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Sample records for chronic phosphorus enrichment

  1. Phosphorus Regulation in Chronic Kidney Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suki, Wadi N; Moore, Linda W

    2016-01-01

    Serum phosphorus levels stay relatively constant through the influence of multiple factors-such as parathyroid hormone, fibroblast growth factor 23, and vitamin D-on the kidney, bone, and digestive system. Whereas normal serum phosphorus ranges between 3 mg/dL to 4.5 mg/dL, large cross-sectional studies have shown that even people with normal kidney function are sometimes found to have levels ranging between 1.6 mg/dL and 6.2 mg/dL. While this may partially be due to diet and the factors mentioned above, total understanding of these atypical ranges of serum phosphorus remains uncertain. Risks for bone disease are high in people aged 50 and older, and this group comprises a large proportion of people who also have chronic kidney disease. Consuming diets low in calcium and high in phosphorus, especially foods with phosphate additives, further exacerbates bone turnover. Existing bone disease increases the risk for high serum phosphorus, and higher serum phosphorus has been associated with increased adverse events and cardiovascular-related mortality both in people with chronic kidney disease and in those with no evidence of disease. Once kidney function has deteriorated to end-stage disease (Stage 5), maintaining normal serum phosphorus requires dietary restrictions, phosphate-binding medications, and dialysis. Even so, normal serum phosphorus remains elusive in many patients with Stage 5 kidney disease, and researchers are testing novel targets that may inhibit intestinal transport of phosphorus to achieve better phosphate control. Protecting and monitoring bone health should also aid in controlling serum phosphorus as kidney disease advances.

  2. Patient education for phosphorus management in chronic kidney disease

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    Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: This review explores the challenges and solutions in educating patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) to lower serum phosphorus while avoiding protein insufficiency and hypercalcemia. Methods: A literature search including terms “hyperphosphatemia,” “patient education,” “food fatigue,” “hypercalcemia,” and “phosphorus–protein ratio” was undertaken using PubMed. Results: Hyperphosphatemia is a strong predictor of mortality in advanced CKD and is remediated via diet, phosphorus binders, and dialysis. Dietary counseling should encourage the consumption of foods with the least amount of inorganic or absorbable phosphorus, low phosphorus-to-protein ratios, and adequate protein content, and discourage excessive calcium intake in high-risk patients. Emerging educational initiatives include food labeling using a “traffic light” scheme, motivational interviewing techniques, and the Phosphate Education Program – whereby patients no longer have to memorize the phosphorus content of each individual food component, but only a “phosphorus unit” value for a limited number of food groups. Phosphorus binders are associated with a clear survival advantage in CKD patients, overcome the limitations associated with dietary phosphorus restriction, and permit a more flexible approach to achieving normalization of phosphorus levels. Conclusion: Patient education on phosphorus and calcium management can improve concordance and adherence and empower patients to collaborate actively for optimal control of mineral metabolism. PMID:23667310

  3. Enrichment culture of denitrifying phosphorus removal sludge and its microbial community analysis.

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    Dai, Hongliang; Lu, Xiwu; Peng, Lihong; Li, Xiang; Dai, Zheqin

    2017-11-01

    An efficient one-step domestication method with mixed electron acceptors and short-time post-aeration was developed for the enrichment culture of denitrifying phosphorus removal sludge. The acclimation time, performance of nitrogen and phosphorus simultaneous removal and microbial community structure were investigated to reveal the difference among the obtained phosphorus removal sludge using different acclimation ways. Results showed that the proposed method with optimal proportion of nitrite and nitrate could significantly shorten domestication time (28 days) compared with the traditional two-step method (60 days), but exerted nearly no influence on the removal efficiency of nitrogen and phosphorus. High-throughput sequencing revealed that similar microbial community structure of DPAOs sludge was obtained with different acclimation methods. Compared with seed sludge, microbial community shifted obviously, and the dominant microbial population of Dechloromonas-related phosphorus removal bacteria increased significantly. It could be inferred that the appropriate concentration of nitrite was conducive to the rapid enrichment of DPAOs under alternative anaerobic/anoxic operation. Meanwhile, anaerobic/oxic condition was favorable for the enrichment of Candidatus Accumulibacter-related phosphorus removal organisms, and short-time post-aeration in the proposed method could reduce the potential public health hazard.

  4. Patient education for phosphorus management in chronic kidney disease

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    Kalantar-Zadeh K

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Kamyar Kalantar-ZadehHarold Simmons Center for Kidney Disease Research and Epidemiology, Division of Nephrology and Hypertension, University of California Irvine’s School of Medicine, Irvine, CA, USAObjectives: This review explores the challenges and solutions in educating patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD to lower serum phosphorus while avoiding protein insufficiency and hypercalcemia.Methods: A literature search including terms “hyperphosphatemia,” “patient education,” “food fatigue,” “hypercalcemia,” and “phosphorus–protein ratio” was undertaken using PubMed.Results: Hyperphosphatemia is a strong predictor of mortality in advanced CKD and is remediated via diet, phosphorus binders, and dialysis. Dietary counseling should encourage the consumption of foods with the least amount of inorganic or absorbable phosphorus, low phosphorus-to-protein ratios, and adequate protein content, and discourage excessive calcium intake in high-risk patients. Emerging educational initiatives include food labeling using a “traffic light” scheme, motivational interviewing techniques, and the Phosphate Education Program – whereby patients no longer have to memorize the phosphorus content of each individual food component, but only a “phosphorus unit” value for a limited number of food groups. Phosphorus binders are associated with a clear survival advantage in CKD patients, overcome the limitations associated with dietary phosphorus restriction, and permit a more flexible approach to achieving normalization of phosphorus levels.Conclusion: Patient education on phosphorus and calcium management can improve concordance and adherence and empower patients to collaborate actively for optimal control of mineral metabolism.Keywords: hyperphosphatemia, renal diet, phosphorus binders, educational programs, food fatigue, concordance

  5. Phosphorus budgets in Everglades wetland ecosystems: The effects of hydrology and nutrient enrichment

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    Noe, G.B.; Childers, D.L.

    2007-01-01

    The Florida Everglades is a naturally oligotrophic hydroscape that has experienced large changes in ecosystem structure and function as the result of increased anthropogenic phosphorus (P) loading and hydrologic changes. We present whole-ecosystem models of P cycling for Everglades wetlands with differing hydrology and P enrichment with the goal of synthesizing existing information into ecosystem P budgets. Budgets were developed for deeper water oligotrophic wet prairie/slough ('Slough'), shallower water oligotrophic Cladium jamaicense ('Cladium'), partially enriched C. jamaicense/Typha spp. mixture ('Cladium/Typha'), and enriched Typha spp. ('Typha') marshes. The majority of ecosystem P was stored in the soil in all four ecosystem types, with the flocculent detrital organic matter (floc) layer at the bottom of the water column storing the next largest proportion of ecosystem P pools. However, most P cycling involved ecosystem components in the water column (periphyton, floc, and consumers) in deeper water, oligotrophic Slough marsh. Fluxes of P associated with macrophytes were more important in the shallower water, oligotrophic Cladium marsh. The two oligotrophic ecosystem types had similar total ecosystem P stocks and cycling rates, and low rates of P cycling associated with soils. Phosphorus flux rates cannot be estimated for ecosystem components residing in the water column in Cladium/Typha or Typha marshes due to insufficient data. Enrichment caused a large increase in the importance of macrophytes to P cycling in Everglades wetlands. The flux of P from soil to the water column, via roots to live aboveground tissues to macrophyte detritus, increased from 0.03 and 0.2 g P m-2 yr-1 in oligotrophic Slough and Cladium marsh, respectively, to 1.1 g P m-2 yr -1 in partially enriched Cladium/Typha, and 1.6 g P m-2 yr-1 in enriched Typha marsh. This macrophyte translocation P flux represents a large source of internal eutrophication to surface waters in P-enriched

  6. Table showing dietary phosphorus/protein ratio for the Spanish population. Usefulness in chronic kidney disease.

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    Barril-Cuadrado, Guillermina; Puchulu, M Bernardita; Sánchez-Tomero, José A

    2013-01-01

    The K/DOQI guidelines recommend the use of phosphorus/protein food ratios for proper control of dietary phosphorus. Evidence exists from tables with phosphorus to protein ratios for common foods. No such table exists for common foods consumed by the Spanish population with ratio estimations. To estimate the phosphorus to protein ratio in foods commonly used by the Spanish population and to establish its usefulness in the selection of foods for patients with chronic kidney disease. Tables with the phosphorus to protein ratio were prepared from two data sources concerning Spanish food composition. We evaluated chemical composition per 100g of raw food. The tables do not include phosphorus additives. No foods with high ratio of phosphorus to protein were eliminated in order to allow comparisons between different foods from each group. Shown in the tables. The dietary prescription for patients with chronic kidney disease should take into consideration not only the absolute phosphorus value of food consumed, but also the phosphorus to protein ratio of each food and the total amount of phosphorus in the diet. The more "natural" a diet is, the more likely that the patient will reach an acceptable phosphorus to protein ratio of less than 16mg/g, which does not increase mortality. There is clearly a need for an educational program on nutrition and phosphorus sources in which food ratio tables could be a useful tool for the multidisciplinary teams caring for renal patients.

  7. Phosphorus, carbon and nitrogen enrichment during sedimentation in a seasonally anoxic lake (Lake Lugano, Switzerland

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    Kurt W. Hanselmann

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Sedimentation fluxes of major nutrients are investigated during 1996 and 1997 at three different depths and two locations in eutrophic southern basin of Lake Lugano (Switzerland. Horizontal differences between the two sites are on the order of 10-40% (but can exceed 50%, whereas differences related to interannual oscillations range between 5 and 24%. Particulate organic carbon (POC and nitrogen (PN fluxes show a constant increase of 5-20% from the upper to the bottom trap. This tendency remains more or less constant during the year. On the contrary, particulate phosphorus (PP shows a seasonal variation, with higher accumulation rates from the I to the III trap in autumn and winter which can exceed +1200%. This phenomenon is due to the interaction between the dissolved phosphorus (DP and the iron(oxihydroxides (Fe(OH3 near the oxycline. Fe(OH3 precipitates at the iron redox boundary, scavenging DP. This enrichment flux increases together with the development of the anoxic benthic layer. The efficiency of the iron redox layer in trapping upward diffusing P is related to the concentration of dissolved iron in the anoxic hypolimnion. In Lake Lugano the two considered sites present major difference of iron concentration, and this difference is reflected in the P sedimentation fluxes. The exposition of an additional sedimentation trap above the maximal oxycline height has allowed to gain insight into this phenomenon.

  8. Hammond Postulate Mirroring Enables Enantiomeric Enrichment of Phosphorus Compounds via Two Thermodynamically Interconnected Sequential Stereoselective Processes.

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    Rajendran, Kamalraj V; Nikitin, Kirill V; Gilheany, Declan G

    2015-07-29

    The dynamic resolution of tertiary phosphines and phosphine oxides was monitored by NMR spectroscopy. It was found that the stereoselectivity is set during the formation of the diastereomeric alkoxyphosphonium salts (DAPS), such that their initial diastereomeric excess (de) limits the final enantiomeric excess (ee) of any phosphorus products derived from them. However, (31)P NMR monitoring of the spontaneous thermal decomposition of the DAPS shows consistent diastereomeric self-enrichment, indicating a higher rate constant for decomposition of the minor diastereomer. This crucial observation was confirmed by reductive trapping of the unreacted enriched DAPS with lithium tri-sec-butylborohydride (commercially distributed as L-Selectride reagent) at different time intervals after the start of reaction, which gives progressively higher ee of the phosphine product with time. It is proposed that the Hammond postulate operates for both formation and decomposition of DAPS intermediate so that the lower rate of formation and faster subsequent collapse of the minor isomer are thermodynamically linked. This kinetic enhancement of kinetic resolution furnishes up to 97% ee product.

  9. Structural instability, multiple stable states, and hysteresis in periphyton driven by phosphorus enrichment in the Everglades

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    Dong, Quan; McCormick, Paul V.; Sklar, Fred H.; DeAngelis, Donald L.

    2002-01-01

    Periphyton is a key component of the Everglades ecosystems. It is a major primary producer, providing food and habitat for a variety of organisms, contributing material to the surface soil, and regulating water chemistry. Periphyton is sensitive to the phosphorus (P) supply and P enrichment has caused dramatic changes in the native Everglades periphyton assemblages. Periphyton also affects P availability by removing P from the water column and depositing a refractory portion into sediment. A quantitative understanding of the response of periphyton assemblages to P supply and its effects on P cycling could provide critical supports to decision making in the conservation and restoration of the Everglades. We constructed a model to examine the interaction between periphyton and P dynamics. The model contains two differential equations: P uptake and periphyton growth are assumed to follow the Monod equation and are limited by a modified logistic equation. Equilibrium and stability analyses suggest that P loading is the driving force and determines the system behavior. The position and number of steady states and the stability also depend upon the rate of sloughing, through which periphyton deposits refractory P into sediment. Multiple equilibria may exist, with two stable equilibria separated by an unstable equilibrium. Due to nonlinear interplay of periphyton and P in this model, catastrophe and hysteresis are likely to occur.

  10. Effects of glucose on the performance of enhanced biological phosphorus removal activated sludge enriched with acetate.

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    Gebremariam, Seyoum Yami; Beutel, Marc W; Christian, David; Hess, Thomas F

    2012-10-01

    The effects of glucose on enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) activated sludge enriched with acetate was investigated using sequencing batch reactors. A glucose/acetate mixture was serially added to the test reactor in ratios of 25/75%, 50/50%, and 75/25% and the EBPR activity was compared to the control reactor fed with 100% acetate. P removal increased at a statistically significant level to a near-complete in the test reactor when the mixture increased to 50/50%. However, EBPR deteriorated when the glucose/acetate mixture increased to 75/25% in the test reactor and when the control reactor abruptly switched to 100% glucose. These results, in contrast to the EBPR conventional wisdom, suggest that the addition of glucose at moderate levels in wastewaters does not impede and may enhance EBPR, and that glucose waste products should be explored as an economical sustainable alternative when COD enhancement of EBPR is needed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Carbon Budgets for Caribbean Mangrove Forests of Varying Structure and with Phosphorus Enrichment

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    Catherine E. Lovelock

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available There are few detailed carbon (C budgets of mangrove forests, yet these are important for understanding C sequestration in mangrove forests, how they support the productivity of the coast and their vulnerability to environmental change. Here, we develop C budgets for mangroves on the islands of Twin Cays, Belize. We consider seaward fringing forests and interior scrub forests that have been fertilized with phosphorus (P, which severely limits growth of trees in the scrub forests. We found that respiration of the aboveground biomass accounted for 60%–80% of the fixed C and that respiration of the canopy and aboveground roots were important components of respiration. Soil respiration accounted for only 7%–11% of total gross primary production (GPP while burial of C in soils was ~4% of GPP. Respiration by roots can account for the majority of soil respiration in fringing forests, while microbial processes may account 80% of respiration in scrub forests. Fertilization of scrub forests with P enhanced GPP but the proportion of C buried declined to ~2% of GPP. Net ecosystem production was 17%–27% of GPP similar to that reported for other mangrove forests. Carbon isotope signatures of adjacent seagrass suggest that dissolved C from mangroves is exported into the adjacent ecosystems. Our data indicate that C budgets can vary among mangrove forest types and with nutrient enrichment and that low productivity mangroves provide a disproportionate share of exported C.

  12. Chronic nutrient enrichment increases prevalence and severity of coral disease and bleaching.

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    Vega Thurber, Rebecca L; Burkepile, Deron E; Fuchs, Corinne; Shantz, Andrew A; McMinds, Ryan; Zaneveld, Jesse R

    2014-02-01

    Nutrient loading is one of the strongest drivers of marine habitat degradation. Yet, the link between nutrients and disease epizootics in marine organisms is often tenuous and supported only by correlative data. Here, we present experimental evidence that chronic nutrient exposure leads to increases in both disease prevalence and severity and coral bleaching in scleractinian corals, the major habitat-forming organisms in tropical reefs. Over 3 years, from June 2009 to June 2012, we continuously exposed areas of a coral reef to elevated levels of nitrogen and phosphorus. At the termination of the enrichment, we surveyed over 1200 scleractinian corals for signs of disease or bleaching. Siderastrea siderea corals within enrichment plots had a twofold increase in both the prevalence and severity of disease compared with corals in unenriched control plots. In addition, elevated nutrient loading increased coral bleaching; Agaricia spp. of corals exposed to nutrients suffered a 3.5-fold increase in bleaching frequency relative to control corals, providing empirical support for a hypothesized link between nutrient loading and bleaching-induced coral declines. However, 1 year later, after nutrient enrichment had been terminated for 10 months, there were no differences in coral disease or coral bleaching prevalence between the previously enriched and control treatments. Given that our experimental enrichments were well within the ranges of ambient nutrient concentrations found on many degraded reefs worldwide, these data provide strong empirical support to the idea that coastal nutrient loading is one of the major factors contributing to the increasing levels of both coral disease and coral bleaching. Yet, these data also suggest that simple improvements to water quality may be an effective way to mitigate some coral disease epizootics and the corresponding loss of coral cover in the future. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Dietary phosphorus intake and mortality in moderate chronic kidney disease: NHANES III.

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    Murtaugh, Maureen A; Filipowicz, Rebecca; Baird, Bradley C; Wei, Guo; Greene, Tom; Beddhu, Srinivasan

    2012-03-01

    Dietary phosphorus intake is usually restricted in dialysis patients but the associations of dietary phosphorus intake with mortality in moderate chronic kidney disease (CKD) are unknown. Therefore, we examined these associations in National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III. Dietary phosphorus intake was estimated from 24-h dietary recalls administered by trained personnel. CKD was defined as estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) Phosphorus intake was 1033 ± 482 mg/day (mean ± SD), eGFR was 49.3 ± 9.5 mL/min/1.73 m(2) and serum phosphorus was 3.5 ± 0.5 mg/dL. Compared to those in the lowest tertile of phosphorus intake (mean 532 ± 161 mg/day), those in the highest third (1478 ± 378 mg/day) had similar serum phosphorus levels (3.6 ± 0.5 versus 3.5 ± 0.6 mg/dL, P = 0.113) and modestly higher eGFR (50.0 ± 8.1 versus 47.5 ± 12.0 mL/min/1.73 m(2), P = 0.014). After adjustment for demographics, comorbidity, eGFR, physical activity, energy intake and nutritional variables, phosphorus intake was not associated with mortality [hazard ratio (HR) 0.98 per 100 mg/dL increase, 0.93-1.03]. High dietary phosphorus intake is not associated with increased mortality in moderate CKD, presumably because serum phosphorus levels are maintained in the normal range at this level of GFR. Interventional trials are needed to define optimal phosphorus intake in moderate CKD.

  14. Changes in labile phosphorus forms during maturation of vermicompost enriched with phosphorus-solubilizing and diazotrophic bacteria.

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    Busato, Jader G; Lima, Lívia S; Aguiar, Natália O; Canellas, Luciano P; Olivares, Fábio L

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of N(2)-fixing and P-solubilizing bacteria during maturation of vermicompost on phosphorus availability. A bacterial suspension containing Burkholderia silvatlantica, Burkholderia spp. and Herbaspirillum seropedicae was applied at the initial stage of vermicomposting. At the end of the incubation time (120days), the nitrogen content had increased by18% compared to uninoculated vermicompost. Water-soluble P was 106% higher in inoculated vermicompost while resin-extractable P increased during the initial vermicomposting stage and was 21% higher at 60days, but was the same in inoculated and uninoculated mature compost. The activity of acid phosphatase was 43% higher in inoculated than uninoculated vermicompost. These data suggest that the introduction of the mixed culture had beneficial effects on vermicompost maturation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Vegetarian compared with meat dietary protein source and phosphorus homeostasis in chronic kidney disease.

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    Moe, Sharon M; Zidehsarai, Miriam P; Chambers, Mary A; Jackman, Lisa A; Radcliffe, J Scott; Trevino, Laurie L; Donahue, Susan E; Asplin, John R

    2011-02-01

    Patients with advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD) are in positive phosphorus balance, but phosphorus levels are maintained in the normal range through phosphaturia induced by increases in fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF23) and parathyroid hormone (PTH). This provides the rationale for recommendations to restrict dietary phosphate intake to 800 mg/d. However, the protein source of the phosphate may also be important. We conducted a crossover trial in nine patients with a mean estimated GFR of 32 ml/min to directly compare vegetarian and meat diets with equivalent nutrients prepared by clinical research staff. During the last 24 hours of each 7-day diet period, subjects were hospitalized in a research center and urine and blood were frequently monitored. The results indicated that 1 week of a vegetarian diet led to lower serum phosphorus levels and decreased FGF23 levels. The inpatient stay demonstrated similar diurnal variation for blood phosphorus, calcium, PTH, and urine fractional excretion of phosphorus but significant differences between the vegetarian and meat diets. Finally, the 24-hour fractional excretion of phosphorus was highly correlated to a 2-hour fasting urine collection for the vegetarian diet but not the meat diet. In summary, this study demonstrates that the source of protein has a significant effect on phosphorus homeostasis in patients with CKD. Therefore, dietary counseling of patients with CKD must include information on not only the amount of phosphate but also the source of protein from which the phosphate derives.

  16. Experimental evidence of nitrogen control on pCO2 in phosphorus-enriched humic and clear coastal lagoon waters

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    Roberta Bittencourt Peixoto

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Natural and human-induced controls on carbon dioxide (CO2 in tropical waters may be very dynamic (over time and among or within ecosystems considering the potential role of warmer temperatures intensifying metabolic responses and playing a direct role on the balance between photosynthesis and respiration. The high magnitude of biological processes at low latitudes following eutrophication by nitrogen (N and phosphorus (P inputs into inland waters may be a relevant component of the C cycle, showing controls on partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2 that are still poorly understood. Here we assessed the strength of N control on pCO2 in P-enriched humic and clear coastal lagoons waters, using four experimental treatments in microcosms: control (no additional nutrients and three levels of N additions coupled to P enrichments. In humic coastal lagoon waters, a persistent CO2 supersaturation was reported in controls and all nutrient-enriched treatments, ranging from 24-fold to fourfold the atmospheric equilibrium value. However, both humic and clear coastal lagoon waters only showed significant decreases in pCO2 in relation to the controlled microcosms in the two treatments with higher N addition levels. Additionally, clear coastal lagoon water microcosms showed a shift from CO2 sources to CO2 sinks, in relation to the atmosphere. Only in the two more N-enriched treatments did pCO2 substantially decrease, from 650 µatm in controls and less N-enriched treatments to 10 µatm in more N-enriched microcosms. Humic substrates and N inputs can modulate pCO2 even in P-enriched coastal lagoon waters, thereby being important drivers on CO2 outgassing from inland waters.

  17. Habitual dietary phosphorus intake and urinary excretion in chronic kidney disease patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salomo, Louise Havkrog; Kamper, Anne-Lise; Møller, Grith

    2017-01-01

    Hyperphosphatemia in chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with vascular calcification, cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to estimate the daily dietary phosphorus intake compared with recommendations in CKD patients and to evaluate the reproducibility of the 24...

  18. The Calcium/Phosphorus Homeostasis in Chronic Kidney Disease: From Clinical Epidemiology to Pathophysiology.

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    Pires, Ana; Sobrinho, Luis; Ferreira, Hugo Gil

    2017-06-30

    A simple data filtering process together with some basic concepts of control theory applied to electronically stored clinical data were used to identify some of the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the perturbations of the calcium/phosphorus homeostasis in chronic kidney disease. Retrospective data (a set per patient of serum single value concentrations of creatinine, calcium, phosphorus, parathormone, 25-hydroxyvitamin D and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D) from 2507 patients with stable chronic kidney disease not on renal replacement therapy were studied. The variables were paired and subjected sequentially to a moving average and partioned into frequency classes. The plots were interpreted using the concept of a feedback loop comprising two branches of opposite sign and of set point of the loop. The set point for each pair of variables is displaced in the course of the disease and this displacement indicates which of the two factors involved (the serum concentrations of calcium or parathormone, for example) is primarily affected. This analysis showed that in the course of the development of chronic kidney disease the relationships between the observed variables progressed following a monotonous, a biphasic or a triphasic pattern. As chronic kidney disease progresses, calcium/phosphorus metabolism regulation evolves through different phases. Later, there is a progressive loss of the parathyroid gland sensitivity to the control by the serum concentrations of calcium and phosphorus. The sensitivity to the inhibitory action of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D decreases monotonously but never releases the gland. The clinical data analysis used permits to illustrate the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms.

  19. Phragmites australis + Typha latifolia Community Enhanced the Enrichment of Nitrogen and Phosphorus in the Soil of Qin Lake Wetland.

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    Ge, Zhiwei; An, Ran; Fang, Shuiyuan; Lin, Pengpeng; Li, Chuan; Xue, Jianhui; Yu, Shuiqiang

    2017-01-01

    Aquatic plants play an essential role and are effective in mitigating lake eutrophication by forming complex plant-soil system and retaining total nitrogen (TN) and phosphorus (TP) in soils to ultimately reduce their quantities in aquatic systems. Two main vegetation types (Phragmites australis community and P. australis + Typha latifolia community) of Qin Lake wetland were sampled in this study for the analysis of TN and TP contents and reserves in the wetland soils. The results showed that (1) the consumption effect of Qin Lake wetland on soluble N was much more significant than on soluble P. (2) The efficiency of TN enrichment in wetland soil was enhanced by vegetation covering of P. australis and T. latifolia. (3) Wetland soil P was consumed by P. australis community and this pattern was relieved with the introduction of T. latifolia. (4) According to the grey relativity analysis, the most intensive interaction between plants and soil occurred in summer. In addition, the exchange of N in soil-vegetation system primarily occurred in the 0-15 cm soil layer. Our results indicated that vegetation covering was essential to the enrichment of TN and TP, referring to the biology-related fixation in the wetland soil.

  20. Phragmites australis + Typha latifolia Community Enhanced the Enrichment of Nitrogen and Phosphorus in the Soil of Qin Lake Wetland

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    Zhiwei Ge

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aquatic plants play an essential role and are effective in mitigating lake eutrophication by forming complex plant-soil system and retaining total nitrogen (TN and phosphorus (TP in soils to ultimately reduce their quantities in aquatic systems. Two main vegetation types (Phragmites australis community and P. australis + Typha latifolia community of Qin Lake wetland were sampled in this study for the analysis of TN and TP contents and reserves in the wetland soils. The results showed that (1 the consumption effect of Qin Lake wetland on soluble N was much more significant than on soluble P. (2 The efficiency of TN enrichment in wetland soil was enhanced by vegetation covering of P. australis and T. latifolia. (3 Wetland soil P was consumed by P. australis community and this pattern was relieved with the introduction of T. latifolia. (4 According to the grey relativity analysis, the most intensive interaction between plants and soil occurred in summer. In addition, the exchange of N in soil-vegetation system primarily occurred in the 0–15 cm soil layer. Our results indicated that vegetation covering was essential to the enrichment of TN and TP, referring to the biology-related fixation in the wetland soil.

  1. The effect of filter cakes enriched with soluble phosphorus used as a fertilizer on the sugarcane ratoons

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    Diego Henriques Santos

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of fertilization with filter cakes enriched with soluble phosphate on sugarcane ratoons. The experiment was performed from November 2007 to December 2009 at Presidente Prudente, São Paulo State, Brazil, in a completely randomized block design in a 4 x 4 factorial arrangement, with the first factor consisting of doses of filter cake (0; 1; 2 and 4 mg ha-1 and the second doses consisting of phosphorus fertilizer (0, 50, 100, 200 kg ha-1 of P2O5 with 4 replicates. The following variables were evaluated: the number of tillers per meter, the leaf area index, soluble solids (ºBrix, stalk and sugar yield in the second crop cycle. We found a residual effect in the sugarcane ratoon after applying filter cakes enriched with soluble phosphate in the planting furrow. The initial tillering, leaf area index, stalk and sugar yield in the cane ratoon benefit from the application of filter cakes and soluble phosphate in the planting furrow. The best combination is filter cakes at a dose between 1.0 and 2.0 mg ha-1 with 100 to 200 kg ha-1 soluble phosphate applied at planting. This method obtains higher stalk and sugar yields for sugarcane ratoons.

  2. Use of Phosphorus Binders among Non-Dialysis Chronic Kidney Disease Patients and Mortality Outcomes.

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    Bhandari, Simran K; Liu, In-Lu A; Kujubu, Dean A; Huynh, Trung; Behayaa, Hind; Kovesdy, Csaba P; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar; Jacobsen, Steven J; Sim, John J

    2017-01-01

    Whether the benefits of phosphorus binders extend to those without end stage renal disease is uncertain. Among a large diverse non-dialysis chronic kidney disease (CKD) population with hyperphosphatemia, we sought to evaluate phosphorus binder use and compare mortality risk between patients prescribed and not prescribed binders. A retrospective cohort study within an integrated health system (January 1, 1998 - December 31, 2012) among CKD patients (age ≥18) was performed. Non-dialysis CKD patients with 2 separate estimated glomerular filtrate rate (eGFR) 180 days after index date revealed no difference in mortality between those with binders and with no binders. Our findings from a real-world clinical environment revealed that 27% of hyperphosphatemic non-dialysis CKD patients were prescribed binders. They also had lower risk of mortality compared to those not prescribed phosphorus binders. However, the lower mortality risk was not observed when we accounted for immortal time bias. Whether phosphorus binder use in CKD improves survival remains to be determined. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Pilot study of dietary phosphorus restriction and phosphorus binders to target fibroblast growth factor 23 in patients with chronic kidney disease.

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    Isakova, Tamara; Gutiérrez, Orlando M; Smith, Kelsey; Epstein, Michael; Keating, Leigh K; Jüppner, Harald; Wolf, Myles

    2011-02-01

    High levels of fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) are associated with mortality and progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Reducing dietary phosphorus intake lowers FGF23 secretion in healthly individuals, but there is little data on its effects in patients with pre-dialysis CKD. Using a 2×2 factorial design, we randomly assigned 16 normophosphataemic CKD stage 3-4 patients to receive a 2-week treatment with either lanthanum carbonate 1000 mg three times daily or placebo, and to ingest a tightly controlled diet containing 750 or 1500 mg of dietary phosphorus daily. We analysed serial measurements of FGF23, parathyroid hormone, serum phosphate and calcium, and 24-h urinary phosphate and calcium excretion using repeated-measures analyses. Compared with the 1500-mg phosphorus diet, patients assigned to the 750-mg diet had greater reduction in 24-h urinary phosphate excretion (66% vs. 29%; Pphosphorus loading. Although dietary phosphorus restriction and lanthanum lowered urinary phosphate excretion consistent with a rapid decrease in phosphorus absorption, inducing a reduction in FGF23 levels in CKD patients may require interventions with a longer duration than in healthy volunteers.

  4. Heavy metal removal and speciation transformation through the calcination treatment of phosphorus-enriched sewage sludge ash.

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    Li, Rundong; Zhao, Weiwei; Li, Yanlong; Wang, Weiyun; Zhu, Xuan

    2015-01-01

    On the basis of the heavy metal (Cd, As, Pb, Zn, Cu, Cr, and Ni) control problem during the thermochemical recovery of phosphorus (P) from sewage sludge (SS), P-enriched sewage sludge ash (PSSA) was calcined at 1100°C. The effect of organic chlorinating agent (PVC) and inorganic chlorinating agent (MgCl2) on the fixed rate of P removal and the speciation transformation of heavy metal was studied. The removal of heavy metals Cd, Pb, As, Zn, and Cr exhibited an increasing tendency with the addition of chlorinating agent (PVC). However, an obvious peak under 100gCl/kg of PSSA appeared for Cu, owing to the presence of carbon and hydrogen in PVC. MgCl2 was found to be more effective than PVC in the removal of most heavy metals, such that up to 98.9% of Cu and 97.3% of Zn was effectively removed. Analyses of heavy metal forms showed that Pb and Zn occurred in the residue fraction after calcination. Meanwhile, the residue fraction of Cr, Ni, Cd, and Cu exhibited a decreasing tendency with the increase in the added chlorinating agent (MgCl2). Losses of P from PSSA were around 16.6% without the addition of chlorinating agent, which were greatly reduced to around 7.7% (PVC) and to only 1.7% (MgCl2). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Is Controlling Phosphorus by Decreasing Dietary Protein Intake Beneficial or Harmful in Individuals with Chronic Kidney Disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinaberger, Christian S.; Greenland, Sander; Kopple, Joel D.; Van Wyck, David; Mehrotra, Rajnish; Kovesdy, Csaba P.; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar

    2017-01-01

    Background Dietary restrictions to control serum phosphorus, recommended routinely to individuals with chronic kidney disease, are usually associated with a reduction in protein intake. This may lead to protein-energy wasting and poor survival. We hypothesized that decline in serum phosphorus with concomitant decline in protein intake is associated with increased death risk. Methods In a 3-year (7/2001–6/2004) cohort of 30,075 prevalent maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) patients, we examined changes in serum phosphorus and in normalized protein nitrogen appearance (nPNA), a surrogate of dietary protein intake, during the first 6 months and subsequent mortality. Four groups of MHD patients were defined based on the direction of the changes in serum phosphorus and nPNA. Results Baseline phosphorus had a J-shaped association with mortality, whereas higher baseline nPNA was linearly associated with greater survival. Compared to MHD patients whose serum phosphorus and nPNA both rose over 6 months, those whose serum phosphorus decreased but nPNA increased had the greatest survival with a case-mix adjusted death risk ratio (RR) of 0.90 (95% confidence limits: 0.86, 0.95, pphosphorus increased but nPNA decreased or those whose phosphorus and nPNA both decreased had worse mortality with RR of 1.11 (1.05,1.17) and 1.06 (1.01,1.12), respectively (P phosphorus by restricting dietary protein intake may outweigh its benefit and lead to increased mortality. Additional studies including randomized controlled trials need to examine whether non-dietary control of phosphorus or restricting non-protein sources of phosphorus is safer and more effective. PMID:19064510

  6. Compromised calcium and phosphorus metabolism in patients with diabetes mellitus and chronic kidney disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Stanislavovna Biragova

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Disturbance of bone and mineral metabolism (BMM is one of manifestations of chronic kidney disease (CKD, but its significance goes beyond bone disorders per se. Current discourse is as broad as to include vascular calcification, anemia and arterial hypertension, - conditions increasing mortality in patients with CKD. In this regard the active search for and development of novel approach to correction of BMM is under way. Apart from capacity to normalize calcium and phosphorus metabolism, parathyroid hormone secretion and to reduce morphologic alterations of bone tissue, modern therapeutic agents feature cardio- and renoprotective capabilities, which make them a treatment of choice for compromised BMM in CKD.

  7. The role of above-ground competition and nitrogen vs. phosphorus enrichment in seedling survival of common European plant species of semi-natural grasslands.

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    Tobias Ceulemans

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic activities have severely altered fluxes of nitrogen and phosphorus in ecosystems worldwide. In grasslands, subsequent negative effects are commonly attributed to competitive exclusion of plant species following increased above-ground biomass production. However, some studies have shown that this does not fully account for nutrient enrichment effects, questioning whether lowering competition by reducing grassland productivity through mowing or herbivory can mitigate the environmental impact of nutrient pollution. Furthermore, few studies so far discriminate between nitrogen and phosphorus pollution. We performed a full factorial experiment in greenhouse mesocosms combining nitrogen and phosphorus addition with two clipping regimes designed to relax above-ground competition. Next, we studied the survival and growth of seedlings of eight common European grassland species and found that five out of eight species showed higher survival under the clipping regime with the lowest above-ground competition. Phosphorus addition negatively affected seven plant species and nitrogen addition negatively affected four plant species. Importantly, the negative effects of nutrient addition and higher above-ground competition were independent of each other for all but one species. Our results suggest that at any given level of soil nutrients, relaxation of above-ground competition allows for higher seedling survival in grasslands. At the same time, even at low levels of above-ground competition, nutrient enrichment negatively affects survival as compared to nutrient-poor conditions. Therefore, although maintaining low above-ground competition appears essential for species' recruitment, for instance through mowing or herbivory, these management efforts are likely to be insufficient and we conclude that environmental policies aimed to reduce both excess nitrogen and particularly phosphorus inputs are also necessary.

  8. Habitual dietary phosphorus intake and urinary excretion in chronic kidney disease patients: a 3-day observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomo, L; Kamper, A-L; Poulsen, G M; Poulsen, S K; Astrup, A; Rix, M

    2017-06-01

    Hyperphosphatemia in chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with vascular calcification, cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to estimate the daily dietary phosphorus intake compared with recommendations in CKD patients and to evaluate the reproducibility of the 24-h urinary phosphorus excretion. Twenty CKD patients stage 3-4 from the outpatient clinic, collected 24-h urine and kept dietary records for 3 consecutive days. The mean daily phosphorus intake was 1367±499, 1642±815 and 1426±706 mg/day, respectively (P=0.57). The mean urinary phosphorus excretion was 914±465, 954±414 and 994±479 mg/day, respectively (P=0.21). In this population of CKD patients stage 3-4 the daily phosphorus intake was above the recommended. Twenty-four-hour urinary phosphorus excretion was reproducible and the data indicate that a single 24-h urine collection is sufficient to estimate the individual phosphorus excretion.

  9. Study of serum levels of calcium, phosphorus and alkaline phosphatase in chronic kidney disease

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    R. Freethi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Chronic kidney disease (CKD is a worldwide public health problem, with increasing prevalence and lethal adverse outcomes like progressive loss of kidney function, cardiovascular disease and premature death. Disturbances in mineral metabolism and bone disease are common complications of CKD and an important cause of morbidity and decreased quality of life in patients with CKD. Patients with renal failure have an increased risk of cardiovascular mortality that may be due in part to vascular calcification. To measure serum levels of calcium, phosphorus and alkaline phosphatase in patients in various stages of CKD and to correlate the same with creatinine and estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate (eGFRvalues. This is a cross sectional study done at Thanjavur Medical College Hospital. 60 CKD patients and 50 healthy controls were enrolled in this study. Serum levels of creatinine, calcium, phosphorus and alkaline phosphatase were measured and eGFR values correlated with the serum creatinine. The mean values of creatinine (4.9 ± 2.23 mg/dl, cal cium (9.8 ± 0.456 mg/dl , phosphorus (4.19 ± 0.404 mg/dl and alkaline phosphatase (94.01 ± 15.10 U/L in the stu dy group are significantly higher than the control group in which the mean levels are 0.89 ± 0.102 mg/dl, 10.17 ± 0.37 mg/dl, 4.02 ± 0.16 mg/dl and 25.16 ± 4.65U/ L respectively. We have found that there is a significant difference in the above said parameters among patients in different stages of CKD (stage 3-5 indicating the progression of mineral bone disease with advancing stage of CKD.

  10. Oral calcium carbonate affects calcium but not phosphorus balance in stage 3-4 chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Kathleen M; Martin, Berdine R; Wastney, Meryl E; McCabe, George P; Moe, Sharon M; Weaver, Connie M; Peacock, Munro

    2013-05-01

    Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are given calcium carbonate to bind dietary phosphorus, reduce phosphorus retention, and prevent negative calcium balance; however, data are limited on calcium and phosphorus balance during CKD to support this. Here, we studied eight patients with stage 3 or 4 CKD (mean estimated glomerular filtration rate 36 ml/min) who received a controlled diet with or without a calcium carbonate supplement (1500 mg/day calcium) during two 3-week balance periods in a randomized placebo-controlled cross-over design. All feces and urine were collected during weeks 2 and 3 of each balance period and fasting blood, and urine was collected at baseline and at the end of each week. Calcium kinetics were determined using oral and intravenous (45)calcium. Patients were found to be in neutral calcium and phosphorus balance while on the placebo. Calcium carbonate supplementation produced positive calcium balance, did not affect phosphorus balance, and produced only a modest reduction in urine phosphorus excretion compared with placebo. Calcium kinetics demonstrated positive net bone balance but less than overall calcium balance, suggesting soft-tissue deposition. Fasting blood and urine biochemistries of calcium and phosphate homeostasis were unaffected by calcium carbonate. Thus, the positive calcium balance produced by calcium carbonate treatment within 3 weeks cautions against its use as a phosphate binder in patients with stage 3 or 4 CKD, if these findings can be extrapolated to long-term therapy.

  11. Associations of dietary phosphorus intake, urinary phosphate excretion, and fibroblast growth factor 23 with vascular stiffness in chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston, Jessica; Smith, Kelsey; Isakova, Tamara; Sowden, Nicole; Wolf, Myles; Gutiérrez, Orlando M

    2013-01-01

    Elevated serum phosphate concentrations are established risk factors for cardiovascular disease and mortality in chronic kidney disease (CKD). Independent associations of other indices of phosphorus metabolism, such as phosphorus intake, urinary phosphate excretion, or hormones that regulate these systems, like fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23), with markers of cardiovascular disease in CKD, have been studied in less detail. Cross-sectional study. Seventy-four adult CKD patients with mean creatinine clearance of 51 ± 19 mL/minute. Augmentation index (AI)--a surrogate marker of arterial stiffness. Although serum phosphate varied little across quartiles of creatinine clearance, average daily phosphorus intake and 24-hour urinary phosphate excretion decreased from highest to lowest quartile (by 31% and 60%, respectively, P for trend phosphorus or 24-hour urinary phosphate excretion (P > .05 for both). Older age, higher systolic blood pressure, female gender, and black race were independently associated with increased AI. In contrast, there were no associations of serum phosphate, dietary phosphorus intake, urinary phosphate excretion, or FGF23 with AI in multivariate-adjusted models. In this sample of patients with CKD, established risk factors for arterial stiffness, but not mediators of phosphorus metabolism, were associated with increased AI. In addition, there were no significant associations between FGF23 and dietary phosphorus or urinary phosphate excretion. Future studies are needed to determine the main factors associated with elevations in FGF23 in CKD and to further assess the association of disordered phosphorus metabolism with subclinical markers of vascular disease. Copyright © 2013 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Dietary phosphorus excess: a risk factor in chronic bone, kidney, and cardiovascular disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uribarri, Jaime; Calvo, Mona S

    2013-09-01

    There is growing evidence in the nephrology literature supporting the deleterious health effect of excess dietary phosphorus intake. This issue has largely escaped the attention of nutrition experts until this symposium, which raised the question of whether the same health concerns should be extended to the general population. The potential hazard of a high phosphorus intake in the healthy population is illustrated by findings from acute and epidemiologic studies. Acute studies in healthy young adults demonstrate that phosphorus intakes in excess of nutrient needs may significantly disrupt the hormonal regulation of phosphorus contributing to disordered mineral metabolism, vascular calcification, bone loss, and impaired kidney function. One of the hormonal factors acutely affected by dietary phosphorus loading is fibroblast growth factor-23, which may be a key factor responsible for many of the cardiovascular disease (CVD) complications of high phosphorus intake. Increasingly, large epidemiological studies suggest that mild elevations of serum phosphorus within the normal range are associated with CVD risk in healthy populations. Few population studies link high dietary phosphorus intake to mild changes in serum phosphorus due to study design issues specific to phosphorus and inaccurate nutrient composition databases. The increasing phosphorus intake due to the use of phosphorus-containing ingredients in processed food and the growing consumption of processed convenience and fast foods is an important factor that needs to be emphasized.

  13. Dietary Phosphorus Excess: A Risk Factor in Chronic Bone, Kidney, and Cardiovascular Disease?123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uribarri, Jaime; Calvo, Mona S.

    2013-01-01

    There is growing evidence in the nephrology literature supporting the deleterious health effect of excess dietary phosphorus intake. This issue has largely escaped the attention of nutrition experts until this symposium, which raised the question of whether the same health concerns should be extended to the general population. The potential hazard of a high phosphorus intake in the healthy population is illustrated by findings from acute and epidemiologic studies. Acute studies in healthy young adults demonstrate that phosphorus intakes in excess of nutrient needs may significantly disrupt the hormonal regulation of phosphorus contributing to disordered mineral metabolism, vascular calcification, bone loss, and impaired kidney function. One of the hormonal factors acutely affected by dietary phosphorus loading is fibroblast growth factor-23, which may be a key factor responsible for many of the cardiovascular disease (CVD) complications of high phosphorus intake. Increasingly, large epidemiological studies suggest that mild elevations of serum phosphorus within the normal range are associated with CVD risk in healthy populations. Few population studies link high dietary phosphorus intake to mild changes in serum phosphorus due to study design issues specific to phosphorus and inaccurate nutrient composition databases. The increasing phosphorus intake due to the use of phosphorus-containing ingredients in processed food and the growing consumption of processed convenience and fast foods is an important factor that needs to be emphasized. PMID:24038251

  14. Dietary phosphorus restriction in advanced chronic kidney disease: merits, challenges, and emerging strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Orlando M; Wolf, Myles

    2010-01-01

    Hyperphosphatemia is an independent risk factor for mortality in patients on maintenance dialysis. Since phosphorus clearance by standard three times-weekly dialysis is insufficient to balance ongoing dietary phosphorus intake, strategies to prevent absorption of dietary phosphorus are essential for attenuating increased serum levels. Dietary phosphorus binders are used widely for this purpose but dietary phosphorus restriction is relatively underutilized, most likely because of the logistical complexity of instituting and monitoring a low phosphorus diet, and for fear of worsening protein-energy wasting, which itself is a potent risk factor for mortality. In this review, we propose sustainable strategies for reducing phosphorus intake while avoiding exacerbation of protein-energy wasting. The approach is based on recognition of the dissociation between protein and phosphorus content in phosphorus-rich processed foods and the varying phosphorus bioavailability in different dietary sources. Controlling serum phosphate levels is among the most challenging aspects of day-to-day dialysis care but integration of sensible dietary interventions will likely improve phosphorus control.

  15. Phragmites australis + Typha latifolia Community Enhanced the Enrichment of Nitrogen and Phosphorus in the Soil of Qin Lake Wetland

    OpenAIRE

    Zhiwei Ge; Ran An; Shuiyuan Fang; Pengpeng Lin; Chuan Li; Jianhui Xue; Shuiqiang Yu

    2017-01-01

    Aquatic plants play an essential role and are effective in mitigating lake eutrophication by forming complex plant-soil system and retaining total nitrogen (TN) and phosphorus (TP) in soils to ultimately reduce their quantities in aquatic systems. Two main vegetation types (Phragmites australis community and P. australis + Typha latifolia community) of Qin Lake wetland were sampled in this study for the analysis of TN and TP contents and reserves in the wetland soils. The results showed that ...

  16. Multilevel correlations in the biological phosphorus removal process: From bacterial enrichment to conductivity-based metabolic batch tests and polyphosphatase assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissbrodt, David G; Maillard, Julien; Brovelli, Alessandro; Chabrelie, Alexandre; May, Jonathan; Holliger, Christof

    2014-12-01

    Enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) from wastewater relies on the preferential selection of active polyphosphate-accumulating organisms (PAO) in the underlying bacterial community continuum. Efficient management of the bacterial resource requires understanding of population dynamics as well as availability of bioanalytical methods for rapid and regular assessment of relative abundances of active PAOs and their glycogen-accumulating competitors (GAO). A systems approach was adopted here toward the investigation of multilevel correlations from the EBPR bioprocess to the bacterial community, metabolic, and enzymatic levels. Two anaerobic-aerobic sequencing-batch reactors were operated to enrich activated sludge in PAOs and GAOs affiliating with "Candidati Accumulibacter and Competibacter phosphates", respectively. Bacterial selection was optimized by dynamic control of the organic loading rate and the anaerobic contact time. The distinct core bacteriomes mainly comprised populations related to the classes Betaproteobacteria, Cytophagia, and Chloroflexi in the PAO enrichment and of Gammaproteobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, Acidobacteria, and Sphingobacteria in the GAO enrichment. An anaerobic metabolic batch test based on electrical conductivity evolution and a polyphosphatase enzymatic assay were developed for rapid and low-cost assessment of the active PAO fraction and dephosphatation potential of activated sludge. Linear correlations were obtained between the PAO fraction, biomass specific rate of conductivity increase under anaerobic conditions, and polyphosphate-hydrolyzing activity of PAO/GAO mixtures. The correlations between PAO/GAO ratios, metabolic activities, and conductivity profiles were confirmed by simulations with a mathematical model developed in the aqueous geochemistry software PHREEQC. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. The impact of processing meat and fish products on phosphorus intake in chronic kidney disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou-Arnal, Luis M; Caverni-Muñoz, Alberto; Arnaudas-Casanova, Laura; Vercet-Tormo, Antonio; Gimeno-Orna, José A; Sanz-París, Alejandro; Caramelo-Gutiérrez, Rocío; Alvarez-Lipe, Rafael; Sahdalá-Santana, Laura; Gracia-García, Olga; Luzón-Alonso, Marta

    2013-11-13

    The use of phosphate additives in meat and fish processing leads to a phosphorus overload that we cannot quantify through labelling or food composition tables. We analysed this increase by measuring phosphorus content in these products by spectrophotometry. We determined the phosphorus/protein ratio in fresh meat and fish products with varying degrees of processing by spectrophotometry (phosphorus) and the Kjeldahl method (proteins). We contrasted these results with those reflected in the food composition tables. The phosphorus/protein ratio was higher in processed meat products (15.83 mg/g) than in battered (11.04 mg/g) and frozen meat products (10.5mg/g), and was lower in fresh (8.41 mg/g) and refrigerated meat products (8.78 mg/g). Fresh white fish had a phosphorus/protein ratio of 8.58mg/g, while it increased by 22% (10.3mg/g) in frozen white fish and by 46% (12.54 mg/g) in battered fish. The information in the tables was poor and confusing, and no reference is made to the brands tested. Processing meat and fish products poses a serious obstacle to the reduction of phosphorus intake. The current regulatory framework does not assist us in the objective of reducing phosphorus additives, since it considers them safe for public consumption. Overcoming these barriers requires a coordinated effort to demonstrate that a high intake of these additives may be harmful to the general population and it should be more closely examined by regulators.

  18. Influence of extra virgin olive oil diet enriched with hydroxytyrosol in a chronic DSS colitis model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Fidalgo, Susana; Sánchez de Ibargüen, L; Cárdeno, A; Alarcón de la Lastra, C

    2012-06-01

    Recent epidemiological studies have shown that habitual consumption of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO), the characteristic culinary fat of the Mediterranean area, is effective in the prevention of diverse types of digestive disorders such as inflammatory bowel disease. Many of these benefits are, in addition to its high proportion of oleic acid, due to the high content of phenolic compounds. Six-week-old mice were randomized into three dietary groups: standard, EVOO and hydroxytyrosol-enriched EVOO. After 30 days, mice that were exposed to 3% DSS for 5 days developed acute colitis that progressed to severe chronic inflammation during a regime of 21 days of water. Diets enriched with EVOO significantly attenuated the clinical and histological signs of damage, improving results from disease activity index and reducing about 50% the mortality caused by DSS. Moreover, hydroxytyrosol supplement showed better results. Cytokines study showed that TNF-α was maintained near to sham control and IL-10 levels were significantly improved in EVOO and EVOO plus hydroxytyrosol diet-DSS groups. In the same way, COX-2 and iNOS were downregulated, and the activation of p38 MAPK was reduced. We also observed a higher significant reduction in iNOS in hydroxytyrosol-enriched EVOO compared with EVOO alone. EVOO diets exerted a noteworthy beneficial effect in chronic DSS-induced colitis by cytokine modulation and COX-2 and iNOS reduction via downregulation of p38 MAPK. In addition to the beneficial effect by EVOO, supplementation of the diet with hydroxytyrosol may improve chronic colitis through iNOS downregulation plus its antioxidant capacity.

  19. Environmental enrichment reduces behavioural alterations induced by chronic stress in Japanese quail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurence, A; Houdelier, C; Calandreau, L; Arnould, C; Favreau-Peigné, A; Leterrier, C; Boissy, A; Lumineau, S

    2015-02-01

    Animals perceiving repeated aversive events can become chronically stressed. Chronic activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis can have deleterious consequences on physiological parameters (e.g. BW, blood chemistry) and behaviour (e.g. emotional reactivity, stereotypies, cognition). Environmental enrichment (EE) can be a mean to reduce animal stress and to improve welfare. The aim of this study was first, to assess the effects of EE in battery cages on the behaviour of young Japanese quail and second, to evaluate the impact of EE on quail exposed to chronic stress. The experiment involved quail housed in EE cages and submitted or not to a chronic stress procedure (CSP) (EE cages, control quail: n=16, CSP quail: n=14) and quail housed in standard cages and exposed or not to the CSP (standard non-EE cages, control quail: n=12, CSP quail: n=16). Our procedure consisted of repeated aversive events (e.g. ventilators, delaying access to food, physical restraint, noise) presented two to five times per 24 h, randomly, for 15 days. During CSP, EE improved quail's welfare as their stereotypic pacing decreased and they rested more. CSP decreased exploration in all quail. After the end of CSP, quail presented increased emotional reactivity in emergence test. However, the effect of EE varied with test. Finally, chronic stress effects on comfort behaviours in the emergence test were alleviated by EE. These results indicate that EE can alleviate some aspects of behavioural alterations induced by CSP.

  20. Enriched environment attenuates behavioral seizures and depression in chronic temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrinda, Marigowda; Sasidharan, Arun; Aparna, Sahajan; Srikumar, Bettadapura N; Kutty, Bindu M; Shankaranarayana Rao, Byrathnahalli S

    2017-07-01

    Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is commonly associated with depression, anxiety, and cognitive impairment. Despite significant progress in our understanding of the pathophysiology of TLE, it remains the most common form of refractory epilepsy. Enriched environment (EE) has a beneficial effect in many neuropsychiatric disorders. However, the effect of EE on cognitive changes in chronic TLE has not been evaluated. Accordingly, the present study evaluated the effects of EE on chronic epilepsy-induced alterations in cognitive functions, electrophysiology, and cellular changes in the hippocampus. Status epilepticus (SE) was induced in 2-month-old male Wistar rats with lithium and pilocarpine. Six weeks' post SE, epileptic rats were either housed in their respective home cages or in an enrichment cage (6 h/day) for 14 days. Seizure behavior was video-monitored 2 weeks before and during exposure to EE. Depression-like behavior, anxiety-like behavior, and spatial learning and memory were assessed using the sucrose preference test (SPT), elevated plus maze (EPM), and Morris water maze (MWM), respectively. Delta and theta power in the CA1 region of hippocampus was assessed from recordings of local field potentials (LFPs). Cellular changes in hippocampus were assessed by histochemistry followed by unbiased stereologic analysis. EE significantly reduced seizure episodes and seizure duration in epileptic rats. In addition, EE alleviated depression and hyperactivity, and restored delta and theta power of LFP in the hippocampal CA1 region. However, EE neither ameliorated epilepsy-induced spatial learning and memory deficits nor restored cell density in hippocampus. This is the first study that evaluates the role of EE in a chronic TLE model, where rats were exposed to EE after occurrence of spontaneous recurrent seizures (SRS). Given that 30% of TLE patients are refractory to drug treatment, therapeutic strategies that utilize components of EE could be designed to alleviate

  1. Chronic impact of tetracycline on nitrification kinetics and the activity of enriched nitrifying microbial culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katipoglu-Yazan, Tugce; Merlin, Christophe; Pons, Marie-Noëlle; Ubay-Cokgor, Emine; Orhon, Derin

    2015-04-01

    This study evaluated the chronic impact of tetracycline on biomass with enriched nitrifying community sustained in a lab-scale activated sludge system. For this purpose, a fill and draw reactor fed with 100 mg COD/L of peptone mixture and 50 mg N/L of ammonia was sustained at a sludge age of 15 days. At steady-state, the reactor operation was continued with a daily tetracycline dosing of 50 mg/L for more than 40 days, with periodic monitoring of the microbial composition, the nitrifying bacteria abundance, as well as the amoA and 16S rRNA gene activity, using molecular techniques. Changes in the kinetics of nitrification were quantified by modelling concentration profiles of major nitrogen fractions and oxygen uptake rate profiles derived from parallel batch experiments. Activated sludge modeling results indicated inhibitory impact of tetracycline on the growth of nitrifiers with a significant increase of the half saturation coefficients in corresponding rate equations. Tetracycline also inactivated biomass components of the enriched culture at a gradually increasing rate with time of exposure, leading to total collapse of nitrification. Molecular analyses revealed significant changes in the composition of the microbial community throughout the observation period. They also showed that continuous exposure to tetracycline inflicted significant reduction in amoA mRNA and 16S rRNA levels directly affecting nitrification. The chronic impact was much more pronounced on the ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) community. These observations explained the basis of numerical changes identified in the growth kinetics of nitrifiers under stress conditions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Dietary phosphorus, serum phosphorus, and cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Madhav C; Ix, Joachim H

    2013-10-01

    Recent epidemiologic studies have linked higher serum phosphorus concentrations to cardiovascular disease (CVD) events and mortality. This association has been identified in the general population and in those with chronic kidney disease (CKD). The risk of adverse outcomes appears to begin with phosphorus concentrations within the upper limit of the normal reference range. Multiple experimental studies have suggested pathogenetic mechanisms that involve direct and indirect effects of high phosphorus concentrations to explain these associations. Drawing from these observations, guideline-forming agencies have recommended that serum phosphorus concentrations be maintained within the normal reference range in patients with CKD and that dietary phosphorus restriction or use of intestinal phosphate binders should be considered to achieve this goal. However, outside the dialysis population, the links between dietary phosphorus intake and serum phosphorus concentrations, and dietary phosphorus intake and CVD events, are uncertain. With specific reference to the nondialysis populations, this review discusses the available data linking dietary phosphorus intake with serum phosphorus concentrations and CVD events. Published 2013. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  3. Lamin A is involved in the development of vascular calcification induced by chronic kidney failure and phosphorus load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quirós-González, Isabel; Román-García, Pablo; Alonso-Montes, Cristina; Barrio-Vázquez, Sara; Carrillo-López, Natalia; Naves-Díaz, Manuel; Mora, María Isabel; Corrales, Fernando José; López-Hernández, Francisco J; Ruiz-Torres, María Piedad; Cannata-Andía, Jorge Benito; Fernández-Martín, José Luis

    2016-03-01

    Vascular calcification remains one of the main factors associated to morbidity and mortality in both ageing and chronic kidney disease. Both hyperphosphataemia, a well-known promoter of vascular calcification, and abnormal processing defects of lamin A/C have been associated to ageing. The main aim of this study was to analyse the effect of phosphorus load in the differential expression pattern of genes and proteins, particularly of lamin A/C, which are involved in phenotypic change of the vascular smooth muscle cells to osteoblast-like cells. The in vivo study of the calcified abdominal aortas from nephrectomized rats receiving a high phosphorus diet showed among others, a repression of muscle related proteins and overexpression of lamin A/C. Similar results were observed in vitro, where primary vascular smooth muscle cells cultured in calcifying medium showed increased expression of prelamin A and lamin A and abnormalities in the nuclear morphology. Co-immunoprecipitation assays showed novel and important physical interactions between lamin A and RUNX2 during the process of calcification. In fact, the knockdown of prelamin A and lamin A inhibited the increase of Runx2, osteocalcin and osteopontin gene expression, calcium deposition, nuclear abnormalities and the RUNX2 protein translocation into the nucleus of the cell. These in vivo and in vitro results highlight the important role played by lamin A in the process of vascular calcification. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Relationship between Calcium-Phosphorus Product and Severity of Valvular Heart Insufficiency in Patients Undergoing Chronic Hemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Sheikhvatan

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recent interests have mainly focused on the roles of serum calcium and phosphorus and their product (Ca-P product in the development of valvular heart disease. The present study assessed the relationship between the Ca-P product and the severity of valvular heart disease in end-stage renal disease (ESRD patients undergoing chronic hemodialysis.Methods: This cross-sectional study reviewed the clinical course of 72 consecutive patients with the final diagnosis of ESRD candidated for chronic hemodialysis. The severity of valvular heart disease was determined using M-mode two-dimensional echocardiography. The serum calcium and phosphate values adopted were those values measured on the day between the two consecutive dialyses, and the Ca-P product was calculated.Results: The most common causes of ESRD were diabetic nephropathy, malignant hypertension, and chronic glomerulonephritis. The mean Ca-P product level in the dialysis patients was 50.44 ± 17.78 mg2/dL2. The receiver-operator characteristic (ROC curve illustrated that a Ca-P product level > 42 mg2/dL2 was the optimal value in terms of sensitivity and specificity for predicting the presence of valvular insufficiency. Aortic insufficiency was directly associated with a high Ca-P product value after adjustment for age, gender, serum albumin, diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, coronary artery disease, and serum creatinine (β = 0.412, SE = 158, p value= 0.011.Conclusion: A positive relationship between the Ca-P product value and the severity of aortic insufficiency is expected. Achieving an appropriate control of the Ca-P product level may decrease aortic valve calcification and improve the survival of patients on chronic hemodialysis.

