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Sample records for chronic radionuclide inputs

  1. Impacts of species introductions on the health of fish communities receiving chronic radionuclide inputs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is widespread interest in gaining further understanding of the relative influences of multiple stressors on aquatic ecosystem structure and function. To address this, work has been done to evaluate the effects of the introduction of an efficient predator (northern pike) on a fish community in a small lake (Perch Lake, Chalk River, Ontario) receiving chronic inputs of radionuclides over a 50-year period. In general, large changes in fish community structure, with corresponding changes in fish health, occurred following the pike introduction. For example, several forage fish species were extirpated from the lake and densities of the past top predator, yellow perch, became greatly reduced, likely due to predation by northern pike and/or other species in the lake. The reduced perch numbers appeared to alleviate an ecological bottleneck, which resulted in significant increases in brown bullhead densities to levels that were much higher than observed in other water bodies under typical conditions. Corresponding changes in the health of the Perch Lake fish community could also be detected, and included decreased fish diversity, shifts in fish community size structure to smaller body sizes, significant reductions in fish condition factors, reduced hepato-somatic indices, depletion of fish internal fat reserves, hardening of the gastrointestinal tract, resorption of gonadal material, degradation of muscle tissue, emaciation and ultimately, mortality of northern pike and brown bullheads. Evaluation of data indicated that female fishes responded more quickly than did males in terms of condition loss, likely due to their higher energetic requirements. In addition, although pike and bullheads were detrimentally affected by the pike introduction, health of forage fish species, such as pumpkinseeds, did not appear to be greatly influenced. No clear relationships existed between fish community health and exposure to radionuclides in the lake. (author)

  2. Radionuclide studies of chronic schistosomal uropathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fifty patients with chronic urinary tract schistosomiasis were studied with /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA. All had a flow study, sequential analog imaging, and digital imaging for 25-35 minutes (20-sec. frames). Time-activity curves (DTPA renograms) were extracted; 12 patients had 131I-Hippuran probe renograms as well. Renal changes included diminished perfusion and structural abnormalities ranging from minor calyceal dilatation to overt hydronephrosis. Ureteral changes included dilatation, tortuosity, and kinking. Marked distortion of the ureterovesical tunction was seen in some patients due to periureteral and perivesicular fibrosis, which is a major factor in upper urinary tract damage. Renograms showed varying obstruction and parenchymal damage. Nuclear medicine complements excretory urography and is sometimes preferable for visualization of the ureters. After the initial urogram, sequential DTPA scanning and renography are sufficient for follow-up

  3. Analytical method for internal dose determination caused by chronically radionuclides inhalation to respiration system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analytical method for internal dose determination caused by chronically radionuclides inhalation to respiratory system with the constant rate of radionuclide concentration inhaled has been developed. The dose calculation is solved solved analytically using distribution and accumulation of radionuklida model in respiratory system. A computer program was then made to calculate internal dose in respiratory system easily and quickly. Computer program is arranged using Borland C++ 4.5 language. The value of internal dose on time t after inhalation depend on the radionuclides, the half time ,radionuclides AMAD, radionuclides class, radiation type, energy absorbed by respiratory organ, organ mass, the radionuclides concentration inhaled, the inhalation period

  4. Perspectives on Yoga Inputs in the Management of Chronic Pain

    OpenAIRE

    Nandini Vallath

    2010-01-01

    Chronic pain is multi-dimensional. At the physical level itself, beyond the nociceptive pathway, there is hyper arousal state of the components of the nervous system, which negatively influences tension component of the muscles, patterns of breathing, energy levels and mindset, all of which exacerbate the distress and affect the quality of life of the individual and family. Beginning with the physical body, Yoga eventually influences all aspects of the person: vital, mental, emotional, intell...

  5. Perspectives on yoga inputs in the management of chronic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallath, Nandini

    2010-01-01

    Chronic pain is multi-dimensional. At the physical level itself, beyond the nociceptive pathway, there is hyper arousal state of the components of the nervous system, which negatively influences tension component of the muscles, patterns of breathing, energy levels and mindset, all of which exacerbate the distress and affect the quality of life of the individual and family. Beginning with the physical body, Yoga eventually influences all aspects of the person: vital, mental, emotional, intellectual and spiritual. It offers various levels and approaches to relax, energize, remodel and strengthen body and psyche. The asanas and pranayama harmonize the physiological system and initiate a "relaxation response" in the neuro endocrinal system. This consists of decreased metabolism, quieter breathing, stable blood pressure, reduced muscle tension, lower heart rate and slow brain wave pattern. As the neural discharge pattern gets modulated, hyper arousal of the nervous system and the static load on postural muscle come down. The function of viscera improves with the sense of relaxation and sleep gets deeper and sustained; fatigue diminishes. Several subtle level notional corrections can happen in case the subject meditates and that changes the context of the disease, pain and the meaning of life. Meditation and pranayama, along with relaxing asanas, can help individuals deal with the emotional aspects of chronic pain, reduce anxiety and depression effectively and improve the quality of life perceived. PMID:20859464

  6. Perspectives on Yoga inputs in the management of chronic pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nandini Vallath

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic pain is multi-dimensional. At the physical level itself, beyond the nociceptive pathway, there is hyper arousal state of the components of the nervous system, which negatively influences tension component of the muscles, patterns of breathing, energy levels and mindset, all of which exacerbate the distress and affect the quality of life of the individual and family. Beginning with the physical body, Yoga eventually influences all aspects of the person: vital, mental, emotional, intellectual and spiritual. It offers various levels and approaches to relax, energize, remodel and strengthen body and psyche. The asanas and pranayama harmonize the physiological system and initiate a "relaxation response" in the neuro endocrinal system. This consists of decreased metabolism, quieter breathing, stable blood pressure, reduced muscle tension, lower heart rate and slow brain wave pattern. As the neural discharge pattern gets modulated, hyper arousal of the nervous system and the static load on postural muscle come down. The function of viscera improves with the sense of relaxation and sleep gets deeper and sustained; fatigue diminishes. Several subtle level notional corrections can happen in case the subject meditates and that changes the context of the disease, pain and the meaning of life. Meditation and pranayama, along with relaxing asanas, can help individuals deal with the emotional aspects of chronic pain, reduce anxiety and depression effectively and improve the quality of life perceived.

  7. Radionuclide methods of assessment of external respiration in chronic obstructive bronchitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A trial was designet to study shifts in various mechanisms of external respiration (ER)distress in chronic obstructive bronchitis by type of respiration insufficiency (RI). Combinet clinicoroentgenological, spirographic, endoscopic and radionuclide (133Xe radiopneumography and 99Tc scintigraphy) examinations were conducted in 66 patients. The following parameters appeared most informative in studying ER in the bronchitis patients with radionuclide techniques: the volume of ventilated alveoli, respiratory capacity, total and functional residual lung capacity, index ventilation/blood flow, capillary blood flow, time of half elimination of Xe from the alveoli and vascular bed. The above parameters change for the worse with progressive deterioration of external respiration

  8. Database construction for assessment of chronic radionuclide releases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has developed a comprehensive dose/risk assessment methodology, CRRIS (Computerized Radiological Risk Investigation System), for assessment of atmospheric radionuclide releases (e.g., during decontamination and decommissioning). Radiological effects are calculated for direct atmospheric and ground exposure and for consumption of contaminated agricultural products. Previously, population and agricultural data for CRRIS were tabulated on 1/2-degree square grid cells. This coarse resolution resulted in anomalies such as population in water bodies, agricultural production in city centers, and nonconservation of population over the assessment grid. An even finer mesh (2-minute square grid) is inadequate in densely populated cities where 20,000 or more people live in a square block. These difficulties are overcome by a higher resolution technique using US Census Bureau population data at the most detailed [enumeration district (ED)] level available and by excluding population from unpopulated areas (e.g., water bodies). Agricultural data are available at only the county level and are apportioned to the ED grid according to farm population, conserving the original data. This paper discusses the database construction using Tennessee as an illustration. 10 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  9. Radionuclide and macromicroangiographic study of pulmonary ventilation and blood flow in chronic pulmonary nonspecific diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study was made of ventilation and perfusion in 105 patients with chronic pulmonary nonspecific diseases using radiopneumography with 133Xe. A simultaneous macro-microangiographic study was made of the pulmonary artery on specimens taken after lobectomy in 35 patients with bronchiectasia in the lower lobe. Assymetry of the distribution of ventilation and perfusion is typical of patients with bronchiectasia. It manifests itself in a significant decrease in the viable pulmonary capacity and the blood flow in the affected zone. A simultaneous compensatory rise of a perfusion was recorded. Simultaneous anatomostructural radionuclide studies make it possible to understand more deeply the essence of a pathological process

  10. First pass radionuclide studies in evaluation of mitral valve replacement in chronic insufficiency using Bjork-Shiley tilting disc valves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    First pass radionuclide ventriculography is a non-invasive, convenient and safe procedure which may be performed repeatedly. Like invasive heart catheriterization it yields objective data on both right and left ventricular performance as well as on implanted valve function. Therefore, this method can be used to obtain long term follow-up controls in patients with mitral prosthesis. Very important is the technique's objectivity as opposed to the method of classification according to the NYHA. Furthermore, first pass radionuclide ventriculography helps to demonstrate that valve replacement for chronic mitral insufficiency may lead to restoration of normal left ventricular function in many cases

  11. Concentration and depuration of some radionuclides present in a chronically exposed population of mussels (Mytilus edulis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Factors are described which affect the concentration (p Ci g-1 dry wt) and loss of 241 Am, 239+240Pu, 238Pu, 144Ce, 137Cs, 134Cs, 106Ru, 95Zr and 95Nb in an exposed population of mussels Mytilus edulis L. from Ravenglass on the Esk estuary, Cumbria, UK which receives radioeffluents from the British Nuclear Fuels Ltd. (BNFL) plant at Sellafield, some 10 km to the north. Tidal position and mussel body size have a negligible influence on the concentration of 241Am, 137Cs and 106Ru in the total soft tissue, but variation in soft tissue weight throughout the year has a considerable influence on the apparent concentration and depuration times of these radionuclides. Apart from the clearance (tsub(1/2) biol, 1 to 3 h) of sediment-associated activity from the digestive tract, the depuration rate profiles follow a single component clearance curve with a biological half-life in excess of 200 d for 241 Am, 239+240Pu, 238Pu and 144Ce, and of 40 d for 137Cs. The clearance of 106Ru is more complex and consists of a 3 component depuration profile with biological half-lives of 6 h, 12 d and 260 d. The depuration profiles presented in this work are for chronically ingested isotopes under natural conditions; acute exposure will most likely result in different profiles, especially those derived from laboratory spiking experiments. Isotope ratio data support the hypothesis that the main route of entry into the mussel for the majority of the radionuclides studied is from the water. (orig./WL)

  12. Effects of long-term chronic exposure to radionuclides in plant populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of field studies carried out on different plant species (winter rye and wheat, spring barley, oats, Scots pine, wild vetch, crested hairgrass) in various radioecological situations (nuclear weapon testing, the Chernobyl accident, uranium and radium processing) to investigate the effects of long-term chronic exposure to radionuclides are discussed. Plant populations growing in areas with relatively low levels of pollution are characterized by an increased level of both cytogenetic disturbances and genetic diversity. Although ionizing radiation causes primary damage at the molecular level, there are emergent effects at the level of populations, non-predictable from the knowledge of elementary mechanisms of cellular effects formation. Accumulation of cellular alterations may afterward influence biological parameters important for populations such as health and reproduction. Presented data provide evidence that in plant populations inhabiting heavily contaminated territories cytogenetic damage could be accompanied by a decrease in reproductive capacity. However, in less contaminated sites, because of the scarcity of data available, a steady relationship between cytogenetic effects and reproductive capacity was not revealed. Under radioactive contamination of the plant's environment, a population's resistance to exposure may increase. However, there are radioecological situations where an enhanced radioresistance has not evolved or has not persisted

  13. ACRO: a computer program for calculating organ doses from acute or chronic inhalation and ingestion of radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ACRO was developed as a computer program to calculate internal exposure doses resulting from acute or chronic inhalation and oral ingestion of radionuclides. The ICRP Task Force Lung Model (TGLM) was used as the inhalation model in ACRO, and a simple one-compartment model was used as the ingestion model. The program is written in FORTRAN IV, and it requires about 260 KB memory capacity

  14. Principles and approaches to increasing radionuclide excretion from human organism under chronical intake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main principles for increasing natural excretion of radioactive substances incorporated by a man are suggested. These are decreasing radionuclide intakes with food, water and phlegm, as well as their absorption from digestion tract. It is suggested to use specific compounds binding individual radionuclides (salt of alginic acid, ferrocene), nonspecific entersorbents (vegetable cellulose; substances containing pectin; carbonaceous sorbent); to enhance radionuclide excretions from places of deposition into blood and later into gastrointestinal tract, urination system, perspiration system. 13 refs

  15. Impact of a chronic ingestion of radionuclides on cholesterol metabolism in the rat: example of depleted uranium and cesium 137

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Depleted uranium (DU) and cesium-137 (137Cs) are radionuclides spread in the environment due to industrial activities, incidents or accidents. This pollution sets a risk of human exposure to low levels of radiations through contaminated foodstuff. The impact of a chronic ingestion of DU or 137Cs on cholesterol metabolism in the liver and the brain has been studied. Indeed, cholesterol is crucial in physiology, being a component of cell membranes and a precursor to numerous molecules (bile acids...). Disruption of its metabolism is associated to many pathologies such as atherosclerosis or Alzheimer disease. Rats daily ingested a low level of DU or 137Cs over 9 months. For each radionuclide, a reference model (rats contaminated since adulthood) and a more sensitive model (hypercholesterolemic or contaminated since fetal life) were studied. The effects mainly consist of changes in gene expression or enzymatic activity of various actors of cholesterol metabolism. DU mainly affects one catabolism enzyme in both models, as well as membrane transporters and regulation factors. 137Cs mainly affects the storage enzyme in both models as well as catabolism enzymes, apolipoproteins, and regulation factors. No change in the plasma profile or in the tissue concentration of cholesterol (hepatic/cerebral) is recorded, whatever the model and the radionuclide. Thus, a chronic internal contamination with DU or 137Cs induces molecular modifications in cholesterol metabolism in the rat, without affecting its homeostasis or the general health status in all of our experimental models. (author)

  16. E.N.V.I.R.H.O.M.. Bioaccumulation of radionuclides in situations of chronic exposure of ecosystems and members of the public; Progress Report 2 covering the period June 2003 - September 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main objective of E.N.V.I.R.H.O.M. is to better assess real effects caused by chronic exposure to low levels of radioactive contaminants. This includes for example consequences on nervous system, immunity or metabolisms, consequences on reproduction, consequences on feeding processes and consequences on ecosystem productivity. E.N.V.I.R.O.M. has set a priority on radionuclides that are suspected of accumulation in organisms., it has also a priority on radionuclides that act not only with gamma rays. The program was started in 2001 and uranium was chosen to test the methodology. The two first years of E.N.V.I.R.H.O.M. demonstrated clearly that a signal can be seen even as a consequence of moderate exposure. It was also found that some simplifying hypothesis may be false. For example the simple biokinetic model assuming that the result of a continuous feeding is equivalent to the convolution of successive punctual inputs is not always true. When the input is constant, it should involve a steady state following an increase. Instead of that, a decrease has been observed in some cases (rats, crayfish). The second two years period ( 2004-2005) used the same strategy in a larger scale. As regard biota, the list of test organisms was extended (daphnia, insects)and also the tested radionuclides (Se, Tc, Am). The list of studied functions was extended (behavior and sleep, neurotransmission, genomic effects, intestinal immune capacity, drug metabolism, vitamin D metabolism). The E.N.V.I.R.H.O.M. program is the main experimental part of a container program devoted to chronic risks. (N.C.)

  17. Impacts of chronic N input on the carbon and nitrogen storage of a postfire Mediterranean-type shrubland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vourlitis, George L.; Hentz, Cloe S.

    2016-02-01

    Mediterranean-type shrublands are subject to periodic fire and high levels of nitrogen (N) deposition, but little is known how chronic N deposition affects carbon (C) and N storage during succession. We conducted a long-term experiment in Californian chaparral to test the hypothesis that chronic N enrichment would increase postfire C and N accumulation. The experimental layout consisted of a randomized design where four 10 × 10 m plots received 5 g N m-2 annually since 2003 and four 10 × 10 m plots served as controls. Aboveground and belowground C and N pools and fluxes were measured seasonally (every 3 months) for a period of 10 years. Added N rapidly increased soil extractable N pools and decreased soil pH; however, total soil C and N storage were not affected. Added N plots initially had significantly lower C and N storage than control plots, presumably because of nutrient losses from leaching and/or higher belowground C allocation. However, rates of aboveground N and C storage became significantly higher in added N plots after 4-5 years of exposure, thus increasing fuel buildup, which has implications for future fire intensity. This recovering chaparral stand is not yet "N saturated" after 10 years of chronic N input. However, N leaching continues to be higher in added N plots, indicating that postfire chaparral stands in high-N deposition areas can be important sources of N to groundwater/aquatic systems even if productivity is stimulated by N input.

  18. Influence of the meteorological input on the atmospheric transport modelling with FLEXPART of radionuclides from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present paper the role of precipitation as FLEXPART model input is investigated for one possible release scenario of the Fukushima Daiichi accident. Precipitation data from the European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecast (ECMWF), the NOAA's National Center for Environmental Prediction (NCEP), the Japan Meteorological Agency's (JMA) mesoscale analysis and a JMA radar-rain gauge precipitation analysis product were utilized. The accident of Fukushima in March 2011 and the following observations enable us to assess the impact of these precipitation products at least for this single case. As expected the differences in the statistical scores are visible but not large. Increasing the ECMWF resolution of all the fields from 0.5° to 0.2° rises the correlation from 0.71 to 0.80 and an overall rank from 3.38 to 3.44. Substituting ECMWF precipitation, while the rest of the variables remains unmodified, by the JMA mesoscale precipitation analysis and the JMA radar gauge precipitation data yield the best results on a regional scale, specially when a new and more robust wet deposition scheme is introduced. The best results are obtained with a combination of ECMWF 0.2° data with precipitation from JMA mesoscale analyses and the modified wet deposition with a correlation of 0.83 and an overall rank of 3.58. NCEP-based results with the same source term are generally poorer, giving correlations around 0.66, and comparatively large negative biases and an overall rank of 3.05 that worsens when regional precipitation data is introduced

  19. The pathophysiology of chronic pain--increased sensitivity to low threshold A beta-fibre inputs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolf, C J; Doubell, T P

    1994-08-01

    Chronic pain is characterized by abnormal sensitivity, which is due to the generation of pain in response to the activation of the low-threshold mechanoreceptive A beta fibres that normally generate innocuous sensations. Three different processes in the spinal cord can account for this dramatic alteration in sensory processing in the somatosensory system: increased excitability, decreased inhibition and structural reorganization. All have been shown to occur and each may contribute separately or together to the wide range of chronic inflammatory and neuropathic pain disorders. The unravelling of the cellular mechanisms involved both offers the potential for developing novel therapeutic strategies, which reduce functional synaptic plasticity and prevent central atrophic and regenerative responses in injured neurones, and illustrates the capacity of the adult nervous system for maladaptive modification. PMID:7812141

  20. CHRONIC INTERMITTENT HYPOXIA AFFECTS INTEGRATION OF SENSORY INPUT BY NEURONS IN THE NUCLEUS TRACTUS SOLITARII

    OpenAIRE

    Kline, David D.

    2010-01-01

    The autonomic nervous and respiratory systems, as well as their coupling, adapt over a wide range of conditions. Chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) is a model for recurrent apneas and induces alterations in breathing and increases in sympathetic nerve activity which may ultimately result in hypertension if left untreated. These alterations are believed to be due to increases in the carotid body chemoreflex pathway. Here we present evidence that the nucleus tractus solitarii (nTS), the central...

  1. Reconstruction of the historical inputs of radionuclides and metal contaminants in the fluvial part of the Seine estuary through the analysis of their sedimentary records

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Seine estuary is the outlet of a highly anthropogenized catchment area. Marginal areas of the river have trapped fine-grained sediment particles which a number of contaminants are bound to; they give access to the sedimentary records of the past decades. Corings were carried out in three areas: the Seine River, the upper Seine estuary, and at the river mouth. After dating, these cores have led to reconstruct the history of the inputs particulate elements in each of these areas. The comparison of the time series of elemental concentrations between (i) suspended matter during the last decades and (ii) dated sediments along the cores shows that the latter are representative of the former. Particulate fluxes of 55 stable elements and 18 radionuclides were estimated, from 1960 to 2002. Comparison of data acquired in the Seine River and in the upper estuary led to distinguish and quantify the intra-estuarine sources of contaminants that are dominated by phosphogypsum discharges during the 1970's in the Rouen harbour area (upper estuary). The intensity of tidal pumping up to the upper estuary was quantified using transuranics activity ratios. Based on the atmospheric 137Cs activities over the last decades and core derived 137Cs activities, a transfer model from the watershed to the river, based on a solid wash-off transfer function by runoff and erosion, is then proposed. (author)

  2. Lung mucociliary transport function in chronic bronchitis and radionuclide methods of its investigation (a review)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several methods for studying lung clearance of smokers and non-smoking patients with chronic bronchitis (CB) are described. Modified technique for investigating mucociliary transport (MCT) in CB patients, using 99mTc-macroaggregate of human serum albumin, is suggested. The method enables to examine more patients and obtain the most comprehensive data on MCT state on any level of tracheobronchial tree

  3. Complex radionuclide evaluation of structural and functional kidneys disorders of children with chronic obstructive pyelonephritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Children's chronic obstructive pyelonephritis (COPN) is the most important and difficult among microbes-inflammatory kidney's deceases. Kidney's COPN functional disorders are evaluated generally by clinical and laboratory criteria which not always have high informativity. Scintigraphic kidney's examinations with nephrotropic radiopharmaceuticals (NRP) are more informative. Conclusion. The most informative are 99mTc-EC and 99mTc-DTPA for initial examinations, 99mTc-DTPA and 99mTc-pyrophosphate for monitoring examinations

  4. Modifications of the input currents on VTA dopamine neurons following acute versus chronic cocaine exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaeli, Avner; Matzner, Henry; Poltyrev, Tatyana; Yaka, Rami

    2012-03-01

    Excitatory synapses on dopamine (DA) neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) are modulated following exposure to various addictive drugs, including cocaine. Previously we have shown that cocaine affects GABA(A) receptor (GABA(A)R)-mediated neurotransmission in VTA DA neurons. This finding led us to reexamine the modulation of the excitatory synapse on these neurons in response to cocaine exposure, while the activity of GABA(A)R is uninterrupted. Using rat brain slices, evoked post synaptic currents (ePSC) were monitored and inhibitors of NMDA receptor (NMDAR) and AMPA receptor (AMPAR) were gradually added to inhibitors-free bath solution. Modifications in the efficacy of the excitatory synapses were evaluated by comparing AMPAR-mediated and NMDAR-mediated currents (AMPA/NMDA ratio). The lack of GABA(A)R inhibitors enabled us to examine parallel changes in the relation between GABA(A)R-mediated and NMDAR-mediated currents (GABA(A)/NMDA ratio). First, we found that AMPA/NMDA ratio measured under complete availability of GABA(A)R, is significantly higher than the ratio measured under GABA(A)R blockade. In addition, GABA(A)/NMDA ratio, but not AMPA/NMDA ratio, is augmented a few hours following in vitro acute cocaine exposure. When measured 24 h after in vivo single cocaine injection, no change in GABA(A)/NMDA ratio was observed, however, the AMPA/NMDA ratio was found to be significantly higher. Finally, a decrease in both ratios was detected in rats repeatedly injected with cocaine. Taken together, these results lead to a better understanding of the means by which cocaine modifies synaptic inputs on VTA DA neurons. The parallel changes in GABA(A)/NMDA ratio may suggest an interaction between inhibitory and excitatory neural systems. PMID:22197515

  5. Value of quantitative analysis of radionuclide diuretic renogram in predicting the outcome of surgery in chronic schistosomal obstructive uropathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selection of patients with chronic obstructive uropathy for surgery is a difficult problem because of uncertainties in identifying the presence of true mechanical obstruction in a grossly dilated urinary tract. In urinary schistosomiasis (bilharziasis) the pelvicalyceal system and ureter are usually bilaterally grossly dilated with or without obstruction. For this reason, a computational protocol for quantitative analysis of radionuclide diuretic renograms (RDRs) using 99Tcm DTPA was developed and used in order to evaluate noninvasively the outcome of surgery in these patients. The protocol consists of two programs which provide comprehensive quantitative analysis of RDR. In addition to curves over kidneys, pelvis and parenchyma, the protocol provides; split renal flow, split renal uptake, split renal glomerular filtration rate, rate of uptake, rate of excretion, percentage retained activity in kidney or parenchyma at different intervals and transit time indices for kidney and parenchyma using deconvolution analysis. In this prospective study of 104 urinary systems affected by schistosomal obstructive uropathy (SOU) three distinctive obstructive renogram patterns (A, B, C) were recognized in 65 urinary systems. All of these had surgery for relief of obstruction. These patterns correlated well with operative findings and with the post-operative improvement. Percentages of post-operative improvements were 39%, 69% and 0% for patterns A, B and C respectively. The authors conclude that the RDR pattern can be used to predict the outcome of surgery in patients with SOU. (author). 7 refs, 1 fig., 1 tab

  6. Somatosensory inputs by application of KinesioTaping: Effects on spasticity, balance, and gait in chronic spinal cord injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica eTamburella

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Leg paralysis, spasticity, reduced inter limb coordination and impaired balance are considered the chief limitations to overground ambulation in subjects with incomplete spinal cord injury (SCI. In the last years KinesioTaping (KT application has been proposed for enhancing sensory inputs, decreasing spasticity via proprioception feedback and relieving abnormal muscle tension. No studies addressed KT technique on SCI subjects: our goal was to analyze effects of ankle joint KT application on spasticity, balance and gait. Material and Methods: A randomized cross-over case control design was used to compare KT and conventional non-elastic silk tape (ST application’s effects in 11 chronic SCI subjects, AIS level D, with soleus/gastrocnemius (S/G muscles’ spasticity , balance and gait impairments. Treatment: 48 hours of either KT or ST treatment was followed after 1 week interval by a reverse protocol. Patient treated with KT were subjected to 48 hours of ST treatment and viceversa. Single Y-stripe of Cure©tape (KT and ST were applied to S and G with 0% stretch. Before and after 48 hours of KT and ST application, clinical data of range of motion (ROM, spasticity, clonus, pain, balance and gait were collected. Stabilometric platform assessment of Centre of Pressure (COP movements, bi-dimensional gait analysis and electromyograpich (EMG activity of S, G, Tibialis Anterior and Extensor Hallicus Lungus muscles were also collected. Results: Only After KT treatment significant effects on spasticity, clonus and COP movements, kinematic gait parameters and EMG activities were recorded. Comparison between KT and ST improvements pointed out significant differences for ROM, spasticity, clonus, pain, COP parameters and most of all kinematic gait data. Discussion: KT short term application reduces spasticity and pain and improves balance and gait performances in chronic incomplete SCI subjects.

  7. ACUTE AND CHRONIC INTAKES OF FALLOUT RADIONUCLIDES BY MARSHALLESE FROM NUCLEAR WEAPONS TESTING AT BIKINI AND ENEWETAK AND RELATED INTERNAL RADIATION DOSES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Steven L.; Bouville, André; Melo, Dunstana; Beck, Harold L.; Weinstock, Robert M.

    2014-01-01

    Annual internal radiation doses resulting from both acute and chronic intakes of all important dose-contributing radionuclides occurring in fallout from nuclear weapons testing at Bikini and Enewetak from 1946 through 1958 have been estimated for the residents living on all atolls and separate reef islands of the Marshall Islands. Internal radiation absorbed doses to the tissues most at risk to cancer induction (red bone marrow, thyroid, stomach, and colon) have been estimated for representative persons of all population communities for all birth years from 1929 through 1968, and for all years of exposure from 1948 through 1970. The acute intake estimates rely on a model using, as its basis, historical urine bioassay data, for members of the Rongelap Island and Ailinginae communities as well as for Rongerik residents. The model also utilizes fallout times of arrival and radionuclide deposition densities estimated for all tests and all atolls. Acute intakes of 63 radionuclides were estimated for the populations of the 20 inhabited atolls and for the communities that were relocated during the testing years for reasons of safety and decontamination. The model used for chronic intake estimates is based on reported whole-body, urine, and blood counting data for residents of Utrik and Rongelap. Dose conversion coefficients relating intake to organ absorbed dose were developed using internationally accepted models but specifically tailored for intakes of particulate fallout by consideration of literature-based evidence to choose the most appropriate alimentary tract absorption fraction (f1) values. Dose estimates were much higher for the thyroid gland than for red marrow, stomach wall, or colon. The highest thyroid doses to adults were about 7,600 mGy for the people exposed on Rongelap; thyroid doses to adults were much lower, by a factor of 100 or more, for the people exposed on the populated atolls of Kwajalein and Majuro. The estimates of radionuclide intake and

  8. Somatosensory inputs by application of KinesioTaping: effects on spasticity, balance, and gait in chronic spinal cord injury

    OpenAIRE

    Tamburella, Federica; Scivoletto, Giorgio; Molinari, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Leg paralysis, spasticity, reduced interlimb coordination, and impaired balance are the chief limitations to overground ambulation in subjects with incomplete spinal cord injury (SCI). In recent years, the application of KinesioTaping (KT) has been proposed to enhance sensory inputs, decreasing spasticity by proprioception feedback and relieving abnormal muscle tension. Because no studies have examined KT-based techniques in SCI subjects, our goal was to analyze the effects of a...

  9. Radionuclides and ionizing radiation in water management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The proceedings of the conference contain 22 texts of contributions presented, out of which 21 have been inputted in INIS. The topics treated include mainly contamination of surface waters by radionuclides, e.g from the operation of nuclear power plants, accumulation of radionuclides by the biosphere, and analytical problems of determination of radionuclides in the hydrosphere. (P.A.)

  10. Inhibition of cardiac sympathetic afferent reflex and sympathetic activity by baroreceptor and vagal afferent inputs in chronic heart failure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xian-Bing Gan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cardiac sympathetic afferent reflex (CSAR contributes to sympathetic activation and angiotensin II (Ang II in paraventricular nucleus (PVN augments the CSAR in vagotomized (VT and baroreceptor denervated (BD rats with chronic heart failure (CHF. This study was designed to determine whether it is true in intact (INT rats with CHF and to determine the effects of cardiac and baroreceptor afferents on the CSAR and sympathetic activity in CHF. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Sham-operated (Sham or coronary ligation-induced CHF rats were respectively subjected to BD+VT, VT, cardiac sympathetic denervation (CSD or INT. Under anesthesia, renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA and mean arterial pressure (MAP were recorded, and the CSAR was evaluated by the RSNA and MAP responses to epicardial application of capsaicin. Either CSAR or the responses of RSNA, MAP and CSAR to Ang II in PVN were enhanced in CHF rats treated with BD+VT, VT or INT. Treatment with VT or BD+VT potentiated the CSAR and the CSAR responses to Ang II in both Sham and CHF rats. Treatment with CSD reversed the capsaicin-induced RSNA and MAP changes and the CSAR responses to Ang II in both Sham and CHF rats, and reduced the RSNA and MAP responses to Ang II only in CHF rats. CONCLUSIONS: The CSAR and the CSAR responses to Ang II in PVN are enhanced in intact CHF rats. Baroreceptor and vagal afferent activities inhibit CSAR and the CSAR responses to Ang II in intact Sham and CHF rats.

  11. Dual-energy CT perfusion and angiography in chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension: diagnostic accuracy and concordance with radionuclide scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dournes, Gael; Verdier, Damien; Montaudon, Michel; Laurent, Francois; Lederlin, Mathieu [Hopital Haut-Leveque, CHU Bordeaux, Department of Medical Imaging, Pessac (France); University Bordeaux Segalen, Bordeaux Cedex (France); Bullier, Eric; Riviere, Annalisa [Hopital Haut-Leveque, CHU Bordeaux, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Pessac (France); Dromer, Claire [Hopital Haut-Leveque, CHU Bordeaux, Department of Respiratory Diseases, Pessac (France); Picard, Francois [Hopital Haut-Leveque, CHU Bordeaux, Department of Cardiology, Pessac (France); Billes, Marc-Alain [Hopital Haut-Leveque, CHU Bordeaux, Department of Cardiac Surgery, Pessac (France); Corneloup, Olivier [Hopital Haut-Leveque, CHU Bordeaux, Department of Medical Imaging, Pessac (France)

    2014-01-15

    To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) perfusion and angiography versus ventilation/perfusion (V/Q) scintigraphy in chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH), and to assess the per-segment concordance rate of DECT and scintigraphy. Forty consecutive patients with proven pulmonary hypertension underwent V/Q scintigraphy and DECT perfusion and angiography. Each imaging technique was assessed for the location of segmental defects. Diagnosis of CTEPH was established when at least one segmental perfusion defect was detected by scintigraphy. Diagnostic accuracy of DECT perfusion and angiography was assessed and compared with scintigraphy. In CTEPH patients, the per-segment concordance between scintigraphy and DECT perfusion/angiography was calculated. Fourteen patients were diagnosed with CTEPH and 26 with other aetiologies. DECT perfusion and angiography correctly identified all CTEPH patients with sensitivity/specificity values of 1/0.92 and 1/0.93, respectively. At a segmental level, DECT perfusion showed moderate agreement (κ = 0.44) with scintigraphy. Agreement between CT angiography and scintigraphy ranged from fair (κ = 0.31) to slight (κ = 0.09) depending on whether completely or partially occlusive patterns were considered, respectively. Both DECT perfusion and angiography show satisfactory performance for the diagnosis of CTEPH. DECT perfusion is more accurate than angiography at identifying the segmental location of abnormalities. (orig.)

  12. The role of radionuclide ventriculography in the decision-making for valve replacement in chronic aortic regurgitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study 54 patients with chronic aortic incompetence were evaluated by RNV to see whether three groups ('too early', 'well-timed', 'too late' AVR (aortic valve replacement), resp.) can be separated by the relation between EDV (enddiastolic volume) and regurgitant volume (RV), the level of the EDV and the clinical status. The examination was based on pre- and postoperative RNV studies as well as on follow-up studies. A good postoperative result can be expectd in cases with a preoperative EDV/RV-ratio similar to that observed in 30 patients with AR (aortic regurgitation) in whom AVR was not indicated. In contrast, in the majority of those cases with an EDV/RV-ratio exceeding this normal range the postoperative outcome will be unsatisfactory. If the EDV/RV-ratio is normal, AVR should be performed in cases with an EDV exceeding 400 ml, while in cases with an EDV between 300 and 400 ml AVR is only indicated in the presence of additional symptoms (NYHA ≥ II). In general, AVR is not required in AR patients with an EDV below 300 ml. In cases with an EDV > 300 ml and an EDV/RV-ratio exceeding the normal range, AVR should not be deferred though the postoperative result may be unsatisfactory especially in cases with long-standing left ventricular dysfunction. (orig./MG)

  13. Dual-energy CT perfusion and angiography in chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension: diagnostic accuracy and concordance with radionuclide scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) perfusion and angiography versus ventilation/perfusion (V/Q) scintigraphy in chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH), and to assess the per-segment concordance rate of DECT and scintigraphy. Forty consecutive patients with proven pulmonary hypertension underwent V/Q scintigraphy and DECT perfusion and angiography. Each imaging technique was assessed for the location of segmental defects. Diagnosis of CTEPH was established when at least one segmental perfusion defect was detected by scintigraphy. Diagnostic accuracy of DECT perfusion and angiography was assessed and compared with scintigraphy. In CTEPH patients, the per-segment concordance between scintigraphy and DECT perfusion/angiography was calculated. Fourteen patients were diagnosed with CTEPH and 26 with other aetiologies. DECT perfusion and angiography correctly identified all CTEPH patients with sensitivity/specificity values of 1/0.92 and 1/0.93, respectively. At a segmental level, DECT perfusion showed moderate agreement (κ = 0.44) with scintigraphy. Agreement between CT angiography and scintigraphy ranged from fair (κ = 0.31) to slight (κ = 0.09) depending on whether completely or partially occlusive patterns were considered, respectively. Both DECT perfusion and angiography show satisfactory performance for the diagnosis of CTEPH. DECT perfusion is more accurate than angiography at identifying the segmental location of abnormalities. (orig.)

  14. E.N.V.I.R.H.O.M.. Bioaccumulation of radionuclides in situations of chronic exposure of ecosystems and members of the public; Progress Report 2 covering the period June 2003 - September 2005; E.N.V.I.R.H.O.M.. Bioaccumulation de radionucleides dans les situations de l'exposition chronique des ecosystemes et de membres du public; Rapport 2 couvrant la periode Juin 2003- Septembre 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    The main objective of E.N.V.I.R.H.O.M. is to better assess real effects caused by chronic exposure to low levels of radioactive contaminants. This includes for example consequences on nervous system, immunity or metabolisms, consequences on reproduction, consequences on feeding processes and consequences on ecosystem productivity. E.N.V.I.R.O.M. has set a priority on radionuclides that are suspected of accumulation in organisms., it has also a priority on radionuclides that act not only with gamma rays. The program was started in 2001 and uranium was chosen to test the methodology. The two first years of E.N.V.I.R.H.O.M. demonstrated clearly that a signal can be seen even as a consequence of moderate exposure. It was also found that some simplifying hypothesis may be false. For example the simple biokinetic model assuming that the result of a continuous feeding is equivalent to the convolution of successive punctual inputs is not always true. When the input is constant, it should involve a steady state following an increase. Instead of that, a decrease has been observed in some cases (rats, crayfish). The second two years period ( 2004-2005) used the same strategy in a larger scale. As regard biota, the list of test organisms was extended (daphnia, insects)and also the tested radionuclides (Se, Tc, Am). The list of studied functions was extended (behavior and sleep, neurotransmission, genomic effects, intestinal immune capacity, drug metabolism, vitamin D metabolism). The E.N.V.I.R.H.O.M. program is the main experimental part of a container program devoted to chronic risks. (N.C.)

  15. Radionuclide transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The availability of radionuclides to biota is discussed especially with reference to specific elements in local soils. Two annual plant species have received concentrated study. These are cheatgrass and tumbleweed, both important inhabitants of waste burial sites. Little is known concerning the radionuclide dynamics of perennial grasses, forbs, or shrub species. The potential for radionuclide transport by jackrabbits, waterfowl, small mammals, and biota inhabiting pond systems is discussed. Concentration ratios are tabulated

  16. Cosmogenic radionuclides

    CERN Document Server

    Beer, Jürg; Von Steiger, R

    2012-01-01

    Cosmogenic radionuclides are radioactive isotopes which are produced by natural processes and distributed within the Earth system. With a holistic view of the environment the authors show in this book how cosmogenic radionuclides can be used to trace and to reconstruct the history of a large variety of processes. They discuss the way in which cosmogenic radionuclides can assist in the quantification of complex processes in the present-day environment. This book aims to demonstrate to the reader the strength of analytic tools based on cosmogenic radionuclides, their contribution to almost any f

  17. Detrimental effects of hydralazine in patients with chronic air-flow obstruction and pulmonary hypertension. A combined hemodynamic and radionuclide study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The acute effects of intravenously administered hydralazine on pulmonary hemodynamics and ejection radionuclide angiography were evaluated in 9 patients with chronic airflow obstruction (forced expiratory volume in one second, 1.2 +/- 0.8 L, mean +/- SD), pulmonary hypertension (mean pulmonary artery pressure (PAP), 29 +/- 13 mmHg), and sleep hypoxemia (maximal sleep desaturation, 20 +/- 16%). The effect of hydralazine was measured during both normoxia and hypoxia and compared with the effect of hyperoxia. Hydralazine increased cardiac index from 3.7 +/- 0.2 to 4.5 +/- 0.8 L/min/m2 (mean +/- SE, p less than 0.05, n . 9), but there were no significant changes in PAP (29 +/- 4 to 32 +/- 4 mmHg), mean pulmonary vascular resistance index (PVRI) (390 +/- 80 to 360 +/- 80 dyn.s.cm.-5.m2), mean right ventricular stroke work index (12.7 +/- 2.7 to 15.0 +/- 2.2 g.m/m2), and mean pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (12 +/- 1 to 12 +/- 2 mmHg). Mean right ventricular ejection fraction and mean right ventricular end diastolic volume also were not changed after treatment with hydralazine. Hyperoxia was used to assess the reversibility of pulmonary hypertension and to compare this with hydralazine. Hyperoxia increased arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2) from 91 +/- 1 to 96 +/- 1% and decreased the cardiac index from 3.8 +/- 0.1 to 3.1 +/- 0.2 L/min/m2 (p less than 0.02, n . 6) but, as with hydralazine, there was no significant change in PAP (28 +/- 6 to 25 +/- 6 mmHg) and PVRI (350 +/- 120 to 360 +/- 80 dyn.s.cm-5).m2)

  18. Radionuclide cisternography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this thesis is to show that radionuclide cisternography makes an essential contribution to the investigation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) dynamics, especially for the investigation of hydrocephalus. The technical details of radionuclide cisternography are discussed, followed by a description of the normal and abnormal radionuclide cisternograms. The dynamics of CFS by means of radionuclide cisternography were examined in 188 patients in whom some kind of hydrocephalus was suspected. This study included findings of anomalies associated with hydrocephalus in a number of cases, such as nasal liquorrhea, hygromas, leptomeningeal or porencephalic cysts. The investigation substantiates the value of radionuclide cisternography in the diagnosis of disturbances of CSF flow. The retrograde flow of radiopharmaceutical into the ventricular system (ventricular reflux) is an abnormal phenomenon indicating the presence of communicating hydrocephalus. (Auth.)

  19. Radionuclide cystography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports on radionuclide cystography in infants and children for the detection of vesicoureteral reflux. Vesicoureteral reflux represents a common and potentially serious form of urinary tract pathology. Reflux accompanied by asymptomatic or inadequately treated urinary tract infections has been associated with significant sequelae, including renal scarring, hypertension, and end- stage renal disease. Although there are several advantages and disadvantages to both radionuclide and radiographic techniques for detection of reflux, radionuclide cystography has been found to be at least as sensitive as the voiding cystourethrogram (VCUG) for the detection of clinically significant reflux. The major advantage of radionuclide cystography is a significantly lower radiation dose as compared to VCUG. Both indirect and direct techniques for radionuclide cystography have been developed. In addition to detection of vesicoureteral reflux, indirect radionuclide cystography allows evaluation of differential renal function. Supplemental parameters that may be evaluated with direct radionuclide cystography include: quantitation of reflux, determination of bladder volume at which reflux occurs, evaluation of the dynamics of bladder emptying, and determination of residual bladder volume following voiding

  20. Underground radionuclide migration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The number 9 sub-report of the safety assesment studies of the disposal of radioactive waste in rock-salt formations concerns the calculation of radio-nuclide migration with groundwater. Calculations ar carried out in two phases. The first phase consists of calculation of the groundwater flow system under a great number of different hydrological boundary conditions, which possibly can be encountered in future. Variations in sea level and consequences of glaciations are included. Given a great number of possible groundwater flow systems, in the second phase radionuclide migration is calculated for a restricted number of representative situations. Transport of radionuclides with groundwater takes place, starting at a release point at the top (edge) of the rock salt formation until the landsurface, the bottom of a sea or an extraction-well for public water supply has been reached, at which places concentrations radionuclides have been computed as a function of time. Calculations continued till all concentrations had reached their maxima. Results form the input for biosphere dose-calculations, as reported in the number 10 sub-report. (author). 26 refs.; 43 figs.; 22 tabs

  1. Deposited radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results presented are from the nationwide programme to survey the fall-out levels of radionuclides in Finland. This programme includes results from the vicinities of the nuclear power plants at Loviisa and Olkiluoto. Analysis of deposition samples for their 3H, 89Sr and 90Sr, as well as 137Cs and other gamma radionuclide contents was continued. The results are given as a follow-up to the previous results. The cumulative deposition of long-lived radionuclides retained in soil was measured near the Finnish nuclear power stations. The 90Sr and 137Cs levels in deposition in 1979 were lower than in the previous two years, and no 89Sr was detected. The trend to slightly increasing 3H concentrations of previous years was reversed in 1979. The mean annual deposition of tritium at different sampling stations varied from 85 nCi/m2 (3.1 kBq/m2) to 180 nCi/m2 (6.7 kBq/m2). The total annual deposits of various fission product radionuclides have decreased continuously since the maximum in 1977. No short-lived radionuclides originating from either nuclear explosions or nuclear power plants were observed in 1979. (author)

  2. Pollution of River Mahaweli and farmlands under irrigation by cadmium from agricultural inputs leading to a chronic renal failure epidemic among farmers in NCP, Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandara, J M R S; Wijewardena, H V P; Bandara, Y M A Y; Jayasooriya, R G P T; Rajapaksha, H

    2011-10-01

    Chronic renal failure (CRF) associated with elevated dietary cadmium (Cd) among farming communities in the irrigated agricultural area under the River Mahaweli diversion scheme has reached a significantly higher level of 9,000 patients. Cadmium, derived from contaminated phosphate fertilizer, in irrigation water finds its way into reservoirs, and finally to food, causing chronic renal failure among consumers. Water samples of River Mahaweli and its tributaries in the upper catchment were analyzed to assess the total cadmium contamination of river water and the possible source of cadmium. Except a single tributary (Ulapane Stream, 3.9 μg Cd/l), all other tested tributaries carried more than 5 μg Cd/l, the maximum concentration level accepted to be safe in drinking water. Seven medium-sized streams carrying surface runoff from tea estates had 5.1-10 μg Cd/l. Twenty larger tributaries (Oya), where the catchment is under vegetable and home garden cultivation, carried 10.1-15 μg Cd/l. Nine other major tributaries had extremely high levels of Cd, reaching 20 μg Cd/l. Using geographic information system (GIS), the area in the catchment of each tributary was studied. The specific cropping system in each watershed was determined. The total cadmium loading from each crop area was estimated using the rates and types of phosphate fertilizer used by the respective farmers and the amount of cadmium contained in each type of fertilizer used. Eppawala rock phosphate (ERP), which is mostly used in tea estates, caused least pollution. The amount of cadmium in tributaries had a significant positive correlation with the cadmium loading of the cropping system. Dimbula Tea Estate Stream had the lowest Cd loading (495.9 g/ha/year), compared with vegetable-growing areas in Uma Oya catchment with 50,852.5 g Cd/ha/year. Kendall's τ rank correlation value of total Cd loading from the catchment by phosphate fertilizer used in all crops in the catchment to the Cd content in

  3. Chronic radionuclide low dose exposure for non-human biota: challenges in establishing links between speciation in the exposure sources, bioaccumulation and biological effects. Uranium in aquatic ecosystems: A case-study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the field of environmental radioprotection, the knowledge gaps concern situations leading to chronic exposure at the lower doses typical of the living conditions of organisms influenced by radioactive releases. For any radionuclide and ecosystem, the specificities of these situations are as followed: (i) various chemical forms occur in the environment as a function of the physico-chemical conditions of the medium; (ii) each transfer from one component to another can lead to a modification of these forms with a 'chemical form-specific' mobility and bioavailability; (iii) different categories of non-radioactive toxicants are simultaneously present. In this multipollution context, the biological effects of ionising radiation may be exacerbated or reduced with the potential for action or interaction of all the pollutants present simultaneously. These situations of chronic exposure at low levels are likely to cause toxic responses distinct from those observed after acute exposure at high doses since long-term accumulation mechanisms in cells and tissues may lead to microlocalised accumulation in some target cells or subcellular components. The assessment of these mechanisms is primordial with regard to internal exposure to radionuclides since they increase locally both the radionuclide concentration and the delivered dose, coupling radiological and chemical toxicity. This is the main purpose of the ENVIRHOM research programme, recently launched at IRSN. After a global overview of the experimental strategy and of the first results obtained for phytoplankton and uranium, this paper scans the state of art for uranium within freshwaters and underlines inconsistency encountered when one wants to carry out an Ecological Risk Assessment (ERA) on the chemical or on the radiological standpoint. This example argues for future research needs in order to establish well-defined relationship between chemo-toxicity and radiotoxicity for internal contamination. The operational aim

  4. Clinical evaluation of radionuclide dynamic renography in renal transplant rejections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radionuclide dynamic renography was performed in 125 cases of renal transplant. That was a correlation between radionuclide dynamic renography types and serum creatinine concentration. There are characteristic changes in phase imaging of radionuclide dynamic renography at acute, ultra-acute and chronic rejection. This dynamic imaging can show kidney function. The dynamic renography is more informative than renogram

  5. Is echocardiography a valid tool to screen for left ventricular systolic dysfunction in chronic survivors of acute myocardial infarction? A comparison with radionuclide ventriculography

    OpenAIRE

    Galasko, G I W; S. Basu; Lahiri, A; Senior, R

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To assess the accuracy of echocardiography with Simpson’s apical biplane method in screening for left ventricular systolic dysfunction (LVSD) in patients six months after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) as compared with radionuclide ventriculography by assessing the proportion of clinically significant errors that occur with echocardiography.

  6. Deposited radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurements were carried out to determine the fall-out levels of radionuclides in Finland including those from the surroundings of the nuclear power plants at Loviisa and Olkiluoto. Deposition samples were analysed for their 3H, 89Sr and 90Sr as well as 137Cs and other gamma radionuclide contents. 90Sr, 239,240Pu, as well as 137Cs and other gamma radionuclides deposited in soil were also measured. The 90Sr and 137Cs levels in deposition in 1978 remained at almost the same level as in 1977. The slightly increasing trend in 3H concentrations continued in 1978. The mean annual deposition of tritium at different sampling stations varied from 120 nCi/m2 (4.4 kBq/m2) to 200 nCi/m2 (7.4 kBq/m2). The total annual deposits of various fission product radionuclides during 1978 were smaller than during 1977. No increase in radioactivity originating from nuclear power plants could be observed. (author)

  7. Radionuclide carriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new carrier for radionuclide technetium 99m has been prepared for scintiscanning purposes. The new preparate consists of physiologically acceptable water-insoluble Tcsup(99m)-carrier containing from 0.2 to 0.8 weight percent of stannic ion as reductor, bound to an anionic starch derivative with about 1-20% of phosphate substituents. (EG)

  8. Radionuclide cisternogram

    Science.gov (United States)

    A radionuclide cisternogram is a nuclear scan test. It is used to diagnose problems with the flow of spinal fluid. ... a lumbar puncture include pain at the injection site, bleeding, and ... used during the nuclear scan is very small. Almost all of the ...

  9. Prognostic value of echocardiography in 190 patients with chronic congestive heart failure. A comparison with New York Heart Association functional classes and radionuclide ventriculography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, B K; Videbaek, R; Stokholm, H; Mortensen, L S; Hansen, J F

    1996-01-01

    Survival in 190 consecutive patients with congestive heart failure, discharged from a general hospital, was studied. Sixteen patients were in New York Heart Association (NYHA) class I, 87 in II, 83 in III and 4 in IV. Median left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) from radionuclide ventriculogr......Survival in 190 consecutive patients with congestive heart failure, discharged from a general hospital, was studied. Sixteen patients were in New York Heart Association (NYHA) class I, 87 in II, 83 in III and 4 in IV. Median left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) from radionuclide...... classes III and IV survival was 68.9% for wall motion index > or = 1.3 and 39.9% when < 1.3. Addition of LVEF gave further information about survival. This study demonstrates that echocardiography is of great value in determining prognosis in congestive heart failure patients, and that wall motion index...

