundred and fifty day-old chicks were...

  6. Antidepressant-Like Effects of Fractions Prepared from Danzhi-Xiaoyao-San Decoction in Rats with Chronic Unpredictable Mild Stress: Effects on Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis, Arginine Vasopressin, and Neurotransmitters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Li-Li; Liu, Yan; Pan, Yi; Su, Jun-Fang; Wu, Wei-Kang

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the antidepressant-like effects of two fractions, including petroleum ether soluble fraction (Fraction A, FA) and water-EtOH soluble fraction (Fraction B, FB) prepared from the Danzhi-xiaoyao-san (DZXYS) by using chronic unpredictable mild stress-induced depressive rat model. The results indicated that DZXYS could ameliorate the depression-like behavior in chronic stress model of rats. The inhibition of hyperactivity of HPA axis and the modulation of monoamine and amino acid neurotransmitters in the hippocampus may be the important mechanisms underlying the action of DZXYS antidepressant-like effect in chronically stressed rats.

  7. Antidepressant-Like Effects of Fractions Prepared from Danzhi-Xiaoyao-San Decoction in Rats with Chronic Unpredictable Mild Stress: Effects on Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis, Arginine Vasopressin, and Neurotransmitters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Li Wu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to investigate the antidepressant-like effects of two fractions, including petroleum ether soluble fraction (Fraction A, FA and water-EtOH soluble fraction (Fraction B, FB prepared from the Danzhi-xiaoyao-san (DZXYS by using chronic unpredictable mild stress-induced depressive rat model. The results indicated that DZXYS could ameliorate the depression-like behavior in chronic stress model of rats. The inhibition of hyperactivity of HPA axis and the modulation of monoamine and amino acid neurotransmitters in the hippocampus may be the important mechanisms underlying the action of DZXYS antidepressant-like effect in chronically stressed rats.

  8. Effects of chronic exposure to benzalkonium chloride in Oncorhynchus mykiss: cholinergic neurotoxicity, oxidative stress, peroxidative damage and genotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes, S C; Nunes, B; Rodrigues, S; Nunes, R; Fernandes, J; Correia, A T

    2016-07-01

    Benzalkonium chloride (BAC) is one of the most used conservatives in pharmaceutical preparations. However, its use is limited to a small set of external use formulations, due to its high toxicity. Benzalkonium chloride effects are related to the potential exertion of deleterious effects, mediated via oxidative stress and through interaction with membrane enzymes, leading to cellular damage. To address the ecotoxicity of this specific compound rainbow trouts were chronically exposed to BAC at environmental relevant concentrations (ranging from 0.100 to 1.050mg/L), and the biological response of cholinergic neurotoxicity, modulation of the antioxidant defense, phase II metabolism, lipid peroxidation and genotoxicity was studied. The obtained results showed a dual pattern of antioxidant response, with significant alterations in catalase activity (starting at 0.180mg/L), and lipid peroxidation, for intermediate (0.180 and 0.324mg/L) concentrations. No significant alterations occurred for glutathione-S-transferases activity. An unexpected increased of the acetylcholinesterase activity was also recorded for the individuals exposed to higher concentrations of BAC (starting at 0.180mg/L). Furthermore, exposure to BAC resulted in the establishment of genotoxic alterations, observable (for the specific case of the comet assay results) for all tested BAC concentrations. However, and considering that the oxidative response was not devisable, other mechanisms may be involved in the genotoxic effects reported here. PMID:27280532

  9. Effects of Electroacupuncture at Auricular Concha Region on the Depressive Status of Unpredictable Chronic Mild Stress Rat Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ru-Peng Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To explore new noninvasive treatment options for depression, this study investigated the effects of electroacupuncture (EA at the auricular concha region (ACR of depression rat models. Depression in rats was induced by unpredictable chronic mild stress (UCMS combined with isolation for 21 days. Eighty male Wistar rats were randomly assigned into four groups: normal, UCMS alone, UCMS with EA-ACR treatment, and UCMS with EA-ear-tip treatment. Rats under inhaled anesthesia were treated once daily for 14 days. The results showed that blood pressure and heart rate were significantly reduced in the EA-ACR group than in the UCMS alone group or the EA-ear-tip group. The open-field test scores significantly decreased in the UCMS alone and EA-ear-tip groups but not in the EA-ACR group. Both EA treatments downregulated levels of plasma cortisol and ACTH in UCMS rats back to normal levels. The present study suggested that EA-ACR can elicit similar cardioinhibitory effects as vagus nerve stimulation (VNS, and EA-ACR significantly antagonized UCMS-induced depressive status in UCMS rats. The antidepressant effect of EA-ACR is possibly mediated via the normalization of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis hyperactivity.

  10. Public Health Burden of Chronic Stress in a Transforming Society

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    Mária S. Kopp

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper chronic stress is proposed as an integrating model that can be applied to the explanation of the suddenly changing patterns of premature mortality rates in transforming societies of Central-Eastern-Europe, especially in Hungary. The temporal factor in existing stress models is often neglected. Chronic stress has been shown to lead to typical pathogenetic results in animal experiments. Literature and the different models in the field of psychology, behavioural sciences, and epidemiology are reviewed in terms of the chronic stress theory. There are several conceptual bridges between psychological alterations and the risks, onset and prognosis of chronic disorders of great epidemiological significance. Depending on the field of research there are several parallel concepts which analyse practically the same phenomena. These are the stress theories in physiology, learned helplessness and control theory in psychology, depression research in psychiatry, the concept of vital exhaustion and the psychosocial risk research in sociology. Because chronic stress results in adverse health effects through biological, social and behavioural pathways, this theory might also havethe best explanatory power to understand the premature male morbidity and mortality crisis in Central and Eastern Europe in the last decades. The special features of premature mortality and morbidity crisis in Hungary might be regarded as an experimental model to understand better the human consequences of chronic stress and those processes where psychology meets physiology.

  11. The effect of grape seed extract and vitamin C feed supplementation on some blood parameters and HSP70 gene expression of broiler chickens suffering from chronic heat stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosna Hajati

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this experiment, the effect of hydroalcoholic grape seed extract (GSE and vitamin C feed supplementation on some blood parameters and heat shock protein 70 (HSP70 gene expression of broiler chickens suffering from chronic heat stress was investigated. Experimental diets included control diet (with no additive, 3 levels of GSE (150, 300, 450 mg/kg, and one level of vitamin C (300 mg/kg. Each diet was fed to 5 replicates of 12 male chicks each, from d 1 to 42. The birds suffered from chronic daily heat stress under 34±1°C temperature with 65 to 70% relative humidity for 5 h from 29 to 42 d of age. Results showed that 300 mg/kg GSE supplementation increased body weight of broilers both before and after heat stress condition (at 28 and 42 d, respectively. Also, birds fed 300 mg GSE/kg diet had higher European production efficiency factor during the whole period of the experiment. Supplementation of GSE decreased the concentration of serum glucose at 28 and 42 d; at 42 d (during heat stress condition and at 450 mg/kg diet it decreased cholesterol, triglyceride, lowand very low density lipoprotein concentration of serum blood. Vitamin C supplementation decreased serum cholesterol concentration of broilers suffering from heat stress. HSP70 gene expression in heart and liver of broilers reduced by GSE and vitamin C supplementation pre- and during chronic heat stress condition.

  12. Role of hippocampal p11 in the sustained antidepressant effect of ketamine in the chronic unpredictable mild stress model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, H-L; Zhou, Z-Q; Zhang, G-F; Yang, C; Wang, X-M; Shen, J-C; Hashimoto, K; Yang, J-J

    2016-01-01

    Although ketamine shows a rapid and sustained antidepressant effect, the precise mechanisms underlying its effect are unknown. Recent studies indicate a key role of p11 (also known as S100A10) in depression-like behavior in rodents. The present study aimed to investigate the role of p11 in the antidepressant-like action of ketamine in chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) rat model. The open-field test, forced swimming test and sucrose preference test were performed after administration of ketamine (10 mg kg(-1)) or a combination of ketamine and ANA-12 (a tropomyosin-related kinase B (TrkB) antagonist; 0.5 mg kg(-1)). The lentivirus vector for p11 was constructed to knock down the hippocampal expression of p11. In the CUMS rats, ketamine showed a rapid (0.5 h) and sustained (72 h) antidepressant effect, and its effect was significantly blocked by co-administration of ANA-12. Furthermore, ketamine significantly increased the reduced expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the hippocampus of CUMS rats, whereas ketamine did not affect the expression of p11 in CUMS rats 0.5 h after administration. In addition, ketamine significantly increased the reduced ratio of p-TrkB/TrkB in the hippocampus by CUMS rats, and its effect was also blocked by ANA-12. Moreover, the reduced expression of BDNF and p11 in the hippocampus of CUMS rats was significantly recovered to control levels 72 h after ketamine administration. Interestingly, knockdown of hippocampal p11 caused increased immobility time and decreased sucrose preference, which were not improved by ketamine administration. These results suggest that p11 in the hippocampus may have a key role in the sustained antidepressant effect of ketamine in the CUMS model of depression. PMID:26905413

  13. Effects of Shuyusan on monoamine neurotransmitters expression in a rat model of chronic stress-induced depression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuanyuan Zhang; Jianjun Jia; Liping Chen; Zhitao Han; Yulan Zhao; Honghong Zhang; Yazhuo Hu

    2011-01-01

    Shuyusan, a traditional Chinese medicine, was shown to improve depression symptoms and behavioral scores, as well as increase 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid, and 5-hydroxytryptophan levels, in a rat model of chronic stress-induced depression. However, dopamine, noradrenalin, and 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol expressions remained unchanged following Shuyusan treatment. Compared with the model group, the number of 5-HT-positive neurons in layers 4-5 of the frontal cortex, as well as hippocampal CA1 and CA3 regions, significantly increased following Shuyusan treatment. These results suggested that Shuyusan improved symptoms in a rat model of chronic stress-induced depression with mechanisms that involved 5-HT, 5-HT metabolite, 5-HT precursor expressions.

  14. Effect of individually tailored biopsychosocial workplace interventions on chronic musculoskeletal pain and stress among laboratory technicians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Kenneth Jay; Brandt, Mikkel; Hansen, Klaus;

    2015-01-01

    pain using individually tailored physical and cognitive elements. STUDY DESIGN: This trial uses a single-blind randomized controlled design with allocation concealment in a 2-armed parallel group format among laboratory technicians. The trial "Implementation of physical exercise at the Workplace (IRMA...... 2014 (follow-up). METHODS: Participants (n = 112) were allocated to receive either physical, cognitive, and mindfulness group-based training (PCMT group) or a reference group (REF) for 10 weeks at the worksite. PCMT consisted of 4 major elements: 1) resistance training individually tailored to the pain...... number of physical-cognitive training sessions per week (-0.60 [95%CI -0.95 to -0.25]) and the number of mindfulness sessions (0.15 [95%CI 0.02 to 0.18]). No such associations were found with the change in stress as outcome. LIMITATIONS: Limitations of behavioral interventions include the inability to...

  15. Sex-specific effects of prenatal chronic mild stress on adult spatial learning capacity and regional glutamate receptor expression profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Ma, Yuchao; Hu, Jingmin; Zhang, Xinxin; Cheng, Wenwen; Jiang, Han; Li, Min; Ren, Jintao; Zhang, Xiaosong; Liu, Mengxi; Sun, Anji; Wang, Qi; Li, Xiaobai

    2016-07-01

    Both animal experiments and clinical studies have demonstrated that prenatal stress can cause cognitive disorders in offspring. To explore the scope of these deficits and identify potential underlying mechanisms, we examined the spatial learning and memory performance and glutamate receptor (GluR) expression patterns of adult rats exposed to prenatal chronic mild stress (PCMS). Principal component analysis (PCA) was employed to reveal the interrelationships among spatial learning indices and GluR expression changes. Female PCMS-exposed offspring exhibited markedly impaired spatial learning and memory in the Morris water maze (MWM) task compared to control females, while PCMS-exposed males showed better initial spatial learning in the MWM compared to control males. PCMS also altered basal and post-MWM glutamate receptor expression patterns, but these effects differed markedly between sexes. Male PCMS-exposed offspring exhibited elevated basal expression of NR1, mGluR5, and mGluR2/3 in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), whereas females showed no basal expression changes. Following MWM training, PCMS-exposed males expressed higher NR1 in the PFC and mammillary body (MB), higher mGluR2/3 in PFC, and lower NR2B in the hippocampus (HIP), PFC, and MB compared to unstressed MWM-trained males. Female PCMS-exposed offspring showed strongly reduced NR1 in MB and NR2B in the HIP, PFC, and MB, and increased mGluR2/3 in PFC compared to unstressed MWM-trained females. This is the first report suggesting that NMDA subunits in the MB are involved in spatial learning. Additionally, PCA further suggests that the NR1-NR2B form is the most important for spatial memory formation. These results reveal long-term sex-specific effects of PCMS on spatial learning and memory performance in adulthood and implicate GluR expression changes within HIP, PFC, and MB as possible molecular mechanisms underlying cognitive dysfunction in offspring exposed to prenatal stress. PMID:27094122

  16. Effects of Repeated Citalopram Treatments on Chronic Mild Stress-Induced Growth Associated Protein-43 mRNA Expression in Rat Hippocampus

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Sang-Ha; Choi, Song-Hyen; Lee, Jimin; Kang, Seungwoo; Shin, You-Chan; Kim, Hyun-Ju; Kim, Hyun Jung; Shin, Seung Keon; Lee, Min-Soo; Shin, Kyung-Ho

    2008-01-01

    Although growth associated protein-43 (GAP-43) is known to play a significant role in the regulation of axonal growth and the formation of new neuronal connections in the hippocampus, there is only a few studies on the effects of acute stress on GAP-43 mRNA expression in the hippocampus. Moreover, the effects of repeated citalopram treatment on chronic mild stress (CMS)-induced changes in GAP-43 mRNA expression in the hippocampus have not been explored before. To explore this question, male r...

  17. Antidepressant- like effects of BCEF0083 in the chronic unpredictable stress models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LanlanZhou; LiangMING; ChuangengMa; YanCheng; QinJiang

    2004-01-01

    AIM: Depression is a complicated disease, There are no satisfactory drugs to therapy depression so far. BCEF is a new type of bioactive compounds from entomogenous fungi. Depression animal models are effective to evaluate the antidepressant property of drugs. Several animal models of depression have been inn'oduced, however, only a few have been

  18. Chronic mild stress eliminates the neuroprotective effect of Copaxone after CNS injury

    OpenAIRE

    Smirnov, Igor; Walsh, James T.; Kipnis, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    Copolymer (Cop)-1, also known as glatiramer acetate, is an active compound of Copaxone, a drug widely used by patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Copaxone functions in MS through two mechanisms of action, namely immunomodulation and neuroprotection. Because the immune system is suppressed or altered in depressed individuals, and since depression is often associated with neurological conditions, we were interested in examining whether the neuroprotective effect of Copaxone persists under co...

  19. Acute Stress Decreases but Chronic Stress Increases Myocardial Sensitivity to Ischemic Injury in Rodents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenmann, Eric D.; Rorabaugh, Boyd R.; Zoladz, Phillip R.

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the largest cause of mortality worldwide, and stress is a significant contributor to the development of CVD. The relationship between acute and chronic stress and CVD is well evidenced. Acute stress can lead to arrhythmias and ischemic injury. However, recent evidence in rodent models suggests that acute stress can decrease sensitivity to myocardial ischemia–reperfusion injury (IRI). Conversely, chronic stress is arrhythmogenic and increases sensitivity to myocardial IRI. Few studies have examined the impact of validated animal models of stress-related psychological disorders on the ischemic heart. This review examines the work that has been completed using rat models to study the effects of stress on myocardial sensitivity to ischemic injury. Utilization of animal models of stress-related psychological disorders is critical in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disorders in patients experiencing stress-related psychiatric conditions. PMID:27199778

  20. Neural Control of Chronic Stress Adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Herman

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Stress initiates adaptive processes that allow the organism to physiologically cope with prolonged or intermittent exposure to real or perceived threats. A major component of this response is repeated activation of glucocorticoid secretion by the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA axis, which promotes redistribution of energy in a wide range of organ systems, including the brain. Prolonged or cumulative increases in glucocorticoid secretion can reduce benefits afforded by enhanced stress reactivity and eventually become maladaptive. The long-term impact of stress is kept in check by the process of habituation, which reduces HPA axis responses upon repeated exposure to homotypic stressors and likely limits deleterious actions of prolonged glucocorticoid secretion. Habituation is regulated by limbic stress-regulatory sites, and is at least in part glucocorticoid feedback-dependent. Chronic stress also sensitizes reactivity to new stimuli. While sensitization may be important in maintaining response flexibility in response to new threats, it may also add to the cumulative impact of glucocorticoids on the brain and body. Finally, unpredictable or severe stress exposure may cause long-term and lasting dysregulation of the HPA axis, likely due to altered limbic control of stress effector pathways. Stress-related disorders, such as depression and PTSD, are accompanied by glucocorticoid imbalances and structural/ functional alterations in limbic circuits that resemble those seen following chronic stress, suggesting that inappropriate processing of stressful information may be part of the pathological process.

  1. Balancing food and predator pressure induces chronic stress in songbirds.

    OpenAIRE

    Clinchy, Michael; Zanette, Liana; Boonstra, Rudy; Wingfield, John C.; Smith, James N. M.

    2004-01-01

    The never-ending tension between finding food and avoiding predators may be the most universal natural stressor wild animals experience. The 'chronic stress' hypothesis predicts: (i) an animal's stress profile will be a simultaneous function of food and predator pressures given the aforesaid tension; and (ii) these inseparable effects on physiology will produce inseparable effects on demography because of the resulting adverse health effects. This hypothesis was originally proposed to explain...

  2. Changes in blood sugar content of dogs exposed to chronic gamma radiation for 6 years. [Combined effects of physical stress, heat stress, and acute radiation stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akhunov, A.A.

    1978-10-26

    There have not been many studies of blood sugar concentration in animals exposed to chronic gamma radiation, and the results thereof are contradictory. Therefore, data on blood sugar levels in dogs during a 6-year exposure to gamma radiation and after discontinuation thereof are reported.

  3. A controlled study of the effect of a mindfulness-based stress reduction technique in women with multiple chemical sensitivity, chronic fatigue syndrome, and fibromyalgia

    OpenAIRE

    Sampalli, Tara

    2009-01-01

    Tara Sampalli1, Elizabeth Berlasso1, Roy Fox1, Mark Petter21Nova Scotia Environmental Health Centre, Fall River, Nova Scotia, Canada; 2Doctoral Candidate, Department of Psychology, Dalhousie University, Halifax, CanadaBackground: The objective of this study was to examine the effect of a mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) program on women diagnosed with conditions such as multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS), chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), and fibromyalgia (FM). Methods: The interventi...

  4. Behavioral effects and CRF expression in brain structures of high- and low-anxiety rats after chronic restraint stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisłowska-Stanek, Aleksandra; Lehner, Małgorzata; Skórzewska, Anna; Krząścik, Paweł; Płaźnik, Adam

    2016-09-01

    The aim of our study was to investigate the influence of chronic restraint stress (5 weeks, 3h/day) on behavior and central corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) expression in rats selected for high (HR) and low anxiety (LR). The conditioned freezing response was used as a discriminating variable. Moreover, we assessed the influence of acute restraint on CRF expression in the brain in HR and LR rats. We found that chronic restraint induced symptoms of anhedonia (decreased consumption of 1% sucrose solution) in HR rats. In addition, HR restraint rats showed an increased learned helplessness behavior (immobility time in the Porsolt test) as well as neophobia in the open field test vs. LR restraint and HR control rats. These behavioral changes were accompanied by a decreased expression of CRF in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (pPVN) and the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus (DG) compared to the HR control and LR restraint rat groups, respectively. The acute restraint condition increased the expression of CRF in the pPVN of HR rats compared to the HR control group, and enhanced the expression of CRF in the CA1 area and DG of LR restraint animals compared to the HR restraint and LR control rats, respectively. The present results indicate that chronic restraint stress in high anxiety rats attenuated CRF expression in the pPVN and DG, which was probably due to detrimental actions on the hippocampus-hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal gland feedback mechanism, thus modulating the stress response and inducing anhedonia and depressive-like symptoms. PMID:27150225

  5. Life-cycle chronic gamma exposure of Arabidopsis thaliana induces growth effects but no discernable effects on oxidative stress pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenhove, Hildegarde; Vanhoudt, Nathalie; Cuypers, Ann; van Hees, May; Wannijn, Jean; Horemans, Nele

    2010-09-01

    Arabidopsis thaliana was exposed to low-dose chronic gamma irradiation during a full life cycle (seed to seed) and several biological responses were investigated. Applied dose rates were 2336, 367 and 81 microGy h(-1). Following 24 days (inflorescence emergence), 34 days (approximately 50% of flowers open) and 54 days (silice ripening) exposure, plants were harvested and monitored for biometric parameters, capacities of enzymes involved in the antioxidative defence mechanisms (SOD, APOD, GLUR, GPOD, SPOD, CAT, ME), glutathione and ascorbate pool, lipid peroxidation products, altered gene expression of selected genes encoding for antioxidative enzymes or reactive oxygen species production, and DNA integrity. Root fresh weight was significantly reduced after gamma exposure compared to the control at all stages monitored but no significant differences in root weight for the different dose rates applied was observed. Leaf and stem fresh weight were significantly reduced at the highest irradiation level after 54 days exposure only. Also total plant fresh was significantly lower at silice riping and this for the highest and medium dose rate applied. The dose rate estimated to result in a 10% reduction in growth (EDR-10) ranged between 60 and 80 microGy h(-1). Germination of seeds from the gamma irradiated plants was not hampered. For several of the antioxidative defence enzymes studied, the enzyme capacity was generally stimulated towards flowering but generally no significant effect of dose rate on enzyme capacity was observed. Gene analysis revealed a significant transient and dose dependent change in expression of RBOHC indicating active reactive oxygen production induced by gamma irradiation. No effect of irradiation was observed on concentration or reduction state of the non-enzymatic antioxidants, ascorbate and glutathione. The level of lipid peroxidation products remained constant throughout the observation period and was not affected by dose rate. The comet assay

  6. Effects of repeated treatment with cholecystokinin sulfated octapeptide on passive avoidance memory under chronic restraint stress in male rats

    OpenAIRE

    Sadeghi, Malihe; Radahmadi, Maryam; Reisi, Parham

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cholecystokinin (CCK), a peptide hormone found in the gut is the most abundant peptide neurotransmitter in the brain as well, and its effects on learning, memory, and anxiety have been shown. However, it is not clear whether this substance acts as a mediator for anxiety and stress induction or inhibits them. Hence, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of CCK on memory function under stress conditions. Materials and Methods: Male Wistar rats were divided into four ...

  7. Effects of chronic mild stress on apomorphine induced behavioral sensitization in different brain regions of rats in relation to serotonin change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Farhan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The impacts of unpredictable stressors have influence on neurochemical and behavioral parameters in laboratory animals. Stress induced behavioral changes particularly those associated with anxiety like behavior may activate topographically organized mesolimbic cortical serotonergic system. This study was designed to investigate the influence of unpredictable stress on behavioral and neurochemical parameters in apomorphine treated rats. Methods: Initially, the animals were divided into two groups as Unstressed and stressed (uncontrollable chronic mild stress or UCMS. Both groups of animals were subdivided into two groups; i.e. saline and apomorphine administrated animals at dose 1.0 mg/kg. Behavioral manipulations was observed by monitoring the locomotor activity and exploratory activity. Neurochemical estimation of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT was done by High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. Animals were decapitated 24hr post apomorphine injection and different regions of brain (dorsal and ventral striatum, of animals were collected and stored at -70°C. Results: This preclinical study showed that the UCMS induced hypophagia were promoted in apomorphine administrated animals. Apomorphine induced hyperlocomotion were more prominent in unstressed animals than that of stressed groups. It implies that apomorphine is effective in the retrieval from UCMS induced depressive symptoms in rats. Neurochemical study showed decreased level of 5-HT in unstressed animals than stressed animals in response to apomorphine administration. Conclusion: This study, therefore establish the relation between stress and addiction at behavioral as well as neurochemical level to better understand the idea whether intolerable stress promotes addiction.

  8. Pathogenesis of Chronic Hyperglycemia: From Reductive Stress to Oxidative Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang-Jun Yan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic overnutrition creates chronic hyperglycemia that can gradually induce insulin resistance and insulin secretion impairment. These disorders, if not intervened, will eventually be followed by appearance of frank diabetes. The mechanisms of this chronic pathogenic process are complex but have been suggested to involve production of reactive oxygen species (ROS and oxidative stress. In this review, I highlight evidence that reductive stress imposed by overflux of NADH through the mitochondrial electron transport chain is the source of oxidative stress, which is based on establishments that more NADH recycling by mitochondrial complex I leads to more electron leakage and thus more ROS production. The elevated levels of both NADH and ROS can inhibit and inactivate glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH, respectively, resulting in blockage of the glycolytic pathway and accumulation of glycerol 3-phospate and its prior metabolites along the pathway. This accumulation then initiates all those alternative glucose metabolic pathways such as the polyol pathway and the advanced glycation pathways that otherwise are minor and insignificant under euglycemic conditions. Importantly, all these alternative pathways lead to ROS production, thus aggravating cellular oxidative stress. Therefore, reductive stress followed by oxidative stress comprises a major mechanism of hyperglycemia-induced metabolic syndrome.

  9. Effect of Chronic Administration of Forskolin on Glycemia and Oxidative Stress in Rats with and without Experimental Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Ríos-Silva, Mónica; Trujillo, Xóchitl; Trujillo-Hernández, Benjamín; Sánchez-Pastor, Enrique; Urzúa, Zorayda; Mancilla, Evelyn; Huerta, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    Forskolin is a diterpene derived from the plant Coleus forskohlii. Forskolin activates adenylate cyclase, which increases intracellular cAMP levels. The antioxidant and antiinflammatory action of forskolin is due to inhibition of macrophage activation with a subsequent reduction in thromboxane B2 and superoxide levels. These characteristics have made forskolin an effective medication for heart disease, hypertension, diabetes, and asthma. Here, we evaluated the effects of chronic forskolin adm...

  10. Dysfunctional stress responses in chronic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woda, Alain; Picard, Pascale; Dutheil, Frédéric

    2016-09-01

    Many dysfunctional and chronic pain conditions overlap. This review describes the different modes of chronic deregulation of the adaptive response to stress which may be a common factor for these conditions. Several types of dysfunction can be identified within the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis: basal hypercortisolism, hyper-reactivity, basal hypocortisolism and hypo-reactivity. Neuroactive steroid synthesis is another component of the adaptive response to stress. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its sulfated form DHEA-S, and progesterone and its derivatives are synthetized in cutaneous, nervous, and adipose cells. They are neuroactive factors that act locally. They may have a role in the localization of the symptoms and their levels can vary both in the central nervous system and in the periphery. Persistent changes in neuroactive steroid levels or precursors can induce localized neurodegeneration. The autonomic nervous system is another component of the stress response. Its dysfunction in chronic stress responses can be expressed by decreased basal parasympathethic activity, increased basal sympathetic activity or sympathetic hyporeactivity to a stressful stimulus. The immune and genetic systems also participate. The helper-T cells Th1 secrete pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1-β, IL-2, IL-6, IL-8, IL-12, IFN-γ, and TNF-α, whereas Th2 secrete anti-inflammatory cytokines: IL-4, IL-10, IGF-10, IL-13. Chronic deregulation of the Th1/Th2 balance can occur in favor of anti- or pro-inflammatory direction, locally or systemically. Individual vulnerability to stress can be due to environmental factors but can also be genetically influenced. Genetic polymorphisms and epigenetics are the main keys to understanding the influence of genetics on the response of individuals to constraints. PMID:27262345

  11. Central oxytocin is involved in restoring impaired gastric motility following chronic repeated stress in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Babygirija, Reji; Zheng, Jun; Ludwig, Kirk; Takahashi, Toku

    2009-01-01

    Accumulation of continuous life stress (chronic stress) often causes gastric symptoms. The development of gastric symptoms may depend on how humans adapt to the stressful events in their daily lives. Although acute stress delays gastric emptying and alters upper gastrointestinal motility in rodents, the effects of chronic stress on gastric motility and its adaptation mechanism remains unclear. Central oxytocin has been shown to have antistress effects. We studied whether central oxytocin is i...

  12. Effect of chronic exposure to cadmium on serum lipid, lipoprotein and oxidative stress indices in male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samarghandian Saeed

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Cadmium (Cd is an environmental toxic metal implicated in lipid abnormalities. The present study was designed to elucidate the possible association between chronic exposure to Cd concentration and alterations in plasma lipid, lipoprotein, and oxidative stress indices in rats. Sixteen male rats were assigned to 2 groups of 8 rats each (test and control. The Cd-exposed group obtained drinking water containing cadmium chloride (CdCl2 in the concentration of 2.0 mg Cd/L in drinking water for 3 months. At the end of the experimental period, blood samples were obtained to determine the changes of serum triglycerides (TG, total cholesterol (TC, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, reduced glutathione (GSH, malondialdehyde (MDA and also serum Cd contents. The results of the present study indicated that Cd administration significantly increased the serum levels of TG, TC, LDL-C, MDA and Cd with reduction in the HDL-C and GSH levels. In conclusion, evidence is presented that chronic exposure to low Cd concentration can adversely affect the lipid and lipoprotein profile via lipid peroxidation.

  13. ECOLOGICAL STRESS AND ITS EFFECTS ON ESSENTIAL HYPERTENSION AND CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE BRONCHITIS DEVELOPMENT IN ROSTOV-ON-DON INHABITANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. I. Katelnitskaya

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study prevalence of essential hypertension (HT and chronic obstructive bronchitis (COB among Rostov-on-Don population, to assess influence of ecological stress on HT and COB development and to find the ways to improve therapy of combined pathology.Material and methods. Single-stage epidemiologic study of Rostov-on-Don population was carried out. The study included questionnaire to reveal main risk factors of chronic noninfectious diseases, a number of laboratory and instrumental indices.Results. Prevalence of HT and COB is significantly higher in patients, living in ecologically unfavorable districts. Rigidity and stretch ability of vascular wall influence the course and development of HT as well as atrial natriuretic factor. Carbonic anhydrase inhibitor, acetazolamide, when is added to standard therapy increases in its efficacy in blood pressure control, decrease in blood pressure in pulmonary artery and correction of disturbed acidbase balance in patients with HT combined with COB.Conclusion. The connection between unfavorable ecology and HT and COB development is demonstrated. Adjuvant therapy with acetazolamide is proposed to increase in efficacy of HT and COB standard therapy.

  14. Serum metabonomics study of anti-depressive effect of Xiao-Chai-Hu-Tang on rat model of chronic unpredictable mild stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Zhili; Yang, Jie; Huang, Yue; Zhang, Kuo; Bo, Yunhai; Lu, Xiumei; Su, Guangyue; Ma, Jie; Yang, Jingyu; Zhao, Longshan; Wu, Chunfu

    2016-09-01

    Xiao-Chai-Hu-Tang (XCHT) has been proven to be effective for the clinical treatment of depression. However, the mechanisms of definite antidepressant-like effects and detailed metabolic biomarkers were still unclear in this prior study. Here, we have investigated the metabolic profiles and potential biomarkers in a chronic unpredictable mild stress model after treatment with XCHT. Metabonomics based on ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry was used to profile the metabolic fingerprints of serum obtained from a rat model with chronic unpredictable mild stress with and without XCHT treatment. The model rats showed a significant decrease in sucrose preference and food consumption, and these depression-like symptoms were significantly improved by XCHT. Through principal component analysis (PCA), nine potential biomarkers of tryptophan, uric acid, phenylalanine, cholic acid and lysophosphatidylcholine (C18:0 LPC, C16:0 LPC, C16:1 LPC, C18:1 LPC, C20:4 LPC) were characterized as potential biomarkers involved the pathogenesis of depression. The therapeutic effect of XCHT on depression may involve in amino acid metabolism, lipid metabolism, oxidative stress and inflammation response. The present investigation highlights that metabonomics is a valuable tool for studying the essence of depression as well as evaluating the efficacy of the corresponding drug treatment. PMID:27398633

  15. Exposure to sub-chronic unpredictable stress accounts for antidepressant-like effects in hamsters treated with BDNF and CNQX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alò, Raffaella; Mele, Maria; Fazzari, Gilda; Avolio, Ennio; Canonaco, Marcello

    2015-09-01

    Recent evidences indicate that cerebral neurotrophic factors like vascular endothelial growth factor plus signaling pathways of the glutamatergic neuroreceptor system (L-Glu) are determinant modulators of depression-like states. In the present study, the type of interaction(s) exerted by the AMPAergic antagonist, 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxalin-2,3-dione (CNQX) and the brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) on depression-like behaviors in hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) were investigated. Sub-chronic administration of BDNF in the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) of stressed hamsters was responsible for very evident (pdepression states, were reduced following treatment with both compounds. Contextually, marked mRNA expression levels of the BDNF receptor (tropomyosin-related kinase B; TrkB) were detected in DG and the oriens-pyramidalis of HIP (Or-Py) while a moderate (pcaused moderate increases of the major stress protein (Hsp70) in DG and Or-Py. Conversely, while CNQX induced similar TrkB expression levels, it instead accounted for a moderate reduction of Hsp70 mRNAs in the same brain areas. Overall these results support crucial roles played by BDNF and AMPAergic neurosignaling mechanisms during distinct adaptive responses of depression- and anxiety-like states in hamsters. PMID:26409118

  16. Chronic Stress and Glucocorticoids: From Neuronal Plasticity to Neurodegeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheela Vyas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Stress and stress hormones, glucocorticoids (GCs, exert widespread actions in central nervous system, ranging from the regulation of gene transcription, cellular signaling, modulation of synaptic structure, and transmission and glial function to behavior. Their actions are mediated by glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid receptors which are nuclear receptors/transcription factors. While GCs primarily act to maintain homeostasis by inducing physiological and behavioral adaptation, prolonged exposure to stress and elevated GC levels may result in neuro- and psychopathology. There is now ample evidence for cause-effect relationships between prolonged stress, elevated GC levels, and cognitive and mood disorders while the evidence for a link between chronic stress/GC and neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer’s (AD and Parkinson’s (PD diseases is growing. This brief review considers some of the cellular mechanisms through which stress and GC may contribute to the pathogenesis of AD and PD.

  17. Influence of imipramine on the duration of immobility in chronic forced-swim-stressed rats.

    OpenAIRE

    Kitamura, Yoshihisa; Araki,Hiroaki; Nagatani,Tadashi; Takao,Katsuyuki; Shibata, Kazuhiko; Gomita,Yutaka

    2004-01-01

    We studied the influence of imipramine on the duration of immobility in chronic forced-swim-stressed rats. Both single and chronic administration of imipramine potently shortened immobility in naive rats during forced-swim testing. However, chronic, 14-day forced-swim stress testing blocked the immobility-decreasing effect induced by a single administration of imipramine. When imipramine was administered for 14 days concurrently with forced-swim stress testing, immobility was shorten...

  18. Differential Effects of Acute (Extenuating and Chronic (Training Exercise on Inflammation and Oxidative Stress Status in an Animal Model of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edite Teixeira de Lemos

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study compares the effects of a single bout of exercise (acute extenuating with those promoted by an exercise training program (chronic, focusing on low-grade chronic inflammation profile and on oxidative stress status, using the obese ZDF rats as a model of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. Animals were sacrificed after 12 weeks of a swimming training program and after a single bout of acute extenuating exercise. Glycaemic, insulinemic, and lipidic profile (triglycerides, total-cholesterol were evaluated, as well as inflammatory (serum CRPhs, TNF-α, adiponectin and oxidative (lipidic peroxidation and uric acid status. When compared to obese diabetic sedentary rats, the animals submitted to acute exercise presented significantly lower values of glycaemia and insulinaemia, with inflammatory profile and oxidative stress significantly aggravated. The trained animals showed amelioration of glycaemic and lipidic dysmetabolism, accompanied by remarkable reduction of inflammatory and oxidative markers. In conclusion, the results presented herein suggessted that exercise pathogenesis-oriented interventions should not exacerbate underlying inflammatory stress associated with T2DM.

  19. Effects of Ning Shen Ling Granule(宁神灵冲剂)and Dehydroepiandrosterone on Cognitive Function in Mice Undergoing Chronic Mild Stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xiao; DONG Yi-long; YANG Nan; LIU Yan-yong; GAO Rui-feng; ZUO Ping-ping

    2007-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the changes of spontaneous and cognitive behavior,and cholinergic M receptors in the brain of mice subjected to chronic mild stress (CMS),and to determine the effect of Ning Shen Ling Granule (宁神灵冲剂,NSL) and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) on them.Methods:CMS model mice were established by applying stress every day for 3 consecutive weeks with 7 kinds of unforeseeable stress sources,and they were medicated for 1 week beginning at the 3rd week of modeling.The changes in behavior were determined by Morris Water Maze and spontaneous movement test,and M-receptor binding activity in cerebral cortex,hippocampus and hypothalamus were measured by radioactive ligand assay with 3H-QNB.Results:(1)The spontaneous movement in CMS model mice was significantly reduced,with the latency for searching platform in Morris Water Maze obviously prolonged (P<0.01),and these abnormal changes in behavior were improved in those treated with NSL and DHEA.(2)The binding ability of M-receptor in cerebral cortex and hippocampus of CMS mice was significantly decreased as compared with those in the control group (P<0.05),but could be restored to the normal level after intervention with NSL or DHEA.Conclusion:The decline of spontaneous movement and spatial learning and memory ability could be induced in animals by chronic mild stress,and that may be related to the low activity of central cholinergic M-receptors.Both NSL and DHEA could effectively alleviate the above-mentioned changes.

  20. Unpredictable chronic stress decreases inhibitory avoidance learning in Tuebingen long-fin zebrafish: stronger effects in the resting phase than in the active phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manuel, Remy; Gorissen, Marnix; Zethof, Jan; Ebbesson, Lars O E; van de Vis, Hans; Flik, Gert; van den Bos, Ruud

    2014-11-01

    Zebrafish (Danio rerio Hamilton) are increasingly used as a model to study the effects of chronic stress on brain and behaviour. In rodents, unpredictable chronic stress (UCS) has a stronger effect on physiology and behaviour during the active phase than during the resting phase. Here, we applied UCS during the daytime (active phase) for 7 and 14 days or during the night-time (resting phase) for 7 nights in an in-house-reared Tuebingen long-fin (TLF) zebrafish strain. Following UCS, inhibitory avoidance learning was assessed using a 3 day protocol where fish learn to avoid swimming from a white to a black compartment where they will receive a 3 V shock. Latencies of entering the black compartment were recorded before training (day 1; first shock) and after training on day 2 (second shock) and day 3 (no shock, tissue sampling). Fish whole-body cortisol content and expression levels of genes related to stress, fear and anxiety in the telencephalon were quantified. Following 14 days of UCS during the day, inhibitory avoidance learning decreased (lower latencies on days 2 and 3); minor effects were found following 7 days of UCS. Following 7 nights of UCS, inhibitory avoidance learning decreased (lower latency on day 3). Whole-body cortisol levels showed a steady increase compared with controls (100%) from 7 days of UCS (139%), to 14 days of UCS (174%) to 7 nights of UCS (231%), suggestive of an increasing stress load. Only in the 7 nights of UCS group did expression levels of corticoid receptor genes (mr, grα, grβ) and of bdnf increase. These changes are discussed as adaptive mechanisms to maintain neuronal integrity and prevent overload, and as being indicative of a state of high stress load. Overall, our data suggest that stressors during the resting phase have a stronger impact than during the active phase. Our data warrant further studies on the effect of UCS on stress axis-related genes, especially grβ; in mammals this receptor has been implicated in

  1. Chronic pain, perceived stress, and cellular aging: an exploratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibille Kimberly T

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic pain conditions are characterized by significant individual variability complicating the identification of pathophysiological markers. Leukocyte telomere length (TL, a measure of cellular aging, is associated with age-related disease onset, psychosocial stress, and health-related functional decline. Psychosocial stress has been associated with the onset of chronic pain and chronic pain is experienced as a physical and psychosocial stressor. However, the utility of TL as a biological marker reflecting the burden of chronic pain and psychosocial stress has not yet been explored. Findings The relationship between chronic pain, stress, and TL was analyzed in 36 ethnically diverse, older adults, half of whom reported no chronic pain and the other half had chronic knee osteoarthritis (OA pain. Subjects completed a physical exam, radiographs, health history, and psychosocial questionnaires. Blood samples were collected and TL was measured by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR. Four groups were identified characterized by pain status and the Perceived Stress Scale scores: 1 no pain/low stress, 2 no pain/high stress, chronic pain/low stress, and 4 chronic pain/high stress. TL differed between the pain/stress groups (p = 0.01, controlling for relevant covariates. Specifically, the chronic pain/high stress group had significantly shorter TL compared to the no pain/low stress group. Age was negatively correlated with TL, particularly in the chronic pain/high stress group (p = 0.03. Conclusions Although preliminary in nature and based on a modest sample size, these findings indicate that cellular aging may be more pronounced in older adults experiencing high levels of perceived stress and chronic pain.

  2. Domains of Chronic Stress and Suicidal Behaviors among Inpatient Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettit, Jeremy W.; Green, Kelly L.; Grover, Kelly E.; Schatte, Dawnelle J.; Morgan, Sharon T.

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about the role of chronic stress in youth suicidal behaviors. This study examined the relations between specific domains of chronic stress and suicidal behaviors among 131 inpatient youth (M age = 15.02 years) who completed measures of stress, suicidal ideation, suicide attempt, and suicide intent. After controlling for…

  3. Unpredictable chronic mild stress exerts anxiogenic-like effects and activates neurons in the dorsal and caudal region and in the lateral wings of the dorsal raphe nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Danielle A; Lemes, Jéssica A; Melo-Thomas, Liana; Schor, Herbert; de Andrade, José S; Machado, Carla M; Horta-Júnior, José A C; Céspedes, Isabel C; Viana, Milena B

    2016-01-15

    In previous studies, we verified that exposure to unpredictable chronic mild stress (UCMS) facilitates avoidance responses in the elevated T-maze (ETM) and increased Fos-immunoreactivity in different brain structures involved in the regulation of anxiety, including the dorsal raphe (DR). Since, it has been shown that the DR is composed of distinct subpopulations of serotonergic and non-serotonergic neurons, the present study investigated the pattern of activation of these different subnuclei of the region in response to this stress protocol. Male Wistar rats were either unstressed or exposed to the UCMS procedure for two weeks and, subsequently, analyzed for Fos-immunoreactivity (Fos-ir) in serotonergic cells of the DR. To verify if the anxiogenic effects observed in the ETM could be generalized to other anxiety models, a group of animals was also tested in the light/dark transition test after UCMS exposure. Results showed that the UCMS procedure decreased the number of transitions and increased the number of stretched attend postures in the model, an anxiogenic effect. UCMS exposure also increased Fos-ir and the number of double-labeled neurons in the mid-rostral subdivision of the dorsal part of the DR and in the mid-caudal region of the lateral wings. In the caudal region of the DR there was a significant increase in the number of Fos-ir. No significant effects were found in the other DR subnuclei. These results corroborate the idea that neurons of specific subnuclei of the DR regulate anxiety responses and are differently activated by chronic stress exposure. PMID:26462572

  4. An Efficient Chronic Unpredictable Stress Protocol to Induce Stress-Related Responses in C57BL/6 Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Monteiro, Susana; Roque, Susana; de Sá-Calçada, Daniela; Sousa, Nuno; Correia-Neves, Margarida; Cerqueira, João José

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to chronic stress can have broad effects on health ranging from increased predisposition for neuropsychiatric disorders to deregulation of immune responses. The chronic unpredictable stress (CUS) protocol has been widely used to study the impact of stress exposure in several animal models and consists in the random, intermittent, and unpredictable exposure to a variety of stressors during several weeks. CUS has consistently been shown to induce behavioral and immunological alteration...

  5. Mouse chronic social stress increases blood and brain kynurenine pathway activity and fear behaviour: Both effects are reversed by inhibition of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuertig, René; Azzinnari, Damiano; Bergamini, Giorgio; Cathomas, Flurin; Sigrist, Hannes; Seifritz, Erich; Vavassori, Stefano; Luippold, Andreas; Hengerer, Bastian; Ceci, Angelo; Pryce, Christopher R

    2016-05-01

    Psychosocial stress is a major risk factor for mood and anxiety disorders, in which excessive reactivity to aversive events/stimuli is a major psychopathology. In terms of pathophysiology, immune-inflammation is an important candidate, including high blood and brain levels of metabolites belonging to the kynurenine pathway. Animal models are needed to study causality between psychosocial stress, immune-inflammation and hyper-reactivity to aversive stimuli. The present mouse study investigated effects of psychosocial stress as chronic social defeat (CSD) versus control-handling (CON) on: Pavlovian tone-shock fear conditioning, activation of the kynurenine pathway, and efficacy of a specific inhibitor (IDOInh) of the tryptophan-kynurenine catabolising enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO1), in reversing CSD effects on the kynurenine pathway and fear. CSD led to excessive fear learning and memory, whilst repeated oral escitalopram (antidepressant and anxiolytic) reversed excessive fear memory, indicating predictive validity of the model. CSD led to higher blood levels of TNF-α, IFN-γ, kynurenine (KYN), 3-hydroxykynurenine (3-HK) and kynurenic acid, and higher KYN and 3-HK in amygdala and hippocampus. CSD was without effect on IDO1 gene or protein expression in spleen, ileum and liver, whilst increasing liver TDO2 gene expression. Nonetheless, oral IDOInh reduced blood and brain levels of KYN and 3-HK in CSD mice to CON levels, and we therefore infer that CSD increases IDO1 activity by increasing its post-translational activation. Furthermore, repeated oral IDOInh reversed excessive fear memory in CSD mice to CON levels. IDOInh reversal of CSD-induced hyper-activity in the kynurenine pathway and fear system contributes significantly to the evidence for a causal pathway between psychosocial stress, immune-inflammation and the excessive fearfulness that is a major psychopathology in stress-related neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:26724575

  6. Evaluation of the Effects of Oral N-Acetylcysteine and a Placebo in Paraclinical and Oxidative Stress Parameters of Patients with Chronic Hepatitis B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Shohrati

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: The treatment of chronic hepatitis B (CHB is a challenging problem today, and previous study has shown that oxidative stress causes the collective pathophysiological conditions of many hepatopathies, so other new therapeutic approaches are needed. Hence, in this study the paraclinical and oxidative stress parameters of the efficacy of N-acetyl cysteine (NAC as an antioxidant in the treatment of CHB have been evaluated. Methods: In this double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial study, 43 patients with CHB were enrolled in 2008 in Tehran, Iran. The patients were randomly assigned to receive either 1200 mg/day NAC or a placebo for 45 days. Paraclinical tests and oxidative stress parameters were measured on experimental day 0 and on day 45.Results: Liver function tests, i.e. alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST and alkaline phosphatase (ALP levels were not significantly different in the NAC group and in the placebo group. A reduction in catalase (CAT activity and an increase in glutathione concentration were statistically significant in the NAC group (P < 0.05. Conclusions: According to our results, oral NAC is not an effective adjuvant treatment for patients with CHB, but further research with a larger population is needed for the evaluation of the effectiveness of NAC in these patients.

  7. Ameliorative effect of polydatin on oxidative stress-mediated testicular damage by chronic arsenic exposure in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ince, S; Avdatek, F; Demirel, H H; Arslan-Acaroz, D; Goksel, E; Kucukkurt, I

    2016-06-01

    Arsenic causes lipid peroxidation leading to alterations in antioxidant status in organisms. In this study, the reproductive effects of chronic exposure to arsenic and the protective effects of polydatin (PD) were evaluated in 35 Wistar male rats, which were divided equally into five groups. The control group received a normal diet and tap water, arsenic (100 mg l(-1) , approximately 1/50 of oral LD50 ) was given via drinking water to experimental groups except control group, and PD was orally given to the other groups at dose of 50, 100 and 200 mg kg(-1) for 60 days. Arsenic administration decreased sperm motility, glutathione level, superoxide dismutase and catalase activities in testicular tissue of rats. In contrast, malondialdehyde level and DNA damage were found to be high levels in arsenic-treated group. Histopathologically, it was observed that decreased sperm concentration and degeneration of Sertoli cells in testicular tissue. PD administration, partially 200 mg kg(-1) , reversed arsenic-induced lipid peroxidation, DNA damage, antioxidant enzyme activity and cell integrity in testis of rats. These results demonstrate that PD decreases arsenic-induced lipid peroxidation, enhances the antioxidant defence mechanism and regenerates tissue damage in testis of rats. PMID:26302725

  8. Robustness to chronic heat stress in laying hens: a meta-analysis.

    OpenAIRE

    Moreri, Utlwanang; Narcy, Agnès; Rousseau, Xavière; Rodenburg, T.B.; Tixier-Boichard, Michele; Zerjal, Tatiana

    2015-01-01

    Chronic heat is a major stress factor in laying hens and many studies on the effect of heat stress have been published. It remains difficult, however, to draw general conclusions about the effect of chronic heat stress on performance and its relationship with genetic and environmental factors, as these studies have been done under varying experimental conditions and using various experimental designs. A meta-analysis enabled us to make a quantitative review of the results from 131 published p...

  9. Early life stress and chronic variable stress in adulthood interact to influence methamphetamine self-administration in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Candace R; Staudinger, Kelsey; Tomek, Seven E; Hernandez, Raymundo; Manning, Tawny; Olive, M Foster

    2016-04-01

    Early life stress interacts with adult stress to differentially modulate neural systems and vulnerability to various psychiatric illnesses. However, the effects of early life stress and adult stress on addictive behaviors have not been sufficiently investigated. We examined the effects of early life stress in the form of prolonged maternal separation, followed in early adulthood by either 10 days of chronic variable stress or no stress, on methamphetamine self-administration, extinction, and cue-induced reinstatement. We observed that chronic variable stress in adulthood reduced methamphetamine self-administration in rats with a history of early life stress. These findings add to an emerging body of literature suggesting interactions between early life and early adulthood stressors on adult behavioral phenotypes. PMID:26176409

  10. Effects of Chronic Mild Stress on the Development of Atherosclerosis and Expression of Toll-Like Receptor 4 Signaling Pathway in Adolescent Apolipoprotein E Knockout Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongfeng Gu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Here, we investigated the effect of chronic mild stress (CMS on the development of atherosclerosis as well as the expression of Toll-like receptors (TLRs signaling pathway in adolescent apolipoprotein E knockout (apoE-/- mice. Mice were subjected to daily CMS for 0, 4, and 12 weeks, respectively. To identify the expression of Toll-like receptor 4 signaling pathway in adolescent apolipoprotein E knockout mice subjected to CMS, we compared gene expression in aortas of stressed and unstressed mice using TLRs signaling pathway real-time PCR microarrays consisting of 87 genes. We found that atherosclerosis lesions both in aortic tress and sinuses of CMS mice were significantly increased linearly in response to duration of CMS exposure. Among 87 genes analyzed, 15 genes were upregulated in stressed mice, especially TLR4, myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88, and IL-1β, and 28 genes were downregulated compared with nonstressed mice. CMS mice demonstrated markedly increased aortic atherosclerosis that were associated with significant increases in levels of expression of TLR4, MyD88, nuclear factor κB (NF-κB, MCP-1, IL-1β, TNF-α, and sICAM-1. Taken together, our results suggest an important role for TLR4 signaling pathway in atherosclerosis in a CMS mouse model.

  11. Effect of Schizandra chinensis lignans on cell division in the corneal epithelium and tongue of albino rats exposed to chronic cold stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors study the possibility of correcting cellular manifestations of disadaptation following chronic exposure to cold stress by means of preparations of Sch. chinensis. The model of chronic stress was cooling male albino rats daily for 1.5 h to a temperature of 28-30 C for 28 days. Since differences between levels of proliferation in intact animals and in the rats receiving 1.9% ethanol solution were absent, values obtained in the group of intact animals are presented in a table as the control. The animals underwent euthanasia 48 hours after the final exposure to the cold. The rats received an injection of tritium-thymidine one hour before sacrifice. It is shown that the results confirm those in previous studies of stimulation of DNA synthesis and mitotic activity in the corneal and lingual epithelium of albino rats during chronic exposure to stress

  12. Therapeutic effect of aqueous extracts of three dietary spices and their mixture on lipid metabolism and oxidative stress in a rat model of chronic alcohol consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otunola, Gloria Aderonke; Afolayan, Anthony Jide

    2016-07-01

    The protective effect of aqueous extracts of three dietary spices, garlic, (Allium sativum), ginger (Zingiber officinale) and pepper (Capsicum frutescens) singly and combined was investigated using a rat model of chronic alcohol intake. Rats were given 30% ethanol, with or without aqueous extracts of garlic, ginger, pepper or mixture of the three administered at 200mg/kg body weight by oral gavage for 28 days. Lipid profile, lipid peroxidation, oxidative and antioxidative profiles of serum, faecal, liver, kidney, heart and brain tissues of the rats were analyzed. Alcohol treatment significantly elevated liver enzymes, lipid peroxidation, depleted antioxidant system and induced histopathological changes in the liver. These alterations were markedly ameliorated by treatment with aqueous extracts of the three spices singly or mixed at 200mg/kg body weight. These results suggest that aqueous extracts of garlic, ginger, pepper or a blend of the three protects against alcohol- induced hypercholesterolemia, lipid peroxidation, oxidative stress and liver damage. PMID:27393449

  13. Cannabinoid receptor activation prevents the effects of chronic mild stress on emotional learning and LTP in a rat model of depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segev, Amir; Rubin, Adva S; Abush, Hila; Richter-Levin, Gal; Akirav, Irit

    2014-03-01

    Most psychiatric disorders are characterized by emotional memory or learning disturbances. Chronic mild stress (CMS) is a common animal model for stress-induced depression. Here we examined whether 3 days of treatment using the CB1/2 receptor agonist WIN55,212-2 could ameliorate the effects of CMS on emotional learning (ie, conditioned avoidance and extinction), long-term potentiation (LTP) in the hippocampal-accumbens pathway, and depression-like symptoms (ie, coping with stress behavior, anhedonia, and weight changes). We also examined whether the ameliorating effects of WIN55,212-2 on behavior and physiology after CMS are mediated by CB1 and glucocorticoid receptors (GRs). Rats were exposed to CMS or handled on days 1-21. The agonist WIN55,212-2 or vehicle were administered on days 19-21 (IP; 0.5 mg/kg) and behavioral and electrophysiological measures were taken on days 23 and 28. The CB1 receptor antagonist AM251 (IP; 0.3 mg/kg) or the GR antagonist RU-38486 (IP; 10 mg/kg) were co-administered with WIN55,212-2. Our results show that CMS significantly modified physiological and behavioral reactions, as observed by the impairment in avoidance extinction and LTP in the hippocampal-accumbens pathway, and the alterations in depression-like symptoms, such as coping with stress behavior, weight gain, and sucrose consumption. The most significant effect observed in this study was that 3 days of WIN55,212-2 administration prevented the CMS-induced alterations in emotional memory (ie, extinction) and plasticity. This effect was mediated by CB1 receptors as the CB1 receptor antagonist AM251 prevented the ameliorating effects of WIN55,212-2 on extinction and LTP. The GR antagonist RU-38486 also prevented the CMS-induced alterations in extinction and plasticity, and when co-administered with WIN55,212-2, the preventive effects after CMS were maintained. The findings suggest that enhancing cannabinoid signaling could represent a novel approach to the treatment of cognitive

  14. Cognitive deficits in the rat chronic mild stress model for depression: relation to anhedonic-like responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsen, Kim; Andreasen T., Jesper; Bouzinova, Elena V.;

    2009-01-01

    The chronic mild stress (CMS) protocol is widely used to evoke depressive-like behaviours in laboratory rats. The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of chronic stress on cognitive performance. About 70% of rats exposed to 7 weeks of chronic mild stress showed a gradual reduction in...... consumption of a sucrose solution, indicating an anhedonic-like state. The remaining rats did not reduce their sucrose intake, but appeared resilient to the stress-induced effects on sucrose intake. Cognitive profiling of the CMS rats revealed that chronic stress had a negative effect on performance in the...