  5. Short-term clinico-radiological outcome of chronic knee synovitis among haemophilia A patients post phosphorus-32 radiosynoviorthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ty, Prasanna; Menon, Jagadish; Ar, Nataraj; Halanaik, Dhanapathi; Kramadhari, Harshith

    2017-01-01

    Various modes of therapy have been directed at breaking the vicious cycle at early stage of synovitis in haemophilia patients. This study was planned to assess the short-term clinico-radiological outcome of chronic knee synovitis among haemophilia A patients post phosphorus-32 (P-32) radiosynoviorthesis. P-32 samarium radiocolloid was injected into the knee and patients were followed up at 1 and 3 months, respectively. Clinical outcomes was assessed using Tegner Lysholm scores (TLSs), Modified Knee Society Clinical Rating System (MKSS) score and circumference of the knee joint. The radiological outcomes were assessed using X-ray, ultrasonography and bone scan. Among the fifteen haemophilia A patients studied, there was statistically significant difference in TLS ( χ(2)(2) = 27.887 and p value 32 bone scan showed marked decrease in uptake in the affected knee joint suggestive of radio ablation of synovial tissue. P-32 radiosynoviorthesis done for chronic synovitis among haemophilia A patients showed significant improvement in both clinical and radiological parameters. Ultrasonography can be utilized as non-invasive radiological modality for follow-up of P32 response for knee joint.

  6. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of calcium acetate on serum phosphorus concentrations in patients with advanced non-dialysis-dependent chronic kidney disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Chiang-Hong

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hyperphosphatemia in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD contributes to secondary hyperparathyroidism, soft tissue calcification, and increased mortality risk. This trial was conducted to examine the efficacy and safety of calcium acetate in controlling serum phosphorus in pre-dialysis patients with CKD. Methods In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 110 nondialyzed patients from 34 sites with estimated GFR 2 and serum phosphorus > 4.5 mg/dL were randomized to calcium acetate or placebo for 12 weeks. The dose of study drugs was titrated to achieve target serum phosphorus of 2.7-4.5 mg/dL. Serum phosphorus, calcium, iPTH, bicarbonate and serum albumin were measured at baseline and every 2 weeks for the 12 week study period. The primary efficacy endpoint was serum phosphorus at 12 weeks. Secondary endpoints were to measure serum calcium and intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH levels. Results At 12 weeks, serum phosphorus concentration was significantly lower in the calcium acetate group compared to the placebo group (4.4 ± 1.2 mg/dL vs. 5.1 ± 1.4 mg/dL; p = 0.04. The albumin-adjusted serum calcium concentration was significantly higher (9.5 ± 0.8 vs. 8.8 ± 0.8; p p Conclusions In CKD patients not yet on dialysis, calcium acetate was effective in reducing serum phosphorus and iPTH over a 12 week period. Trial Registration www.clinicaltrials.gov NCT00211978.

  7. High dietary phosphorus density is a risk factor for incident chronic kidney disease development in diabetic subjects: a community-based prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Chang-Yun; Park, Jung Tak; Jhee, Jong Hyun; Noh, Juhwan; Kee, Youn Kyung; Seo, Changhwan; Lee, Misol; Cha, Min-Uk; Kim, Hyoungnae; Park, Seohyun; Yun, Hae-Ryong; Jung, Su-Young; Han, Seung Hyeok; Yoo, Tae-Hyun; Kang, Shin-Wook

    2017-07-01

    Background: High serum phosphorus concentrations are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, the relation between dietary phosphorus intake and CKD development has not been well evaluated.Objective: In this study, we investigated the impact of dietary phosphorus density on the development of incident CKD in a cohort of subjects with normal renal function.Design: Data were retrieved from the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study, a prospective community-based cohort study. The study cohort consisted of subjects aged 40-69 y, who were followed up biennially from 2001 to 2014. A total of 873 subjects with diabetes mellitus (DM) and 5846 subjects without DM (non-DM) were included in the final analysis. The primary endpoint was incident CKD, defined as a composite of estimated glomerular filtration rate phosphorus density, defined as the ratio of a single-day dietary phosphorus amount to the total daily calorie intake, were 0.51 ± 0.08 mg/kcal in the DM group and 0.51 ± 0.07 mg/kcal in the non-DM group. During the follow-up, CKD newly developed in 283 (32.4%) and 792 subjects (13.5%) in the DM and non-DM groups, respectively. When the subjects were divided into quartiles according to the dietary phosphorus density in each group, the highest quartile was significantly associated with the development of incident CKD by multiple Cox proportional hazard analysis in the DM group (P = 0.02) but not in the non-DM group (P = 0.72).Conclusions: High dietary phosphorus density is associated with an increased risk of CKD development in DM patients with normal renal function. The causality in this association needs to be tested in a randomized controlled trial. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  8. Adolescent environmental enrichment prevents behavioral and physiological sequelae of adolescent chronic stress in female (but not male) rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Brittany L; Morano, Rachel L; Ulrich-Lai, Yvonne M; Myers, Brent; Solomon, Matia B; Herman, James P

    2017-11-22

    The late adolescent period is characterized by marked neurodevelopmental and endocrine fluctuations in the transition to early adulthood. Adolescents are highly responsive to the external environment, which enhances their ability to adapt and recover from challenges when given nurturing influences, but also makes them vulnerable to aberrant development when exposed to prolonged adverse situations. Female rats are particularly sensitive to the effects of chronic stress in adolescence, which manifests as passive coping strategies and blunted hypothalamo-pituitary adrenocortical (HPA) stress responses in adulthood. We sought to intervene by exposing adolescent rats to environmental enrichment (EE) immediately prior to and during chronic stress, hypothesizing that EE would minimize or prevent the long-term effects of stress that emerge in adult females. To test this, we exposed male and female rats to EE on postnatal days (PND) 33-60 and implemented chronic variable stress (CVS) on PND 40-60. CVS consisted of twice-daily unpredictable stressors. Experimental groups included: CVS/unenriched, unstressed/EE, CVS/EE and unstressed/unenriched (n = 10 of each sex/group). In adulthood, we measured behavior in the open field test and forced swim test (FST) and collected blood samples following the FST. We found that environmental enrichment given during the adolescent period prevented the chronic stress-induced transition to passive coping in the FST and reversed decreases in peak adrenocortical responsiveness observed in adult females. Adolescent enrichment had little to no effect on males or unstressed females tested in adulthood, indicating that beneficial effects are specific to females that were exposed to chronic stress.

  9. Varying response of the concentration and content of soybean seed mineral elements, carbohydrates, organic acids, amino acids, protein, and oil to phosphorus starvation and CO2 enrichment

    Science.gov (United States)

    A detailed investigation of the concentration (g-1 seed weight) and content (g plant-1) of seed mineral elements and metabolic profile under phosphorus (P) starvation at ambient (aCO2) and elevated carbon dioxide (eCO2) in soybean is limited. Soybean plants were grown in a controlled environment at ...

  10. Acute and chronic glucocorticoid treatments regulate astrocyte-enriched mRNAs in multiple brain regions in vivo

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    Bradley S. Carter

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have primarily interpreted gene expression regulation by glucocorticoids in the brain in terms of impact on neurons; however, less is known about the corresponding impact of glucocorticoids on glia and specifically astrocytes in vivo. Recent microarray experiments have identified glucocorticoid-sensitive mRNAs in primary astrocyte cell culture, including a number of mRNAs that have reported astrocyte-enriched expression patterns relative to other brain cell types. Here, we have tested whether elevations of glucocorticoids regulate a subset of these mRNAs in vivo following acute and chronic corticosterone exposure in adult mice. Acute corticosterone exposure was achieved by a single injection of 10 mg/kg corticosterone, and tissue samples were harvested two hours post-injection. Chronic corticosterone exposure was achieved by administering 10 mg/mL corticosterone via drinking water for two weeks. Gene expression was then assessed in two brain regions associated with glucocorticoid action (prefrontal cortex and hippocampus by qPCR and by in situ hybridization. The majority of measured mRNAs regulated by glucocorticoids in astrocytes in vitro were similarly regulated by acute and/or chronic glucocorticoid exposure in vivo. In addition, the expression levels for mRNAs regulated in at least one corticosterone exposure condition (acute/chronic demonstrated moderate positive correlation between the two conditions by brain region. In situ hybridization analyses suggest that select mRNAs are regulated by chronic corticosterone exposure specifically in astroctyes based on (1 similar general expression patterns between corticosterone-treated and vehicle-treated animals and (2 similar expression patterns to the pan-astrocyte marker Aldh1l1. Our findings demonstrate that glucocorticoids regulate astrocyte-enriched mRNAs in vivo and suggest that glucocorticoids regulate gene expression in the brain in a cell type-dependent fashion.

  11. No independent association of serum phosphorus with risk for death or progression to end-stage renal disease in a large screen for chronic kidney disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrotra, Rajnish; Peralta, Carmen A.; Chen, Shu-Cheng; Li, Suying; Sachs, Michael; Shah, Anuja; Norris, Keith; Saab, Georges; Whaley-Connell, Adam; Kestenbaum, Bryan; McCullough, Peter A.

    2014-01-01

    Whether higher serum phosphorus levels are associated with a higher risk for death and/or progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is not well established, and whether the association is confounded by access and barriers to care is unknown. To answer these questions, data of 10,672 individuals identified to have CKD (estimated glomerular filtration rate disease (ESRD) (unadjusted hazards ratio, 6.72 (4.16–10.85)); however, the risk became nonsignificant on adjustment for potential confounders. There was no appreciable change in hazards ratio with inclusion of variables related to access and barriers to care. Additional analyses in subgroups based on 12 different variables yielded similar negative associations. Thus, in the largest cohort of individuals with early-stage CKD to date, we could not validate an independent association of serum phosphorus with risk for death or progression to ESRD. PMID:23615501

  12. Indicators: Phosphorus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phosphorus, like nitrogen, is a critical nutrient required for all life. Phosphate (PO4), which plays major roles in the formation of DNA, cellular energy, and cell membranes (and plant cell walls). Too much phosphorus can create water quality problems.

  13. Short-term exposure to enriched environment rescues chronic stress-induced impaired hippocampal synaptic plasticity, anxiety, and memory deficits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhagya, Venkanna Rao; Srikumar, Bettadapura N; Veena, Jayagopalan; Shankaranarayana Rao, Byrathnahalli S

    2017-08-01

    Exposure to prolonged stress results in structural and functional alterations in the hippocampus including reduced long-term potentiation (LTP), neurogenesis, spatial learning and working memory impairments, and enhanced anxiety-like behavior. On the other hand, enriched environment (EE) has beneficial effects on hippocampal structure and function, such as improved memory, increased hippocampal neurogenesis, and progressive synaptic plasticity. It is unclear whether exposure to short-term EE for 10 days can overcome restraint stress-induced cognitive deficits and impaired hippocampal plasticity. Consequently, the present study explored the beneficial effects of short-term EE on chronic stress-induced impaired LTP, working memory, and anxiety-like behavior. Male Wistar rats were subjected to chronic restraint stress (6 hr/day) over a period of 21 days, and then they were exposed to EE (6 hr/day) for 10 days. Restraint stress reduced hippocampal CA1-LTP, increased anxiety-like symptoms in elevated plus maze, and impaired working memory in T-maze task. Remarkably, EE facilitated hippocampal LTP, improved working memory performance, and completely overcame the effect of chronic stress on anxiety behavior. In conclusion, exposure to EE can bring out positive effects on synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus and thereby elicit its beneficial effects on cognitive functions. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. [Effect of selenium-enriched garlic on chronic gastritis of the glandular stomach of Mongolian gerbils induced by H. pylori].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Lian-Kun; Zhou, Ping; Zhou, Jing; Wang, Ru-Ming; Yang, Wen-Jie; Deng, Da-Jun

    2007-06-01

    To detect the therapeutic effect of selenium-enriched garlic (SeG) on chronic gastritis. Chronic gastritis was induced of the glandular stomach of male Mongolian Gerbils via gastric instillation of H. pylori TN2 strain once every 4 days for 5 consecutive times followed by random classification into six groups. Fresh SeG suspension was administrated daily at dosages of 4.70, 1.5, 0.47, 0.15 g.kg(-1).d(-1) for four weeks. The gerbils in the positive control group were treated with omeprazole, clarithromycin, and amoxicillin for one week. The gerbils were killed for pathological examination four weeks after SeG-treatment. Chronic gastritis (CAG), low-grade dysplasia or gastric intraepithelial neoplasia (DYS/GIN) were observed among 77% and 38.5% of the 13 H. pylori-treated animals in the negative control group, respectively; whereas 40% and 26.7% in the positive control group (n = 15), respectively. The incidences of CAG and DYS/GIN in the SeG groups (n = 21 - 27) were reduced dose-dependently, 16.7% - 38.7% and 11.1% - 14.3% for CAG and DYS/GIN, respectively. SeG administration inhibits the development and progression of CAG induced by H. pylori remarkably.

  15. An enriched environment reduces the stress level and locomotor activity induced by acute morphine treatment and by saline after chronic morphine treatment in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jia; Sun, Jinling; Xue, Zhaoxia; Li, Xinwang

    2014-06-18

    This study investigated the relationships among an enriched environment, stress levels, and drug addiction. Mice were divided randomly into four treatment groups (n=12 each): enriched environment without restraint stress (EN), standard environment without restraint stress (SN), enriched environment with restraint stress (ES), and standard environment with restraint stress (SS). Mice were reared in the respective environment for 45 days. Then, the ES and SS groups were subjected to restraint stress daily (2 h/day) for 14 days, whereas the EN and SN groups were not subjected to restraint stress during this stage. The stress levels of all mice were tested in the elevated plus maze immediately after exposure to restraint stress. After the 2-week stress testing period, mice were administered acute or chronic morphine (5 mg/kg) treatment for 7 days. Then, after a 7-day withdrawal period, the mice were injected with saline (1 ml/kg) or morphine (5 mg/kg) daily for 2 days to observe locomotor activity. The results indicated that the enriched environment reduced the stress and locomotor activity induced by acute morphine administration or saline after chronic morphine treatment. However, the enriched environment did not significantly inhibit locomotor activity induced by morphine challenge. In addition, the stress level did not mediate the effect of the enriched environment on drug-induced locomotor activity after acute or chronic morphine treatment.

  16. Effects of low-dose niacin on dyslipidemia and serum phosphorus in patients with chronic kidney disease

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    Hyo Jin Kang

    2013-03-01

    Conclusion: Low-dose niacin had a low frequency of adverse effects and also improved dyslipidemia, lowered serum phosphorus level, and increased GFR in patients with CKD. Further studies are needed to evaluate the long-term effects of low-dose niacin for renal progression of CKD.

  17. Chronic artificial blue-enriched white light is an effective countermeasure to delayed circadian phase and neurobehavioral decrements.

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    Raymond P Najjar

    Full Text Available Studies in Polar Base stations, where personnel have no access to sunlight during winter, have reported circadian misalignment, free-running of the sleep-wake rhythm, and sleep problems. Here we tested light as a countermeasure to circadian misalignment in personnel of the Concordia Polar Base station during the polar winter. We hypothesized that entrainment of the circadian pacemaker to a 24-h light-dark schedule would not occur in all crew members (n = 10 exposed to 100-300 lux of standard fluorescent white (SW light during the daytime, and that chronic non-time restricted daytime exposure to melanopsin-optimized blue-enriched white (BE light would establish an a stable circadian phase, in participants, together with increased cognitive performance and mood levels. The lighting schedule consisted of an alternation between SW lighting (2 weeks, followed by a BE lighting (2 weeks for a total of 9 weeks. Rest-activity cycles assessed by actigraphy showed a stable rest-activity pattern under both SW and BE light. No difference was found between light conditions on the intra-daily stability, variability and amplitude of activity, as assessed by non-parametric circadian analysis. As hypothesized, a significant delay of about 30 minutes in the onset of melatonin secretion occurred with SW, but not with BE light. BE light significantly enhanced well being and alertness compared to SW light. We propose that the superior efficacy of blue-enriched white light versus standard white light involves melanopsin-based mechanisms in the activation of the non-visual functions studied, and that their responses do not dampen with time (over 9-weeks. This work could lead to practical applications of light exposure in working environment where background light intensity is chronically low to moderate (polar base stations, power plants, space missions, etc., and may help design lighting strategies to maintain health, productivity, and personnel safety.

  18. Chronic artificial blue-enriched white light is an effective countermeasure to delayed circadian phase and neurobehavioral decrements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najjar, Raymond P; Wolf, Luzian; Taillard, Jacques; Schlangen, Luc J M; Salam, Alex; Cajochen, Christian; Gronfier, Claude

    2014-01-01

    Studies in Polar Base stations, where personnel have no access to sunlight during winter, have reported circadian misalignment, free-running of the sleep-wake rhythm, and sleep problems. Here we tested light as a countermeasure to circadian misalignment in personnel of the Concordia Polar Base station during the polar winter. We hypothesized that entrainment of the circadian pacemaker to a 24-h light-dark schedule would not occur in all crew members (n = 10) exposed to 100-300 lux of standard fluorescent white (SW) light during the daytime, and that chronic non-time restricted daytime exposure to melanopsin-optimized blue-enriched white (BE) light would establish an a stable circadian phase, in participants, together with increased cognitive performance and mood levels. The lighting schedule consisted of an alternation between SW lighting (2 weeks), followed by a BE lighting (2 weeks) for a total of 9 weeks. Rest-activity cycles assessed by actigraphy showed a stable rest-activity pattern under both SW and BE light. No difference was found between light conditions on the intra-daily stability, variability and amplitude of activity, as assessed by non-parametric circadian analysis. As hypothesized, a significant delay of about 30 minutes in the onset of melatonin secretion occurred with SW, but not with BE light. BE light significantly enhanced well being and alertness compared to SW light. We propose that the superior efficacy of blue-enriched white light versus standard white light involves melanopsin-based mechanisms in the activation of the non-visual functions studied, and that their responses do not dampen with time (over 9-weeks). This work could lead to practical applications of light exposure in working environment where background light intensity is chronically low to moderate (polar base stations, power plants, space missions, etc.), and may help design lighting strategies to maintain health, productivity, and personnel safety.

  19. Phosphorus, Agriculture & The Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Mullins, Gregory Lee

    2009-01-01

    Discusses potential environmental impacts of phosphorus, the functions of phosphorus in plants and animals, and the soil phosphorus cycle. Notes methods for controlling phosphorus losses to surface waters

  20. Prevalence of phosphorus containing food additives in grocery stores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janeen B. Leon

    2012-06-01

    In conclusion, phosphorus additives are commonly present in groceries and contribute significantly to the phosphorus content of foods. Moreover, phosphorus additive foods are less costly than additive-free foods. As a result, phosphorus additives may be an important contributor to hyperphosphatemia among persons with chronic kidney disease

  1. Association of Vitamin D Metabolites with Parathyroid Hormone, Fibroblast Growth Factor-23, Calcium, and Phosphorus in Dogs with Various Stages of Chronic Kidney Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, V J; Harjes, L M; Dembek, K; Young, G S; Chew, D J; Toribio, R E

    2017-05-01

    Hypovitaminosis D is associated with progression of renal disease, development of renal secondary hyperparathyroidism (RHPT), chronic kidney disease-mineral bone disorder (CKD-MBD), and increased mortality in people with CKD. Despite what is known regarding vitamin D dysregulation in humans with CKD, little is known about vitamin D metabolism in dogs with CKD. The purpose of our study was to further elucidate vitamin D status in dogs with different stages of CKD and to relate it to factors that affect the development of CKD-MBD, including parathyroid hormone (PTH), fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF-23), calcium, and phosphorus concentrations. Thirty-seven dogs with naturally occurring CKD were compared to 10 healthy dogs. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D], 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25(OH)2 D], and 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [24,25(OH)2 D], and PTH and FGF-23 concentrations were measured. Their association with serum calcium and phosphorus concentrations and IRIS stage was determined. Compared to healthy dogs, all vitamin D metabolite concentrations were significantly lower in dogs with International Renal Interest Society (IRIS) stages 3 and 4 CKD (r [creatinine]: -0.49 to -0.60; P dogs with stages 1 and 2 CKD. All vitamin D metabolites were negatively correlated with PTH, FGF-23, and phosphorus concentrations (r: -0.39 to -0.64; P dogs is associated with decreases in all vitamin D metabolites evaluated suggesting that multiple mechanisms, in addition to decreased renal mass, affect their metabolism. This information could have prognostic and therapeutic implications. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  2. Dietary phosphorus restriction by a standard low-protein diet decreased serum fibroblast growth factor 23 levels in patients with early and advanced stage chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Shunsuke; Nakai, Kentaro; Kono, Keiji; Yonekura, Yuriko; Ito, Jun; Fujii, Hideki; Nishi, Shinichi

    2014-12-01

    Elevated serum fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) levels are associated with mortality, cardiovascular disease, and disease progression in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Although recent studies demonstrated that FGF23 levels decreased in response to dietary restriction of phosphorus and/or use of phosphate binders, research on the effects of a standard low-protein diet is lacking. The effects of a standard low-protein diet on serum FGF23, intact parathyroid hormone, and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D levels were investigated in patients with early (n = 15) and advanced (n = 20) CKD. Serum FGF23 levels decreased in both groups. Changes in FGF23 levels correlated with changes in 24 h urinary phosphorus excretion in the advanced CKD group. Decreased serum intact parathyroid hormone levels were observed only in the advanced CKD group and increased serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D levels only in the early CKD group. These findings suggest that consuming standard low-protein diet decreased serum FGF23 levels in patients with CKD. Serum FGF23 levels may therefore be a useful marker to monitor the effects of a low-protein diet in early and advanced stage CKD.

  3. Post-weaning environmental enrichment, but not chronic maternal isolation, enhanced ethanol intake during periadolescence and early adulthood

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    Luciana Rocio Berardo

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed ethanol intake in male and female Wistar rats exposed to maternal separation (MS during infancy (postnatal days 1-21, PD1-21 and environmental enrichment (EE during adolescence (PD 21-42. Previous work revealed that MS enhances ethanol consumption during adulthood. It is still unknown if a similar effect is found during adolescence. Several studies, in turn, have revealed that EE reverses stress experiences, and reduces ethanol consumption and reinforcement; although others reported greater ethanol intake after EE. The interactive effects between these treatments upon ethanol’s effects and intake have yet to be explored. We assessed chronic ethanol intake and preference (twelve two-bottle daily sessions, spread across 30 days, 1st session on PD46 in rats exposed to MS and EE. The main finding was that male – but not female – rats that had been exposed to EE consumed more ethanol than controls given standard housing, an effect that was not affected by MS. Subsequent experiments assessed several factors associated with heightened ethanol consumption in males exposed to MS and EE; namely taste aversive conditioning and hypnotic-sedative consequences of ethanol. We also measured anxiety response in the light-dark box and in the elevated plus maze tests; and exploratory patterns of novel stimuli and behaviors indicative of risk assessment and risk-taking, via a modified version of the concentric square field (CSF test. Aversive conditioning, hypnosis and sleep time were similar in males exposed or not to environmental enrichment. EE males, however, exhibited heightened exploration of novel stimuli and greater risk taking behaviors in the CSF test. It is likely that the promoting effect of EE upon ethanol intake was due to these effects upon exploratory and risk-taking behaviors.

  4. New mutations in chronic lymphocytic leukemia identified by target enrichment and deep sequencing.

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    Elena Doménech

    Full Text Available Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL is a heterogeneous disease without a well-defined genetic alteration responsible for the onset of the disease. Several lines of evidence coincide in identifying stimulatory and growth signals delivered by B-cell receptor (BCR, and co-receptors together with NFkB pathway, as being the driving force in B-cell survival in CLL. However, the molecular mechanism responsible for this activation has not been identified. Based on the hypothesis that BCR activation may depend on somatic mutations of the BCR and related pathways we have performed a complete mutational screening of 301 selected genes associated with BCR signaling and related pathways using massive parallel sequencing technology in 10 CLL cases. Four mutated genes in coding regions (KRAS, SMARCA2, NFKBIE and PRKD3 have been confirmed by capillary sequencing. In conclusion, this study identifies new genes mutated in CLL, all of them in cases with progressive disease, and demonstrates that next-generation sequencing technologies applied to selected genes or pathways of interest are powerful tools for identifying novel mutational changes.

  5. Paleolimnological assessment of nutrient enrichment on diatom assemblages in a priori defined nitrogen- and phosphorus-limited lakes downwind of the Athabasca Oil Sands, Canada

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    Kathleen R. Laird

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available As the industrial footprint of the Athabasca Oil Sands Region (AOSR continues to expand, concern about the potential impacts of pollutants on the surrounding terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems need to be assessed. An emerging issue is whether recent increases in lake production downwind of the development can be linked to AOSR activities, and/or whether changing climatic conditions are influencing lake nutrient status. To decipher the importance of pollutants, particularly atmospheric deposition of reactive nitrogen (Nr, and the effects of climate change as potential sources of increasing lake production, lakes from both within and outside of the nitrogen deposition zone were analyzed for historical changes in diatom assemblages. Lake sediment cores were collected from a priori defined nitrogen (N - and phosphorus (P - limited lakes within and outside the N plume associated with the AOSR. Diatom assemblages were quantified at sub-decadal resolution since ca. 1890 to compare conditions prior to oil sands expansion and regional climate warming, to the more recent conditions in each group of lakes (Reference and Impacted, N- and P-limited lakes. Analyses of changes in assemblage similarity and species turnover indicates that changes in diatom assemblages were minimal both within and across all lake groups.  Small changes in percent composition of planktonic taxa, particularly small centric taxa (Discostella and Cyclotella species and pennate taxa, such as Asterionella formosa and Fragilaria crotonensis, occurred in some of the lakes. While these changes were consistent with potential climate effects on algal growth, water column stability and other factors; the timing and direction of biotic changes were variable among sites suggesting that any apparent response to climate was lake dependent. The absence of a consistent pattern of diatom changes associated with receipt of reactive nitrogen or intrinsic nutrient-limitation status of the lake

  6. Greenhouse Gas Fluxes from Salt Marshes Exposed to Chronic Nutrient Enrichment.

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    Gail L Chmura

    Full Text Available We assessed the impact of nutrient additions on greenhouse gas fluxes using dark static chambers in a microtidal and a macrotidal marsh along the coast of New Brunswick, Canada approximately monthly over a year. Both were experimentally fertilized for six years with varying levels of N and P. For unfertilized, N and NPK treatments, average yearly CO2 emissions (which represent only respiration at the microtidal marsh (13, 19, and 28 mmoles CO2 m(-2 hr(-1, respectively were higher than at the macrotidal marsh (12, 15, and 19 mmoles m(-2 hr(-1, respectively, with a flux under the additional high N/low P treatment of 21 mmoles m(-2 hr(-1. Response of CH4 to fertilization was more variable. At the macrotidal marsh average yearly fluxes were 1.29, 1.26, and 0.77 μmol CH4 m(-2 hr(-1 with control, N, and NPK treatments, respectively and 1.21 μmol m(-2 hr(-1 under high N/low P treatment. At the microtidal marsh CH4 fluxes were 0.23, 0.16, and -0.24 μmol CH4 m(-2 hr(-1 in control, N, and NPK and treatments, respectively. Fertilization changed soils from sinks to sources of N2O. Average yearly N2O fluxes at the macrotidal marsh were -0.07, 0.08, and 1.70, μmol N2O m(-2 hr(-1 in control, N, NPK and treatments, respectively and 0.35 μmol m(-2 hr(-1 under high N/low P treatment. For the control, N, and NPK treatments at the microtidal marsh N2O fluxes were -0.05, 0.30, and 0.52 μmol N2O m(-2 hr(-1, respectively. Our results indicate that N2O fluxes are likely to vary with the source of pollutant nutrients but emissions will be lower if N is not accompanied by an adequate supply of P (e.g., atmospheric deposition vs sewage or agricultural runoff. With chronic fertilization the global warming potential of the increased N2O emissions may be enough to offset the global cooling potential of the C sequestered by salt marshes.

  7. CD161+CD4+ T cells are enriched in the liver during chronic hepatitis and associated with co-secretion of IL-22 and Interferon-gamma

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    Yu-Hoi eKang

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C virus infection is a major cause of chronic liver disease. CD4+ T cells play a key role in disease outcome. However, the critical functions and associated phenotypes of intrahepatic CD4+ T cells are not well defined. We have previously shown that CD8+ T cells expressing the C type lectin CD161 are highly enriched in the human liver, especially during chronic hepatitis. These cells are associated with a type 17 differentiation pattern and express cytokines including IL-17A, IL-22 and IFNγ. We therefore analysed expression of CD161 on CD4+ T cells in blood and liver and addressed the relevant phenotype and functional capacity of these populations. We observed marked enrichment of CD161+CD4+ T cells in the liver during chronic hepatitis such that they are the dominant subtype (mean 55% of CD4+ T cells. IL-22 and IL-17 secreting CD4+ cells were readily found in the livers of HCV+ and NASH donors, although not enriched compared to blood. There was, however, specific enrichment of a novel subset of IL-22/IFN-γ dual secretors (p=0.02 compared to blood, a result reconfirmed with direct ex vivo analyses. These data indicate the dominance of CD161+ expressing lymphocyte populations within the hepatic infiltrate, associated with a distinct cytokine profile. Given their documented roles as antiviral and hepatoprotective cytokines respectively, the impact of co-secretion of IFNγ and IL-22 in the liver may be particularly significant.

  8. Adult Hippocampal Neurogenesis along the Dorsoventral Axis Contributes Differentially to Environmental Enrichment Combined with Voluntary Exercise in Alleviating Chronic Inflammatory Pain in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jie; Jiang, Ying-Ying; Xu, Ling-Chi; Ma, Long-Yu; Liu, Feng-Yu; Cui, Shuang; Cai, Jie; Liao, Fei-Fei; Wan, You; Yi, Ming

    2017-04-12

    Cognitive behavioral therapy, such as environmental enrichment combined with voluntary exercise (EE-VEx), is under active investigation as an adjunct to pharmaceutical treatment for chronic pain. However, the effectiveness and underlying mechanisms of EE-VEx remain unclear. In mice with intraplantar injection of complete Freund's adjuvant, our results revealed that EE-VEx alleviated perceptual, affective, and cognitive dimensions of chronic inflammatory pain. These effects of EE-VEx on chronic pain were contingent on the occurrence of adult neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus in a functionally dissociated manner along the dorsoventral axis: neurogenesis in the ventral dentate gyrus participated in alleviating perceptual and affective components of chronic pain by EE-VEx, whereas neurogenesis in the dorsal dentate gyrus was involved in EE-VEx's cognitive-enhancing effects. Chronic inflammatory pain was accompanied by decreased levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the dentate gyrus, which were reversed by EE-VEx. Overexpression of BDNF in the dentate gyrus mimicked the effects of EE-VEx. Our results demonstrate distinct contribution of adult hippocampal neurogenesis along the dorsoventral axis to EE-VEx's beneficial effects on different dimensions of chronic pain.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Environmental enrichment combined with voluntary exercise (EE-VEx) is under active investigation as an adjunct to pharmaceutical treatment for chronic pain, but its effectiveness and underlying mechanisms remain unclear. In a mouse model of inflammatory pain, the present study demonstrates that the beneficial effects of EE-VEx on chronic pain depend on adult neurogenesis with a dorsoventral dissociation along the hippocampal axis. Adult neurogenesis in the ventral dentate gyrus participates in alleviating perceptual and affective components of chronic pain by EE-VEx, whereas that in the dorsal pole is involved in EE-VEx's cognitive-enhancing effects in chronic pain

  9. Phosphorus Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pregnancy hCG Tumor Marker HDL Cholesterol Heavy Metals Helicobacter pylori Testing Hematocrit Hemoglobin Hemoglobin A1c Hemoglobinopathy Evaluation ... balance . Phosphorus comes into the body through the diet. It is found in many foods and is ...

  10. Environmental enrichment increases doublecortin-associated new neurons and decreases neuronal death without modifying anxiety-like behavior in mice chronically exposed to toluene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paez-Martinez, Nayeli; Flores-Serrano, Zoraida; Ortiz-Lopez, Leonardo; Ramirez-Rodriguez, Gerardo

    2013-11-01

    Toluene misuse is a health problem worldwide with broad effects at the level of the central nervous system; however, therapeutic alternatives for inhalant abusers are limited. Chronic use of volatile substances is associated with different neurological and cognitive alterations, being anxiety a psychiatric condition with high prevalence. At cellular level toluene reduces neurogenesis and induces neuronal death. On the other hand, environmental enrichment has demonstrated to produce positive effects at behavioral and neuronal levels. Thus, the aim of the present work was to model alterations occasioned after repeated exposure to toluene (anxiety, reduction in neurogenesis - measured as doublecortin-labeled cells - and neuronal death). Subsequently, the influence of environmental enrichment on these effects was evaluated. Adolescent mice were exposed to toluene vapors from 1 to 4 weeks. Effects on anxiety were evaluated with the burying behavior test, whereas neurogenesis and hippocampal cell death were analyzed with immunohistochemistry, using anti-doublecortin or anti-active-Caspase-3 antibodies, respectively. Results showed that chronic toluene exposure increased anxiety in the burying behavior test; additionally, toluene decreased neurogenesis and enhanced neuronal death. Environmental enrichment (EE) enhanced the anxiety like response in air-exposed mice but did not modify the toluene anxiety response. Additionally, EE enhanced neurogenesis in toluene-pretreated animals at the same level to that found in animals unexposed to toluene and decreased neuronal death. Overall, the present study showed that environmental enrichment positively impacts some effects produced by repeated exposure to toluene. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Chronic responses of aerobic granules to zinc oxide nanoparticles in a sequencing batch reactor performing simultaneous nitrification, denitrification and phosphorus removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Qiulai; Gao, Shuxian; Zhang, Shilu; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Hongyu

    2017-08-01

    The reactor performance, granules characteristics and microbial population dynamics were investigated to assess the chronic responses of aerobic granules to zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) of 0, 5, 10 and 20mg/L for a period of 180days. The results showed that ZnO NPs stimulated COD removal, whereas caused inhibition to both nitrification and denitrification. However, biological phosphorus removal remained effective and stable. Introduction of ZnO NPs sharply decreased the respiration of granules, while did not change the settleability. Both content of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) and the ratio of protein to polysaccharides (PN/PS) rose significantly. MiSeq pyrosequencing was employed to explore the microbial population dynamics. Results demonstrated that up to 20mg/L reduced the alpha-diversity of bacterial communities. Finally, phylogenetic classification of the dominant functional species involved in biological nutrients removal were identified to assess the effects of ZnO NPs to aerobic granules from the molecular level. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Dietary phosphorus and kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uribarri, Jaime

    2013-10-01

    High serum phosphate is linked to poor health outcome and mortality in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients before or after the initiation of dialysis. Therefore, maintenance of normal serum phosphate levels is a major concern in the clinical care of this population with dietary phosphorus restriction and/or use of oral phosphate binders considered to be the best corrective care. This review discusses (1) evidence for an association between serum phosphate levels and bone and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in CKD patients as well as progression of kidney disease itself; (2) the relationship between serum phosphate and dietary phosphorus intake; and (3) implications from these data for future research. Increasing our understanding of the relationship between altered phosphorus metabolism and disease in CKD patients may clarify the potential role of excess dietary phosphorus as a risk factor for disease in the general population. © 2013 New York Academy of Sciences.

  13. Phytoextraction of phosphorus-enriched grassland soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salm, van der C.; Chardon, W.J.; Koopmans, G.F.; Middelkoop, van J.C.; Ehlert, P.A.I.

    2009-01-01

    Received for publication February 7, 2008. High soil P contents in agricultural soils in the Netherlands cause excessive losses of P to surface waters. The reductions in P application rates in the present manure policy are not sufficient to reach surface water quality standards resulting from the

  14. Dietary phosphorus acutely impairs endothelial function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuto, Emi; Taketani, Yutaka; Tanaka, Rieko; Harada, Nagakatsu; Isshiki, Masashi; Sato, Minako; Nashiki, Kunitaka; Amo, Kikuko; Yamamoto, Hironori; Higashi, Yukihito; Nakaya, Yutaka; Takeda, Eiji

    2009-07-01

    Excessive dietary phosphorus may increase cardiovascular risk in healthy individuals as well as in patients with chronic kidney disease, but the mechanisms underlying this risk are not completely understood. To determine whether postprandial hyperphosphatemia may promote endothelial dysfunction, we investigated the acute effect of phosphorus loading on endothelial function in vitro and in vivo. Exposing bovine aortic endothelial cells to a phosphorus load increased production of reactive oxygen species, which depended on phosphorus influx via sodium-dependent phosphate transporters, and decreased nitric oxide production via inhibitory phosphorylation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase. Phosphorus loading inhibited endothelium-dependent vasodilation of rat aortic rings. In 11 healthy men, we alternately served meals containing 400 mg or 1200 mg of phosphorus in a double-blind crossover study and measured flow-mediated dilation of the brachial artery before and 2 h after the meals. The high dietary phosphorus load increased serum phosphorus at 2 h and significantly decreased flow-mediated dilation. Flow-mediated dilation correlated inversely with serum phosphorus. Taken together, these findings suggest that endothelial dysfunction mediated by acute postprandial hyperphosphatemia may contribute to the relationship between serum phosphorus level and the risk for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.

  15. Chronic N enrichment and drought alter plant cover and community composition in a Mediterranean-type semi-arid shrubland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vourlitis, George L

    2017-05-01

    Anthropogenic nitrogen (N) deposition has caused a decline in native plant species and an increase in exotic plant species in many terrestrial ecosystems; however, vegetation change depends on the rate and/or duration of N input, individual species responses, interactions with other resources, and ecosystem properties such as species richness and canopy cover, soil texture, pH, and/or disturbance regime. Native shrub and exotic forb responses to N enrichment were evaluated over a 13-year field experiment in a mature coastal sage scrub (CSS) shrubland of southern California to test the hypothesis that dry-season N input will cause a decline in native shrubs and an increase in exotic annuals. Nitrogen enrichment caused the dominant native shrubs, Artemisia californica and Salvia mellifera, to respond differently, with A. californica initially increasing with N input but declining thereafter and S. mellifera declining consistently over the 13-year-period. Both species exhibited higher canopy dieback during drought conditions, especially in N plots. Brassica nigra, an exotic annual, invaded N plots significantly more than control plots, but only after 10 years of N addition and a prolonged drought, which increased native shrub canopy dieback. These results indicate a possible synergism between N enrichment and drought on native shrub and exotic forb abundance, which would have important implications for plant diversity in semi-arid shrublands of southwest US that are anticipated to experience an increase in anthropogenic N enrichment and the frequency and duration of drought.

  16. NIOSH Method 7905: Phosphorus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Method 7905 describes procedures for analysis of phosphorus in air samples using GC-FPD. The method is applicable to vapor-phase phosphorus only; if particulate phosphorus is expected, a filter could be used in the sampling train.

  17. The Adequacy of Phosphorus Binder Prescriptions Among American Hemodialysis Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huml, Anne M.; Sullivan, Catherine M.; Leon, Janeen B.; Sehgal, Ashwini R.

    2013-01-01

    Because hemodialysis treatment has a limited ability to remove phosphorus, dialysis patients must restrict dietary phosphorus intake and use phosphorus binding medication. Among patients with restricted dietary phosphorus intake (1000 mg/d), phosphorus binders must bind about 250 mg of excess phosphorus per day and among patients with more typical phosphorus intake (1500 mg/d), binders must bind about 750 mg per day. To determine the phosphorus binding capacity of binder prescriptions among American hemodialysis patients, we undertook a cross-sectional study of a random sample of in-center chronic hemodialysis patients. We obtained data for one randomly selected patient from 244 facilities nationwide. About one-third of patients had hyperphosphatemia (serum phosphorus level > 5.5 mg/dL). Among the 224 patients prescribed binders, the mean phosphorus binding capacity was 256 mg/d (SD 143). 59% of prescriptions had insufficient binding capacity for restricted dietary phosphorus intake, and 100% had insufficient binding capacity for typical dietary phosphorus intake. Patients using two binders had a higher binding capacity than patients using one binder (451 vs. 236 mg/d, p phosphorus balance. Use of two binders results in higher binder capacity. Further work is needed to understand the impact of binder prescriptions on mineral balance and metabolism and to determine the value of substantially increasing binder prescriptions. PMID:23013171

  18. Phosphorus Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ketoacidosis (after treatment) Hypothyroidism Hypokalemia Chronic antacid use Rickets and osteomalacia (due to vitamin D deficiencies) Higher ... or osteoporosis . Phosphate levels are normally higher in children than in adults because their bones are actively ...

  19. Carbohydrate-enriched cyanobacterial biomass as feedstock for bio-methane production through anaerobic digestion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markou, Giorgos; Angelidaki, Irini; Georgakakis, Dimitris

    2013-01-01

    The anaerobic digestion performance using carbohydrate-enriched biomass of Arthrospira platensis was studied. The carbohydrate enrichment was achieved after the cultivation of A. platensis under phosphorus limitation conditions. Three biomass compositions (60%, 40% and 20% carbohydrates content...

  20. Effects of Chronic Consumption of Sugar-Enriched Diets on Brain Metabolism and Insulin Sensitivity in Adult Yucatan Minipigs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Ochoa

    Full Text Available Excessive sugar intake might increase the risk to develop eating disorders via an altered reward circuitry, but it remains unknown whether different sugar sources induce different neural effects and whether these effects are dependent from body weight. Therefore, we compared the effects of three high-fat and isocaloric diets varying only in their carbohydrate sources on brain activity of reward-related regions, and assessed whether brain activity is dependent on insulin sensitivity. Twenty-four minipigs underwent 18FDG PET brain imaging following 7-month intake of high-fat diets of which 20% in dry matter weight (36.3% of metabolisable energy was provided by starch, glucose or fructose (n = 8 per diet. Animals were then subjected to a euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp to determine peripheral insulin sensitivity. After a 7-month diet treatment, all groups had substantial increases in body weight (from 36.02±0.85 to 63.33±0.81 kg; P<0.0001, regardless of the diet. All groups presented similar insulin sensitivity index (ISI = 1.39±0.10 mL·min-1·μUI·kg. Compared to starch, chronic exposure to fructose and glucose induced bilateral brain activations, i.e. increased basal cerebral glucose metabolism, in several reward-related brain regions including the anterior and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, the orbitofrontal cortex, the anterior cingulate cortex, the caudate and putamen. The lack of differences in insulin sensitivity index and body weight suggests that the observed differences in basal brain glucose metabolism are not related to differences in peripheral insulin sensitivity and weight gain. The differences in basal brain metabolism in reward-related brain areas suggest the onset of cerebral functional alterations induced by chronic consumption of dietary sugars. Further studies should explore the underlying mechanisms, such as the availability of intestinal and brain sugar transporter, or the appearance of addictive-like behavioral

  1. In silico designing of therapeutic protein enriched with branched-chain amino acids for the dietary treatment of chronic liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    L, Sunil; Vasu, Prasanna

    2017-09-01

    Leucine, isoleucine, and valine are three essential branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) account for 40-45% of total essential amino acids. BCAA stimulates protein synthesis primarily in skeletal muscles, and it can directly transport to circulatory blood stream bypassing the liver. Hence, a protein enriched with BCAA is an important therapeutic target for the dietary treatment of chronic liver disease. The present study is to design a synthetic protein enriched with BCAA and the challenge is to maximize the BCAA content, keeping the balanced ratio of leucine, isoleucine, valine - 2: 1: 1.2 as specified by WHO/UNU/FAO. Here, we turned the general concept of homology modeling and tried to find a suitable scaffold (α-helix) to host an excess amount of BCAA for increased stability and digestibility. A total of 50 protein models were constructed by using SWISS-MODEL, Modeller 9.17, ProtParam tool, and allergen online tools. Out of 50 different protein models, protein model-50 was found to be best, which had a well-defined 3D structure, good in silico digestibility, balanced ratio of BCAA and showed 65.57% structure identity to the template apo-bovine α-lactalbumin (1F6R). Templates search was performed against PDB using PSI-BLAST, SWISS-MODEL, PROFUNC, I-TASSER, and ConSurf. The secondary structure was predicted by PSSPred, PSIPRED, I-TASSER, PORTER, and SPIDER2. The modeled structure of protein Model-50 was validated by PROCHECK, ERRAT, ProSA, and QMEAN. COACH and ProFUNC tools were performed to determine the functional effects of protein model-50. Overall, the BCAA was enriched from 22 to 56.4% with the balanced ratio of Leu: Ile: Val (2: 1: 1.2). The Ramachandran plot showed 97.7% of the amino acid residues in allowed regions with ERRAT score of 86.05. We have successfully modeled the complete three-dimensional structure of the target protein model-50 using highly reputed computational tools. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Serum cytokine profiling and enrichment analysis reveal the involvement of immunological and inflammatory pathways in stable patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bade G

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Geetanjali Bade,1 Meraj Alam Khan,2 Akhilesh Kumar Srivastava,1 Parul Khare,1 Krishna Kumar Solaiappan,1 Randeep Guleria,3 Nades Palaniyar,2 Anjana Talwar1 1Department of Physiology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India; 2Program in Physiology and Experimental Medicine, The Hospital for Sick Children, Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathobiology, and Institute of Medical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada; 3Department of Pulmonary Medicine and Sleep Disorders, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India Abstract: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is a major global health problem. It results from chronic inflammation and causes irreversible airway damage. Levels of different serum cytokines could be surrogate biomarkers for inflammation and lung function in COPD. We aimed to determine the serum levels of different biomarkers in COPD patients, the association between cytokine levels and various prognostic parameters, and the key pathways/networks involved in stable COPD. In this study, serum levels of 48 cytokines were examined by multiplex assays in 30 subjects (control, n=9; COPD, n=21. Relationships between serum biomarkers and forced expiratory volume in 1 second, peak oxygen uptake, body mass index, dyspnea score, and smoking were assessed. Enrichment pathways and networks analyses were implemented, using a list of cytokines showing differential expression between healthy controls and patients with COPD by Cytoscape and GeneGo Metacore™ softwares (Thomson-Reuters Corporation, New York, NY, USA. Concentrations of cutaneous T-cell attracting chemokine, eotaxin, hepatocyte growth factor, interleukin 6 (IL-6, IL-16, and stem cell factor are significantly higher in COPD patients compared with in control patients. Notably, this study identifies stem cell factor as a biomarker for COPD. Multiple regression analysis predicts that cutaneous T

  3. Phosphorus blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003478.htm Phosphorus blood test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The phosphorus blood test measures the amount of phosphate in the blood. ...

  4. The Prevalence of Phosphorus Containing Food Additives in Top Selling Foods in Grocery Stores

    Science.gov (United States)

    León, Janeen B.; Sullivan, Catherine M.; Sehgal, Ashwini R.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine the prevalence of phosphorus-containing food additives in best selling processed grocery products and to compare the phosphorus content of a subset of top selling foods with and without phosphorus additives. Design The labels of 2394 best selling branded grocery products in northeast Ohio were reviewed for phosphorus additives. The top 5 best selling products containing phosphorus additives from each food category were matched with similar products without phosphorus additives and analyzed for phosphorus content. Four days of sample meals consisting of foods with and without phosphorus additives were created and daily phosphorus and pricing differentials were computed. Setting Northeast Ohio Main outcome measures Presence of phosphorus-containing food additives, phosphorus content Results 44% of the best selling grocery items contained phosphorus additives. The additives were particularly common in prepared frozen foods (72%), dry food mixes (70%), packaged meat (65%), bread & baked goods (57%), soup (54%), and yogurt (51%) categories. Phosphorus additive containing foods averaged 67 mg phosphorus/100 gm more than matched non-additive containing foods (p=.03). Sample meals comprised mostly of phosphorus additive-containing foods had 736 mg more phosphorus per day compared to meals consisting of only additive-free foods. Phosphorus additive-free meals cost an average of $2.00 more per day. Conclusion Phosphorus additives are common in best selling processed groceries and contribute significantly to their phosphorus content. Moreover, phosphorus additive foods are less costly than phosphorus additive-free foods. As a result, persons with chronic kidney disease may purchase these popular low-cost groceries and unknowingly increase their intake of highly bioavailable phosphorus. PMID:23402914

  5. The prevalence of phosphorus-containing food additives in top-selling foods in grocery stores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    León, Janeen B; Sullivan, Catherine M; Sehgal, Ashwini R

    2013-07-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of phosphorus-containing food additives in best-selling processed grocery products and to compare the phosphorus content of a subset of top-selling foods with and without phosphorus additives. The labels of 2394 best-selling branded grocery products in northeast Ohio were reviewed for phosphorus additives. The top 5 best-selling products containing phosphorus additives from each food category were matched with similar products without phosphorus additives and analyzed for phosphorus content. Four days of sample meals consisting of foods with and without phosphorus additives were created, and daily phosphorus and pricing differentials were computed. Presence of phosphorus-containing food additives, phosphorus content. Forty-four percent of the best-selling grocery items contained phosphorus additives. The additives were particularly common in prepared frozen foods (72%), dry food mixes (70%), packaged meat (65%), bread and baked goods (57%), soup (54%), and yogurt (51%) categories. Phosphorus additive-containing foods averaged 67 mg phosphorus/100 g more than matched nonadditive-containing foods (P = .03). Sample meals comprised mostly of phosphorus additive-containing foods had 736 mg more phosphorus per day compared with meals consisting of only additive-free foods. Phosphorus additive-free meals cost an average of $2.00 more per day. Phosphorus additives are common in best-selling processed groceries and contribute significantly to their phosphorus content. Moreover, phosphorus additive foods are less costly than phosphorus additive-free foods. As a result, persons with chronic kidney disease may purchase these popular low-cost groceries and unknowingly increase their intake of highly bioavailable phosphorus. Copyright © 2013 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Impact of McKenzie Method Therapy Enriched by Muscular Energy Techniques on Subjective and Objective Parameters Related to Spine Function in Patients with Chronic Low Back Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szulc, Paweł; Wendt, Michał; Waszak, Małgorzata; Tomczak, Maciej; Cieślik, Krystyna; Trzaska, Tadeusz

    2015-01-01

    Background The high incidence and inconsistencies in diagnostic and therapeutic process of low back pain (LBP) stimulate the continuing search for more efficient treatment modalities. Integration of the information obtained with various therapeutic methods and a holistic approach to the patient seem to be associated with positive outcomes. The aim of this study was to analyze the efficacy of combined treatment with McKenzie method and Muscle Energy Technique (MET), and to compare it with the outcomes of treatment with McKenzie method or standard physiotherapy in specific chronic lumbar pain. Material/Methods The study included 60 men and women with LBP (mean age 44 years). The patients were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 therapeutic groups, which were further treated with: 1) McKenzie method and MET, 2) McKenzie method alone, or 3) standard physiotherapy for 10 days. The extent of spinal movements (electrogoniometry), level of experienced pain (Visual Analogue Scale and Revised Oswestry Pain Questionnaire), and structure of the spinal discs (MRI) were examined prior to the intervention, immediately thereafter, and 3 months after the intervention. Results McKenzie method enriched with MET had the best therapeutic outcomes. The mobility of cervical, thoracic, and lumbar spine normalized at levels corresponding to 87.1%, 66.7%, and 95% of respective average normative values. Implementation of McKenzie method, both alone and combined with MET, was associated with a significant decrease in Oswestry Disability Index, significant alleviation of pain (VAS), and significantly reduced size of spinal disc herniation. Conclusions The combined method can be effectively used in the treatment of chronic LBP. PMID:26418868

  7. Impact of McKenzie Method Therapy Enriched by Muscular Energy Techniques on Subjective and Objective Parameters Related to Spine Function in Patients with Chronic Low Back Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szulc, Paweł; Wendt, Michał; Waszak, Małgorzata; Tomczak, Maciej; Cieślik, Krystyna; Trzaska, Tadeusz

    2015-09-29

    The high incidence and inconsistencies in diagnostic and therapeutic process of low back pain (LBP) stimulate the continuing search for more efficient treatment modalities. Integration of the information obtained with various therapeutic methods and a holistic approach to the patient seem to be associated with positive outcomes. The aim of this study was to analyze the efficacy of combined treatment with McKenzie method and Muscle Energy Technique (MET), and to compare it with the outcomes of treatment with McKenzie method or standard physiotherapy in specific chronic lumbar pain. The study included 60 men and women with LBP (mean age 44 years). The patients were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 therapeutic groups, which were further treated with: 1) McKenzie method and MET, 2) McKenzie method alone, or 3) standard physiotherapy for 10 days. The extent of spinal movements (electrogoniometry), level of experienced pain (Visual Analogue Scale and Revised Oswestry Pain Questionnaire), and structure of the spinal discs (MRI) were examined prior to the intervention, immediately thereafter, and 3 months after the intervention. McKenzie method enriched with MET had the best therapeutic outcomes. The mobility of cervical, thoracic, and lumbar spine normalized at levels corresponding to 87.1%, 66.7%, and 95% of respective average normative values. Implementation of McKenzie method, both alone and combined with MET, was associated with a significant decrease in Oswestry Disability Index, significant alleviation of pain (VAS), and significantly reduced size of spinal disc herniation. The combined method can be effectively used in the treatment of chronic LBP.

  8. Chronic consumption of an inositol-enriched carob extract improves postprandial glycaemia and insulin sensitivity in healthy subjects: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bañuls, Celia; Rovira-Llopis, Susana; Falcón, Rosa; Veses, Silvia; Monzó, Nuria; Víctor, Víctor M; Rocha, Milagros; Hernández-Mijares, Antonio

    2016-06-01

    Inositols are thought to be mediators of the insulin signalling pathway. We assessed the effects of inositols on glycaemic control in fasting and postprandial states and evaluated lipoprotein profile and LDL particle size in healthy population. A 12-week double-blind clinical trial was performed with forty healthy subjects administered either an inositol-enriched beverage (IEB) -containing 2.23 g of inositols in 250 ml- or a sucrose-sweetened beverage (SB) twice a day. Anthropometric measurements, fasting glucose levels, insulin and HOMA-IR index, lipoprotein profile and postprandial glucose concentrations (measured using the continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS)) were recorded throughout the intervention period. Following the 12-week trial subjects receiving the IEB exhibited a significant decrease in insulin, HOMA-IR and Apo B and an increase in LDL particle size, whereas the SB group showed increases in BMI and fasting glucose concentration. Analysis of postprandial glucose levels at breakfast, lunch and dinner revealed a mean reduction of glucose of ≈14% and a significant reduction in the area under the curve at 24 h after consumption of the IEB. Our results show that chronic IEB supplementation induces a significant improvement in carbohydrated metabolism parameters in healthy subjects. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  9. Agricultural phosphorus legislation in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amery, F.; Schoumans, O.F.

    2014-01-01

    Phosphorus (P) losses from agricultural fields can cause eutrophication and ecological deterioration of surface waters. Although there is no general European Phosphorus Regulation or Directive, some European Member States address the agricultural phosphorus losses via national or regional

  10. Dietary phosphorus restriction in dialysis patients: potential impact of processed meat, poultry, and fish products as protein sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Richard A; Mehta, Ojas

    2009-07-01

    Dietary intake of phosphorus is derived largely from protein sources and is a critical determinant of phosphorus balance in patients with chronic kidney disease. Information about the phosphorus content of prepared foods generally is unavailable, but it is believed to contribute significantly to the phosphorus burden of patients with chronic kidney disease. Analysis of dietary components. We measured the phosphorus content of 44 food products, including 30 refrigerated or frozen precooked meat, poultry, and fish items, generally national brands. Measured and reported phosphorus content of foods. Phosphorus by using Association of Analytical Communities official method 984.27; protein by using Association of Analytical Communities official method 990.03. We found that the ratio of phosphorus to protein content in these items ranged from 6.1 to 21.5 mg of phosphorus per 1 g of protein. The mean ratio in the 19 food products with a label listing phosphorus as an additive was 14.6 mg/g compared with 9.0 mg/g in the 11 items without listed phosphorus. The phosphorus content of only 1 precooked food product was available in a widely used dietary database. Results cannot be extrapolated to other products. Manufacturers also may alter the phosphorus content of foods at any time. Protein content was not directly measured for all foods. Better reporting of phosphorus content of foods by manufacturers could result in improved dietary phosphorus control without risk of protein malnutrition.

  11. Dietary phosphorus in bone health and quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Eiji; Yamamoto, Hironori; Yamanaka-Okumura, Hisami; Taketani, Yutaka

    2012-06-01

    Awareness of phosphorus intake is important because both phosphorus deficiency and overloading impair bone health and quality of life. Phosphorus consumption is increasing in many countries. Most dietary phosphorus is contained in protein-rich foods such as meat, milk, cheese, poultry, fish, and processed foods that contain phosphate-based additives to improve their consistency and appearance. Elevation of extracellular phosphorus levels causes endothelial dysfunction and medial calcification, which are closely associated with the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Long-term excessive phosphorus loading, even if it does not cause hyperphosphatemia, can be a risk factor for CVD. In epidemiological studies, higher levels of phosphorus intake have been associated with reduced blood pressure. Interestingly, when examined further, phosphorus from dairy products, but not from other sources, was usually associated with lower blood pressure. A dietary approach to phosphorus reduction is particularly important to prevent bone impairment and CVD in patients with chronic kidney disease. In order to improve bone health and quality of life in the general population, the impact of phosphorous, including in processed foods, should be considered, and measures to indicate the amount of phosphorous in food products should be implemented. © 2012 International Life Sciences Institute.

  12. Examining the Proportion of Dietary Phosphorus From Plants, Animals, and Food Additives Excreted in Urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St-Jules, David E; Jagannathan, Ram; Gutekunst, Lisa; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar; Sevick, Mary Ann

    2017-03-01

    Phosphorus bioavailability is an emerging topic of interest in the field of renal nutrition that has important research and clinical implications. Estimates of phosphorus bioavailability, based on digestibility, indicate that bioavailability of phosphorus increases from plants to animals to food additives. In this commentary, we examined the proportion of dietary phosphorus from plants, animals, and food additives excreted in urine from four controlled-feeding studies conducted in healthy adults and patients with chronic kidney disease. As expected, a smaller proportion of phosphorus from plant foods was excreted in urine compared to animal foods. However, contrary to expectations, phosphorus from food additives appeared to be incompletely absorbed. The apparent discrepancy between digestibility of phosphorus additives and the proportion excreted in urine suggests a need for human balance studies to determine the bioavailability of different sources of phosphorus. Copyright © 2016 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The "phosphorus pyramid": a visual tool for dietary phosphate management in dialysis and CKD patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Alessandro, Claudia; Piccoli, Giorgina B; Cupisti, Adamasco

    2015-01-20

    Phosphorus retention plays a pivotal role in the onset of mineral and bone disorders (MBD) in chronic kidney disease (CKD). Phosphorus retention commonly occurs as a result of net intestinal absorption exceeding renal excretion or dialysis removal. The dietary phosphorus load is crucial since the early stages of CKD, throughout the whole course of the disease, up to dialysis-dependent end-stage renal disease.Agreement exits regarding the need for dietary phosphate control, but it is quite challenging in the real-life setting. Effective strategies to control dietary phosphorus intake include restricting phosphorus-rich foods, preferring phosphorus sourced from plant origin, boiling as the preferred cooking procedure and avoiding foods with phosphorus-containing additives. Nutritional education is crucial in this regard.Based on the existing literature, we developed the "phosphorus pyramid", namely a novel, visual, user-friendly tool for the nutritional education of patients and health-care professionals. The pyramid consists of six levels in which foods are arranged on the basis of their phosphorus content, phosphorus to protein ratio and phosphorus bioavailability. Each has a colored edge (from green to red) that corresponds to recommended intake frequency, ranging from "unrestricted" to "avoid as much as possible".The aim of the phosphorus pyramid is to support dietary counseling in order to reduce the phosphorus load, a crucial aspect of integrated CKD-MBD management.

  14. Comprehensive Utilization of Iron and Phosphorus from High-Phosphorus Refractory Iron Ore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yongsheng; Zhang, Qi; Han, Yuexin; Gao, Peng; Li, Guofeng

    2018-02-01

    An innovative process of coal-based reduction followed by magnetic separation and dephosphorization was developed to simultaneously recover iron and phosphorus from one typical high-phosphorus refractory iron ore. The experimental results showed that the iron minerals in iron ore were reduced to metallic iron during the coal-based reduction and the phosphorus was enriched in the metallic iron phase. The CaO-SiO2-FeO-Al2O3 slag system was used in the dephosphorization of metallic iron. A hot metal of 99.17% Fe and 0.10% P was produced with Fe recovery of 84.41%. Meanwhile, a dephosphorization slag of 5.72% P was obtained with P recovery of 67.23%. The contents of impurities in hot metal were very low, and it could be used as feedstock for steelmaking after a secondary refining. Phosphorus in the dephosphorization slag mainly existed in the form of a 5CaO·P2O5·SiO2 solid solution where the P2O5 content is 13.10%. At a slag particle size of 20.7 μm (90% passing), 94.54% of the P2O5 could be solubilized in citric acid, indicating the slag met the feedstock requirements in phosphate fertilizer production. Consequently, the proposed process achieved simultaneous Fe and P recovery, paving the way to comprehensive utilization of high-phosphorus refractory iron ore.