  10. Radionuclides in the study of marine processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For many years, the radioactive properties of the naturally occurring radionuclides have been used to determine their distributions in the marine environment and, more generally, to gain an understanding of the dynamic processes which control their behaviour in attaining these distributions. More recently the inputs from human activities of both natural and artificial (i.e. man-made) radionuclides have provided additional opportunities for the study of marine processes on local, regional and global scales. The primary objective of the symposium is to provide a forum for an open discussion of the insights concerning processes in the marine environment which can be gained from studies of radionuclide behaviour. Papers have been grouped within the following principal themes; the uses of radionuclides as tracers of water transport; scavenging and particulate transport processes in the oceans as deduced from radionuclide behaviour; processes in the seabed and radionuclides in biological systems. (Author)

  11. Radionuclide daughter inventory generator code: DIG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Daughter Inventory Generator (DIG) code accepts a tabulation of radionuclide initially present in a waste stream, specified as amounts present either by mass or by activity, and produces a tabulation of radionuclides present after a user-specified elapsed time. This resultant radionuclide inventory characterizes wastes that have undergone daughter ingrowth during subsequent processes, such as leaching and transport, and includes daughter radionuclides that should be considered in these subsequent processes or for inclusion in a pollutant source term. Output of the DIG code also summarizes radionuclide decay constants. The DIG code was developed specifically to assist the user of the PRESTO-II methodology and code in preparing data sets and accounting for possible daughter ingrowth in wastes buried in shallow-land disposal areas. The DIG code is also useful in preparing data sets for the PRESTO-EPA code. Daughter ingrowth in buried radionuclides and in radionuclides that have been leached from the wastes and are undergoing hydrologic transport are considered, and the quantities of daughter radionuclide are calculated. Radionuclide decay constants generated by DIG and included in the DIG output are required in the PRESTO-II code input data set. The DIG accesses some subroutines written for use with the CRRIS system and accesses files containing radionuclide data compiled by D.C. Kocher. 11 refs

  12. EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this report is to develop and analyze the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, consistent with Level I and Level II model validation, as identified in Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport: Engineered Barrier System: Radionuclide Transport Abstraction Model Report Integration (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173617]). The EBS radionuclide transport abstraction (or EBS RT Abstraction) is the conceptual model used in the total system performance assessment (TSPA) to determine the rate of radionuclide releases from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ). The EBS RT Abstraction conceptual model consists of two main components: a flow model and a transport model. Both models are developed mathematically from first principles in order to show explicitly what assumptions, simplifications, and approximations are incorporated into the models used in the TSPA. The flow model defines the pathways for water flow in the EBS and specifies how the flow rate is computed in each pathway. Input to this model includes the seepage flux into a drift. The seepage flux is potentially split by the drip shield, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the drip shield and some passing through breaches in the drip shield that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. The flux through drip shield breaches is potentially split by the waste package, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the waste package and some passing through waste package breaches that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. Neither the drip shield nor the waste package survives an igneous intrusion, so the flux splitting submodel is not used in the igneous scenario class. The flow model is validated in an independent model validation technical review. The drip shield and waste package flux splitting algorithms are developed and validated using experimental data. The transport model considers advective transport and diffusive transport

  13. EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this work is to develop the Engineered Barrier System (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, as directed by a written development plan (CRWMS M and O 1999a). This abstraction is the conceptual model that will be used to determine the rate of release of radionuclides from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ) in the total system performance assessment-license application (TSPA-LA). In particular, this model will be used to quantify the time-dependent radionuclide releases from a failed waste package (WP) and their subsequent transport through the EBS to the emplacement drift wall/UZ interface. The development of this conceptual model will allow Performance Assessment Operations (PAO) and its Engineered Barrier Performance Department to provide a more detailed and complete EBS flow and transport abstraction. The results from this conceptual model will allow PA0 to address portions of the key technical issues (KTIs) presented in three NRC Issue Resolution Status Reports (IRSRs): (1) the Evolution of the Near-Field Environment (ENFE), Revision 2 (NRC 1999a), (2) the Container Life and Source Term (CLST), Revision 2 (NRC 1999b), and (3) the Thermal Effects on Flow (TEF), Revision 1 (NRC 1998). The conceptual model for flow and transport in the EBS will be referred to as the ''EBS RT Abstraction'' in this analysis/modeling report (AMR). The scope of this abstraction and report is limited to flow and transport processes. More specifically, this AMR does not discuss elements of the TSPA-SR and TSPA-LA that relate to the EBS but are discussed in other AMRs. These elements include corrosion processes, radionuclide solubility limits, waste form dissolution rates and concentrations of colloidal particles that are generally represented as boundary conditions or input parameters for the EBS RT Abstraction. In effect, this AMR provides the algorithms for transporting radionuclides using the flow geometry and radionuclide concentrations determined by other

  14. Deposited radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The measurements presented here were carried out for determination of the fallout levels of radionuclides throughout the country, including the areas surrounding the nuclear power plants at Loviisa and Olkiluoto. The 90Sr, 137Cs and 3H contents of deposition were determined and the results are given as a follow-up to the previous results. 89Sr and other gammaradionuclides in addition to 137Cs were measured from wet and dry deposition. Also 89-90Sr, 239-240Pu, 137Cs and other gammaradionuclides deposited in soil were measured. The radiochemical separation technique was used to determine 89Sr, 90Sr, 137Cs and 239-240Pu. Tritium contents were determined by liquid scintillation counting after electrolytic enrichment. Gammaradionuclides were measured by Ge(Li) spectrometry. In 1977 the contents of the long-lived radionuclides 90Sr and 137Cs in deposition increased to almost the same level as in the early '70s. This is due to the high-yield atmospheric nuclear weapon tests carried out by China. A slight increase in 3H deposition can also be noticed in 1977. The results of soil sample measurements indicate that practically all the activity is found in the top 20 cm layer. (author)

  15. EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.D. Schreiber

    2005-08-25

    The purpose of this report is to develop and analyze the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, consistent with Level I and Level II model validation, as identified in ''Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport: Engineered Barrier System: Radionuclide Transport Abstraction Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173617]). The EBS radionuclide transport abstraction (or EBS RT Abstraction) is the conceptual model used in the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA) to determine the rate of radionuclide releases from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ). The EBS RT Abstraction conceptual model consists of two main components: a flow model and a transport model. Both models are developed mathematically from first principles in order to show explicitly what assumptions, simplifications, and approximations are incorporated into the models used in the TSPA-LA. The flow model defines the pathways for water flow in the EBS and specifies how the flow rate is computed in each pathway. Input to this model includes the seepage flux into a drift. The seepage flux is potentially split by the drip shield, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the drip shield and some passing through breaches in the drip shield that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. The flux through drip shield breaches is potentially split by the waste package, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the waste package and some passing through waste package breaches that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. Neither the drip shield nor the waste package survives an igneous intrusion, so the flux splitting submodel is not used in the igneous scenario class. The flow model is validated in an independent model validation technical review. The drip shield and waste package flux splitting algorithms are developed and validated using experimental data. The transport

  16. Comparative effects of propranolol and verapamil alone and in combination on left ventricular function and volumes in patients with chronic exertional angina: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized, crossover study with radionuclide ventriculography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the use of equilibrium radionuclide ventriculography the effects on left ventricular (LV) function of 160 mg oral propranolol daily and 360 mg verapamil daily alone and in combination were compared in 18 patients with chronic exertional angina. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover protocol was used. The reduction in exercise rate-pressure product induced by the combination (118 +/- 28 mm Hg/min) was significantly greater than that by propranolol (135 +/- 27 mm Hg/min) or verapamil alone (163 +/- 28 mm Hg/min). In patients at rest, neither single nor combined therapy altered global or regional left ventricular ejection fractions (EFs). Verapamil, but not propranolol, increased cardiac volumes of resting subjects; used in combination, no further increase in LV volume occurred. With placebo, exercise global EF did not decrease from the level at rest and therefore no drug effect could be demonstrated for this parameter of LV function. By an evaluation of normalized regional EF measurements the combination was shown to reduce exercise-induced hypokinesis (placebo 52 +/- 20%, combination 61 +/- 23%. No significant improvement was noted with propranolol or verapamil alone; only the combination prevented a significant increase in end-systolic and end-diastolic volumes during exercise. Thus, propranolol and verapamil, used alone in moderate doses, exert no beneficial effect on exercise LV function as measured by EF and volume changes, and resting function deteriorates slightly with verapamil

  17. Inventories of selected radionuclides in the oceans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In March 1984 an ad hoc Review Committee composed of senior experts in the marine radioactivity field made recommendations that ''the Monaco Laboratory should be engaged in compiling and evaluating the input of radionuclides into the marine environment''. The Committee recommended that work should commence on selected radionuclides, viz., 14C, caesium isotopes, plutonium isotopes, 210Po and 210Pb followed by 226Ra. Depending on the radionuclides involved the assistance of competent experts from outside as well as inside the IAEA was sought. The present document is a product of the work carried out within the framework of the above-mentioned task and contains reports on 14C, 90Sr, 137Cs, 238Pu, 239+240Pu, 210Pb, 210Po and 226Ra. Although the estimation of the inventory in the marine environment and related input and output fluxes, is the same for all radionuclides concerned, different approaches were followed to achieve this objective. These approaches depended on the geochemical characteristics of the radionuclides and the availability of data for different times and locations. For regions where data were lacking, extrapolation on the basis of specific assumptions has often been necessary. As the work was initiated during the pre-Chernobyl period, the radionuclides derived from the Chernobyl incident were not, in general, considered. Since the work for preparing the forthcoming report of the UNSCEAR is scheduled to be completed by 1991, it is hoped that the information contained in this volume will be beneficial. Refs, figs and tabs

  18. Significant Radionuclides Determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this calculation is to identify radionuclides that are significant to offsite doses from potential preclosure events for spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level radioactive waste expected to be received at the potential Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). In this calculation, high-level radioactive waste is included in references to DOE SNF. A previous document, ''DOE SNF DBE Offsite Dose Calculations'' (CRWMS M and O 1999b), calculated the source terms and offsite doses for Department of Energy (DOE) and Naval SNF for use in design basis event analyses. This calculation reproduces only DOE SNF work (i.e., no naval SNF work is included in this calculation) created in ''DOE SNF DBE Offsite Dose Calculations'' and expands the calculation to include DOE SNF expected to produce a high dose consequence (even though the quantity of the SNF is expected to be small) and SNF owned by commercial nuclear power producers. The calculation does not address any specific off-normal/DBE event scenarios for receiving, handling, or packaging of SNF. The results of this calculation are developed for comparative analysis to establish the important radionuclides and do not represent the final source terms to be used for license application. This calculation will be used as input to preclosure safety analyses and is performed in accordance with procedure AP-3.12Q, ''Calculations'', and is subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (DOE 2000) as determined by the activity evaluation contained in ''Technical Work Plan for: Preclosure Safety Analysis, TWP-MGR-SE-000010'' (CRWMS M and O 2000b) in accordance with procedure AP-2.21Q, ''Quality Determinations and Planning for Scientific, Engineering, and Regulatory Compliance Activities''

  19. Significant Radionuclides Determination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo A. Ziegler

    2001-07-31

    The purpose of this calculation is to identify radionuclides that are significant to offsite doses from potential preclosure events for spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level radioactive waste expected to be received at the potential Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). In this calculation, high-level radioactive waste is included in references to DOE SNF. A previous document, ''DOE SNF DBE Offsite Dose Calculations'' (CRWMS M&O 1999b), calculated the source terms and offsite doses for Department of Energy (DOE) and Naval SNF for use in design basis event analyses. This calculation reproduces only DOE SNF work (i.e., no naval SNF work is included in this calculation) created in ''DOE SNF DBE Offsite Dose Calculations'' and expands the calculation to include DOE SNF expected to produce a high dose consequence (even though the quantity of the SNF is expected to be small) and SNF owned by commercial nuclear power producers. The calculation does not address any specific off-normal/DBE event scenarios for receiving, handling, or packaging of SNF. The results of this calculation are developed for comparative analysis to establish the important radionuclides and do not represent the final source terms to be used for license application. This calculation will be used as input to preclosure safety analyses and is performed in accordance with procedure AP-3.12Q, ''Calculations'', and is subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (DOE 2000) as determined by the activity evaluation contained in ''Technical Work Plan for: Preclosure Safety Analysis, TWP-MGR-SE-000010'' (CRWMS M&O 2000b) in accordance with procedure AP-2.21Q, ''Quality Determinations and Planning for Scientific, Engineering, and Regulatory Compliance Activities''.

  20. Radionuclides in terrestrial ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The subject is discussed under the headings: concentration and spatial distribution of radionuclides in grazed and ungrazed saltmarshes; incorporation of radionuclides by sheep grazing on an estuarine saltmarsh; inland transfer of radionuclides by birds feeding in the estuaries and saltmarshes at Ravenglass; radionuclides in contrasting types of coastal pastures and taken up by individual plant species found in west Cumbria; procedures developed and used for the measurement of alpha and gamma emitters in environmental materials. (U.K.)

  1. Radionuclide behavior in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this report is to document the results of the following task: Review for quality and consistency the available data on measurements of initial ground contamination of Chernobyl radionuclides in various parts of Norway and subsequent concentrations of these radionuclides in various environmental media as functions of time. Utilize the data obtained to verify the existing models, or to improve them, for describing radionuclide behavior in the environment. Some of the processes standard were: migration into soil; weathering; resuspension; food-chain contamination; and loss or reconcentration by run-off. The task performed within this contract has been to use post-Chernobyl data from Norway to verify or find areas for possible improvement in the chronic exposure pathway models utilized in MACCS. Work has consisted mainly of collecting and evaluating post-Chernobyl information from Norway or other countries when relevant; but has also included experimental work performed specifically for the current task. In most connections the data available show the models and data in MACCS to be appropriate. A few areas where the data indicate that the MACCS approach is faulty or inadequate are, however, pointed out in the report. These should be examined carefully, and appropriate modifications should eventually be made. 14 refs., 12 figs., 22 tabs

  2. Mobility factors for estimating the bioavailability of radionuclides in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most models designed to predict the transfer of radionuclides from soil to other components of an ecosystem use the total activity within the soil as the basic input data, without reference to the speciation of the radionuclides. Following the Chernobyl accident, radionuclides were deposited in a variety of physico-chemical forms, including particles, colloids and simple ionic species. Deposited radionuclides will be subject to time dependent transformation processes (e.g. weathering), which may affect the mobility of radionuclides in soil. The chemical speciation and association of radionuclides with soil components will influence their subsequent transfer to other compartments of the ecosystem, e.g. the availability for biological uptake by vegetation. (8 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.)

  3. Automatic input rectification

    OpenAIRE

    Long, Fan; Ganesh, Vijay; Carbin, Michael James; Sidiroglou, Stelios; Rinard, Martin

    2012-01-01

    We present a novel technique, automatic input rectification, and a prototype implementation, SOAP. SOAP learns a set of constraints characterizing typical inputs that an application is highly likely to process correctly. When given an atypical input that does not satisfy these constraints, SOAP automatically rectifies the input (i.e., changes the input so that it satisfies the learned constraints). The goal is to automatically convert potentially dangerous inputs into typical inputs that the ...

  4. Radionuclide Small Intestine Imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Jiri Dolezal; Marcela Kopacova

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this overview article is to present the current possibilities of radionuclide scintigraphic small intestine imaging. Nuclear medicine has a few methods—scintigraphy with red blood cells labelled by means of 99mTc for detection of the source of bleeding in the small intestine, Meckel's diverticulum scintigraphy for detection of the ectopic gastric mucosa, radionuclide somatostatin receptor imaging for carcinoid, and radionuclide inflammation imaging. Video capsule or deep enteroscop...

  5. Marine biogeochemistry of radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radionuclides entering the ocean from runoff, fallout, or deliberate release rapidly become involved in marine biogeochemical cycles. Sources, sinks and transport of radionuclides and analogue elements are discussed with emphasis placed on how these elements interact with marine organisms. Water, food and sediments are the source terms from which marine biota acquire radionuclides. Uptake from water occurs by surface adsorption, absorption across body surfaces, or a combination of both. Radionuclides ingested with food are either assimilated into tissue or excreted. The relative importance of the food and water pathway in uptake varies with the radionuclide and the conditions under which exposure occurs. Evidence suggests that, compared to the water and food pathways, bioavailability of sediment-bound radionuclides is low. Bioaccumulation processes are controlled by many environmental and intrinsic factors including exposure time, physical-chemical form of the radionuclide, salinity, temperature, competitive effects with other elements, organism size, physiology, life cycle and feeding habits. Once accumulated, radionuclides are transported actively by vertical and horizontal movements of organisms and passively by release of biogenic products, e.g., soluble excreta, feces, molts and eggs. Through feeding activities, particles containing radionuclides are ''packaged'' into larger aggregates which are redistributed upon release. Most radionuclides are not irreversibly bound to such particles but are remineralized as they sink and/or decompose. In the pelagic zones, sinking aggregates can further scavenge particle-reactive elements thus removing them from the surface layers and transporting them to depth. Evidence from both radiotracer experiments and in situ sediment trap studies is presented which illustrates the importance of biological scavenging in controlling the distribution of radionuclides in the water column. (author)

  6. Oral intake of radionuclides in the population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dose factors of some radionuclides have been reviewed with respect to a chronic oral intake by members of the public. The radionuclides taken into account are Pu-239, Np-237, Ra-226, Th-230, Pa-231, Tc-99 and I-129, all of which might be of potential hazard at a long term storage disposal. The parameter which has the major influence on the dose factor, for most of the radionuclides studied, is the uptake from the gut. In order to assess the dose factor it is therefore essential to make a good estimate of the gastrointestinal uptake of the radionuclides under the actual conditions. The annual limit of intake (ALI) given in ICRP 30, is intended to be applicable on a population of workers, and for a single intake. Since the gut uptake figures in the ICRP-publication are based mainly on uptake values recieved in experiment animals, given single relatively large oral doses of the isotope studied. From a review of current literature, gut absorbation factors and dose factors, to be used for members of the public at a chronic oral intake, are suggested. Compared with those for workers in ICRP 30, the dose factors increases for plutonium and protactinium, and decreases for neptunium. (Author)

  7. Oral intake of radionuclides in the population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dose factors of some radionuclides have been reviewed with respect to a chronic oral intake by means of the public. The radionuclides taken into account are Pu-239, Np-237, Ra-226, Th-230, Pa-231, Tc-99 and I-129, all of which might be of potential hazard at a long term storage disposal. The parameter that have the major influence on the dose factor, for most of the radionuclides studied, is the uptake from the gut. In order to assess the dose factor it is therefore essential to make a good estimate of the gastrointestinal uptake of the radionuclides under the actual conditions. The 'annual limit of intake' (ALI) given in ICRP 30, is intended to be applicable on a population of workers, and for a single intake. Since the gut uptake in the ICRP-publication are based mainly on uptake values recieved in experimental animals, given single relatively large oral doses of the isotope studied. From a review of current literature, gut absorbtion factors and dose factors, to be used for members of the public at a chronic oral intake, are suggested. Compared with those for workers in ICRP 30, the dose factors increase for plutonium and protactinium, and decrease for neptunium. An attempt to predict possible future changes of the ALI for members of the general public is also made. (Author)

  8. Modifying radionuclide effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The metabolism and effects of radionuclides may be influenced by a number of dietary, physiological, and environmental factors. Some factors are studied which have been identified as potentially important determinants of radionuclide behavior: the reproductive performance of female rats exposed to 239Pu during pregnancy or lactation, and the relative contribution of cross-placental and milk transfer to offspring

  9. Input reallocation within firms

    OpenAIRE

    Vandenbussche, Hylke; Viegelahn, Christian

    2016-01-01

    This paper documents the within firm reallocation of inputs and outputs as a result of a trade policy shock on the input side. A unique firm-input level dataset for India with information on different raw material inputs used in production, enables us to identify firms with imported inputs subject to trade policy. To guide the empirics, we first develop a back-bone model of heterogeneous firms that source inputs from abroad. We find that affected firms engage in input reallocation and lower t...

  10. Radionuclide angiography in unilateral nonfocal renal disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aburano, Tamio; Takayama, Teruhiko; Nakajima, Kenichi; Tada, Akira; Michigishi, Takatoshi; Tonami, Norihisa; Hisada, Kinichi

    1984-12-01

    A total of 90 patients with unilateral nonfocal renal disease (58 patients with obstructive uropathy, 13 patients with renal artery stenosis, 13 patients with chronic pyelonephritis, 3 patients with renal tuberculosis and 3 patients with a- or hypogenesis) were examined with the method of serial dynamic imaging of Tc-99m DTPA including radionuclide angiography. And the diagnostic significance of renal perfusion abnormality on radionuclide angiogram was qualitatively evaluated compared to that of renoparenchymal uptake abnormality on the image from one min. to four min. after intravenous administration of Tc-99m DTPA. In fifty-nine out of 90 patients (65%) with unilateral nonfocal renal disease, both perfusion and parenchymal uptake abnormalities were found at the involved side. In two of 13 patients with renal artery stenosis, however, the unilateral hypoperfusion was only found as the evidence of unilateral disease on radionuclide angiogram although these did not show any parenchymal uptake abnormality. Moreover, four out of 58 patients with obstructive uropathy, did show the slight difference of renal perfusion between the involved and the univolved sides. and did not show any difference of parenchymal uptake between both sides. In the present study, the incidence of perfusion abnormality on radionuclide angiogram was slightly higher than that of parenchymal uptake abnormality on the image from one min. to four min. in unilateral renal disease. Therefore, it is suggested that the radionuclide angiography may be accepted as one of the routine nuclear medicine imagings for the evaluation of functional abnormalities in nonfocal renal disease. (author).

  11. Radionuclide angiography in unilateral nonfocal renal disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A total of 90 patients with unilateral nonfocal renal disease (58 patients with obstructive uropathy, 13 patients with renal artery stenosis, 13 patients with chronic pyelonephritis, 3 patients with renal tuberculosis and 3 patients with a- or hypogenesis) were examined with the method of serial dynamic imaging of Tc-99m DTPA including radionuclide angiography. And the diagnostic significance of renal perfusion abnormality on radionuclide angiogram was qualitatively evaluated compared to that of renoparenchymal uptake abnormality on the image from one min. to four min. after intravenous administration of Tc-99m DTPA. In fifty-nine out of 90 patients (65%) with unilateral nonfocal renal disease, both perfusion and parenchymal uptake abnormalities were found at the involved side. In two of 13 patients with renal artery stenosis, however, the unilateral hypoperfusion was only found as the evidence of unilateral disease on radionuclide angiogram although these did not show any parenchymal uptake abnormality. Moreover, four out of 58 patients with obstructive uropathy, did show the slight difference of renal perfusion between the involved and the univolved sides. and did not show any difference of parenchymal uptake between both sides. In the present study, the incidence of perfusion abnormality on radionuclide angiogram was slightly higher than that of parenchymal uptake abnormality on the image from one min. to four min. in unilateral renal disease. Therefore, it is suggested that the radionuclide angiography may be accepted as one of the routine nuclear medicine imagings for the evaluation of functional abnormalities in nonfocal renal disease. (author)

  12. Overview of radionuclides transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There has been recognition of radioactivity levels and the fate of radionuclides that could have modified the biogeochemical cycles in the ecological environment. These modifications can disturb a variety of the ecosystems on which human life depends. It is essential to understand the pathways of radionuclides that are transported and deposited in the atmosphere and in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems related to their impacts on human life. This paper is mainly focused on the transport in the atmospheric part. Various physical processes that control the transport of radionuclides in the atmosphere are reviewed. The transport processes used in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, as well as underground are briefly described. For the purpose of demonstration, dose calculations due to the exposures of radionuclides, and the numerical model simulations of transport of 210Pb particles and dust aerosols in the atmosphere are presented. Each transport process is complex. More sampling data are needed to refine the transport models for assessing and predicting the fate of radionuclides and their impacts on ecosystems. Long-lived radionuclides are remained in the atmosphere and can be transported in a long distance over wider areas. Although a numerical model can handle complex transport processes, a Gaussian model offers an attraction for ease and quickness of interpretation of exposures to radionuclides during emergency. Radionuclides entering the atmosphere go through the transfer process from air to soil, soil to plants, and plants to animals. The transfer is a long-term process. Therefore, a longer-term study of environmental sampling of radionuclides is required to accurately assess the transport processes and long-term impacts on health and ecosystems. Also, it should get involving in a study of modeling transport of radionuclides over urban area having various heights and sizes of buildings, i.e., skyscrapers with high population, in the case of an event occurring

  13. Radionuclides and ionizing radiation in water management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The proceedings contain 26 papers, all inputted in INIS. The papers deal with radiation monitoring of aquatic systems in the vicinity of NPPs in the Czech Republic and of uranium mines and uranium processing plants, and further with the determination of natural and artificial radionuclides in water. Discussed are also the determination of radon in residential buildings, and procedures for lowering the radon content. (Z.S.)

  14. Process for encapsulating radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radionuclides are immobilized in virtually an insoluble form by reacting at a temperature of at least 900C as an aqueous alkaline mixture having a solution pH of at least 10, containing a source of silicon, the radionuclide waste, and a metal cation. The molar ratio of silicon to the metal cation is on the order of unity to produce a gel from which complex metalosilicates crystallize to entrap the radionuclides within the resultant condensed crystal lattice. The product is a silicious stone-like material which is virtually insoluble and nonleachable in alkaline or neutral environment. One embodiment provides for the formation of the complex metalo-silicates, such as synthetic pollucite, by gel formation with subsequent calcination to the solid product; another embodiment utilizes a hydrothermal process, either above ground or deep within basalt caverns, at greater than atmospheric pressures and a temperature between 90 and 5000C to form complex metalo-silicates, such as strontium aluminosilicate. Another embodiment provides for the formation of complex metalo-silicates, such as synthetic pollucite, by slurrying an alkaline mixture of bentonite or kaolinite with a source of silicon and the radionuclide waste in salt form. In each of the embodiments a mobile system is achieved whereby the metalo-silicate constituents reorient into a condensed crystal lattice forming a cage structure with the condensed metalo-silicate lattice which completely surrounds the radionuclide and traps the radionuclide therein; thus rendering the radionuclide virtually insoluble

  15. Radionuclides in US coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisselle, C. A.; Brown, R. D.

    1984-03-01

    The current state of knowledge with respect to radionuclide concentrations in US coals is discussed. Emphasis is placed on the levels of uranium in coal (and lignite) which are considered to represent a concern resulting from coal combustion; areas of the US where such levels have been found; and possible origins of high radionuclide levels in coal. The report reviews relevant studies and presents new data derived from a computerized search of radionuclide content in about 4000 coal samples collected throughout the coterminous US. 103 references, 5 figures, 5 tables.

  16. TART input manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The TART code is a Monte Carlo neutron/photon transport code that is only on the CRAY computer. All the input cards for the TART code are listed, and definitions for all input parameters are given. The execution and limitations of the code are described, and input for two sample problems are given

  17. TART input manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimlinger, J.R.; Plechaty, E.F.

    1982-04-01

    The TART code is a Monte Carlo neutron/photon transport code that is only on the CRAY computer. All the input cards for the TART code are listed, and definitions for all input parameters are given. The execution and limitations of the code are described, and input for two sample problems are given. (WHK)

  18. Radionuclides in Bentic Algae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bentic micro-algae (mainly consisting of diatoms) were taken from 4 sites in the discharge area of the Forsmark Nuclear Power Station (Sweden) and from 1 site in the cooling water intake channel of the power station. Samples were taken every third week during 1984. The micro-algae were brushed of a 0.1-0.15 m2 area on stones collected from the hydrolittoral zone. Radionuclide concentration was measured as gamma radiation with a Ge-detector. Fission products from the power plant cooling water can easily be detected in the micro-algae. We show that benthic diatom assemblages are good indicators for radionuclides; good correlations were found between radionuclide concentration in the algae and the discharge from the power plant. The best correlations were obtained if the accumulated discharge for the 15 days before sampling was used in the calculations. Of the investigated radionuclides, Co-60 and Zn-65 show significant relationships between concentration in the algae and discharge for 2 site, Ag-110m for 3 sites and Mn-54 for 1 site. No correlations were found for the site in the intake channel. The results show differences which depend on whether calculations were done for total, particulate or dissolved fractions of the radionuclides. There are indications that there is considerable recirculation of the radionuclides within the algal assemblages, and the recirculation from the outlet of the Biotest basin to the intake channel is of about 10%. In this report we also present a budget for the total amount of radionuclides in the Biotest Basin for 1984. The highest amounts of radionuclides in diatoms were found during late winter and early spring, associated with the large diatom blooms at that time of the year in the basin. (authors)

  19. CAP-88, Dose Risk Assessment from Air Emissions of Radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1 - Description of program or function: The Clean Air Act Assessment Package-1988 (CAP-88) is designed for assessment of dose and risk from radionuclide emissions to air in compliance with National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) for Radionuclides. CAP-88 estimates health impacts from the inhalation, ingestion, air immersion and ground surface irradiation pathways, and tabulates results for maximally exposed individuals and regional populations out to 80 kilometers. The system provides risk information in a concise, easy-to-read format and prints an echo of the input. CAP-88 consists of updated versions of the mainframe codes AIRDOS-EPA and DARTAB. Atmospheric dispersion and deposition are calculated by AIRDOS2. Dose and risk assessment tables are calculated by DARTAB2 from the binary output file produced by AIRDOS2 and a file of dose and risk factors calculated by RADRISK. Pre-processors (PREPAR2 and PREDA) for AIRDOS2 and DARTAB2 access data bases of element and nuclide dependent data to simplify the execution of the principal programs. 2 - Method of solution: AIRDOS-EPA implements a long term average Gaussian Plume model. The associated terrestrial model for deposition is based on NRC Regulatory Guide 1.109. The 50-year effective dose equivalent factors for DARTAB2 are calculated by RADRISK and use weighting factors from ICRP-26. Risks are calculated using a linear Life Table model consistent with BEIR-3. The resultant risk factors are 4.0E-4 cancer deaths per rem and 3.6E-4 cancer deaths per person working-level-month exposure to radon decay products. CAP88-PC (CCC-0542/02) is able to use population data and weather data downloaded from mainframe versions of CAP-88. CAP88-PC also comes with sample population arrays from some DOE facilities, and includes weather data from many DOE sites and major U.S. cities. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: Programs are limited to 36 radionuclides and to 20 downwind distances for each

  20. Radionuclide fixation mechanisms in rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the safety evaluation of the radioactive waste disposal in geological environment, the mass balance equation for radionuclide migration is given. The sorption of radionuclides by geological formations is conventionally represented by the retardation of the radionuclides as compared with water movement. In order to quantify the sorption of radionuclides by rocks and sediments, the distribution ratio is used. In order to study quantitatively the long term behavior of waste radionuclides in geological environment, besides the distribution ratio concept in short term, slower radionuclide retention reaction involving mineral transformation should be considered. The development of microspectroscopic method for long term reaction path modeling, the behavior of iron during granite and water interaction, the reduction precipitation of radionuclides, radionuclide migration pathways, and the representative scheme of radionuclide migration and fixation in rocks are discussed. (K.I.)

  1. Bioaccumulation of radionuclides in Lake Druksiai, the cooling basin for the Ignalina nuclear power plant, Lithuania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concentrations of 137Cs, 134Cs, 54Mn and 60Co were determined in bottom sediments as well as in different species of hydrophytes collected in observation stations in Lake Druksiai. Radiogeochemical cartographs of distribution of radionuclide concentrations in hydrophytes growing in the littoral zone of the lake were produced. The sources of radionuclide inputs to the lake were identified. (author)

  2. Input-output supervisor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The input-output supervisor is the program which monitors the flow of informations between core storage and peripheral equipments of a computer. This work is composed of three parts: 1 - Study of a generalized input-output supervisor. With sample modifications it looks like most of input-output supervisors which are running now on computers. 2 - Application of this theory on a magnetic drum. 3 - Hardware requirement for time-sharing. (author)

  3. Radionuclides in house dust

    CERN Document Server

    Fry, F A; Green, N; Hammond, D J

    1985-01-01

    Discharges of radionuclides from the British Nuclear Fuel plc (BNFL) reprocessing plant at Sellafield in Cumbria have led to elevated concentrations radionuclides in the local environment. The major routes of exposure of the public are kept under review by the appropriate Government departments and monitoring is carried out both by the departments and by BNFL itself. Recently, there has been increasing public concern about general environmental contamination resulting from the discharges and, in particular, about possible exposure of members of the public by routes not previously investigated in detail. One such postulated route of exposure that has attracted the interest of the public, the press and Parliament arises from the presence of radionuclides within houses. In view of this obvious and widespread concern, the Board has undertaken a sampling programme in a few communities in Cumbria to assess the radiological significance of this source of exposure. From the results of our study, we conclude that, alt...

  4. Initial Radionuclide Inventories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this analysis is to provide an initial radionuclide inventory (in grams per waste package) and associated uncertainty distributions for use in the Total System Performance Assessment for the License Application (TSPA-LA) in support of the license application for the repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. This document is intended for use in postclosure analysis only. Bounding waste stream information and data were collected that capture probable limits. For commercially generated waste, this analysis considers alternative waste stream projections to bound the characteristics of wastes likely to be encountered using arrival scenarios that potentially impact the commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) waste stream. For TSPA-LA, this radionuclide inventory analysis considers U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) high-level radioactive waste (DHLW) glass and two types of spent nuclear fuel (SNF): CSNF and DOE-owned (DSNF). These wastes are placed in two groups of waste packages: the CSNF waste package and the codisposal waste package (CDSP), which are designated to contain DHLW glass and DSNF, or DHLW glass only. The radionuclide inventory for naval SNF is provided separately in the classified ''Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program Technical Support Document'' for the License Application. As noted previously, the radionuclide inventory data presented here is intended only for TSPA-LA postclosure calculations. It is not applicable to preclosure safety calculations. Safe storage, transportation, and ultimate disposal of these wastes require safety analyses to support the design and licensing of repository equipment and facilities. These analyses will require radionuclide inventories to represent the radioactive source term that must be accommodated during handling, storage and disposition of these wastes. This analysis uses the best available information to identify the radionuclide inventory that is expected at the last year of last emplacement, currently identified as

  5. Orbital radionuclide examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orbital abnormalities can be evaluated by dynamic scintigraphy (radionuclide angiography) and static scintigraphy (radionuclide ''scanning''). The use of en face positioning improves the visualization of orbital details. Lesions can be detected and localized most accurately if multiple tracers are used for these studies. Abnormalities can be characterized by the recognition of various angiographic flow patterns, of distinct static distribution patterns, and of differences in the accumulation of multiple radiopharmaceuticals. The results of scintigraphic examination using technetium 99m sodium pertechnetate, mercury 197 chlormerodrin, and gallium 67 citrate in a series of 57 patients are reported. (U.S.)

  6. Talking Speech Input.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berliss-Vincent, Jane; Whitford, Gigi

    2002-01-01

    This article presents both the factors involved in successful speech input use and the potential barriers that may suggest that other access technologies could be more appropriate for a given individual. Speech input options that are available are reviewed and strategies for optimizing use of speech recognition technology are discussed. (Contains…

  7. SSYST-2 input description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The codes system SSYST-2 is designed to analyse the thermal and mechanical behaviour of a fuel rod during a LOCA. The report contains a short introduction into the SSYST structure, a complete input-list for all modules and several tested input-list for a LOCA-analysis. (orig.)

  8. SSYST-3. Input description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The code system SSYST-3 is designed to analyse the thermal and mechanical behaviour of a fuel rod during a LOCA. The report contains a complete input-list for all modules and several tested inputs for a LOCA analysis. (orig.)

  9. Chronic pancreatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronic pancreatitis - chronic; Pancreatitis - chronic - discharge; Pancreatic insufficiency - chronic; Acute pancreatitis - chronic ... abuse over many years. Repeated episodes of acute pancreatitis can lead to chronic pancreatitis. Genetics may be ...

  10. Radionuclide transfer in Alpine ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although alpine ecosystems are only of limited extent in Europe and the world, they serve as an important socio-economic basis for food production and tourism for the local population. The specific climate conditions and agricultural practice do have influence on radionuclide transfer in Alpine regions. The paper describes basic processes governing radionuclide behaviour in Alpine ecosystems and gives parameters for vertical migration of radionuclide in soil, for soil-plant transfer as well as transfer of radionuclide to cow milk. (author)

  11. Radionuclides in house dust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Discharges of radionuclides from the British Nuclear Fuel plc (BNFL) reprocessing plant at Sellafield in Cumbria have led to elevated concentrations radionuclides in the local environment. The major routes of exposure of the public are kept under review by the appropriate authorising Government departments and monitoring is carried out both by the departments and by BNFL itself. Recently, there has been increasing public concern about general environmental contamination resulting from the discharges and, in particular, about possible exposure of members of the public by routes not previously investigated in detail. One such postulated route of exposure that has attracted the interest of the public, the press and Parliament arises from the presence of radionuclides within houses. In view of this obvious and widespread concern, the Board has undertaken a sampling programme in a few communities in Cumbria to assess the radiological significance of this source of exposure. From the results of our study, we conclude that, although radionuclides originating rom the BNFL site can be detected in house dust, this source of contamination is a negligible route of exposure for members of the public in West Cumbria. This report presents the results of the Board's study of house dust in twenty homes in Cumbria during the spring and summer of 1984. A more intensive investigation is being carried out by Imperial College. (author)

  12. ColloInputGenerator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    it as input for basic collexeme collostructional analysis (Stefanowitsch & Gries 2003) in Gries' (2007) program. ColloInputGenerator is, in its current state, based on programming commands introduced in Gries (2009). Projected updates: Generation of complete work-ready frequency lists.......This is a very simple program to help you put together input files for use in Gries' (2007) R-based collostruction analysis program. It basically puts together a text file with a frequency list of lexemes in the construction and inserts a column where you can add the corpus frequencies. It requires...

  13. Format( )MEDIC( )Input

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, K.

    1994-09-01

    This document is a description of a computer program called Format( )MEDIC( )Input. The purpose of this program is to allow the user to quickly reformat wind velocity data in the Model Evaluation Database (MEDb) into a reasonable 'first cut' set of MEDIC input files (MEDIC.nml, StnLoc.Met, and Observ.Met). The user is cautioned that these resulting input files must be reviewed for correctness and completeness. This program will not format MEDb data into a Problem Station Library or Problem Metdata File. A description of how the program reformats the data is provided, along with a description of the required and optional user input and a description of the resulting output files. A description of the MEDb is not provided here but can be found in the RAS Division Model Evaluation Database Description document.

  14. Input chains and industrialization

    OpenAIRE

    Ciccone, Antonio

    2000-01-01

    A key aspect of industrialization is the adoption of increasing-returns-to-scale, industrial, technologies. Two other, well-documented aspects are that industrial technologies are adopted throughout intermediate-input chains and that they use intermediate inputs intensively relative to the technologies they replace. These features of industrial technologies combined imply that countries with access to similar technologies may have very different levels of industrial...

  15. (Indirect) Input Linkages

    OpenAIRE

    Marcela Eslava; Ana Cecília Fieler; Daniel Yi Xu

    2015-01-01

    Relative to backward firms, technologically-advanced firms source inputs from other advanced firms. These sourcing patterns lead to a magnification effect of technology adoption. A firm that adopts higher-technology increases the relative supply and demand for higher-technology inputs. As a result, it positively influences the technology of other firms in its production chain. Using data from a Colombian manufacturing survey, we provide evidence that advanced firms disproportionately value ad...

  16. Principles of radionuclide studies of the genitourinary system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The clinical assessment of renal diseases with radionuclide procedures is discussed. It has achieved general recognition only during the last decade. The proper assessment of renal function with radionuclides provides useful information for the management of patients with renal disease and renal transplant recipients. Renal imaging with radionuclides gives some information on morphology and the integrity of the urinary collecting system, but more importantly it provides functional information that may include renal blood flow or effective renal plasma flow (ERPF), glomerular filtration rate (GFR), the quantitation of differential renal function, the evaluation of vesicoureteral reflux, the quantitation of postvoiding residual urine volume, and the differential diagnosis of testicular disease. Acute renal failure resulting from acute tubular necrosis, hepatorenal syndrome, acute interstitial nephirits, cortical necrosis, renal artery embolism, or acute pyelonephritis may be recognized by radionuclide studies. Data useful in the diagnosis and management of the patient with obstructive or reflux nephropathy also may be obtained. Radionuclide studies in patients with chronic renal failure may reveal such causes as renal artery stenosis, chronic pyelonephritis, or infiltrative renal disease. Finally, nuclear study in transplant recipients is useful to help differentiate rejection from acute tubular necrosis and other causes of reduced renal function

  17. Radionuclides in food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sources of the presence of radionuclides in food are presented: natural radiation and artificial radiation. The transfer of radionuclides through food chains, intakes of radionuclides to the body with its partners effective doses and typical consumption of basic foods of a rural adult population are exposed as main topics. Also the radiation doses from natural sources and exposure to man by ingestion of contaminated food with radionuclides of artificial origin are shown. The contribution of the food ingestion to the man exposure depends on: characteristics of radionuclide, natural conditions, farming practices and eating habits of the population. The principal international organizations in charge of setting guide levels for radionuclides in food are mentioned: standards, rules and the monitoring. It establishes that a guide is necessary for the food monitoring; the alone CODEX ALIMENTARIUS is applicable to emergency situations and the generic action levels proposed by the CODEX not satisfy all needs (no guiding international levels for planned or existing situations such as NORM). There are handled mainly socio-economic and political aspects. Among the actions to be taken are: to assure a public comprehensive information over the risk evaluation in food; to reinforce the collaboration among the different international organizations (WHO, IAEA, ICRP, EC) in relation with the food of set; to give follow-up to the control of the drinkable water and NORM's presence in the food. In addition, it is possible to create the necessary mechanisms to reduce the number of irrelevant measures and bureaucratic useless steps (certificates); to promote the exchange between the different institutions involved in the topic of the food, with relation to the acquired experiences and learned lessons. Likewise, it might examine the possibility of a multidisciplinary approximation (radioactive and not radioactive pollutants); to elaborate a technical guide to assure the

  18. Radionuclide diagnosis of nephrolithiasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radionuclide investigations were conducted in 322 patients with nephrolithiasis. Unilateral calculosis was established in 46.3% of the patients, bilateral calculosis in 50.6%. The nature of changes on renograms, scintigrams and in clearance values shown to depend on the localization of concrements, their size and the presence of concomitant infection. A conclusion has been made as to the usefulness of the methods with relation to operative treatment, especially in a bilateral localization of a pathological renal process

  19. Radionuclide fate and effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The studies reported here deal with the full range of contaminant behavior and fate, from the initial physicochemical factors that govern radionuclide availability in terrestrial and aquatic environments to studies of contaminant transport by biological means. By design, we focus more on the biologically and chemically mediated transport processes and food-chain pathways than on the purely physical forms of contaminant transport, such as transport by wind and water

  20. Soil contamination by radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The soil is the first link in the food chain. Soil contamination by individual radionuclides significantly affects the level of terrestrial radiation in the locality. The authors mapped situation of post-Chernobyl 137Cs soil contamination in Slovakia and European countries. Samples were collected in three layers of agriculturally cultivated area. Even a few years after the Chernobyl accident authors can say that elevated 137Cs values were recorded in the samples from Austria and Germany, in all layers of collection. (authors)

  1. Radionuclide co-precipitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The thermodynamic and kinetic behaviour of the minor components of the spent fuel matrix has been theoretically and experimentally investigated. Two different situations have been studied: Part I, the near field scenario, where the release and migration of the minor components is dependent on the solubility behaviour of UO2(s); Part II, the far field, where the solubility and transport of the radionuclides is related to the major geochemical processes occurring. (orig.)

  2. Radionuclides in thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The three main areas of application of radionuclides in thyroid disease will be reviewed. Firstly thyroid radionuclide imaging in thyroid swellings, in relationship to lumps in the neck and ectopic thyroid tissue such as retrosternal goitre, and lingual goitre will be described. Future developments in the field including tomographic scanning, using the coded aperture method, and fluorescent scans and ultrasound are reviewed. The second area of application is the assessment and evaluation of thyroid function and the therapy of Grave's Disease and Plummer's Disease using radioiodine. The importance of careful collection of the line of treatment, results of treatment locally and the follow-up of patients after radioiodine therapy will be described. The third area of application is in the diagnosis and therapy of thyroid cancer. Investigation of thyroid swelling, and the diagnosis of functioning metastases are reported. The therapeutic iodine scan as the sole evidence of functioning metastatic involvement is recorded. Histological thyroid cancer appears to be increasingly encountered in clinical practice and the plan of management in relation to choice of cases for therapeutic scanning is discussed with case reports. Lastly the role of whole body scanning in relationship to biochemical markers is compared. In the changing field of nuclear medicine radionuclide applications in thyroid disease have remained pre-eminent and this is an attempt to reassess its role in the light of newer developments and local experience in the Institute of Radiotherapy, Oncology and Nuclear Medicine. (author)

  3. Radionuclides in terrestrial ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A bibliographical database has been developed to provide quick access to research and background literature in the field of radioecology. This is a development of an earlier database described by Nelson (Bocock 1981). ITE's particular fields of interest have led to a subject bias in the bibliography towards studies in Cumbria, especially those concerned with radionuclides originating from the reprocessing plant at Sellafield, and towards ecological research studies that are complementary to radionuclide studies. Other subjects covered, include the chemistry of radionuclides, budgets and transfers within ecosystems and techniques for the analysis of environmental samples. ITE's research objectives have led to the establishment of a specialized database which is intended to complement rather than compete with the large international databases made available by suppliers such as IRS-DIALTECH or DIALOG. Currently the database holds about 1900 references which are stored on a 2 1/2 megabyte hard disk on a Digital PDP11/34 computer operating under a time shared system. The references follow a standard format. (author)

  4. Chronic Diarrhea

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... infections that cause chronic diarrhea be prevented? Chronic Diarrhea What is chronic diarrhea? Diarrhea that lasts for more than 2-4 ... represent a life-threatening illness. What causes chronic diarrhea? Chronic diarrhea has many different causes; these causes ...

  5. Unit 07 - Data Input

    OpenAIRE

    Unit 07, CC in GIS; Star, Jeffrey L.

    1990-01-01

    This unit examines the common methods of data input. It describes the hardware and methods used for digitizing and scanning spatial information from maps and photographs, and it discusses conversion of data between digital formats and associated issues of projection, scale and resolution.

  6. Sherlock Holmes for radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the end of 2001 ARC Seibersdorf research has taken the management of the first worldwide certified laboratory to control the realization of the international Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). Altogether there will be 16 CTBT certified laboratories worldwide; therefore a global network of radionuclides measurements stations and test laboratories as well as seismic, radiation and hydroacustic measurements stations is necessary . In the future air samples will be taken from these stations and analyzed in one of these certified laboratories, when appears the suspicion that an atomic test was carried out. (nevyjel)

  7. Absorption of selected radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In October 1978, the Institut fuer Energie- und Umweltforschung Heidelberg e.V. published a contribution to part 26 of the model study of radio-ecology at Biblis under the title 'Estimation of the absorption of radionuclides from the gastrointestinal tract in the blood'. Using the example of this contribution, a critical analysis is made to show how a selection of the information contained in various scientific publications and other items of literature can give uncritical readers the impression that all statements made are scientifically well founded. (orig./HP)

  8. Modifying radionuclide effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This project involves a study of the relationship of physiological and environmental factors to the metabolism and effects of radionuclides. We have studied placental transfer and suckling as pathways of americium entry into the newborn or juvenile rat. Rats were injected intravenously with 5 μCi of 241Am while nulliparous (30 days prior to mating), pregnant (day 19 of gestation), or lactating (1 day after parturition), and subsequent litters were killed to determine 241Am retention. A deficit in reproductive performance was observed in the group injected before mating, as evidenced by reduced number and weight of offspring

  9. Fungi contaminated by radionuclides. Critical review of approaches to modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    parameters are difficult to measure and only limited information is available for modelers. In the absence of a database on dynamic parameters for radionuclide uptake, transfer factors, explicitly referring to the specific soil horizons exploited by fungal mycelia, provide a significant reduction of uncertainty and can be used successfully as input parameters for dynamic radioecological models as well as human health and risk assessment. Future experimental studies should be directed towards a better understanding and measurements of the dynamic uptake of radionuclides by fungi. (author)

  10. Waste Stream Input Model

    OpenAIRE

    ALS-NSCORT,

    2004-01-01

    5 worksheets Provider Notes:This model calculates the exact quantities of fecal matter, inedible biomass, food, and water needed to make Solid Thermophilic Aerobic Reactor (STAR)'s input feedstock. It also calculates HRT. The model is based off the desired solids content, scale, volume, diet, and other assumptions. Previous versions are also included in this page. Related Documents:WS152, WWAS17a, WWAS17b

  11. Radionuclide Therapy. Chapter 19

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cancer has been treated with radiopharmaceuticals since the 1940s. The radionuclides originally used, including 131I and 32P, are still in use. The role of the physicist in radionuclide therapy encompasses radiation protection, imaging and dosimetry. Radiation protection is of particular importance given the high activities of the unsealed sources that are often administered, and must take into account medical staff, comforters and carers, and, as patients are discharged while still retaining activity, members of the public. Regulations concerning acceptable levels of exposure vary from country to country. If the administered radiopharmaceutical is a γ emitter, then imaging can be performed which may be either qualitative or quantitative. While a regular system of quality control must be in place to prevent misinterpretation of image data, qualitative imaging does not usually rely on the image corrections necessary to determine the absolute levels of activity that are localized in the patient. Accurate quantitative imaging is dependent on these corrections and can permit the distribution of absorbed doses delivered to the patient to be determined with sufficient accuracy to be clinically beneficial

  12. Input of transuranic elements through rivers into the Mediterranean Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurements of 137Cs, 238Pu, sup(239+240)Pu and 241Am were carried out on river water as well as its suspended matter collected seasonally in 1977 from two Mediterranean rivers, the Var and the Rhone. The results show that although the concentrations of the soluble fractions of these radionuclides are higher in the Rhone than in the Var, even the elevated concentrations of soluble 137Cs (approximately 40 fCi.ltr-1) and sup(239+240)Pu (approximately 0.1 fCi.ltr-1) in the Rhone are much lower than the average concentrations of these nuclides in Mediterranean surface waters. On the other hand, the concentrations of the nuclides measured in suspended matter are roughly an order of magnitude higher in the Rhone than in the Var. Based on the results of measurements on the two rivers, and assuming that the annual average concentrations of the radionuclides in the Var and the Rhone respectively represent those in radiologically uncontaminated and contaminated Mediterranean rivers, the total inputs of 137Cs, 238Pu, sup(239+240)Pu and 241Am through rivers into the Mediterranean Sea have been estimated. Comparison of these estimated values with the inputs of fallout radionuclides by rain indicates that although local accumulation of transuranic nuclides may be observed on sediments taken from some limited estuarine areas, the geochemical behaviour of transuranic elements in the Mediterranean, as a whole, is exclusively governed today by the fallout input of these elements. (author)

  13. EOS7R: Radionuclide transport for TOUGH2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EOS7R provides radionuclide transport capability for TOUGH2. EOS7R extends the EOS7 module (water, brine, and optional air) to model water, brine, parent component, daughter component, and optional air and heat. The radionuclide components follow a first-order decay law, and may adsorb onto the solid grains. Volatilization of the decaying components is modeled by Henry's Law. The decaying components are normally referred to as radionuclides, but they may in fact by any trace components that decay, adsorb, and volatilize. The decay process need not be radioactive decay, but could be any process that follows a first-order decay law, such as biodegradation. EOS7R includes molecular diffusion for all components in gaseous and aqueous phases using a simplified binary diffusion model. When EOS7R is used with standard TOUGH2, transport occurs by advection and molecular diffusion in all phases. When EOS7R is coupled with the dispersion module T2DM, one obtains T2DMR, the radionuclide transport version of T2DM. T2DMR models advection, diffusion, and hydrodynamic dispersion in rectangular two-dimensional regions. Modeling of radionuclide transport requires input parameters specifying the half-life for first-order decay, distribution coefficients for each rock type for adsorption, and inverse Henry's constants for volatilization. Options can be specified in the input file to model decay in inactive grid blocks and to read from standard EOS7 INCON files. The authors present a number of example problems to demonstrate application and accuracy of TOUGH2/EOS7R. One-dimensional simulation results agree well with analytical solutions. For a two-dimensional salt-dome flow problem, the final distribution of daughter radionuclide component is complicated by the presence of weak recirculation caused by density effects due to salinity

  14. Radionuclide imaging in morbid obesity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeRogatis, A.J.

    1987-06-01

    Radionuclide studies of the upper gastrointestinal tract have been useful in many gastrointestinal disorders. However, the literature relating to radionuclide techniques in morbid obesity is limited and, at times, controversial. It is hoped that this brief review will stimulate interest in the use of tracer techniques in this complex disorder. 23 references.

  15. Radionuclide imaging in morbid obesity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radionuclide studies of the upper gastrointestinal tract have been useful in many gastrointestinal disorders. However, the literature relating to radionuclide techniques in morbid obesity is limited and, at times, controversial. It is hoped that this brief review will stimulate interest in the use of tracer techniques in this complex disorder. 23 references

  16. Radionuclide - Soil Organic Matter Interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Lars

    1985-01-01

    Interactions between soil organic matter, i.e. humic and fulvic acids, and radionuclides of primary interest to shallow land burial of low activity solid waste have been reviewed and to some extent studied experimentally. The radionuclides considered in the present study comprise cesium, strontium...

  17. Standardized input for Hanford environmental impact statements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Models and computer programs for simulating the environmental behavior of radionuclides in the environment and the resulting radiation dose to humans have been developed over the years by the Environmental Analysis Section staff, Ecological Sciences Department at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). Methodologies have evolved for calculating raidation doses from many exposure pathways for any type of release mechanism. Depending on the situation or process being simulated, different sets of computer programs, assumptions, and modeling techniques must be used. This report is a compilation of recommended computer programs and necessary input information for use in calculating doses to members of the general public for environmental impact statements prepared for DOE activities to be conducted on or near the Hanford Reservation

  18. Baltic Sea: Radionuclides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sven Poul; Lüning, Maria; Ilus, Erkki;

    2011-01-01

    The most significant source of anthropogenic radioactivity in the Baltic Sea is fallout from the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in 1986. The second most important source is global fallout from atmospheric nuclear weapons tests carried out during the late 1950s and early 1960s....... Radioactivity inputs into the Baltic Sea from nuclear reprocessing plants in Western Europe have become of minor importance due to significant reduction of discharges in recent years. In terms of input of 137Cs into the Baltic Sea, Chernobyl fallout has contributed about 82% and nuclear weapons test fallout...... about 14%. For 90Sr in the Baltic Sea, input from atmospheric fallout from nuclear weapons tests has contributed about 81%, while the contribution from Chernobyl fallout was about 13%. Cesium-137 is the main indicator of Baltic seawater with respect to anthropogenic radioactivity. The highest...

  19. Modeling of radionuclide migration through porous material with meshless method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To assess the long term safety of a radioactive waste disposal system, mathematical models are used to describe groundwater flow, chemistry and potential radionuclide migration through geological formations. A number of processes need to be considered when predicting the movement of radionuclides through the geosphere. The most important input data are obtained from field measurements, which are not completely available for all regions of interest. For example, the hydraulic conductivity as an input parameter varies from place to place. In such cases geostatistical science offers a variety of spatial estimation procedures. Methods for solving the solute transport equation can also be classified as Eulerian, Lagrangian and mixed. The numerical solution of partial differential equations (PDE) is usually obtained by finite difference methods (FDM), finite element methods (FEM), or finite volume methods (FVM). Kansa introduced the concept of solving partial differential equations using radial basis functions (RBF) for hyperbolic, parabolic and elliptic PDEs. Our goal was to present a relatively new approach to the modelling of radionuclide migration through the geosphere using radial basis function methods in Eulerian and Lagrangian coordinates. Radionuclide concentrations will also be calculated in heterogeneous and partly heterogeneous 2D porous media. We compared the meshless method with the traditional finite difference scheme. (author)

  20. Reactor-Produced Medical Radionuclides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzadeh, S.; Mausner, L. F.; Garland, M. A.

    The therapeutic use of radionuclides in nuclear medicine, oncology, and cardiology is the most rapidly growing use of medical radionuclides. Since most therapeutic radionuclides are neutron rich and decay by β- emission, they are reactor-produced. This chapter deals mainly with production approaches with neutrons. Neutron interactions with matter, neutron transmission and activation rates, and neutron spectra of nuclear reactors are discussed in some detail. Further, a short discussion of the neutron-energy dependence of cross sections, reaction rates in thermal reactors, cross section measurements and flux monitoring, and general equations governing the reactor production of radionuclides are presented. Finally, the chapter is concluded by providing a number of examples encompassing the various possible reaction routes for the production of a number of medical radionuclides in a reactor.

  1. Medical-radionuclide production methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A reliable supply of radionuclides is critical for many areas of nuclear medicine. The recent shortages have highlighted the need for additional sources of medical radionuclides, especially molybdenum-99. The Workshop brought together specialists with knowledge in various methods of producing radionuclides for nuclear medicine to share their perspectives. Its outcome was the provision of sound technical information on the various alternatives. The Workshop comprised expert presentations on the different methods available for producing medical radionuclides, and featured speakers from ACSION Industries, AECL, McMaster University, MDS Nordion, TRIUMF, Canadian Society of Nuclear Medicine and others. There was extensive opportunities for discussions and exchange of ideas. This Workshop was of interest to persons with general knowledge of radioactivity, nuclear reactors, accelerators and related technologies who wish to become more knowledgeable about the available methods of producing medical radionuclides.

  2. Exposure to radionuclides in smoke from vegetation fires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naturally occurring radionuclides of uranium, thorium, radium, lead and polonium were determined in bushes and trees and in the smoke from summer forest fires. Activity concentrations of radionuclides in smoke particles were much enriched when compared to original vegetation. Polonium-210 (210Po) in smoke was measured in concentrations much higher than all other radionuclides, reaching 7255 ± 285 Bq kg−1, mostly associated with the smaller size smoke particles (210Po in surface air near forest fires displayed volume concentrations up to 70 mBq m−3, while in smoke-free air 210Po concentration was about 30 μBq m−3. The estimated absorbed radiation dose to an adult member of the public or a firefighter exposed for 24 h to inhalation of smoke near forest fires could exceed 5 μSv per day, i.e, more than 2000 times above the radiation dose from background radioactivity in surface air, and also higher than the radiation dose from 210Po inhalation in a chronic cigarette smoker. It is concluded that prolonged exposure to smoke allows for enhanced inhalation of radionuclides associated with smoke particles. Due to high radiotoxicity of alpha emitting radionuclides, and in particular of 210Po, the protection of respiratory tract of fire fighters is strongly recommended. - Highlights: • Natural radionuclides in vegetation are in low concentrations. • Forest fires release natural radionuclides from vegetation and concentrate them in inhalable ash particles. • Prolonged inhalation of smoke from forest fires gives rise enhanced radiation exposure of lungs especially due to polonium. • Respiratory protection of fire fighters and members of public is highly recommended for radioprotection reasons

  3. Exposure to radionuclides in smoke from vegetation fires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Fernando P., E-mail: carvalho@itn.pt; Oliveira, João M.; Malta, Margarida

    2014-02-01

    Naturally occurring radionuclides of uranium, thorium, radium, lead and polonium were determined in bushes and trees and in the smoke from summer forest fires. Activity concentrations of radionuclides in smoke particles were much enriched when compared to original vegetation. Polonium-210 ({sup 210}Po) in smoke was measured in concentrations much higher than all other radionuclides, reaching 7255 ± 285 Bq kg{sup −1}, mostly associated with the smaller size smoke particles (< 1.0 μm). Depending on smoke particle concentration, {sup 210}Po in surface air near forest fires displayed volume concentrations up to 70 mBq m{sup −3}, while in smoke-free air {sup 210}Po concentration was about 30 μBq m{sup −3}. The estimated absorbed radiation dose to an adult member of the public or a firefighter exposed for 24 h to inhalation of smoke near forest fires could exceed 5 μSv per day, i.e, more than 2000 times above the radiation dose from background radioactivity in surface air, and also higher than the radiation dose from {sup 210}Po inhalation in a chronic cigarette smoker. It is concluded that prolonged exposure to smoke allows for enhanced inhalation of radionuclides associated with smoke particles. Due to high radiotoxicity of alpha emitting radionuclides, and in particular of {sup 210}Po, the protection of respiratory tract of fire fighters is strongly recommended. - Highlights: • Natural radionuclides in vegetation are in low concentrations. • Forest fires release natural radionuclides from vegetation and concentrate them in inhalable ash particles. • Prolonged inhalation of smoke from forest fires gives rise enhanced radiation exposure of lungs especially due to polonium. • Respiratory protection of fire fighters and members of public is highly recommended for radioprotection reasons.