  15. MDMA Pretreatment Leads to Mild Chronic Unpredictable Stress-induced Impairments in Spatial Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Cunningham, Jacobi I.; Raudensky, Jamie; Tonkiss, John; Yamamoto, Bryan K.

    2009-01-01

    3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) is a drug of abuse world-wide and a selective serotonin (5-HT) neurotoxin. An important factor in the risk of drug abuse and relapse is stress. Although multiple parallels exist between MDMA abuse and stress including effects on 5-HTergic neurotransmission, few studies have investigated the consequences of combined exposure to MDMA and chronic stress. Therefore, rats were pretreated with MDMA and exposed 7 days later to 10 days of mild chronic unpredic...

  16. Gene Expression Profile of the Hippocampus of Rats Subjected to Chronic Immobilization Stress

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Xiao-Hong; Chen, Jia-Xu; Yue, Guang-Xin; Liu, Yue-Yun; Zhao, Xin; Guo, Xiao-Ling; Liu, Qun; Jiang, You-Ming; Bai, Ming-Hua

    2013-01-01

    Objective This study systematically investigated the effect of chronic stress on the hippocampus and its damage mechanism at the whole genome level. Methods The rat whole genome expression chips (Illumina) were used to detect gene expression differences in the hippocampus of rats subjected to chronic immobilization stress (daily immobilization stress for 3 h, for 7 or 21 days). The hippocampus gene expression profile was studied through gene ontology and signal pathway analyses using bioinfor...

  17. Chronic pain, perceived stress, and cellular aging: an exploratory study

    OpenAIRE

    Sibille Kimberly T; Langaee Taimour; Burkley Ben; Gong Yan; Glover Toni L; King Chris; Riley Joseph L; Leeuwenburgh Christiaan; Staud Roland; Bradley Laurence A; Fillingim Roger B

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Chronic pain conditions are characterized by significant individual variability complicating the identification of pathophysiological markers. Leukocyte telomere length (TL), a measure of cellular aging, is associated with age-related disease onset, psychosocial stress, and health-related functional decline. Psychosocial stress has been associated with the onset of chronic pain and chronic pain is experienced as a physical and psychosocial stressor. However, the utility of...

  18. Effect of Celastrus paniculatus seed oil (Jyothismati oil) on acute and chronic immobilization stress induced in swiss albino mice

    OpenAIRE

    George Lekha; Karthik Mohan; Irudhaya Arockia Samy

    2010-01-01

    Stress alters the homeostasis and is produced by several factors. Immobilization stress induced due to reduced floor area provided for the mobility results in the imbalance of oxidant and antioxidant status. The modern computer savvy world decreases human mobility in the working environment, leading to the formation of oxygen free radicals and if left untreated might result in severe health problems like hypertension, cardiovascular disease, premature aging and brain dysfunction. Hence, moder...

  19. The impact of chronic stress on the rat brain lipidome

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Tiago Gil; Chan, Robin B.; Bravo, Francisca Vaz; Miranda, André; Silva, Rita Ribeiro; Zhou, Bowen; Marques, Fernanda; Pinto, Vítor; Cerqueira, João José; Di Paolo, Gilbert; Sousa, Nuno

    2015-01-01

    Chronic stress is a major risk factor for several human disorders that affect modern societies. The brain is a key target of chronic stress. In fact, there is growing evidence indicating that exposure to stress affects learning and memory, decision making and emotional responses, and may even predispose for pathological processes, such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and depression. Lipids are a major constituent of the brain, and specifically signaling lipids have been shown to regulate brain fu...

  20. Public Health Burden of Chronic Stress in a Transforming Society

    OpenAIRE

    Kopp, Mária S

    2007-01-01

    In this paper chronic stress is proposed as an integrating model that can be applied to the explanation of the suddenly changing patterns of premature mortality rates in transforming societies of Central-Eastern-Europe, especially in Hungary. The temporal factor in existing stress models is often neglected. Chronic stress has been shown to lead to typical pathogenetic results in animal experiments. Literature and the different models in the field of psychology, behavioural sciences, and epide...

  1. Chronic Stress and Suicidal Thinking Among Medical Students

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Rosiek; Aleksandra Rosiek-Kryszewska; Łukasz Leksowski; Krzysztof Leksowski

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The subject of chronic stress and ways of dealing with it are very broad. The aim of this study was to analyze stress and anxiety and their influence on suicidal thinking among medical students. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in the years 2014 to 2015 in Poland, at the Medical University—Nicolaus Copernicus University, Collegium Medicum. The objective of this study was to assess chronic stress and suicidal thinking among students and how students cope with this h...

  2. Psychological impact of chronic hepatitis C: Comparison with other stressful life events and chronic diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Laurent Castera; Aymery Constant; Pierre-Henri Bernard; Victor de Ledinghen; Patrice Couzigou

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To examine the psychological impact of chronic hepatitis C (CHC) diagnosis in a large cohort of CHC patients as compared with other stressful life events and chronic diseases carrying a risk of life-threatening complications.METHODS: One hundred and eighty-five outpatients with compensated CHC were asked to self-grade, using a 100-mm visual analogue scale (VAS), the degree of stress caused by the learning of CHC diagnosis and the perceived severity of their disease. Diagnosis-related stress was compared to four other stressful life events and perceived CHC severity was compared to four other common chronic diseases.RESULTS: Learning of CHC diagnosis was considered a major stressful event (mean ± SD scores: 72±25),significantly less than death of a loved-one (89±13,P<0.0001) and divorce (78± 23, P<0.007), but more than job dismissal (68 ± 30, P<0.04) and home removal (26±24, P< 0.0001). CHC was considered a severe disease (74±19), after AIDS (94±08, P<0.001) and cancer (91±11, P<0.001), but before diabetes (66±23,P<0.001) and hypertension (62±20, P<0.001).Perceived CHC severity was not related to the actual severity of liver disease, assessed according to Metavir fibrosis score. In multivariate analysis, diagnosisrelated stress was related to perceived disease severity (P< 0.001), trait anxiety (P< 0.001) and infection through blood transfusion (P< 0.001).CONCLUSION: Our results show the considerable psychological and emotional burden that a diagnosis of CHC represents, even in the absence of significant liver disease. They should be taken into account when announcing a diagnosis of CHC in order to reduce its negative effects.

  3. Bidirectional Crosstalk between Stress-Induced Gastric Ulcer and Depression under Chronic Stress

    OpenAIRE

    Shuang Zhang; Zhiwei Xu; Yan Gao; Yonghong Wu; Zhihui Li; Haifeng Liu; Chenggang Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Stress contributes to a variety of diseases and disorders such as depression and peptic ulcer. The present study aimed to investigate the correlation between stress ulcer and depression in pathogenesis and treatment by using chronic stress depression (CSD), chronic psychological stress ulcer (CPSU) and water immersion restrain stress models in rats. Our data showed that the ulcer index of the animals after CSD exposure was significantly higher than that of controls. Depression-like behaviors ...

  4. 3, 4-methylenedioximethamphetamin reverses anxiety induced by chronic mild stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Andrea León A

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Here we report the effects of subchronic 3, 4 methylenedioximethamphetamine (MDMA on the elevated plusmaze, a widely used animal model of anxiety. Rats exposed to a mild chronic stress (MCS protocol received intracerebroventricular microinjections of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI – fluoxetine (2.0 ug/ul or MDMA, (2.0 ug/ul for seven days. On the eighth day rats were tested in the elevated plus-maze. Our results showed that sub chronic MDMA interacted with MCS leading to a decrease in anxiety related behaviors including: percentage of open arms entries (F [2, 26] = 4.00; p = 0.031, time spent in the open arms (F [2, 26] = 3.656; p = 0.040 and time spent in the open arms extremities (F [2, 26] = 5.842; p = 0.008. These results suggest a potential effect of MDMA in the reversion of the emotional significance of aversive stimuli.

  5. Predictable Chronic Mild Stress in Adolescence Increases Resilience in Adulthood

    OpenAIRE

    Suo, Lin; Zhao, Liyan; Si, Jijian; Liu, Jianfeng; Zhu, Weili; Chai, Baisheng; Zhang, Yan; Feng, Jiajia; Ding, Zengbo; Luo, Yixiao; Shi, Haishui; Shi, Jie; Lu, Lin

    2013-01-01

    Stress in adolescence has been widely demonstrated to have a lasting impact in humans and animal models. Developmental risk and protective factors play an important role in the responses to stress in adulthood. Mild-to-moderate stress in adolescence may resist the negative impacts of adverse events in adulthood. However, little research on resilience has been conducted. In this study, we used a predictable chronic mild stress (PCMS) procedure (5 min of daily restraint stress for 28 days) in a...

  6. Effects of Acute and Chronic Cold Stress on Expression of Cyclooxygenase-2 and Prostaglandin E Synthase mRNA in Quail Intestine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Fu, CP Liu1, ZW Zhang1, W Liao2 and SW Xu1,*

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The cold temperature, a common environmental stress, reduces the immunity and re-production activities of the poultry. This study aims to investigate the role of acute and chronic cold exposure in the regulation of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 and prostaglandin E synthase (PTGES expression in the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum of quail. A total of 96 quail with 15 days of age were randomly allocated into 12 groups (8 each group for exposure to acute (up to 12 h and chronic (up to 20 days cold temperature (12±1°C. After that, different segments of the intestine were harvested and subjected to morphology observations under the light and electronic microscopes. qRT-PCR was performed to analyze expression of COX-2 and PTGES, and DNA sequencing was performed to analyze PCR products. The data showed that under acute cold stress, expression of COX-2 and PTGES mRNA was first decreased and then increased in the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum of quail. However, chronic cold stress induced expression of COX-2 and PTGES mRNA in the duodenum, jejunum and ileum of quail, which was then reduced after 20 days of cold exposure. Morphologically, significant changes were also observed in the duodenum, jejunum and ileum after both acute and chronic cold stresses to the animals. The data from the current study indicated that both acute and chronic cold stresses were able to induce inflammation responses in the duodenum, jejunum and ileum, which might be due to the cold-damaged intestinal morphology.

  7. Moderate exercise and chronic stress produce counteractive effects on different areas of the brain by acting through various neurotransmitter receptor subtypes: A hypothesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saha Asit K

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Regular, "moderate", physical exercise is an established non-pharmacological form of treatment for depressive disorders. Brain lateralization has a significant role in the progress of depression. External stimuli such as various stressors or exercise influence the higher functions of the brain (cognition and affect. These effects often do not follow a linear course. Therefore, nonlinear dynamics seem best suited for modeling many of the phenomena, and putative global pathways in the brain, attributable to such external influences. Hypothesis The general hypothesis presented here considers only the nonlinear aspects of the effects produced by "moderate" exercise and "chronic" stressors, but does not preclude the possibility of linear responses. In reality, both linear and nonlinear mechanisms may be involved in the final outcomes. The well-known neurotransmitters serotonin (5-HT, dopamine (D and norepinephrine (NE all have various receptor subtypes. The article hypothesizes that 'Stress' increases the activity/concentration of some particular subtypes of receptors (designated nts for each of the known (and unknown neurotransmitters in the right anterior (RA and left posterior (LP regions (cortical and subcortical of the brain, and has the converse effects on a different set of receptor subtypes (designated nth. In contrast, 'Exercise' increases nth activity/concentration and/or reduces nts activity/concentration in the LA and RP areas of the brain. These effects may be initiated by the activation of Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF (among others in exercise and its suppression in stress. Conclusion On the basis of this hypothesis, a better understanding of brain neurodynamics might be achieved by considering the oscillations caused by single neurotransmitters acting on their different receptor subtypes, and the temporal pattern of recruitment of these subtypes. Further, appropriately designed and planned experiments

  8. Chronic unpredictable stress deteriorates the chemopreventive efficacy of pomegranate through oxidative stress pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Shirin; Suhail, Nida; Bilal, Nayeem; Ashraf, Ghulam Md; Zaidi, Syed Kashif; AlNohair, Sultan; Banu, Naheed

    2016-05-01

    Chronic unpredictable stress (CUS) can influence the risk and progression of cancer through increased oxidative stress. Pomegranate is known to protect carcinogenesis through its anti-oxidative properties. This study is carried out to examine whether CUS affects the chemopreventive potential of pomegranate through oxidative stress pathway. Role of CUS on early stages of 7, 12 dimethyl benz(a) anthracene (DMBA) induced carcinogenesis, and its pre-exposure effect on chemopreventive efficacy of pomegranate juice (PJ) was examined in terms of in vivo antioxidant and biochemical parameters in Swiss albino rats. Rats were divided in various groups and were subjected to CUS paradigm, DMBA administration (65 mg/kg body weight, single dose), and PJ treatment. Exposure to stress (alone) and DMBA (alone) led to increased oxidative stress by significantly decreasing the antioxidant enzymes activities and altering the glutathione (GSH), malondialdehyde (MDA), glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT), and glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT) levels. A significant increase in DNA damage demonstrated by comet assay was seen in the liver cells. Stress exposure to DMBA-treated rats further increased the oxidative stress and disturbed the biochemical parameters as compared to DMBA (alone)-treated rats. Chemoprevention with PJ in DMBA (alone)-treated rats restored the altered parameters. However, in the pre-stress DMBA-treated rats, the overall antioxidant potential of PJ was significantly diminished. Our results indicate that chronic stress not only increases the severity of carcinogenesis but also diminishes the anti-oxidative efficacy of PJ. In a broader perspective, special emphasis should be given to stress management and healthy diet during cancer chemoprevention. PMID:26596837

  9. Acute and chronic effects of exposure to a 1-mT magnetic field on the cytoskeleton, stress proteins, and proliferation of astroglial cells in culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports the effects of exposure to static, sinusoidal (50 Hz), and combined static/sinusoidal magnetic fields on cultured astroglial cells. Confluent primary cultures of astroglial cells were exposed to a 1-mT sinusoidal, static, or combined magnetic field for 1 h. In another experiment, cells were exposed to the combined magnetic field for 1, 2, and 4 h. The hsp25, hsp60, hsp70, actin, and glial fibrillary acidic protein contents of the astroglial cells were determined by immunoblotting 24 h after exposure. No significant differences were seen between control and exposed cells with respect to their contents of these proteins, neither were any changes in cell morphology observed. In a third experiment to determine the effect of a chronic (11-day) exposure to a combined 1-mT static/sinusoidal magnetic field on the proliferation of cultured astroglial cells, no significant differences were seen between control, sham-exposed, or exposed cells. These results suggest that exposure to 1-mT sinusoidal, static, or combined magnetic fields has no significant effects on the stress, cytoskeletal protein levels in, or proliferation of cultured astroglial cells

  10. L-tyrosine improves neuroendocrine function in a mouse model of chronic stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhihua Wang; Jinghua Li; Zhiming Wang; Lingyan Xue; Yi Zhang; Yingjie Chen; Jun Su; Zhongming Li

    2012-01-01

    Adult BALB/c mice, individually housed, were stimulated with nine different stressors, arranged randomly, for 4 continuous weeks to generate an animal model of chronic stress. In chronically stressed mice, spontaneous locomotor activity was significantly decreased, escape latency in the Morris water maze test was prolonged, serum levels of total thyrotropin and total triiodothyronine were significantly decreased, and dopamine and norepinephrine content in the pallium, hippocampus and hypothalamus were significantly reduced. All of these changes were suppressed, to varying degrees, by L-tyrosine supplementation. These findings indicate that the neuroendocrine network plays an important role in chronic stress, and that L-tyrosine supplementation has therapeutic effects.

  11. The Consequences of adolescent chronic unpredictable stress exposure on brain and behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Hollis, Fiona; Isgor, Ceylan; Kabbaj, Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    There is increasing evidence for adolescence as a time period vulnerable to environmental perturbations such as stress. What is unclear is the persistent nature of the effects of stress and how specific these effects are to the type of stressor. In this review, we describe the effects of chronic, unpredictable stress (CUS) exposure during adolescence on adult behavior and brain morphology and function in animal models. We provide evidence for adolescence as a critical window for the effects o...

  12. Effects of Acute and Chronic Cold Stress on Expression of Cyclooxygenase-2 and Prostaglandin E Synthase mRNA in Quail Intestine

    OpenAIRE

    J Fu, CP Liu1, ZW Zhang1, W Liao2 and SW Xu1,*

    2013-01-01

    The cold temperature, a common environmental stress, reduces the immunity and re-production activities of the poultry. This study aims to investigate the role of acute and chronic cold exposure in the regulation of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and prostaglandin E synthase (PTGES) expression in the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum of quail. A total of 96 quail with 15 days of age were randomly allocated into 12 groups (8 each group) for exposure to acute (up to 12 h) and chronic (up to 20 days) cold t...

  13. Chronic stress, catecholamines, and sleep disturbance at Three Mile Island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study was concerned with the relationship between chronic stress and sleep disturbance. Previous research has provided evidence of chronic stress responding among people living near the Three Mile Island nuclear generating facility. Compared to control subjects, the TMI group has exhibited greater symptom reporting, poorer performance on behavioral measures of concentration, and elevated levels of urinary norepinephrine and epinephrine. Other research has suggested a relationship between arousal and insomnia. The extent to which stress and sleep disturbances were experienced by residents at TMI was examined and compared to levels of stress and sleep disturbance among a group of control subjects. The relationship between stress and sleep disturbances was also examined. Results indicated that TMI area residents exhibited more stress than the controls and reported greater disturbance of sleep. Modest relationships among stress and sleep measures suggested that the symptoms of stress measured in this study were not primary determinants of sleep problems

  14. Antidepressant-like effects of sodium butyrate and its possible mechanisms of action in mice exposed to chronic unpredictable mild stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jing; Wang, Fangyan; Hong, Guangliang; Pang, Mengqi; Xu, Hailing; Li, Haixiao; Tian, Feng; Fang, Renchi; Yao, Ye; Liu, Jiaming

    2016-04-01

    Sodium butyrate (NaB) has exhibited neuroprotective activity. This study aimed to explore that NaB exerts beneficial effects on chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS)-induced depression-like behaviors and its possible mechanisms. The behavioral tests including sucrose preference test (SPT), open field test (OFT), tail suspension test (TST) and forced swimming test (FST) were to evaluate the antidepressant effects of NaB. Then changes of Nissl's body in the hippocampus, brain serotonin (5-HT) concentration, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and tight junctions (TJs) proteins level were assessed to explore the antidepressant mechanisms. Our results showed that CUMS caused significant depression-like behaviors, neuropathological changes, and decreased brain 5-HT concentration, TJs protein levels and BDNF expression in the hippocampus. However, NaB treatment significantly ameliorated behavioral deficits of the CUMS-induced mice, increased 5-HT concentration, increased BDNF expression, and up-regulated Occludin and zonula occludens-1(ZO-1) protein levels in the hippocampus, which demonstrated that NaB could partially restore CUMS-induced blood-brain barrier (BBB) impairments. Besides, the pathologic changes were alleviated. In conclusion, these results demonstrated that NaB significantly improved depression-like behaviors in CUMS-induced mice and its antidepressant actions might be related with, at least in part, the increasing brain 5-HT concentration and BDNF expression and restoring BBB impairments. PMID:26957230

  15. Stress coping mechanisms in patients with chronic dermatoses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korabel, Hanna

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The results of numerous studies of today confirm that persons suffering from psychosomatic disorders are not able to effectively cope with stress. The experience of stress is also frequently combined with the occurrence or aggravation of various skin diseases. The goal of our study was to identify the predominantways of coping with stress in the group of patients with chronic dermatoses.Methods. The group under study included patients receiving treatment in the Dermatology Clinic of Collegium Medicum, Jagiellonian University. They were either hospitalized patients or those who came for control examinations at the Outpatient Clinic. Evaluation of the forms of coping with stress was conducted with the help of the Endler and Parker Questionnaire – CISS.Results. They significantly more often apply the style of coping focused on avoiding (p-value= 0.0056. It also turned out that the patients in the dermatological groups manifested a constant tendency to get involved in vicarious activities (p-value=0.0247.Discussion. The results of the presented study indicate that there is a statistically significant difference between the patients with dermatological disorders and those in the control group as regards their ways of coping with stress.Conclusion. The results obtained in the discussed study may be a starting point for designing a complex support for the patients with skin diseases. The therapeutic technique that may prove helpful for this group of patients is the cognitive-behavioral therapy (CTB.

  16. Chronic stress does not impair liver regeneration in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Kasper J; Knudsen, Anders Riegels; Wiborg, Ove;

    2015-01-01

    animals died during the study. There were no differences between in body weight, liver weight, liver regeneration rate or biochemical markers at any time during the study. CONCLUSION: The results of this study indicate that stress and the induction of depression-like state do not affect the process of...... chronic stress, which may induce a depression-like state, on the complex process of liver regeneration in rats. METHODS: Twenty rats were included in this study. The animals received either a standard housing protocol or were subjected to a Chronic Mild Stress (CMS) stress paradigm. All rats underwent a...

  17. Alterations in Corticolimbic Dendritic Morphology and Emotional Behavior in Cannabinoid CB1 Receptor–Deficient Mice Parallel the Effects of Chronic Stress

    OpenAIRE

    Hill, Matthew N.; Hillard, Cecilia J.; McEwen, Bruce S.

    2011-01-01

    Many changes produced by chronic stress are similar to those seen in cannabinoid CB1 receptor–deficient mice. In the current study, we examined both anxiety-like behavior and dendritic complexity within the prefrontal cortex and basolateral amygdala (BLA) in wild-type and CB1 receptor–deficient mice, under basal conditions and following exposure to 21 days of protracted restraint stress. CB1 receptor–deficient mice exhibited increased indices of anxiety in the elevated plus maze under basal c...

  18. Chronic Stress is Prospectively Associated with Sleep in Midlife Women: The SWAN Sleep Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Martica H.; Casement, Melynda D.; Troxel, Wendy M.; Matthews, Karen A.; Bromberger, Joyce T.; Kravitz, Howard M.; Krafty, Robert T.; Buysse, Daniel J.

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: Evaluate whether levels of upsetting life events measured over a 9-y period prospectively predict subjective and objective sleep outcomes in midlife women. Design: Prospective cohort study. Setting: Four sites across the United States. Participants: 330 women (46–57 y of age) enrolled in the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN) Sleep Study. Interventions: N/A. Measurements and Results: Upsetting life events were assessed annually for up to 9 y. Trajectory analysis applied to life events data quantitatively identified three distinct chronic stress groups: low stress, moderate stress, and high stress. Sleep was assessed by self-report and in-home polysomnography (PSG) during the ninth year of the study. Multivariate analyses tested the prospective association between chronic stress group and sleep, adjusting for race, baseline sleep complaints, marital status, body mass index, symptoms of depression, and acute life events at the time of the Sleep Study. Women characterized by high chronic stress had lower subjective sleep quality, were more likely to report insomnia, and exhibited increased PSG-assessed wake after sleep onset (WASO) relative to women with low to moderate chronic stress profiles. The effect of chronic stress group on WASO persisted in the subsample of participants without baseline sleep complaints. Conclusions: Chronic stress is prospectively associated with sleep disturbance in midlife women, even after adjusting for acute stressors at the time of the sleep study and other factors known to disrupt sleep. These results are consistent with current models of stress that emphasize the cumulative effect of stressors on health over time. Citation: Hall MH, Casement MD, Troxel WM, Matthews KA, Bromberger JT, Kravitz HM, Krafty RT, Buysse DJ. Chronic stress is prospectively associated with sleep in midlife women: the SWAN Sleep Study. SLEEP 2015;38(10):1645–1654. PMID:26039965

  19. Effects of unpredictable chronic stress on behavior and brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression in CA3 subfield and dentate gyrus of the hippocampus in different aged rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ying; JI Yong-juan; JIANG Hong; LIU De-xiang; ZHANG Qian; FAN Shu-jian; PAN Fang

    2009-01-01

    Background Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a stress-responsive intercellular messenger modifying hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity. The interaction between stress and age in BDNF expression is currently not fully understood. This study was conducted to observe unpredictable stress effect on behavior and BDNF expression in CA3 subfield (CA3) and dentate gyrus of hippocampus in different aged rats. Methods Forty-eight Wistar rats of two different ages (2 months and 15 months) were randomly assigned to six groups: two control groups and four stress groups. The rats in the stress group received three weeks of unpredictable mild stress. The depression state and the stress level of the animals were determined by sucrose preference test and observation of exploratory behavior in an open field (OF) test. The expressions of BDNF in CA3 and dentate gyrus of the hippocampus were measured using immunohistochemistry. Results Age and stress had different effects on the behavior of different aged animals (age: F=6.173, P <0.05, stress: F=6.056, P <0.05). Stress was the main factor affecting sucrose preference (F=123.608, P <0.05). Decreased sucrose preference and suppressed behavior emerged directly following stress, lasting to at least the eighth day after stress in young animals (P <0.05). The older stress rats showed a lower sucrose preference than young stress rats (P <0.05). Older control rats behaved differently from the younger control animals in the OF test, spending more time in the central square (P <0.05), exhibiting fewer vertical movements (P <0.05) and less grooming (P <0.05). Following exposure to stress, older-aged rats showed no obvious changes in vertical movement and grooming. This indicates that aged rats were in an unexcited state before the stress period, and responded less to stressful stimuli than younger rats. There was significantly lower BDNF expression in the CA3 and dentate gyrus regions of the hippocampus following stress

  20. The effect of inhibition of endoplasmic reticulum stress on lipolysis in white adipose tissue in a rat model of chronic kidney disease

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Yan; Chen, Yu-Ling; Li, Cong; Ding, Xiao-Yan; Guo-yu XU; Hu, Li-Li; Hou, Fan-fan; Zhou, Qiu-gen

    2014-01-01

    Aim: Lipolysis in fat tissue plays an important role in the development of metabolic disturbances, a characteristic feature of chronic kidney disease (CKD). In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that the inhibition of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress could alleviate lipolysis in white adipose tissue in a rat model of CKD. Methods: A rat model of CKD was established by a method of reduced renal mass (RRM). Lipolysis was measured as the release of glycerol in ex vivo fat pads and cult...

  1. Diffusion-weighted MRI and quantitative biophysical modeling of hippocampal neurite loss in chronic stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Vestergaard-Poulsen

    Full Text Available Chronic stress has detrimental effects on physiology, learning and memory and is involved in the development of anxiety and depressive disorders. Besides changes in synaptic formation and neurogenesis, chronic stress also induces dendritic remodeling in the hippocampus, amygdala and the prefrontal cortex. Investigations of dendritic remodeling during development and treatment of stress are currently limited by the invasive nature of histological and stereological methods. Here we show that high field diffusion-weighted MRI combined with quantitative biophysical modeling of the hippocampal dendritic loss in 21 day restraint stressed rats highly correlates with former histological findings. Our study strongly indicates that diffusion-weighted MRI is sensitive to regional dendritic loss and thus a promising candidate for non-invasive studies of dendritic plasticity in chronic stress and stress-related disorders.

  2. Assessment of anti-depressant effect of nelumbinis semen on rats under chronic mild stress and its subchronic oral toxicity in rats and beagle dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung Hwan-Suck

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previously, we examined the antidepressant effects of Nelumbinis Semen (NS. In this study, we assessed the anti-depressant effects of NS in the forced swimming test and chronic mild stress (CMS models of depression and its oral toxicity in rats and dogs. Methods In the forced swimming test, NS was intraperitoneally injected before 24 h, 5 h and 1 h of forced swimming test. And the rats were forced to swim for 5 min, the duration of immobility was observed. In CMS models, animals were exposed to a variety of CMS for 8 weeks in order to induce depression-like symptoms. They were treated with NS for the last four weeks of the 8-week CMS and then an open field test was conducted. The anti-depression effects were evaluated based on a measured index, which consisted of visiting counts, start latency, rearing number and grooming time. In the toxicological studies, NS was administered to rats by gavages for 13 weeks at doses of 0, 500, 1000, and 2000 mg/kg/day. To assess the toxicity of NS in beagle dogs, NS was administered orally for 28 days at doses of 0, 500, 1000, 2000 and 4000 mg/kg/day. Results 400 mg/kg of NS had the lowest immobility times in forced swimming test. And NS significantly reversed the decreased visiting counts, rearing number and grooming time caused by CMS. In addition, NS treatment significantly decreased the start latency. No treatment-related toxicity was detected during 13 weeks administration in rats and 28 days administration in dogs. Conclusions Based on the results of this study and previous reports that have examined the anti-depressive effects of NS, NS holds great promise for use in the treatment of depression without causing any adverse effects or toxicities.

  3. A cognitive deficit induced in rats by chronic intermittent cold stress is reversed by chronic antidepressant treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Danet, M.; Lapiz-Bluhm, S.; Morilak, David A

    2010-01-01

    We have previously reported that 14-days of chronic intermittent cold (CIC) stress induced a cognitive deficit in reversal learning on the rat attentional set-shifting test. This effect may be related to dysregulation of 5-HT function in orbitofrontal cortex, as a model of cognitive dysfunction in depression. To test the ability of chronic antidepressant drug treatment to reverse the cognitive deficit induced by CIC, it was first necessary to assess the temporal characteristics of the CIC-ind...

  4. Influence of Chronic Stress and Oclusal Interference on Masseter Muscle Pain in Rat

    OpenAIRE

    Simonić-Kocijan, Sunčana; Uhač, Ivone; Braut, Vedrana; Kovač, Zoran; Kovačević Pavičić, Daniela; Fugošić, Vesna; Muhvić Urek, Miranda

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the individual effects of chronic stress and occlusal interference, as well as their combined influence on masseter muscle pain. Experiments were performed on 28 male Wistar rats. Animals were submitted to chronic stress procedure, exposed to occlusal interference, or exposed to both mantioned procedures. At the end of the procedure animals were submitted to orofacial formalin test, and nociceptive behavioral response was evaluated. Statisticaly significant dif...

  5. Stressful Presentations: Mild Chronic Cold Stress in Mice Influences Baseline Properties of Dendritic Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen Marie Kokolus

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The ability of dendritic cells to stimulate and regulate T cells is critical to effective anti-tumor immunity. Therefore, it is important to fully recognize any inherent factors which may influence DC function under experimental conditions, especially in laboratory mice since they are used so heavily to study immune responses. Physiological stress is well recognized to impair several arms of immune protection. The goals of this report are to briefly summarize previous work revealing how DCs respond to various forms of physiologically relevant stress and to present new data highlighting the potential for chronic mild cold stress inherent in mice housed at standard ambient temperatures required for laboratory mice to influence baseline DCs properties. Since recent data from our group shows that CD8+ T cell function is altered by mild chronic cold stress and since DC function is crucial for CD8+ T cell activation, we wondered whether mild cold stress may also be influencing DC properties. We found increased numbers of splenic DCs (CD11c+ in cold stressed mice compared to mice housed at a thermoneutral temperature, which significantly reduces cold stress. However, many of the DCs which are expanded in cold stressed mice express an immature phenotype. We also found that antigen presentation and ability of splenocytes to activate T cells were impaired compared to that seen in DCs isolated from mice at thermoneutrality. The new data presented here strongly suggest that the housing temperature of mice can affect fundamental properties of DC function which in turn could be influencing the response of DCs to added experimental stressors or other treatments.

  6. Neuronal apoptosis and synaptic density in the dentate gyrus of ischemic rats' response to chronic mild stress and the effects of Notch signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaohua Wang

    Full Text Available Our previous research highlighted an inconsistency with Notch1 signaling-related compensatory neurogenesis after chronic mild stress (CMS in rodents suffering from cerebral ischemia, which continue to display post-stroke depressive symptoms. Here, we hypothesize that CMS aggrandized ischemia-related apoptosis injury and worsened synaptic integrity via gamma secretase-meditated Notch1 signaling. Adult rats were exposed to a CMS paradigm after left middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO. Open-field and sucrose consumption testing were employed to assess depression-like behavior. Gene expression of pro-apoptotic Bax, anti-apoptotic Bcl-2, and synaptic density-related synaptophysin were measured by western blotting and real-time PCR on Day 28 after MCAO surgery. CMS induced depressive behaviors in ischemic rats, which was accompanied by an elevation in Bax/bcl-2 ratio, TUNEL staining in neurons and reduced synaptophysin expression in the dentate gyrus. These collective effects were reversed by the gamma-secretase inhibitor DAPT (N-[N-(3,5-difluorophenacetyl-L-alanyl]-S-phenyl-glycine t-butyl ester. We found that post-stroke stressors made neurons in the dentate gyrus vulnerable to apoptosis, which supports a putative role for Notch signaling in neural integrity, potentially in newborn cells' synaptic deficit with regard to preexisting cells. These findings suggest that post-stroke depression therapeutically benefits from blocking gamma secretase mediated Notch signaling, and whether this signaling pathway could be a therapeutic target needs to be further investigated.

  7. Sustained acceleration of colonic transit following chronic homotypic stress in oxytocin knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babygirija, Reji; Bülbül, Mehmet; Cerjak, Diana; Ludwig, Kirk; Takahashi, Toku

    2011-05-01

    Acute restraint stress delays gastric emptying and accelerates colonic transit via central corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) in rats. In contrast, central oxytocin has anxiolytic effects and attenuates the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in response to stress. Our recent study showed that up regulated oxytocin expression attenuates hypothalamic CRF expression and restores impaired gastric motility following chronic homotypic stress in mice. We studied the effects of acute and chronic homotypic stress on colonic transit and hypothalamic CRF mRNA expression in wild type (WT) and oxytocin knockout (OXT-KO) mice. Colonic transit was measured following acute restraint stress or chronic homotypic stress (repeated restraint stress for 5 consecutive days). (51)Cr was injected via a catheter into the proximal colon. Ninety minutes after restraint stress loading, the entire colon was removed. The geometric center (GC) was calculated to evaluate colonic transit. Expression of CRF mRNA in the supraoptic nucleus (SON) was measured by real time RT-PCR. Colonic transit was significantly accelerated following acute stress in WT (GC=8.1±0.8; n=7) and OXT KO mice (GC=9.4±0.3; n=7). The accelerated colonic transit was significantly attenuated in WT mice (GC=6.6±0.5; n=9) following chronic homotypic stress while it was still accelerated in OXT KO mice (GC=9.3±0.5; n=8). The increase in CRF mRNA expression at the SON was much greater in OXT-KO mice, compared to WT mice following chronic homotypic stress. It is suggested that oxytocin plays a pivotal role in mediating the adaptation mechanism following chronic homotypic stress in mice. PMID:21439349

  8. Electroconvulsive stimulation reverses anhedonia and cognitive impairments in rats exposed to chronic mild stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    K, Henningsen,; Woldbye, David Paul Drucker; Wiborg, Ove

    2013-01-01

    reverse a depression-like state in the chronic mild stress model of depression (CMS), but the effect of ECS on cognition has not previously been investigated. In this study the CMS model was used to induce a depressive-like condition in rats. The study was designed to investigate the acute effect of ECS...... treatment on working memory and the chronic effect of repeated ECS treatments on depression-like behavior and working memory. The results indicated that, in the acute phase, ECS treatment induced a working memory deficit in healthy controls unexposed to stress, while repeated treatments reversed stress...

  9. Chronic stress suppresses the expression of cutaneous hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis elements and melanogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silin Pang

    Full Text Available Chronic stress can affect skin function, and some skin diseases might be triggered or aggravated by stress. Stress can activate the central hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA axis, which causes glucocorticoid levels to increase. The skin has HPA axis elements that react to environmental stressors to regulate skin functions, such as melanogenesis. This study explores the mechanism whereby chronic stress affects skin pigmentation, focusing on the HPA axis, and investigates the role of glucocorticoids in this pathway. We exposed C57BL/6 male mice to two types of chronic stress, chronic restraint stress (CRS and chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS. Mice subjected to either stress condition showed reduced melanogenesis. Interestingly, CRS and CUMS triggered reductions in the mRNA expression levels of key factors involved in the HPA axis in the skin. In mice administered corticosterone, decreased melanin synthesis and reduced expression of HPA axis elements were observed. The reduced expression of HPA axis elements and melanogenesis in the skin of stressed mice were reversed by RU486 (a glucocorticoid receptor antagonist treatment. Glucocorticoids had no significant inhibitory effect on melanogenesis in vitro. These results suggest that, high levels of serum corticosterone induced by chronic stress can reduce the expression of elements of the skin HPA axis by glucocorticoid-dependent negative feedback. These activities can eventually result in decreased skin pigmentation. Our findings raise the possibility that chronic stress could be a risk factor for depigmentation by disrupting the cutaneous HPA axis and should prompt dermatologists to exercise more caution when using glucocorticoids for treatment.

  10. Chronic stress does not further exacerbate the abnormal psychoneuroendocrine phenotype of Cbg-deficient male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Medeiros, Gabriela F; Minni, Amandine M; Helbling, Jean-Christophe; Moisan, Marie-Pierre

    2016-08-01

    Chronic stress leads to a dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis which can constitute a base for pathophysiological consequences. Using mice totally deficient in Corticosteroid binding globulin (CBG), we have previously demonstrated the important role of CBG in eliciting an adequate response to an acute stressor. Here, we have studied its role in chronic stress situations. We have submitted Cbg ko and wild-type (WT) male mice to two different chronic stress paradigms - the unpredictable chronic mild stress and the social defeat. Then, their impact on neuroendocrine function - through corticosterone and CBG measurement - and behavioral responses - via anxiety and despair-like behavioral tests - was evaluated. Both chronic stress paradigms increased the display of despair-like behavior in WT mice, while that from Cbg ko mice - which was already high - was not aggravated. We have also found that control and defeated (stressed) Cbg ko mice show no difference in the social interaction test, while defeated WT mice reduce their interaction time when compared to unstressed WT mice. Interestingly, the same pattern was observed for corticosterone levels, where both chronic stress paradigms lowered the corticosterone levels of WT mice, while those from Cbg ko mice remained low and unaltered. Plasma CBG binding capacity remained unaltered in WT mice regardless of the stress paradigm. Through the use of the Cbg ko mice, which only differs genetically from WT mice by the absence of CBG, we demonstrated that CBG is crucial in modulating the effects of stress on plasma corticosterone levels and consequently on behavior. In conclusion, individuals with CBG deficiency, whether genetically or environmentally-induced, are vulnerable to acute stress but do not have their abnormal psychoneuroendocrine phenotype further affected by chronic stress. PMID:27153522

  11. Chronic stress in mice remodels lymph vasculature to promote tumour cell dissemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Caroline P; Nowell, Cameron J; Kim-Fuchs, Corina; Botteri, Edoardo; Hiller, Jonathan G; Ismail, Hilmy; Pimentel, Matthew A; Chai, Ming G; Karnezis, Tara; Rotmensz, Nicole; Renne, Giuseppe; Gandini, Sara; Pouton, Colin W; Ferrari, Davide; Möller, Andreas; Stacker, Steven A; Sloan, Erica K

    2016-01-01

    Chronic stress induces signalling from the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) and drives cancer progression, although the pathways of tumour cell dissemination are unclear. Here we show that chronic stress restructures lymphatic networks within and around tumours to provide pathways for tumour cell escape. We show that VEGFC derived from tumour cells is required for stress to induce lymphatic remodelling and that this depends on COX2 inflammatory signalling from macrophages. Pharmacological inhibition of SNS signalling blocks the effect of chronic stress on lymphatic remodelling in vivo and reduces lymphatic metastasis in preclinical cancer models and in patients with breast cancer. These findings reveal unanticipated communication between stress-induced neural signalling and inflammation, which regulates tumour lymphatic architecture and lymphogenous tumour cell dissemination. These findings suggest that limiting the effects of SNS signalling to prevent tumour cell dissemination through lymphatic routes may provide a strategy to improve cancer outcomes. PMID:26925549

  12. Metabonomic identification of the effects of the Zhimu-Baihe saponins on a chronic unpredictable mild stress-induced rat model of depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Hongli; Wang, Keqing; Su, Li; Zhao, Hongxia; Gao, Songyan; Lin, Qishan; Ma, Xiaofang; Zhu, Baokang; Dong, Xin; Lou, Ziyang

    2016-09-01

    The herbal pair Zhimu-Baihe (Zhimu: Anemarrhena asphodeloides; Baihe: Lilium brownii var. viridulum) is a traditional Chinese medicament used for the treatment of depression. However, the relevant mechanisms of action has not been clarified. This study investigated the anti-depressant activity of the total saponins from Zhimu and Baihe and the mechanisms underlying using a chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS)-induced rat model of depression. High performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection (HPLC-ECD) was applied to determine the levels of three monoamine neurotransmitters, 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), noradrenaline (NE) and dopamine (DA), in the rat hippocampus. Optimized pretreatment of samples and mass spectrometry conditions were used to analyse the metabonomic profile of the hippocampus. The 5-HT and NE levels in the CUMS group were reduced compared with the control group, whereas all groups had similar DA levels. The metabonomic profile of the hippocampus revealed 32 differential metabolites between the CUMS and control group, among which 18 metabolites were significantly recovered in the Anemarrhena saponins and Lilium saponins (AL) combination intervention group. These results suggested an anti-depressant effect of AL. Moreover, 24 metabolites in AL group were better recovered compared with the Anemarrhena saponins (AS) or Lilium saponins (LS) intervention groups, suggesting a synergetic effect of AS and LS in the treatment of depression. The anti-depressant effect might be related to the regulation of several metabolic pathways, including monoamine neurotransmitter synthesis (especially 5-HT and NE), and amino acid, fatty acid, and phospholipid metabolism in rats. PMID:27371920

  13. Effect of individually tailored biopsychosocial workplace interventions on chronic musculoskeletal pain, stress and work ability among laboratory technicians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jay, Kenneth; Petersen, Mikkel Brandt; Sundstrup, Emil;

    2014-01-01

    , multifactorial approaches applying a combination of individually tailored physical and cognitive strategies targeting the areas most needed, may be an effective solution to the physical and mental health challenges.The aim of this study is therefore to investigate the effect of an individually tailored...... mindfulness practice and learning de-catastrophizing pain management strategies through cognitive training.The primary outcome at 10-week follow-up is the between-group difference in intensity of perceived musculoskeletal pain during the last week (average value of back, neck, shoulder, elbow and hand...

  14. An efficient chronic unpredictable stress protocol to induce stress-related responses in C57BL/6 mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana eMonteiro

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to chronic stress can have broad effects on health ranging from increased predisposition for neuropsychiatric disorders to deregulation of immune responses. The chronic unpredictable stress (CUS protocol has been widely used to study the impact of stress exposure in several animal models and consists in the random, intermittent and unpredictable exposure to a variety of stressors during several weeks. CUS has consistently been shown to induce behavioral and immunological alterations typical of the chronic stress response. Unfortunately C57BL/6 mice, one of the most widely used mouse strains, due to the great variety of genetically modified lines, seem to be resistant to the commonly used 4-week-long CUS protocol. The definition of an alternative CUS protocol allowing the use of C57BL/6 mice in chronic stress experiments is a need. Here we show that by extending the CUS protocol to 8 weeks is possible to induce a chronic stress response in C57BL/6 mice, as revealed by abrogated body weight gain, increased adrenals weight and an overactive hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis with increased levels of serum corticosterone. Moreover, we also observed stress-associated behavioral alterations, including the potentiation of anxious-like and depressive-like behaviors and a reduction of exploratory behavior, as well as subtle stress-related changes in the cell population of the thymus and of the spleen.The present protocol for C57BL/6 mice consistently triggers the spectrum of CUS-induced changes observed in rats and, thus, will be highly useful to researchers that need to use this particular mouse strain as an animal model of neuropsychiatric disorders and/or immune deregulation related to chronic unpredictable stress.

  15. Sex differences in the chronic mild stress model of depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franceschelli, Anthony; Herchick, Samantha; Thelen, Connor; Papadopoulou-Daifoti, Zeta; Pitychoutis, Pothitos M

    2014-09-01

    A large volume of clinical and experimental evidence documents sex differences in brain anatomy, chemistry, and function, as well as in stress and drug responses. The chronic mild stress model (CMS) is one of the most extensively investigated animal models of chronic stress. However, only a limited number of studies have been conducted in female rodents despite the markedly higher prevalence of major depression among women. Herein, we review CMS studies conducted in rats and mice of both sexes and further discuss intriguing sex-dependent behavioral and neurobiological findings. The PubMed literature search engine was used to find and collect all relevant articles analyzed in this review. Specifically, a multitermed search was performed with 'chronic mild stress', 'chronic unpredictable stress' and 'chronic variable stress' as base terms and 'sex', 'gender', 'females' and 'depression' as secondary terms in various combinations. Male and female rodents appear to be differentially affected by CMS application, depending on the behavioral, physiological, and neurobiological indices that are being measured. Importantly, the CMS paradigm, despite its limitations, has been successfully used to assess a constellation of interdisciplinary research questions in the sex differences field and has served as a 'silver bullet' in assessing the role of sex in the neurobiology of major depression. PMID:25025701

  16. Chronic Stress and the Development of Early Atherosclerosis: Moderating Effect of Endothelial Dysfunction and Impaired Arterial Elasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liisa Keltikangas-Järvinen

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to explore the interactive effect of vital exhaustion (VE and endothelial dysfunction on preclinical atherosclerosis, assessed by carotid intima-media thickness (IMT. Furthermore, interaction between VE and carotid elasticity is examined. Participants were 1,596 young healthy adults from the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns study. Endothelial dysfunction was measured by brachial flow-mediated dilatation (FMD, and carotid elasticity by carotid artery compliance (CAC. Significant interactions between FMD and VE, and between CAC and VE, for IMT were found in participants with the very lowest FMD and CAC. Thus, VE may be harmful if the endothelium is not working properly.

  17. Attenuation of the cytotoxic T lymphocyte response to lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus in mice subjected to chronic social stress

    OpenAIRE

    Sommershof, Annette; Basler, Michael; Riether, Carsten; Engler, Harald; Gröttrup, Marcus

    2011-01-01

    Chronic stress is suspected to increase the susceptibility to infections but experimental evidence from physiological stress models is scarce. We examined the effects of chronic social stress on virus-specific CTL responses in mice after infection with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV). Mice subjected to social stress on six consecutive days prior to infection showed a significant reduction of IFN-γ producing TCD8+ splenocytes and markedly lowered plasma concentrations of IFN-γ. In co...

  18. Chronic Stress and Suicidal Thinking Among Medical Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Rosiek

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The subject of chronic stress and ways of dealing with it are very broad. The aim of this study was to analyze stress and anxiety and their influence on suicidal thinking among medical students. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in the years 2014 to 2015 in Poland, at the Medical University—Nicolaus Copernicus University, Collegium Medicum. The objective of this study was to assess chronic stress and suicidal thinking among students and how students cope with this huge problem. Descriptive statistics and chi-square analyses were conducted to detect differences. Results: Analyses showed that students’ life is full of stressors. Students toward the end of their education cope better with stress than students starting their university studies. Chronic stress has a strong impact on mental health and suicidal thinking among students. Conclusions: The results of the study confirmed that chronic stress and anxiety have a negative influence on mental health and also confirm a relation to suicidal thinking in medical students. Students cope with stress by listening to music, talking to relatives or people close to them, resting or engaging in sports, with cycling, running and swimming being the most common methods used to affect suicidal thinking.

  19. Adult Neurogenesis, Chronic Stress and Depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.J. Lucassen; C.A. Oomen; M. Schouten; J.M. Encinas; C.P. Fitzsimons

    2016-01-01

    A major risk factor for depression in vulnerable individuals is exposure to stress during critical periods. Stress affects mood and cognition and is also one of the best known inhibitors of adult neurogenesis that has been associated with hippocampal changes and atrophy, common findings in major dep

  20. Chronic Stress Improves NO- and Ca2+ Flux-Dependent Vascular Function: A Pharmacological Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruder-Nascimento, Thiago, E-mail: bruderthiago@usp.br [Departamento de Farmacologia - Instituto de Biociências de Botucatu - Universidade do Estado de São Paulo (UNESP), Botucatu, São Paulo (Brazil); Departamento de Clínica Médica - Faculdade de Medicina de Botucatu - Universidade do Estado de São Paulo (UNESP), Botucatu, São Paulo (Brazil); Campos, Dijon Henrique Salome [Departamento de Clínica Médica - Faculdade de Medicina de Botucatu - Universidade do Estado de São Paulo (UNESP), Botucatu, São Paulo (Brazil)

    2015-03-15

    Stress is associated with cardiovascular diseases. This study aimed at assessing whether chronic stress induces vascular alterations, and whether these modulations are nitric oxide (NO) and Ca2+ dependent. Wistar rats, 30 days of age, were separated into 2 groups: control (C) and Stress (St). Chronic stress consisted of immobilization for 1 hour/day, 5 days/week, 15 weeks. Systolic blood pressure was assessed. Vascular studies on aortic rings were performed. Concentration-effect curves were built for noradrenaline, in the presence of L-NAME or prazosin, acetylcholine, sodium nitroprusside and KCl. In addition, Ca{sup 2+} flux was also evaluated. Chronic stress induced hypertension, decreased the vascular response to KCl and to noradrenaline, and increased the vascular response to acetylcholine. L-NAME blunted the difference observed in noradrenaline curves. Furthermore, contractile response to Ca{sup 2+} was decreased in the aorta of stressed rats. Our data suggest that the vascular response to chronic stress is an adaptation to its deleterious effects, such as hypertension. In addition, this adaptation is NO- and Ca{sup 2+}-dependent. These data help to clarify the contribution of stress to cardiovascular abnormalities. However, further studies are necessary to better elucidate the mechanisms involved in the cardiovascular dysfunction associated with stressors. (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2014; [online].ahead print, PP.0-0)

  1. Chronic Stress Improves NO- and Ca2+ Flux-Dependent Vascular Function: A Pharmacological Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stress is associated with cardiovascular diseases. This study aimed at assessing whether chronic stress induces vascular alterations, and whether these modulations are nitric oxide (NO) and Ca2+ dependent. Wistar rats, 30 days of age, were separated into 2 groups: control (C) and Stress (St). Chronic stress consisted of immobilization for 1 hour/day, 5 days/week, 15 weeks. Systolic blood pressure was assessed. Vascular studies on aortic rings were performed. Concentration-effect curves were built for noradrenaline, in the presence of L-NAME or prazosin, acetylcholine, sodium nitroprusside and KCl. In addition, Ca2+ flux was also evaluated. Chronic stress induced hypertension, decreased the vascular response to KCl and to noradrenaline, and increased the vascular response to acetylcholine. L-NAME blunted the difference observed in noradrenaline curves. Furthermore, contractile response to Ca2+ was decreased in the aorta of stressed rats. Our data suggest that the vascular response to chronic stress is an adaptation to its deleterious effects, such as hypertension. In addition, this adaptation is NO- and Ca2+-dependent. These data help to clarify the contribution of stress to cardiovascular abnormalities. However, further studies are necessary to better elucidate the mechanisms involved in the cardiovascular dysfunction associated with stressors. (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2014; [online].ahead print, PP.0-0)

  2. Folic acid supplementation reduces oxidative stress and hepatic toxicity in rats treated chronically with ethanol

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Soo-Jung; Kang, Myung-Hee; Min, Hyesun

    2011-01-01

    Folate deficiency and hyperhomocysteinemia are found in most patients with alcoholic liver disease. Oxidative stress is one of the most important mechanisms contributing to homocysteine (Hcy)-induced tissue injury. However it has not been examined whether exogenous administration of folic acid attenuates oxidative stress and hepatic toxicity. The aim of this study was to investigate the in vivo effect of folic acid supplementation on oxidative stress and hepatic toxicity induced by chronic et...

  3. Forebrain glucocorticoid receptor gene deletion attenuates behavioral changes and antidepressant responsiveness during chronic stress

    OpenAIRE

    Jacobson, Lauren

    2014-01-01

    Stress is an important risk factor for mood disorders. Stress also stimulates the secretion of glucocorticoids, which have been found to influence mood. To determine the role of forebrain glucocorticoid receptors (GR) in behavioral responses to chronic stress, the present experiments compared behavioral effects of repeated social defeat in mice with forebrain GR deletion and in floxed GR littermate controls. Repeated defeat produced alterations in forced swim and tail suspension immobility in...

  4. Chronic stress and social housing differentially affect neurogenesis in male and female rats

    OpenAIRE

    Westenbroek, Christel; Boer, Johan A. den; Veenhuis, Maarten; Horst, Gert J. ter

    2004-01-01

    Stress plays an important role in the development of affective disorders. Women show a higher prevalence for these disorders than men. The course of a depression is thought to be positively influenced by social support. We have used a chronic stress model in which rats received foot-shocks daily for 3 weeks. Since rats are social animals we hypothesised that ‘social support’ might reduce the adverse effects of chronic stress. To test this hypothesis, male and female rats were housed individua...

  5. Unique Hippocampal Changes and Allodynia in a Model of Chronic Stress

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Seong-Ho; Moon, Il Soo; Park, In-Sick

    2013-01-01

    Sustained stress can have numerous pathologic effects. There have been several animal models for chronic stress. We tried to identify the changes of pain threshold and hippocampus in a model of chronic stress. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were kept in a cage filled with 23℃ water to a height of 2.2 cm for 7 days. Nociceptive thresholds, expressed in grams, were measured with a Dynamic Plantar Aesthesiometer. Golgi staining was used to identify hippocampal changes. To demonstrate how long allodyni...