  15. Comprehensive Utilization of Iron and Phosphorus from High-Phosphorus Refractory Iron Ore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yongsheng; Zhang, Qi; Han, Yuexin; Gao, Peng; Li, Guofeng

    2017-11-01

    An innovative process of coal-based reduction followed by magnetic separation and dephosphorization was developed to simultaneously recover iron and phosphorus from one typical high-phosphorus refractory iron ore. The experimental results showed that the iron minerals in iron ore were reduced to metallic iron during the coal-based reduction and the phosphorus was enriched in the metallic iron phase. The CaO-SiO2-FeO-Al2O3 slag system was used in the dephosphorization of metallic iron. A hot metal of 99.17% Fe and 0.10% P was produced with Fe recovery of 84.41%. Meanwhile, a dephosphorization slag of 5.72% P was obtained with P recovery of 67.23%. The contents of impurities in hot metal were very low, and it could be used as feedstock for steelmaking after a secondary refining. Phosphorus in the dephosphorization slag mainly existed in the form of a 5CaO·P2O5·SiO2 solid solution where the P2O5 content is 13.10%. At a slag particle size of 20.7 μm (90% passing), 94.54% of the P2O5 could be solubilized in citric acid, indicating the slag met the feedstock requirements in phosphate fertilizer production. Consequently, the proposed process achieved simultaneous Fe and P recovery, paving the way to comprehensive utilization of high-phosphorus refractory iron ore.

  16. Phosphorus uptake by potato from fertilizers recovered from anaerobic digestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field experiments were conducted in the Columbia Basin of South Central Washington to assess the yield of potato (Solanum tuberosum) in response to application of phosphorus enriched materials recovered from anaerobic digestion of manure. The treatments were comprised of four rates (0, 56, 112 and ...

  17. Eutrophication of aquatic ecosystems: Bistability and soil phosphorus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Stephen R.

    2005-01-01

    Eutrophication (the overenrichment of aquatic ecosystems with nutrients leading to algal blooms and anoxic events) is a persistent condition of surface waters and a widespread environmental problem. Some lakes have recovered after sources of nutrients were reduced. In others, recycling of phosphorus from sediments enriched by years of high nutrient inputs causes lakes to remain eutrophic even after external inputs of phosphorus are decreased. Slow flux of phosphorus from overfertilized soils may be even more important for maintaining eutrophication of lakes in agricultural regions. This type of eutrophication is not reversible unless there are substantial changes in soil management. Technologies for rapidly reducing phosphorus content of overenriched soils, or reducing erosion rates, are needed to improve water quality. PMID:15972805

  18. Eutrophication of aquatic ecosystems: bistability and soil phosphorus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Stephen R

    2005-07-19

    Eutrophication (the overenrichment of aquatic ecosystems with nutrients leading to algal blooms and anoxic events) is a persistent condition of surface waters and a widespread environmental problem. Some lakes have recovered after sources of nutrients were reduced. In others, recycling of phosphorus from sediments enriched by years of high nutrient inputs causes lakes to remain eutrophic even after external inputs of phosphorus are decreased. Slow flux of phosphorus from overfertilized soils may be even more important for maintaining eutrophication of lakes in agricultural regions. This type of eutrophication is not reversible unless there are substantial changes in soil management. Technologies for rapidly reducing phosphorus content of overenriched soils, or reducing erosion rates, are needed to improve water quality.

  19. Acid Load and Phosphorus Homeostasis in CKD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khairallah, Pascale; Isakova, Tamara; Asplin, John; Hamm, Lee; Dobre, Mirela; Rahman, Mahboob; Sharma, Kumar; Leonard, Mary; Miller, Edgar; Jaar, Bernard; Brecklin, Carolyn; Yang, Wei; Wang, Xue; Feldman, Harold; Wolf, Myles; Scialla, Julia J

    2017-10-01

    The kidneys maintain acid-base homeostasis through excretion of acid as either ammonium or as titratable acids that primarily use phosphate as a buffer. In chronic kidney disease (CKD), ammoniagenesis is impaired, promoting metabolic acidosis. Metabolic acidosis stimulates phosphaturic hormones, parathyroid hormone (PTH) and fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF-23) in vitro, possibly to increase urine titratable acid buffers, but this has not been confirmed in humans. We hypothesized that higher acid load and acidosis would associate with altered phosphorus homeostasis, including higher urinary phosphorus excretion and serum PTH and FGF-23. Cross-sectional. 980 participants with CKD enrolled in the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) Study. Net acid excretion as measured in 24-hour urine, potential renal acid load (PRAL) estimated from food frequency questionnaire responses, and serum bicarbonate concentration phosphorus and calcium excretion and serum phosphorus, FGF-23, and PTH concentrations. Using linear and log-linear regression adjusted for demographics, kidney function, comorbid conditions, body mass index, diuretic use, and 24-hour urine creatinine excretion, we found that 24-hour urine phosphorus excretion was higher at higher net acid excretion, higher PRAL, and lower serum bicarbonate concentration (each Pphosphorus concentration was also higher with higher net acid excretion and lower serum bicarbonate concentration (each P=0.001). Only higher net acid excretion associated with higher 24-hour urine calcium excretion (Pphosphorus, or urine urea nitrogen excretion, when available. Possible residual confounding by kidney function or nutrition; urine phosphorus excretion was included in calculation of the titratable acid component of net acid excretion. In CKD, higher acid load and acidosis associate independently with increased circulating phosphorus concentration and augmented phosphaturia, but not consistently with FGF-23 or PTH concentrations

  20. Prescrição de quelantes de fósforo e calcitriol para pacientes em hemodiálise crônica Prescription of phosphorus binders and calcitriol for chronic hemodialysis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Tereza Silveira Martins

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever a frequência de prescrição de quelantes de fósforo (QF e calcitriol em pacientes sob hemodiálise (HD crônica em Salvador, Brasil, e avaliar se o tratamento está de acordo com recomendações do Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative (K/DOQI. MÉTODOS: Corte transversal de dados da linha de base do Estudo Prospectivo do Prognóstico de Pacientes Tratados Cronicamente por Hemodiálise (PROHEMO. Foi realizada descrição da frequência de prescrição de QF e calcitriol conforme as concentrações de indicadores laboratoriais do metabolismo mineral, comparando com recomendações do K/DOQI. RESULTADOS: Sevelamer isoladamente (i.e., não combinado com outro QF foi prescrito para 45,4% dos pacientes, carbonato de cálcio (CaCO3 isoladamente para 26,5%, sevelamer combinado com CaCO3 para 2,1% e acetato de cálcio para 5,2%. Prescrição de QF foi observada para 53% dos pacientes com fósforo 300 pg/dL combinado com fósforo menor ou igual a 5,5 mg/dL, cálcio menor ou igual a 9,5 mg/dL e produto cálcio e fósforo (CaxP300 pg/mL combinado com determinadas concentrações de cálcio, fósforo e CaxP indicam também a necessidade de avaliar as práticas de uso de QF e calcitriol.OBJECTIVE: To describe the frequency of prescription of phosphate binders (PB and calcitriol for patients on chronic hemodialysis in Salvador, Brazil, and to assess whether treatment is in agreement with recommendations of the Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative (K/DOQI. METHODS: Cross section of baseline data of the PROHEMO study. The frequency of prescription of PB and calcitriol according to laboratory indicators of mineral metabolism was compared with K/DOQI recommendations. RESULTS: Sevelamer alone (i.e., not combined with other PB was prescribed for 45.4% of patients, calcium carbonate (CaCO3 alone for 26.5%, sevelamer combined with CaCO3 for 2.1% and calcium acetate for 5.2%. Prescription of PB was noted in 53% of the patients with

  1. Does balanced phosphorus fertilisation sustain high herbage yields and phosphorus contents in alternately grazed and mown pastures?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Middelkoop, van Jantine; Salm, van der C.; Ehlert, P.A.I.; Boer, de I.J.M.; Oenema, O.

    2016-01-01

    Many soils of agricultural land in affluent countries have been enriched with phosphorus (P), because P application via fertilisers and manures was larger than P withdrawal via harvested biomass. This practice threatens the long-term availability of P fertilisers derived from finite rock

  2. Phosphate Additive Avoidance in Chronic Kidney Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St-Jules, David E; Goldfarb, David S; Pompeii, Mary Lou; Sevick, Mary Ann

    2017-05-01

    IN BRIEF Dietary guidelines for patients with diabetes extend beyond glycemic management to include recommendations for mitigating chronic disease risk. This review summarizes the literature suggesting that excess dietary phosphorus intake may increase the risk of skeletal and cardiovascular disease in patients who are in the early stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD) despite having normal serum phosphorus concentrations. It explores strategies for limiting dietary phosphorus, emphasizing that food additives, as a major source of highly bioavailable dietary phosphorus, may be a suitable target. Although the evidence for restricting phosphorus-based food additives in early CKD is limited, diabetes clinicians should monitor ongoing research aimed at assessing its efficacy.

  3. Metagenomic and metaproteomic analyses of Accumulibacter phosphatis-enriched floccular and granular biofilm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barr, J.J.; Dutilh, B.E.; Skennerton, C.T.; Fukushima, T.; Hastie, M.L.; Gorman, J.J.; Tyson, G.W.; Bond, P.L.

    2016-01-01

    Biofilms are ubiquitous in nature, forming diverse adherent microbial communities that perform a plethora of functions. Here we operated two laboratory-scale sequencing batch reactors enriched with Candidatus Accumulibacter phosphatis (Accumulibacter) performing enhanced biological phosphorus

  4. Metagenomic and metaproteomic analyses of Accumulibacter phosphatis enriched floccular and granular biofilm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barr, Jeremy J; Dutilh, Bas E; Skennerton, Connor T; Fukushima, Toshikazu; Hastie, Marcus L; Gorman, Jeffrey J; Tyson, Gene W; Bond, Philip L

    2015-01-01

    Biofilms are ubiquitous in nature, forming diverse adherent microbial communities that perform a plethora of functions. Here we operated two laboratory-scale sequencing batch reactors enriched with Candidatus Accumulibacter phosphatis (Accumulibacter) performing enhanced biological phosphorus

  5. Phosphorus and the Kidney: What Is Known and What Is Needed12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadkarni, Girish N.; Uribarri, Jaime

    2014-01-01

    A major role of the kidneys is to maintain phosphorus homeostasis. High serum phosphorus has been linked to all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in chronic kidney disease (CKD) both before and after initiation of renal replacement therapy. Considering the clinical implications of uncontrolled hyperphosphatemia, maintenance of phosphorus concentrations within an optimum range is standard of care in this patient population. Recently, the epidemiologic associations between serum phosphorus and worse outcome have been extended to the general population. This becomes even more important in view of the increasing dietary phosphorus intake in the American diet due in large part to the greater consumption of foods processed with phosphate additives. A greater understanding of mechanisms and epidemiology of altered phosphorus metabolism and disease in CKD may help clarify the possible role of excess dietary phosphorus as a health risk factor in the general population. PMID:24425728

  6. PTH levels and not serum phosphorus levels are a predictor of the progression of kidney disease in elderly patients with advanced chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toapanta Gaibor, Néstor Gabriel; Nava Pérez, Nathasha Carolina; Martínez Echevers, Yeleine; Montes Delgado, Rafael; Guerrero Riscos, María Ángeles

    At present, there is a high incidence of elderly patients with advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD) and it is important to know the long term progression and the factors that influence it. To analyse the progression of advanced CKD in elderly patients and the influence of bone-mineral metabolism. Retrospective study of 125 patients ≥70years of age with CKD stages 4-5 who started follow-up from January 1, 2007 to December 31, 2008, showing the progression of CKD (measured by the slope of the regression line of the estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] by MDRD-4) over 5years. Progression in the entire group (median and 25th and 75th percentiles): -1.15 (-2.8/0.17) ml/min/1.73m2/year, CKD-4: -1.3 (-2.8/0.03) ml/min/1.73m2/year, CKD-5: -1.03 (-3.0/0.8) ml/min/1.73m2/year; the slope of the regression line was positive in 35 patients (28%: CKD does not progress) and negative in 90 patients (72%: CKD progresses). Negative correlation (Spearman) (slower progression): PTH, albumin/Cr ratio and daily Na excretion (all baseline measurements). No correlation with eGFR, serum P, urinary P excretion, protein intake and intake of P (all baseline measurements). In the linear regression analysis (dependent variable: slope of progression): albuminuria and PTH (both at baseline measurements) influenced this variable independently. Logistic regression (progresses vs. does not progress): PTH, albuminuria and eGFR (all at baseline measurements) influenced significantly. In our group of elderly patients, impairment of renal function is slow, particularly in CKD-5 patients. Albuminuria and PTH at baseline levels are prognostic factors in the evolution of renal function. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Nefrología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. Phosphorus sources (P) plus filter pie with or without azotofos on the available P in the soil

    OpenAIRE

    Maikel Abreu Jiménez; Enrique Parets Selva; Leónides Castellanos González; Leandro Rosatto Moda; Renato de Mello Prado; Aida Margarita Romero Jiménez; Rene Cupull Santana

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the investigation was to evaluate the effect of four phosphorus sources plus filter pie with or without the biofertilizer Azotofos on the available phosphorus in the soil at different moments after the treatment. An experiment in factorial design 4(2)+1 was established, being the four phosphorus sources: rock phosphate, natural phosphate, triple phosphate and Cuban phosphoric rock; two sources of the organic compound to base filter cake enriched with Azotofos micr...

  8. III. Quantitative aspects of phosphorus excretionin ruminants

    OpenAIRE

    Bravo, David; Sauvant, Daniel; Bogaert, Catherine; Meschy, François

    2003-01-01

    International audience; Ruminant phosphorus excretion and metabolism were studied through a database. Faecal endogenous phosphorus is the main pathway of phosphorus excretion and averages 0.85 of total faecal phosphorus. The remaining 0.15 is unabsorbed dietary phosphorus. Faecal endogenous phosphorus is mainly unabsorbed phosphorus, with saliva being the major source, and is correlated to factors influencing saliva secretion (DM intake, physical dietary characteristics and dietary phosphorus...

  9. phosphorus retention data and metadata

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — phosphorus retention in wetlands data and metadata. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Lane , C., and B. Autrey. Phosphorus retention of...

  10. Phosphorus in Agriculture : 100 % Zero

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schnug, Ewald; De Kok, Luit J.

    2016-01-01

    Phosphorus is essential for all living organisms, reserves in geogenic deposits are finite, and phosphorus nutrient mining and oversupply are common phenomenons on agricultural soils. Only if the agricultural phosphorus cycle can be closed and the fertilized nutrient been utilized completely,

  11. Ethanol and dietary unsaturated fat (corn oil/linoleic acid enriched) cause intestinal inflammation and impaired intestinal barrier defense in mice chronically fed alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirpich, Irina A; Feng, Wenke; Wang, Yuhua; Liu, Yanlong; Beier, Juliane I; Arteel, Gavin E; Falkner, K Cameron; Barve, Shirish S; McClain, Craig J

    2013-05-01

    Alcohol and dietary fat both play an important role in alcohol-mediated multi-organ pathology, including gut and liver. In the present study we hypothesized that the combination of alcohol and dietary unsaturated fat (USF) would result in intestinal inflammatory stress and mucus layer alterations, thus contributing to disruption of intestinal barrier integrity. C57BL/6N mice were fed Lieber-DeCarli liquid diets containing EtOH and enriched in USF (corn oil/linoleic acid) or SF (medium chain triglycerides: beef tallow) for 8 weeks. Intestinal histology, morphometry, markers of inflammation, as well as levels of mucus protective factors were evaluated. Alcohol and dietary USF triggered an intestinal pro-inflammatory response, characterized by increase in Tnf-α, MCP1, and MPO activity. Further, alcohol and dietary USF, but not SF, resulted in alterations of the intestinal mucus layer, characterized by decreased expression of Muc2 in the ileum. A strong correlation was observed between down-regulation of the antimicrobial factor Cramp and increased Tnf-α mRNA. Therefore, dietary unsaturated fat (corn oil/LA enriched) is a significant contributing factor to EtOH-mediated intestinal inflammatory response and mucus layer alterations in rodents. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Phosphorus-rich structures and capsular architecture in Cryptococcus neoformans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Caroline L; Gomes, Fabio M; Girard-Dias, Wendell; Almeida, Fernando P; Albuquerque, Priscila C; Kretschmer, Matthias; Kronstad, James W; Frases, Susana; de Souza, Wanderley; Rodrigues, Marcio L; Miranda, Kildare

    2017-03-01

    In this study, we aimed to analyze the relationship of phosphorus-rich structures with surface architecture in Cryptococcus neoformans. Phosphorus-rich structures in C. neoformans were analyzed by combining fluorescence microscopy, biochemical extraction, scanning electron microscopy, electron probe x-ray microanalysis and 3D reconstruction of high pressure frozen and freeze substituted cells by focused ion beam-scanning electron microscopy (FIB-SEM). Intracellular and surface phosphorus-enriched structures were identified. These molecules were required for capsule assembly, as demonstrated in experiments using polysaccharide incorporation by capsule-deficient cells and mutants with defects in polyphosphate synthesis. The demonstration of intracellular and cell wall-associated polyphosphates in C. neoformans may lead to future studies involving their participation in both physiologic and pathogenic events.

  13. Effect of Sludge Type on Enhanced Biological Phosphorus Removal in Sequencing Batch Reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xing; Gao, Dawen; Zhang, Baihui

    2010-11-01

    Aerobic granulation technology has become a novel biotechnology for wastewater treatment. However, the study of distinct properties and characteristics of phosphorus removal between granules and flocculent sludge are still sparse in EBPR. Two SBRs were concurrently operated to investigate the different phosphorus removal characteristics between granules (R1) and flocculate sludge (R2). Results indicated that R2 had a faster progress for enriching phosphorus-accumulating organisms compared with R1, and the phosphorus removal reached the steady state after 40 days in R1 but only 30 days in R2. The moisture content of granules (85.63%) was smaller than that (91.36%) in R2, and the granules had a higher removal efficiency of NH4+-N. However, flocculent sludge could release and take up more phosphorus. The special phosphorus release rate (SPRR) and special phosphorus uptake rate (SPUR) were 8.818 mg/gVSSṡh and 9.921 mg/gVSSṡh in R2 which were consistently larger than that (0.999 mg/gVSSṡh and 0.754 mg/gVSSṡh) in R1. The results of DGGE of PCR-amplified 16SrDNA fragments revealed that the diversity and the amount of phosphorus accumulating microbial of bacteria in flocculent sludge were much more than that in the granules. It can be concluded that the flocculent sludge showed a better phosphorus removal.

  14. [Study on phosphorus removal capability of constructed wetlands filled with broken bricks].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhen; Liu, Chao-Xiang; Li, Peng-Yu; Dong, Jian; Liu, Lin; Zhu, Ge-Fu

    2012-12-01

    Physico-chemical properties of broken bricks (BB) were determined, as well as its phosphorus adsorption ability. The results showed that BB was appropriate for enrichment of microorganisms and growth of plants as filter medium in CWs, in addition, BB had high phosphorus adsorption ability. A vertical subsurface flow constructed wetland (VSSF) filled with BB was constructed in order to investigate the phosphorus removal effect of domestic sewage, and the phosphorus removal mechanism of VSSF was also explored. The results showed that the phosphorus removal rate of VSSF was more than 90%, which remained stable when the hydraulic loading rate was 5 cm x d(-1) and the running time was 1 a; adsorption and precipitation within BB played the greatest role in phosphorus removal; distribution characteristics of total phosphorus in the filter media were attributed to the vertical flow state of wastewater in the system, besides, the contents and chemical forms of elements which could precipitate with phosphorus should be principal factors for the phosphorus removal processes of BB. Therefore, BB might be an ideal filter medium used in CWs.

  15. Moderate chronic administration of Vineatrol-enriched red wines improves metabolic, oxidative, and inflammatory markers in hamsters fed a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romain, Cindy; Bresciani, Letizia; Gaillet, Sylvie; Feillet-Coudray, Christine; Calani, Luca; Bonafos, Béatrice; Vidé, Joris; Rugani, Nathalie; Ramos, Jeanne; Del Rio, Daniele; Cristol, Jean-Paul; Rouanet, Jean-Max

    2014-06-01

    High-fat (HF) diets contribute to the development of cardiovascular diseases and the metabolic syndrome. This study was undertaken to investigate the beneficial effects of Vineatrol®-enriched red wines on blood lipids, oxidative stress and inflammation, and the role of some metabolic pathway regulatory proteins. Golden Syrian hamsters received an HF diet for 13 wk, in the presence or absence of red wines supplemented with Vineatrol® (RWV) or not. The HF diet increased plasma cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, and insulin, which were attenuated by RWV treatment. RWV protected against the HF-induced increase in liver nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase activity and spared antioxidant enzyme activities. RWV did not reduce either liver steatosis or increased plasma leptin due to the HF diet, but greatly improved adiponectinemia. In the liver, RWV affected the inflammatory response by decreasing polymorphonuclear cell number and lowering TNF-α and IL-6 levels. Moreover, the increase in NF-κB activity in the HF group liver was prevented by RWV. Finally, RWV partially corrected low SIRT1 levels due to the HF diet but had no influence on SIRT3 or p-AMPK protein levels. Our studies suggest that RWV is capable of reversing the atherogenic process induced by an HF diet in hamster tissues. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Short-Term and Sub-Chronic Dietary Exposure to Aspalathin-Enriched Green Rooibos (Aspalathus linearis Extract Affects Rat Liver Function and Antioxidant Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Debora van der Merwe

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available An aspalathin-enriched green rooibos (Aspalathus linearis extract (GRE was fed to male Fischer rats in two independent studies for 28 and 90 days. The average dietary total polyphenol (TP intake was 756 and 627 mg Gallic acid equivalents (GAE/kg body weight (bw/day over 28 and 90 days, respectively, equaling human equivalent doses (HEDs of 123 and 102 GAE mg/kg bw/day. Aspalathin intake of 295 mg/kg bw/day represents a HED of 48 mg/kg bw/day (90 day study. Consumption of GRE increased feed intake significantly (p < 0.05 compared to the control after 90 days, but no effect on body and organ weight parameters was observed. GRE significantly (p < 0.05 reduced serum total cholesterol and iron levels, whilst significantly (p < 0.05 increasing alkaline phosphatase enzyme activity after 90 days. Endogenous antioxidant enzyme activity in the liver, i.e., catalase and superoxide dismutase activity, was not adversely affected. Glutathione reductase activity significantly (p < 0.05 increased after 28 days, while glutathione (GSH content was decreased after 90 days, suggesting an altered glutathione redox cycle. Quantitative Real Time polymerase chain reaction (PCR analysis showed altered expression of certain antioxidant defense and oxidative stress related genes, indicative, among others, of an underlying oxidative stress related to changes in the GSH redox pathway and possible biliary dysfunction.

  17. Phosphorus in pig diets

    OpenAIRE

    Lyberg, Karin

    2006-01-01

    Pig feed is mainly based on cereals where phosphorus (P) is mostly present in inositol hexaphosphate (IP6), which is not readily available to monogastric animals. More available P sources are often added to ensure that pigs’ requirements are fulfilled; this results in high excretion levels of P. The digestibility of P depends on phytase activity and amount of IP6 in feedstuffs. The overall aim was to study effects of liquid feeding, P levels and phytase supplementation on digestibility and pe...

  18. Dietary phosphorus effects on characteristics of mechanically separated dairy manure

    OpenAIRE

    Knowlton, K. F.; Love, N. G.; Parsons, C A

    2005-01-01

    One approach to reduce nutrient losses from livestock farms is to apply biological waste treatment systems such as biological nitrogen (N) removal or enhanced biological phosphorus (P) removal (EBPR) to reduce the nutrient content of land-applied waste. The EBPR process takes advantage of the ability of P-accumulating organisms (PAOs) to sequester excess P as polyphosphate granules in their cytoplasms, yielding a P-depleted liquid effluent and a P-enriched biomass. Biological N removal system...

  19. Impact of nitrite on aerobic phosphorus uptake by poly-phosphate accumulating organisms in enhanced biological phosphorus removal sludges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Wei; Li, Boxiao; Yang, Yingying; Wang, Xiangdong; Li, Lei; Peng, Yongzhen

    2014-02-01

    Impact of nitrite on aerobic phosphorus (P) uptake of poly-phosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs) in three different enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) systems was investigated, i.e., the enriched PAOs culture fed with synthetic wastewater, the two lab-scale sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) treating domestic wastewater for nutrient removal through nitrite-pathway nitritation and nitrate-pathway nitrification, respectively. Fluorescence in situ hybridization results showed that PAOs in the three sludges accounted for 72, 7.6 and 6.5% of bacteria, respectively. In the enriched PAOs culture, at free nitrous acid (FNA) concentration of 0.47 × 10(-3) mg HNO₂-N/L, aerobic P-uptake and oxidation of intercellular poly-β-hydroxyalkanoates were both inhibited. Denitrifying phosphorus removal under the aerobic conditions was observed, indicating the existence of PAOs using nitrite as electron acceptor in this culture. When the FNA concentration reached 2.25 × 10(-3) mg HNO2-N/L, denitrifying phosphorus removal was also inhibited. And the inhibition ceased once nitrite was exhausted. Corresponding to both SBRs treating domestic wastewater with nitritation and nitrification pathway, nitrite inhibition on aerobic P-uptake by PAOs did not occur even though FNA concentration reached 3 × 10(-3) and 2.13 × 10(-3) mg HNO₂-N/L, respectively. Therefore, PAOs taken from different EBPR activated sludges had different tolerance to nitrite.

  20. Effects of Excessive Dietary Phosphorus Intake on Bone Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorland, Colby J; Stremke, Elizabeth R; Moorthi, Ranjani N; Hill Gallant, Kathleen M

    2017-08-24

    The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of dietary phosphorus, its sources, recommended intakes, and its absorption and metabolism in health and in chronic kidney disease and to discuss recent findings in this area with a focus on the effects of inorganic phosphate additives in bone health. Recent findings show that increasing dietary phosphorus through inorganic phosphate additives has detrimental effects on bone and mineral metabolism in humans and animals. There is new data supporting an educational intervention to limit phosphate additives in patients with chronic kidney disease to control serum phosphate. The average intake of phosphorus in the USA is well above the recommended dietary allowance. Inorganic phosphate additives, which are absorbed at a high rate, account for a substantial and likely underestimated portion of this excessive intake. These additives have negative effects on bone metabolism and present a prime opportunity to lower total phosphorus intake in the USA. Further evidence is needed to confirm whether lowering dietary phosphorus intake would have beneficial effects to improve fracture risk.

  1. Management of phosphorus load in CKD patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taketani, Yutaka; Koiwa, Fumihiko; Yokoyama, Keitaro

    2017-03-01

    Disturbances in mineral and bone metabolism play a critical role in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular complications in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). The term "renal osteodystrophy" has recently been replaced with "CKD-mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD)", which includes vascular calcification as well as bone abnormalities. In Japan, proportions of the aged and long-term dialysis patients are increasing which makes management of vascular calcification and parathyroid function increasingly more important. There are three main strategies to manage phosphate load: phosphorus dietary restriction, administration of phosphate binder and to ensure in the CKD 5D setting, an adequate dialysis.

  2. Accumulation and enhanced cycling of polyphosphate by Sargasso Sea plankton in response to low phosphorus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Patrick; Dyhrman, Sonya T.; Lomas, Michael W.; Poulton, Nicole J.; Van Mooy, Benjamin A. S.

    2014-06-01

    Phytoplankton alter their biochemical composition according to nutrient availability, such that their bulk elemental composition varies across oceanic provinces. However, the links between plankton biochemical composition and variation in biogeochemical cycling of nutrients remain largely unknown. In a survey of phytoplankton phosphorus stress in the western North Atlantic, we found that phytoplankton in the phosphorus-depleted subtropical Sargasso Sea were enriched in the biochemical polyphosphate (polyP) compared with nutrient-rich temperate waters, contradicting the canonical oceanographic view of polyP as a luxury phosphorus storage molecule. The enrichment in polyP coincided with enhanced alkaline phosphatase activity and substitution of sulfolipids for phospholipids, which are both indicators of phosphorus stress. Further, polyP appeared to be liberated preferentially over bulk phosphorus from sinking particles in the Sargasso Sea, thereby retaining phosphorus in shallow waters. Thus, polyP cycling may form a feedback loop that attenuates the export of phosphorus when it becomes scarce, contributes bioavailable P for primary production, and supports the export of carbon and nitrogen via sinking particles.

  3. Accumulation and enhanced cycling of polyphosphate by Sargasso Sea plankton in response to low phosphorus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Patrick; Dyhrman, Sonya T; Lomas, Michael W; Poulton, Nicole J; Van Mooy, Benjamin A S

    2014-06-03

    Phytoplankton alter their biochemical composition according to nutrient availability, such that their bulk elemental composition varies across oceanic provinces. However, the links between plankton biochemical composition and variation in biogeochemical cycling of nutrients remain largely unknown. In a survey of phytoplankton phosphorus stress in the western North Atlantic, we found that phytoplankton in the phosphorus-depleted subtropical Sargasso Sea were enriched in the biochemical polyphosphate (polyP) compared with nutrient-rich temperate waters, contradicting the canonical oceanographic view of polyP as a luxury phosphorus storage molecule. The enrichment in polyP coincided with enhanced alkaline phosphatase activity and substitution of sulfolipids for phospholipids, which are both indicators of phosphorus stress. Further, polyP appeared to be liberated preferentially over bulk phosphorus from sinking particles in the Sargasso Sea, thereby retaining phosphorus in shallow waters. Thus, polyP cycling may form a feedback loop that attenuates the export of phosphorus when it becomes scarce, contributes bioavailable P for primary production, and supports the export of carbon and nitrogen via sinking particles.

  4. [Information about phosphorus additives and nutritional counseling].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kido, Shinsuke; Nomura, Kengo; Sasaki, Shohei; Shiozaki, Yuji; Segawa, Hiroko; Tatsumi, Sawako

    2012-10-01

    Hyperphosphatemia is a common disorder in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) , and may result in hyperparathyroidism and renal osteodystrophy. Hyperphosphatemia also may contribute to deterioration vascular calcification and increase mortality. Hence, correction and prevention of hyperphosphatemia is a main component of the management of CKD. This goal is usually approached both by administering phosphorus binders and by restricting dietary phosphorus (P) intake. Dietary intake of phosphorus (P) is derived largely from foods with high protein content or food additives and is an important determinant of P balance in patient with CKD. Food additives (PO4) can dramatically increase the amount of P consumed in the daily diet, especially because P is more readily absorbed in its inorganic form. In addition, information about the P content and type in prepared foods is often unavailable or misleading. Therefore, during dietary counseling of patients with CKD, we recommended that they consider both the absolute dietary P content and the P-to-protein ratio of foods and meals including food additives.

  5. Sustainable Phosphorus Measures: Strategies and Technologies for Achieving Phosphorus Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart White

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Phosphorus underpins the world’s food systems by ensuring soil fertility, maximising crop yields, supporting farmer livelihoods and ultimately food security. Yet increasing concerns around long-term availability and accessibility of the world’s main source of phosphorus—phosphate rock, means there is a need to investigate sustainable measures to buffer the world’s food systems against the long and short-term impacts of global phosphorus scarcity. While the timeline of phosphorus scarcity is contested, there is consensus that more efficient use and recycling of phosphorus is required. While the agricultural sector will be crucial in achieving this, sustainable phosphorus measures in sectors upstream and downstream of agriculture from mine to fork will also need to be addressed. This paper presents a comprehensive classification of all potential phosphorus supply- and demand-side measures to meet long-term phosphorus needs for food production. Examples range from increasing efficiency in the agricultural and mining sector, to technologies for recovering phosphorus from urine and food waste. Such measures are often undertaken in isolation from one another rather than linked in an integrated strategy. This integrated approach will enable scientists and policy-makers to take a systematic approach when identifying potential sustainable phosphorus measures. If a systematic approach is not taken, there is a risk of inappropriate investment in research and implementation of technologies and that will not ultimately ensure sufficient access to phosphorus to produce food in the future. The paper concludes by introducing a framework to assess and compare sustainable phosphorus measures and to determine the least cost options in a given context.

  6. Effect of branched-chain amino acid-enriched nutritional supplementation on interferon therapy in Japanese patients with chronic hepatitis C virus infection: a retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagao Yumiko

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aims of this study were to evaluate the effects of nutritional supplementation with branched-chain amino acids (BCAA with zinc component (Aminofeel® on adherence to and outcome of therapy in patients treated with interferon (IFN for chronic hepatitis C and cirrhosis and to determine whether to recommend the supplement. Methods In this retrospective study, 51 patients who received IFN therapy were investigated among 203 consecutive patients who visited our hospital and were advised regarding the potential benefit of taking Aminofeel®. Each patient was free to choose whether to purchase and take Aminofeel®. Results Twenty four patients (group 1-A took Aminofeel® during standard IFN therapy and 13 (group 1-B did not. Low-dose, long-term IFN (maintenance therapy, mainly peglated (Peg-IFN alpha 2a, was administered to 14 patients who were difficult to treat, because of no effect or harmful side effects with standard IFN therapy, and who had advanced liver fibrosis. Among the 14, 11 patients (group 2-A took Aminofeel® and 3 (group 2-B did not. The prevalence of obesity was significantly higher (P=0.04 in group 1-A than in group 1-B. The rate of adherence to IFN therapy was higher in group 1-A (83.3% than in group 1-B (53.8%, P=0.05. There were no significant differences between the two groups in the rates of sustained virological response (SVR to IFN therapy. According to multivariate analysis, two factors, SVR and intake of Aminofeel®, were associated with successful adherence to IFN therapy. The adjusted odds ratios for these two factors were 13.25 and 12.59, respectively, and each was statistically significant. The SVR rate of maintenance IFN therapy was in 18.2% group 2-A and 0% in group 2-B. Conclusion Our data show that BCAA intake is useful for adherence to and effect of IFN therapy for patients with chronic hepatitis C. Nutritional supplementation with BCAA seems to be useful for HCV-infected patients receiving

  7. Striatal-enriched protein tyrosine phosphatase-STEPs toward understanding chronic stress-induced activation of corticotrophin releasing factor neurons in the rat bed nucleus of the stria terminalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabrowska, Joanna; Hazra, Rimi; Guo, Ji-Dong; Li, Chenchen; Dewitt, Sarah; Xu, Jian; Lombroso, Paul J; Rainnie, Donald G

    2013-12-01

    Striatal-enriched protein tyrosine phosphatase (STEP) is a brain-specific protein tyrosine phosphatase that opposes the development of synaptic strengthening and the consolidation of fear memories. In contrast, stress facilitates fear memory formation, potentially by activating corticotrophin releasing factor (CRF) neurons in the anterolateral cell group of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNSTALG). Here, using dual-immunofluorescence, single-cell reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, Western blot, and whole-cell patch-clamp electrophysiology, we examined the expression and role of STEP in regulating synaptic plasticity in rat BNSTALG neurons and its modulation by stress. Striatal-enriched protein tyrosine phosphatase was selectively expressed in CRF neurons in the oval nucleus of the BNSTALG. Following repeated restraint stress (RRS), animals displayed a significant increase in anxiety-like behavior, which was associated with a downregulation of STEP messenger RNA and protein expression in the BNSTALG, as well as selectively enhancing the magnitude of long-term potentiation (LTP) induced in Type III, putative CRF neurons. To determine if the changes in STEP expression following RRS were mechanistically related to LTP facilitation, we examined the effects of intracellular application of STEP on the induction of LTP. STEP completely blocked the RRS-induced facilitation of LTP in BNSTALG neurons. Hence, STEP acts to buffer CRF neurons against excessive activation, while downregulation of STEP after chronic stress may result in pathologic activation of CRF neurons in the BNSTALG and contribute to prolonged states of anxiety. Thus, targeted manipulations of STEP activity might represent a novel treatment strategy for stress-induced anxiety disorders. © 2013 Society of Biological Psychiatry.

  8. Striatal-enriched protein tyrosine phosphatase - STEPs toward understanding chronic stress-induced activation of CRF neurons in the rat BNST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabrowska, Joanna; Hazra, Rimi; Guo, Ji-Dong; Li, ChenChen; DeWitt, Sarah; Xu, Jian; Lombroso, Paul J.; Rainnie, Donald G.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND STEP is a brain-specific protein tyrosine phosphatase that opposes the development of synaptic strengthening and the consolidation of fear memories. In contrast, stress facilitates fear memory formation, potentially by activating corticotrophin releasing factor (CRF) neurons in the anterolateral cell group of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNSTALG). METHODS Here, using dual-immunofluorescence, single-cell RT-PCR, quantitative RT-PCR, Western blot, and whole cell patch-clamp electrophysiology, we examined the expression and role of STEP in regulating synaptic plasticity in rat BNSTALG neurons, and its modulation by stress. RESULTS STEP was selectively expressed in CRF neurons in the oval nucleus of the BNSTALG. Following repeated restraint stress (RRS), animals displayed a significant increase in anxiety-like behavior, which was associated with a down-regulation of STEP mRNA and protein expression in the BNSTALG as well as selectively enhanced magnitude of long-term potentiation (LTP) induced in Type III, putative CRF neurons. To determine if the changes in STEP expression following RRS were mechanistically related to the facilitation of synaptic strengthening, we examined the effects of intracellular application of STEP on the induction of LTP. STEP completely blocked the RRS-induced facilitation of LTP in BNSTALG neurons. CONCLUSIONS Hence, STEP acts to buffer CRF neurons against excessive activation, while down-regulation of STEP after chronic stress may result in pathological activation of CRF neurons in the BNSTALG and contribute to prolonged states of anxiety. Thus, targeted manipulations of STEP activity might represent a novel treatment strategy for stress-induced anxiety disorders. PMID:24012328

  9. Towards a closed phosphorus cycle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keyzer, M.A.

    2010-01-01

    Summary: This paper stresses the need to address upcoming scarcity of phosphorus, a mineral nutrient that is essential for all life on Earth. Agricultural crops obtain phosphorus from the pool in the soil that can be replenished by recycling of organic material, or by application of inorganic

  10. Associations of socioeconomic status and processed food intake with serum phosphorus concentration in community-living adults: the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Orlando M; Katz, Ronit; Peralta, Carmen A; de Boer, Ian H; Siscovick, David; Wolf, Myles; Diez Roux, Ana; Kestenbaum, Bryan; Nettleton, Jennifer A; Ix, Joachim H

    2012-09-01

    Higher serum phosphorus concentrations are associated with cardiovascular disease events and mortality. Low socioeconomic status is linked with higher serum phosphorus concentration, but the reasons are unclear. Poor individuals disproportionately consume inexpensive processed foods commonly enriched with phosphorus-based food preservatives. Accordingly, we hypothesized that excess intake of these foods accounts for a relationship between lower socioeconomic status and higher serum phosphorus concentration. Cross-sectional analysis. We examined a random cohort of 2,664 participants with available phosphorus measurements in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis, a community-based sample of individuals free of clinically apparent cardiovascular disease from across the United States. Socioeconomic status, the intake of foods commonly enriched with phosphorus-based food additives (processed meats, sodas), and frequency of fast-food consumption. Fasting morning serum phosphorus concentrations. In unadjusted analyses, lower income and lower educational achievement categories were associated with modestly higher serum phosphorus concentration (by 0.02 to 0.10 mg/dL, P processed meat intake or frequency of fast-food consumption with serum phosphorus. In contrast, each serving per day higher soda intake was associated with 0.02 mg/dL lower serum phosphorus concentration (95% confidence interval, -0.04, -0.01). Greater intake of foods commonly enriched with phosphorus additives was not associated with higher serum phosphorus concentration in a community-living sample with largely preserved kidney function. These results suggest that excess intake of processed and fast foods may not impact fasting serum phosphorus concentrations among individuals without kidney disease. Copyright © 2012 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Efficacy and tolerability of buccal buprenorphine in opioid-experienced patients with moderate to severe chronic low back pain: results of a phase 3, enriched enrollment, randomized withdrawal study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimbel, Joseph; Spierings, Egilius L.H.; Katz, Nathaniel; Xiang, Qinfang; Tzanis, Evan; Finn, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A buccal film of buprenorphine (BBUP) was evaluated for safety and efficacy in a multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled, enriched-enrollment, randomized-withdrawal study in opioid-experienced patients (30 to ≤160 mg/d morphine sulfate equivalent) with moderate to severe chronic low back pain taking around-the-clock opioid analgesics. Patients' opioid doses were tapered to ≤30 mg morphine sulfate equivalent before open-label titration with BBUP (range, 150-900 μg every 12 hours). Patients who responded (received adequate analgesia that was generally well tolerated for 14 days) were randomized to receive buprenorphine (n = 254) or placebo (n = 257) buccal film. The primary efficacy variable was the change from baseline to week 12 of double-blind treatment in mean average daily pain-intensity scores using a rating scale of 0 (no pain) to 10 (worst pain imaginable). In the intent-to-treat population, mean pain scores were 6.7 after opioid taper and declined to 2.8 after the BBUP titration period. After randomization, mean pain scores were lower in the BBUP group than in the placebo group; the difference between groups in the mean change from baseline to week 12 was −0.98 (95% CI, −1.32 to −0.64; P pain reductions ≥30% and ≥50% (P low back pain. PMID:27434505

  12. Inoculation Stress Hypothesis of Environmental Enrichment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crofton, Elizabeth J.; Zhang, Yafang; Green, Thomas A.

    2014-01-01

    One hallmark of psychiatric conditions is the vast continuum of individual differences in susceptibility vs. resilience resulting from the interaction of genetic and environmental factors. The environmental enrichment paradigm is an animal model that is useful for studying a range of psychiatric conditions, including protective phenotypes in addiction and depression models. The major question is how environmental enrichment, a non-drug and non-surgical manipulation, can produce such robust individual differences in such a wide range of behaviors. This paper draws from a variety of published sources to outline a coherent hypothesis of inoculation stress as a factor producing the protective enrichment phenotypes. The basic tenet suggests that chronic mild stress from living in a complex environment and interacting non-aggressively with conspecifics can inoculate enriched rats against subsequent stressors and/or drugs of abuse. This paper reviews the enrichment phenotypes, mulls the fundamental nature of environmental enrichment vs. isolation, discusses the most appropriate control for environmental enrichment, and challenges the idea that cortisol/corticosterone equals stress. The intent of the inoculation stress hypothesis of environmental enrichment is to provide a scaffold with which to build testable hypotheses for the elucidation of the molecular mechanisms underlying these protective phenotypes and thus provide new therapeutic targets to treat psychiatric/neurological conditions. PMID:25449533

  13. Reducing phosphorus loading of surface water using iron-coated sand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenenberg, J.E.; Chardon, W.J.; Koopmans, G.F.

    2013-01-01

    Phosphorus losses from agricultural soils is an important source of P in surface waters leading to surface water quality impairment. In addition to reducing P inputs, mitigation measures are needed to reduce P enrichment of surface waters. Because drainage of agricultural land by pipe drainage is an

  14. Low-to-moderate nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations accelerate microbially driven litter breakdown rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    John S. Kominoski; Amy D. Rosemond; Jonathan P. Benstead; Vladislav Gulis; John C. Maerz; David Manning

    2015-01-01

    Particulate organic matter (POM) processing is an important driver of aquatic ecosystem productivity that is sensitive to nutrient enrichment and drives ecosystem carbon (C) loss. Although studies of single concentrations of nitrogen (N) or phosphorus (P) have shown effects at relatively low concentrations, responses of litter breakdown rates along gradients of low-to-...

  15. Mixing rare earth elements with manures to control phosphorus loss in runoff and track manure fate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concern over the enrichment of agricultural runoff with phosphorus (P) from land applied livestock manures has prompted the development of manure amendments that minimize P solubility. We evaluated the effect of mixing two rare earth chlorides, lanthanum chloride and ytterbium chloride, with poultr...

  16. Total Phosphorus in Surface Water

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Excess phosphorus in surface water can result in eutrophication. TOTALP is reported in kilograms/hectare/year. More information about these resources, including the...

  17. Missisquoi Bay Phosphorus Model Addendum

    Science.gov (United States)

    This technical memorandum provides results of an extended load reduction simulation. The memorandum serves as an addendum to the main Missisquoi Bay Phosphorus Mass Balance Model report prepared for the Lake Champlain Basin Program by LimnoTech in 2012

  18. Phosphorus chemistry in everyday living

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Toy, Arthur D. F

    1976-01-01

    The author has drawn on his 35 years of experience as a research scientist in phosphorus chemistry to produce a book that is not only readable to the non-chemist but sophisticated enough to interest...

  19. Dietary Phosphorus Intake and the Kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Alex R; Anderson, Cheryl

    2017-08-21

    Although phosphorus is an essential nutrient required for multiple physiological functions, recent research raises concerns that high phosphorus intake could have detrimental effects on health. Phosphorus is abundant in the food supply of developed countries, occurring naturally in protein-rich foods and as an additive in processed foods. High phosphorus intake can cause vascular and renal calcification, renal tubular injury, and premature death in multiple animal models. Small studies in human suggest that high phosphorus intake may result in positive phosphorus balance and correlate with renal calcification and albuminuria. Although serum phosphorus is strongly associated with cardiovascular disease, progression of kidney disease, and death, limited data exist linking high phosphorus intake directly to adverse clinical outcomes. Further prospective studies are needed to determine whether phosphorus intake is a modifiable risk factor for kidney disease.

  20. Dietary Phosphorus Intake and the Kidney

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Alex R.; Anderson, Cheryl

    2017-01-01

    Although phosphorus is an essential nutrient required for multiple physiological functions, recent research raises concerns that high phosphorus intake could have detrimental effects on health. Phosphorus is abundant in the food supply of developed countries, occurring naturally in protein-rich foods and as an additive in processed foods. High phosphorus intake can cause vascular and renal calcification, renal tubular injury, and premature death in multiple animal models. Small studies in human suggest that high phosphorus intake may result in positive phosphorus balance and correlate with renal calcification and albuminuria. Although serum phosphorus is strongly associated with cardiovascular disease, progression of kidney disease, and death, limited data exist linking high phosphorus intake directly to adverse clinical outcomes. Further prospective studies are needed to determine whether phosphorus intake is a modifiable risk factor for kidney disease. PMID:28613982

  1. Associações entre ingestão energética, proteica e de fósforo em pacientes portadores de doença renal crônica em tratamento hemodialítico Associations between energy, protein, and phosphorus intakes in patients with chronic kidney disease on hemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Entrudo Pinto

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: A nutrição desempenha papel fundamental nas doenças renais. A recomendação nutricional deve ofertar uma dieta hiperproteica, adequada em energia e fósforo segundo o Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative (K/DOQI. É necessário controlar e/ou prevenir as complicações da Doença Renal Crônica (DRC, pois ela impõe desafios clínicos diretamente ligados ao estado nutricional. OBJETIVO: Investigar as associações entre a ingestão energética, proteica e de fósforo em pacientes em hemodiálise (HD. PACIENTES E MÉTODOS: Estudo observacional envolvendo 72 pacientes em HD, em dois hospitais de Porto Alegre/RS/Brasil. Foram coletados dados referentes ao perfil antropométrico (peso, altura e índice de massa corporal - IMC e do registro alimentar de três dias (ingestão de energia, proteína e fósforo. O teste de correlação de Spearman foi utilizado para avaliar as associações entre as variáveis do registro alimentar (p INTRODUCTION: Nutrition plays an important role in kidney disease. The nutritional recommendation is to offer a high-protein diet, adequate in energy and phosphorus according to the Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative (K/DOQI guidelines. Control and/or prevention of the complications of chronic kidney disease (CKD are essential, because CKD poses clinical challenges directly related to the nutritional status. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the possible associations between energy, protein, and phosphorus intakes in hemodialysis (HD patients. METHODS: Observational study involving 72 HD patients from two hospitals in the city of Porto Alegre, Brazil. Anthropometric data [weight, height, body mass index (IMB] were collected and three-day food intake (daily energy, protein, and phosphorus intakes was recorded. Spearman correlation was used to evaluate associations between food intake variables (p < 0.05. RESULTS: The energy, protein, and phosphorus intakes were 28 ± 10 kcal/kg/day, 1,1 ± 0.4 g

  2. [Modelling of phosphorus transfers during haemodialysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chazot, Guillaume; Lemoine, Sandrine; Juillard, Laurent

    2017-04-01

    Chronic kidney disease causes hyperphosphatemia, which is associated with increased cardiovascular risk and mortality. In patients with end-stage renal disease, haemodialysis allows the control of hyperphosphatemia. During a 4-h haemodialysis session, between 600 and 700mg of phosphate are extracted from the plasma, whereas the latter contains only 90mg of inorganic phosphate. The precise origin of phosphates remains unknown. The modelling of phosphorus transfers allows to predict the outcome after changes in dialysis prescription (duration, frequency) with simple two-compartment models and to describe the transfers between the different body compartments with more complex models. Work using 31P nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy performed in animals showed an increase in intracellular phosphate concentration and a decrease in intracellular ATP during a haemodialysis session suggesting an intracellular origin of phosphates. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  3. Increasing dietary phosphorus intake from food additives: potential for negative impact on bone health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Eiji; Yamamoto, Hironori; Yamanaka-Okumura, Hisami; Taketani, Yutaka

    2014-01-01

    It is important to consider whether habitual high phosphorus intake adversely affects bone health, because phosphorus intake has been increasing, whereas calcium intake has been decreasing in dietary patterns. A higher total habitual dietary phosphorus intake has been associated with higher serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) and lower serum calcium concentrations in healthy individuals. Higher serum PTH concentrations have been shown in those who consume foods with phosphorus additives. These findings suggest that long-term dietary phosphorus loads and long-term hyperphosphatemia may have important negative effects on bone health. In contrast, PTH concentrations did not increase as a result of high dietary phosphorus intake when phosphorus was provided with adequate amounts of calcium. Intake of foods with a ratio of calcium to phosphorus close to that found in dairy products led to positive effects on bone health. Several randomized controlled trials have shown positive relations between dairy intake and bone mineral density. In our loading test with a low-calcium, high-phosphorus lunch provided to healthy young men, serum PTH concentrations showed peaks at 1 and 6 h, and serum fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) concentrations increased significantly at 8 h after the meal. In contrast, the high-calcium, high-phosphorus meal suppressed the second PTH and FGF23 elevations until 8 h after the meal. This implies that adequate dietary calcium intake is needed to overcome the interfering effects of high phosphorus intake on PTH and FGF23 secretion. FGF23 acts on the parathyroid gland to decrease PTH mRNA and PTH secretion in rats with normal kidney function. However, increased serum FGF23 is an early alteration of mineral metabolism in chronic kidney disease, causing secondary hyperthyroidism, and implying resistance of the parathyroid gland to the action of FGF23 in chronic kidney disease. These findings suggest that long-term high-phosphorus diets may impair bone health

  4. Increasing Dietary Phosphorus Intake from Food Additives: Potential for Negative Impact on Bone Health123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Eiji; Yamamoto, Hironori; Yamanaka-Okumura, Hisami; Taketani, Yutaka

    2014-01-01

    It is important to consider whether habitual high phosphorus intake adversely affects bone health, because phosphorus intake has been increasing, whereas calcium intake has been decreasing in dietary patterns. A higher total habitual dietary phosphorus intake has been associated with higher serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) and lower serum calcium concentrations in healthy individuals. Higher serum PTH concentrations have been shown in those who consume foods with phosphorus additives. These findings suggest that long-term dietary phosphorus loads and long-term hyperphosphatemia may have important negative effects on bone health. In contrast, PTH concentrations did not increase as a result of high dietary phosphorus intake when phosphorus was provided with adequate amounts of calcium. Intake of foods with a ratio of calcium to phosphorus close to that found in dairy products led to positive effects on bone health. Several randomized controlled trials have shown positive relations between dairy intake and bone mineral density. In our loading test with a low-calcium, high-phosphorus lunch provided to healthy young men, serum PTH concentrations showed peaks at 1 and 6 h, and serum fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) concentrations increased significantly at 8 h after the meal. In contrast, the high-calcium, high-phosphorus meal suppressed the second PTH and FGF23 elevations until 8 h after the meal. This implies that adequate dietary calcium intake is needed to overcome the interfering effects of high phosphorus intake on PTH and FGF23 secretion. FGF23 acts on the parathyroid gland to decrease PTH mRNA and PTH secretion in rats with normal kidney function. However, increased serum FGF23 is an early alteration of mineral metabolism in chronic kidney disease, causing secondary hyperthyroidism, and implying resistance of the parathyroid gland to the action of FGF23 in chronic kidney disease. These findings suggest that long-term high-phosphorus diets may impair bone health

  5. Carbon and phosphorus regulating bacterial metabolism in oligotrophic boreal lakes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vidal, L. O.; Graneli, W.; Daniel, C. B.

    2011-01-01

    respiration and bacterial production responded positively to C + P enrichment for most of the lakes sampled. Bacterial growth efficiency showed a wide range (2.5-28.7%) and low mean value (12%). These variations were not correlated with the DOC concentration. Our results show that heterotrophic bacterial......-P and glucose-C alone or in combination (0.01 and 0.3 mg L(-1), respectively) was added to 1.0 mu m filtered lake water and incubated in darkness at 20 degrees C. Additions of glucose (C) and phosphorus (P) alone did not lead to changes in the rates of bacterial metabolic processes, whereas bacterial...

  6. Enhanced phosphorus reduction in simulated eutrophic water: a comparative study of submerged macrophytes, sediment microbial fuel cells, and their combination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Peng; Xiao, Enrong; Xu, Dan; Li, Juan; Zhang, Yi; Dai, Zhigang; Zhou, Qiaohong; Wu, Zhenbin

    2017-05-13

    The phosphorus reduction in water column was attempted by integrating sediment microbial fuel cells (SMFCs) with the submerged macrophyte Vallisneria spiralis. A comparative study was conducted to treat simulated water rich in phosphate with a control and three treatments: SMFC alone (SMFC), submerged macrophytes alone (macophyte), and combined macrophytes and fuel cells (M-SMFC). All treatments promoted phosphorus flux from the water column to sediments. Maximum phosphorus reduction was obtained in proportion to the highest stable phosphorus level in sediments in M-SMFC. For the initial phosphate concentrations of 0.2, 1, 2, and 4 mg/L, average phosphate values in the overlying water during four phases decreased by 33.3% (25.0%, 8.3%), 30.8% (5.1%, 17.9%), 36.5% (27.8%, 15.7%), and 36.2% (0.7%, 22.1%) for M-SMFC (macrophyte, SMFC), compared with the control. With macrophyte treatment, the obvious phosphorus release from sediments was observed during the declining period. However, such phenomenon was significantly inhibited with M-SMFC. The electrogenesis bacteria achieved stronger phosphorus adsorption and assimilation was significantly enriched on the closed-circuit anodes. The higher abundance of Geobacter and Pseudomonas in M-SMFC might in part explain the highest phosphorus reduction in the water column. M-SMFC treatment could be promising to control the phosphorus in eutrophic water bodies.

  7. Phosphorus adlayers on Platinum (110)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heikkinen, Olli; Riihimäki, Ari; Sainio, Jani; Lahtinen, Jouko

    2017-10-01

    Platinum is a metal utilized in many applications. Its catalytic activity can be decreased due to chemical poisoning caused e.g. by phosphorus. To gain more understanding of its poisoning, we present a study of phosphorus adsorption on a platinum (110) single crystal surface. Using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, we have found that the adsorbate coverage saturates at around 3 monolayers. Annealing the phosphorus-covered platinum surface at 750 °C gives rise to three different ordered adlayer structures, with symmetries of 2 × 3, 11 × 4 and √{ 2} × 1 , from the lowest to the highest coverage, detected with low-energy electron diffraction. We have studied the sample topography with scanning tunnelling microscopy. We also present a tentative model for the observed structures and their evolution.

  8. Phosphorus recovery from waste - methods review

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wzorek, Zbigniew; Gorazda, Katarzyna

    2007-01-01

    According to sustainable development principles, searching for alternative phosphorus sources, especially possible ways of its recycling from waste, should be treated as a preferential problem of the phosphorus industry...

  9. Potential Phosphorus Mobilisation in Peat Soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forsmann, Ditte M.; Kjærgaard, Charlotte

    2012-01-01

    Re-establishment of wetlands on peat soils containing phosphorus bound to iron(III)-oxides can lead to an undesirable phosphorus loss to the aquatic environment due to the reductive dissolution of iron(III)-oxides. Thus it is important to be able to assess the potential phosphorus mobilisation from...... peat soils before a re-establishment takes place. The potential phosphorus mobilisation from a peat soil depends not only on the geochemical characteristics but also on the redox conditions, the hydrological regime in the area as well as the hydro-physical properties of the soil. The hypothesis....... Batch experiments were used to determine the potential phosphorus release for each location. The measured phosphorus release was related to the geochemical characteristic for the respective location. Furthermore, the potential phosphorus release was compared with the measured phosphorus mobilisation...

  10. Natural Phosphorus Sources for the Pacific Northwest

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Phosphorus is a naturally occurring element found in all rocks; the amount varies by the type of rock. The amount of phosphorus in sediments is expected to be...

  11. Phosphorus Flamethrower: A Demonstration Using Red and White Allotropes of Phosphorus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Melissa L.; Person, Eric C.; Bejar, Miriam; Golden, Donnie R.; Powell, Jonathan M.

    2010-01-01

    A demonstration was created to display the unique behavior of a familiar element, phosphorus, and to make chemistry more accessible to the introductory student. The common allotropes of phosphorus and their reactivity are discussed. In this demonstration, the white allotrope of phosphorus is synthesized from the red phosphorus obtained from a…

  12. Enhanced biological phosphorus removal from activated sludge system; Eliminacion biologica del fosfor en aguas residuales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pidre Bocardo, J. R.; Toja Santillana, J.; Alonso Alvarez, E. [Sevilla (Spain)

    1999-06-01

    A literature review of enhanced biological phosphorus removal was performed. This biological removal is based on the selective enrichment of bacteria accumulating inorganic polyphosphate, obtained at a cyclic regime of alternating anaerobic and aerobic conditions; or anaerobic, anoxic and aerobic zones for combined nitrogen and phosphorus removal. Some bacterial groups may to be implicate in this process, the gen Acinetobacter has been the most studied. In this paper a study of phosphorate forms from wastewater for a conventional activated sludge system is presented. (Author) 40 refs.

  13. Serum Phosphorus Levels and the Spectrum of Ankle-Brachial Index in Older Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Jerry; Wassel, Christina L.; Kestenbaum, Bryan R.; Collins, Tracie C.; Criqui, Michael H.; Lewis, Cora E.; Cummings, Steve R.; Ix, Joachim H.

    2010-01-01

    A higher serum phosphorus level is associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) events among community-living populations. Mechanisms are unknown. The ankle-brachial index (ABI) provides information on both atherosclerosis and arterial stiffness. In this cross-sectional study (2000–2002), the authors evaluated the association of serum phosphorus levels with low (phosphorus level was 3.2 mg/dL (standard deviation, 0.4), 6% had a low ABI, and 5% had a high ABI. Each 1-mg/dL increase in serum phosphorus level was associated with a 1.6-fold greater prevalence of low ABI (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.2, 2.1; P phosphorus with high ABI differed by chronic kidney disease (CKD) status (in persons with CKD, prevalence ratio = 2.96, 95% CI: 1.61, 5.45; in persons without CKD, prevalence ratio = 1.14, 95% CI: 0.81, 1.61; interaction P = 0.04). In conclusion, among community-living older men, higher phosphorus levels are associated with low ABI and are also associated with high ABI in persons with CKD. These associations may explain the link between serum phosphorus levels and CVD events. PMID:20237150

  14. [Effect of magnesium ion content on the biological phosphorus removal system in SBR].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xing; Gao, Da-Wen; Liu, Lin

    2011-07-01

    This study investigated the effect of magnesium iron content on the enhanced biological phosphorus removal system, which performed differently at magnesium content of 0 mg/L, 8 mg/L and 24 mg/L (R1-R3). The results indicated appropriate Mg addition could enrich phosphorus accumulating organisms and keep stable running. During the steady state period, phosphorus removal rate declined to below 50% gradually, moreover, the system tended to deteriorate with the shortage of magnesium in R1. However, the system with appropriate magnesium kept the higher phosphorus removal rate (more than 90%). The statistical analysis of the experimental data also showed a strong correlation between Mg and phosphorus concentrations in R2 and R3, the ratios of Mg and P were 0.29-0.59 and 0.25-0.54 in two reactors respectively. In the anaerobic phase of EBPR, the magnesium content, the absolute value of ORP and the phosphates release had a correlation. Meanwhile, magnesium was released together with phosphates in the anaerobic phase, and that would uptake under aerobic conditions. Thus it was obvious that magnesium played a key role on the biological phosphorus removal system.