  4. Models for transport and fate of carbon, nutrients and radionuclides in the aquatic ecosystem at Oeregrundsgrepen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the work was to provide supplementary input to the risk assessment of a planned final nuclear waste repository at Forsmark. The main deliverable was a computed water exchange between basins in the Forsmark marine area for the period 6500 BC to 9000 AD - based on the hydrodynamic modelling - to be used as input to the landscape dose model. In addition and what is described in this report, a second deliverable was development and application of high-resolution models for the marine ecosystem and radionuclide processes. The purpose of this deliverable was to illustrate the spatial and temporal variation in important processes and parameters, while constituting a complement to previous modelling approaches and providing supporting information to discussions of the marine ecosystem, parameters and variation (see Chapter 4 and 6).To this end, a hydrodynamic model of high temporal and spatial resolution was constructed and calibrated for the Forsmark area. An ecosystem model was then developed and coupled to the hydrodynamic model. In turn, a detailed radionuclide model was coupled to the ecosystem model to provide detailed predictions of radionuclide transport and accumulation in the coastal ecosystem. The ecosystem and radionuclide models were developed in the equation solver MIKE ECOLab that links seamless to the MIKE3 FM hydrodynamic model. The 'standard' ECOLab ecosystem model was extended with six biological state variables, perennial macroalgae, benthic herbivors, detritus feeders, planktivorus fish and, benthic predators representing the relict isopod Saduria and cod. In contrast to the ecosystem model, the radionuclide model was developed from scratch but building on the structure of the ecosystem model and using the output (process rates linking state variables) from the ecosystem model as input to the radionuclide model. Both the ecosystem model and the radionuclide model were run for several years (5-8 years) to bring state variables into quasi

  5. A model for radionuclide transport in the Cooling Water System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A radionuclide transport model developed to assess radiological levels in the K-reactor Cooling Water System (CWS) in the event of an inadvertent process water (PW) leakage to the cooling water (CW) in the heat exchangers (HX) is described. During and following a process water leak, the radionuclide transport model determines the time-dependent release rates of radionuclide from the cooling water system to the environment via evaporation to the atmosphere and blow-down to the Savannah River. The developed model allows for delay times associated with the transport of the cooling water radioactivity through cooling water system components. Additionally, this model simulates the time-dependent behavior of radionuclides levels in various CWS components. The developed model is incorporated into the K-reactor Cooling Tower Activity (KCTA) code. KCTA allows the accident (heat exchanger leak rate) and the cooling tower blow-down and evaporation rates to be described as time-dependent functions. Thus, the postulated leak and the consequence of the assumed leak can be modelled realistically. This model is the first of three models to be ultimately assembled to form a comprehensive Liquid Pathway Activity System (LPAS). LPAS will offer integrated formation, transport, deposition, and release estimates for radionuclides formed in a SRS facility. Process water and river water modules are forthcoming as input and downstream components, respectively, for KCTA

  6. Comprehensible input and learning outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Salazar Campillo, Patricia

    1996-01-01

    Segones Jornades de Foment de la Investigació de la FCHS (Any 1996-1997) In Krashen’s terms, optimal input has to be comprehensible to the learner if we want acquisition to take place. An overview of the literature on input indicates two ways of making input comprehensible: the first one is to premodify input before it is offered to the learner, (premodified input), and the second one is to negotiate the input through interaction (interactionally modified input). The aim of the...

  7. Hypermnesia using auditory input.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, J

    1992-07-01

    The author investigated whether hypermnesia would occur with auditory input. In addition, the author examined the effects of subjects' knowledge that they would later be asked to recall the stimuli. Two groups of 26 subjects each were given three successive recall trials after they listened to an audiotape of 59 high-imagery nouns. The subjects in the uninformed group were not told that they would later be asked to remember the words; those in the informed group were. Hypermnesia was evident, but only in the uninformed group. PMID:1447564

  8. Radionuclide transverse section imager

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A radioisotope scanning apparatus for use in nuclear medicine is described in detail. The apparatus enables the quantification and spatial location of the radioactivity in a body section of a patient to be determined with high sensitivity. It consists of an array of highly focussed collimators arranged such that adjacent collimators move in the same circumferential but opposite radial directions. The explicit movements of the gantry are described in detail and may be controlled by a general purpose computer. The use of highly focussed collimators allows both a reasonable solid angle of acceptance and also high target to background images; additionally, dual radionuclide pharmaceutical studies can be performed simultaneously. It is claimed that the high sensitivity of the system permits the early diagnosis of pathological changes and the images obtained show accurately the location and shape of physiological abnormalities. (UK)

  9. Radioactivity, radionuclides, radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Magill, Joseph

    2005-01-01

    RADIOACTIVITY – RADIONUCLIDES – RADIATION is suitable for a general audience interested in topical environmental and human health radiological issues such as radiation exposure in aircraft, food sterilisation, nuclear medicine, radon gas, radiation dispersion devices ("dirty bombs")… It leads the interested reader through the three Rs of nuclear science, to the forefront of research and developments in the field. The book is also suitable for students and professionals in the related disciplines of nuclear and radiochemistry, health physics, environmental sciences, nuclear and astrophysics. Recent developments in the areas of exotic decay modes (bound beta decay of ‘bare’ or fully ionized nuclei), laser transmutation, nuclear forensics, radiation hormesis and the LNT hypothesis are covered. Atomic mass data for over 3000 nuclides from the most recent (2003) evaluation are included.

  10. Production of cyclotron radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chun, Kwon Soo; Lim, Sang Moo; Yang, Seung Dae; Suh, Yong Sup; Ahn, Soon Hyuk; Yun, Yong Kee; Park, Hyun; Lee, Ji Sup; Chai, Jong Seo; Kim, Yoo Seok; Hong, Sung Suk; Lee, Min Yong; Beak, Seung Ki; Kim, Jang Hye; Kim, Gi Sup [Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Seoul (Korea)

    2000-12-01

    In the project, 12,077mCi of {sup 201}Tl, 5,717mCi of {sup 67}Ga, 2,096mCi of {sup 123}l, 482mCi of [{sup 123}I]mlBG and 2,738mCi of {sup 18}FDG were supplied, and the revenue were 387,253,000won. In the production of RI, 13 deg for {sup 201}Tl and {sup 67}Ga, 45 deg for {sup 123}l angle solid target have been used, and liquid target system has been used for {sup 18}F production. For the efficient use of the cyclotron, the MC-50 cyclotron was opened to outside user and basic research project was carried out. The technical supports and radionuclides analysis were done during the execution of the research. Then the facilities of safety supervision and handling techniques of radioisotope production were improved. 7 refs., 8 figs., 9 tabs. (Author)

  11. Production of cyclotron radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suh, Yong Sup; Lim, Sang Moo; Yang, Seung Dae; Chun, Kwon Soo; Ahn, Soon Hyuk; Yun, Yong Kee; Park, Hyun; Lee, Ji Sup; Lee, Jong Doo; Chai, Jong Seo; Kim, Yoo Seok; Hong, Sung Suk; Lee, Min Yong; Beak, Seung Ki [Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Seoul (Korea)

    1999-12-01

    In the project, 11,492mCi of {sup 201}Tl, 4,384mCi of {sup 67}Ga, 1,245mCi of {sup 123}l, 523mCi of [{sup 123}I]mlBG and 1,283mCi of {sup 18}FDG were supplied, and the revenue were 304,723,000won. In the production of RI, 13 deg for {sup 201}Tl and {sup 67}Ga, 45 deg for {sup 123}l angle solid target have been used, and liquid target system has been used for {sup 18}F production. For the efficient use of the cyclotron, the MC-50 cyclotron was opened to outside user and basic research project was carried out. The technical supports and radionuclides analysis were done during the execution of the research. Then the facilities of safety supervision and handling techniques of radioisotope production were improved. 7 refs., 9 figs., 8 tabs. (Author)

  12. Radionuclide fate and effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of these studies is to develop a basic understanding of radionuclide chemical behavior in soil systems and determine biological availability and transport through ecological pathways defining basic mechanisms at the chemical, cellular, and organism level, enables the incorporation of information into predictive models, which are subsequently validated in the field at reactor and waste management sites. Through investigations of critical geochemical, microbial, and plant phenomena, the precision with which human dose assessments are made is improved. The biologically and chemically mediated transport processes and food-chain pathways are studied rather than the purely physical forms of contaminant transport, such as transport by wind and water. Results can also be used to predict the behavior of non-nuclear pollutants such as heavy metals, and to provide a basis for new designs and remedial measures (chemical treatments, biobarriers) that will minimize hazards associated with extended waste disposal and isolation

  13. Diagnostic applications of radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radionuclides are now used routinely in two different types of medical diagnostic tests: in vivo measurements of the distribution of radioactivity in the body, and in vitro assays. Information gained from these procedures is expected to improve the physician's understanding of this patient's well-being by providing an objective evaluation of important physiologic functions. This information may be used to establish a correct diagnosis, determine the extent or severity of the patient's illness, or to evaluate a patient's response to therapy. Diagnostic tests thus increase the speed and accuracy of patient care decisions. As a result, treatment is more objective, recovery is more rapid, and the duration of patient suffering is reduced. These benefits may significantly reduce the overall costs of medical care. The numbers of test performed and the amount of radioactivity employed has increased dramatically. This growth has been facilitated by the development of new radiation detection instruments that are especially designed for clinical applications, and by the increased commercial availability of labeled materials that can be used for diagnostic tests. In addition, the use of isotopes in human subjects is limited by a variety of special problems. Some of these problems are rather technical, relating only to the development of method for storage and preparation of labeled materials in a form suitable for human use. Other more critical problems include the limited selection of radionuclides available for use in the investigation of human metabolism, the inefficiency of instruments used to detect radioactivity, and the growing concern for the potential hazards associated with the use of all forms of ionizing radiation

  14. FLUTAN input specifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    FLUTAN is a highly vectorized computer code for 3-D fluiddynamic and thermal-hydraulic analyses in cartesian and cylinder coordinates. It is related to the family of COMMIX codes originally developed at Argonne National Laboratory, USA. To a large extent, FLUTAN relies on basic concepts and structures imported from COMMIX-1B and COMMIX-2 which were made available to KfK in the frame of cooperation contracts in the fast reactor safety field. While on the one hand not all features of the original COMMIX versions have been implemented in FLUTAN, the code on the other hand includes some essential innovative options like CRESOR solution algorithm, general 3-dimensional rebalacing scheme for solving the pressure equation, and LECUSSO-QUICK-FRAM techniques suitable for reducing 'numerical diffusion' in both the enthalphy and momentum equations. This report provides users with detailed input instructions, presents formulations of the various model options, and explains by means of comprehensive sample input, how to use the code. (orig.)

  15. Geomorphological applications of environmental radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geomorphologists have shown increasing interest in environmental radionuclides since pioneering studies by Ritchie and McHenry in the USA and Campbell, Longmore and Loughran in Australia. Environmental radionuclides have attracted this interest because they provide geomorphologists with the means to trace sediment movement within the landscape. They, therefore, facilitate investigation of subjects at the core of geomorphology, namely the rates and patterns of landscape change. Most attention has been focussed on the artificial radionuclide caesium-137 (137Cs) but more recently potential applications of the natural radionuclides lead-210 (210Pb) and beryllium-7(7Be) have been investigated (Walling et al., 1995; Wallbrink and Murray, 1996a, 1996b). The origin, characteristics and applications of these radionuclides are summarised. These radionuclides are of value as sediment tracers because of three important characteristics: a strong affinity for sediment; a global distribution and the possibility of measurement at low concentration. Geomorphological applications of environmental radionuclides provide unique access to detailed qualitative data concerning landscape change over a range of timescales

  16. Calculation of the radionuclides concentrations from in-situ spectrometry data measured by semiconductor spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The computer code based on the described method was designed including calculation of conversion factors for user defined depth distribution models. Inputs of the code are peak areas of the considered radionuclides energy lines (measured in the given arrangement and calculated by any spectra analysis software), known or expected depth distribution models for individual radionuclides (including user defined models) and soil density. The activity concentrations of considered radionuclides and depth distribution models are calculated by the code. Described method was successfully tested and is used for processing of in-situ gamma spectrometry data measured by the spectrometer with semiconductor detector

  17. Radionuclide source term and migration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Progress in two types of experiment is reported. In the first the equilibrium and concentration of radionuclides in groundwater in contact with real radioactive wastes are measured. Container material, backfill material and rock are added to groundwater to investigate their effects. In the second experiment the retardation of radionuclides leached from wastes as groundwater flows over samples of container, backfill and geological material is measured. Outflow is analysed for radionuclides and experimental results for cesium 134, cesium 137 and cobalt 60 are presented. (U.K.)

  18. Radionuclide migration in water reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toxicity degree and radiation effect of different radionuclides depend on multiple factors, whose interaction can strengthen or weaken the effects through the mechanism of nuclide accumulation by hydrobiontes. Stage of development of an aquatic organism, its age, mass and sex as well as lifetime and residence time of the organism in the given medium are of importance. The radionuclide build up depends on illumination, locale of the bioobject residence, on the residence nature. The concentration of radionuclides in aquatic organisms and bionts survival depend on a season, temperature of the residence medium, as well as salinity and mineral composition of water influence

  19. 6. Radionuclides in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natural transformation series are described and the characteristics given of natural radionuclides which do not form series and of certain cosmogenic radionuclides. The hazard is evaluated of internal and external irradiation from various artificial radioactivity sources, namely those which are linked with the operation of nuclear power installations and waste processing. Data are given on the occurrence of natural radionuclides in the environment and in the human organism. A brief description is presented of environmental monitoring methods and methods of dosimetry at nuclear power installations. (M.D.)

  20. Access to Research Inputs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czarnitzki, Dirk; Grimpe, Christoph; Pellens, Maikel

    The viability of modern open science norms and practices depend on public disclosure of new knowledge, methods, and materials. However, increasing industry funding of research can restrict the dissemination of results and materials. We show, through a survey sample of 837 German scientists in life...... sciences, natural sciences, engineering, and social sciences, that scientists who receive industry funding are twice as likely to deny requests for research inputs as those who do not. Receiving external funding in general does not affect denying others access. Scientists who receive external funding...... of any kind are, however, 50% more likely to be denied access to research materials by others, but this is not affected by being funded specifically by industry....

  1. Access to Research Inputs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czarnitzki, Dirk; Grimpe, Christoph; Pellens, Maikel

    2015-01-01

    The viability of modern open science norms and practices depends on public disclosure of new knowledge, methods, and materials. However, increasing industry funding of research can restrict the dissemination of results and materials. We show, through a survey sample of 837 German scientists in life...... sciences, natural sciences, engineering, and social sciences, that scientists who receive industry funding are twice as likely to deny requests for research inputs as those who do not. Receiving external funding in general does not affect denying others access. Scientists who receive external funding...... of any kind are, however, 50 % more likely to be denied access to research materials by others, but this is not affected by being funded specifically by industry...

  2. Radionuclide migration studies in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work a brief description about retention and migration parameters of radionuclides in soil, including main methods to determine the distribution coefficient (K) are given. Some of several factors that can act on the migration are also mentioned. (author)

  3. Radionuclide Retention in Concrete Wasteforms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bovaird, Chase C.; Jansik, Danielle P.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Wood, Marcus I.

    2011-09-30

    Assessing long-term performance of Category 3 waste cement grouts for radionuclide encasement requires knowledge of the radionuclide-cement interactions and mechanisms of retention (i.e., sorption or precipitation); the mechanism of contaminant release; the significance of contaminant release pathways; how wasteform performance is affected by the full range of environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the process of wasteform aging under conditions that are representative of processes occurring in response to changing environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the effect of wasteform aging on chemical, physical, and radiological properties; and the associated impact on contaminant release. This knowledge will enable accurate prediction of radionuclide fate when the wasteforms come in contact with groundwater. The information present in the report provides data that (1) measures the effect of concrete wasteform properties likely to influence radionuclide migration; and (2) quantifies the rate of carbonation of concrete materials in a simulated vadose zone repository.

  4. Radionuclide diffusion in soils. I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The factors are discussed affecting the rate of migration of radionuclides in the soil (properties of the radionuclide - the sign and magnitude of ion charge, soil properties - moisture, density, presence of salts and organic substances, composition of sorption complex and soil solution, climatic conditions -temperature). Fick's 2nd law cannot be used for the mathematical description of vertical migration of radionuclides in the soil and equations are therefore suggested for describing the movement of substances through an absorbing porous medium and for the calculation of the diffusion coefficient. In order to specify the mathematical description of migration it is necessary to obtain a great numbert of experimental data and to use multiparameter regression analysis for identifying the effect of the different properties of the soil on the diffusion of radionuclides. (J.C.)

  5. Drift-Scale Radionuclide Transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Houseworth

    2004-09-22

    The purpose of this model report is to document the drift scale radionuclide transport model, taking into account the effects of emplacement drifts on flow and transport in the vicinity of the drift, which are not captured in the mountain-scale unsaturated zone (UZ) flow and transport models ''UZ Flow Models and Submodels'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169861]), ''Radionuclide Transport Models Under Ambient Conditions'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 164500]), and ''Particle Tracking Model and Abstraction of Transport Process'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170041]). The drift scale radionuclide transport model is intended to be used as an alternative model for comparison with the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport model ''EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169868]). For that purpose, two alternative models have been developed for drift-scale radionuclide transport. One of the alternative models is a dual continuum flow and transport model called the drift shadow model. The effects of variations in the flow field and fracture-matrix interaction in the vicinity of a waste emplacement drift are investigated through sensitivity studies using the drift shadow model (Houseworth et al. 2003 [DIRS 164394]). In this model, the flow is significantly perturbed (reduced) beneath the waste emplacement drifts. However, comparisons of transport in this perturbed flow field with transport in an unperturbed flow field show similar results if the transport is initiated in the rock matrix. This has led to a second alternative model, called the fracture-matrix partitioning model, that focuses on the partitioning of radionuclide transport between the fractures and matrix upon exiting the waste emplacement drift. The fracture-matrix partitioning model computes the partitioning, between fractures and matrix, of diffusive radionuclide transport from the invert (for drifts without seepage) into the rock water

  6. Drift-Scale Radionuclide Transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this model report is to document the drift scale radionuclide transport model, taking into account the effects of emplacement drifts on flow and transport in the vicinity of the drift, which are not captured in the mountain-scale unsaturated zone (UZ) flow and transport models ''UZ Flow Models and Submodels'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169861]), ''Radionuclide Transport Models Under Ambient Conditions'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 164500]), and ''Particle Tracking Model and Abstraction of Transport Process'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170041]). The drift scale radionuclide transport model is intended to be used as an alternative model for comparison with the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport model ''EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169868]). For that purpose, two alternative models have been developed for drift-scale radionuclide transport. One of the alternative models is a dual continuum flow and transport model called the drift shadow model. The effects of variations in the flow field and fracture-matrix interaction in the vicinity of a waste emplacement drift are investigated through sensitivity studies using the drift shadow model (Houseworth et al. 2003 [DIRS 164394]). In this model, the flow is significantly perturbed (reduced) beneath the waste emplacement drifts. However, comparisons of transport in this perturbed flow field with transport in an unperturbed flow field show similar results if the transport is initiated in the rock matrix. This has led to a second alternative model, called the fracture-matrix partitioning model, that focuses on the partitioning of radionuclide transport between the fractures and matrix upon exiting the waste emplacement drift. The fracture-matrix partitioning model computes the partitioning, between fractures and matrix, of diffusive radionuclide transport from the invert (for drifts without seepage) into the rock water. The invert is the structure constructed in a drift to provide the floor of the

  7. Criteria for Radionuclide Activity Concentrations for Food and Drinking Water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    controlling the radionuclide content of food and drinking water for radiation protection purposes in circumstances. The approach used to derive reference levels of radionuclide activity concentration in food and in drinking water as criteria for use in particular circumstances is also considered. This publication is intended for the use by regulatory bodies, policy makers and interested parties with responsibilities in relation to the management of various situations where radionuclides are, or could be, present in food and in drinking water, other than in a nuclear or radiological emergency. It could be considered by Member States in developing national standards for radionuclide activity concentrations for food and drinking water. The TECDOC could also be considered as an input in any future review of the relevant international standards

  8. Radionuclide generators for biomedical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document reviews the chemical literature of those radionuclide generators that have gained or appear to possess utility in medical imaging. The text represents a conscientious effort to peruse the scientific literature through 1980. The intent of this work is to provide a reference point for the investigator who is interested in the development of a particular generator system and the refinements which have been reported. Moreover, the incorporation of the particular daughter radionuclide into a suitable radiodiagnostic agent is presented

  9. Radionuclide salivary gland imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishkin, F.S.

    1981-10-01

    Salivary gland imaging with 99mTc as pertechnetate provides functional information concerning trapping and excretion of the parotid and submandibular glands. Anatomic information gained often adds little to clinical evaluation. On the other hand, functional information may detect subclinical involvement, which correlates well with biopsy of the minor labial salivary glands. Salivary gland abnormalities in systemic disease such as sarcoidosis, rheumatoid arthritis, lupus erythematosus, and other collagenvascular disorders may be detected before they result in the clinical manifestaions of Sjoegren's syndrome. Such glands, after initially demonstrating increased trapping in the acute phase, tend to have decreased trapping and failure to discharge pertechnetate in response to an appropriate physiologic stimulus. Increased uptake of gallium-67 citrate often accompanies these findings. Inflammatory parotitis can be suspected when increased perfusion is evident on radionuclide angiography with any agent. The ability of the salivary gland image to detect and categorize mass lesions, which result in focal areas of diminished activity such as tumors, cysts, and most other masses, is disappointing, while its ability to detect and categorize Warthin's tumor, which concentrates pertechnetate, is much more valuable, although not specific.

  10. Radionuclide brain scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At one stage of medical imaging development, radionuclide brain scanning was the only technique available for imaging of the brain. Advent of CT and MRI pushed it to the background. It regained some of the grounds lost to ''allied advances'' with the introduction of brain perfusion radiopharmaceuticals. Positron emission tomography is a promising functional imaging modality that at present will remain as a research tool in special centres in developed countries. However, clinically useful developments will gradually percolate from PET to SPECT. The non-nuclear imaging methods are totally instrument dependent; they are somewhat like escalators, which can go that far and no further. Nuclear imaging has an unlimited scope for advance because of the new developments in radiopharmaceuticals. As the introduction of a radiopharmaceutical is less costly than buying new instruments, the recent advances in nuclear imaging are gradually perfusing through the developing countries also. Therefore, it is essential to follow very closely PET developments because what is research today might become routine tomorrow

  11. Radionuclide salivary gland imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salivary gland imaging with 99mTc as pertechnetate provides functional information concerning trapping and excretion of the parotid and submandibular glands. Anatomic information gained often adds little to clinical evaluation. On the other hand, functional information may detect subclinical involvement, which correlates well with biopsy of the minor labial salivary glands. Salivary gland abnormalities in systemic disease such as sarcoidosis, rheumatoid arthritis, lupus erythematosus, and other collagenvascular disorders may be detected before they result in the clinical manifestaions of Sjoegren's syndrome. Such glands, after initially demonstrating increased trapping in the acute phase, tend to have decreased trapping and failure to discharge pertechnetate in response to an appropriate physiologic stimulus. Increased uptake of gallium-67 citrate often accompanies these findings. Inflammatory parotitis can be suspected when increased perfusion is evident on radionuclide angiography with any agent. The ability of the salivary gland image to detect and categorize mass lesions, which result in focal areas of diminished activity such as tumors, cysts, and most other masses, is disappointing, while its ability to detect and categorize Warthin's tumor, which concentrates pertechnetate, is much more valuable, although not specific

  12. Environmental Transport Input Parameters for the Biosphere Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Wasiolek

    2004-09-10

    This analysis report is one of the technical reports documenting the Environmental Radiation Model for Yucca Mountain, Nevada (ERMYN), a biosphere model supporting the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA) for the geologic repository at Yucca Mountain. A graphical representation of the documentation hierarchy for the ERMYN is presented in Figure 1-1. This figure shows relationships among the reports developed for biosphere modeling and biosphere abstraction products for the TSPA-LA, as identified in the ''Technical Work Plan for Biosphere Modeling and Expert Support'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169573]) (TWP). This figure provides an understanding of how this report contributes to biosphere modeling in support of the license application (LA). This report is one of the five reports that develop input parameter values for the biosphere model. The ''Biosphere Model Report'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169460]) describes the conceptual model and the mathematical model. The input parameter reports, shown to the right of the Biosphere Model Report in Figure 1-1, contain detailed description of the model input parameters. The output of this report is used as direct input in the ''Nominal Performance Biosphere Dose Conversion Factor Analysis'' and in the ''Disruptive Event Biosphere Dose Conversion Factor Analysis'' that calculate the values of biosphere dose conversion factors (BDCFs) for the groundwater and volcanic ash exposure scenarios, respectively. The purpose of this analysis was to develop biosphere model parameter values related to radionuclide transport and accumulation in the environment. These parameters support calculations of radionuclide concentrations in the environmental media (e.g., soil, crops, animal products, and air) resulting from a given radionuclide concentration at the source of contamination (i.e., either in groundwater or in volcanic ash). The analysis

  13. Environmental Transport Input Parameters for the Biosphere Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This analysis report is one of the technical reports documenting the Environmental Radiation Model for Yucca Mountain, Nevada (ERMYN), a biosphere model supporting the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA) for the geologic repository at Yucca Mountain. A graphical representation of the documentation hierarchy for the ERMYN is presented in Figure 1-1. This figure shows relationships among the reports developed for biosphere modeling and biosphere abstraction products for the TSPA-LA, as identified in the ''Technical Work Plan for Biosphere Modeling and Expert Support'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169573]) (TWP). This figure provides an understanding of how this report contributes to biosphere modeling in support of the license application (LA). This report is one of the five reports that develop input parameter values for the biosphere model. The ''Biosphere Model Report'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169460]) describes the conceptual model and the mathematical model. The input parameter reports, shown to the right of the Biosphere Model Report in Figure 1-1, contain detailed description of the model input parameters. The output of this report is used as direct input in the ''Nominal Performance Biosphere Dose Conversion Factor Analysis'' and in the ''Disruptive Event Biosphere Dose Conversion Factor Analysis'' that calculate the values of biosphere dose conversion factors (BDCFs) for the groundwater and volcanic ash exposure scenarios, respectively. The purpose of this analysis was to develop biosphere model parameter values related to radionuclide transport and accumulation in the environment. These parameters support calculations of radionuclide concentrations in the environmental media (e.g., soil, crops, animal products, and air) resulting from a given radionuclide concentration at the source of contamination (i.e., either in groundwater or in volcanic ash). The analysis was performed in accordance with the TWP (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169573])

  14. Anthropogenic radionuclides in the environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Q; Weng, J; Wang, J

    2007-11-15

    Studies of radionuclides in the environment have entered a new era with the renaissance of nuclear energy and associated fuel reprocessing, geological disposal of high-level nuclear wastes, and concerns about national security with respect to nuclear non-proliferation. This work presents an overview of anthropogenic radionuclide contamination in the environment, as well as the salient geochemical behavior of important radionuclides. We first discuss the following major anthropogenic sources and current development that contribute to the radionuclide contamination of the environment: (1) nuclear weapons program; (2) nuclear weapons testing; (3) nuclear power plants; (4) commercial fuel reprocessing; (5) geological repository of high-level nuclear wastes, and (6) nuclear accidents. Then, we summarize the geochemical behavior for radionuclides {sup 99}Tc, {sup 129}I, and {sup 237}Np, because of their complex geochemical behavior, long half-lives, and presumably high mobility in the environment. Biogeochemical cycling and environment risk assessment must take into account speciation of these redox-sensitive radionuclides.

  15. Reprocessing input data validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Isotope Correlation Technique (ICT), in conjunction with the gravimetric (Pu/U ratio) method for mass determination, provides an independent verification of the input accountancy at the dissolver or accountancy stage of the reprocessing plant. The Isotope Correlation Technique has been applied to many classes of domestic and international reactor systems (light-water, heavy-water, graphite, and liquid-metal) operating in a variety of modes (power, research, production, and breeder), and for a variety of reprocessing fuel cycle management strategies. Analysis of reprocessing operations data based on isotopic correlations derived for assemblies in a PWR environment and fuel management scheme, yielded differences between the measurement-derived and ICT-derived plutonium mass determinations of (-0.02 ± 0.23)% for the measured U-235 and (+0.50 ± 0.31)% for the measured Pu-239, for a core campaign. The ICT analyses has been implemented for the plutonium isotopics in a depleted uranium assembly in a heavy-water, enriched uranium system and for the uranium isotopes in the fuel assemblies in light-water, highly-enriched systems. 7 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs

  16. Dosimetry in radionuclide therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    While it is known that therapeutic effects of radionuclides are due to absorbed radiation dose and to radiosensitivity, individual dosimetry in 'Gy' is practiced rarely in clinical Nuclear Medicine but 'doses' are described in 'mCi' or 'MBq', which is only indirectly related to 'Gy' in the target. To estimate 'Gy', the volume of the target, maximum concentration of the radiopharmaceutical in it and residence time should be assessed individually. These parameters can be obtained usually only with difficulty, involving possibly also quantitative SPET or PET, modern imaging techniques (sonography, CT, MRT), substitution of y- or positron emitting radiotracers for β-emitting radiopharmaceuticals as well as whole-body distribution studies. Residence time can be estimated by obtaining data on biological half-life of a comparable tracer and transfer of these data in the physical characteristics of the therapeutic agent. With all these possibilities for gross dosimetry the establishment of a dose-response-relation should be possible. As distribution of the radiopharmaceutical in lesions is frequently inhomogenous and microdosimetric conditions are difficult to assess in vivo as yet, it could be observed since decades that empirically set, sometimes 'fixed' doses (mCi or MBq) can also be successful in many diseases. Detailed dosimetric studies, however, are work- and cost-intensive. Nevertheless, one should be aware at a time when more sophisticated therapeutic possibilities in Nuclear Medicine arise, that we should try to estimate radiation dose (Gy) in our new methods even as differences in individual radiosensitivity cannot be assessed yet and studies to define individual radiosensitivity in lesions should be encouraged. (author)

  17. Transport of the environmental radionuclides in an alpine watershed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radionuclides 137Cs, 210Pb and 7Be have been examined in the alpine Rhone watershed (Switzerland) during a period of two years in order to evaluate their usefulness as tracers of the removal and transport rate of top-soil particles and particle-reactive contaminants of atmospheric origin. The specific activities of the radionuclides in fluvial suspension show a distinct seasonal pattern which depends on the hydrologic regime of the stream and the sources of the suspended matter. Input-output budgets based on the atmospheric deposition and fluvial removal of three radionuclides in the alpine Rhone watershed are used to estimate their erosional residence times. The simplest one box model yields mean residence times of about 800 and 1400 years for 137Cs and 210Pb, respectively. The removal rate of short-lived 7Be suggests that a part of the watershed (0.6-2.3% of the total surface) is exposed to a rapid erosion, in which the mean residence time of the radionuclides is in the range of 1-220 days. This has little influence on the calculated residence time of 137Cs but increases the estimated residence time of 210Pb in soil to over 1800 years. The use of 210Pb-7Be pair in fluvial output may be very helpful in the assessment of the impact of atmospheric pollutants on the water quality in rivers and lakes. (orig.)

  18. Serial Input Output

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waite, Anthony; /SLAC

    2011-09-07

    Serial Input/Output (SIO) is designed to be a long term storage format of a sophistication somewhere between simple ASCII files and the techniques provided by inter alia Objectivity and Root. The former tend to be low density, information lossy (floating point numbers lose precision) and inflexible. The latter require abstract descriptions of the data with all that that implies in terms of extra complexity. The basic building blocks of SIO are streams, records and blocks. Streams provide the connections between the program and files. The user can define an arbitrary list of streams as required. A given stream must be opened for either reading or writing. SIO does not support read/write streams. If a stream is closed during the execution of a program, it can be reopened in either read or write mode to the same or a different file. Records represent a coherent grouping of data. Records consist of a collection of blocks (see next paragraph). The user can define a variety of records (headers, events, error logs, etc.) and request that any of them be written to any stream. When SIO reads a file, it first decodes the record name and if that record has been defined and unpacking has been requested for it, SIO proceeds to unpack the blocks. Blocks are user provided objects which do the real work of reading/writing the data. The user is responsible for writing the code for these blocks and for identifying these blocks to SIO at run time. To write a collection of blocks, the user must first connect them to a record. The record can then be written to a stream as described above. Note that the same block can be connected to many different records. When SIO reads a record, it scans through the blocks written and calls the corresponding block object (if it has been defined) to decode it. Undefined blocks are skipped. Each of these categories (streams, records and blocks) have some characteristics in common. Every stream, record and block has a name with the condition that each

  19. SDR Input Power Estimation Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nappier, Jennifer M.; Briones, Janette C.

    2013-01-01

    The General Dynamics (GD) S-Band software defined radio (SDR) in the Space Communications and Navigation (SCAN) Testbed on the International Space Station (ISS) provides experimenters an opportunity to develop and demonstrate experimental waveforms in space. The SDR has an analog and a digital automatic gain control (AGC) and the response of the AGCs to changes in SDR input power and temperature was characterized prior to the launch and installation of the SCAN Testbed on the ISS. The AGCs were used to estimate the SDR input power and SNR of the received signal and the characterization results showed a nonlinear response to SDR input power and temperature. In order to estimate the SDR input from the AGCs, three algorithms were developed and implemented on the ground software of the SCAN Testbed. The algorithms include a linear straight line estimator, which used the digital AGC and the temperature to estimate the SDR input power over a narrower section of the SDR input power range. There is a linear adaptive filter algorithm that uses both AGCs and the temperature to estimate the SDR input power over a wide input power range. Finally, an algorithm that uses neural networks was designed to estimate the input power over a wide range. This paper describes the algorithms in detail and their associated performance in estimating the SDR input power.

  20. Radionuclide Retention in Concrete Wasteforms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wellman, Dawn M.; Jansik, Danielle P.; Golovich, Elizabeth C.; Cordova, Elsa A.

    2012-09-24

    Assessing long-term performance of Category 3 waste cement grouts for radionuclide encasement requires knowledge of the radionuclide-cement interactions and mechanisms of retention (i.e., sorption or precipitation); the mechanism of contaminant release; the significance of contaminant release pathways; how wasteform performance is affected by the full range of environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the process of wasteform aging under conditions that are representative of processes occurring in response to changing environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the effect of wasteform aging on chemical, physical, and radiological properties; and the associated impact on contaminant release. This knowledge will enable accurate prediction of radionuclide fate when the wasteforms come in contact with groundwater. Data collected throughout the course of this work will be used to quantify the efficacy of concrete wasteforms, similar to those used in the disposal of LLW and MLLW, for the immobilization of key radionuclides (i.e., uranium, technetium, and iodine). Data collected will also be used to quantify the physical and chemical properties of the concrete affecting radionuclide retention.

  1. SR97. Data and data uncertainties. Compilation of data and data uncertainties for radionuclide transport calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report concerns integration of data and data uncertainties in the radionuclide transport calculations within the SR 97 project. More specifically the present report: establishes a framework for handling data uncertainty within SR 97, explores uncertainties in the different underlying analyses and information such as inventory, canister life time, solubilities, Kd-values, or different flow related migration parameters, which provide input to the radionuclide release and transport models used, suggests and motivates 'reasonable' input values, and 'pessimistic' input values representing conditions at Aaberg (Aespoe), Beberg (Finnsjoen) and Ceberg (Gideaa) when applicable, for the different models used, suggests 'probabilistic' parameter distributions when underlying data support any distribution. The intention of presenting 'reasonable' estimates is one of illustration - to obtain a view on how the repository system would operate without making overly optimistic or pessimistic assumptions. A pessimistic input datum implies a selection of a parameter value (and conceptual model) within the uncertainty range, which maximises the consequence

  2. Biological effects of inhaled radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report focuses on various types of radionuclides that may be inhaled and deposited in the respiratory tract. One of the primary goals of this ICRP Task Group is to assess specifically the biological implications of inhaled plutonium. Because other transuranics are becoming more abundant, information on americium, curium and einsteinium is included. Data are also included from studies of polonium and of several beta-gamma emitting isotopes. The Task Group evaluated most of the data on the biological effects of inhaled radionuclides in experimental animals to identify the tissues at risk and to assess possible dose-response relationships. Few data from human cases of inhaled radionuclides are available for this assessment. The biological effects of nonradioactive air pollutants were also considered to provide the perspective that all air pollutants can have a deleterious effect on human life and to emphasize the possibility for combined or synergistic effects of nonradioactive and radioactive substances on the respiratory tract. (orig./HP)

  3. Radionuclides for nuclear medicine: a nuclear physicists' view

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cantone, M.; Haddad, F.; Harissopoulos, S.; Jensen, Mikael; Jokinen, A.; Köster, U.; Lebeda, O.; Ponsard, B.; Ratzinger, U.; Stora, T.; Tarkanyi, F.; Van Duppen, P.

    NuPECC (the Nuclear Physics European Collaboration Committee, an expert committee of the European Science Foundation) has the mission to strengthen European Collaboration in nuclear science through the promotion of nuclear physics and its trans-disciplinary use and application. NuPECC is currently...... working on a report on “Nuclear Physics for Medicine” and has set up a working group to review the present status and prospects of radionuclides for nuclear medicine. An interim report will be presented to seek comments and constructive input from EANM members. In particular it is investigated how nuclear...... physics Methods and nuclear physics facilities are supporting the development and supply of medical radionuclides and how this support could be further strengthened in future. Aspects that will be addressed: •In recent years, the reactor-based supply chain of 99Mo/99mTc generators was repeatedly...

  4. HYDROS: a model of radionuclide migration in surface waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The submodel HYDROS has been developed for the safety assessment code COSMOS-S/D to represent radionuclide migration in surface waters. Model assumptions are generally conservative (i.e. pessimistic) in keeping with the safety assessment philosophy. Dilution is the dominant mechanism for reducing contaminant concentration. Actual removal of contaminant occurs through delay and decay, evaporation (if volatile), or sorption in lake sediment, the latter modelled as an irreversible process. The same system of equations applies equally to both river reaches and lakes, with the difference apparent only in the relative effects of dispersion and delay mechanisms for a given radionuclide. Experience since the original model was developed has led to simplification of input so that the submodel is easier to use

  5. Radionuclides for nuclear medicine: a nuclear physicists' view

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cantone, M.; Haddad, F.; Harissopoulos, S.;

    2013-01-01

    NuPECC (the Nuclear Physics European Collaboration Committee, an expert committee of the European Science Foundation) has the mission to strengthen European Collaboration in nuclear science through the promotion of nuclear physics and its trans-disciplinary use and application. NuPECC is currently...... working on a report on “Nuclear Physics for Medicine” and has set up a working group to review the present status and prospects of radionuclides for nuclear medicine. An interim report will be presented to seek comments and constructive input from EANM members. In particular it is investigated how nuclear...... physics Methods and nuclear physics facilities are supporting the development and supply of medical radionuclides and how this support could be further strengthened in future. Aspects that will be addressed: •In recent years, the reactor-based supply chain of 99Mo/99mTc generators was repeatedly...

  6. A review of radionuclides determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental radiochemical analysis have several steps such as sample pre-treatment, sample pre-concentration, separation and determination. Many separation methods, using solvent extraction and ion exchange chromatography are applied tote preconcentration and separation of radionuclides. These methods are time-consuming, use large amounts of strong acids and produce organic wastes. Recently, separation methods on the extraction chromatography have became increasingly popular in radiochemical analysis. In this presentation, we briefly summarize the published literature on principles and various applications of radioanalytical method that have been commonly used in radionuclide separations (authors)

  7. ECOS - analysis of sensitivity to database and input parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sensitivity of doses calculated by the generic biosphere code ECOS to parameter changes has been investigated by the authors for the Department of the Environment as part of its radioactive waste management research programme. The sensitivity of results to radionuclide dependent parameters has been tested by specifying reasonable parameter ranges and performing code runs for best estimate, upper-bound and lower-bound parameter values. The work indicates that doses are most sensitive to scenario parameters: geosphere input fractions, area of contaminated land, land use and diet, flux of contaminated waters and water use. Recommendations are made based on the results of sensitivity. (author)

  8. Radionuclide diagnosis of regional zone saturation with drugs at inflammatory processes of the head and neck

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drug concentrations and accumulation zones at regional intraarterial administration to the basin of blood supply by external carotid artery were investigated using radionuclide diagnosis in patients with chronic inflammatory diseases of the lower jaw, which allows to work out regiments of intraarterial drug administration and plan adequate therapy.

  9. FARF31 - a far field radionuclide migration code for use with the PROPER package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The far field radionuclide migration computer code FARF31 has been developed as a submodel to the probabilistic package PROPER, and can be considered a refined and less CPU-time consuming version of the far field models used in the KBS-3 study. FARF31 constitutes the numerical equivalent of a dual porosity model for radionuclide migration along a stream tube in fractured rock. It calculates the migration rate of the radionuclide chains at the exit of the tube given the input rates at the entrance. Advection, dispersion and one dimensional matrix diffusion is taken into account as well as chain decay. The underlying equations are formulated in terms of groundwater travel time and Peclet number, thus allowing for the groundwater travel time to be computed outside FARF31 by a separate submodel fitted to handle Darcy velocities and kinematic porosities which vary in space. Input migration rate boundary conditions are arbitrary. (authors)

  10. Compilation of data for radionuclide transport analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-11-01

    This report is one of the supporting documents to the updated safety assessment (project SAFE) of the Swedish repository for low and intermediate level waste, SFR 1. A number of calculation cases for quantitative analysis of radionuclide release and dose to man are defined based on the expected evolution of the repository, geosphere and biosphere in the Base Scenario and other scenarios selected. The data required by the selected near field, geosphere and biosphere models are given and the values selected for the calculations are compiled in tables. The main sources for the selected values of the migration parameters in the repository and geosphere models are the safety assessment of a deep repository for spent fuel, SR 97, and the preliminary safety assessment of a repository for long-lived, low- and intermediate level waste, SFL 3-5. For the biosphere models, both site-specific data and generic values of the parameters are selected. The applicability of the selected parameter values is discussed and the uncertainty is qualitatively addressed for data to the repository and geosphere migration models. Parameter values selected for these models are in general pessimistic in order not to underestimate the radionuclide release rates. It is judged that this approach combined with the selected calculation cases will illustrate the effects of uncertainties in processes and events that affects the evolution of the system as well as in quantitative data that describes this. The biosphere model allows for probabilistic calculations and the uncertainty in input data are quantified by giving minimum, maximum and mean values as well as the type of probability distribution function.

  11. Compilation of data for radionuclide transport analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is one of the supporting documents to the updated safety assessment (project SAFE) of the Swedish repository for low and intermediate level waste, SFR 1. A number of calculation cases for quantitative analysis of radionuclide release and dose to man are defined based on the expected evolution of the repository, geosphere and biosphere in the Base Scenario and other scenarios selected. The data required by the selected near field, geosphere and biosphere models are given and the values selected for the calculations are compiled in tables. The main sources for the selected values of the migration parameters in the repository and geosphere models are the safety assessment of a deep repository for spent fuel, SR 97, and the preliminary safety assessment of a repository for long-lived, low- and intermediate level waste, SFL 3-5. For the biosphere models, both site-specific data and generic values of the parameters are selected. The applicability of the selected parameter values is discussed and the uncertainty is qualitatively addressed for data to the repository and geosphere migration models. Parameter values selected for these models are in general pessimistic in order not to underestimate the radionuclide release rates. It is judged that this approach combined with the selected calculation cases will illustrate the effects of uncertainties in processes and events that affects the evolution of the system as well as in quantitative data that describes this. The biosphere model allows for probabilistic calculations and the uncertainty in input data are quantified by giving minimum, maximum and mean values as well as the type of probability distribution function

  12. Radionuclides and the birds at Ravenglass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, V P

    1991-01-01

    Since 1983, concern has been expressed about the apparent decline in numbers of birds in the Ravenglass estuary in west Cumbria, particularly of the black-headed gull colony on the Drigg dunes, and suggestions have been made that this decline might be due to excessive radiation in the birds' food and their general environment. Twelve species of marine invertebrates from Ravenglass, most of them known to be important foods for birds, were analysed, and further samples were taken from sites along the west Cumbrian coast. None of these samples showed excessive contamination with any of the radionuclides analysed. Analysis of a sample of bird carcasses from the areas showed oystercatchers (Haematopus ostralegus) and shelduck (Tadorna tadorna) to have some of the highest concentrations of (137)Cs in their tissues; yet their breeding success and populations were not affected. Black-headed gulls, on the other hand, were found to be feeding mainly inland, and were the least contaminated with radionuclides of all the birds at Ravenglass, yet this species and its breeding success were in decline. Calculations of the total dose equivalent rate to the whole body of the most contaminated black-headed gull amounted to 9.8 x 10(-4) mSvh(-1) (approximately equal to 8.4 x 10(-4) mGy h(-1), whole body absorbed dose rate), and the background exposure dose was of the order of 8.3 x 10(-4) mGy h(-1). As a minimum chronic dose of 1000 mGy day(-1) has been found necessary to retard growth of nestling birds, and 9600 mGy over 20 days of incubation to cause the death of 50% of embryos in black-headed gulls' eggs, the concentrations of radionuclides in the foods, body tissues and general environment were at least three orders of magnitude too low to have had any effect. The more likely cause of the desertion of the gullery was the combination of an uncontrolled fox population, the severest outbreak of myxomatosis amongst the rabbits since 1954 and the driest May-July period on record, all

  13. Input and Second Language Acquisition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周笑盈

    2011-01-01

    The behaviorist, the mentalist and the interactionist have different emphases on the role input in Second Language Acquisition. In order to protrude the importance of second language teaching, it is indispensible to discuss the characteristics of input and to explore its effects.

  14. Decentralized control with input saturation

    OpenAIRE

    Saberi, Ali; Stoorvogel, Anton A.; Sannuti, Peddapullaiah

    2004-01-01

    In decentralized control it is known that the system can be stabilized only if the so-called fixed modes are all stable. If we have input constraints then (semi-)global stability requires all poles to be in the closed left half plane. This paper establishes that these two requirements are necessary and sufficient for stabilizability of a decentralized system with input saturation.

  15. Review of Distribution Coefficients for Radionuclides in Carbonate Minerals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutton, M

    2009-08-14

    An understanding of the transport of radionuclides in carbonate minerals is necessary to be able to predict the fate of (and potentially remediate) radionuclides in the environment. In some environments, carbonate minerals such as calciate, aragonite, dolomite and limestone are present and an understanding of the sorption of radionuclides in these carbonate minerals is therefore advantageous. A list of the radionuclides of interest is given in Table 1. The distribution coefficient, K{sub d} is defined as the ratio of the contaminant concentration bound on the solid phase to the contaminant concentration remaining in the liquid phase at equilibrium. Some authors report distribution coefficients and other report partition coefficients, the data presented in this work assumes equality between these two terms, and data are presented and summarized in this work as logarithmic distribution coefficient (log K{sub D}). Published literature was searched using two methods. Firstly, the JNC Sorption Database, namely Shubutani et al (1999), and Suyama and Sasamoto (2004) was used to select elements of interest and a number of carbonate minerals. Secondly, on-line literature search tools were used to locate relevant published articles from 1900 to 2009. Over 300 data points covering 16 elements (hydrogen, carbon, calcium, nickel, strontium, technetium, palladium, iodine, cesium, samarium, europium, holmium, uranium, neptunium, plutonium and americium) were used to calculate an average and range of log K{sub d} values for each element. Unfortunately, no data could be found for chlorine, argon, krypton, zirconium, niobium, tin, thorium and curium. A description of the data is given below, together with the average, standard deviation, minimum, maximum and number of inputs for radionuclide K{sub d} values for calcite, aragonate, limestone, dolomite and unidentified carbonate rocks in Table 2. Finally, the data are condensed into one group (carbonate minerals) of data for each

  16. Review of Distribution Coefficients for Radionuclides in Carbonate Minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An understanding of the transport of radionuclides in carbonate minerals is necessary to be able to predict the fate of (and potentially remediate) radionuclides in the environment. In some environments, carbonate minerals such as calciate, aragonite, dolomite and limestone are present and an understanding of the sorption of radionuclides in these carbonate minerals is therefore advantageous. A list of the radionuclides of interest is given in Table 1. The distribution coefficient, Kd is defined as the ratio of the contaminant concentration bound on the solid phase to the contaminant concentration remaining in the liquid phase at equilibrium. Some authors report distribution coefficients and other report partition coefficients, the data presented in this work assumes equality between these two terms, and data are presented and summarized in this work as logarithmic distribution coefficient (log KD). Published literature was searched using two methods. Firstly, the JNC Sorption Database, namely Shubutani et al (1999), and Suyama and Sasamoto (2004) was used to select elements of interest and a number of carbonate minerals. Secondly, on-line literature search tools were used to locate relevant published articles from 1900 to 2009. Over 300 data points covering 16 elements (hydrogen, carbon, calcium, nickel, strontium, technetium, palladium, iodine, cesium, samarium, europium, holmium, uranium, neptunium, plutonium and americium) were used to calculate an average and range of log Kd values for each element. Unfortunately, no data could be found for chlorine, argon, krypton, zirconium, niobium, tin, thorium and curium. A description of the data is given below, together with the average, standard deviation, minimum, maximum and number of inputs for radionuclide Kd values for calcite, aragonate, limestone, dolomite and unidentified carbonate rocks in Table 2. Finally, the data are condensed into one group (carbonate minerals) of data for each element of interest in Table

  17. REEXAMINING THE ROLE OF INPUT AND THE FEATURES OF OPTIMAL INPUT (Ⅱ) Features of Optimal Input

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Niu; Qiang

    2001-01-01

    If input plays a significant role in SLA, then the nextquestion is what kind of input is most helpful to the learner?Krashen (1982) defined that optimal input should (1) becomprehensible; (2) be interesting and/or relevant; (3) not begrammatically sequened; (4) be in sufficient quantity. Wemade some modifications to this list which may still not becomprehensive either. However, if the learner can be exposed toinput having these features, it is considered that acquisition ismore likely to occur. Such input should be comprehensible,authentic, attractive and interesting, interactive, up-to-date,culture-bearing, and in great quantity.

  18. Radionuclide Transport Models Under Ambient Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this Analysis/Model Report (AMR) is to evaluate (by means of 2-D semianalytical and 3-D numerical models) the transport of radioactive solutes and colloids in the unsaturated zone (UZ) under ambient conditions from the potential repository horizon to the water table at Yucca Mountain (YM), Nevada. This is in accordance with the ''AMR Development Plan U0060, Radionuclide Transport Models Under Ambient Conditions'' (CRWMS M and O 1999a). This AMR supports the UZ Flow and Transport Process Model Report (PMR). This AMR documents the UZ Radionuclide Transport Model (RTM). This model considers: the transport of radionuclides through fractured tuffs; the effects of changes in the intensity and configuration of fracturing from hydrogeologic unit to unit; colloid transport; physical and retardation processes and the effects of perched water. In this AMR they document the capabilities of the UZ RTM, which can describe flow (saturated and/or unsaturated) and transport, and accounts for (a) advection, (b) molecular diffusion, (c) hydrodynamic dispersion (with full 3-D tensorial representation), (d) kinetic or equilibrium physical and/or chemical sorption (linear, Langmuir, Freundlich or combined), (e) first-order linear chemical reaction, (f) radioactive decay and tracking of daughters, (g) colloid filtration (equilibrium, kinetic or combined), and (h) colloid-assisted solute transport. Simulations of transport of radioactive solutes and colloids (incorporating the processes described above) from the repository horizon to the water table are performed to support model development and support studies for Performance Assessment (PA). The input files for these simulations include transport parameters obtained from other AMRs (i.e., CRWMS M and O 1999d, e, f, g, h; 2000a, b, c, d). When not available, the parameter values used are obtained from the literature. The results of the simulations are used to evaluate the transport of radioactive solutes and colloids, and

  19. Radionuclide Transport Models Under Ambient Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. Moridis; Q. Hu

    2000-03-12

    The purpose of this Analysis/Model Report (AMR) is to evaluate (by means of 2-D semianalytical and 3-D numerical models) the transport of radioactive solutes and colloids in the unsaturated zone (UZ) under ambient conditions from the potential repository horizon to the water table at Yucca Mountain (YM), Nevada. This is in accordance with the ''AMR Development Plan U0060, Radionuclide Transport Models Under Ambient Conditions'' (CRWMS M and O 1999a). This AMR supports the UZ Flow and Transport Process Model Report (PMR). This AMR documents the UZ Radionuclide Transport Model (RTM). This model considers: the transport of radionuclides through fractured tuffs; the effects of changes in the intensity and configuration of fracturing from hydrogeologic unit to unit; colloid transport; physical and retardation processes and the effects of perched water. In this AMR they document the capabilities of the UZ RTM, which can describe flow (saturated and/or unsaturated) and transport, and accounts for (a) advection, (b) molecular diffusion, (c) hydrodynamic dispersion (with full 3-D tensorial representation), (d) kinetic or equilibrium physical and/or chemical sorption (linear, Langmuir, Freundlich or combined), (e) first-order linear chemical reaction, (f) radioactive decay and tracking of daughters, (g) colloid filtration (equilibrium, kinetic or combined), and (h) colloid-assisted solute transport. Simulations of transport of radioactive solutes and colloids (incorporating the processes described above) from the repository horizon to the water table are performed to support model development and support studies for Performance Assessment (PA). The input files for these simulations include transport parameters obtained from other AMRs (i.e., CRWMS M and O 1999d, e, f, g, h; 2000a, b, c, d). When not available, the parameter values used are obtained from the literature. The results of the simulations are used to evaluate the transport of radioactive

  20. Enhanced Input in LCTL Pedagogy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilyn S. Manley

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Language materials for the more-commonly-taught languages (MCTLs often include visual input enhancement (Sharwood Smith 1991, 1993 which makes use of typographical cues like bolding and underlining to enhance the saliency of targeted forms. For a variety of reasons, this paper argues that the use of enhanced input, both visual and oral, is especially important as a tool for the lesscommonly-taught languages (LCTLs. As there continues to be a scarcity of teaching resources for the LCTLs, individual teachers must take it upon themselves to incorporate enhanced input into their own self-made materials. Specific examples of how to incorporate both visual and oral enhanced input into language teaching are drawn from the author’s own experiences teaching Cuzco Quechua. Additionally, survey results are presented from the author’s Fall 2010 semester Cuzco Quechua language students, supporting the use of both visual and oral enhanced input.

  1. Enhanced Input in LCTL Pedagogy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilyn S. Manley

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Language materials for the more-commonly-taught languages (MCTLs often include visual input enhancement (Sharwood Smith 1991, 1993 which makes use of typographical cues like bolding and underlining to enhance the saliency of targeted forms. For a variety of reasons, this paper argues that the use of enhanced input, both visual and oral, is especially important as a tool for the lesscommonly-taught languages (LCTLs. As there continues to be a scarcity of teaching resources for the LCTLs, individual teachers must take it upon themselves to incorporate enhanced input into their own self-made materials. Specific examples of how to incorporate both visual and oral enhanced input into language teaching are drawn from the author’s own experiences teaching Cuzco Quechua. Additionally, survey results are presented from the author’s Fall 2010 semester Cuzco Quechua language students, supporting the use of both visual and oral enhanced input.