  6. Individual differences in early adolescents' latent trait cortisol (LTC): Relation to recent acute and chronic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroud, Catherine B; Chen, Frances R; Doane, Leah D; Granger, Douglas A

    2016-08-01

    Research suggests that environmental stress contributes to health by altering the regulation of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis. Recent evidence indicates that early life stress alters trait indicators of HPA axis activity, but whether recent stress alters such indicators is unknown. Using objective contextual stress interviews with adolescent girls and their mothers, we examined the impact of recent acute and chronic stress occurring during the past year on early adolescent girls' latent trait cortisol (LTC) level. We also examined whether associations between recent stress and LTC level: a) varied according to the interpersonal nature and controllability of the stress; and b) remained after accounting for the effect of early life stress. Adolescents (n=117;M age=12.39years) provided salivary cortisol samples three times a day (waking, 30min post-waking and bedtime) over 3days. Results indicated that greater recent interpersonal acute stress and greater recent independent (i.e., uncontrollable) acute stress were each associated with a higher LTC level, over and above the effect of early adversity. In contrast, greater recent chronic stress was associated with a lower LTC level. Findings were similar in the overall sample and a subsample of participants who strictly adhered to the timed schedule of saliva sample collection. Implications for understanding the impact of recent stress on trait-like individual differences in HPA axis activity are discussed. PMID:27155256

  7. Accelerated Aging during Chronic Oxidative Stress: A Role for PARP-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniëlle M. P. H. J. Boesten

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress plays a major role in the pathophysiology of chronic inflammatory disease and it has also been linked to accelerated telomere shortening. Telomeres are specialized structures at the ends of linear chromosomes that protect these ends from degradation and fusion. Telomeres shorten with each cell division eventually leading to cellular senescence. Research has shown that poly(ADP-ribose polymerase-1 (PARP-1 and subtelomeric methylation play a role in telomere stability. We hypothesized that PARP-1 plays a role in accelerated aging in chronic inflammatory diseases due to its role as coactivator of NF-κb and AP-1. Therefore we evaluated the effect of chronic PARP-1 inhibition (by fisetin and minocycline in human fibroblasts (HF cultured under normal conditions and under conditions of chronic oxidative stress, induced by tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP. Results showed that PARP-1 inhibition under normal culturing conditions accelerated the rate of telomere shortening. However, under conditions of chronic oxidative stress, PARP-1 inhibition did not show accelerated telomere shortening. We also observed a strong correlation between telomere length and subtelomeric methylation status of HF cells. We conclude that chronic PARP-1 inhibition appears to be beneficial in conditions of chronic oxidative stress but may be detrimental under relatively normal conditions.

  8. Sex differences in synaptic plasticity in stress-responsive brain regions following chronic variable stress

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho-Netto, Eduardo F.; Myers, Brent; Jones, Kenneth; Solomon, Matia B.; Herman, James P.

    2011-01-01

    Increased stress responsiveness is implicated in the etiology of mood and anxiety disorders, including depression and post-traumatic stress disorder. Additionally, stress-related affective disorders have a higher incidence in women than men. Chronic stress in rodents produces numerous neuromorphological changes in a variety of limbic brain regions. Here, we examined the sex-dependent differences in presynaptic innervation of the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN), prefrontal co...

  9. Overgeneral autobiographical memory and chronic interpersonal stress as predictors of the course of depression in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumner, Jennifer A; Griffith, James W; Mineka, Susan; Rekart, Kathleen Newcomb; Zinbarg, Richard E; Craske, Michelle G

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated whether overgeneral autobiographical memory (OGM) predicts the course of depression in adolescents. As part of a larger longitudinal study of risk for emotional disorders, 55 adolescents with a past history of major depressive disorder or minor depressive disorder completed the Autobiographical Memory Test. Fewer specific memories predicted the subsequent onset of a major depressive episode (MDE) over a 16-month follow-up period, even when covarying baseline depressive symptoms. This main effect was qualified by an interaction between specific memories and chronic interpersonal stress: Fewer specific memories predicted greater risk of MDE onset over follow-up at high (but not low) levels of chronic interpersonal stress. Thus, our findings suggest that OGM, in interaction with chronic interpersonal stress, predicts the course of depression among adolescents, and highlight the importance of measuring interpersonal stress in OGM research. PMID:21432666

  10. Environmental enrichment reduces behavioural alterations induced by chronic stress in Japanese quail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurence, A; Houdelier, C; Calandreau, L; Arnould, C; Favreau-Peigné, A; Leterrier, C; Boissy, A; Lumineau, S

    2015-02-01

    Animals perceiving repeated aversive events can become chronically stressed. Chronic activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis can have deleterious consequences on physiological parameters (e.g. BW, blood chemistry) and behaviour (e.g. emotional reactivity, stereotypies, cognition). Environmental enrichment (EE) can be a mean to reduce animal stress and to improve welfare. The aim of this study was first, to assess the effects of EE in battery cages on the behaviour of young Japanese quail and second, to evaluate the impact of EE on quail exposed to chronic stress. The experiment involved quail housed in EE cages and submitted or not to a chronic stress procedure (CSP) (EE cages, control quail: n=16, CSP quail: n=14) and quail housed in standard cages and exposed or not to the CSP (standard non-EE cages, control quail: n=12, CSP quail: n=16). Our procedure consisted of repeated aversive events (e.g. ventilators, delaying access to food, physical restraint, noise) presented two to five times per 24 h, randomly, for 15 days. During CSP, EE improved quail's welfare as their stereotypic pacing decreased and they rested more. CSP decreased exploration in all quail. After the end of CSP, quail presented increased emotional reactivity in emergence test. However, the effect of EE varied with test. Finally, chronic stress effects on comfort behaviours in the emergence test were alleviated by EE. These results indicate that EE can alleviate some aspects of behavioural alterations induced by CSP. PMID:25354525

  11. Some physiological and biochemical methods for acute and chronic stress evaluation in dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Bertoni

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Stress factors are so numerous and so diverse in their strength and duration that the consequences on animal welfare can be quite varied. The first important distinction concerns the characterization of acute and chronic stress conditions. Acute stress is a short-lived negative situation that allows a quick and quite complete recovery of the physiological balance (adaptation, while chronic stress is a long lasting condition from which the subject cannot fully recover (maladaptation. In the latter case, the direct effects of the stress factors (heat, low energy, anxiety, suffering etc., as well as the indirect ones (changes occurring at endocrinological, immune system or function level can be responsible for pre-pathological or pathological consequences which reduce animal welfare. To evaluate the possible chronic stress conditions in single animals or on a farm (in particular a farm of dairy cows, some parameters of the direct or indirect effects can be utilised. They are physiological (mainly hormone changes: cortisol, β-endorphin, behavioural (depression, biochemical (metabolites, acute phase proteins, glycated proteins etc., as well as performance parameters (growing rate, milk yield, fertility, etc.. Special attention has been paid to the interpretation of cortisol levels and to its changes after an ACTH challenge. Despite fervent efforts, well established and accepted indices of chronic stress (distress are currently lacking; but without this objective evaluation, the assessment of animal welfare and, therefore, the optimization of the livestock production, could prove more difficult.

  12. [Carbonyl stress and oxidatively modified proteins in chronic renal failure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargnoux, A-S; Morena, M; Badiou, S; Dupuy, A-M; Canaud, B; Cristol, J-P

    2009-01-01

    Oxidative stress is commonly observed in chronic renal failure patients resulting from an unbalance between overproduction of reactive oxygen species and impairement of defense mechanisms. Proteins appear as potential targets of uremia-induced oxidative stress and may undergo qualitative modifications. Proteins could be directly modified by reactive oxygen species which leads to amino acid oxydation and cross-linking. Proteins could be indirectly modified by reactive carbonyl compounds produced by glycoxidation and lipo-peroxidation. The resulting post-traductional modifications are known as carbonyl stress. In addition, thiols could be oxidized or could react with homocystein leading to homocysteinylation. Finally, tyrosin could be oxidized by myeloperoxidase leading to advanced oxidative protein products (AOPP). Oxidatively modified proteins are increased in chronic renal failure patients and may contribute to exacerbate the oxidative stress/inflammation syndrome. They have been involved in long term complications of uremia such as amyloidosis and accelerated atherosclerosis. PMID:19297289

  13. Interaction of Metabolic Stress with Chronic Mild Stress in Altering Brain Cytokines and Sucrose Preference

    OpenAIRE

    Remus, Jennifer L.; Stewart, Luke T.; Camp, Robert M.; Novak, Colleen M.; Johnson, John D.

    2015-01-01

    There is growing evidence that metabolic stressors increase an organism’s risk of depression. Chronic mild stress is a popular animal model of depression and several serendipitous findings have suggested that food deprivation prior to sucrose testing in this model is necessary to observe anhedonic behaviors. Here, we directly tested this hypothesis by exposing animals to chronic mild stress and used an overnight two bottle sucrose test (food ad libitum) on day 5 and 10, then food and water de...

  14. Chronic stress and pituitary-adrenal function in female pigs.

    OpenAIRE

    Janssens, C.J.J.C.

    1994-01-01

    IntroductionThe main purpose of the studies described in this thesis was to gain more insight in the regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocorticaI (HPA) system and the mechanisms underlying adaptation to chronic stress in female pigs. The function of the HPA axis, which coordinates multiple neuroendocrine and metabolic responses to stressors, has been subject of extensive basic and clinical research. HPA-activation by stressful stimuli results in an increase in circulating adrenocor...

  15. Pain experience of Iraq and Afghanistan Veterans with comorbid chronic pain and posttraumatic stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha D. Outcalt, PhD

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Chronic pain and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD co-occur at high rates, and Veterans from recent wars in Iraq and Afghanistan may be particularly vulnerable to both conditions. The objective of this study was to identify key aspects of chronic pain, cognitions, and psychological distress associated with comorbid PTSD among this sample of Veterans. Baseline data were analyzed from a randomized controlled trial testing a stepped-care intervention for chronic musculoskeletal pain. Operation Iraqi Freedom/Operation Enduring Freedom (OIF/OEF Veterans with chronic pain only (n = 173 were compared with those with chronic pain and clinically significant posttraumatic stress symptoms (n = 68. Group differences on pain characteristics, pain cognitions, and psychological distress were evaluated. Results demonstrated that OIF/OEF Veterans with comorbid chronic musculoskeletal pain and PTSD experienced higher pain severity, greater pain-related disability and increased pain interference, more maladaptive pain cognitions (e.g., catastrophizing, self-efficacy, pain centrality, and higher affective distress than those with chronic pain alone. Veterans of recent military conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan may be particularly vulnerable to the compounded adverse effects of chronic pain and PTSD. These results highlight a more intense and disabling pain and psychological experience for those with chronic pain and PTSD than for those without PTSD.

  16. Chronic Stress Facilitates the Development of Deep Venous Thrombosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Dong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing pressure of modern social life intensifies the impact of stress on the development of cardiovascular diseases, which include deep venous thrombosis (DVT. Renal sympathetic denervation has been applied as one of the clinical approaches for the treatment of drug-resistant hypertension. In addition, the close relationship between oxidative stress and cardiovascular diseases has been well documented. The present study is designed to explore the mechanism by which the renal sympathetic nerve system and the oxidative stress affect the blood coagulation system in the development of DVT. Chronic foot shock model in rats was applied to mimic a state of physiological stress similar to humans. Our results showed that chronic foot shock procedure could promote DVT which may be through the activation of platelets aggregation. The aggravation of DVT and activation of platelets were alleviated by renal sympathetic denervation or antioxidant (Tempol treatment. Concurrently, the denervation treatment could also reduce the levels of circulating oxidation factors in rats. These results demonstrate that both the renal sympathetic nerve system and the oxidative stress contribute to the development of DVT in response to chronic stress, which may provide novel strategy for treatment of clinic DVT patients.

  17. Molecular Signatures of Psychosocial Stress and Cognition Are Modulated by Chronic Lithium Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzózka, Magdalena M; Havemann-Reinecke, Ursula; Wichert, Sven P; Falkai, Peter; Rossner, Moritz J

    2016-07-01

    Chronic psychosocial stress is an important environmental risk factor of psychiatric diseases such as schizophrenia. Social defeat in rodents has been shown to be associated with maladaptive cellular and behavioral consequences including cognitive impairments. Although gene expression changes upon psychosocial stress have been described, a comprehensive transcriptome profiling study at the global level in precisely defined hippocampal subregions which are associated with learning has been lacking. In this study, we exposed adult C57Bl/6N mice for 3 weeks to "resident-intruder" paradigm and combined laser capture microdissection with microarray analyses to identify transcriptomic signatures of chronic psychosocial stress in dentate gyrus and CA3 subregion of the dorsal hippocampus. At the individual transcript level, we detected subregion specific stress responses whereas gene set enrichment analyses (GSEA) identified several common pathways upregulated upon chronic psychosocial stress related to proteasomal function and energy supply. Behavioral profiling revealed stress-associated impairments most prominent in fear memory formation which was prevented by chronic lithium treatment. Thus, we again microdissected the CA3 region and performed global transcriptome analysis to search for molecular signatures altered by lithium treatment in stressed animals. By combining GSEA with unsupervised clustering, we detected pathways that are regulated by stress and lithium in the CA3 region of the hippocampus including proteasomal components, oxidative phosphorylation, and anti-oxidative mechanisms. Our study thus provides insight into hidden molecular phenotypes of chronic psychosocial stress and lithium treatment and proves a beneficial role for lithium treatment as an agent attenuating negative effects of psychosocial stress on cognition. PMID:26714764

  18. Neural control of chronic stress adaptation

    OpenAIRE

    James eHerman

    2013-01-01

    Stress initiates adaptive processes that allow the organism to physiologically cope with prolonged or intermittent exposure to real or perceived threats. A major component of this response is repeated activation of glucocorticoid secretion by the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis, which promotes redistribution of energy in a wide range of organ systems, including the brain. Prolonged or cumulative increases in glucocorticoid secretion can reduce benefits afforded by enhanced s...

  19. Chronic stress induces ageing-associated degeneration in rat Leydig cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fei-Fei Wang; Qian Wang; Yong Chen; Qiang Lin; Hui-Bao Gao; Ping Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Several studies have suggested that stress and ageing exert inhibitory effects on rat Leydig cells.In a pattern similar to the normal process of Leydig cell ageing,stress-mediated increases in glucocorticoid levels inhibit steroidogenic enzyme expression that then results in decreased testosterone secretion.We hypothesized that chronic stress accelerates the degenerative changes associated with ageing in Leydig cells.To test this hypothesis,we established a model of chronic stress to evaluate stress-induced morphological and functional alterations in Brown Norway rat Leydig cells; additionally,intracellular lipofuscin levels,reactive oxygen species (ROS)levels and DNA damage were assessed.The results showed that chronic stress accelerated ageing-related changes:ultrastructural alterations associated with ageing,cellular lipofuscin accumulation,increased ROS levels and more extensive DNA damage were observed.Additionally,testosterone levels were decreased.This study sheds new light on the idea that chronic stress contributes to the degenerative changes associated with ageing in rat Leydig cells in vivo.

  20. Chronic Unpredictable Stress Augments +3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA)-induced Monoamine Depletions: The Role of Corticosterone

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Bethann N.; Yamamoto, Bryan K.

    2009-01-01

    Exposure to stress alters the behavioral and neurochemical effects of drugs of abuse. However, it is unknown if chronic stress can affect the serotonergic depletions induced by the psychostimulant drug 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA). Rats were exposed to 10 days of chronic unpredictable stress (CUS) which resulted in the predicted elevation of basal plasma corticosterone concentrations. On the 11th day, rats received 4 challenge doses of MDMA (5 mg/kg every 2 h, i.p.) or saline. Fiv...

  1. The Influence of Work-Related Chronic Stress on the Regulation of Emotion and on Functional Connectivity in the Brain

    OpenAIRE

    Armita Golkar; Emilia Johansson; Maki Kasahara; Walter Osika; Aleksander Perski; Ivanka Savic

    2014-01-01

    Despite mounting reports about the negative effects of chronic occupational stress on cognitive and emotional functions, the underlying mechanisms are unknown. Recent findings from structural MRI raise the question whether this condition could be associated with a functional uncoupling of the limbic networks and an impaired modulation of emotional stress. To address this, 40 subjects suffering from burnout symptoms attributed to chronic occupational stress and 70 controls were investigated us...

  2. Chronic stress and pituitary-adrenal function in female pigs.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssens, C.J.J.C.

    1994-01-01

    IntroductionThe main purpose of the studies described in this thesis was to gain more insight in the regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocorticaI (HPA) system and the mechanisms underlying adaptation to chronic stress in female pigs. The function of the HPA axis, which coordinates multipl

  3. Fractalkine receptor deficiency impairs microglial and neuronal responsiveness to chronic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milior, Giampaolo; Lecours, Cynthia; Samson, Louis; Bisht, Kanchan; Poggini, Silvia; Pagani, Francesca; Deflorio, Cristina; Lauro, Clotilde; Alboni, Silvia; Limatola, Cristina; Branchi, Igor; Tremblay, Marie-Eve; Maggi, Laura

    2016-07-01

    Chronic stress is one of the most relevant triggering factors for major depression. Microglial cells are highly sensitive to stress and, more generally, to environmental challenges. However, the role of these brain immune cells in mediating the effects of stress is still unclear. Fractalkine signaling - which comprises the chemokine CX3CL1, mainly expressed by neurons, and its receptor CX3CR1, almost exclusively present on microglia in the healthy brain - has been reported to critically regulate microglial activity. Here, we investigated whether interfering with microglial function by deleting the Cx3cr1 gene affects the brain's response to chronic stress. To this purpose, we housed Cx3cr1 knockout and wild-type adult mice in either control or stressful environments for 2weeks, and investigated the consequences on microglial phenotype and interactions with synapses, synaptic transmission, behavioral response and corticosterone levels. Our results show that hampering neuron-microglia communication via the CX3CR1-CX3CL1 pathway prevents the effects of chronic unpredictable stress on microglial function, short- and long-term neuronal plasticity and depressive-like behavior. Overall, the present findings suggest that microglia-regulated mechanisms may underlie the differential susceptibility to stress and consequently the vulnerability to diseases triggered by the experience of stressful events, such as major depression. PMID:26231972

  4. Efficacy of subantimicrobial-dose doxycycline against nitrosative stress in chronic periodontitis

    OpenAIRE

    PÂRVU, ALINA ELENA; ALB, SANDU FLORIN; Crăciun, Alexandra; Taulescu, Marian Aurel

    2012-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the effectiveness of subantimicrobial-dose doxycycline (SDD) as an adjunct to scaling and root planing (SRP) treatment against the nitrosative stress of moderate to advanced chronic periodontitis. Methods: Adults with untreated chronic periodontitis (n=174) were randomly administered SRP+SDD (n=87) (20 mg of doxycycline twice daily) or SRP+placebo (n=87) treatment for 3 months. At baseline and after 3 months, the probing depths (PD), bleeding on probing (BOP) and clinical att...

  5. Chronic stress exposure decreases the cortisol awakening response in healthy young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Hongxia; Yuan, Yiran; Zhang, Liang; Qin, Shaozheng; Zhang, Kan; Buchanan, Tony W; Wu, Jianhui

    2013-11-01

    Academic examination is a major stressor for students in China. Investigation of stress-sensitive endocrine responses to major examination stress serves as a good model of naturalistic chronic psychological stress in an otherwise healthy population. The cortisol awakening response (CAR) is an endocrine marker of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis in response to stress. However, it remains unknown how chronic examination stress impacts the CAR in a young healthy population To exclude the influence of sex effects on hormone level, the CAR and psychological stress responses were assessed on two consecutive workdays in 42 male participants during their preparations for the Chinese National Postgraduate Entrance Exam (NPEE) and 21 non-exam, age-matched male comparisons. On each day, four saliva samples were collected immediately after awakening, 15 minutes, 30 minutes and 60 minutes after awakening. The waking level (S1), the increase within 30 minutes after awakening (R30), the area under the curve with respect to ground (AUCg), and the area under the curve with respect to increase (AUCi) were used to quantify the CAR. Psychological stress and anxiety were assessed by the Perceived Stress Scale and the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, respectively. Male participants in the exam group had greater perceived stress and anxiety scores relatibe to the non-exam group. Both R30 and AUCi in the exam group were significantly lower than the comparison group and this effect was most pronounced for participants with high levels of perceived stress in the exam group. Perceived stress and anxiety levels were negatively correlated with both R30 and AUCi. Chronic examination stress can lead to the decrease of CAR in healthy young men, possibly due to reduced HPA axis activity under long-term sustained stress. PMID:23992539

  6. Low maternal care exacerbates adult stress susceptibility in the chronic mild stress rat model of depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsen, Kim; Dyrvig, Mads; Bouzinova, Elena V;

    2012-01-01

    In the present study we report the finding that the quality of maternal care, in early life, increased the susceptibility to stress exposure in adulthood, when rats were exposed to the chronic mild stress paradigm. Our results indicate that high, as opposed to low maternal care, predisposed rats ...

  7. Elevated hair cortisol levels in chronically stressed dementia caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stalder, Tobias; Tietze, Antje; Steudte, Susann; Alexander, Nina; Dettenborn, Lucia; Kirschbaum, Clemens

    2014-09-01

    Hair cortisol concentrations (HCC) are assumed to reflect integrated long-term cortisol levels and have been proposed as a promising endocrine marker of chronic psychological stress. The current study examined HCC in relation to caregiving burden, a well-established naturalistic model of chronic stress in humans. HCC and relevant psychosocial data were examined in 20 caregivers of relatives with dementia and 20 non-caregiver controls matched for age and sex. Results revealed elevated HCC in dementia caregivers compared to non-caregiver controls (F(1,38)=4.4, p=.04, ηp2=.10). Further, within caregivers, a trend for a positive association of HCC with self-reported caregiving burden (r=.43, p=.058) and a positive association with depressiveness (r=.48, p=.045) were observed. No other associations between HCC and subjective measures were seen. These findings concur with the notion that HCC sensitively capture endocrine aberrations in stress-exposed groups. PMID:25001953

  8. Effects of Mindfulness Meditation on Chronic Pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    la Cour, Peter; Petersen, Marian

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This randomized controlled clinical trial investigated the effects of mindfulness meditation on chronic pain. DESIGN: A total of 109 patients with nonspecific chronic pain were randomized to either a standardized mindfulness meditation program (mindfulness-based stress reduction [MBSR...... of the 109 randomized patients completed the mindfulness program, while 47 remained in the control group. Data were compared at three time points: at baseline, after completion of the course/waiting period, and at the 6-month follow-up. RESULTS: Significant effect (Cohen's d = 0.39) was found on the......]) or to a wait list control. METHODS: Pain, physical function, mental function, pain acceptance, and health-related quality of life were measured. The SF36 vitality scale was chosen as the primary outcome measure; the primary end point was after completing the MBSR course. Within a 2.5-year period, 43...

  9. Role of anuloma viloma pranayama in reducing stress in chronic alcoholics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despite improved clinical care, heightened public awareness and wide spread use of health innovations, alcoholism remains a leading cause of death in many parts of the world. Chronic alcoholics suffer from stress and multitude of symptoms. The progressive addiction to alcohol will gradually nullify all other interests in the patient's life so that a deterioration of the physical, psychological, social, cultural and religious values takes place. The role of yoga in healing asthma, arthritis and other disorders has been known. Methods: Breathing technique (Anuloma Viloma Pranayama) was taught to chronic alcoholics. Using galvanic skin resistance, stress levels were measured before and after anuloma viloma yoga in controls and chronic alcoholics. Results: Reduced stress levels were noted using the galvanic skin resistance in both controls and chronic alcoholics after yogic breathing. Conclusion: There is a promising effect of simple yoga techniques in organising effective rehabilitation and treatment programmes to reduce stress in chronic alcoholics. This study would help to chart out a better management programme for enhancing relapse and alleviate the symptoms. (author)

  10. Morphology of Pyramidal Neurons in the Rat Prefrontal Cortex: Lateralized Dendritic Remodeling by Chronic Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Perez-Cruz

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The prefrontal cortex (PFC plays an important role in the stress response. We filled pyramidal neurons in PFC layer III with neurobiotin and analyzed dendrites in rats submitted to chronic restraint stress and in controls. In the right prelimbic cortex (PL of controls, apical and distal dendrites were longer than in the left PL. Stress reduced the total length of apical dendrites in right PL and abolished the hemispheric difference. In right infralimbic cortex (IL of controls, proximal apical dendrites were longer than in left IL, and stress eliminated this hemispheric difference. No hemispheric difference was detected in anterior cingulate cortex (ACx of controls, but stress reduced apical dendritic length in left ACx. These data demonstrate interhemispheric differences in the morphology of pyramidal neurons in PL and IL of control rats and selective effects of stress on the right hemisphere. In contrast, stress reduced dendritic length in the left ACx.

  11. Chronic stress and brain plasticity: Mechanisms underlying adaptive and maladaptive changes and implications for stress-related CNS disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radley, Jason; Morilak, David; Viau, Victor; Campeau, Serge

    2015-11-01

    Stress responses entail neuroendocrine, autonomic, and behavioral changes to promote effective coping with real or perceived threats to one's safety. While these responses are critical for the survival of the individual, adverse effects of repeated exposure to stress are widely known to have deleterious effects on health. Thus, a considerable effort in the search for treatments to stress-related CNS disorders necessitates unraveling the brain mechanisms responsible for adaptation under acute conditions and their perturbations following chronic stress exposure. This paper is based upon a symposium from the 2014 International Behavioral Neuroscience Meeting, summarizing some recent advances in understanding the effects of stress on adaptive and maladaptive responses subserved by limbic forebrain networks. An important theme highlighted in this review is that the same networks mediating neuroendocrine, autonomic, and behavioral processes during adaptive coping also comprise targets of the effects of repeated stress exposure in the development of maladaptive states. Where possible, reference is made to the similarity of neurobiological substrates and effects observed following repeated exposure to stress in laboratory animals and the clinical features of stress-related disorders in humans. PMID:26116544

  12. Chronic antioxidant therapy reduces oxidative stress in a mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease

    OpenAIRE

    Siedlak, Sandra L.; Casadesus, Gemma; Webber, Kate M; Pappolla, Miguel A.; Atwood, Craig S.; Smith, Mark A.; Perry, George

    2009-01-01

    Oxidative modifications are a hallmark of oxidative imbalance in the brains of individuals with Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s and prion diseases and their respective animal models. While the causes of oxidative stress are relatively well-documented, the effects of chronically reducing oxidative stress on cognition, pathology and biochemistry require further clarification. To address this, young and aged control and amyloid-β protein precursor-over-expressing mice were fed a diet with added R-alpha...

  13. Chronic light reduction reduces overall resilience to additional shading stress in the seagrass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yaakub, S.M.; Chen, E.; Bouma, T.; Erftemeijer, P.L.A.; Todd, P.A.

    2014-01-01

    Seagrasses have substantial capacity to survive long periods of light reduction, but how acclimation to chronic low light environments may influence their ability to cope with additional stress is poorly understood. This study examines the effect of temporal light reduction by adding two levels of s

  14. Chronic psycho-social stress & colitis: Physiological, neuroendocrine, and immunological studies with male C57BL/6 mice

    OpenAIRE

    Reber, Stefan Oskar

    2007-01-01

    The experiments of the present thesis were designed to investigate the effects of two different models of chronic psycho-social stress (SD/OC; CSC) on the severity of and the regeneration after an experimentally induced colitis and the development of spontaneous colonic inflammation in male mice. In addition, underlying mechanisms were investigated, thereby mainly focusing on the HPA axis as a possible mediator of chronic psycho-social stress effects on colonic inflammation. Further knowledge...

  15. Chronic subordinate colony housing (CSC as a model of chronic psychosocial stress in male rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kewir D Nyuyki

    Full Text Available Chronic subordinate colony housing (CSC is an adequate and reliable mouse model of chronic psychosocial stress, resulting in reduced body weight gain, reduced thymus and increased adrenal weight, long-lasting anxiety-like behaviour, and spontaneous colitis. Furthermore, CSC mice show increased corticotrophin (ACTH responsiveness to acute heterotypic stressors, suggesting a general mechanism which allows a chronically-stressed organism to adequately respond to a novel threat. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to extend the CSC model to another rodent species, namely male Wistar rats, and to characterize relevant physiological, immunological, and behavioural consequences; placing particular emphasis on changes in hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis responsiveness to an acute heterotypic stressor. In line with previous mouse data, exposure of Wistar rats to 19 days of CSC resulted in a decrease in body weight gain and absolute thymus mass, mild colonic barrier defects and intestinal immune activation. Moreover, no changes in stress-coping behaviour or social preference were seen; again in agreement with the mouse paradigm. Most importantly, CSC rats showed an increased plasma corticosterone response to an acute heterotypic stressor (open arm, 5 min despite displaying similar basal levels and similar basal and stressor-induced plasma ACTH levels. In contrast to CSC mice, anxiety-related behaviour and absolute, as well as relative adrenal weights remained unchanged in CSC rats. In summary, the CSC paradigm could be established as an adequate model of chronic psychosocial stress in male rats. Our data further support the initial hypothesis that adrenal hyper-responsiveness to ACTH during acute heterotypic stressors represents a general adaptation, which enables a chronically-stressed organism to adequately respond to novel challenges.

  16. Assessing Cumulative Thermal Stress in Fish During Chronic Exposure to High Temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bevelhimer, M.S.; Bennett, W.R.

    1999-11-14

    As environmental laws become increasingly protective, and with possible future changes in global climate, thermal effects on aquatic resources are likely to receive increasing attention. Lethal temperatures for a variety of species have been determined for situations where temperatures rise rapidly resulting in lethal effects. However, less is known about the effects of chronic exposure to high (but not immediately lethal) temperatures and even less about stress accumulation during periods of fluctuating temperatures. In this paper we present a modeling framework for assessing cumulative thermal stress in fish. The model assumes that stress accumulation occurs above a threshold temperature at a rate depending on the degree to which the threshold is exceeded. The model also includes stress recovery (or alleviation) when temperatures drop below the threshold temperature as in systems with large daily variation. In addition to non-specific physiological stress, the model also simulates thermal effects on growth.

  17. Update in the methodology of the chronic stress paradigm: internal control matters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boyks Marco

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract To date, the reliability of induction of a depressive-like state using chronic stress models is confronted by many methodological limitations. We believe that the modifications to the stress paradigm in mice proposed herein allow some of these limitations to be overcome. Here, we discuss a variant of the standard stress paradigm, which results in anhedonia. This anhedonic state was defined by a decrease in sucrose preference that was not exhibited by all animals. As such, we propose the use of non-anhedonic, stressed mice as an internal control in experimental mouse models of depression. The application of an internal control for the effects of stress, along with optimized behavioural testing, can enable the analysis of biological correlates of stress-induced anhedonia versus the consequences of stress alone in a chronic-stress depression model. This is illustrated, for instance, by distinct physiological and molecular profiles in anhedonic and non-anhedonic groups subjected to stress. These results argue for the use of a subgroup of individuals who are negative for the induction of a depressive phenotype during experimental paradigms of depression as an internal control, for more refined modeling of this disorder in animals.

  18. Simotang enhances gastrointestinal motility, motilin and cholecystokinin expression in chronically stressed mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guang-Xian Cai; Bai-Yan Liu; Jian Yi; Xue-Mei Chen; Fu-Ling Liu

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of Simotang (Decoction of Four Powered Drugs) on gastrointestinal motility, motilin and cholecystokinin expression in chronically stressed mice. METHODS: Forty mice were randomly divided into control group, stress group (model group), mosapride group and Simotang group, 10 in each group. A variety of unpredictable stimulations were used to induce chronic stress in mice. Then, the mice were treated with distilled water, mosapride or Simotang for 7 d. Gastric emptying and intestinal propulsion function were detected. Serum level of motilin was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Expression of cholecystokinin (CCK) in intestine, spinal cord and brain of mice was detected by immunohistochemistry and semi-quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, respectively. RESULTS: Simotang improved the gastric emptying and intestinal propulsion in chronically stressed mice. Furthermore, the serum motilin level was significantly higher and the expression levels of CCK-positive cells and genes were significantly lower in intestine, spinal cord and brain of Simotang group than in those of model group (P < 0.05). No significant difference was found in serum motilin level and expression levels of CCK-positive cells and genes between the mosapride and Simotang groups. CONCLUSION: Simotang enhances the gastrointestinal motility in chronically stressed mice by regulating the serum motilin level and the expression of cholecystokinin.

  19. Could stress contribute to pain-related fear in chronic pain?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigrid Elsenbruch

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Learning to predict pain based on internal or external cues constitutes a fundamental and highly adaptive process aimed at self-protection. Pain-related fear is an essential component of this response, which is formed by associative and instrumental learning processes. In chronic pain, pain-related fear may become maladaptive, drive avoidance behaviors and contribute to symptom chronicity. Pavlovian fear conditioning has proven fruitful to elucidate associative learning and extinction involving aversive stimuli, including pain, but studies in chronic pain remain scarce. Stress demonstrably exerts differential effects on emotional learning and memory processes, but this has not been transferred to pain-related fear. Within this perspective, we propose that stress could contribute to impaired pain-related associative learning and extinction processes and call for interdisciplinary research. Specifically, we suggest to test the hypotheses that (1 extinction-related phenomena inducing a re-activation of maladaptive pain-related fear (e.g., reinstatement, renewal likely occur in everyday life of chronic pain patients and may alter pain processing, impair perceptual discrimination and favour overgeneralization; (2 acute stress prior to or during acquisition of pain-related fear may facilitate the formation and/or consolidation of pain-related fear memories, (3 stress during or after extinction may impair extinction efficacy resulting in greater reinstatement or context-dependent renewal of pain-related fear; and (4 these effects could be amplified by chronic stress due to early adversity and/or psychiatric comorbidity such as depression or anxiety in patients with chronic pain.

  20. The effect of short-term, high-dose oral N-acetylcysteine treatment on oxidative stress markers in cystic fibrosis patients with chronic P-aeruginosa infection - A pilot study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, Marianne; Pressler, Tacjana; Lykkesfeldt, Jens;

    2015-01-01

    Background: Patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) and chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infection have increased oxidative stress as a result of an imbalance between the production of reactive oxygen species caused by inflammation and their inactivation by the impaired antioxidant systems....... Supplementation with anti-oxidants is potentially beneficial for CF patients. Methods: The effect of 4 weeks of oral N-acetylcysteine (NAC) treatment (2400 mg/day divided into two doses) on biochemical parameters of oxidative stress was investigated in an open-label, controlled, randomized trial on 21 patients...... ascorbic acid (p = 0.037) and a significant decrease in the levels of the oxidized form of ascorbic. acid (dehydroascorbate) (p = 0.004) compared to baseline were achieved after NAC treatment. No significant differences were observed in the control group. The parameters of oxidative burden did not change...

  1. Chronic forced swim stress produces subsensitivity to nicotine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck, J A; Dilsaver, S C; McGee, M

    1991-03-01

    Twice daily injections of saline reduce the thermic response to nicotine in the rat. The authors hypothesized that this was due to the stress of twice-daily handling and injection. However, the injection of saline is not a classic stressor. The hypothesis that stress blunts thermic responsiveness to nicotine was, therefore, tested using a classic form of chronic inescapable stress. Rats (n = 12) were subjected to a 14-day, twice daily course of inescapable cold water swim stress using a repeated measures design. Thermic responsiveness of nicotine was measured at baseline and every 7 days thereafter for 49 days. The mean response to nicotine (1.0 mg/kg IP) differed significantly across time, F(7,88) = 10.6, p less than 0.0001. Mean thermic responsiveness (+/- SEM) decreased from -0.75 +/- 0.09 at baseline to -0.41 +/- 0.18 degrees C (54.7% of baseline) following 14 days of forced swim stress. This change was not significant. However, the thermic response to nicotine was -0.14 +/- 0.13 degrees C (p less than 0.05), +0.55 +/- 0.12 degrees C (p less than 0.05), and +0.04 +/- 0.11 degrees C (p less than 0.05) 7, 14, and 21 days following the discontinuation of forced swim stress. The mean response did not differ from baseline 28 days following the last session of forced swim stress. The data suggest that in the recovery phase the animals ceased to be sensitive to nicotine. These findings support the hypothesis that a chronic stressor can produce subsensitivity to nicotine. PMID:2068187

  2. Chronic and Acute Stress, Gender, and Serotonin Transporter Gene-Environment Interactions Predicting Depression Symptoms in Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammen, Constance; Brennan, Patricia A.; Keenan-Miller, Danielle; Hazel, Nicholas A.; Najman, Jake M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Many recent studies of serotonin transporter gene by environment effects predicting depression have used stress assessments with undefined or poor psychometric methods, possibly contributing to wide variation in findings. The present study attempted to distinguish between effects of acute and chronic stress to predict depressive…

  3. Exogenous Tryptophan Promotes Cutaneous Wound Healing of Chronically Stressed Mice through Inhibition of TNF-α and IDO Activation

    OpenAIRE

    Bandeira, Luana Graziella; Bortolot, Beatriz Salari; Cecatto, Matheus Jorand; Monte-Alto-Costa, Andréa; Romana-Souza, Bruna

    2015-01-01

    Stress prolongs the inflammatory response compromising the dermal reconstruction and wound closure. Acute stress-induced inflammation increases indoleamine 2, 3-dioxygenase-stimulated tryptophan catabolism. To investigate the role of indoleamine 2, 3-dioxygenase expression and tryptophan administration in adverse effects of stress on cutaneous wound healing, mice were submitted to chronic restraint stress and treated with tryptophan daily until euthanasia. Excisional lesions were created on e...

  4. Chronic stress, leukocyte subpopulations, and humoral response to latent viruses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKinnon, W.; Weisse, C.S.; Reynolds, C.P.; Bowles, C.A.; Baum, A. (Uniformed Services Univ. of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, MD (USA))

    1989-01-01

    Psychological stress has been shown to affect immune system status and function, but most studies of this relationship have focused on acute stress and/or laboratory situations. The present study compared total numbers of leukocytes and lymphocyte subpopulations (determined by flow cytometry) and antibody titers to latent and nonlatent viruses among a group of chronically stressed individuals living near the damaged Three Mile Island (TMI) nuclear power plant with those of a demographically comparable control group. Urinary catecholamine and cortisol levels were also examined. Residents of the TMI area exhibited greater numbers of neutrophils, which were positively correlated with epinephrine levels. The TMI group also exhibited fewer B lymphocytes, T-suppressor/cytotoxic lymphocytes, and natural killer cells. Antibody titers to herpes simplex were significantly different across groups as well, whereas titers to nonlatent rubella virus as well as IgG and IgM levels were comparable.

  5. Chronic stress, leukocyte subpopulations, and humoral response to latent viruses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Psychological stress has been shown to affect immune system status and function, but most studies of this relationship have focused on acute stress and/or laboratory situations. The present study compared total numbers of leukocytes and lymphocyte subpopulations (determined by flow cytometry) and antibody titers to latent and nonlatent viruses among a group of chronically stressed individuals living near the damaged Three Mile Island (TMI) nuclear power plant with those of a demographically comparable control group. Urinary catecholamine and cortisol levels were also examined. Residents of the TMI area exhibited greater numbers of neutrophils, which were positively correlated with epinephrine levels. The TMI group also exhibited fewer B lymphocytes, T-suppressor/cytotoxic lymphocytes, and natural killer cells. Antibody titers to herpes simplex were significantly different across groups as well, whereas titers to nonlatent rubella virus as well as IgG and IgM levels were comparable

  6. Fluoxetine reverts chronic restraint stress-induced depression-like behaviour and increases neuropeptide Y and galanin expression in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Søren Hofman Oliveira; Olesen, Mikkel Vestergaard; Wörtwein, Gitta;

    2011-01-01

    -like behaviour, NPY and galanin gene expression was studied in brains of mice subjected to chronic restraint stress (CRS) and concomitant treatment with the antidepressant fluoxetine (FLX). CRS caused a significant increase in depression-like behaviour that was associated with increased NPY mRNA levels in the......Stressful life events and chronic stress are implicated in the development of depressive disorder in humans. Neuropeptide Y (NPY) and galanin have been shown to modulate the stress response, and exert antidepressant-like effects in rodents. To further investigate these neuropeptides in depression...

  7. Chronic Heat Stress Induces Immune Response, Oxidative Stress Response, and Apoptosis of Finishing Pig Liver: A Proteomic Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yanjun; Hao, Yue; Li, Jielei; Bao, Weiguang; Li, Gan; Gao, Yanli; Gu, Xianhong

    2016-01-01

    Heat stress (HS) negatively affects human health, animal welfare, and livestock production. We analyzed the hepatic proteomes of finishing pigs subjected to chronic heat stress (HS), thermal neutral (TN), and restricted feed intake conditions, identifying differences between direct and indirect (via reduced feed intake) HS. Twenty-four castrated male pigs were randomly allocated to three treatments for three weeks: (1) thermal neutral (TN) (22 °C) with ad libitum feeding; (2) chronic HS (30 °C) with ad libitum feeding; and (3) TN, pair-fed to HS intake (PF). Hepatic proteome analysis was conducted using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. Both HS and PF significantly reduced liver weight (p proteins were differentially abundant when comparing HS with TN (37), PF with TN (29), and HS with PF (16). These proteins are involved in heat shock response and immune defense, oxidative stress response, cellular apoptosis, metabolism, signal transduction, and cytoskeleton. We also observed increased abundance of proteins and enzymes associated with heat shock response and immune defense, reduced the redox state, enhanced multiple antioxidant abilities, and increased apoptosis in HS liver. Heat-load, independent of reduced feed intake, induced an innate immune response, while food restriction caused stress and cellular apoptosis. Our results provide novel insights into the effects of chronic HS on liver. PMID:27187351

  8. Chronic unpredictable mild stress generates oxidative stress and systemic inflammation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-López, Ana Laura; Jaime, Herlinda Bonilla; Escobar Villanueva, María Del Carmen; Padilla, Malinalli Brianza; Palacios, Gonzalo Vázquez; Aguilar, Francisco Javier Alarcón

    2016-07-01

    Stress is considered to be a causal agent of chronic degenerative diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, arthritis and Alzheimer's. Chronic glucocorticoid and catecholamine release into the circulation during the stress response has been suggested to activate damage mechanisms, which in the long term produce metabolic alterations associated with oxidative stress and inflammation. However, the consequences of stress in animal models for periods longer than 40days have not been explored. The goal of this work was to determine whether chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) produced alterations in the redox state and the inflammatory profile of rats after 20, 40, and 60days. CUMS consisted of random exposure of the animals to different stressors. The following activities were measured in the liver and pancreas: reduced glutathione (GSH), lipid peroxidation (LPO), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), and protein oxidation. Similarly, serum cytokine levels (IL-6, TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-10) were determined. CUMS activated the stress response from day 20 until day 60. In the liver and pancreas, GHS levels were decreased from day 40, whereas protein lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation were increased. This is the first work to report that the pancreas redox state is subject to chronic stress conditions. The TAC was constant in the liver and reduced in the pancreas. An increase in the TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 inflammatory markers and a decrease in the IL-10 level due to CUMS was shown, thereby resulting in the generation of a systemic inflammation state after 60days of treatment. Together, the CUMS consequences on day 60 suggest that both processes can contribute to the development of chronic degenerative diseases, such as cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus. CUMS is an animal model that in addition to avoiding habituation activates damage mechanisms such as oxidative stress and low-grade chronic

  9. Chronic Stress, Drug Use, and Vulnerability to Addiction

    OpenAIRE

    Sinha, Rajita

    2008-01-01

    Stress is a well-known risk factor in the development of addiction and in addiction relapse vulnerability. A series of population-based and epidemiological studies have identified specific stressors and individual-level variables that are predictive of substance use and abuse. Preclinical research also shows that stress exposure enhances drug self-administration and reinstates drug seeking in drug-experienced animals. The deleterious effects of early life stress, child maltreatment, and accum...

  10. Chronic bladder ischemia and oxidative stress: new pharmacotherapeutic targets for lower urinary tract symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomiya, Masanori; Andersson, Karl-Erik; Yamaguchi, Osamu

    2015-01-01

    Chronic bladder ischemia is potentially a common cause of lower urinary tract symptoms in the elderly. Epidemiological studies have shown a close association between lower urinary tract symptoms and vascular risk factors for atherosclerosis, and investigations using transrectal color Doppler ultrasonography have shown a negative correlation between decreased lower urinary tract perfusion and International Prostate Symptom Score in elderly patients with lower urinary tract symptoms. Bladder blood flow is also known to decrease in men with bladder outlet obstruction as a result of benign prostatic hyperplasia. Studies in animal models suggest that chronic bladder ischemia and repeated ischemia/reperfusion during a micturition cycle might produce oxidative stress, leading to denervation of the bladder and the expression of tissue-damaging molecules in the bladder wall, which could be responsible for the development of bladder hyperactivity progressing to bladder underactivity. The effects of drugs with different mechanisms of action; for example, α1-adrenoceptor antagonists, phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors, free radical scavengers and β3-adrenoceptor agonist, have been studied in animal models of chronic bladder ischemia. The drugs, representing different treatment principles for increasing blood flow and decreasing oxidative stress, showed protective effects not only on urodynamic parameters, but also on negative effects on muscle contractility and on detrimental structural bladder wall changes. Improvement of lower urinary tract perfusion and control of oxidative stress can be considered new therapeutic strategies for treatment of bladder dysfunction induced by chronic ischemia. PMID:25339506

  11. Bidirectional crosstalk between stress-induced gastric ulcer and depression under chronic stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuang Zhang

    Full Text Available Stress contributes to a variety of diseases and disorders such as depression and peptic ulcer. The present study aimed to investigate the correlation between stress ulcer and depression in pathogenesis and treatment by using chronic stress depression (CSD, chronic psychological stress ulcer (CPSU and water immersion restrain stress models in rats. Our data showed that the ulcer index of the animals after CSD exposure was significantly higher than that of controls. Depression-like behaviors were observed in rat after CPSU exposure. Fluoxetine hydrochloride significantly reduced the ulcer index of rats exposed to CPSU stress, while ranitidine inhibited depression-like behavior of the animals in CSD group. The ulcer index of rats administered with mifepristone after CPSU stress was markedly reduced compared to CPSU group, although there was no significant difference in the depression-like behavior between mifepristone-treated CSD group and naive controls. We also found that the rats exposed to CPSU or CSD stress displayed a lower level of corticosterone than naive controls, however, the acute stress (AS group showed an opposite result. Additionally, in order to study the relevance of H(2 receptors and depression, we treated the CSD group with cimetidine and famotidine respectively. The data showed that cimetidine inhibited depression-like behavior in CSD rats, and famotidine had no impact on depression. Overall our data suggested that the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis dysfunction may be the key role in triggering depression and stress ulcer. Acid-suppressing drugs and antidepressants could be used for treatment of depression and stress ulcer respectively. The occurrence of depression might be inhibited by blocking the central H(2 receptors.

  12. Effects of stress on dietary preference and intake are dependent on access and stress sensitivity

    OpenAIRE

    Teegarden, Sarah L.; Bale, Tracy L.

    2007-01-01

    Recent studies support a link between stress and the increased consumption of palatable foods. However, there has been a noted lack of genetic models to examine predisposing factors of overweight, obesity, and binge eating, particularly the role that stress sensitivity might play in the development of these conditions. We have examined the effects of chronic stress exposure on macronutrient choice preferences in a genetic mouse model of stress sensitivity (corticotropin-releasing factor recep...

  13. Usefulness of salivary alpha amylase as a biomarker of chronic stress and stress related oral mucosal changes ' a pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Vineetha, Ravindranath; Pai, Keerthilatha M; Vengal, Manoj; Gopalakrishna, Kodyalamoole; Narayanakurup, Dinesh

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Salivary biomarkers are suggested to provide a reliable, noninvasive and objective measurement of chronic psychosocial stress and helps in assessment of pivotal role of stress in causation or precipitation of multitude of health problems. Objectives: To evaluate the usefulness of salivary alpha amylase activity as an objective indicator of chronic stress and to find out any correlation between stress- related mucosal complaints and its levels. Study Design: Study was conducted a...

  14. Chronic neuroprotective effects of low concentration lithium on SH-SY5Y cells:possible involvement of stress proteins and gene expression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Riadh Nciri; Ezzeddine Bourogaa; Samira Jbahi; Mohamed Salah Allagui; Abdelfattah Elfeki; Christian Vincent; Franoise Croute

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the molecular mechanism underlying the neuroprotective effect of lithium on cells, in this study, we exposed SH-SY5Y cells to 0.5 mmol/L lithium carbonate (Li2CO2) for 25-50 weeks and then detected the expression levels of some neurobiology related genes and post-translational modifications of stress proteins in SH-SY5Y cells. cDNA arrays showed that pyruvate kinase 2 (PKM2) and calmodulin 3 (CaM 3) expression levels were signiifcantly down-regulated, phosphatase protein PP2A expression was lightly down-regulated, and casein kinase II (CK2), threonine/tyrosine phosphatase 7 (PYST2), and dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DBH) expression levels were signiifcantly up-regulated. Besides, western blot analysis of stress proteins (HSP27, HSP70, GRP78 and GRP94) showed an over-expression of two proteins:a 105 kDa protein which is a hyper-phosphorylated isoform of GRP94, and a 108 kDa protein which is a phosphorylated tetramer of HSP27. These results suggest that the neuroprotective effects of lithium are likely related to gene expressions and post-translational modiifcations of proteins cited above.

  15. Chronic social stress during adolescence in mice alters fat distribution in late life: prevention by antidepressant treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, M V; Czisch, M; Sterlemann, V; Reinel, C; Sämann, P; Müller, M B

    2009-01-01

    Obesity and visceral fat accumulation are key features of the metabolic syndrome that represents one of the main health problems in western societies due to its neurovascular and cardiovascular complications. Epidemiological studies have identified chronic stress exposure as an important risk factor for the development of obesity and metabolic syndrome, but also psychiatric diseases, especially affective disorders. However, it is still unclear if chronic stress has merely transient or potentially lasting effects on body composition. Here, we investigated the effects of chronic social stress during the adolescent period on body fat composition in mice one year after the cessation of the stressor. We found that stress exposure during the adolescent period decreases subcutaneous fat content, without change in visceral fat, and consequently increases the visceral fat/subcutaneous fat ratio in adulthood. Further, we demonstrated that treatment with a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (paroxetine) during stress exposure prevented later effects on body fat distribution. These results from a recently validated chronic stress paradigm in mice provide evidence that stressful experiences during adolescence can alter body fat distribution in adulthood, thereby possibly contributing to an increased risk for metabolic diseases. Antidepressant treatment disrupted this effect underlining the link between the stress hormone system, metabolic homeostasis and affective disorders. PMID:18951248

  16. Administration of Lactobacillus helveticus NS8 improves behavioral, cognitive, and biochemical aberrations caused by chronic restraint stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, S; Wang, T; Hu, X; Luo, J; Li, W; Wu, X; Duan, Y; Jin, F

    2015-12-01

    Increasing numbers of studies have suggested that the gut microbiota is involved in the pathophysiology of stress-related disorders. Chronic stress can cause behavioral, cognitive, biochemical, and gut microbiota aberrations. Gut bacteria can communicate with the host through the microbiota-gut-brain axis (which mainly includes the immune, neuroendocrine, and neural pathways) to influence brain and behavior. It is hypothesized that administration of probiotics can improve chronic-stress-induced depression. In order to examine this hypothesis, the chronic restraint stress depression model was established in this study. Adult specific pathogen free (SPF) Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to 21 days of restraint stress followed by behavioral testing (including the sucrose preference test (SPT), elevated-plus maze test, open-field test (OFT), object recognition test (ORT), and object placement test (OPT)) and biochemical analysis. Supplemental Lactobacillus helveticus NS8 was provided every day during stress until the end of experiment, and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) citalopram (CIT) served as a positive control. Results showed that L. helveticus NS8 improved chronic restraint stress-induced behavioral (anxiety and depression) and cognitive dysfunction, showing an effect similar to and better than that of CIT. L. helveticus NS8 also resulted in lower plasma corticosterone (CORT) and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) levels, higher plasma interleukin-10 (IL-10) levels, restored hippocampal serotonin (5-HT) and norepinephrine (NE) levels, and more hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) mRNA expression than in chronic stress rats. Taken together, these results indicate an anti-depressant effect of L. helveticus NS8 in rats subjected to chronic restraint stress depression and that this effect could be due to the microbiota-gut-brain axis. They also suggest the therapeutic potential of L. helveticus NS8 in stress-related and possibly other

  17. Sex differences in the combined effect of chronic stress with impaired vascular endothelium functioning and the development of early atherosclerosis: The Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juonala Markus

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The syndrome of vital exhaustion (VE, characterized by fatigue and irritability, may contribute to an increased risk of atherosclerosis. The aim of the study was to explore sex differences in the interactions of VE with endothelial dysfunction and VE with reduced carotid elasticity, the important contributors to the development of early atherosclerosis, on preclinical atherosclerosis. Methods The participants were 1002 women and 719 men aged 24-39 examined in the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns study. Vital exhaustion was measured using the Maastricht Questionnaire. Preclinical atherosclerosis was assessed by carotid intima-media thickness (IMT, endothelial function was measured by brachial flow-mediated dilatation (FMD, and arterial elasticity by carotid artery compliance (CAC using ultrasound techniques. Results We found a significant CAC x VE interaction for IMT only for the men. Our results imply that high VE level significantly related to high IMT levels among the men with low CAC, but not among the women with low CAC or among the women or men with high CAC. No significant FMD x VE interactions for IMT for the women or men were found. Conclusions High VE may exert an effect on IMT for men with impaired arterial elasticity. The results suggest that high vitally exhausted men with reduced arterial elasticity are at increased risk of atherosclerosis in early life and imply men's decreased stress coping in relation to stressful psychological coronary risk factors.

  18. Overexpression of Mineralocorticoid Receptors Partially Prevents Chronic Stress-Induced Reductions in Hippocampal Memory and Structural Plasticity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Kanatsou

    Full Text Available Exposure to chronic stress is a risk factor for cognitive decline and psychopathology in genetically predisposed individuals. Preliminary evidence in humans suggests that mineralocorticoid receptors (MRs may confer resilience to these stress-related changes. We specifically tested this idea using a well-controlled mouse model for chronic stress in combination with transgenic MR overexpression in the forebrain. Exposure to unpredictable stressors for 21 days in adulthood reduced learning and memory formation in a low arousing hippocampus-dependent contextual learning task, but enhanced stressful contextual fear learning. We found support for a moderating effect of MR background on chronic stress only for contextual memory formation under low arousing conditions. In an attempt to understand potentially contributing factors, we studied structural plasticity. Chronic stress altered dendritic morphology in the hippocampal CA3 area and reduced the total number of doublecortin-positive immature neurons in the infrapyramidal blade of the dentate gyrus. The latter reduction was absent in MR overexpressing mice. We therefore provide partial support for the idea that overexpression of MRs may confer resilience to the effects of chronic stress on hippocampus-dependent function and structural plasticity.