  15. Comparative proteomic analyses provide new insights into low phosphorus stress responses in maize leaves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kewei Zhang

    Full Text Available Phosphorus deficiency limits plant growth and development. To better understand the mechanisms behind how maize responds to phosphate stress, we compared the proteome analysis results of two groups of maize leaves that were treated separately with 1,000 µM (control, +P and 5 µM of KH2PO4 (intervention group, -P for 25 days. In total, 1,342 protein spots were detected on 2-DE maps and 15.43% had changed (P<0.05; ≥1.5-fold significantly in quantity between the +P and -P groups. These proteins are involved in several major metabolic pathways, including photosynthesis, carbohydrate metabolism, energy metabolism, secondary metabolism, signal transduction, protein synthesis, cell rescue and cell defense and virulence. The results showed that the reduction in photosynthesis under low phosphorus treatment was due to the down-regulation of the proteins involved in CO2 enrichment, the Calvin cycle and the electron transport system. Electron transport and photosynthesis restrictions resulted in a large accumulation of peroxides. Maize has developed many different reactive oxygen species (ROS scavenging mechanisms to cope with low phosphorus stress, including up-regulating its antioxidant content and antioxidase activity. After being subjected to phosphorus stress over a long period, maize may increase its internal phosphorus utilization efficiency by altering photorespiration, starch synthesis and lipid composition. These results provide important information about how maize responds to low phosphorus stress.

  16. Controlling biosolids phosphorus content in enhanced biological phosphorus removal reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaparro, Sean K; Noguera, Daniel R

    2003-01-01

    A methodology to reduce the phosphorus content of biosolids produced by enhanced biological phosphorus removal treatment plants was studied. The process consists of mixing phosphate-rich waste activated sludge (WAS) with either primary sludge or the supernatant from a primary-sludge gravity thickener under anaerobic conditions to induce the release of phosphate from WAS. The solubilized phosphate could then be chemically sequestered and removed from the biosolids. Bench-scale phosphate release experiments were conducted with sludge from the Nine Springs Wastewater Treatment Plant (Madison, Wisconsin) at different mixing ratios. A WAS/primary sludge or WAS/supernatant mixing ratio of 1:1 (by volume) resulted in the highest phosphate release in the batch tests. For experiments with less than 50% WAS (by volume), the total phosphate release was directly proportional to the amount of WAS added. When the mixture contained more than 50% WAS, total phosphate release was limited by the volatile fatty acids (VFAs) available. For the Nine Springs plant optimal biosolids phosphorus could be achieved using a primary sludge/WAS mixing ratio of 1.02 kg volatile suspended solids (VSS)/kg VSS or a supernatant VFA/WAS mixing ratio of 0.028 kg VFA/kg VSS. The expected reduction in phosphorus content would be 35 and 32% if primary sludge or supernatant, respectively, were used.

  17. phosphorus sorption capacity as a guide for phosphorus availability ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Adipala Ekwamu

    occur between phosphate and soil constituents which remove P from the solution phase and render it less variable. This phenomenon is called. P fixation or sorption (the two terms are frequently used interchangeably). Phosphorus deficiency is very common on alkaline calcareous soils due to formation of insoluble calcium ...

  18. Guiding phosphorus stewardship for multiple ecosystem services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phosphorus is vital to agricultural production and water quality regulation. While the role of phosphorus in agriculture and water quality has been studied for decades, the benefits of sustainable phosphorus use and management for society due to its downstream impacts on multiple ecosystem services...

  19. Linking environmental nutrient enrichment and disease emergence in humans and wildlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Pieter T J; Townsend, Alan R; Cleveland, Cory C; Glibert, Patricia M; Howarth, Robert W; McKenzie, Valerie J; Rejmankova, Eliska; Ward, Mary H

    2010-01-01

    Worldwide increases in human and wildlife diseases have challenged ecologists to understand how large-scale environmental changes affect host-parasite interactions. One of the most profound changes to Earth's ecosystems is the alteration of global nutrient cycles, including those of phosphorus (P) and especially nitrogen (N). Along with the obvious direct benefits of nutrient application for food production, anthropogenic inputs of N and P can indirectly affect the abundance of infectious and noninfectious pathogens. The mechanisms underpinning observed correlations, however, and how such patterns vary with disease type, have long remained conjectural. Here, we highlight recent experimental advances to critically evaluate the relationship between environmental nutrient enrichment and disease. Given the interrelated nature of human and wildlife disease emergence, we include a broad range of human and wildlife examples from terrestrial, marine, and freshwater ecosystems. We examine the consequences of nutrient pollution on directly transmitted, vector-borne, complex life cycle, and noninfectious pathogens, including West Nile virus, malaria, harmful algal blooms, coral reef diseases, and amphibian malformations. Our synthetic examination suggests that the effects of environmental nutrient enrichment on disease are complex and multifaceted, varying with the type of pathogen, host species and condition, attributes of the ecosystem, and the degree of enrichment; some pathogens increase in abundance whereas others decline or disappear. Nevertheless, available evidence indicates that ecological changes associated with nutrient enrichment often exacerbate infection and disease caused by generalist parasites with direct or simple life cycles. Observed mechanisms include changes in host/vector density, host distribution, infection resistance, pathogen virulence or toxicity, and the direct supplementation of pathogens. Collectively, these pathogens may be particularly

  20. Enhanced biological phosphorus removal with different carbon sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Nan; Zhou, Yan

    2016-06-01

    Enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) process is one of the most economical and sustainable methods for phosphorus removal from wastewater. However, the performance of EBPR can be affected by available carbon sources types in the wastewater that may induce different functional microbial communities in the process. Glycogen accumulating organisms (GAOs) and polyphosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs) are commonly found by coexisting in the EBPR process. Predominance of GAO population may lead to EBPR failure due to the competition on carbon source with PAO without contributing phosphorus removal. Carbon sources indeed play an important role in alteration of PAOs and GAOs in EBPR processes. Various types of carbon sources have been investigated for EBPR performance. Certain carbon sources tend to enrich specific groups of GAOs and/or PAOs. This review summarizes the types of carbon sources applied in EBPR systems and highlights the roles of these carbon sources in PAO and GAO competition. Both single (e.g., acetate, propionate, glucose, ethanol, and amino acid) and complex carbon sources (e.g., yeast extract, peptone, and mixed carbon sources) are discussed in this review. Meanwhile, the environmental friendly and economical carbon sources that are derived from waste materials, such as crude glycerol and wasted sludge, are also discussed and compared.

  1. Greening the global phosphorus cycle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Withers, Paul J.A.; Elser, James J.; Hilton, Julian; Ohtake, Hisao; Schipper, Willem J.; Dijk, Van Kimo C.

    2015-01-01

    The sustainability of global phosphorus (P) use is emerging as a major societal goal to secure future food, energy, and water security for a growing population. Phosphate rock (PR) is a critical raw material whose inefficiency of use is leading to widespread eutrophication and uncertainties about

  2. [Calcium pros and cons significance and risk of phosphorus supplementation. The risk of dietary phosphorus intake].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohi, Akiko; Nomura, Kengo; Miyamoto, Ken-ichi

    2011-12-01

    Dietary intake of phosphorus (Pi) is an important determinant of Pi balance in patients who have chronic kidney disease (CKD) and a reduced GFR. High dietary Pi burden may promote vascular calcification and cardiovascular events. Recently, Ohnishi and Razzaque suggest that phosphate toxicity accelerates the mammalian aging process and that reducing the phosphate burden can delay the aging (FASEB J 24, 3562, 2010) . Dietary Pi is derived largely from foods with high protein content or food additives. Accurate information on the Pi content of foods is needed to achieve a low Pi intake and effectively manage CKD and the aging. In this review, we discuss the risk of dietary Pi intake in CKD and the aging.

  3. Characterization of Denitrifying Phosphorus Removal Microorganisms in a Novel Two-Sludge Process by Combining Chemical with Microbial Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiming Zou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work focuses on the investigation of denitrifying phosphorus removal organisms (DPB in a novel two-sludge denitrifying phosphorus removal process by combining chemical with microbial analysis. When the two-sludge process operated stably over one year, good phosphorus (P release and P uptake performance of activated sludge samples collected from this process were present in anaerobic and anoxic conditions, respectively, via batch test, showing that the ratio of P release specific rate to P uptake specific rate was 1.31. The analysis of energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS showed that P content of activated sludge samples collected at the end of anoxic phase was 12.3% of dry weight, further demonstrating the existence of microorganisms responsible for phosphorus removal in this two-sludge process. From polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE analysis, the presence of microorganisms mostly belonging to the phyla Firmicutes and Proteobacteria was observed, previously evidenced in the phosphorus removal wastewater treatment process. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH quantitative analysis showed that Accumulibacter responsible for phosphorus removal was dominant in this two-sludge process, accounting for 69.7% of all bacteria in activated sludge. These results obtained from chemical and microbial analysis in this study suggested that denitrifying phosphorus removal microorganisms were completely enriched in the two-sludge process proposed here.

  4. Oxygen enrichment incineration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jeong Guk; Yang, Hee Chul; Park, Geun Il; Kim, Joon Hyung

    2000-10-01

    Oxygen enriched combustion technology has recently been used in waste incineration. To apply the oxygen enrichment on alpha-bearing waste incineration, which is being developed, a state-of-an-art review has been performed. The use of oxygen or oxygen-enriched air instead of air in incineration would result in increase of combustion efficiency and capacity, and reduction of off-gas product. Especially, the off-gas could be reduced below a quarter, which might reduce off-gas treatment facilities, and also increase an efficiency of off-gas treatment. However, the use of oxygen might also lead to local overheating and high nitrogen oxides (NOx) formation. To overcome these problems, an application of low NOx oxy-fuel burner and recycling of a part of off-gas to combustion chamber have been suggested.

  5. Phosphorus Recovery from Ashes of Sewage Sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cornel, Peter; Schaum, Peter

    2003-07-01

    About 90% of the incoming phosphorus load of waste water is eliminated by waste water treatment and transferred into the sewage sludge. Considerable amounts of sewage sludge can not be used agriculturally but are incinerated. Thus the ash from mono sludge incineration plants contains significant amounts of phosphorus (up to 25% P{sub 2}O{sub 5}) and could be used as raw material in fertilizer industry. The ash is hygienically harmless and free of organic substances. The ratio of phosphorus to heavy metals is basically the same as in the sewage sludge. The first step in separating phosphorus from heavy metals is to dissolve phosphorus by extraction. The most promising way seems to be the release of phosphorus with acids or bases. With 1 m sulphuric acid it is possible to release phosphorus completely. By use of acid most of the heavy metals dissolve, too. With caustic soda as solvent, only 30-40% of the phosphorus can be dissolved but the eluate is almost free of heavy metals. The amount of phosphorus which can be released with caustic soda, depends on the applied precipitant (Al or Fe salts) for phosphorus elimination at the waste water treatment. (author)

  6. Cyanobacteria and cyanotoxins: the influence of nitrogen versus phosphorus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew M Dolman

    Full Text Available The importance of nitrogen (N versus phosphorus (P in explaining total cyanobacterial biovolume, the biovolume of specific cyanobacterial taxa, and the incidence of cyanotoxins was determined for 102 north German lakes, using methods to separate the effects of joint variation in N and P concentration from those of differential variation in N versus P. While the positive relationship between total cyanobacteria biovolume and P concentration disappeared at high P concentrations, cyanobacteria biovolume increased continually with N concentration, indicating potential N limitation in highly P enriched lakes. The biovolumes of all cyanobacterial taxa were higher in lakes with above average joint NP concentrations, although the relative biovolumes of some Nostocales were higher in less enriched lakes. Taxa were found to have diverse responses to differential N versus P concentration, and the differences between taxa were not consistent with the hypothesis that potentially N(2-fixing Nostocales taxa would be favoured in low N relative to P conditions. In particular Aphanizomenon gracile and the subtropical invasive species Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii often reached their highest biovolumes in lakes with high nitrogen relative to phosphorus concentration. Concentrations of all cyanotoxin groups increased with increasing TP and TN, congruent with the biovolumes of their likely producers. Microcystin concentration was strongly correlated with the biovolume of Planktothrix agardhii but concentrations of anatoxin, cylindrospermopsin and paralytic shellfish poison were not strongly related to any individual taxa. Cyanobacteria should not be treated as a single group when considering the potential effects of changes in nutrient loading on phytoplankton community structure and neither should the N(2-fixing Nostocales. This is of particular importance when considering the occurrence of cyanotoxins, as the two most abundant potentially toxin producing

  7. Biochar as phosphorus transporter to support the closure of the phosphorus cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soja, Gerhard; Jagerhofer, Reinhard; Fristak, Vladimir; Pfeifer, Christoph

    2017-04-01

    Waste materials rich in phosphorus could partly substitute rock phosphate-based mineral fertilizers. As rock phosphate is listed as critical raw material, measures for increasing the recovery rate of phosphorus and for closing the phosphorus cycle are required. However, direct use of the waste materials as fertilizers are frequently not possible because of legal constraints, adverse side effects because of co-occurring contaminants or hygienic concerns. So this study had the objective to test the appropriateness of carbonizing P-rich residues that can be used as secondary P resources for producing P fertilizers. The resulting biochar or hydrochar products should be tested for the bioavailability of P for plant uptake. Feedstock materials tested as secondary P resources were chicken manure, animal bone flour, sewage sludge, and digestates. These materials were either pyrolyzed at different temperatures, partly with different chemical modifications, or hydrothermally carbonized. The biochar and hydrochar products were analyzed for their total and available P concentrations, and the plant bioavailability was determined with a standardized plant growth test with rye (Neubauer-test). The results showed that biochar produced from a mixture of chicken manure and saw dust was equivalent to a standard phosphate fertilizer (superphosphate) with respect to P available for plant uptake. For most materials, a pyrolysis temperature of 400 °C was slightly more beneficial for P availability than 500 °C. Pyrolytic carbonization mostly was more supportive for plant growth than hydrothermal carbonization of the tested feedstocks. For some feedstocks the addition of sodium carbonate improved the P uptake of the plants without affecting the biomass production. The results show that P-rich waste materials used as secondary resources for carbonization can effectively contribute to increased P recovery, savings in the use of mineral phosphate fertilizers and reduced P loads to non

  8. Uranium Conversion & Enrichment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karpius, Peter Joseph [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-02-06

    The isotopes of uranium that are found in nature, and hence in ‘fresh’ Yellowcake’, are not in relative proportions that are suitable for power or weapons applications. The goal of conversion then is to transform the U3O8 yellowcake into UF6. Conversion and enrichment of uranium is usually required to obtain material with enough 235U to be usable as fuel in a reactor or weapon. The cost, size, and complexity of practical conversion and enrichment facilities aid in nonproliferation by design.

  9. Phosphorus requirement in laying hens

    OpenAIRE

    Lambert, W.; Krimpen, van, M.M.; Star, L.

    2014-01-01

    It was hypothesized that P supply by feed in alternative housing systems can be lowered without negative effects on bone quality and production performance. Therefore, the objectives of the current study were 1) to update the retainable phosphorus (rP) needs of two modern laying hen breeds from 36 to 90 weeks of age housed in an aviary system, 2) to investigate the influence of dietary rP levels on Ca and P content in eggs, manure, carcasses and bones.

  10. Association of dietary phosphorus intake and phosphorus to protein ratio with mortality in hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noori, Nazanin; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar; Kovesdy, Csaba P; Bross, Rachelle; Benner, Debbie; Kopple, Joel D

    2010-04-01

    Epidemiologic studies show an association between higher predialysis serum phosphorus and increased death risk in maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) patients. The hypothesis that higher dietary phosphorus intake and higher phosphorus content per gram of dietary protein intake are each associated with increased mortality in MHD patients was examined. Food frequency questionnaires were used to conduct a cohort study to examine the survival predictability of dietary phosphorus and the ratio of phosphorus to protein intake. At the start of the cohort, Cox proportional hazard regression was used in 224 MHD patients, who were followed for up to 5 years (2001 to 2006). Both higher dietary phosphorus intake and a higher dietary phosphorus to protein ratio were associated with significantly increased death hazard ratios (HR) in the unadjusted models and after incremental adjustments for case-mix, diet, serum phosphorus, malnutrition-inflammation complex syndrome, and inflammatory markers. The HR of the highest (compared with lowest) dietary phosphorus intake tertile in the fully adjusted model was 2.37. Across categories of dietary phosphorus to protein ratios of or =16 mg/g, death HRs were 1.13, 1.00 (reference value), 1.80, and 1.99, respectively. Cubic spline models of the survival analyses showed similar incremental associations. Higher dietary phosphorus intake and higher dietary phosphorus to protein ratios are each associated with increased death risk in MHD patients, even after adjustments for serum phosphorus, phosphate binders and their types, and dietary protein, energy, and potassium intakes.

  11. Phosphorus and Water Quality Paradox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pant, H. K.

    2008-12-01

    Paradoxically, phosphorus (P) is one of the major nutrients for higher agricultural production, as well as it causes eutrophication/algal blooms in aquatic and semi-aquatic systems. Phosphorus loadings from agricultural/urban runoffs into lakes and rivers are becoming a global concern for the protection of water quality. Artificial wetlands are considered as a low cost alternative for treating wastewater including removal of P from sources such as agricultural and urban runoffs. However, the selection of the construction site may well determine the effectiveness of these wetlands. Studies show that P transformations in sediments/ soils are crucial for P sequestration in a wetland rather than the amounts of native P. Using 31Phosphorus Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (31P NMR), previously unreported an active organic P form, phosphoarginine, was identified, and the study indicates that abandonment of P impacted sites may not solve the P loading problem to the water bodies as the organic P compounds would not be as stable as they were thought, thus, can play a detrimental role in eutrophication of water bodies, after all.

  12. Phosphorus availability from rock phosphate: Combined effect of green waste composting and sulfur addition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustamante, M A; Ceglie, F G; Aly, A; Mihreteab, H T; Ciaccia, C; Tittarelli, F

    2016-11-01

    Rock phosphate constitutes a natural phosphorus (P) source for organic farming systems, but with a limiting direct agricultural use due to its poor inherent reactivity. Thus, this work studies the effect of the co-composting of rock phosphate with green wastes and elemental sulfur on phosphorus availability. Six composts were prepared combining different green wastes and rock phosphate in three different proportions (0%, 0.27% and 0.54% P fresh mass basis) and elemental sulfur in two proportions (0% and 0.5% S fresh mass basis). During composting, the temperature of the mixtures was monitored, as were physico-chemical and chemical parameters, especially those related to phosphorus. The co-composting of green wastes with rock phosphate improved phosphorus mobilization and also constituted a viable method to manage green wastes, obtaining P-enriched compost for organic farming systems. Sulfur addition favored the composting process and also phosphorus solubilization, especially in the mixture with the lowest proportion of rock phosphate. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Evolution of the global phosphorus cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhard, Christopher T; Planavsky, Noah J; Gill, Benjamin C; Ozaki, Kazumi; Robbins, Leslie J; Lyons, Timothy W; Fischer, Woodward W; Wang, Chunjiang; Cole, Devon B; Konhauser, Kurt O

    2017-01-19

    The macronutrient phosphorus is thought to limit primary productivity in the oceans on geological timescales. Although there has been a sustained effort to reconstruct the dynamics of the phosphorus cycle over the past 3.5 billion years, it remains uncertain whether phosphorus limitation persisted throughout Earth's history and therefore whether the phosphorus cycle has consistently modulated biospheric productivity and ocean-atmosphere oxygen levels over time. Here we present a compilation of phosphorus abundances in marine sedimentary rocks spanning the past 3.5 billion years. We find evidence for relatively low authigenic phosphorus burial in shallow marine environments until about 800 to 700 million years ago. Our interpretation of the database leads us to propose that limited marginal phosphorus burial before that time was linked to phosphorus biolimitation, resulting in elemental stoichiometries in primary producers that diverged strongly from the Redfield ratio (the atomic ratio of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus found in phytoplankton). We place our phosphorus record in a quantitative biogeochemical model framework and find that a combination of enhanced phosphorus scavenging in anoxic, iron-rich oceans and a nutrient-based bistability in atmospheric oxygen levels could have resulted in a stable low-oxygen world. The combination of these factors may explain the protracted oxygenation of Earth's surface over the last 3.5 billion years of Earth history. However, our analysis also suggests that a fundamental shift in the phosphorus cycle may have occurred during the late Proterozoic eon (between 800 and 635 million years ago), coincident with a previously inferred shift in marine redox states, severe perturbations to Earth's climate system, and the emergence of animals.

  14. Evolution of the global phosphorus cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhard, Christopher T.; Planavsky, Noah J.; Gill, Benjamin C.; Ozaki, Kazumi; Robbins, Leslie J.; Lyons, Timothy W.; Fischer, Woodward W.; Wang, Chunjiang; Cole, Devon B.; Konhauser, Kurt O.

    2017-02-01

    The macronutrient phosphorus is thought to limit primary productivity in the oceans on geological timescales. Although there has been a sustained effort to reconstruct the dynamics of the phosphorus cycle over the past 3.5 billion years, it remains uncertain whether phosphorus limitation persisted throughout Earth’s history and therefore whether the phosphorus cycle has consistently modulated biospheric productivity and ocean-atmosphere oxygen levels over time. Here we present a compilation of phosphorus abundances in marine sedimentary rocks spanning the past 3.5 billion years. We find evidence for relatively low authigenic phosphorus burial in shallow marine environments until about 800 to 700 million years ago. Our interpretation of the database leads us to propose that limited marginal phosphorus burial before that time was linked to phosphorus biolimitation, resulting in elemental stoichiometries in primary producers that diverged strongly from the Redfield ratio (the atomic ratio of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus found in phytoplankton). We place our phosphorus record in a quantitative biogeochemical model framework and find that a combination of enhanced phosphorus scavenging in anoxic, iron-rich oceans and a nutrient-based bistability in atmospheric oxygen levels could have resulted in a stable low-oxygen world. The combination of these factors may explain the protracted oxygenation of Earth’s surface over the last 3.5 billion years of Earth history. However, our analysis also suggests that a fundamental shift in the phosphorus cycle may have occurred during the late Proterozoic eon (between 800 and 635 million years ago), coincident with a previously inferred shift in marine redox states, severe perturbations to Earth’s climate system, and the emergence of animals.

  15. [Therapeutic effect of calcium preparation in phosphorus poisoning following phosphorus burns].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, A J

    1993-07-01

    All of 20 patients with phosphorus burn, admitted from 1987 to 1991, have been cured by intravenous drip of calcium gluconate combined with other therapies. The wounds were washed with tap water, followed by eschar formation in 12 days. The clinical data showed that phosphorus poisoning did not occur if calcium was given very early postburn. Calcium also could abolish or ameliorate clinical manifestations of existing phosphorus poisoning, accelerate the elimination of phosphorus and recovery of damaged organs.

  16. Cheese bread enriched with biofortified cowpea flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Barbosa Monteiro Cavalcante

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The development and enrichment of food are of great importance not only for the industry but also to improve the population's nutrition, where you can create new products or optimize existing ones. The consumption of fortified products in the diet is an option for the control of deficiency diseases. This study aimed to develop enriched cheese bread with whole biofortified cowpea flour and evaluate their acceptance and chemical composition. Two formulations, F1 and F2, were prepared containing 5.6 and 8% of cowpea flour as a substitute for starch, respectively. To check acceptance, three sensory tests were used (Hedonic Scale, Purchase Intent, and Paired Comparison, F1 being sensory viable according to assessors, being chemically analyzed. Minerals were determined by atomic emission spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma source. The moisture was determined by drying at 105 °C, ash by calcination in muffle at 550 °C, proteins by the macro-Kjeldahl method, and lipids by hot extraction in a Soxhlet extractor. Carbohydrates were obtained by difference and the calories were calculated. The addition of cowpea increased the amounts of copper, iron, phosphorus, magnesium, manganese, and zinc, as well as protein and carbohydrate values. On the other hand, there was a reduction of the moisture concerning lipids and the total caloric value compared to the standard formulation. It was concluded , therefore, that the cowpea, a regional raw material in market expansion is presented as an option for the enrichment of baked foods that do not contain gluten, such as cheese bread.

  17. Phosphorus removal in aerated stirred tank reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghigliazza, R.; Lodi, A.; Rovatti, M. [Inst. of Chemical and Process Engineering ``G.B. Bonino``, Univ. of Genoa (Italy)

    1999-03-01

    The possibility to obtain biological phosphorus removal in strictly aerobic conditions has been investigated. Experiments, carried out in a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR), show the feasibility to obtain phosphorus removal without the anaerobic phase. Reactor performance in terms of phosphorus abatement kept always higher then 65% depending on adopted sludge retention time (SRT). In fact increasing SRT from 5 days to 8 days phosphorus removal and reactor performance increase but overcoming this SRT value a decreasing in reactor efficiency was recorded. (orig.) With 6 figs., 3 tabs., 18 refs.

  18. Towards global phosphorus security: A systems framework for phosphorus recovery and reuse options

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cordell, D.; Rosemarin, A.; Schroder, J.J.; Smit, A.L.

    2011-01-01

    Human intervention in the global phosphorus cycle has mobilised nearly half a billion tonnes of the element from phosphate rock into the hydrosphere over the past half century. The resultant water pollution concerns have been the main driver for sustainable phosphorus use (including phosphorus

  19. Influence of feeding various phosphorus sources on apparent digestibility of phosphorus in dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ekelund, A.; Sporndly, R.; Valk, H.; Murphy, M.

    2003-01-01

    The present investigated differences in the apparent digestibility of phosphorus (ADP) in lactating cows fed various feed materials containing organic forms of phosphorus (P) or a highly available inorganic phosphorus source. Cows milking an average of 36 kg energy corrected milk (ECM) were used in

  20. Effect of phosphorus fertilizer application on some forms of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of phosphorus fertilizer application on some forms of phosphorus in ... The addition of organic litter alone had little effect on bicarbonate-extractable ... When litter and phosphorus fertilizer were added together, there was an initial rapid ...

  1. The microbial control of phosphorus fluxes in marine sediments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenbergh, A.K.

    2012-01-01

    This thesis explores how microorganisms affect the release of the key nutrient phosphorus from marine sediments. A detailed understanding of the controls on regeneration of phosphorus from sediments is important because phosphorus availability in surface waters can regulate primary productivity.

  2. Fluctuating plasma phosphorus level by changes in dietary phosphorus intake induces endothelial dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watari, Eriko; Taketani, Yutaka; Kitamura, Tomoyo; Tanaka, Terumi; Ohminami, Hirokazu; Abuduli, Maerjianghan; Harada, Nagakatsu; Yamanaka-Okumura, Hisami; Yamamoto, Hironori; Takeda, Eiji

    2015-01-01

    High serum phosphorus (P) impairs endothelial function by increasing oxidative stress and decreasing nitric oxide production. Serum P levels fluctuate due to circadian rhythms or dietary P intake in healthy people and due to dialysis in end-stage chronic kidney disease patients. Here we examined whether fluctuating plasma P caused by changes in dietary P intake may be involved in endothelial dysfunction, resulting in increased cardiovascular risk. Rats were fed a diet containing 0.6% P for 16 days (control group), or a diet alternating between 0.02% P and 1.2% P (LH group) or between 1.2% P and 0.02% P (HL group) every 2 days; the total amount of P intake among the groups during the feeding period was similar. In the LH and HL groups, endothelial-dependent vasodilation significantly decreased plasma 8-(OH)dG level significantly increased, and the expression of inflammatory factors such as MCP-1 increased in the endothelium as compared with the control group. These data indicate that repetitive fluctuations of plasma P caused by varying dietary P intake can impair endothelial function via increased oxidative stress and inflammatory response. Taken together, these results suggest that habitual fluctuation of dietary P intake might be a cause of cardiovascular disease through endothelial dysfunction, especially in chronic kidney disease patients.

  3. Phosphorus in Sintered Steels: Interaction of Phosphorus with Mo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danninger, H.; Üregen, B.

    2016-10-01

    Phosphorus as an alloy element is quite common in powder metallurgy, the contents industrially used being markedly higher than those present in wrought steels. However, embrittlement effects are reported also for sintered steels, in part depending on the alloy elements present. In this study, the influence of phosphorus addition on the mechanical properties of PM steels alloyed with Mo, as the most common VI group element in sintered steels, was investigated. PM steels of the type Fe-x%Mo-0.7%Cy% P were manufactured with varying contents of Mo and P, respectively. It showed that P activates sintering also in these materials and enhances Mo homogenization, but there is in fact a risk of embrittlement in these steels that however strongly depends on the combination of Mo and P in the materials: If a critical level is exceeded, embrittlement is observed. At low Mo contents, higher P concentrations are acceptable and vice versa, but e.g. in a material Fe-1.5%Mo-0.7%C-0.45%P, pronounced intergranular embrittlement occurs, further enhanced by sinter hardening effects. This undesirable phenomenon is more pronounced at higher sintering temperatures and in case of faster heating/cooling; it was observed both in materials prepared from mixed and prealloyed powders, respectively. This typical intergranular failure observed with embrittled specimens, in particular after impact testing, indicates the precipitation of brittle phases at the grain boundaries, apparently when exceeding the solubility product between Mo and P.

  4. Phosphopeptide enrichment by IEF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maccarrone, Giuseppina; Kolb, Nikolaus; Teplytska, Larysa; Birg, Isabel; Zollinger, Richard; Holsboer, Florian; Turck, Christoph W

    2006-11-01

    In our efforts to improve the identification of phosphopeptides by MS we have used peptide IEF on IPG strips. Phosphopeptides derived from trypsin digests of single proteins as well as complex cellular protein mixtures can be enriched by IEF and recovered in excellent yields at the acidic end of an IPG strip. IPG peptide fractionation in combination with MS/MS analysis has allowed us to identify phosphopeptides from tryptic digests of a cellular protein extract.

  5. Sustainable phosphorus recovery from waste.

    OpenAIRE

    Kleemann, Rosanna

    2016-01-01

    Phosphorus (P) is an essential non-substitutable nutrient for all living organisms, but it is also a dwindling non-renewable resource. Approximately two-thirds of the world’s supply of phosphate rock is located in China, Morocco, and the USA. Phosphate rock is included in the EU list of ‘critical raw materials’ and is ranked 20th in an index of commodity price volatility. P recovery from waste water can help alleviate reliance on imported phosphate and reduce vulnerability to fluctuating pric...

  6. [Dietary reference intakes of phosphorus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uenishi, Kazuhiro

    2012-10-01

    Phosphorus (P) exists at the all organs and plays important physiological roles in the body. A wide range of food contains P, which is absorbed at a higher level (60-70%) and its insufficiency and deficiency are rarely found. P is used as food additives in many processed food, where risk of overconsumption could be an issue. P has less evidence in terms of nutrition. P has the adequate intake and the tolerable upper intake level, for risk reduction of health disorders associated with excess intake, at the Dietary Reference Intakes for Japanese (2010 edition).

  7. Global Fertilizer and Manure, Version 1: Phosphorus Fertilizer Application

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Phosphorus Fertilizer Application dataset of the Global Fertilizer and Manure, Version 1 Data Collection represents the amount of phosphorus fertilizer nutrients...

  8. Virus production in phosphorus-limited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maat, D.S.; van Bleijswijk, J.D.L.; Witte, H.J.; Brussaard, C.P.D.

    2016-01-01

    Earlier studies show that the proliferation of phytoplankton viruses can be inhibited by depletion of soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP; orthophosphate). In natural marine waters, phytoplankton phosphorus (P) availability is, however, largely determined by the supply rate of SRP (e.g. through

  9. Low Phosphorus Diet: Best for Kidney Disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is a low-phosphorus diet useful in managing kidney disease? What foods contain phosphorus? Answers from Rachael Majorowicz, R.D. ... depending on your kidney function. For adults with kidney disease, generally 800 to 1,000 milligrams (mg) of ...

  10. Energy and phosphorus recovery from black water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graaff, de M.S.; Temmink, B.G.; Zeeman, G.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2011-01-01

    Source-separated black water (BW) (toilet water) containing 38% of the organic material and 68% of the phosphorus in the total household waste (water) stream including kitchen waste, is a potential source for energy and phosphorus recovery. The energy recovered, in the form of electricity and heat,

  11. Sustainable use of phosphorus: a finite resource.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, Roland W; Ulrich, Andrea E; Eilittä, Marjatta; Roy, Amit

    2013-09-01

    Phosphorus is an essential element of life and of the modern agricultural system. Today, science, policy, agro-industry and other stakeholder groups are increasingly concerned about the sustainable use of this resource, given the dissipative nature of phosphorus and difficulties in assessing, evaluating, and coping with phosphorus pollution in aquatic and terrestrial systems. We argue that predictions about a forthcoming peak, followed by a quick reduction (i.e., physical phosphate rock scarcity) are unreasoned and stress that access to phosphorus (economic scarcity) is already, and may increasingly become critical, in particular for smallholders farmers in different parts of the world. The paper elaborates on the design, development, goals and cutting-edge contributions of a global transdisciplinary process (i.e. mutual learning between science and society including multiple stakeholders) on the understanding of potential contributions and risks related to the current mode of using phosphorus on multiple scales (Global TraPs). While taking a global and comprehensive view on the whole phosphorus-supply chain, Global TraPs organizes and integrates multiple transdisciplinary case studies to better answer questions which inform sustainable future phosphorus use. Its major goals are to contribute to four issues central to sustainable resource management: i) long-term management of biogeochemical cycles, in particular the challenge of closing the phosphorus cycle, ii) achieving food security, iii) avoiding environmental pollution and iv) sustainability learning on a global level by transdisciplinary processes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Determination of phosphorus requirements of Cowpea ( Vigna ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to determine the phosphorus requirement of cowpea in two locations in southeastern Nigeria (Bende and Umudike) using sorption isotherm. The method used involved equilibrating 3g of soil in 30mls of 0.01m CaCl2 containing various levels of phosphorus at room temperature for 5 days.

  13. Ultrafast pulse generation with black phosphorus

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Diao; Karvonen, Lasse; Ye, Guojun; Lipsanen, Harri; Chen, Xianhui; Sun, Zhipei

    2015-01-01

    Black phosphorus has been recently rediscovered as a new and interesting two-dimensional material due to its unique electronic and optical properties. Here, we study the linear and nonlinear optical properties of black phosphorus thin films, indicating that both linear and nonlinear optical properties are anisotropic and can be tuned by the film thickness. Then we employ the nonlinear optical property of black phosphorus for ultrafast (pulse duration down to ~786 fs in mode-locking) and large-energy (pulse energy up to >18 nJ in Q-switching) pulse generation in fiber lasers at the near-infrared telecommunication band ~1.5 {\\mu}m. Our results underscore relatively large optical nonlinearity in black phosphorus and its prospective for ultrafast pulse generation, paving the way to black phosphorus based nonlinear and ultrafast photonics applications (e.g., ultrafast all-optical switches/modulators, frequency converters etc.).

  14. SEQUENTIAL ELECTRODIALYTIC EXTRACTION OF PHOSPHORUS COMPOUNDS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    The present invention relates to an apparatus for electrodialytic extraction of phosphorus from a particulate material in suspension and to a method for electrodialytic phosphorus recovery, which uses the apparatus. The method may be applied for wastewater treatment, and/or treatment of particulate...... material rich in phosphorus. The present invention provides an apparatus for electrodialytic extraction of phosphorus from a particulate material comprising acidic and/or alkaline soluble phosphorus compounds, in suspension, comprising: • a first electrodialytic cell comprising a first anolyte compartment...... comprising a first anolyte, and a first catholyte compartment comprising a first catholyte, wherein the compartments of the first cell are separated by a cation exchange membrane, wherein the first anolyte is the particulate material in suspension, the first electrodialytic cell configured for exposing...

  15. The Effect of Phosphorus and Sulfur Nanofertilizers on the Growth and Nutrition of Ocimum basilicum in Response to Salt Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zarrin Taj Alipour

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Eutrophication is one of the most serious ecological threats to aquatic environments. It is defined as the enrichment of water bodies by organic matter or surface runoff containing nitrate and phosphate that directly control the growth of algae and other water plants. The use of nanofertilizers increases nutrient use efficiency and consequently reduces soil toxicity and minimizes the adverse effects of the over application of chemical fertilizers. This study was conducted in factorial form of a completely randomized design with four replications to evaluate the effect of phosphorus nanoparticles on the growth and nutrition of basil under salt stress. The first factor was three levels of salt stress, namely, 1, 3, and 6 dS m−1. The second factor was three levels of phosphorus fertilizer, namely, without phosphorus fertilizer (P1, ammonium phosphate (P2, and phosphorus nanoparticles (P3. Powdered elemental sulfur with a particle diameter of <0.6 mm at two rates, namely, 0% (S0 and 20% (S2, was utilized in the experiment. Physiological traits (i.e., chlorophyll content, P uptake, and proline content of leaves were investigated in this study. Plant growth and P uptake decreased with the increase in salinity (P < 0.05. The application of phosphorus nanoparticles significantly increased P uptake in response to salt stress. Phosphorus nanoparticles significantly increased photosynthetic activity and plant weight in response to salt stress. Leaf proline content increased significantly in response to salt stress.

  16. Geochemical behavior of phosphorus and iron in porewater in a mangrove tidal flat and associated phosphorus input into the ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Feng; Liu, Huatai; Guo, Zhanrong; Li, Zhiwei; Wang, Bo; Gao, Aiguo

    2017-11-01

    A thorough understanding of the distribution and geochemical behavior of phosphorus (P) and iron (Fe) across the sediment-water interface (SWI) is essential for estimating the exchange flux between sediment porewater and overlying seawater. In this study, in situ high-resolution diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) technique, ZrO-Chelex DGT, were applied to investigate the depth profiles of dissolved reactive phosphorus (DRP) and ferrous iron (Fe2+) in sediment porewater in a mangrove tidal flat of the Jiulong River estuary, China. The concentrations of DRP and Fe2+, which ranged from 0.014 to 0.288 mg L-1 and 0.003-0.619 mg L-1, respectively, were highly heterogeneous across these profiles. The positive correlation between DRP and Fe2+ concentrations in most parts of the profiles verified the key role of Fe-redox cycling in controlling DRP variations. However, in some parts of the profiles, this coupling relationship was disturbed by the enrichment of mangrove organic matter or biological activity, such as that of macrobenthos and microorganisms. The recirculated seawater fluxes driven by tides and wave setups were calculated to be 23.15 m3 m-1 d-1 and 1.49 × 10-3 m3 m-1 d-1, respectively. Based on these calculated fluxes and end-member concentrations, the net DRP flux into the ocean was calculated to be approximately 1.57 mmol m-2 d-1, which is much larger than the molecular diffusion flux of DRP (1.79 × 10-3 mmol m-2 d-1). These results indicate that the advection of recirculated seawater is a significant pathway to deliver DRP into the ocean and that this kind of internal phosphorus from mangrove tidal flats or muddy coastal zones should be considered in future nutrient budgets of estuaries or coastal oceans.

  17. Predicting phosphorus concentrations in British rivers resulting from the introduction of improved phosphorus removal from sewage effluent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowes, Michael J., E-mail: mibo@ceh.ac.uk [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Maclean Building, Crowmarsh Gifford, Wallingford, Oxfordshire, OX10 8BB (United Kingdom); Neal, Colin; Jarvie, Helen P. [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Maclean Building, Crowmarsh Gifford, Wallingford, Oxfordshire, OX10 8BB (United Kingdom); Smith, Jim T. [School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Burnaby Building, University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth PO1 3QL (United Kingdom); Davies, Helen N. [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Maclean Building, Crowmarsh Gifford, Wallingford, Oxfordshire, OX10 8BB (United Kingdom)

    2010-09-01

    Phosphorus (P) concentration and flow data gathered during the 1990s for a range of British rivers were used to determine the relative contributions of point and diffuse inputs to the total P load, using the Load Apportionment Model (LAM). Heavily urbanised catchments were dominated by sewage inputs, but the majority of the study catchments received most of their annual phosphorus load from diffuse sources. Despite this, almost 80% of the study sites were dominated by point source inputs for the majority of the year, particularly during summer periods when eutrophication risk is greatest. This highlights the need to reduce sewage P inputs to improve the ecological status of British rivers. These modelled source apportionment estimates were validated against land-use data and boron load (a chemical marker for sewage). The LAM was applied to river flow data in subsequent years, to give predicted P concentrations (assuming no change in P source inputs), and these estimates were compared with observed concentration data. This showed that there had been significant reductions in P concentration in the River Thames, Aire and Ouse in the period 1999 to 2002, which were attributable to the introduction of P stripping at sewage treatment works (STW). The model was then used to forecast P concentrations resulting from the introduction of P removal at STW to a 2 or 1 mg l{sup -1} consent limit. For the urbanised rivers in this study, the introduction of phosphorus stripping to a 1 mg l{sup -1} consent level at all STW in the catchment would not reduce P concentrations in the rivers to potentially limiting concentrations. Therefore, further sewage P stripping will be required to comply with the Water Framework Directive. Diffuse P inputs may also need to be reduced before some of the highly nutrient-enriched rivers achieve good ecological status.

  18. [Comparative study of the urinary excretion of boron, calcium, magnesium and phosphorus in postmenopausal women with and without osteoporosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    José Ramón, Vielma; Mora Mora, Marylú; Marino Alarcón, Oscar; Hernández, Gladys; Josefina Linares, Ledy; Urdaneta Romero, Haideé; Arévalo González, Evelia

    2012-03-01

    In order to compare the possible relationship between urinary concentrations of boron, calcium, magnesium and phosphorus in serum and urine of postmenopausal women with and without osteoporosis, we selected 45 postmenopausal women over 47 years of age, divided into two groups: group I clinically healthy postmenopausal women and group II postmenopausal women with osteoporosis, without chronic kidney and hepatic diseases or diabetes mellitus. We determined the boron (B), phosphorus (P), total calcium (Ca) and total magnesium (Mg) in the urine of two hours, by atomic emission spectroscopy with induction-coupled plasma (ICPA-ES). Total calcium and total magnesium in serum were determined by atomic flame absorption spectroscopy (FAAS) and inorganic phosphorus in serum, and creatinine in serum and urine, by molecular absorption spectrometry. The preliminary results suggest the existence of a significant difference (p calcium/ creatinine, magnesium/creatinine and phosphorus/creatinine indexes in the urine of postmenopausal women with osteoporosis.

  19. Trapping phosphorus in runoff with a phosphorus removal structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penn, Chad J; McGrath, Joshua M; Rounds, Elliott; Fox, Garey; Heeren, Derek

    2012-01-01

    Reduction of phosphorus (P) inputs to surface waters may decrease eutrophication. Some researchers have proposed filtering dissolved P in runoff with P-sorptive byproducts in structures placed in hydrologically active areas with high soil P concentrations. The objectives of this study were to construct and monitor a P removal structure in a suburban watershed and test the ability of empirically developed flow-through equations to predict structure performance. Steel slag was used as the P sorption material in the P removal structure. Water samples were collected before and after the structure using automatic samples and analyzed for total dissolved P. During the first 5 mo of structure operation, 25% of all dissolved P was removed from rainfall and irrigation events. Phosphorus was removed more efficiently during low flow rate irrigation events with a high retention time than during high flow rate rainfall events with a low retention time. The six largest flow events occurred during storm flow and accounted for 75% of the P entering the structure and 54% of the P removed by the structure. Flow-through equations developed for predicting structure performance produced reasonable estimates of structure "lifetime" (16.8 mo). However, the equations overpredicted cumulative P removal. This was likely due to differences in pH, total Ca and Fe, and alkalinity between the slag used in the structure and the slag used for model development. This suggests the need for an overall model that can predict structure performance based on individual material properties. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  20. Phosphorus sources (P plus filter pie with or without azotofos on the available P in the soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maikel Abreu Jiménez

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the investigation was to evaluate the effect of four phosphorus sources plus filter pie with or without the biofertilizer Azotofos on the available phosphorus in the soil at different moments after the treatment. An experiment in factorial design 4(2+1 was established, being the four phosphorus sources: rock phosphate, natural phosphate, triple phosphate and Cuban phosphoric rock; two sources of the organic compound to base filter cake enriched with Azotofos microorganisms, only filter cake (without enrichment and a control treatment (without filter pie, neither Azotofos, with three repetitions. The evaluations of the tenor of available P (Bray-2 were carried out at the 30, 60, 90, 120 and 150 days after the installation of the experiment. The tenor of P (Bray-2 was influenced by the sources of P and the enrichment with biofertilizantes (factorial increasing the tenor of available P in front of the control. The triple superphosphate promoted the higher tenors in P in the soil at 60 and 90 days after its application, independently of the presence or not of the organic compound enriched with P solubilizing microorganisms, although this effect didn’t stay stable at the time.

  1. Phosphorus Additives and Albuminuria in Early Stages of CKD: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Alex R; Miller, Edgar R; Anderson, Cheryl A; Juraschek, Stephen P; Moser, Melissa; White, Karen; Henry, Bobbie; Krekel, Caitlin; Oh, Susan; Charleston, Jeanne; Appel, Lawrence J

    2017-02-01

    Little is known about the effects of phosphorus additives on patients with kidney disease. Randomized, double-blind, crossover trial. 31 adults with early stages of presumed chronic kidney disease (estimated glomerular filtration rate ≥ 45mL/min/1.73m2; urine albumin-creatinine ratio sex-specific cutoff points: men ≥ 17mg/g, women ≥ 25mg/g). Higher versus lower phosphorus intake for 3 weeks. Higher phosphorus intake was achieved by the addition of commercially available diet beverages and breakfast bars to diet. Change in 24-hour urine albumin excretion and plasma fibroblast growth factor 23 level. Two 24-hour urine collections and a single fasting blood draw at the end of each period. Mean baseline values for phosphorus intake, 24-hour urine phosphorus excretion, and estimated glomerular filtration rate were 1,113±549 (SD) mg/d, 688±300mg/d, and 74.6±22.0mL/min/1.73m2. Median urine albumin excretion of 82.7 (IQR, 39.6-174.1) mg/d. Although phosphorus intake from study products increased by 993mg/d (Palbuminuria (higher vs lower: 14.3%; 95% CI, -2.5% to 34.0%; P=0.1) or fibroblast growth factor 23 level (higher vs lower: 3.4%; 95% CI, -5.9% to 13.6%; P=0.4). Small sample size, short duration of intervention, changes in background diet during the intervention. A 3-week consumption of higher phosphorus food additives did not significantly increase albuminuria. Further studies are needed to confirm these results. Copyright © 2016 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Cloning the Antibody Response in Humans with Chronic Inflammatory Disease: Immunopanning of Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis (SSPE) Brain Sections with Antibody Phage Libraries Prepared from SSPE Brain Enriches for Antibody Recognizing Measles Virus Antigens In Situ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Gregory P.; Williamson, R. Anthony; Burgoon, Mark P.; Ghausi, Omar; Burton, Dennis R.; Gilden, Donald H.

    2000-01-01

    In central nervous system (CNS) infectious and inflammatory diseases of known cause, oligoclonal bands represent antibody directed against the causative agent. To determine whether disease-relevant antibodies can be cloned from diseased brain, we prepared an antibody phage display library from the brain of a human with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE), a chronic encephalitis caused by measles virus, and selected the library against SSPE brain sections. Antibodies that were retrieved reacted strongly with measles virus cell extracts by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and were specific for the measles virus nucleocapsid protein. These antibodies immunostained cells in different SSPE brains but not in control brain. Our data provide the first demonstration that diseased brain can be used to select in situ for antibodies directed against the causative agent of disease and point to the potential usefulness of this approach in identifying relevant antibodies in chronic CNS or systemic inflammatory diseases of unknown cause. PMID:10627565

  3. Influence of integrated phosphorus supply and plant growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To guarantee a sufficient phosphorus supply for plants, a rapid and permanent mobilization of phosphorus from the labile phosphorus fractions is necessary, because phosphorus concentrations in soil solution are generally low. Several plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) have shown potential to enhance ...

  4. 49 CFR 173.188 - White or yellow phosphorus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false White or yellow phosphorus. 173.188 Section 173... Class 7 § 173.188 White or yellow phosphorus. Phosphorus, white or yellow, when offered for... pound) of phosphorus with screw-top closures; or (2) Steel drums (1A1) not over 250 L (66 gallons...

  5. Nutrient enrichment coupled with sedimentation favors sea anemones over corals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Pi-Jen; Hsin, Min-Chieh; Huang, Yen-Hsun; Fan, Tung-Yung; Meng, Pei-Jie; Lu, Chung-Cheng; Lin, Hsing-Juh

    2015-01-01

    Fine sediments, which account for the majority of total fluvial sediment flux, have been suggested to degrade coral reefs on a global scale. Furthermore, sediment impacts can be exacerbated by extreme rainfall events associated with global climate change and anthropogenic nutrient enrichment. We report the findings from a series of mesocosm experiments exploring the effects of short-term sedimentation and nutrient enrichment on the interactions between the hard coral Acropora muricata, the sea anemone Mesactinia ganesis, and the green macroalga Codium edule. Mesocosms were manipulated to simulate either unimpacted reefs or reefs exposed to elevated levels of fine sediments for 10 or 14 days to simulate the effects of heavy rainfall. The first and second experiments were aimed to examine the effects of inorganic and organic sediments, respectively. The third experiment was designed to examine the interactive effects of nutrient enrichment and elevated sediment loads. Neither inorganic nor organic sediment loadings significantly affected the physiological performance of the coral, but, importantly, did reduce its ability to compete with other organisms. Photosynthetic efficiencies of both the green macroalga and the sea anemone increased in response to both sediment loadings when they were simultaneously exposed to nutrient enrichment. While organic sediment loading increased the nitrogen content of the green macroalga in the first experiment, inorganic sediment loading increased its phosphorus content in the second experiment. The coral mortality due to sea anemones attack was significantly greater upon exposure to enriched levels of organic sediments and nutrients. Our findings suggest that the combined effects of short-term sedimentation and nutrient enrichment could cause replacement of corals by sea anemones on certain coral reefs.

  6. Nutrient enrichment coupled with sedimentation favors sea anemones over corals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pi-Jen Liu

    Full Text Available Fine sediments, which account for the majority of total fluvial sediment flux, have been suggested to degrade coral reefs on a global scale. Furthermore, sediment impacts can be exacerbated by extreme rainfall events associated with global climate change and anthropogenic nutrient enrichment. We report the findings from a series of mesocosm experiments exploring the effects of short-term sedimentation and nutrient enrichment on the interactions between the hard coral Acropora muricata, the sea anemone Mesactinia ganesis, and the green macroalga Codium edule. Mesocosms were manipulated to simulate either unimpacted reefs or reefs exposed to elevated levels of fine sediments for 10 or 14 days to simulate the effects of heavy rainfall. The first and second experiments were aimed to examine the effects of inorganic and organic sediments, respectively. The third experiment was designed to examine the interactive effects of nutrient enrichment and elevated sediment loads. Neither inorganic nor organic sediment loadings significantly affected the physiological performance of the coral, but, importantly, did reduce its ability to compete with other organisms. Photosynthetic efficiencies of both the green macroalga and the sea anemone increased in response to both sediment loadings when they were simultaneously exposed to nutrient enrichment. While organic sediment loading increased the nitrogen content of the green macroalga in the first experiment, inorganic sediment loading increased its phosphorus content in the second experiment. The coral mortality due to sea anemones attack was significantly greater upon exposure to enriched levels of organic sediments and nutrients. Our findings suggest that the combined effects of short-term sedimentation and nutrient enrichment could cause replacement of corals by sea anemones on certain coral reefs.

  7. Adaptive Evolution of Phosphorus Metabolism in Prochlorococcus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casey, John R; Mardinoglu, Adil; Nielsen, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Inorganic phosphorus is scarce in the eastern Mediterranean Sea, where the high-light-adapted ecotype HLI of the marine picocyanobacterium Prochlorococcus marinus thrives. Physiological and regulatory control of phosphorus acquisition and partitioning has been observed in HLI both in culture and ...... and an extremely high proportion of essential metabolic genes (47%; defined as the percentage of lethal in silico gene knockouts). These strategies are examples of nutrient-controlled adaptive evolution and confer a dramatic growth rate advantage to MED4 in phosphorus-limited regions. ...

  8. Enhancing of catalytic properties of vanadia via surface doping with phosphorus using atomic layer deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strempel, Verena E.; Naumann d' Alnoncourt, Raoul, E-mail: r.naumann@bascat.tu-berlin.de [BasCat - UniCat BASF JointLab, Technische Universität Berlin, Sekr. EW K 01, Hardenbergstraße 36, 10623 Berlin (Germany); Löffler, Daniel [Process Research and Chemical Engineering, BASF SE, Carl-Bosch-Straße 38, 67056 Ludwigshafen (Germany); Kröhnert, Jutta; Skorupska, Katarzyna; Johnson, Benjamin [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Fritz-Haber-Institut der Max-Planck-Gesellschaft, Faradayweg 4-6, 14195 Berlin (Germany); Driess, Matthias [BasCat - UniCat BASF JointLab, Technische Universität Berlin, Sekr. EW K 01, Hardenbergstraße 36, 10623 Berlin, Germany and Technische Universität Berlin, Institut für Chemie, Sekr. C2, Straße des 17. Juni 135, 10623 Berlin (Germany); Rosowski, Frank [BasCat - UniCat BASF JointLab, Technische Universität Berlin, Sekr. EW K 01, Hardenbergstraße 36, 10623 Berlin, Germany and Process Research and Chemical Engineering, BASF SE, Carl-Bosch-Straße 38, 67056 Ludwigshafen (Germany)

    2016-01-15

    Atomic layer deposition is mainly used to deposit thin films on flat substrates. Here, the authors deposit a submonolayer of phosphorus on V{sub 2}O{sub 5} in the form of catalyst powder. The goal is to prepare a model catalyst related to the vanadyl pyrophosphate catalyst (VO){sub 2}P{sub 2}O{sub 7} industrially used for the oxidation of n-butane to maleic anhydride. The oxidation state of vanadium in vanadyl pyrophosphate is 4+. In literature, it was shown that the surface of vanadyl pyrophosphate contains V{sup 5+} and is enriched in phosphorus under reaction conditions. On account of this, V{sub 2}O{sub 5} with the oxidation state of 5+ for vanadium partially covered with phosphorus can be regarded as a suitable model catalyst. The catalytic performance of the model catalyst prepared via atomic layer deposition was measured and compared to the performance of catalysts prepared via incipient wetness impregnation and the original V{sub 2}O{sub 5} substrate. It could be clearly shown that the dedicated deposition of phosphorus by atomic layer deposition enhances the catalytic performance of V{sub 2}O{sub 5} by suppression of total oxidation reactions, thereby increasing the selectivity to maleic anhydride.

  9. A novel post denitrification configuration for phosphorus recovery using polyphosphate accumulating organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Pan Yu; Cheng, Ka Yu; Kaksonen, Anna H; Sutton, David C; Ginige, Maneesha P

    2013-11-01

    Enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) has been widely used to remove phosphorus (P) from wastewater. In this study we report a novel modification to the EBPR approach, namely enhanced biological phosphorus removal and recovery (EBPR-r) that facilitates biological recovery of P from wastewater using a post denitrification configuration. The novel approach consists of two major steps. In the first step, a biofilm of phosphorus accumulating organisms (PAOs) is exposed to a wastewater stream in the absence of active aeration, during which P is taken up by the biofilm using nitrate and residual dissolved oxygen as electron acceptors. Thus, P and nitrogen (N) removal from wastewater is achieved. During the second step, the P enriched biofilm is exposed to a smaller recovery stream supplemented with an external carbon source to facilitate P release under anaerobic conditions. This allows P to be recovered as a concentrated liquid. The EBPR-r process was able to generate a P recovery stream four time more concentrated (28 mg-P/L) than the wastewater stream (7 mg-P/L), while removing nitrate (denitrification) from the wastewater stream. Repeated exposure of the biofilm (10 P-uptake and release cycles) to a recovery stream yielded up to 100 mg-P/L. Overall, EBPR-r is the first post denitrification strategy that can also facilitate P recovery during secondary wastewater treatment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Eutrophication and macroalgal blooms in temperate and tropical coastal waters: nutrient enrichment experiments with Ulva spp.

    OpenAIRE

    Teichberg, Mirta; Fox, Sophia E; Olsen, Ylva S.; Valiela, Ivan; Martinetto, Paulina; Iribarne, Oscar; Muto, Elizabeti Yuriko; PETTI, MONICA A.V.; Corbisier, Tha?s N; Soto-Jim?nez, Mart?n; P?ez-Osuna, Federico; Castro, Paula; Freitas, Helena; Zitelli, Andreina; Cardinaletti, Massimo

    2010-01-01

    Receiving coastal waters and estuaries are among the most nutrient-enriched environments on earth, and one of the symptoms of the resulting eutrophication is the proliferation of opportunistic, fast-growing marine seaweeds. Here, we used a widespread macroalga often involved in blooms, Ulva spp., to investigate how supply of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P), the two main potential growth-limiting nutrients, influence macroalgal growth in temperate and tropical coastal waters ranging from low- ...

  11. Integrating chronic care with primary care activities: enriching healthcare staff knowledge and skills and improving glycemic control of a cohort of people with diabetes through the First Line Diabetes Care Project in the Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace Marie V. Ku

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study investigated the effects of integrating primary chronic care with current healthcare activities in two local government health units (LGHU of the Philippines on knowledge and skills of the LGHU staff and clinical outcomes for people with diabetes. Design: Integration was accomplished through health service reorganization, (redistribution of chronic care tasks, and training of LGHU staff. Levels of the staff's pre- and post-training diabetes knowledge and of their self-assessment of diabetes care-related skills were measured. Primary diabetes care with emphasis on self-care development was provided to a cohort of people with diabetes. Glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c and obesity measures were collected prior to and one year after full project implementation. Results: The training workshop improved diabetes knowledge (p<0.001 and self-assessed skills (p<0.001 of the LGHU staff. Significant reductions in HbA1c (p<0.001, waist–hip ratio (p<0.001 and waist circumference (p=0.011 of the cohort were noted. Although the reduction in HbA1c was somewhat greater among those whose community-based care providers showed improvement in knowledge and self-assessed skills, the difference was not statistically significant. Conclusions: Primary care for chronic conditions such as diabetes may be integrated with other healthcare activities in health services of low-to-middle-income countries such as the Philippines, utilizing pre-existing human resources for health, and may improve clinical endpoints.

  12. Development of a Phosphorus-Eutrophication Management Strategy for Vermont: Evaluations Available Phosphorus Loads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-11-01

    London, 1985). 6 K. H. Reckhow, and S. C. Chapra , Engineering Approaches for Lake Management, Vols I and II (Butterworth Publishers, 1983). 7 K. H...Reckhow and S. C. Chapra . 3Phosphorus Management of the Great Lakes, Final Report of the Phosphorus Management Strategies Task Force (July 1980). 𔄃D. B...algal growth, 97 9 3 S. C. Chapra , H. D. Wicke, T. M. Heidtke, "Effectiveness of Treatment to Meet Phosphorus Objectives in the Great Lakes," J. Water

  13. The Effect of Various Boiling Conditions on Reduction of Phosphorus and Protein in Meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, Sakiko; Sakuma, Masae; Morimoto, Yuuka; Arai, Hidekazu

    2015-11-01

    Dietary phosphorus restriction and intake adequate amount of protein play a prominent role in control of hyperphosphatemia and prevention of protein-energy malnutrition for chronic kidney disease (CKD) and dialysis patients. To reduce dietary phosphorus intake, we focused on boiling, which can affect the bioavailability of nutrients by changing mineral solubility and breaking down food structure. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of boiling on the phosphorus and protein content of beef. We boiled beef in differing fluid mediums, varied the size of the meat, method of boiling and cooking time, and compared the effects on phosphorus reduction. We evaluated the retention values of phosphorus, protein, and phosphorus to protein ratio in beef before and after boiling. We used differing fluid mediums (soft water, hard water, 5% solution of acetate, and 0.5% sodium bicarbonate water), varied the size of the meat (block, sliced, and cubed), different boiling methods (normal pan and pressure cooker [PC]), and different cooking time (10 and 30 minutes). The soft water sample had lower phosphorus to protein ratio compared with the hard water, 5% solution of acetate, and 0.5% sodium bicarbonate water sample. The phosphorus content of the sliced meat sample at 30 minutes was almost half the content of the uncut block of sample at 10 minutes. The block PC sample for 10 minutes had a phosphorus content almost equal to the block normal pan sample for 30 minutes. Moreover, the sliced PC sample at 30 minutes had the lowest phosphorus to protein ratio of all the samples. Our results show that boiling with soft water, sliced food and a PC is the preferable cooking procedure for chronic kidney disease and dialysis patients because it allows for a reduction of the phosphorus content while preserving protein content, and it would bring the suppression of protein-energy malnutrition. Copyright © 2015 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All

  14. Thermal breeder fuel enrichment zoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capossela, Harry J.; Dwyer, Joseph R.; Luce, Robert G.; McCoy, Daniel F.; Merriman, Floyd C.

    1992-01-01

    A method and apparatus for improving the performance of a thermal breeder reactor having regions of higher than average moderator concentration are disclosed. The fuel modules of the reactor core contain at least two different types of fuel elements, a high enrichment fuel element and a low enrichment fuel element. The two types of fuel elements are arranged in the fuel module with the low enrichment fuel elements located between the high moderator regions and the high enrichment fuel elements. Preferably, shim rods made of a fertile material are provided in selective regions for controlling the reactivity of the reactor by movement of the shim rods into and out of the reactor core. The moderation of neutrons adjacent the high enrichment fuel elements is preferably minimized as by reducing the spacing of the high enrichment fuel elements and/or using a moderator having a reduced moderating effect.