  2. Determination of alpha radionuclides in fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In atmospheric water, external water and undercurrent the occurrence of radionuclides is usual. It is an important factor of quality of the environment. Plants ingest radionuclides from water and with they everyone. And it arises radioactivity infest food-chain. Radiotoxicity of this radionuclides is very deer sometimes. The sensitive radiochemical procedures for their determination are necessarily important. The poster presents the combined procedure used at our laboratory for determination of alpha radionuclides in biological samples. (authors)

  3. Radionuclides in forest ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some regions within Austria were highly contaminated (> 50 kBq m-2) with radiocaesium by the deposition event following the Chernobyl reactor accident in 1986. Monitoring carried out by several Austrian institutions showed that in contrast to agricultural products radiocaesium levels in wild berries, mushrooms and game meat from forest ecosystems remained considerably higher over the years. To find reasons for this contrasting radioecological behavior and for the derivation of model input parameters, an extended study about the distribution of 137Cs within three Austrian forest stands was carried out between 1987 and 1997. Results of this and subsequent studies are summarized and include the following ecosystem compartments: forest soils, litter, trees, bilberry, mushrooms, mosses, ferns, lichen, other vegetation, insects, small mammals, game animals and surface water. Besides the investigation of radioecological behavior an estimation of pool sizes and transfer rates as well as radioecological residence half times for 137Cs in different forest species was used to compile a radiocaesium balance for the years 1988 and 1996. Soil proved to be an effective sink for radiocaesium contamination, but in long-term perspective it can act as a source for the contamination of vegetation and higher levels of the food-chain as well. Due to the high standing biomass trees represent the largest 'living' radiocaesium pool within the investigated forest stand. Dose estimations based on average consume habits gave no significant increase (less than 0.4 %) of the annual average population radiation dose due to the ingestion of forest products from the investigated forest stands. (author)

  4. Radionuclide transfer in forest ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The behaviour of radionuclides in forest ecosystems differs substantially from the other ecosystems. The contamination of various forest products is commonly quantified using the Aggregated Transfer Factor (Tag in m2 kg-1) which integrates various environmental parameters including soil and plant type, root distribution as well as nature and vertical distribution of the deposits. This review aims at compiling the most relevant quantitative information on radionuclide transfers to forest biota including trees, understorey vegetation, mushrooms, berries and game animals. For both radiocaesium and radiostrontium in trees, the order of magnitude of mean Tag values is 10-3 m2.kg-1 (dry weight). The transfer of radionuclides to mushrooms and berries is high, in comparison with foodstuffs grown in agricultural systems. Concerning caesium uptake by mushrooms, the transfer is characterized by a very large variability of Tag, from 10-3 to 101 m2.kg-1 (dry weight). For berries, typical values are around 0.01 to 0.1 m2.kg-1 (dry weight). Transfer of radioactive caesium to game animals and reindeer and the rate of activity reduction, quantified as an ecological half-life, reflect the soil and pasture conditions at individual locations. Even if, the importance of radioactive contamination of forests as a significant source of the population exposure is recognized, most of the data refer to caesium and to a lesser extent, strontium. Data for other radionuclides are rather limited. (author)

  5. Tumor immunotargeting using innovative radionuclides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraeber-Bodéré, Françoise; Rousseau, Caroline; Bodet-Milin, Caroline; Mathieu, Cédric; Guérard, François; Frampas, Eric; Carlier, Thomas; Chouin, Nicolas; Haddad, Ferid; Chatal, Jean-François; Faivre-Chauvet, Alain; Chérel, Michel; Barbet, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviews some aspects and recent developments in the use of antibodies to target radionuclides for tumor imaging and therapy. While radiolabeled antibodies have been considered for many years in this context, only a few have reached the level of routine clinical use. However, alternative radionuclides, with more appropriate physical properties, such as lutetium-177 or copper-67, as well as alpha-emitting radionuclides, including astatine-211, bismuth-213, actinium-225, and others are currently reviving hopes in cancer treatments, both in hematological diseases and solid tumors. At the same time, PET imaging, with short-lived radionuclides, such as gallium-68, fluorine-18 or copper-64, or long half-life ones, particularly iodine-124 and zirconium-89 now offers new perspectives in immuno-specific phenotype tumor imaging. New antibody analogues and pretargeting strategies have also considerably improved the performances of tumor immunotargeting and completely renewed the interest in these approaches for imaging and therapy by providing theranostics, companion diagnostics and news tools to make personalized medicine a reality. PMID:25679452

  6. Tumor Immunotargeting Using Innovative Radionuclides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Françoise Kraeber-Bodéré

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews some aspects and recent developments in the use of antibodies to target radionuclides for tumor imaging and therapy. While radiolabeled antibodies have been considered for many years in this context, only a few have reached the level of routine clinical use. However, alternative radionuclides, with more appropriate physical properties, such as lutetium-177 or copper-67, as well as alpha-emitting radionuclides, including astatine-211, bismuth-213, actinium-225, and others are currently reviving hopes in cancer treatments, both in hematological diseases and solid tumors. At the same time, PET imaging, with short-lived radionuclides, such as gallium-68, fluorine-18 or copper-64, or long half-life ones, particularly iodine-124 and zirconium-89 now offers new perspectives in immuno-specific phenotype tumor imaging. New antibody analogues and pretargeting strategies have also considerably improved the performances of tumor immunotargeting and completely renewed the interest in these approaches for imaging and therapy by providing theranostics, companion diagnostics and news tools to make personalized medicine a reality.

  7. Transfer of radionuclides to plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sampling of Water Horsetail and Bracken Fern including upper soil layer (0-10 cm) and water was carried out in Torahult, Sweden, in Almindingen on Bornholm, in Asserbo and Arresoe on Zealand and in Sdr. Hostrup and Nydam mose in Jutland. Furthermore, sampling was carried out in 2004 for seawater, seaweed and shrimps at locations in Danish waters at Bornholm (Svenskehavn), at Zealand (Klint), at Lolland/Falster (Guldborgsund) and on the west coast of Jutland (Hirtshals, Agger, Hvide Sande and Roemoe). Concentrations of gamma-emitting radionuclides and uranium were determined in Bracken Fern, Water Horsetail and soil samples. The concentration ratios (CR) are highest for 40K in both plant species and show the lowest variability across locations. The CR's for 40K range from 1 to 2, while the CR's for the other radionuclides range one to three orders of magnitude lower. The CR's for 137Cs show particularly high variability across locations. The CR's were analysed in a two-way ANOVA on the log-transformed values to test differences between plant species and radionuclides. The difference between radionuclides was highly significant, p137Cs and 99Tc in marine samples. Concentration ratios calculated from the analysed samples are presented. The concentration ratios for 99Tc agree with those reported elsewhere in the Indofern Project. The concentration ratios for 137Cs in Fucus show a correlation to salinity with higher values in low salinity water at Bornholm than in high salinity water on the west coast of Jutland. (LN)

  8. Chemistry and analysis of radionuclides

    CERN Document Server

    Lehto, Jukka

    2010-01-01

    Written by chemists for chemists, this is a comprehensive guide to the important radionuclides as well as techniques for their separation and analysis. It introduces readers to the important laboratory techniques and methodologies in the field, providing practical instructions on how to handle nuclear waste and radioactivity in the environment.

  9. Radionuclide investigation of nutritive absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors present the theoretical rationale, algorithm and results of verification of a new radionuclide method for the determination of nutritive absorption. The proposed method allows the determination of the amount of a labeled unabsorbed food ingredient without the collection and radiometry of feces, with a high degree of significance

  10. Radionuclide retention in geologic media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GEOTRAP is the OECD/NEA Project on Radionuclide Migration in Geologic, Heterogeneous Media carried out in the context of site evaluation and safety assessment of deep repository systems for long-lived radioactive waste. Retention of radionuclides within the geosphere for prolonged periods is an important safety function of deep geologic disposal concepts for radioactive waste. The extent to which retention processes can be relied upon in repository performance assessment depends upon the existence of well-established theoretical bases for the processes. It also depends on support for the operation of specific retention processes, and models for their quantitative evaluation, from a wide range of laboratory and field experiments and observations from nature. The fifth GEOTRAP workshop, 'Geological Evidence and Theoretical Bases for Radionuclide-retention Processes in Heterogeneous Media' held in May 2001, looked at radionuclide-retention processes and their consideration and representation in performance assessments. Current approaches to characterising and modelling retention processes, and suggestions for future improvements, were presented and discussed. In addition to the material presented during the workshop, this publication includes a technical synthesis reflecting the discussions that took place as well as the conclusions and recommendations made, notably during the working group sessions. (author)

  11. FOREWORD: Special issue on radionuclide metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Bruce; Judge, Steven

    2007-08-01

    This special issue of Metrologia on radionuclide metrology is the first of a trilogy on the subject of ionizing radiation measurement, a field that is overseen by Sections I, II and III of the CIPM's Consultative Committee for Ionizing Radiation (CCRI). The idea was first proposed at the 2003 series of CCRI Section meetings, with the general aim of showcasing the relevance and importance of metrology in ionizing radiation to a broader metrological audience. After the 2005 meeting of Section II (measurement of radionuclides), the radioactivity aspect of the project began to move forward in earnest. A working group was set up with the brief that the special issue should be of use by experienced metrologists as an overview of the 'state of the art' to compare progress and scientific content with those in other fields of metrology, as a resource for new metrologists joining the field and as a guide for users of radioactivity to explain how traceability to the international measurement system may be achieved. Since mankind first became aware of the existence of radioactivity just over a century ago (due to its discovery by Becquerel and further work by the Curies), much has been learnt and understood in the interim period. The field of radionuclide metrology that developed subsequently is broad-based and encompasses, amongst others, nuclear physics (experimental and theory), chemistry, mathematics, mathematical statistics, uncertainty analysis and advanced computing for data analysis, simulation and modelling. To determine the activity of radionuclides accurately requires elements of all of these subjects. In more recent decades the focus has been on the practical applications of radioactivity in industry and the health field in particular. In addition, low-level environmental radioactivity monitoring has taken on ever greater importance in the nuclear power era. These developments have required new detection instrumentation and techniques on an ongoing basis to ensure

  12. Disposal Unit Source Term (DUST) data input guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Performance assessment of a low-level waste (LLW) disposal facility begins with an estimation of the rate at which radionuclides migrate out of the facility (i.e., the source term). The focus of this work is to develop a methodology for calculating the source term. In general, the source term is influenced by the radionuclide inventory, the wasteforms and containers used to dispose of the inventory, and the physical processes that lead to release from the facility (fluid flow, container degradation, wasteform leaching, and radionuclide transport). The computer code DUST (Disposal Unit Source Term) has been developed to model these processes. This document presents the models used to calculate release from a disposal facility, verification of the model, and instructions on the use of the DUST code. In addition to DUST, a preprocessor, DUSTIN, which helps the code user create input decks for DUST and a post-processor, GRAFXT, which takes selected output files and plots them on the computer terminal have been written. Use of these codes is also described

  13. Status report on radionuclide transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the suggestion of the Federal Minstry of the Interior, in June 1978, a group of scientists from several institutions who are active in the field of radionuclide transfer or are interested in these problems got together. During the discussions of the work team, especially the transfer soil/plants was emphasized. Then the work team set up a status report on the transfer of the radionuclides relevant in the sense of the radiation protection act. The nuclides H3 and C14, the isotopes of the Sr, J, and Cs, Tc99, the so-called corrosion nuclides Mn54, Fe59, co-isotopes and Zn65, and isotopes of Pu, Am, and Cm were regarded as important for a possible radiation exposition. Recent investigations revealed that also the natural radionuclides Ra226, Po210, and Pb210 should be covered by the investigations. The goal of this status report is to present the level of knowledge on the transfer of these radionuclides to man in a brief form, giving hints at the most important literature. It was requested by the Federal Ministry of the Interior, as fas as possible, to indicate transfer factors which are necessary for the radio-occology act to be decreed according to Para. 45 of the radiation protection act. Another goal of the report was to show the gap in the knowledge on the radio nuclide transfer. This was thought to help to create a basis for the decisions of the Federal Ministry concerning the support of other investigation projects in the field of transfer of radionuclides. (orig./MG)

  14. Diagnosis of hydronephrosis: comparison of radionuclide scanning and sonography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malave, S.R.; Neiman, H.L.; Spies, S.M.; Cisternino, S.J.; Adamo, G.

    1980-12-01

    Diagnostic sonographic and radioisotope scanning techniques have been shown to be useful in the diagnosis of obstructive uropathy. The accuracy of both methods was compared and sonography was found to provide the more accurate data (sensitivity, 90%, specificity, 98%; accuracy, 97%). Sonography provides excellent anatomic information and enables one to grade the degree of dilatation. Renal radionuclide studies were less sensitive in detecting obstruction, particularly in the presence of chronic renal disease, but offered additional information regarding relative renal blood flow, total effective renal plasma flow, and interval change in renal parenchymal function.

  15. Diagnosis of hydronephrosis: comparison of radionuclide scanning and sonography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diagnostic sonographic and radioisotope scanning techniques have been shown to be useful in the diagnosis of obstructive uropathy. The accuracy of both methods was compared and sonography was found to provide the more accurate data (sensitivity, 90%, specificity, 98%; accuracy, 97%). Sonography provides excellent anatomic information and enables one to grade the degree of dilatation. Renal radionuclide studies were less sensitive in detecting obstruction, particularly in the presence of chronic renal disease, but offered additional information regarding relative renal blood flow, total effective renal plasma flow, and interval change in renal parenchymal function

  16. Consequences of hydrological events on the delivery of suspended sediment and associated radionuclides from the Rhone River to the Mediterranean Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almost 20 nuclear reactors are situated along the Rhone valley, representing Europe's largest concentration of nuclear power plants. The fate of suspended sediments and natural and artificial particle-bound radionuclides in relation to extreme hydrological events was assessed at the lower course of the Rhone River, which provides the main source of water and sediment inputs to the northwestern Mediterranean Sea. We sampled water at a high frequency over the period 2001-2008 and measured suspended particulate matter (SPM) loads and particle-bound natural and artificial radionuclide concentrations at the SORA observatory station in Arles, France. We monitored various hydrological events (either natural or anthropogenic origin) and characterize their influence on concentrations and fluxes. The relationship between SPM concentration and the very wide range of water discharges did not differ significantly from previous periods, indicating no significant shift in the average sediment delivery over the last 20 years. Unexpected hydrological events of anthropogenic origin, in particular those associated with flushing of reservoirs that are generally not captured by sampling strategies, were recorded and were shown to transfer significant additional sediment and associated contaminants towards the marine environment. Concentrations of anthropogenic radionuclides associated with sediment (i.e., 137Cs, 60Co, 54Mn, 110mAg, and Pu isotopes) varied over two to three orders of magnitude during periods of low and moderate flow due to variations in the liquid release from nuclear facilities. Except for Pu isotopes, the concentrations of the various particle-bound radionuclides generally showed a decreasing trend with increasing discharge, revealing the geochemical or anthropogenic background values, and providing a useful flood fingerprint for this large fluvial system before its entry into the marine environment. Our approach produced key data on the level and fate of suspended

  17. Environmental Transport Input Parameters for the Biosphere Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This analysis report is one of the technical reports documenting the Environmental Radiation Model for Yucca Mountain Nevada (ERMYN), a biosphere model supporting the total system performance assessment (TSPA) for the geologic repository at Yucca Mountain. A graphical representation of the documentation hierarchy for the ERMYN is presented in Figure 1-1. This figure shows relationships among the reports developed for biosphere modeling and biosphere abstraction products for the TSPA, as identified in the ''Technical Work Plan: for Biosphere Modeling and Expert Support'' (TWP) (BSC 2003 [163602]). Some documents in Figure 1-1 may be under development and not available when this report is issued. This figure provides an understanding of how this report contributes to biosphere modeling in support of the license application (LA), but access to the listed documents is not required to understand the contents of this report. This report is one of the reports that develops input parameter values for the biosphere model. The ''Biosphere Model Report'' (BSC 2003 [160699]) describes the conceptual model, the mathematical model, and the input parameters. The purpose of this analysis is to develop biosphere model parameter values related to radionuclide transport and accumulation in the environment. These parameters support calculations of radionuclide concentrations in the environmental media (e.g., soil, crops, animal products, and air) resulting from a given radionuclide concentration at the source of contamination (i.e., either in groundwater or volcanic ash). The analysis was performed in accordance with the TWP (BSC 2003 [163602]). This analysis develops values of parameters associated with many features, events, and processes (FEPs) applicable to the reference biosphere (DTN: M00303SEPFEPS2.000 [162452]), which are addressed in the biosphere model (BSC 2003 [160699]). The treatment of these FEPs is described in BSC (2003 [160699], Section 6.2). Parameter values

  18. Environmental Transport Input Parameters for the Biosphere Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. A. Wasiolek

    2003-06-27

    This analysis report is one of the technical reports documenting the Environmental Radiation Model for Yucca Mountain Nevada (ERMYN), a biosphere model supporting the total system performance assessment (TSPA) for the geologic repository at Yucca Mountain. A graphical representation of the documentation hierarchy for the ERMYN is presented in Figure 1-1. This figure shows relationships among the reports developed for biosphere modeling and biosphere abstraction products for the TSPA, as identified in the ''Technical Work Plan: for Biosphere Modeling and Expert Support'' (TWP) (BSC 2003 [163602]). Some documents in Figure 1-1 may be under development and not available when this report is issued. This figure provides an understanding of how this report contributes to biosphere modeling in support of the license application (LA), but access to the listed documents is not required to understand the contents of this report. This report is one of the reports that develops input parameter values for the biosphere model. The ''Biosphere Model Report'' (BSC 2003 [160699]) describes the conceptual model, the mathematical model, and the input parameters. The purpose of this analysis is to develop biosphere model parameter values related to radionuclide transport and accumulation in the environment. These parameters support calculations of radionuclide concentrations in the environmental media (e.g., soil, crops, animal products, and air) resulting from a given radionuclide concentration at the source of contamination (i.e., either in groundwater or volcanic ash). The analysis was performed in accordance with the TWP (BSC 2003 [163602]). This analysis develops values of parameters associated with many features, events, and processes (FEPs) applicable to the reference biosphere (DTN: M00303SEPFEPS2.000 [162452]), which are addressed in the biosphere model (BSC 2003 [160699]). The treatment of these FEPs is described in BSC (2003 [160699

  19. Inhalation Exposure Input Parameters for the Biosphere Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. Rautenstrauch

    2004-09-10

    This analysis is one of 10 reports that support the Environmental Radiation Model for Yucca Mountain, Nevada (ERMYN) biosphere model. The ''Biosphere Model Report'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169460]) describes in detail the conceptual model as well as the mathematical model and its input parameters. This report documents development of input parameters for the biosphere model that are related to atmospheric mass loading and supports the use of the model to develop biosphere dose conversion factors (BDCFs). The biosphere model is one of a series of process models supporting the total system performance assessment (TSPA) for a Yucca Mountain repository. Inhalation Exposure Input Parameters for the Biosphere Model is one of five reports that develop input parameters for the biosphere model. A graphical representation of the documentation hierarchy for the ERMYN is presented in Figure 1-1. This figure shows the interrelationships among the products (i.e., analysis and model reports) developed for biosphere modeling, and the plan for development of the biosphere abstraction products for TSPA, as identified in the Technical Work Plan for Biosphere Modeling and Expert Support (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169573]). This analysis report defines and justifies values of mass loading for the biosphere model. Mass loading is the total mass concentration of resuspended particles (e.g., dust, ash) in a volume of air. Mass loading values are used in the air submodel of ERMYN to calculate concentrations of radionuclides in air inhaled by a receptor and concentrations in air surrounding crops. Concentrations in air to which the receptor is exposed are then used in the inhalation submodel to calculate the dose contribution to the receptor from inhalation of contaminated airborne particles. Concentrations in air surrounding plants are used in the plant submodel to calculate the concentrations of radionuclides in foodstuffs contributed from uptake by foliar interception.

  20. Inhalation Exposure Input Parameters for the Biosphere Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This analysis is one of 10 reports that support the Environmental Radiation Model for Yucca Mountain, Nevada (ERMYN) biosphere model. The ''Biosphere Model Report'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169460]) describes in detail the conceptual model as well as the mathematical model and its input parameters. This report documents development of input parameters for the biosphere model that are related to atmospheric mass loading and supports the use of the model to develop biosphere dose conversion factors (BDCFs). The biosphere model is one of a series of process models supporting the total system performance assessment (TSPA) for a Yucca Mountain repository. Inhalation Exposure Input Parameters for the Biosphere Model is one of five reports that develop input parameters for the biosphere model. A graphical representation of the documentation hierarchy for the ERMYN is presented in Figure 1-1. This figure shows the interrelationships among the products (i.e., analysis and model reports) developed for biosphere modeling, and the plan for development of the biosphere abstraction products for TSPA, as identified in the Technical Work Plan for Biosphere Modeling and Expert Support (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169573]). This analysis report defines and justifies values of mass loading for the biosphere model. Mass loading is the total mass concentration of resuspended particles (e.g., dust, ash) in a volume of air. Mass loading values are used in the air submodel of ERMYN to calculate concentrations of radionuclides in air inhaled by a receptor and concentrations in air surrounding crops. Concentrations in air to which the receptor is exposed are then used in the inhalation submodel to calculate the dose contribution to the receptor from inhalation of contaminated airborne particles. Concentrations in air surrounding plants are used in the plant submodel to calculate the concentrations of radionuclides in foodstuffs contributed from uptake by foliar interception

  1. Chronic Bronchitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronchitis is an inflammation of the bronchial tubes, the airways that carry air to your lungs. It ... chest tightness. There are two main types of bronchitis: acute and chronic. Chronic bronchitis is one type ...

  2. Radionuclides and ionizing radiation in water management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The proceedings contain 31 papers dealing with the impact of nuclear power plants on the hydrosphere (radionuclide composition of waste waters and their assessment, the effect of liquid radioactive wastes on surface water organisms, the occurrence of radionuclides in bottom sediments, the cost-effectiveness of risk reduction of liquid radioactive wastes, etc.); the methods of concentrating and separating radionuclides from high-volume liquid samples; the methods of radionuclide contamination measurement (semiconductor spectrometry, the use of silicon detectors, the measurement of gross alpha and beta activities, etc.); and radionuclide migration in ground waters. (E.S.). 25 figs., 30 tabs., 86 refs

  3. Transport and fate of radionuclides in aquatic environments - the use of ecosystem modelling for exposure assessments of nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In safety assessments of nuclear facilities, a wide range of radioactive isotopes and their potential hazard to a large assortment of organisms and ecosystem types over long time scales need to be considered. Models used for these purposes have typically employed approaches based on generic reference organisms, stylised environments and transfer functions for biological uptake exclusively based on bioconcentration factors (BCFs). These models are of non-mechanistic nature and involve no understanding of uptake and transport processes in the environment, which is a severe limitation when assessing real ecosystems. In this paper, ecosystem models are suggested as a method to include site-specific data and to facilitate the modelling of dynamic systems. An aquatic ecosystem model for the environmental transport of radionuclides is presented and discussed. With this model, driven and constrained by site-specific carbon dynamics and three radionuclide specific mechanisms: (i) radionuclide uptake by plants (ii) excretion by animals, and (iii) adsorption to organic surfaces, it was possible to estimate the radionuclide concentrations in all components of the modelled ecosystem with only two radionuclide specific input parameters (BCF for plants and K d). The importance of radionuclide specific mechanisms for the exposure to organisms was examined, and probabilistic and sensitivity analyses to assess the uncertainties related to ecosystem input parameters were performed. Verification of the model suggests that this model produces analogous results to empirically derived data for more than 20 different radionuclides

  4. Chronic gastritis

    OpenAIRE

    Sipponen, Pentti; Maaroos, Heidi-Ingrid

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Prevalence of chronic gastritis has markedly declined in developed populations during the past decades. However, chronic gastritis is still one of the most common serious pandemic infections with such severe killing sequelae as peptic ulcer or gastric cancer. Globally, on average, even more than half of people may have a chronic gastritis at present. Helicobacter pylori infection in childhood is the main cause of chronic gastritis, which microbial origin is the key for the understand...

  5. Development of uncertainty analyses for the transport of radionuclides from a repository for high-level radioactive waste. Stage one

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The escape of radionuclides from a repository for high level waste is described by the near field model LCHCAL and the geosphere models GEO1/SU and NUCDIF. These models are used to calculate the radionuclide outflow to the biosphere. The uncertainties in the input parameters to the near field and geosphere models are handled by the uncertainty analysis models PARVAR and SYVAC/SU. The uncertainty analysis models have been tested on two nuclides, 14C and 135Cs, for cases with pure surface sorption and matrix diffusion. In the case of surface sorption five input parameters and for matrix diffusion six input parameters were varied. The results of the uncertainty analyses are presented in the form of histograms, scatter plots, isocontour plots and 3-dimensional plots of the radionuclide release to the biosphere. Also the ten highest maximum release rates and correlation coefficients are presented. (orig.)

  6. Material input of nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Material Input (MI) of nuclear fuel, expressed in terms of the total amount of natural material needed for manufacturing a product, is examined. The suitability of the MI method for assessing the environmental impacts of fuels is also discussed. Material input is expressed as a Material Input Coefficient (MIC), equalling to the total mass of natural material divided by the mass of the completed product. The material input coefficient is, however, only an intermediate result, which should not be used as such for the comparison of different fuels, because the energy contents of nuclear fuel is about 100 000-fold compared to the energy contents of fossil fuels. As a final result, the material input is expressed in proportion to the amount of generated electricity, which is called MIPS (Material Input Per Service unit). Material input is a simplified and commensurable indicator for the use of natural material, but because it does not take into account the harmfulness of materials or the way how the residual material is processed, it does not alone express the amount of environmental impacts. The examination of the mere amount does not differentiate between for example coal, natural gas or waste rock containing usually just sand. Natural gas is, however, substantially more harmful for the ecosystem than sand. Therefore, other methods should also be used to consider the environmental load of a product. The material input coefficient of nuclear fuel is calculated using data from different types of mines. The calculations are made among other things by using the data of an open pit mine (Key Lake, Canada), an underground mine (McArthur River, Canada) and a by-product mine (Olympic Dam, Australia). Furthermore, the coefficient is calculated for nuclear fuel corresponding to the nuclear fuel supply of Teollisuuden Voima (TVO) company in 2001. Because there is some uncertainty in the initial data, the inaccuracy of the final results can be even 20-50 per cent. The value

  7. The Advanced LIGO Input Optics

    CERN Document Server

    Mueller, Chris; Ciani, Giacomo; DeRosa, Ryan; Effler, Anamaria; Feldbaum, David; Frolov, Valery; Fulda, Paul; Gleason, Joseph; Heintze, Matthew; King, Eleanor; Kokeyama, Keiko; Korth, William; Martin, Rodica; Mullavey, Adam; Poeld, Jan; Quetschke, Volker; Reitze, David; Tanner, David; Williams, Luke; Mueller, Guido

    2016-01-01

    The Advanced LIGO gravitational wave detectors are nearing their design sensitivity and should begin taking meaningful astrophysical data in the fall of 2015. These resonant optical interferometers will have unprecedented sensitivity to the strains caused by passing gravitational waves. The input optics play a significant part in allowing these devices to reach such sensitivities. Residing between the pre-stabilized laser and the main interferometer, the input optics is tasked with preparing the laser beam for interferometry at the sub-attometer level while operating at continuous wave input power levels ranging from 100 mW to 150 W. These extreme operating conditions required every major component to be custom designed. These designs draw heavily on the experience and understanding gained during the operation of Initial LIGO and Enhanced LIGO. In this article we report on how the components of the input optics were designed to meet their stringent requirements and present measurements showing how well they h...

  8. Chronic prostatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Erickson, Bradley A.; Schaeffer, Anthony J.; Le, Brian

    2008-01-01

    Chronic prostatitis can cause pain and urinary symptoms, and usually occurs without positive bacterial cultures from prostatic secretions (known as chronic abacterial prostatitis or chronic pelvic pain syndrome, CP/CPPS). Bacterial infection can result from urinary tract instrumentation, but the cause and natural history of CP/CPPS are unknown.

  9. Nonlinear input-output systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, L. R.; Luksic, Mladen; Su, Renjeng

    1987-01-01

    Necessary and sufficient conditions that the nonlinear system dot-x = f(x) + ug(x) and y = h(x) be locally feedback equivalent to the controllable linear system dot-xi = A xi + bv and y = C xi having linear output are found. Only the single input and single output case is considered, however, the results generalize to multi-input and multi-output systems.

  10. Calculations of radionuclide organ retentions from ICRP biokinetic recycling models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 1985, the International Commission on Radiological Protection has revised biokinetic models for dose calculations from intakes of radionuclides. For workers and reference persons of the public, these models include recycling exchanges of the activity between the mixed blood and soft tissue pool and the other organs. Current work is aimed at providing a calculation tool to solve such recycling systems based on matrix algebra. The software, named CYCLOMOD, is written in Visual Basic language using Excel5. Database files provide radionuclide compartment transfer parameters corresponding to adults and children. CYCLOMOD processes any combination of acute and/or chronic intake by inhalation, ingestion and injection, for a chosen monitoring period of time following intake. Output files provide radionuclide remaining quantities, disintegrated amounts and number of disintegrations in each compartment as a function of time after intake. For each compartment, tissue and organ data are also presented graphically and thus could be related to in vivo organ measurements. The daily faecal and urinary excretions can also be calculated by subtraction. (author)

  11. Stress injuries of the pars interarticularis: Radiologic classification and indications for radionuclide imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lumbar spine radiographs and radionuclide images were compared and correlated with clinical histories of 20 athletes with low back pain. Radiographs were classified as: Normal (Type 0); showing a healing stress fracture (an irregular lucent line) with sclerosis (Type I); as an evolving or healed stress injury with either sclerosis, narrowing, or demineralization (Type II); and as a chronic fracture showing a large lucency with well-defined margins classically referred to as spondylolysis (Type III). Patients were grouped clinically on the basis of their pain: acute onset (Group A, n = 7), acute superimposed on chronic (Group B, n = 9), and chronic pain without an acute event (Group C, n = 4). Radiographic abnormalities were present in 95% (19/20) of the patients and radionuclide studies were positive in 60% (12/20). Scintigraphy was positive most often with Type I pars abnormalities (77%, 10/13) and negative most often with Type III abnormalities (91%, 11/12). Of all positive scintigraphy 12/14 (86%) were in pts in Groups A and B (acute symptoms). The authors' findings support theories that radiographic pars abnormalities exist which correspond to stages in the healing of stress induced fractures. With acute symptoms radionuclide imaging need not be obtained if a Type I radiographic abnormality is seen. Radionuclide imaging is indicated with either Type 0, II or III radiographs to confirm or rule out recent stress injury

  12. Radionuclide imaging of musculoskeletal infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palestr, Christopher J. [Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY (United States); North Shore Long Island Jewish Health System, Manhasset and New Hyde Park, NY (United States). Div. of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging; E-mail: palestro@lij.edu; Love, Charito [North Shore Long Island Jewish Health System, Manhasset and New Hyde Park, NY (United States). Div. of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging

    2007-09-15

    Radionuclide imaging studies are routinely used to evaluate patients suspected of having musculoskeletal infection. Three-phase bone imaging is readily available, relatively inexpensive, and very accurate in the setting of otherwise normal bone. Labeled leukocyte imaging should be used in cases of 'complicating osteomyelitis' such as prosthetic joint infection. This test also is useful in clinically unsuspected diabetic pedal osteomyelitis as well as in the neuropathic joint. It is often necessary, however, to perform complementary bone marrow imaging, to maximize the accuracy of labeled leukocyte imaging. In contrast to other regions in the skeleton, labeled leukocyte imaging is not useful for diagnosing spinal osteomyelitis. At the moment, gallium is the preferred radionuclide procedure for this condition and is a useful adjunct to magnetic resonance imaging. FDG-PET likely will play an important role in the evaluation of musculoskeletal infection, especially spinal osteomyelitis, and may replace gallium imaging for this purpose. (author)

  13. Radionuclide behavior at underground environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study of radionuclide behavior at underground environment has been carried out as a part of the study of high-level waste disposal technology development. Therefore, the main objectives of this project are constructing a data-base and producing data for the safety assessment of a high-level radioactive waste, and verification of the objectivity of the assessment through characterization of the geochemical processes and experimental validation of the radionuclide migration. The various results from the this project can be applicable to the preliminary safety and performance assessments of the established disposal concept for a future high-level radioactive waste repository. Providing required data and technical basis for assessment methodologies could be a direct application of the results. In a long-term view, the results can also be utilized as a technical background for the establishment of government policy for high-level radioactive waste disposal

  14. Determination of radionuclides in air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The air in certain work areas at the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant is monitored for selected radionuclides to assure safety FR-om toxic effects to personnel in the area. Some of the radionuclides that are determined are shown with their Radiation Protection Standard (RPS) values by means of a table. The RPS is the maximum average airborne contamination to which personnel may be exposed for one week without respiratory protection and is expressed as disintegrations per minute (dpm) per cubic meter (m/sup 3/) of air. It is desirable to make reliable measurements at a level which is 10% of the RPS to ensure that the detection limits are well below the RPS. Thorium, neptunium, plutonium, and uranium all have alpha emitting isotopes and it is their alpha activity which is measured. Results are tabulated

  15. Choice of radionuclides for radioimmunotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Innumerable questions need to be answered and obstacles overcome before radioimmunotherapy can be generally successful in cancer patients. Major developments have greatly enhanced the likelihood of success. The important development of appropriate radionuclides and radiochemistry for this therapy must be intimately linked with the biological and biochemical realities. All aspects must be considered, such as the specific nature of the antigenic target, the pharmacokinetics of the antibody fragment carrier, the capability of in vivo quantitation of tumor uptake and turnover time, as well as total body kinetics. With this knowledge, then, practical radiochemistry methods can be integrated with the suitable radionuclide choices, and production methods can be developed which will deliver effective and dependable products for patient therapy

  16. Radionuclide behavior at underground environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahn, Phil Soo; Park, Chung Kyun; Keum, Dong Kwon; Cho, Young Hwan; Kang, Moon Ja; Baik, Min Hoon; Hahn, Kyung Won; Chun, Kwan Sik; Park, Hyun Soo

    2000-03-01

    This study of radionuclide behavior at underground environment has been carried out as a part of the study of high-level waste disposal technology development. Therefore, the main objectives of this project are constructing a data-base and producing data for the safety assessment of a high-level radioactive waste, and verification of the objectivity of the assessment through characterization of the geochemical processes and experimental validation of the radionuclide migration. The various results from the this project can be applicable to the preliminary safety and performance assessments of the established disposal concept for a future high-level radioactive waste repository. Providing required data and technical basis for assessment methodologies could be a direct application of the results. In a long-term view, the results can also be utilized as a technical background for the establishment of government policy for high-level radioactive waste disposal.

  17. Radionuclide behaviour in a coniferous woodland ecosystem in Cumbria, UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The behaviour of 134Cs, 137Cs, 238Pu, 239+240Pu and 241Am, in food chains in a semi-natural woodland has been investigated and doses to the ecosystem due to the presence of these radionuclides of anthropogenic origin have been assessed. The woodland is located within 1 km of the coastal British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) reprocessing plant at Sellafield, Cumbria (O.S. Grid Reference: NY 037045) and has received an input of radionuclides primarily through atmospheric discharges from the Sellafield site throughout its operational history of more than 40 years. Deposition has been enhanced by interception by the canopy, such that deposits in the woodland are significantly higher than adjacent pasture land. Within the wood, deposition is greatest along the front (or leading) edge in relation to aerosols transported to the woodland from Sellafield, due to the 'edge effect'. Despite the high radionuclide deposits, relatively low uptake and mobility within the ecosystem was observed. Estimated doses to the ecosystem at around 2 mGy a-1, were dominated by external irradiation and were well below the levels thought to be necessary to harm terrestrial ecosystems. A provisional conclusion at this stage is that the measures taken to control emissions from Sellafield in line with radiological protection standards for humans have also been adequate to protect this potentially vulnerable ecosystem

  18. Radionuclide transport calculations in the safety assessment SR 97

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study treats radionuclide transport calculations for a canister defect scenario in the safety assessment SR 97, which concerns a deep repository for spent nuclear fuel of the KBS-3 type in Sweden. The aims of the calculations are to: 1. Quantitatively describe the radionuclide transport. 2. Show the impact of uncertainty in input data and show which parameters govern the calculated release rates. 3. Compare three different real sites in Sweden (Aberg, Beberg and Ceberg) with each other and with dose limits given in Swedish regulations (none of the sites is considered in the on-going localization process). Only briefly described in this paper. 4. Illustrate the impact of the different barriers in the system. Deterministic calculations illustrate the radionuclide transport for reasonable conditions. Uncertainty cases show the influence of the uncertainty for data related to different parts of the repository system by systematically giving them pessimistic values while all others are reasonable. Simplified probabilistic calculations have also been performed. The analysis shows that the most important parameters in the near field are the number of defective canisters and the instant release fraction. In the far field the most important uncertainties affecting release and retention are connected to permeability and connectivity of the fractures in the rock. The dose rate in the biosphere is essentially controlled by the possibilities of dilution. The calculated maximum doses for the hypothetical repositories are well below the dose limits, and hence they meet the acceptance criteria for a deep repository for spent fuel. Copyright (2001) Material Research Society

  19. Radiation protection in radionuclide investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The subject is covered in sections: introduction; radiation and radioactivity; alpha particles; beta particles; neutrons; electromagnetic radiation; units of radioactivity and radiation; biological effects of radiation; the philosophy of radiation protection (ALARA principle); practical aspects of radiation protection; work with unsealed radiation sources; radionuclide studies in experimental animals; radiation safety during clinical investigations; legislative control of radiation work; radioactive waste disposal; emergency procedures; conclusion. (U.K.)

  20. Mineralisation and biomineralisation of radionuclides

    OpenAIRE

    Brookshaw, Diana Roumenova

    2013-01-01

    Management of contamination from industrial activities and wastes from nuclear power generation and weapons development are arguably amongst the greatest challenges facing humanity currently and into the future. Understanding the mobility of toxic radioactive elements is essential for successful remediation strategies and safe management of our nuclear waste legacy (DEFRA, 2008). Interactions between minerals and radionuclides, such as sorption and precipitation, govern the mobility of the co...

  1. Radionuclide dispersion in the atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The instantaneous liberation of radionuclides in the atmosphere is studied in three dimensions, according to the formalism of the diffusion theory. The analytical solution, expose to gravitational and an atmospherical effects, is combined with the discretization of space and time in the calculation of levels of exposure. A typical inventory (for a PWR) was considered in the calculation of immersion doses, and the results permitted a comparative analysis among the different existing models. (Author)

  2. Accelerator-derived radionuclide generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The status of the research, development and commercialization of accelerator produced generator systems intended for life science applications is reviewed. The generator technology reported since 1983 is stressed with emphasis on loading the generator, the selection, and the evaluation of support materials and eluents with respect to the resultant radiochemical yield of the daughter and the breakthrough of the radionuclidic parent. Quality control considerations and the automated delivery of the eluent for human use are mentioned. 121 references are cited. (orig.)

  3. Radionuclide 252Cf neutron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Characteristics of radionuclide neutron sourses of 252Cf base with the activity from 106 to 109 n/s have been investigated. Energetic distributions of neutrons and gamma-radiation have been presented. The results obtained have been compared with other data available. The hardness parameter of the neutron spectrum for the energy range from 3 to 15 MeV is 1.4 +- 0.02 MeV

  4. PABLM: a computer program to calculate accumulated radiation doses from radionuclides in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A computer program, PABLM, was written to facilitate the calculation of internal radiation doses to man from radionuclides in food products and external radiation doses from radionuclides in the environment. This report contains details of mathematical models used and calculational procedures required to run the computer program. Radiation doses from radionuclides in the environment may be calculated from deposition on the soil or plants during an atmospheric or liquid release, or from exposure to residual radionuclides in the environment after the releases have ended. Radioactive decay is considered during the release of radionuclides, after they are deposited on the plants or ground, and during holdup of food after harvest. The radiation dose models consider several exposure pathways. Doses may be calculated for either a maximum-exposed individual or for a population group. The doses calculated are accumulated doses from continuous chronic exposure. A first-year committed dose is calculated as well as an integrated dose for a selected number of years. The equations for calculating internal radiation doses are derived from those given by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) for body burdens and MPC's of each radionuclide. The radiation doses from external exposure to contaminated water and soil are calculated using the basic assumption that the contaminated medium is large enough to be considered an infinite volume or plane relative to the range of the emitted radiations. The equations for calculations of the radiation dose from external exposure to shoreline sediments include a correction for the finite width of the contaminated beach

  5. A review of transfer factors for assessing the dose from radionuclides in agricultural products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dose to man from radionuclides released to the environment is generally assessed with mathematical models that require transfer factors as input parameters to predict the concentration of radionuclides in foodstuffs. This article summarizes recent attempts to review the worldwide literature and derive updated transfer factors to predict concentrations of radionuclides in terrestrial foods using equilibrium models. Updated transfer coefficients to predict the concentration of a radionuclide in cow's milk and other animal products from that in feed are presented as well as concentration factors to predict the concentration of a nuclide in a food or feed crop from that in soil. Comparing the updated transfer coefficients with those in existing tables leads to suggested changes in the transfer coefficients for milk and beef. Soil-to-plant concentration factors are extremely variable, which limits the usefulness of a single concentration factor to predict the uptake of a radionuclide into crops from soil. The potentially large uncertainty associated with predicting the uptake of radionuclides by plants from soil at a particular location may be reduced by considering the dominant crops and soil types in the area and how various soil properties affect the concentration factor. The updated transfer factors may be useful in assessing transport through terrestrial food chains when site-specific information is not available. In addition, they provide a basis for systematically updating existing tables of transfer factors for generic assessments

  6. Fractionation of radionuclide species in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naturally occurring and artificially produced radionuclides in the environment may be present in different physico-chemical forms (i.e., radionuclide species) varying in size (nominal molecular mass), charge properties and valence, oxidation state, structure and morphology, density, degree of complexation, etc. Low molecular mass (LMM) species are believed to be mobile and potentially bioavailable, while high molecular mass (HMM) species such as colloids, polymers, pseudocolloids and particles are considered inert. Due to time-dependent transformation processes such as mobilisation of radionuclide species from solid phases or interactions of mobile and reactive radionuclide species with components in soils and sediments, the original distribution of radionuclides deposited in ecosystems will change over time. To assess the environmental impact from radionuclide contamination, information on radionuclide species deposited, interactions within affected ecosystems and the time-dependent distribution of radionuclide species influencing mobility and biological uptake is essential. The development of speciation techniques to characterize radionuclide species in waters, soils and sediments should therefore be essential for improving the prediction power of impact and risk assessment models. The present paper reviews available fractionation techniques which can be utilised for radionuclide speciation purposes

  7. Metabolism of radionuclides in domestic animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reactor accident at Chernobyl has shown that shortly after the contamination of the environment radionuclides can be found in animal products. The main contamination pathways of domestic animas are: uptake of radionuclides by foodstuffs; uptake of radionuclides by contaminated drinking water; uptake of radionuclides by inhalation; uptake of radionuclides through skin; uptake of radionuclides by ingestion of soil particles. Generally the uptake of radionuclides by food is the dominant exposure pathway. In rare cases the inhalation of radionuclides or the uptake by drinking water may be of importance. The metabolism of incorporated radionuclides is comparable to the respective metabolism of essential mass or trace elements or heavy metals. Radioisotopes of essential elements are for instance iron 55, manganese 54, cobalt 58 and cobalt 60. Other elements are typical antagonists to essential elements, e.g. strontium 90 is an antagonist to calcium or cesium 137 to potassium. Lead 210 and plutonium 239 behave similarly as heavy metals. Generally the knowledge of the metabolism of trace and mass elements, of antagonistic and synergistic elements and heavy metals can be applied to these radionuclides

  8. Radionuclide assessment of renal function in the transplanted kidney

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ability of radionuclide renal function to detect rejection and to presume the prognosis of the transplanted kidney was evaluated in 70 patients. Effective renal plasma flow (ERPF), excretory index (EI) and perfusion index (PI) were examined by I-123 OIH and Tc-99 m DTPA. Numbers of the study in various status were as follows; 51 studies in good function, 43 in acute rejection and 18 in chronic rejection. Significant reduction in ERPF and EI and increase of PI were observed in the acute rejection (p<0.01). In the chronic rejection, there was a progressive decrease of ERPF (p<0.01). The patients were divided into two groups: group A; 46 patients with good function more than 9 months after transplantation and group B; 20 patients of whom recurrence of hemodialysis or nephectomy was done. In living transplantation, ERPF of group B at the first week after transplantation was remarkably lower than group A (p<0.05). In cadaveric transplantation, ERPF of group B at the sixth week was lower than that of group B (p<0.05). This study indicates that serial measurements of renal function by radionuclide methods may provide the state of rejection and prognosis of the transplanted kidney. (author)

  9. Mass exchange processes with input

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigate a system of interacting clusters evolving through mass exchange and supplemented by input of small clusters. Three possibilities depending on the rate of exchange generically occur when input is homogeneous: continuous growth, gelation, and instantaneous gelation. We mostly study the growth regime using scaling methods. An exchange process with reaction rates equal to the product of reactant masses admits an exact solution which allows us to justify the validity of scaling approaches in this special case. We also investigate exchange processes with a localized input. We show that if the diffusion coefficients are mass-independent, the cluster mass distribution becomes stationary and develops an algebraic tail far away from the source. (paper)

  10. COGNITIVE INTERPRETATION OF INPUT HYPOTHESIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WangHongyue; RenLiankui

    2004-01-01

    Krashen's Input Hypothesis, together with its earlier version, the Monitor Model is an influential theory in Second Language Acquisition research. In his studies, Krashen, on the one hand, emphasizes the part '“ comprehensible input” plays in learning a second language, on the other hand, he simply defines“comprehensible input” as “a little beyond the learner's current level”. What input can be considered as“a little beyond the learner's current level ”? Krashen gives no furtherexplanation. This paper tries to offer a more concrete and more detailed interpretation with Ausubel's Cognitive Assimilation theory.

  11. Strategic inputs into patent pools

    OpenAIRE

    Baron, Justus; Delcamp, Henry

    2010-01-01

    This article explores what factors determine the decision of a patent pool to accept new inputs. We propose a dynamic analysis of 1337 U.S. patent inputs into 7 important pools. This analysis highlights a trade-off between firm and patent characteristics as the determinants of inclusion of patents into pools. For instance we prove that firms already member of the pool or holding large patent portfolios are able to include lower quality patents. These findings can be explained both by bargaini...

  12. Soil-Related Input Parameters for the Biosphere Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. J. Smith

    2004-09-09

    This report presents one of the analyses that support the Environmental Radiation Model for Yucca Mountain Nevada (ERMYN). The ''Biosphere Model Report'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169460]) describes the details of the conceptual model as well as the mathematical model and the required input parameters. The biosphere model is one of a series of process models supporting the postclosure Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) for the Yucca Mountain repository. A schematic representation of the documentation flow for the Biosphere input to TSPA is presented in Figure 1-1. This figure shows the evolutionary relationships among the products (i.e., analysis and model reports) developed for biosphere modeling, and the biosphere abstraction products for TSPA, as identified in the ''Technical Work Plan for Biosphere Modeling and Expert Support'' (TWP) (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169573]). This figure is included to provide an understanding of how this analysis report contributes to biosphere modeling in support of the license application, and is not intended to imply that access to the listed documents is required to understand the contents of this report. This report, ''Soil-Related Input Parameters for the Biosphere Model'', is one of the five analysis reports that develop input parameters for use in the ERMYN model. This report is the source documentation for the six biosphere parameters identified in Table 1-1. The purpose of this analysis was to develop the biosphere model parameters associated with the accumulation and depletion of radionuclides in the soil. These parameters support the calculation of radionuclide concentrations in soil from on-going irrigation or ash deposition and, as a direct consequence, radionuclide concentration in other environmental media that are affected by radionuclide concentrations in soil. The analysis was performed in accordance with the TWP (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169573]) where the governing procedure

  13. Soil-Related Input Parameters for the Biosphere Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents one of the analyses that support the Environmental Radiation Model for Yucca Mountain Nevada (ERMYN). The ''Biosphere Model Report'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169460]) describes the details of the conceptual model as well as the mathematical model and the required input parameters. The biosphere model is one of a series of process models supporting the postclosure Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) for the Yucca Mountain repository. A schematic representation of the documentation flow for the Biosphere input to TSPA is presented in Figure 1-1. This figure shows the evolutionary relationships among the products (i.e., analysis and model reports) developed for biosphere modeling, and the biosphere abstraction products for TSPA, as identified in the ''Technical Work Plan for Biosphere Modeling and Expert Support'' (TWP) (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169573]). This figure is included to provide an understanding of how this analysis report contributes to biosphere modeling in support of the license application, and is not intended to imply that access to the listed documents is required to understand the contents of this report. This report, ''Soil-Related Input Parameters for the Biosphere Model'', is one of the five analysis reports that develop input parameters for use in the ERMYN model. This report is the source documentation for the six biosphere parameters identified in Table 1-1. The purpose of this analysis was to develop the biosphere model parameters associated with the accumulation and depletion of radionuclides in the soil. These parameters support the calculation of radionuclide concentrations in soil from on-going irrigation or ash deposition and, as a direct consequence, radionuclide concentration in other environmental media that are affected by radionuclide concentrations in soil. The analysis was performed in accordance with the TWP (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169573]) where the governing procedure was defined as AP-SIII.9Q, ''Scientific Analyses''. This

  14. Targeted Radionuclide Therapy of Human Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudkov, Sergey V.; Shilyagina, Natalya Yu.; Vodeneev, Vladimir A.; Zvyagin, Andrei V.

    2015-01-01

    Targeted radionuclide therapy is one of the most intensively developing directions of nuclear medicine. Unlike conventional external beam therapy, the targeted radionuclide therapy causes less collateral damage to normal tissues and allows targeted drug delivery to a clinically diagnosed neoplastic malformations, as well as metastasized cells and cellular clusters, thus providing systemic therapy of cancer. The methods of targeted radionuclide therapy are based on the use of molecular carriers of radionuclides with high affinity to antigens on the surface of tumor cells. The potential of targeted radionuclide therapy has markedly grown nowadays due to the expanded knowledge base in cancer biology, bioengineering, and radiochemistry. In this review, progress in the radionuclide therapy of hematological malignancies and approaches for treatment of solid tumors is addressed. PMID:26729091

  15. Targeted Radionuclide Therapy of Human Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey V. Gudkov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Targeted radionuclide therapy is one of the most intensively developing directions of nuclear medicine. Unlike conventional external beam therapy, the targeted radionuclide therapy causes less collateral damage to normal tissues and allows targeted drug delivery to a clinically diagnosed neoplastic malformations, as well as metastasized cells and cellular clusters, thus providing systemic therapy of cancer. The methods of targeted radionuclide therapy are based on the use of molecular carriers of radionuclides with high affinity to antigens on the surface of tumor cells. The potential of targeted radionuclide therapy has markedly grown nowadays due to the expanded knowledge base in cancer biology, bioengineering, and radiochemistry. In this review, progress in the radionuclide therapy of hematological malignancies and approaches for treatment of solid tumors is addressed.

  16. Microbial Transformations of Actinides and Other Radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francis,A.J.; Dodge, C. J.

    2009-01-07

    Microorganisms can affect the stability and mobility of the actinides and other radionuclides released from nuclear fuel cycle and from nuclear fuel reprocessing plants. Under appropriate conditions, microorganisms can alter the chemical speciation, solubility and sorption properties and thus could increase or decrease the concentrations of radionuclides in solution in the environment and the bioavailability. Dissolution or immobilization of radionuclides is brought about by direct enzymatic action or indirect non-enzymatic action of microorganisms. Although the physical, chemical, and geochemical processes affecting dissolution, precipitation, and mobilization of radionuclides have been extensively investigated, we have only limited information on the effects of microbial processes and biochemical mechanisms which affect the stability and mobility of radionuclides. The mechanisms of microbial transformations of the major and minor actinides U, Pu, Cm, Am, Np, the fission products and other radionuclides such as Ra, Tc, I, Cs, Sr, under aerobic and anaerobic conditions in the presence of electron donors and acceptors are reviewed.

  17. Assessing ecological effects of radionuclides: data gaps and extrapolation issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By inspection of the FASSET database on radiation effects on non-human biota, one of the major difficulties in the implementation of ecological risk assessments for radioactive pollutants is found to be the lack of data for chronic low-level exposure. A critical review is provided of a number of extrapolation issues that arise in undertaking an ecological risk assessment: acute versus chronic exposure regime; radiation quality including relative biological effectiveness and radiation weighting factors; biological effects from an individual to a population level, including radiosensitivity and lifestyle variations throughout the life cycle; single radionuclide versus multi-contaminants. The specificities of the environmental situations of interest (mainly chronic low-level exposure regimes) emphasise the importance of reproductive parameters governing the demography of the population within a given ecosystem and, as a consequence, the structure and functioning of that ecosystem. As an operational conclusion to keep in mind for any site-specific risk assessment, the present state-of-the-art on extrapolation issues allows us to grade the magnitude of the uncertainties as follows: one species to another > acute to chronic = external to internal = mixture of stressors> individual to population> ecosystem structure to function

  18. Production of radionuclides with generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The radionuclide generator provides a convenient means for researchers and clinicians to obtain a source of radionuclides without dependence on nuclear facilities (nuclear reactor or cyclotron). It should be noted that radionuclide generator technique yields products of very high purity and it offers moreover the only possible way of obtaining very short-lived radionuclides for practical applications. Therefore at present radionuclide generators have found important uses in nuclear medicine. This talk reviews the development of preparation methods for radionuclide generators of current interest: 99Mo-99mTc, 188W-188Re and 68Ge-68Ga. 99Mo-99mTc generator. 99mTc is presently the most widely used radionuclide in diagnostic nuclear medicine. The reason for such a preeminent position of 99mTc in clinical uses is its extremely favorable nuclear properties with γ-energy of 140 keV and short half-life of 6 hours. Chromatographic generator of 99Mo-99mTc based on aluminium oxide using as eluent of isotonic saline solution, containing nitrate-ions has been produced in INP AS RU. However, the main disadvantage of this generator is that the eluent-saline solution contains some amount of nitrate-ions. Nitrate-ions added to maximize and stabilize 99mTc yields would interfere with the chemical reactions which involve Sn(II) reduction of the pertechnetate ion and which are used subsequently in the preparation of radiopharmaceuticals. Therefore we proposed the new method for preliminary treatment of aluminium oxide by the external gamma (Co-60) irradiation. It is found that the aluminium oxide has got electron-acceptor properties after gamma-irradiation. Adsorption of 99Mo radionuclide as isopolymolybdate on gamma-irradiated aluminium oxide is very high and molybdenum is firmly retained. Adsorption capacity of gamma-irradiated aluminium oxide at pH 2-4 is 60-80 mg Mo per gram of Al2O3. The yields of 99mTc from experimental generators remained high (75-85%) independently

  19. MIRD radionuclide data and decay schemes

    CERN Document Server

    Eckerman, Keith F

    2007-01-01

    For all physicians, scientists, and physicists working in the nuclear medicine field, the MIRD: Radionuclide Data and Decay Schemes updated edition is an essential sourcebook for radiation dosimetry and understanding the properties of radionuclides. Includes CD Table of Contents Decay schemes listed by atomic number Radioactive decay processes Serial decay schemes Decay schemes and decay tables This essential reference for nuclear medicine physicians, scientists and physicists also includes a CD with tabulations of the radionuclide data necessary for dosimetry calculations.

  20. Preparation of porous materials for radionuclides capture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porous materials showing promise for radionuclide capture from water at contaminated sites were prepared. Nanoporous materials (size of pores 1-100 nm) and some polymers are well suited to this purpose owing their affinity for selected radionuclides. Nanoporous metal oxides and silica gel with styrene-divinylbenzene-TODGA-modified surface were prepared, characterized and tested for radionuclide (227Ac, 227Th, 223Ra) capture efficiency. (orig.)

  1. Production of radionuclides in nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Given is a short review on the production of radionuclides which was performed in the Vinca Institute of Nuclear Sciences by using the nuclear reactor RA. Regarding the considerations of the possible re-starting of this reactor its use for the production of medical radionuclides should be taken into account. Listed are some of the important medical radionuclides routinely produced in nuclear reactors in the world and discussed the conditions for their obtaining in the reactor RA. (author)

  2. Radionuclide usage survey 1979-80

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Details of a survey by the Life Sciences Working Group of the International Committee for Radionuclide Metrology (ICRM) on radionuclide usage by medical physicists in 11 countries are presented. The results indicate that the radionuclide which will be of most significance in the future will be F-18, Fe-52, Ga-67, Ga-68, Kr-81m, Tc-99m, In-111, I-123, Xe-127 and Tl-201, (U.K.)

  3. Development of Cyclotron Radionuclides for Medical Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Qaim, S. M.

    2015-01-01

    Soon after the discovery of radioactivity it was shown that radionuclides can be used both for diagnostic and therapeutic studies, depending on the characteristic radiations emitted by them. By 1960’s the radionuclide production technology using nuclear reactors was well established. In early 1970’s a renaissance of the cyclotrons occurred because many of the neutron deficient radionuclides could only be produced using irradiations with charged particles, like protons, deuterons, α-particles,...

  4. Chronic migraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwedt, Todd J

    2014-01-01

    Chronic migraine is a disabling neurologic condition that affects 2% of the general population. Patients with chronic migraine have headaches on at least 15 days a month, with at least eight days a month on which their headaches and associated symptoms meet diagnostic criteria for migraine. Chronic migraine places an enormous burden on patients owing to frequent headaches; hypersensitivity to visual, auditory, and olfactory stimuli; nausea; and vomiting. It also affects society through direct and indirect medical costs. Chronic migraine typically develops after a slow increase in headache frequency over months to years. Several factors are associated with an increased risk of transforming to chronic migraine. The diagnosis requires a carefully performed patient interview and neurologic examination, sometimes combined with additional diagnostic tests, to differentiate chronic migraine from secondary headache disorders and other primary chronic headaches of long duration. Treatment takes a multifaceted approach that may include risk factor modification, avoidance of migraine triggers, drug and non-drug based prophylaxis, and abortive migraine treatment, the frequency of which is limited to avoid drug overuse. This article provides an overview of current knowledge regarding chronic migraine, including epidemiology, risk factors for its development, pathophysiology, diagnosis, management, and guidelines. The future of chronic migraine treatment and research is also discussed. PMID:24662044

  5. World Input-Output Network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Cerina

    Full Text Available Production systems, traditionally analyzed as almost independent national systems, are increasingly connected on a global scale. Only recently becoming available, the World Input-Output Database (WIOD is one of the first efforts to construct the global multi-regional input-output (GMRIO tables. By viewing the world input-output system as an interdependent network where the nodes are the individual industries in different economies and the edges are the monetary goods flows between industries, we analyze respectively the global, regional, and local network properties of the so-called world input-output network (WION and document its evolution over time. At global level, we find that the industries are highly but asymmetrically connected, which implies that micro shocks can lead to macro fluctuations. At regional level, we find that the world production is still operated nationally or at most regionally as the communities detected are either individual economies or geographically well defined regions. Finally, at local level, for each industry we compare the network-based measures with the traditional methods of backward linkages. We find that the network-based measures such as PageRank centrality and community coreness measure can give valuable insights into identifying the key industries.