  19. Sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) oil protects against chronic stress-induced inhibitory function of natural killer cells in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diandong, Hou; Feng, Gu; Zaifu, Liang; Helland, Timothy; Weixin, Fu; Liping, Cai

    2016-03-01

    Chronic stress can suppress natural killer (NK) cell activity; this may also be related to the effect of stress on the neuroendocrine-immune network. Sea buckthorn (SBT) (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) is a thorny nitrogen fixing deciduous shrub, native to both Europe and Asia. It has been used as a medicinal plant in Tibetan and Mongolian traditional medicines. SBT has multifarious medical properties, including anti-fatigue as well as immunoregulatory effects. This study reports the effects of SBT oil with regard to the cytotoxicity and quantity of NK cells in the blood of a chronic-stress rat model, in addition to its mechanisms on the neuroendocrine-immune network. These results show that SBT oil, given by gavage to rats with chronic stress, could increase the following: body weight, NK cell quantities, and cytotoxicity, as well as the expression of perforin and granzyme B. The results also show that SBT oil in rats with chronic stress could suppress cortisol, ACTH, IL-1β and TNF-α levels, in addition to increasing 5-HT and IFN-γ serum levels. This leads to suggest that SBT oil, in rats with chronic stress, can increase NK cell cytotoxicity by upregulating the expression of perforin and granzyme B, thus causing associated effects of SBT oil on the neuroendocrine-immune network. PMID:26684638

  20. Chronic Stress and Its Consequences on Subsequent Academic Achievement among Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Karin Schraml; Aleksander Perski; Giorgio Grossi; Irena Makower

    2012-01-01

    Chronic stress has been associated with severe stress-related symptoms not only among adults but also among adolescents. The aim of the study was to investigate if chronic stress has implications for adolescents’ academic achievement. 270 high school students answered a questionnaire on stress symptoms on two occasions, at the beginning and at the end of high school. Those who perceived severe stress symptoms at both time points finished high school with significantly worse final grades than ...

  1. Enhancement of Latent Inhibition by Chronic Mild Stress in Rats Submitted to Emotional Response Conditioning

    OpenAIRE

    Liana Lins Melo; de Moraes Ferrari, Elenice A.; Nancy Airoldi Teixeira; Guy Sandner

    2003-01-01

    This work evaluated the influence of chronic mild stress on latent inhibition (LI) in rats, using a conditioned emotional response (CER) procedure. Rats were assigned to four groups: a non pre-exposed control group (NPC), a non pre-exposed stressed group (NPS), a preexposed control group (PC), and a pre-exposed stressed group (PS). Stressed animals were submitted to a chronic mild stress (CMS) regimen for three weeks. The off-baseline conditioned emotional response procedure had four phases: ...

  2. Robustness to chronic heat stress in laying hens: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mignon-Grasteau, S; Moreri, U; Narcy, A; Rousseau, X; Rodenburg, T B; Tixier-Boichard, M; Zerjal, T

    2015-04-01

    Chronic heat is a major stress factor in laying hens and many studies on the effect of heat stress have been published. It remains difficult, however, to draw general conclusions about the effect of chronic heat stress on performance and its relationship with genetic and environmental factors, as these studies have been done under varying experimental conditions and using various experimental designs. A meta-analysis enabled us to make a quantitative review of the results from 131 published papers. The relative effects of four factors (genotype, age, group size, and amplitude of temperature variation) and their interactions with temperature were analyzed for 13 traits. After pre-correcting the data for a random study effect, the best model for each trait was selected in a stepwise procedure based on its residual sum of squares. Shell strength, daily feed intake, egg mass, and hen-day egg production were found to be more sensitive to heat stress than the other traits as they dropped by 9.0 to 22.6% between thermo-neutrality (15 to 20°C) and heat stress (30 to 35°C) while yolk and albumen proportions or Haugh units showed nearly no variation with temperature (laying hens depends on the genotype, age, and group size, some of which have rarely been investigated. PMID:25717084

  3. Housing in Pyramid Counteracts Neuroendocrine and Oxidative Stress Caused by Chronic Restraint in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Surekha Bhat

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The space within the great pyramid and its smaller replicas is believed to have an antistress effect. Research has shown that the energy field within the pyramid can protect the hippocampal neurons of mice from stress-induced atrophy and also reduce neuroendocrine stress, oxidative stress and increase antioxidant defence in rats. In this study, we have, for the first time, attempted to study the antistress effects of pyramid exposure on the status of cortisol level, oxidative damage and antioxidant status in rats during chronic restraint stress. Adult female Wistar rats were divided into four groups as follows: normal controls (NC housed in home cage and left in the laboratory; restrained rats (with three subgroups subject to chronic restraint stress by placing in a wire mesh restrainer for 6 h per day for 14 days, the restrained controls (RC having their restrainers kept in the laboratory; restrained pyramid rats (RP being kept in the pyramid; and restrained square box rats (RS in the square box during the period of restraint stress everyday. Erythrocyte malondialdehyde (MDA and plasma cortisol levels were significantly increased and erythrocyte-reduced glutathione (GSH levels, erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px and superoxide dismutase (SOD activities were significantly decreased in RC and RS rats as compared to NC. However, these parameters were maintained to near normal levels in RP rats which showed significantly decreased erythrocyte MDA and plasma cortisol and significantly increased erythrocyte GSH levels, erythrocyte GSH-Px and SOD activities when compared with RS rats. The results showed that housing in pyramid counteracts neuroendocrine and oxidative stress caused by chronic restraint in rats.

  4. Wound-healing ability is conserved during periods of chronic stress and costly life history events in a wild-caught bird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuRant, S E; de Bruijn, R; Tran, M N; Romero, L M

    2016-04-01

    Chronic stress, potentially through the actions of corticosterone, is thought to directly impair the function of immune cells. However, chronic stress may also have an indirect effect by influencing allocation of energy, ultimately shifting resources away from the immune system. If so, the effects of chronic stress on immune responses may be greater during energetically-costly life history events. To test whether the effects of chronic stress on immune responses differ during expensive life history events we measured wound healing rate in molting and non-molting European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) exposed to control or chronic stress conditions. To determine whether corticosterone correlated with wound healing rates before starting chronic stress, we measured baseline and stress-induced corticosterone and two estimates of corticosterone release and regulation, negative feedback (using dexamethasone injection), and maximal capacity of the adrenals to secrete corticosterone (using adrenocorticotropin hormone [ACTH] injection). After 8days of exposure to chronic stress, we wounded both control and chronically stressed birds and monitored healing daily. We monitored nighttime heart rate, which strongly correlates with energy expenditure, and body mass throughout the study. Measures of corticosterone did not differ with molt status. Contrary to work on lizards and small mammals, all birds, regardless of stress or molt status, fully-healed wounds at similar rates. Although chronic stress did not influence healing rates, individuals with low baseline corticosterone or strong negative feedback had faster healing rates than individuals with high baseline corticosterone or weak negative feedback. In addition, wound healing does appear to be linked to energy expenditure and body mass. Non-molting, chronically stressed birds decreased nighttime heart rate during healing, but this pattern did not exist in molting birds. Additionally, birds of heavier body mass at the start of

  5. Gene expression profile of the hippocampus of rats subjected to chronic immobilization stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Hong Li

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study systematically investigated the effect of chronic stress on the hippocampus and its damage mechanism at the whole genome level. METHODS: The rat whole genome expression chips (Illumina were used to detect gene expression differences in the hippocampus of rats subjected to chronic immobilization stress (daily immobilization stress for 3 h, for 7 or 21 days. The hippocampus gene expression profile was studied through gene ontology and signal pathway analyses using bioinformatics. A differentially expressed transcription regulation network was also established. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR was used to verify the microarray results and determine expression of the Gabra1, Fadd, Crhr2, and Cdk6 genes in the hippocampal tissues. RESULTS: Compared to the control group, 602 differentially expressed genes were detected in the hippocampus of rats subjected to stress for 7 days, while 566 differentially expressed genes were expressed in the animals experiencing stress for 21 days. The stress significantly inhibited the primary immune system functions of the hippocampus in animals subjected to stress for both 7 and 21 days. Immobilization activated the extracellular matrix receptor interaction pathway after 7 day exposure to stress and the cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction pathway. The enhanced collagen synthesis capacity of the hippocampal tissue was the core molecular event of the stress regulation network in the 7-day group, while the inhibition of hippocampal cell growth was the core molecular event in the 21-day group. For the Gabra1, Fadd, Crhr2, and Cdk6 genes, RT-PCR results were nearly in line with gene chip assay results. CONCLUSION: During the 7-day and 21-day stress processes, the combined action of polygenic, multilevel, and multi-signal pathways leads to the disorder of the immunologic functions of the hippocampus, hippocampal apoptosis, and proliferation disequilibrium.

  6. Baicalin influences the dendritic morphology of newborn neurons in the hippocampus of chronically stressed rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xinghua Jiang; Junmei Xu; Dingquan Zou; Lin Yang; Yaping Wang

    2013-01-01

    Chronic stress models, established in adult Sprague-Dawley rats through a 14-day subcutaneous injection of 40 mg/kg corticosterone, once per day, were given a daily oral feeding of 50 mg/kg baicalin. The study was an attempt to observe the effect of baicalin on neurogenesis in chronically stressed rats. Results showed that subcutaneous injection of corticosterone significantly decreased the total number of doublecortin-positive neurons in the hippocampus. The reduced cell number caused by corticosterone was mainly due to the decrease of class II doublecortin-positive neurons, but the class I doublecortin-positive neurons were unaffected. Baicalin treatment increased the number of both class I and class II doublecortin-positive neurons. In addition, doublecortin-positive neurons showed less complexity in dendritic morphology after corticosterone injection, and this change was totally reversed by baicalin treatment. These findings suggest that baicalin exhibits a beneficial effect on adult neurogenesis.

  7. Pre-stress performance in an instrumental training predict post-stress behavioral alterations in chronically stressed rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshio eIguchi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Stress is a major factor in the development of major depressive disorder (MDD, but few studies have assessed individual risk based on pre-stress traits. In this study, we employed appetitive instrumental lever pressing with a progressive ratio schedule to assess the individual pre-stress behavioral and cognitive traits in experimentally naïve Sprague–Dawley rats. Based on the behavioral data, the animals were classified into four subgroups (Low Motivation, Quick Learner, Slow Learner, and Hypermotivation, and exposed to chronic unpredictable stress (CUS before monitoring their post-stress responses once each week for 4 weeks to identify early- and late-appearing CUS-induced behavioral phenotypes. The four subgroups exhibited different behavioral phenotypes after CUS. Therefore, we identified distinct relationships between pre-stress traits and the post-stress phenotypes in each subgroup. In addition, many of the CUS-induced phenotypes in rats corresponded to symptoms in human MDD or they had putative relationships with them. We concluded that the consequences of stress may be predicted before stress exposure by determining the pre-stress traits of each individual.

  8. Functional effects of chronic paroxetine versus placebo on the fear, stress and anxiety brain circuit in Social Anxiety Disorder: initial validation of an imaging protocol for drug discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giménez, Mónica; Ortiz, Hector; Soriano-Mas, Carles; López-Solà, Marina; Farré, Magí; Deus, Joan; Martín-Santos, Rocio; Fernandes, Sofia; Fina, Paolo; Bani, Massimo; Zancan, Stefano; Pujol, Jesús; Merlo-Pich, Emilio

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that pharmacologic effects of anxiolytic agents can be mapped as functional changes in the fear, stress and anxiety brain circuit. In this work we investigated the effects of a standard treatment, paroxetine (20mg/day), in subjects with Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) versus placebo using different fMRI paradigms. The fMRI sessions, performed before and after the treatment, consisted of a public exposition of recorded performance task (PERPT), an emotional face processing task (EFPT) and a 6-min resting state followed by an off-scanner public speaking test. Paroxetine significantly improved the clinical conditions of SAD patients (n=17) vs. placebo (n=16) as measured with Clinical Global Inventory - Improvement (CGI-I) while no change was seen when using Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale, as expected given the small size of the study population. Paroxetine reduced the activation of insula, thalamus and subgenual/anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) in PERPT. Resting-state fMRI assessment using Independent Component Analysis indicated that paroxetine reduced functional connectivity in insula, thalamus and ACC when compared with placebo. Both paradigms showed significant correlation with CGI-I in rostral prefrontal cortex. Conversely, paroxetine compared to placebo produced activation of right amygdala and bilateral insula and no effects in ACC when tested with EFPT. No treatment effects on distress scores were observed in the off-scanner Public Speaking Test. Overall this study supports the use of fMRI as sensitive approach to explore the neurobiological substrate of the effects of pharmacologic treatments and, in particular, of resting state fMRI given its simplicity and task independence. PMID:24332890

  9. Chronic stress, inflammation, and glucose regulation in U.S. Hispanics from the HCHS/SOL Sociocultural Ancillary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCurley, Jessica L; Mills, Paul J; Roesch, Scott C; Carnethon, Mercedes; Giacinto, Rebeca E; Isasi, Carmen R; Teng, Yanping; Sotres-Alvarez, Daniela; Llabre, Maria M; Penedo, Frank J; Schneiderman, Neil; Gallo, Linda C

    2015-08-01

    Diabetes prevalence is rising rapidly, and diabetes disproportionately affects Hispanics and other underserved groups. Chronic stress may contribute to diabetes risk, but few studies have examined this relationship in U.S. Hispanics. We examined associations of chronic stress with fasting glucose, glucose tolerance, and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) in Hispanics without diabetes, and also assessed indirect effects of stress through inflammation (CRP). Participants were 3,923 men and women, aged 18-74, without diabetes, from the four U.S. field centers (Bronx, NY; Chicago, IL; Miami, FL; San Diego, CA) of the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL) Sociocultural Ancillary study. Participants completed a measure of chronic life stress and a physical exam with oral glucose tolerance test. In a multivariate regression analysis with adjustment for demographic and health covariates, higher chronic stress was related to higher fasting glucose (standardized regression coefficient: β = .09, p stress through inflammation. Findings suggest that higher chronic stress is associated with poorer glucose regulation in Hispanics, prior to the onset of a clinical diabetes diagnosis. PMID:25898909

  10. Real-time imaging of hippocampal network dynamics reveals trisynaptic induction of CA1 LTP and "circuit-level" effects of chronic stress and antidepressants

    OpenAIRE

    Stepan, Jens

    2015-01-01

    Today’s pervasive presence of stress renders stress-related psychiatric disorders (SRPDs), a relevant global health problem. Memory impairment is a major symptom likely mediated by the hippocampus (HIP), a limbic brain region highly vulnerable to stress. Recent evidence suggests that information processing problems within specific neuronal networks might underlie SRPDs. However, the precise functional neurocircuitry that mediates hippocampal CA1 long-term potentiation (LTP), a putative correl...

  11. The ecology of suffering: developmental disorders of structured stress, emotion, and chronic inflammation

    OpenAIRE

    Wallace, Rodrick

    2003-01-01

    'Punctuated equilibrium' models of cognitive process, adapted from the Large Deviations Program of probability theory, are applied to the interaction between immune function and emotion in the context of culturally structured psychosocial stress. The analysis suggests: (1) Chronic inflammatory diseases should be comorbid and synergistic with characteristic emotional dysfunction, and may form a collection of joint disorders most effectively treated at the individual level using multifa...

  12. Comorbidity Factors and Brain Mechanisms Linking Chronic Stress and Systemic Illness

    OpenAIRE

    Vanja Duric; Sarah Clayton; Mai Lan Leong; Li-Lian Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Neuropsychiatric symptoms and mental illness are commonly present in patients with chronic systemic diseases. Mood disorders, such as depression, are present in up to 50% of these patients, resulting in impaired physical recovery and more intricate treatment regimen. Stress associated with both physical and emotional aspects of systemic illness is thought to elicit detrimental effects to initiate comorbid mental disorders. However, clinical reports also indicate that the relationship between ...

  13. 3xTgAD mice exhibit altered behavior and elevated Aβ after chronic mild social stress

    OpenAIRE

    Rothman, Sarah M.; Herdener, Nathan; Camandola, Simonetta; Texel, Sarah J.; Mughal, Mohamed R.; Cong, Wei-na; Martin, Bronwen; Mattson, Mark P.

    2011-01-01

    Chronic stress may be a risk factor for developing Alzheimer’s disease (AD), but most studies of the effects of stress in models of AD utilize acute adverse stressors of questionable clinical relevance. The goal of this work was to determine how chronic psychosocial stress affects behavioral and pathological outcomes in an animal model of AD, and to elucidate underlying mechanisms. A triple-transgenic mouse model of AD (3xTgAD mice) and nontransgenic control mice were used to test for an affe...

  14. Efficacy of subantimicrobial-dose doxycycline against nitrosative stress in chronic periodontitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alina Elena P(A)RVU; Sandu Florin ALB; Alexandra CR(A)CIUN; Marian Aurel TAULESCU

    2013-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the effectiveness of subantimicrobial-dose doxycycline (SDD) as an adjunct to scaling and root planing (SRP) treatment against the nitrosative stress of moderate to advanced chronic periodontitis.Methods: Adults with untreated chronic periodontitis (n=174) were randomly administered SRP+SDD (n=87) (20 mg of doxycycline twice daily) or SRP+placebo (n=87) treatment for 3 months.At baseline and after 3 months,the probing depths (PD),bleeding on probing (BOP) and clinical attachment level (CAL) were measured,and a gingivomucosal biopsy was collected to assay the induction of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and 3-nitrotyrosine (3NT),and blood was collected to assay for total nitrites and nitrates (NOx) and 3NT.Results: Compared to baseline,at the completion of treatment,significant decreases in the levels of tissue iNOS and 3NT and serum NOx and 3NT were observed in both groups.SRP+SDD yielded a greater reduction in the gingivomucosal and serum nitrosative stress markers than did SRP+placebo.PD,BOP,and CAL reduction were correlated with the nitrosative stress parameters.Conclusion: On a short-term basis,SDD therapy may be used as an adjunct to SRP treatment against nitrosative stress in moderate to advanced chronic periodontitis.

  15. Proteomic changes of the porcine small intestine in response to chronic heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yanjun; Gu, Xianhong

    2015-12-01

    Acute heat stress (HS) negatively affects intestinal integrity and barrier function. In contrast, chronic mild HS poses a distinct challenge to animals. Therefore, this study integrates biochemical, histological and proteomic approaches to investigate the effects of chronic HS on the intestine in finishing pigs. Castrated male crossbreeds (79.00 ± 1.50 kg BW) were subjected to either thermal neutral (TN, 21 °C; 55% ± 5% humidity; n=8) or HS conditions (30 °C; 55% ± 5% humidity; n=8) for 3 weeks. The pigs were sacrificed after 3 weeks of high environmental exposure and the plasma hormones, the intestinal morphology, integrity, and protein profiles of the jejunum mucosa were determined. Chronic HS reduced the free triiodothyronine (FT3) and GH levels. HS damaged intestinal morphology, increased plasma d-lactate concentrations and decreased alkaline phosphatase activity of intestinal mucosa. Proteome analysis of the jejunum mucosa was conducted by 2D gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. Fifty-three intestinal proteins were found to be differentially abundant, 18 of which were related to cell structure and motility, and their changes in abundance could comprise intestinal integrity and function. The down-regulation of proteins involved in tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA cycle), electron transport chain (ETC), and oxidative phosphorylation suggested that chronic HS impaired energy metabolism and thus induced oxidative stress. Moreover, the changes of ten proteins in abundance related to stress response and defense indicated pigs mediated long-term heat exposure and counteracted its negative effects of heat exposure. These findings have important implications for understanding the effect of chronic HS on intestines. PMID:26416815

  16. Effects of chronic mild stress on apomorphine induced behavioral sensitization in different brain regions of rats in relation to serotonin change

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Farhan; Darakshan Jabeen Haleem

    2015-01-01

    Background: The impacts of unpredictable stressors have influence on neurochemical and behavioral parameters in laboratory animals. Stress induced behavioral changes particularly those associated with anxiety like behavior may activate topographically organized mesolimbic cortical serotonergic system. This study was designed to investigate the influence of unpredictable stress on behavioral and neurochemical parameters in apomorphine treated rats. Methods: Initially, the animals were divid...

  17. Tracking CNS and systemic sources of oxidative stress during the course of chronic neuroinflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossakowski, Agata A; Pohlan, Julian; Bremer, Daniel; Lindquist, Randall; Millward, Jason M; Bock, Markus; Pollok, Karolin; Mothes, Ronja; Viohl, Leonard; Radbruch, Moritz; Gerhard, Jenny; Bellmann-Strobl, Judith; Behrens, Janina; Infante-Duarte, Carmen; Mähler, Anja; Boschmann, Michael; Rinnenthal, Jan Leo; Füchtemeier, Martina; Herz, Josephine; Pache, Florence C; Bardua, Markus; Priller, Josef; Hauser, Anja E; Paul, Friedemann; Niesner, Raluca; Radbruch, Helena

    2015-12-01

    The functional dynamics and cellular sources of oxidative stress are central to understanding MS pathogenesis but remain elusive, due to the lack of appropriate detection methods. Here we employ NAD(P)H fluorescence lifetime imaging to detect functional NADPH oxidases (NOX enzymes) in vivo to identify inflammatory monocytes, activated microglia, and astrocytes expressing NOX1 as major cellular sources of oxidative stress in the central nervous system of mice affected by experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). This directly affects neuronal function in vivo, indicated by sustained elevated neuronal calcium. The systemic involvement of oxidative stress is mirrored by overactivation of NOX enzymes in peripheral CD11b(+) cells in later phases of both MS and EAE. This effect is antagonized by systemic intake of the NOX inhibitor and anti-oxidant epigallocatechin-3-gallate. Together, this persistent hyper-activation of oxidative enzymes suggests an "oxidative stress memory" both in the periphery and CNS compartments, in chronic neuroinflammation. PMID:26521072

  18. Oxidative Stress in Children with Chronic Spontaneous Urticaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih Dilek

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The pathogenesis of chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU has not been fully understood; nevertheless, significant progress has been achieved in recent years. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible role of reactive oxygen species (ROS in the pathogenesis of CSU. Sixty-two children with CSU and 41 healthy control subjects were enrolled in the study. An extensive evaluation of demographic and clinical features was done, and serum oxidative stress was evaluated by plasma total oxidant status (TOS and total antioxidant status (TAS measurements. The median value of plasma TOS was found to be 10.49 μmol H2O2 equiv./L (interquartile range, 7.29–17.65 in CSU patients and 7.68 μmol H2O2 equiv./L (5.95–10.39 in the control group. The difference between the groups was statistically significant (p=0.003. Likewise, the median plasma TAS level in the CSU group was decreased significantly compared to that of the control group (2.64 [2.30–2.74] versus 2.76 [2.65–2.86] mmol Trolox equiv./L, resp., p = 0,001. Our results indicated that plasma oxidative stress is increased in children with CSU when compared to healthy subjects, and plasma oxidative stress markers are positively correlated with disease activity.

  19. Oxidative stress in chronic vascular disease: From prediction to prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santilli, Francesca; D'Ardes, Damiano; Davì, Giovanni

    2015-11-01

    This review article is intended to describe the strong relationship between oxidative stress and vascular disease. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play an important role in the pathogenesis of vascular disease: oxidative stress is intimately linked to atherosclerosis, through oxidation of LDL and endothelial dysfunction, to diabetes, mainly through advanced glycation end-products (AGEs)/receptor for AGE (RAGE) axis impairment, protein kinase C (PKC), aldose reductase (AR) and NADPH oxidase (NOX) dysfunction, and to hypertension, through renin–angiotensin system(RAS) dysfunction. Several oxidative stress biomarkers have been proposed to detect oxidative stress levels and to improve our current understanding of the mechanisms underlying vascular disease. These biomarkers include ROS-generating and quenching molecules, and ROS-modified compounds, such as F2-isoprostanes. An efficient therapeutic approach to vascular diseases cannot exclude evaluation and treatment of oxidative stress. In fact, oxidative stress represents an important target of several drugs and nutraceuticals, including antidiabetic agents, statins, renin-angiotensin system blockers, polyphenols and other antioxidants. A better understanding of the relations between atherosclerosis, diabetes, hypertension and ROS and the discovery of new oxidative stress targets will translate into consistent benefits for effective vascular disease treatment and prevention. PMID:26363473

  20. Chronic stress impairs performance, energy metabolism and welfare indicators in European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax): The combined effects of fish crowding and water quality deterioration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santos, G.A.; Schrama, J.W.; Mamauag, R.E.P.; Rombout, J.H.W.M.; Verreth, J.A.J.

    2010-01-01

    Rearing fish at high densities may act as a chronic stressor leading to a reduced performance. We hypothesise that this is due to an increase in energy requirements for maintenance and altered energy partitioning. To test this hypothesis, European seabass (mean initial weight 82.1 g) were stocked at

  1. Effects of Chronic Stress on Occurrence,Progress and Prognosis of Coronary Heart Disease%慢性压力对冠心病发生、进展及预后的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨燕飞

    2013-01-01

    Coronary heart disease has become a serious threat to human life and health of chronic non-communicable diseases. In recent years, lots of research and epidemiological investigation showed that social and psychological factors of chronic pressure play an important role in the occurrence, progress and prognosis of coronary heart disease. There are complicated mechanisms why coronary heart disease caused by chronic stress. Negative emotional responses such as anxiety, depression and burnout produced by the pressure of events have effect in increasing incidence of cardiovascular diseases, exacerbations illness and poor prognosis. This paper described the clinical and epidemiological investigation in recent years progress.%冠心病已成为严重威胁人类生命和健康的慢性非传染性疾病,近年来大量研究及流行病学调查表明慢性压力等社会心理因素对冠心病的发生、进展及预后起着重要作用.慢性压力引发冠心病的机制复杂多样,因压力事件所产生的焦虑、抑郁及倦怠等负性情感反应使心血管疾病的发病率增加、病情加重、预后不佳.文章就其近几年的临床研究及流行病学调查进展进行简述.

  2. Chronic stress among adolescents : Contributing factors and associations with academic achievement

    OpenAIRE

    Schraml, Karin

    2013-01-01

    According to recent nationwide surveys there have been dramatic increases in stress and serious stress-related health problems among Swedish adolescents. The aims of the present thesis were to investigate the prevalence of perceived chronic stress among sixteen-year-old adolescents who attended their first year at high-ranking high schools in the Stockholm area, to examine if factors that have been found to be relevant in the development of chronic stress among adults also contribute to chron...

  3. Lipid peroxidation and total radical-trapping potential of the lungs of rats submitted to chronic and sub-chronic stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torres R.L.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to stress induces a cluster of physiological and behavioral changes in an effort to maintain the homeostasis of the organism. Long-term exposure to stress, however, has detrimental effects on several cell functions such as the impairment of antioxidant defenses leading to oxidative damage. Oxidative stress is a central feature of many diseases. The lungs are particularly susceptible to lesions by free radicals and pulmonary antioxidant defenses are extensively distributed and include both enzymatic and non-enzymatic systems. The aim of the present study was to determine lipid peroxidation and total radical-trapping potential (TRAP changes in lungs of rats submitted to different models of chronic stress. Adult male Wistar rats weighing 180-230 g were submitted to different stressors (variable stress, N = 7 or repeated restraint stress for 15 (N = 10 or 40 days (N = 6 and compared to control groups (N = 10 each. Lipid peroxidation levels were assessed by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS, and TRAP was measured by the decrease in luminescence using the 2-2'-azo-bis(2-amidinopropane-luminol system. Chronic variable stress induced a 51% increase in oxidative stress in lungs (control group: 0.037 ± 0.002; variable stress: 0.056 ± 0.007, P < 0.01. No difference in TBARS was observed after chronic restraint stress, but a significant 57% increase in TRAP was presented by the group repeatedly restrained for 15 days (control group: 2.48 ± 0.42; stressed: 3.65 ± 0.16, P < 0.05. We conclude that different stressors induce different effects on the oxidative status of the organism.

  4. Chronic early postnatal scream sound stress induces learning deficits and NMDA receptor changes in the hippocampus of adult mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Lili; Han, Bo; Zhao, Xiaoge; Mi, Lihua; Song, Qiang; Wang, Jue; Song, Tusheng; Huang, Chen

    2016-04-13

    Chronic scream sounds during adulthood affect spatial learning and memory, both of which are sexually dimorphic. The long-term effects of chronic early postnatal scream sound stress (SSS) during postnatal days 1-21 (P1-P21) on spatial learning and memory in adult mice as well as whether or not these effects are sexually dimorphic are unknown. Therefore, the present study examines the performance of adult male and female mice in the Morris water maze following exposure to chronic early postnatal SSS. Hippocampal NR2A and NR2B levels as well as NR2A/NR2B subunit ratios were tested using immunohistochemistry. In the Morris water maze, stress males showed greater impairment in spatial learning and memory than background males; by contrast, stress and background females performed equally well. NR2B levels in CA1 and CA3 were upregulated, whereas NR2A/NR2B ratios were downregulated in stressed males, but not in females. These data suggest that chronic early postnatal SSS influences spatial learning and memory ability, levels of hippocampal NR2B, and NR2A/NR2B ratios in adult males. Moreover, chronic early stress-induced alterations exert long-lasting effects and appear to affect performance in a sex-specific manner. PMID:27015584

  5. 慢性应激对小鼠学习记忆功能影响及突触作用%Effects of chronic stress on spatial learning-memory function in mice and its synaptic mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李亚; 陈亚静; 史建勋; 张冠雄

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨慢性应激对不同月龄小鼠空间学习记忆功能影响以及前脑皮层和海马突触体膜流动性和突触体内游离Ca2+作用.方法 采用多因素慢性应激动物模型,通过Morris水迷宫测试小鼠空间学习记忆能力;检测突触体膜流动性和突触体内游离Ca2+浓度.结果 青年和老年对照组小鼠训练周期1逃避潜伏期、第一象限停留时间分别为(63.62 ±4.38)、(38.63 ±3.04)s和(76.46 ±3.32)、(36.24 ±2.65)s,老年小鼠空间学习记忆能力明显降低(P<0.05);老年小鼠前脑皮层和海马突触体膜r值分别为(0.1917±0.0015)、(0.1946±0.0012),均明显高于青年对照组(P<0.05);与青年对照组比较,老年小鼠突触体内游离Ca2+浓度明显增加(P<0.05);青年应激组小鼠训练周期1逃避潜伏期、第一象限停留时间分别为(64.32±4.56)、(34.56±2.83)s,空间学习记忆能力明显下降(P<0.05);前脑皮层和海马突触体膜r值分别为(0.184 6±0.000 8)、(0.188 8 ±0.001 0),均明显高于青年对照组(P<0.01);青年应激组小鼠突触体内游离Ca2浓度明显高于青年对照组(P<0.05);老年应激组小鼠变化更加明显.结论 衰老与慢性应激导致小鼠空间学习记忆功能损伤可能与突触体膜流动性和突触体内游离Ca2+浓度变化密切相关.%Objective To study the effect of chronic stress on spatial learning-memory and the role of membrane fluidity and free calcium concentrations([Ca2+ ]i) of prefrontal cortical and hippocampal synaptosomes in mice of different age. Methods The chronic stress model of mice was induced by stimulation of multiple stressors for 21 days. The spatial learning-memory ability of mice were tested using Morris water maze task. The changes of synaptosomal membrane fluidity and[Ca2 + ]i of prefrontal cortex (PFC) and hippocampus (HP) in mice brain were also examined. Results The escape latency and the swimming time of first quadrants in young and aged control mice

  6. Comparing chronic interpersonal and noninterpersonal stress domains as predictors of depression recurrence in emerging adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheets, Erin S; Craighead, W Edward

    2014-12-01

    Understanding how persistent interpersonal difficulties distinctly affect the course of major depressive disorder (MDD) during emerging adulthood is critical, given that early experiences impact future coping resources and functioning. Research on stress and MDD has mostly concentrated on stressful life events, while chronic stress largely has not been explored. The present study examined interpersonal (intimate relationship, close friendships, social life, family relationships) and noninterpersonal (academic, work, financial, personal health, and family members' health) domains of chronic stress as time-varying predictors of depressive recurrence in emerging adults. Baseline assessments identified previously depressed emerging adults (N = 119), who subsequently completed 6-month, 12-month and 18-month follow-up interviews to determine chronic stress experiences and onset of new major depressive episodes. Survival analyses indicated that time-varying total chronic stress and chronic interpersonal stress predicted higher risk for depression recurrence; however, chronic noninterpersonal stress was not associated with recurrence. Intimate relationship stress, close friendship stress, family relationship stress, personal health, and family members' health independently predicted MDD recurrence, over and above well-established depression risk factors of dysfunctional cognitions and personality disorder symptoms. Evidence that interpersonal stress could have substantial impact on course of depression is consistent with theories of emerging adulthood, a time when young people are individuating from the family and experiencing significant social transition. PMID:25277497

  7. 慢性综合应激对大鼠肠道Cajal间质细胞的影响%Effects of chronic and comprehensive stress on interstitial cells of Cajal in adult rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周婷; 陈明锴; 张丽; 沈世强; 罗和生

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of chronic and comprehensive stress on the behavior and interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) of adult rats. Methods Thirty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 2 groups: normal control group (n = 15) and model group (n = 15). Except the normal group,the model group was given various kinds of stimulation for continuous 21 days. Open-field test was used before and after the chronic and comprehensive stress. During the whole experiment, the body weight and behavior of each rat were observed in periodic days. The ultrastructure and network of ICC in adult rats were observed by using the transmission electron microscopy and immunofluorescence. Results Compared with the control group, the body weight in the model group was remarkably reduced [ ( 230. 50 ± 14. 89 ) vs (292.50 ± 20. 55 ) g, P < 0. 05 ) ]. Before and after chronic stress, there were significant differences in total ambulation distance and total number of rearings in open-field tests [ (6224.58 ± 1918. 25 ) vs ( 1407.68 ± 586. 92) cm, ( 17.07 ± 5.42) vs (7. 13 ± 2. 50), P < 0. 05 ) ]. The ultrastructure of ICC was changed, and the quantity of ICC and gap junctions between ICC and surrounding cells, such as other ICC,smoth muscle cells, and terminal nerves were decreased significantly in the model group as compared with the contro group. Conclusion The changes of ICC may play an important role in abnormal gastrointestinal motility of functional gastrointestinal diseases caused by chronic and comprehensive stress.%目的 观察慢性综合应激对大鼠行为及Cajal间质细胞(ICC)的影响.方法 将雄性Wistar大鼠30只随机分为对照组(15只)和模型组(15只).模型组接受21d不同的应激,对照组不予任何应激.造模前后行旷场试验.整个实验期间,定期观察大鼠体质量及行为变化.采用透射电镜和免疫荧光法观察各组大鼠ICC超微结构及网络变化.结果 模型组大鼠体质量(230.50±14.89)g

  8. Studies on protein turnover and energy expenditure in chronically undernourished adults during stress of infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chronic undernutrition in man leads to adaptive responses which could reduce the requirements for dietary energy and protein. It is also possible that these adaptive responses, which are economical in nature, could lead to a decreased capacity for combating stress. Undernourished people are more susceptible to infections, and during these stresses, show different patterns of protein and energy metabolism from well-nourished subjects. Animal models have clearly shown a diminished response to tissue injury, in terms of the anabolic acute phase response. It is proposed to study the effect of prior nutritional status on the degree to which an infective stress stimulates the acute phase protein synthesis by the liver. In addition, the supply of amino acids to the liver in conditions of stress could come from the breakdown of body tissue proteins, particularly muscle. It is intended to study muscle protein turnover by the use of 13C-leucine in undernourished subjects under conditions of stress. Since whole body protein turnover can be measured by two methods, using 15N-glycine and 13C-leucine, a comparison of these two methods will initially be made in chronically undernourished subjects. It is also intended to study daily energy expenditure in the subject by an isotopic method, i.e. the appearance of 13CO2 in the breath after the administration of 13C-bicarbonate. (author). 8 refs

  9. Oxidative Stress in Diabetic Nephropathy with Early Chronic Kidney Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Guillermina Miranda-Díaz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The increase in the prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM and the secondary kidney damage produces diabetic nephropathy (DN. Early nephropathy is defined as the presence of microalbuminuria (30–300 mg/day, including normal glomerular filtration rate (GFR or a mildly decreased GFR (60–89 mL/min/1.73 m2, with or without overt nephropathy. The earliest change caused by DN is hyperfiltration with proteinuria. The acceptable excretion rate of albumin in urine is 300 mg/day. Chronic kidney disease (CKD is characterized by abnormalities in renal function that persist for >3 months with health implications. Alterations in the redox state in DN are caused by the persistent state of hyperglycemia and the increase in advanced glycation end products (AGEs with ability to affect the renin-angiotensin system and the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β, producing chronic inflammation and glomerular and tubular hypertrophy and favoring the appearance of oxidative stress. In DN imbalance between prooxidant/antioxidant processes exists with an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS. The overproduction of ROS diminishes expression of the antioxidant enzymes (manganese superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and catalase. The early detection of CKD secondary to DN and the timely identification of patients would permit decreasing its impact on health.

  10. 姜黄素对慢性应激模型大鼠学习记忆能力的影响%Effect of curcumin on learning and memorial ability in chronically stressed rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱洁瑾; 廖守法; 赵乐萍; 都霞; 林蒙蒙; 潘建春

    2011-01-01

    目的:研究姜黄素对慢性应激模型大鼠空间学习记忆能力的影响及其可能机制.方法:随机分为正常组、应激模型组、姜黄素组(2.5、5和10 mg/kg,p.o.)和氟西汀(10 mg/kg,i.p.)组,每组8只.采用21d慢性不可预知的刺激法建立大鼠应激模型,观察大鼠八臂迷宫和Y迷宫学习记忆成绩的改变,同时采用Western-blot等方法检测海马内脑源性神经营养因子(BDNF)和磷酸化cAMP反应元件结合蛋白(pCREB)的表达情况.结果:与正常对照组比较,应激模型组学习记忆能力明显下降( P<0.01),姜黄素组(5和10 mg/kg)能明显改善这一现象(P<0.05,P<0.01);应激模型组大鼠海马内BDNF和pCREB 的含量较正常组显著降低(P<0.01),姜黄素组(5和10 mg/kg)与模型组比较含量有所提高(P<0.05,P<0.01),这一结果与阳性对照药氟西汀组相似.结论:姜黄素可以逆转慢性应激对大鼠学习记忆的损伤,这一作用可能与增强cAMP -CREB-BDNF信号转导通路,从而影响神经元存活及其可塑性机制有关.%Objective: To investigate the offect of curcumin on learning memorial ability deficit in the chronically stressed rats and the its possible protective effects on learning-memory ability. Methods:Adult male Wistar rats were randomly divided into six groups: the control rats were housed in normal situations without any treatment; the chronically stressed rats were subjected to a variety of unpredictable stressor for 21 days; curcumin group(2.5, 5, 10 mg/kg, p. O) and fluoxetine group (10 mg/kg, I. P. ). After the stress experiment, all rats were tested for eight-arm maze task and Y-maze spatial recognition memory. In addition, the possible mechanism of neurogenesis on stressed rats and the effects of curcumin were also analysed by western-blot and immunohistochemistry assay. Results: Compared with the control group, the stress induced mouse model decreased learning ability (P<0. 001), curcumin (5, 10 mg/kg) could improve

  11. Effect of individually tailored biopsychosocial workplace interventions on chronic musculoskeletal pain, stress and work ability among laboratory technicians: randomized controlled trial protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Jay, Kenneth; Petersen, Mikkel Brandt; Sundstrup, Emil; schraefel, m.c.; Jakobsen, Markus D.; Sjøgaard, Gisela; Andersen, Lars L.

    2014-01-01

    Background Among laboratory technicians, the prevalence of neck and shoulder pain is widespread possibly due to typical daily work tasks such as pipetting, preparing vial samples for analysis, and data processing on a computer including mouse work - all tasks that require precision in motor control and may result in extended periods of time spent in static positions. In populations characterized by intense chronic musculoskeletal pain and diagnosed conditions in conjunction with psycho-physio...

  12. Influence of omega-3 fatty acid status on the way rats adapt to chronic restraint stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Hennebelle

    Full Text Available Omega-3 fatty acids are important for several neuronal and cognitive functions. Altered omega-3 fatty acid status has been implicated in reduced resistance to stress and mood disorders. We therefore evaluated the effects of repeated restraint stress (6 h/day for 21 days on adult rats fed omega-3 deficient, control or omega-3 enriched diets from conception. We measured body weight, plasma corticosterone and hippocampus glucocorticoid receptors and correlated these data with emotional and depression-like behaviour assessed by their open-field (OF activity, anxiety in the elevated-plus maze (EPM, the sucrose preference test and the startle response. We also determined their plasma and brain membrane lipid profiles by gas chromatography. Repeated restraint stress caused rats fed a control diet to lose weight. Their plasma corticosterone increased and they showed moderate behavioural changes, with increases only in grooming (OF test and entries into the open arms (EPM. Rats fed the omega-3 enriched diet had a lower stress-induced weight loss and plasma corticosterone peak, and reduced grooming. Rats chronically lacking omega-3 fatty acid exhibited an increased startle response, a stress-induced decrease in locomotor activity and exaggerated grooming. The brain omega-3 fatty acids increased as the dietary omega-3 fatty acids increased; diets containing preformed long-chain omega-3 fatty acid were better than diets containing the precursor alpha-linolenic acid. However, the restraint stress reduced the amounts of omega-3 incorporated. These data showed that the response to chronic restraint stress was modulated by the omega-3 fatty acid supply, a dietary deficiency was deleterious while enrichment protecting against stress.

  13. Chronic Non-Social Stress Affects Depressive Behaviors But Not Anxiety in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Yoon, Sang Ho; Kim, Byung-Hak; Ye, Sang-Kyu; Kim, Myoung-Hwan

    2014-01-01

    The etiology of most psychiatric disorders is still incompletely understood. However, growing evidence suggests that stress is a potent environmental risk factor for depression and anxiety. In rodents, various stress paradigms have been developed, but psychosocial stress paradigms have received more attention than non-social stress paradigms because psychosocial stress is more prevalent in humans. Interestingly, some recent studies suggest that chronic psychosocial stress and social isolation...

  14. Impaired Functional Connectivity in the Prefrontal Cortex: A Mechanism for Chronic Stress-Induced Neuropsychiatric Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Negrón-Oyarzo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic stress-related psychiatric diseases, such as major depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, and schizophrenia, are characterized by a maladaptive organization of behavioral responses that strongly affect the well-being of patients. Current evidence suggests that a functional impairment of the prefrontal cortex (PFC is implicated in the pathophysiology of these diseases. Therefore, chronic stress may impair PFC functions required for the adaptive orchestration of behavioral responses. In the present review, we integrate evidence obtained from cognitive neuroscience with neurophysiological research with animal models, to put forward a hypothesis that addresses stress-induced behavioral dysfunctions observed in stress-related neuropsychiatric disorders. We propose that chronic stress impairs mechanisms involved in neuronal functional connectivity in the PFC that are required for the formation of adaptive representations for the execution of adaptive behavioral responses. These considerations could be particularly relevant for understanding the pathophysiology of chronic stress-related neuropsychiatric disorders.

  15. Exposure to chronic mild stress prevents kappa opioid-mediated reinstatement of cocaine and nicotine place preference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ReamAl-Hasani

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Stress increases the risk of drug abuse, causes relapse to drug seeking, and potentiates the rewarding properties of both nicotine and cocaine. Understanding the mechanisms by which stress regulates the rewarding properties of drugs of abuse provides valuable insight into potential treatments for drug abuse. Prior reports have demonstrated that stress causes dynorphin release, activating kappa-opioid receptors (KOR in monoamine circuits resulting in both potentiation and reinstatement of cocaine and nicotine conditioned place preference. Here we report that kappa-opioid dependent reinstatement of cocaine and nicotine place preference is reduced when the mice are exposed to a randomized chronic mild stress regime prior to training in a conditioned place preference-reinstatement paradigm. The chronic mild stress schedule involves seven different stressors (removal of nesting for 24hr, 5min forced swim stress at 15°C, 8hr food and water deprivation, damp bedding overnight, white noise, cage tilt and disrupted home cage lighting rotated over a three-week period. This response is KOR-selective, because chronic mild stress does not protect against cocaine or nicotine drug-primed reinstatement. This protection from reinstatement is also observed following sub-chronic social defeat stress, where each mouse is placed in an aggressor mouse home cage for a period of 20 min over five days. In contrast, a single acute stressor resulted in a potentiation of KOR-induced reinstatement, similarly to previously reported. Prior studies have shown that stress alters sensitivity to opioids and prior stress can influence the pharmacodynamics of the opioid receptor system. Together, these findings suggest that exposure to different forms of stress may cause a dysregulation of kappa opioid circuitry and that changes resulting from mild stress can have protective and adaptive effects against drug relapse.

  16. The appraisal of chronic stress and the development of the metabolic syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergmann, N; Gyntelberg, F; Faber, J

    2014-01-01

    Chronic psychosocial stress has been proposed as a risk factor for the development of the metabolic syndrome (MES). This review gives a systematic overview of prospective cohort studies investigating chronic psychosocial stress as a risk factor for incident MES and the individual elements of MES...

  17. Effects of brain focal ischemia or chronic stress on the hippocampus-dependent learning and memory function%脑缺血与慢性应激对依赖海马的学习记忆的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛琳; 李德强; 罗本燕

    2011-01-01

    the two treatments.Morris water maze was employed to assess hippocampus-dependent learning and memory function and the brain-derived neurotrophic factor(BDNF)expression was detected by immunohistochemical staining in CA3 area and the mRNA amplification through semi-quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction(RT-PCR).Results Both chronic stressors and ischemia could significantly decrease the learning and memory function in rats like the escape latency in the performance of the Morris water maze test compared with the controL The stress group was related preferentially to a more severe deterioration in the learning function but not statistically in the memory loss as compared to ischemia group.The cognitive function decreased more markedly in rats when suffered the chronic unpredictable mild stresses plus ischemia,In comparison to control,ischemia significantly increased BDNF+ cells in hippocampal CA3 area (27.0 ±2.5 vs 20.1 ±2.1),while stress markedly reduced the expression of BDNF(15.2 ± 1.8 vs 20.1 ±2.1).Their combined effects still statistically led to a reduction in BDNF expression(8.2 ± 1.5,F =52.87,P <0.05).The same tendency was found in BDNF mRNA expression.Conclusions Stress may preferentially and powerfully influence hippocampus-dependent cognitive function compared with ischemia and the combination of focal ischemia and stress leads to the most impairments in cognition and hippocampal BDNF expression.Data suggest that more attention should be given to the strategies to increase the resistance to psychosocial stressors and decrease the depressed symptoms for a full PSCI recovery.

  18. Chronic stress disrupts fear extinction and enhances amygdala and hippocampal Fos expression in an animal model of post-traumatic stress disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Hoffman, Ann N.; Lorson, Nickolaus G.; Sanabria, Federico; Olive, M. Foster; Conrad, Cheryl D.

    2014-01-01

    Chronic stress may impose a vulnerability to develop maladaptive fear-related behaviors after a traumatic event. Whereas previous work found that chronic stress impairs the acquisition and recall of extinguished fear, it is unknown how chronic stress impacts nonassociative fear, such as in the absence of the conditioned stimulus (CS) or in a novel context. Male rats were subjected to chronic stress (STR; wire mesh restraint 6h/d/21d) or undisturbed (CON), then tested on fear...

  19. The effect of academic stress and attachment stress on stress-eaters and stress-undereaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emond, Michael; Ten Eycke, Kayla; Kosmerly, Stacey; Robinson, Adele Lafrance; Stillar, Amanda; Van Blyderveen, Sherry

    2016-05-01

    It is well established that stress is related to changes in eating patterns. Some individuals are more likely to increase their overall food intake under conditions of stress, whereas others are more likely to consume less food when stressed. Attachment style has been linked to disordered eating and eating disorders; however, comparisons of eating behaviors under attachment versus other types of stress have yet to be explored. The present laboratory study examined the eating patterns in self-identified stress-undereaters and stress-eaters under various types of stress. More specifically, the study examined the effects of academic and attachment stress on calorie, carbohydrate and sugar consumption within these two groups. Under the guise of critiquing student films, university students viewed either one of two stress-inducing videos (academic stress or attachment stress, both designed to be emotionally arousing) or a control video (designed to be emotionally neutral), and their food intake was recorded. Results demonstrated that the video manipulations were effective in inducing stress. Differential patterns of eating were noted based on group and stress condition. Specifically, stress-undereaters ate fewer calories, carbohydrates and sugars than stress-eaters in the academic stress condition, but not in the attachment stress or control condition. Findings suggest that specific types of stressors may influence eating behaviors differently. PMID:26850311

  20. Chronic stress-induced memory deficits are reversed by regular exercise via AMPK-mediated BDNF induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, D-M; Leem, Y-H

    2016-06-01

    Chronic stress has a detrimental effect on neurological insults, psychiatric deficits, and cognitive impairment. In the current study, chronic stress was shown to impair learning and memory functions, in addition to reducing in hippocampal Adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activity. Similar reductions were also observed for brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), synaptophysin, and post-synaptic density-95 (PSD-95) levels, all of which was counter-regulated by a regime of regular and prolonged exercise. A 21-day restraint stress regimen (6 h/day) produced learning and memory deficits, including reduced alternation in the Y-maze and decreased memory retention in the water maze test. These effects were reversed post-administration by a 3-week regime of treadmill running (19 m/min, 1 h/day, 6 days/week). In hippocampal primary culture, phosphorylated-AMPK (phospho-AMPK) and BDNF levels were enhanced in a dose-dependent manner by 5-amimoimidazole-4-carboxamide riboside (AICAR) treatment, and AICAR-treated increase was blocked by Compound C. A 7-day period of AICAR intraperitoneal injections enhanced alternation in the Y-maze test and reduced escape latency in water maze test, along with enhanced phospho-AMPK and BDNF levels in the hippocampus. The intraperitoneal injection of Compound C every 4 days during exercise intervention diminished exercise-induced enhancement of memory improvement during the water maze test in chronically stressed mice. Also, chronic stress reduced hippocampal neurogenesis (lower Ki-67- and doublecortin-positive cells) and mRNA levels of BDNF, synaptophysin, and PSD-95. Our results suggest that regular and prolonged exercise can alleviate chronic stress-induced hippocampal-dependent memory deficits. Hippocampal AMPK-engaged BDNF induction is at least in part required for exercise-induced protection against chronic stress. PMID:26975895

  1. No Influence of Type 2 Diabetes on Chronic Inflammation and Oxidative Stress in Obese Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Florinela CĂTOI

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Obesity per se carries the features of chronic inflammation and oxidative stress that interrelate in a complex network and exert an important role in the onset of several complications such as type 2 diabetes, atherosclerosis and cardiovascular events. On the other hand, it seems that hyperglycemia per se as well as insulin resistance (independent of hyperglycemia, both induce increased oxidative stress. The aim of our study was to analyze proinflammatory and oxidative stress markers in obese patients with and without type 2 diabetes and to verify the hypothesis that type 2 diabetes associated with obesity would promote a higher chronic inflammation and oxidative stress state as compared to obesity alone. We found no differences between the two groups of patients regarding chronic inflammation and oxidative stress markers. Therefore we may conclude that there is no influence of type 2 diabetes on chronic inflammation and oxidative stress in obese patients.

  2. Interaction of stressful life events and chronic strains on community mental health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, G.W.; Jacobs, S.V.; Dooley, D.; Catalano, R.

    1987-02-01

    One of the possible adaptive costs of coping with stress is diminished capacity to respond to subsequent adaptive demands. This paper examined the complex interplay between major life events and one source of chronic strain. Residents of the greater Los Angeles metropolitan area exposed to higher levels of smog, who had also experienced a recent stressful life event, exhibited poorer mental health than those exposed to pollution who had not experienced a recent stressful life event. There were, however, no direct effects of smog levels on mental health. These patterns of results were replicated in both a cross-sectional and a longitudinal study. The interplay of psychosocial vulnerability and environmental conditions is discussed.

  3. Impaired Functional Connectivity in the Prefrontal Cortex: A Mechanism for Chronic Stress-Induced Neuropsychiatric Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Ignacio Negrón-Oyarzo; Francisco Aboitiz; Pablo Fuentealba

    2016-01-01

    Chronic stress-related psychiatric diseases, such as major depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, and schizophrenia, are characterized by a maladaptive organization of behavioral responses that strongly affect the well-being of patients. Current evidence suggests that a functional impairment of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) is implicated in the pathophysiology of these diseases. Therefore, chronic stress may impair PFC functions required for the adaptive orchestration of behavioral response...

  4. Peripheral markers of oxidative stress in chronic mercuric chloride intoxication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gutierrez L.L.P.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to evaluate the time course changes in peripheral markers of oxidative stress in a chronic HgCl2 intoxication model. Twenty male adult Wistar rats were treated subcutaneously daily for 30 days and divided into two groups of 10 animals each: Hg, which received HgCl2 (0.16 mg kg-1 day-1, and control, receiving the same volume of saline solution. Blood was collected at the first, second and fourth weeks of Hg administration to evaluate lipid peroxidation (LPO, total radical trapping antioxidant potential (TRAP, and superoxide dismutase (Cu,Zn-SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GPx, glutathione-S-transferase (GST, and catalase (CAT. HgCl2 administration induced a rise (by 26% in LPO compared to control (143 ± 10 cps/mg hemoglobin in the second week and no difference was found at the end of the treatment. At that time, GST and GPx were higher (14 and 24%, respectively in the Hg group, and Cu,Zn-SOD was lower (54% compared to control. At the end of the treatment, Cu,Zn-SOD and CAT were higher (43 and 10%, respectively in the Hg group compared to control (4.6 ± 0.3 U/mg protein; 37 ± 0.9 pmol/mg protein, respectively. TRAP was lower (69% in the first week compared to control (43.8 ± 1.9 mM Trolox. These data provide evidence that HgCl2 administration is accompanied by systemic oxidative damage in the initial phase of the process, which leads to adaptive changes in the antioxidant reserve, thus decreasing the oxidative injury at the end of 30 days of HgCl2 administration. These results suggest that a preventive treatment with antioxidants would help to avoid oxidative damage in subjects with chronic intoxication.