  15. Phosphorus in antique iron music wire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodway, M

    1987-05-22

    Harpsichords and other wire-strung musical instruments were made with longer strings about the beginning of the 17th century. This change required stronger music wire. Although these changes coincided with the introduction of the first mass-produced steel (iron alloyed with carbon), carbon was not found in samples of antique iron harpsichord wire. The wire contained an amount of phosphorus sufficient to have impeded its conversion to steel, and may have been drawn from iron rejected for this purpose. The method used to select pig iron for wire drawing ensured the highest possible phosphorus content at a time when its presence in iron was unsuspected. Phosphorus as an alloying element has had the reputation for making steel brittle when worked cold. Nevertheless, in replicating the antique wire, it was found that lowcarbon iron that contained 0.16 percent phosphorus was easily drawn to appropriate gauges and strengths for restringing antique harpsichords.

  16. Total Phosphorus in Surface Water (Future)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Excess phosphorus in surface water can result in eutrophication. TOTALPFuture is reported in kilograms/hectare/year. More information about these resources,...

  17. Linking Soil Phosphorus to Dissolved Phosphorus Losses in the Midwest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily W. Duncan

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Harmful and nuisance algal blooms resulting from excess phosphorus (P have placed agriculture in the spotlight of the water quality debate. Sixty-eight site years of P loading data (combined surface runoff and tile flow from 36 fields in Ohio were used to see if a soil test P (STP concentration could be identified that allowed P application while still meeting recommended loss thresholds. Regression analysis revealed that P application to soils with STP concentration in the “critical level” range would result in P losses above the recommended Annex 4 thresholds. In addition, fertilizer application increased the risk of dissolved reactive P (DRP loss as compared to years in which fertilizer was not applied. We determined that STP was a good screening method to identify fields that are at risk for greater P loss, but STP alone was not a good predictor of DRP loss, suggesting that a more holistic approach that includes upland management, edge-of-field practices, and in-stream approaches will be required to decrease DRP loading.

  18. Phosphorus Physiology of the Marine Cyanobacterium Trichodesmium

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    Carribean ; Romans e al. 1994), the presence of high percentages of polyP in Trichodesmium from the Sargasso Sea is unlikely to be due to luxury uptake...2010-06 DOCTORAL DISSERTATION by Elizabeth Duncan Orchard February 2010 Phosphorus Physiology of the Marine Cyanobacterium Trichodesmium MIT/WHOI...2010-06 Phosphorus Physiology of the Marine Cyanobacterium Trichodesmium by Elizabeth Duncan Orchard Massachusetts Institute of Technology Cambridge

  19. Research advances and challenges in the microbiology of enhanced biological phosphorus removal--a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebremariam, Seyoum Yami; Beutel, Marc W; Christian, David; Hess, Thomas F

    2011-03-01

    Enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) is a well-established technology for removing phosphorus from wastewater. However, the process remains operationally unstable in many systems, primarily because there is a lack of understanding regarding the microbiology of EBPR. This paper presents a review of advances made in the study of EBPR microbiology and focuses on the identification, enrichment, classification, morphology, and metabolic capacity of polyphosphate- and glycogen-accumulating organisms. The paper also highlights knowledge gaps and research challenges in the field of EBPR microbiology. Based on the review, the following recommendations regarding the future direction of EBPR microbial research were developed: (1) shifting from a reductionist approach to a more holistic system-based approach, (2) using a combination of culture-dependent and culture-independent techniques in characterizing microbial composition, (3) integrating ecological principles into system design to enhance stability, and (4) reexamining current theoretical explanations of why and how EBPR occurs.

  20. Possibility in optimization of biological phosphorus removal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoenberger, R.

    1989-02-01

    The elimination-efficiency of wastewater treatment plants with biological phosphorus removal is often limited by the following aspects: Low concentrations of organic acids in influent wastewater, hydraulic- and load fluctuations, low anaerobic sludge detention time, transfer of nitrate into the anaerobic zone, phosphorus release in the final clarifier and in sludge treatment units, high effluent suspended solids content. In this context, the following optimization measures seem to be advantageous: 'Activated primary tanks' and 'activated sludge thickeners' are adequate techniques to raise the concentration of organic acids in the wastewater by pre-acidification. Simultaneous acidification takes place in an anaerobic sedimentation basin as realized in the EASC-process (extended anaerobic sludge contact). Below the sludge blanket of an EASC-sedimentation tank, anaerobic conditions can be maintained even in the case of nitrate input. Furthermore, this process is suitable to compensate load- and hydraulic fluctuations of wastewater. To avoid phosphorus release in the final clarifier, it is important to improve sludge settleability. If a low sludge blanket and/or high oxygen concentrations are maintained, phosphorus release in the final clarifier can be limited. Further reduction of total phosphorus is possible with filtration only. Measures against high return flow phosphorus loads are mechanical dewatering of excess sludge and chemical precipitation of digester supernatant.

  1. Soil phosphorus constrains biodiversity across European grasslands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceulemans, Tobias; Stevens, Carly J; Duchateau, Luc; Jacquemyn, Hans; Gowing, David J G; Merckx, Roel; Wallace, Hilary; van Rooijen, Nils; Goethem, Thomas; Bobbink, Roland; Dorland, Edu; Gaudnik, Cassandre; Alard, Didier; Corcket, Emmanuel; Muller, Serge; Dise, Nancy B; Dupré, Cecilia; Diekmann, Martin; Honnay, Olivier

    2014-12-01

    Nutrient pollution presents a serious threat to biodiversity conservation. In terrestrial ecosystems, the deleterious effects of nitrogen pollution are increasingly understood and several mitigating environmental policies have been developed. Compared to nitrogen, the effects of increased phosphorus have received far less attention, although some studies have indicated that phosphorus pollution may be detrimental for biodiversity as well. On the basis of a dataset covering 501 grassland plots throughout Europe, we demonstrate that, independent of the level of atmospheric nitrogen deposition and soil acidity, plant species richness was consistently negatively related to soil phosphorus. We also identified thresholds in soil phosphorus above which biodiversity appears to remain at a constant low level. Our results indicate that nutrient management policies biased toward reducing nitrogen pollution will fail to preserve biodiversity. As soil phosphorus is known to be extremely persistent and we found no evidence for a critical threshold below which no environmental harm is expected, we suggest that agro-environmental schemes should include grasslands that are permanently free from phosphorus fertilization. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Recovery of phosphorus from sewerage treatment sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manuilova, Anastasia

    1999-07-01

    This thesis is a review of the current state of technologies for the removal of phosphorus from wastewater and sludge, and the recovery and re-use of phosphorus. It explains the need for phosphorus removal and describes the current removal processes. Focus is given to phosphorus crystallisation processes and to the processes which treat sewage treatment sludges into potential sources of phosphorus. An interesting possibility to recover phosphorus from sewage sludge by use of Psenner fractionation is also discussed. By this method, the following phosphate fractions of technological significance may be distinguished: (1) redox sensitive phosphates, mainly bound to Fe(OH){sub 3}; (2) phosphate adsorbed to surfaces (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}), exchangeable against OH{sup -}, and alkali-soluble phosphate; (3) phosphate bound to CaCO{sub 3}, MgCO{sub 3} and in apatite; and (4) organically bound phosphate. The basic removal mechanisms, process schemes and treatment results are described. Two experiments with three different types of sludges from Henriksdal wastewater treatment plant in Stockholm were performed in the laboratory. It was shown that the addition of sodium hydroxide or hydrochloric acid cause the significant release of phosphate (about 80%) for all types of sludges. If a whole Psenner fractionation was performed the phosphate release is approximately 100%.

  3. Phosphorus speciation by coupled HPLC-ICPMS: low level determination of reduced phosphorus in natural materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atlas, Zachary; Pasek, Matthew; Sampson, Jacqueline

    2015-04-01

    Phosphorus is a geologically important minor element in the Earth's crust commonly found as relatively insoluble apatite. This constraint causes phosphorus to be a key limiting nutrient in biologic processes. Despite this, phosphorus plays a direct role in the formation of DNA, RNA and other cellular materials. Recent works suggest that since reduced phosphorus is considerably more soluble than oxidized phosphorus that it was integrally involved in the development of life on the early Earth and may continue to play a role in biologic productivity to this day. This work examines a new method for quantification and identification of reduced phosphorus as well as applications to the speciation of organo-phosphates separated by coupled HPLC - ICP-MS. We show that reduced phosphorus species (P1+, P3+ and P5+) are cleanly separated in the HPLC and coupled with the ICPMS reaction cell, using oxygen as a reaction gas to effectively convert elemental P to P-O. Analysis at M/Z= 47 producing lower background and flatter baseline chromatography than analyses performed at M/Z = 31. Results suggest very low detection limits (0.05 μM) for P species analyzed as P-O. Additionally we show that this technique has potential to speciate at least 5 other forms of phosphorus compounds. We verified the efficacy of method on numerous materials including leached Archean rocks, suburban retention pond waters, blood and urine samples and most samples show small but detectible levels of reduced phosphorus and or organo-phaospates. This finding in nearly all substances analyzed supports the assumption that the redox processing of phosphorus has played a significant role throughout the history of the Earth and it's presence in the present environment is nearly ubiquitous with the reduced oxidation state phosphorus compounds, phosphite and hypophosphite, potentially acting as significant constituents in the anaerobic environment.

  4. Chronic pancreatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronic pancreatitis - chronic; Pancreatitis - chronic - discharge; Pancreatic insufficiency - chronic; Acute pancreatitis - chronic ... abuse over many years. Repeated episodes of acute pancreatitis can lead to chronic pancreatitis. Genetics may be ...

  5. Comparison of two methods of phosphorus transport modelling in large areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jáchymová, Barbora; Krása, Josef; Borovec, Jakub

    2015-04-01

    Water erosion is a natural process of soil surface disturbance by rainfall and surface runoff. Phosphorus transported by surface runoff is followed by eutrophication of water bodies and water quality issues. The problem rises with climate change and increasing climate extremity. Agriculture soil, infrastructure and water quality protection have to be ensured by suitable legislative measures. The efficiency of these measures can be proved by suitable mathematical modeling of the soil erosion and nutrient transport to watercourses and water bodies. Research provided by the Department of Irrigation Drainage and Landscape Engineering FCE CTU is focused on the water erosion modeling, including nutrients transport. This research comprises either experimental rainfall-runoff and erosion events measuring or using mathematical models for calculation of runoff and erosion intensity in small and larger basins. The long-term erosion intensity on the area of 32 thousand square kilometers has been calculated using the empiric model WATEM/SEDEM. Within the project (QI102A265) the methodology for the dissolved phosphorus transport direct determination has been derived (Borovec et al., 2012; Jan et al., 2013). Only total soluble P affects actual water eutrophication. Phosphorus can be released, temporarily retained or permanently locked up, depending on the particles composition and the water body and sediment conditions. According the new methodology phosphorus desorption from the sediment particles is defined by actual dissolved P concentration within the stream and the available P (defined by Mehlich III test) in the source agricultural fields. This article presents the comparison between the indirect determination of the transported dissolved phosphorus using the equation of Sharpley (1995), based on usually used enrichment ratio and assumed share of the dissolved phosphorus in the total transported phosphorus during erosion event, and the direct determination of the

  6. Total Value of Phosphorus Recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Brooke K; Baker, Lawrence A; Boyer, Treavor H; Drechsel, Pay; Gifford, Mac; Hanjra, Munir A; Parameswaran, Prathap; Stoltzfus, Jared; Westerhoff, Paul; Rittmann, Bruce E

    2016-07-05

    Phosphorus (P) is a critical, geographically concentrated, nonrenewable resource necessary to support global food production. In excess (e.g., due to runoff or wastewater discharges), P is also a primary cause of eutrophication. To reconcile the simultaneous shortage and overabundance of P, lost P flows must be recovered and reused, alongside improvements in P-use efficiency. While this motivation is increasingly being recognized, little P recovery is practiced today, as recovered P generally cannot compete with the relatively low cost of mined P. Therefore, P is often captured to prevent its release into the environment without beneficial recovery and reuse. However, additional incentives for P recovery emerge when accounting for the total value of P recovery. This article provides a comprehensive overview of the range of benefits of recovering P from waste streams, i.e., the total value of recovering P. This approach accounts for P products, as well as other assets that are associated with P and can be recovered in parallel, such as energy, nitrogen, metals and minerals, and water. Additionally, P recovery provides valuable services to society and the environment by protecting and improving environmental quality, enhancing efficiency of waste treatment facilities, and improving food security and social equity. The needs to make P recovery a reality are also discussed, including business models, bottlenecks, and policy and education strategies.

  7. Microbiological study of bacteriophage induction in the presence of chemical stress factors in enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motlagh, Amir Mohaghegh; Bhattacharjee, Ananda S; Goel, Ramesh

    2015-09-15

    Polyphosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs) are responsible for carrying the enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR). Although the EBPR process is well studied, the failure of EBPR performance at both laboratory and full-scale plants has revealed a lack of knowledge about the ecological and microbiological aspects of EBPR processes. Bacteriophages are viruses that infect bacteria as their sole host. Bacteriophage infection of polyphosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs) has not been considered as a main contributor to biological phosphorus removal upsets. This study examined the effects of different stress factors on the dynamics of bacteriophages and the corresponding effects on the phosphorus removal performance in a lab-scale EBPR system. The results showed that copper (heavy metal), cyanide (toxic chemical), and ciprofloxacin (antibiotic), as three different anthropogenic stress factors, can induce phages integrated onto bacterial genomes (i.e. prophages) in an enriched EBPR sequencing batch reactor, resulting in a decrease in the polyphosphate kinase gene ppk1 clades copy number, phosphorus accumulation capacity, and phosphorus removal performance. This study opens opportunities for further research on the effects of bacteriophages in nutrient cycles both in controlled systems such as wastewater treatment plants and natural ecosystems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Phosphorus is associated with coronary artery disease in patients with preserved renal function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Ludimila Cancela

    Full Text Available High serum phosphorus levels have been associated with mortality and cardiovascular events in patients with chronic kidney disease and in the general population. In addition, high phosphorus levels have been shown to induce vascular calcification and endothelial dysfunction in vitro. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relation of phosphorus and coronary calcification and atherosclerosis in the setting of normal renal function. This was a cross-sectional study involving 290 patients with suspected coronary artery disease and undergoing elective coronary angiography, with a creatinine clearance >60 ml/min/1.73 m(2. Coronary artery obstruction was assessed by the Friesinger score and coronary artery calcification by multislice computed tomography. Serum phosphorus was higher in patients with an Agatston score >10 than in those with an Agatston score ≤ 10 (3.63 ± 0.55 versus 3.49 ± 0.52 mg/dl; p = 0.02. In the patients with Friesinger scores >4, serum phosphorus was higher (3.6 ± 0.5 versus 3.5 ± 0.6 mg/dl, p = 0.04 and median intact fibroblast growth factor 23 was lower (40.3 pg/ml versus 45.7 pg/ml, p = 0.01. Each 0.1-mg/dl higher serum phosphate was associated with a 7.4% higher odds of having a Friesinger score >4 (p = 0.03 and a 6.1% greater risk of having an Agatston score >10 (p = 0.01. Fibroblast growth factor 23 was a negative predictor of Friesinger score (p = 0.002. In conclusion, phosphorus is positively associated with coronary artery calcification and obstruction in patients with suspected coronary artery disease and preserved renal function.

  9. Simulating soil phosphorus dynamics for a phosphorus loss quantification tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadas, Peter A; Joern, Brad C; Moore, Philip A

    2012-01-01

    Pollution of fresh waters by agricultural phosphorus (P) is a water quality concern. Because soils can contribute significantly to P loss in runoff, it is important to assess how management affects soil P status over time, which is often done with models. Our objective was to describe and validate soil P dynamics in the Annual P Loss Estimator (APLE) model. APLE is a user-friendly spreadsheet model that simulates P loss in runoff and soil P dynamics over 10 yr for a given set of runoff, erosion, and management conditions. For soil P dynamics, APLE simulates two layers in the topsoil, each with three inorganic P pools and one organic P pool. It simulates P additions to soil from manure and fertilizer, distribution among pools, mixing between layers due to tillage and bioturbation, leaching between and out of layers, crop P removal, and loss by surface runoff and erosion. We used soil P data from 25 published studies to validate APLE's soil P processes. Our results show that APLE reliably simulated soil P dynamics for a wide range of soil properties, soil depths, P application sources and rates, durations, soil P contents, and management practices. We validated APLE specifically for situations where soil P was increasing from excessive P inputs, where soil P was decreasing due to greater outputs than inputs, and where soil P stratification occurred in no-till and pasture soils. Successful simulations demonstrate APLE's potential to be applied to major management scenarios related to soil P loss in runoff and erosion. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  10. Soil phosphorus availability and soybean response to phosphorus starter fertilizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciro Antonio Rosolem

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Phosphorus fixation in tropical soils may decrease under no-till. In this case, P fertilizer could be surface-spread, which would improve farm operations by decreasing the time spend in reloading the planter with fertilizers. In the long term, less soluble P sources could be viable. In this experiment, the effect of surface-broadcast P fertilization with both soluble and reactive phosphates on soil P forms and availability to soybean was studied with or without fertilization with soluble P in the planting furrow in a long-term experiment in which soybean was grown in rotation with Ruzigrass (Brachiaria ruziziensis. No P or 80 kg ha-1 of P2O5 in the form of triple superphosphate or Arad reactive rock phosphate was applied on the surface of a soil with variable P fertilization history. Soil samples were taken to a depth of 60 cm and soil P was fractionated. Soybean was grown with 0, 30, and 60 kg ha-1 of P2O5 in the form of triple phosphate applied in the seed furrow. Both fertilizers applied increased available P in the uppermost soil layers and the moderately labile organic and inorganic forms of P in the soil profile, probably as result of root decay. Soybean responded to phosphates applied on the soil surface or in the seed furrow; however, application of soluble P in the seed furrow should not be discarded. In tropical soils with a history of P fertilization, soluble P sources may be substituted for natural reactive phosphates broadcast on the surface. The planting operation may be facilitated through reduction in the rate of P applied in the planting furrow in relation to the rates currently applied.

  11. Estimate of dietary phosphorus intake using 24-h urine collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morimoto, Yuuka; Sakuma, Masae; Ohta, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Akitsu; Matsushita, Asami; Umeda, Minako; Ishikawa, Makoto; Taketani, Yutaka; Takeda, Eiji; Arai, Hidekazu

    2014-07-01

    Increases in serum phosphorus levels and dietary phosphorus intake induces vascular calcification, arterial sclerosis and cardiovascular diseases. Limiting phosphorus intake is advisable, however, no assessment methods are capable of estimating dietary phosphorus intake. We hypothesized that urinary phosphorus excretion can be translated into estimation of dietary phosphorus intake, and we evaluated whether a 24-h urine collection method could estimate dietary phosphorus intake. Thirty two healthy subjects were recruited for this study. Subjects collected urine samples over 24 h and weighed dietary records. We calculated dietary protein intake and phosphorus intake from dietary records and urine collection, and investigated associations between the two methods in estimating protein and phosphorus intake. Significant positive correlations were observed between dietary records and UC for protein and phosphorus intake. The average intakes determined from dietary records were significantly higher than from urine collection for both protein and phosphorus. There was a significant positive correlation between both the phosphorus and protein difference in dietary records and urine collection. The phosphorus-protein ratio in urine collection was significantly higher than in dietary records. Our data indicated that the 24-h urine collection method can estimate the amount of dietary phosphorus intake, and the results were superior to estimation by weighed dietary record.

  12. Methanogenesis from acetate: enrichment studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baresi, L; Mah, R A; Ward, D M; Kaplan, I R

    1978-01-01

    An acetate enrichment culture was initiated by inoculating anaerobic sludge from a mesophilic methane digestor into a mineral salts medium with calcium acetate as the sole carbon and energy source. This enrichment was maintained indefinitely by weekly transfer into medium of the same composition. A study of this enrichment disclosed an unexpected age-dependent inhibition of methanogenesis by H2 and formate which apparently differed from the inhibition by chloroform and benzyl viologen. This age-dependent inhibition indicated that microbial interactions of the mixed enrichment population may play a regulatory role in methane formation. Futhermore, stimulation of methanogenesis in the acetate enrichment by addition of yeast extract showed a nutrient limitation which indicated that syntrophic interactions leading to formation of growth factors may also occur. A model is presented to illustrate the possible interrelationships between methanogenic and nonmethanogenic bacteria in their growth and formation of methane and carbon dioxide from acetate. Images PMID:697356

  13. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of niacinamide for reduction of phosphorus in hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Steven C; Young, Daniel O; Huang, Yihung; Delmez, James A; Coyne, Daniel W

    2008-07-01

    Niacinamide inhibits intestinal sodium/phosphorus transporters and reduces serum phosphorus in open-label studies. A prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover trial was performed for assessment of the safety and efficacy of niacinamide. Hemodialysis patients with phosphorus levels > or =5.0 mg/dl were randomly assigned to 8 wk of niacinamide or placebo, titrated from 500 to 1500 mg/d. After a 2-wk washout period, patients switched to 8 wk of the alternative therapy. Vitamin D analogs and calcimimetics were held constant; phosphorus binders were not changed unless safety criteria were met. Thirty-three patients successfully completed the trial. Serum phosphorus fell significantly from 6.26 to 5.47 mg/dl with niacinamide but not with placebo (5.85 to 5.98 mg/dl). A concurrent fall in calcium-phosphorus product was seen with niacinamide, whereas serum calcium, intact parathyroid hormone, uric acid, platelet, triglyceride, LDL, and total cholesterol levels remained stable in both arms. Serum HDL levels rose with niacinamide (50 to 61 mg/dl but not with placebo. Adverse effects were similar between both groups. Among patients who were > or =80% compliant, results were similar, although the decrease in serum phosphorus with niacinamide was more pronounced (6.45 to 5.28 mg/dl) and the increase in HDL approached significance (49 to 58 mg/dl). In hemodialysis patients, niacinamide effectively reduces serum phosphorus when co-administered with binders and results in a potentially advantageous increase in HDL cholesterol. Further study in larger randomized trials and other chronic kidney disease populations is indicated.

  14. Estimation of phosphorus flux in rivers during flooding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yen-Chang; Liu, Jih-Hung; Kuo, Jan-Tai; Lin, Cheng-Fang

    2013-07-01

    Reservoirs in Taiwan are inundated with nutrients that result in algal growth, and thus also reservoir eutrophication. Controlling the phosphorus load has always been the most crucial issue for maintaining reservoir water quality. Numerous agricultural activities, especially the production of tea in riparian areas, are conducted in watersheds in Taiwan. Nutrients from such activities, including phosphorus, are typically flushed into rivers during flooding, when over 90% of the yearly total amount of phosphorous enters reservoirs. Excessive or enhanced soil erosion from rainstorms can dramatically increase the river sediment load and the amount of particulate phosphorus flushed into rivers. When flow rates are high, particulate phosphorus is the dominant form of phosphorus, but sediment and discharge measurements are difficult during flooding, which makes estimating phosphorus flux in rivers difficult. This study determines total amounts of phosphorus transport by measuring flood discharge and phosphorous levels during flooding. Changes in particulate phosphorus, dissolved phosphorus, and their adsorption behavior during a 24-h period are analyzed owing to the fact that the time for particulate phosphorus adsorption and desorption approaching equilibrium is about 16 h. Erosion of the reservoir watershed was caused by adsorption and desorption of suspended solids in the river, a process which can be summarily described using the Lagmuir isotherm. A method for estimating the phosphorus flux in the Daiyujay Creek during Typhoon Bilis in 2006 is presented in this study. Both sediment and phosphorus are affected by the drastic discharge during flooding. Water quality data were collected during two flood events, flood in June 9, 2006 and Typhoon Bilis, to show the concentrations of suspended solids and total phosphorus during floods are much higher than normal stages. Therefore, the drastic changes of total phosphorus, particulate phosphorus, and dissolved phosphorus in

  15. Hydrogen-enriched fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roser, R. [NRG Technologies, Inc., Reno, NV (United States)

    1998-08-01

    NRG Technologies, Inc. is attempting to develop hardware and infrastructure that will allow mixtures of hydrogen and conventional fuels to become viable alternatives to conventional fuels alone. This commercialization can be successful if the authors are able to achieve exhaust emission levels of less than 0.03 g/kw-hr NOx and CO; and 0.15 g/kw-hr NMHC at full engine power without the use of exhaust catalysts. The major barriers to achieving these goals are that the lean burn regimes required to meet exhaust emissions goals reduce engine output substantially and tend to exhibit higher-than-normal total hydrocarbon emissions. Also, hydrogen addition to conventional fuels increases fuel cost, and reduces both vehicle range and engine output power. Maintaining low emissions during transient driving cycles has not been demonstrated. A three year test plan has been developed to perform the investigations into the issues described above. During this initial year of funding research has progressed in the following areas: (a) a cost effective single-cylinder research platform was constructed; (b) exhaust gas speciation was performed to characterize the nature of hydrocarbon emissions from hydrogen-enriched natural gas fuels; (c) three H{sub 2}/CH{sub 4} fuel compositions were analyzed using spark timing and equivalence ratio sweeping procedures and finally; (d) a full size pick-up truck platform was converted to run on HCNG fuels. The testing performed in year one of the three year plan represents a baseline from which to assess options for overcoming the stated barriers to success.

  16. Phosphorus leaching from biosolids-amended sandy soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, H A; O'Connor, G A; Brinton, S

    2002-01-01

    Increasing emphasis on phosphorus (P)-based nutrient management underscores the need to understand P behavior in soils amended with biosolids and manures. Laboratory and greenhouse column studies characterized P forms and leachability of eight biosolids products, chicken manure (CM), and commercial fertilizer (triple superphosphate, TSP). Bahiagrass (Paspalum notatum Flugge) was grown for 4 mo on two acid, P-deficient Florida sands, representing both moderate (Candler series: hyperthermic, uncoated Typic Quartzipsamments) and very low (Immokalee series: sandy, siliceous, hyperthermic Arenic Alaquods) P-sorbing capacities. Amendments were applied at 56 and 224 kg P(T) ha(-1), simulating P-based and N-based nutrient loadings, respectively. Column leachate P was dominantly inorganic and lower for biosolids P sources than TSP. For Candler soil, only TSP at the high P rate exhibited P leaching statistically greater (alpha = 0.05) than control (soil-only) columns. For the high P rate and low P-sorbing Immokalee soil, TSP and CM leached 21 and 3.0% of applied P, respectively. Leachate P for six biosolids was biological P removal process, exhibited significantly greater leachate P in both cake and pelletized forms (11 and 2.5% of applied P, respectively) than other biosolids. Biosolids P leaching was correlated to the phosphorus saturation index (PSI = [Pox]/[Al(ox) + Fe(ox)]) based on oxalate extraction of the pre-applied biosolids. For hiosolids with PSI < or = approximately 1.1, no appreciable leaching occurred. Only Largo cake (PSI = 1.4) and pellets (PSI = 1.3) exhibited P leaching losses statistically greater than controls. The biosolids PSI appears useful for identifying biosolids with potential to enrich drainage P when applied to low P-sorbing soils.

  17. Polyphosphate Kinase from Activated Sludge Performing Enhanced Biological Phosphorus Removal†

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Katherine D.; Dojka, Michael A.; Pace, Norman R.; Jenkins, David; Keasling, Jay D.

    2002-01-01

    A novel polyphosphate kinase (PPK) was retrieved from an uncultivated organism in activated sludge carrying out enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR). Acetate-fed laboratory-scale sequencing batch reactors were used to maintain sludge with a high phosphorus content (approximately 11% of the biomass). PCR-based clone libraries of small subunit rRNA genes and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) were used to verify that the sludge was enriched in Rhodocyclus-like β-Proteobacteria known to be associated with sludges carrying out EBPR. These organisms comprised approximately 80% of total bacteria in the sludge, as assessed by FISH. Degenerate PCR primers were designed to retrieve fragments of putative ppk genes from a pure culture of Rhodocyclus tenuis and from organisms in the sludge. Four novel ppk homologs were found in the sludge, and two of these (types I and II) shared a high degree of amino acid similarity with R. tenuis PPK (86 and 87% similarity, respectively). Dot blot analysis of total RNA extracted from sludge demonstrated that the Type I ppk mRNA was present, indicating that this gene is expressed during EBPR. Inverse PCR was used to obtain the full Type I sequence from sludge DNA, and a full-length PPK was cloned, overexpressed, and purified to near homogeneity. The purified PPK has a specific activity comparable to that of other PPKs, has a requirement for Mg2+, and does not appear to operate in reverse. PPK activity was found mainly in the particulate fraction of lysed sludge microorganisms. PMID:12324346

  18. Enrichment of denitrifying phosphorus accumulating organisms (DPAOs) in a continuous flow laboratory scale plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zafiriadis, I.; Kapagiannidis, A. G.; Aivasidis, A.

    2009-07-01

    Enhanced Biological Phosphate Removal (EBPR) is a well established method for efficient removal of phosphate during wastewater treatment by using biological instead of chemical phenomena. EBPR is currently implemented at a number of Waste Water Treatment Plants (WWTPs) and usually phosphate removal occurs by recirculating activated sludge between an anaerobic and a aerobic tank. (Author)

  19. [Vertical distribution of species of nitrogen and phosphorus in the sediments of Donghu Lake].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Chun-Hong; Zhao, Bing

    2008-07-01

    Donghu Lake is a typical urban shallow lake. Miaohu Lake was analyzed in Southwest of Donghu Lake. Characteristics of nitrogen and phosphorus in sediment cores were analyzed and assessed with investigation and chemical analysis in laboratory in 2004. Vertical distributions and seasonal changes of nitrogen and phosphorus chemical species in the sediments of two sampling sites were examined and analyzed. The results showed that concentration of TN decreased with the increase of sediment depth and the concentration of the mean TN was 1.62-3.17 g/kg. The concentration of TN reached its minimum in spring, and began to increase in summer. The concentration of TN reached its maximum till autumn and winter. Dissolved ammoniac nitrogen (DAN) was controlled by both the content of TN and the sediment environment, so the vertical profiles and seasonal changes of DAN presented the same trend as those of TN. The lowest concentration of DAN was 117.66 mg/kg in spring, and the highest concentration of DAN was 216.20 mg/kg in summer and autumn. It was decreasing in winter. Vertical profiles of phosphorus species showed that total phosphorus (TN), labile phosphorus (LP), Al- and Fe- bound phosphorus (Al-P, Fe-P) were characterized by a similar distribution pattern and enrichment in the upper 0-10cm sediment layers. The concentration decreased steeply within 10cm sediment layers, then it became steady. The concentration of TP, LP, Fe-P and Al-P was 0.255-3.36 g/kg, 0.192-11.00 mg/kg, 13.47-1 379.94 mg/kg and 7.77-317.64 mg/kg, respectively. The results indicate that sources of pollution which cause water body in the lake eutrophication have the extraneous source and the internal one. After the extraneous sources are truncated, nutrient salt in sediments still possibly causes the lake to be at the eutrophication condition. Phosphorus is the most restricting nutritious element in Donghu Lake. The proportion of Fe-P is the biggest in spring and its proportion is 44.30%. These show that

  20. Environmental enrichment for aquatic animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcoran, Mike

    2015-05-01

    Aquatic animals are the most popular pets in the United States based on the number of owned pets. They are popular display animals and are increasingly used in research settings. Enrichment of captive animals is an important element of zoo and laboratory medicine. The importance of enrichment for aquatic animals has been slower in implementation. For a long time, there was debate over whether or not fish were able to experience pain or form long-term memories. As that debate has reduced and the consciousness of more aquatic animals is accepted, the need to discuss enrichment for these animals has increased. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Phosphorus constrains accelerated nitrogen cycling in limed acidic forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deforest, J. L.; Shaw, A. N.; Kluber, L. A.; Burke, D. J.; Carrino-Kyker, S. R.; Smemo, K. A.

    2011-12-01

    Anthropogenic deposition can increase phosphorus (P) limitation by abiotic and biotic means. Soil acidification can remove P from available pools and nitrogen (N) deposition can increase the demand for P. We reason that chronic acidic deposition is promoting P limitation in acidic hardwood forests and thereby altering N cycling. The objectives of this study were to investigate the interactive influence of P availability and soil pH on N and P cycling and availability to determine if the response varies between two physiographic regions experiencing similar chronic acidic deposition. We addressed these objectives by experimentally manipulating soil pH, P, or both in strongly acidic glaciated and unglaciated hardwood forests in eastern Ohio, USA. Our results suggest complex interactions between P, soil pH, and the N cycle. Glaciated soils were found to be more N-saturated with nitrification rates 18 times greater than in unglaciated soils. Elevating pH, with or without added P, doubled nitrification rates in glaciated soils. For unglaciated soils, raising pH increased nitrification 10-fold, but increased nitrification only 5-fold in combination with P. This result suggests raising soil pH lowered the demand of soil N, or directly stimulated nitrifying activity, and that increasing P availability could limit N availability. To various degrees, readily available P was geochemically or biologically immobilized in all treatments, suggesting chronic P deficiency in these ecosystems. Phosphorus immobilization decreased as soil pH was elevated, but elevated P either had no effect (glaciated) or doubled P immobilization rates (unglaciated). These results suggest that raising soil pH reduces microbial P limitation for phosphate, whereas adding P appears to make phosphate scarcer. We suggest that P plays an important role in N transformations and cycling, but appears more important in unglaciated soils than in glaciated soils. Chronic soil acidification may have a greater

  2. Flammability of Epoxy Resins Containing Phosphorus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hergenrother, P. M.; Thompson, C. M.; Smith, J. G.; Connell, J. W.; Hinkley, J. A.

    2005-01-01

    As part of a program to develop fire-resistant exterior composite structures for future subsonic commercial and general aviation aircraft, flame-retardant epoxy resins are under investigation. Epoxies and their curing agents (aromatic diamines) containing phosphorus were synthesized and used to prepare epoxy formulations. Phosphorus was incorporated within the backbone of the epoxy resin and not used as an additive. The resulting cured neat epoxy formulations were characterized by thermogravimetric analysis, propane torch test, elemental analysis, microscale combustion calorimetry, and fire calorimetry. Several formulations showed excellent flame retardation with phosphorous contents as low as 1.5% by weight. The fracture toughness and compressive strength of several cured formulations showed no detrimental effect due to phosphorus content. The chemistry and properties of these new epoxy formulations are discussed.

  3. Effect of dietary supplementation of inorganic phosphorus on feed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of dietary supplementation of inorganic phosphorus on feed intake, protein intake, feed conversation and phosphorus gain/loss of the hybrid African catfish Heterobranchus bidorsalis X Clarias gariepinus fry.

  4. A leaf phosphorus assay for seedlings of Acacia mangium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, J S; Simpson, R J; Sands, R

    1992-10-01

    Concentrations of extractable and total phosphorus in leaves, stem, root and nodules of 12-week-old seedlings of two provenances of Acacia mangium Willd. were analyzed to identify the fraction of phosphorus and the plant part most suitable for predicting the phosphorus nutritional status of the seedlings.For both provenances, concentrations of extractable phosphorus were more sensitive to changes in soil phosphorus status and varied less among different plant parts than concentrations of total phosphorus. Concentrations of extractable phosphorus in the youngest fully expanded leaf (Leaf 3 from the apex) and the next two older leaves correlated closely with seedling dry mass and may be used to assess the phosphorus nutritional status of Acacia mangium seedlings.

  5. Phosphorus cycling in agricultural soils. Pt.1: Introduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ritsema, C.J.

    1987-01-01

    The excess of phosphorus brought into the soil system is subject to transformation processes and displacement. In general, the mobility of phosphorus in soil solution will remain low due to the very effective retention possibilities of soil

  6. Global Fertilizer and Manure, Version 1: Phosphorus in Manure Production

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Phosphorus in Manure Production dataset of the Global Fertilizer and Manure, Version 1 Data Collection represents the amount of phosphorus manure produced and...

  7. Dominant Candidatus Accumulibacter phosphatis Enriched in Response to Phosphate Concentrations in EBPR Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurmiyanto, Awaluddin; Kodera, Hiroya; Kindaichi, Tomonori; Ozaki, Noriatsu; Aoi, Yoshiteru; Ohashi, Akiyoshi

    2017-01-01

    Candidatus Accumulibacter phosphatis (Accumulibacter), which plays an important role in enhanced biological phosphorus removal in wastewater treatment plants, is phylogenetically classified into two major types (Types I and II). Phosphate concentrations affect the Accumulibacter community of the biomass enriched in treatment plants. Therefore, in the present study, Accumulibacter enrichments were conducted using a down-flow hanging sponge reactor under five conditions and a wide range of controlled phosphate concentrations in order to investigate how phosphate governs the community. We found that excessive phosphate levels inhibited Accumulibacter activity, that this inhibitory effect was greater for Type II. In addition, the affinity of Type II for phosphate was higher than that of Type I. Type IIA-B dominated at a phosphate concentration less than 5 mg P L−1, while Type IA was dominant at 50 and 500 mg P L−1. These patterns of enrichment may be explained by an inhibition kinetics model. PMID:28890468

  8. Interrill erosion of carbon and phosphorus from conventionally and organically farmed Devon silt soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuhn, Nikolaus J; Armstrong, Elizabeth K; Ling, Amy C

    2012-01-01

    particles by raindrop impacted flow. Resistance to interrill erosion varies between soils depending on their physical, chemical and mineralogical properties. In addition, significant changes in soil resistance to interrill erosion occur during storms as a result of changes in surface roughness, cohesion......Globally, between 0.57 and 1.33 Pg of soil organic carbon (SOC) may be affected by interrill processes. Also, a significant amount of phosphorus (P) is contained in the surface soil layer transformed by raindrop impact, runoff and crust formation. In the EU, the P content of a crusted (2 mm...... processes on the enrichment remains unclear. Enrichment of P and C in interrill sediment is attributed to the preferential erosion of the smaller, lighter soil particles. In this study, the P and organic C content of sediment generated from two Devon silts under conventional (CS) and organic (OS) soil...

  9. Covalent functionalized black phosphorus quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scotognella, Francesco; Kriegel, Ilka; Sassolini, Simone

    2018-01-01

    Black phosphorus (BP) nanostructures enable a new strategy to tune the electronic and optical properties of this atomically thin material. In this paper we show, via density functional theory calculations, the possibility to modify the optical properties of BP quantum dots via covalent functionalization. The quantum dot selected in this study has chemical formula P24H12 and has been covalent functionalized with one or more benzene rings or anthracene. The effect of functionalization is highlighted in the absorption spectra, where a red shift of the absorption is noticeable. The shift can be ascribed to an electron delocalization in the black phosphorus/organic molecule nanostructure.

  10. Results of activated sludge plants applying enhanced biological phosphorus removal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machado, A.; Pinto, M.; Neder, K.; Hoffmann, H.

    1989-02-01

    To stop the eutrophication in lakes and rivers, the input of nutrient and phosphorus compounds must be limited. The biological elimination of phosphorus describes a possibility, to reduce phosphorus in the biological stage of a treatment plant to a considerable extent. In this paper the process-system and the operation-results of a pilot plant and two municipal treatment plants are presented, where biological phosphorus reduction about 80% takes place without any constructional modifications.

  11. [Bone and Nutrition. A novel function of phosphorus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taketani, Yutaka; Imi, Yukiko; Abuduli, Maerjianghan

    2015-07-01

    Phosphorus is an essential nutrient for bone formation by forming hydroxyapatite with calcium. Simultaneously, phosphorus is also a component of high energy bond of ATP, nucleic acids, and phospholipids. Recent studies have demonstrated that excess or lack of dietary phosphorus intake may cause vascular dysfunction, cardiac hypertrophy, and impaired glucose tolerance. Here, we introduce recent findings about the effects of high or low dietary phosphorus intake on several organs except for bone.

  12. Domestic source of phosphorus to sewage treatment works.

    OpenAIRE

    Comber, S; Gardner, M; Georges, K; Blackwood, D; Gilmour, D

    2013-01-01

    Phosphorus is an element essential for life. Concerns regarding long-term security of supply and issues related to eutrophication of surface waters once released into the aquatic environment have led governments to consider and apply measures for reducing the use and discharge of phosphorus. Examples of source control include legislation to reduce phosphorus use in domestic detergents. This research shows that other domestic sources of phosphorus also contribute significantly to the domestic ...

  13. Effects of dietary phosphorus deficiency on the abundance, phosphorus balance, and growth of Daphnia cucullata in three hypereutrophic Dutch lakes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DeMott, W.R.; Gulati, R.D.; Van Donk, E.

    2001-01-01

    We studied population dynamics, phosphorus balance, and individual growth to evaluate limitation of Daphnia cucullata by dietary phosphorus (P) in three interconnected, hypereutrophic Dutch lakes. Consistent with the P-limitation hypothesis, declines in egg production and population density

  14. 77 FR 46298 - Phosphorus Water Quality Standards for Florida Everglades

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-03

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 131 RIN 2040-AF38 Phosphorus Water Quality Standards for Florida Everglades AGENCY... provisions of Florida's Water Quality Standards for Phosphorus in the Everglades Protection Area (Phosphorus Rule) and Florida's Amended Everglades Forever Act (EFA) that EPA has disapproved and that therefore...

  15. Reaching ultra low phosphorus concentrations by filtration techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scherrenberg, S.M.

    2011-01-01

    This research deals with tertiary treatment techniques used for the removal of phosphorus from wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent. The main objective of this research is to obtain ultra low total phosphorus (<0.15 mg total phosphorus/L) concentrations by coagulation, flocculation and

  16. 46 CFR 151.50-50 - Elemental phosphorus in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Elemental phosphorus in water. 151.50-50 Section 151.50... phosphorus in water. (a) Tanks shall be designed and tested for a head equivalent to the design lading of phosphorus and its water blanket extended to 8 feet above the tank top. In addition, tank design calculations...

  17. 21 CFR 862.1580 - Phosphorus (inorganic) test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Phosphorus (inorganic) test system. 862.1580... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1580 Phosphorus (inorganic) test system. (a) Identification. A phosphorus (inorganic) test...

  18. Evaluation of phosphorus sorption characteristics of soils from the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of phosphorus sorption characteristics of soils from the Bambouto sequence (West Cameroon) ... The capacity of each soil sample to adsorb phosphorus was significantly correlated with the clay content (r = 0.949*) of the soils. The use ... Keywords: Phosphorus fixation, volcanic soil, free aluminium, clay, soil pH ...

  19. 40 CFR 721.2752 - Epoxy resin containing phosphorus (generic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Epoxy resin containing phosphorus... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2752 Epoxy resin containing phosphorus (generic). (a) Chemical substance... epoxy resin containing phosphorus (PMN P-00-912) is subject to reporting under this section for the...

  20. Evaluation of wetland implementation strategies on phosphorus reduction at a watershed scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abouali, Mohammad; Nejadhashemi, A. Pouyan; Daneshvar, Fariborz; Adhikari, Umesh; Herman, Matthew R.; Calappi, Timothy J.; Rohn, Bridget G.

    2017-09-01

    Excessive nutrient use in agricultural practices is a major cause of water quality degradation around the world, which results in eutrophication of the freshwater systems. Among the nutrients, phosphorus enrichment has recently drawn considerable attention due to major environmental issues such as Lake Erie and Chesapeake Bay eutrophication. One approach for mitigating the impacts of excessive nutrients on water resources is the implementation of wetlands. However, proper site selection for wetland implementation is the key for effective water quality management at the watershed scale, which is the goal of this study. In this regard, three conventional and two pseudo-random targeting methods were considered. A watershed model called the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was coupled with another model called System for Urban Stormwater Treatment and Analysis IntegratioN (SUSTAIN) to simulate the impacts of wetland implementation scenarios in the Saginaw River watershed, located in Michigan. The inter-group similarities of the targeting strategies were investigated and it was shown that the level of similarity increases as the target area increases (0.54-0.86). In general, the conventional targeting method based on phosphorus load generated per unit area at the subwatershed scale had the highest average reduction among all the scenarios (44.46 t/year). However, when considering the total area of implemented wetlands, the conventional method based on long-term impacts of wetland implementation showed the highest amount of phosphorus reduction (36.44 t/year).

  1. Phosphorus from wastewater to crops: An alternative path involving microalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solovchenko, Alexei; Verschoor, Antonie M; Jablonowski, Nicolai D; Nedbal, Ladislav

    2016-01-01

    Phosphorus (P) is a non-renewable resource, a major plant nutrient that is essential for modern agriculture. Currently, global food and feed production depends on P extracted from finite phosphate rock reserves mainly confined to a small number of countries. P limitation and its potential socio-economic impact may well exceed the potential effects of fossil fuel scarcity. The efficiency of P usage today barely reaches 20%, with the remaining 80% ending up in wastewater or in surface waters as runoff from fields. When recovered from wastewater, either chemically or biologically, P is often present in a form that does not meet specifications for agricultural use. As an alternative, the potential of microalgae to accumulate large quantities of P can be a way to direct this resource back to crop plants. Algae can acquire and store P through luxury uptake, and the P enriched algal biomass can be used as bio-fertilizer. Technology of large-scale algae cultivation has made tremendous progress in the last decades, stimulated by perspectives of obtaining third generation biofuels without requiring arable land or fresh water. These new cultivation technologies can be used for solar-driven recycling of P and other nutrients from wastewater into algae-based bio-fertilizers. In this paper, we review the specifics of P uptake from nutrient-rich waste streams, paying special attention to luxury uptake by microalgal cells and the potential application of P-enriched algal biomass to fertilize crop soils. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Salamander growth rates increase along an experimental stream phosphorus gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bumpers, Phillip M; Maerz, John C; Rosemond, Amy D; Benstead, Jonathan P

    2015-11-01

    Nutrient-driven perturbations to the resource base of food webs are predicted to attenuate with trophic distance, so it is unclear whether higher-level consumers will generally respond to anthropogenic nutrient loading. Few studies have tested whether nutrient (specifically, nitrogen [N] and phosphorus [P]) enrichment of aquatic ecosystems propagates through multiple trophic levels to affect predators, or whether N vs. P is relatively more important in driving effects on food webs. We conducted two-year whole-stream N and P additions to five streams to generate gradients in N and P concentration and N:P ratio (target N:P = 2, 8, 16, 32, 128). Larval salamanders are vertebrate predators of primary and secondary macroinvertebrate consumers in many heterotrophic headwater streams in which the basal resources are detritus and associated microorganisms. We determined the effects of N and P on the growth rates of caged and free-roaming larval Desmognathus quadramaculatus and the average body size of larval Eurycea wilderae. Growth rates and average body size increased by up to 40% and 60%, respectively, with P concentration and were negatively related to N:P ratio. These findings were consistent across both species of salamanders using different methodologies (cage vs. free-roaming) and at different temporal scales (3 months vs. 2 yr). Nitrogen concentration was not significantly related to increased growth rate or body size of the salamander species tested. Our findings suggest that salamander growth responds to the relaxation of ecosystem-level P limitation and that moderate P enrichment can have relatively large effects on vertebrate predators in detritus-based food webs.

  3. Phosphorus cycle in Germiston Lake. III. Seasonal patterns in the absorption, translocation and release of phosphorus by Potamogeton pectinatus L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vermaak, J.F.; Swanepoel, J.H.; Schoonbee, H.J. (Rand Afrikaans Univ., Johannesburg (South Africa))

    1982-07-01

    The seasonal fluctuation in the phosphorus absorption, translocation, and release by the roots and shoots of Potamogeton pectinatus L. in Germiston Lake, is discussed. Shoot absorption exceeds that by the roots during spring and winter, while the reverse applies for summer and autumn. The shoots consistently release more phosphorus per plant than the roots. Both shoots and roots absorb considerably more phosphorus than what they release to the environment. This macrophyte, therefore, mainly acts as a phosphorus reservoir in Germiston Lake.

  4. Neuroprotective effects of cognitive enrichment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milgram, Norton W; Siwak-Tapp, Christina T; Araujo, Joseph; Head, Elizabeth

    2006-08-01

    Cognitive enrichment early in life, as indicated by level of education, complexity of work environment or nature of leisure activities, appears to protect against the development of age-associated cognitive decline and also dementia. These effects are more robust for measures of crystallized intelligence than for measures of fluid intelligence and depend on the ability of the brain to compensate for pathological changes associated with aging. This compensatory ability is referred to as cognitive reserve. The cognitive reserve hypothesis suggests that cognitive enrichment promotes utilization of available functions. Alternatively, late life cognitive changes in cognition may be linked to a factor, such as cholinergic dysfunction, that is also present early in life and contributes to the reduced levels of early life cognitive enrichment. Beneficial effects of environmental enrichment early in life have also been observed in rodents and primates. Research with rodents indicates that these changes have structural correlates, which likely include increased synapses in specific brain regions. Dogs also show age-dependent cognitive decline, and both longitudinal and cross-sectional studies indicate that this decline can be attenuated by cognitive enrichment. Furthermore, cognitive enrichment has differential effects, improving some functions more than others. From a neurobiological perspective, behavioral enrichment in the dog may act to promote neurogenesis later in life. This can be distinguished from nutritional interventions with antioxidants, which appear to attenuate the development of neuropathology. These results suggest that a combination of behavioral and nutritional or pharmacological interventions may be optimal for reducing the rate of age-dependent cognitive decline.

  5. Evaluation of calcium, phosphorus and potassium in saliva and their relationship to blood biochemical factors in hemodialysis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Hashemi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nowadays, chronic kidney disease (CKD is known as an epidemic disease all around the world. Chronic kidney disease considered as a serious health problem with numerous side effects, including complications progressive in reducing glomerular filtration rate (GFR, imbalances in the homeostasis of the body and decreased quality of life and finally an increase in mortality due to cardiovascular problems. End-stage renal disease leads to hypocalcemia and hyperphosphatemia, that as a result of, parathyroid hormone (PTH will increased that secondary hyperparathyroidism will occurred eventually. So it is essential to routine examination of electrolytes in these patients. The current study have been done to determine the electrolytes in saliva as a non-invasive sample in hemodialysis patients in order to the saliva to be presented as an appropriate samples for clinical laboratories. Methods: In the present case-control study that has been performed at Imam Ali Hospital, Bojnord, North Khorasan Province, Iran, in the summer of 2016, 44 hemodialysis patients and 44 aged, gender and body mass index (BMI matched healthy controls were selected and then their cell count, Hb, HCT, iron, ferritin, total iron binding capacity (TIBC, glucose, CRP, triglycerides, cholesterol, urea, creatinine, calcium, phosphorus, potassium and PTH were measured. Results: Calcium and phosphorus were higher in hemodialysis patients in comparison to the control group. Furthermore, there are not any significant relationship between levels of calcium, phosphorus and potassium in both serum and saliva samples. In addition, we observed the positive relationship between PTH in serum as well as phosphorus and potassium in the saliva. Conclusion: The findings of current study have been shown that salivary levels of calcium and phosphorus in hemodialysis patients is higher than healthy people, therefor could be a non- invasive suitable marker for diagnosis. In addition, blood PTH

  6. Stability of phosphorus species in seawater

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    DileepKumar, M.; Somasundar, K.; Rajendran, A.

    Relative stabilities of various oxidation states, oxyacids and dissolved inorganic complexes of phosphorus in anoxic and oxic marine environments are elucidated. H sub(3) PO sub(2)/P super(0) and H sub(2) PO sub(2)/p super(0) are the strong reducing...

  7. Stewardship to tackle global phosphorus inefficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Withers, P.J.A.; Dijk, van K.C.; Neset, T.S.S.; Nesme, Thomas; Oenema, Oene; Rubæk, G.H.; Schoumans, O.F.; Smit, Bert; Pellerin, Sylvain

    2015-01-01

    The inefficient use of phosphorus (P) in the food chain is a threat to the global aquatic environment and the health and well-being of citizens, and it is depleting an essential finite natural resource critical for future food security and ecosystem function. We outline a strategic framework of

  8. Nanotubes based on monolayer blue phosphorus

    KAUST Repository

    Montes Muñoz, Enrique

    2016-07-08

    We demonstrate structural stability of monolayer zigzag and armchair blue phosphorus nanotubes by means of molecular dynamics simulations. The vibrational spectrum and electronic band structure are determined and analyzed as functions of the tube diameter and axial strain. The nanotubes are found to be semiconductors with a sensitive indirect band gap that allows flexible tuning.

  9. Phosphorus Compounds of Muscle and Liver

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Admin

    of several other biological phosphorus compounds. They discovered phosphocreatine followed quickly by. ATP, glycerophosphate and others. Here we have reproduced the paper wherein they have described their work on muscle ATP, a significant contribution to DNA structure, and liver glycerophosphate. G Nagendrappa.

  10. Osteophagia provide giraffes with phosphorus and calcium?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bredin, I P; Skinner, J D; Mitchell, G

    2008-03-01

    The daily requirement for calcium and phosphorus by giraffes to sustain the growth and maintenance of their skeletons is large. The source of sufficient calcium is browse. The source of necessary phosphorus is obscure, but it could be osteophagia, a frequently observed behaviour in giraffes. We have assessed whether bone ingested as a result of osteophagia can be digested in the rumen. Bone samples from cancellous (cervical vertebrae) and dense bones (metacarpal shaft) were immersed in the rumens of five sheep, for a period of up to 30 days, and the effect compared to immersion in distilled water and in artificial saliva for 30 days. Distilled water had no effect on the bones. Dense bone samples were softened by exposure to the saliva and rumen fluid, but did not lose either calcium or phosphorus. In saliva and rumen fluid the cancellous bone samples also softened, and their mass and volume decreased as a result of exposure to saliva, but in neither fluid did they lose significant amounts of calcium and phosphorus. We conclude that although saliva and rumen fluid can soften ingested bones, there is an insignificant digestion of bones in the rumen.

  11. Phosphorus enhances aluminium tolerance in both aluminium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seedlings growing in acid soils suffer both phosphorus (P) deficiency and aluminium (Al) toxicity stresses. An experiment was conducted to study the effects of Al and P interaction on Al-tolerant (ET8) and Al-sensitive (ES8) wheat genotypes in an acid soil. This study aimed to determine the interactive effect of Al and P in soil ...

  12. Lake Erie phosphorus loading and Cladophora updates

    Science.gov (United States)

    The presentation will focus on updates or progress being made on each Phosphorus Loadings and Cladophora for Lake Erie. The format will give a brief summary of data, findings, and results that were used by the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement (GLWQA) Annex 4 Nutrients Modeli...

  13. Phosphorus Requirement for Colonization by Arbuscular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate the effect of phosphorus (P) concentrations on arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) colonization and growth of two perennial crops (Catha edulis and Ensete ventricosum) and four multipurpose agroforestry trees (Cordia africana, Croton macrostachyus, Erythrina brucei and ...

  14. Interaction of vanadium and phosphorus in chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, C H

    1994-12-01

    Studies were carried out to determine the effect of dietary vanadium on chicks fed phosphorus deficient and control diets. Vanadium at 50 mg/kg of diet decreased growth of both control and deficient chicks. The high mortality among the phosphorus deficient chicks was significantly alleviated by the presence of vanadium. The increased relative ventricular weights found among the deficient chicks was also alleviated by the presence of dietary vanadium. Vanadium fed at 10 or 20 mg/kg diet did not reduce growth rate but significantly reduced mortality among chicks fed the deficient diet and decreased the relative ventricle weights. Time course studies revealed that chicks are hatched with high relative ventricular weights (.83% of body wt) and remain at that level among chicks fed the phosphorus deficient diet. The addition of vanadium or phosphate to the diet resulted in a progressive decrease in relative ventricular weights. The inclusion of vanadium in the diet resulted in increased serum phosphorus levels among the deficient chicks that may be related to the decrease in mortality and relative ventricle weights.

  15. Use of reactive materials to bind phosphorus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chardon, W.J.; Groenenberg, J.E.; Temminghoff, E.J.M.; Koopmans, G.F.

    2012-01-01

    Phosphorus (P) losses from agricultural soils have caused surface water quality impairment in many regions of the world, including The Netherlands. Due to the large amounts of P accumulated in Dutch soils, the generic fertilizer and manure policy will not be sufficient to reach in time the surface

  16. Rethinking the Mechanisms of Biological Phosphorus Removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, James L; Dunlap, Patrick; Steichen, Mark

    2017-11-01

      Enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) was observed in high-rate, non-nitrifying plants in the United States that were operated in a plug-flow mode. In facilities designed for nitrification and denitrification, a first-stage anaerobic zone, free of nitrate and nitrite was needed to accomplish EBPR, and this is referred to as the Phoredox (a.k.a. the AO and A2O) process. When a biological mechanism responsible for EBPR was proposed, these treatment configurations were accepted as normal practice, but many later observations showed that more reliable phosphorus removal could be achieved with alternative configurations. This paper discusses the development of alternative configurations for EBPR and the likelihood that a host of phosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs) that react to different environmental conditions might play a much bigger role in reliable and sustainable biological phosphorus removal. The conclusion is that conventional designs might have inadvertently selected for less efficient PAOs, while alternative configurations allowed for the growth of multiple PAO species such as Tetrasphaera, which can ferment higher carbon forms and take up phosphorus under anoxic conditions.

  17. interaction between phosphorus fertilizer and arbuscular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    userpc

    examine the interaction between Phosphorus (P) fertilizer and Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungal. (AMF) inoculants on cassava yield ... The result showed a significant interaction between P and AMF in root/shoot ratio and mycorrhizal response ratio. ... determinants for plant growth and its low availability in soil decreases shoot ...

  18. Phosphorus recovery from sewage sludge char ash

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atienza-Martinez, M.; Gea, G.; Arauzo, J.; Kersten, Sascha R.A.; Kootstra, A.M.J.

    2014-01-01

    Phosphorus was recovered from the ash obtained after combustion at different temperatures (600 °C, 750 °C and 900 °C) and after gasification (at 820 °C using a mixture of air and steam as fluidising agent) of char from sewage sludge fast pyrolysis carried out at 530 °C. Depending on the leaching

  19. Phosphorus Uptake of Three Tropical Legumes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Associative Influence of Soluble Phosphate, RockPhosphate and Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungus on Plant Growth and. Phosphorus Uptake of Three Tropical Legumes. B. D. Ahiabor1* and H. Hirata2. '^Laboratory of Plant Nutrition, Department of Biological Production, Faculty of. Agriculture, Tokyo University of Agriculture ...

  20. The future of phosphorus in our hands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shepherd, J.G.; Kleemann, Rosanna; Bahri-Esfahani, Jaleh; Hudek, Lee; Suriyagoda, Lalith; Vandamme, Elke; Dijk, van K.C.

    2016-01-01

    We live in a global phosphorus (P) system paradox. P access is becoming increasingly limiting, leading to food insecurity but at the same time an over-application or abundance of P in many agricultural and urban settings is causing environmental degradation. This has been recognised in the

  1. Water Quality Criteria for White Phosphorus

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-08-01

    algae tested. White phosphorus inhibited the growth of Selenastrum capricornutum, a chlorophyte, and Navicula pelliculosa, a chrysophyte, but stimulated...flos-aguae and Microcystis aeruqinosa, was stimulated, but the growth of Navicula pell iculosa, a diatom, and Selenastrtu canricornutium, a green algae...Selenastrum capricornutum and Navicula pelliculosa showed reductions in cell density and chlorophyll a content, while Anabaena flos-aquae and Microcystis

  2. Relationship Between Extractable Potassium And Phosphorus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of laboratory soil sample preparation on level of extractable Potassium (K) and Phosphorus (P) was studied on various soil types collected at Magoebaskloof pine farm (MPF), Tshiombho irrigation scheme (TIS), Dal water farm (DWF) and Syferkuil experimental farm (SEF). Twenty soil samples were collected at ...

  3. Nutrient enrichment, biodiversity loss, and consequent declines in ecosystem productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isbell, Forest; Reich, Peter B; Tilman, David; Hobbie, Sarah E; Polasky, Stephen; Binder, Seth

    2013-07-16

    Anthropogenic drivers of environmental change often have multiple effects, including changes in biodiversity, species composition, and ecosystem functioning. It remains unknown whether such shifts in biodiversity and species composition may, themselves, be major contributors to the total, long-term impacts of anthropogenic drivers on ecosystem functioning. Moreover, although numerous experiments have shown that random losses of species impact the functioning of ecosystems, human-caused losses of biodiversity are rarely random. Here we use results from long-term grassland field experiments to test for direct effects of chronic nutrient enrichment on ecosystem productivity, and for indirect effects of enrichment on productivity mediated by resultant species losses. We found that ecosystem productivity decreased through time most in plots that lost the most species. Chronic nitrogen addition also led to the nonrandom loss of initially dominant native perennial C4 grasses. This loss of dominant plant species was associated with twice as great a loss of productivity per lost species than occurred with random species loss in a nearby biodiversity experiment. Thus, although chronic nitrogen enrichment initially increased productivity, it also led to loss of plant species, including initially dominant species, which then caused substantial diminishing returns from nitrogen fertilization. In contrast, elevated CO2 did not decrease grassland plant diversity, and it consistently promoted productivity over time. Our results support the hypothesis that the long-term impacts of anthropogenic drivers of environmental change on ecosystem functioning can strongly depend on how such drivers gradually decrease biodiversity and restructure communities.