  6. The advanced LIGO input optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Chris L.; Arain, Muzammil A.; Ciani, Giacomo; DeRosa, Ryan. T.; Effler, Anamaria; Feldbaum, David; Frolov, Valery V.; Fulda, Paul; Gleason, Joseph; Heintze, Matthew; Kawabe, Keita; King, Eleanor J.; Kokeyama, Keiko; Korth, William Z.; Martin, Rodica M.; Mullavey, Adam; Peold, Jan; Quetschke, Volker; Reitze, David H.; Tanner, David B.; Vorvick, Cheryl; Williams, Luke F.; Mueller, Guido

    2016-01-01

    The advanced LIGO gravitational wave detectors are nearing their design sensitivity and should begin taking meaningful astrophysical data in the fall of 2015. These resonant optical interferometers will have unprecedented sensitivity to the strains caused by passing gravitational waves. The input optics play a significant part in allowing these devices to reach such sensitivities. Residing between the pre-stabilized laser and the main interferometer, the input optics subsystem is tasked with preparing the laser beam for interferometry at the sub-attometer level while operating at continuous wave input power levels ranging from 100 mW to 150 W. These extreme operating conditions required every major component to be custom designed. These designs draw heavily on the experience and understanding gained during the operation of Initial LIGO and Enhanced LIGO. In this article, we report on how the components of the input optics were designed to meet their stringent requirements and present measurements showing how well they have lived up to their design.

  7. The advanced LIGO input optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, Chris L., E-mail: cmueller@phys.ufl.edu; Arain, Muzammil A.; Ciani, Giacomo; Feldbaum, David; Fulda, Paul; Gleason, Joseph; Heintze, Matthew; Martin, Rodica M.; Reitze, David H.; Tanner, David B.; Williams, Luke F.; Mueller, Guido [University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611 (United States); DeRosa, Ryan T.; Effler, Anamaria; Kokeyama, Keiko [Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803 (United States); Frolov, Valery V.; Mullavey, Adam [LIGO Livingston Observatory, Livingston, Louisiana 70754 (United States); Kawabe, Keita; Vorvick, Cheryl [LIGO Hanford Observatory, Richland, Washington 99352 (United States); King, Eleanor J. [University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA 5005 (Australia); and others

    2016-01-15

    The advanced LIGO gravitational wave detectors are nearing their design sensitivity and should begin taking meaningful astrophysical data in the fall of 2015. These resonant optical interferometers will have unprecedented sensitivity to the strains caused by passing gravitational waves. The input optics play a significant part in allowing these devices to reach such sensitivities. Residing between the pre-stabilized laser and the main interferometer, the input optics subsystem is tasked with preparing the laser beam for interferometry at the sub-attometer level while operating at continuous wave input power levels ranging from 100 mW to 150 W. These extreme operating conditions required every major component to be custom designed. These designs draw heavily on the experience and understanding gained during the operation of Initial LIGO and Enhanced LIGO. In this article, we report on how the components of the input optics were designed to meet their stringent requirements and present measurements showing how well they have lived up to their design.

  8. Analog Input Data Acquisition Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arens, Ellen

    2009-01-01

    DAQ Master Software allows users to easily set up a system to monitor up to five analog input channels and save the data after acquisition. This program was written in LabVIEW 8.0, and requires the LabVIEW runtime engine 8.0 to run the executable.

  9. World Input-Output Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerina, Federica; Zhu, Zhen; Chessa, Alessandro; Riccaboni, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    Production systems, traditionally analyzed as almost independent national systems, are increasingly connected on a global scale. Only recently becoming available, the World Input-Output Database (WIOD) is one of the first efforts to construct the global multi-regional input-output (GMRIO) tables. By viewing the world input-output system as an interdependent network where the nodes are the individual industries in different economies and the edges are the monetary goods flows between industries, we analyze respectively the global, regional, and local network properties of the so-called world input-output network (WION) and document its evolution over time. At global level, we find that the industries are highly but asymmetrically connected, which implies that micro shocks can lead to macro fluctuations. At regional level, we find that the world production is still operated nationally or at most regionally as the communities detected are either individual economies or geographically well defined regions. Finally, at local level, for each industry we compare the network-based measures with the traditional methods of backward linkages. We find that the network-based measures such as PageRank centrality and community coreness measure can give valuable insights into identifying the key industries. PMID:26222389

  10. Input/output interface module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozyazici, E. M.

    1980-01-01

    Module detects level changes in any of its 16 inputs, transfers changes to its outputs, and generates interrupts when changes are detected. Up to four changes-in-state per line are stored for later retrieval by controlling computer. Using standard TTL logic, module fits 19-inch rack-mounted console.

  11. Remote input/output station

    CERN Multimedia

    1972-01-01

    A general view of the remote input/output station installed in building 112 (ISR) and used for submitting jobs to the CDC 6500 and 6600. The card reader on the left and the line printer on the right are operated by programmers on a self-service basis.

  12. The advanced LIGO input optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Chris L; Arain, Muzammil A; Ciani, Giacomo; DeRosa, Ryan T; Effler, Anamaria; Feldbaum, David; Frolov, Valery V; Fulda, Paul; Gleason, Joseph; Heintze, Matthew; Kawabe, Keita; King, Eleanor J; Kokeyama, Keiko; Korth, William Z; Martin, Rodica M; Mullavey, Adam; Peold, Jan; Quetschke, Volker; Reitze, David H; Tanner, David B; Vorvick, Cheryl; Williams, Luke F; Mueller, Guido

    2016-01-01

    The advanced LIGO gravitational wave detectors are nearing their design sensitivity and should begin taking meaningful astrophysical data in the fall of 2015. These resonant optical interferometers will have unprecedented sensitivity to the strains caused by passing gravitational waves. The input optics play a significant part in allowing these devices to reach such sensitivities. Residing between the pre-stabilized laser and the main interferometer, the input optics subsystem is tasked with preparing the laser beam for interferometry at the sub-attometer level while operating at continuous wave input power levels ranging from 100 mW to 150 W. These extreme operating conditions required every major component to be custom designed. These designs draw heavily on the experience and understanding gained during the operation of Initial LIGO and Enhanced LIGO. In this article, we report on how the components of the input optics were designed to meet their stringent requirements and present measurements showing how well they have lived up to their design. PMID:26827334

  13. The advanced LIGO input optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The advanced LIGO gravitational wave detectors are nearing their design sensitivity and should begin taking meaningful astrophysical data in the fall of 2015. These resonant optical interferometers will have unprecedented sensitivity to the strains caused by passing gravitational waves. The input optics play a significant part in allowing these devices to reach such sensitivities. Residing between the pre-stabilized laser and the main interferometer, the input optics subsystem is tasked with preparing the laser beam for interferometry at the sub-attometer level while operating at continuous wave input power levels ranging from 100 mW to 150 W. These extreme operating conditions required every major component to be custom designed. These designs draw heavily on the experience and understanding gained during the operation of Initial LIGO and Enhanced LIGO. In this article, we report on how the components of the input optics were designed to meet their stringent requirements and present measurements showing how well they have lived up to their design

  14. Therapy for incorporated radionuclides: scope and need

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the United States the recent termination of funding for research on therapy for incorporated radionuclides has virtually halted progress on improved or new agents and procedures for removing radioactivity from the body. Research was eliminated, but is still needed on new removal agents, improved delivery system, in vitro test systems, and the toxicology of treatments. For many radionuclides, no adequate therapy exists. The relationship between radionuclide removal and reduction in cancer risk is still unanswered. Without proper research support, needed improvements in the treatment for incorporated radionuclides in the US are uncertain

  15. Radionuclide and radiation protection data handbook 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This handbook is a reference source of radionuclide and radiation protection information. Its purpose is to provide users of radionuclides in medicine, research and industry with consolidated and appropriate information and data to handle and transport radioactive substances safely. It is mainly intended for users in low and intermediate activity laboratories. Individual data sheets are provided for a wide range of commonly used radionuclides (144 in total). These radionuclides are classified into five different groups as a function of risk level, represented by colours red, orange, yellow, green and blue, in descending order of risk (author)

  16. Radionuclides and ionizing radiation in water management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The conference proceedings contain 22 papers, all have been incorporated in INIS. They relate to the escape of radianuclides from nuclear power plant operation and nuclear power plant accidents into the hydrosphere, the measurement of radioactivity of and concentration of radionuclides in surface, ground and drinking waters, the study of the impact of radionuclides on aquatic organisms and the investigation of the deposition of radionuclides in these organisms and in water sediments, to modeling of the kinetics of radionuclide transport in the hydrosphere, and the problems of radon in the ambient air of water treatment plants and dwelling areas. (M.D.). 3 figs., 28 tabs., 124 refs

  17. Radionuclide accumulation peculiarities demonstrated by vegetable varieties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study focused on ecological and genetic aspects of radionuclide accumulation demonstrated by a number of vegetable varieties. The researches resulted in determining the cabbage varieties which were characterised by the minimal level of radionuclide accumulation. It was shown that the above varieties manifested the relation between radionuclide accumulation and morphobiological characteristics such as vegetation period duration and yield criteria. The study specified the genotypes with high ecological stability as regards to radionuclide accumulation: 'Beloruskaya 85' cabbage and 'Dokhodny' tomato showed the best response to Cs 137, while 'Beloruskaya 85', 'Rusinovka', 'Amager 611' cabbage varieties and 'Sprint' tomato showed the minimal level of Sr 90 accumulation. (authors)

  18. Study on interactions of radionuclides with minerals and rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radionuclide migration through natural granite fractures under in situ geochemical conditions and diffusion of radionuclides into rock matrix were studied. Assumptions used in analysis of radionuclide migration through fractured rocks surrounding a geologic disposal of radioactive wastes were examined. Thermodynamic data of radionuclides were obtained and compiled in a database, which provide scientific basis for understanding interactions of radionuclides with minerals and rocks. (author)

  19. Natural radionuclides in meadow and pasture land in the Nordic countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosen, K.; Gutierrez Villanueva, J.-L.; Sundell-Bergman, S. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences (SLU) (Sweden)] [and others

    2012-06-15

    The amount of natural radionuclides in the environment differs between the Nordic countries as shown by previous investigations and also by this study. Agricultural areas of high natural background are predominantly found in Sweden, Southern Finland and Norway while low background areas are typical for Iceland and Denmark. Thus, this study offers possibilities for studying behaviour of natural radionuclides under different conditions such as the influence of different soil types as well as the husbandry. Furthermore the areas also enable studying environmental behaviour of radium and other natural radionuclides under seemingly steady state conditions. However, migration and accumulation of natural radionuclides in cultivated soil is complex involving various processes. Thus, a long term goal of this study was to identify the implications of some of these processes by determining the soil to plant transfer for pasture land under the different conditions that prevail in the Nordic countries. The potential health hazards due to chronic ingestion of low concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides are fairly unknown but the results of this study may provide valuable background information for assessing these radiation risks. The aim of this project has been to gain knowledge on the status of natural radionuclides in meadow and pasture land and in grassland plants in different Nordic countries and on the transfer of these radionuclides from soil/water to man via the milk/food chain (soil- meadow/pasture grass -cow-milk). Limited data are available on the mobility and the transfer of naturally occurring radionuclides in the ecosystems of the agricultural land. In addition, information concerning the concentrations in meat and dairy products is of interest for assessing exposures of humans to natural radionuclides. Soil characteristics are known to have significant impact on the mobility and uptake of natural radionuclides. Therefore, the uptake in relation to

  20. Natural radionuclides in meadow and pasture land in the Nordic countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The amount of natural radionuclides in the environment differs between the Nordic countries as shown by previous investigations and also by this study. Agricultural areas of high natural background are predominantly found in Sweden, Southern Finland and Norway while low background areas are typical for Iceland and Denmark. Thus, this study offers possibilities for studying behaviour of natural radionuclides under different conditions such as the influence of different soil types as well as the husbandry. Furthermore the areas also enable studying environmental behaviour of radium and other natural radionuclides under seemingly steady state conditions. However, migration and accumulation of natural radionuclides in cultivated soil is complex involving various processes. Thus, a long term goal of this study was to identify the implications of some of these processes by determining the soil to plant transfer for pasture land under the different conditions that prevail in the Nordic countries. The potential health hazards due to chronic ingestion of low concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides are fairly unknown but the results of this study may provide valuable background information for assessing these radiation risks. The aim of this project has been to gain knowledge on the status of natural radionuclides in meadow and pasture land and in grassland plants in different Nordic countries and on the transfer of these radionuclides from soil/water to man via the milk/food chain (soil- meadow/pasture grass -cow-milk). Limited data are available on the mobility and the transfer of naturally occurring radionuclides in the ecosystems of the agricultural land. In addition, information concerning the concentrations in meat and dairy products is of interest for assessing exposures of humans to natural radionuclides. Soil characteristics are known to have significant impact on the mobility and uptake of natural radionuclides. Therefore, the uptake in relation to

  1. Natural radionuclides in volcanic activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natural radionuclides of 222Ra, 210Pb and 212Pb present in the magma are emitted during the eruption of volcanoes. Depletion of 222Rn in pumices and in lava showed that significant amounts of 222Rn were released from erupting magmas. Atmospheric 210Pb originating from the 1991 eruption of Mt. Pinatubo was detected in Japan and in Korea as a temporal increase in the atmospheric concentration after the eruption. Atmospheric 212Pb originating from the 2000 eruption of Mt. Miyake-jima was also detected as an abrupt rise in atmospheric concentration after the event

  2. Dosimetry of incorporated transuranic radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modern in vivo and in vitro techniques for detecting transuranic radionuclides within the human body are described with special emphasis on multiparameter measuring methods developed at the National Board of Nuclear Safety and Radiation Protection. Furthermore, problems related to calibration and interpretation of measuring data are discussed and new methods presented for the calculation of committed dose equivalents on the basis of data from ICRP Publication 30. Also included is an introductory chapter on radiobiological fundamentals of intake, translocation and metabolism of these nuclides. (author)

  3. Radionuclide diagnosis of erectile disfunction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamma-camera angio scintigraphy of the penis was performed in 17 patients, twelve of them with erectile disfunction. A new method of quantitative assessment of the blood flow and perfusion of the penis is described. New objective criteria have been established for differential diagnosis of psychogenic and vasculogenic impotence, as well as for severity of condition and for diagnosis of other causes of erectile disfunction. The method was developed using Tc99-HSA and a gamma-camera. The specific nature of radionuclide curves is a reliable diagnostic criterion for making differential diagnosis in assessment of the causes of erectile disfunction. 3 refs., 5 figs. (author)

  4. The role of laboratory animals in studying bone cancer resulting from skeletally deposited radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is a continuing need to determine and understand the long-term health risks of internally deposited radionuclides in persons exposed medically or occupationally, or from radionuclides in the environment. A full understanding of these health risks, particularly for exposures involving low doses and dose rates, requires in-depth knowledge of both the dosimetry of a given exposure and the resulting long-term biological effects. Human data on 224Ra and 226,228Ra and their decay products are our primary sources of knowledge on the health risks of chronic alpha irradiation of the skeleton and serve as essential segments of our radiation protection practices for internally deposited radionuclides. However, we cannot obtain all of the needed information from these studies. This paper examines the role of laboratory animal studies in complementing and extending the knowledge of radiation-induced bone cancer obtained from studies of humans exposed to 224Ra or 226,228Ra

  5. First-pass radionuclide angiography in the diagnosis of aortoiliac thromboembolism in a horse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    First-pass radionuclide angiography of the terminal aorta was performed in 3 normal horses and a 6-year-old Standardbred intact male with aortoiliac thromboembolism. Thromboembolism caused chronic bilateral hind limb lameness, more severe in the right hind limb, was detected by rectal examination, and confirmed using transrectal ultrasonography. Using 99mTc-HDP, first-pass radionuclide angiography was combined with hind limb and pelvis bone (delayed) scintigraphy and revealed marked reduction in blood flow through both external iliac arteries and absence of blood flow in the internal iliac arteries. Quantitative analysis showed a decreased activity in the right iliac vessels in the clinic patient consistent with reduced blood flow when compared to control horses. First-pass radionuclide angiography provided a method to obtain diagnostic images of the terminal aorta and branches and a method to diagnose aortoiliac thromboembolism in the horse

  6. Natural restoration of a Spanish estuary affected by anthropogenic inputs of NORM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Huelva estuary, located in the southwest of Spain, has been historically affected by waste releases from several factories located in its surroundings and devoted to the production of phosphoric acid and phosphate fertilizers. These wastes, clearly enriched in radionuclides belonging to the uranium series, were stored in open air piles or directly released to the Odiel River. The clear radioactive impact that they have produced in several compartments of the estuary is quite well documented. Fortunately, the waste policy of these factories changed drastically in 1998. Since then, all the wastes are stored in well-protected piles with no interaction with the surrounding environment as before. This means that the input of natural radionuclides from the factories to the estuary has ceased. For that reason, a new time-evolution of the activity concentration of natural radionuclides in these estuarine compartments is expected. In order to analyse the temporal evolution of the contamination in the estuary by natural radionuclides from the interruption time of the releases until the present, the activity concentrations of some natural radionuclides (226Ra, U isotopes, 210Po, 210Pb) in water and sediment samples collected in three different campaigns (1999, 2001 and 2002) have been determined. These results, as well as the activity ratios, are presented in this paper and compared with those determined before 1998, when the releases still occurred. The observed trend shows clearly that the contamination of the estuary by natural radionuclides is decreasing since the change in waste policy, and that the radioactive levels in the waters and sediments are approaching the natural background values of the zone. Consequently, in a few years, a total natural decontamination in natural radionuclides of the Huelva estuary can be expected. (author)

  7. Systems and methods for reconfiguring input devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancaster, Jeff (Inventor); De Mers, Robert E. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A system includes an input device having first and second input members configured to be activated by a user. The input device is configured to generate activation signals associated with activation of the first and second input members, and each of the first and second input members are associated with an input function. A processor is coupled to the input device and configured to receive the activation signals. A memory coupled to the processor, and includes a reconfiguration module configured to store the input functions assigned to the first and second input members and, upon execution of the processor, to reconfigure the input functions assigned to the input members when the first input member is inoperable.

  8. Conceptual model for regional radionuclide transport from a salt dome repository: a technical memorandum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Disposal of high-level radioactive wastes is a major environmental problem influencing further development of nuclear energy in this country. Salt domes in the Gulf Coast Basin are being investigated as repository sites. A major concern is geologic and hydrologic stability of candidate domes and potential transport of radionuclides by groundwater to the biosphere prior to their degradation to harmless levels of activity. This report conceptualizes a regional geohydrologic model for transport of radionuclides from a salt dome repository. The model considers transport pathways and the physical and chemical changes that would occur through time prior to the radionuclides reaching the biosphere. Necessary, but unknown inputs to the regional model involve entry and movement of fluids through the repository dome and across the dome-country rock interface and the effect on the dome and surrounding strata of heat generated by the radioactive wastes

  9. Conceptual model for regional radionuclide transport from a salt dome repository: a technical memorandum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kier, R.S.; Showalter, P.A.; Dettinger, M.D.

    1980-05-30

    Disposal of high-level radioactive wastes is a major environmental problem influencing further development of nuclear energy in this country. Salt domes in the Gulf Coast Basin are being investigated as repository sites. A major concern is geologic and hydrologic stability of candidate domes and potential transport of radionuclides by groundwater to the biosphere prior to their degradation to harmless levels of activity. This report conceptualizes a regional geohydrologic model for transport of radionuclides from a salt dome repository. The model considers transport pathways and the physical and chemical changes that would occur through time prior to the radionuclides reaching the biosphere. Necessary, but unknown inputs to the regional model involve entry and movement of fluids through the repository dome and across the dome-country rock interface and the effect on the dome and surrounding strata of heat generated by the radioactive wastes.

  10. Chronic inflammatory polyneuropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyneuropathy - chronic inflammatory; CIDP; Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy ... of the body equally. Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) is the most common chronic neuropathy caused by ...

  11. Models for transport and fate of carbon, nutrients and radionuclides in the aquatic ecosystem at Oeregrundsgrepen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erichsen, Anders Christian; Moehlenberg, Flemming; Closter, Rikke Margrethe; Sandberg, Johannes (DHI, Hoersholm (Denmark))

    2010-06-15

    The aim of the work was to provide supplementary input to the risk assessment of a planned final nuclear waste repository at Forsmark. The main deliverable was a computed water exchange between basins in the Forsmark marine area for the period 6500 BC to 9000 AD - based on the hydrodynamic modelling - to be used as input to the landscape dose model. In addition and what is described in this report, a second deliverable was development and application of high-resolution models for the marine ecosystem and radionuclide processes. The purpose of this deliverable was to illustrate the spatial and temporal variation in important processes and parameters, while constituting a complement to previous modelling approaches and providing supporting information to discussions of the marine ecosystem, parameters and variation (see Chapter 4 and 6).To this end, a hydrodynamic model of high temporal and spatial resolution was constructed and calibrated for the Forsmark area. An ecosystem model was then developed and coupled to the hydrodynamic model. In turn, a detailed radionuclide model was coupled to the ecosystem model to provide detailed predictions of radionuclide transport and accumulation in the coastal ecosystem. The ecosystem and radionuclide models were developed in the equation solver MIKE ECOLab that links seamless to the MIKE3 FM hydrodynamic model. The 'standard' ECOLab ecosystem model was extended with six biological state variables, perennial macroalgae, benthic herbivors, detritus feeders, planktivorus fish and, benthic predators representing the relict isopod Saduria and cod. In contrast to the ecosystem model, the radionuclide model was developed from scratch but building on the structure of the ecosystem model and using the output (process rates linking state variables) from the ecosystem model as input to the radionuclide model. Both the ecosystem model and the radionuclide model were run for several years (5-8 years) to bring state variables into

  12. Chronic pancreatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Kocher, Hemant M; Froeling, Fieke EM

    2008-01-01

    Chronic pancreatitis is characterised by long-standing inflammation of the pancreas owing to a wide variety of causes, including recurrent acute attacks of pancreatitis. Chronic pancreatitis affects 3–9 people in 100,000; 70% of cases are alcohol-induced.

  13. Chronic pancreatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Kocher, Hemant M; Kadaba, Raghu

    2011-01-01

    Chronic pancreatitis is characterised by long-standing inflammation of the pancreas due to a wide variety of causes, including recurrent acute attacks of pancreatitis. Chronic pancreatitis affects between 3 and 9 people in 100,000; 70% of cases are alcohol-induced.

  14. Therapeutic radionuclides: production and decay property considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkert, W A; Goeckeler, W F; Ehrhardt, G J; Ketring, A R

    1991-01-01

    The development of effective therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals requires careful consideration in the selection of the radionuclide. The in vivo targeting and clearance properties of the carrier molecule must be balanced with the decay properties of the attached radionuclide. Radionuclides for therapeutic applications fall into three general categories: beta-particle emitters, alpha-particle emitters, and Auger and Coster-Kronig-electron emitters following electron capture. Alpha particles and Auger electrons deposit their energy over short distances with a high LET that limits the ability of cells to repair damage to DNA. Despite their high levels of cytotoxicity, the relatively short range of alpha particles requires binding of the carrier molecule to most cancer cells within a tumor in order to be effective. Because of the extremely short range of Auger electrons, the radionuclide must be carried directly into the nucleus to elicit high radiotoxicity, making it necessary to deliver the radionuclide to every cell within a tumor cell population. These characteristics impose rigid restrictions on the nature of the carrier molecules for these types of particle emitters but successful targeting of these types of radionuclides could result in high therapeutic ratios. Most beta-emitting radionuclides are produced in nuclear rectors via neutron capture reactions; however, a few are produced in charged-particle accelerators. For radionuclides produced by direct neutron activation, the quantities and specific activities that can be produced are determined in large part by the cross-section of the target isotope and the flux of the reactor. Many applications (e.g., therapeutic bone agents, radiolabeled microspheres, radiocolloids) do not require high-specific activities and can therefore utilize the wide range of radionuclides that can be produced in sufficient quantity by direct neutron activation. Other applications (e.g., MAb labeling) require high-specific activity

  15. Radionuclide analysis of bush food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A model diet for an Aboriginal adult living entirely on bush foods collected from the Alligator Rivers Region of the Northern Territory has been established. Results of investigations of the specific activities of thorium-230, radium-226, lead-210 and polonium-210 in 123 samples of bush foods collected by Ranger Uranium Mines Pty Ltd during pre-production and production periods are presented. For all the investigated bush food items, excluding freshwater mussels (Velesunio angasi), no systematic differences were found between the specific activities of the radionuclides monitored in food items sampled during preproduction and production periods. Preliminary estimates of annual effective dose equivalent (DE) rates for stochastic effects on an adult living entirely on the model bush diet are presented. Of the four radionuclides monitored the major contributor to the effective DE rates appears to be lead-210 followed by radium-226. Among the selected nine components of the diet the major contributor to the effective DE rates appear to be mussels, water lilies and fish

  16. Miscellaneous applications of radionuclide imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The procedures discussed in this chapter are either developmental, in limited clinical use, or frankly moribund. A number of radionuclide imaging techniques have proved disappointing when approached from a purely anatomic point of view. This is particularly evident to our colleagues with the explosive growth of the noninvasive imaging procedures, magnetic resonance imaging (NMR), CT, and ultrasound, and the introduction of the less invasive digital radiographic approach to vascular opacification, all of which are capable of providing exquisite anatomic or tissue detail beyond the reach of current or reasonably priced nuclear medicine imaging systems. Yet, most nuclear medicine procedures possess the unique advantage of portraying a physiologic function without interfering with that function. Moreover, the procedures can be employed under conditions of stress, which are likely to bring out pathophysiologic abnormalities that remain masked when unchallenged. Information concerning form without functional data has less meaning than both together. The physiologic information inherent in nuclear medicine imaging may often provide not only key diagnostic information but also illuminate a therapeutic trail. Yet, it is often slighted in favor of the anatomic quest. While mastery of the nuances of imaging details remains critical, radionuclide image interpretation must rest upon a firm physiologic foundation. For this reason, this chapter emphasizes the physiologic approach

  17. Radionuclide behavior at underground environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study of radionuclide behavior at underground environment has been carried out as a part of the study of high-level waste disposal technology development. Therefore, the main objectives of this project are constructing a data-base and producing data for the safety assessment of a high-level radioactive waste, and verification of the objectivity of the assessment through characterization of the geochemical processes and experimental validation of the radionuclide migration. This project is composed of 6 subjects such as data production required for safety assessments, sorption properties and mechanisms, nuclide migration in the fractured rock, colloid formation and migration, nuclide speciation in deep geological environments, and total evaluation of geochemical behaviors considering multi-factors. The various results from the this project can be applicable to the preliminary safety and performance assessments of the established disposal concept for a future high-level radioactive waste repository. Providing required data and technical basis for assessment methodologies could be a direct application of the results. In a long-term view, the results can also be utilized as a technical background for the establishment of government policy for high-level radioactive waste disposal

  18. Computational modeling of radionuclide resuspension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freshly fallen radionuclide materials after an energetic release from a Radiological Dispersal Device (RDD) or by a nuclear accident similar to Chernobyl can be re-suspended back into air by wind or human activities. Re-suspended microscopic radionuclides can be a threat to humans who are in the immediate vicinity of the fallout. Wind tunnel experiments were conducted at the Wehrwissenschaftliches Institut fuer Schutztechnologien (WIS) facility in Germany and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis using FLUENT software was conducted at the University of Ontario Institute of Technology (UOIT) in Canada to determine the re-suspension factors of radioactive lanthanum oxide (140La2O3) powder which was used as a surrogate for RDD fallout. Both experimental and computational results show a linear increase in re-suspension factor from 0.25 μm to 1 μm particle sizes and exponentially decrease in re-suspension factor from 1 μm to 6 μm particle sizes. Results found using FLUENT software over-predicted the re-suspension factors for particle sizes between 1 μm and 3 μm. The over-prediction was attributed to surface roughness effects, and suggests the need to include natural surface profile with microscopic surface roughness elements into full CFD model to simulate physical behavior of the particles trapped in between roughness elements. (authors)

  19. Infusion of radionuclides throughout pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work is part of a long-term study to examine the cancer incidence in the offspring of mice exposed to 239Pu or 147Pm throughout pregnancy. The need to model the human intake scenario and the possibility of a critical period during uterine development necessitates constant availability of radionuclides throughout pregnancy. Various methods (multiple daily injections, infusion by external cannula and infusion by indwelling osmotic pump) have been examined and osmotic infusion pumps chosen. These pumps result in a near-constant blood concentration for up to 21 days. Part of the study is the estimation of dose to the critical haemopoietic tissues of the pup from a knowledge of the radionuclide distribution and kinetics. At present the distribution has been followed from birth to 180 days. Activity in the suckling pups at 7 days old is around 1 percent of the infused activity, though most of this is accounted for by the contents of the stomach and gastrointestinal tract. The liver and femur account for around 0.025 percent and 0.012 percent respectively per pup. Activity increases in both liver and femur during lactation after which both concentration and activity fall with time. Long-term studies with the pups of dams exposed to a range of 239Pu concentrations between 0-70 kBq/kg are underway. Correlation of average organ dose with tumour incidence will be determined at completion of the life-span study. (Author) 39 refs., 5 tabs., 6 figs

  20. Study of Chunks Input Approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马静

    2003-01-01

    This paper is to describe and investigate Chunks (Lexical Phrases ) Input Approach in vocabulary learning strategies by means of achievement tests,questionnaire surveys and interviews. The study is to reveal how different learners combine different vocabulary learning strategies in their learning process. With the data collected, the author of this paper discusses and summarizes learners' individual differences in selecting vocabulary learning strategies with the hope of giving new insights into English teaching and learning.

  1. a Generalized Program for Internal Radionuclide Dosimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Timothy Karl

    The development of monoclonal antibodies specific for tumor surface antigens promises a highly specific carrier medium for delivering a tumorcidal radiation dose. Dosimetry calculations of monoclonal antibodies are made difficult, however, precisely because the focus of radioactivity is targeted for a nonstandard volume in a nonstandard geometry. This precludes straightforward application of the formalism developed for internal radionuclide dosimetry by the Medical Internal Radiation Dose Committee. A software program was written to account for the perturbations introduced by the inclusion of a tumor mass as an additional source of, and target for, radiation. The program allows the interactive development of a mathematical model to account for observed biodistribution data. The model describes the time dependence of radioactivity in each organ system that retains radiolabeled antibody, including tumor. Integration of these "time-activity" curves yield cumulative activity for each organ system identified as a 'source' of radioactivity. A Monte Carlo simulation of photon transport is then executed for each source organ to obtain the fraction of radiation energy absorbed by various 'target' organs. When combined with the cumulative activity, this absorbed fraction allows an estimate of dose to be made for each target organ. The program has been validated against ten analytic models designed to span a range of common input data types. Additionally, a performance benchmark has been defined to assess the practicality of implementing the program on different computing hardware platforms. Sources of error in the computation are elaborated on, and future directions and improvements discussed. The software presents an integrated modeling/dosimetry environment particularly suited for performing Monoclonal Antibody dosimetry. It offers a viable methodology for performing prospective treatment planning, based on extrapolation of tracer kinetic data to therapeutic levels.

  2. Modeling Radionuclide Decay Chain Migration Using HYDROGEOCHEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, T. C.; Tsai, C. H.; Lai, K. H.; Chen, J. S.

    2014-12-01

    Nuclear technology has been employed for energy production for several decades. Although people receive many benefits from nuclear energy, there are inevitably environmental pollutions as well as human health threats posed by the radioactive materials releases from nuclear waste disposed in geological repositories or accidental releases of radionuclides from nuclear facilities. Theoretical studies have been undertaken to understand the transport of radionuclides in subsurface environments because that the radionuclide transport in groundwater is one of the main pathway in exposure scenarios for the intake of radionuclides. The radionuclide transport in groundwater can be predicted using analytical solution as well as numerical models. In this study, we simulate the transport of the radionuclide decay chain using HYDROGEOCHEM. The simulated results are verified against the analytical solution available in the literature. Excellent agreements between the numerical simulation and the analytical are observed for a wide spectrum of concentration. HYDROGECHEM is a useful tool assessing the ecological and environmental impact of the accidental radionuclide releases such as the Fukushima nuclear disaster where multiple radionuclides leaked through the reactor, subsequently contaminating the local groundwater and ocean seawater in the vicinity of the nuclear plant.

  3. Radionuclide therapy in children: An overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radionuclide therapy in children has advanced significantly over the past few decades. Literature is replete with reports from investigators on the cytotoxic effects of tumor targeting radionuclides and radiopharmaceuticals. The collective experiences gained through numerous clinical trials has led to fairly well established treatment strategies in some tumours and paved the way for exploration of treatment alternatives in many others

  4. Geochemistry of long-lived radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dynamics of radionuclides in environmental media has long been studies to construct a scientific foundation of environmental consequence assessment of a nuclear installation. In addition to the effort mentions above, the current interest in a nuclear environmental science focuses on geochemical behavior of long-lived radionuclides, reflecting from the current progress in the development of geologic disposal system for a high-level radioactive waste (HLW). The geologic disposal system has particular features compared with other nuclear installations such as a power plant and a reprocessing plant, i.e., HLW contains significant amounts of long-lived radionuclides, the geologic disposal system based on a multi-barrier concept holds a high containment capability of radionuclides, radionuclides released from a repository first enters into the geosphere, and radiological consequences are potentially expected to appear only after a long period of time and may be associated with time-dependent degradation of an engineered barrier and with the migration of radionuclides in a natural barrier to the human environment. These features inevitably require the information on long-term behavior of long-lived radionuclides in geologic media, environmental media concerned, and a terrestrial and aquatic ecosystem, as scientific basis of long-team safety assessment of the geologic disposal system. The geochemical study has therefore been extensively conducted, in particular since the past decade, on long-lived radionuclides and also on the geologic disposal system. This paper summarizes achievements of the current topics on; solubility and speciation, retention mechanism, and complexation. (author)

  5. Entrapment of Radionuclides in Nanoparticle Compositions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    radionuclides,for example 61Cu and 64Cu copper isotopes. The invention further relates to a novel method for loading delivery systems, such as liposome compositions, with metal entities such as radionuclides, and the use of liposomes for targeted diagnosis and treatment of a target site, such as cancerous...

  6. Technological radionuclides as landscape contamination source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morphology of radioactive spots on territory of the Valozhyn Region of Belarus has been considered. The reasons of tessellated distribution of such contamination were discussed. Tendencies and main mechanisms of secondary redistribution of radionuclides were shown. Features of radionuclides migration in various landscapes were described. Were proposed recommendations to reduce consequences of radioactive contamination for population and national economy. 9 refs

  7. Radionuclide angiocardiography in cogential heart disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In detecting, localizing and quantitating cardiac shunts, radionuclide angiocardiography has been known to be a simple and safe method compared with oxymetry method. To ascertain the availability of the results obtained by radionuclide angiocardiography for the evaluation of patients with cardiac shunt, author compared the Qp/Qs ratios(pulmonary to systemic flow ratios) obtained by radionuclide angiocardiography with the results of oximetry method in 40 patients with left to right shunt, and also compared the results of radionuclide angiocardiography examined before and after shunt operation in 8 patients. The results were as follows: 1) Of the 161 patients examined radionuclide angiocardiography, 98 were thought to have cardiac shunts: right to left shunt in 27, left to right shunt in 71. Of the 71 patients who had left to right shunt, 40 who were examined with both radionuclide angiocardiography and oxymetry has following congenital heart disease: VSD in 21, ASD in 9 and PDA in 10. 2) Comparison of Qp/Qs ratios obtained during radionuclide angiocardiography and oxymetry revealed good correlation(linear regression analysis yielded correlation coefficient of 0.80) in 32 patients whose Qp/Qs ratio obtained during oxymetry were below 3.0, but very poor correlation in 8 patients whose Qp/Qs ratios were above 3.0 3) Radionuclide angiocardiography is a relatively safe and simple method in postoperative evaluation of patients with cardiac shunt. (Author)

  8. Radionuclide Angiocardiography in Cogenital Heart Disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In detecting, localizing and quantitating cardiac shunts, radionuclide angiocardiography has been known to be a simple and safe method compared with oxymetry method. To ascertain the availability of the results obtained by radionuclide angiocardiography for the evaluation of patients with cardiac shunt, author compared the Qp/Qs ratios (pulmonary to systemic flow ratios) obtained by radionuclide angiocardiography with the results of oxymetry method in 40 patients with left to right shunt, and also compared the results of radionuclide angiocardiography examined before and after shunt operation in 8 patients. The results were as follows: 1) Of the 161 patients examined radionuclide angiocardiography, 98 were thought to have cardiac shunts: right to left shunt in 27, left to right shunt in 71. Of the 71 patients who had left to right shunt, 40 who were examined with both radionuclide angiocardiography and oxymetry had following congenital heart disease: VSD in 21, ASD in 9 and PDA in 10. 2) Comparison of Qp/Qs ratios obtained during radionuclide angiocardiography and oxymetry revealed good correlation (linear regression analysis yielded correlation coefficient of 0.80) in 32 patients whose Qp/Qs ratio obtained during oxymetry were below 3.0, but very poor correlation in 8 patients whose Qp/Qs ratios were above 3.0. 3) Radionuclide angiocardiography is a relatively safe and simple method in postoperative evaluation of patients with cardiac shunt.

  9. Separation of radionuclides from electrochemical decontamination waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study demonstrated the efficiency and applicability of a combined process for the separation of radionuclides from organic complexonates containing waste. A combination of photo-catalytic degradation of organic complexonates followed by the sorption of the radionuclides onto a strongly acidic ion exchanger offers a promising route for the treatment of the spent electrochemical decontamination solution. (authors)

  10. Origin of artificial radionuclides in soil and sediment from North Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Qasmi, Hamza; Law, Gareth T W; Fifield, L Keith; Livens, Francis R

    2016-01-01

    During the operations at the Sellafield nuclear fuel reprocessing complex, artificial radionuclides are discharged to the Irish Sea under authorisation, where they are dispersed. In this study, the southern distribution and transport of Sellafield derived radionuclides have been investigated. Both natural and artificial radionuclides have been studied in a soil core from the riverbank of the Afon Goch in Anglesey, North Wales. Particulate input is dominant for all artificial radionuclides (including the more soluble (137)Cs and (236)U) with an estimated lag time of about a decade. The preferential northward seawater movement in the NE Irish Sea limits solution input of (137)Cs and (236)U to the areas south of Sellafield. The relatively long lag time reflects both the water circulation pattern and distance between the study site in north Wales and the source point in Cumbria. Two redox active zones are observed in the top and the bottom of this core, although there is no evidence for any redistribution of Pu and natural uranium by these redox processes. However, (236)U, derived from irradiated uranium, showed variable distribution in the core. This could be a potential response to the geochemical conditions, showing that (236)U may be a promising tracer for the environmental processes and a signature of the Sellafield historical discharges of irradiated uranium. PMID:26529492

  11. Speciation of radionuclides in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Methods for the determination of the speciation of radionuclides in aerosols, in aquatic solutions, in sediments, soils and rocks are reviewed. At present, most of the results about speciation are deduced from model calculations, model experiments, and separation of species (forms) of radionuclides, e.g., by sequential extraction procedures. Methods of direct determination of speciation of radionuclides (e.g. by laser induced spectroscopy) are in general not yet sensitive enough for a measurement of the very low concentrations of radionuclides in the environment. The methodological part of this paper is followed by a review of the very abundant literature about speciation of important radionuclides in the environment, i.e. in the atmosphere, hydrosphere and lithosphere. The review does not include the biosphere. Literature up to spring 1993 is included (with a few more recent additions). (author)

  12. Mobility and Bioavailability of Radionuclides in Soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is crucial to understand the behavior of radionuclides in the environment, their potential mobility and bioavailability related to long-term persistence, radiological hazards, and impact on human health. Such key information is used to develop strategies that support policy decisions. The environmental behavior of radionuclides depends on ecosystem characteristics. A given soil’s capacity to immobilize radionuclides has been proved to be the main factor responsible for their resulting activity concentrations in plants. The mobility and bioavailability of radionuclides in soils is complex, depending on clay-sized soil fraction, clay mineralogy, organic matter, cation exchange capacity, pH and quantities of competing cations. Moreover, plant species have different behaviors regarding radionuclide absorption depending on soil and plan characteristics

  13. Radionuclides in the environment: Risks and opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental chemistry plays a critical role in the open-quotes nuclear ageclose quotes. It makes a vital contribution to understanding of the sources, fate and effects of radionuclides in the environment, both man-made and natural. Risk assessment of radionuclides in the environment relies heavily on the tools of environmental chemistry. On the other hand, radionuclides provide unique opportunities to exploit in environmental chemistry investigations due to their well-defined sources, traceability in environmental processes, analytical sensitivities, and open-quotes built-inclose quotes radioactive decay open-quotes clocksclose quotes. In some cases naturally present radionuclides are utilized, while in others tracers are deliberately added or have already been added by the nuclear fuel cycle or nuclear testing. Several examples in each of these categories are discussed to spotlight the current status of environmental chemistry and radionuclides in the environment as an example application

  14. Radionuclide imaging of spinal infections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The diagnosis of spinal infection, with or without implants, has been a challenge for physicians for many years. Spinal infections are now being recognised more frequently, owing to aging of the population and the increasing use of spinal-fusion surgery. The diagnosis in many cases is delayed, and this may result in permanent neurological damage or even death. Laboratory evidence of infection is variable. Conventional radiography and radionuclide bone imaging lack both sensitivity and specificity. Neither in vitro labelled leucocyte scintigraphy nor 99mTc-anti-granulocyte antibody scintigraphy is especially useful, because of the frequency with which spinal infection presents as a non-specific photopenic area on these tests. Sequential bone/gallium imaging and 67Ga-SPECT are currently the radionuclide procedures of choice for spinal osteomyelitis, but these tests lack specificity, suffer from poor spatial resolution and require several days to complete. [18F]Fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) PET is a promising technique for diagnosing spinal infection, and has several potential advantages over conventional radionuclide tests. The study is sensitive and is completed in a single session, and image quality is superior to that obtained with single-photon emitting tracers. The specificity of FDG-PET may also be superior to that of conventional tracers because degenerative bone disease and fractures usually do not produce intense FDG uptake; moreover, spinal implants do not affect FDG imaging. However, FDG-PET images have to be read with caution in patients with instrumented spinal-fusion surgery since non-specific accumulation of FDG around the fusion material is not uncommon. In the future, PET-CT will likely provide more precise localisation of abnormalities. FDG-PET may prove to be useful for monitoring response to treatment in patients with spinal osteomyelitis. Other tracers for diagnosing spinal osteomyelitis are also under investigation, including radiolabelled

  15. Technology in the Differential Input Demand Model

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Mark G.; Lee, Jonq-Ying

    2003-01-01

    This study considers incorporating changes in technology in the differential input demand system through effects on output and input marginal products. The effects of technology on input demand are related to Slutsky coefficients and input shares of marginal cost. Technology effects on marginal-product changes are viewed as price changes, and restrictions on technology are considered.

  16. Food contamination with cesium radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following the Chernobyl accident, specific activities were monitored on Czechoslovak territory in the years 1986-1988 of 134Cs and 137Cs in canned meat products, in meat, milk, milk products and milk feed mixes. The radionuclides were determined radiochemically or gamma spectrometrically. The time dependence of the specific activities is tabulated. The values in canned meat were up to 70 Bq/kg in 1986, up to 150 Bq/kg at the beginning of 1987 and gradually decreased down to 40 Bq/kg by the end of 1988. The values in raw milk did not exceed 10 Bq/kg and in milk products 30 Bq/kg. Values of up to 200 Bq/kg were observed in feed mixes. (M.D.). 2 figs., 5 tabs., 12 refs

  17. Radionuclide interactions with marine sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A critical review of the literature on the subject of the interactions of radionuclides with marine sediments has been carried out. On the basis of the information available, an attempt has been made to give ranges and 'best estimates' for the distribution ratios between seawater and sediments. These estimates have been based on an understanding of the sediment seawater system and the porewater chemistry and mineralogy. Field measurements, laboratory measurements and estimates based on stable-element geochemical data are all taken into account. Laboratory measurements include distribution-ratio and diffusion-coefficient determinations. The elements reviewed are carbon, chlorine, calcium, nickel, selenium, strontium, zirconium, niobium, technetium, tin, iodine, caesium, lead, radium, actinium, thorium, protactinium, uranium, neptunium, plutonium, americium and curium. (author)

  18. Radionuclide evaluation of brain death

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The criteria employed for clinical determination of death have evolved in response to advances in life support and other medical technology. The technical feasibility of organ transplantation has amplified the need for a definition of brain death that can be applied in the shortest possible time in the presence of artificial maintenance of vegetative functions, including circulation. Radionuclide cerebral angiography is one of a group of diagnostic procedures that can be employed to confirm the clinical diagnosis of brain death through demonstration of absence of cerebral blood flow. The focus of this work is to assess its use as a confirmatory test for determination of brain death in the context of currently available alternative technologies

  19. Expert system based radionuclide identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An expert system coupled with the gamma spectrum analysis system SAMPO has been developed for automating the qualitative identification of radionuclides as well as for determining the quantitative parameters of the spectrum components. The program is written in C-language and runs in various environments ranging from PCs to UNIX workstations. The expert system utilizes a complete gamma library with over 2600 nuclides and 80,000 lines, and a rule base of about fifty criteria including energies, relative peak intensities, genesis modes, half lives, parent-daughter relationships, etc. The rule base is furthermore extensible by the user. This is not an original contribution but a somewhat updated version of papers and reports previously published elsewhere. (author)

  20. Radionuclides in diagnostic nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diagnostic Nuclear Medicine (NM) is an essential procedure in modern medical practice. Recent survey reported that more than 2 million NM examinations are conducted every year in Japan. Around 75% of diagnostic NM employs single photon emission tomography (SPECT) with 99mTc, 123I, 133Xe, or 201Tl-labeled compound, and 25% positron emission tomography (PET) with 18F-fluorodeoxy glucose, 15O-labeled H2O, CO, O2, or 11C-labeled compounds. Modern medicine is based on the intervention of molecular pathology of the diseases. Therefore, NM is expanding in number and in quality in daily medical practice including early diagnosis of Alzheimer’s diseases, cancer, and cardiovascular diseases, strategy decision of treatment, evaluation of regeneration medicine. Furthermore, the NM is being utilized to facilitate new drug development. Combining molecular diagnosis with radionuclide therapy (Theranostics) is another future direction of clinical NM. (author)

  1. Radionuclides and stable elements in the sediments of the Yesa Reservoir, Central Spanish Pyrenees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    stronger influence of the dynamics of sediment supply by floods in the central areas closer to the main channel (cores) than in the littoral areas (profile). Conclusions: The radionuclide distributions were consistent with the history of the reservoir infilling and with the processes of transport and accumulation of sediments. Compared to the natural radionuclides, the artificial radionuclide 137Cs varied the most and showed distinctive patterns. The methods used allowed the identification of natural inputs into the system and its differentiation from fluvial transport and reservoir deposition. The results provide insights into the pathways and processes involved in the mobilization of radionuclides in the environment. (orig.)

  2. Inhalation Exposure Input Parameters for the Biosphere Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Wasiolek

    2006-06-05

    This analysis is one of the technical reports that support the Environmental Radiation Model for Yucca Mountain, Nevada (ERMYN), referred to in this report as the biosphere model. ''Biosphere Model Report'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169460]) describes in detail the conceptual model as well as the mathematical model and its input parameters. This report documents development of input parameters for the biosphere model that are related to atmospheric mass loading and supports the use of the model to develop biosphere dose conversion factors (BDCFs). The biosphere model is one of a series of process models supporting the total system performance assessment (TSPA) for a Yucca Mountain repository. ''Inhalation Exposure Input Parameters for the Biosphere Model'' is one of five reports that develop input parameters for the biosphere model. A graphical representation of the documentation hierarchy for the biosphere model is presented in Figure 1-1 (based on BSC 2006 [DIRS 176938]). This figure shows the interrelationships among the products (i.e., analysis and model reports) developed for biosphere modeling and how this analysis report contributes to biosphere modeling. This analysis report defines and justifies values of atmospheric mass loading for the biosphere model. Mass loading is the total mass concentration of resuspended particles (e.g., dust, ash) in a volume of air. Mass loading values are used in the air submodel of the biosphere model to calculate concentrations of radionuclides in air inhaled by a receptor and concentrations in air surrounding crops. Concentrations in air to which the receptor is exposed are then used in the inhalation submodel to calculate the dose contribution to the receptor from inhalation of contaminated airborne particles. Concentrations in air surrounding plants are used in the plant submodel to calculate the concentrations of radionuclides in foodstuffs contributed from uptake by foliar interception. This

  3. Inhalation Exposure Input Parameters for the Biosphere Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This analysis is one of the technical reports that support the Environmental Radiation Model for Yucca Mountain, Nevada (ERMYN), referred to in this report as the biosphere model. ''Biosphere Model Report'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169460]) describes in detail the conceptual model as well as the mathematical model and its input parameters. This report documents development of input parameters for the biosphere model that are related to atmospheric mass loading and supports the use of the model to develop biosphere dose conversion factors (BDCFs). The biosphere model is one of a series of process models supporting the total system performance assessment (TSPA) for a Yucca Mountain repository. ''Inhalation Exposure Input Parameters for the Biosphere Model'' is one of five reports that develop input parameters for the biosphere model. A graphical representation of the documentation hierarchy for the biosphere model is presented in Figure 1-1 (based on BSC 2006 [DIRS 176938]). This figure shows the interrelationships among the products (i.e., analysis and model reports) developed for biosphere modeling and how this analysis report contributes to biosphere modeling. This analysis report defines and justifies values of atmospheric mass loading for the biosphere model. Mass loading is the total mass concentration of resuspended particles (e.g., dust, ash) in a volume of air. Mass loading values are used in the air submodel of the biosphere model to calculate concentrations of radionuclides in air inhaled by a receptor and concentrations in air surrounding crops. Concentrations in air to which the receptor is exposed are then used in the inhalation submodel to calculate the dose contribution to the receptor from inhalation of contaminated airborne particles. Concentrations in air surrounding plants are used in the plant submodel to calculate the concentrations of radionuclides in foodstuffs contributed from uptake by foliar interception. This report is concerned primarily with the

  4. Study of radionuclides, lead and lead isotope ratios in Scottish sea loch sediments

    OpenAIRE

    Shimmield, Tracy Marjory

    1993-01-01

    This research involved the study of sediment cores from Loch Etive, Loch Long, Loch Goil and Loch Fyne with the aims of investigating the geochemistry of natural, and manmade radionuclides and heavy metals within the sea loch environment. The main aims of the research were to determine accumulation rates and the extent of mixing within these sediments and to assess the fluxes, sources and temporal variations in input of pollutant heavy metals to these environments. In recent years it has been...

  5. Illicit Trafficking of Natural Radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natural radionuclides have been subject to trafficking worldwide, involving natural uranium ore (U 238), processed uranium (yellow cake), low enriched uranium (20% U 235), radium (Ra 226), polonium (Po 210), and natural thorium ore (Th 232). An important prerequisite to successful illicit trafficking activities is access to a suitable logistical infrastructure enabling an undercover shipment of radioactive materials and, in case of trafficking natural uranium or thorium ore, capable of transporting large volumes of material. Covert en route diversion of an authorised uranium transport, together with covert diversion of uranium concentrate from an operating or closed uranium mines or mills, are subject of case studies. Such cases, involving Israel, Iran, Pakistan and Libya, have been analyzed in terms of international actors involved and methods deployed. Using international incident data contained in the Database on Nuclear Smuggling, Theft and Orphan Radiation Sources (DSTO) and international experience gained from the fight against drug trafficking, a generic Trafficking Pathway Model (TPM) is developed for trafficking of natural radionuclides. The TPM covers the complete trafficking cycle, ranging from material diversion, covert material transport, material concealment, and all associated operational procedures. The model subdivides the trafficking cycle into five phases: (1) Material diversion by insider(s) or initiation by outsider(s); (2) Covert transport; (3) Material brokerage; (4) Material sale; (5) Material delivery. An Action Plan is recommended, addressing the strengthening of the national infrastructure for material protection and accounting, development of higher standards of good governance, and needs for improving the control system deployed by customs, border guards and security forces

  6. Decontamination of radionuclides in food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The release of radionuclides arising from the Chernobyle accident led to widespread contamination of the northern hemisphere through fallout. This accident provided again an opportunity to investigate how and to what extent the radionuclides contamination in crops and animal derived foods could be reduced. The following topics are included in this paper. (1) How to reduce the transfer of radiostrontium and/or cesium from soil to crops: A pH increase of soil is effective for reducing their plant uptake. (2) How to reduce the transfer of radiocesium to animal derived foods: Ammonium-ferric-cyanoferrate (AFCF) should be the most effective compound for radiocesium excretion in the feces. Experiments with lactating cows and/or poultry gave extremely good results with respect to low radiocesium concentrations in milk, meat and eggs. (3) Removal coefficients of radiostrontium, cesium and iodine from contaminated leaf vegetables and cereals during food processing and culinary preparation: Though different by species, more than 80% of cesium and about 50% of strontium and iodine can be removed during culinary preparation of washing and boiling. (4) Simultaneous decontamination of radiocesium and iodine from drinking water and liquid milk: Metal ferrocyanide-anion exchange resin, specifically Fe ferrocyanide one, was successfully used for a rapid and simple decontamination of radiocesium and iodine in the liquid samples arising from the Chernobyle accident. (5) Removal of radiocesium from meat: The meat structurally contaminated with radiocesium is easily and very successfully decontaminated by pickling in NaCl solution and the decontamination is much speeded up by freezing meat before pickling. (author)

  7. Illicit Trafficking of Natural Radionuclides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, Steinhäusler; Lyudmila, Zaitseva

    2008-08-01

    Natural radionuclides have been subject to trafficking worldwide, involving natural uranium ore (U 238), processed uranium (yellow cake), low enriched uranium (20% U 235), radium (Ra 226), polonium (Po 210), and natural thorium ore (Th 232). An important prerequisite to successful illicit trafficking activities is access to a suitable logistical infrastructure enabling an undercover shipment of radioactive materials and, in case of trafficking natural uranium or thorium ore, capable of transporting large volumes of material. Covert en route diversion of an authorised uranium transport, together with covert diversion of uranium concentrate from an operating or closed uranium mines or mills, are subject of case studies. Such cases, involving Israel, Iran, Pakistan and Libya, have been analyzed in terms of international actors involved and methods deployed. Using international incident data contained in the Database on Nuclear Smuggling, Theft and Orphan Radiation Sources (DSTO) and international experience gained from the fight against drug trafficking, a generic Trafficking Pathway Model (TPM) is developed for trafficking of natural radionuclides. The TPM covers the complete trafficking cycle, ranging from material diversion, covert material transport, material concealment, and all associated operational procedures. The model subdivides the trafficking cycle into five phases: (1) Material diversion by insider(s) or initiation by outsider(s); (2) Covert transport; (3) Material brokerage; (4) Material sale; (5) Material delivery. An Action Plan is recommended, addressing the strengthening of the national infrastructure for material protection and accounting, development of higher standards of good governance, and needs for improving the control system deployed by customs, border guards and security forces.

  8. Radionuclide lymphoscintigraphy in limb edemas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indirect radionuclide lymphoscintigraphy is a safe, non-invasive and physiological method for the assessment of the limb lymphatic system. Colloids as antimony or rhenium sulphide labeled with 99m technetium have been widely used for morphological studies. Quantitative studies involving a continuous count rate monitoring of the injection sites followed by a computer analysis of dynamic image sequences have been a new promising step for an objective measurement of the peripheral lymphatic function. The injection site is always bilateral on the first web space of either the hand or the foot using a small volume (<0.2 mL) of the radiocolloid. This method has been validated on 30 young healthy volunteers and normal values established from a group of 125 upper and 141 lower limbs (normal subjects). The normal results showed a slight but continuous decrease in lymphatic function depending on the age of the subject. In pathological situations, we observed dysfunction of the lymphatic system in pure lymphoedemas or so-called lympho-venous edemas as demonstrated on the 1,182 upper and 2,463 lower limbs tested. The radionuclide lymphoscintigraphy may be helpful in cases of unilateral swollen limbs demonstrating a lymphatic dysfunction on a clinically normal contralateral limb at the first stage of a distal edema which appears within a few weeks or days, in a transient edema phase when normal status and oedema alternate. The lymphoscintigraphy gives objective and reproducible parameters necessary to assess the lymphatic variation under therapy (decongestive physiotherapy, surgery, drugs) and may be useful in the selection of new lympho-tonic treatments. This method is only reflecting the lymphatic function and is unable to appreciate the total lymphatic flow of the limb. Its results only reflect what happens at the injection site and it may be necessary to add a second test using a proximal injection in order to assess the occurrence of lymph nodes not visualized by the

  9. Chronic cholecystitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... foods may relieve symptoms in people. However, the benefit of a low-fat diet has not been proven. Alternative Names Cholecystitis - chronic Images Cholecystitis, CT scan Cholecystitis, cholangiogram Cholecystolithiasis Gallstones, cholangiogram Cholecystogram References Wang ...