  5. Chronic obstructive lung disease and posttraumatic stress disorder: current perspectives

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    Abrams TE

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Thad E Abrams,1,2 Amy Blevins,1,3 Mark W Vander Weg1,2,4 1Department of Internal Medicine, University of Iowa, 2Center for Comprehensive Access and Delivery Research and Evaluation, Iowa City VA Health Care System, 3Hardin Health Sciences Library, 4Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA, USA Background: Several studies have reported on the co-occurrence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and psychiatric conditions, with the most robust evidence base demonstrating an impact of comorbid anxiety and depression on COPD-related outcomes. In recent years, research has sought to determine if there is a co-occurrence between COPD and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD as well as for associations between PTSD and COPD-related outcomes. To date, there have been no published reviews summarizing this emerging literature.Objectives: The primary objective of this review was to determine if there is adequate evidence to support a co-occurrence between PTSD and COPD. Secondary objectives were to: 1 determine if there are important clinical considerations regarding the impact of PTSD on COPD management, and 2 identify targeted areas for further research.Methods: A structured review was performed using a systematic search strategy limited to studies in English, addressing adults, and to articles that examined: 1 the co-occurrence of COPD and PTSD and 2 the impact of PTSD on COPD-related outcomes. To be included, articles must have addressed some type of nonreversible obstructive lung pathology.Results: A total of 598 articles were identified for initial review. Upon applying the inclusion and exclusion criteria, n=19 articles or abstracts addressed our stated objectives. Overall, there is inconclusive evidence to support the co-occurrence between PTSD and COPD. Studies finding a significant co-occurrence generally had inferior methods of identifying COPD; in contrast, studies that utilized more robust COPD

  6. Effects of sleep deprivation on behaviors and abnormal hippocampal BDNF/miR-10B expression in rats with chronic stress depression

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Yuxue; Zhu, Jinfu

    2015-01-01

    Being sleep-deprived can relieve the depressed emotions in rats, but the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. In this study, male rats were divided into 3 groups: normal control (NC), chronicunpredictable stress (CUPS) and sleep-deprived (SD). All of the groups were examined using the sucrose consumption test and the open field test. The sucrose consumption test and the open field test were performed for all three groups. The BDNF and miR-10B expressions were examined using real-time PCR and...

  7. Nature of stress: differential effects on brain acetylcholinesterase activity and memory in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Amitava; Rai, Deepak; Dikshit, Madhu; Palit, Gautam; Nath, Chandishwar

    2005-09-16

    Effect of acute, chronic-predictable and chronic-unpredictable stress on memory and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) was investigated in rats. The animals were subjected to 3 type of stressors--(1) acute immobilization stress, (2) chronic-predictable stress i.e., immobilization daily for 5 consecutive days and (3) chronic-unpredictable stress that included reversal of light/dark cycle, over-night fasting, forced-swimming, immobilization and forced exercise in random unpredictable manner daily for 5 consecutive days. Learning and memory function was studied by single trial Passive avoidance test. AChE activity was assayed spectrophotometrically in the detergent (DS) and salt (SS) soluble fractions in different brain regions. Learning was obtained in acute and chronic-predictable stress groups but not in chronic-unpredictable group. Acute, chronic-predictable and chronic-unpredictable stress caused significant decrease in AChE activity in the DS fraction of cortex, hippocampus and hypothalamus as compared to control. Results indicate that AChE in DS fraction is predominantly affected in stressed and stressed-trained group but cognition is affected only by chronic-unpredictable stress. In acute and chronic-predictable groups the decreased AChE activity in the hippocampal DS fraction during learning may be responsible to maintain cognitive function by enhancing the cholinergic activity. PMID:16098992

  8. Factor structure and psychometric properties of the trier inventory for chronic stress (TICS in a representative german sample

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    Petrowski Katja

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic stress results from an imbalance of personal traits, resources and the demands placed upon an individual by social and occupational situations. This chronic stress can be measured using the Trier Inventory for Chronic Stress (TICS. Aims of the present study are to test the factorial structure of the TICS, report its psychometric properties, and evaluate the influence of gender and age on chronic stress. Methods The TICS was answered by N = 2,339 healthy participants aged 14 to 99. The sample was selected by random-route sampling. Exploratory factor analyses with Oblimin-rotated Principal Axis extraction were calculated. Confirmatory factor analyses applying Robust Maximum Likelihood estimations (MLM tested model fit and configural invariance as well as the measurement invariance for gender and age. Reliability estimations and effect sizes are reported. Results In the exploratory factor analyses, both a two-factor and a nine-factor model emerged. Confirmatory factor analyses resulted in acceptable model fit (RMSEA, with model comparison fit statistics corroborating the superiority of the nine-factor model. Most factors were moderately to highly intercorrelated. Reliabilities were good to very good. Measurement invariance tests gave evidence for differential effects of gender and age on the factor structure. Furthermore, women and younger individuals, especially those aged 35 to 44, tended to report more chronic stress than men and older individuals. Conclusions The proposed nine-factor structure could be factorially validated, results in good scale reliability, and heuristically can be grouped by two higher-order factors: "High Demands" and "Lack of Satisfaction". Age and gender represent differentiable and meaningful contributors to the perception of chronic stress.

  9. Chronic Psychological Stress Enhances Nociceptive Processing in the Urinary Bladder in High-Anxiety Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Robbins, M.T.; DeBerry, J.; Ness, T. J

    2007-01-01

    This study sought to determine whether acute and/or chronic psychological stress produce changes in urinary bladder nociception. Female Sprague-Dawley (SD; low/moderate anxiety) or Wistar-Kyoto (WK; high-anxiety) rats were exposed to either an acute (1 day) or a chronic (10 days) water avoidance stress paradigm or a sham stress paradigm. Paw withdrawal thresholds to mechanical and thermal stimuli and fecal pellet output, were quantified at baseline and after the final stress or sham stress ex...

  10. Long-term changes in cognitive bias and coping response as a result of chronic unpredictable stress during adolescence

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    Lauren eChaby

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Animals that experience adverse events in early life often have life-long changes to their physiology and behavior. Long-term effects of stress during early life have been studied extensively, but less attention has been given to the consequences of negative experiences solely during the adolescent phase. Adolescence is a particularly sensitive period of life when regulation of the glucocorticoid stress hormone response matures and specific regions in the brain undergo considerable change. Aversive experiences during this time might, therefore, be expected to generate long-term consequences for the adult phenotype. Here we investigated the long-term effects of exposure to chronic unpredictable stress during adolescence on adult decision making, coping response, cognitive bias, and exploratory behavior in rats. Rats exposed to chronic unpredictable stress (e.g. isolation, crowding, cage tilt were compared to control animals that were maintained in standard, predictable conditions throughout development. Unpredictable stress during adolescence resulted in a suite of long-term behavioral and cognitive changes including a negative cognitive bias (F1,12 = 5.000, P < 0.05, altered coping response (T1,14 = 2.216, P = 0.04, and accelerated decision making (T1,14 = 3.245, P = 0.01. Exposure to chronic stress during adolescence also caused a short-term increase in boldness behaviors; in a novel object test 15 days after the last stressor, animals exposed to chronic unpredictable stress had decreased latencies to leave a familiar shelter and approach a novel object (T1,14 = 2.240, P = 0.04; T1,14 = 2.419, P = 0.03, respectively. The results showed that stress during adolescence has long-term impacts on behavior and cognition that affect the interpretation of ambiguous stimuli, behavioral response to adverse events, and how animals make decisions. Stress during adolescence also induced short-term changes in the way animals moved around a novel environment.

  11. 慢性应激对大鼠糖代谢的影响及初步机制%Effects and preliminary mechanism of chronic stress on glycometabolism in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张汝学; 马海港; 周珺; 李茂星; 贾正平

    2013-01-01

    目的:探讨慢性应激对大鼠糖代谢的影响及初步机制.方法:采用纱布束缚、PVC束缚筒束缚、大鼠固定架制动和悬尾四种应激方式,四种方式随机交替进行,应激时间为5周,每天记录动物的饮食量和饮水量,每周检测体质量和空腹血糖、第3周进行胰岛素耐量实验,第1、5周进行腹腔注射糖耐量实验,实验结束后处死所有大鼠,测定相关指标.结果:长期慢性应激可以造成大鼠空腹血糖的轻微升高、胰岛素耐量异常和糖耐量异常,另外,脾脏、胸腺指数降低,肾脏和肾上腺指数升高,血清总胆固醇升高,肝糖原和肌糖原显著降低,血清FFA水平升高,胰岛素、瘦素水平降低,皮质酮水平升高.结论:慢性非损伤性应激可能通过激活HPA轴影响大鼠的神经-内分泌-免疫调节网络,促进大鼠胰岛素抵抗和糖尿病的发生.%Objective:To investigate the effects of chronic stress on glycometabolism in rats and its mechanism.Methods:Rats were exposed to four stressors which restrainted the experimental animals with absorbent gauze,PVC tube,frisket and hanging tail for five weeks respectively.The food-intake and drinking were recorded everyday.The body weight and fasting plasma glucose were measured every week.The insulin tolerance test was performed at the third week,while the glucose tolerance test was performed at the first and fifth week respectively.Results:Chronic stress caused the increase of the fasting plasma glucose and the damaged insulin tolerance and glucose tolerance.The organ indexes of thymus and spleen were decreased,while they were increased for the kidney and adrenal.The levels of insulin,leptin and glycogen were down-regulated,and the levels of total cholesterol FFA and corticosterone were increased simultaneously.Conclusion:Chronic stress causes diabetes mellitus and insulin resistance by affecting the nerves-endocrine-immunological network through activation of hypothalamic

  12. Comparing chronic interpersonal and noninterpersonal stress domains as predictors of depression recurrence in emerging adults

    OpenAIRE

    Sheets, Erin S.; Craighead, W. Edward

    2014-01-01

    Understanding how persistent interpersonal difficulties distinctly affect the course of major depressive disorder (MDD) during emerging adulthood is critical, given that early experiences impact future coping resources and functioning. Research on stress and MDD has mostly concentrated on stressful life events, while chronic stress largely has not been explored. The present study examined interpersonal (intimate relationship, close friendships, social life, family relationships) and noninterp...

  13. Examining SLV-323, a novel NK1 receptor antagonist, in a chronic psychosocial stress model for depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Czeh, B; Pudovkina, O; van der Hart, MGC; Simon, M; Heilbronner, U; Michaelis, T; Watanabe, T; Frahm, J; Fuchs, E

    2005-01-01

    Rationale: Substance P antagonists have been proposed as candidates for a new class of antidepressant compounds. Objectives: We examined the effects of SLV-323, a novel neurokinin 1 receptor (NK1R) antagonist, in the chronic psychosocial stress paradigm of adult male tree shrews. Methods: Animals we

  14. Adolescent chronic stress causes hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical hypo-responsiveness and depression-like behavior in adult female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulsin, Aynara C; Wick-Carlson, Dayna; Packard, Benjamin A; Morano, Rachel; Herman, James P

    2016-03-01

    Adolescence is a period of substantial neuroplasticity in stress regulatory neurocircuits. Chronic stress exposure during this period leads to long-lasting changes in neuroendocrine function and emotional behaviors, suggesting adolescence may be a critical period for development of stress vulnerability. This study investigated the effects of exposure to 14 days of chronic variable stress (CVS) in late-adolescent (pnd 45-58) female rats on neuroendocrine function, neuropeptide mRNA expression and depressive-like behavior in adolescence (pnd 59) and in adulthood (pnd 101). Adult females exposed to CVS in adolescence have a blunted hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis in response to a novel stressor and increased immobility in the forced swim test. Blunted HPA axis responses were accompanied by reduced vasopressin mRNA expression in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN), suggesting decreased central drive. Adolescent females tested immediately after CVS did not exhibit differences in stress reactivity or immobility in the forced swim test, despite evidence for enhanced central HPA axis drive (increased CRH mRNA expression in PVN). Overall, our study demonstrates that exposure to chronic stress in adolescence is sufficient to induce lasting changes in neuroendocrine drive and behavior, potentially altering the developmental trajectory of stress circuits as female rats age into adulthood. PMID:26751968

  15. Stress, psychiatric co-morbidity and coping in patients with chronic idiopathic urticaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Man Cheung; Symons, Christine; Gilliam, Jane; Kaminski, Edward R

    2010-04-01

    This study examined life event stress, perceived stress and psychiatric co-morbidity among patients with Chronic Idiopathic Urticaria (CIU). It also investigated the relationship between coping, stress, the severity of CIU and psychiatric co-morbidity. Total of 100 CIU patients and 60 allergy patients participated in the study. They completed the General Health Questionnaire, the Social Readjustment Rating Scale, the Perceived Stress Scale, and the Ways of Coping Checklist. Compared with allergy patients, CIU patients had worse co-morbidity and higher levels of life event stress and perceived stress. Emotion-focussed coping was associated with the severity of CIU; perceived stress was associated with co-morbidity. PMID:20204926

  16. Effects of sleep deprivation on behaviors and abnormal hippocampal BDNF/miR-10B expression in rats with chronic stress depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yuxue; Zhu, Jinfu

    2015-01-01

    Being sleep-deprived can relieve the depressed emotions in rats, but the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. In this study, male rats were divided into 3 groups: normal control (NC), chronicunpredictable stress (CUPS) and sleep-deprived (SD). All of the groups were examined using the sucrose consumption test and the open field test. The sucrose consumption test and the open field test were performed for all three groups. The BDNF and miR-10B expressions were examined using real-time PCR and the level of BNDF was discovered by western blotting. In the sucrose consumption test and the open field test, the CUPS rats consumed less sucrose and got fewer score than the NC rats, however the SD rats consumed significantly more sucrose and received higher scores than the CUPS rats. Both the expression of BNDF and the protein levels in the CUPS group was significantly lower than in the NC group. Also, the CUPS group also showed a higher miR-10B expression than the NC group. However, the SD group demonstrated higher BDNF expression and lower miR-10B expression when compared with the CUPS group. Further investigation demonstrated that the BDNF is the direct target gene of miR-10B and BDNF expression, which is negatively correlated with the expression of miR-10B. In the sucrose consumption test, BNDF expression is positively correlated with the sucrose preference rate whereas miR-10B has an opposing correlation. Moreover, the open field test demonstrated that BNDF expression is positively correlated with the scores and the miR-10B expression is negatively correlated. These results indicate that sleep deprivation is closely linked with the downregulation of miR-10B and possibly the upregulation of BDNF in the hippocampus in the CUPS rats. PMID:25755749

  17. Chronic Arsenic Exposure-Induced Oxidative Stress is Mediated by Decreased Mitochondrial Biogenesis in Rat Liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Chandra; Kumar, Vijay

    2016-09-01

    The present study was executed to study the effect of chronic arsenic exposure on generation of mitochondrial oxidative stress and biogenesis in rat liver. Chronic sodium arsenite treatment (25 ppm for 12 weeks) decreased mitochondrial complexes activity in rat liver. There was a decrease in mitochondrial superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) activity in arsenic-treated rats that might be responsible for increased protein and lipid oxidation as observed in our study. The messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of mitochondrial and nuclear-encoded subunits of complexes I (ND1 and ND2) and IV (COX I and COX IV) was downregulated in arsenic-treated rats only. The protein and mRNA expression of MnSOD was reduced suggesting increased mitochondrial oxidative damage after arsenic treatment. There was activation of Bax and caspase-3 followed by release of cytochrome c from mitochondria suggesting induction of apoptotic pathway under oxidative stress. The entire phenomenon was associated with decrease in mitochondrial biogenesis as evident by decreased protein and mRNA expression of nuclear respiratory factor 1 (NRF-1), nuclear respiratory factor 2 (NRF-2), peroxisome proliferator activator receptor gamma-coactivator 1α (PGC-1α), and mitochondrial transcription factor A (Tfam) in arsenic-treated rat liver. The results of the present study indicate that arsenic-induced mitochondrial oxidative stress is associated with decreased mitochondrial biogenesis in rat liver that may present one of the mechanisms for arsenic-induced hepatotoxicity. PMID:26767369

  18. Darbepoetin alpha reduces oxidative stress and chronic inflammation in atherosclerotic lesions of apo E deficient mice in experimental renal failure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Arend

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular morbidity and mortality is very important in patients with chronic renal failure. This occurs even in mild impairment of renal function and may be related to oxidative stress and chronic inflammation. The nephrectomized apo E knockout mouse is an accepted model for evaluating atherosclerosis in renal dysfunction. Erythropoietin derivates showed anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects. Therefore, this study evaluates the effects of Darbepoetin on markers of oxidative stress and chronic inflammation in atherosclerotic lesions in apo E knockout mice with renal dysfunction. METHODS: Apo E knockout mice underwent unilateral (Unx, n = 20 or subtotal (Snx, n = 26 nephrectomy or sham operation (Sham, n = 16. Mice of each group were either treated with Darbepoetin or saline solution, a part of Snx mice received a tenfold higher dose of Darbepoetin. The aortic plaques were measured and morphologically characterized. Additional immunhistochemical analyses were performed on tissue samples taken from the heart and the aorta. RESULTS: Both Unx and Snx mice showed increased expression of markers of oxidative stress and chronic inflammation. While aortic plaque size was not different, Snx mice showed advanced plaque stages when compared to Unx mice. Darbepoetin treatment elevated hematocrit and lowered Nitrotyrosin as one marker of oxidative stress, inflammation in heart and aorta, plaque stage and in the high dose even plaque cholesterol content. In contrast, there was no influence of Darbepoetin on aortic plaque size; high dose Darbepoetin treatment resulted in elevated renal serum parameters. CONCLUSION: Darbepoetin showed some protective cardiovascular effects irrespective of renal function, i.e. it improved plaque structure and reduced some signs of oxidative stress and chronic inflammation without affecting plaque size. Nevertheless, the dose dependent adverse effects must be considered as high Darbepoetin treatment

  19. Early adversity contributes to chronic stress induced depression-like behavior in adolescent male rhesus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhi-Yi; Mao, Yu; Feng, Xiao-Li; Zheng, Na; Lü, Long-Bao; Ma, Yuan-Ye; Qin, Dong-Dong; Hu, Xin-Tian

    2016-06-01

    Chronic stress is an important cause for depression. However, not everyone who is exposed to chronic stress will develop depression. Our previous studies demonstrated that early adversity can cause lasting changes in adolescent rhesus monkeys, but depressive symptoms have not been observed. Compared to adults, it is still unknown that whether adolescent rhesus monkeys experiencing early adversity are more likely to develop depressive symptoms. In this study, we investigated the long term relationship between early adversity, chronic stress and adolescent depression for the first time. Eight male rhesus monkeys were reared in maternal separation (MS) or mother-reared (MR) conditions. All of them went through unpredictable chronic stress for two months at their age four. The stressors included space restriction, intimidation, long illumination and fasting. Behavioral and physiological data were collected during the experiment. The results showed that, compared with the MR group, the locomotor activity of MS group was significantly decreased after one month of chronic stress while huddling up and stereotypical behaviors were significantly increased. Moreover, this trend continued and even worsened at the second month. Significantly higher hair cortisol levels and lower body weight were observed in MS group after two months of stress. These results indicate that early adversity is one of the environmental factors which can increase the susceptibility of depression when experiencing chronic stress in the later life. This will further clarify the important roles of early environmental factors in the development of adolescent depression and children rearing conditions should receive more attention. PMID:27025444

  20. Depressive symptoms and perceived chronic stress predict test anxiety in nursing students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Augner

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study is to identify predictors of test anxiety in nursing students. Design: Cross sectional pilot study. Methods: A questionnaire was administered to 112 students of an Austrian nursing school (mean age = 21.42, SD = 5.21. Test anxiety (measured by the standardized PAF Test Anxiety Questionnaire, perceived chronic stress, depressive symptoms, pathological eating and further psychological and health parameters were measured. Results: We found highly significant correlations between test anxiety and working hours (0.25, depression score (0.52, emotional stability (-0.31, and perceived chronic stress (0.65 (p < 0.01, for all. Regression analysis revealed chronic stress and emotional instability as best predictors for test anxiety. Furthermore, path analysis revealed that past negative academic performance outcomes contribute to test anxiety via depressive symptoms and perceived chronic stress. Conclusion: Depressive symptoms and perceived chronic stress are strongly related to test anxiety. Therefore therapy and training methods that address depressive symptoms and perceived chronic stress, and thereby aim to modify appraisal of potential stressful situations, may be successful in addressing test anxiety.

  1. Stress and Withdrawal from Chronic Ethanol Induce Selective Changes in Neuroimmune mRNAs in Differing Brain Sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Darin J; Harper, Kathryn M; Whitman, Buddy A; Zimomra, Zachary; Breese, George R

    2016-01-01

    Stress is a strong risk factor in alcoholic relapse and may exert effects that mimic aspects of chronic alcohol exposure on neurobiological systems. With the neuroimmune system becoming a prominent focus in the study of the neurobiological consequences of stress, as well as chronic alcohol exposure proving to be a valuable focus in this regard, the present study sought to compare the effects of stress and chronic ethanol exposure on induction of components of the neuroimmune system. Rats were exposed to either 1 h exposure to a mild stressor (restraint) or exposure to withdrawal from 15 days of chronic alcohol exposure (i.e., withdrawal from chronic ethanol, WCE) and assessed for neuroimmune mRNAs in brain. Restraint stress alone elevated chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2), interleukin-1-beta (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) and toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) mRNAs in the cerebral cortex within 4 h with a return to a control level by 24 h. These increases were not accompanied by an increase in corresponding proteins. Withdrawal from WCE also elevated cytokines, but did so to varying degrees across different cytokines and brain regions. In the cortex, stress and WCE induced CCL2, TNFα, IL-1β, and TLR4 mRNAs. In the hypothalamus, only WCE induced cytokines (CCL2 and IL-1β) while in the hippocampus, WCE strongly induced CCL2 while stress and WCE induced IL-1β. In the amygdala, only WCE induced CCL2. Finally-based on the previously demonstrated role of corticotropin-releasing factor 1 (CRF1) receptor inhibition in blocking WCE-induced cytokine mRNAs-the CRF1 receptor antagonist CP154,526 was administered to a subgroup of stressed rats and found to be inactive against induction of CCL2, TNFα, or IL-1β mRNAs. These differential results suggest that stress and WCE manifest broad neuroimmune effects in brain depending on the cytokine and brain region, and that CRF inhibition may not be a relevant mechanism in non-alcohol exposed animals. Overall, these

  2. Chronic psychosocial stress in tree shrews : effect of the substance P (NK1 receptor) antagonist L-760735 and clomipramine on endocrine and behavioral parameters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Hart, MGC; de Biurrun, G; Czeh, B; Rupniak, NMJ; den Boer, JA; Fuchs, E

    2005-01-01

    Rationale: Substance P and its preferred receptor, the neurokinin 1 receptor (NK1R), have been proposed as possible targets for new antidepressant therapies, although results of a recently completed phase III trial failed to demonstrate that the NK1R antagonist MK-869 is more effective than placebo

  3. Oxidative stress in cases of chronic fluoride intoxication

    OpenAIRE

    Ailani, Vinita; R. C. Gupta; Gupta, Sunil Kumar; Gupta, Kapil

    2009-01-01

    This study was conducted to find out the level of oxidative stress and effect of supplementation of vitamin C, D and Calcium on levels of SOD, serum and urinary fluoride in children residing in endemic fluorosis area. For this the fluoride belt of Jaipur district was selected. The parameters selected were Super oxide dismutase, serum fluoride and urinary fluoride. The study was conducted on one hundred children, selected from four areas (25 from each area) consuming water containing 1.2, 2.4,...

  4. Moderate exercise and chronic stress produce counteractive effects on different areas of the brain by acting through various neurotransmitter receptor subtypes: A hypothesis

    OpenAIRE

    Saha Asit K; Sarbadhikari Suptendra N

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Regular, "moderate", physical exercise is an established non-pharmacological form of treatment for depressive disorders. Brain lateralization has a significant role in the progress of depression. External stimuli such as various stressors or exercise influence the higher functions of the brain (cognition and affect). These effects often do not follow a linear course. Therefore, nonlinear dynamics seem best suited for modeling many of the phenomena, and putative global path...

  5. L-tyrosine improves neuroendocrine function in a mouse model of chronic stress

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Zhihua; Li, Jinghua; Wang, Zhiming; Xue, Lingyan; Zhang, Yi; Chen, Yingjie; Su, Jun; Li, Zhongming

    2012-01-01

    Adult BALB/c mice, individually housed, were stimulated with nine different stressors, arranged randomly, for 4 continuous weeks to generate an animal model of chronic stress. In chronically stressed mice, spontaneous locomotor activity was significantly decreased, escape latency in the Morris water maze test was prolonged, serum levels of total thyrotropin and total triiodothyronine were significantly decreased, and dopamine and norepinephrine content in the pallium, hippocampus and hypothal...

  6. Multicomponent Behavioral Treatment for Chronic Combat-Related Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Trauma Management Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Samuel M.; Beidel, Deborah C.; Frueh, B. Christopher

    2005-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a severe and chronic mental disorder that is highly prevalent within Veterans Affairs (VA) Medical Centers. A severe psychiatric disorder, combat-related PTSD is typically accompanied by multiple comorbid psychiatric disorders, symptom chronicity, and extreme social maladjustment. Thus, PTSD is a complex…

  7. 慢性应激对AA肉鸡生产性能和肉质的影响%Effects of Chronic Stress on Production Performance and Meat Quality of Broliors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张静; 刘晓丹; 姚昆; 李想; 包军; 李剑虹

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the effects of three chronic stress factors on broilers production performance and meat quality. The three chronic stress factors included social isolation group (SIG), high-density group (HDG) ,interference group(IG) and cage free group (control group) . The experimental results indicated that the stress factor had effects on broilers' body weight. Body weight of each group were not significantly different in 6 week age. And the body weight from IG and cage free group were significantly higher than that of SIG and HDG in 7 week age;the body weight from IG and cage free group were significantly higher than that of HDG in 8 week age, and the body weight from cage free group were significantly higher than other three groups in 9 week age and IG were significantly higher than HDG at the same time. Stress factors had no effects on broilers shank girth, but had some effects on broilers shank length. The shank length were not significantly different between each group in 6,7 and 8 week age, but the shank length from cage free group is significantly higher than other groups. Stress factors had some effects on broilers meat quality. The pH value,shear force,crude protein and meat color were not significantly different between each group; but the drip loss from SIG was significantly higher than that of other groups; and the crude protein from cage free group were significantly lower than that of other groups.%研究三种慢性应激因素包括社会隔离饲养,高密度饲养和频繁干扰饲养对肉鸡生产性能和肉质的影响.分别于饲养期的第6、7、8、9周末早8:00对所有鸡进行胫长、胫围及体重的测量;于饲养期的第9周末屠宰所有鸡只,测定以下肉质指标:pH值、肉色、滴水损失、剪切力、粗蛋白和粗脂肪含量.试验结果表明:(1)应激因素对肉鸡体重有一定影响.6周龄时各处理组间体重无显著差异,7周龄时频繁干扰组和散放组的肉鸡

  8. Basic fibroblast growth factor improves learning and memory functions in chronic stress mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xian Qu; Chunying Li; Hongchang Liu; Chang Su

    2011-01-01

    Four weeks of uncertain stress was used to establish an animal model of chronic stress.Basic fibroblast growth factor was injected daily for 15 days following stress induction.Cell morphology in the hippocampal CA3 region of chronic stress mice revealed cell damage.Nitric oxide content and calcium concentration were significantly increased in the hippocampus,and learning and memory functions were significantly decreased.After basic fibroblast growth factor intervention,Ca2+ overload was decreased and neuronal damage was relieved in hippocampal neurons,which improved learning and memory functions in chronic stress mice.Latency was prolonged and the number of errors was decreased in a passive avoidance test.

  9. Efeito de uma sessão de hemodiálise sobre o estresse oxidativo sistêmico de pacientes renais crônicos terminais Effect of a hemodialysis session on oxidative stress of chronic kidney disease patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Dall'Agnol Bianchi

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a repercussão de uma sessão de hemodiálise (HD sobre o estresse oxidativo sistêmico de pacientes renais crônicos. MÉTODOS E RESULTADOS: Foram avaliados 17 pacientes (10 mulheres com média de idade de 39,9 ± 13,5 anos em tratamento hemodialítico na Unidade de Nefrologia do HCPA, e o grupo controle formado por 18 indivíduos saudáveis (4 mulheres, com média de idade de 34,8 ± 10,1 anos. O sangue dos doentes renais foi coletado antes e após a sessão de HD. As médias foram analisadas pelo teste t de Student (p OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of a hemodialysis (HD session on systemic oxidative stress of chronic renal patients. METHODS AND RESULTS: The study comprised 17 patients (10 women and 7 men with mean age of 39.9 ± 13.5 years undergoing hemodialytic treatment at the Unit of Nephrology of Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, and a control group formed by 18 healthy individuals (4 women and 14 men with mean age of 34.8 ± 10.1 years. Renal patients had blood samples withdrawn before and after HD session. Means were analyzed by Student t test (p < 0.05. In red blood cells, the activity of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalase (CAT was assessed. In plasma, the non-enzymatic antioxidant system was assessed by measuring the total reactive antioxidant potential (TRAP. No significant differences were observed between the values of SOD and CAT before and after HD. Comparison with the control group showed a significant reduction in the activity of those enzymes. After HD session, a significant reduction in TRAP was observed. Oxidative damage to membrane lipids was assessed through chemiluminescence (CL, and the damage to proteins through carbonyl assay. No significant difference was observed in the values of CL and carbonyls after HD. However, when compared with the control group, a significant difference was observed, indicating a greater damage to membrane lipids and proteins in renal

  10. Facilitation of the HPA Axis to a Novel Acute Stress Following Chronic Stress Exposure Modulates Histone Acetylation and the ERK/MAPK Pathway in the Dentate Gyrus of Male Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Ferland, Chantelle L.; Harris, Erin P.; Lam, Mai; Schrader, Laura A.

    2014-01-01

    Evidence suggests that when presented with novel acute stress, animals previously exposed to chronic homotypic or heterotypic stressors exhibit normal or enhanced hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) response compared with animals exposed solely to that acute stressor. The molecular mechanisms involved in this effect remain unknown. The extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) is one of the key pathways regulated in the hippocampus in both acute and chronic stress. The aim of this study wa...

  11. Gender differences in rat brain serotonin transporter levels after exposure to prenatal stress and/or chronic mild stress in early adulthood

    OpenAIRE

    VERLEYSEN, Alexandra

    2007-01-01

    Prenatal stress and chronic mild stress are great risk factors for developing mood disorders. When the stress response cannot cope with the amount of stress, the brain will undergo longterm changes. These changes can lead to several diseases associated with chronic stress. In these diseases the serotonergic system is a main player, especially in mood disorders. Serotonin is taken up by the serotonin transporter, which is presynaptically localized. In case of depression, seroton...

  12. Effects of Stress and MDMA on Hippocampal Gene Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg F. Weber

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available MDMA (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine is a substituted amphetamine and popular drug of abuse. Its mood-enhancing short-term effects may prompt its consumption under stress. Clinical studies indicate that MDMA treatment may mitigate the symptoms of stress disorders such as posttraumatic stress syndrome (PTSD. On the other hand, repeated administration of MDMA results in persistent deficits in markers of serotonergic (5-HT nerve terminals that have been viewed as indicative of 5-HT neurotoxicity. Exposure to chronic stress has been shown to augment MDMA-induced 5-HT neurotoxicity. Here, we examine the transcriptional responses in the hippocampus to MDMA treatment of control rats and rats exposed to chronic stress. MDMA altered the expression of genes that regulate unfolded protein binding, protein folding, calmodulin-dependent protein kinase activity, and neuropeptide signaling. In stressed rats, the gene expression profile in response to MDMA was altered to affect sensory processing and responses to tissue damage in nerve sheaths. Subsequent treatment with MDMA also markedly altered the genetic responses to stress such that the stress-induced downregulation of genes related to the circadian rhythm was reversed. The data support the view that MDMA-induced transcriptional responses accompany the persistent effects of this drug on neuronal structure/function. In addition, MDMA treatment alters the stress-induced transcriptional signature.

  13. Chronic and episodic interpersonal stress as statistically unique predictors of depression in two samples of emerging adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrshek-Schallhorn, Suzanne; Stroud, Catherine B; Mineka, Susan; Hammen, Constance; Zinbarg, Richard E; Wolitzky-Taylor, Kate; Craske, Michelle G

    2015-11-01

    Few studies comprehensively evaluate which types of life stress are most strongly associated with depressive episode onsets, over and above other forms of stress, and comparisons between acute and chronic stress are particularly lacking. Past research implicates major (moderate to severe) stressful life events (SLEs), and to a lesser extent, interpersonal forms of stress; research conflicts on whether dependent or independent SLEs are more potent, but theory favors dependent SLEs. The present study used 5 years of annual diagnostic and life stress interviews of chronic stress and SLEs from 2 separate samples (Sample 1 N = 432; Sample 2 N = 146) transitioning into emerging adulthood; 1 sample also collected early adversity interviews. Multivariate analyses simultaneously examined multiple forms of life stress to test hypotheses that all major SLEs, then particularly interpersonal forms of stress, and then dependent SLEs would contribute unique variance to major depressive episode (MDE) onsets. Person-month survival analysis consistently implicated chronic interpersonal stress and major interpersonal SLEs as statistically unique predictors of risk for MDE onset. In addition, follow-up analyses demonstrated temporal precedence for chronic stress; tested differences by gender; showed that recent chronic stress mediates the relationship between adolescent adversity and later MDE onsets; and revealed interactions of several forms of stress with socioeconomic status (SES). Specifically, as SES declined, there was an increasing role for noninterpersonal chronic stress and noninterpersonal major SLEs, coupled with a decreasing role for interpersonal chronic stress. Implications for future etiological research were discussed. PMID:26301973

  14. Chronic activation of NPFFR2 stimulates the stress-related depressive behaviors through HPA axis modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ya-Tin; Liu, Tzu-Yu; Yang, Ching-Yao; Yu, Yu-Lian; Chen, Ting-Chun; Day, Yuan-Ji; Chang, Che-Chien; Huang, Guo-Jen; Chen, Jin-Chung

    2016-09-01

    Neuropeptide FF (NPFF) is a morphine-modulating peptide that regulates the analgesic effect of opioids, and also controls food consumption and cardiovascular function through its interaction with two cognate receptors, NPFFR1 and NPFFR2. In the present study, we explore a novel modulatory role for NPFF-NPFFR2 in stress-related depressive behaviors. In a mouse model of chronic mild stress (CMS)-induced depression, the expression of NPFF significantly increased in the hypothalamus, hippocampus, medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and amygdala. In addition, transgenic (Tg) mice over-expressing NPFFR2 displayed clear depression and anxiety-like behaviors with hyperactivity in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, reduced expression of glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and neurogenesis in the hippocampus. Furthermore, acute treatment of NPFFR2 agonists in wild-type (WT) mice enhanced the activity of the HPA axis, and chronic administration resulted in depressive and anxiety-like behaviors. Chronic stimulation of NPFFR2 also decreased the expression of hippocampal GR and led to persistent activation of the HPA axis. Strikingly, bilateral intra-paraventricular nucleus (PVN) injection of NPFFR2 shRNA predominately inhibits the depressive-like behavior in CMS-exposed mice. Antidepressants, fluoxetine and ketamine, effectively relieved the depressive behaviors of NPFFR2-Tg mice. We speculate that persistent NPFFR2 activation, in particular in the hypothalamus, up-regulates the HPA axis and results in long-lasting increases in circulating corticosterone (CORT), consequently damaging hippocampal function. This novel role of NPFFR2 in regulating the HPA axis and hippocampal function provides a new avenue for combating depression and anxiety-like disorder. PMID:27243477

  15. Caring for People with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: Perceived Stress Versus Satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Joseph R.; Jason, Leonard A.

    1997-01-01

    Examined adult caregivers (N=96) caring for persons with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS) on a long-term basis. Results indicate no significant sex difference regarding caregiver stress and satisfaction. The more life satisfaction caregivers reported, the less stress and more satisfaction they experienced in caring for a person with CFS. (RJM)

  16. Chronic Stress, Depression and Immunity in Spouses of Metastatic Breast Cancer Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortimer, Jane S. Blake; Sephton, Sandra E.; Kimerling, Rachel; Butler, Lisa; Bernstein, Aaron S.; Spiegel, David

    2005-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to examine how the chronicity of stress affects psychological stress-responses, depressive symptoms, and "in vivo" immunocompetence in spouses of women with metastatic breast cancer. Methods: Participants were 34 spouses of breast cancer patients. Their wives had been living with a diagnosis of recurrence…

  17. Chronic stress and social housing differentially affect neurogenesis in male and female rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westenbroek, Christel; Boer, Johan A. den; Veenhuis, Maarten; Horst, Gert J. ter

    2004-01-01

    Stress plays an important role in the development of affective disorders. Women show a higher prevalence for these disorders than men. The course of a depression is thought to be positively influenced by social support. We have used a chronic stress model in which rats received foot-shocks daily for

  18. Voluntary exercise and increased food intake after mild chronic stress improve social avoidance behavior in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuka, Airi; Shiuchi, Tetsuya; Chikahisa, Sachiko; Shimizu, Noriyuki; Séi, Hiroyoshi

    2015-11-01

    It is well-established that exercise can influence psychological conditions, cognitive function, and energy metabolism in peripheral tissues including the skeletal muscle. However, it is not clear whether exercise can influence social interaction with others and alleviate defeat stress. This study investigated the effect of voluntary wheel running on impaired social interaction induced by chronic social defeat stress (SDS) using the resident-intruder social defeat model. Mice were divided into three groups: control, stress alone, and stress+exercise. SDS was performed by exposing C57BL/6 mice to retired ICR mice for 2.5 min. The C57BL/6 mice were continuously defeated by these resident (aggressor) mice and, following 5 days of SDS, experienced 2 days of rest with no SDS. Mice in the stress+exercise group were allowed to voluntarily run on a wheel for 2h after every SDS exposure. Two weeks later, compared to the control group, the stress group showed a higher ratio of time spent in the corner zone of a social interaction paradigm even though SDS did not elicit depressive- and anxiety-like behaviors. We also observed that voluntary exercise, which did not affect muscle weight and gene expression, decreased social avoidance behavior of stressed mice without clear changes in brain monoamine levels. Interestingly, food intake in the stress+exercise group was the greatest among the three groups. To test the effect of the exercise-induced increase in food intake on social behavior, we set up a pair-fed group where food intake was restricted. We then compared these mice to mice in the stress alone group. We found that the ratio of time spent in the corner zone of the social interaction test was not different between ad libitum- and pair-fed groups, although pair-fed mice spent more time in the corner zone when an aggressor mouse was present than when it was absent. In addition, pair-feeding did not show exercise-induced reductions of adrenal gland weight and enhanced the

  19. Chronicity of depressive problems and the cortisol response to psychosocial stress in adolescents: the TRAILS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booij, Sanne H; Bouma, Esther M C; de Jonge, Peter; Ormel, Johan; Oldehinkel, Albertine J

    2013-05-01

    Clinical and epidemiological studies, further supported by meta-analytic studies, indicate a possible association between chronicity (i.e., persistence or recurrence) of depression and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis responsiveness to psychosocial stress. In the present study, we examined whether and how chronicity of depressive problems predicts cortisol responses to a standardized social stress test in adolescents. Data were collected in a high-risk focus sample (n=351) of the Tracking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey (TRAILS) cohort, a large prospective population study with bi- to triennial measurements. Depressive problems were assessed around age 11, 13.5, and 16. Cortisol levels were measured in saliva, sampled before, during, and after the Groningen Social Stress Test (GSST), to determine the cortisol response to psychosocial stress. The area under the curve with respect to the increase (AUCi) (i.e., change from baseline) of the cortisol response was used as a measure of HPA axis response. By means of linear regression analysis and repeated-measures analysis of variance, it was examined whether chronicity of depressive problems predicted the cortisol response to the GSST around the age of 16. Chronicity of depressive problems was significantly associated with cortisol stress responses. The relationship was curvilinear, with recent-onset depressive problems predicting an increased cortisol response, and more chronic depressive problems a blunted response. The results of this study suggest that depressive problems initially increase cortisol responses to stress, but that this pattern reverses when depressive problems persist over prolonged periods of time. PMID:22963816

  20. EVALUATION OF OXIDATIVE STRESS MARKERS IN CHRONIC KIDNEY FAILURES OF SOUTH INDIAN POPULATION

    OpenAIRE

    Kemidi Ilaiah; V Chandrashekar; K.B.Prusty; H.N.Viswas; J.Venkateswara Rao

    2013-01-01

    Oxidative stress defines an imbalance between the formation of reactive oxygen species and antioxidants. The existence of oxidative stress and higher incidence of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in association with uraemia is proven from studies on Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) patients. Non traditional risk factors like oxidative stress are being given special emphasis to explain high incidence and identification of new therapeutic interventions. Excess Reactive oxygen Species levels have been ...

  1. Differential impact of chronic stress along the hippocampal dorsal–ventral axis

    OpenAIRE

    Pinto, Vítor; Costa, João Carlos Cardoso; Morgado, Pedro; Mota, Cristina de Fátima Sousa da; Miranda, A.; Bravo, Ana Francisca Rodrigues Vaz; Oliveira, Tiago Gil; Cerqueira, João; Sousa, Nuno

    2015-01-01

    Stress impacts differently in distinct brain regions. However, so far few studies have focused on the differential responses triggered by stressful stimuli on the intrinsic functional heterogeneity of the hippocampal axis. In this study, we assessed the functional and structural alterations caused by exposure to a chronic unpredictable stress (CUS) paradigm on the dorsal-ventral axis of the hippocampus. The morphological analysis demonstrated that CUS had opposite outcomes in the structure of...

  2. Vulnerability to chronic subordination stress-induced depression-like disorders in adult 129SvEv male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadomo, Harold; Sanghez, Valentina; Di Cristo, Luisana; Lori, Andrea; Ceresini, Graziano; Malinge, Isabelle; Parmigiani, Stefano; Palanza, Paola; Sheardown, Malcolm; Bartolomucci, Alessandro

    2011-08-01

    Exposure to stressful life events is intimately linked with vulnerability to neuropsychiatric disorders such as major depression. Pre-clinical animal models offer an effective tool to disentangle the underlying molecular mechanisms. In particular, the 129SvEv strain is often used to develop transgenic mouse models but poorly characterized as far as behavior and neuroendocrine functions are concerned. Here we present a comprehensive characterization of 129SvEv male mice's vulnerability to social stress-induced depression-like disorders and physiological comorbidities. We employed a well characterized mouse model of chronic social stress based on social defeat and subordination. Subordinate 129SvEv mice showed body weight gain, hyperphagia, increased adipose fat pads weight and basal plasma corticosterone. Home cage phenotyping revealed a suppression of spontaneous locomotor activity and transient hyperthermia. Subordinate 129SvEv mice also showed marked fearfulness, anhedonic-like response toward a novel but palatable food, increased anxiety in the elevated plus maze and social avoidance of an unfamiliar male mouse. A direct measured effect of the stressfulness of the living environment, i.e. the amount of daily aggression received, predicted the degree of corticosterone level and locomotor activity but not of the other parameters. This is the first study validating a chronic subordination stress paradigm in 129SvEv male mice. Results demonstrated remarkable stress vulnerability and establish the validity to use this mouse strain as a model for depression-like disorders. PMID:21093519

  3. A Presence-Based Context-Aware Chronic Stress Recognition System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Kos

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Stressors encountered in daily life may play an important role in personal well-being. Chronic stress can have a serious long-term impact on our physical as well as our psychological health, due to ongoing increased levels of the chemicals released in the ‘fight or flight’ response. The currently available stress assessment methods are usually not suitable for daily chronic stress measurement. The paper presents a context-aware chronic stress recognition system that addresses this problem. The proposed system obtains contextual data from various mobile sensors and other external sources in order to calculate the impact of ongoing stress. By identifying and visualizing ongoing stress situations of an individual user, he/she is able to modify his/her behavior in order to successfully avoid them. Clinical evaluation of the proposed methodology has been made in parallel by using electrodermal activity sensor. To the best of our knowledge, the system presented herein is the first one that enables recognition of chronic stress situations on the basis of user context.

  4. The influence of work-related chronic stress on the regulation of emotion and on functional connectivity in the brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armita Golkar

    Full Text Available Despite mounting reports about the negative effects of chronic occupational stress on cognitive and emotional functions, the underlying mechanisms are unknown. Recent findings from structural MRI raise the question whether this condition could be associated with a functional uncoupling of the limbic networks and an impaired modulation of emotional stress. To address this, 40 subjects suffering from burnout symptoms attributed to chronic occupational stress and 70 controls were investigated using resting state functional MRI. The participants' ability to up- regulate, down-regulate, and maintain emotion was evaluated by recording their acoustic startle response while viewing neutral and negatively loaded images. Functional connectivity was calculated from amygdala seed regions, using explorative linear correlation analysis. Stressed subjects were less capable of down-regulating negative emotion, but had normal acoustic startle responses when asked to up-regulate or maintain emotion and when no regulation was required. The functional connectivity between the amygdala and the anterior cingulate cortex correlated with the ability to down-regulate negative emotion. This connectivity was significantly weaker in the burnout group, as was the amygdala connectivity with the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and the motor cortex, whereas connectivity from the amygdala to the cerebellum and the insular cortex were stronger. In subjects suffering from chronic occupational stress, the functional couplings within the emotion- and stress-processing limbic networks seem to be altered, and associated with a reduced ability to down-regulate the response to emotional stress, providing a biological substrate for a further facilitation of the stress condition.

  5. Chronic mild stress (CMS in mice: of anhedonia, 'anomalous anxiolysis' and activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin C Schweizer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In a substantial proportion of depressed patients, stressful life events play a role in triggering the evolution of the illness. Exposure to stress has effects on different levels in laboratory animals as well and for the rat it has been shown that chronic mild stress (CMS can cause antidepressant-reversible depressive-like effects. The adoption of the model to the mouse seems to be problematic, depending on the strain used and behavioural endpoint defined. Our aim was to evaluate the applicability of CMS to mice in order to induce behavioural alterations suggested to reflect depression-like symptoms. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A weekly CMS protocol was applied to male mice of different mouse strains (D2Ola, BL/6J and BL/6N and its impact on stress-sensitive behavioural measures (anhedonia-, anxiety- and depression-related parameters and body weight was assessed. Overnight illumination as commonly used stressor in CMS protocols was particularly investigated in terms of its effect on general activity and subsequently derived saccharin intake. CMS application yielded strain-dependent behavioural and physiological responses including 'paradox' anxiolytic-like effects. Overnight illumination was found to be sufficient to mimic anhedonic-like behaviour in BL/6J mice when being applied as sole stressor. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The CMS procedure induced some behavioural changes that are compatible with the common expectations, i.e. 'anhedonic' behaviour, but in parallel behavioural alterations were observed which would be described as 'anomalous' (e.g. decreased anxiety. The results suggest that a shift in the pattern of circadian activity has a particular high impact on the anhedonic profile. Changes in activity in response to novelty seem to drive the 'anomalous' behavioural alterations as well.

  6. Stress sensitivity and resilience in the chronic mild stress rat model of depression; an in situ hybridization study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergström, A; Jayatissa, M N; Mørk, A;

    2008-01-01

    We used the validated chronic mild stress (CMS) paradigm to induce anhedonia, a core symptom of major depression, in rats. Thirty percent of animals exposed to CMS are resistant to the development of anhedonia, whereas the remaining are responsive, CMS resilient and CMS sensitive, respectively. We...

  7. INFLUENCE OF ACUTE EXERCISE ON OXIDATIVE STRESS IN CHRONIC SMOKERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zehra Serdar

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available The relative oxidative insult caused by exercise and smoking on biological systems are well documented, however, their cumulative influence needs to be clarified. In order to examine the collective effects of exercise and smoking on oxidant and antioxidant parameters, young male smokers (n=10 and non-smokers (n=10 made to perform a negative slope (10% cycling exercise for 30 minutes at individual load equivalent to 60% maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max. Pre- and post-exercise (post-ex haematocrit, haemoglobin, white blood cells, plasma malondialdehyde (MDA levels, protein carbonyl formation and non-HDL oxidation, erythrocyte superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione peroxidase (GPX activities, serum ceruloplasmin (CER and urinary cotinine concentrations were evaluated. Pre-ex CER and urinary cotinine concentrations of smokers were significantly higher (p<0.05 and p<0.01, respectively compared to that of non-smokers and pre-ex CER concentrations were significantly correlated with cotinine levels in all subjects (p<0.05. Significant (p<0.01 increases were observed in non-HDL oxidation following the exercise in both groups and the elevations were more pronounced in smokers. Pre-ex SOD and GPX activities were not different between the two groups, however post-ex enzyme activities were significantly reduced in smokers (p<0.05. MDA and protein carbonyl concentrations were not different between the two groups and there were not any significant changes due to exercise.In conclusion, according to the results of the present study, we suggest that erythrocyte antioxidants SOD and GPX and plasma non-HDL are more prone to the possible oxidant damage of acute physical exercise in chronic smokers.

  8. The number of granule cells in rat hippocampus is reduced after chronic mild stress and re-established after chronic escitalopram treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jayatissa, Magdalena N; Bisgaard, Christina; West, Mark J;

    2008-01-01

    Stress and depression cause structural changes in the hippocampal formation. Some of these can be reversed by chronic antidepressant treatment. In the present study, we examined the changes in the total number of granule cells and the volume of the granule cell layer after exposing rats to chronic...... mild stress and chronic escitalopram treatment. Furthermore, we investigated which classes of immature granule cells are affected by stress and targeted by escitalopram. Rats were initially exposed to 2weeks of CMS and 4weeks of escitalopram treatment with concurrent exposure to stress. The behavioral...

  9. Effective stress coefficient for uniaxial strain condition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alam, Mohammad Monzurul; Fabricius, Ida Lykke

    2012-01-01

    coefficient from one dimensional rock mechanical deformation. We further investigated the effect of boundary condition on the stress dependency of effective stress coefficient and discussed its application in reservoir study. As stress field in the reservoirs are most unlikely to be hydrostatic, effective...... stress determined under uniaxial strain condition will be more relevant in reservoir studies....

  10. Effective stress coefficient for uniaxial strain condition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alam, M.M.; Fabricius, I.L.

    2012-01-01

    coefficient from one dimensional rock mechanical deformation. We further investigated the effect of boundary condition on the stress dependency of effective stress coefficient and discussed its application in reservoir study. As stress field in the reservoirs are most unlikely to be hydrostatic, effective...... stress determined under uniaxial strain condition will be more relevant in reservoir studies. Copyright 2012 ARMA, American Rock Mechanics Association....

  11. [Depressive state of rats in conditions of chronic combined stress caused by the combination of differently modal stressors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    Chronic combined stress with the change of differently modal stressors (noise, vibration and pulsating bright light) according to the stochastic scheme against the background of constant stressors (restriction of movement, fluctuations of the temperature of the environment) causes symptoms of depression-like animal behavior, having the pronounced phenomenological simila rity with the clinical presentation of depression: anxiety, behavioral correlates of despair, hypodynamia, anhedonia, as well as morphosomatic consequences of chronic stress: involution of the thymus and spleen, hypertrophy of epinephros, ulceration of the mucous stomach membrane. Imipramine and fluoxetine effectively reduce the stated behavioral disorders, their effectiveness corresponds to the results of clinical studies and the data received from other models of depression. The described model of depression, has satisfactory, corresponding, constructive and predictive validity and can be used for physiological, ethological, and pharmacological studies. PMID:25507816

  12. The appraisal of chronic stress and the development of the metabolic syndrome: a systematic review of prospective cohort studies

    OpenAIRE

    Bergmann, N; Gyntelberg, F; Faber, J

    2014-01-01

    Chronic psychosocial stress has been proposed as a risk factor for the development of the metabolic syndrome (MES). This review gives a systematic overview of prospective cohort studies investigating chronic psychosocial stress as a risk factor for incident MES and the individual elements of MES. Thirty-nine studies were included. An association between chronic psychosocial stress and the development of MES was generally supported. Regarding the four elements of MES: i) weight gain: the prosp...

  13. Effect of Chronic Restraint Stress on HPA Axis Activity and Expression of BDNF and Trkb in the Hippocampus of Pregnant Rats: Possible Contribution in Depression during Pregnancy and Postpartum Period

    OpenAIRE

    Maghsoudi, Nader; Ghasemi, Rasoul; Ghaempanah, Zahra; Ardekani, Ali M.; Nooshinfar, Elahe; Tahzibi, Abbas

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) and its receptor, TrkB, in the hippocampus are targets for adverse effects of stress paradigms; in addition, BDNF and its receptor play key role in the pathology of brain diseases like depression. In the present study, we evaluated the possible role of hippocampal BDNF in depression during pregnancy, Methods To achieve the purpose, repeated restrain stress (1 or 3 hours daily for 7 days) during the last week of pregnancy was used and alter...

  14. Effects of chronic restraint stress on learning and memory in SD and Wistar rats%慢性束缚应激对 SD 和 Wistar 大鼠学习记忆能力的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王逸; 卢聪; 宋广青; 陈怡西; 武宏伟; 王琼; 曲丽娜; 李莹辉; 刘新民

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of chronic restraint stress on learning and memory in Wistar and Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats.Methods Healthy adult male Wistar rats (n=6) and Sprague-Dawley rats (n=6) were subjected to restraint stress 10 h daily for 28 days.After that, all rats were tested for recognition memory by novel object recognition test , and spatial memory and working memory by Morris water maze test .Results After restraint for 10 h daily for 28 days, the restraint rats of the two strains demonstrated lower discrimination index (DI)than the control group, but on-ly SD rats showed significant difference ( P<0.05 ) .The restraint SD rats showed higher escape latency than the control rats, and on the 5th day the difference became significant (P<0.05), and there was no significant difference between Wistar restraint and control rats .The working memory test showed that restraint SD rats exibited longer escape latency than the control rats (P<0.05), while Wistar rats didn’t show significant difference between the two groups .Conclusions The results of this study demonstrate that the impairments of learning and memory in SD rats subjected to restraint 10 hour per day for 28 days are more serious than that in the Wistar rats .Therefore , SD rats may be a better choice as an animal model to study the effects of chronic restraint stress on learning and memory impairment .%目的:探讨慢性束缚应激对Wistar、SD两种品系大鼠学习记忆能力的影响,为应激模型中实验动物的选择提供依据。方法对两种品系大鼠( Wistar、SD)采用每天束缚10 h,束缚28 d建立慢性应激模型。采用物体认知新物体识别实验和Morris水迷宫空间学习、工作记忆行为学检测方法,观察束缚应激对两种品系实验动物学习记忆能力的影响。结果束缚28 d后,物体识别实验中,Wistar、SD模型组的辨别指数( discrimination index, DI)均低于对照组,但只有SD两组

  15. Emotional Expression and Positive Affect in Latina and non-Latina White Women Coping with Chronic Financial Stress

    OpenAIRE

    Moreno, Patricia Ingrid

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this dissertation was to examine emotional expression and positive affect in a sample of Latina and non-Latina white female undergraduate students at UCLA experiencing chronic financial stress. In order to assess the influence of dispositional emotional tendencies, stressor-specific coping, and cultural factors on outcomes of induced emotional expression, the first study examined the main and moderated effects of induced emotional expression on depressive symptoms, intrusive though...