  4. Fertilization of the Neoproterozoic ocean by phosphorus from flood basalts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, F.

    2016-12-01

    The weathering of voluminous large igneous provinces (LIPs) fertilized the Neoproterozoic ocean with the biolimiting nutrient phosphorus (P). The consequent increase in primary productivity contributed to profound climatic and biologic developments, including ocean-atmosphere oxygenation, global glaciations, and rapid biologic diversification. Flood basalt volcanism began at 850 Ma as the supercontinent Rodinia began to break apart and culminated with the massive Franklin LIP at 720 Ma. Prior to eruption, LIP magmas became variably enriched in P during liquid-crystal fractionation and by entraining metasomatized parts of the lithosphere. The mafic dike swarms through which the magmas erupted cover 3.7 × 106 km2, or 4% of the Neoproterozoic land surface. The flood basalts (now largely eroded) may have covered twice that area. Assuming chemical weathering liberated much of the P contained in these basalts, a bioavailable LIP-derived P flux of 1-5 × 109 mol/yr may have been sustained for millions of years, increasing the global flux of dissolved P to the ocean by a factor of two or more. This fertilization would have increased the burial of organic carbon and therefore the rate of O2 production in the ocean. Meanwhile, the removal of CO2 from the ocean-atmosphere system by basalt weathering and photosynthesis may have triggered the Sturtian glaciation. These tectonically driven events set the stage for the development of complex multicellular life.

  5. Recovery of phosphorus via harvesting phosphorus-accumulating granular sludge in sequencing batch airlift reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qing; Wan, Junfeng; Wang, Jie; Li, Shunyi; Dagot, Christophe; Wang, Yan

    2017-01-01

    A novel approach was developed for phosphorus recovery from wastewater through thermal treatment of matured phosphorus-accumulating granular sludge cultivated in sequencing batch airlift reactor (SBAR) system. Results showed that SBAR system had stable performances, in which COD, total phosphorus (TP) and total nitrogen (TN) removal efficiencies were stabilized at 80%, 89% and 86%, respectively. The matured granules were gathered from SBAR reactor and heated at relatively low temperature (100°C, 200°C, 300°C). The total P content in thermal treated granular sludge was more than half of total nutrient. Furthermore, the phosphorus release rate for treated granules was negatively correlated with thermal treatment temperature. These results demonstrated that the granules harvested from SBAR system followed with thermal pre-treatment could probably be applied as excellent slow-release phosphorus fertilizer. Hence, low temperature treatment of phosphate-accumulating granules is efficient for phosphorus recovery from wastewater, which is likely to promote the application of granulation technology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Semantic enrichment for medical ontologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yugyung; Geller, James

    2006-04-01

    The Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) contains two separate but interconnected knowledge structures, the Semantic Network (upper level) and the Metathesaurus (lower level). In this paper, we have attempted to work out better how the use of such a two-level structure in the medical field has led to notable advances in terminologies and ontologies. However, most ontologies and terminologies do not have such a two-level structure. Therefore, we present a method, called semantic enrichment, which generates a two-level ontology from a given one-level terminology and an auxiliary two-level ontology. During semantic enrichment, concepts of the one-level terminology are assigned to semantic types, which are the building blocks of the upper level of the auxiliary two-level ontology. The result of this process is the desired new two-level ontology. We discuss semantic enrichment of two example terminologies and how we approach the implementation of semantic enrichment in the medical domain. This implementation performs a major part of the semantic enrichment process with the medical terminologies, with difficult cases left to a human expert.

  7. Environmental enrichment reverses memory impairment induced by toluene in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montes, Sergio; Solís-Guillén, Rocío Del Carmen; García-Jácome, David; Páez-Martínez, Nayeli

    2017-05-01

    Toluene is the main component of a variety of inhalants that are used for intoxication purposes. Alterations in memory have been reported in inhalant users; however, it is unclear whether these impairments could be reversed, and the mechanisms involved in the putative recovery. Therefore, the main purpose of this study was to model the deleterious effects of toluene on memory in mice and to evaluate the effect of environmental enrichment on that response. In the second part of the study, the concentrations of glutamate and GABA, following chronic toluene exposure and after environmental enrichment treatment, were evaluated. Adolescent mice were exposed to either a single or repeated schedule of toluene administration and their responses to object recognition were analyzed. An independent group of mice was repeatedly exposed to toluene and then housed either under environmental enrichment or standard conditions for four weeks. At the end of the housing period, the rodents' performance in object recognition test, as well as the concentrations of neurotransmitters, were analyzed. The results showed that toluene caused memory impairment in mice that received a single or repeated solvent exposure. Remarkably, environmental enrichment could reverse memory deficits induced by repeated administration of toluene. Cessation of toluene exposure in mice in standard housing did not produce that response. The glutamate and GABA tissue contents were not involved in the effects of toluene or environmental enrichment of memory. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Impact of Fish Farming on Phosphorus in Reservoir Sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Binyang; Tang, Ya; Tian, Liyan; Franz, Leander; Alewell, Christine; Huang, Jen-How

    2015-11-18

    Fish farming has seriously influenced the aquatic environment in Sancha reservoir in SW China since 1985 and has been strongly restricted since 2005. Thus, phosphorus speciation in a sediment core dated between 1945 and 2010 at cm-resolution and in surface sediments from Sancha reservoir may allow us track how fish farming impacts phosphorus dynamics in lake sediments. Fish farming shifts the major binding forms of phosphorus in sediments from organic to residual phosphorus, which mostly originated from fish feed. Sorption to metal oxides and association with organic matters are important mechanisms for phosphorus immobilisation with low fish farming activities, whereas calcium-bound phosphorous had an essential contribution to sediment phosphorus increases under intensive fish framing. Notwithstanding the shifting, the aforementioned phosphorus fractions are usually inert in the lake environment, therefore changing phosphorus mobility little. The use of fish feed and water-purification reagents, the most important additives for fish farming, introduce not only phosphorus but also large amounts of sand-sized minerals such as quartz into the lake, to which phosphorus weakly sorbs. The sand-sized minerals as additional sorbents increase the pool of easily mobilisable phosphorus in sediments, which will slow down the recovery of reservoir water due to its rapid re-mobilisation.

  9. Impact of Fish Farming on Phosphorus in Reservoir Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Binyang; Tang, Ya; Tian, Liyan; Franz, Leander; Alewell, Christine; Huang, Jen-How

    2015-01-01

    Fish farming has seriously influenced the aquatic environment in Sancha reservoir in SW China since 1985 and has been strongly restricted since 2005. Thus, phosphorus speciation in a sediment core dated between 1945 and 2010 at cm-resolution and in surface sediments from Sancha reservoir may allow us track how fish farming impacts phosphorus dynamics in lake sediments. Fish farming shifts the major binding forms of phosphorus in sediments from organic to residual phosphorus, which mostly originated from fish feed. Sorption to metal oxides and association with organic matters are important mechanisms for phosphorus immobilisation with low fish farming activities, whereas calcium-bound phosphorous had an essential contribution to sediment phosphorus increases under intensive fish framing. Notwithstanding the shifting, the aforementioned phosphorus fractions are usually inert in the lake environment, therefore changing phosphorus mobility little. The use of fish feed and water-purification reagents, the most important additives for fish farming, introduce not only phosphorus but also large amounts of sand-sized minerals such as quartz into the lake, to which phosphorus weakly sorbs. The sand-sized minerals as additional sorbents increase the pool of easily mobilisable phosphorus in sediments, which will slow down the recovery of reservoir water due to its rapid re-mobilisation. PMID:26577441

  10. Enrichment of light hydrocarbon mixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Dali [Los Alamos, NM; Devlin, David [Santa Fe, NM; Barbero, Robert S [Santa Cruz, NM; Carrera, Martin E [Naperville, IL; Colling, Craig W [Warrenville, IL

    2011-11-29

    Light hydrocarbon enrichment is accomplished using a vertically oriented distillation column having a plurality of vertically oriented, nonselective micro/mesoporous hollow fibers. Vapor having, for example, both propylene and propane is sent upward through the distillation column in between the hollow fibers. Vapor exits neat the top of the column and is condensed to form a liquid phase that is directed back downward through the lumen of the hollow fibers. As vapor continues to ascend and liquid continues to countercurrently descend, the liquid at the bottom of the column becomes enriched in a higher boiling point, light hydrocarbon (propane, for example) and the vapor at the top becomes enriched in a lower boiling point light hydrocarbon (propylene, for example). The hollow fiber becomes wetted with liquid during the process.

  11. Sewage-effluent phosphorus: a greater risk to river eutrophication than agricultural phosphorus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvie, Helen P; Neal, Colin; Withers, Paul J A

    2006-05-01

    Phosphorus (P) concentrations from water quality monitoring at 54 UK river sites across seven major lowland catchment systems are examined in relation to eutrophication risk and to the relative importance of point and diffuse sources. The over-riding evidence indicates that point (effluent) rather than diffuse (agricultural) sources of phosphorus provide the most significant risk for river eutrophication, even in rural areas with high agricultural phosphorus losses. Traditionally, the relative importance of point and diffuse sources has been assessed from annual P flux budgets, which are often dominated by diffuse inputs in storm runoff from intensively managed agricultural land. However, the ecological risk associated with nuisance algal growth in rivers is largely linked to soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) concentrations during times of ecological sensitivity (spring/summer low-flow periods), when biological activity is at its highest. The relationships between SRP and total phosphorus (TP; total dissolved P+suspended particulate P) concentrations within UK rivers are evaluated in relation to flow and boron (B; a tracer of sewage effluent). SRP is the dominant P fraction (average 67% of TP) in all of the rivers monitored, with higher percentages at low flows. In most of the rivers the highest SRP concentrations occur under low-flow conditions and SRP concentrations are diluted as flows increase, which is indicative of point, rather than diffuse, sources. Strong positive correlations between SRP and B (also TP and B) across all the 54 river monitoring sites also confirm the primary importance of point source controls of phosphorus concentrations in these rivers, particularly during spring and summer low flows, which are times of greatest eutrophication risk. Particulate phosphorus (PP) may form a significant proportion of the phosphorus load to rivers, particularly during winter storm events, but this is of questionable relevance for river eutrophication

  12. Controlling Eutrophication in A Mediterranean Shallow Reservoir by Phosphorus Loading Reduction: The Need for an Integrated Management Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaragüeta, Mikel; Acebes, Pablo

    2017-04-01

    Increased nutrient enrichment in Mediterranean standing waters has enhanced the risk of being affected by cyanobacterial blooms. Because phosphorus abatement is shaped as a crucial strategy for controlling eutrophication, this study introduces a structural thinking, experiential learning laboratory with animation dynamic model elaborated for Cazalegas Reservoir (Spain) to assess the feasibility of implementing a set of internal and external control measures and hydromorphological adjustments to meet the goal of oligotrophication. This shallow reservoir is another case where recurrent eutrophication has led to reach annual mean total phosphorus concentrations (0.16 ± 0.08 mg total phosphorus/L) over the threshold of current water policies, triggering cyanobacterial growth up to undesirable levels in summer time (approximately 50,000 cells/mL). Modeling results showed that (i) after upgrading water treatment in the main tributary, (ii) applying a lanthanum-modified bentonite into the water column and sediment, and (iii) increasing reservoir water level, in-lake P concentrations and cyanobacterial abundance decreased in an 88% (below 0.01 mg total phosphorus/L) and 84% (below 6000 cells/mL), respectively in the most critical periods. However, the constraints of the proposed management strategies are associated with their costs of implementation and the time span for a stable trophic recovery of the reservoir. In that end, integrated management approaches are aimed to be adopted by water managers to reach adequate ecological status of freshwater bodies.

  13. Controlling Eutrophication in A Mediterranean Shallow Reservoir by Phosphorus Loading Reduction: The Need for an Integrated Management Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaragüeta, Mikel; Acebes, Pablo

    2017-04-01

    Increased nutrient enrichment in Mediterranean standing waters has enhanced the risk of being affected by cyanobacterial blooms. Because phosphorus abatement is shaped as a crucial strategy for controlling eutrophication, this study introduces a structural thinking, experiential learning laboratory with animation dynamic model elaborated for Cazalegas Reservoir (Spain) to assess the feasibility of implementing a set of internal and external control measures and hydromorphological adjustments to meet the goal of oligotrophication. This shallow reservoir is another case where recurrent eutrophication has led to reach annual mean total phosphorus concentrations (0.16 ± 0.08 mg total phosphorus/L) over the threshold of current water policies, triggering cyanobacterial growth up to undesirable levels in summer time (approximately 50,000 cells/mL). Modeling results showed that (i) after upgrading water treatment in the main tributary, (ii) applying a lanthanum-modified bentonite into the water column and sediment, and (iii) increasing reservoir water level, in-lake P concentrations and cyanobacterial abundance decreased in an 88% (below 0.01 mg total phosphorus/L) and 84% (below 6000 cells/mL), respectively in the most critical periods. However, the constraints of the proposed management strategies are associated with their costs of implementation and the time span for a stable trophic recovery of the reservoir. In that end, integrated management approaches are aimed to be adopted by water managers to reach adequate ecological status of freshwater bodies.

  14. Fuento: functional enrichment for bioinformatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weichselbaum, David; Zagrovic, Bojan; Polyansky, Anton A

    2017-08-15

    The currently available functional enrichment software focuses mostly on gene expression analysis, whereby server- and graphical-user-interface-based tools with specific scope dominate the field. Here we present an efficient, user-friendly, multifunctional command-line-based functional enrichment tool (fu-en-to), tailored for the bioinformatics researcher. Source code and binaries freely available for download at github.com/DavidWeichselbaum/fuento, implemented in C ++ and supported on Linux and OS X. newant@gmail.com or bojan.zagrovic@univie.ac.at.

  15. Phosphorus Recycling from an Unexplored Source by Polyphosphate Accumulating Microalgae and Cyanobacteria—A Step to Phosphorus Security in Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Chandan; Chowdhury, Rajojit; Ray, Krishna

    2015-01-01

    Phosphorus (P), an essential element required for crop growth has no substitute. The global food security depends on phosphorus availability in soil for crop production. World phosphorus reserves are fast depleting and with an annual increase of 2.3% in phosphorus demand, the current reserves will be exhausted in coming 50–100 years. India and other Western countries are forced to import phosphorus fertilizers at high costs to meet their agricultural demands due to uneven distribution of phosphate rocks on earth. The present study from India, aims to draw attention to an unnoticed source of phosphorus being wasted as parboiled rice mill effluent and subsequent bio-recovery of the valuable element from this unconventional source. The research was conducted in West Bengal, India, a state with the highest number of parboiled rice mills where its effluent carries on an average ~40 mg/L of soluble phosphorus. Technology to recover and recycle this wastewater P in India in a simple, inexpensive mode is yet to be optimized. Our strategy to use microalgae, Chlorella sp. and cyanobacteria, Cyanobacterium sp., Lyngbya sp., and Anabaena sp. to sequester the excess phosphorus from the effluent as polyphosphate inclusions and its subsequent recycling as slow and moderate release phosphorus biofertilizers to aid plant growth, preventing phosphorus loss and pollution, is a contemporary venture to meet the need of the hour. These polyphosphate accumulating microorganisms play a dual role of remediation and recovery of phosphorus, preliminarily validated in laboratory scale. PMID:26733966

  16. Phosphorus Recycling from an Unexplored Source by Polyphosphate Accumulating Microalgae and Cyanobacteria-A Step to Phosphorus Security in Agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Chandan; Chowdhury, Rajojit; Ray, Krishna

    2015-01-01

    Phosphorus (P), an essential element required for crop growth has no substitute. The global food security depends on phosphorus availability in soil for crop production. World phosphorus reserves are fast depleting and with an annual increase of 2.3% in phosphorus demand, the current reserves will be exhausted in coming 50-100 years. India and other Western countries are forced to import phosphorus fertilizers at high costs to meet their agricultural demands due to uneven distribution of phosphate rocks on earth. The present study from India, aims to draw attention to an unnoticed source of phosphorus being wasted as parboiled rice mill effluent and subsequent bio-recovery of the valuable element from this unconventional source. The research was conducted in West Bengal, India, a state with the highest number of parboiled rice mills where its effluent carries on an average ~40 mg/L of soluble phosphorus. Technology to recover and recycle this wastewater P in India in a simple, inexpensive mode is yet to be optimized. Our strategy to use microalgae, Chlorella sp. and cyanobacteria, Cyanobacterium sp., Lyngbya sp., and Anabaena sp. to sequester the excess phosphorus from the effluent as polyphosphate inclusions and its subsequent recycling as slow and moderate release phosphorus biofertilizers to aid plant growth, preventing phosphorus loss and pollution, is a contemporary venture to meet the need of the hour. These polyphosphate accumulating microorganisms play a dual role of remediation and recovery of phosphorus, preliminarily validated in laboratory scale.

  17. Potential Impact of Dietary Choices on Phosphorus Recycling and Global Phosphorus Footprints: The Case of the Average Australian City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metson, Geneviève S.; Cordell, Dana; Ridoutt, Brad

    2016-01-01

    Changes in human diets, population increases, farming practices, and globalized food chains have led to dramatic increases in the demand for phosphorus fertilizers. Long-term food security and water quality are, however, threatened by such increased phosphorus consumption, because the world’s main source, phosphate rock, is an increasingly scarce resource. At the same time, losses of phosphorus from farms and cities have caused widespread water pollution. As one of the major factors contributing to increased phosphorus demand, dietary choices can play a key role in changing our resource consumption pathway. Importantly, the effects of dietary choices on phosphorus management are twofold: First, dietary choices affect a person or region’s “phosphorus footprint” – the magnitude of mined phosphate required to meet food demand. Second, dietary choices affect the magnitude of phosphorus content in human excreta and hence the recycling- and pollution-potential of phosphorus in sanitation systems. When considering options and impacts of interventions at the city scale (e.g., potential for recycling), dietary changes may be undervalued as a solution toward phosphorus sustainability. For example, in an average Australian city, a vegetable-based diet could marginally increase phosphorus in human excreta (an 8% increase). However, such a shift could simultaneously dramatically decrease the mined phosphate required to meet the city resident’s annual food demand by 72%. Taking a multi-scalar perspective is therefore key to fully exploring dietary choices as one of the tools for sustainable phosphorus management. PMID:27617261

  18. Phosphorus recycling from an unexplored source by polyphosphate accumulating microalgae and cyanobacteria – a step to phosphorus security in agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandan eMukherjee

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Phosphorus (P, an essential element required for crop growth has no substitute. The global food security depends on phosphorus availability in soil for crop production. World phosphorus reserves are fast depleting and with an annual increase of 2.3% in phosphorus demand, the current reserves will be exhausted in coming 50-100 years. India and other Western countries are forced to import phosphorus fertilizers at high costs to meet their agricultural demands due to uneven distribution of phosphate rocks on earth. The present study from India, aims to draw attention to an unnoticed source of phosphorus being wasted as parboiled rice mill effluent and subsequent bio-recovery of the valuable element from this unconventional source. The research was conducted in West Bengal, India, a state with the highest number of parboiled rice mills where its effluent carries on an average ~40 mg/L of soluble phosphorus. Technology to recover and recycle this wastewater P in India in a simple, inexpensive mode is yet to be optimized. Our strategy to use microalgae, Chlorella sp. and cyanobacteria, Cyanobacterium sp., Lyngbya sp. and Anabaena sp. to sequester the excess phosphorus from the effluent as polyphosphate inclusions and its subsequent recycling as slow and moderate release phosphorus biofertilizers to aid plant growth, preventing phosphorus loss and pollution, is a contemporary venture to meet the need of the hour. These polyphosphate accumulating microorganisms play a dual role of remediation and recovery of phosphorus, preliminarily validated in laboratory scale.

  19. Effect of phosphorus stress on Microcystis aeruginosa growth and phosphorus uptake.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajeela Ghaffar

    Full Text Available This study was designed to advance understanding of phosphorus regulation of Microcystis aeruginosa growth, phosphorus uptake and storage in changing phosphorus (P conditions as would occur in lakes. We hypothesized that Microcystis growth and nutrient uptake would fit classic models by Monod, Droop, and Michaelis-Menten in these changing conditions. Microcystis grown in luxury nutrient concentrations was transferred to treatments with phosphorus concentrations ranging from 0-256 μg P∙L-1 and luxury nitrogen. Dissolved phosphorus concentration, cell phosphorus quota, P uptake rate and cell densities were measured at day 3 and 6. Results showed little relationship to predicted models. Microcystis growth was asymptotically related to P treatment from day 0-3, fitting Monod model well, but negatively related to P treatment and cell quota from day 3-6. From day 0-3, cell quota was negatively related to P treatments at <2 μg∙L-1, but increased slightly at higher P. Cell quota decreased greatly in low P treatments from day 3-6, which may have enabled high growths in low P treatments. P uptake was positively and linearly related to P treatment during both periods. Negative uptake rates and increases in measured culture phosphorus concentrations to 5 μg∙L-1 in the lowest P treatments indicated P leaked from cells into culture medium. This leakage during early stages of the experiment may have been sufficient to stimulate metabolism and use of intracellular P stores in low P treatments for rapid growth. Our study shows P regulation of Microcystis growth can be complex as a result of changing P concentrations, and this complexity may be important for modeling Microcystis for nutrient and ecosystem management.

  20. Enrichment proteomics challenges and perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Song, Wei

    2016-01-01

    This thesis is based on two technology projects from the Centre for BioSystems Genomics (CBSG), entitled ‘Comparative proteomics on Plant Pathogen interactions through enrichment of the N-glycoproteome and tagged-glycoproteome’ (TD7) and ‘Plasma Membrane proteomics for Plant

  1. Meadow enriched ACP process algebras

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Middelburg, C.A.

    2009-01-01

    We introduce the notion of an ACP process algebra. The models of the axiom system ACP are the origin of this notion. ACP process algebras have to do with processes in which no data are involved. We also introduce the notion of a meadow enriched ACP process algebra, which is a simple generalization

  2. Nematode Indicators of Organic Enrichment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferris, H.; Bongers, A.M.T.

    2006-01-01

    The organisms of the soil food web, dependent on resources from plants or on amendment from other sources, respond characteristically to enrichment of their environment by organic matter. Primary consumers of the incoming substrate, including bacteria, fungi, plant-feeding nematodes, annelids, and

  3. Particle size distribution predicts particulate phosphorus removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    River, Mark; Richardson, Curtis J

    2018-01-01

    Particulate phosphorus (PP) is often the largest component of the total phosphorus (P) load in stormwater. Fine-resolution measurement of particle sizes allows us to investigate the mechanisms behind the removal of PP in stormwater wetlands, since the diameter of particles influences the settling velocity and the amount of sorbed P on a particle. In this paper, we present a novel method to estimate PP, where we measure and count individual particles in stormwater and use the total surface area as a proxy for PP. Our results show a strong relationship between total particle surface area and PP, which we use to put forth a simple mechanistic model of PP removal via gravitational settling of individual mineral particles, based on a continuous particle size distribution. This information can help improve the design of stormwater Best management practices to reduce PP loading in both urban and agricultural watersheds.

  4. Regulating phosphorus from the agricultural sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Line Block; Hansen, Lars Gårn; Rubæk, Gitte Holton

    2010-01-01

    do not take into account the importance of P already stored in the soils. Phosphorus stored in the soils is the major source of P losses to surface waters, but at the same time crucial for the soils ability to sustain a viable crop production. Even if measures on P losses from agricultural areas......  Loss of phosphorus (P) from agricultural areas is one of the main contributors to eutrophication of water systems in many European countries. Regulatory systems such as ambient taxes or discharge taxes which are suitable for regulation of N are insufficient for regulating P because these systems...... could be obtained, such measures may not truly reflect stocks and hence potential risks associated with eg erosion, run-off or climate change. This calls for a method which handles the continuous supply of P to the soils (the current flow effect), P accumulated in the soil (a stock effect...

  5. Visualizing alternative phosphorus scenarios for future food security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina-Simone Neset

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The impact of global phosphorus scarcity on food security has increasingly been the focus of scientific studies over the past decade. However, systematic analyses of alternative futures for phosphorus supply and demand throughout the food system are still rare and provide limited inclusion of key stakeholders. Addressing global phosphorus scarcity requires an integrated approach exploring potential demand reduction as well as recycling opportunities. This implies recovering phosphorus from multiple sources, such as food waste, manure and excreta, as well as exploring novel opportunities to reduce the long-term demand for phosphorus in food production such as changing diets. Presently, there is a lack of stakeholder and scientific consensus around priority measures. To therefore enable exploration of multiple pathways and facilitate a stakeholder dialogue on the technical, behavioral and institutional changes required to meet long-term future phosphorus demand, this paper introduces an interactive web-based tool, designed for visualizing global phosphorus scenarios in real-time. The interactive global phosphorus scenario tool builds on several demand and supply side measures that can be selected and manipulated interactively by the user. It provides a platform to facilitate stakeholder dialogue to plan for a soft landing and identify a suite of concrete priority options, such as investing in agricultural phosphorus use efficiency, or renewable fertilizers derived from phosphorus recovered from wastewater and food waste, to determine how phosphorus demand to meet future food security could be attained on a global scale in 2040 and 2070. This paper presents four example scenarios, including (1 the potential of full recovery of human excreta, (2 the challenge of a potential increase in non-food phosphorus demand, (3 the potential of a decreased animal product consumption, and (4 the potential decrease in phosphorus demand from increased efficiency

  6. Visualizing Alternative Phosphorus Scenarios for Future Food Security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neset, Tina-Simone; Cordell, Dana; Mohr, Steve; VanRiper, Froggi; White, Stuart

    2016-01-01

    The impact of global phosphorus scarcity on food security has increasingly been the focus of scientific studies over the past decade. However, systematic analyses of alternative futures for phosphorus supply and demand throughout the food system are still rare and provide limited inclusion of key stakeholders. Addressing global phosphorus scarcity requires an integrated approach exploring potential demand reduction as well as recycling opportunities. This implies recovering phosphorus from multiple sources, such as food waste, manure, and excreta, as well as exploring novel opportunities to reduce the long-term demand for phosphorus in food production such as changing diets. Presently, there is a lack of stakeholder and scientific consensus around priority measures. To therefore enable exploration of multiple pathways and facilitate a stakeholder dialog on the technical, behavioral, and institutional changes required to meet long-term future phosphorus demand, this paper introduces an interactive web-based tool, designed for visualizing global phosphorus scenarios in real time. The interactive global phosphorus scenario tool builds on several demand and supply side measures that can be selected and manipulated interactively by the user. It provides a platform to facilitate stakeholder dialog to plan for a soft landing and identify a suite of concrete priority options, such as investing in agricultural phosphorus use efficiency, or renewable fertilizers derived from phosphorus recovered from wastewater and food waste, to determine how phosphorus demand to meet future food security could be attained on a global scale in 2040 and 2070. This paper presents four example scenarios, including (1) the potential of full recovery of human excreta, (2) the challenge of a potential increase in non-food phosphorus demand, (3) the potential of decreased animal product consumption, and (4) the potential decrease in phosphorus demand from increased efficiency and yield gains in

  7. Nitrogen vs. phosphorus limitation across an ecotonal gradient in a mangrove forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feller, Ilka C.; McKee, K.L.; Whigham, D.F.; O'Neill, J.P.

    2003-01-01

    Mangrove forests are characterized by distinctive tree-height gradients that reflect complex spatial, within-stand differences in environmental factors, including nutrient dynamics, salinity, and tidal inundation, across narrow gradients. To determine patterns of nutrient limitation and the effects of nutrient availability on plant growth and within-stand nutrient dynamics, we used a factorial experiment with three nutrient treatment levels (control, N, P) and three zones along a tree-height gradient (fringe, transition, dwarf) on offshore islands in Belize. Transects were laid out perpendicular to the shoreline across a mangrove forest from a fringe stand along the seaward edge, through a stand of intermediate height, into a dwarf stand in the interior of the island. At three sites, three trees were fertilized per zone for 2 yr. Although there was spatial variability in response, growth by R. mangle was generally nitrogen (N) -limited in the fringe zone; phosphorus (P) -limited in the dwarf zone; and, N- and/or P-limited in the transition zone. Phosphorus-resorption efficiency decreased in all three zones, and N-resorption efficiency increased in the dwarf zone in response to P enrichment. The addition of N had no effect on either P or N resorption efficiencies. Belowground decomposition was increased by P enrichment in all zones, whereas N enrichment had no effect. This study demonstrated that essential nutrients are not uniformly distributed within mangrove ecosystems; that soil fertility can switch from conditions of N to P limitation across narrow ecotonal gradients; and, that not all ecological processes respond similarly to, or are limited by, the same nutrient.

  8. In vitro PAMAM, phosphorus and viologen-phosphorus dendrimers prevent rotenone-induced cell damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milowska, Katarzyna; Szwed, Aleksandra; Zablocka, Maria; Caminade, Anne-Marie; Majoral, Jean-Pierre; Mignani, Serge; Gabryelak, Teresa; Bryszewska, Maria

    2014-10-20

    We have investigated whether polyamidoamine (PAMAM), phosphorus (pd) and viologen-phosphorus (vpd) dendrimers can prevent damage to embryonic mouse hippocampal cells (mHippoE-18) caused by rotenone, which is used as a pesticide, insecticide, and as a nonselective piscicide, that works by interfering with the electron transport chain in mitochondria. Several basic aspects, such as cell viability, production of reactive oxygen species and changes in mitochondrial transmembrane potential, were analyzed. mHippoE-18 cells were treated with these structurally different dendrimers at 0.1μM. A 1h incubation with dendrimers was followed by the addition of rotenone at 1μM, and a further 24h incubation. PAMAM, phosphorus and viologen-phosphorus dendrimers all increased cell viability (reduced cell death-data need to be compared with untreated controls). A lower level of reactive oxygen species and a favorable effect on mitochondrial system were found with PAMAM and viologen-phosphorus dendrimers. These results indicate reduced toxicity in the presence of dendrimers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Phosphorus geochemical cycling inferences from high frequency lake monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crockford, Lucy; Jordan, Philip; Taylor, David

    2013-04-01

    Freshwater bodies in Europe are required to return to good water quality status under the Water Framework Directive by 2015. A small inter-drumlin lake in the northeast of Ireland has been susceptible to eutrophic episodes and the presence of algal blooms during summer since annual monitoring began in 2002. While agricultural practice has been controlled by the implementation of the Nitrates Directive in 2006, the lake is failing to recover to good water quality status to meet with the Water Framework Directive objectives. Freshwaters in Ireland are regarded, in the main, as phosphorus (P) limited so identifying the sources of P possibly fuelling the algal blooms may provide an insight into how to improve water quality conditions. In a lake, these sources are divided between external catchment driven loads, as a result of farming and point sources, and P released from sediments made available to photic waters through internal lake mechanisms. High frequency sensors on data-sondes, installed on the lake in three locations, have provided chlorophyll a, redox potential, dissolved oxygen, temperature, pH, conductivity and turbidity data since March 2010. A data-sonde was installed in the hypolimnion to observe the change in lake conditions as P is released from lake sediments as a result of geochemical cycling with iron during anoxic periods. As compact high frequency sampling equipment for P analysis is still in its infancy for freshwaters, a proxy measurement of geochemical cycling in lakes would be useful to determine fully the extent of P contribution from sediments to the overall P load. Phosphorus was analysed once per month along with a number of other parameters and initial analysis of the high frequency data has shown changes in readings when known P release from lake sediments has occurred. Importantly, these data have shown when these P enriched hypolimnetic waters may be re-introduced to shallower waters in the photic zone, by changes in dissolved oxygen

  10. Sediment phosphorus speciation and mobility under dynamic redox conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Chris T.; Rezanezhad, Fereidoun; O'Connell, David W.; Van Cappellen, Philippe

    2017-07-01

    Anthropogenic nutrient enrichment has caused phosphorus (P) accumulation in many freshwater sediments, raising concerns that internal loading from legacy P may delay the recovery of aquatic ecosystems suffering from eutrophication. Benthic recycling of P strongly depends on the redox regime within surficial sediment. In many shallow environments, redox conditions tend to be highly dynamic as a result of, among others, bioturbation by macrofauna, root activity, sediment resuspension and seasonal variations in bottom-water oxygen (O2) concentrations. To gain insight into the mobility and biogeochemistry of P under fluctuating redox conditions, a suspension of sediment from a hypereutrophic freshwater marsh was exposed to alternating 7-day periods of purging with air and nitrogen gas (N2), for a total duration of 74 days, in a bioreactor system. We present comprehensive data time series of bulk aqueous- and solid-phase chemistry, solid-phase phosphorus speciation and hydrolytic enzyme activities demonstrating the mass balanced redistribution of P in sediment during redox cycling. Aqueous phosphate concentrations remained low ( ˜ 2.5 µM) under oxic conditions due to sorption to iron(III) oxyhydroxides. During anoxic periods, once nitrate was depleted, the reductive dissolution of iron(III) oxyhydroxides released P. However, only 4.5 % of the released P accumulated in solution while the rest was redistributed between the MgCl2 and NaHCO3 extractable fractions of the solid phase. Thus, under the short redox fluctuations imposed in the experiments, P remobilization to the aqueous phase remained relatively limited. Orthophosphate predominated at all times during the experiment in both the solid and aqueous phase. Combined P monoesters and diesters accounted for between 9 and 16 % of sediment particulate P. Phosphatase activities up to 2.4 mmol h-1 kg-1 indicated the potential for rapid mineralization of organic P (Po), in particular during periods of aeration when the

  11. Phosphorus accummulation in reed bed treatment filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karczmarczyk, A.; Baryła, A.

    2009-04-01

    Introduction Constructed wetlands are well known method for alternative wastewater treatment in rural areas in Poland. There are mainly used as a biological treatment step of domestic wastewater. The most popular are subsurface flow constructed wetlands (reed bed systems) with bed filled with site soil (mainly clayey sand or sandy clay). Over 30 such plants with daily flow above 5 m3 per day is operated in Poland. Object and goal of research Many researches have been made on estimation constructed wetlands treatment efficiency, however there are mostly concentrated on inlet outlet concentration compartments. In this study preliminary results of phosphorus accumulation in the bed of horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetland are presented. Monitored plant treats wastewater from 150 inhabitants in the volume of 14 m3 d-1 at average and is under operation from December 1998. The goal of research was to asses the distribution of phosphorus in the wetland bed after 8 years of treatment of domestic wastewater. Obtained results are shown on the background of organic matter (TOC) distribution. The methods applied The bed of the constructed wetland (30 m width and 33 m length) was divided by net of 20 points. In every point two soil samples, one from the depth of 0-10 cm and one from the depth of 20-30 cm, were collected. The samples were analyzed for organic matter and total phosphorus content. Investigation findings The results showed variation of measured indexes on the length and depth of treatment bed. In generally, the highest accumulation occurred near the inlet zone of wetland. The relation is rather clear in case of organic matter, but in case of phosphorus high contents were also observed at the outlet zone of wetland. Higher organic matter concentrations were observed in deeper layer (20-30 cm) than in upper layer (0-10 cm) of the bed.

  12. Metagenomic and metaproteomic analyses of Accumulibacter phosphatis-enriched floccular and granular biofilm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Jeremy J; Dutilh, Bas E; Skennerton, Connor T; Fukushima, Toshikazu; Hastie, Marcus L; Gorman, Jeffrey J; Tyson, Gene W; Bond, Philip L

    2016-01-01

    Biofilms are ubiquitous in nature, forming diverse adherent microbial communities that perform a plethora of functions. Here we operated two laboratory-scale sequencing batch reactors enriched with Candidatus Accumulibacter phosphatis (Accumulibacter) performing enhanced biological phosphorus removal. Reactors formed two distinct biofilms, one floccular biofilm, consisting of small, loose, microbial aggregates, and one granular biofilm, forming larger, dense, spherical aggregates. Using metagenomic and metaproteomic methods, we investigated the proteomic differences between these two biofilm communities, identifying a total of 2022 unique proteins. To understand biofilm differences, we compared protein abundances that were statistically enriched in both biofilm states. Floccular biofilms were enriched with pathogenic secretion systems suggesting a highly competitive microbial community. Comparatively, granular biofilms revealed a high-stress environment with evidence of nutrient starvation, phage predation pressure, and increased extracellular polymeric substance and cell lysis. Granular biofilms were enriched in outer membrane transport proteins to scavenge the extracellular milieu for amino acids and other metabolites, likely released through cell lysis, to supplement metabolic pathways. This study provides the first detailed proteomic comparison between Accumulibacter-enriched floccular and granular biofilm communities, proposes a conceptual model for the granule biofilm, and offers novel insights into granule biofilm formation and stability. © 2015 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Biogeochemistry of Phosphorus Exchange in Magnetic Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drennen, C.; Popa, R.; Nealson, K.

    2005-12-01

    Magnetotactic bacteria swim (some at high relative speeds of ~5 mm/min) across the sediment water interface, in both freshwater and marine ecosystems, this occurs in an apparent diurnal pattern. We hypothesized that this is part of a migratory life cycle across the oxic anoxic transition zone (OATZ), at the water-sediment interface. Magnetotactic bacteria have been shown to contain sizable reserves of metals, phosphorus and sulfur. If the migration model is true, then this migration has important consequences on the exchange of phosphorous, sulfur and metals between water and sediments. Our results show that the exchange of phosphorus between magnetic bacteria and water is consistent with a periodic life cycle. These results also show that magnetic cells accumulate large amounts of phosphate under oxidizing conditions. Under reducing and anaerobic conditions (e.g. sulfidic, low Eh sediments) cells release phosphorus. This research shows the importance of magnetic bacteria in the exchange of materials across redox interfaces. Magnetotactic bacteria may also play a significant role in biomineralization and bioweathering of metal oxides and phosphates, as well as possibly contributing to the magnetization of sediments.

  14. Redox chemistry in the phosphorus biogeochemical cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasek, Matthew A; Sampson, Jacqueline M; Atlas, Zachary

    2014-10-28

    The element phosphorus (P) controls growth in many ecosystems as the limiting nutrient, where it is broadly considered to reside as pentavalent P in phosphate minerals and organic esters. Exceptions to pentavalent P include phosphine--PH3--a trace atmospheric gas, and phosphite and hypophosphite, P anions that have been detected recently in lightning strikes, eutrophic lakes, geothermal springs, and termite hindguts. Reduced oxidation state P compounds include the phosphonates, characterized by C-P bonds, which bear up to 25% of total organic dissolved phosphorus. Reduced P compounds have been considered to be rare; however, the microbial ability to use reduced P compounds as sole P sources is ubiquitous. Here we show that between 10% and 20% of dissolved P bears a redox state of less than +5 in water samples from central Florida, on average, with some samples bearing almost as much reduced P as phosphate. If the quantity of reduced P observed in the water samples from Florida studied here is broadly characteristic of similar environments on the global scale, it accounts well for the concentration of atmospheric phosphine and provides a rationale for the ubiquity of phosphite utilization genes in nature. Phosphine is generated at a quantity consistent with thermodynamic equilibrium established by the disproportionation reaction of reduced P species. Comprising 10-20% of the total dissolved P inventory in Florida environments, reduced P compounds could hence be a critical part of the phosphorus biogeochemical cycle, and in turn may impact global carbon cycling and methanogenesis.

  15. Phosphorus removal and recovery from domestic wastewater in a novel process of enhanced biological phosphorus removal coupled with crystallization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Haiming; Wang, Yan

    2016-07-01

    A new process of enhanced biological phosphorus removal coupled with crystallization recovery of phosphorus was developed here, where the feasibility of nutrients removal and potential for phosphorus recovery from domestic wastewater was further assessed. Results showed that an excellent nutrients removal and phosphorus recovery performance was achieved, in which the averaged COD, PO4(3-)-P and NO3(-)-N removal efficiencies were 82.6%, 87.5% and 91.6%, respectively and a total of 59.3% of phosphorus was recovered as hydroxyapatite. What's more, crystallization recovery of phosphorus greatly enhanced the biological phosphorus removal efficiency. After the incorporation of the phosphorus recovery column via side-stream, the phosphorus concentration of effluent was significantly decreased ranging from 1.24mg/L to 0.85mg/L, 0.52mg/L and 0.41mg/L at the lateral flow ratios of 0, 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3, respectively. The results obtained here would be beneficial to provide a prospective alternative for phosphorus removal and recovery from wastewater. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. High-phosphorus diet maximizes and low-dose calcitriol attenuates skeletal muscle changes in long-term uremic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevedo, Luz M; López, Ignacio; Peralta-Ramírez, Alan; Pineda, Carmen; Chamizo, Verónica E; Rodríguez, Mariano; Aguilera-Tejero, Escolástico; Rivero, José-Luis L

    2016-05-01

    Although disorders of mineral metabolism and skeletal muscle are common in chronic kidney disease (CKD), their potential relationship remains unexplored. Elevations in plasma phosphate, parathyroid hormone, and fibroblastic growth factor 23 together with decreased calcitriol levels are common features of CKD. High-phosphate intake is a major contributor to progression of CKD. This study was primarily aimed to determine the influence of high-phosphate intake on muscle and to investigate whether calcitriol supplementation counteracts negative skeletal muscle changes associated with long-term uremia. Proportions and metabolic and morphological features of myosin-based muscle fiber types were assessed in the slow-twitch soleus and the fast-twitch tibialis cranialis muscles of uremic rats (5/6 nephrectomy, Nx) and compared with sham-operated (So) controls. Three groups of Nx rats received either a standard diet (0.6% phosphorus, Nx-Sd), or a high-phosphorus diet (0.9% phosphorus, Nx-Pho), or a high-phosphorus diet plus calcitriol (10 ng/kg 3 day/wk ip, Nx-Pho + Cal) for 12 wk. Two groups of So rats received either a standard diet or a high-phosphorus diet (So-Pho) over the same period. A multivariate analysis encompassing all fiber-type characteristics indicated that Nx-Pho + Cal rats displayed skeletal muscle phenotypes intermediate between Nx-Pho and So-Pho rats and that uremia-induced skeletal muscle changes were of greater magnitude in Nx-Pho than in Nx-Sd rats. In uremic rats, treatment with calcitriol preserved fiber-type composition, cross-sectional size, myonuclear domain size, oxidative capacity, and capillarity of muscle fibers. These data demonstrate that a high-phosphorus diet potentiates and low-dose calcitriol attenuates adverse skeletal muscle changes in long-term uremic rats. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  17. Effects of N and P enrichment on competition between phytoplankton and benthic algae in shallow lakes: a mesocosm study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiufeng; Mei, Xueying; Gulati, Ramesh D; Liu, Zhengwen

    2015-03-01

    Competition for resources between coexisting phytoplankton and benthic algae, but with different habitats and roles in functioning of lake ecosystems, profoundly affects dynamics of shallow lakes in the process of eutrophication. An experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that combined enrichment with nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) would be a greater benefit to phytoplankton than benthic algae. The growth of phytoplankton and benthic algae was measured as chlorophyll a (Chl a) in 12 shallow aquatic mesocosms supplemented with N, P, or both. We found that enrichment with N enhanced growth of benthic algae, but not phytoplankton. P enrichment had a negative effect on benthic algal growth, and no effect on the growth of phytoplankton. N+P enrichment had a negative effect on benthic algae, but enhanced the growth of phytoplankton, thus reducing the proportion of benthic algae contributing to the combined biomass of these two groups of primary producers. Thus, combined N+P enrichment is more favorable to phytoplankton in competition with benthic algae than enrichment with either N or P alone. Our study indicates that combined enrichment with N+P promotes the dominance of phytoplankton over benthic algae, with consequences for the trophic dynamics of shallow lake ecosystems.

  18. The impact of seabirds on the content of various forms of phosphorus in organic soils of the Bellsund coast, western Spitsbergen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Ziółek

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In areas isolated from direct human impact, such as Spitsbergen, environmental changes result mainly from natural processes, which include nutrient enrichment caused by seabirds. The objective of this study was to evaluate the degree of nutrient enrichment of organic soils fertilized by seabirds, indicated by the phosphorus content and transformations. This study encompassed two areas on the Bellsund coast. A profile without the influence of seabirds and profiles located at different distances from the colony of birds (0–150 m were analysed. A sequential phosphorus fractionation method was used, and three inorganic P (Pi fractions were obtained as a result: Pi-L (labile P, Pi-FeAl (P associated with Fe and Al and Pi-CaMg (P associated with Ca and Mg; and two fractions of organic P (Po: Po-HuAc (P associated with humic acids and Po-Res (residual P. Polar organic soils not subjected to the direct seabird impact contained amounts of total phosphorus (Pt similar to organic soils in other climate zones. The presence of the seabird colony increased the Pt content and changed the distribution between the ratio of organic and inorganic P fractions. Within the inorganic P fraction, the Pi–CaMg component was dominant and its distribution was modified by the fertilizing effect of bird droppings. The nutrient enrichment of organic soils by birds in the polar zone was therefore very strong.

  19. ESR studies of high-energy phosphorus-ion implanted synthetic diamond crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isoya, J. [University of Library and Information Science, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Kanda, H.; Morita, Y.; Ohshima, T.

    1997-03-01

    Phosphorus is among potential n-type dopants in diamond. High pressure synthetic diamond crystals of type IIa implanted with high energy (9-18 MeV) phosphorus ions have been studied by using electron spin resonance (ESR) technique. The intensity and the linewidth of the ESR signal attributed to the dangling bond of the amorphous phase varied with the implantation dose, suggesting the nature of the amorphization varies with the dose. The ESR signals of point defects have been observed in the low dose as-implanted crystals and in the high dose crystals annealed at high temperature and at high pressure. (author)

  20. Metabolism of nonparticulate phosphorus in an acid bog lake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koenings, J. P.

    1977-01-01

    In North Gate Lake, an acid bog lake located on the northern Michigan-Wisconsin border, U.S.A., the algal nutrient inorganic phosphate (FRP) is not detectable by chemical means. Organic phosphorus (FUP) represents 100% of the detectable filterable phosphorus. The availability and cycling of this organic fraction are of considerable interest in regard to the primary productivity of this system. To clarify these relationships, the cycling of nonparticulate forms of phosphorus found in the epilimnion of this lake was studied.

  1. Long-term effects of sulphide on the enhanced biological removal of phosphorus: The symbiotic role of Thiothrix caldifontis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio-Rincón, F J; Welles, L; Lopez-Vazquez, C M; Nierychlo, M; Abbas, B; Geleijnse, M; Nielsen, P H; van Loosdrecht, M C M; Brdjanovic, D

    2017-06-01

    Thiothrix caldifontis was the dominant microorganism (with an estimated bio-volume of 65 ± 3%) in a lab-scale enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) system containing 100 mg of sulphide per litre in the influent. After a gradual exposure to the presence of sulphide, the EBPR system initially dominated by Candidatus Accumulibacter phosphatis Clade I (98 ± 3% bio-volume) (a known polyphosphate accumulating organism, PAO) became enriched with T. caldifontis. Throughout the different operating conditions studied, practically 100% phosphate removal was always achieved. The gradual increase of the sulphide content in the medium (added to the anaerobic stage of the alternating anaerobic-aerobic sequencing batch reactor) and the adjustment of the aerobic hydraulic retention time played a major role in the enrichment of T. caldifontis. T. caldifontis exhibited a mixotrophic metabolism by storing carbon anaerobically as poly-β-hydroxy-alkanoates (PHA) and generating the required energy through the hydrolysis of polyphosphate. PHA was used in the aerobic period as carbon and energy source for growth, polyphosphate, and glycogen formation. Apparently, extra energy was obtained by the initial accumulation of sulphide as an intracellular sulphur, followed by its gradual oxidation to sulphate. The culture enriched with T. caldifontis was able to store approximately 100 mg P/g VSS. This research suggests that T. caldifontis could behave like PAO with a mixotrophic metabolism for phosphorus removal using an intracellular sulphur pool as energy source. These findings can be of major interest for the biological removal of phosphorus from wastewaters with low organic carbon concentrations containing reduced S-compounds like those (pre-)treated in anaerobic systems or from anaerobic sewers. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. Selenium Enrichment of Horticultural Crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Puccinelli

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The ability of some crops to accumulate selenium (Se is crucial for human nutrition and health. Selenium has been identified as a cofactor of the enzyme glutathione peroxidase, which is a catalyzer in the reduction of peroxides that can damage cells and tissues, and can act as an antioxidant. Plants are the first link in the food chain, which ends with humans. Increasing the Se quantity in plant products, including leafy and fruity vegetables, and fruit crops, without exceeding the toxic threshold, is thus a good way to increase animal and human Se intake, with positive effects on long-term health. In many Se-enriched plants, most Se is in its major organic form. Given that this form is more available to humans and more efficient in increasing the selenium content than inorganic forms, the consumption of Se-enriched plants appears to be beneficial. An antioxidant effect of Se has been detected in Se-enriched vegetables and fruit crops due to an improved antioxidative status and to a reduced biosynthesis of ethylene, which is the hormone with a primary role in plant senescence and fruit ripening. This thus highlights the possible positive effect of Se in preserving a longer shelf-life and longer-lasting quality.

  3. Selenium Enrichment of Horticultural Crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puccinelli, Martina; Malorgio, Fernando; Pezzarossa, Beatrice

    2017-06-04

    The ability of some crops to accumulate selenium (Se) is crucial for human nutrition and health. Selenium has been identified as a cofactor of the enzyme glutathione peroxidase, which is a catalyzer in the reduction of peroxides that can damage cells and tissues, and can act as an antioxidant. Plants are the first link in the food chain, which ends with humans. Increasing the Se quantity in plant products, including leafy and fruity vegetables, and fruit crops, without exceeding the toxic threshold, is thus a good way to increase animal and human Se intake, with positive effects on long-term health. In many Se-enriched plants, most Se is in its major organic form. Given that this form is more available to humans and more efficient in increasing the selenium content than inorganic forms, the consumption of Se-enriched plants appears to be beneficial. An antioxidant effect of Se has been detected in Se-enriched vegetables and fruit crops due to an improved antioxidative status and to a reduced biosynthesis of ethylene, which is the hormone with a primary role in plant senescence and fruit ripening. This thus highlights the possible positive effect of Se in preserving a longer shelf-life and longer-lasting quality.

  4. Effect of the enriched filter pie with natural phosphate and microorganisms on soil and plant in a Vermelho-Distrófico Latossolo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leónides Castellanos González

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the research was to evaluate the use of filter pie and phosphate rock enriched with biofertilizer microorganisms on the population of microorganisms and phosphorus tenor in the soil and on plants. The experiment was conducted in a vegetation house with corn plants with Latossolo Red-Distrófico, containing seven treatments disposed in an entirely randomized design, where the treatments were: soil samples and filter pie with additions of phosphate of Araxá rock enriched with microorganisms coming from Biopack (1, Embrafos (2 and Azotofos (3, and without enrichment with microorganisms (4, and three controls, soil just with filter pie (5, soil just with phosphate rock (6 and only soil (7, with three repetitions. Height, stem diameter and number of leaves for plants were evaluated at 14, 28 and 42 days. At the 45 days the dry matters of leafs and roots were evaluated, as the same as populations of the microorganisms and phosphorus tenor in the soil and in the aerial part of the plant. The tenor of soluble phosphorus in the soil and accumulated phosphorous in the aerial part of corn plan were increased by the treatments with filter pie but not higher with filter pie enriched with biofertilizers, so its use isn’t justified. The pie treatments increase the fungus, total and solubilizers bacterial populations in the soil, provoking an increase of the height, diameter, number of leaves and dry matter of corn plants in a Red-Distrófico Latossolo.

  5. Chronic Diarrhea

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can infections that cause chronic diarrhea be prevented? Chronic Diarrhea What is chronic diarrhea? Diarrhea that lasts for more than 2-4 ... may represent a life-threatening illness. What causes chronic diarrhea? Chronic diarrhea has many different causes; these causes ...

  6. Phosphorus removal by electric arc furnace steel slag adsorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, J. W.; Lee, K. F.; Chong, Thomas S. Y.; Abdullah, L. C.; Razak, M. A.; Tezara, C.

    2017-10-01

    As to overcome the eutrophication in lakes and reservoirs which is resulted from excessive input of phosphorus due to rapid urbanization or uncontrolled agricultural activities, Electric Arc Furnace steel slag (EAFS), a steelmaking by-product, in which the disposal of this industrial waste considered economically unfavourable yet it’s physical and chemical properties exhibits high potential to be great P adsorbent. The objective of this study was to identify most suitable mathematical model in description of adsorption by using traditional batch experiment and to investigate the effect on Phosphorus removal efficiency and Phosphorus removal capacity by EAFS adsorption through variation of parameters such as pH, size of slag and initial concentration of Phosphorus. Result demonstrated that, Langmuir is suitable in describing Phosphorus removal mechanisms with the Maximum Adsorption Capacity, Q m of 0.166 mg/g and Langmuir Constant, KL of 0.03519 L/mg. As for effect studies, smaller size of adsorbent shows higher percentage (up to 37.8%) of Phosphorus removal compared to the larger size. Besides that, the experiment indicated a more acidic environment is favourable for Phosphorus removal and the amount of Phosphorus adsorbed at pH 3.0 was the highest. In addition, the adsorption capacity increases steadily as the initial Phosphorus concentration increases but it remained steady at 100mg P/L. Eventually, this study serves as better understanding on preliminary studies of P removal mechanisms by EAFS.

  7. The composition, dynamics, and ecological significance of soil organic phosphorus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, B. L.

    2011-12-01

    Studies of plant nutrition often consider only inorganic phosphate to be biologically available, yet organic phosphorus is abundant in soils and its turnover can account for the majority of the phosphorus taken up by natural vegetation. Soil organic phosphorus occurs in a variety of chemical forms, including phosphomonoesters, phosphodiesters, phosphonates, and organic polyphosphates, which can be determined conveniently by alkaline extraction and solution phosphorus-31 nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The inositol phosphates are of particular interest, because they are widespread in soils, yet only one of the four stereoisomers of inositol hexakisphosphate present in soils has been detected elsewhere in the environment. The mobility and bioavailability of the various organic phosphorus compounds differs depending on factors such as their interaction with metal oxide surfaces, which leads to a disparity between the forms of organic phosphorus entering the soil and the composition of the stable soil organic phosphorus pool. During long-term pedogenesis, organic phosphorus accumulates in the early nitrogen-limited stages of ecosystem development, but then declines as phosphorus-limitation strengthens in old soils. At the same time, the composition of the organic phosphorus varies; for example, the inositol phosphates decline to become a small proportion of the total organic phosphorus in old soils, presumably indicating their potential availability under conditions of strong phosphorus limitation. Plants have evolved a variety of mechanisms to acquire phosphorus from organic compounds, including the synthesis of phosphatase enzymes and the secretion of organic anions. Phosphatase activity is linked strongly to soil organic phosphorus concentrations, as indicated by broad surveys of tropical forest soils, fertilization experiments, and patterns observed during long-term ecosystem development. Organic anion secretion is often linked to inorganic phosphate

  8. NMR and mass spectrometry of phosphorus in wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Rifai, H.; Heerboth, M.; Gedris, T.E.; Newman, S.; Orem, W.; Cooper, W.T.

    2008-01-01

    There is at present little information on the long-term stability of phosphorus sequestered in wetlands. Phosphorus sequestered during high loading periods may be relatively unstable and easily remobilized following changes in nutrient status or hydrological regime, but the chemical forms of sequestered phosphorus that do remobilize are largely unknown at this time. A lack of suitable analytical techniques has contributed to this dearth of knowledge regarding the stability of soil organic phosphorus. We analysed phosphorus in soils from the 'head' of Rescue Strand tree island and an adjacent marsh in the Florida Everglades by 31P nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and high-resolution mass spectrometry. Tree islands are important areas of biodiversity within the Everglades and offer a unique opportunity to study phosphorus sequestration because they are exposed to large phosphorus loads and appear to be natural nutrient sinks. The 31P NMR profiling of extracts from surface and sediment samples in the tree island indicates that phosphorus input to Rescue Strand tree island soils is mostly in the form of inorganic ortho-phosphate and is either refractory when deposited or rapidly recycled by the native vegetation into a stable phosphorus pool largely resistant to re-utilization by plants or microbes. Mass spectrometry revealed the presence of inositol hexakisphosphate, a common organic monophosphate ester not previously observed in Everglades' soils. ?? 2008 The Authors.

  9. A novel approach for phosphorus recovery and no wasted sludge in enhanced biological phosphorus removal process with external COD addition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Cheng-Wang; Ma, Yun-Jie; Zhang, Fang; Lu, Yong-Ze; Zeng, Raymond J

    2014-01-01

    In enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) process, phosphorus (P) in wastewater is removed via wasted sludge without actual recovery. A novel approach to realize phosphorus recovery with special external chemical oxygen demand (COD) addition in EBPR process was proposed. During the new operating approach period, it was found that (1) no phosphorus was detected in the effluent; (2) with an external addition of 10 % of influent COD amount, 79 % phosphorus in the wastewater influent was recovered; (3) without wasted sludge, the MLVSS concentration in the system increased from 2,010 to 3,400 mg/L and kept stable after day 11 during 24-day operating period. This demonstrates that the novel approach is feasible to realize phosphorus recovery with no wasted sludge discharge in EBPR process. Furthermore, this approach decouples P removal and sludge age, which may enhance the application of membrane bioreactor for P removal.

  10. Effect of phytase supplementation on apparent phosphorus digestibility and phosphorus output in broiler chicks fed low-phosphorus diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xian-Ren Jiang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of supplemental phytase in broiler chicks fed different low levels of total phosphorus (P on the apparent phosphorus digestibility (APD and phosphorus output (PO in the faeces and ileal digesta. After fed a standard broiler starter diet from day 0 to 14 post-hatch, a total of 144 male broiler chicks were allocated to 6 groups for a 7-d experiment with a 2 × 3 factorial design comparing phytase (supplemented without (CTR or with 400 FTU/kg phytase (PHY and total P levels (2.0, 2.5 and 3.0 g/kg. The faecal samples were collected from day 17 to 21 post-hatch. At 22 days of age, all the chicks were slaughtered and collected the ileal digesta. Phytase supplementation significantly (P < 0.01 increased APD and decreased PO in the faeces and ileal digesta in comparison with the CTR group. In addition, PO in the faeces expressed as g/kg DM diets and faeces (Diet × P level, P = 0.047 and < 0.01, respectively as well as PO in the ileal digesta expressed as g/kg DM digesta (Diet × P level, P = 0.04 were affected by diet and P level, which were due to the significant reduction (P < 0.01 by PHY supplementation to the diets with 3.0 g/kg total P. The results evidenced that supplemental phytase improved the APD and PO when chicks was fed 3.0 g/kg total P diet, while lower total P levels may limit exogenous phytase efficacy.

  11. Microbial gene functions enriched in the Deepwater Horizon deep-sea oil plume

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Z.; Deng, Y.; Nostrand, J.D. Van; He, Z.; Voordeckers, J.; Zhou, A.; Lee, Y.-J.; Mason, O.U.; Dubinsky, E.; Chavarria, K.; Tom, L.; Fortney, J.; Lamendella, R.; Jansson, J.K.; D?haeseleer, P.; Hazen, T.C.; Zhou, J.

    2011-06-15

    The Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico is the deepest and largest offshore spill in U.S. history and its impacts on marine ecosystems are largely unknown. Here, we showed that the microbial community functional composition and structure were dramatically altered in a deep-sea oil plume resulting from the spill. A variety of metabolic genes involved in both aerobic and anaerobic hydrocarbon degradation were highly enriched in the plume compared to outside the plume, indicating a great potential for intrinsic bioremediation or natural attenuation in the deep-sea. Various other microbial functional genes relevant to carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, sulfur and iron cycling, metal resistance, and bacteriophage replication were also enriched in the plume. Together, these results suggest that the indigenous marine microbial communities could play a significant role in biodegradation of oil spills in deep-sea environments.