  10. Chronic Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... who have chronic pain may also have low self-esteem, depression, and anger. Causes & Risk Factors What causes ... as stretching and strengthening activities) and low-impact exercise (such as walking, swimming, or biking) can help ...

  11. Chronic Meningitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... School Lunch Lines FDA Cracks Down on Antibacterial Soaps Health Tip: Schedule a Back-to-School Dental ... the Professional Version Meningitis Introduction to Meningitis Acute Bacterial Meningitis Viral Meningitis Noninfectious Meningitis Recurrent Meningitis Chronic ...

  12. Chronic Pericarditis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sugar Control Helps Fight Diabetic Eye Disease Are 'Workaholics' Prone to OCD, Anxiety? ALL NEWS > Resources First ... weeks after heart surgery) and is considered subacute. Causes Usually, the cause of chronic effusive pericarditis is ...

  13. Strategies and performances of Soft Input Decryption

    OpenAIRE

    Zivic, Natasa

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyzes performance aspects of Soft Input Decryption and L values. Soft Input Decryption is a novel method which uses L values (soft output) of a SISO channel decoder for the correction of input of Soft Input Decryption (SID blocks) which have been modified during the transmission over a noisy channel. The method is based on the combination of cryptography and channel coding improving characteristics of both of them. The algorithm, strategies and scenarios of Soft Input Decryption...

  14. Symbolic inputs : positional, reference and publicity goods

    OpenAIRE

    Khalil, Elias L.

    1997-01-01

    Symbolic value differs from intrinsic value. This paper focuses on symbolic inputs, which make up the production function, and ignores symbolic products (e.g., status, prestige), which constitute the utility function. Symbolic inputs are occasioned by incomplete information. There are three kinds of symbolic inputs, following three kinds of incomplete information. »Positional symbolic inputs» minimize search cost necessitated by local information. »Reference symbolic inputs» reduce inspection...

  15. Biosphere assessment due to radionuclide release in waste disposal repository through food chain pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The long-term safety of radioactive waste disposal is assessed by the consequence analysis of radionuclides release, of which the final step is carried out by the biosphere assessment. the radiation dose is calculated from the food chain modeling which especially necessitates site-specific input database and exposure pathways. A biosphere model in consideration of new exposure pathways has been analyzed, and a program for food chain calculation has been developed. The up-to-data input data are reflected and the new exposure pathways are considered in the program, so the code shows more realistic and reliable results

  16. A study on the radionuclide migration by means of the code LISA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LISA code (Long Term Isolation Safety Assessment) has been developed by J.R.C. EUROATOM Ispra (Radiochemistry Division) and it's utilized in order to study migration of radionuclides through porous media. Aim of the present work is to analyze LISA's input and output files. A brief description of the code is also performed. As LISA is a research and in development code, its structure is rather complex and an exhaustive description of input/output files is helpful for the user. Version 3 of LISA code, loaded on ENEA's IBM 3090, is avaylable by ENEA-VEL Bologna

  17. Establishing a database of radionuclide transfer parameters for freshwater wildlife

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental assessments to evaluate potentials risks to humans and wildlife often involve modelling to predict contaminant exposure through key pathways. Such models require input of parameter values, including concentration ratios, to estimate contaminant concentrations in biota based on measurements or estimates of concentrations in environmental media, such as water. Due to the diversity of species and the range in physicochemical conditions in natural ecosystems, concentration ratios can vary by orders of magnitude, even within similar species. Therefore, to improve model input parameter values for application in aquatic systems, freshwater concentration ratios were collated or calculated from national grey literature, Russian language publications, and refereed papers. Collated data were then input into an international database that is being established by the International Atomic Energy Agency. The freshwater database enables entry of information for all radionuclides listed in ICRP (1983), in addition to the corresponding stable elements, and comprises a total of more than 16,500 concentration ratio (CRwo-water) values. Although data were available for all broad wildlife groups (with the exception of birds), data were sparse for many organism types. For example, zooplankton, crustaceans, insects and insect larvae, amphibians, and mammals, for which there were CRwo-water values for less than eight elements. Coverage was most comprehensive for fish, vascular plants, and molluscs. To our knowledge, the freshwater database that has now been established represents the most comprehensive set of CRwo-water values for freshwater species currently available for use in radiological environmental assessments

  18. Radionuclides in the coastal environment of Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Present potential radiation risk in the coastal environment of Indonesia may result mainly from the presence of naturally occurring radioactive materials released to the aquatic environment from land-based sources, as some of the process industry uses large amounts of raw materials like ore, marl or clay which contains natural radionuclides. Therefore, in recent years we have been conducting radionuclide monitoring in Jakarta Bay with the aim to establish present levels of natural radionuclides in the coastal environment. Further, we have also been developing methodologies for analysing fission products with the purpose of generating data on background levels of anthropogenic radionuclides in the coastal environment, important for planned construction of nuclear facilities in the region, so adequate radioecological risk assessment studies could be carried out in the future. Therefore radionuclide monitoring has been carried out at Muria peninsula as well, where the first Indonesian nuclear facility is planned to be constructed. Radionuclide monitoring results, both for natural and anthropogenic radionuclides in Muria Peninsula are presented. We have also been developing experimental radiotracer techniques to determine bioaccumulation of key contaminants and their retention parameters for bioindicator organisms used in site-specific coastal pollution monitoring programmes, designed to furnish information on water quality. Candidates of marine mollusks as bioindicators are listed

  19. Radionuclides in the coastal environment of Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Present potential radiation risk in the coastal environment of Indonesia may result mainly from the presence of naturally occurring radioactive materials released to the aquatic environment from land-based sources, as some of the process industry uses large amounts of raw materials like ore, marl or clay which contains natural radionuclides. Therefore, in recent years we have been conducting radionuclide monitoring in Jakarta bay with the aim to establish present levels of natural radionuclides in the coastal environment. Further, we have also been developing methodologies for analysing fission products with the purpose of generating data on background levels of anthropogenic radionuclides in the coastal environment, important for planned construction of nuclear facilities in the region, so adequate radioecological risk assessment studies could be carried out in the future. Therefore radionuclide monitoring has been carried out at Muria peninsula as well, where the first Indonesian nuclear facility is planned to be constructed. Radionuclide monitoring results, both for natural and anthropogenic radionuclides in Muria Peninsula are presented. We have also been developing experimental radiotracer techniques to determine bioaccumulation of key contaminants and their retention parameters for bioindicator organisms used in site-specific coastal pollution monitoring programmes, designed to furnish information on water quality. Candidates of marine mollusks as bioindicators are listed

  20. Human dose pathways of radionuclides in forests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forest soil, understorey vegetation and trees are all sources of radionuclides and human radiation doses after contaminating atmospheric deposition. People are exposed to radiation externally from sources outside the body and internally via ingestion and inhalation of radionuclides. Understorey vegetation contributes to ingestion doses through berries, herbs, wild honey, mushrooms and game meat; also trees provide feed to terrestrial birds and big game. During stay in forests people are subject to external radiation from forest floor and overstorey, and they may inhale airborne radioactive aerosol or gaseous radionuclides in ground level air. In the early phase of contamination also resuspended radionuclides may add to the internal dose of people via inhalation. People in Nordic countries are most exposed to radiation via ingestion of radionuclides in wild foods. The distribution of radionuclides in forests is changed by environmental processes, and thereby also the significance of various dose pathways to humans will change with time. External exposure is received in living environment from contaminated stemwood used as building timber and for manufacturing of furniture and other wood products. The aim of this paper is to outline the significance of various human dose pathways of radionuclides in forests considering the public and workers in forestry and production of bioenergy. Examples on effective doses are given based on two historical events, atmospheric nuclear weapon tests (mostly in 1950's and in 1960's) and the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident in 1986. (au)

  1. PRIMUS: a computer code for the preparation of radionuclide ingrowth matrices from user-specified sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The computer program, PRIMUS, reads a library of radionuclide branching fractions and half-lives and constructs a decay-chain data library and a problem-specific decay-chain data file. PRIMUS reads the decay data compiled for 496 nuclides from the Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data File (ENSDF). The ease of adding radionuclides to the input library allows the CRRIS system to further expand its comprehensive data base. The decay-chain library produced is input to the ANEMOS code. Also, PRIMUS produces a data set reduced to only the decay chains required in a particular problem, for input to the SUMIT, TERRA, MLSOIL, and ANDROS codes. Air concentrations and deposition rates from the PRIMUS decay-chain data file. Source term data may be entered directly to PRIMUS to be read by MLSOIL, TERRA, and ANDROS. The decay-chain data prepared by PRIMUS is needed for a matrix-operator method that computes either time-dependent decay products from an initial concentration generated from a constant input source. This document describes the input requirements and the output obtained. Also, sections are included on methods, applications, subroutines, and sample cases. A short appendix indicates a method of utilizing PRIMUS and the associated decay subroutines from TERRA or ANDROS for applications to other decay problems. 18 references

  2. MARFA version 3.2.2 user's manual: migration analysis of radionuclides in the far field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The computer code Migration Analysis of Radionuclides in the Far Field (MARFA) uses a particle-based Monte Carlo method to simulate the transport of radionuclides in a sparsely fractured geological medium. Transport in sparsely fractured rock is of interest because this medium may serve as a barrier to migration of radionuclides to the accessible environment. The physical processes represented in MARFA include advection, longitudinal dispersion, Fickian diffusion into an infinite or finite rock matrix, equilibrium sorption, decay, and in-growth. Multiple non-branching decay chains of arbitrary length are supported. This document describes the technical basis and input requirements for MARFA Version 3.2.2. MARFA Version 3.2 included new capabilities to accommodate transient flow velocities and sorption parameters, which are assumed to be piecewise constant in time. Version 3.2.1 was a minor change from Version 3.2 to allow a more convenient input format for sorption information. New capabilities in Version 3.2.2 include an option to specify a non-zero start time for the simulation, an optional input parameter that decreases the amount of retention within a single fracture because of flow channeling, and an alternative method for sampling the radionuclide source. MARFA uses the particle on random streamline segment algorithm /Painter et al. 2006/, a Monte Carlo algorithm combining time-domain random walk methods with pathway stochastic simulation. The algorithm uses non-interacting particles to represent packets of radionuclide mass. These particles are moved through the system according to rules that mimic the underlying physical transport and retention processes. The set of times required for particles to pass through the geological barrier are then used to reconstruct discharge rates (mass or activity basis). Because the algorithm uses non-interacting particles, the transport and retention processes are limited to those that depend linearly on radionuclide

  3. Radionuclides in coal and its radiological impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After the closure Ignalina NPP other sources of fuel will be needed for the generation of electricity. One of the possible sources is coal. Coal is a fuel which might cause the radiological impact of non-nuclear industries which process or produce materials containing enhanced levels of naturally occurring radionuclides. All types of coal contain small levels of natural radionuclides -potassium-40 and the radionuclides in the uranium-238, uranium-235 and thorium-232 decay chains. Combustion of coal in a coal-fired plant results in a release of gaseous radionuclides, and in the increased concentrations of non-gaseous radionuclides in the ash. The subject of this work is the radiological impact of the ash, which contains enhanced concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides, and the atmospheric release of gaseous radionuclides. A fraction of the ash that is formed is released to atmosphere. The remaining ash is disposed to landfill or may be used in the manufacture of construction industry. Ash may be accumulated prior to disposal or use. There are therefore a variety of potential exposure scenarios. In these work we take into account only the exposure of members of the public to atmospheric release from the stack due to inhalation, external exposure of deposited radionuclides and food chains. Collective doses to the population from stack releases of ash have been determined. Information on the quantities of ash which could be generated at coal-fired station, radionuclide content of coal and ash were obtained from number of sources. Individual doses from the release ash to atmosphere from the stack were determined using elements of the PC CREAM suite of models. Predicted individual doses for individuals living in the local area is 0,2 μSv year1. The collective dose is equal to 0,132 man Sv and is 11 times larger than that caused due to Ignalina NPP activity. (author)

  4. Three-phase radionuclide bone imaging in sports medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three-phase radionuclide bone (TPB) imaging was performed on 238 patients with sports-related injuries. A wide variety of lesions was encountered, but the most frequent lesions seen were stress fractures of the lower part of the leg at the junction of the middle and distal thirds of the posterior tibial cortex (42 of 79 lesions). There were no differences in the type, location, or distribution of lesions between males and females or between competitive and noncompetitive athletes. In 110 cases, bone stress lesions were often diagnosed when radiographs were normal, whereas subacute or chronic soft-tissue abnormalities had few specific scintigraphic features. TPB imaging provides significant early diagnostic information about bone stress lesions. Normal examination results (53 cases) exclude underlying osseous pathologic conditions

  5. Unexpected radionuclide uptake due to calcification in muscles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: A male patient aged 27 years was injected with 1000 MBq of 99Tcm-MDP. The patient was an active man indulging in contact sport. He presented with lower back and pelvic pain. Spot pictures were made of the pelvis, lumbar spine and femurs. Unexpected active radionuclide uptake in the muscles was seen. In the delayed static images, there was focal accumulation of tracer uptake in the muscles overlying the mid-shaft of the left femur consistent with myositis ossificans. Myositis ossificans is a benign ossifying process that is generally solitary and well circumscribed. It is most commonly found in the muscles but it may occur in other connective tissues, especially tendons and subcutaneous fat. This was presumably associated with chronic muscular injuries contracted during sports activity

  6. First-pass radionuclide ventriculography in conscious dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Six trained chronically instrumented, conscious dogs were used to study the function of the left ventricle by first-past radionuclide ventriculography (RNV). The body position had effect on left ventricular end-diastolic and stroke volumes, whereas ejection fraction remained unchanged. In comparison of the two injection volumes a minor difference was found in left atrial emptying, while the differences in left ventricular function were non-significant. In spite of training and careful standardization of experimental procedures, relatively high individual variation between animals was found in most parameters studied. The first-pass RNV method proved to be promising for measuring the left ventricular function in conscious dogs. Although the left atrium has reflectory tachycardic potential to distension, the volumes used for RNV did not affect the results. The left ventricular adaptation to head-up tilting in conscious dogs seems to consist mainly of decrease in left ventricular volume without significant effect on ejection fraction. (author)

  7. Transfer of Chernobyl radionuclides in the aquatic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The data on radioecology of the rivers of Belarus, which catchments area is completely or partly situated in Russia and the Ukraine (the Soph, the I put, the Besed, the Braginka) are given. The radioactive contamination of lakes are represented. The article demonstrates, that nowadays Chernobyl radionuclides content in surface water depends on wash-off from contaminated territories, groundwater leakage, and composition of bottom sediments. Wash out by rain and melted water is considered to be the most permanent and hazardous. The accumulation of radioactive sediments before dams, in stagnant zones of rivers and reservoirs creates moving local cites of increased concentration. Today and for forthcoming decades the main input into water contamination will be 137Cs 90Sr and for the nearest Chernobyl PP zone - isotopes of plutonium as well as 241Am. The migration of radionuclides on the experimental watershed of the Iput river was investigated. With the example of the Iput river, studies are performed and based on them an analysis is made of the formation of contamination of elements of a river system by radionuclides 137Cs and 90Sr after the accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant. It has been revealed that before the years 1990 - 1994 the contamination of the river system was mainly formed by the primary fallout of radionuclides on the water surface of the river but after the year 2000 it will be determined only by the ingress of radioactive contaminants with surface flow from a water catchment. The studies have shown that the contamination of the Iput river in the territory of Belarus was influenced by the transboundary transfer of radionuclides from the territory of Russia during first years after Chernobyl accident. According to our estimates, at the end of 1986, this contribution amounted to 30% for 137Cs and 96% for 90Sr; as of- now, it is 86% and 65% for 137Cs and 90Sr, respectively. The analysis of formation and migration of radioactive

  8. SALTSTONE AND RADIONUCLIDE INTERACTIONS: RADIONUCLIDE SORPTION AND DESORPTION, AND SALTSTONE REDUCTION CAPACITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaplan, D; Kimberly Roberts, K; Steven Serkiz, S; Matthew Siegfried, M

    2008-10-30

    The overall objective of this study was to measure a number of key input parameters quantifying geochemical processes in the subsurface environment of the Savannah River Site's (SRS's) Saltstone Facility. For the first time, sorption (K{sub d}) values of numerous radionuclides were measured with Saltstone and Vault 2 concrete. Particular attention was directed at understanding how Tc adsorbs and desorbs from these cementitious materials with the intent to demonstrate that desorption occurs at a much slower rate than adsorption, thus permitting the use of kinetic terms instead of (or along with) the steady state K{sub d} term. Another very important parameter measured was the reduction capacity of these materials. This parameter is used to estimate the duration that the Saltstone facility remains in a reduced chemical state, a condition that maintains several otherwise mobile radionuclides in an immobile form. Key findings of this study follow. K{sub d} values for Am, Cd, Ce, Co, Cs, Hg, I, Np, Pa, Pu, Se, Sn, Tc, U, and Y for Saltstone and Vault 2 concrete were measured under oxidized and reduced conditions. Precipitation of several of the higher valence state radionuclides was observed. There was little evidence that the Vault 2 and Saltstone K{sub d} values differed from previous SRS K{sub d} values measured with reducing grout (Kaplan and Coates 2007). These values also supported a previous finding that K{sub d} values of slag-containing cementitious materials, tend to be greater for cations and about the same for anions, than regular cementitious materials without slag. Based on these new findings, it was suggested that all previous reducing concrete K{sub d} values be used in future PAs, except Np(V) and Pu(IV) K{sub d} values, which should be increased, and I values, which should be slightly decreased in all three stages of concrete aging. The reduction capacity of Saltstone, consisting of 23 wt-% blast furnace slag, was 821.8 microequivalents per

  9. Experiments on radionuclide soil-plant transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some experimental studies were performed in our institute to assess site specific soil-plant transfer factors.A full characterization of an experimental site was done both from pedo-chemical and radiological point of view. Afterwards, a certain number of culture plants were grown on this site and the evolution of their radionuclide burden was then recorded. Using some soil amendments one performed a parallel experiment and the radionuclide root uptake was evaluated and recorded. Therefore, transfer parameters were calculated and some conclusions were drawn concerning the influence of site specific conditions on the root uptake of radionuclides. (author)

  10. Soil - plant experimental radionuclide transfer factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some experimental research was performed in our institute to assess site specific soil-plant transfer factors. A full characterization of an experimental site was done both from pedo-chemical and radiological point of view. Afterwards, a certain number of culture plants were grown on this site and the evolution of their radionuclide burden was then recorded. Using some soil amendments one performed a parallel experiment and the radionuclide root uptake was evaluated and recorded. Hence, transfer parameters were calculated and some conclusions were drawn concerning the influence of site specific conditions on the root uptake of radionuclides. (authors)

  11. Gastroesophageal reflux in children: radionuclide gastroesophagography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blumhagen, J.D. (Univ. of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle); Rudd, T.G.; Christie, D.L.

    1980-11-01

    Sixty-five symptomatic infants and children underwent radionuclide gastroesophagography, acid reflux testing, and barium esophagography with water-siphon testing to evaluate the clinical efficacy of the scintigraphic technique in detecting gastroesophageal reflux. After ingesting /sup 99m/Tc sulfur colloid in fruit juice, patients rested beneath the gamma camera for 30 to 60 min while esophageal activity was monitored continuously. By using the acid reflux test as a standard of comparison, the senstivity of radionuclide gastroesophagography was 75%. Because of its physiologic nature, low radiation exposure, and convenience, radionuclide gastroesophagography warrants further evaluation as a screening test for gastroesophageal reflux.

  12. Gastroesophageal reflux in children: radionuclide gastroesophagography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sixty-five symptomatic infants and children underwent radionuclide gastroesophagography, acid reflux testing, and barium esophagography with water-siphon testing to evaluate the clinical efficacy of the scintigraphic technique in detecting gastroesophageal reflux. After ingesting /sup 99m/Tc sulfur colloid in fruit juice, patients rested beneath the gamma camera for 30 to 60 min while esophageal activity was monitored continuously. By using the acid reflux test as a standard of comparison, the senstivity of radionuclide gastroesophagography was 75%. Because of its physiologic nature, low radiation exposure, and convenience, radionuclide gastroesophagography warrants further evaluation as a screening test for gastroesophageal reflux

  13. Manual of bioassay procedures for radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A monitoring program is described by which atomic radiation workers ar monitored for internal contamination with radionuclides in the workplace. The program involves analytical procedures for measuring alpha, beta and gamma activity in biological specimens, usually urine. Radionuclides are identified by their characteristic radiation using liquid scintillation counting, and alpha, beta and gamma spectrometry. Examples of calculating the minimum detectable activity for specific radionuclides are given and used to derive call-in-criteria in accordance with which the different groups of workers are monitored each month

  14. Fundamental Concepts in Radionuclide Therapy. Chapter 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A short overview of the basic concepts and principles of radionuclide therapy is presented in this chapter. After introducing the most important radionuclides currently employed in therapeutic applications and new promising radioisotopes such as α emitters, this review covers the various types of vector molecules and biological approaches for targeting specific cancer cells. These applications include the use of receptor specific pharmacophores such as antibodies and peptides, and DNA targeting agents. The potential advantages of combining methods developed for radionuclide therapy with gene therapy and nanotechnology are also discussed. (author)

  15. DNA damage induced by radionuclide internal irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To study the DNA damage of peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) in rats exposed to radionuclide internal irradiation. Methods: The radionuclides were injected into the rats and single cell get electrophoresis (SCGE) was performed to detect the length of DNA migration in the rat PBMC. Results: DNA migration in the rat PBMC increased with accumulative dose or dose-rate. It showed good relationship of dose vs. response and of dose-rate vs. response, both relationship could be described as linear models. Conclusion: Radionuclide internal irradiation could cause DNA damage in rat PBMC. (authors)

  16. Radionuclides accumulation in the lake Drukshiai hydrophytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Investigations carried out in 1988-1993 in lake Drukshiai and by the model experiments allow to maintain that peculiarities of biological radionuclides migration in the lake ecosystem could be conditioned by following factors: the Ignalina NPP sewerage waste waters, containing chemical compounds increasing accumulation of radionuclides, of ionic form or inclined to hydrolysis (especially of corrosive origin), in the hydrophytes. Processes of eutrophication due to thermal and chemical contamination, because increasing volume of organic matter decrease the accumulation of inclined to hydrolysis radionuclides, especially of corrosive origin, in the hydrophytes. (author). 8 refs., 8 tabs

  17. Individual radiation doses from unit releases of long lived radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The turn-over in a standard biosphere of radionuclides, disposed in a repository for high level waste was studied from a dose point of view. A multi-compartment model with unit releases to the biosphere was designed and solved by the BIOPATH-code. The uncertainty in the results due to the uncertainty in input parameter values were examined for all nuclides with the PRISM-system. Adults and five year old children were exposed from 10 different exposure pathways originating from activity in well and lake water. The results given as total doses per year and Bq release (conversion factors) can be used in combination with leakage rates from the geosphere for safety analysis of a repository. The conversion factors obtained (arithmetic mean values), are given. (65 refs.) (authors)

  18. Screening sensitivity analysis of a radionuclides atmospheric dispersion model applied to the Fukushima disaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, Sylvain; Korsakissok, Irène; Mallet, Vivien

    2014-10-01

    Numerical models used to forecast the atmospheric dispersion of radionuclides following nuclear accidents are subject to substantial uncertainties. Input data, such as meteorological forecasts or source term estimations, as well as poorly known model parameters contribute for a large part to this uncertainty. A sensitivity analysis with the method of Morris was carried out in the case of the Fukushima disaster as a first step towards the uncertainty analysis of the Polyphemus/Polair3D model. The main difficulties stemmed from the high dimension of the model's input and output. Simple perturbations whose magnitudes were devised from a thorough literature review were applied to 19 uncertain inputs. Several outputs related to atmospheric activity and ground deposition were aggregated, revealing different inputs rankings. Other inputs based on gamma dose rates measurements were used to question the possibility of calibrating the inputs uncertainties. Some inputs, such as the cloud layer thickness, were found to have little influence on most considered outputs and could therefore be safely discarded from further studies. On the contrary, wind perturbations and emission factors for iodine and caesium are predominant. The performance indicators derived from dose rates observations displayed strong sensitivities. This emphasises the share of the overall uncertainty due to input uncertainties and asserts the relevance of the simple perturbation scheme that was employed in this work.

  19. Radionuclide imaging of musculoskeletal infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J. Palestro

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Radionuclide imaging studies are routinely used to evaluate patients suspected of having musculoskeletal infection. Three-phase bone imaging is readily available, relatively inexpensive, and very accurate in the setting of otherwise normal bone. Labeled leukocyte imaging should be used in cases of "complicating osteomyelitis" such as prosthetic joint infection. This test also is useful in clinically unsuspected diabetic pedal osteomyelitis as well as in the neuropathic joint. It is often necessary, however, to perform complementary bone marrow imaging, to maximize the accuracy of labeled leukocyte imaging. In contrast to other regions in the skeleton, labeled leukocyte imaging is not useful for diagnosing spinal osteomyelitis. At the moment, gallium is the preferred radionuclide procedure for this condition and is a useful adjunct to magnetic resonance imaging. FDG-PET likely will play an important role in the evaluation of musculoskeletal infection, especially spinal osteomyelitis, and may replace gallium imaging for this purpose.Estudos através de imagens com o uso de radionuclídeos são rotineiramente usadas para avaliar pacientes suspeitos de terem infecção músculo-esquelética. A imagem óssea em tridimensional é facilmente avaliável, relativamente de baixo custo, e muito precisa na localização de alterações ósseas. Imagem com leucócito marcado poderia ser usada nos casos de "osteomielite com complicações" tais como infecção prostética articular. Esse teste também é útil na não suspeita clinica de osteomielite associada ao pé diabético tanto quanto nas junções neuropáticas. É sempre necessário, por outro lado, realizar imagem complementar da medula óssea para aumentar a precisão da imagem com leucócito marcado. Em contraste com outras regiões no esqueleto, imagem com leucócito marcado não é útil para diagnosticar osteomielite da coluna vertebral. Até agora, o gálio é o radionuclídeo preferido para

  20. SR 97 - Radionuclide transport calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindgren, Maria [Kemakta Konsult AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Lindstroem, Fredrik [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden)

    1999-12-01

    An essential component of a safety assessment is to calculate radionuclide release and dose consequences for different scenarios and cases. The SKB tools for such a quantitative assessment are used to calculate the maximum releases and doses for the hypothetical repository sites Aberg, Beberg and Ceberg for the initial canister defect scenario and also for the glacial melting case for Aberg. The reasonable cases, i.e. all parameters take reasonable values, results in maximum biosphere doses of 5x10{sup -8} Sv/yr for Aberg, 3x10{sup -8} Sv/yr for Beberg and 1x10{sup -8} Sv/yr for Ceberg for peat area. These doses lie significantly below 0.15 mSv/yr. (A dose of 0.15 mSv/yr for unit probability corresponds to the risk limit of 10{sup -5} per year for the most exposed individuals recommended in regulations.) The conclusion that the maximum risk would lie well below 10{sup -5} per year is also demonstrated by results from the probabilistic calculations, which directly assess the resulting risk by combining dose and probability estimates. The analyses indicate that the risk is 2x10{sup -5} Sv/yr for Aberg, 8x10{sup -7} Sv/yr for Beberg and 3x10{sup -8} Sv/yr for Ceberg. The analysis shows that the most important parameters in the near field are the number of defective canisters and the instant release fraction. The influence from varying one parameter never changes the doses as much as an order of magnitude. In the far field the most important uncertainties affecting release and retention are associated with permeability and connectivity of the fractures in the rock. These properties affect several parameters. Highly permeable and well connected fractures imply high groundwater fluxes and short groundwater travel times. Sparsely connected or highly variable fracture properties implies low flow wetted surface along migration paths. It should, however, be remembered that the far-field parameters have little importance if the near-field parameters take their reasonable

  1. Behaviour of 238U family radionuclides in continental environment: case of the U mining area near Limoges (France)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objectives of this work are to study the behaviour of 238U and its daughters in the continental environment and to determine the radiological impact of U mining past activities in the Haute-Vienne French department. The distribution of radionuclides among different size fraction was investigated upstream and downstream mines to better understand the transport of radionuclides in the Vienne river basin. Particulate (>0,45 ), colloidal (0,45μ-10 kD) and dissolved (238U, 234Th, 226Ra, 210Pb, 228Ra, 228Th, 7Be, 137Cs and 40 K activities. A preconcentration step by evaporation was elaborated and validated for liquid samples. Results indicate that radiological impact of U mines are the enhancement of radionuclides activities and a change of their distribution between particulate, colloidal and dissolved fraction. While activity levels depend on the input intensity, the distribution is controlled by the mine water treatment witch reduces drastically the contribution of mine radionuclides in streams. Analysis of particles from traps and sediments confirms that the distribution of mine radionuclides promote their accumulation in lacustrine sediments. Therefore, sediments have recorded the U mining history. Nevertheless, the impact of the past activities decreases over time and is very limited in space. Indeed, it becomes weak at 10 km downstream the inputs and it is no more detectable at 30 km downstream. (author)

  2. Isolation of Cu radionuclides with dithizone impregnated XAD-8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dolley, S.G. [Cape Peninsula Univ. of Technology, Bellville (South Africa). Dept. of Chemistry; Walt, T.N. van der [Cape Peninsula Univ. of Technology, Bellville (South Africa). Dept. of Chemistry; National Research Foundation, Somerset West (South Africa). iThemba LABS

    2014-04-01

    A novel separation method for Cu radionuclides from proton bombardment of {sup nat}Zn is presented. A solid phase extraction procedure using a modified dithizone (diphenylthiocarbazone) XAD-8 chelating resin was used for the purification of the Cu radionuclides from up to 5 g of {sup nat}Zn and other radionuclides. More than 95% of the Cu radionuclides was recovered. (orig.)

  3. Radionuclides: origin, presence or emission in the environment, human irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Origin, presence or emission in the environment of natural and artificial radionuclides and their contribution to human irradiation were reviewed. Data were given concerning dose commitments to individuals and populations from natural radioactivity (including non nuclear modifications introduced by man); from medical use of radionuclides; from radionuclides produced in nuclear tests; from radionuclides released into the environment from nuclear fuel cycle operations

  4. On the application of text input metrics to handwritten text input

    OpenAIRE

    Read, Janet C.

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the current metrics used in text input research, considering those used for discrete text input as well as those used for spoken input. It examines how these metrics might be used for handwritten text input and provides some thoughts about different metrics that might allow for a more fine grained evaluation of recognition improvement or input accuracy.

  5. Natural and anthropogenic radionuclides in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A survey is given on the actual knowledge about occurence and environmental relevancy of the most important radionuclides from natural and anthropogenic origin. The contribution of AGF installation is emphasized. (orig.)

  6. Application of radionuclides in nuclear technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Four main applications of radionuclides in nuclear technology are presented which are level-, density- and thickness gauging and moisture determination. Each method is surveyed for its general principle, various designs, accuracy, errors and practical designs. (Author)

  7. Radiation safety requirements for radionuclide laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The guide lays down the requirements for laboratories and storage rooms in which radioactive substances are used or stored as unsealed sources. In addition, some general instructions concerning work in radionuclide laboratories are set out

  8. Radiation safety requirements for radionuclide laboratories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    The guide lays down the requirements for laboratories and storage rooms in which radioactive substances are used or stored as unsealed sources. In addition, some general instructions concerning work in radionuclide laboratories are set out.

  9. Transfer of radionuclides into human milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Up until now the potential radiation exposure to breast-fed babies due to contaminated human milk has not been taken into account, when deriving international limit values and reference levels for radionuclides in foodstuffs, in air at monitored work places or for exposures in the medical field. It was the aim of the research project 'Transfer of radionuclides into human milk' to quantify the transfer of incorporated radionuclides into mother's milk, and develop simple models to estimate the radiation exposure of babies through the ingestion of human milk. The study focused on considerations of the radiation exposure due to the ingestion of contaminated foodstuffs by the mother, the inhalation of radionuclides at monitored work places, and the administration of radiopharmaceuticals to breast-feeding mothers. The blocking of infant thyroid glands by stable iodine in the case of accidental releases of radioiodine was considered as well. (orig.)

  10. Sensitivity Analysis of Input Parameters for a Dynamic Food Chain Model DYNACON

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sensitivity analysis of input parameters for a dynamic food chain model DYNACON was conducted as a function of deposition data for the long-lived radionuclides (137Cs, 90Sr). Also, the influence of input parameters for the short and long-terms contamination of selected foodstuffs (cereals, leafy vegetables, milk) was investigated. The input parameters were sampled using the LHS technique, and their sensitivity indices represented as PRCC. The sensitivity index was strongly dependent on contamination period as well as deposition data. In case of deposition during the growing stages of plants, the input parameters associated with contamination by foliar absorption were relatively important in long-term contamination as well as short-term contamination. They were also important in short-term contamination in case of deposition during the non-growing stages. In long-term contamination, the influence of input parameters associated with foliar absorption decreased, while the influence of input parameters associated with root uptake increased. These phenomena were more remarkable in case of the deposition of non-growing stages than growing stages, and in case of 90Sr deposition than 137Cs deposition. In case of deposition during growing stages of pasture, the input parameters associated with the characteristics of cattle such as feed-milk transfer factor and daily intake rate of cattle were relatively important in contamination of milk

  11. Natural radionuclides in mineral fertilizers and farmland

    OpenAIRE

    Mitrović Branislava M.; Vitorović Gordana; Andrić Velibor; Stojanović Mirjana; Vitorović Duško; Grdović Svetlana; Vićentijević Mihajlo

    2013-01-01

    Contemporary agriculture production is based on use of mineral fertilizers, which however can have high activity of natural radionuclides and so cause the appearance of technologically elevated radioactivity. In order to determine the influence of mineral fertilizers application in arable land, there was used gamma spectrometric method for defining the activity of natural radionuclides (40 K, 238U, 226Ra) in imported mineral fertilizers as well as in arable...

  12. Alchemy with short-lived radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A variety of short-lived radionuclides are produced and subsequently incorporated into radiopharmaceutical compounds in the radionuclide production program currently being conducted at the Cyclotron Facility of Mount Sinai Medical Center. The recovery of high specific activity oxygen-15 labelled water prepared by means of an inexpensive system operating in conjunction with an on-line radiogas target routinely utilized for oxygen-15 labelled carbon dioxide studies is currently receiving particular attention

  13. Livermore Accelerator Source for Radionuclide Science (LASRS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Scott [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Bleuel, Darren [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Johnson, Micah [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Rusnak, Brian [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Soltz, Ron [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Tonchev, Anton [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-05-05

    The Livermore Accelerator Source for Radionuclide Science (LASRS) will generate intense photon and neutron beams to address important gaps in the study of radionuclide science that directly impact Stockpile Stewardship, Nuclear Forensics, and Nuclear Material Detection. The co-location of MeV-scale neutral and photon sources with radiochemical analytics provides a unique facility to meet current and future challenges in nuclear security and nuclear science.

  14. The uptake of radionuclides by plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review of the literature, since 1970, on the research into the uptake of radionuclides by plants, with references to earlier soil and plant studies on the fate of nuclear weapons fallout. Experimental data on the uptake of plutonium isotopes, americium 241, cesium 137, radium 226, curium 244 and neptunium 237 and details of the chemical form of the radionuclide, soil type and plant growth period are tabulated. (U.K.)

  15. Valuation of radionuclides using radioecological models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The evaluation of the radiation exposure of the public following an accidental release of radionuclides into the atmosphere by means of radioecological models is shown. The radiation exposure after the Chernobyl-accident is used as an example to demonstrate the identification of the relevant radionuclides and exposure pathways. The natural radiation exposure is given as a means for the valuation of the calculated radiation exposures. (orig.)

  16. Biogeochemistry of radionuclides in ecosystems (historical aspect)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper presents the most important results of the study on the radionuclides' behaviour in natural and model biogeocenoses(ecosystems) obtained by N.W.Timofeev-Ressovskij and co-workers during the period 1947-1968. As early as at that period, radionuclides were classified according to the types of distribution, accumulation and migration within the surface and freshwater ecosystems, and the methods of biological purification of radioactive sewage were proposed

  17. Software for forecasting radionuclides migration in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Software for forecasting radionuclides' migration in soil has been proposed. Distinguishing feature of this software is its capability to use different approaches for prediction of radionuclides' migration. It shows that by means of physical-mathematical modeling it is possible to make prediction for wide-scale conditions. On the other side, neuronets' models where the prediction mechanism is based on experimental data and expert's knowledge makes prediction results more close to the real. (authors)

  18. Solubility limits on radionuclide dissolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerrisk, J.F.

    1984-12-31

    This paper examines the effects of solubility in limiting dissolution rates of a number of important radionuclides from spent fuel and high-level waste. Two simple dissolution models were used for calculations that would be characteristics of a Yucca Mountain repository. A saturation-limited dissolution model, in which the water flowing through the repository is assumed to be saturated with each waste element, is very conservative in that it overestimates dissolution rates. A diffusion-limited dissolution model, in which element-dissolution rates are limited by diffusion of waste elements into water flowing past the waste, is more realistic, but it is subject to some uncertainty at this time. Dissolution rates of some elements (Pu, Am, Sn, Th, Zr, Sm) are always limited by solubility. Dissolution rates of other elements (Cs, Tc, Np, Sr, C, I) are never solubility limited; their release would be limited by dissolution of the bulk waste form. Still other elements (U, Cm, Ni, Ra) show solubility-limited dissolution under some conditions. 9 references, 3 tables.

  19. Radionuclide scintigraphy of bacterial nephritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pyelonephritis is a leading cause of renal failure and is expected to cost as much as three billion dollars in 1984. The diagnosis of urinary tract infection is usually not difficult. However, localization of the infection within the renal parenchyma as opposed to the collecting system is much more difficult. Flank pain, fever, bacteiuria and evidence of parenchymal involvement by intravenous urography may be absent or unrecognized particularly in the infant. Ultrasound and Nuclear Medicine are advocated as better methods to define parenchymal involvement. Such definition is important in the consideration of treatment since parenchymal involvement of the kidney carries a much more ominous potential outcome than infection restricted to within the collecting system. 38 children with a clinical diagnosis of urinary tract infection were studied. 26 of the patients demonstrated abnormal renal parenchymal findings with Gallium-67 Citrate or Tc-99m Glucoheptonate scintigraphy. Intravenous urography was notably ineffective with only 5 of the 20 interpreted as abnormal due to parenchymal disease or decreased function. 11 were entirely normal while only 5 demonstrated scars or hydronephrosis. Only 10 of 17 patients demonstrated intranvesicoureteral reflux on x-ray or nuclear cystography. Ultrasound depicted 6 of 20 patients as having parenchymal abnormalities. Seven were normal. Nonspecific findings such as dilitation of the renal pelvis or renal enlargement was noted in 11 of the 20 patients. Radionuclide Scintigraphy is the most efficacious modality to detect since acute bacterial nephritis

  20. The production of cyclotron radionuclide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chun, Kwon Soo; Lee, Jong Doo; Lim, Sang Moo; Yang, Seung Dae; Suh, Yong Sup; Ahn, Soon Hyuk; Yun, Yong Kee; Park, Hyun; Lee, Ji Sup; Lee, Jong Doo [Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Seoul (Korea)

    1997-12-01

    In the project, 3,985mCi of {sup 67}Ga, 1,912mCi of {sup 201}Tl and 2,569mCi of {sup 123}I were supplied. Total amount of the supplied activities and the revenue were 8,466mCi and 103,191,950won, respectively. For the increase of the R.I. production yield, 13 deg angle solid target was developed and new {sup 201}TI chemical processing system was installed in the hot-cell. With this new solid target, R.I. production yield could be increased by more than 2 times per batch. For the efficient use of the cyclotron, the MC-50 cyclotron was opened to outside user and basic research project was carried out. The technical supports and radionuclides analysis were done during the execution of the research. Then the facilities of safety supervision and handling techniques of radioisotope production were improved. (author). 7 refs., 5 figs., 8 tabs.

  1. The production of cyclotron radionuclide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chun, Kwon Soo; Lee, Jong Doo; Lim, Sang Moo; Yang, Seung Dae; Suh, Yong Sup; Ahn, Soon Hyuk; Yun, Yong Kee; Park, Hyun; Lee, Ji Sup; Chai, Jong Seo; Kim, Yoo Seok; Hong, Sung Suk; Lee, Min Yong; Beak, Seung Ki [Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Seoul (Korea)

    1998-12-01

    In the project, 3,412mCi of {sup 67}Ga, 10,718mCi of {sup 201}Tl, 1,848mCi of {sup 123}I, 542mCi of [{sup 123}I]mIBG and 285mCi of {sup 18}FDG were supplied. Total amount of the supplied activities and the revenue were 16,805mCi and 257,777,660won, respectively. For the increase of the R.I. production yield, 13 deg angle solid target was used. Tl-201 has been produced two times per week for increasing demand. For the efficient use of the cyclotron, the MC-50 cyclotron was opened to outside user and basic research project was carried out. The technical supports and radionuclides analysis were done during the execution of the research. Then the facilities of safety supervision and handling techniques of radioisotope production were improved. 7 refs., 7 figs., 8 tabs. (Author)

  2. Radionuclide evaluation of lung trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lull, R J; Tatum, J L; Sugerman, H J; Hartshorne, M F; Boll, D A; Kaplan, K A

    1983-07-01

    Nuclear medicine imaging procedures can play a significant role in evaluating the pulmonary complications that are seen in trauma patients. A quantitative method for measuring increased pulmonary capillary permeability that uses Tc-99m HSA allows early diagnosis of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and accurately differentiates this condition from pneumonia or cardiogenic pulmonary edema. This technique may be of great value in following the response to therapy. The use of 133Xe to diagnose inhalation injury remains an important diagnostic tool, particularly at hospitals with specialized burn units. Regional decreases in ventilation-perfusion images reliably localize aspirated foreign bodies. Radionuclide techniques that are used to demonstrate gastropulmonary aspiration remain controversial and require further clinical evaluation. Pulmonary perfusion imaging, although nonspecific, may provide the earliest clue for correct diagnosis of fat embolism, air embolism, contusion, or laceration. Furthermore, the possibility of perfusion abnormality due to these uncommon conditions must be remembered whenever trauma patients are evaluated for pulmonary thromboembolism with scintigraphy. Occasionally, liver or spleen scintigraphy may be the most appropriate procedure when penetrating chest trauma also involves these subdiaphragmatic organs. PMID:6226097

  3. Radionuclide evaluation of lung trauma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lull, R.J.; Tatum, J.L.; Sugerman, H.J.; Hartshorne, M.F.; Boll, D.A.; Kaplan, K.A.

    1983-07-01

    Nuclear medicine imaging procedures can play a significant role in evaluating the pulmonary complications that are seen in trauma patients. A quantitative method for measuring increased pulmonary capillary permeability that uses Tc-99m HSA allows early diagnosis of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and accurately differentiates this condition from pneumonia or cardiogenic pulmonary edema. This technique may be of great value in following the response to therapy. The use of 133Xe to diagnose inhalation injury remains an important diagnostic tool, particularly at hospitals with specialized burn units. Regional decreases in ventilation-perfusion images reliably localize aspirated foreign bodies. Radionuclide techniques that are used to demonstrate gastropulmonary aspiration remain controversial and require further clinical evaluation. Pulmonary perfusion imaging, although nonspecific, may provide the earliest clue for correct diagnosis of fat embolism, air embolism, contusion, or laceration. Furthermore, the possibility of perfusion abnormality due to these uncommon conditions must be remembered whenever trauma patients are evaluated for pulmonary thromboembolism with scintigraphy. Occasionally, liver or spleen scintigraphy may be the most appropriate procedure when penetrating chest trauma also involves these subdiaphragmatic organs.

  4. Radionuclide evaluation of lung trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear medicine imaging procedures can play a significant role in evaluating the pulmonary complications that are seen in trauma patients. A quantitative method for measuring increased pulmonary capillary permeability that uses Tc-99m HSA allows early diagnosis of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and accurately differentiates this condition from pneumonia or cardiogenic pulmonary edema. This technique may be of great value in following the response to therapy. The use of 133Xe to diagnose inhalation injury remains an important diagnostic tool, particularly at hospitals with specialized burn units. Regional decreases in ventilation-perfusion images reliably localize aspirated foreign bodies. Radionuclide techniques that are used to demonstrate gastropulmonary aspiration remain controversial and require further clinical evaluation. Pulmonary perfusion imaging, although nonspecific, may provide the earliest clue for correct diagnosis of fat embolism, air embolism, contusion, or laceration. Furthermore, the possibility of perfusion abnormality due to these uncommon conditions must be remembered whenever trauma patients are evaluated for pulmonary thromboembolism with scintigraphy. Occasionally, liver or spleen scintigraphy may be the most appropriate procedure when penetrating chest trauma also involves these subdiaphragmatic organs

  5. Radionuclides sorption in clay soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sorption behaviour of clay soils is examined through a parametric study of the distribution coefficient (Kd) for the radionuclides of interest, Cs and Sr. This work is a preliminary stage of the migration studies of these nuclides in a porous medium (ground of Ezeiza, Argentina) and the evaluation of radiologic impact of the removal of low and intermediate activity wastes in shallow trenches. The determination of Kd is performed by a static technique or batch. The phases are separated by centrifugation at 20000 g during 1 hour. The activity of supernatant solution of Cs-137 and Sr-85 is measured in a detecting system of I Na(Tl) well-type. Two types of parameters were changed: a) those related to the determination method: phase separation (centrifugation vs. centrifugation plus filtration); equilibrium period, ratio solid/liquid; b) those related to the geochemical system: pH of contact solution, carrier concentration, competitive ions, ionic strength, desorption. It was observed that the modification of parameters in the Kd-measurement does not change the order of magnitude of results. (Author)

  6. Radionuclide transport in fractured media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Until recently, the classical advective-dispersive transport equation was considered to be an adequate model for describing the motion of a solute (e.g. radionuclides) in porous and fractured media. In this model, the dispersion coefficient is either obtained from a microscopic model of the porous medium or by carefully controlled experiments. As a result of such experiments, a large body of data has been accumulated on the dispersivity. Detailed examination of these data has resulted in a curious phenomenon being discovered; namely, that the longitudinal dispersion length is 'scale-dependent'. That is to say the value deduced depends on the 'size' of the experiment, i.e. on the distance over which measurements are made. Several interesting attempts have been made to develop theories which explain this phenomenon, all based on treating the velocity of the water in the porous medium as a spatially random variable, but retaining the advective-dispersive balance equation. In this work we present an entirely new approach to the problem of solute transport in fractured media based upon an analogy with neutron transport. The new method has several advantages over the previous theories and these will be explained below. Results from the new theory are in agreement with experimental trends and do not require any further adjustment to explain the scale-dependent effect

  7. Gut-related radionuclide studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This project is concerned with the behavior of radioactive materials that may be ingested as a consequence of a reactor accident, unavoidable occupational exposure, or after release to the environment and incorporation into the food chain. Current emphasis is directed toward evaluating hazards from ingested actinides as a function of animal age, species, nutrition, and diet, or chemicophysical state of the actinide. Recent observations indicate that the influence of chemical form on plutonium absorption observed at high mass levels does not occur at low mass concentrations. For example, at doses of 0.6 μg/kg there was no difference between absorption of the carbonate, citrate or nitrate forms of plutonium. However, at 1.5 mg/kg, the citrate was absorbed in quantities 30 times higher than the nitrate. The opposite effect occurred for neptunium GI absorption. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that materials such as citrus fruit juices and calcium, as well as drugs that affect GI function (such as aspirin and DTPA), markedly influence GI absorption of plutonium. Such studies provide evidence that diet and nutritional state should be considered in establishing safe limits for radionuclides that may be ingested

  8. Soil contamination with radionuclides and potential remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Y G; Shaw, G

    2000-07-01

    Soils contaminated with radionuclides, particularly 137Cs and 90Sr, pose a long-term radiation hazard to human health through exposure via the foodchain and other pathways. Remediation of radionuclide-contaminated soils has become increasingly important. Removal of the contaminated surface soil (often up to 40 cm) or immobilization of radionuclides in soils by applying mineral and chemical amendments are physically difficult and not likely cost-effective in practicality. Reducing plant uptake of radionuclides, especially 137CS and 90Sr by competitive cations contained in chemical fertilizers has the general advantage in large scale, low-level contamination incidents on arable land, and has been widely practiced in central and Western Europe after the Chernobyl accident. Phytoextraction of radionuclides by specific plant species from contaminated sites has rapidly stimulated interest among industrialists as well as academics, and is considered to be a promising bio-remediation method. This paper examines the existing remediation approaches and discusses phytoextraction of radionuclides from contaminated soils in detail. PMID:10819188

  9. Reactor core heterogeneity effects on radionuclide inventory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Reactor core heterogeneity effects on radionuclide inventory are studied. ► A methodology for inventory estimation of individual fuel assembly is developed. ► Estimated inventory using presently developed and conventional method is compared. ► Radionuclide density peak and its location in equilibrium VVER core are investigated. - Abstract: Understanding fission product behavior is an important aspect of nuclear safety studies. A nuclear reactor core contains complex mixture of fuel elements with different levels of enrichment, power and burnup. Conventional method of core radionuclide inventory estimation is based on use of homogenized core parameters like burnup, enrichment, specific power etc. This approach does not reveal the variation in radionuclide density among different fuel elements within the core. The present work aims to bridge this knowledge gap by estimating the distribution of radionuclides in the nuclear reactor core taking into account the heterogeneity of the core explicitly. The analysis has brought out peak radionuclide density in the core which can be helpful in appropriate estimation of the radiological release in the accidental scenarios involving failures of few fuel assemblies. A quantitative comparison of total core inventory estimated based conventional core average parameters and detailed core inventory using individual fuel assembly inventory estimate has been made

  10. A dynamic model for evaluating radionuclide distribution in forests from nuclear accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident in 1986 caused radionuclide contamination in most countries in Eastern and Western Europe. A prime example is Belarus where 23% of the total land area received chronic levels; about 1.5 X 106 ha of forested lands were contaminated with 40-190 kBq m-2 and 2.5 X 104 ha received greater than 1,480 kBq m-2 of 137Cs and other long-lived radionuclides such as 90Sr and 239,240Pu. Since the radiological dose to the forest ecosystem will tend to accumulate over long time periods (decades to centuries), we need to determine what countermeasures can be taken to limit this dose so that the affected regions can, once again, safely provide habitat and natural forest products. To address some of these problems, our initial objective is to formulate a generic model, FORESTPATH, which describes the major kinetic processes and pathways of radionuclide movement in forests and natural ecosystems and which can be used to predict future radionuclide concentrations. The model calculates the time-dependent radionuclide concentrations in different compartments of the forest ecosystem based on the information available on residence half-times in two forest types: coniferous and deciduous. The results show that the model reproduces well the radionuclide cycling pattern found in the literature for deciduous and coniferous forests. Variability analysis was used to access the relative importance of specific parameter values in the generic model performance. The FORESTPASTH model can be easily adjusted for site-specific applications. 92 refs., 5 figs., 6 tabs

  11. PABLM: a computer program to calculate accumulated radiation doses from radionuclides in the environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Napier, B.A.; Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Soldat, J.K.

    1980-03-01

    A computer program, PABLM, was written to facilitate the calculation of internal radiation doses to man from radionuclides in food products and external radiation doses from radionuclides in the environment. This report contains details of mathematical models used and calculational procedures required to run the computer program. Radiation doses from radionuclides in the environment may be calculated from deposition on the soil or plants during an atmospheric or liquid release, or from exposure to residual radionuclides in the environment after the releases have ended. Radioactive decay is considered during the release of radionuclides, after they are deposited on the plants or ground, and during holdup of food after harvest. The radiation dose models consider several exposure pathways. Doses may be calculated for either a maximum-exposed individual or for a population group. The doses calculated are accumulated doses from continuous chronic exposure. A first-year committed dose is calculated as well as an integrated dose for a selected number of years. The equations for calculating internal radiation doses are derived from those given by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) for body burdens and MPC's of each radionuclide. The radiation doses from external exposure to contaminated water and soil are calculated using the basic assumption that the contaminated medium is large enough to be considered an infinite volume or plane relative to the range of the emitted radiations. The equations for calculations of the radiation dose from external exposure to shoreline sediments include a correction for the finite width of the contaminated beach.

  12. Repositioning Recitation Input in College English Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qing

    2009-01-01

    This paper tries to discuss how recitation input helps overcome the negative influences on the basis of second language acquisition theory and confirms the important role that recitation input plays in improving college students' oral and written English.

  13. TERRA: a computer code for simulating the transport of environmentally released radionuclides through agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TERRA is a computer code which calculates concentrations of radionuclides and ingrowing daughters in surface and root-zone soil, produce and feed, beef, and milk from a given deposition rate at any location in the conterminous United States. The code is fully integrated with seven other computer codes which together comprise a Computerized Radiological Risk Investigation System, CRRIS. Output from either the long range (> 100 km) atmospheric dispersion code RETADD-II or the short range (<80 km) atmospheric dispersion code ANEMOS, in the form of radionuclide air concentrations and ground deposition rates by downwind location, serves as input to TERRA. User-defined deposition rates and air concentrations may also be provided as input to TERRA through use of the PRIMUS computer code. The environmental concentrations of radionuclides predicted by TERRA serve as input to the ANDROS computer code which calculates population and individual intakes, exposures, doses, and risks. TERRA incorporates models to calculate uptake from soil and atmospheric deposition on four groups of produce for human consumption and four groups of livestock feeds. During the environmental transport simulation, intermediate calculations of interception fraction for leafy vegetables, produce directly exposed to atmospherically depositing material, pasture, hay, and silage are made based on location-specific estimates of standing crop biomass. Pasture productivity is estimated by a model which considers the number and types of cattle and sheep, pasture area, and annual production of other forages (hay and silage) at a given location. Calculations are made of the fraction of grain imported from outside the assessment area. TERRA output includes the above calculations and estimated radionuclide concentrations in plant produce, milk, and a beef composite by location

  14. TERRA: a computer code for simulating the transport of environmentally released radionuclides through agriculture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baes, C.F. III; Sharp, R.D.; Sjoreen, A.L.; Hermann, O.W.

    1984-11-01

    TERRA is a computer code which calculates concentrations of radionuclides and ingrowing daughters in surface and root-zone soil, produce and feed, beef, and milk from a given deposition rate at any location in the conterminous United States. The code is fully integrated with seven other computer codes which together comprise a Computerized Radiological Risk Investigation System, CRRIS. Output from either the long range (> 100 km) atmospheric dispersion code RETADD-II or the short range (<80 km) atmospheric dispersion code ANEMOS, in the form of radionuclide air concentrations and ground deposition rates by downwind location, serves as input to TERRA. User-defined deposition rates and air concentrations may also be provided as input to TERRA through use of the PRIMUS computer code. The environmental concentrations of radionuclides predicted by TERRA serve as input to the ANDROS computer code which calculates population and individual intakes, exposures, doses, and risks. TERRA incorporates models to calculate uptake from soil and atmospheric deposition on four groups of produce for human consumption and four groups of livestock feeds. During the environmental transport simulation, intermediate calculations of interception fraction for leafy vegetables, produce directly exposed to atmospherically depositing material, pasture, hay, and silage are made based on location-specific estimates of standing crop biomass. Pasture productivity is estimated by a model which considers the number and types of cattle and sheep, pasture area, and annual production of other forages (hay and silage) at a given location. Calculations are made of the fraction of grain imported from outside the assessment area. TERRA output includes the above calculations and estimated radionuclide concentrations in plant produce, milk, and a beef composite by location.

  15. Radionuclide evaluation of renal transplants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this review article, the following topics are treated: the radiopharmaceuticals /sup 99m/Tc-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA), 131I-orthoiodohippurate (OIH), /sup 99m/Tc-mercaptoacetyltriglycine (MAG3), 67Ga-citrate, radioiodinated fibrinogen, /sup 99m/Tc-sulfur colloid, 111In-labelled white cells and platelets; gamma camera methods based on images, on first pass and on tubular transit; blood clearance methods; and the diagnosis of surgical complications, acute rejection (AR), acute tubular necrosis (ATN), chronic rejection (CR), and cyclosporine-A (CYA) toxicity. 94 references

  16. Controlling Linear Networks with Minimally Novel Inputs

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Gautam; Menolascino, Delsin; Kafashan, MohammadMehdi; Ching, ShiNung

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a novelty-based metric for quantitative characterization of the controllability of complex networks. This inherently bounded metric describes the average angular separation of an input with respect to the past input history. We use this metric to find the minimally novel input that drives a linear network to a desired state using unit average energy. Specifically, the minimally novel input is defined as the solution of a continuous time, non-convex optimal control pr...