  16. Hydrogen Sulfide Protects against Chronic Unpredictable Mild Stress-Induced Oxidative Stress in Hippocampus by Upregulation of BDNF-TrkB Pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Wei; Wang, Chun-Yan; Tan, Hui-Ying; Zeng, Hai-Ying; Zhang, Ping; Gu, Hong-Feng

    2016-01-01

    Chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) induces hippocampal oxidative stress. H2S functions as a neuroprotectant against oxidative stress in brain. We have previously shown the upregulatory effect of H2S on BDNF protein expression in the hippocampus of rats. Therefore, we hypothesized that H2S prevents CUMS-generated oxidative stress by upregulation of BDNF-TrkB pathway. We showed that NaHS (0.03 or 0.1 mmol/kg/day) ameliorates the level of hippocampal oxidative stress, including reduced levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and 4-hydroxy-2-trans-nonenal (4-HNE), as well as increased level of glutathione (GSH) and activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) in the hippocampus of CUMS-treated rats. We also found that H2S upregulated the level of BDNF and p-TrkB protein in the hippocampus of CUMS rats. Furthermore, inhibition of BDNF signaling by K252a, an inhibitor of the BDNF receptor TrkB, blocked the antioxidant effects of H2S on CUMS-induced hippocampal oxidative stress. These results reveal the inhibitory role of H2S in CUMS-induced hippocampal oxidative stress, which is through upregulation of BDNF/TrkB pathway. PMID:27525050

  17. Concomitant stress potentiates the preference for, and consumption of, ethanol induced by chronic pre-exposure to ethanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Morais-Silva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ethanol abuse is linked to several acute and chronic injuries that can lead to health problems. Ethanol addiction is one of the most severe diseases linked to the abuse of this drug. Symptoms of ethanol addiction include compulsive substance intake and withdrawal syndrome. Stress exposure has an important role in addictive behavior for many drugs of abuse (including ethanol, but the consequences of stress and ethanol in the organism when these factors are concomitant results in a complex interaction. We investigated the effects of concomitant, chronic administration of ethanol and stress exposure on the withdrawal and consumption of, as well as the preference for, ethanol in mice. Male Swiss mice (30–35 g, 8-10 per group were exposed to an ethanol liquid diet as the only source of food for 15 days. In the final 5 days, they were exposed to forced swimming stress. Twelve hours after removal of the ethanol liquid diet, animals were evaluated for ethanol withdrawal by measuring anxiety-related behaviors and locomotor activity. Twenty-four hours after evaluation of ethanol withdrawal, they were evaluated for voluntary consumption of ethanol in a “three-bottle choice” paradigm. Mice exposed to chronic consumption of ethanol had decreased locomotor activity during withdrawal. Contrary to our expectations, a concomitant forced swimming stress did not aggravate ethanol withdrawal. Nevertheless, simultaneous ethanol administration and stress exposure increased voluntary consumption of ethanol, mainly solutions containing high concentrations of ethanol. These results showed that stressful situations during ethanol intake may aggravate specific addiction-related behaviors.

  18. Differential Impact of Stress Reduction Programs upon Ambulatory Blood Pressure among African American Adolescents: Influences of Endothelin-1 Gene and Chronic Stress Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathew J. Gregoski

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Stress-activated gene × environment interactions may contribute to individual variability in blood pressure reductions from behavioral interventions. We investigated effects of endothelin-1 (ET-1 LYS198ASN SNP and discriminatory stress exposure upon impact of 12-week behavioral interventions upon ambulatory BP (ABP among 162 prehypertensive African American adolescents. Following genotyping, completion of questionnaire battery, and 24-hour ABP monitoring, participants were randomized to health education control (HEC, life skills training (LST, or breathing awareness meditation (BAM. Postintervention ABP was obtained. Significant three-way interactions on ABP changes indicated that among ET-1 SNP carriers, the only group to show reductions was BAM from low chronic stress environments. Among ET-1 SNP noncarriers, under low chronic stress exposure, all approaches worked, especially BAM. Among high stress exposure noncarriers, only BAM resulted in reductions. If these preliminary findings are replicated via ancillary analyses of archival databases and then via efficacy trials, selection of behavioral prescriptions for prehypertensives will be edging closer to being guided by individual's underlying genetic and environmental factors incorporating the healthcare model of personalized preventive medicine.

  19. Response patterns in adult forest trees to chronic ozone stress: identification of variations and consistencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The responsiveness of adult beech and spruce trees to chronic O3 stress was studied at a free-air O3 exposure experiment in Freising/Germany. Over three growing seasons, gas exchange characteristics, biochemical parameters, macroscopic O3 injury and the phenology of leaf organs were investigated, along with assessments of branch and stem growth as indications of tree performance. To assess response pattern to chronic O3 stress in adult forest trees, we introduce a new evaluation approach, which provides a comprehensive, readily accomplishable overview across several tree-internal scaling levels, different canopy regions and growing seasons. This new approach, based on a three-grade colour coding, combines statistical analysis and the proficient ability of the 'human eye' in pattern recognition. - Responses of adult forest trees to chronic O3 stress can be visualized in a survey table applying a three-grade colour coding to each investigated parameter

  20. NEUROPROTECTIVE EFFECT OF CURCUMIN ON RATS UNDER CHRONIC UNPREDICTABLE MILD STRESS%姜黄素预处理对慢性心理应激大鼠中枢神经的保护作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    安改红; 陈学伟; 王静; 刘洪涛; 张娜; 徐传香; 佘晓俊; 崔博; 马强

    2013-01-01

    目的 观察姜黄素预处理对慢性应激大鼠行为学、单胺类递质水平及血清糖皮质激素的影响,为评价姜黄素对慢性心理应激大鼠中枢神经的保护作用提供依据.方法 48只Wistar大鼠随机分为对照组、慢性应激组、氟西汀干预组、姜黄素(低、中、高剂量)干预组,每天应激前1h灌胃给药.对大鼠进行28 d应激刺激建立慢性不可预知性慢性应激模型.旷场试验测定大鼠行为学指标;糖水试验测定大鼠“快感缺乏”;高效液相-电化学检测法测定海马单胺类递质;ELISA检测血清糖皮质激素.结果 慢性应激组大鼠的体质量、旷场活动性和糖水偏嗜度均明显低于对照组(P<0.05,P<0.01);海马5-HT含量下降(P<0.05),血清糖皮质激素水平升高(P<0.01).3个剂量姜黄素组大鼠体质量于第4周分别为(310.60±21.35)、(315.60±23.73)和(319.91±18.76)g,高于慢性应激组[(270.24±19.60)g,P<0.05];旷场竖立时间分别为(18.86±9.49)、(24.14±4.38)和(24.14±5.41)s,高于慢性应激组[(11.00±9.20)s,P<0.05];血清糖皮质激素水平分别为(567.94±22.54)、(338.62±63.79)和(259.96± 17.79)ng/L,低于慢性应激组[(908.57±22.86) ng/L,P<0.01].实验后低、中剂量组海马5-HT含量分别为(1063.89±149.61)和(1340.96±42.62) ng/g,高于慢性应激组[(941.23±80.00) ng/g,P<0.05].结论 姜黄素预处理可改善慢性不可预知性应激大鼠抑郁状态,起到中枢神经保护作用,其作用机制可能与单胺类递质水平的增加和调节HPA轴活性有关.%Objective To observe the effect of curcumin on behavior,monoamine neurotransmitter,and serum glucocorticoid of rats under chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) ,in order to provide theoretical basis for assessing the neuroprotection of curcumin. Methods Forty-eight male Wistar rats were randomly divided into six groups: normal control group, stress group, curcumin groups (low, moderate, high dose) ,and

  1. Chronic stress differentially affects antioxidant enzymes and modifies the acute stress response in liver of Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djordjevic, J; Djordjevic, A; Adzic, M; Niciforovic, A; Radojcic, M B

    2010-01-01

    Clinical reports suggest close interactions between stressors, particularly those of long duration, and liver diseases, such as hepatic inflammation, that is proposed to occur via reactive oxygen species. In the present study we have used 21-day social isolation of male Wistar rats as a model of chronic stress to investigate protein expression/activity of liver antioxidant enzymes: superoxide dismutases (SODs), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione reductase (GLR), and protein expression of their upstream regulators: glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and nuclear factor kappa B (NFkB). We have also characterized these parameters in either naive or chronically stressed animals that were challenged by 30-min acute immobilization. We found that chronic isolation caused decrease in serum corticosterone (CORT) and blood glucose (GLU), increase in NFkB signaling, and disproportion between CuZnSOD, peroxidases (CAT, GPx) and GLR, thus promoting H2O2 accumulation and prooxidative state in liver. The overall results suggested that chronic stress exaggerated responsiveness to subsequent stressor at the level of CORT and GLU, and potentiated GLR response, but compromised the restoration of oxido-reductive balance due to irreversible alterations in MnSOD and GPx. PMID:20406049

  2. EVALUATION OF OXIDATIVE STRESS MARKERS IN CHRONIC KIDNEY FAILURES OF SOUTH INDIAN POPULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kemidi Ilaiah

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress defines an imbalance between the formation of reactive oxygen species and antioxidants. The existence of oxidative stress and higher incidence of cardiovascular diseases (CVD in association with uraemia is proven from studies on Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD patients. Non traditional risk factors like oxidative stress are being given special emphasis to explain high incidence and identification of new therapeutic interventions. Excess Reactive oxygen Species levels have been implicated to damage DNA, lipids, proteins etc., It may also affect the cells of host, particularly at the inflammation site contributing to proteinuria observed in Chronic Kidney Disease patients. The uremic status, oxidant and antioxidant levels were assessed in the present study. This prospective observational study was conducted for nine months. Patients meeting the study criteria were included. Malonyldialdehyde (MDA, glutathione-S-transferase (GST, Protein thiols, Total proteins, Serum urea, creatinine, albumin and Haemoglobin levels were estimated using suitable methods. Study recruited 108 Chronic Kidney Disease patients, divided into three groups namely, patients without haemodialysis (54, patients with haemodialysis (54 and control population (50. Serum urea, creatinine, MDA and GST levels were found to be significantly increased (P<0.0001, and total proteins, albumin, proteinthiols, and Haemoglobin levels were found to be significantly decreased in Chronic Renal Failure patients compared to normal controls (P<0.0001. Our study confirms the presence of oxidative stress in Chronic Kidney Disease patient population. Our study also emphasises the need for anti-oxidant therapy in CKD patients.

  3. Effects of Yulangsan polysaccharide on monoamine neurotransmitters, adenylate cyclase activity and brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression in a mouse model of depression induced by unpredictable chronic mild stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shuang Liang; Renbin Huang; Xing Lin; Jianchun Huang; Zhongshi Huang; Huagang Liu

    2012-01-01

    The present study established a mouse model of depression induced by unpredictable chronic mild stress. The model mice were treated with Yulangsan polysaccharide (YLSPS; 150, 300 and 600 mg/kg) for 21 days, and compared with fluoxetine-treated and normal control groups. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, radioimmunity and immunohistochemical staining showed that following treatment with YLSPS (300 and 600 mg/kg), monoamine neurotransmitter levels, prefrontal cortex adenylate cyclase activity and hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression were significantly elevated, and depression-like behaviors were improved. Open-field and novelty-suppressed feeding tests showed that mouse activity levels were increased and feeding latency was shortened following treatment. Our results indicate that YLSPS inhibits depression by upregulating monoamine neurotransmitters, prefrontal cortex adenylate cyclase activity and hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression.

  4. Strain Differences in the Chronic Mild Stress Animal Model of Depression and Anxiety in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Jung, Yang-Hee; Hong, Sa-Ik; Ma, Shi-Xun; Hwang, Ji-Young; Kim, Jun-Sup; lee, Ju-hyun; Seo, Jee-Yeon; Lee, Seok-Yong; Jang, Choon-Gon

    2014-01-01

    Chronic mild stress (CMS) has been reported to induce an anhedonic-like state in mice that resembles some of the symptoms of human depression. In the present study, we used a chronic mild stress animal model of depression and anxiety to examine the responses of two strains of mice that have different behavioral responsiveness. An outbred ICR and an inbred C57BL/6 strain of mice were selected because they are widely used strains in behavioral tests. The results showed that the inbred C57BL/6 a...

  5. Sensitivity of the prefrontal GABAergic system to chronic stress in male and female mice: Relevance for sex differences in stress-related disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepard, Ryan; Page, Chloe E; Coutellier, Laurence

    2016-09-22

    Stress-induced modifications of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) are believed to contribute to the onset of mood disorders, such as depression and anxiety, which are more prevalent in women. In depression, the PFC is hypoactive; however the origin of this hypoactivity remains unclear. Possibly, stress could impact the prefrontal GABAergic inhibitory system that, as a result, impairs the functioning of downstream limbic structures controlling emotions. Preclinical evidence indicates that the female PFC is more sensitive to the effects of stress. These findings suggest that exposure to stress could lead to sex-specific alterations in prefrontal GABAergic signaling, which contribute to sex-specific abnormal functioning of limbic regions. These limbic changes could promote the onset of depressive and anxiety behaviors in a sex-specific manner, providing a possible mechanism mediating sex differences in the clinical presentation of stress-related mood disorders. We addressed this hypothesis using a mouse model of stress-induced depressive-like behaviors: the unpredictable chronic mild stress (UCMS) paradigm. We observed changes in prefrontal GABAergic signaling after exposure to UCMS most predominantly in females. Increased parvalbumin (PV) expression and decreased prefrontal neuronal activity were correlated in females with severe emotionality deficit following UCMS, and with altered activity of the amygdala. In males, small changes in emotionality following UCMS were associated with minor changes in prefrontal PV expression, and with hypoactivity of the nucleus accumbens. Our data suggest that prefrontal hypoactivity observed in stress-related mood disorders could result from stress-induced increases in PV expression, particularly in females. This increased vulnerability of the female prefrontal PV system to stress could underlie sex differences in the prevalence and symptomatology of stress-related mood disorders. PMID:27365172

  6. Altered Anxiety-like Behavior and Long-term Potentiation in the Bed Nucleus of the Stria Terminalis in Adult Mice Exposed to Chronic Social Isolation, Unpredictable Stress and Ethanol Beginning in Adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Conrad, Kelly L; Winder, Danny G.

    2010-01-01

    Alcohol and chronic stress exposure, especially during adolescence, can lead to an increased risk in adulthood of developing alcohol use disorders (AUDs). To date, however, no study has assessed the potential long-term effects of chronic intermittent and unpredictable ethanol (EtOH) exposure in mice chronically stressed beginning in adolescence on brain function and anxiety-like behaviors in adulthood. In particular, alterations in function of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST), a...

  7. Chronic Bilateral Tibial Stress Fractures with Valgus Treated with Bilateral Intramedullary Nailing: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven K Dailey

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Stress fractures are overuse injuries most commonly seen in athletes, military recruits, and individuals with endocrine abnormalities. It has been demonstrated that chronic cases of anterior tibial stress fractures refractory to conservative management respond well to intramedullary nailing. To our knowledge, only one report has been published concerning patients with bilateral tibial stress fractures treated with bilateral intramedullary nailing. All patients in the series were high-level athletes. We present the case of a non-athletic patient with chronic bilateral tibial stress fractures and associated deformity successfully treated with bilateral intramedullary nails. Case Report: A 23-year-old Caucasian female full-time student presented with chronic bilateral shin pain for approximately five years. She had failed an extensive regimen of conservative management. She was diagnosed with chronic bilateral tibial stress fractures based on history, physical examination, and radiologic findings. She subsequently underwent sequential intramedullary nailing of her tibiae. Both tibiae were in valgus alignment; however, this did not preclude nail placement. The nails deformed upon insertion into the sclerotic canals to conform to the deformation. Post operatively the tibiae united and patient was relieved of her symptoms. Conclusion: Bilateral intramedullary nailing of chronic bilateral tibial stress fractures should be considered as a treatment option for all patients, not just high-level athletes, who fail a trial of conservative management. Additionally, mild to moderate tibial malalignment does not necessarily preclude tibial nailing as the smaller nails placed in sclerotic canals will likely deform on insertion and conform to the canal. Keywords: Bilateral intramedullary nailing, bilateral tibial stress fractures, valgus

  8. Systematic review of the association between chronic social stress and telomere length: A life course perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Bruna Silva; Zunzunegui, Maria Victoria; Quinlan, Jacklyn; Fahmi, Hassan; Tu, Mai Thanh; Guerra, Ricardo Oliveira

    2016-03-01

    Our aim was to examine whether chronic social stress is associated with telomere length throughout the life course, following our protocol published in 2014. Structured searches were conducted in MEDLINE (PubMed interface), EMBASE (OVID interface), Cochrane Central (OVID interface) and grey from their start date onwards. Reference lists of retrieved citations were hand searched for relevant studies. Eighteen studies published until May 1, 2015 investigating the association between chronic social stress (as defined by poverty, exposure to violence, or family caregiving) and telomere length in healthy or diseased adults and children were independently selected by 2 reviewers. Sixteen of those studies were cross-sectional and two had a longitudinal design. Studies differed in type of stress exposure, method to measure telomere length and cell type. As meta-analysis could not be conducted, the data were synthesized as a narrative review. Based on this comprehensive review, chronic social stress accompanies telomere shortening in both early and adult exposures, with most eligible studies showing a significant relationship. We discuss the significance of chronic stress of social origin and the potential for social interventions through public policies and we recommend methodological improvements that would allow for future meta-analysis. PMID:26732034

  9. Knockout of the norepinephrine transporter and pharmacologically diverse antidepressants prevent behavioral and brain neurotrophin alterations in two chronic stress models of depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haenisch, Britta; Bilkei-Gorzo, Andras; Caron, Marc G.; Bönisch, Heinz

    2009-01-01

    Diverse factors such as changes in neurotrophins and brain plasticity have been proposed to be involved in the actions of antidepressant drugs (ADs). However, in mouse models of depression based on chronic stress, it is still unclear whether simultaneous changes in behavior and neurotrophin expression occur and whether these changes can be corrected or prevented comparably by chronic administration of ADs or genetic manipulations that produce antidepressant-like effects such as the knockout (KO) of the norepinephrine transporter (NET) gene. Here we show that chronic restraint or social defeat stress induce comparable effects on behavior and changes in the expression of neurotrophins in depression-related brain regions. Chronic stress caused down-regulation of BDNF, NGF and NT-3 in hippocampus and cerebral cortex and up-regulation of these targets in striatal regions. In wild-type mice, these effects could be prevented by concomitant chronic administration of five pharmacologically diverse ADs. In contrast, NETKO mice were resistant to stress-induced depressive-like changes in behavior and brain neurotrophin expression. Thus, the resistance of the NETKO mice to the stress-induced depression-associated behaviors and biochemical changes highlight the importance of noradrenergic pathways in the maintenance of mood. In addition, these mice represent a useful model to study depression-resistant behaviors, and they might help to provide deeper insights into the identification of downstream targets involved in the mechanisms of antidepressants. PMID:19694905

  10. Medication overuse, healthy lifestyle behaviour and stress in chronic headache

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westergaard, Maria Lurenda; Glümer, Charlotte; Hansen, Ebba Holme;

    2016-01-01

    having CH then further described as having medication-overuse headache (MOH) or CH without medication overuse. Associations between headache and daily smoking, physical inactivity, obesity, excessive drinking, illicit drug use, and high stress were analysed by logistic regression. RESULTS: CH with and...... without medication overuse (prevalence 1.8% and 1.6%, respectively) had strong, graded associations with stress. Associations with daily smoking, physical inactivity, and obesity were significant only for MOH. Odds for MOH were highest among people who had all three factors compared to those who had none...

  11. Daily stress and emotional well-being among Asian American adolescents: same-day, lagged, and chronic associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiang, Lisa; Buchanan, Christy M

    2014-02-01

    Daily-diary data from 180 Asian American 9th-10th graders (58% female, 75% second generation; M age = 14.97 years) were used to investigate how family, school, and peer stress are each associated with same-day and next-day (lagged) well-being, and vice versa. Hierarchical linear modeling provided support for reciprocal links when considering same-day reports. More daily stress was associated with lower same-day happiness and higher distress and anxiety. At the same time, well-being was associated with same-day stress, although the specific patterns were not as consistent and varied somewhat by stress domain. With a 1-day lag between daily experiences, stress was not associated with next-day well-being, but daily distress was associated with more next-day family stress. Females and first-generation adolescents were particularly vulnerable to daily stress and well-being processes. Sustained effects were also found in that chronic experiences of school stress over the 14-day period were associated with higher reports of depression and anxiety. PMID:23815704

  12. Electroconvulsive Stimulation, but not Chronic Restraint Stress, Causes Structural Alterations in Adult Rat Hippocampus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Mikkel V.; Wörtwein, Gitta; Pakkenberg, Bente

    2015-01-01

    The neurobiological mechanisms underlying depression are not fully understood. Only a few previous studies have used validated stereological methods to test how stress and animal paradigms of depression affect adult hippocampal neurogenesis and whether antidepressant therapy can counteract possible...... newly formed neurons in the hippocampal subgranular zone. Also estimated were the total number of neurons and the volume of the granule cell layer in adult rats subjected to chronic restraint stress and electroconvulsive stimulation either alone or in combination. We found that chronic restraint stress...... induces depression-like behavior, without significantly changing neurogenesis, the total number of neurons or the volume of the hippocampus. Further, electroconvulsive stimulation prevents stress-induced depression-like behavior and increases neurogenesis. The total number of neurons and the granule cell...

  13. 急、慢性束缚应激对小鼠情绪和学习记忆能力的不同影响%Different effects on emotion and cognition induced by acute restraint stress and chronic restraint stress in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周科成; 佳娜提; 吴黄辉; 王锋; 胡伟; 寇俊萍

    2013-01-01

    目的:观察急性束缚应激和慢性束缚应激对小鼠情绪和学习记忆能力的影响.方法:小鼠按体重和自发活动随机分成三组,即空白对照组,急性应激组和慢性应激组.采用束缚躯体的方法建立急慢性应激模型,并用自发活动实验检测小鼠的情绪状态,避暗实验检测小鼠的学习记忆能力.结果:自发活动实验中急性束缚应激组小鼠平均速度与空白组相比有显著增加(P<0.01),中央区活动时间和中央区活动路程百分比则显著增加(P<0.05),慢性应激组平均速度与空白组相比有显著减小(P<0.01),中央区活动时间和中央区活动路程百分比显著减小(P<0.05);避暗测试中急性应激组避暗潜伏期和错误次数没有改变,而慢性应激组潜伏期显著减小(P<0.05)、错误次数急显著增加(P<0.01).结论:急性束缚应激会使小鼠产生烦躁情绪、但不会改变其学习记忆能力;慢性束缚应激会使小鼠产生抑郁样情绪,会损害其学习记忆能力.%Objective: To investigate the effects of acute restraint stress (ARS) and chronic restraint stress (CRS) on the emotional change and cognitive ebility of mice. Methods: Mice were divided to three groups according body weight and spontaneous activity state i. e. control group, ARS and CRS. Acute restraint stress and chronic restraint stress animal models were established and changes of emotional and cognitive performances were examined by open field and step-through tests. Results: In open field test, ARS group showed lower mean velocity (P <0.01) , time in central zone (P <0. 05) and the percentage of distance in zone/total (P <0. 05) , while CRS group significantly reduced ( P <0. 05). There is no change of step-through latency and number of mistakes in ARS group, however, step-through latency significantly increased (P<0. 01) and number of mistakes deceased in CRS group (P<0. 05). Conclusion:The present results suggested that

  14. Stress management skills, cortisol awakening response, and post-exertional malaise in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Daniel L; Lattie, Emily G; Antoni, Michael H; Fletcher, Mary Ann; Czaja, Sara; Perdomo, Dolores; Klimas, Nancy G

    2014-11-01

    Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS) is characterized in part by debilitating fatigue typically exacerbated by cognitive and/or physical exertion, referred to as post-exertional malaise (PEM). In a variety of populations, the cortisol awakening response (CAR) has stood out as a marker of endocrine dysregulation relevant to the experience of fatigue, and may therefore be particularly relevant in CFS. This is the first study to examine PEM and the CAR in a sample of individuals with CFS. The CAR has also been established as a stress-sensitive measure of HPA axis functioning. It follows that better management of stress could modulate the CAR, and in turn PEM. In this cross-sectional study, we hypothesized that greater Perceived Stress Management Skills (PSMS) would relate to lower reports of PEM, via the impact of PSMS on the CAR. A total of 117 adults (72% female) with a CFS diagnosis completed self-report measures of PSMS and PEM symptomatology and a two-day protocol of saliva collection. Cortisol values from awakening and 30 min post-awakening were used to compute the CAR. Regression analyses revealed that greater PSMS related to greater CAR and greater CAR related to less PEM severity. Bootstrapped analyses revealed an indirect effect of PSMS on PEM via the CAR, such that greater PSMS related to less PEM, via a greater CAR. Future research should examine these trends longitudinally and whether interventions directed at improving stress management skills are accompanied by improved cortisol regulation and less PEM in individuals with CFS. PMID:25049069

  15. Family Stress, Resources, and Family Types: Chronic Illness in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCubbin, Marilyn A.

    1988-01-01

    Measured family stress, resources, parental coping, and family types in families who had a child with myelomeningocele. Determined the relationships between the family characteristics, the child's health status, and number of active health problems based on level of impairment. Demonstrated an increasing level of family system involvement…

  16. Racial/Ethnic Differences in Self-Reported and Biologic Measures of Chronic Stress in Pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Borders, Ann E.B; Wolfe, Kaitlin; Qadir, Sameen; Kim, Kwang-Youn; Holl, Jane; Grobman, William

    2015-01-01

    Objective Racial differences in chronic maternal stress may contribute to disparities in pregnancy outcomes. The objective is to identify racial and ethnic differences in self-reported and biologic measures of stress between non-Hispanic black (NHB) and non-Hispanic white (NHW) pregnant women. Study Design NHB and NHW pregnant women were enrolled prior to 23 weeks gestation in this prospective cohort study. Equal numbers of women were recruited with public versus private insurance in each rac...

  17. New Pathogenic Concepts and Therapeutic Approaches to Oxidative Stress in Chronic Kidney Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedraza-Chaverri, José; Sánchez-Lozada, Laura G; Osorio-Alonso, Horacio;

    2016-01-01

    In chronic kidney disease inflammatory processes and stimulation of immune cells result in overproduction of free radicals. In combination with a reduced antioxidant capacity this causes oxidative stress. This review focuses on current pathogenic concepts of oxidative stress for the decline of...... kidney function and development of cardiovascular complications. We discuss the impact of mitochondrial alterations and dysfunction, a pathogenic role for hyperuricemia, and disturbances of vitamin D metabolism and signal transduction. Recent antioxidant therapy options including the use of vitamin D and...

  18. Does Chronic Unpredictable Stress during Adolescence Affect Spatial Cognition in Adulthood?

    OpenAIRE

    Chaby, Lauren E; Michael J Sheriff; Hirrlinger, Amy M.; Lim, James; Thomas B Fetherston; Braithwaite, Victoria A.

    2015-01-01

    Spatial abilities allow animals to retain and cognitively manipulate information about their spatial environment and are dependent upon neural structures that mature during adolescence. Exposure to stress in adolescence is thought to disrupt neural maturation, possibly compromising cognitive processes later in life. We examined whether exposure to chronic unpredictable stress in adolescence affects spatial ability in late adulthood. We evaluated spatial learning, reference and working memory,...

  19. Differential induction of FosB isoforms throughout the brain by fluoxetine and chronic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vialou, Vincent; Thibault, Mackenzie; Kaska, Sophia; Cooper, Sarah; Gajewski, Paula; Eagle, Andrew; Mazei-Robison, Michelle; Nestler, Eric J; Robison, A J

    2015-12-01

    Major depressive disorder is thought to arise in part from dysfunction of the brain's "reward circuitry", consisting of the mesolimbic dopamine system and the glutamatergic and neuromodulatory inputs onto this system. Both chronic stress and antidepressant treatment regulate gene transcription in many of the brain regions that make up these circuits, but the exact nature of the transcription factors and target genes involved in these processes remain unclear. Here, we demonstrate induction of the FosB family of transcription factors in ∼25 distinct regions of adult mouse brain, including many parts of the reward circuitry, by chronic exposure to the antidepressant fluoxetine. We further uncover specific patterns of FosB gene product expression (i.e., differential expression of full-length FosB, ΔFosB, and Δ2ΔFosB) in brain regions associated with depression--the nucleus accumbens (NAc), prefrontal cortex (PFC), and hippocampus--in response to chronic fluoxetine treatment, and contrast these patterns with differential induction of FosB isoforms in the chronic social defeat stress model of depression with and without fluoxetine treatment. We find that chronic fluoxetine, in contrast to stress, causes induction of the unstable full-length FosB isoform in the NAc, PFC, and hippocampus even 24 h following the final injection, indicating that these brain regions may undergo chronic activation when fluoxetine is on board, even in the absence of stress. We also find that only the stable ΔFosB isoform correlates with behavioral responses to stress. These data suggest that NAc, PFC, and hippocampus may present useful targets for directed intervention in mood disorders (ie, brain stimulation or gene therapy), and that determining the gene targets of FosB-mediated transcription in these brain regions in response to fluoxetine may yield novel inroads for pharmaceutical intervention in depressive disorders. PMID:26164345

  20. Chronic obstructive lung disease and posttraumatic stress disorder: current perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Abrams TE; Blevins A; Vander Weg MW

    2015-01-01

    Thad E Abrams,1,2 Amy Blevins,1,3 Mark W Vander Weg1,2,4 1Department of Internal Medicine, University of Iowa, 2Center for Comprehensive Access and Delivery Research and Evaluation, Iowa City VA Health Care System, 3Hardin Health Sciences Library, 4Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA, USA Background: Several studies have reported on the co-occurrence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and psychiatric conditions, with the most robust...

  1. Nitrosative stress in human skeletal muscle attenuated by exercise countermeasure after chronic disuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Salanova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Activity-induced nitric oxide (NO imbalance and “nitrosative stress” are proposed mechanisms of disrupted Ca2+ homeostasis in atrophic skeletal muscle. We thus mapped S-nitrosylated (SNO functional muscle proteins in healthy male subjects in a long-term bed rest study (BBR2-2 Study without and with exercise as countermeasure in order to assess (i the negative effects of chronic muscle disuse by nitrosative stress, (ii to test for possible attenuation by exercise countermeasure in bed rest and (iii to identify new NO target proteins. Muscle biopsies from calf soleus and hip vastus lateralis were harvested at start (Pre and at end (End from a bed rest disuse control group (CTR, n=9 and two bed rest resistive exercise groups either without (RE, n=7 or with superimposed vibration stimuli (RVE, n=7. At subcellular compartments, strong anti-SNO-Cys immunofluorescence patterns in control muscle fibers after bed rest returned to baseline following vibration exercise. Total SNO-protein levels, Nrf-2 gene expression and nucleocytoplasmic shuttling were changed to varying degrees in all groups. Excess SNO-protein levels of specific calcium release/uptake proteins (SNO-RyR1, –SERCA1 and –PMCA and of contractile myosin heavy chains seen in biopsy samples of chronically disused skeletal muscle were largely reduced by vibration exercise. We also identified NOS1 as a novel NO target in human skeletal muscle controlled by activity driven auto-nitrosylation mechanisms. Our findings suggest that aberrant levels of functional SNO-proteins represent signatures of uncontrolled nitrosative stress management in disused human skeletal muscle that can be offset by exercise as countermeasure.

  2. Apomorphine induced conditioned place preference and sensitization is greater in rats exposed to unpredictable chronic mild stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanwal, Sumera; Ikram, Huma; Farhan, Muhammad; Haleem, Darakhshan Jabeen

    2015-11-01

    CNS stimulants are the class of the drugs that may be used to get relief from depression. Apomorphine is a D1 and D2 receptor agonist with a CNS stimulatory effect used for the treatment of Parkinson's disease is also abused. Although many drugs of abuse produce tolerance and dependence. Long term use of pshycostimulants produce reverse tolerance described as sensitization. These drugs also have a number of other beneficial effects but their therapeutic use is limited because of abuse potential. Conditioned place preference (CPP) test is used to monitor the reinforcing effect of drugs of abuse. Stress is an important factor that precipitates and potentiates addictive effects of different drugs of abuse. The present study was designed to investigate the addictive effect of apomorphine (1mg/kg) in rats previously exposed to repeated unpredictable chronic mild stress for 10 days (animal model of depression). Results from present study illustrate that unpredictable chronic mild stress potentiates the reinforcing effects of apomorphine as the number of entries and the time spent in the CPP compartment associated with drug administration is increased. Motor activity was taken as a parameter for behavioral sensitization which is induced by repeated administration of apomorphine, monitored as the number of cage crossings in light compartment of the CPP apparatus, also increased. PMID:26639488

  3. Attenuation of Acute and Chronic Restraint Stress-induced Perturbations in Experimental Animals by Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn

    OpenAIRE

    Kulkarni, M. P.; Juvekar, A. R.

    2008-01-01

    Aqueous extract of leaves of Nelumbo nucifera was investigated on acute stress (immobilization stress)-induced biochemical alterations in Swiss mice. The animals were also subjected to acute physical stress (swimming endurance test) and acute chemical stress (writhing test) to gauge the antistress potential of the extract. Further to evaluate the antistress activity of Nelumbo nucifera in chronic stress condition, fresh Wistar rats were subjected to cold restraint stress (4° for 1 h) for 7 da...

  4. Attenuation of acute and chronic restraint stress-induced perturbations in experimental animals by Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn

    OpenAIRE

    Kulkarni M; Juvekar A

    2008-01-01

    Aqueous extract of leaves of Nelumbo nucifera was investigated on acute stress (immobilization stress)-induced biochemical alterations in Swiss mice. The animals were also subjected to acute physical stress (swimming endurance test) and acute chemical stress (writhing test) to gauge the antistress potential of the extract. Further to evaluate the antistress activity of Nelumbo nucifera in chronic stress condition, fresh Wistar rats were subjected to cold restraint stress (4° for 1 h) f...

  5. Childhood Poverty, Chronic Stress, and Young Adult Working Memory: The Protective Role of Self-Regulatory Capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Gary W.; Fuller-Rowell, Thomas E.

    2013-01-01

    Prior research shows that childhood poverty as well as chronic stress can damage children's executive functioning (EF) capacities, including working memory. However, it is also clear that not all children suffer the same degree of adverse consequences from risk exposure. We show that chronic stress early in life (ages 9-13) links childhood…

  6. 慢性应激对不同月龄大鼠前额叶皮质、纹状体脑源性神经营养因子表达的影响%Chronic Stress Effects on BDNF Expression in PFC and Caudate Putamen in Different Aged Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王一赫; 江虹; 冀永娟; 李颖; 樊淑娟; 潘芳; 刘德祥

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To study the chronic stress effects on the behavior and BDNF expression in PFC and caudate putamen in different aged rats. Methods: Chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) was used to build 2 month and 15 month old Wistar rats depressive animal model, and to observe the behavior in open field test, sucrose preference, mor-phologic changes and BDNF expression in PFC and caudate putamen. Results: Compared with the control groups, the young stress groups displayed less square crossing and vertical movement, and the aged stress animals had more remark-able changes in those behavior. The young stress rats showed obviously decreased tendency in sucrose preference com-pared with the control groups. Meanwhile, the aged stress group exhibited obvious decreases of sucrose preference after stress, and persisted 1 week after stress than the young stress group. The young stress groups displayed obviously morpho-logic damage in PFC and caudate putamen, the aged stress group showed more cell atrophy and cellular necrosis compared with the young stress group. The young stress rats had significant lower BDNF expression in PFC and caudate putamen than the control groups; the aged stress rats showed even lower BDNF expression than the young stress rats at every testing time. Conclusion: CUMS induces aged rats to more serious abnormal behavior than young animals, indicating aging is one of the important influence factors in stress. The aged rats have more serious cell atrophy and cellular necrosis than the young rats under CUMS. Stress induces significant reduction of BDNF expression in PFC and caudate putamen. The aged stress rats have much lower BDNF expression than the young rats.%目的:观察慢性应激对不同月龄大鼠行为、前额叶皮质、纹状体脑源性神经营养因子(BDNF)表达的影响.方法:采用慢性轻度不可预知性应激建立动物模型,观察2月龄和15月龄48只Wistar大鼠的行为学、前额叶皮层和纹状体细胞形态

  7. Stress in adolescents with a chronically ill parent: inspiration from Rolland's Family Systems-Illness model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.S. Sieh; A.L.C. Dikkers; J.M.A. Visser-Meily; A.M. Meijer

    2012-01-01

    This article was inspired by Rolland’s Family Systems-Illness (FSI) model, aiming to predict adolescent stress as a function of parental illness type. Ninety-nine parents with a chronic medical condition, 82 partners, and 158 adolescent children (51 % girls; mean age = 15.1 years) participated in th

  8. Symptom Differences in Acute and Chronic Presentation of Childhood Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Famularo, Richard; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Twenty-four child abuse victims, age 5-13, were diagnosed with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Children with the acute form of PTSD exhibited such symptoms as difficulty falling asleep, hypervigilance, nightmares, and generalized anxiety. Children exhibiting chronic PTSD exhibited increased detachment, restricted range of affect,…

  9. 慢性应激对大鼠胸腺指数和血清CORT、胸腺肽浓度的影响%Effects of Chronic Stress on Thymus Index and Concentration of Serum CORT and Thymosin in Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔春红; 孙兆霞; 李伟; 姜鹤

    2015-01-01

    Objective To To study the influence of acute stress on thymus index and concentration of serum CORT and thymosin in rats. Methods Rats were randomly divided into control group and stress group. Stress group rats were given compound stress, including absolute diet 12 h, water deprivation 12 h, being bounded 6 h, day and night inversion, forced swimming 15 min, damp bedding 24 h, 45° water immersion, which were randomly given once a day with 7 days for a cycle, and each stimulus was applied once for a total of 14 days. Then rats were killed and serum CORT and thymosin were extracted. We calculated the thymus index and determined the concentration of serum CORT and thymopeptide using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results The thy-mus index was (1.08±0.13)mg/g in the stress group , lower than (1.45±0.11)mg/g in the control group, and the difference was statistically significant, P<0.05. The CORT levels was (87.91±2.45) pg/ml in the stress group, higher than (77.28±1.56)pg/ml in the control group, and the difference was statistically significant, P<0.05; the concentration of serum thymosin was (0.93±0.03)× 103 pg/ml in the stress group, lower than (1.40±0.06)×103pg/ml in the control group, and the difference was statistically signifi-cant, P<0.05. Conclusion Chronic stress can lower the thymus index and inhibit the secretion of the thymosin in rats.%目的:研究慢性应激对大鼠胸腺指数和血清糖皮质激素(CORT)和胸腺肽浓度的影响。方法大鼠随机分为对照组和应激组。应激组大鼠给予复合应激,即禁水12 h、禁食12 h、束缚6 h、昼夜颠倒、强迫游泳15 min、潮湿垫料24 h和45°浸水5 min7种应激刺激,每天随机一次,7 d为一个周期,每种刺激应用一次,共14 d。应激结束后取材,计算胸腺指数,酶联免疫吸附测定法检测血清CORT和胸腺肽的含量。结果应激组大鼠胸腺指数为(1.08±0.13)mg/g,与对照组[(1.45±0.11)mg/g]比较显著

  10. Flupirtine attenuates chronic restraint stress-induced cognitive deficits and hippocampal apoptosis in male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Pengcheng; Li, Cai; Fu, Tianli; Zhao, Dan; Yi, Zhen; Lu, Qing; Guo, Lianjun; Xu, Xulin

    2015-07-15

    Chronic restraint stress (CRS) causes hippocampal neurodegeneration and hippocampus-dependent cognitive deficits. Flupirtine represents neuroprotective effects and we have previously shown that flupirtine can protect against memory impairment induced by acute stress. The present study aimed to investigate whether flupirtine could alleviate spatial learning and memory impairment and hippocampal apoptosis induced by CRS. CRS mice were restrained in well-ventilated Plexiglass tubes for 6h daily beginning from 10:00 to 16:00 for 21 consecutive days. Mice were injected with flupirtine (10mg/kg and 25mg/kg) or vehicle (10% DMSO) 30min before restraint stress for 21 days. After stressor cessation, the spatial learning and memory, dendritic spine density, injured neurons and the levels of Bcl-2, Bax, p-Akt, p-GSK-3β, p-Erk1/2 and synaptophysin of hippocampal tissues were examined. Our results showed that flupirtine significantly prevented spatial learning and memory impairment induced by CRS in the Morris water maze. In addition, flupirtine (10mg/kg and 25mg/kg) treatment alleviated neuronal apoptosis and the reduction of dendritic spine density and synaptophysin expression in the hippocampal CA1 region of CRS mice. Furthermore, flupirtine (10mg/kg and 25mg/kg) treatment significantly decreased the expression of Bax and increased the p-Akt and p-GSK-3β, and flupirtine (25mg/kg) treatment up-regulated the p-Erk1/2 in the hippocampus of CRS mice. These results suggested that flupirtine exerted protective effects on the CRS-induced cognitive impairment and hippocampal neuronal apoptosis, which is possibly associated with the activation of Akt/GSK-3β and Erk1/2 signaling pathways. PMID:25869780

  11. Tensile effective stresses in hydrocarbon storage caverns

    CERN Document Server

    Djizanne, Hippolyte; Brouard, Benoît

    2013-01-01

    The "no-tensile effective stress" criterion is discussed. It is proven that effective tensile stresses can be generated at a cavern wall after a rapid increase or decrease in pressure. The Etzel K-102 test, performed in Germany more than 20 years ago, is revisited using the notion of effective tensile stresses.

  12. Tensile effective stresses in hydrocarbon storage caverns

    OpenAIRE

    Djizanne, Hippolyte; Berest, Pierre; Brouard, Benoît

    2013-01-01

    International audience The "no-tensile effective stress" criterion is discussed. It is proven that effective tensile stresses can be generated at a cavern wall after a rapid increase or decrease in pressure. The Etzel K-102 test, performed in Germany more than 20 years ago, is revisited using the notion of effective tensile stresses.

  13. Effective stress coefficient for uniaxial strain condition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alam, Mohammad Monzurul; Fabricius, Ida Lykke

    2012-01-01

    coefficient from one dimensional rock mechanical deformation. We further investigated the effect of boundary condition on the stress dependency of effective stress coefficient and discussed its application in reservoir study. As stress field in the reservoirs are most unlikely to be hydrostatic, effective...

  14. Changes in tau phosphorylation levels in the hippocampus and frontal cortex following chronic stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies have indicated that early-life or early-onset depression is associated with a 2- to 4-fold increased risk of developing Alzheimers disease (AD). In AD, aggregation of an abnormally phosphorylated form of the tau protein may be a key pathological event. Tau is known to play a major role in promoting microtubule assembly and stabilization, and in maintaining the normal morphology of neurons. Several studies have reported that stress may induce tau phosphorylation. The main aim of the present study was to investigate possible alterations in the tau protein in the hippocampus and frontal cortex of 32 male Sprague-Dawley rats exposed to chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) and then re-exposed to CUMS to mimic depression and the recurrence of depression, respectively, in humans. We evaluated the effects of CUMS, fluoxetine, and CUMS re-exposure on tau and phospho-tau. Our results showed that a single exposure to CUMS caused a significant reduction in sucrose preference, indicating a state of anhedonia. The change in behavior was accompanied by specific alterations in phospho-tau protein levels, but fluoxetine treatment reversed the CUMS-induced impairments. Moreover, changes in sucrose preference and phospho-tau were more pronounced in rats re-exposed to CUMS than in those subjected to a single exposure. Our results suggest that changes in tau phosphorylation may contribute to the link between depression and AD

  15. Changes in tau phosphorylation levels in the hippocampus and frontal cortex following chronic stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Yang

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Studies have indicated that early-life or early-onset depression is associated with a 2- to 4-fold increased risk of developing Alzheimers disease (AD. In AD, aggregation of an abnormally phosphorylated form of the tau protein may be a key pathological event. Tau is known to play a major role in promoting microtubule assembly and stabilization, and in maintaining the normal morphology of neurons. Several studies have reported that stress may induce tau phosphorylation. The main aim of the present study was to investigate possible alterations in the tau protein in the hippocampus and frontal cortex of 32 male Sprague-Dawley rats exposed to chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS and then re-exposed to CUMS to mimic depression and the recurrence of depression, respectively, in humans. We evaluated the effects of CUMS, fluoxetine, and CUMS re-exposure on tau and phospho-tau. Our results showed that a single exposure to CUMS caused a significant reduction in sucrose preference, indicating a state of anhedonia. The change in behavior was accompanied by specific alterations in phospho-tau protein levels, but fluoxetine treatment reversed the CUMS-induced impairments. Moreover, changes in sucrose preference and phospho-tau were more pronounced in rats re-exposed to CUMS than in those subjected to a single exposure. Our results suggest that changes in tau phosphorylation may contribute to the link between depression and AD.

  16. Changes in tau phosphorylation levels in the hippocampus and frontal cortex following chronic stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, C.; Guo, X. [Wuhan University, Renmin Hospital, Department of Psychiatry, Wuhan, China, Department of Psychiatry, Renmin Hospital, Wuhan University, Wuhan (China); Wang, G.H. [Wuhan University, Renmin Hospital, Department of Psychiatry, Wuhan, China, Department of Psychiatry, Renmin Hospital, Wuhan University, Wuhan (China); Wuhan University, Institute of Neuropsychiatry, Wuhan, China, Institute of Neuropsychiatry, Wuhan University, Wuhan (China); Wang, H.L.; Liu, Z.C.; Liu, H.; Zhu, Z.X.; Li, Y. [Wuhan University, Renmin Hospital, Department of Psychiatry, Wuhan, China, Department of Psychiatry, Renmin Hospital, Wuhan University, Wuhan (China)

    2014-03-03

    Studies have indicated that early-life or early-onset depression is associated with a 2- to 4-fold increased risk of developing Alzheimers disease (AD). In AD, aggregation of an abnormally phosphorylated form of the tau protein may be a key pathological event. Tau is known to play a major role in promoting microtubule assembly and stabilization, and in maintaining the normal morphology of neurons. Several studies have reported that stress may induce tau phosphorylation. The main aim of the present study was to investigate possible alterations in the tau protein in the hippocampus and frontal cortex of 32 male Sprague-Dawley rats exposed to chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) and then re-exposed to CUMS to mimic depression and the recurrence of depression, respectively, in humans. We evaluated the effects of CUMS, fluoxetine, and CUMS re-exposure on tau and phospho-tau. Our results showed that a single exposure to CUMS caused a significant reduction in sucrose preference, indicating a state of anhedonia. The change in behavior was accompanied by specific alterations in phospho-tau protein levels, but fluoxetine treatment reversed the CUMS-induced impairments. Moreover, changes in sucrose preference and phospho-tau were more pronounced in rats re-exposed to CUMS than in those subjected to a single exposure. Our results suggest that changes in tau phosphorylation may contribute to the link between depression and AD.

  17. 慢性束缚应激对大鼠食管上皮屏障的影响%Effect of chronic restraint stress on esophageal epithelial bmrrier function:experiment with rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵丹云; 段丽萍; 朱元莉; 李志强

    2008-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of chronic restraint stress(CRS)on the esophageal epithelial barrier function and discuss the role of emotional factors in the pathogenesis of gastroesophageal reflux.Methods Twenty-four male SD rats were randomly divided into 4 equal groups:CRS group submitted to partial restraint stress 2 h per day for 7 days,CBS+acid/pepsin perfusion group submitted to partial restraint stress 2 h per day for 7 days and then anesthetization and perfusion of hydrecldofic acid (pH=2)and pepsin(1 g/L)into the distal esophagus at the speed of 4 ml/h for 60 min,acid/pepsin perfusion group submitted to acid/pepsin perfusion into the esophagus,and control group.Then the rats were killed to collect the specimens of distal esophagus to undergo HE staining and light microscopy.Histological scoring was conducted.The diameter of intercellular spaces of esophageal epithelium wag assessed.Results The amounts offood intake and body weight increment of the CRS and CRS+acid/pepsin perfusion groups were significantly lower than those of the control and acid/pepsin perfusion groups(all P<0.01).The histological score of the CRS+acid/pepsin perfusion group was the highest.The diameter of intercellular spaces of esophagus of the CRS+acid/pepsin perfusion group was(0.516±0.010)μm,significantly greater than those of the CRS,acid/pepsin perfusion,and control groups[(O.457±0.031)μm,(0.441±0.021)μm,and(0.235±0.027)μm respectively,P<0.01 or P<0.05].The histological score of the CRS+acid/pepsin perfusion group was 2.33±0.33,significantly higher than those of the CRS,acid/pepsin peffusion,and control groups(1.17±O.31,1.33±0.33;and 0.33±O.21 respectively,P<0.05 or P<0.01).Conclusion CRS enlarges significantly the esophageal DIS and impairs the epithehal barrier function of the esophagus.Psychological factors induce or enhalice the reflux symptom in the GERD patients.agpeeiaUv in non-erosive reflux disease and functionai heartburn pafients.%目的 研究慢性

  18. Chronic stress is associated with pain precipitation and elevation in DeltaFosb expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hang eWang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A number of acute or repeated stimuli can induce expression of DeltaFosB (ΔFosB, a transcription factor derived from the fosB gene (an osteosarcoma viral oncogene via alternative splicing. ΔFosB protein is currently viewed as a 'molecular switch' to repeated stimuli that gradually converts acute responses into relatively stable adaptations underlying long-term neural and behavioral plasticity. ΔFosB has received extensive attention in drug addition, depression and stress adaptation, but changes in ΔFosB protein expression during pain is not fully understood. In this study we explored ΔFosB expression in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC of rats experiencing chronic or acute stress-induced pain. Our data reveal that chronic pain induced by neonatal colorectal distension, chronic constriction injury of the sciatic nerve, or maternal separation was associated with an increase in ΔfosB protein expression in mPFC, but acute application of acetic acid or zymosan did not alter the ΔFosB protein expression. ΔFosB expression in the rat visual cortex, a non pain-related brain region, did not change in response to chronic constriction injury of the sciatic nerve and acetic acid treatment. In conclusion, our results indicate that ΔFosB protein expression is significantly elevated in rats that have experienced chronic pain and stress, but not acute pain. The ΔFosB protein may serve as an important transcription factor for chronic stress-induced pain. Further research is needed to improve the understanding of both the upstream signaling leading to ΔFosB protein expression as well as the regulation of ΔFosB gene expression in cortical neurons.

  19. Domains of Chronic Stress, Lifestyle Factors, and Allostatic Load in Middle-Aged Mexican-American Women

    OpenAIRE

    Gallo, Linda C.; Jiménez, Jessica A.; Shivpuri, Smriti; Espinosa de los Monteros, Karla; Mills, Paul J.

    2010-01-01

    Background Little research has examined how chronic stress in different domains relates to allostatic load (AL). Purpose We examined the relationship between multiple chronic stressors with AL, and evaluated lifestyle factors as possible mediating factors. Methods Three hundred one middle-aged Mexican-American women underwent a physical exam and completed measures of lifestyle factors and chronic stress in eight domains. A composite of 12 neuroendocrine, metabolic, cardiovascular, and inflamm...

  20. 原花青素对慢性应激模型大鼠抑郁焦虑样行为的改善作用%Protective effect of proanthocyanidins on depression and anxiety behavior in chronically stressed rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    土文珍; 吴凡; 严奇植; 杨学志; 林中; 徐震; 石华孟; 潘建春

    2014-01-01

    method.The chronically stressed model was established.After 21 d stress experi ment,the i mmobility ti me in force swi mming test,sucrose consu mption and the nu mber of marbles buried in the marble burying test were observed respectively each day.OPC (25,50 and 1 00 mg·kg -1 )was given 1 h before each test.In addition,Western blotting was used to analyze the expression of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and phosphorylated cyclic AMP response element-bindingprotein(p-CREB)inthehippocampusandfrontalcortex.RESULTS Comparedwith the control group,the chronically stressed group showed obvious depressive-like and anxiety-like behav-ior,while the immobility time decreased from (90.57 ±4.27)s in chronically stressed group to (78.25 ± 2.53)s (P<0.05),(72.12 ±3.21 )s(P<0.05)and (60.77 ±3.41 )s (P<0.05)when ig given OPC 25,50 and 100 mg·kg -1 respectively,the ratio of sucrose preference increased from (42.80 ±4.92)%to (67.54 ±4.32)%(P<0.05)and (72.21 ±7.99)%(P<0.05)when ig given OPC 50 and 1 00 mg· kg -1 respectively,the number of buried marbles decreased from 1 .57 ±0.21 in chronically stressed group to 0.63 ±0.26 (P<0.05)and 0.44 ±0.1 8 (P<0.05)when ig given OPC 50 and 1 00 mg·kg -1 respectively.The expression of p-CREB in the hippocampus and frontal cortex distinctively increased in OPC group (25,50 and 100 mg·kg -1 )(P<0.05),so did the expression of BDNF in the hippocampus andfrontalcortexinOPCgroup(50and100mg·kg-1)(P<0.05).CONCLUSION OPCcanreverse the depressive-like and anxiety-like behavior in chronically stressed rats,which may be related to the cAMP-CREB-BDNF signal transduction cascades.

  1. Chronic Stress During Adolescence Impairs and Improves Learning and Memory in Adulthood

    OpenAIRE

    Lauren Evelyn Chaby; Cavigelli, Sonia A; Kendall Mackensie Warg; Braithwaite, Victoria A.

    2015-01-01

    HIGHLIGHTS This study tested the effects of adolescent-stress on adult learning and memory. Adolescent-stressed rats had enhanced reversal learning compared to unstressed rats. Adolescent-stress exposure made working memory more vulnerable to disturbance. Adolescent-stress did not affect adult associative learning or reference memory. Exposure to acute stress can cause a myriad of cognitive impairments, but whether negative experiences continue to hinder individual as they ag...