  12. Network-based functional enrichment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poirel Christopher L

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many methods have been developed to infer and reason about molecular interaction networks. These approaches often yield networks with hundreds or thousands of nodes and up to an order of magnitude more edges. It is often desirable to summarize the biological information in such networks. A very common approach is to use gene function enrichment analysis for this task. A major drawback of this method is that it ignores information about the edges in the network being analyzed, i.e., it treats the network simply as a set of genes. In this paper, we introduce a novel method for functional enrichment that explicitly takes network interactions into account. Results Our approach naturally generalizes Fisher’s exact test, a gene set-based technique. Given a function of interest, we compute the subgraph of the network induced by genes annotated to this function. We use the sequence of sizes of the connected components of this sub-network to estimate its connectivity. We estimate the statistical significance of the connectivity empirically by a permutation test. We present three applications of our method: i determine which functions are enriched in a given network, ii given a network and an interesting sub-network of genes within that network, determine which functions are enriched in the sub-network, and iii given two networks, determine the functions for which the connectivity improves when we merge the second network into the first. Through these applications, we show that our approach is a natural alternative to network clustering algorithms. Conclusions We presented a novel approach to functional enrichment that takes into account the pairwise relationships among genes annotated by a particular function. Each of the three applications discovers highly relevant functions. We used our methods to study biological data from three different organisms. Our results demonstrate the wide applicability of our methods. Our algorithms are

  13. Effect of exogenous phosphorus addition on soil respiration in Calamagrostis angustifolia freshwater marshes of Northeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Changchun; Liu, Deyan; Song, Yanyu; Yang, Guisheng; Wan, Zhongmei; Li, Yingchen; Xu, Xiaofeng

    2011-03-01

    Anthropogenic activities have increased phosphorus (P) inputs to wetland ecosystems. However, little is known about the effect of P enrichment on soil respiration in these ecosystems. To understand the effect of P enrichment on soil respiration, we conducted a field experiment in Calamagrostis angustifolia-dominated freshwater marshes, the Sanjiang Plain, Northeast China. We investigated soil respiration in the first growing season after P addition at four rates (0, 1.2, 4.8 and 9.6 g P m-2 year-1). In addition, we also examined aboveground biomass, soil labile C fractions (dissolved organic C, DOC; microbial biomass C, MBC; easily oxidizable C, EOC) and enzyme activities (invertase, urease and acid phosphatase activities) following one year of P addition. P addition decreased soil respiration during the growing season. Dissolved organic C in soil pore water increased after P addition at both 5 and 15 cm depths. Moreover, increased P input generally inhibited soil MBC and enzyme activities, and had no effects on aboveground biomass and soil EOC. Our results suggest that, in the short-term, soil respiration declines under P enrichment in C. angustifolia-dominated freshwater marshes of Northeast China, and its extent varies with P addition levels.

  14. Phosphorus and Nitrogen Co-Limit Global Grassland Productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fay, P. A.; Prober, S. M.; Harpole, W. S.; Knops, J. M. H.; Bakker, J. D.; Borer, E. T.; MacDougall, A. S.; Seabloom, E. W.; Wragg, P. D.; Lind, E. M.

    2014-12-01

    Terrestrial ecosystem primary productivity has been considered to be primarily nitrogen (N) - limited, but may be co-limited by phosphorus (P), and possibly by potassium and micronutrients (K+m). The frequency, magnitude, and global extent of single or multiple nutrient limitations are poorly understood in natural systems, but can influence how anthropogenic nutrient enrichment affects ecosystem productivity and provisioning of ecosystem goods and services. We examined the occurrence and magnitude of nutrient limitation of aboveground net primary productivity (ANPP) by N, P, and K+m at 42 grassland sites on five continents in the Nutrient Network (https://www.nutnet.umn.edu). N, P, and K+m were factorially applied annually in a randomized block design at all sites. ANPP was measured annually for 3 to 5 years by clipping and weighing standing aboveground biomass. We found clear evidence for nutrient limitation of ANPP in these grasslands. Across all sites and years, the combined addition of N and P increased ANPP by 39% over controls, more than occurred if either was added alone (N: 18%; P: 9%), suggesting co-limitation of ANPP by both nutrients. Co-limitation by other nutrient combinations was not detected. At individual sites, ANPP limitation was most often alleviated by adding N and P together, but K+m addition alleviated ANPP limitation at three sites. Also, site-level limitation of ANPP by any one nutrient was positively correlated (R2 0.07 to 0.21) with limitation by other single or multiple nutrients, suggesting generalized multiple nutrient limitation. We found no differences in nutrient limitation of ANPP among continents or management practices, between native and previously cultivated grasslands, or with site soil properties or climate. These novel patterns of nutrient limitation of ANPP in grasslands around the global contradict the long-held idea that N is the primary nutrient limiting productivity in these ecosystems. Grasslands are globally important

  15. Ethylene: a regulator of root architectural responses to soil phosphorus availability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borch, K.; Bouma, T.J.; Lynch, J.P.; Brown, K.M.

    1999-01-01

    The involvement of ethylene in root architectural responses to phosphorus availability was investigated in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L,) plants grown with sufficient and deficient phosphorus. Although phosphorus deficiency reduced root mass and lateral root number, main root length was

  16. Deciphering magma histories through phosphorus zoning in olivine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ersoy, Ö.; Nikogosian, I.; Mason, P. R. D.; van Bergen, M.

    2015-12-01

    Since olivine is usually the first major phase to crystallize from basaltic magma, its primary chemistry is a sensitive tracer of the early evolution of volcanic systems. However, fast diffusion and homogenization under magmatic conditions frequently modifies the original composition of olivine, which hampers the reconstruction of cooling histories and magma evolution from the chemistry and zoning patterns of phenocrysts in erupted products. Phosphorous is a notable exception due to its sluggish diffusion in olivine crystals and silicate melts, as igneous olivines almost always display complex zoning patterns. Phosphorus zoning in olivine has been linked either to crystallization rate variations and diffusion controlled growth or to strong compositional controls on melt-mineral partitioning. We illuminate the versatility of P-in-olivine with a comprehensive EPMA and LA-ICPMS dataset on olivines from Italian potassium rich mafic lavas and the primitive melt inclusions (MI) that they host. The olivines are characterized by P concentrations from limit of quantification (22 ppm) to 435 ppm P with MIs containing up to 2.2 wt.% P2O5. High resolution (1-2 μm per pixel) element maps show both fine oscillatory and large scale sector zoning in P, which is uncorrelated with zoning in any other element. The MIs are virtually always surrounded by P-depleted zones that are also depleted in Cr and enriched in Al and Ti, which we attribute to a combination of supply-limited slow growth and melt compositional controls on partitioning behavior imposed by the boundary layer. We demonstrate that P zoning carries valuable information on the nature and timing of magmatic events such as mingling/mixing, wall-rock assimilation and subsequent re-equilibration processes. P-in-olivine is most promising to distinguish multiple generations of MIs, as a guide to study their mode of entrapment and to disclose the origin of primary heterogeneities.

  17. NEAT : an efficient network enrichment analysis test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Signorelli, Mirko; Vinciotti, Veronica; Wit, Ernst C

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Network enrichment analysis is a powerful method, which allows to integrate gene enrichment analysis with the information on relationships between genes that is provided by gene networks. Existing tests for network enrichment analysis deal only with undirected networks, they can be

  18. Effect of mycorrhiza on growth criteria and phosphorus nutrition of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. under different phosphorus application rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Fatih Ergin

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, effect of mycorrhiza on growth criteria and phosphorus nutrition of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. under different phosphorus fertilization rates were investigated. Phosphorus were added into growing media as 0, 50, 100 and 200 mg P2O5/kg with and without mycorrhiza applications. Phosphorus applications significantly increased yield criteria of lettuce according to the control treatment statistically. Mycorrhiza application also significantly increased plant diameter, plant dry weight and phosphor uptake by plant. The highest phosphorus uptakes by plants were determined in 200 mg P2O5/kg treatments as 88.8 mg P/pot with mycorrhiza and 83.1 mg P/pot without mycorrhiza application. In the control at 0 doses of phosphorus with mycorrhiza treatment, phosphorus uptake (69.9 mg P/pot, edible weight (84.36 g, dry weight (8.64 g and leaf number (28 of lettuce were higher than that (47.7 mg P/pot, 59.33 g, 6.75 g and 20, respectively in the control without mycorrhiza application. It was determined that mycorrhiza had positive effect on growth criteria and phosphorus nutrition by lettuce plant, and this effect decreased at higher phosphorus application rates.

  19. Calcium effect on the metabolic pathway of phosphorus accumulating organisms in enhanced biological phosphorus removal systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hai-Ling; Sheng, Guo-Ping; Fang, Wei; Wang, Yong-Peng; Fang, Cai-Yun; Shao, Li-Min; Yu, Han-Qing

    2015-11-01

    Phosphorus accumulating organisms (PAOs) have been found to act as glycogen-accumulating organisms (GAOs) under certain conditions, thus, the deterioration in the performance of enhanced biological phosphorus removal systems is not always attributed to the proliferation of GAOs. In this work, the effects of calcium on the metabolic pathway of PAOs were explored. It was found that when the influent Ca(2+) concentration was elevated, the tendency and extent of extracellular calcium phosphate precipitation increased, and the intracellular inert Ca-bound polyphosphate was synthesized, while the microbial population remained almost unchanged. The changes in the ratios of phosphorus released/acetate uptaken, the glycogen degraded/acetate uptaken and the poly-β-hydroxyalkanoates synthesized/acetate uptaken during the anaerobic period confirm that, as the influent Ca(2+) concentration was increased, the polyphosphate-accumulating metabolism was partially shifted to the glycogen-accumulating metabolism. At an influent Ca(2+) around 50 mg/L, in addition to the extracellular calcium phosphate precipitation, the intracellular inert Ca-bound polyphosphate synthesis might also be involved in the metabolic change of PAOs. The results of the present work would be beneficial to better understand the biochemical metabolism of PAOs in enhanced biological phosphorus removal systems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Urban phosphorus sustainability: Systemically incorporating social, ecological, and technological factors into phosphorus flow analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genevieve S. Metson; David M. Iwaniec; Lawrence A. Baker; Elena M. Bennett; Daniel L. Childers; Dana Cordell; Nancy B. Grimm; J. Morgan Grove; Daniel A. Nidzgorski; Stuart. White

    2015-01-01

    Phosphorus (P) is an essential fertilizer for agricultural production but is also a potent aquatic pollutant. Current P management fails to adequately address both the issue of food security due to P scarcity and P pollution threats to water bodies. As centers of food consumption and waste production, cities transport and store much P and thus provide important...

  1. Phosphorus solubility of agricultural soils: a surface charge and phosphorus-31 NMR speciation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    We investigated ten soils from six states in United States to determine the relationship between potentiometric titration derived soil surface charge and Phosphorus-31 (P) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) speciation with the concentration of water-extractable P (WEP). The surface charge value at the...

  2. Digestible phosphorus levels for barrows from 50 to 80 kg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Maria Oliveira dos Santos Nieto

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study was carried out to evaluate the levels of digestible phosphorus in diets for barrows with a high potential for lean meat deposition from 50 to 80 kg. Eighty barrows, with an initial weight of 47.93±3.43 kg, were distributed in completely randomized blocks, with each group given five levels of digestible phosphorus (1.86, 2.23, 2.61, 2.99, and 3.36 g kg−1. There were eight replicates, and two animals per experimental unit. Phosphorus levels did not significantly influence feed intake, weight gain, or feed conversion ratio. Daily digestible phosphorus intake increased linearly as levels of phosphorus in the diet were increased. Phosphorus levels did not significantly influence muscle depth, loin eye area, backfat thickness, or the percentage and quantity of lean meat in the carcass. A linear increase was observed for feeding cost as the levels of digestible phosphorus in the diet were increased, and the level of 1.86 g kg−1 cost 29.4% less when compared with the level of 2.61 g kg−1. The dry matter, natural matter, the coefficient of the residue, and volatile solids of the waste were not significantly influenced by phosphorus levels. Conversely, it was possible to observe an increasing linear effect for total solids, total phosphorus, and total nitrogen in the waste of animals receiving diets with increased levels of digestible phosphorus. The level of 1.86 g kg−1, which corresponded to a daily intake of 4.77 g−1 of digestible phosphorus, meets the requirements of barrows weighing 50 to 80 kg.

  3. 24-hour urine phosphorus excretion and mortality and cardiovascular events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomino, Heather L; Rifkin, Dena E; Anderson, Cheryl; Criqui, Michael H; Whooley, Mary A; Ix, Joachim H

    2013-07-01

    Higher morning serum phosphorus has been associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) in patients with or without CKD. In patients with CKD and a phosphorous level >4.6 mg/dl, the Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes guidelines recommend dietary phosphorus restriction. However, whether phosphorus restriction influences serum phosphorus concentrations and whether dietary phosphorus is itself associated with CVD or death are uncertain. Among 880 patients with stable CVD and normal kidney function to moderate CKD, 24-hour urine phosphorus excretion (UPE) and serum phosphorus were measured at baseline. Participants were followed for a median of 7.4 years for CVD events and all-cause mortality. Mean ± SD age was 67±11 years, estimated GFR (eGFR) was 71±22 ml/min per 1.73 m(2), and serum phosphorus was 3.7±0.6 mg/dl. Median UPE was 632 (interquartile range, 439, 853) mg/d. In models adjusted for demographic characteristics and eGFR, UPE was weakly and nonsignificantly associated with serum phosphorus (0.03 mg/dl higher phosphorus per 300 mg higher UPE; P=0.07). When adjusted for demographics, eGFR, and CVD risk factors, each 300-mg higher UPE was associated with 17% lower risk of CVD events. The association of UPE with all-cause mortality was not statistically significant (hazard ratio, 0.93; 95% confidence interval, 0.82 to 1.05). Results were similar irrespective of CKD status (P interactions > 0.87). Among outpatients with stable CVD, the magnitude of the association of UPE with morning serum phosphorus is modest. Greater UPE is associated with lower risk for CVD events. The association was similar for all-cause mortality but was not statistically significant.

  4. 24-Hour Urine Phosphorus Excretion and Mortality and Cardiovascular Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomino, Heather L.; Rifkin, Dena E.; Anderson, Cheryl; Criqui, Michael H.; Whooley, Mary A.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background and objectives Higher morning serum phosphorus has been associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) in patients with or without CKD. In patients with CKD and a phosphorous level >4.6 mg/dl, the Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes guidelines recommend dietary phosphorus restriction. However, whether phosphorus restriction influences serum phosphorus concentrations and whether dietary phosphorus is itself associated with CVD or death are uncertain. Design, setting, participants, & measurements Among 880 patients with stable CVD and normal kidney function to moderate CKD, 24-hour urine phosphorus excretion (UPE) and serum phosphorus were measured at baseline. Participants were followed for a median of 7.4 years for CVD events and all-cause mortality. Results Mean ± SD age was 67±11 years, estimated GFR (eGFR) was 71±22 ml/min per 1.73 m2, and serum phosphorus was 3.7±0.6 mg/dl. Median UPE was 632 (interquartile range, 439, 853) mg/d. In models adjusted for demographic characteristics and eGFR, UPE was weakly and nonsignificantly associated with serum phosphorus (0.03 mg/dl higher phosphorus per 300 mg higher UPE; P=0.07). When adjusted for demographics, eGFR, and CVD risk factors, each 300-mg higher UPE was associated with 17% lower risk of CVD events. The association of UPE with all-cause mortality was not statistically significant (hazard ratio, 0.93; 95% confidence interval, 0.82 to 1.05). Results were similar irrespective of CKD status (P interactions > 0.87). Conclusions Among outpatients with stable CVD, the magnitude of the association of UPE with morning serum phosphorus is modest. Greater UPE is associated with lower risk for CVD events. The association was similar for all-cause mortality but was not statistically significant. PMID:23539231

  5. Development, Testing, and Sensitivity and Uncertainty Analyses of a Transport and Reaction Simulation Engine (TaRSE) for Spatially Distributed Modeling of Phosphorus in South Florida Peat Marsh Wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jawitz, James W.; Munoz-Carpena, Rafael; Muller, Stuart; Grace, Kevin A.; James, Andrew I.

    2008-01-01

    in the phosphorus cycling mechanisms were simulated in these case studies using different combinations of phosphorus reaction equations. Changes in water column phosphorus concentrations observed under the controlled conditions of laboratory incubations, and mesocosm studies were reproduced with model simulations. Short-term phosphorus flux rates and changes in phosphorus storages were within the range of values reported in the literature, whereas unknown rate constants were used to calibrate the model output. In STA-1W Cell 4, the dominant mechanism for phosphorus flow and transport is overland flow. Over many life cycles of the biological components, however, soils accrue and become enriched in phosphorus. Inflow total phosphorus concentrations and flow rates for the period between 1995 and 2000 were used to simulate Cell 4 phosphorus removal, outflow concentrations, and soil phosphorus enrichment over time. This full-scale application of the model successfully incorporated parameter values derived from the literature and short-term experiments, and reproduced the observed long-term outflow phosphorus concentrations and increased soil phosphorus storage within the system. A global sensitivity and uncertainty analysis of the model was performed using modern techniques such as a qualitative screening tool (Morris method) and the quantitative, variance-based, Fourier Amplitude Sensitivity Test (FAST) method. These techniques allowed an in-depth exploration of the effect of model complexity and flow velocity on model outputs. Three increasingly complex levels of possible application to southern Florida were studied corresponding to a simple soil pore-water and surface-water system (level 1), the addition of plankton (level 2), and of macrophytes (level 3). In the analysis for each complexity level, three surface-water velocities were considered that each correspond to residence times for the selected area (1-kilometer long) of 2, 10, and 20

  6. Biological elimination phosphorus; Eliminacion biologia de fosforo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrera, J.; Vicent, T.; Lafuente, J. [Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona (Spain)

    2000-07-01

    Phosphorus is the main limiting nutrient in the eutrophication process, and therefore its removal from the aquatic medium is indispensable. Biological Phosphorous Removal is a more efficient and convenient process compared with the classical chemical precipitation, due to a reduction of chemical reagents and sludge production. Moreover, it represents energy save since the sludge produced can be reused for agriculture purposes. In this paper bibliographic hypothesis about the metabolic pathways of the phosphorous accumulating organisms are widely and accurate reviewed and the above mentioned environmental benefits of the Biological Phosphorous Removal are reported. (Author) 22 refs.

  7. Enhanced biological phosphorus removal employing EDTA disodium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bojinova, D.; Velkova, R. [Higher Inst. of Chemical Technology, Sofia (Bulgaria)

    1996-12-31

    The biological phosphorus removal is a promising alternative to the conventional chemical technologies for processing of phosphate raw materials. The object of this study was the effect of EDTA disodium on the biotreatment of tunisian phosphorite with the strain of Aspergillus niger. The incubation was carried out in two nutritive mediums, with different phosphate content. The experimental results showed that the additives of EDTA disodium in the nutritive medium increased the rate of extraction of P{sub 2}O{sub 5} and shortened significantly the time for biological leaching. 5 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Stewardship to tackle global phosphorus inefficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Withers, Paul J. A.; Dijk, Kimo van; Neset, Tina-Simone

    2015-01-01

    The inefficient use of phosphorus (P) in the food chain is a threat to the global aquatic environment and the health and well-being of citizens, and it is depleting an essential finite natural resource critical for future food security and ecosystem function. We outline a strategic framework of 5R...... stewardship (Re-align P inputs, Reduce P losses, Recycle P in bioresources, Recover P in wastes, and Redefine P in food systems) to help identify and deliver a range of integrated, cost-effective, and feasible technological innovations to improve P use efficiency in society and reduce Europe’s dependence on P...

  9. Enriching Orphans’ Potentials through Interpersonal and Intrapersonal Intelligence Enrichment Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurulwahida Hj Azid

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Orphans are considered a minority and they should be given a greater emphasis so that they do not feel left out and can build their own lives without a sense of humility. This does not mean that the orphans should be pampered instead they should be given the confidence and motivation to strive for success in later life. Humility among orphans can be associated with interpersonal and intrapersonal intelligences. This study aims to evaluate the impact of problem-solving activity treatment based on the interpersonal and intrapersonal intelligences. 46 students from two orphanages were involved as the treatment group. The research design used was a one-group pretest-posttest design applied through a combination of quantitative and qualitative approaches. Enrichment activities that provided interpersonal and intrapersonal skills as evidenced in this study should be carried out regularly at orphanages. Our study has proven that orphans‟ rights to learn cannot be neglected and „no child left behind „policy needs to be carried through by everybody involved with orphans‟ well-being. Teachers and carers need to be trained to use these enrichment activities at their orphanages to help maximize the orphans‟ potentials.

  10. 76 FR 11523 - Atomic Safety and Licensing Board; AREVA Enrichment Services, LLC (Eagle Rock Enrichment Facility...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-02

    ... COMMISSION Atomic Safety and Licensing Board; AREVA Enrichment Services, LLC (Eagle Rock Enrichment Facility.... Craig M. White. In this 10 CFR part 70 proceeding regarding the request of applicant AREVA Enrichment... Safeguards Information for Contention Preparation; In the Matter of AREVA Enrichment Services, LLC (Eagle...

  11. Assessing the Long Term Impact of Phosphorus Fertilization on Phosphorus Loadings Using AnnAGNPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin A. Locke

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available High phosphorus (P loss from agricultural fields has been an environmental concern because of potential water quality problems in streams and lakes. To better understand the process of P loss and evaluate the effects of different phosphorus fertilization rates on phosphorus losses, the USDA Annualized AGricultural Non-Point Source (AnnAGNPS pollutant loading model was applied to the Ohio Upper Auglaize watershed, located in the southern portion of the Maumee River Basin. In this study, the AnnAGNPS model was calibrated using USGS monitored data; and then the effects of different phosphorus fertilization rates on phosphorus loadings were assessed. It was found that P loadings increase as fertilization rate increases, and long term higher P application would lead to much higher P loadings to the watershed outlet. The P loadings to the watershed outlet have a dramatic change after some time with higher P application rate. This dramatic change of P loading to the watershed outlet indicates that a “critical point” may exist in the soil at which soil P loss to water changes dramatically. Simulations with different initial soil P contents showed that the higher the initial soil P content is, the less time it takes to reach the “critical point” where P loadings to the watershed outlet increases dramatically. More research needs to be done to understand the processes involved in the transfer of P between the various stable, active and labile states in the soil to ensure that the model simulations are accurate. This finding may be useful in setting up future P application and management guidelines.

  12. Selenium enrichment of table eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, D C; Cheng, K M

    2010-10-01

    Selenium is an essential trace element with a recommended dietary allowance for human adults of 55 μg/d. However, there is evidence that greater dietary intakes may have possible health benefits, including a reduction in the risk of cancer. Several studies have shown the feasibility of enriching eggs using organic Se and that Se-enriched eggs are an effective way to supplement human diets. However, few studies have examined the response of egg Se concentration to high (>1 μg/g) dietary organic Se intake by the laying hens. The objective of the current study is to examine the effect of higher dietary organic Se levels on production, egg mass, and egg Se levels. These were assessed by feeding 3 breeds of laying hens (Barred Plymouth Rock, Lohmann Brown, Lohmann White) a basal diet containing 0.3 μg of Se/g of diet as Na2SeO3. Into this diet, Se yeast (SelenoSource AF 600), an organic source of Se, was added at 1.0, 2.4, or 5.1 μg of Se/g of diet for 4 wk. Feed consumption, egg production, and egg mass were not affected by the dietary Se concentration in all 3 breeds. Within the range of Se levels employed in the laying hens' diet, egg Se content increased linearly as dietary levels of Se increased. The results of this study indicate that feeding up to 5.1 µg/g of Se will not affect egg production and the welfare of the laying hen and is a practical way of producing Se-enriched eggs for the consumers.

  13. Boron enrichment in martian clay.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James D Stephenson

    Full Text Available We have detected a concentration of boron in martian clay far in excess of that in any previously reported extra-terrestrial object. This enrichment indicates that the chemistry necessary for the formation of ribose, a key component of RNA, could have existed on Mars since the formation of early clay deposits, contemporary to the emergence of life on Earth. Given the greater similarity of Earth and Mars early in their geological history, and the extensive disruption of Earth's earliest mineralogy by plate tectonics, we suggest that the conditions for prebiotic ribose synthesis may be better understood by further Mars exploration.

  14. Boron Enrichment in Martian Clay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagashima, Kazuhide; Freeland, Stephen J.

    2013-01-01

    We have detected a concentration of boron in martian clay far in excess of that in any previously reported extra-terrestrial object. This enrichment indicates that the chemistry necessary for the formation of ribose, a key component of RNA, could have existed on Mars since the formation of early clay deposits, contemporary to the emergence of life on Earth. Given the greater similarity of Earth and Mars early in their geological history, and the extensive disruption of Earth's earliest mineralogy by plate tectonics, we suggest that the conditions for prebiotic ribose synthesis may be better understood by further Mars exploration. PMID:23762242

  15. A metagenome of a full-scale microbial community carrying out enhanced biological phosphorus removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albertsen, Mads; Hansen, Lea Benedicte Skov; Saunders, Aaron Marc; Nielsen, Per Halkjær; Nielsen, Kåre Lehmann

    2012-01-01

    Enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) is widely used for removal of phosphorus from wastewater. In this study, a metagenome (18.2 Gb) was generated using Illumina sequencing from a full-scale EBPR plant to study the community structure and genetic potential. Quantitative fluorescence in situ hybridization (qFISH) was applied as an independent method to evaluate the community structure. The results were in qualitative agreement, but a DNA extraction bias against gram positive bacteria using standard extraction protocols was identified, which would not have been identified without the use of qFISH. The genetic potential for community function showed enrichment of genes involved in phosphate metabolism and biofilm formation, reflecting the selective pressure of the EBPR process. Most contigs in the assembled metagenome had low similarity to genes from currently sequenced genomes, underlining the need for more reference genomes of key EBPR species. Only the genome of ‘Candidatus Accumulibacter', a genus of phosphorus-removing organisms, was closely enough related to the species present in the metagenome to allow for detailed investigations. Accumulibacter accounted for only 4.8% of all bacteria by qFISH, but the depth of sequencing enabled detailed insight into their microdiversity in the full-scale plant. Only 15% of the reads matching Accumulibacter had a high similarity (>95%) to the sequenced Accumulibacter clade IIA strain UW-1 genome, indicating the presence of some microdiversity. The differences in gene complement between the Accumulibacter clades were limited to genes for extracellular polymeric substances and phage-related genes, suggesting a selective pressure from phages on the Accumulibacter diversity. PMID:22170425

  16. Metabolism and ecological niche of Tetrasphaera and Ca. Accumulibacter in enhanced biological phosphorus removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Ricardo; Santos, Jorge; Nguyen, Hien; Carvalho, Gilda; Noronha, J P; Nielsen, Per Halkjær; Reis, Maria A M; Oehmen, Adrian

    2017-10-01

    Tetrasphaera and Candidatus Accumulibacter are two abundant polyphosphate accumulating organisms in full-scale enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) systems. However, little is known about the metabolic behaviour and ecological niche that each organism exhibits in mixed communities. In this study, an enriched culture of Tetrasphaera and Ca. Accumulibacter was obtained using casein hydrolysate as sole carbon source. This culture was able to achieve a high phosphorus removal efficiency (>99%), storing polyphosphate while consuming amino acids anaerobically. Microautoradiography and fluorescence in situ hybridisation confirmed that more than 90% Tetrasphaera cells were responsible for amino acid consumption while Ca. Accumulibacter likely survived on fermentation products. Tetrasphaera performed the majority of the P removal (approximately 80%) in this culture, and batch tests showed that the metabolism of some carbon sources could actually lead to anaerobic orthophosphate (Pi) uptake (9.0 ± 2.1 mg-P/L) through energy generated by fermentation of glucose and amino acids. This anaerobic Pi uptake may lead to lower net Pi release to C uptake ratios and reduce the Pi needed to be removed aerobically in WWTPs. Intracellular metabolites such as amino acids, sugars, volatile fatty acids and small amines were observed as potential storage products, which may serve as energy sources in the aerobic phase. Evidence of the urea cycle was found, which could be involved in reducing the intracellular nitrogen content. This study improves our understanding of how phosphorus is removed in EBPR systems and can enable novel process optimisation strategies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Species-specific variation in the phosphorus nutritional sources by microphytoplankton in a Mediterranean estuary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARLY CAROLINA MARTINEZ SOTO

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the species-specific phosphorus (P nutrition sources in the microphytoplankton community in the Mahon estuary (Minorca, Western Mediterranean in 2011, under two contrasting hydrographic scenarios. Estuarine flow, nutrient concentrations, phytoplankton community composition and enzyme-labeled fluorescence (ELF were measured in June and October, corresponding to the beginning and the end of summer. Dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN and inorganic phosphate (Pi exhibited enhanced concentrations in the inner estuary where N:P molar ratios suggested P-limitation in both surveys. Pi was low and variable (0.09±0.02 μmol•l-1 in June and 0.06±0.02 μmol•l-1 in October, whereas organic phosphorus remained a more reliable P source. Even though ambient Pi concentrations were slightly higher on June, when the microphytoplankton assemblage was dominated by dinoflagellates, the percentage of cells expressing ELF labeling was notably higher (65% of total cells than in October (12%, when the presence of diatoms characterized the microphytoplankton community. ELF was mainly expressed by dinoflagellate taxa, whereas diatoms only expressed significant AP in the inner estuary during the June survey. A P-addition bioassay in which response of AP to Pi enrichment was evaluated showed remarkable reduction in AP with increasing Pi. However, some dinoflagellate species maintained AP even when Pi was supplied in excess. We suggest that in the case of some dinoflagellate species AP is not as tightly controlled by ambient Pi as previously believed. AP activity in these species could indicate selective use of organic phosphorus, or slow metabolic response to changes in P forms, rather than physiological stress to low Pi availability. We emphasize the importance of identifying the links between the different P sources and the species-specific requirements, in order to understand the ecological response to anthropogenic biogeochemical perturbations.

  18. Phosphorus recovery and reuse by pyrolysis: Applications for agriculture and environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Daquan; Hale, Lauren; Kar, Gourango; Soolanayakanahally, Raju; Adl, Sina

    2018-03-01

    Phosphorus ore extraction for soil fertilization supports the demand of modern agriculture, but extractable resource limitations, due to scarcity, impose a P reuse and recycling research agenda. Here we propose to integrate biochar production (pyrogenic carbon) with municipal and agricultural waste management systems, to recover and reuse phosphorous that would otherwise be lost from the ecological food web. A meta-analysis and available data on total P in biochar indicated that P-enriched feedstocks include animal manure, human excreta, and plant-biomass collected from P-polluted sites. Phosphorus in biochar could participate in P equilibriums in soils and is expected to supply P. The release, sorption and desorption of P by biochar will codetermine the potential of P replenishment by biochar and P loss from biochar-amended soils. Abiotic and biotic factors are expected to affect sorption/desorption of P between biochar and soil aggregates, and P acquisition by plants. Chemical extraction, using acid or alkaline solutions, is considered as a means for P retrieval from high P biochar, especially for biochar with high heavy metal contents. To bridge the gap between academia and practice, this paper proposes future development for phosphorus acclamation by pyrolysis: 1) identification of high-P bio-waste for pyrolysis; 2) retrieval of P by using biochar as soil amendment or by chemical leaching; 3) biochar modification by inorganic nutrients, P solubilizing microorganisms and other organic matter; and 4) compatible pyrolysis equipment fit to the current waste management context, such as households, and waste water treatment plants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Evaluation of phosphorus status of some soils under estate rubber ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of phosphorus status of some soils under estate rubber (Hevea Brasiliensis Muel. Agro.) trees in Southern Cross River State. EE Attoe, UC Amalu. Abstract. No abstract. Keywords: rubber tree; phosphorus uptake; soil P; leaf P; root mat P Global Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol. 4(1) 2005: 55-61. Full Text:.

  20. Effect of Soil Types and Phosphorus Fertilizer Interaction on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of Soil Types and Phosphorus Fertilizer Interaction on the Growth and Yield of Maize ( Zea mays .L) ... This yield at varying phosphorus levels is an indication that soil types do have an effect on the yield of crops. Since all the soils are used in planting maize one soil type cannot be said to be better than the other, ...

  1. Effect of microbial phytase on phosphorus availabilityand growth of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two experiments were carried out to investigate and compare phosphorus utilization by phytase in the diet of juvenile Clarias gariepinus using parameters of growth, phosphorus availability, and digestibility. Two groups of five isonitrogenous and isocalorific diets containing 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100 % soya bean meal ...

  2. Effect of sulphide on enhanced biological phosphorus removal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rubio Rincon, F.J.

    2017-01-01

    The enhanced biological removal of phosphorus (EBPR) is a popular process due to high removal efficiency, low operational costs, and the possibility of phosphorus recovery. Nevertheless, the stability of the EBPR depends on different factors such as: temperature, pH, and the presence of toxic

  3. Plant based phosphorus recovery from wastewater via algae and macrophytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shilton, Andrew N; Powell, Nicola; Guieysse, Benoit

    2012-12-01

    At present, resource recovery by irrigation of wastewater to plants is usually driven by the value of the water resource rather than phosphorus recovery. Expanded irrigation for increased phosphorus recovery may be expected as the scarcity and price of phosphorus increases, but providing the necessary treatment, storage and conveyance comes at significant expense. An alternative to taking the wastewater to the plants is instead to take the plants to the wastewater. Algal ponds and macrophyte wetlands are already in widespread use for wastewater treatment and if harvested, would require less than one-tenth of the area to recover phosphorus compared to terrestrial crops/pastures. This area could be further decreased if the phosphorus content of the macrophytes and algae biomass was tripled from 1% to 3% via luxury uptake. While this and many other opportunities for plant based recovery of phosphorus exist, e.g. offshore cultivation, much of this technology development is still in its infancy. Research that enhances our understanding of how to maximise phosphorus uptake and harvest yields; and further add value to the biomass for reuse would see the recovery of phosphorus via plants become an important solution in the future. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. 64 Concentration of Available phosphorus in Soil Amended with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    `123456789jkl''''#

    The effect of palm oil mill effluent (POME) on the concentration of available phosphorus in a dystric cambisol. (Kulfo series) ... soluble P fertilizers (Bolland, 1996). Finally, microbial approaches have been proposed to improve the agronomic value of rock phosphate materials. ... phosphorus determined at constant amount of.

  5. effect of water harvesting methods, nitrogen-phosphorus fertilizer

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    Phosphorus fertilizer rate and variety on leaf tissue N, and P, and soil moisture content of date palm plants over a period ... Key words: Water harvesting method, Nitrogen-Phosphorus fertilizer, Date palm variety, Leaf. Tissue N and P, and Soil .... 1997; Robert et al., 2004). Leaf tissue P: P was determined color metrically by.

  6. Cowpea growth and yield performance as influenced by phosphorus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Therefore, this study was carried out to determine the optimum level of phosphorus for better growth and yield of cowpea. The experiment was conducted at the Teaching and Research farm of the Faculty of Agriculture, University of Ilorin. Five levels of phosphorus fertilizers (0kgP/ha, 30kgP/ha, 60kgP/ha, 90kgP/ha, ...

  7. Determination of phosphorus requirement of cowpea using P ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Organic matter and liming as management practices shall be useful for P fertilizer utilization in the soils since they enhance plant available P by depressing phosphorus adsorption. The use of P-isotherm technique for phosphorus fertilizer determination is therefore, recommended for efficient P fertilization practice in ...

  8. Plasma Calcium and Phosphorus In Weanling Pigs as influenced by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    THe hypercalcemia induced by the ingestion of 3% C. diurnum in the CCD and TCD pigs is attributed to increased intestinal absorption of calcium and not bore resorption. The initial hyperphosphatemic response in TCD pigs is also believed to be due to increase absorption of phosphorus from the high phosphorus diet.

  9. Modeling biogeochemical processes of phosphorus for global food supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumas, Marion; Frossard, Emmanuel; Scholz, Roland W

    2011-08-01

    Harvests of crops, their trade and consumption, soil erosion, fertilization and recycling of organic waste generate fluxes of phosphorus in and out of the soil that continuously change the worldwide spatial distribution of total phosphorus in arable soils. Furthermore, due to variability in the properties of the virgin soils and the different histories of agricultural practices, on a planetary scale, the distribution of total soil phosphorus is very heterogeneous. There are two key relationships that determine how this distribution and its change over time affect crop yields. One is the relationship between total soil phosphorus and bioavailable soil phosphorus and the second is the relationship between bioavailable soil phosphorus and yields. Both of these depend on environmental variables such as soil properties and climate. We propose a model in which these relationships are described probabilistically and integrated with the dynamic feedbacks of P cycling in the human ecosystem. The model we propose is a first step towards evaluating the large-scale effects of different nutrient management scenarios. One application of particular interest is to evaluate the vulnerability of different regions to an increased scarcity in P mineral fertilizers. Another is to evaluate different regions' deficiency in total soil phosphorus compared with the level at which they could sustain their maximum potential yield without external mineral inputs of phosphorus but solely by recycling organic matter to close the nutrient cycle. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Biological phosphorus uptake under anoxic and aerobic conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kerrn-Jespersen, Jens Peter; Henze, Mogens

    1993-01-01

    Biological phosphorus removal was investigated under anoxic and aerobic conditions. Tests were made to establish whether phosphorus accumulating bacteria can take up phosphate under anoxic conditions and thus utilise nitrate as oxidant. Furthermore, it was tested how the amount of organic matter...

  11. Biological Phosphorus Removal in a Moving Bed Biofilm Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helness, Herman

    2007-09-15

    The scope of this study was to investigate use of the moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) process for biological phosphorus removal. The goal has been to describe the operating conditions required for biological phosphorus and nitrogen removal in a MBBR operated as a sequencing batch reactor (SBR), and determine dimensioning criteria for such a process

  12. Dietary phosphorus is associated with greater left ventricular mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Kalani T; Robinson-Cohen, Cassianne; de Oliveira, Marcia C; Kostina, Alina; Nettleton, Jennifer A; Ix, Joachim H; Nguyen, Ha; Eng, John; Lima, Joao A C; Siscovick, David S; Weiss, Noel S; Kestenbaum, Bryan

    2013-04-01

    Dietary phosphorus consumption has risen steadily in the United States. Oral phosphorus loading alters key regulatory hormones and impairs vascular endothelial function, which may lead to an increase in left ventricular mass (LVM). We investigated the association of dietary phosphorus with LVM in 4494 participants from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis, a community-based study of individuals who were free of known cardiovascular disease. The intake of dietary phosphorus was estimated using a 120-item food frequency questionnaire and the LVM was measured using magnetic resonance imaging. Regression models were used to determine associations of estimated dietary phosphorus with LVM and left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH). Mean estimated dietary phosphorus intake was 1167 mg/day in men and 1017 mg/day in women. After adjustment for demographics, dietary sodium, total calories, lifestyle factors, comorbidities, and established LVH risk factors, each quintile increase in the estimated dietary phosphate intake was associated with an estimated 1.1 g greater LVM. The highest gender-specific dietary phosphorus quintile was associated with an estimated 6.1 g greater LVM compared with the lowest quintile. Higher dietary phosphorus intake was associated with greater odds of LVH among women, but not men. These associations require confirmation in other studies.

  13. Biological nitrogen and phosphorus removal by filamentous bacteria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The availability of excess nutrients (phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N)) in wastewater systems causes many water quality problems. These problems include eutrophication whereby algae grow excessively and lead to depletion of oxygen, death of the aquatic life and bad odours. Biological phosphorus removal has gained ...

  14. The release of dissolved phosphorus from lake sediments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boers, P.C.M.

    1991-01-01

    Chapter 1. Introduction: Eutrophication is one of the world's major water quality problems. Attempts to alleviate eutrophication of lakes have involved the control of phosphorus loadings. In such cases, an internal loading of phosphorus from the sediments may

  15. Biological phosphorus removal from dairy wastewater by alternating ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, the possibility of applying the enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) process for Algiers dairy wastewater which can have phosphorus contents up to 130 mg/L was examined. EBPR is conventionally performed by an anaerobic-aerobic process. The objectives of this work were to determine an ...

  16. Evaluation of an automated struvite reactor to recover phosphorus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the present study we attempted to develop a reactor system to recover phosphorus by struvite precipitation, and which can be installed anywhere in the field without access to a laboratory. A reactor was developed that can run fully automated and recover up to 93% of total phosphorus (total P). Turbidity and conductivity ...

  17. EFFECTS OF PHOSPHORUS AND SULPHUR ON DRY MATTER ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT. Phosphorus and Sulphur fertilizers are important for increasing the productivity of maize in most parts of. Nigeria. A screen-house experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of phosphorus (P) and sulphur (S) on maize dry-matter yield (MDY) in soils of five locations (Obantoko I, II, Alabata I, II, and III) in ...

  18. Phosphorus recycling and availability in the western Wadden Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Freixo Leote, C.M.

    2014-01-01

    Phosphorus is a main and often limiting nutrient for phytoplankton growth, as suggested for the western Wadden Sea. In this area, freshwater discharge was a major nutrient source in the past. However, pollution reduction measures dramatically reduced its contribution, particularly for phosphorus. In

  19. Effect of graded levels of phosphorus on growth and mineral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-08-18

    Aug 18, 2009 ... A principal source of deposited lipid in phosphorus deficient red sea bream. Bull. Jpn. Soc. Sci. Fish., 46: 1227-1230. Satoh S, Porn-Ngam N, Takeuchi T, Watanabe T (1996). Influence of dietary phosphorus levels on growth and mineral availability in rainbow trout. Fish Sci., 62: 483-487. Schwarz FJ (1995).

  20. Calcium and Phosphorus Content Of Exotic, Local and Frozen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... tissue differences in the content of minerals in chicken muscle. The calcium and phosphorus content of the local chicken places it in a very vintage position to compete favorably with frozen and exotic chicken. Key words: Calcium, Phosphorus, local, exotic and frozen chicken. Journal of Agriculture, Forestry and the Social ...

  1. Effect of phosphorus nutrition on growth of potato genotypes with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of phosphorus nutrition on growth of potato genotypes with contrasting phosphorus effeciency. ... and inefficient genotypes. P-efficient genotype CGN 17903 allocated more dry matter yield to the leaf which might have enabled higher light harvesting, hence contributing to high biomass accumulation of this genotype.

  2. Solubility of manure phosphorus characterized by selective and sequential extractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    The increasing awareness of the severity of the problem of phosphorus (P) derived from agricultural production moving off-farm and threatening water quality has led to the search for methods to characterize the forms and potential solubilities of phosphorus in food animal manures and manure products...

  3. suitability of murram for phosphorus sorption in constructed wetlands

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mimi

    ABSTRACT: The study of Moshi Pumice's phosphorus sorption behaviours and properties was carried out in laboratory scale where by 1-2 mm, 2-4 mm and 4-8 mm grains were tested using batch experiments. The results show that Moshi Pumice has high phosphorus sorption capacity. The sorption capacity for the Moshi ...

  4. [Mapping and cloning of low phosphorus tolerance genes in soybeans].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dan, Zhang; Haina, Song; Hao, Cheng; Deyue, Yu

    2015-04-01

    Soybean is a major source of edible oil and phytoprotein. Low phosphorus available in soil is an important factor limiting the current soybean production. Effective ways to solve the problem include identification of germplasms and genes tolerant to low-phosphorus stress, and cultivation of soybean varieties with high phosphorus efficiency. Recently many researches have been carrying out investigations to map and clone genes related to phosphorus efficiency in soybeans. However, due to the complexity of the soybean genome and little knowledge of functional genes, it has been difficult to understand the mechanism of soybean tolerance to low phosphorus. Although quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping related to low phosphorus tolerance has made some progress, it remains elusive to obtain accurate candidate genes for molecular breeding applications, due to the limited accuracy of QTL. Even for the cloned soybean low phosphorus tolerance genes, the molecular mechanisms are largely unknown, further limiting the application to breeding. In this review, we summarize the progresses on mapping, cloning and functional characterization of soybean low phosphorus tolerance genes.

  5. The effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and phosphorus levels ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2015-01-21

    Jan 21, 2015 ... To evaluate the effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and phosphorus levels on root traits of cucumber plants, a factorial experiment was carried out based on a randomized completely design pot culture. Four phosphorus fertilization treatments, including 2, 5, 10 and 15 mg P kg-1 soil possessed ...

  6. Plant phosphates, phytate and pathological calcifications in chronic kidney disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Manuel Buades Fuster

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Phytate, or myo-inositol 1,2,3,4,5,6-hexakis dihydrogen phosphate (InsP6, is a naturally occurring phosphorus compound that is present in many foods, mainly legumes, whole grains and nuts. Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD have cardiovascular disease mortality up to 30 times higher than the general population. Vascular calcifications (VCs directly contribute to overall morbidity and mortality, especially in CKD. In part, this high mortality is due to elevated levels of phosphorus in the blood. Therefore, control of dietary phosphorus is essential. Dietary phosphorus can be classified according to its structure in organic phosphorus (plant and animal and inorganic (preservatives and additives. Plant-phosphorus (legumes and nuts, mainly associated with InsP6, is less absorbable by the human gastrointestinal tract as the bioavailability of phosphorous from plant-derived foods is very low. Recent data indicate that restriction of foods containing plant phosphates may compromise the adequate supply of nutrients that have a beneficial effect in preventing cardiovascular events, such as InsP6 or fibre found in legumes and nuts. Experimental studies in animals and observational studies in humans suggest that InsP6 can prevent lithiasis and VCs and protect from osteoporosis. In conclusion, we need prospective studies to elucidate the potential benefits and risks of phytate (InsP6 through the diet and as an intravenous drug in patients on haemodialysis.

  7. Dynamics of Intracellular Polymers in Enhanced Biological Phosphorus Removal Processes under Different Organic Carbon Concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizhen Xing

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR may deteriorate or fail during low organic carbon loading periods. Polyphosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs in EBPR were acclimated under both high and low organic carbon conditions, and then dynamics of polymers in typical cycles, anaerobic conditions with excess organic carbons, and endogenous respiration conditions were examined. After long-term acclimation, it was found that organic loading rates did not affect the yield of PAOs and the applied low organic carbon concentrations were advantageous for the enrichment of PAOs. A low influent organic carbon concentration induced a high production of extracellular carbohydrate. During both anaerobic and aerobic endogenous respirations, when glycogen decreased to around 80 ± 10 mg C per gram of volatile suspended solids, PAOs began to utilize polyphosphate significantly. Regressed by the first-order reaction model, glycogen possessed the highest degradation rate and then was followed by polyphosphate, while biomass decay had the lowest degradation rate.

  8. Dynamics of intracellular polymers in enhanced biological phosphorus removal processes under different organic carbon concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Lizhen; Ren, Li; Tang, Bo; Wu, Guangxue; Guan, Yuntao

    2013-01-01

    Enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) may deteriorate or fail during low organic carbon loading periods. Polyphosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs) in EBPR were acclimated under both high and low organic carbon conditions, and then dynamics of polymers in typical cycles, anaerobic conditions with excess organic carbons, and endogenous respiration conditions were examined. After long-term acclimation, it was found that organic loading rates did not affect the yield of PAOs and the applied low organic carbon concentrations were advantageous for the enrichment of PAOs. A low influent organic carbon concentration induced a high production of extracellular carbohydrate. During both anaerobic and aerobic endogenous respirations, when glycogen decreased to around 80 ± 10 mg C per gram of volatile suspended solids, PAOs began to utilize polyphosphate significantly. Regressed by the first-order reaction model, glycogen possessed the highest degradation rate and then was followed by polyphosphate, while biomass decay had the lowest degradation rate.

  9. Using metagenomics and metatranscriptomics to study specific bacterial species involved in biological phosphorus removal from wastewater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albertsen, Mads; McIlroy, Simon Jon; Stokholm-Bjerregaard, Mikkel

    Examining the complete gene expression of unculturable bacteria in complex communities has been the dream of microbial ecologists for years. However, a major obstacle is the recovery of a reliable template, the relevant genomes from the communities. While metagenomics has been proposed to solve...... to enrich for bacteria contributing to phosphorus removal and their normal competitors. To extract complete genomes we generated two metagenomes from each reactor, taken approximately 1 month apart, using the Illumina HiSeq2000 platform. Due to low micro-diversity in the reactors (2-15 dominating species......), most species assembled into few scaffolds that were subsequently binned to separate genomes using the two time-points through the multi-metagenome strategy. To investigate the individual gene expression of the dominant species in each reactor we designed a cycle study that mimicked the normal...

  10. A metagenome of a full-scale microbial community carrying out Enhanced Biological Phosphorus Removal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albertsen, Mads; Hansen, Lea Benedicte Skov; Saunders, Aaron Marc

    2012-01-01

    in situ hybridization (qFISH) was applied as an independent method to evaluate the community structure. The results were in qualitative agreement, but a DNA extraction bias against gram positive bacteria using standard extraction protocols was identified, which would not have been identified without...... the use of qFISH. The genetic potential for community function showed enrichment of genes involved in phosphate metabolism and biofilm formation, reflecting the selective pressure of the EBPR process. Most contigs in the assembled metagenome had low similarity to genes from currently sequenced genomes......, underlining the need for more reference genomes of key EBPR species. Only the genome of ‘Candidatus Accumulibacter’, a genus of phosphorus-removing organisms, was closely enough related to the species present in the metagenome to allow for detailed investigations. Accumulibacter accounted for only 4.8% of all...

  11. Upgrading of the Solid Fraction of Pig Slurry as Phosphorus Fertilizer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christel, Wibke

    the pig slurry solid fraction as well as investigating their impact on the applicability of the product as P fertilizer. Special attention was moreover given to the effect of the soil properties on the development of P availability over time. In conclusion, both biological and thermal processing of pig......Improved recycling of the solid fraction of separated pig slurry, which is considerably enriched in the essential plant nutrient phosphorus (P), could balance the P input in differently used agricultural areas and reduce the unsustainable depletion of the limited P rock reserves. By subsequent...... slurry solids reduced P availability in the initial phase after soil amendment. Only the solid fraction, had a high initial P availability, which was within the same range as mineral P fertilizer, but P availability decreased significantly within one growing season, whereas the thermally processed...

  12. Phosphorus Accumulation and Sorption in Calcareous Soil under Long-Term Fertilization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Wang

    Full Text Available Application of phosphorus (P fertilizers to P-deficient soils can also result in P accumulation. In this study, soil P status and P uptake by apple trees were investigated in 5-, 10-, and 15-year-old orchards in the semi-arid Loess Plateau, China, and subset soils with different soil P statuses (14-90 Olsen-P mg kg(-1 were selected to evaluate the characteristic P adsorption. Due to the low P-use efficiency (4-6%, total soil P increased from 540 mg kg(-1 to 904 mg kg(-1, Olsen-P ranged from 3.4 mg kg(-1 to 30.7 mg kg(-1, and CaCl2-P increased from less than 0.1 mg kg(-1 to 0.66 mg kg(-1 under continuous P fertilization. The P sorption isotherms for each apple orchard were found to fit the Langmuir isotherm model (R2 = 0.91-0.98. K (binding energy and Qm (P sorption maximum decreased, whereas DPS (degree of phosphorus sorption increased with increasing P concentration. CaCl2-P increased significantly with the increase of Olsen-P, especially above the change point of 46.1 mg kg(-1. Application of surplus P could result in P enrichment in P-deficient soil which has high P fixation capacity, thus posing a significant environmental risk.

  13. Methanol-driven enhanced biological phosphorus removal with a syntrophic consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayà, Carlota; Guerrero, Javier; Vanneste, Gianni; Guisasola, Albert; Baeza, Juan A

    2013-02-01

    The presence of suitable carbon sources for enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) plays a key role in phosphorus removal from wastewater in urban WWTP. For wastewaters with low volatile fatty acids (VFAs) content, an external carbon addition is necessary. As methanol is the most commonly external carbon source used for denitrification it could be a priori a promising alternative, but previous attempts to use it for EBPR have failed. This study is the first successful report of methanol utilization as external carbon source for EBPR. Since a direct replacement strategy (i.e., supply of methanol as a sole carbon source to a propionic-fed PAO-enriched sludge) failed, a novel process was designed and implemented successfully: development of a consortium with anaerobic biomass and polyphosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs). Methanol-degrading acetogens were (i) selected against other anaerobic methanol degraders from an anaerobic sludge; (ii) subjected to conventional EBPR conditions (anaerobic + aerobic); and (iii) bioaugmented with PAOs. EBPR with methanol as a sole carbon source was sustained in a mid-term basis with this procedure. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Evaluating Sucralfate as a Phosphate Binder in Normal Cats and Cats with Chronic Kidney Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quimby, Jessica; Lappin, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Control of hyperphosphatemia is an important part of the management of chronic kidney disease (CKD). The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of sucralfate as a phosphate binder in normal cats and normophosphatemic CKD cats. A 500 mg sucralfate slurry was administered orally q 8 hr for 2 wk, and serum phosphorus, urine fractional excretion of phosphorus, and fecal phosphorus concentrations were measured. In normal cats treated with sucralfate, significant changes in serum phosphorus concentration or urinary excretion of phosphorus were not detected, and vomiting occurred after 14.7% of administrations. Of the five normophosphatemic cats with CKD treated with sucralfate, three experienced clinical decompensation, including vomiting, anorexia, constipation, and increased azotemia. Administration of sucralfate did not result in significant changes in fecal phosphorus concentration in these cats. The effects of sucralfate administration on serum phosphorus concentration and urinary excretion of phosphorus in CKD cats was difficult to determine because of dehydration and worsening azotemia associated with decompensation. Due to side effects and the apparent lack of efficacy of the medication, the study was discontinued. This study was unable to confirm efficacy of this sucralfate formulation as a phosphate binder, and side effects were problematic during the study.

  15. Phosphorus-containing nanoparticles: biomedical patents review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shcharbin, Dzmitry; Shcharbina, Natallia; Shakhbazau, Antos; Mignani, Serge; Majoral, Jean-Pierre; Bryszewska, Maria

    2015-05-01

    The beginning of the nano-era started with the appearance of artificial nanosized supramolecular systems called nanomaterials and nanoparticles (NPs). In the present review, we have analyzed the patents on phosphorus-based nanomaterials (fullerenes, quantum dots [QDs], graphene, liposomes, dendrimers, gold and silver NPs) in biology and medicine. Their impact in treatment of cancer, viral infections and cardiovascular diseases is discussed. Liposomes and dendrimers had the highest number of biomedical patents. The third candidates were QDs and the fourth and fifth were gold and silver NPs. Fullerenes and carbon nanotubes have the fewest applications in biology and medicine. Thus, our first conclusion was about the 'unifying nanotoxicology paradigm', that 'soft' NPs are significantly more biocompatible than 'hard' NPs. There has been a trend of these nanomaterials being applied in medicine drug and gene delivery, visualization of cells and pathologic processes, using them as antivirals and antimicrobials, contrast agents, antioxidants and photosensitizers. It was unexpected that no patents were found in which phosphorus NPs were used in 3D printing of bones and other biological tissues. The conclusion reached is that nanomaterials are promising tools in future medical applications.

  16. Simulations of twisted bilayer orthorhombic black phosphorus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Douxing; Wang, Tzu-Chiang; Xiao, Wende; Hu, Dongmei; Yao, Yugui

    2017-07-01

    We identified, by means of coincidence site lattice theory, an evaluative stacking phase with a wavelike Moiré pattern, denoted as 2 O -t α P , from all potentially twisted bilayer orthorhombic black phosphorus. Such a twisted stacking comes with a low formation energy of -162.8 meV , very close to existing AB stacking, according to first-principles calculations. Particularly, classic molecular dynamic simulations verified that the stacking can be directly obtained in an in situ cleavage. The stability of 2 O -t α P stacking can be directly attributed to the corrugated configuration of black phosphorus leading to the van der Waals constraining forces, where the top layer can get stuck to the bottom when one layer rotates in plane relative to the other by ˜70 .5∘ . Tribological analysis further revealed that the interlayer friction of 2 O -t α P stacking reaches up to 1.3 nN, playing a key role in the origin of 2 O -t α P .

  17. Ruzigrass affecting soil-phosphorus availability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Merlin

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the effectiveness of ruzigrass (Urochloaruziziensis in enhancing soil-P availability in areas fertilized with soluble or reactive rock phosphates. The area had been cropped for five years under no-till, in a system involving soybean, triticale/black-oat, and pearl millet. Previously to the five-year cultivation period, corrective phosphorus fertilization was applied once on soil surface, at 0.0 and 80 kg ha-1 P2O5, as triple superphosphate or Arad rock phosphate. After this five-year period, plots received the same corrective P fertilization as before and ruzigrass was introduced to the cropping system in the stead of the other cover crops. Soil samples were taken (0-10 cm after ruzigrass cultivation and subjected to soil-P fractionation. Soybean was grown thereafter without P application to seed furrow. Phosphorus availability in plots with ruzigrass was compared to the ones with spontaneous vegetation for two years. Ruzigrass cultivation increased inorganic (resin-extracted and organic (NaHCO3 soil P, as well as P concentration in soybean leaves, regardless of the P source. However, soybean yield did not increase significantly due to ruzigrass introduction to the cropping system. Soil-P availability did not differ between soluble and reactive P sources. Ruzigrass increases soil-P availability, especially where corrective P fertilization is performed.

  18. Modeling phosphorus trapping in wetlands using generalized additive models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reckhow, Kenneth H.; Qian, Song S.

    1994-11-01

    In the past several years, wetlands have become increasingly used for wastewater treatment purposes. As a consequence, nutrient trapping and accumulation, particularly for phosphorus, have emerged as important environmental management issues. To predict the effectiveness of wetlands for phosphorus removal, data from a large cross-sectional study and from a single wetland over time were obtained with the objective of developing a predictive model. From the analysis of these data, it was found that phosphorus trapping is predictable using a simple function of phosphorus input and water loading. Several statistical models of phosphorus trapping were developed and evaluated using the two data sets. Particular emphasis was placed on generalized additive modeling, a graphics-oriented data-driven approach, for model diagnostic and model-building purposes. A nonlinear model was recommended, and suggestions were made for future work.

  19. Black Phosphorus: Critical Review and Potential for Water Splitting Photocatalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae Hyung Lee

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A century after its first synthesis in 1914, black phosphorus has been attracting significant attention as a promising two-dimensional material in recent years due to its unique properties. Nowadays, with the development of its exfoliation method, there are extensive applications of black phosphorus in transistors, batteries and optoelectronics. Though, because of its hardship in mass production and stability problems, the potential of the black phosphorus in various fields is left unexplored. Here, we provide a comprehensive review of crystal structure, electronic, optical properties and synthesis of black phosphorus. Recent research works about the applications of black phosphorus is summarized. Among them, the possibility of black phosphorous as a solar water splitting photocatalyst is mainly discussed and the feasible novel structure of photocatalysts based on black phosphorous is proposed.

  20. Biologically mediated phosphorus precipitation in wastewater treatment with microalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsdotter, K; La Cour Jansen, J; Dalhammar, G

    2007-09-01

    A lab-scale continuous microalgal culture was grown on sterile-filtered wastewater in order to clarify the phosphorus removing mechanisms in a microalgal treatment step that treats residual phosphorus from a hydroponic wastewater treatment pilot plant. The phosphorus assimilation was dependent on algal biomass production, whereas the chemical precipitation was dependent on phosphorus load, i.e. an increase in average precipitation rate with decreased hydraulic retention time was observed. The chemical precipitation was mainly a result of the increased pH, which was biologically mediated by the photosynthesising algae. The precipitate was composed of a calcium phosphate with magnesium included, magnesium hydroxide and calcite. A significant nitrogen removal was also experienced, which implies that the microalgal wastewater treatment is appropriate both for phosphorus and nitrogen removal.

  1. Phosphorus isothermal adsorption characteristics of mulch of bioretention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei Ying

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to identify mulch of bioretention which has high phosphorus sorption capacity. The phosphorus adsorption characteristics of five types of mulch of bioretention are studied by three isothermal adsorption experiments. Results show that the Langmuir eqution is suitable for describing absorption characteristics of five types of mulch. The positive values of Gibbs free energy for phosphorus indicate that the phosphorus biosorption by five mulches is a non-spontaneous process, and the values of mean sorption free energy of mulch are less than 8 kJ/mol, which proves that the adsorption process can be dominated by physical forces. The vermiculite is the better mulch of bioretention based on high phosphorus removal capacity.

  2. Raman Sensitive Degradation and Etching Dynamics of Exfoliated Black Phosphorus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsaffar, Fadhel; Alodan, Sarah; Alrasheed, Abdul; Alhussain, Abdulrahman; Alrubaiq, Noura; Abbas, Ahmad; Amer, Moh. R.

    2017-03-01

    Layered black phosphorus has drawn much attention due to the existence of a band gap compared to the widely known graphene. However, environmental stability of black phosphorus is still a major issue, which hinders the realization of practical device applications. Here, we spatially Raman map exfoliated black phosphorus using confocal fast-scanning technique at different time intervals. We observe a Raman intensity modulation for , B2g, and modes. This Raman modulation is found to be caused by optical interference, which gives insights into the oxidation mechanism. Finally, we examine the fabrication compatible PMMA coating as a viable passivation layer. Our measurements indicate that PMMA passivated black phosphorus thin film flakes can stay pristine for a period of 19 days when left in a dark environment, allowing sufficient time for further nanofabrication processing. Our results shed light on black phosphorus degradation which can aid future passivation methods.

  3. The Importance of Sulfur on Enriched Carbon Isotopes and Extreme Carbon Cycle Perturbations of the Cryogenian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouldey, J. C.; Hurtgen, M. T.; Halverson, G. P.