  17. Computational Complexity of Input/Output Logic

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Xin; Ambrossio, Diego Agustin

    2015-01-01

    Input/output logics are abstract structures designed to represent conditional norms. The complexity of input/output logic has been sparsely developed. In this paper we study the complexity of input/output logics. We show that the lower bound of the complexity of the fulfillment problem of 4 input/output logics is coNP, while the upper bound is either coNP or P^NP.

  18. Assessment of hydrologic transport of radionuclides from the Rio Blanco underground nuclear test site, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DOE is operating an environmental restoration program to characterize, remediate, and close non-Nevada Test Site locations used for nuclear testing. Evaluation of radionuclide transport by groundwater is part of preliminary risk analysis. These evaluations allow prioritization of test areas in terms of risk, provide a basis for discussions with regulators and the public about future work, and provide a framework for assessing site characterization data needs. The Rio Blanco site in Colorado was the location of the simultaneous detonation of three 30-kiloton nuclear devices. The devices were located 1780, 1899, and 2039 below ground surface in the Fort Union and Mesaverde formations. Although all the bedrock formations at the site are thought to contain water, those below the Green River Formation (below 1000 in depth) are also gas-bearing, and have very low permeabilities. The transport scenario evaluated was the migration of radionuclides from the blast-created cavity through the Fort Union Formation. Transport calculations were performed using the solute flux method, with input based on the limited data available for the site. Model results suggest that radionuclides from the test are contained entirely within the area currently administered by DOE. This modeling was performed to investigate how the uncertainty in various physical parameters affect radionuclide transport at the site, and to serve as a starting point for discussion regarding further investigation; it was not intended to be a definitive simulation of migration pathways or radionuclide concentration values. Given the sparse data, the modeling results may differ significantly from reality. Confidence in transport predictions can be increased by obtaining more site data, including the amount of radionuclides which would have been available for transport (i.e., not trapped in melt glass or vented during gas flow testing), and the hydraulic properties of the formation. 38 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  19. [Neurosurgical treatment of chronic pain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontaine, D; Blond, S; Mertens, P; Lanteri-Minet, M

    2015-02-01

    Neurosurgical treatment of pain used two kind of techniques: 1) Lesional techniques interrupt the transmission of nociceptive neural input by lesionning the nociceptive pathways (drezotomy, cordotomy, tractotomy…). They are indicated to treat morphine-resistant cancer pain and few cases of selected neuropathic pain. 2) Neuromodulation techniques try to decrease pain by reinforcing inhibitory and/or to limit activatory mechanisms. Chronic electrical stimulation of the nervous system (peripheral nerve stimulation, spinal cord stimulation, motor cortex stimulation…) is used to treat chronic neuropathic pain. Intrathecal infusion of analgesics (morphine, ziconotide…), using implantable pumps, allows to increase their efficacy and to reduce their side effects. These techniques can improve, sometimes dramatically, selected patients with severe and chronic pain, refractory to all other treatments. The quality of the analgesic outcome depends on the relevance of the indications. PMID:25681114

  20. Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML)

    Science.gov (United States)

    CML; Chronic myeloid leukemia; Chronic granulocytic leukemia; Leukemia - chronic granulocytic ... nuclear disaster. It takes many years to develop leukemia from radiation exposure. Most people treated for cancer ...

  1. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... airways disease; Chronic obstructive lung disease; Chronic bronchitis; Emphysema; Bronchitis - chronic ... a protein called alpha-1 antitrypsin can develop emphysema. Other risk factors for COPD are: Exposure to ...

  2. 7 CFR 3430.607 - Stakeholder input.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Stakeholder input. 3430.607 Section 3430.607 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COOPERATIVE STATE RESEARCH, EDUCATION... § 3430.607 Stakeholder input. CSREES shall seek and obtain stakeholder input through a variety of...

  3. 7 CFR 3430.907 - Stakeholder input.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Stakeholder input. 3430.907 Section 3430.907 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COOPERATIVE STATE RESEARCH, EDUCATION... Program § 3430.907 Stakeholder input. CSREES shall seek and obtain stakeholder input through a variety...

  4. 7 CFR 3430.15 - Stakeholder input.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Stakeholder input. 3430.15 Section 3430.15... Stakeholder input. Section 103(c)(2) of the Agricultural Research, Extension, and Education Reform Act of 1998... RFAs for competitive programs. CSREES will provide instructions for submission of stakeholder input...

  5. The generation of dependent input variables to a performance assessment simulation code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathematical models are being developed in many countries to aid in the assessment of risks associated with the deep geologic disposal of high-level nuclear wastes. The models are designed to simulate one or more steps in the following scenario: waste containment is lost, and the radionuclides are released from the repository, are transported to the biosphere, and become accessible to man. The models typically involve a large number of variables that may be highly dependent. When the models are implemented in computer simulation codes, it becomes necessary to generate input values for these variables. Widely used methods for generating input values, such as simple random sampling (SRS) and Latin hypercube sampling (LHS), do not necessarily produce samples that are consistent with the known dependence structure of the input variables. Moreover, it is procedurally impracticable to generate realizations of correlated input variables from many multivariate probability distributions of interest. Two important cases in which it is feasible to generate multivariate realizations are those in which all input variables are either normally distributed or mutually independent. Neither case is adequate for large-scale performance assessment codes with many input variables. Iman and Conover (1982) have developed a practical method for generating nonzero pairwise rank correlations among the components of an input vector that overcomes some of these difficulties. The method requires samples of specified size from the marginal (univariate) distributions of the input variables. The method further requires a target matrix of desired pairwise correlations among the input variables. The Cholesky decomposition of the target matrix is used to transform the rank matrix of the input sample

  6. The effects of radionuclides on animal behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concomitant with the expansion of the nuclear industry, the concentrations of several pollutants, radioactive or otherwise, including uranium, caesium, cadmium and cobalt, have increased over the last few decades. These elemental pollutants do exist in the environment and are a threat to many organisms. Behavior represents the integration of all the anatomical adaptations and physiological processes that occur within an organism. Compared to other biological endpoints, the effects of pollutants on animal behavior have been the focus of only a few studies. However, behavioral changes appear to be ideal for assessing the effects of pollutants on animal populations, because behavior links physiological functions with ecological processes. The alteration of behavioral responses can have severe implications for survival of individuals and of population of some species. Behavioral disruptions may derive from several underlying mechanisms: disruption of neuro-sensorial activity and of endocrines, or oxidative and metabolic disruptions. In this review, we presented an overview of the current literature in which the effects of radioactive pollutants on behavior in humans, rodents, fish and wildlife species are addressed. When possible, we have also indicated the potential underlying mechanisms of the behavioral alterations and parameters measured. In fried, chronic uranium contamination is associated with behavior alterations and mental disorders in humans, and cognitive deficits in rats. Comparative studies on depleted and enriched uranium effects in rats showed that chemical and radiological activities of this metal induced negative effects on several behavioral parameters and also produced brain oxidative stress. Uranium exposure also modifies feeding behavior of bivalves and reproductive behavior of fish. Studies of the effects of the Chernobyl accident shows that chronic irradiation to 137Cs induces both nervous system diseases and mental disorders in humans leading to

  7. SR97. Data and data uncertainties. Compilation of data and data uncertainties for radionuclide transport calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Johan [Golder Grundteknik KB (Sweden)

    1999-10-01

    This report concerns integration of data and data uncertainties in the radionuclide transport calculations within the SR 97 project. More specifically the present report: establishes a framework for handling data uncertainty within SR 97, explores uncertainties in the different underlying analyses and information such as inventory, canister life time, solubilities, K{sub d}-values, or different flow related migration parameters, which provide input to the radionuclide release and transport models used, suggests and motivates 'reasonable' input values, and 'pessimistic' input values representing conditions at Aaberg (Aespoe), Beberg (Finnsjoen) and Ceberg (Gideaa) when applicable, for the different models used, suggests 'probabilistic' parameter distributions when underlying data support any distribution. The intention of presenting 'reasonable' estimates is one of illustration - to obtain a view on how the repository system would operate without making overly optimistic or pessimistic assumptions. A pessimistic input datum implies a selection of a parameter value (and conceptual model) within the uncertainty range, which maximises the consequence.

  8. Inverse treatment planning for targeted radionuclide therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: A method for inverse treatment planning was developed for targeted radionuclide therapy. Taking into account the fact that the efficacy of targeting radionuclide therapy is affected by nonuniformity dose and dose rate distributions in tumors, we introduce the equivalent uniform biologically effective dose (EUBED) concept on treatment planning for targeting radionuclide therapy. The EUBED model converts the spatial biologically effective dose (BED) distribution into an equivalent uniform biologically effective dose value that would produce a biological response similar to that expected from de original BED distribution. According to this, the treatment planning must quantify the relationship between administered activity and the absorbed dose distribution that expressed in terms of biological effect maximizing the EUBED in tumor while the mean dose in dose-limiting normal organs is maintained within accepted values. The method is based on calculation of the absorbed dose distribution using patient-specific imaging data, incorporating radiobiologic modeling to account for effects of dose rate distribution for better prediction of tumor response. For BED calculation, we use a BED model based on cell repair and proliferation during the internal irradiation at low dose rate with beta emitters. The inverse planning process consists in the estimation of activity to be administered from treatment prescription in terms of tumor control probability (TCP), assuming that each amount of administered activity produces the same biological effect, for treatment schemes that uses multiple activity administrations equally time-spaced. From SPECT images of absorbed dose distribution at voxel level in Gy/GBq, the differential dose volume histogram is obtained and used together with the mean absorbed dose of the dose-limiting organ as input parameters. From prescribed TCP, the corresponding EUBED is calculated and divided by the number of activity administrations to

  9. Radionuclide right ventricular function evaluation before lung transplantation: comparison with ultrafast computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aims of this study were to compare the right ventricle ejection fraction (RVEF) using radionuclide ventriculography (equilibrium [EV] and first-pass [FPV] and using ultrafast computed tomography (UFCT), during cardiopulmonary evaluation in anticipation of lung transplantation. Fifty patients (15 women and 35 men, mean age 45 ± 14 years) with end-stage chronic lung disease and mild arterial pulmonary hypertension were enrolled in this study. There was a constant and systematic under-evaluation, expectable from the current published date, using radionuclide ventriculography as compared with ultrafast CT, this under-evaluation being more evidenced by equilibrium radionuclide ventriculography and higher values of RVEF:RVEFEV = 33 % ± 13 %, RVEFFPV = 36 % ± 9% and RVEFUFCT = 43 ± 13 %. Close correlations were observed between the different values obtained. The closest correlation was obtained with first-pass ventriculography and ultrafast CT scan (r=0.84). In spite of its advantages, ultrafast computed tomography is still unfrequently available; conversely, radionuclide ventriculography has the merit of being not only reliable, reproducible, but also readily available. We could anticipate that ECG gated tomographic techniques will yield less under-estimated values of RVEF by avoiding the superimposition of right auricular structures on the left ventricle regions of interest. This will allow to obtain eventually prognostic RVEF values and to perform a long term follow-up of the outcome in cases of pulmonary transplantation. (authors). 16 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs

  10. Neptun: an interactive code for calculating doses to man due to radionuclides in acquatic food chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A flexible and interactive code, NEPTUN, has been written in FORTRAN IV for the PDP-10 computer to assess the impact on man of radionuclides in aquatic food chains. NEPTUN is based on an equilibrium model of the linear-chain type, and calculates aquatic food concentrations and doses to man. A decay term is included for the holdup time of the various food types. A total of seven food types can be selected, which include drinking water, freshwater and salt-water plants, inverebrates and fish. Thirty different diets can be implemented and five different dose factor files can be chosen. These include dose conversion factors for infants and adults based on ICRP 2 and ICRP 26 methodologies. All dose factors involve a dose commitment of 50 years, or equivalently, 50 years of chronic exposure. To date, only stochastic ICRP 26 dose caluclations have been implemented. The basic concentration factor file contains data for 211 different radionuclides; the dose factor files are less comprehensive. However, all files can be readily expanded. The output includes tables of concentrations and doses for individual radionuclides, as well as summaries for groups of radionuclides. Existing aquatic food chain models and the sources of currently-used generic concentration factors are briefly reviewed, and dose factors based on ICRP 2 and ICRP 26 methodologies are contrasted. (auth)

  11. PREVIMER : Meteorological inputs and outputs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravenel, H.; Lecornu, F.; Kerléguer, L.

    2009-09-01

    PREVIMER is a pre-operational system aiming to provide a wide range of users, from private individuals to professionals, with short-term forecasts about the coastal environment along the French coastlines bordering the English Channel, the Atlantic Ocean, and the Mediterranean Sea. Observation data and digital modelling tools first provide 48-hour (probably 96-hour by summer 2009) forecasts of sea states, currents, sea water levels and temperatures. The follow-up of an increasing number of biological parameters will, in time, complete this overview of coastal environment. Working in partnership with the French Naval Hydrographic and Oceanographic Service (Service Hydrographique et Océanographique de la Marine, SHOM), the French National Weather Service (Météo-France), the French public science and technology research institute (Institut de Recherche pour le Développement, IRD), the European Institute of Marine Studies (Institut Universitaire Européen de la Mer, IUEM) and many others, IFREMER (the French public institute fo marine research) is supplying the technologies needed to ensure this pertinent information, available daily on Internet at http://www.previmer.org, and stored at the Operational Coastal Oceanographic Data Centre. Since 2006, PREVIMER publishes the results of demonstrators assigned to limited geographic areas and to specific applications. This system remains experimental. The following topics are covered : Hydrodynamic circulation, sea states, follow-up of passive tracers, conservative or non-conservative (specifically of microbiological origin), biogeochemical state, primary production. Lastly, PREVIMER provides researchers and R&D departments with modelling tools and access to the database, in which the observation data and the modelling results are stored, to undertake environmental studies on new sites. The communication will focus on meteorological inputs to and outputs from PREVIMER. It will draw the lessons from almost 3 years during

  12. Turn customer input into innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulwick, Anthony W

    2002-01-01

    It's difficult to find a company these days that doesn't strive to be customer-driven. Too bad, then, that most companies go about the process of listening to customers all wrong--so wrong, in fact, that they undermine innovation and, ultimately, the bottom line. What usually happens is this: Companies ask their customers what they want. Customers offer solutions in the form of products or services. Companies then deliver these tangibles, and customers just don't buy. The reason is simple--customers aren't expert or informed enough to come up with solutions. That's what your R&D team is for. Rather, customers should be asked only for outcomes--what they want a new product or service to do for them. The form the solutions take should be up to you, and you alone. Using Cordis Corporation as an example, this article describes, in fine detail, a series of effective steps for capturing, analyzing, and utilizing customer input. First come indepth interviews, in which a moderator works with customers to deconstruct a process or activity in order to unearth "desired outcomes." Addressing participants' comments one at a time, the moderator rephrases them to be both unambiguous and measurable. Once the interviews are complete, researchers then compile a comprehensive list of outcomes that participants rank in order of importance and degree to which they are satisfied by existing products. Finally, using a simple mathematical formula called the "opportunity calculation," researchers can learn the relative attractiveness of key opportunity areas. These data can be used to uncover opportunities for product development, to properly segment markets, and to conduct competitive analysis. PMID:12964470

  13. Low back pain - chronic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonspecific back pain; Backache - chronic; Lumbar pain - chronic; Pain - back - chronic; Chronic back pain - low ... Low back pain is common. Almost everyone has back pain at some time in their life. Often, the exact cause of ...

  14. Chronic Pelvic Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Chronic Pelvic Pain Home For Patients Search FAQs Chronic Pelvic Pain ... Pain FAQ099, August 2011 PDF Format Chronic Pelvic Pain Gynecologic Problems What is chronic pelvic pain? What ...

  15. Employees with Chronic Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home | Accommodation and Compliance Series: Employees with Chronic Pain By Beth Loy, Ph.D. Preface Introduction Information ... at http://AskJAN.org/soar. Information about Chronic Pain How prevalent is chronic pain? Chronic pain has ...

  16. Assessment of Dose to the Nursing Infant from Radionuclides in Breast Milk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leggett, Richard Wayne [ORNL; Eckerman, Keith F [ORNL

    2010-03-01

    A computer software package was developed to predict tissue doses to an infant due to intake of radionuclides in breast milk based on bioassay measurements and exposure data for the mother. The package is intended mainly to aid in decisions regarding the safety of breast feeding by a mother who has been acutely exposed to a radionuclide during lactation or pregnancy, but it may be applied to previous intakes during the mother s adult life. The package includes biokinetic and dosimetric information needed to address intake of Co-60, Sr-90, Cs-134, Cs-137, Ir-192, Pu-238, Pu-239, Am-241, or Cf-252 by the mother. It has been designed so that the library of biokinetic and dosimetric files can be expanded to address a more comprehensive set of radionuclides without modifying the basic computational module. The methods and models build on the approach used in Publication 95 of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP 2004), Doses to Infants from Ingestion of Radionuclides in Mothers Milk . The software package allows input of case-specific information or judgments such as chemical form or particle size of an inhaled aerosol. The package is expected to be more suitable than ICRP Publication 95 for dose assessment for real events or realistic planning scenarios in which measurements of the mother s excretion or body burden are available.

  17. Microbial characterization of a radionuclide- and metal-contaminated waste site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The operation of nuclear processing facilities and defense-related nuclear activities has resulted in contamination of near-surface and deep-subsurface sediments with both radionuclides and metals. The presence of mixed inorganic contaminants may result in undetectable microbial populations or microbial populations that are different from those present in uncontaminated sediments. To determine the impact of mixed radionuclide and metal contaminants on sediment microbial communities, we sampled a processing pond that was used from 1948 to 1975 for the disposal of radioactive and metal-contaminated wastewaters from laboratories and nuclear fuel fabrication facilities on the Hanford Site in Washington State. Because the Hanford Site is located in a semiarid environment with average rainfall of 159 mm/year, the pond dried and a settling basin remained after wastewater input into the pond ceased in 1975. This processing pond basin offered a unique opportunity to obtain near-surface sediments that had been contaminated with both radionuclides and metals for several decades. Our objectives were to determine the viable populations of microorganisms in the sediments and to test several hypotheses about how the addition of both radionuclides and metals influenced the microbial ecology of the sediments. Our first hypothesis was that viable populations of microorganisms would be lower in the more contaminated sediments. Second, we expected that long-term metal exposure would result in enhanced metal resistance. Finally, we hypothesized that microorganisms from the most radioactive sediments should have had enhanced radiation resistance

  18. Bioavailability of anthropogenic radionuclides in mussels along the french mediterranean coast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within the framework of the Water Management Master-plan, a bio-indicator network (RINBIO) was deployed all along the French Mediterranean coast (1,800 km), using man-made cages containing mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) to assess contamination by heavy metals, persistent organic products and radionuclides. The caging technique compensated for the scarcity of natural shellfish stocks in significant parts of the coast and enable comparison between sites regardless of their physicochemical and trophic characteristics. Among the 103 stations of the entire program, 40 were selected for the measurement of anthropogenic radionuclides by high-efficiency gamma-spectrometry. Biometrics parameters of the each mussel samples, including 'condition index' as an indicator of soft part growth, will be correlated with radionuclides activities, allowing to correct raw data from differences in bioaccumulation between the various sites in relation to their trophic levels. A comprehensive picture of the distribution of radionuclides at a such a large spatial scale will be provided and the contribution of the Rhone river input, so far the main source for the coastal zone, will be investigated. (author)

  19. Development of scaling factor prediction method for radionuclide composition in low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low-level radioactive waste management require the knowledge of the natures and quantities of radionuclides in the immobilized or packaged waste. U. S. NRC rules require programs that measure the concentrations of all relevant nuclides either directly or indirectly by relating difficult-to-measure radionuclides to other easy-to-measure radionuclides with application of scaling factors. Scaling factors previously developed through statistical approach can give only generic ones and have many difficult problem about sampling procedures. Generic scaling factors can not take into account for plant operation history. In this study, a method to predict plant-specific and operational history dependent scaling factors is developed. Realistic and detailed approach are taken to find scaling factors at reactor coolant. This approach begin with fission product release mechanisms and fundamental release properties of fuel-source nuclide such as fission product and transuranic nuclide. Scaling factors at various waste streams are derived from the predicted reactor coolant scaling factors with the aid of radionuclide retention and build up model. This model make use of radioactive material balance within the radioactive waste processing systems. Scaling factors at reactor coolant and waste streams which can include the effects of plant operation history have been developed according to input parameters of plant operation history

  20. A thalamic input to the nucleus accumbens mediates opiate dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yingjie; Wienecke, Carl F R; Nachtrab, Gregory; Chen, Xiaoke

    2016-02-11

    Chronic opiate use induces opiate dependence, which is characterized by extremely unpleasant physical and emotional feelings after drug use is terminated. Both the rewarding effects of a drug and the desire to avoid withdrawal symptoms motivate continued drug use, and the nucleus accumbens is important for orchestrating both processes. While multiple inputs to the nucleus accumbens regulate reward, little is known about the nucleus accumbens circuitry underlying withdrawal. Here we identify the paraventricular nucleus of the thalamus as a prominent input to the nucleus accumbens mediating the expression of opiate-withdrawal-induced physical signs and aversive memory. Activity in the paraventricular nucleus of the thalamus to nucleus accumbens pathway is necessary and sufficient to mediate behavioural aversion. Selectively silencing this pathway abolishes aversive symptoms in two different mouse models of opiate withdrawal. Chronic morphine exposure selectively potentiates excitatory transmission between the paraventricular nucleus of the thalamus and D2-receptor-expressing medium spiny neurons via synaptic insertion of GluA2-lacking AMPA receptors. Notably, in vivo optogenetic depotentiation restores normal transmission at these synapses and robustly suppresses morphine withdrawal symptoms. This links morphine-evoked pathway- and cell-type-specific plasticity in the paraventricular nucleus of the thalamus to nucleus accumbens circuit to opiate dependence, and suggests that reprogramming this circuit holds promise for treating opiate addiction. PMID:26840481

  1. Radionuclide evaluation of renal allografts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to evaluate the blood perfusion in the transplanted kidneys, sup(99m)Tc-DTPA dynamic studies were performed 53 times in 25 cases of various stages (normal function 31, acute rejection 11, chronic rejection 8, ATN 2 and ureteral obstruction 1). Seven parameters were calculated from the Tc-DTPA dynamic studies. (A) Mean transit time (MTT): the time interval between the positive and negative peaks in the first order differential curve (Oldendorf's method). (B) Appearance time: the time interval from injection to the positive peak of differential curve. (C) T max: the time from injection to the maximum. (D) T sub(1/2) max: the time to half maximum. (E) Slope: the time interval between 10% to 90% of the maximum counts in the initial slope. (F) Uptake ratio: ratio of the RI counts in the region of the kidney over the counts in the whole field during the MTT. (G) Kidney/Background ratio. The results of this study were as follows. Significant prolongation of MTT and marked decrease of Uptake ratio were recognized during acute rejections (p < 0.001). T max, Slope and K/B ratio were also significantly changed (p < 0.05, p < 0.005, p < 0.01). In the chronic rejection group, all of the seven parameters revealed significantly different from those of the normal grafts. As to the correlations between the kidney function (creatinine clearance) and the parameters, MTT and Uptake ratio were highly correlated to Ccr (r = -0.736 and r = 0.625, respectively). In conclusion, MTT and Uptake ratio were the most valuable parameters in detecting the rejection episodes and evaluating the kidney function. (J.P.N.)

  2. Preparation of Radiopharmaceuticals Labeled with Metal Radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welch, M.J.

    2012-02-16

    The overall goal of this project was to develop methods for the production of metal-based radionuclides, to develop metal-based radiopharmaceuticals and in a limited number of cases, to translate these agents to the clinical situation. Initial work concentrated on the application of the radionuclides of Cu, Cu-60, Cu-61 and Cu-64, as well as application of Ga-68 radiopharmaceuticals. Initially Cu-64 was produced at the Missouri University Research Reactor and experiments carried out at Washington University. A limited number of studies were carried out utilizing Cu-62, a generator produced radionuclide produced by Mallinckrodt Inc. (now Covidien). In these studies, copper-62-labeled pyruvaldehyde Bis(N{sup 4}-methylthiosemicarbazonato)-copper(II) was studied as an agent for cerebral myocardial perfusion. A remote system for the production of this radiopharmaceutical was developed and a limited number of patient studies carried out with this agent. Various other copper radiopharmaceuticals were investigated, these included copper labeled blood imaging agents as well as Cu-64 labeled antibodies. Cu-64 labeled antibodies targeting colon cancer were translated to the human situation. Cu-64 was also used to label peptides (Cu-64 octriatide) and this is one of the first applications of a peptide radiolabeled with a positron emitting metal radionuclide. Investigations were then pursued on the preparation of the copper radionuclides on a small biomedical cyclotron. A system for the production of high specific activity Cu-64 was developed and initially the Cu-64 was utilized to study the hypoxic imaging agent Cu-64 ATSM. Utilizing the same target system, other positron emitting metal radionuclides were produced, these were Y-86 and Ga-66. Radiopharmaceuticals were labeled utilizing both of these radionuclides. Many studies were carried out in animal models on the uptake of Cu-ATSM in hypoxic tissue. The hypothesis is that Cu-ATSM retention in vivo is dependent upon the

  3. Fast analysis of radionuclide decay chain migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J. S.; Liang, C. P.; Liu, C. W.; Li, L.

    2014-12-01

    A novel tool for rapidly predicting the long-term plume behavior of an arbitrary length radionuclide decay chain is presented in this study. This fast tool is achieved based on generalized analytical solutions in compact format derived for a set of two-dimensional advection-dispersion equations coupled with sequential first-order decay reactions in groundwater system. The performance of the developed tool is evaluated by a numerical model using a Laplace transform finite difference scheme. The results of performance evaluation indicate that the developed model is robust and accurate. The developed model is then used to fast understand the transport behavior of a four-member radionuclide decay chain. Results show that the plume extents and concentration levels of any target radionuclide are very sensitive to longitudinal, transverse dispersion, decay rate constant and retardation factor. The developed model are useful tools for rapidly assessing the ecological and environmental impact of the accidental radionuclide releases such as the Fukushima nuclear disaster where multiple radionuclides leaked through the reactor, subsequently contaminating the local groundwater and ocean seawater in the vicinity of the nuclear plant.

  4. Idaho radionuclide exposure study: Literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phosphate ores contain elevated levels of natural radioactivity, some of which is released to the environment during processing or use of solid byproducts. The effect of radionuclides from Idaho phosphate processing operations on the local communities has been the subject of much research and study. The literature is reviewed in this report. Two primary radionuclide pathways to the environment have been studied in detail: (1) airborne release of volatile radionuclides, primarily 210Po, from calciner stacks at the two elemental phosphorus plants; and (2) use of byproduct slag as an aggregate for construction in Soda Springs and Pocatello. Despite the research, there is still no clear understanding of the population dose from radionuclide emissions, effluents, and solid wastes from phosphate processing plants. Two other potential radionuclide pathways to the environment have been identified: radon exhalation from phosphogypsum and ore piles and contamination of surface and ground waters. Recommendations on further study needed to develop a data base for a complete risk assssment are given in the report

  5. Idaho radionuclide exposure study: Literature review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, E.G.; Freeman, H.D.; Hartley, J.N.

    1987-10-01

    Phosphate ores contain elevated levels of natural radioactivity, some of which is released to the environment during processing or use of solid byproducts. The effect of radionuclides from Idaho phosphate processing operations on the local communities has been the subject of much research and study. The literature is reviewed in this report. Two primary radionuclide pathways to the environment have been studied in detail: (1) airborne release of volatile radionuclides, primarily /sup 210/Po, from calciner stacks at the two elemental phosphorus plants; and (2) use of byproduct slag as an aggregate for construction in Soda Springs and Pocatello. Despite the research, there is still no clear understanding of the population dose from radionuclide emissions, effluents, and solid wastes from phosphate processing plants. Two other potential radionuclide pathways to the environment have been identified: radon exhalation from phosphogypsum and ore piles and contamination of surface and ground waters. Recommendations on further study needed to develop a data base for a complete risk assssment are given in the report.

  6. Radionuclide Mobility at the Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Q; Smith, D; Rose, T; Glascoe, L; Steefel, C; Zavarin, M

    2003-11-13

    Underground nuclear tests conducted at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) are characterized by abundant fission product and actinide source terms. Included are {sup 99}Tc and other soluble radionuclides ({sup 3}H, {sup 14}C, {sup 36}Cl, {sup 85}Kr, and {sup 129}I), which are presumably mobile in groundwater and potentially toxic to down-gradient receptors. NTS provides the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) with an analog of the release of these radionuclides from a nuclear waste repository in the absence of engineered barriers. The investigation described in this report synthesizes a substantial body of data collected on the identity and distribution of soluble radionuclides at field scales over distances of hundreds of meters, for durations up to 40 years, and under hydrogeologic conditions very similar to the proposed geological repository at Yucca Mountain. This body of data is complemented by laboratory transport studies and a synthesis of recent modeling investigations from the NTS, with an emphasis on the ongoing Yucca Mountain Program (YMP) efforts. Overall, understanding the controls of radionuclide mobility associated with these nuclear tests will provide insight into the repository's future performance as well as bounds and calibrations for the numerical predictions of long-term radionuclide releases and migration.

  7. Evaluation of radionuclides migration in environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive waste management is one of the most pressing problems facing the world today because of its long half-life and the transport of radionuclides to the environment. The migration of radionuclides in environment is affected by its sorption in backfill materials, water pore velocity, water flowing direction, dispersion of radionuclides, components of backfill materials, species of radionuclides, microorganism effect and complexation ability of organic substances etc. In this study, the distribution coefficient of Eu(III) derived from batch experiments is used to evaluate the migration behavior of Eu(III) in compacted bentonite after long time. The effect of the dispersion coefficient and the pore water velocity on the migration of Eu(III)is also calculated. It is found that the variation of the distribution coefficient and water velocity has an obviously effect on the migration of Eu(III) in backfill materials and 30 m of the backfill materials is sufficient to prevent the migration of Eu(III) in environment. The dispersion coefficient has little effect on the migration of Eu(III). The evaluated results are applicable to estimate the escape of radionuclides from buried radioactive waste to the environment. (authors)

  8. Radionuclide Retention in Concrete Wasteforms - FY13

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snyder, Michelle MV; Golovich, Elizabeth C.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Lapierre, Robert; Dage, Denomy C.; Parker, Kent E.; Cordova, Elsa A.

    2013-10-15

    Assessing long-term performance of Category 3 waste cement grouts for radionuclide encasement requires knowledge of the radionuclide-cement interactions and mechanisms of retention (i.e., sorption or precipitation); the mechanism of contaminant release; the significance of contaminant release pathways; how wasteform performance is affected by the full range of environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the process of wasteform aging under conditions that are representative of processes occurring in response to changing environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the effect of wasteform aging on chemical, physical, and radiological properties; and the associated impact on contaminant release. This knowledge will enable accurate prediction of radionuclide fate when the wasteforms come in contact with groundwater. Data collected throughout the course of this work will be used to quantify the efficacy of concrete wasteforms, similar to those used in the disposal of low-level waste and mixed low-level waste, for the immobilization of key radionuclides (i.e., uranium, technetium, and iodine). Data collected will also be used to quantify the physical and chemical properties of the concrete affecting radionuclide retention.

  9. PUREX low-level waste radionuclide characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The PUREX low-level waste (LLW) radionuclide characterization document describes the methodology for the characterization of solid LLW and solid low-level mixed waste (MW) with the respect to radiological characteristics. This document only serves as an overview of the PUREX radionuclide characterization methodology and provides specific examples for how the radionuclide distribution is derived. It would be impractical to provide all background information in this document. If further clarification and background information is required, consult the PUREX Regulatory Compliance group files. This document applies to only that waste generated in or is the responsibility of the PUREX facilities. The US Department of Energy (DOE) establishes the requirements for radioactive solid waste in DOE Order 5820.2A Radioactive Waste Management. Chapters 2 and 3 from DOE Order 5820.2A requires that generators of solid wastes in the LLW categories and the radioactive mixed waste subcategories: (1) identify the major radionuclides in each solid waste matrix and (2) determine the radionuclide concentrations and waste classes of their solid wastes. In addition, the Order also requires each generator to carry out a compliance program that ensures the proper certification of the solid waste generated

  10. Radionuclide Retention in Concrete Waste Forms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattigod, Shas V.; Bovaird, Chase C.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Wood, Marcus I.

    2010-09-30

    Assessing long-term performance of Category 3 waste cement grouts for radionuclide encasement requires knowledge of the radionuclide-cement interactions and mechanisms of retention (i.e., sorption or precipitation); the mechanism of contaminant release; the significance of contaminant release pathways; how waste form performance is affected by the full range of environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the process of waste form aging under conditions that are representative of processes occurring in response to changing environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the effect of waste form aging on chemical, physical, and radiological properties; and the associated impact on contaminant release. This knowledge will enable accurate prediction of radionuclide fate when the waste forms come in contact with groundwater. The information presented in the report provides data that 1) quantify radionuclide retention within concrete waste form materials similar to those used to encapsulate waste in the Low-Level Waste Burial Grounds (LLBG); 2) measure the effect of concrete waste form properties likely to influence radionuclide migration; and 3) quantify the stability of uranium-bearing solid phases of limited solubility in concrete.

  11. Chronic coughing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chronic coughing was acknowledged to result from pathological state of the respiratory organs. Cardiac diseases could be accompanied by coughing as well. It was recommended to perform x-ray examinations, including biomedical radiography of the chest, computerized tomography, scintiscanning with 67Ga-citrate, bronchi examination in order to exclude heart disease. The complex examination permitted to detect localization and type of the changes in the lungs and mediastinum, to distinguish benign tumor from malignant one

  12. Measurements for modeling radionuclide transfer in the aquatic environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analytical methods for measuring radionuclides in the aquatic environment are discussed for samples of fresh water and seawater, fish and shellfish, biota such as algae, plankton, seaweed, and aquatic plants, and sediment. Consideration is given to radionuclide collection and concentration, sample preservation, radiochemical and instrumental analysis, and quality assurance. Major problems are the very low environmental levels of the radionuclides of interest, simultaneous occurrence of radionuclides in several chemical and physical forms and the numerous factors that affect radionuclide levels in and transfers among media. Some radionuclides of importance in liquid effluents from nuclear power stations are listed, and sources of radiochemical analytical methods are recommended

  13. Radionuclide transfer from contaminated field to crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the policy for land disposal of radioactive wastes were proposed, the importance of terrestrial radioecology has been re-recognized in Japan. The National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS) held a Two-Day Seminar concerning terrestrial transfer of radionuclides. This is a compilation of papers presented at the seminar. The purpose of the seminar is twofold: firstly, to raise basic problems concerning transfer of not only radionuclides but also elements into crops, as well as to present NIRS's studies on radionuclide transfer; and secondly, to discuss in depth the topics about possible transfer of I-129 into rice plant arising from the commercial fuel reprocessing plant, the construction of which is under planning. Finally, general discussion of further issues on radioecology is given. (Namekawa, K.)

  14. EPA perspective on radionuclide aerosol sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is concerned with radionuclide aerosol sampling primarily at Department of Energy (DOE) facilities in order to insure compliance with national air emission standards, known as NESHAPs. Sampling procedures are specified in open-quotes National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides other than Radon from Department of Energy Sitesclose quotes (Subpart H). Subpart H also allows alternate procedures to be used if they meet certain requirements. This paper discusses some of the mission differences between EPA and Doe and how these differences are reflected in decisions that are made. It then describes how the EPA develops standards, considers alternate sampling procedures, and lists suggestions to speed up the review and acceptance process for alternate procedures. The paper concludes with a discussion of the process for delegation of Radionuclide NESHAPs responsibilities to the States, and responsibilities that could be retained by EPA

  15. Transport of radionuclides in the biosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dispersion of radionuclides in the biosphere and their uptake by man via various nutritional pathways is studied using a compartment model. The sample environment is the area of the lower Limmat and Aare valleys. General considerations of the compartmental description of the biosphere are made. The problem of the description of surface features, in particular soil, sediment and water, is studied in detail using the code BIOPATH. This study is intended to be an example of how a model of the biosphere could be constructed. It is shown that this is a reasonable model to calculate the spreading of radionuclides in the biosphere and that it indicates the relative significance of individual compartments, pathways and radionuclides. Calculated values of dose committment, however, should not be used as reference data for safety analyses. (Auth.)

  16. Radionuclide sorption on well construction materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laboratory experiments were conducted to measure the extent to which trace concentrations of radioactive materials would sorb on well construction materials and to assess the rapidity with which sorption would occur. The radionuclides employed in these studies were tritium, Cs-137, and Co-57. Solutions with trace concentrations of these radionuclides were contacted with casings of PVC, fiber-glass-epoxy, stainless steel, carbon steel, and steel rods coated with epoxy. The PVC showed no interaction with the tritium or Cs-137 during contact times of two hours to three weeks; however, it did sorb Co-57. The fiber-glass-epoxy also interacted only with the cobalt. The stainless steel sorbed cesium and cobalt. The epoxy-coated steel rods did not interact measurably with any of the radionuclides so long as the coating was intact. The sorption reactions generally were apparent after a few days of contact; in the case of carbon steel, they were detectable in a few hours

  17. 2014 LANL Radionuclide Air Emissions Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuehne, David Patrick [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-07-21

    This report describes the emissions of airborne radionuclides from operations at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) for calendar year 2014, and the resulting off-site dose from these emissions. This document fulfills the requirements established by the National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants in 40 CFR 61, Subpart H – Emissions of Radionuclides other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities, commonly referred to as the Radionuclide NESHAP or Rad-NESHAP. Compliance with this regulation and preparation of this document is the responsibility of LANL’s RadNESHAP compliance program, which is part of the Environmental Protection Division. The information in this report is required under the Clean Air Act and is being submitted to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Region 6.

  18. A biokinetics of radionuclides in juvenile animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calculation of dose coefficient in the general population, especially infants, poses a problem in that physical function and biokinetics in infants are different from those in adults. This paper gives an outline on characteristics of biokinetics of radionuclides in jevenile animals, focusing on the previous experimental data. The following radionuclides are discussed: cesium, strontium, cobalt, manganese, lead, ruthenium, cerium, silver and antimony. The retention rate of any kind of radionuclide in the body after the oral administration has been shown to be age-dependent in rats. Dose coefficient in adults has been shown to be unsuitable for that in infants, even if limited to the rate of digestive absorption. Although fetuses are also included in the general population, there is a paucity of such information. Actually, exposure assessment remains, as yet, an issue unsettled. (N.K.)

  19. Therapeutic radionuclides: Making the right choice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srivastava, S.C.

    1996-08-01

    Recently, there has been a resurgence of interest in nuclear medicine therapeutic procedures. Using unsealed sources for therapy is not a new concept; it has been around since the beginnings of nuclear medicine. Treatment of thyroid disorders with radioiodine is a classic example. The availability of radionuclides with suitable therapeutic properties for specific applications, as well as methods for their selective targeting to diseased tissue have, however, remained the main obstacles for therapy to assume a more widespread role in nuclear medicine. Nonetheless, a number of new techniques that have recently emerged, (e.g., tumor therapy with radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies, treatment of metastatic bone pain, etc.) appear to have provided a substantial impetus to research on production of new therapeutic radionuclides. Although there are a number of new therapeutic approaches requiring specific radionuclides, only selected broad areas will be used as examples in this article.

  20. Radionuclide detection of lower gastrointestinal bleeding sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A retrospective review of two years' experience with radionuclide screening to detect lower gastrointestinal bleeding sites was conducted at New York's Montefiore Medical Center. Of 82 studies performed in 63 patients, 13 identified active bleeding sites. Only three of eight angiograms obtained in these 13 patients were positive. Thirteen contrast angiograms were performed in the group of 50 patients with negative radionuclide studies of which ten were negative and one was equivocal. The results of this study suggest that the Tc-99m sulfur colloid study for active lower gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding is an effective screening procedure. Positive studies help determine which vessel to catheterize selectively if an angiogram is to be performed. If vascular ectasis is still suspected following a negative radionuclide study, contrast angiography can be more efficaciously performed on a nonemergent basis

  1. Radionuclide penography in the erection dysfunctions diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the work the radionuclide estimations role for corporal blood-flow at the erection dysfunctions (ED) was performed. The radionuclide dynamical penography was carried out for 70 patients. The mean age of the patients was 45±1.8 years old. The examination was conducted on the single photon emission computed tomograph 'ADAC Genesys Epic' (USA) with use of erythrocytes labelled by Tc-99m-pyrophosphate at dose 700-740 MBq. In the result of study it was established that 18 patients (25.7 %) had artery-gen ED, 27 (38.6 %) - vein-gen ED, 11 (15.7 %) - intermixed etiology, and 14 (20 %) patients had no observable structural changes. The received results were confirmed by complex ultrasonic examination of the penis. It is concluded that radionuclide dynamical penography and a complex ultrasonic examination allows to show up anatomical, structural, and functional changes at ED

  2. Metrology of Radionuclides. Proceedings of a Symposium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ''Metrology of Radionuclides'' is the science of precise measurements of the absolute value of the activity of radioactive sources. A rapid expansion has taken place over the past few years in the applications of radionuclides in various fields of scientific research, particularly in the production of commodities which lead to improved living standards. This has occurred not only in the countries most advanced in nuclear science, but in many others. In order to allow those actively engaged in this field to exchange research results and discuss their problems, the International Atomic Energy Agency sponsored a symposium which was held in Vienna from 14-16 October, 1959. Thirty-seven papers were presented from 14 countries. These covered a general survey on the routine methods of standardization of radionuclides and new developments of absolute measuring methods for their standardization.

  3. Therapeutic radionuclides: Making the right choice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently, there has been a resurgence of interest in nuclear medicine therapeutic procedures. Using unsealed sources for therapy is not a new concept; it has been around since the beginnings of nuclear medicine. Treatment of thyroid disorders with radioiodine is a classic example. The availability of radionuclides with suitable therapeutic properties for specific applications, as well as methods for their selective targeting to diseased tissue have, however, remained the main obstacles for therapy to assume a more widespread role in nuclear medicine. Nonetheless, a number of new techniques that have recently emerged, (e.g., tumor therapy with radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies, treatment of metastatic bone pain, etc.) appear to have provided a substantial impetus to research on production of new therapeutic radionuclides. Although there are a number of new therapeutic approaches requiring specific radionuclides, only selected broad areas will be used as examples in this article

  4. Radionuclides for routine diagnostics in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A survey is given on the radiopharmaceutics which are now in common use in nuclear medical diagnostics in vivo and in vitro. The development of radiopharmacology in the last 20 years has been characterized by the production of new and better radionuclides. A great step forward in clinical nuclear medicine has been the introduction of radionuclide generators for the production of short-lived nuclides. The most important and most generally used radionuclide for in vivo examinations is sup(99m)Tc pertechnetate. Tumour specific substances are still unknown, while the radioactive in vitro tests are of great clinical importance. They have opened up new possibilities of clinical laboratory diagnostics which are still not fully exploited. Special mention is made of the thyroid-specific in vitro tests in radiological thyroid diagnostics. (orig./AK)

  5. Radionuclides in ground-level air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the air surveillance programme the concentrations of artificial radionuclides are monitored in the air close to the ground to obtain the necessary basic data for estimating the exposure of the Finnish population to fall-out radionuclides and also to detect atmospheric traces of radioactive materials caused by their use or production. Airborne dust is collected on filters with high-volume air samplers and the concentrations of gamma-emitting radionuclides in the air are evaluated. In the first quarter of 1986 only long-lived cesium, caused by earlier atmospheric nuclear explosions was detected. The concentrations of cesium were very low. In January and March a small amount of short-lived, fresh fission and activation products were also observed

  6. Radionuclide imaging of perfusion and hypoxia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a review of radionuclide imaging of tumour vascular physiology as it relates to angiogenesis. We focus on clinical trials in human subjects using PET and SPECT to evaluate tumour physiology, in particular blood flow and hypoxia. A systematic review of literature based on MEDLINE searches updated in February 2010 was performed. Twenty-nine studies were identified for review: 14 dealt with 15O-water PET perfusion imaging, while 8 dealt with 18F-fluoromisonidazole PET hypoxia imaging. Five used SPECT methods. The studies varied widely in technical quality and reporting of methods. A subset of radionuclide methods offers accurate quantitative scientific observations on tumour vascular physiology of relevance to angiogenesis and its treatment. The relationship between cellular processes of angiogenesis and changing physiological function remains poorly defined. The promise of quantitative functional imaging at high specificity and low administered dose sustains interest in radionuclide methods. (orig.)

  7. Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy of neuroendocrine tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brabander, Tessa; Teunissen, Jaap J M; Van Eijck, Casper H J; Franssen, Gaston J H; Feelders, Richard A; de Herder, Wouter W; Kwekkeboom, Dik J

    2016-01-01

    In the past decades, the number of neuroendocrine tumours that are detected is increasing. A relative new and promising therapy for patients with metastasised or inoperable disease is peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT). This therapy involves an infusion of somatostatin analogues linked to radionuclides like Yttrium-90 or Lutetium-177. Objective response rates are reported in 15-35%. Response rates may vary between type of tumour and radionuclide. Besides the objective response rate, overall survival and progression free survival increase significantly. Also, the quality of life improves as well. Serious side-affects are rare. PRRT is usually well tolerated, also in patients with extensive metastasised disease. Recent studies combined PRRT with other types of therapies. Unfortunately no randomised trials comparing these strategies are available. In the future, more research is needed to evaluate the best therapy combinations or sequence of therapies. PMID:26971847

  8. Processing distributed inputs in coupled excitable lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In many instances, networks of dynamical elements are subject to distributed input signals that enter the network through different nodes. In these cases, processing of the input signals may be mediated by coupling, in what constitutes an emerging property of the network. Here we study experimentally this effect in two mutually injected semiconductor lasers with optical feedback, operating in an excitable regime. The lasers are subject to different periodic input signals in their pump current, with distinct frequencies. Our results show that when the signals are harmonics of an absent fundamental, the laser array is able to process these signals and respond at the missing fundamental frequency. When the input frequencies are rigidly shifted from their harmonic values, the response frequency follows a simple law derived from a linear sum of the inputs, even though the array integrates the electrical inputs after having transduced them optically. The results are reproduced numerically with a dynamical model of the laser array

  9. TURVA-2012: Formulation of radionuclide release scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TURVA-2012 is Posiva's safety case in support of the Preliminary Safety Analysis Report (PSAR) and application for a construction licence for a repository for disposal of spent nuclear fuel at the Olkiluoto site in south-western Finland. This paper gives a summary of the scenarios and the methodology followed in formulating them as described in TURVA-2012: Formulation of Radionuclide Release Scenarios (Posiva, 2013). The scenarios are further analysed in TURVA-2012: Assessment of Radionuclide Release Scenarios for the Repository System and TURVA-2012: Biosphere Assessment (Posiva, 2012a, 2012b). The formulation of scenarios takes into account the safety functions of the main barriers of the repository system and the uncertainties in the features, events, and processes (FEP) that may affect the entire disposal system (i.e. repository system plus the surface environment) from the emplacement of the first canister until the far future. In the report TURVA-2012: Performance Assessment (2012d), the performance of the engineered and natural barriers has been assessed against the loads expected during the evolution of the repository system and the site. Uncertainties have been identified and these are taken into account in the formulation of radionuclide release scenarios. The uncertainties in the FEP and evolution of the surface environment are taken into account in formulating the surface environment scenarios used ultimately in estimating radiation exposure. Formulating radionuclide release scenarios for the repository system links the reports Performance Assessment and Assessment of Radionuclide Release Scenarios for the Repository System. The formulation of radionuclide release scenarios for the surface environment brings together biosphere description and the surface environment FEP and is the link to the assessment of the surface environment scenarios summarised in TURVA-2012: Biosphere Assessment. (authors)

  10. DETERMINATION OF REPORTABLE RADIONUCLIDES FOR DWPF SLUDGE BATCH 5 (MACROBATCH 6)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bannochie, C.; Bibler, N.; Diprete, D.

    2010-02-04

    . The DWPF will use this list and the activities as one of the inputs for the development of the Production Records that relate to the radionuclide inventory. This work was initiated through Technical Task Request (TTR) HLW-DWPF-TTR-2008-0010; Rev. 2 entitled Sludge Batch 5 SRNL Shielded Cells Testing. Specifically, this report details results from performing Subtask II, 5 of the TTR and, in part, meets Deliverable 7 of the TTR. The work was performed following the Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan (TTQAP), WSRC-RP-2008-00137, Rev. 2 and Analytical Study Plan (ASP), WSRC-RP-2008-00138, Rev. 2. In order to determine the reportable radionuclides for SB5 (MB6), a list of radioisotopes that may meet the criteria as specified by the Department of Energy's (DOE) WAPS was developed. All radioactive U-235 fission products and all radioactive activation products that could be in the SRS HLW were considered. In addition, all U and Pu isotopes identified in WAPS 1.6 were included in the list. This list was then evaluated and some isotopes excluded from the projection calculations. Based on measurements and analytical detection limits, twenty-six radionuclides have been identified as reportable for DWPF SB5 as specified by WAPS 1.2. The 26 reportable radionuclides are: Cl-36, Ni-59, Ni-63, Sr-90, Zr-93, Nb-93m, Tc-99, Sn-126, Cs-137, Sm-151, U-233, U-234, Np-237, U-238, Pu-238, Pu-239, Pu-240, Am-241, Pu-241, Pu-242, Am-242m, Am-243, Cm-244, Cm-245, Cm-246, Cf-251. Chlorine-36 is reported for the first time based on the upper bounding activity determined from the aqua regia digested sludge slurry. The WCP and WQR require that all of radionuclides present in the Design Basis glass be considered as the initial set of reportable radionuclides. For SB5 (MB6), all of the radionuclides in the Design Basis glass are reportable except for four radionuclides: Se-79, Pd-107, Cs-135, and Th-230. At no time through the year 3115 did any of these three radionuclides contribute to

  11. BNFL Lysimeter programme to investigate the leaching of radionuclides from low-level radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clayton, K.; Clegg, R.; Holmes, R.G.G. [British Nuclear Fuels plc, Sellafield (United Kingdom); Newton, G.W.A. [Newton Systems, Manchester (United Kingdom)

    1993-12-31

    British Nuclear Fuels plc has initiated an experimental programme to measure the leaching behavior of radionuclides from various low level radioactive waste (LLW) materials using Lysimeters. The programme commenced in 1986 and to date 10 lysimeters have been commissioned. These have concentrated on simulating shallow trench conditions but a further programme is now planned to study concrete vault environments. The aim of the study is to provide information on leaching processes as part of the ongoing Drigg Near Field Programme, and also to yield input data for radiological assessment purposes. Towards this end, data have been gained from the lysimeters on basic chemistry, gas generation and radionuclide Release Coefficients. This paper concentrates on one of the lysimeters which has recently been decommissioned and for which interim analytical data are available. Some general comments are given on BNFL`s experience using lysimeters and their applicability as a rapid and effective technique for studying near field degradation processes.

  12. VICTORIA: A mechanistic model of radionuclide behavior in the reactor coolant system under severe accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The VICTORIA model of radionuclide behavior in the reactor coolant system (RCS) of a light water reactor during a severe accident is described. It has been developed by the USNRC to define the radionuclide phenomena and processes that must be considered in systems-level models used for integrated analyses of severe accident source terms. The VICTORIA code, based upon this model, predicts fission product release from the fuel, chemical reactions involving fission products, vapor and aerosol behavior, and fission product decay heating. Also included is a detailed description of how the model is implemented in VICTORIA, the numerical algorithms used, and the correlations and thermochemical data necessary for determining a solution. A description of the code structure, input and output, and a sample problem are provided

  13. Revenue Insurance and Chemical Input Use Rates

    OpenAIRE

    Nimon, R. Wesley; Mishra, Ashok K.

    2001-01-01

    Using farm level data and a simultaneous probit model we evaluate the input use and environmental effects of revenue insurance. A priori, the moral hazard effect on input use is indeterminate and this study empirically assesses the input use impact of the increasingly popular, and federally subsidized, risk management instrument of revenue insurance. We conclude that the moral hazard effect of federally subsidized revenue insurance products induces U.S. wheat farmers to increase expenditures ...

  14. When Can School Inputs Improve Test Scores?

    OpenAIRE

    Stefan Dercon

    2004-01-01

    Most studies fail to find an impact of school inputs on outcomes such as test scores. We argue that this might be a consequence of ignoring the possibility that households respond optimally to changes in school inputs and thus obscure the real effect of such provision on cognitive achievement. To incorporate the forward-looking behavior of households, we present a household optimization model relating household resources and cognitive achievement to school inputs. In this framework if househo...

  15. Input Scheme for Hindi Using Phonetic Mapping

    OpenAIRE

    Joshi, Nisheeth; Mathur, Iti

    2010-01-01

    Written Communication on Computers requires knowledge of writing text for the desired language using Computer. Mostly people do not use any other language besides English. This creates a barrier. To resolve this issue we have developed a scheme to input text in Hindi using phonetic mapping scheme. Using this scheme we generate intermediate code strings and match them with pronunciations of input text. Our system show significant success over other input systems available.