  2. Effects and Mechanism of PicrosideⅡ on Rats with Chronic Stress Depression%胡黄连苷Ⅱ对慢性应激抑郁大鼠的治疗作用及其机制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周俊华; 熊哲

    2011-01-01

    目的 观察胡黄连苷Ⅱ抗抑郁作用,探讨其作用机制.方法 雄性SD大鼠96只,随机分为6组,每组16只.正常组、模型组给予等剂量0.9%氯化钠注射液,胡黄连苷Ⅱ低、中和高剂量组分别给予1,3,10 mg·kg-1胡黄连苷Ⅱ,丙米嗪组给予15 mg·kg-1 丙米嗪,腹腔注射给药,持续14 d.通过强迫游泳(FST)、敞箱实验(OFT)观察应激后各组大鼠行为学的变化.采用放射免疫方法检测大鼠血浆促肾上腺皮质激素(ACTH)和皮质酮(CORT)的水平.结果 经慢性应激21 d后,模型组中FST不动时间增加,OFT水平与垂直得分下降,血浆ACTH、CORT含量增高,与正常组比较均差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).经1,3,10 mg·kg-1胡黄连苷Ⅱ和阳性对照药丙米嗪治疗14 d后,大鼠FST不动时间降低、OFT水平与垂直得分增高,血浆中ACTH、CORT含量降低,与模型组比较均差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 胡黄连苷Ⅱ具有缓解抑郁模型行为学损伤的作用,其机制可能与其调节慢性应激大鼠血浆ACTH和CORT的水平有关.%Objective To explore the antidepressant effects of picroside II and possible mechanism. Methods Ninety-six male SD rats were radomly divided into 6 groups. The normal and model controls were treated with normal saline. The others were I. P. Administrated with picroside II at doses of 1,3,10 mg ■ kg" and imipramine at 15 mg ■ kg" , respectively for 14 d. Chronic unpredictable mild stress model ( CMS )was established and the behavior was observed by the forced swimming test ( FST )and open field test ( OPT ). The levels of adrenocorticotropic hormone ( ACTH )and corticosterone ( CORT )in blood serum were detected by radioimmunoassay. Results After 21 days, compared with the normal control, the model control showed longer immobility duration, lower crossing and rearing scores, higher concentration of ACTH and CORT in blood serum ( P< 0. 05 ). While,the immobility time was shortened and crossing and rearing

  3. 四磨汤对慢性应激小鼠血清Leptin和MTL的影响%Effects of Simo Decoction on Leptin and Motilin in Serum of Mice with Chronic Stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘杰民; 蔺晓源; 蔡莹; 易健; 刘柏炎; 蔡光先

    2011-01-01

    Objective;To study the effect of Simo decoction on leptin and motilin(MTL) in serum of mice with chronic stress, and to explore the mechanism of Simo decoction on Functional dyspepsia(FD). Method:Fourty mice were randomized into normal group,model group,motilium group and Simo decoction group. The mice models were established by exerting the factors of irregular diet, reverse of day and night, binding and stimulating tails, then treated with distilled water, motilium and Simo decoction, respectively. The appetite and body weight of mice wereobserved. The contents of leptin and MTL were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay ( ELISA). Result; The appetite and body weight of model group were lower than normal group( P <0. 05) ,and the contents of leptin was increase and MTL deacreased in serum compared with the normal group ( P < 0. 05 ). Simo decoction group and motilium group increased the appetite, body weight and MTL with decreased leptin compared with the model group ( P < 0. 05 ). Simo decoction group had not statistically significant action compared with Motilium group. Conclusion; The therapeutic mechanism of Simo decoction for FD may probably lie in adjusting the secretionof leptin and MTL in serum.%目的:通过观察四磨汤对慢性应激小鼠血清瘦素(leptin)和胃动素(motilin,MTL)的影响,探讨四磨汤治疗功能性消化不良(FD)的作用机制.方法:40只小鼠随机分为正常组、模型组、吗丁啉3.78 mg·kg-1组及四磨汤7.56 g·kg-1组;采用饥饱失常、明暗颠倒以及束缚夹尾等多种应激法造模;模型成功后,分别给予蒸馏水、吗丁啉、四磨汤ig;观察小鼠的食量、体质量,酶联免疫吸附测定法(ELISA)检测血清中leptin和MTL的含量变化.结果:与正常组相比,模型组小鼠食量和体质量降低(P<0.05),血清中leptin含量升高,MTL含量降低(P<0.05);与模型组比较,四磨汤组和吗丁啉组小鼠食量、体质量

  4. Sensitization of the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis in a Male Rat Chronic Stress Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Alier J; Chen, Chun; Scullen, Tyler; Zsombok, Andrea; Salahudeen, Ahmed A; Di, Shi; Herman, James P; Tasker, Jeffrey G

    2016-06-01

    Stress activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is regulated by rapid glucocorticoid negative feedback. Chronic unpredictable stress animal models recapitulate certain aspects of major depression in humans, which have been attributed to impaired glucocorticoid negative feedback. We tested for an attenuated HPA sensitivity to fast glucocorticoid feedback inhibition in male rats exposed to a chronic variable stress (CVS) paradigm. In vitro, parvocellular neuroendocrine cells of the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus recorded in slices from CVS rats showed an increase in basal excitatory synaptic inputs and a decrease in basal inhibitory synaptic inputs compared with neurons from control rats. There was no difference between control and CVS-treated rats in the rapid glucocorticoid suppression of excitatory synaptic inputs, a fast feedback mechanism. In vivo, CVS-treated rats showed an increase in ACTH secretion at baseline and after both iv CRH and acute stress and no impairment of the corticosterone suppression of the ACTH response, compared with controls. In an in vitro pituitary preparation, an increase in basal ACTH release, a small increase in CRH-induced ACTH release, and no decrement in the glucocorticoid suppression of ACTH release were seen in pituitaries from CVS rats. Thus, CVS does not suppress rapid glucocorticoid negative feedback at the hypothalamus or pituitary, but increases the synaptic excitability of paraventricular nucleus CRH neurons and the CRH sensitivity of the pituitary. Therefore, increased HPA activity in chronically stressed male rats is due to sensitization of the HPA axis, rather than to desensitization to rapid glucocorticoid feedback. PMID:27054552

  5. Traumatic stress: effects on the brain

    OpenAIRE

    Bremner, J Douglas

    2006-01-01

    Brain areas implicated in the stress response include the amygdala, hippocampus, and prefrontal cortex. Traumatic stress can be associated with lasting changes in these brain areas. Traumatic stress is associated with increased cortisol and norepinephrine responses to subsequent stressors. Antidepressants have effets on the hippocampus that counteract the effects of stress. Findings from animal studies have been extended to patients with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) showing smaller h...

  6. Social support moderates stress effects on depression

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Xingmin; Cai, Lin; Qian, Jing; Peng, Jiaxi

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the moderator effect of social support on the relationship between stress and depression of university students. A total of 632 undergraduate students completed the measures of perceived stress, perceived social support, and depression. Hierarchical regression analysis showed that social support moderated the association between stress and depression. Undergraduate students with high stress reported higher scores in depression than those with low stress with low social sup...

  7. Corticosterone levels and behavioral changes induced by simultaneous exposure to chronic social stress and enriched environments in NMRI male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesa-Gresa, Patricia; Ramos-Campos, Marta; Redolat, Rosa

    2016-05-01

    Environmental enrichment (EE) is an experimental model which is believed to counteract some of the effects induced by stressors, although few studies have exposed rodents simultaneously to EE and stress. Our aim was to compare the short- and long-term effects of different housing conditions in mice submitted to chronic stress. 128 NMRI male mice arrived at our laboratory on postnatal day (PND) 21. During Phase I (PND 28), animals were randomly assigned to four experimental conditions: 1) EE+STRESS: mice housed in EE and submitted to social stress (n=32); 2) EE+NO STRESS: mice housed in EE without stress (n=32); 3) SE+STRESS: mice maintained in standard conditions (SE) and submitted to social stress (n=32); and 4) SE+NO STRESS (n=32). At the end of Phase I (PND 77), one cohort of 32 animals was used for behavioral assessment whereas another cohort of 32 was sacrificed for corticosterone analysis. Results indicated that EE animals showed less body weight, higher water and food intake, diminished anxiety response and decreased motor and exploratory behavior than SE mice. Mice exposed to stress gained less body weight, showed higher food and fluid intake and displayed decreased exploratory behavior than non-stressed mice. Furthermore, EE+STRESS group displayed significantly higher corticosterone levels than EE+NO STRESS group whereas EE+NO STRESS group showed lower levels than SE+NO STRESS. On PND 83, Phase II of the study began. Animals (n=96) were assigned to two different housing conditions: EE (n=48) and SE (n=48). On PND 112, corticosterone analysis (n=32) and behavioral study (n=64) were done. The factor "Housing Phase II" reached statistical significance. Results indicated that EE animals showed lower body weight and higher fluid intake than SE group, as well as decreased anxiety. No clear effects on motor and exploratory behavior or learning were observed. When long-term effects were analyzed, results indicated that "Initial Housing" condition was significant

  8. Effects of pentoxifylline, 7-nitroindazole, and imipramine on tumor necrosis factor-α and indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase enzyme activity in the hippocampus and frontal cortex of chronic mild-stress-exposed rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed BMSA

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Bassim MSA Mohamed,1,6 Sawsan Aboul-Fotouh,2,5 Eman A Ibrahim,3 Hanan Shehata,4 Amal A Mansour,4 Nemat AZ Yassin,1 Wafaa El-Eraky,1 Ahmed M Abdel-Tawab2,5 1Department of Pharmacology, National Research Centre, Cairo, Egypt; 2Department of Pharmacology, 3Department of Pathology, 4Department of Medical Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 5Clinical Pharmacology Unit, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt; 6Atlantic Veterinary College, University of Prince Edward Island, Charlottetown, PE, Canada Objectives: This study aimed to investigate the role of tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α and the neuronal nitric oxide synthase enzyme in dysregulation of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO enzyme, and hence serotonin availability in chronic mild stress (CMS, an animal model of depression. Methods: Rats were divided into five groups: two control and CMS-exposed for 6 weeks, and another three groups exposed to CMS and administered pentoxifylline 50 mg/kg/day intraperitoneally, 7-nitroindazole 40 mg/kg/day subcutaneously, or imipramine 20 mg/kg/day intraperitoneally for the previous 3 CMS weeks. Rats were assessed for neurochemical and immunohistochemical abnormalities. Results: Pentoxifylline-, 7-nitroindazole-, and imipramine-treated rats showed amelioration of CMS-induced behavioral deficits that was accompanied by significant reduction in kynurenine/serotonin molar ratio and nitrates/nitrites in frontal cortex and hippocampus. In the pentoxifylline and 7-nitroindazole groups, serum TNF-α was reduced relative to the CMS group (18.54 ± 0.85 and 19.16 ± 1.54 vs 26.20 ± 1.83 pg/mL, respectively; P < 0.05. Exposure to CMS increased TNF-α and IDO immunohistochemical staining scores in both hippocampus and midbrain raphe nuclei. 7-Nitroindazole and pentoxifylline significantly (P < 0.05 reduced TNF-α immunostaining in hippocampus and raphe nuclei, with significant (P < 0.01 reduction of IDO immunostaining in raphe nuclei. Likewise, imipramine reduced TNF

  9. Chronic stress and antidepressant induced changes in Hdac5 and Sirt2 affect synaptic plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erburu, M; Muñoz-Cobo, I; Domínguez-Andrés, J; Beltran, E; Suzuki, T; Mai, A; Valente, S; Puerta, E; Tordera, R M

    2015-11-01

    Changes in histone acetylation could contribute to the pathogenesis of depression and antidepressant therapy. Using the chronic social defeat stress (CSDS) model of depression and different antidepressant treatments we studied the regulation of histone deacetylases (Hdac׳s) and synaptic plasticity markers in the prefrontal cortex (PFC). Further, functional implication of identified Hdac׳s in brain plasticity was explored. Mice were exposed to CSDS (10 days) followed by saline or imipramine (4 weeks). PFC Hdac׳s mRNA abundance was studied and compared to human׳s. Further, protein expression of acetylated histones (AcH3 and AcH4), neuroplasticity markers (CREB and pro-BDNF) and selected Hdac׳s were analyzed. Moreover, other antidepressants (fluoxetine and reboxetine) and selective HDAC inhibitors were studied. CSDS increased Hdac5 and Sirt2 mRNA whereas repeated imipramine did the opposite. Accordingly, stress and imipramine induced opposite changes on AcH3, AcH4 and CREB expression. At protein level, CSDS upregulated nuclear fraction of Hdac5 and repeated imipramine and reboxetine increased its phosphorylated form (p-Hdac5), mainly located in the cytoplasm. Moreover, Sirt2 was downregulated by all monoaminergic antidepressants. Further, repeated treatment with the class IIa Hdac inhibitor MC1568 and the Sirt2 inhibitor 33i for three weeks increased synaptic plasticity in the prefrontal cortex. Our results suggest that Hdac5 and Sirt2 upregulation could constitute stable stress-induced neuronal adaptations. Noteworthy, the SIRT2 upregulation in depressed patients supports the interest of this target for therapeutic intervention. On the other hand, cytoplasmic Hdac5 export and Sirt2 downregulation induced by monoaminergic antidepressants could contribute to the well-known beneficial effects of antidepressants on brain plasticity. PMID:26433268

  10. Evaluation of behavioural and antioxidant activity of Cytisus scoparius Link in rats exposed to chronic unpredictable mild stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harisudhan Thanukrishnan

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Various human diseases have oxidative stress as one of their component. Many herbs have been reported to exhibit properties that combat oxidative stress through their active constituents such as flavonoids, tannins, phenolic compounds etc. Cytisus scoparius (CS Link, (Family: Leguminosae, also called Sarothamnus scoparius, has been shown in invitro experiments to be endowed with anti-diabetic, hypnotic and sedative and antioxidant activity. Therefore this study was carried out to evaluate CS for its anxiolytic, antidepressant and anti-oxidant activity in stressed rats. Methods 60% methanolic extract of CS was quantified for phenolic content by Folin-Ciocalteau's method. Chronic unpredictable mild stress (CMS was employed to induce stress in rats. CS (125 and 250 mg/kg, p.o and diazepam (DZM (2 mg/kg, p.o was administered during the 21 day stress exposure period. Anxiolytic and antidepressant activities of CS were assessed in open field exploratory and behavioural despair paradigms, respectively. Plasma glucose and total lipids; endogenous antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT; non-enzymic-ascorbic acid and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS levels were measured in brain, kidneys and adrenals using standard protocols to assess the effect of CS. Results Total phenolic content of CS was found to be 8.54 ± 0.16% w/w. CMS produced anxiogenic and depressive behaviour in experimental rats with metabolic disturbance. Significant decrease in SOD, CAT levels and increase in lipid peroxidation level was observed in stressed rats. CS administration for 21 days during stress exposure significantly increased the ambulatory behaviour and decreased the freezing time in open field behaviour. In behavioural despair test no significant alteration in the immobility period was observed. CS also improved SOD, CAT, and ascorbic acid level and controlled the lipid peroxidation in different tissues

  11. Chronic idiopathic urticaria and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD): an under-recognized comorbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Madhulika A; Gupta, Aditya K

    2012-01-01

    A large body of literature supports the role of psychologic stress in urticaria; however, the comorbidity between chronic idiopathic urticaria (CIU) and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), a classic stress-mediated syndrome, has received little attention. The underlying etiology of urticaria is not identifiable in about 70% of patients, possibly because of difficulties with identification of a direct cause-and-effect relationship between a potential causative factor and the onset of urticaria. The core features of PTSD (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition, Text Revision [DSMIV-TR]) that are important in urticaria include (1) autonomic nervous system reactivity and state of sympathetic hyperarousal that can manifest as CIU, and (2) the persistent re-experiencing of the traumatic events in PTSD, which can manifest as urticaria or angioedema, or both, affecting a previously traumatized body region (eg, urticarial wheals affecting the body region where the patient had been stabbed years earlier). The following features of PTSD make it difficult to use the cause-and-effect model for the determination of causation: (1) PTSD may first emerge years after the initial trauma and is classified as PTSD with Delayed Onset (DSMIV-TR); and (2) the traumatic triggers that precipitate the PTSD symptoms may be unique and idiosyncratic to the patient and not even qualify as stressful or traumatic by standard criteria (eg, precipitating events for the PTSD may include smell of a certain cologne that was used by the perpetrator or witnessing a scene in a movie that was reminiscent of the location where the abuse occurred). Finally, in PTSD with Delayed Onset, patients may not make a conscious association between their recurrent urticaria and their earlier traumas because they can develop classically conditioned associations between stimuli that are reminiscent of the original abuse situation and their somatic reactions such as urticaria. The clinician

  12. EFFECTS OF ROCK BEHAVIOR AND STRESS CONDITIONON FIELD STRESS DETERMINATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    D.H.(Steve)Zou

    1995-01-01

    Non-consistency of stress results is often observed during field measurements. In some cases, even the measurements are made at the same location in a massive rockmass, the results can vary widely. In order to solve the problem, extensive research has been carried out to study the major factors which may affect stress determination. They include the rock behaviour and the stress state. For rocks showing non-isotropic behaviour, the values of Young's modulus and Poisson ratio vary with the orientation of loading and measurement. Stress condition in the rock affects the rock behaviour. Furthermore, the loading condition on rock samples during laboratory tests is different from in the field and therefore the determined elastic constants may not represent the field condition. In general, the Young's modulus may depend on the orientation, the loading path, the stress magnitude and the stress ratio. This paper examines in detail the effects of those factors, especially for rocks showing transversely isotropic behaviour. It is found that the discrepancy of stress results from fieldts in this type of rock is mainly due to over simplification of the rock behavior and inadequate use of elastic constants of the rock during stress calculation. A case study is given, which indicates the significance of these factors and demonstrates the proper procedure for stress calculation from

  13. The Direct and Interactive Effects of Neuroticism and Life Stress on the Severity and Longitudinal Course of Depressive Symptoms

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Timothy A.; Rosellini, Anthony J.

    2011-01-01

    The direct and interactive effects of neuroticism and stressful life events (chronic and episodic stressors) on the severity and temporal course of depression symptoms were examined in 826 outpatients with mood and anxiety disorders, assessed on three occasions over a one-year period (intake, 6- and 12-month follow-ups). Neuroticism, chronic stress, and episodic stress were uniquely associated with intake depression symptom severity. A significant interaction effect indicated that the strengt...

  14. Chronic stress in adulthood followed by intermittent stress impairs spatial memory and the survival of newborn hippocampal cells in aging animals: prevention by FGL, a peptide mimetic of neural cell adhesion molecule

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borcel, Erika; Pérez-Alvarez, Laura; Herrero, Ana Isabel;

    2008-01-01

    . Administration of FGL, a peptide mimetic of neural cell adhesion molecule, during the 4 weeks of continuous stress not only prevented the deleterious effects of chronic stress on spatial memory, but also reduced the survival of the newly generated hippocampal cells in aging animals. FGL treatment did not......, however, prevent the decrease in the total number of granular neurons that resulted from prolonged exposure to stress. These findings suggest that the development of new drugs that mimic neural cell adhesion molecule activity might be of therapeutic relevance to treat stress-induced cognitive impairment....

  15. Chronic unpredictable stress decreases expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF in mouse ovaries: relationship to oocytes developmental potential.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Min Wu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF was originally described in the nervous system but has been shown to be expressed in ovary tissues recently, acting as a paracrine/autocrine regulator required for developments of follicles and oocytes. Although it is generally accepted that chronic stress impairs female reproduction and decreases the expression of BDNF in limbic structures of central nervous system, which contributes to mood disorder. However, it is not known whether chronic stress affects oocytes developments, nor whether it affects expression of BDNF in ovary. METHODS: Mice were randomly assigned into control group, stressed group, BDNF-treated group and BDNF-treated stressed group. The chronic unpredictable mild stress model was used to produce psychosocial stress in mice, and the model was verified by open field test and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis activity. The methods of immunohistochemistry and western blotting were used to detect BDNF protein level and distribution. The number of retrieved oocytes, oocyte maturation, embryo cleavage and the rates of blastocyst formation after parthenogenetic activation were evaluated. RESULTS: Chronic unpredictable stress decreased the BDNF expression in antral follicles, but didn't affect the BDNF expression in primordial, primary and secondary follicles. Chronic unpredictable stress also decreased the number of retrieved oocytes and the rate of blastocyst formation, which was rescued by exogenous BDNF treatment. CONCLUSION: BDNF in mouse ovaries may be related to the decreased number of retrieved oocytes and impaired oocytes developmental potential induced by chronic unpredictable stress.

  16. Chronic gestational stress leads to depressive-like behavior and compromises medial prefrontal cortex structure and function during the postpartum period.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedetta Leuner

    Full Text Available Postpartum depression, which affects approximately 15% of new mothers, is associated with impaired mother-infant interactions and deficits in cognitive function. Exposure to stress during pregnancy is a major risk factor for postpartum depression. However, little is known about the neural consequences of gestational stress. The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC is a brain region that has been linked to stress, cognition, maternal care, and mood disorders including postpartum depression. Here we examined the effects of chronic gestational stress on mPFC function and whether these effects might be linked to structural modifications in the mPFC. We found that in postpartum rats, chronic gestational stress resulted in maternal care deficits, increased depressive-like behavior, and impaired performance on an attentional set shifting task that relies on the mPFC. Furthermore, exposure to chronic stress during pregnancy reduced dendritic spine density on mPFC pyramidal neurons and altered spine morphology. Taken together, these findings suggest that pregnancy stress may contribute to postpartum mental illness and its associated symptoms by compromising structural plasticity in the mPFC.

  17. Chronic Stress Is Associated with Pain Precipitation and Elevation in DeltaFosb Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hang; Tao, Xinrong; Huang, Si-Ting; Wu, Liang; Tang, Hui-Li; Song, Ying; Zhang, Gongliang; Zhang, Yong-Mei

    2016-01-01

    A number of acute or repeated stimuli can induce expression of DeltaFosB (ΔFosB), a transcription factor derived from the fosB gene (an osteosarcoma viral oncogene) via alternative splicing. ΔFosB protein is currently viewed as a ‘molecular switch’ to repeated stimuli that gradually converts acute responses into relatively stable adaptations underlying long-term neural and behavioral plasticity. ΔFosB has received extensive attention in drug addition, depression, and stress adaptation, but changes in ΔFosB protein expression during pain is not fully understood. In this study we explored ΔFosB expression in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) of rats experiencing chronic or acute stress-induced pain. Our data reveal that chronic pain induced by neonatal colorectal distension, chronic constriction injury (CCI) of the sciatic nerve, or maternal separation was associated with an increase in ΔfosB protein expression in mPFC, but acute application of acetic acid or zymosan did not alter the ΔFosB protein expression. ΔFosB expression in the rat visual cortex, a non pain-related brain region, did not change in response to (CCI) of the sciatic nerve and acetic acid treatment. In conclusion, our results indicate that ΔFosB protein expression is significantly elevated in rats that have experienced chronic pain and stress, but not acute pain. The ΔFosB protein may serve as an important transcription factor for chronic stress-induced pain. Further research is needed to improve the understanding of both the upstream signaling leading to ΔFosB protein expression as well as the regulation of ΔFosB gene expression in cortical neurons. PMID:27303299

  18. The evolution of the painful sensitivity in acute and chronic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristea, A; Ciobanu, A; Stoenescu, M; Rusei, I

    1994-01-01

    The clinical research was made on two groups of young volunteer students. We considered stress consisting in chronic informational overexposure during the examination session and the acute stress from their emotions before a hard examination. The painful sensitivity was analysed by measuring the retraction time of the finger from water at 55 degrees C. The experimental research was made on a group of 100 male mice. The acute stress was performed by subjecting each mouse to swim (behavioral despair test). Painful sensitivity was determined by the test of the hot plate heated at 50 degrees C. Individuals with hyper (H) and hypo (h) painful sensitivity were selected for the tests. In chronic stress, the results proved increased painful sensitivity (hyperalgia) more important at "h" compared to "H" (p behaviors with opposite mechanisms involved in stress analgesia. This hypothesis is related with studies which demonstrate the involvement in stress analgesia of non-opioid monoaminergic mechanisms together with the opioid mechanisms (Lewis, 1980). PMID:8640371

  19. STRESS AS PREDISPOSING FACTOR OF SOME CHRONIC DISEASES INCLUDING PERIODONTAL DISEASE

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    Dewi-Nurul M Dewi-Nurul

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Stress is hypothesized as a common pathway for several related chronic diseases of man. Psychosocial stress as modified by perceptions and coping by patients can lead to physical processes. Psychoneuroimmunologic (PNI studies have suggested that psychosocial stress can alter immune function and increase vulnerability to illnesses. The patients also have high sensitivity to periodontal disease (PD. This article describes the association of stress as a physiological response to diseases such as PD, rheumatoid arthritis (RA, and inflammatory bowel disease. The psychosocial stress can lead to physiological processes through 1 the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis leading to glucocortico-steroid secretion; 2 the autonomic nervous system, resulting in the release of catecholamine; or 3 the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, resulting in the release of sex hormones. These processes may affect chronic diseases. It can be concluded that psychosocial stress in periodontal disease patients must be considered and social support must be provided in order to achieve an optimum periodontal therapy result.

  20. Chronic intermittent psychological stress promotes macrophage reverse cholesterol transport by impairing bile acid absorption in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvennoinen, Reija; Quesada, Helena; Kareinen, Ilona; Julve, Josep; Kaipiainen, Leena; Gylling, Helena; Blanco-Vaca, Francisco; Escola-Gil, Joan Carles; Kovanen, Petri T; Lee-Rueckert, Miriam

    2015-05-11

    Psychological stress is a risk factor for atherosclerosis, yet the pathophysiological mechanisms involved remain elusive. The transfer of cholesterol from macrophage foam cells to liver and feces (the macrophage-specific reverse cholesterol transport, m-RCT) is an important antiatherogenic pathway. Because exposure of mice to physical restraint, a model of psychological stress, increases serum levels of corticosterone, and as bile acid homeostasis is disrupted in glucocorticoid-treated animals, we investigated if chronic intermittent restraint stress would modify m-RCT by altering the enterohepatic circulation of bile acids. C57Bl/6J mice exposed to intermittent stress for 5 days exhibited increased transit through the large intestine and enhanced fecal bile acid excretion. Of the transcription factors and transporters that regulate bile acid homeostasis, the mRNA expression levels of the hepatic farnesoid X receptor (FXR), the bile salt export pump (BSEP), and the intestinal fibroblast growth factor 15 (FGF15) were reduced, whereas those of the ileal apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter (ASBT), responsible for active bile acid absorption, remained unchanged. Neither did the hepatic expression of cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase (CYP7A1), the key enzyme regulating bile acid synthesis, change in the stressed mice. Evaluation of the functionality of the m-RCT pathway revealed increased fecal excretion of bile acids that had been synthesized from macrophage-derived cholesterol. Overall, our study reveals that chronic intermittent stress in mice accelerates m-RCT specifically by increasing fecal excretion of bile acids. This novel mechanism of m-RCT induction could have antiatherogenic potential under conditions of chronic stress. PMID:25969465

  1. Enhancing versus Suppressive Effects of Stress on Immune Function: Implications for Immunoprotection versus Immunopathology

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    Dhabhar Firdaus S

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available It is widely believed that stress suppresses immune function and increases susceptibility to infections and cancer. Paradoxically, stress is also known to exacerbate allergic, autoimmune, and inflammatory diseases. These observations suggest that stress may have bidirectional effects on immune function, being immunosuppressive in some instances and immunoenhancing in others. It has recently been shown that in contrast to chronic stress that suppresses or dysregulates immune function, acute stress can be immunoenhancing. Acute stress enhances dendritic cell, neutrophil, macrophage, and lymphocyte trafficking, maturation, and function and has been shown to augment innate and adaptive immune responses. Acute stress experienced prior to novel antigen exposure enhances innate immunity and memory T-cell formation and results in a significant and long-lasting immunoenhancement. Acute stress experienced during antigen reexposure enhances secondary/adaptive immune responses. Therefore, depending on the conditions of immune activation and the immunizing antigen, acute stress may enhance the acquisition and expression of immunoprotection or immunopathology. In contrast, chronic stress dysregulates innate and adaptive immune responses by changing the type 1-type 2 cytokine balance and suppresses immunity by decreasing leukocyte numbers, trafficking, and function. Chronic stress also increases susceptibility to skin cancer by suppressing type 1 cytokines and protective T cells while increasing suppressor T-cell function. We have suggested that the adaptive purpose of a physiologic stress response may be to promote survival, with stress hormones and neurotransmitters serving as beacons that prepare the immune system for potential challenges (eg, wounding or infection perceived by the brain (eg, detection of an attacker. However, this system may exacerbate immunopathology if the enhanced immune response is directed against innocuous or self-antigens or

  2. Size matters: management of stress responses and chronic stress in beaked whales and other marine mammals may require larger exclusion zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Andrew J; Deak, Terrence; Parsons, E C M

    2011-01-01

    Marine mammal management traditionally focuses on lethal takes, but non-lethal (or not immediately lethal) impacts of human disturbance, such as prolonged or repeated activation of the stress response, can also have serious conservation implications. The physiological stress response is a life-saving combination of systems and events that maximises the ability of an animal to kill or avoid being killed. However, "chronic stress" is linked to numerous conditions in humans, including coronary disease and infertility. Through examples, including beaked whales and sonar exposure, we discuss increasing human disturbance, mal-adaptive stress responses and chronic stress. Deep-diving and coastal species, and those targeted by whalewatching, may be particularly vulnerable. The various conditions linked with chronic stress in humans would have troubling implications for conservation efforts in endangered species, demands management attention, and may partly explain why some species have not recovered after protective measures (e.g., smaller protected areas) have been put into place. PMID:20045527

  3. The impact of stress on tumor growth: peripheral CRF mediates tumor-promoting effects of stress

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    Stathopoulos Efstathios N

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Stress has been shown to be a tumor promoting factor. Both clinical and laboratory studies have shown that chronic stress is associated with tumor growth in several types of cancer. Corticotropin Releasing Factor (CRF is the major hypothalamic mediator of stress, but is also expressed in peripheral tissues. Earlier studies have shown that peripheral CRF affects breast cancer cell proliferation and motility. The aim of the present study was to assess the significance of peripheral CRF on tumor growth as a mediator of the response to stress in vivo. Methods For this purpose we used the 4T1 breast cancer cell line in cell culture and in vivo. Cells were treated with CRF in culture and gene specific arrays were performed to identify genes directly affected by CRF and involved in breast cancer cell growth. To assess the impact of peripheral CRF as a stress mediator in tumor growth, Balb/c mice were orthotopically injected with 4T1 cells in the mammary fat pad to induce breast tumors. Mice were subjected to repetitive immobilization stress as a model of chronic stress. To inhibit the action of CRF, the CRF antagonist antalarmin was injected intraperitoneally. Breast tissue samples were histologically analyzed and assessed for neoangiogenesis. Results Array analysis revealed among other genes that CRF induced the expression of SMAD2 and β-catenin, genes involved in breast cancer cell proliferation and cytoskeletal changes associated with metastasis. Cell transfection and luciferase assays confirmed the role of CRF in WNT- β-catenin signaling. CRF induced 4T1 cell proliferation and augmented the TGF-β action on proliferation confirming its impact on TGFβ/SMAD2 signaling. In addition, CRF promoted actin reorganization and cell migration, suggesting a direct tumor-promoting action. Chronic stress augmented tumor growth in 4T1 breast tumor bearing mice and peripheral administration of the CRF antagonist antalarmin suppressed this

  4. Bioactive compounds from Paecilomyces tenuipes regulating the function of the hypothalamo-hypophyseal system axis in chronic unpredictable stress rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN Yan-yan; MING Liang; ZHENG Li-fang; KAN Hong-wei; LI Chun-ru; LI Wei-ping

    2007-01-01

    Background A bioactive compound from Paecilomyces tenuipes (BGPT) has an inhibitory effect on monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A) and monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B) in vitro and in vivo, which indicates BCPT may be a potential antidepressant. In this study we aimed to study the antidepressant effects of BCPT in the chronic unpredictable stress(CUS) model in rats and explore underlying mechanisms in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis.Methods The antidepressant effects of BCPT were studied in the chronic unpredictable stress model in rats. Animals were housed isolated, except the control group. Rats were exposed daily to different random stressors from day 1 to 21.Awarding response was detected by calculating the 24-hour consumption of sucrose water. Cortisol (CORT) and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ATCH) contents in serum and arginine vasopressin (AVP) contents in the pituitary body were detected by radio immunoassays. Total RNA of hippocampus or hypothalamus was extracted and subjected to reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for the measurement of corticotrophin releasing hormone(CRH) mRNA or mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) mRNA and glucocorticoid receptor (GR) mRNA levels. Statistical analyses were performed using one way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Student-Newman-Keuls (SNK) test.Results Chronic unpredictable stress resulted in reduction of sensitivity to reward and abnormality in the HPA axis in the animal model. BCPT improved the reward reaction as measured by increasing sucrose consumption, remarkably reduced serum CORT and ACTH levels and the AVP content in the pituitary body in the CUS-treated rats, decreased the expression of CRH mRNA, enhanced the expression of hippocampus MR mRNA, GR mRNA and decreased the ratio of MR/GR.Conclusions BCPT has potentially antidepressant-like activity and normalized the HPA axis hyperactivity in a CUS model of depression in rats. This may be an important mechanism of its antidepressant effect.

  5. Effect of "Ginseng" administration on the structural and ultrastructural changes produced by restraint stress in theultrastructural changes produced by restraint stress in the

    OpenAIRE

    Mona A.R. Salem

    2001-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the antistress effects of "Ginseng" in cases of chronic restraint stress by studying the structural and ultrastructural changes of the liver cells. Fifteen adult male albino rats were used. They were divided equally into 3 groups: control, stress and stress/Ginseng groups. Restraint stress was applied to both stress and stress/Ginseng groups 4 hours every other day for 4 weeks.15 mg Ginseng/kg/ was given to stress /Ginseng group every other day for 4weeks. Examinati...

  6. Effect of noise stress on cardiovascular system in adult male albino rat: implication of stress hormones, endothelial dysfunction and oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Said, Mona A; El-Gohary, Ola A

    2016-07-01

    Noise pollution has been realized as an environmental stressor associated with modern life style that affects our health without being consciously aware of it. The present study investigated the effect of acute, chronic intermittent and chronic continuous exposure to noise of intensity 80-100 dB on heart rate and mean systemic arterial blood pressure in rats and the possible underlying mechanisms. Noise stress causes significant increase in heart rate, mean systemic arterial blood pressure as well as significant increase in plasma levels of corticosterone, adrenaline, noradrenaline, endothelin-1, nitric oxide and malondialdehyde with significant decrease in superoxide dismutase and these values are significantly more worse in chronic continuous exposure to noise than acute or chronic intermittent exposure. These findings suggest that noise stress has many adverse effects on cardiovascular system via increasing plasma levels of stress hormones, oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction. These findings have major implication in the management of adverse cardiovascular reactions of people subjected to daily noise stress. PMID:27174896

  7. Differential Effect of Swimming Stress and Exercise Models in Pentylenetetrazol Induced Kindling of Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Hasan Abiri; Mahmoud Elahdadi-Salmani; Shahram Sharafi; Peyman Pajand; Iran Goudarzi; Kataneh Abrari

    2014-01-01

    Background: Epilepsy is a neurological disorder which is modulated by different situations and activities. Stress and exercise can have effects on epilepsy; it can reduce or increase its occurrence. We investigated the effect of acute and chronic stress and also regular moderate exercise on the epileptogenesis. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 82 male Wistar rats divided into 7 groups including 2 exercised and stressed categories, received 40 mg/kg pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)...

  8. Zinc and imipramine reverse the depression-like behavior in mice induced by chronic restraint stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Qin; Li, Hongxia; Tian, Xue; Shen, Zhilei; Wang, Xiaoli; Mo, Fengfeng; Huang, Junlong; Shen, Hui

    2016-06-01

    Depression is a common psychopathological disorders. Studies of depression have indicated that zinc play a role in the depression pathophysiology and treatment. In present study, we examined the effects of zinc and imipramine supplement alone or combination of zinc and imipramine in mice induced by chronic restraint stress (CRS). Moreover, the possible roles of zinc receptor (G protein-coupled receptor 39, GPR39)-related pathway was investigated. Decreased weight and increased corticosterone (CORT) were observed after 3 weeks CRS exposure. It was shown that CRS induced lower serum zinc, higher hippocampal zinc, increased immobility time in tail suspension test and decreased movement distance in spontaneous activity test, which could be normalized by zinc (30mg/kg) and imipramine (20mg/kg) supplement alone and combination of zinc (15mg/kg) and imipramine (5mg/kg) for 3 weeks after CRS exposure. Moreover, the changes in mRNA expressions of GPR39, cAMP-response element binding protein (CREB), brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF) and n-methytl-d-aspartate receptors (NMDAR) could be reversed by the same treatment mentioned above. These results suggested that zinc dyshomeostasis in serum and hippocampus and depression-like behavior in CRS exposure animals observed in present study could be normalized by zinc and imipramine. The combination of zinc and imipramine in low dose has synergetic effects. The possible mechanism might be correlated to GPR39 receptor-related pathway. PMID:26985741

  9. Chronic unpredictable stress induces a reversible change of PER2 rhythm in the suprachiasmatic nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wen-Gao; Li, Su-Xia; Zhou, Shuang-Jiang; Sun, Yan; Shi, Jie; Lu, Lin

    2011-07-01

    Many clinical studies have shown that circadian rhythm abnormalities are strongly associated with major depression. The master clock of the circadian system in mammals is located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) within the anterior hypothalamus, where Per1 and Per2 are essential core components of circadian rhythm oscillation. Chronic unpredictable stress (CUS) is a reliable animal model of depression with good face, predictive, and constructive validity. In the present study, we investigated the effects of CUS on the circadian expression of PER1 and PER2 in the SCN. We found that CUS led to depressive-like behavior and reduced the amplitude of PER2 oscillation in the SCN, which were blocked by 3 weeks of desipramine (DMI) treatment. 2 weeks after termination of CUS, the decreased peak of PER2 expression returned to control levels, whereas depressive-like behavior remained unchanged. Our findings suggest that the dampened amplitude of PER2 expression in the SCN may participate in the development of depressive-like behavior induced by CUS but is unlikely involved in the long-lasting effects of CUS on depressive-like behavior. PMID:21621196

  10. Ovarian hormones, but not fluoxetine, impart resilience within a chronic unpredictable stress model in middle-aged female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Rand; Wainwright, Steven R; Chaiton, Jessica A; Lieblich, Stephanie E; Galea, Liisa A M

    2016-08-01

    Depression is more prevalent in women than in men, and women are at a heightened risk for depression during the postpartum and perimenopause. There is also evidence to suggest that the ovarian hormone milieu may dictate antidepressant efficacy. Thus, it is important to investigate the role of ovarian hormones in the pathogenesis of depression and in the mechanisms that may underlie antidepressant efficacy. In the present study, we used 10-month-old female Sprague-Dawley rats to examine the effects of long-term ovarian hormone deprivation on the development of depressive-like endophenotypes after chronic stress, and on antidepressant efficacy. Four months following ovariectomy (OVX) or sham surgery, all rats were subjected to 6 weeks of chronic unpredictable stress (CUS). During the last 3 weeks of CUS, rats received daily injections of fluoxetine (5 mg/kg) or vehicle. All rats were assessed on measures of anxiety- and depressive-like behavior, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) negative feedback inhibition, and on markers of neurogenesis and microglia in the dentate gyrus. Our findings demonstrate that long-term ovarian hormone deprivation increased anxiety and depressive-like behavior, as seen by increased immobility in the forced swim test and latency to feed in the novelty suppressed feeding test, and decreased sucrose preference. Further, long-term OVX resulted in impaired HPA negative feedback inhibition, as seen in the dexamethasone suppression test. Fluoxetine treatment showed limited behavioral and neuroendocrine efficacy, however it reduced microglial (Iba-1) expression, and increased cell proliferation, neurogenesis (via cell survival), and the expression of the polysialylated neuronal cell adhesion molecule (PSA-NCAM) in the dentate gyrus, although these effects varied by region (dorsal, ventral) and ovarian status. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that ovarian hormones may impart resilience against the behavioral and neuroendocrine

  11. Effect of repeated restraint stress on memory in different tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamaro G.D.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the effect of repeated stress applied to female rats on memory evaluated by three behavioral tasks: two-way shuttle avoidance, inhibitory avoidance and habituation to an open field. Repeated stress had different effects on rat behavior when different tasks were considered. In the two-way active avoidance test the stressed animals presented memory of the task, but their memory scores were impaired when compared to all other groups. In the habituation to the open field, only the control group showed a significant difference in the number of rearings between training and testing sessions, which is interpreted as an adequate memory of the task. In the handled and chronically stressed animals, on the other hand, no memory was observed, suggesting that even a very mild repeated stress would be enough to alter habituation to this task. The performance in the inhibitory avoidance task presented no significant differences between groups. The findings suggest that repeated restraint stress might induce cognitive impairments that are dependent on the task and on stress intensity.

  12. Chronic restraint stress inhibits hair growth via substance P mediated by reactive oxygen species in mice.

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    Nan Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUNDS: Solid evidence has demonstrated that psychoemotional stress induced alteration of hair cycle through neuropeptide substance P (SP mediated immune response, the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS in brain-skin-axis regulation system remains unknown. OBJECTIVES: The present study aims to investigate possible mechanisms of ROS in regulation of SP-mast cell signal pathway in chronic restraint stress (CRS, a model of chronic psychoemotional stress which induced abnormal of hair cycle. METHODS AND RESULTS: Our results have demonstrated that CRS actually altered hair cycle by inhibiting hair follicle growth in vivo, prolonging the telogen stage and delaying subsequent anagen and catagen stage. Up-regulation of SP protein expression in cutaneous peripheral nerve fibers and activation of mast cell were observed accompanied with increase of lipid peroxidation levels and reduction of the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px in CRS mice skin. In addition, SP receptor antagonist (RP67580 reduced mast cell activations and lipid peroxidation levels as well as increased GSH-Px activity and normalized hair cycle. Furthermore, antioxidant Tempol (a free radical scavenger also restored hair cycle, reduced SP protein expression and mast cell activation. CONCLUSIONS: Our study provides the first solid evidence for how ROS play a role in regulation of psychoemotional stress induced SP-Mast cell pathway which may provide a convincing rationale for antioxidant application in clinical treatment with psychological stress induced hair loss.

  13. Is it stress? The role of stress related systems in chronic food restriction-induced augmentation of heroin seeking in the rat

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    Firas eSedki

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Drug addiction is a chronic disease characterized by recurring episodes of abstinence and relapse. The precise mechanisms underlying this pattern are yet to be elucidated, but stress is thought to be a major factor in relapse. Recently, we reported that rats under withdrawal and exposed to a mild chronic stressor, prolonged food restriction, show increased heroin seeking compared to sated controls. Previous studies demonstrated a critical role for corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF and corticosterone, hormones involved in the stress response, in acute food deprivation-induced reinstatement of extinguished drug seeking. However, the role of CRF and corticosterone in chronic food restriction-induced augmentation of drug seeking remains unknown. Here, male Long-Evans rats were trained to self-administer heroin for 10 days in operant conditioning chambers. Rats were then removed from the training chambers, and subjected to 14 days of unrestricted (sated rats or a mildly restricted (FDR rats access to food, which maintained their body weight at 90% of their baseline weight. On day 14, different groups of rats were administered a selective CRF1 receptor antagonist (R121919; 0.0, 20.0 mg/kg; s.c., a non-selective CRF receptor antagonist (α-helical CRF; 0.0, 10.0, 25.0 μg/μl; i.c.v. or a glucocorticoid receptor antagonist (RU486; 0.0, 30.0 mg/kg; i.p., and underwent a 1 h drug seeking test under extinction conditions. An additional group of rats was tested following adrenalectomy. All FDR rats showed a statistically significant increase in heroin seeking compared to the sated rats. No statistically significant effects for treatment with α-helical CRF, R121919, RU486 or adrenalectomy were observed. These findings suggest that stress may not be a critical factor in the augmentation of heroin seeking in food-restricted rats.

  14. Chronic unpredictable stress regulates visceral adipocyte‐mediated glucose metabolism and inflammatory circuits in male rats

    OpenAIRE

    Karagiannides, Iordanes; Golovatscka, Viktoriya; Bakirtzi, Kyriaki; Sideri, Aristea; Salas, Martha; Stavrakis, Dimitris; Polytarchou, Christos; Iliopoulos, Dimitrios; Pothoulakis, Charalabos; Bradesi, Sylvie

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Chronic psychological stress is a prominent risk factor involved in the pathogenesis of many complex diseases, including major depression, obesity, and type II diabetes. Visceral adipose tissue is a key endocrine organ involved in the regulation of insulin action and an important component in the development of insulin resistance. Here, we examined for the first time the changes on visceral adipose tissue physiology and on adipocyte‐associated insulin sensitivity and function after c...

  15. Sleep-disordered breathing and oxidative stress in preclinical chronic mountain sickness (excessive erythrocytosis)

    OpenAIRE

    Julian, Colleen Glyde; Vargas, Enrique; Gonzales, Marcelino; Dávila, R. Daniela; Ladenburger, Anne; Reardon, Lindsay; Schoo, Caroline; Powers, Robert W.; Lee-Chiong, Teofilo; Moore, Lorna G.

    2013-01-01

    Chronic mountain sickness (CMS) is considered to be a loss of ventilatory acclimatization to high altitude (>2500 m) resulting in marked arterial hypoxemia and polycythemia. This case-control study explores the possibility that sleep-disordered breathing (SBD) and associated oxidative stress contribute to the etiology of CMS. Nocturnal respiratory and SaO2 patterns were measured using standard polysomnography techniques and compared between male high-altitude residents (aged 18–25) with precl...

  16. Ovariectomy-induced chronic abdominal hypernociception in rats: Relation with brain oxidative stress

    OpenAIRE

    Bárbara B. Garrido-Suárez; Gabino Garrido-Garrido; Marian Castro Labrada; Addis Bellma Menéndez; Roberto Menéndez Soto del Valle; René Delgado-Hernández

    2015-01-01

    Context: Ovarian hormone deficiency observed in menopausal women increases the production of reactive oxygen species, which could be implicated in central sensitization subjacent in chronic functional pain syndromes. Aims: To examine the hyperalgesic state induced by ovariectomy in adult rats and its relation to some oxidative stress outcomes. Methods: The female Wistar rats were divided into normal, sham ovariectomized (OVX) and OVX groups, which were tested for mechanical and therma...

  17. Depressive symptoms and perceived chronic stress predict test anxiety in nursing students

    OpenAIRE

    Christoph Augner

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study is to identify predictors of test anxiety in nursing students. Design: Cross sectional pilot study. Methods: A questionnaire was administered to 112 students of an Austrian nursing school (mean age = 21.42, SD = 5.21). Test anxiety (measured by the standardized PAF Test Anxiety Questionnaire), perceived chronic stress, depressive symptoms, pathological eating and further psychological and health parameters were measured. Results: We found highly significant correlat...

  18. Agmatine increases proliferation of cultured hippocampal progenitor cells and hippocampal neurogenesis in chronically stressed mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yun-feng LI; Hong-xia CHEN; Ying LIU; You-zhi ZHANG; Yan-qin LIU; Jin LI

    2006-01-01

    Aim:To explore the mechanism of agmatine's antidepressant action.Methods: Male mice were subjected to a variety of unpredictable stressors on a daily basis over a 24-d period.The open-field behaviors of the mice were displayed and recorded using a Videomex-V image analytic system automatically.For bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU;thymidine analog as a marker for dividing cells) labeling,the mice were injected with BrdU (100 mg/kg,ip,twice per d for 2 d),and the hippocampal neurogenesis in stressed mice was measured by immunohistochemistry.The proliferation of cultured hippocampal progenitor cells from neonatal rats was determined by colorimetric assay (cell counting kit-8) and 3H-thymidine incorporation assay.Results:After the onset of chronic stress,the locomotor activity of the mice in the open field significantly decreased,while coadministration of agmatine 10 mg/kg (po) blocked it.Furthermore,the number of BrdU-labeled cells in the hippocampal dentate gyrus significantly decreased in chronically stressed mice, which was also blocked by chronic coadministration with agmatine 10 mg/kg (po). Four weeks after the BrdU injection, some of the new born cells matured and became neurons, as determined by double labeling for BrdU and neuron specific enolase (NSE), a marker for mature neurons.In vitro treatment with agmatine 0.1-10 μmo1/L for 3 d significantly increased the proliferation of the cultured hippocampal progenitor cells in a dose-dependent manner.Conclusion:We have found that agmatine increases proliferation of hippocampal progenitor cells in vitro and the hippocampal neurogenesis in vivo in chronically stressed mice.This may be one of the important mechanisms involved in agmatine's antidepressant action.

  19. Stressful Life Events, Chronic Difficulties, and the Symptoms of Clinical Depression

    OpenAIRE

    Muscatell, Keely A.; Slavich, George M.; Monroe, Scott M.; Gotlib, Ian H.

    2009-01-01

    Major life events and chronic difficulties have been found to be associated with the onset of depression. Little is known, however, about how exposure to such stressors is related to the clinical presentation of this disorder. We addressed this issue by administering an interview-based measure of life stress, the Beck Depression Inventory, and the Global Assessment of Functioning scale to 100 adults diagnosed with major depressive disorder. Participants who experienced a preonset severe life ...

  20. IMPACT OF CHRONIC POSTTRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER ON THE QUALITY OF LIFE OF WAR SURVIVORS

    OpenAIRE

    Bravo-Mehmedbašić, Alma; Kučukalić, Abdulah; Džubur Kulenović, Alma; Suljić, Enra

    2010-01-01

    Background: Research data from studies of functional neuroanatomy and neurochemistry indicate various dysfunctions in certain areas of the brain in individuals who suffer from chronic Posttraumatic Stress Disorder. These abnormalities are involved in the evolution of symptoms of PTSD, deterioration of cognitive functions and decreased quality of life of the survivors. The intensity of these symptoms is in direct correlation with the degree of dysfunction in the central nervous system...

  1. Pre-stress performance in an instrumental training predict post-stress behavioral alterations in chronically stressed rats

    OpenAIRE

    Shigenobu Toda

    2015-01-01

    Stress is a major factor in the development of major depressive disorder (MDD), but few studies have assessed individual risk based on pre-stress traits. In this study, we employed appetitive instrumental lever pressing with a progressive ratio schedule to assess the individual pre-stress behavioral and cognitive traits in experimentally naïve Sprague–Dawley rats. Based on the behavioral data, the animals were classified into four subgroups (Low Motivation, Quick Learner, Slow Learner, and Hy...

  2. The different roles of glucocorticoids in the hippocampus and hypothalamus in chronic stress-induced HPA axis hyperactivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Juan Zhu

    Full Text Available Hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA hyperactivity is observed in many patients suffering from depression and the mechanism underling the dysfunction of HPA axis is not well understood. Chronic stress has a causal relationship with the hyperactivity of HPA axis. Stress induces the over-synthesis of glucocorticoids, which will arrive at all the body containing the brain. It is still complicated whether glucocorticoids account for chronic stress-induced HPA axis hyperactivity and in which part of the brain the glucocorticoids account for chronic stress-induced HPA axis hyperactivity. Here, we demonstrated that glucocorticoids were indispensable and sufficient for chronic stress-induced hyperactivity of HPA axis. Although acute glucocorticoids elevation in the hippocampus and hypothalamus exerted a negative regulation of HPA axis, we found that chronic glucocorticoids elevation in the hippocampus but not in the hypothalamus accounted for chronic stress-induced hyperactivity of HPA axis. Chronic glucocorticoids exposure in the hypothalamus still exerted a negative regulation of HPA axis activity. More importantly, we found mineralocorticoid receptor (MR - neuronal nitric oxide synthesis enzyme (nNOS - nitric oxide (NO pathway mediated the different roles of glucocorticoids in the hippocampus and hypothalamus in regulating HPA axis activity. This study suggests that the glucocorticoids in the hippocampus play an important role in the development of HPA axis hyperactivity and the glucocorticoids in the hypothalamus can't induce hyperactivity of HPA axis, revealing new insights into understanding the mechanism of depression.

  3. Regulatory effect of heat shock protein 70 in stress-induced rat intestinal epithelial barrier dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping-Chang Yang

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Psychological stress is one of the factors associated with many human diseases; the mechanisms need to be further understood. Methods : Rats were subjected to chronic water avoid stress. Intestinal epithelial heat shock protein (HSP 70 was evaluated. The intestinal epithelial permeability was examined with Ussing chamber technique. Results : HSP70 was detected in normal intestinal epithelial cells. Psychological stress decreased HSP70 in the intestinal epithelial cells that correlated with the stress-induced intestinal epithelial hyperpermeability. Pretreatment with HSP70 abrogated stress-induced intestinal barrier dysfunction. Conclusions : Chronic stress inhibits HSP70 activity in rat intestinal epithelial layer that is associated with intestinal epithelial barrier dysfunction, which can be prevented by pretreatment with HSP70 protein. (Yang PC, Tu YH, Perdue MH, Oluwole C, Struiksma S. Regulatory effect of heat shock protein 70 in stress-induced rat intestinal epithelial barrier dysfunction.