  16. [Radionuclide therapy for cancer--what's new?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, Mäenpää; Mikko, Tenhunen

    2012-01-01

    Radionuclide therapy is radiation therapy, the effect of which is based on radiation damage in cancer cells. The most common radionuclide therapy for cancer is radioiodine therapy for thyroid cancer. Two new forms of treatment have recently been initiated in Finland: 177lutetium octreotate therapy for neuroendocrine tumors, pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma as well as radioembolization (selective internal radiation therapy, SIRT) with 90yttrium-coated resin beads against liver metastases. Still in experimental use, 223radium chloride is a drug prolonging survival in prostate cancer that has metastasized to bone. The treatments require special knowledge and collaboration between several units. PMID:23210283

  17. Radionuclide transfer from feed to camel milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The transfer of 137Cs, 85Sr, 131I, 210Po, 210Pb and 238U from feed to camel's milk was investigated in a pilot experiment with three lactating camels. For a period of 60 days, the animals were fed on spiked feed containing the studied radionuclides. They were subsequently returned to a contamination-free diet and monitored for another 90 days. The activity concentrations of 137Cs, 85Sr and 131I in milk decreased with time and reached background levels after 20 days. Equilibrium transfer coefficients and biological half-lives were estimated and transfer coefficients were calculated as (8.1 ± 3.6) × 10−4, (4.4 ± 1.6) × 10−2, (7.8 ± 3.9) × 10−4, (2.7 ± 3.5) × 10−4, (1.8 ± 1.5) × 10−4 and (7.0 ± 3.6) × 10−3 d L−1 for 85Sr, 131I, 137Cs, 210Po, 210Pb and 238U, respectively. The biological half-lives were estimated to be 6.4, 4.2, 8.9, and 53.3 days for 85Sr, 131I, 137Cs, and 238U, respectively. Estimates of the half-lives were based on a one component model: it was found that the half-life values measured for artificial radionuclides were slightly shorter than those for natural radionuclides. The data obtained in the study are the first published experimental data on radionuclide transfer to camel milk. - Highlights: • Estimated Fm values for Sr, Cs, Pb, Po tend to be lower compared to other milk producing domestic animals. • The Fm values would help to predict ingestion dose to the general public due to intake of radionuclides through camel. • Estimated half-lives for artificial radionuclides were shorter than those for natural radionuclides. • The data obtained in the study can be considered as the first published data on radionuclide transfer to camel milk

  18. Environmental impact of radionuclides from uranium tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uranium tailings are the product of uranium milling process. Radionuclides from Uranium tailings can diffusion into the environment as radon and its progeny. Moreover, it can migrate of horizontal and vertical in the soil with the uranium tailings water. The soil, surface water and ground water are thus seriously polluted. The radionuclides specific activity (measured using HPGe r spectrometer) the soil such as 238U, 232Th, 226Ra, 40K from tailings, downstream of tailings dam with different depth and different distances are studied. The impacts of Uranium tailings to environment are also analyzed. (authors)

  19. Radionuclide tracers of submarine groundwater discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radionuclide tracers have the ability to assess the flux of submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) over a range of temporal and spatial scales. Short-lived isotopes such as 222Rn, 224Ra, and 223Ra can reveal sites where SGD impacts the coastal ocean and elucidate relationships between SGD and ocean forces such as tides and storms. Longer-lived isotopes such as 228Ra and 226Ra integrate the effects of SGD over longer scales. These isotopes can discriminate sources of SGD and evaluate total fluxes. This paper will investigate the application of radionuclide tracers to SGD in a variety of settings on different continents. (author)

  20. Assessment of waste management of volatile radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document presents a review of the Technologies for Waste Management of the Volatile Radionuclides of iodine-129, krypton-85, tritium, and carbon-14. The report presents an estimate of the quantities of these volatile radionuclides as are produced in the nuclear power industry. The various technologies as may be used, or which are under investigation, to immobilize these nuclides and to contain them during storage and in disposal are discussed. Also, the alternative disposal options as may be applied to isolate these radioactive wastes from the human environment are presented. The report contains information which was available through approximately January 1978

  1. Radionuclide carrying-out by migratory birds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evaluation of the zoogenic transfer of radionuclides from the 30-km zone around the Chernobyl NPP was necessary because of the enormous heavily polluted territory and mighty flow of migratory birds who tended to large rivers, the Dnieper and Pripyat. The integral estimate of the transferred amount was obtained as a product of three variables: the transfer factor (0.0077 m2/kg for 137Cs; 0.00107 m2/kg for 90Sr), the density of birds (0.002 kg/m2, at the mass of migrants about 5000 t per year), and the total fund of radionuclides throughout the territory

  2. RAPRAN, Radionuclide Migration from Waste Glass Release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1 - Description of program or function: The code treats one-dimensional advection-diffusion combined with linear sorption to calculate radionuclide migration behavior in multi-porous media with time-dependent diffusion/retardation parameters. It uses both leaching rate and solubility simultaneously to model nuclide release from a waste glass as the inner boundary condition. The program is applied to, for example, the analysis of radionuclide diffusion through the engineered barrier system or radioactive wastes disposal. 2 - Method of solution: Finite-difference method in porous media. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: None. Size-adjustable

  3. Migration of radionuclides in fissured rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some computed results of radionuclide migration in fissured rock are presented. The computations are based on a model which describes flow as occurring in a multitude of independent fissures (stratified flow). This gives rise to strong dispersion of channeling. The radionuclide migration in the individual fissures is modelled by the advection equation on a parallel walled channel with porous walls. The nuclides may diffuse into the pores and sorb reversibly on the pore surfaces. The effluent rates of 23 important nuclides are presented as functions of distance and time for various of important parameters such as rock permeability, diffusion coefficients, release rates, time of first release, fissure spacing and fissure width distribution. (Author)

  4. Clay as a barrier to radionuclide migration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Because of their low permeability, high sorption capacity and plasticity clay bodies are potentially suitable repositories for radioactive waste. This paper discusses the factors that influence radionuclide mobility in natural clay materials. Methods for determining radionuclide migration rates are described and compared. Data requirements necessary to establish whether or not a particular site is suitable for waste disposal are discussed. Suggestions are made as to the most important generic research that needs to be carried out. In the appendix, some of the most relevant published sorption and diffusion data are summarized and compared. (author)

  5. Radionuclide generator systems for therapeutic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radionuclide generators which produce therapeutically useful isotopes are potentially significant for the clinic or central radiopharmacy because they obviate the need for long-distance transport of short-lived isotopes. Several therapeutic generator systems will be reviewed, with emphasis on the W-188/Re-188 gel generator system and its relevance to radioimmunotherapy in association with monoclonal antibodies targeted to cancer cells, bone cancer pain palliation, and radiation synovectomy treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. This talk will also discuss physical and chemical characterization of the tungsten (W-188) generator system (radionuclidic and radiochemical purities, elution yields and profile, neutron diffraction analyses), and evaluate this type of generator from a clinical perspective

  6. Radionuclide imaging of the urinary tract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velchik, M.G.

    1985-11-01

    This article describes the role of nuclear medicine in the evaluation of the genitourinary tract. The technical aspects of radionuclide imaging (radiopharmaceuticals, radiation dosimetry, instrumentation, and method) are briefly presented, and each of the indications for renal scintigraphy--including the evaluation of differential renal function, hypertension, obstruction, renal transplants, masses, trauma, congenital anomalies, vesicoureteral reflux, and infection--are discussed. The relative advantages and disadvantages of radionuclide imaging with respect to alternative radiographic examinations (such as intravenous urography, ultrasonography, CT, angiography, and magnetic resonance imaging) are emphasized wherever applicable. 136 references.

  7. External accumulation of radionuclide in hepatic hydrothorax

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hepatic hydrothorax is a complication in approximately 5% of patients with cirrhosis. Ascites is almost always present and helps to suggest the correct diagnosis. However, when ascites is absent, radionuclide imaging has proven to be helpful in establishing that the pleural effusion originated from ascitic fluid. When pleural fluid is rapidly removed, such as by thoracostomy tube drainage, the radioisotope may accumulate outside the thorax and produce a negative scan of the chest. When the radionuclide scan is nondiagnostic and the pleural space is being rapidly drained, the pleural fluid collecting system should always be imaged before rejecting a diagnosis of hepatic hydrothorax

  8. Quantification of left-ventricular regional dyssynergy by radionuclide angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine whether variables obtained from Fourier analysis of gated equilibrium radionuclide angiographic (RNA) images can detect and quantify changes in left-ventricular (LV) regional wall motion induced by transient ischemia, 11 chronically instrumented dogs were simultaneously studied with hemodynamic measurements and RNA during control, left circumflex (LCx) coronary artery occlusion, and postocclusion conditions. The dogs were preinstrumented with aortic and LV catheters, electromagnetic aortic and LCx coronary artery flow probes, high-fidelity LV micromanometers, LCx coronary artery occluders, and 4-mm ultrasonic transverse LV diameter and 2-mm regional LV segment crystal pairs. Radionuclide LV regional phase and amplitude variables were calculated for each condition. The absolute changes in LCx region RNA mean, median, and standard deviation of mean phase correlated with the percent changes in LCx segment crystal fractional shortening (r = -0.71, -0.64, and -0.51, respectively; all p less than or equal to 0.01). Similarly, the absolute changes and percent changes in LCx region RNA mean amplitude per pixel correlated with the percent changes in LCx segment crystal fractional shortening (r = 0.89 and 0.94, respectively; both p less than 0.001). When these LCx region RNA phase variables were subgrouped according to mild or severe depression or augmentation in LCx segment crystal fractional shortening, progressive differences were observed between the average values for these subgroups (p less than 0.05 to p less than 0.001). These data, therefore, suggest that these regional RNA phase variables may be able to detect and quantify alterations in LV contraction patterns due to transient ischemia

  9. Estimating internal dose due to ingestion of radionuclides from Nevada Test Site fallout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U.S. Department of Energy initiated the Radiation Exposure Review Project to provide a critical reexamination of radiation doses to people resulting from testing nuclear devices at the Nevada Test Site. One part of this effort focused on the dose resulting from the ingestion of contaminated food. The PATHWAY radionuclide transport model was developed to provide estimates of food concentrations for 20 radionuclides for each of 86 test events and 15 agricultural scenarios. These results were then used as input to the Human Ingestion model to provide dose estimates for individuals and populations in 9 western states. The model considered the life-style and age of the people, and accounted for the transport of milk between locations. Estimates of uncertainty were provided for all doses using Monte Carlo simulation techniques. Propagation of uncertainty between the PATHWAY model and the Human Ingestion model required the development of special strategies to ensure that the inherent correlations between concentrations of the radionuclides in foods were handled properly. In addition, the size of the input data base (60 megabytes), the number of cases to consider (over 30,000), and the number of Monte Carlo simulations (over 6 million) required the development of efficient and reliable methods of data access and storage while running simulations concurrently on up to 14 UNIX workstations. The problems encountered in this effort are likely to be typical of any dose reconstruction involving geographically heterogeneous environmental conditions. This paper documents the methods used to disaggregate the system to achieve computation efficiency, the methods used to propagate uncertainty through the model system, and the techniques used to manage data in a distributed computing environment. The radionuclide and age specific dose factors used in the analysis are also provided

  10. The Problem of Assessment for Radionuclide and Chemical Hazard to People Heredity and Health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the 21th century the assessment of the hazard to human heredity and health from the radionuclide and chemical environmental pollution becomes of prime social importance since it is related to the problems of utilization of great amounts of radioactive and chemical wastes, spent nuclear fuel, weapon plutonium, nuclear reactors and emergency discharges of isotopes which in total is higher than 1 billion Ci. Long-term cytogenetic monitoring of nuclear and chemical plant workers, local human populations of radioactive waste areas and radionuclide polluted territories has revealed that the level and spectrum of induced chromosome aberrations in blood lymphocytes correlate with the type, dose and duration of exposure. There is very strong evidence that the yield of chromosome aberrations (Y) is related to the dose (D) by the equation: Y=Ao+aD+bD2. Therefore the radiation/radionuclide risk (R(D) ) will correspond to a absorbed dose and its aberrational/mutational consequences ('doubling dose' coefficient). Increased levels of chromosome aberrations in the human body very often precede the development of several syndromes: chronic fatigue, secondary immune deficiency, early aging, reproductive dysfunction, oncological diseases and etc. The increased levels of chromosome aberrations in blood lymphocytes can serve as objective bio indicators of radiation and chemical risk to human heredity and health. Thus, monitoring of chromosome and genome aberrations must be of strategical importance in the system of governmental service for minimization of radionuclide and chemical hazard to human heredity and health the necessity of organization of which has already matured. The above mentioned confirms the necessity of founding a European network for ecological-genetic monitoring with 'Internet' translation of information on radionuclide composition and chromosome aberration levels in people, inhabiting polluted areas

  11. Pathway: a dynamic food-chain model to predict radionuclide ingestion after fallout deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This manuscript describes the structure and basis for parameter values of a computerized food-chain transport model for radionuclides. The model, called PATHWAY, estimates the time-integrated ingestion intake by humans of 20 radionuclides after a single deposition from the atmosphere to the landscape. The model solves a set of linear, coupled differential equations to estimate the inventories and concentrations of radionuclides in soil, vegetation, animal tissues and animal products as a function of time following deposition. Dynamic processes in the model include foliar interception, weathering and absorption; plant growth, uptake, harvest and senescence; soil resuspension, percolation, leaching and tillage; radioactive decay; and livestock ingestion, absorption and excretion. Human dietary data are included to permit calculation of time-dependent radionuclide ingestion rates, which are then numerically integrated. The model considers seasonal changes in the biomass of vegetation and animal diets, as well as specific plowing and crop-harvest dates; thus the integrated radionuclide intakes by humans are dependent on the seasonal timing of deposition. The agricultural data base represents the arid and semi-arid regions of the western United States. The foliar deposition parameters apply to regional fallout out to a few hundred miles from nuclear detonations at the Nevada Test Site. With modification, the model could be applied to chronic or other acute releases, providing the ground deposition in Bq m-2 could be estimated. The output of PATHWAY (Bq ingested per Bq m-2 deposited) may be multiplied by the deposition and a dose conversion factor (Gy Bq-1) to yield an organ-specific dose estimate. The model may be run deterministically to yield single estimates or stochastically (''Monte-Carlo'' mode) to provide distributional output that reflects uncertainty in the output due to uncertainty in parameters

  12. Chronic Insomnia

    OpenAIRE

    Buysse, Daniel J.

    2008-01-01

    Ms. F, a 42-year-old divorced woman, presents for evaluation of chronic insomnia. She complains of difficulty falling asleep, often 30 minutes or longer, and difficulty maintaining sleep during the night, with frequent awakenings that often last 30 minutes or longer. These symptoms occur nearly every night, with only one or two “good” nights per month. She typically goes to bed around 10:00 p.m. to give herself adequate time for sleep, and she gets out of bed around 7:00 a.m. on work days and...

  13. 21 CFR 892.1390 - Radionuclide rebreathing system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... gaseous or volatile radionuclide or a radionuclide-labeled aerosol and permit it to be respired by the patient during nuclear medicine ventilatory tests (testing process of exchange between the lungs and...

  14. Bilinearity in spatiotemporal integration of synaptic inputs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songting Li

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Neurons process information via integration of synaptic inputs from dendrites. Many experimental results demonstrate dendritic integration could be highly nonlinear, yet few theoretical analyses have been performed to obtain a precise quantitative characterization analytically. Based on asymptotic analysis of a two-compartment passive cable model, given a pair of time-dependent synaptic conductance inputs, we derive a bilinear spatiotemporal dendritic integration rule. The summed somatic potential can be well approximated by the linear summation of the two postsynaptic potentials elicited separately, plus a third additional bilinear term proportional to their product with a proportionality coefficient [Formula: see text]. The rule is valid for a pair of synaptic inputs of all types, including excitation-inhibition, excitation-excitation, and inhibition-inhibition. In addition, the rule is valid during the whole dendritic integration process for a pair of synaptic inputs with arbitrary input time differences and input locations. The coefficient [Formula: see text] is demonstrated to be nearly independent of the input strengths but is dependent on input times and input locations. This rule is then verified through simulation of a realistic pyramidal neuron model and in electrophysiological experiments of rat hippocampal CA1 neurons. The rule is further generalized to describe the spatiotemporal dendritic integration of multiple excitatory and inhibitory synaptic inputs. The integration of multiple inputs can be decomposed into the sum of all possible pairwise integration, where each paired integration obeys the bilinear rule. This decomposition leads to a graph representation of dendritic integration, which can be viewed as functionally sparse.

  15. Analysis of models assessing the radionuclide migration from catchments to water bodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper the analysis of models for assessing the migration of radioactive substances from catchments to water bodies was carried out. Comparisons are made between the mathematical form of the experimental dissolved radionuclide transfer functions (Transfer Function = the amount of radionuclide flowing per unit time from upstream drainage basin to a water body following a single-pulse deposition of radioactive substance) evaluated for rivers in Europe contaminated after the Chernobyl accident, with the open-quotes Green Functionsclose quotes (Green Function = the radionuclide flow per unit time from catchment to water body calculated by the model as a result of a single-pulse input deposition) characterizing some of the most common models. Generally transfer functions are the sum of some time-dependent exponential components. The analysis showed that two main components (a short-term and a long-term component) may be detected over a period of only a few years after the accident. The comparison of transfer functions and Green functions showed that (1) models based on the traditional concept of kd (the radionuclide partition coefficient soil-water) do not explain the higher value of the experimental long-term effective-decay constant for 137Cs compared with 90Sr; and (2) traditional models do not explain the nonlinear dependence of the flux (Bq s-1) of dissolved 90Sr migrating through a catchment as a function of the water flux. A semi-empirical model was developed to give reason for the above effects. This model is based on phenomena of water saturation in different soil layers and on the nonreversible processes responsible for the non-availability to migration of radionuclides. 12 refs., 4 figs., 7 tabs

  16. Radionuclide transfer in marine coastal ecosystems, a modelling study using metabolic processes and site data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study implements new site-specific data and improved process-based transport model for 26 elements (Ac, Ag, Am, Ca, Cl, Cm, Cs, Ho, I, Nb, Ni, Np, Pa, Pb, Pd, Po, Pu, Ra, Se, Sm, Sn, Sr, Tc, Th, U, Zr), and validates model predictions with site measurements and literature data. The model was applied in the safety assessment of a planned nuclear waste repository in Forsmark, Öregrundsgrepen (Baltic Sea). Radionuclide transport models are central in radiological risk assessments to predict radionuclide concentrations in biota and doses to humans. Usually concentration ratios (CRs), the ratio of the measured radionuclide concentration in an organism to the concentration in water, drive such models. However, CRs vary with space and time and CR estimates for many organisms are lacking. In the model used in this study, radionuclides were assumed to follow the circulation of organic matter in the ecosystem and regulated by radionuclide-specific mechanisms and metabolic rates of the organisms. Most input parameters were represented by log-normally distributed probability density functions (PDFs) to account for parameter uncertainty. Generally, modelled CRs for grazers, benthos, zooplankton and fish for the 26 elements were in good agreement with site-specific measurements. The uncertainty was reduced when the model was parameterized with site data, and modelled CRs were most similar to measured values for particle reactive elements and for primary consumers. This study clearly demonstrated that it is necessary to validate models with more than just a few elements (e.g. Cs, Sr) in order to make them robust. The use of PDFs as input parameters, rather than averages or best estimates, enabled the estimation of the probable range of modelled CR values for the organism groups, an improvement over models that only estimate means. Using a mechanistic model that is constrained by ecological processes enables (i) the evaluation of the relative importance of food and water

  17. Mucociliary clearance in early simple chronic bronchitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tracheobronchial mucociliary clearance was measured in 37 patients with early simple chronic bronchitis. A non-invasive radio-aerosol technique with inhalation of 99Tcm labelled 5-μm polystyrene particles followed by assessment of radio-nuclide distribution by posterior gamma-camera scans was employed. The mucociliary clearance of the bronchitics was significantly slower than clearance of a non-smoker control group. An interim analysis of the effect of treatment with a surfactant stimulating drug, ambroxol, suggested a dosage-dependent tendency to a faster mucociliary clearance than seen in placebo-treated bronchitics. (author)

  18. DETERMINATION OF REPORTABLE RADIONUCLIDES FOR DWPF SLUDGE BATCH 4 MACROBATCH 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    the inputs for the development of the Production Records that relate to the radionuclide inventory. This work was initiated through Task Technical Request HLW/DWPF/TTR-2005-0034; Rev. 0 entitled Sludge Batch 4 SRNL Shielded Cells Testing4. Specifically, this report details results from performing, in part, Subtask 3 of the TTR and, in part, meets Deliverable 7 of the TTR. The work was performed following the Technical Task and Quality Assurance Plan (TTQAP), WSRC-RP-2006-00310, Rev. 15 and Analytical Study Plan (ASP), WSRC-RP-2006-00458, Rev. 16. In order to determine the reportable radionuclides for Sludge Batch 4 (SB4) (Macro Batch 5 (MB5)), a list of radioisotopes that may meet the criteria as specified by the Department of Energy's (DOE) WAPS was developed. All radioactive U-235 fission products and all radioactive activation products that could be in the SRS HLW were considered. In addition, all U and Pu isotopes identified in WAPS 1.6 were included in the list. This list was then evaluated and some isotopes excluded from the projection calculations. Based on measurements and analytical detection limits, twenty-nine radionuclides have been identified as reportable for DWPF SB4 (MB5) as specified by WAPS 1.2. The 29 reportable nuclides are: Ni-59; Ni-63; Se-79; Sr-90; Zr-93; Nb-93m; Tc-99; Sn-126; Cs-137; Sm-151; U-233; U-234; Np-237; U-238; Pu-238; Pu-239; Pu-240; Am-241; Pu-241; Pu-242; Am-242m; Am-243; Cm-244; Cm-245; Cm-246; Cm-247; Bk-247; Cm-248; and Cf-251. The WCP and WQR require that all of radionuclides present in the Design Basis glass be considered as the initial set of reportable radionuclides. For SB4 (MB5), all of the radionuclides in the Design Basis glass are reportable except for three radionuclides: Pd-107, Cs-135, and Th-230. At no time through the calendar year 3115 did any of these three radionuclides contribute to more than 0.01% of the radioactivity on a Curie basis. Two additional uranium isotopes (U-235 and -236) must be added to the list

  19. DETERMINATION OF REPORTABLE RADIONUCLIDES FOR DWPF SLUDGE BATCH 4 MACROBATCH 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bannochie, C; Ned Bibler, N; David Diprete, D

    2008-05-30

    as one of the inputs for the development of the Production Records that relate to the radionuclide inventory. This work was initiated through Task Technical Request HLW/DWPF/TTR-2005-0034; Rev. 0 entitled Sludge Batch 4 SRNL Shielded Cells Testing4. Specifically, this report details results from performing, in part, Subtask 3 of the TTR and, in part, meets Deliverable 7 of the TTR. The work was performed following the Technical Task and Quality Assurance Plan (TTQAP), WSRC-RP-2006-00310, Rev. 15 and Analytical Study Plan (ASP), WSRC-RP-2006-00458, Rev. 16. In order to determine the reportable radionuclides for Sludge Batch 4 (SB4) (Macro Batch 5 (MB5)), a list of radioisotopes that may meet the criteria as specified by the Department of Energy's (DOE) WAPS was developed. All radioactive U-235 fission products and all radioactive activation products that could be in the SRS HLW were considered. In addition, all U and Pu isotopes identified in WAPS 1.6 were included in the list. This list was then evaluated and some isotopes excluded from the projection calculations. Based on measurements and analytical detection limits, twenty-nine radionuclides have been identified as reportable for DWPF SB4 (MB5) as specified by WAPS 1.2. The 29 reportable nuclides are: Ni-59; Ni-63; Se-79; Sr-90; Zr-93; Nb-93m; Tc-99; Sn-126; Cs-137; Sm-151; U-233; U-234; Np-237; U-238; Pu-238; Pu-239; Pu-240; Am-241; Pu-241; Pu-242; Am-242m; Am-243; Cm-244; Cm-245; Cm-246; Cm-247; Bk-247; Cm-248; and Cf-251. The WCP and WQR require that all of radionuclides present in the Design Basis glass be considered as the initial set of reportable radionuclides. For SB4 (MB5), all of the radionuclides in the Design Basis glass are reportable except for three radionuclides: Pd-107, Cs-135, and Th-230. At no time through the calendar year 3115 did any of these three radionuclides contribute to more than 0.01% of the radioactivity on a Curie basis. Two additional uranium isotopes (U-235 and -236) must be

  20. Long-range radionuclide transfer in air and water systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long-range radionuclide air transfer of radionuclide after the first nuclear explosions and after accidents at nuclear installations is observed. Data on transport of radionuclides by the Yenisej river, Pripyat' river, Sozh river, Iput' river, Besed' river are given. The time of radionuclide transfer from Irish sea to Baltic and Barents sea has been defined using change of a relationship of isotopes Cs 134/Cs 137. (authors)

  1. Radiopharmaceuticals and other compounds labelled with short-lived radionuclides

    CERN Document Server

    Welch, Michael J

    2013-01-01

    Radiopharmaceuticals and Other Compounds Labelled with Short-Lived Radionuclides covers through both review and contributed articles the potential applications and developments in labeling with short-lived radionuclides whose use is restricted to institutions with accelerators. The book discusses the current and potential use of generator-produced radionuclides as well as other short-lived radionuclides, and the problems of quality control of such labeled compounds. The book is useful to nuclear medicine physicians.

  2. Accumulation radionuclides bodes of living cover plants woods cenosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Features of accumulation radionuclides by bodies of living cover plants woods cenosis are investigated. Researches have shown, that in elevated bodies kinds now in the greater measure strontium 90, than caesium 137 is accumulated. In root systems accumulation radionuclides is lower, than in elevated bodies. There is a specific specificity of accumulation radionuclides various bodies of plants. Accumulation radionuclides depends on weather conditions of year of supervision

  3. Cross section data for production of diagnostic and therapeutic radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The status of nuclear reaction cross section data for production of medically interesting radionuclides is discussed. The needs for short- and long-term investigations are considered. Whereas short-term investigations refer to improvements in the utilization of known radionuclides, long-term studies pertain to the development of new radionuclides. The major interest is directed to longer-lived β+ emitters and low-range radiation emitting therapeutic radionuclides. Some challenges involved in the relevant nuclear data work are outlined. (author)

  4. Radionuclide ageing in agricultural soils: A qualitative approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radionuclide partitioning and downward migration in soils, as well as the nutrient status in the soil solution (mainly Ca, Mg, K and NH4) are the most significant factors to be used in predicting and explaining radionuclide soil to plant transfer factors. Radionuclide migration and ageing has been studied in two Mediterranean agricultural soils, in the frame of a collaborative project called 'Transfer of accidentally released radionuclides in agricultural systems - TARRAS'. 6 refs, 1 fig

  5. Migration of radionuclides in geologic media: Fundamental research needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, D.T. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA)); Zachara, J.M.; Wildung, R.E. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA)); Wobber, F.J. (USDOE, Washington, DC (USA))

    1990-01-01

    An assessment of the fundamental research needs in understanding and predicting the migration of radionuclides in the subsurface is provided. Emphasis is on the following three technical areas: (1) aqueous speciation of radionuclides, (2) the interaction of radionuclides with substrates, and (3) intermediate-scale interaction studies. This research relates to important issues associated with environmental restoration and remediation of DOE sites contaminated with mixed radionuclide-organic wastes. 64 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  6. Migration of radionuclides in geologic media: Fundamental research needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An assessment of the fundamental research needs in understanding and predicting the migration of radionuclides in the subsurface is provided. Emphasis is on the following three technical areas: (1) aqueous speciation of radionuclides, (2) the interaction of radionuclides with substrates, and (3) intermediate-scale interaction studies. This research relates to important issues associated with environmental restoration and remediation of DOE sites contaminated with mixed radionuclide-organic wastes. 64 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  7. The transient behaviour of an input protection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kort, de Kees; Luchies, Jan Marc; Vrehen, J.J.

    1994-01-01

    The high frequency behaviour of input protections has been measured with electro-optic sampling. These measurements allow the determination of the time dependence of the voltages at internal nodes as well as the time dependence of the current through the input protection. Simulations are performed u

  8. Managing Input during Assistive Technology Product Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Young Mi

    2011-01-01

    Many different sources of input are available to assistive technology innovators during the course of designing products. However, there is little information on which ones may be most effective or how they may be efficiently utilized within the design process. The aim of this project was to compare how three types of input--from simulation tools,…

  9. 39 CFR 3020.92 - Public input.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Public input. 3020.92 Section 3020.92 Postal Service POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION PERSONNEL PRODUCT LISTS Requests Initiated by the Postal Service to Change the Mail Classification Schedule § 3020.92 Public input. The Commission shall publish...

  10. Computing Functions by Approximating the Input

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Mayer

    2012-01-01

    In computing real-valued functions, it is ordinarily assumed that the input to the function is known, and it is the output that we need to approximate. In this work, we take the opposite approach: we show how to compute the values of some transcendental functions by approximating the input to these functions, and obtaining exact answers for their…

  11. Wave energy input into the Ekman layer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the wave energy input into the Ekman layer, based on 3 observational facts that surface waves could significantly affect the profile of the Ekman layer. Under the assumption of constant vertical diffusivity, the analytical form of wave energy input into the Ekman layer is derived. Analysis of the energy balance shows that the energy input to the Ekman layer through the wind stress and the interaction of the Stokes-drift with planetary vorticity can be divided into two kinds. One is the wind energy input, and the other is the wave energy input which is dependent on wind speed, wave characteristics and the wind direction relative to the wave direction. Estimates of wave energy input show that wave energy input can be up to 10% in high-latitude and high-wind speed areas and higher than 20% in the Antarctic Circumpolar Current, compared with the wind energy input into the classical Ekman layer. Results of this paper are of significance to the study of wave-induced large scale effects.

  12. Bioaccumulation factors for radionuclides in freshwater biota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report analyzes over 200 carefully selected papers to provide concise data sets and methodology for estimation of bioaccumulation factors for tritium and isotopes of strontium, cesium, iodine, manganese, and cobalt in major biotic components of freshwater environments. Bioaccumulation factors of different tissues are distinguished where significant differences occur. Since conditions in the laboratory are often unnatural in terms of chemical and ecological relationships, this review was restricted as far as possible to bioaccumulation factors determined for natural systems. Because bioaccumulation factors were not available for some shorter-lived radionuclides, a methodology for converting bioaccumulation factors of stable isotopes to those of shorter-lived radionuclides was derived and utilized. The bioaccumulation factor for a radionuclide in a given organism or tissue may exhibit wide variations among bodies of water that are related to differences in ambient concentrations of stable-element and carrier-element analogues. To account for these variations, simple models are presented that relate bioaccumulation factors to stable-element and carrier-element concentrations in water. The effects of physicochemical form and other factors in causing deviations from these models are discussed. Bioaccumulation factor data are examined in the context of these models, and bioaccumulation factor relations for the selected radionuclides are presented

  13. Radionuclide transport in a single fissure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study of radionuclide migration through rock is currently of great interest due to its relevance to the possible escape paths into the biosphere of radionuclides released from high level radioactive wastes burried in deep geological repositories. While water will provide the vehicle for transportation, interaction with geological material may greatly influence the radionuclide movement relative that of water. A flow system for laboratory studies of radionuclide transport in natural fissures in granitic rock under reducing conditions is described. The system based on the use of synthetic ground water equilibrated with granitic rock in a well sealed system, allow experiments to be carried out at -240 mV reduction potential. In flow experiments with technetium the retardation was found to be dependent on the method used for reducing TcO4-. The preparation of the tracer solutions is crucial, as some of the redox-reactions may be very slow. The dynamics of the Tc(VII) reduction and also speciation need to be carried out in separate experiments. (4 illustrations, 5 tables)

  14. Mechanisms controlling radionuclide mobility in forest soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soil processes strongly influence the radionuclide mobility in soils. The mobility of radionuclides in forest soils is governed by several processes involving both abiotic and biotic factors. The sorption-desorption process chiefly governs the activity of radionuclides in the soil solution, hence thereby their mobility and biological availability. Radiocaesium exhibits a very low mobility in mineral soils. Both mobility and bioavailability however increase as the thickness of organic layers and their content in organic matter increases. Clay minerals of micaceous origin strongly act as slinks for radiocaesium in forest soils. The magnitude of cesium mineral fixation in topsoils is expected to be the highest in mineral soils of Eutric cambisol type, and, to a lesser extent, of type of Distric cambisol and Podzoluvisol. A low mobility of radiocaesium in the surface horizons of forest soils may also be partially explained by a biological mobilization: fungi absorb radiocaesium and transport it to upper layers, thereby contributing to constantly recycle the radioelement in the organic horizons. This mechanism is probably important in soils with thick organic layers (Podsol, Histosol, and, to a lesser extent, Distric cambisol and Podzoluvisol). Radionuclides can be associated with soluble organic anions in the soil solution of forest acid soils. Such associations are highly mobile: they are stable in conditions of poor biological activity (low temperatures, acid soil infertility, water excess, etc.). Their magnitude is expected to be the highest in thick acid organic layers (soils of type Podzol and Histosol)

  15. RADIONUCLIDE TRANSPORT MODELS UNDER AMBIENT CONDITIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. Magnuson

    2004-11-01

    The purpose of this model report is to document the unsaturated zone (UZ) radionuclide transport model, which evaluates, by means of three-dimensional numerical models, the transport of radioactive solutes and colloids in the UZ, under ambient conditions, from the repository horizon to the water table at Yucca Mountain, Nevada.

  16. Improving cancer treatment with cyclotron produced radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This new DOE proposal appropriately builds on past developments. The development and application of radionuclides for diagnosis, treatment and research has been a continuing concern for more than the past three decades. A brief description of this development and previous achievements was considered important in order to provide a frame of reference for the evolving program here. Earlier, the use of certain radionuclides, radon progeny and I-131 in particular, and also x-rays, had been developed by the work of such pioneers as Failla, Quimby and Marinelli. In 1952, at the instigation of Dr. C.P. Rhoads, Director of both Memorial Hospital and Sloan-Kettering Institute, the restoration of the Department of Physics and Biophysics was undertaken in response to a perceived need to promote the utilization of radionuclides and of high energy radiations for therapeutic, diagnostic and research purposes. This resulted in several research and developmental projects with close clinical collaboration in areas of radiation treatment; medical studies with radionuclides and labeled compounds; the diagnostic uses of x-rays; and some projects in surgery and other clinical areas. Aspects of some of these projects that have had some relevance for the evolving AEC-DOE projects are outlined briefly. 34 refs

  17. A basic toxicity classification of radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the course of its work in the field of health and safety the International Atomic Energy Agency has often met the practical requirement for grading radionuclides in order of their relative radiotoxicities. This need was particularly evident when the Agency's Basic Safety Standards for the protection of health against ionizing radiation were in preparation, when it was necessary to exempt quantities of radionuclides from inclusion in the norms. A basic toxicity grading might be of help to laboratories in meeting some of their requirements in problems related to waste management as well as for the design of experimental facilities. It should also serve as a basis for the development of safety criteria for laboratory equipment and procedures for handling and transporting various quantities and kinds of radionuclides. The purpose of the present Report is to make a toxicity grading of the radionuclides according to the risk of biological injury which they may cause when they have become incorporated in the human body. 4 refs, 4 tabs

  18. Removal of radionuclides at a waterworks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gäfvert, T.; Ellmark, C.; Holm, E.

    2002-01-01

    filtration and from the municipal distribution network. The samples were analysed with respect to their content of uranium, thorium, polonium, radium, plutonium and caesium. The results show a high removal capacity for uranium (about 85%), thorium (>90%), plutonium (>95%) and polonium (>90...... concentrations for the naturally occurring radionuclides and plutonium....

  19. Understanding Radionuclide Interactions with Layered Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Layered materials play an important role in nuclear waste management and environmental cleanup. Better understanding of radionuclide interactions with those materials is critical for engineering high-performance materials for various applications. This presentation will provide an overview on radionuclide interactions with two general categories of layered materials - cationic clays and anionic clays - from a perspective of nanopore confinement. Nanopores are widely present in layered materials, either as the interlayers or as inter-particle space. Nanopore confinement can significantly modify chemical reactions in those materials. This effect may cause the preferential enrichment of radionuclides in nanopores and therefore directly impact the mobility of the radionuclides. This effect also implies that conventional sorption measurements using disaggregated samples may not represent chemical conditions in actual systems. The control of material structures on ion exchange, surface complexation, and diffusion in layered materials will be systematically examined, and the related modeling approaches will be discussed. This work was performed at Sandia National Laboratories, which is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed-Martin Company, for the DOE under contract DE-AC04-94AL8500.

  20. Radionuclide methods for the determination of glycosyltransferases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Data, confirming the fact, that radionuclide methods for determining glycosyltransferase activity, existing or being developed, open up quite new possibilities for searching the malignant neoplasm sensitive markers, are presented in the review. There is no doubt, that these methods allow one to enlarge a set of criteria for evaluating the pathologic process severity and treatment effectiveness in cases of other diseases

  1. RANCH, Radionuclide Migration in Geological Media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1 - Description of problem or function: One-dimensional transport of radionuclide chains through layered geological media, taking into account longitudinal dispersion, convection and retention. 2 - Method of solution: Semi-analytical solution by Laplace transform. Convolution integrals. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: Maximum 4 nuclides and 10 layers. Peclet number large compared to 1

  2. Distribution of radionuclides in Dardanelle Reservoir sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forgy, J R; Epperson, C E; Swindle, D L

    1984-02-01

    Natural and reactor-discharged gamma-ray emitting radionuclides were measured in Dardanelle Reservoir surface sediments taken near the Arkansas Nuclear One Power Plant site. Samples represented several water depths and particle sizes, at 33 locations, in a field survey conducted in early September 1980. Radionuclide contents of dry sediments ranged as follows: natural radioactivity (40K as well as uranium and thorium decay products) 661-1210 Bq/kg; and reactor discharged radioactivity (137Cs, 134Cs, 60Co,, 58Co, 54Mn), no detectable activity to 237 Bq/kg. In general, radionuclide contents were positively correlated with decreasing sediment particle size. The average external whole-body and skin doses from all measurable reactor-discharged radionuclides were calculated according to the mathematical formula for determining external dose from sediment given by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Inside the discharge embayment near the reactor discharge canal, the doses were 1.7 X 10(-3) mSv/yr to the whole body and 2.0 X 10(-3) mSv/yr to the skin. Outside this area, the doses were 0.15 X 10(-3) and 0.18 X 10(-3) mSv/yr to the whole body and skin, respectively. PMID:6693264

  3. Transport and accumulation of radionuclides in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The movement of radioactive isotopes through the water phase of soils is by far the most important. Most of the water-transported radioactive isotopes (radionuclides) occur via their dissolved salts, while the rest is carried by small soil particles to which the radionuclides are adsorbed. In the case of many chemicals, it is possible to calculate the movement or migration through soil from adsorption measurements made in the laboratory and from knowledge of the flow pattern of soil water. With increasing complexity of the chemical-soil-water system predictions become more uncertain. In the case of radionuclides the amounts expressed in units of weight are extremely small. This renders terms such as 'soluble' or 'insoluble' inapplicable. In these cases transport of 'radiocolloids' and adsorbed particles as 'insoluble' compounds may be more significant. For fallout strontium and cesium reliable predictive models have been developed. For fallout plutonium such models are under development. For calculations or predictions of the migration of radioactive material from deep soil layers to the soil surface fewer mathematical models are available. Many laboratory studies cannot yet be made due to lack of suitable soil samples from the sites under study. Nevertheless safety studies already carried out in a preliminary way are reliable, since factos such as adsorption of radionuclides on soils are neglected; consequently most safety studies overestimate possible risks. Further studies are required to ascertain how 'pessimistic' are the present safety criteriy. (orig./MG)

  4. RADIONUCLIDE TRANSPORT MODELS UNDER AMBIENT CONDITIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this model report is to document the unsaturated zone (UZ) radionuclide transport model, which evaluates, by means of three-dimensional numerical models, the transport of radioactive solutes and colloids in the UZ, under ambient conditions, from the repository horizon to the water table at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

  5. RTP: Radionuclides inventories calculation using ORIGEN Code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ORIGEN is a widely used computer code for calculating the buildup, decay, and processing of radioactive materials. The ORIGEN code was created by famous and reputable nuclear institution in United States, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). For a nuclear reactor, either it is a nuclear power reactor or nuclear research reactor, the radionuclide inventories data is important. This data is acquired by performing source term modelling. A fresh nuclear fuel could not cause any harm to human. However, used nuclear fuel could pose danger threat to human. The fission products particularly long-lived radionuclides for example H-3, Co-60, Cs-137 that are generated inside the fuel yield a significance amount of radioactivity. Therefore, there is no doubt that for a facility having a nuclear reactor, it is vital to anticipate the amount of fission products inside the fuel together with the radioactivity that it may emit. Sufficient information on the radionuclide inventories allows the facility to provide adequate shielding protection and ensure safe transportation of nuclear fuel, when it is needed. This paper briefly describes application of ORIGEN code to calculate the radionuclides inventories of TRIGA-PUSPATI REACTOR (RTP) fuel. (author)

  6. Measurement of anthropogenic radionuclides in the atmosphere with a radionuclide monitoring network for nuclear tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A worldwide radionuclide monitoring network for nuclear tests has detected the anthropogenic radioactive materials released in the atmosphere due to the accident of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant impacted by the Great East Japan Earthquake on March 11, 2011. After four months have passed since the accident occurred, most overseas stations do not detect the radionuclides of Fukushima origin any more. The Takasaki station in Japan, however, is still detecting them every day. This paper describes radionuclide monitoring stations and the network of them as part of the International Monitoring System (IMS) in the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT), as well as the measurement results of radionuclide particulates and radioactive isotopes of xenon released from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant with the monitoring network. (J.P.N.)

  7. Convergence of limb, visceral, and vertical semicircular canal or otolith inputs onto vestibular nucleus neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian, B. J.; Shintani, T.; Emanuel, B. A.; Yates, B. J.

    2002-01-01

    The major goal of this study was to determine the patterns of convergence of non-labyrinthine inputs from the limbs and viscera onto vestibular nucleus neurons receiving signals from vertical semicircular canals or otolith organs. A secondary aim was to ascertain whether the effects of non-labyrinthine inputs on the activity of vestibular nucleus neurons is affected by bilateral peripheral vestibular lesions. The majority (72%) of vestibular nucleus neurons in labyrinth-intact animals whose firing was modulated by vertical rotations responded to electrical stimulation of limb and/or visceral nerves. The activity of even more vestibular nucleus neurons (93%) was affected by limb or visceral nerve stimulation in chronically labyrinthectomized preparations. Some neurons received non-labyrinthine inputs from a variety of peripheral sources, including antagonist muscles acting at the same joint, whereas others received inputs from more limited sources. There was no apparent relationship between the spatial and dynamic properties of a neuron's responses to tilts in vertical planes and the non-labyrinthine inputs that it received. These data suggest that non-labyrinthine inputs elicited during movement will modulate the processing of information by the central vestibular system, and may contribute to the recovery of spontaneous activity of vestibular nucleus neurons following peripheral vestibular lesions. Furthermore, some vestibular nucleus neurons with non-labyrinthine inputs may be activated only during particular behaviors that elicit a specific combination of limb and visceral inputs.

  8. Statistical identification of effective input variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A statistical sensitivity analysis procedure has been developed for ranking the input data of large computer codes in the order of sensitivity-importance. The method is economical for large codes with many input variables, since it uses a relatively small number of computer runs. No prior judgemental elimination of input variables is needed. The sceening method is based on stagewise correlation and extensive regression analysis of output values calculated with selected input value combinations. The regression process deals with multivariate nonlinear functions, and statistical tests are also available for identifying input variables that contribute to threshold effects, i.e., discontinuities in the output variables. A computer code SCREEN has been developed for implementing the screening techniques. The efficiency has been demonstrated by several examples and applied to a fast reactor safety analysis code (Venus-II). However, the methods and the coding are general and not limited to such applications

  9. Scientific Analysis Cover Sheet for Radionuclide Screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The waste forms under consideration for disposal in the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain contain scores of radionuclides (Attachments V and VI). It would be impractical and highly inefficient to model all of these radionuclides in a total system performance assessment (TSPA). Thus, the purpose of this radionuclide screening analysis is to remove from further consideration (screen out) radionuclides that are unlikely to significantly contribute to radiation dose to the public from the proposed nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. The remaining nuclides (those screened in) are recommended for consideration in TSPA modeling for license application. This analysis also covers radionuclides that are not screened in based on dose, but need to be included in TSPA modeling for other reasons. For example, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulations require consideration of the combined activity of Ra-226 and Ra-228 in groundwater (40 CFR 197.30, 10 CFR 63.331). Also, Cm-245, Pu-241, and U-235 decay indirectly to potentially important radionuclides, and are not identified by the screening analysis as important. The radionuclide screening analysis separately considers two different postclosure time periods: the 10,000-y regulatory period for the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain and the period after 10,000 y up to 1 million y after emplacement. The incremental effect of extending the screening for the regulatory period to 20,000 y is also addressed. Four release scenarios are considered: (1) the nominal scenario, which entails long-term degradation of disposal containers and waste forms, (2) a human-intrusion scenario, (3) an intrusive igneous event, and (4) an eruptive igneous event. Because the first three scenarios require groundwater transport, they are called groundwater scenarios below. The screening analysis considers the following waste forms: spent boiling water reactor (BWR) fuel, spent

  10. Sediment and radionuclide transport in rivers: radionuclide transport modeling for Cattaraugus and Buttermilk Creeks, New York

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SERATRA, a transient, two-dimensional (laterally-averaged) computer model of sediment-contaminant transport in rivers, satisfactorily resolved the distribution of sediment and radionuclide concentrations in the Cattaraugus Creek stream system in New York. By modeling the physical processes of advection, diffusion, erosion, deposition, and bed armoring, SERATRA routed three sediment size fractions, including cohesive soils, to simulate three dynamic flow events. In conjunction with the sediment transport, SERATRA computed radionuclide levels in dissolved, suspended sediment, and bed sediment forms for four radionuclides (137Cs, 90Sr, 239240Pu, and 3H). By accounting for time-dependent sediment-radionuclide interaction in the water column and bed, SERATA is a physically explicit model of radionuclide fate and migration. Sediment and radionuclide concentrations calculated by SERATA in the Cattaraugus Creek stream system are in reasonable agreement with measured values. SERATRA is in the field performance phase of an extensive testing program designed to establish the utility of the model as a site assessment tool. The model handles not only radionuclides but other contaminants such as pesticides, heavy metals and other toxic chemicals. Now that the model has been applied to four field sites, including the latest study of the Cattaraugus Creek stream system, it is recommended that a final model be validated through comparison of predicted results with field data from a carefully controlled tracer test at a field site. It is also recommended that a detailed laboratory flume be tested to study cohesive sediment transport, deposition, and erosion characteristics. The lack of current understanding of these characteristics is one of the weakest areas hindering the accurate assessment of the migration of radionuclides sorbed by fine sediments of silt and clay

  11. Sediment and radionuclide transport in rivers: radionuclide transport modeling for Cattaraugus and Buttermilk Creeks, New York

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onishi, Y.; Yabusaki, S.B.; Kincaid, C.T.; Skaggs, R.L.; Walters, W.H.

    1982-12-01

    SERATRA, a transient, two-dimensional (laterally-averaged) computer model of sediment-contaminant transport in rivers, satisfactorily resolved the distribution of sediment and radionuclide concentrations in the Cattaraugus Creek stream system in New York. By modeling the physical processes of advection, diffusion, erosion, deposition, and bed armoring, SERATRA routed three sediment size fractions, including cohesive soils, to simulate three dynamic flow events. In conjunction with the sediment transport, SERATRA computed radionuclide levels in dissolved, suspended sediment, and bed sediment forms for four radionuclides (/sup 137/Cs, /sup 90/Sr, /sup 239/ /sup 240/Pu, and /sup 3/H). By accounting for time-dependent sediment-radionuclide interaction in the water column and bed, SERATA is a physically explicit model of radionuclide fate and migration. Sediment and radionuclide concentrations calculated by SERATA in the Cattaraugus Creek stream system are in reasonable agreement with measured values. SERATRA is in the field performance phase of an extensive testing program designed to establish the utility of the model as a site assessment tool. The model handles not only radionuclides but other contaminants such as pesticides, heavy metals and other toxic chemicals. Now that the model has been applied to four field sites, including the latest study of the Cattaraugus Creek stream system, it is recommended that a final model be validated through comparison of predicted results with field data from a carefully controlled tracer test at a field site. It is also recommended that a detailed laboratory flume be tested to study cohesive sediment transport, deposition, and erosion characteristics. The lack of current understanding of these characteristics is one of the weakest areas hindering the accurate assessment of the migration of radionuclides sorbed by fine sediments of silt and clay.

  12. Input impedance characteristics of microstrip structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Nazarko

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Electromagnetic crystals (EC and EC-inhomogeneities are one of the main directions of microstrip devices development. In the article the input impedance characteristics of EC- and traditional microstrip inhomogeneities and filter based on EC-inhomogeneities are investigated. Transmission coefficient characteristics. Transmission coefficient characteristics of low impedance EC- and traditional inhomogeneities are considered. Characteristics are calculated in the software package Microwave Studio. It is shown that the efficiency of EC-inhomogeneity is much higher. Input impedance characteristics of low impedance inhomogeneities. Dependences of input impedance active and reactive parts of EC- and traditional inhomogeneities are given. Dependences of the active part illustrate significant low impedance transformation of nominal impedance. The conditions of impedance matching of structure and input medium are set. Input impedance characteristics of high impedance inhomogeneities. Input impedance characteristics of high impedance EC- and traditional inhomogeneities are considered. It was shown that the band of transformation by high impedance inhomogeneities is much narrower than one by low impedance inhomogeneities. Characteristics of the reflection coefficient of inhomogeneities are presented. Input impedance characteristics of narrowband filter. The structure of narrowband filter based on the scheme of Fabry-Perot resonator is presented. The structure of the filter is fulfilled by high impedance EC-inhomogeneities as a reflectors. Experimental and theoretical amplitude-frequency characteristics of the filter are presented. Input impedance characteristics of the filter are shown. Conclusions. Input impedance characteristics of the structure allow to analyse its wave properties, especially resonant. EC-inhomogeneity compared with traditional microstrip provide substantially more significant transformation of the the input impedance.

  13. 2006 LANL Radionuclide Air Emissions Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David P. Fuehne

    2007-06-30

    This report describes the impacts from emissions of radionuclides at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) for calendar year 2006. This report fulfills the requirements established by the Radionuclide National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (Rad-NESHAP). This report is prepared by LANL's Rad-NESHAP compliance team, part of the Environmental Protection Division. The information in this report is required under the Clean Air Act and is being reported to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The highest effective dose equivalent (EDE) to an off-site member of the public was calculated using procedures specified by the EPA and described in this report. LANL's EDE was 0.47 mrem for 2006. The annual limit established by the EPA is 10 mrem per year. During calendar year 2006, LANL continuously monitored radionuclide emissions at 28 release points, or stacks. The Laboratory estimates emissions from an additional 58 release points using radionuclide usage source terms. Also, LANL uses a network of air samplers around the Laboratory perimeter to monitor ambient airborne levels of radionuclides. To provide data for dispersion modeling and dose assessment, LANL maintains and operates meteorological monitoring systems. From these measurement systems, a comprehensive evaluation is conducted to calculate the EDE for the Laboratory. The EDE is evaluated as any member of the public at any off-site location where there is a residence, school, business, or office. In 2006, this location was the Los Alamos Airport Terminal. The majority of this dose is due to ambient air sampling of plutonium emitted from 2006 clean-up activities at an environmental restoration site (73-002-99; ash pile). Doses reported to the EPA for the past 10 years are shown in Table E1.

  14. Subsurface radionuclide investigation of a nuclear test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, M.; Hahn, K.; Thompson, J.; Gadeken, L.; Madigan, W.

    1994-08-01

    This paper reports on an environmental investigation into the vertical distribution of radionuclides from a nuclear test. Dalhart is the name of an underground nuclear test that was executed at the Nevada Test Site at a depth of 2100 ft on October 13, 1988. The test occurred below the static water level of 1667 ft and created multiple radioactive isotopes or fission products. These radioactive isotopes penetrated the surrounding formations and chimney region above the test and were retained there. A 19° 9- {7}/{8}-inch diameter slant hole was drilled to sample the geologic material in the chimney region above the Dalhart test for the purpose of assessing the distribution of radioactivity in and around the shot site. A 30-ft core recovered from a vertical depth of 1628 ft in the collapsed zone or chimney region and above the original static water level was found to be free of radionuclides. Drilling was completed to a vertical depth of 2156 ft with the present static water level at a vertical depth of 1644 ft. Gamma-ray spectroscopy log measurements, made within the drill pipe while drilling fluid was pumped through this pipe, indicate that radioactive material produced by the test was present from the vertical depth interval of 1746-2156 ft. Side-wall samples acquired from the vertical depth interval of 1721-2089 ft and analyzed in the field contained radionuclides such as 137Cs, 125Sb, 106Ru, plus the natural radioactive background of potassium, uranium, and thorium. These samples were sent to Los Alamos to determine the complete radionuclide content at each depth. These analyses were used with the gamma-ray spectroscopy logging data to determine the subsurface vertical radionuclide distribution at the Dalhart site.

  15. Subsurface radionuclide investigation of a nuclear test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports on an environmental investigation into the vertical distribution of radionuclides from a nuclear test. Dalhart is the name of an underground nuclear test that was executed at the Nevada Test Site at a depth of 2100 ft on October 13, 1988. The test occurred below the static water level of 1667 ft and created multiple radioactive isotopes or fission products. These radioactive isotopes penetrated the surrounding formations and chimney region above the test and were retained there. A 19o 9-7/8-inch diameter slant hole was drilled to sample the geologic material in the chimney region above the Dalhart test for the purpose of assessing the distribution of radioactivity in and around the shot site. A 30-ft core recovered from a vertical depth of 1628 ft in the collapsed zone or chimney region and above the original static water level was found to be free of radionuclides. Drilling was completed to a vertical depth of 2156 ft with the present static water level at a vertical depth of 1644 ft. Gamma-ray spectroscopy log measurements, made within the drill pipe while drilling fluid was pumped through this pipe, indicate that radioactive material produced by the test was present from the vertical depth interval of 1746-2156 ft. Side-wall samples acquired from the vertical depth interval of 1721-2089 ft and analyzed in the field contained radionuclides such as 137Cs, 125Sb, 106Ru, plus the natural radioactive background of potassium, uranium, and thorium. These samples were sent to Los Alamos to determine the complete radionuclide content at each depth. These analyses were used with the gamma-ray spectroscopy logging data to determine the subsurface vertical radionuclide distribution at the Dalhart site

  16. Radionuclides concentration in foods in Peninsular Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concentrations of natural radionuclides (U-238, Th-232, Ra-226, Ra-228 and K-40) and artificial radionuclides (Cs-137) in fresh, dried and cooked foodstuffs from 30 major towns in Peninsular Malaysia were determined by gamma spectrometry system and Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) technique. A total of 232 samples representing a typical Malaysian community diet were analysed. The results showed that most of the samples contained only natural radionuclides. The percentage of radionuclides detected in the samples were found about 2% for U-238, 9% for Th-232, 49% for Ra-226, 77% for Ra-228, 99% for K-40 and 15% for Cs-137. The radionuclide concentrations were in the ranges of <6.1 - 29.3, <2.0 - 55.8, <0.1 - 34.4, <0.1 - 41, <0.1- 2552.3 and < 0.1 - 6.6 Bq/Kg dry weight for U-238, Th-232, Ra-226, Ra-228 and K-40 and Cs-137 respectively. The study revealed that most of the foodstuffs did not contain U-238. Lentils were found to contain significant concentration of Th-232 (4 - 49 Bq/kg) and can be considered as thorium accumulators. The concentrations of Ra-226 and Ra-228 in leafy vegetables were higher than the fruit and root vegetables. These data can be used as a reference for future food radioactivity monitoring. As edible mushroom and fern had high concentrations of Cs-137, indicating their high ability to accumulate Cs-137, they could be used as indicator plants in the event of radioactive fall outs

  17. Modeling study of effects of short-lived radionuclide fixation on decay chain radionuclides migration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohnuki, Toshihiko (Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment); Watanabe, Shoji

    1993-08-01

    Effects of a short lived radionuclide fixation to minerals during alteration process from a primary mineral (M1) to tertiary mineral (M3) through secondary mineral (M2) on a decay chain radionuclides migration (DCRM) have been studied based on mathematical simulation studies. The mathematical migration model in which a daughter radionuclide, N[sub 2], corresponds to a short lived radionuclide and is fixed to M2 during alteration from M1 to M2, is proposed. Also, a fraction of the granddaughter radionuclide, N[sub 3], is assumed to be released from M2 into a solution during the alteration process from M2 to M3. The model studies lead the delay in the migration of N[sub 3], with the delay becoming remarkably enhanced if the fixation rate constant of N[sub 2] is greater than the decay constant of N[sub 2]. Whereas, the delay is reduced by the release of N[sub 3] with a faster rate than the decay constant of N[sub 3]. Therefore, it is important clarify decay chain radionuclides fixation and release mechanisms during an alteration process. (author).

  18. Measuring Input Thresholds on an Existing Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuperman, Igor; Gutrich, Daniel G.; Berkun, Andrew C.

    2011-01-01

    A critical PECL (positive emitter-coupled logic) interface to Xilinx interface needed to be changed on an existing flight board. The new Xilinx input interface used a CMOS (complementary metal-oxide semiconductor) type of input, and the driver could meet its thresholds typically, but not in worst-case, according to the data sheet. The previous interface had been based on comparison with an external reference, but the CMOS input is based on comparison with an internal divider from the power supply. A way to measure what the exact input threshold was for this device for 64 inputs on a flight board was needed. The measurement technique allowed an accurate measurement of the voltage required to switch a Xilinx input from high to low for each of the 64 lines, while only probing two of them. Directly driving an external voltage was considered too risky, and tests done on any other unit could not be used to qualify the flight board. The two lines directly probed gave an absolute voltage threshold calibration, while data collected on the remaining 62 lines without probing gave relative measurements that could be used to identify any outliers. The PECL interface was forced to a long-period square wave by driving a saturated square wave into the ADC (analog to digital converter). The active pull-down circuit was turned off, causing each line to rise rapidly and fall slowly according to the input s weak pull-down circuitry. The fall time shows up as a change in the pulse width of the signal ready by the Xilinx. This change in pulse width is a function of capacitance, pulldown current, and input threshold. Capacitance was known from the different trace lengths, plus a gate input capacitance, which is the same for all inputs. The pull-down current is the same for all inputs including the two that are probed directly. The data was combined, and the Excel solver tool was used to find input thresholds for the 62 lines. This was repeated over different supply voltages and

  19. The variability of the potential radiation exposure to man arising from radionuclides released to the ground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The variability of the potential radiation exposure of the population is estimated if radionuclides (Np-237, Tc-99, I-129, Cs-135, Ra-226, U-238) are released to the ground water which is used by man as drinking water for humans and animals, for irrigation of food and feed crops, and for the production of fish in freshwater bodies. Annual effective dose equivalents are calculated assuming a normalized activity concentration in the water of 1 Bq/l for each radionuclide considered. An important aim is the estimation of the uncertainty of the exposure due to the uncertainty and the variability of the input parameters. The estimated frequency distributions of the input parameters were used as a model input and processed with Latin Hypercube Sampling and a Monte-Carlo technique. This estimation is based on an exposure scenario which reflects the present conditions. The critical group for the exposure due to the use of contaminated ground water are for most radionuclides the children of 1 year, although the activity intake of children is much lower than for adults. However the ingestion dose factors for infants are higher; in many cases the differences are higher than a factor of 5. (orig./HP)

  20. Transfer of radionuclides through the terrestrial environment to agricultural products and the behaviour of radionuclides in natural ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The investigation carried out in the period 1986 - 1995 has shown that the radionuclides fallen out appear to be in active zone of the main mass of vertical migration and probability of their availability for plants in perspective. The level of contamination of crop products by radionuclides on the change of soil contamination by radionuclides within residential territories. (author)