  4. Chronic social defeat stress increases dopamine D2 receptor dimerization in the prefrontal cortex of adult mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagalkot, T R; Jin, H-M; Prabhu, V V; Muna, S S; Cui, Y; Yadav, B K; Chae, H-J; Chung, Y-C

    2015-12-17

    The present study aimed to examine the effects of chronic social defeat stress on the dopamine receptors and proteins involved in post-endocytic trafficking pathways. Adult mice were divided into susceptible and unsusceptible groups after 10 days of social defeat stress. Western blot analysis was used to measure the protein expression levels of dopamine D2 receptors (D2Rs), a short (D2S) and a long form (D2L) and, D2R monomers and dimers, dopamine D1 receptors (D1Rs), neuronal calcium sensor-1 (NCS-1) and G protein-coupled receptor-associated sorting protein-1 (GASP-1), and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to measure the mRNA expression levels of D2S, D2L, D2R monomers and dimers, and D1Rs in different brain areas. We observed increased expression of D2S, D2L and D2Rs dimers in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) of susceptible and/or unsusceptible mice compared with controls. The only significant findings with regard to mRNA expression levels were lower expression of D2S mRNA in the amygdala (AMYG) of susceptible and unsusceptible mice compared with controls. The present study demonstrated that chronic social defeat stress induced increased expression of D2S, D2L, and D2R dimers in the PFC of susceptible and/or unsusceptible mice. PMID:26484605

  5. Chronic oxidative stress promotes H2AX protein degradation and enhances chemosensitivity in breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruosso, Tina; Mieulet, Virginie; Cardon, Melissa; Bourachot, Brigitte; Kieffer, Yann; Devun, Flavien; Dubois, Thierry; Dutreix, Marie; Vincent-Salomon, Anne; Miller, Kyle Malcolm; Mechta-Grigoriou, Fatima

    2016-01-01

    Anti-cancer drugs often increase reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cause DNA damage. Here, we highlight a new cross talk between chronic oxidative stress and the histone variant H2AX, a key player in DNA repair. We observe that persistent accumulation of ROS, due to a deficient JunD-/Nrf2-antioxidant response, reduces H2AX protein levels. This effect is mediated by an enhanced interaction of H2AX with the E3 ubiquitin ligase RNF168, which is associated with H2AX poly-ubiquitination and promotes its degradation by the proteasome. ROS-mediated H2AX decrease plays a crucial role in chemosensitivity. Indeed, cycles of chemotherapy that sustainably increase ROS reduce H2AX protein levels in Triple-Negative breast cancer (TNBC) patients. H2AX decrease by such treatment is associated with an impaired NRF2-antioxidant response and is indicative of the therapeutic efficiency and survival of TNBC patients. Thus, our data describe a novel ROS-mediated regulation of H2AX turnover, which provides new insights into genetic instability and treatment efficacy in TNBC patients. PMID:27006338

  6. Examination of the interaction of different lighting conditions and chronic mild stress in animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, A; Gal, N; Betlehem, J; Fuller, N; Acs, P; Kovacs, G L; Fusz, K; Jozsa, R; Olah, A

    2015-09-01

    We examined the effects of different shift work schedules and chronic mild stress (CMS) on mood using animal model. The most common international shift work schedules in nursing were applied by three groups of Wistar-rats and a control group with normal light-dark cycle. One subgroup from each group was subjected to CMS. Levels of anxiety and emotional life were evaluated in light-dark box. Differences between the groups according to independent and dependent variables were examined with one- and two-way analysis of variance, with a significance level defined at p examination confirm that the changes of lighting conditions evocate anxiety more prominently than CMS. No significant differences were found between the results of the low rotating group and the control group, supposing that this schedule is the least harmful to health. Our results on the association between the use of lighting regimens and the level of CMS provide evidence that the fast rotating shift work schedule puts the heaviest load on the organism of animals. PMID:26551746

  7. Chronic foot-shock stress potentiates the influx of bone marrow-derived microglia into hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brevet, Marie; Kojima, Hideto; Asakawa, Akihiro; Atsuchi, Kaori; Ushikai, Miharu; Ataka, Koji; Inui, Akio; Kimura, Hiroshi; Sevestre, Henri; Fujimiya, Mineko

    2010-07-01

    For several years, a new population of microglia derived from bone marrow has been described in multiple settings such as infection, trauma, and neurodegenerative disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the migration of bone marrow-derived cells to the brain parenchyma after stress exposure. Stress exposure was performed in mice that had received bone marrow transplantation from GFP mice, allowing identification of blood-derived elements within the brain. Electric foot-shock exposure was chosen because of its ability to serve as fundamental and physical stress in mice. Bone marrow-derived GFP(+) cells migrated to the ventral part of the hippocampus and acquired a ramified microglia-like morphology. Microglia marker Iba1 was expressed by 100% of the ramified cells, whereas ramified cells were negative for the astrocyte marker GFAP. Compared with the case in the control group, ramified cells significantly increased after chronic exposure to stress (5 days). One month after 5 days of stress exposure, ramified cells significantly decreased in ventral hippocampus compared with the group examined immediately after the last stress exposure. We report for the first time the migration of bone marrow-derived cells to the ventral hippocampus after stress exposure. These cells have the characteristics of microglia. Mechanisms responsible for this migration and their roles in the brain remain to be determined. PMID:20155811

  8. ACTIVATION MECHANISMS OF GUT-ASSOCIATED LYMPHOID TISSUE UNDER CHRONIC SOCIAL STRESS CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Kamyshnyi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Stress-induced immune disregulation is a risk factor of autoimmune and inflammatory diseases, but, so far, the mechanisms for this effect are not fully known. Expression levels of specific mRNAs were assessed in gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT from Wistar rats subjected to chronic social stress (CSS. Gene expression was evaluated for NR3C1, Adrβ2, as well as IL-1β, IL-17α pro-inflammatory cytokines, and Nlrp, an inflammasome gene. Under the CSS conditions, we have shown altered distribution of RORγt +, FoxP3+, LMP2+, XBP1+ lymphocytes in GALT.The experiments were carried out with female Wistar rats aged 5–6 months. Specific mRNA expression for the target genes was determined by means of real-time PCR performed in a CFX96™ thermocycler («BioRadLaboratories, Inc»,USA. Relative levels of a target gene expression were quantified by the ΔΔCt method, being compared with rat GAPDH reference gene expression. Statistical analysis was performed with available «BioRad СFX Manager 3.1» software. Specific monoclonal rat antibodes were used for detection of immunopositive lymphocytes by means of indirect immunofluorescence technique.CSS development leads to decreased levels of mRNA expression for Nr3c1 and Adrβ2-genes in the GALT cells, being accompanied with unidirectional changes, i.e., increased transcription of pro-inflammatory cytokine mRNAs (IL-1β, IL-17α and Nlrp3-inflammasome genes. These changes are accompanied by decreased FoxP3+/RORγt + cell ratio and predominant Th17 differentiation accompanied by suppressor failure. In addition, CSS development was characterized by unidirectional tendency for increasing total number of LMP2+ lymphocytes and reduced ХВР1+ cell population density in lymphoid structures of rat ileum.The events observed in GALT cell populations under CSS conditions are opposing classical paradigm of the stress response. The CSS-associated effects do not promote immunosuppression, however, are able to cause

  9. Regular moderate or intense exercise prevents depression-like behavior without change of hippocampal tryptophan content in chronically tryptophan-deficient and stressed mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosung Lee

    Full Text Available Regular exercise has an antidepressant effect in human subjects. Studies using animals have suggested that the antidepressant effect of exercise is attributable to an increase of brain 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT; however, the precise mechanism underlying the antidepressant action via exercise is unclear. In contrast, the effect of 5-HT on antidepressant activity has not been clarified, in part because the therapeutic response to antidepressant drugs has a time lag in spite of the rapid increase of brain 5-HT upon administration of these drugs. This study was designed to investigate the contribution of brain 5-HT to the antidepressant effect of exercise. Mice were fed a tryptophan-deficient diet and stressed using chronic unpredictable stress (CUS for 4 weeks with or without the performance of either moderate or intense exercise on a treadmill 3 days per week. The findings demonstrated that the onset of depression-like behavior is attributable not to chronic reduction of 5-HT but to chronic stress. Regular exercise, whether moderate or intense, prevents depression-like behavior with an improvement of adult hippocampal cell proliferation and survival and without the recovery of 5-HT. Concomitantly, the mice that exercised showed increased hippocampal noradrenaline. Regular exercise prevents the impairment of not long-term memory but short-term memory in a 5-HT-reduced state. Together, these findings suggest that: (1 chronic reduction of brain 5-HT may not contribute to the onset of depression-like behavior; (2 regular exercise, whether moderate or intense, prevents the onset of chronic stress-induced depression-like behavior independent of brain 5-HT and dependent on brain adrenaline; and (3 regular exercise prevents chronic tryptophan reduction-induced impairment of not long-term but short-term memory.

  10. Increased limbic phosphorylated extracellular-regulated kinase 1 and 2 expression after chronic stress is reduced by cyclic 17 beta-estradiol administration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerrits, M.; Westenbroek, C.; Koch, T.; Grootkarzijn, A.; Ter Horst, G. J.

    2006-01-01

    Chronic stress induced neuronal changes that may have consequences for subsequent stress responses. For example, chronic stress in rats rearranges dendritic branching patterns and disturbs the phosphorylation of extracellular-regulated kinase 1 and 2 (ERK) 1/2 throughout the limbic system. Stress-in

  11. Chronic drought stress reduced but not protected Shantung maple (Acer truncatum Bunge) from adverse effects of ozone (O3) on growth and physiology in the suburb of Beijing, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A two-year experiment exposing Acer truncatum Bunge seedlings to elevated ozone (O3) concentrations above ambient air (AO) and drought stress (DS) was carried out using open-top chambers (OTCs) in a suburb of Beijing in north China in 2012–2013. The results suggested that AO and DS had both significantly reduced leaf mass area (LMA), stomatal conductance (Gs), light saturated photosynthetic rate (Asat) as well as above and below ground biomass at the end of the experiment. It appeared that while drought stress mitigated the expression of foliar injury, LMA, leaf photosynthetic pigments, height growth and basal diameter, due to limited carbon fixation, the O3 – induced reductions in Asat, Gs and total biomass were enhanced 23.7%. 15.5% and 8.1% respectively. These data suggest that when the whole plant was considered that drought under the conditions of this experiment did not protect the Shantung maple seedlings from the effects of O3. - Highlights: • The response of Acer truncatum Bunge to drought and ozone was investigated. • Drought could mitigate the foliage injury and leaf photosynthetic pigments. • The O3-induced reductions in Asat, Gs and total biomass were enhanced by drought. - Drought didn't protect Shantung maple from O3 effects but rather cause more reductions in biomass

  12. Validation and use of hair cortisol as a measure of chronic stress in eastern chipmunks (Tamias striatus)

    OpenAIRE

    Mastromonaco, Gabriela F; Gunn, Kelsey; McCurdy-Adams, H.; Edwards, D. B.; Schulte-Hostedde, Albrecht I.

    2014-01-01

    Stress levels of individuals are documented using glucocorticoid concentrations (including cortisol) in blood, saliva, urine or faeces, which provide information about stress hormones during a short period of time (minutes to days). In mammals, use of hair cortisol analysis allows for the assessment of prolonged stress over weeks and months and provides information on chronic stress levels without bias associated with handling. Here, we validate hair cortisol analysis in wild rodents using ex...

  13. The protective role of Bax Inhibitor-1 against chronic mild stress through the inhibition of monoamine oxidase A

    OpenAIRE

    Hwa-Young Lee; Geum-Hwa Lee; Anu Marahatta; Shun-Mei Lin; Mi-Rin Lee; Kyu Yun Jang; Kyung Min Kim; Hee Jae Lee; Jae-Won Lee; Tarique Rajasaheb Bagalkot; Young-Chul Chung; Yong-Chul Lee; Hyung-Ryong Kim; Han-Jung Chae

    2013-01-01

    The anti-apoptotic protein Bax inhibitor-1 (BI-1) is a regulator of apoptosis linked to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. It has been hypothesized that BI-1 protects against neuron degenerative diseases. In this study, BI-1−/− mice showed increased vulnerability to chronic mild stress accompanied by alterations in the size and morphology of the hippocampi, enhanced ROS accumulation and an ER stress response compared with BI-1+/+ mice. BI-1−/− mice exposed to chronic mild stress showed signif...

  14. 芒果苷对慢性应激抑郁小鼠行为及海马脑源性神经营养因子表达的影响%The effects of mangiterin on the improvement of behavior and expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in the hippocampus of chronic stress-induced depression model mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付燕燕; 宋远见; 杨宜华; 段静雨

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the effects of mangiterin on behaviors and brain-derived neurotrophic factor(BDNF) of hippocampus in chronic stress depression mice.Methods 60 male mice were randomly divided into normol control group,model group,fluoxetin control group and mangiterin groups (low,medium and high dose),10 mice in each group.All mice except normal control group were singly housed and subjected to chronic stress-induced depression model for 21 consecutive days.The behaviors of mice were detected by open-field test and tail-suspension test.The expression of BDNF in the hippocampus were assessed using western blot.Results Compared with the normal group,mice exposed chronic stress showed decreased body weight((5.33 ±1.20) g),crossing lines (102 ± 18) and distances ((3425 ± 112) mm) notably decreased in open-field behavior test.The duration of immobility during tail-suspension was increased significantly.BDNF expression in the hippocampus(0.45 ± 0.03) was downregulated significantly(P< 0.01),while it was upregulated in the groups of mangiterin(P < 0.01).Mangiterin group in high dose had the similar effects to fluoxetin group(P > 0.05).Conclusion Mangiterin can ameliorate behavior impairment of chronic stress induced-depression mice and it may be related to the upregulation of BDNF expression in the hippocampus.%目的 探讨芒果苷(Mangiterin)对慢性应激抑郁模型(chronic unpredictable stress,CUS)小鼠行为学的改善作用及对海马脑源性神经营养因子(brain-derived neurotrophic factor,BDNF)表达的影响.方法 将大鼠随机分为正常对照组,慢性应激模型组,氟西汀组,芒果苷低、中和高剂量组,共6组,每组10只.采用慢性轻度不可预见性应激配合孤养复制抑郁模型,通过旷场及悬尾实验观察行为学改变,并运用免疫印迹检测海马BDNF的表达.结果 与正常对照组比,模型组体质量增长缓慢[(5.33±1.20)g],水平穿格次数减少[(102±18)次/5 min

  15. The total flavonoids extracted from Xiaobuxin Tang reverse the hyperactivity of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in chronically stressed rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AN Lei; ZHANG You-zhi

    2008-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of XBXT-2 on the activity of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in chronic mild stress (CMS) model of rats. Methods Using ELISA to test the serum corticos-terone, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) level in CMS rats; Using western blot to determine hippocampal glucocorticoids receptors (GR) expression in CMS rats. Results Co-administration of XBXT-2 (25, 50 mg·kg-1, p. o., 28 days, the effective doses for behavioral responses) significantly decreased the serum corticosterone and ACTH level in CMS rats, while the CRH level was not markedly affected by chronic stress or drugs. Moreover, XBXT-2 significantly increased the GR expression in the hippocampus of CMS rats. The same effects were observed in the positive control drug imipramine ( 10 mg·kg-1 p. o. ). Conclusions The decrease of serum corticosterone and ACTH level, as well as the increase of hippocampal GR expression may be the mechanisms underlying the antidepressant action of XBXT-2, which may associate with HPA axis.

  16. ACUTE STRESS DISORDER VERSUS CHRONIC POSTTRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER: INHIBITION OF FEAR AS A FUNCTION OF TIME SINCE TRAUMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovanovic, Tanja; Sakoman, Andrea Jambrošić; Kozarić-Kovačić, Dragica; Meštrović, Ana Havelka; Duncan, Erica J.; Davis, Michael; Norrholm, Seth D.

    2013-01-01

    Background Previous work has shown that inhibition of fear is impaired in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) resulting from both civilian and combat trauma. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the inhibition of learned fear in traumatized individuals diagnosed with either acute stress disorder (ASD) or PTSD. This is the first study to use a conditioned inhibition paradigm with traumatized individuals within a month of trauma exposure. We hypothesized that impaired fear inhibition would be evident in PTSD, but not ASD. Method Using established translational, psychophysiological methods including fear-potentiated startle, and skin conductance, we examined fear acquisition, stimulus discrimination, and the transfer of learned safety in a Croatian population with ASD or PTSD. This cross-sectional study included three age-matched groups: healthy nontrauma controls (n = 27), a group with chronic PTSD (10 or more years since trauma exposure, n = 24), and a group with ASD (30 days or less since trauma exposure, n = 27). Results The presence of trauma-related psychopathology, whether acute or chronic, was associated with an impaired ability to transfer learned safety based on fear-potentiated startle measures, while healthy control subjects showed significant fear inhibition in the presence of the safety cue compared to the danger cue, F(1,26) = 12.64, P = .001. Conclusions These data expand our previously observed findings of PTSD-associated fear inhibition deficits by demonstrating that trauma-related impairments in safety learning are evident within 30 days of trauma exposure. PMID:22907890

  17. Changes in proinflammatory cytokines and white matter in chronically stressed rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang P

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Ping Yang,1 Zhenyong Gao,1 Handi Zhang,1 Zeman Fang,1 Cairu Wu,1 Haiyun Xu,1,2 Qing-Jun Huang1 1Mental Health Center, 2Department of Anatomy, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou, Guangdong, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Although the pathogenesis of depression, an incapacitating psychiatric ailment, remains largely unknown, previous human and animal studies have suggested that both proinflammatory cytokines and altered oligodendrocytes play important roles in the condition. This study examined these two factors in the brains of rats following unpredictable chronic mild stress for 4 weeks, with the hypothesis that chronic stress may affect oligodendrocytes and elevate proinflammatory cytokines in the brain. After suffering unpredictable stressors for 4 weeks, the rats showed depression-like behaviors, including decreased locomotion in the open field, increased immobility time in the forced swim test, and decreased sucrose consumption and less sucrose preference when compared with controls. Immunohistochemical staining of brain sections showed higher immunoreactivity of proinflammatory cytokines in certain brain regions of stressed rats compared with controls; lower immunoreactivity of myelin basic protein and fewer mature oligodendrocytes were seen in the prefrontal cortex, but no demyelination was detected. These results are interpreted and discussed in the context of recent findings from human and animal studies. Keywords: cytokines, depression, myelination, oligodendrocytes, stress 

  18. Differences in maladaptive schemas between patients suffering from chronic and acute posttraumatic stress disorder and healthy controls

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmadian, Alireza; Mirzaee, Jafar; Omidbeygi, Maryam; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Brand, Serge

    2015-01-01

    Background War, as a stressor event, has a variety of acute and chronic negative consequences, such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). In this context, early maladaptive schema-based problems in PTSD have recently become an important research area. The aim of this study was to assess early maladaptive schemas in patients with acute and chronic PTSD. Method Using available sampling methods and diagnostic criteria, 30 patients with chronic PTSD, 30 patients with acute PTSD, and 30 normal ...

  19. Protective Effect of Arginine on Oxidative Stress in Transgenic Sickle Mouse Models

    OpenAIRE

    Dasgupta, Trisha; Hebbel, Robert P.; Kaul, Dhananjay K.

    2006-01-01

    Sickle cell disease (SCD) is characterized by reperfusion injury and chronic oxidative stress. Oxidative stress and hemolysis in SCD result in inactivation of nitric oxide (NO) and depleted arginine levels. We hypothesized that augmenting NO production by arginine supplementation will reduce oxidative stress in SCD. To this end, we measured the effect of arginine (5% in mouse chow) on NO metabolites (NOx), lipid peroxidation (LPO) and selected antioxidants in transgenic sickle mouse models. U...

  20. Chronic vitamin C deficiency does not accelerate oxidative stress in ageing brains of guinea pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tveden-Nyborg, Pernille; Andersen, Stine Hasselholt; Miyashita, Namiyo;

    2012-01-01

      Increased oxidative stress in the brain has consistently been implied in ageing and in several degenerative brain disorders. Acting as a pivotal antioxidant in the brain, vitamin C is preferentially retained during deficiency and may play an essential role in neuroprotection during ageing. Thus......, a lack of vitamin C could be associated with an increase in redox imbalance in the ageing brain. The present study compared oxidative stress of ageing to that of a long-term non-scorbutic vitamin C deficiency in guinea pigs. Adults (3-9 months old) were compared to old (36-42 months old) animals...... during a six-month dietary intervention by assessing vitamin C transport and redox homeostasis in the brain. In contrast to our hypothesis, chronic vitamin C deficiency did not affect the measured markers of oxidative stress in the brains of adult and aged animals. However, aged animals generally showed...

  1. Rats with high or low sociability are differently affected by chronic variable stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tõnissaar, M; Herm, L; Eller, M; Kõiv, K; Rinken, A; Harro, J

    2008-04-01

    Depression is strongly related to social behavior. We have previously shown that social behavior of rats is individually stable. The purpose of the present study was to compare the sensitivity of animals with different sociability to chronic variable stress (CVS). Four social interaction tests were performed with 60 single-housed male Sprague-Dawley rats. Twenty rats with the lowest and 20 with the highest average social activity time were selected as low sociability (LS) and high sociability (HS) rats, respectively. Both groups were further divided into control and stress groups with equal average body weight. The CVS procedure lasted for 3 weeks. The stressors applied were cold water and wet bedding, imitation of injection, stroboscopic light, movement restriction in a small cage, tail pinch with a clothespin, and strong illumination during the predicted dark phase. In HS-rats, but not in LS-rats, CVS reduced sucrose intake compared with baseline after 3 weeks, suggesting that HS-rats are more vulnerable to anhedonia elicited by CVS. LS-animals were more anxious in the social interaction and open field tests, but stress eliminated differences with HS-animals in the social interaction test and increased their activity in the forced swimming test. In LS-rats stress increased ex vivo dopamine levels and reduced 5-HT levels in the frontal cortex, suggesting that the increased behavioral activity after stress may be related to increased impulsivity. This study thus revealed that animals with high sociability trait are more vulnerable to anhedonia elicited by chronic stress in conditions of single housing. PMID:18343596

  2. Chronic idiopathic urticaria, psychological co-morbidity and posttraumatic stress: the impact of alexithymia and repression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunkin, Victoria; Chung, Man Cheung

    2012-12-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the interrelationship between chronic idiopathic urticaria (CIU), psychological co-morbidity, posttraumatic stress, repression and alexithymia. 89 participants with CIU and 105 without CIU responded to an online questionnaire. Both groups completed the general health questionnaire-12, the perceived stress scale, the posttraumatic stress diagnostic scale and the Toronto alexithymia scale-20 and were categorised into four defence mechanism groups (repressive, defensive, high-anxious, low-anxious). CIU participants also completed the Skindex-17 and a self-report severity measure. CIU participants reported higher levels of alexithymia than the control group and their defence mechanism was most likely to be categorised as defensive, with conscious self-image management reported alongside high manifest anxiety. Partial least squares analysis revealed significant paths between posttraumatic stress and CIU severity and psychological co-morbidity. Posttraumatic stress was associated with alexithymia and type of defence mechanism. Only being in the high-anxious group partially mediated the relationship between posttraumatic stress and CIU severity. In conclusion, there is evidence for a relationship between CIU and trauma. The severity of posttraumatic symptoms varies depending upon alexithymic traits and defence mechanisms used. Disease severity and psychological co-morbidity are differentially influenced by the relationships between trauma, alexithymic traits and defence mechanisms. PMID:22362490

  3. Effects of neonatal stress on gamma oscillations in hippocampus

    OpenAIRE

    Sally Dricks

    2016-01-01

    Chronic early life stress increases adult risk for depression, bipolar disorder and schizophrenia, illnesses characterized by aberrant functions of cognition and memory. We asked whether chronic early life stress disrupts maturation of gamma oscillations, on which these functions depend. Lifelong impairment of the stress response results from separation of rat pups from the dam for three hours per day during a critical period of hippocampal development (PNDs 2–14). Parvalbumin-expressing inte...

  4. Anticompulsive Activity of a New Pyrazolo[C]Pyridine Derivative GIZh-72 under Conditions of Unpredictable Chronic Mild Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudryashov, N V; Kalinina, T S; Zhmurenko, L A; Voronina, T A

    2016-07-01

    Anticompulsive activity of a novel compound GIZh-72 (4,6-dimethyl-2-(4-chlorphenyl)-2,3-dihydro-1H-pyrazolo[4,3-C]Pyridine-3-on, chloral hydrate) in a dose of 20 mg/kg (single, subchronic, and chronic administration) in comparison with fluvoxamine (25 mg/kg) was studied in the marble burying test in the model of unpredictable chronic mild stress on BALB/c mice. GIZh-72 produced an anticompulsive effect that increased with increasing treatment duration under stress conditions in contrast to fluvoxamine that induced inversion of this effect after long-term administration. Neuroleptic activity of GIZh-72 in doses of 20 and 40 mg/kg was studied on the model of apomorphine-induced climbing in C57Bl/6 mice. In contrast to haloperidol (0.5 mg/kg), GIZh-72 exhibited no neuroleptic properties. Our results indicate that GIZh-72 holds much promise for pharmacotherapy of obsessive-compulsive disorder. PMID:27502699

  5. Glutamatergic dysbalance and oxidative stress in in vivo and in vitro models of psychosis based on chronic NMDA receptor antagonism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Just Genius

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The psychotomimetic effects of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA receptor antagonists in healthy humans and their tendency to aggravate psychotic symptoms in schizophrenic patients have promoted the notion of altered glutamatergic neurotransmission in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. METHODS: The NMDA-receptor antagonist MK-801 was chronically administered to rats (0.02 mg/kg intraperitoneally for 14 days. In one subgroup the antipsychotic haloperidol (1 mg/kg was employed as a rescue therapy. Glutamate distribution and 3-NT (3-nitrotyrosine as a marker of oxidative stress were assessed by immunohistochemistry in tissue sections. In parallel, the effects of MK-801 and haloperidol were investigated in primary embryonal hippocampal cell cultures from rats. RESULTS: Chronic NMDA-R antagonism led to a marked increase of intracellular glutamate in the hippocampus (126.1 +/- 10.4% S.E.M of control; p=0.037, while 3-NT staining intensity remained unaltered. No differences were observed in extrahippocampal brain regions. Essentially these findings could be reproduced in vitro. CONCLUSION: The combined in vivo and in vitro strategy allowed us to assess the implications of disturbed glutamate metabolism for the occurrence of oxidative stress and to investigate the effects of antipsychotics. Our data suggest that oxidative stress plays a minor role in this model than previously suggested. The same applies to apoptosis. Moreover, the effect of haloperidol seems to be mediated through yet unidentified mechanisms, unrelated to D2-antagonism. These convergent lines of evidence indicate that further research should be focused on the glutamatergic system and that our animal model may provide a tool to explore the biology of schizophrenia.

  6. TNFα mediates stress-induced depression by upregulating indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase in a mouse model of unpredictable chronic mild stress

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Yu-Ning; Peng, Yun-Li; Lei-Liu,; Wu, Teng-Yun; Zhang, Yi; Lian, Yong-Jie; Yang, Yuan-Yuan; Kelley, Keith W.; Jiang, Chun-Lei; Wang, Yun-Xia

    2015-01-01

    Depression is often preceded by exposure to stressful life events. Chronic stress causes perturbations in the immune system, and up-regulates production of proinflammatory cytokines, which has been proposed to be associated with the pathogenesis of clinical depression. However, the potential mechanisms by which stress-induced proinflammatory cytokines lead to the development of depression are not well understood. Here, we sought to screen the main proinflammatory cytokines and the potential m...

  7. The effects of music on chronic pain

    OpenAIRE

    Vaarala, Oula

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to find out what kind of music has been used to manage chronic pain, to identify in what kind of conditions music is listened to and to figure out the influence of music on different psychological or physiological variables among patients with chronic pain. The aim of the study was to gain information about the analgesic properties of music on chronic pain, in order to give nurses new ideas on how they can ease their patients’ pain. In this thesis a literatu...

  8. The Impacts of Swimming Exercise on Hippocampal Expression of Neurotrophic Factors in Rats Exposed to Chronic Unpredictable Mild Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei Jiang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Depression is associated with stress-induced neural atrophy in limbic brain regions, whereas exercise has antidepressant effects as well as increasing hippocampal synaptic plasticity by strengthening neurogenesis, metabolism, and vascular function. A key mechanism mediating these broad benefits of exercise on the brain is induction of neurotrophic factors, which instruct downstream structural and functional changes. To systematically evaluate the potential neurotrophic factors that were involved in the antidepressive effects of exercise, in this study, we assessed the effects of swimming exercise on hippocampal mRNA expression of several classes of the growth factors (BDNF, GDNF, NGF, NT-3, FGF2, VEGF, and IGF-1 and peptides (VGF and NPY in rats exposed to chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS. Our study demonstrated that the swimming training paradigm significantly induced the expression of BDNF and BDNF-regulated peptides (VGF and NPY and restored their stress-induced downregulation. Additionally, the exercise protocol also increased the antiapoptotic Bcl-xl expression and normalized the CUMS mediated induction of proapoptotic Bax mRNA level. Overall, our data suggest that swimming exercise has antidepressant effects, increasing the resistance to the neural damage caused by CUMS, and both BDNF and its downstream neurotrophic peptides may exert a major function in the exercise related adaptive processes to CUMS.

  9. The impacts of swimming exercise on hippocampal expression of neurotrophic factors in rats exposed to chronic unpredictable mild stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Pei; Dang, Rui-Li; Li, Huan-De; Zhang, Li-Hong; Zhu, Wen-Ye; Xue, Ying; Tang, Mi-Mi

    2014-01-01

    Depression is associated with stress-induced neural atrophy in limbic brain regions, whereas exercise has antidepressant effects as well as increasing hippocampal synaptic plasticity by strengthening neurogenesis, metabolism, and vascular function. A key mechanism mediating these broad benefits of exercise on the brain is induction of neurotrophic factors, which instruct downstream structural and functional changes. To systematically evaluate the potential neurotrophic factors that were involved in the antidepressive effects of exercise, in this study, we assessed the effects of swimming exercise on hippocampal mRNA expression of several classes of the growth factors (BDNF, GDNF, NGF, NT-3, FGF2, VEGF, and IGF-1) and peptides (VGF and NPY) in rats exposed to chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS). Our study demonstrated that the swimming training paradigm significantly induced the expression of BDNF and BDNF-regulated peptides (VGF and NPY) and restored their stress-induced downregulation. Additionally, the exercise protocol also increased the antiapoptotic Bcl-xl expression and normalized the CUMS mediated induction of proapoptotic Bax mRNA level. Overall, our data suggest that swimming exercise has antidepressant effects, increasing the resistance to the neural damage caused by CUMS, and both BDNF and its downstream neurotrophic peptides may exert a major function in the exercise related adaptive processes to CUMS. PMID:25477997

  10. Chronic variable stress and intravenous methamphetamine self-administration - Role of individual differences in behavioral and physiological reactivity to novelty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, S B; Watterson, L R; Kufahl, P R; Nemirovsky, N E; Tomek, S E; Conrad, C D; Olive, M F

    2016-09-01

    Stress is a contributing factor to the development and maintenance of addiction in humans. However, few studies have shown that stress potentiates the rewarding and/or reinforcing effects of methamphetamine in rodent models of addiction. The present study assessed the effects of exposure to 14 days of chronic variable stress (CVS), or no stress as a control (CON), on the rewarding and reinforcing effects of methamphetamine in adult rats using the conditioned place preference (Experiment 1) and intravenous self-administration (Experiment 2) paradigms. In Experiment 2, we also assessed individual differences in open field locomotor activity, anxiety-like behavior in the elevated plus maze (EPM), and physiological responses to a novel environment as possible predictors of methamphetamine intake patterns. Exposure to CVS for 14 days did not affect overall measures of methamphetamine conditioned reward or reinforcement. However, analyses of individual differences and direct vs. indirect effects revealed that rats exhibiting high physiological reactivity and locomotor activity in the EPM and open field tests self-administered more methamphetamine and reached higher breakpoints for drug reinforcement than rats exhibiting low reactivity. In addition, CVS exposure significantly increased the proportion of rats that exhibited high reactivity, and high reactivity was significantly correlated with increased levels of methamphetamine intake. These findings suggest that individual differences in physiological and locomotor reactivity to novel environments, as well as their interactions with stress history, predict patterns of drug intake in rodent models of methamphetamine addiction. Such predictors may eventually inform future strategies for implementing individualized treatment strategies for amphetamine use disorders. PMID:27163191

  11. Stress and opioids: role of opioids in modulating stress-related behavior and effect of stress on morphine conditioned place preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bali, Anjana; Randhawa, Puneet Kaur; Jaggi, Amteshwar Singh

    2015-04-01

    Research studies have defined the important role of endogenous opioids in modulating stress-associated behavior. The release of β-endorphins in the amygdala in response to stress helps to cope with a stressor by inhibiting the over-activation of HPA axis. Administration of mu opioid agonists reduces the risk of developing post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) following a traumatic event by inhibiting fear-related memory consolidation. Similarly, the release of endogenous enkephalin and nociceptin in the basolateral amygdala and the nucleus accumbens tends to produce the anti-stress effects. An increase in dynorphin levels during prolonged exposure to stress may produce learned helplessness, dysphoria and depression. Stress also influences morphine-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) depending upon the intensity and duration of the stressor. Acute stress inhibits morphine CPP, while chronic stress potentiates CPP. The development of dysphoria due to increased dynorphin levels may contribute to chronic stress-induced potentiation of morphine CPP. The activation of ERK/cyclic AMP responsive element-binding (CREB) signaling in the mesocorticolimbic area, glucocorticoid receptors in the basolateral amygdala, and norepinephrine and galanin system in the nucleus accumbens may decrease the acute stress-induced inhibition of morphine CPP. The increase in dopamine levels in the nucleus accumbens and augmentation of GABAergic transmission in the median prefrontal cortex may contribute in potentiating morphine CPP. Stress exposure reinstates the extinct morphine CPP by activating the orexin receptors in the nucleus accumbens, decreasing the oxytocin levels in the lateral septum and amygdala, and altering the GABAergic transmission (activation of GABAA and inactivation of GABAB receptors). The present review describes these varied interactions between opioids and stress along with the possible mechanism. PMID:25636946

  12. Lactation-induced reduction in hippocampal neurogenesis is reversed by chronic stress exposure

    OpenAIRE

    Hillerer, Katharina M; Neumann, Inga D.; Couillard-Despres, Sebastien; Aigner, Ludwig; Slattery, David A.

    2014-01-01

    The peripartum period is a time of high susceptibility for mood and anxiety disorders, some of which have recently been associated with alterations in hippocampal neurogenesis. Several factors including stress, aging, and, perhaps unexpectedly, lactation have been shown to decrease hippocampal neurogenesis. Intriguingly, lactation is also a time of reduced stress responsivity suggesting that the effect of stress on neurogenic processes may differ during this period. Therefore, the aim of the ...

  13. Oxidative Stress and Benefits of Antioxidant Agents in Acute and Chronic Hepatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Mukaddes Esrefoglu

    2012-01-01

    Context: Oxidative damage due to oxidative stress is the failure of the cell's defense against the deleterious effects of harmful agents by means of its numerous autoprotective mechanisms. oxidative stress is a key impairment induced by various conditions, including atherosclerosis, hypertension, ischemia-reperfusion, hepatitis, pancreatitis, cancer, and neurodegenerative diseases.Evidence Acquisition: Oxidative stress is a common pathogenetic mechanism contributing to the initiation and prog...

  14. Venlafaxine increases cell proliferation and regulates DISC1, PDE4B and NMDA receptor 2B expression in the hippocampus in chronic mild stress mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xinxin; Li, Xiaobai; Li, Min; Ren, Jintao; Yun, Ke; An, Yan; Lin, Lei; Zhang, Hailong

    2015-05-15

    Recent evidence has identified disrupted in schizophrenia-1 (DISC1) as an important genetic risk factor for the development of many psychiatric disorders, including major depressive disorders. In addition, studies using animal models have demonstrated that chronic stress affects hippocampal structure and function. However, the functional effects of chronic stress on DISC1 remain unknown. Using a chronic mild stress (CMS) paradigm, we investigated the effects of CMS on depressive-like behaviors, hippocampal cell proliferation, and hippocampal protein expression of DISC1, phosphodiesterase 4B (PDE4B) and N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor 2B subunit (NMDA receptor 2B), which may be involved in the regulation of DISC1 and neurogenesis. We also examined the effects and possible mechanisms of the antidepressant venlafaxine in CMS mice. CMS increased the expression of DISC1 and PDE4B. Chronic treatment with venlafaxine blocked the increases in these proteins, and also reversed the CMS-induced decrease in neurogenesis and NMDA receptor 2B protein in the hippocampus. These results suggest that DISC1 may play an important role in the etiology of depression and in the action of antidepressants. PMID:25769842

  15. Physiological characterization of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii acclimated to chronic stress induced by Ag, Cd, Cr, Cu and Hg ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowicka, Beatrycze; Pluciński, Bartosz; Kuczyńska, Paulina; Kruk, Jerzy

    2016-08-01

    Acclimation to heavy metal-induced stress is a complex phenomenon. Among the mechanisms of heavy metal toxicity, an important one is the ability to induce oxidative stress, so that the antioxidant response is crucial for providing tolerance to heavy metal ions. The effect of chronic stress induced by ions of five heavy metals, Ag, Cu, Cr (redox-active metals) Cd, Hg (nonredox-active metals) on the green microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii was examined at two levels - the biochemical (content of photosynthetic pigments and prenyllipid antioxidants, lipid peroxidation) and the physiological (growth rate, photosynthesis and respiration rates, induction of nonphotochemical quenching of chlorophyll fluorescence). The expression of the genes which encode the enzymes participating in the detoxification of reactive oxygen species (APX1, CAT1, FSD1, MSD1) was measured. The other gene measured was one required for plastoquinone and α-tocopherol biosynthesis (VTE3). The application of heavy metal ions partly inhibited growth and biosynthesis of chlorophyll. The growth inhibition was accompanied by enhanced lipid peroxidation. An increase in the content of prenyllipid antioxidants was observed in cultures exposed to Cr2O7(2-), Cd(2+) (α- and γ-tocopherol and plastoquinone) and Cu(2+) (only tocopherols). The induction of nonphotochemical quenching was enhanced in cultures exposed to Cu(2+), Cr2O7(2-) and Cd(2+), as compared to the control. Chronic heavy metal-induced stress led to changes in gene expression dependent on the type and concentration of heavy metal ions. The up-regulation of antioxidant enzymes was usually accompanied by the up-regulation of the VTE3 gene. PMID:27104807

  16. Treating Chronic Pain with Opioids: Comparing Effectiveness and Cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treating Chronic Pain with Opioids: Comparing Effectiveness and Cost What are opioids? Opioids are very strong prescription ... using opioids. We compared the effectiveness, safety, and cost of different opioids. We chose these as Consumer ...

  17. Chronic Kidney Disease Induced Intestinal Mucosal Barrier Damage Associated with Intestinal Oxidative Stress Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chao; Wang, Qiang; Zhou, Chunyu; Kang, Xin; Zhao, Shuang; Liu, Shuai; Fu, Huijun; Yu, Zhen; Peng, Ai

    2016-01-01

    Background. To investigate whether intestinal mucosal barrier was damaged or not in chronic kidney disease progression and the status of oxidative stress. Methods. Rats were randomized into two groups: a control group and a uremia group. The uremia rat model was induced by 5/6 kidney resection. In postoperative weeks (POW) 4, 6, 8, and 10, eight rats were randomly selected from each group to prepare samples for assessing systemic inflammation, intestinal mucosal barrier changes, and the status of intestinal oxidative stress. Results. The uremia group presented an increase trend over time in the serum tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-6 (IL-6) and IL-10, serum D-lactate and diamine oxidase, and intestinal permeability, and these biomarkers were significantly higher than those in control group in POW 8 and/or 10. Chiu's scores in uremia group were also increased over time, especially in POW 8 and 10. Furthermore, the intestinal malondialdehyde, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione peroxidase levels were significantly higher in uremia group when compared with those in control group in POW 8 and/or 10. Conclusions. The advanced chronic kidney disease could induce intestinal mucosal barrier damage and further lead to systemic inflammation. The underlying mechanism may be associated with the intestinal oxidative stress injury. PMID:27493661

  18. Hypothermia after chronic mild stress exposure in rats with a history of postnatal maternal separations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrdalj, Jelena; Lundegaard Mattson, Ase; Murison, Robert; Konow Jellestad, Finn; Milde, Anne Marita; Pallesen, Ståle; Ursin, Reidun; Bjorvatn, Bjørn; Grønli, Janne

    2014-03-01

    The circadian system develops and changes in a gradual and programmed process over the lifespan. Early in life, maternal care represents an important zeitgeber and thus contributes to the development of circadian rhythmicity. Exposure to early life stress may affect circadian processes and induce a latent circadian disturbance evident after exposure to later life stress. Disturbance of the normal regulation of circadian rhythmicity is surmised to be an etiological factor in depression. We used postnatal maternal separation in rats to investigate how the early life environment might modify the circadian response to later life unpredictable and chronic stress. During postnatal days 2-14, male Wistar rats (n = 8 per group) were daily separated from their mothers for a period of either 180 min (long maternal separation; LMS) or 10 min (brief maternal separation; BMS). In adulthood, rats were exposed to chronic mild stress (CMS) for 4 weeks. Body temperature, locomotor activity and heart rate were measured and compared before and after CMS exposure. LMS offspring showed a delayed body temperature acrophase compared to BMS offspring. Otherwise, adult LMS and BMS offspring demonstrated similar diurnal rhythms of body temperature, locomotor activity and heart rate. Exposure to CMS provoked a stronger and longer lasting hypothermia in LMS rats than in BMS rats. The thermoregulatory response appears to be moderated by maternal care following reunion, an observation made in the LMS group only. The results show that early life stress (LMS) in an early developmental stage induced a thermoregulatory disturbance evident upon exposure to unpredictable adult life stressors. PMID:24156523

  19. Quantifying Chronic Stress Exposure for Cumulative Risk Assessment: Lessons Learned from a Case Study of Allostatic Load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although multiple methods of quantifying environmental chemical exposures have been validated for use in human health risk assessment, quantifying chronic stress exposure is more challenging. Stress is a consequence of perceiving an “exposure” (e.g., violence, poverty) as more th...

  20. Role of Tyrosine Isomers in Acute and Chronic Diseases Leading to Oxidative Stress - A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnár, Gergő A; Kun, Szilárd; Sélley, Eszter; Kertész, Melinda; Szélig, Lívia; Csontos, Csaba; Böddi, Katalin; Bogár, Lajos; Miseta, Attila; Wittmann, István

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative stress plays a major role in the pathogenesis of a variety of acute and chronic diseases. Measurement of the oxidative stress-related end products may be performed, e.g. that of structural isomers of the physiological para-tyrosine, namely meta- and ortho-tyrosine, that are oxidized derivatives of phenylalanine. Recent data suggest that in sepsis, serum level of meta-tyrosine increases, which peaks on the 2(nd) and 3(rd) days (pglucose product in non-diabetic septic cases (pRats were fed a standard high cholesterol-diet, and were given para-tyrosine or vehicle orally. High-cholesterol feeding lead to a significant increase in aortic wall meta-tyrosine content and a decreased vasorelaxation of the aorta to insulin and the glucagon-like peptide-1 analogue, liraglutide, that both could be prevented by administration of para-tyrosine. Concluding, these data suggest that meta- and ortho-tyrosine are potential markers of oxidative stress in acute diseases related to oxidative stress, and may also interfere with insulin action in septic humans. Competition of meta- and ortho-tyrosine by supplementation of para-tyrosine may exert a protective role in oxidative stress-related diseases. PMID:26785996

  1. β-Asarone Reverses Chronic Unpredictable Mild Stress-Induced Depression-Like Behavior and Promotes Hippocampal Neurogenesis in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiying Dong

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigated the influence of β-asarone, the major ingredient of Acorus tatarinowii Schott, on depressive-like behavior induced by the chronic unpredictable mild stresses (CUMS paradigm and to clarify the underlying mechanisms. The results show that β-asarone treatment partially reversed the CUMS-induced depression-like behaviors in both the forced swim and sucrose preference tests. The behavioral effects were associated with increased hippocampal neurogenesis indicated by bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU immunoreactivity. β-Asarone treatment significantly increased the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF at levels of transcription and translation. Moreover, CUMS caused significant reduction in ERK1/2 and CREB phosphorylation, both of which were partially attenuated by β-asarone administration. It is important to note that β-asarone treatment had no effect on total levels or phosphorylation state of any of the proteins examined in ERK1/2-CREB pathway in no stress rats, suggesting that β-asarone acts in a stress-dependent manner to block ERK1/2-CREB signaling. We did not observe a complete reversal of depression-like behaviors to control levels by β-asarone. To our knowledge, the present study is the first to demonstrate that adult neurogenesis is involved in the antidepressant-like behavioral effects of β-asarone, suggesting that β-asarone is a promising candidate for the treatment of depression.

  2. Testosterone has antidepressant-like efficacy and facilitates imipramine-induced neuroplasticity in male rats exposed to chronic unpredictable stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wainwright, Steven R; Workman, Joanna L; Tehrani, Amir; Hamson, Dwayne K; Chow, Carmen; Lieblich, Stephanie E; Galea, Liisa A M

    2016-03-01

    Hypogonadal men are more likely to develop depression, while testosterone supplementation shows antidepressant-like effects in hypogonadal men and facilitates antidepressant efficacy. Depression is associated with hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis hyperactivity and testosterone exerts suppressive effects on the HPA axis. The hippocampus also plays a role in the feedback regulation of the HPA axis, and depressed patients show reduced hippocampal neuroplasticity. We assessed the antidepressant-like effects of testosterone with, or without, imipramine on behavioral and neural endophenotypes of depression in a chronic unpredictable stress (CUS) model of depression. A 21-day CUS protocol was used on gonadectomized male Sprague-Dawley rats treated with vehicle, 1mg of testosterone propionate, 10mg/kg of imipramine, or testosterone and imipramine in tandem. Testosterone treatment reduced novelty-induced hypophagia following CUS exposure, but not under non-stress conditions, representing state-dependent effects. Further, testosterone increased the latency to immobility in the forced swim test (FST), reduced basal corticosterone, and reduced adrenal mass in CUS-exposed rats. Testosterone also facilitated the effects of imipramine by reducing the latency to immobility in the FST and increasing sucrose preference. Testosterone treatment had no significant effect on neurogenesis, though the combination of testosterone and imipramine increased PSA-NCAM expression in the ventral dentate gyrus. These findings demonstrate the antidepressant- and anxiolytic-like effects of testosterone within a CUS model of depression, and provide insight into the mechanism of action, which appears to be independent of enhanced hippocampal neurogenesis. PMID:26774465

  3. Electroconvulsive stimulations prevent chronic stress-induced increases in L-type calcium channel mRNAs in the hippocampus and basolateral amygdala

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maigaard, Katrine; Pedersen, Ida Hageman; Jørgensen, Anders;

    2012-01-01

    chronic restraint stress model of affective disorder (6 h restraint per day for 21 days) in combination with electroconvulsive stimulations to examine the effects of stress and an effective antidepressive treatment modality on L-type voltage gated calcium channel subunit mRNA expression patterns in the......, while stress only upregulated Ca(v)1.3 channel expression significantly in the dentate gyrus. ECS effects on Ca(v)1.2 channel expression were generally specific to stressed animals. Our findings are consistent with and extent previous studies on the involvement of intracellular calcium ion dysfunction...... in affective disorders. Selective modulation of neuronal L-type voltage gated calcium channels appears to be a promising target for the development of novel antidepressive treatment modalities....

  4. Effects of atosiban on stress-related neuroendocrine factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babic, S; Pokusa, M; Danevova, V; Ding, S T; Jezova, D

    2015-04-01

    Atosiban, an oxytocin/vasopressin receptor antagonist, is used to decrease preterm uterine activity. The risk of preterm delivery is undoubtedly associated with stress, but potential side effects of atosiban on neuroendocrine functions and stress-related pathways are mostly unknown. These studies were designed to test the hypothesis that the chronic treatment of rats with atosiban modulates neuroendocrine functions under stress conditions. Male rats were treated (osmotic minipumps) with atosiban (600 μg/kg per day) or vehicle and were restrained for 120 min/day for 14 days. All animals were treated with a marker of cell proliferation 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine. Anxiety-like behavior was measured using an elevated plus-maze. Treatment with atosiban failed to modify plasma concentrations of the stress hormones ACTH and corticosterone, but led to a rise in circulating copeptin. Atosiban increased prolactin levels in the non-stressed group. Oxytocin receptor mRNA levels were increased in rats exposed to stress. Treatment with atosiban, in both control and stressed animals, resulted in a decrease in oxytocin receptor gene expression in the hypothalamus. No changes were observed in vasopressin receptor 1A and 1B gene expression. The decrease in hippocampal cell proliferation induced by stress exposure was not modified by atosiban treatment. This study provides the first data, to our knowledge, revealing the effect of atosiban on gene expression of oxytocin receptors in the brain. Atosiban-induced enhancement of plasma copeptin indicates an elevation in vasopressinergic tone with potential influence on water-electrolyte balance. PMID:25609735

  5. Alteration of oxidative stress parameters in red blood cells of rats after chronic in vivo treatment with cisplatin and selenium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marković Snežana D.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study we evaluated the possible protective effects of selenium (Se on hematological and oxidative stress parameters in rats chronically treated with cisplatin (cisPt. Four groups of Wistar albino rats were examined: a control, untreated rats (I, rats treated with Se (II, rats treated with cisPt (III, and rats treated with Se and cisPt (IV. All animals were treated for 5 days successively and killed 24 h after the last treatment. Hematological and oxidative stress parameters were followed in whole blood and red blood cells (RBC. Results showed that the chronic application of Se was followed by a higher number of reticulocytes and platelets, increased lipid peroxidation and GSH content in the RBC. Cisplatin treatment induced depletion of RBC and platelet numbers and an elevation of the superoxide anion, nitrites and glutathione levels. Se and cisPt co-treatment was followed by an elevation of the hematological parameters and the recovery of the glutathione status when compared to the control and cisPt-treated rats.

  6. Association between chronic stress-induced structural abnormalities in Ranvier nodes and reduced oligodendrocyte activity in major depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyata, Shingo; Taniguchi, Manabu; Koyama, Yoshihisa; Shimizu, Shoko; Tanaka, Takashi; Yasuno, Fumihiko; Yamamoto, Akihide; Iida, Hidehiro; Kudo, Takashi; Katayama, Taiichi; Tohyama, Masaya

    2016-01-01

    Repeated stressful events are associated with the onset of major depressive disorder (MDD). We previously showed oligodendrocyte (OL)-specific activation of the serum/glucocorticoid-regulated kinase (SGK)1 cascade, increased expression of axon-myelin adhesion molecules, and elaboration of the oligodendrocytic arbor in the corpus callosum of chronically stressed mice. In the current study, we demonstrate that the nodes and paranodes of Ranvier in the corpus callosum were narrower in these mice. Chronic stress also led to diffuse redistribution of Caspr and Kv 1.1 and decreased the activity in white matter, suggesting a link between morphological changes in OLs and inhibition of axonal activity. OL primary cultures subjected to chronic stress resulted in SGK1 activation and translocation to the nucleus, where it inhibited the transcription of metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs). Furthermore, the cAMP level and membrane potential of OLs were reduced by chronic stress exposure. We showed by diffusion tensor imaging that the corpus callosum of patients with MDD exhibited reduced fractional anisotropy, reflecting compromised white matter integrity possibly caused by axonal damage. Our findings suggest that chronic stress disrupts the organization of the nodes of Ranvier by suppressing mGluR activation in OLs, and that specific white matter abnormalities are closely associated with MDD onset. PMID:26976207

  7. Association between chronic stress-induced structural abnormalities in Ranvier nodes and reduced oligodendrocyte activity in major depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyata, Shingo; Taniguchi, Manabu; Koyama, Yoshihisa; Shimizu, Shoko; Tanaka, Takashi; Yasuno, Fumihiko; Yamamoto, Akihide; Iida, Hidehiro; Kudo, Takashi; Katayama, Taiichi; Tohyama, Masaya

    2016-01-01

    Repeated stressful events are associated with the onset of major depressive disorder (MDD). We previously showed oligodendrocyte (OL)-specific activation of the serum/glucocorticoid-regulated kinase (SGK)1 cascade, increased expression of axon-myelin adhesion molecules, and elaboration of the oligodendrocytic arbor in the corpus callosum of chronically stressed mice. In the current study, we demonstrate that the nodes and paranodes of Ranvier in the corpus callosum were narrower in these mice. Chronic stress also led to diffuse redistribution of Caspr and Kv 1.1 and decreased the activity in white matter, suggesting a link between morphological changes in OLs and inhibition of axonal activity. OL primary cultures subjected to chronic stress resulted in SGK1 activation and translocation to the nucleus, where it inhibited the transcription of metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs). Furthermore, the cAMP level and membrane potential of OLs were reduced by chronic stress exposure. We showed by diffusion tensor imaging that the corpus callosum of patients with MDD exhibited reduced fractional anisotropy, reflecting compromised white matter integrity possibly caused by axonal damage. Our findings suggest that chronic stress disrupts the organization of the nodes of Ranvier by suppressing mGluR activation in OLs, and that specific white matter abnormalities are closely associated with MDD onset. PMID:26976207

  8. Mental strain and chronic stress among a communit sample of university students with irritable bowel syndrome symptoms

    OpenAIRE

    Gulewitsch, Marco D.; Paul Enck; Juliane Schwille-Kiuntke; Katja Weimer; Schlarb, Angelika A.

    2013-01-01

    Aim. To investigate the degree of mental strain and chronic stress in a German community sample of students with IBS-like symptoms. Methods and Materials. Following an internet-based survey about stress, this study recruited 176 German university students (23.45 ± 2.48 years; 48.3% males) with IBS-like symptoms according to Rome III and 181 students without IBS (23.55 ± 2.82 years; 50.3% males) and compared them regarding current mental strain (SCL-90-R) and the extend of chronic stress. Beyo...

  9. Influence of chronic stress and terahertz radiation at nitric oxide frequency on functional activity of thyroid gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsymbal А.А.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In the chronic stress conditions oppression of functional activity of thyroid gland is revealed. Influence of terahertz radiation at the nitric oxide frequency of 150,176-150,664 GHz on functional activity of thyroid gland in the conditions of chronic experimental stress was studied. It was shown that during 15 minutes of influence of terahertz waves at nitric oxide frequency partial restoration of studied indicators of activity of thyroid gland was observed in stressed animals. At 30 minute mode of influence of specified waves a complete recovery of broken indicators of functional condition of thyroid gland was determined

  10. Association between endothelial dysfunction and depression-like symptoms in chronic mild stress model of depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouzinova, Elena; Bødtkjer, Donna Marie Briggs; Kudryavtseva, Olga;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Cardiovascular diseases have high comorbidity with major depression. Endothelial dysfunction may explain the adverse cardiovascular outcome in depression; therefore, we analyzed it in vitro. In the chronic mild stress model, some rats develop depression-like symptoms (including......-dependent hyperpolarization-like response) was reduced in anhedonic rats (p < .001). This was associated with decreased transcription of intermediate-conductance Ca-activated K channels. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings demonstrate that depression-like symptoms are associated with reduced endothelium-dependent relaxation due to...

  11. The model of rat lipid metabolism disorder induced by chronic stress accompanying high-fat-diet

    OpenAIRE

    Shaodong Chen; Jing Li; Haihong Zhou; Manting Lin; Yihua Liu

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Objective To develop an animal model of Lipid Metabolism Disorder, which conforms to human clinical characteristic. Methods: There were 24 male Wistar rats that were randomly divided into 3 groups with 8 rats in each. They were group A (normal diet), group B (high-fat-diet), group C (chronic stress+ high-fat-diet). Group A was fed with normal diet, while group B and C were fed with high-fat-diet, going on for 55 days. From the 35th day, group B and C received one time of daily chroni...

  12. Quantitative evaluation of integrated neuroendocrine and immune responses to chronic stress in rats male

    OpenAIRE

    Polovynko, Іlona S; Zajats, Lyubomyr М; Zukow, Walery; Yanchij, Roman I; Popovych, Іgor L

    2016-01-01

    Polovynko Іlona S, Zajats Lyubomyr М, Zukow Walery, Yanchij Roman I, Popovych Іgor L. Quantitative evaluation of integrated neuroendocrine and immune responses to chronic stress in rats male. Journal of Education, Health and Sport. 2016;6(8):154-166. eISSN 2391-8306. DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.60023 http://ojs.ukw.edu.pl/index.php/johs/article/view/3745       The journal has had 7 points in Ministry of Science and Higher Education parametric evalua...

  13. Social stress exacerbates the aversion to painful experiences in rats exposed to chronic pain: The role of the locus coeruleus

    OpenAIRE

    Bravo, Lidia; Alba-Delgado, Cristina; Torres-Sanchez, Sonia; Micó, Juan Antonio; Neto, Fani L; Berrocoso, Esther

    2013-01-01

    Stressful experiences seem to negatively influence pain perception through as yet unknown mechanisms. As the noradrenergic locus coeruleus (LC) nucleus coordinates many components of the stress response, as well as nociceptive transmission, we evaluated whether the sensory and affective dimension of chronic neuropathic pain worsens in situations of stress due to adaptive changes of LC neurons. Accordingly, male rats were socially isolated for 5 weeks, and in the last 2 weeks, neuropathic pain...

  14. New Pathogenic Concepts and Therapeutic Approaches to Oxidative Stress in Chronic Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Lozada, Laura G.; Osorio-Alonso, Horacio

    2016-01-01

    In chronic kidney disease inflammatory processes and stimulation of immune cells result in overproduction of free radicals. In combination with a reduced antioxidant capacity this causes oxidativ