    2012-12-01

    The Neoproterozoic carbon isotope record is unusual in that it is characterized by high δ13Ccarbonate values that persist for tens of millions of years and that are interrupted by large negative excursions that coincide with two global-scale glaciations: the Sturtian (~710 Ma) and the Marinoan (~635 Ma). While the mechanisms underpinning the negative carbon isotope excursions remain controversial, the prolonged intervals of 13C-enrichment have been attributed to increased primary production and organic carbon burial. Here, we present sulfur isotope data (sulfate and pyrite) from carbonate rocks deposited in northern Namibia spanning the interglacial interval (Cryogenian Period) in order to test the hypothesis that changes in marine sulfate concentrations impacted phosphorus recycling efficiency and played a role in regulating the Neoproterozoic carbon cycle. δ34Spyrite results through the interglacial interval are 34S-enriched (-5.65‰ to 39.17‰). These data suggest sulfate concentrations were very low during this time interval as a result of nearly complete reduction of sulfate via microbes (microbial sulfate reduction) while the major fluxes of sulfate into the ocean (riverine input) were restricted due to a reduction of the hydrologic cycle during glaciation. Importantly, positive swings in δ13Ccarbonate are accompanied by negative δ34Spyrite shifts. We interpret these negative δ34Spyrite shifts as intervals of increasing sulfate concentration. As sulfate concentrations rise, bacterial sulfate reduction results in more sulfide production, which then reacts with various iron phases to from pyrite. A major sink for phosphorus in the ocean is adsorption onto iron oxides and oxyhydroxides. Therefore, the consumption of iron oxides and oxyhydroxides during pyrite formation allows for more phosphorus to be recycled in marine waters, stimulating primary production.

  4. Nitrogen and phosphorus intake by phytoplankton in the Xiamen Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Cai; Li, Hui; He, Qing; Xu, Kuncan; Wu, Shengsan; Zhang, Yuanbiao; Chen, Jinmin; Chen, Baohong; Lin, Libin; Lu, Meiluan; Chen, Weifen; Tang, Rongkun; Ji, Weidong

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a time series experiment examining the nitrogen and phosphorus intake of natural phytoplankton communities by a microcosms approach. Seawater samples containing natural phytoplankton communities were collected from waters around Baozhu Islet in inner Xiamen Bay and around Qingyu Islet in the outer bay. The goal was to elucidate the relationship between phytoplankton population enhancement, the biological removal of nitrogen and phosphorus from the seawater, and the phytoplankton nitrogen and phosphorus intake ratio based on nitrogen and phosphorus removal from seawater by phytoplankton, to provide a basis for detecting prewarning conditions for red tide and the assessment of red tide events. Two key results were obtained: 1. During the experiment, the nitrogen and phosphorus seawater concentrations in samples from these two sites were negatively and closely correlated to the logarithm of the phytoplankton cell concentration and to the value of the apparent oxygen increment. The ratio of the intake coefficients was 3.5:1 for phosphorus and 1.1:1 for nitrogen for the phytoplankton between these samples from around Baozhu Islet and Qingyu Islet, respectively. This indicates that the intake capabilities of phytoplankton for nitrogen in the two waters are essentially identical. However, for phosphorus, the capability was much higher in the Baozhu Islet waters than the Qingyu Islet waters. In other words, the phytoplankton in Qingyu Islet waters produced more biomass while consuming the same amount of phosphorus as the other waters; 2. The phytoplankton nitrogen and phosphorus intake ratio from the Baozhu Islet and Qingyu Islet waters was 20:1 and 36:1, respectively. The latter waters had a significantly higher ratio than the former and both were higher than the Redfield Ratio. These results indicate that nitrogen and phosphorus intake ratios by phytoplankton can vary significantly from region to region.

  5. [Biological phosphorus removal in intermittent aerated biological filter].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Long-Yun; Yang, Chun-Ping; Guo, Jun-Yuan; Luo, Sheng-Lian

    2012-01-01

    Under intermittent aerated and continuous fed operation where the biofilm system was subjected to alternated anaerobic/aerobic condition, the effect of influent volatile fatty acids (VFAs) concentrations, operation cycle and backwash on the biological phosphorus removal performance of the biofilter was studied. In the experiment, synthetic domestic wastewater was used, and the influent velocity was 5 L x h(-1) with gas versus liquid ratio of 8:1 and hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 1.3 h, resulting in average COD, ammonium and phosphorus load of 4.7, 0.41 and 0.095 g x (L x d) (-1) respectively. Results show that, (1) effective release and uptake of phosphorus was achieved in a operation cycle; (2) when influent VFAs was 100 mg x L(-1) (calculated by COD value) and operation cycle was 6 h the filter performed best in phosphorus removal, the phosphorus loading removal rate can be as much as 0.059 g x (L x d)(-1) at the aerated phase with those of COD and ammonium being 3.8 g x (L x d)(-1) and 0.28 g x (L x d)(-1) respectively, and with average effluent phosphorus, COD and ammonium concentrations being 1.8, 43.6 and 8.7 mg x L(-1), which shows nitrogen loss also happened; (3) the pause of backwash decreased the phosphorus removal performance rapidly with the removal efficiency lower than 40% in two days, but the consequent daily backwash operation gave a short improvement on the phosphorus removal, which disappeared in another two days. Thus, it is shown that biological phosphorus removal achieved with better phosphorus loading removal performance in the biofilter under intermittent aerated and continuous fed operation, and that sufficient and stable influent VFAs concentration, proper operation cycle, and more frequent backwash favored the performance.

  6. Biological phosphorus and nitrogen removal in a single sludge system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlsson, Hans

    1996-05-01

    The primary aim of this thesis was to investigate the process stability of a single sludge activated system designed for the combined operation of enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) and nitrogen removal. A pilot plant at the Sjoelunda wastewater treatment plant in Malmoe, Sweden, has formed the basis for the investigation. The pilot plant study showed that the concentration of total phosphorus on average was low in the effluent, below 0.5 mg P/l. Simultaneously with the highest concentrations of phosphorus in the effluent, the lowest COD/P ratios in the effluent were recorded. A recurrent pattern of high concentrations of phosphorus was observed every year in July, which is the industrial holiday month in Sweden. Other instances of increased phosphorus concentrations in the secondary effluent illustrate the effect of prolonged periods of rain. Increasing flow rates due to rain lead to a dilution and a change in the composition of the COD in the influent wastewater. The COD/P and VFA/P ratios decrease with decreasing concentrations of COD. It was also shown that high removal ratios of both nitrogen and phosphorus during long periods are possible. The nitrogen removal was stable during the whole investigated period, whereas the phosphorus removal was unstable during prolonged periods with low concentrations of COD in the influent water. The combined biological phosphorus and nitrogen removal process implies that during these periods the risk of recirculating nitrate to the anaerobic reactor increases. Such a recirculation both stabilizes the nitrogen removal and withdraws some of the readily degradable organic material from the bio-P bacteria. The main conclusion of this study is that a phosphorus limited EBPR process can cope with the day to day variations, but occasionally, measures have to be taken if the demands for phosphorus removal are stringent. 49 refs, 8 figs, 1 tab

  7. Influence of chlorine, sulfur and phosphorus on the volatilization behavior of heavy metals during sewage sludge thermal treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luan, Jingde; Li, Rundong; Zhang, Zhihui; Li, Yanlong; Zhao, Yun

    2013-10-01

    Chlorine, sulfur and phosphorus were selected as element donators to investigate their effect on the volatilization behavior of heavy metals in sludge sewage incineration. Principal component analysis indicated that the promotive effect on the volatilization of heavy metals was followed by chlorine, sulfur and phosphorus. This result was proved to be correct by total release of heavy metals in sewage sludge incineration using different element donators. The release of heavy metals was very chlorine dependent, especially cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) and nickel (Ni). When chlorine content was in the range of 0.1-0.5wt%, the increase of the volatilization rate was 44.9% for Cd, 6.8% for Pb and 4.6% for Ni, respectively. Although sulfur contributed to the promotion of the volatilization of heavy metals, excess oxygen impaired the promotive effect of sulfur on the release of heavy metals from the condensed phase. For phosphorus, solidifying heavy metals was dominant. Energy analysis showed that metal chlorides and sulfides were prone to volatilize or to be decomposed at elevated temperature compared with sulfates and phosphates owing to low binding energy in absolute value (VLFA). It was the difference of binding energy that led to the different volatilization behavior of metal compounds in a high temperature, oxygen-enriched atmosphere.

  8. Inhibition of chemical dose in biological phosphorus and nitrogen removal in simultaneous chemical precipitation for phosphorus removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanchen; Shi, Hanchang; Li, Wenlin; Hou, Yanling; He, Miao

    2011-03-01

    A study on the influence of chemical dosing on biological phosphorus and nitrogen removal was carried out through batch experimental tests by lab-scale and a full-scale wastewater treatment plant (employing a typical anaerobic-anoxic-oxic treatment). Results indicated that the inhibition of aluminum salt on biological phosphorus release and uptake processes is significant, as well as the inhibition of aluminum salt on Ammonia-Oxidizing Bacteria (AOB) is dominantly observed in the nitrification process and is recoverability. The inhibition of iron salt in biological phosphorus and nitrogen removal is weak, and only the inhibition of iron salt on phosphorus release at anaerobic periods emerge under large dosing. Evidence shows persistent inhibition from the accumulation of chemical doses in sludge mass. Intermittent chemical dosing proves recommendable for simultaneous chemical phosphorus removal. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Increased soil stable nitrogen isotopic ratio following phosphorus enrichment: historical patterns and tests of two hypotheses in a phosphorus-limited wetland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Inglett, P.W.; Reddy, K.R.; Newmann, S.

    2007-01-01

    ) increased N mineralization/N loss, and (2) reduced isotopic discrimination during macrophyte N uptake. Spatial patterns of δ15N in surface litter and soil (0-10 cm) mimic those of the aboveground macrophytes (Typha domingensis Pers. and Cladium jamaicense Crantz). Peat profiles also show increased δ15N...... on the δ15N of NH4+ and significantly increased the δ15N of water-extractable organic N. Measurements of surface soils collected during a field mesocosm experiment also revealed no significant effect of P on δ15N even after 5 years of P addition. In contrast, δ15N of leaf and root tissues of hydroponically...

  10. Mariculture: significant and expanding cause of coastal nutrient enrichment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouwman, Lex; Beusen, Arthur; Glibert, Patricia M.; Overbeek, Ciska; Pawlowski, Marcin; Herrera, Jorge; Mulsow, Sandor; Yu, Rencheng; Zhou, Mingjiang

    2013-12-01

    Mariculture (marine aquaculture) generates nutrient waste either through the excretion by the reared organisms, or through direct enrichment by, or remineralization of, externally applied feed inputs. Importantly, the waste from fish or shellfish cannot easily be managed, as most is in dissolved form and released directly to the aquatic environment. The release of dissolved and particulate nutrients by intensive mariculture results in increasing nutrient loads (finfish and crustaceans), and changes in nutrient stoichiometry (all mariculture types). Based on different scenarios, we project that nutrients from mariculture will increase up to six fold by 2050 with exceedance of the nutrient assimilative capacity in parts of the world where mariculture growth is already rapid. Increasing nutrient loads and altered nutrient forms (increased availability of reduced relative to oxidized forms of nitrogen) and/or stoichiometric proportions (altered nitrogen:phosphorus ratios) may promote an increase in harmful algal blooms (HABs) either directly or via stimulation of algae on which mixotrophic HABs may feed. HABs can kill or intoxicate the mariculture product with severe economic losses, and can increase risks to human health.

  11. Calcium, phosphorus, PTH and death rates in a large sample of dialysis patients from Latin America. The CORES Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naves-Díaz, Manuel; Passlick-Deetjen, Jutta; Guinsburg, Adrian; Marelli, Cristina; Fernández-Martín, Jose Luis; Rodríguez-Puyol, Diego; Cannata-Andía, Jorge B

    2011-06-01

    Mineral metabolism parameters may play a role in the survival of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). In the CORES Study, we analysed the association between calcium, phosphorus and PTH and mortality (all-cause and cardiovascular) in 16 173 haemodialysis (HD) patients over 18 years from six Latin American countries, who underwent haemodialysis up to 54 months. Unadjusted, case-mix-adjusted and time-dependent multivariable-adjusted hazard ratio (HR) of death were calculated for categories of serum albumin-corrected calcium (Ca(Alb)), phosphorus and PTH using as 'reference values' the range in which the lowest death rate was observed. Age, gender, vitamin D treatment, diabetes, vintage, vascular access, weight, blood pressure and laboratory variables (serum albumin, haemoglobin, creatinine, ferritin and Kt/V) were used as confounding variables. Low (10.5 mg/dL) Ca(Alb) increased the HR for all-cause mortality. Low (5.5 mg/dL) increased the HR for both all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. Low phosphorus (500 and >300 pg/mL) PTH increased the HR for both all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. In addition, only phosphorus >6.0 mg/dL increased the HR for cardiovascular hospitalizations. No effect was observed with Ca(Alb) or PTH. In summary, in 16,173 HD patients, elevated and reduced serum levels of albumin-corrected calcium, phosphorus and PTH levels were associated with increments in all-cause mortality. Similar results were obtained when only cardiovascular mortality was analysed.

  12. Enhanced Biological Phosphorus Removal from Dairy Manure to Meet Nitrogen:Phosphorus Crop Nutrient Requirements

    OpenAIRE

    Yanosek, Kristina Anne

    2002-01-01

    Over the last two decades, livestock operations have become highly concentrated due to growing trends towards larger, more confined facilities and a decrease in cropland on smaller farms. This has led to greater amounts of excess manure nutrients on farms, increasing the potential for nutrient pollution of water bodies from runoff. The purpose of this study was to determine if enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) is a viable alternative for managing excess manure nutrients on dairy...

  13. Microbial Phytase and Phosphorus Utilization by Broiler Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Kliment

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of study was to investigate the mathematical and statistical assesment of the micorbial 6-phytase efficacy on phosphorus utilization at broiler chickens Cobb 500. Broiler chickens fed commercial feed mixtures based on soyabean-maize meal. Each feed mixture was fed ad libitum to chickens in boxes in commercial poultry farm. The trial consited of three groups of broiler chickens, one control group (CG and two trial groups, in which were broiler chickens fed by feed mixtures with decreased phosphorus content (TG1 and with microbial 6-phytase (TG2. A body weight of chickens at the end of the trial (42 day was 1900.0 g compared with 1883,0 g (TG1 and 1827.0 g (CG with not statistically significant differences (P≥0.05. Phosphorus, calcium and magnesium content in blood serum of broiler chickens in every group was not staticstically significant (P≥0.05. Phosphorus content in broiler chickens excreta was most higher in in control group (4.2556 g/kg in comparison with trial group (2.0911 g/kg were was microbial 6-phytase added and in trial group (3.1851 g/kg were was phosphorus content in feed mixtures decreased. In addition we concluded that microbial 6-phytase. Phytase addition into feed mixtures has not negative effect on broiler chickens growth ability and health, and helped to better utilization of phytate phosphorus from feed mixtures in relation to excreted phosphorus.

  14. Extraction and precipitation of phosphorus from sewage sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiba, Nothando Cynthia; Ntuli, Freeman

    2017-02-01

    Raw sewage sludge from East Rand Water Care Association (ERWAT) had high phosphorus (P) content, approximately 15.2% (w/w) P 2 O 5 , which indicates a potential resource for the limiting nutrient. Leaching sewage sludge with 1M sulphuric acid at 5% solid loading for 2h resulted in an 82% phosphorus extraction. However, the phosphorus was recovered as iron phosphates, thus a further purification step using ion exchange to remove iron was required to increase the degree of P release. Magnesium oxide and ammonium hydroxide were used as magnesium and nitrogen sources, respectively, as well as pH regulators to precipitate P as struvite. 57% struvite was precipitated and the total phosphorus content of the precipitate was 25.9%. Kinetic studies showed that the leaching of phosphorus follows the Dickinson model for the first 100min with a rate of reaction of about 2×10 -5 s -1 . The rate limiting step is controlled by diffusion. Phosphorus solubility in 2% critic acid was almost 96%, which is the amount of phosphorus available to plants if the precipitate is applied as a fertiliser. Environmental, gram-positive Bacillus subtilis were found in the precipitate, which are harmless to the environment since they already exist in the soil where the precipitate can be applied as a fertiliser. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Dietary phosphorus requirement of young abalone Haliotis discus Hannai Ino

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Bei-Ping; Mai, Kang-Sen; Liufu, Zhi-Guo

    2002-03-01

    An experiment was performed to determine the dietary phosphorus requirement of the young abalone, Haliotis discus hannai. Five semi-purified diets were formulated to provide a series of graded levels of dietary total phosphorus (0.23% 1.98) from monobasic potassium phosphate (KH2P04). The brown alga, Laminaria japonica, was used as a control diet. Similar size abalone were distributed in a single-pass, flow-through system using a completely randomized design with six treatments and three replicates each treatment. The abalone were hand-fed to satiation with appropriate diets in excess, once daily at 17:00. The feeding trial was run for 120-d. Survival rate and soft-body to shell ratio (SB/S) were constantly maintained regardless of dietary treatment. However, the weight gain rate (WGR), daily increment in shell length (DISL), muscle RNA to DNA ratio (RNA/DNA), carcass levels of lipid and protein, soft-body alkaline phosphatase (SBAKP), and phosphorus concentrations of whole body (WB) and soft body (SB) were significantly (ANOVA, Pdietary phosphorus level. The dietary phosphorus requirements of the abalone were evaluated from the WGR, DISL, and RNA/DNA ratio respectively, by using second-order polynomial regression analysis. Based on these criteria, about 1.0% 1.2% total dietary phosphorus, i.e. 0.9% 1.1% dietary available phosphorus is recommended for the maximum growth of the abalone.

  16. Phosphorus-phosphorus coupling in a diphosphine with a ten bond P...P separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, P; Jeunesse, C; Matt, D; Harrowfield, J; Ricard, L

    2006-07-28

    The large, unsymmetrical diphosphine 5,11,17,23-tetra-tert-butyl-25,26-bis(diphenylphosphinomethoxy)-27(or 28)-benzoyloxy-28(or 27)-hydroxycalix[4]arene, in which the phosphorus atoms are separated by ten bonds, was prepared by monobenzoylation of 5,11,17,23-tetra-tert-butyl-25,26-bis(diphenylphosphinoylmethoxy)-27,28-bis(hydroxy)calix[4]arene, followed by reduction with phenyl silane. Its molecular structure has been determined by X-ray crystallography. In the solid state, the phosphorus atoms are separated by 5.333(1) A. NMR investigations reveal an unexpected "through-space"J(PP') coupling constant of 8.0 Hz and also show that, in solution, the calixarene is conformationally mobile, the phenoxy ring flipping rapidly through the calixarene annulus. The spatial proximity of the two phosphorus atoms was further demonstrated by the ease of obtaining the cis-chelate complex [Pd(eta3-C3H4Me)(THF)2]BF4 (THF = tetrahydrofuran).

  17. Prospects for phosphorus recovery from poultry litter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szogi, A A; Vanotti, M B

    2009-11-01

    Land disposal of poultry litter is an environmental concern often associated to excess phosphorus (P) in soils and potential water pollution in regions with intense poultry production. Although poultry litter can be moved off the farm and traded as fertilizer, its transportation becomes less economical with increasing distances from the farm. Thus, new litter management alternatives are needed to reduce the environmental impact of P litter application to land. This paper summarizes established and emerging alternative technologies in the U.S. that facilitate handling, concentration, and transporting of litter P. Furthermore, it examines the potential integration of technologies into poultry litter management systems that could reduce poultry litter volume and increase P content in litter byproducts. The adoption of alternative technologies may encourage new opportunities to produce bio-energy, fertilizer, and other valuable P byproducts from poultry litter while reducing environmental impact and promoting sustainable poultry production.

  18. Black phosphorus mid-infrared photodetectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Mei; Gu, Yuqian; Peng, Ruoming; Youngblood, Nathan; Li, Mo

    2017-04-01

    Few-layer black phosphorus (BP) has emerged as a promising 2D material for photodetection in the mid-infrared spectral range given its narrow bandgap. However, a comprehensive understanding of BP photodetector's response in the mid-infrared is still lacking. In this paper, we study the photoresponse of few-layer BP photodetector in the mid-infrared range from 2.5 to 3.7 µm. We identify broadband photoresponse of BP photodetectors in the mid-infrared and observe saturation of the response with optical power. Through frequency and time domain measurements, we have also identified the two dominate mechanisms in our device to be due to the photovoltaic and photogating effects. Our results provide valuable information for optimization of BP mid-infrared photodetectors toward rivaling the current infrared photodetection technology based on compound semiconductors.

  19. Black Phosphorus: Optical Characterization, Properties and Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shengxi; Ling, Xi

    2017-10-01

    The rise of black phosphorus (BP) as a new family member of two-dimensional (2D) materials brings new concepts and applications to the field, because of the infrared band gap and anisotropic properties of such materials. Among many excellent properties of BP, the optical property attracts special attention in recent years. Optical methods have been widely and successfully used in characterizing BP, not only to obtain the structural information (such as thickness and crystalline orientation), but also to probe the fundamental properties of BP in terms of the behavior of electrons, phonons, excitons etc. In this Review, a comprehensive understanding about the optical characterization of BP such as Raman, absorption, and photoluminescence is presented. Also, the unique optical properties and applications explored in recent years are reviewed. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Environmental enrichment in farm, zoo, companion and experimental animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vučinić Marijana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with environmental enrichment for domestic animals at farms, animals in zoos, experimental animals and pet animals. Also, the paper defines and describes different strategies of environmental enrichment. Environmental enrichment is a simple and effective mean of prevention of boredom, behavioral disorders as well as an effective mean of improving animal welfare in farm, zoo, companion and experimental animals. Different items and materials may be used for environmental enrichment. They need to be evaluated for use by taking into account the following: the species of an animal, its needs, habits and capabilities, the type of an enrichment device, the device's ability to stimulate the animal's interest and the safety of the device. Enrichment programmes should always include two forms of enrichment: behavioral enrichment and environmental enrichment. Enrichment comes in many forms such as structural or physical enrichment, sensory enrichment (auditory and olfactory stimulation, dietary enrichment, manipulatable enrichment and social enrichment.

  1. Phosphorus removal characteristics of granular and flocculent sludge in SBR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xing; Gao, Dawen; Liang, Hong; Liu, Lin; Fu, Yuan

    2012-04-01

    Aerobic granulation technology has become a novel biotechnology for wastewater treatment. However, the distinct properties and characteristics of phosphorus removal between granules and flocculent sludge are still sparse in enhanced biological phosphorus removal process. Two identical sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) were operated to compare phosphorus removal performance with granular sludge (R1) and flocculate activated sludge (R2). Results indicated that the start-up period was shorter in R2 than R1 for phosphorus removal, which made R2 reach the steady-state condition on day 21, while R1 was on day 25, and R2 released and took up more phosphorus than R1. As a result, the phosphorus removal was around 90% in R2 while 80% in R1 at the steady-state system. The special phosphorus release rate and special phosphorus uptake rate were 8.818 mg P/g volatile suspended solids (VSS)/h and 9.921 mg P/g VSS/h in R2, which were consistently greater than those (0.999 and 3.016 mg P/g VSS/h) in R1. The chemical oxygen demand removal in two reactors was similar. The granular SBR had better solid-separation performance and higher removal efficiency of NH (4) (+) -N than flocculent SBR. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of PCR-amplified 16S rDNA fragment analysis revealed that the diversity and the level of phosphorus-accumulating bacteria in flocculent sludge were much more than those in the granular sludge.

  2. A representation of the phosphorus cycle for ORCHIDEE (revision 4520)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goll, Daniel S.; Vuichard, Nicolas; Maignan, Fabienne; Jornet-Puig, Albert; Sardans, Jordi; Violette, Aurelie; Peng, Shushi; Sun, Yan; Kvakic, Marko; Guimberteau, Matthieu; Guenet, Bertrand; Zaehle, Soenke; Penuelas, Josep; Janssens, Ivan; Ciais, Philippe

    2017-10-01

    Land surface models rarely incorporate the terrestrial phosphorus cycle and its interactions with the carbon cycle, despite the extensive scientific debate about the importance of nitrogen and phosphorus supply for future land carbon uptake. We describe a representation of the terrestrial phosphorus cycle for the ORCHIDEE land surface model, and evaluate it with data from nutrient manipulation experiments along a soil formation chronosequence in Hawaii. ORCHIDEE accounts for the influence of the nutritional state of vegetation on tissue nutrient concentrations, photosynthesis, plant growth, biomass allocation, biochemical (phosphatase-mediated) mineralization, and biological nitrogen fixation. Changes in the nutrient content (quality) of litter affect the carbon use efficiency of decomposition and in return the nutrient availability to vegetation. The model explicitly accounts for root zone depletion of phosphorus as a function of root phosphorus uptake and phosphorus transport from the soil to the root surface. The model captures the observed differences in the foliage stoichiometry of vegetation between an early (300-year) and a late (4.1 Myr) stage of soil development. The contrasting sensitivities of net primary productivity to the addition of either nitrogen, phosphorus, or both among sites are in general reproduced by the model. As observed, the model simulates a preferential stimulation of leaf level productivity when nitrogen stress is alleviated, while leaf level productivity and leaf area index are stimulated equally when phosphorus stress is alleviated. The nutrient use efficiencies in the model are lower than observed primarily due to biases in the nutrient content and turnover of woody biomass. We conclude that ORCHIDEE is able to reproduce the shift from nitrogen to phosphorus limited net primary productivity along the soil development chronosequence, as well as the contrasting responses of net primary productivity to nutrient addition.

  3. Domestic source of phosphorus to sewage treatment works.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comber, Sean; Gardner, Michael; Georges, Karyn; Blackwood, David; Gilmour, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Phosphorus is an element essential for life. Concerns regarding long-term security of supply and issues related to eutrophication of surface waters once released into the aquatic environment have led governments to consider and apply measures for reducing the use and discharge of phosphorus. Examples of source control include legislation to reduce phosphorus use in domestic detergents. This research shows that other domestic sources of phosphorus also contribute significantly to the domestic load to sewer and that overall, domestic sources dominate loads to sewage treatment works. Estimates provided here show that although the natural diet contributes 40% of the domestic phosphorus load, other potentially preventable sources contribute significantly to the estimated 44,000 tonnes of phosphorus entering UK sewage treatment works each year. In the UK, food additives are estimated to contribute 29% of the domestic load; automatic dishwashing detergents contribute 9% and potentially increasing; domestic laundry 14%, including contributions from phosphonates, but decreasing; phosphorus dosing to reduce lead levels in tap water 6%; food waste disposed of down the drain 1%; and personal care products 1%. Although UK data is presented here, it is anticipated that similar impacts would be expected for other developed economies. Consideration of alternatives to all preventable sources of phosphorus from these sources would therefore offer potentially significant reductions in phosphorus loads to sewage treatment works and hence to the aquatic environment. Combining all source control measures and applying them to their maximum extent could potentially lead to the prevention of over 22,000 tonnes-P/year entering sewage treatment works.

  4. Agricultural trade and the global phosphorus cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schipanski, M.; Bennett, E.; Riskin, S.; Porder, S.

    2012-12-01

    Trends of increasing agricultural trade, increased concentration of livestock production systems, and increased human consumption of livestock products influence the distribution of nutrients across the global landscape. Phosphorus (P) represents a unique management challenge as we are rapidly depleting mineable reserves of this essential and non-renewable resource. At the same time, its overuse can lead to pollution of aquatic ecosystems. We analyzed the relative contributions of food crop, feed crop, and livestock product trade to P flows through agricultural soils for twelve countries from 1961 to 2007. We then used case studies of P fertilizer use in the world's three major soybean export regions: Iowa (USA), Mato Grosso (Brazil), and Buenos Aires (Argentina) to examine the influence of historical P management and soil types on agriculture's environmental consequences. Due to the intensification of agricultural production, average soil surface P balances more than tripled from 6 to 21 kg P per ha between 1961 and 2007 for the twelve study countries. Consequently, countries that are primarily agricultural exporters carried increased risks for water pollution or, for Argentina, reduced soil fertility due to soil P mining to support exports. In 2007, nations imported food and feed from regions with higher apparent P fertilizer use efficiencies than if those crops were produced domestically. However, this was largely because imports were sourced from regions depleting soil P resources to support export crop production. In addition, the pattern of regional specialization and intensification of production systems also reduced the potential to recycle P resources, with greater implications for livestock production than crop production. In a globalizing world, it will be increasingly important to integrate biophysical constraints of our natural resources and environmental impacts of agricultural systems into trade policy and agreements and to develop mechanisms that

  5. Effect of dietary phosphorus on the growth and body components of juvenile Synechogobius hasta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Zhi; Li, Xiaodong; Gong, Shiyuan; Xi, Wenqiu; Li, Yali

    2009-03-01

    The effect of dietary phosphorus on the growth and body components of juvenile Synechogobius hasta was determined. Different percentages of dietary phosphorus (0.63, 0.77, 0.93, 1.06, 1.22 and 1.36) were tested by feeding the fish (body weight, 15.81 g ± 0.32 g; 20 individuals each group; 3 groups each percentage) at a surplus of 5%-10% above satiation for 35 d. Dietary phosphorus did not significantly affect the specific growth rate, feed intake, feed conversion ratio and protein efficiency rate. Nitrogen retention was found to be the highest in fish fed the diet containing 1.06% of phosphorus; however, this was not significantly different from other diets. Fish fed the diet containing 0.93% of phosphorus showed the highest phosphorus retention; similar phosphorus retention rates were found in fish fed the diets containing 0.77% and 1.06% of phosphorus. Fish fed the diet containing the highest percentage of dietary phosphorus were found to contain the least whole body lipid, lower than fish fed other diets ( P0.05). The contents of the whole body ash, whole body phosphorus and vertebrae phosphorus increased with dietary phosphorus percentage up to 1.06 ( PDietary phosphorus did not significantly influence the muscle components (protein, lipid and moisture). Condition factor and hepatosomatic index were the highest in fish fed the diet containing 0.63% of dietary phosphorus; however, this was not significantly different from those of other diets. The second-order polynomial regression of phosphorus retention against dietary phosphorus identified a breakpoint at 0.88% of dietary phosphorus. However, the dietary requirement of phosphorus for maintaining maximum phosphorus storage determined by broken-line analysis of the contents of whole body phosphorus, and ash and vertebrae phosphorus was 1.06% of the diet.

  6. “Candidatus Propionivibrio aalborgensis”: A Novel Glycogen Accumulating Organism Abundant in Full-Scale Enhanced Biological Phosphorus Removal Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albertsen, Mads; McIlroy, Simon J.; Stokholm-Bjerregaard, Mikkel; Karst, Søren M.; Nielsen, Per H.

    2016-01-01

    Enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) is widely used to remove phosphorus from wastewater. The process relies on polyphosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs) that are able to take up phosphorus in excess of what is needed for growth, whereby phosphorus can be removed from the wastewater by wasting the biomass. However, glycogen accumulating organisms (GAOs) may reduce the EBPR efficiency as they compete for substrates with PAOs, but do not store excessive amounts of polyphosphate. PAOs and GAOs are thought to be phylogenetically unrelated, with the model PAO being the betaproteobacterial “Candidatus Accumulibacter phosphatis” (Accumulibacter) and the model GAO being the gammaproteobacterial “Candidatus Competibacter phosphatis”. Here, we report the discovery of a GAO from the genus Propionivibrio, which is closely related to Accumulibacter. Propionivibrio sp. are targeted by the canonical fluorescence in situ hybridization probes used to target Accumulibacter (PAOmix), but do not store excessive amounts of polyphosphate in situ. A laboratory scale reactor, operated to enrich for PAOs, surprisingly contained co-dominant populations of Propionivibrio and Accumulibacter. Metagenomic sequencing of multiple time-points enabled recovery of near complete population genomes from both genera. Annotation of the Propionivibrio genome confirmed their potential for the GAO phenotype and a basic metabolic model is proposed for their metabolism in the EBPR environment. Using newly designed fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) probes, analyses of full-scale EBPR plants revealed that Propionivibrio is a common member of the community, constituting up to 3% of the biovolume. To avoid overestimation of Accumulibacter abundance in situ, we recommend the use of the FISH probe PAO651 instead of the commonly applied PAOmix probe set. PMID:27458436

  7. "Candidatus Propionivibrio aalborgensis": A Novel Glycogen Accumulating Organism Abundant in Full-Scale Enhanced Biological Phosphorus Removal Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albertsen, Mads; McIlroy, Simon J; Stokholm-Bjerregaard, Mikkel; Karst, Søren M; Nielsen, Per H

    2016-01-01

    Enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) is widely used to remove phosphorus from wastewater. The process relies on polyphosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs) that are able to take up phosphorus in excess of what is needed for growth, whereby phosphorus can be removed from the wastewater by wasting the biomass. However, glycogen accumulating organisms (GAOs) may reduce the EBPR efficiency as they compete for substrates with PAOs, but do not store excessive amounts of polyphosphate. PAOs and GAOs are thought to be phylogenetically unrelated, with the model PAO being the betaproteobacterial "Candidatus Accumulibacter phosphatis" (Accumulibacter) and the model GAO being the gammaproteobacterial "Candidatus Competibacter phosphatis". Here, we report the discovery of a GAO from the genus Propionivibrio, which is closely related to Accumulibacter. Propionivibrio sp. are targeted by the canonical fluorescence in situ hybridization probes used to target Accumulibacter (PAOmix), but do not store excessive amounts of polyphosphate in situ. A laboratory scale reactor, operated to enrich for PAOs, surprisingly contained co-dominant populations of Propionivibrio and Accumulibacter. Metagenomic sequencing of multiple time-points enabled recovery of near complete population genomes from both genera. Annotation of the Propionivibrio genome confirmed their potential for the GAO phenotype and a basic metabolic model is proposed for their metabolism in the EBPR environment. Using newly designed fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) probes, analyses of full-scale EBPR plants revealed that Propionivibrio is a common member of the community, constituting up to 3% of the biovolume. To avoid overestimation of Accumulibacter abundance in situ, we recommend the use of the FISH probe PAO651 instead of the commonly applied PAOmix probe set.

  8. The animal feed mineral phosphorus tax in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikael Skou

    2017-01-01

    in animal feeds has been reduced by about 2,000 tonnes (or 15%) since the introduction of the tax, although the tax rate has not been adjusted with inflation. The tax is believed to have improved overall efficiency in the use of animal feed. Farmer organisations did not oppose the tax and accepted......Denmark’s tax on animal feed phosphorus came into effect in 2005 with a tax rate of DKK 4 (EUR 0.53) per kg of phosphorus. It targets commercial animal feed phosphate and aims to reduce the saturation of soils with phosphorus, and leaching to surface waters. Consumption of mineral phosphate...

  9. Stable black phosphorus quantum dots for alkali PH sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Weilan; Song, Haizeng; Yan, Shancheng

    2018-01-01

    Black phosphorus, as a new two-dimensional material has been widely used in sensors, photovoltaic devices, etc. However, thin layered black phosphorus chemically degrades rapidly under ambient and aqueous conditions, which hinders the application of it in the chemical sensors. In this work, stable black phosphorus quantum dots (BPQDs) in solution are successfully synthesized by functionalization with 4-nitrobenzene-diazonium (4-NBD). The stable BPQDs are investigated by TEM, AFM, Raman, and UV-absorption. As a potential application, the stable BPQDs are used as sensors in alkali solution, which exhibit outstanding performance. Our work paves the way towards a new application with BPQDs in solution.

  10. Nature of Phosphorus Limitation in the Ultraoligotrophic Eastern Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thingstad, T. F.; Krom, M. D.; Mantoura, R. F. C.; Flaten, G. A. F.; Groom, S.; Herut, B.; Kress, N.; Law, C. S.; Pasternak, A.; Pitta, P.; Psarra, S.; Rassoulzadegan, F.; Tanaka, T.; Tselepides, A.; Wassmann, P.; Woodward, E. M. S.; Riser, C. Wexels; Zodiatis, G.; Zohary, T.

    2005-08-01

    Phosphate addition to surface waters of the ultraoligotrophic, phosphorus-starved eastern Mediterranean in a Lagrangian experiment caused unexpected ecosystem responses. The system exhibited a decline in chlorophyll and an increase in bacterial production and copepod egg abundance. Although nitrogen and phosphorus colimitation hindered phytoplankton growth, phosphorous may have been transferred through the microbial food web to copepods via two, not mutually exclusive, pathways: (i) bypass of the phytoplankton compartment by phosphorus uptake in heterotrophic bacteria and (ii) tunnelling, whereby phosphate luxury consumption rapidly shifts the stoichiometric composition of copepod prey. Copepods may thus be coupled to lower trophic levels through interactions not usually considered.

  11. Layer Tunable Third-Harmonic Generation in Multilayer Black Phosphorus

    CERN Document Server

    Youngblood, Nathan; Nemilentsau, Andrei; Low, Tony; Li, Mo

    2016-01-01

    Black phosphorus has been the subject of growing interest due to its unique band structure that is both layer dependent and anisotropic. While many have studied the linear optical response of black phosphorus, the nonlinear response has remained relatively unexplored. Here we report on the observation of third-harmonic generation in black phosphorus using an ultrafast near-IR laser and measure chi(3) experimentally for the first time. It was found that chi(3) is highly dependent on both the incident polarization and the number of layers present.

  12. Effect of sludge retention time and phosphorus to carbon ratio on biological phosphorus removal in HS-SBR process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Rui; Wu, Min; Yang, Jian

    2013-01-01

    Sludge retention time (SRT) and phosphorus to carbon ratio (P/C) in the feed are important control parameters in biological phosphorus removal. In this study, humus soil sequencing batch reactor (HS-SBR) process was operated with different SRTs (five, 10 and 15 days) and P/C feeding (0.0125 and 0.1) to evaluate their phosphorus removal efficiencies. The HS-SBR was composed of a humus soil reactor (HSR) and a conventional SBR (designated as hsSBR to differentiate from the conventional SBR used as a control). The results showed that the phosphorus removal efficiency was 82.7%, 97.3% and 97.3% at SRTs of five, 10 and 15 days respectively and acetate utilization efficiency for phosphorus release with SRTs of 10 and 15 days was much higher than that with an SRT of five days. In addition, a high P/C feeding (0.1) could promote the growth of the phosphate accumulating organisms in the hsSBR; however, the efficiency of phosphorus removal was lower than a low P/C feeding (0.0125) at an SRT of 15 days. All these observations suggested that a relatively long SRT and low P/C feeding exert a useful effect on the phosphorus removal in the hsSBR.

  13. Present and perspective of enhanced biological phosphorus removal process; Seibutsugakuteki rin jokyoho no genjo to kadai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, K. [National Inst. of Bioscience and Human-Technology, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1997-02-05

    Biological phosphorus removal process utilizing anaerobic and aerobic conditions, mechanism of phosphorus removal, and microbes relating to phosphorus removal are outlined, and future problems are discussed. By mixing waste water and sludge under anaerobic condition followed by treatment under aerobic condition, phosphorus content in sludge increases to enable biological phosphorus removal. More microbes with high polyphosphorus accumulating performance are acquired by the anaerobic/aerobic process than other microbes with the result of their preferential increase, and the process has high phosphorus removal characteristic than the general treatment process. Microbes relating to phosphorus removal, immobilization of polyphosphate accumulating microbes, and phosphorus acquiring and releasing characteristics of immobilized mycelium are discussed. Application of gel entrapped immobilized mycelium to phosphorus removal and problems in biological phosphorus removing methods are described. 18 refs., 12 figs.

  14. Chronic cholecystitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acute cholecystitis is a painful condition that leads to chronic cholecystitis. It is not clear whether chronic cholecystitis causes any symptoms. Symptoms of acute cholecystis can include: Sharp, cramping, or dull pain ...

  15. Chronic Sinusitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... weeks, despite treatment attempts. Also known as chronic rhinosinusitis, this condition interferes with drainage and causes mucus ... Regular exposure to pollutants such as cigarette smoke Complications Chronic sinusitis complications include: Meningitis. This infection causes ...

  16. Chronic Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... over. There are two types: acute pain and chronic pain. Acute pain lets you know that you may ... have problem you need to take care of. Chronic pain is different. The pain may last for weeks, ...

  17. Responses of plant nutrient resorption to phosphorus addition in freshwater marsh of Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Rong; Zeng, De-Hui; Zhang, Xin-Hou; Song, Chang-Chun

    2015-01-29

    Anthropogenic activities have increased phosphorus (P) inputs to most aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. However, the relationship between plant nutrient resorption and P availability is still unclear, and much less is known about the underlying mechanisms. Here, we used a multi-level P addition experiment (0, 1.2, 4.8, and 9.6 g P m(-2) year(-1)) to assess the effect of P enrichment on nutrient resorption at plant organ, species, and community levels in a freshwater marsh of Northeast China. The response of nutrient resorption to P addition generally did not vary with addition rates. Moreover, nutrient resorption exhibited similar responses to P addition across the three hierarchical levels. Specifically, P addition decreased nitrogen (N) resorption proficiency, P resorption efficiency and proficiency, but did not impact N resorption efficiency. In addition, P resorption efficiency and proficiency were linearly related to the ratio of inorganic P to organic P and organic P fraction in mature plant organs, respectively. Our findings suggest that the allocation pattern of plant P between inorganic and organic P fractions is an underlying mechanism controlling P resorption processes, and that P enrichment could strongly influence plant-mediated biogeochemical cycles through altered nutrient resorption in the freshwater wetlands of Northeast China.

  18. Phosphorus sources, filter cake and microorganisms on the morphometric variables in tomato seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivis Díaz Aguila

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The present work aims to evaluate the effect of three phosphorus sources, filter cake and microorganisms on the morphometric variables in tomato seedlings (Solanum lycopersicum L.. The investigation was carried out under greenhouse conditions in the Citrico Arimao Enterprise. A Brown soil without carbonate differentiation was used, to which was carried out an agrochemical analysis previously. An experimental design totally randomized was used, with factorial arrangement 3 x 3 + 1, and three repetitions. As a source of phosphorous triple superphosphate, simple superphosphate and a natural phosphoric rock were used and the three levels of organic fertilization consisted of the application of filter cake, filter cake enriched with Azotofos biofertilizer and without filter cake. At 45 and 60 days, the morphometric variables, height, diameter of the stall, the mass of the aerial part and of the root were measured. Variance analyses for all the variables were carried out. The media were compared by Tukey test with a level of error probability of 5 %. The ASISTAT statistical package was used. The morphometric variables, height, diameter of the stall, fresh mass of the aerial part and roots of the tomato seedlings at 45 and 60 days increased with the addition of filter cake, enriched or not, and the application of the phosphoric rock.

  19. Environmental distribution and population biology of Candidatus Accumulibacter, a primary agent of Biological Phosphorus Removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, S. Brook; Warnecke, Falk; Madejska, Julita; McMahon, Katherine D.; Hugenholtz, Philip

    2008-01-01

    Summary Members of the uncultured bacterial genus Candidatus Accumulibacter are capable of intracellular accumulation of inorganic phosphate (Pi) in activated sludge wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) performing enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR), but were also recently shown to inhabit freshwater and estuarine sediments. Additionally, metagenomic sequencing of two bioreactor cultures enriched in Candidatus Accumulibacter, but housed on separate continents, revealed the potential for global dispersal of particular Candidatus Accumulibacter strains, that we hypothesize is facilitated by the ability of Candidatus Accumulibacter to persist in environmental habitats. In the current study, we used sequencing of a phylogenetic marker, the ppk1 gene, to characterize Candidatus Accumulibacter populations in diverse environments, at varying distances from WWTPs. We discovered several new lineages of Candidatus Accumulibacter which had not previously been detected in WWTPs, and also uncovered new diversity and structure within previously detected lineages. Habitat characteristics were found to be a key determinant of Candidatus Accumulibacter lineage distribution, while, as predicted, geographic distance played little role in limiting dispersal on a regional scale. However, on a local scale, enrichment of particular Candidatus Accumulibacter lineages in WWTP appeared to impact local environmental populations. These results provide evidence of ecological differences among Candidatus Accumulibacter lineages. PMID:18643843

  20. Evaluating the efficiency of carbon utilisation via bioenergetics between biological aerobic and denitrifying phosphorus removal systems

    OpenAIRE

    Zhan Jin; Fangying Ji; Yin He; Min Zhao; Xuan Xu; Xiang-Yong Zheng

    2017-01-01

    There are two biological systems available for removing phosphorus from waste water, conventional phosphorus removal (CPR) and denitrifying phosphorus removal (DPR) systems, and each is characterized by the type of sludge used in the process. In this study, we compared the characteristics associated with the efficiency of carbon utilization between CPR and DPR sludge using acetate as a carbon source. For DPR sludge, the heat emitted during the phosphorus release and phosphorus uptake processe...

  1. Long-term accumulation and transport of anthropogenic phosphorus in three river basins

    OpenAIRE

    Powers, Stephen M.; Bruulsema, Thomas W.; Burt, Tim P.; Chan, Neng Iong; Elser, James J.; Haygarth, Philip M; Howden, Nicholas J K; Helen P. Jarvie; Lyu, Yang; Peterson, Heidi M.; Sharpley, Andrew N.; Shen, Jianbo; Worrall, Fred; ZHANG, FUSUO

    2016-01-01

    Global food production depends on phosphorus. Phosphorus is broadly applied as fertilizer, but excess phosphorus contributes to eutrophication of surface water bodies and coastal ecosystems1. Here we present an analysis of phosphorus fluxes in three large river basins, including published data on fertilizer, harvested crops, sewage, food waste and river fluxes2, 3, 4. Our analyses reveal that the magnitude of phosphorus accumulation has varied greatly over the past 30–70 years in mixed agricu...

  2. Cascade dams influence on sediment characteristics and phosphorus distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapin, Anne; Mourier, Brice; Rabiet, Marion; Malgorzata, Grybos; Kestens, Tim; Deluchat, Veronique

    2017-04-01

    Massive river artificialisation by dam construction, responding to the steadily increasing human demand of water and electricity leads to several environmental consequences, including alteration of hydrological dynamic and sediment discontinuity. Important decreases of water flows and sediment transport downstream impact phosphorus (P) flux to the ocean and its cycle, due to P sediment storage in dam reservoir. Moreover, the release of P from sediments may enhance eutrophication processes in dam reservoir. Our study focused on the influence of cascade dams on physical and chemical characteristics of sediments and particularly on P sedimentary speciation along river continuum. Considering these results, the potential of P release from dam reservoir sediments was appraised and compared to un-impacted river parts. In addition, key parameters controlling P release at sediment/water interface were evaluated. Champsanglard, Chézelles and Age are three consecutive hydroelectric reservoirs on Creuse River (France; respective surfaces area of 55 ha, 23 ha, 38 ha and approximative height of 20 m each) subjected to seasonal cyanobacterial blooms. Surface sediments (17 samples) were collected in dams and free-flow river sections (on a stretch of 17 km); chemical composition (Fe, Al, Ca, Mn and P), organic matter (OM) content, particle size distribution and P fractionation were analysed. An abrupt change in sediment granulometry from a coarse-medium sand to silt texture going through free-flow river to dam reservoirs was observed. The same assessment was made in regard to OM content (from 3 ± 3% in river parts to 18 ± 3% in dams) and total P (0.27 ± 0.11 mgP/g DW in river parts to 1.8 ± 0.3 mgP/gDW in dams). P enrichment in sediment from dam reservoir is due to the retention of fine size particles. Relation between total P content and sediment grain size within each dam reservoir highlighted the role of slowdown river flow occurring in dams. In Champsanglard reservoir

  3. Student science enrichment training program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandhu, S.S.

    1994-08-01

    This is a report on the Student Science Enrichment Training Program, with special emphasis on chemical and computer science fields. The residential summer session was held at the campus of Claflin College, Orangeburg, SC, for six weeks during 1993 summer, to run concomitantly with the college`s summer school. Fifty participants selected for this program, included high school sophomores, juniors and seniors. The students came from rural South Carolina and adjoining states which, presently, have limited science and computer science facilities. The program focused on high ability minority students, with high potential for science engineering and mathematical careers. The major objective was to increase the pool of well qualified college entering minority students who would elect to go into science, engineering and mathematical careers. The Division of Natural Sciences and Mathematics and engineering at Claflin College received major benefits from this program as it helped them to expand the Departments of Chemistry, Engineering, Mathematics and Computer Science as a result of additional enrollment. It also established an expanded pool of well qualified minority science and mathematics graduates, which were recruited by the federal agencies and private corporations, visiting Claflin College Campus. Department of Energy`s relationship with Claflin College increased the public awareness of energy related job opportunities in the public and private sectors.

  4. 75 FR 52996 - Areva Enrichment Services, LLC (Eagle Rock Enrichment Facility); Notice of Atomic Safety and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Areva Enrichment Services, LLC (Eagle Rock Enrichment Facility); Notice of Atomic Safety and... Board (Board) in the above-captioned Areva Enrichment Services proceeding is hereby reconstituted by...

  5. 76 FR 387 - Atomic Safety and Licensing Board; AREVA Enrichment Services, LLC (Eagle Rock Enrichment Facility)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-04

    ... COMMISSION Atomic Safety and Licensing Board; AREVA Enrichment Services, LLC (Eagle Rock Enrichment Facility... Eagle Rock Enrichment Facility (EREF)--in Bonneville County, Idaho; and (2) the receipt, possession, use... site at http://www.nrc.gov/materials/fuel-cycle-fac/arevanc.html . These and other documents relating...

  6. 76 FR 53494 - In the Matter of United States Enrichment Corporation; Paducah Gaseous Enrichment Plant...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-26

    ... COMMISSION In the Matter of United States Enrichment Corporation; Paducah Gaseous Enrichment Plant; Confirmatory Order (Effective Immediately) I The United States Enrichment Corporation (USEC), a subsidiary of USEC Inc., is the holder of the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC or the Commission...

  7. 21 CFR 137.350 - Enriched rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 1,000 milligrams of calcium (Ca). Calcium carbonate derived from the use of this substance in milling rice, when present in quantities that furnish less than 500 milligrams of calcium (Ca) per pound... enriched rice unless such enriched rice is labeled to show it contains the optional ingredient calcium...

  8. Enrichment Monitor for 235U Fuel Tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winn, W.G.

    2001-08-22

    This report describes the performance of this prototype y-monitor of 235 Uranium enrichment. In this proposed method y-rates associated with 235U and 232U are correlated with enrichment. Instrumentation for appraising fuel tubes with this method has been assembled and tested.

  9. Distribution of total phosphorus in the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, V.C.; Rao, T.S.S.

    The total phosphorus content in the sediment samples collected from different stations on the continental shelf along five sections normal to the coast near Bombay, Karwar, Mangalore, Cochin and Alleppey has been determined and the distribution...

  10. Effect of Phosphorus Fertilizer on Nitrogen Fixation by Some Grain ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    acer

    5698. Effect of Phosphorus Fertilizer on Nitrogen Fixation by Some Grain Legume Varieties in Sudano – Sahelian Zone of North Eastern Nigeria. *H. Yakubu, J. D. Kwari and M.K. Sandabe. Department of Soil Science,. University of Maiduguri.

  11. The effects of increased phosphorus application on shoot dry matter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of increased phosphorus application on shoot dry matter, shoot P and Zn concentrations in wheat ( Triticum durum L.) and maize ( Zea mays L.)wheat ( Triticum durum L.) and maize ( Zea mays L.) grown in a calcareous soil.

  12. Phosphorus Segregation in Meta-Rapidly Solidified Carbon Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Na; Qiao, Jun; Zhang, Junwei; Sha, Minghong; Li, Shengli

    2017-09-01

    Twin-roll strip casters for near-net-shape manufacture of steels have received increased attention in the steel industry. Although negative segregation of phosphorus occurred in twin-roll strip casting (TRSC) steels in our prior work, its mechanism is still unclear. In this work, V-shaped molds were designed and used to simulate a meta-rapid solidification process without roll separating force during twin roll casting of carbon steels. Experimental results show that no obvious phosphorus segregation exist in the V-shaped mold casting (VMC) steels. By comparing TRSC and the VMC, it is proposed that the negative phosphorus segregation during TRSC results from phosphorus redistribution driven by recirculating and vortex flow in the molten pool. Meanwhile, solute atoms near the advancing interface are overtaken and incorporated into the solid because of the high solidification speed. The high rolling force could promote the negative segregation of alloying elements in TRSC.

  13. Effects of rhizobium inoculation, sulfur and phosphorus applications ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-03-18

    . Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) is the most important grain legumes of Turkey. As grown in 650 000 ha and a production of 610 000 tonnes, the mean yield is 938 kg ha-1 (Anonymous, 2005). Phosphorus (P) and sulfur (S).

  14. Enhanced Biological Phosphorus Removal : Metabolic Insights and Salinity Effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Welles, L.

    2015-01-01

    Enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) is a biological process for efficient phosphate removal from wastewaters through intracellular storage of polyphosphate by polyphosphate-accumulating organisms (PAO) and subsequent removal of PAO from the system through wastage of sludge. In comparison

  15. Differences among total and in vitro digestible phosphorus content of meat and milk products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karp, Heini; Ekholm, Päivi; Kemi, Virpi; Hirvonen, Tero; Lamberg-Allardt, Christel

    2012-05-01

    Meat and milk products are important sources of dietary phosphorus (P) and protein. The use of P additives is common both in processed cheese and meat products. Measurement of in vitro digestible phosphorus (DP) content of foods may reflect absorbability of P. The objective of this study was to measure both total phosphorus (TP) and DP contents of selected meat and milk products and to compare amounts of TP and DP and the proportion of DP to TP among different foods. TP and DP contents of 21 meat and milk products were measured by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). In DP analysis, samples were digested enzymatically, in principle, in the same way as in the alimentary canal before the analyses. The most popular national brands of meat and milk products were chosen for analysis. The highest TP and DP contents were found in processed and hard cheeses; the lowest, in milk and cottage cheese. TP and DP contents in sausages and cold cuts were lower than those in cheeses. Chicken, pork, beef, and rainbow trout contained similar amounts of TP, but slightly more variation was found in their DP contents. Foods containing P additives have a high content of DP. Our study confirms that cottage cheese and unenhanced meats are better choices than processed or hard cheeses, sausages, and cold cuts for chronic kidney disease patients, based on their lower P-to-protein ratios and sodium contents. The results support previous findings of better P absorbability in foods of animal origin than in, for example, legumes. Copyright © 2012 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Review of environmental enrichment for broiler chickens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riber, Anja Brinch; Van de Weerd, H.A.; de Jong, I.C.

    2018-01-01

    and welfare of the different kinds of environmental enrichments in the production of broilers that have been described in the scientific literature. Environmental enrichment is defined as an improvement of the environment of captive animals, which increases the behavioral opportunities of the animal and leads...... to improvements of the biological function. This definition has been broadened to include practical and economic aspects, as any enrichment strategy that adversely affects the health of animals or that has too many economic or practical constraints will never be implemented on commercial farms and thus never...... benefit animals. Environmental enrichment for broilers often has the purpose of satisfying behavioral needs and/or stimulating the broilers to an increased level of activity, which among others will reduce the occurrence of leg problems. Potentially successful environmental enrichments for broiler...

  17. Enrichment of high ammonia tolerant methanogenic culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fotidis, Ioannis; Karakashev, Dimitar Borisov; Proietti, Nicolas

    of the current study was to isolate and identify methanogenic cultures tolerant to high ammonia concentrations. A mixed methanogenic population was stepwise exposed to ammonia concentrations (1 to 9.26 g NH4+-N L-1) during an enrichment process with successive batch cultivations. The methanogenic population...... microbial community composition. The outcome of the enrichment process was a mesophilic aceticlastic methanogenic enriched culture able to withstand high ammonia loads and utilize acetate and form methane stoichiometrically. FISH analysis showed that the methanogens of the enriched culture belonged...... exclusively to strict aceticlastic methanogens. Results obtained in this study, demonstrated for the first time that strictly aceticlastic methanogens, derived from an enriched culture, can efficiently produce methane under high ammonia levels....

  18. Enriching an effect calculus with linear types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egger, Jeff; Møgelberg, Rasmus Ejlers; Simpson, Alex

    2009-01-01

    We define an ``enriched effect calculus'' by conservatively extending  a type theory for computational effects with primitives from linear logic. By doing so, we obtain a generalisation of linear type theory, intended as a formalism for expressing linear aspects of effects. As a worked example, we...... formulate  linearly-used continuations in the enriched effect calculus. These are captured by a fundamental translation of the enriched effect calculus into itself, which extends existing call-by-value and call-by-name linearly-used CPS translations. We show that our translation is involutive. Full...... completeness results for the various linearly-used CPS translations  follow. Our main results, the conservativity of enriching the effect calculus with linear primitives, and the involution property of the fundamental translation, are proved using a category-theoretic semantics for the enriched effect calculus...

  19. Global potential of phosphorus recovery from human urine and feces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihelcic, James R; Fry, Lauren M; Shaw, Ryan

    2011-08-01

    This study geospatially quantifies the mass of an essential fertilizer element, phosphorus, available from human urine and feces, globally, regionally, and by specific country. The analysis is performed over two population scenarios (2009 and 2050). This important material flow is related to the presence of improved sanitation facilities and also considers the global trend of urbanization. Results show that in 2009 the phosphorus available from urine is approximately 1.68 million metric tons (with similar mass available from feces). If collected, the phosphorus available from urine and feces could account for 22% of the total global phosphorus demand. In 2050 the available phosphorus from urine that is associated with population increases only will increase to 2.16 million metric tons (with similar mass available from feces). The available phosphorus from urine and feces produced in urban settings is currently approximately 0.88 million metric tons and will increase with population growth to over 1.5 million metric tons by 2050. Results point to the large potential source of human-derived phosphorus in developing regions like Africa and Asia that have a large population currently unserved by improved sanitation facilities. These regions have great potential to implement urine diversion and reuse and composting or recovery of biosolids, because innovative technologies can be integrated with improvements in sanitation coverage. In contrast, other regions with extensive sanitation coverage like Europe and North America need to determine how to retrofit existing sanitation technology combined that is combined with human behavioral changes to recover phosphorus and other valuable nutrients. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Global baseline data on phosphorus pollution of large lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Gabriel; Flörke, Martina; Alcamo, Joseph

    2016-04-01

    Lakes are exposed to harmful eutrophication which is the most concerning water quality issue on global scale. Eutrophication is caused by phosphorous pollution in most lakes. Hence, global consistent base line data on phosphorus loadings are needed to assess future sustainable development. We used the modeling framework WaterGAP3 to calculate present total phosphorus loadings to the world's largest lakes. Estimates of modeled total phosphorus (TP) loadings as well as the contributions of different sectors were successfully validated against measured data. Based on these findings, annual total phosphorus loadings to lakes were calculated for diffuse and point sources according to the different sectors domestic, manufacturing, urban surface runoff, agriculture and background for the time period 1990 to 2010. Our results show high phosphorus loadings into lakes in southern latitudes. On global average, industrial fertilizer is the main anthropogenic source while background loadings are low in comparison. Nevertheless, both features indicate a high potential to reduce the exposure to eutrophication in lakes which are faced with high phosphor inputs. The global average of TP loadings was 7% higher in the time period 2005-2010 than in the period 1990-1995. The global average in 2005-2010 results from an increase in TP loadings of 79% in South America, which was dampened by a decrease in Europe, North America, and Asia. Chinese lakes were exposed to massive increasing phosphorus loadings, too. Both increasing and decreasing trends are caused primarily by changing industrial fertilizer application rates. In conclusion, this study provides a consistent and model based synopsis of global trends and sources of phosphorus loadings to large lakes. The estimates of phosphorus pollution of lakes present a basis for assessing and managing the global eutrophication problem.

  1. Biological Phosphorus Removal in a Moving Bed Biofilm Reactor

    OpenAIRE

    Helness, Herman

    2007-01-01

    Phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N) removal from municipal wastewater is performed to prevent or reduce eutrophication in the receiving water. Both P and N can be removed physical/chemically as well as biologically. While biological processes have always dominated in N-removal, chemical P-removal is used in many cases. Biological P-removal using enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) is normally carried out in suspended culture (activated sludge) processes while biological N-removal (t...

  2. Enhanced Biological Phosphorus Removal for Liquid Dairy Manure

    OpenAIRE

    Hong, Yanjuan

    2009-01-01

    Enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) has been widely used in municipal wastewater treatment, but no previous studies have examined the application of EBPR to treat dairy manure. This study was conducted to evaluate the (i) performance of pilot-scale EBPR systems treating liquid dairy manure, to balance the ratio of nitrogen to phosphorus in manure to meet crop nutrient requirements, (ii) effects of dissolved oxygen and solids retention time on the efficiency of EBPR, and (iii) effect...

  3. Electrodialytic recovery of phosphorus from chemically precipitated sewage sludge ashes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Viader, Raimon Parés; Erland Jensen, Pernille; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    Phosphorus scarcity requires improved recover and reuse of urban sources; the recycling of this nutrient from sewage sludge has become increasingly important in the last years. Using an innovative electrodialytic process, the present study shows the potential for P separation from Fe and Al preci...... precipitated sewage sludge ash using this technique, with a recovery rate of around 70%. Furthermore, heavy metals were removed from the phosphorous fraction, producing a pure and safe phosphorus source in the end...

  4. Biological phosphorus removal inhibition by roxarsone in batch culture systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Qingfeng; Liu, Li; Hu, Zhenhu; Chen, Guowei

    2013-06-01

    Roxarsone has been extensively used in the feed of animals, which is usually excreted unchanged in the manure and eventually enter into animal wastewater, challenging the biological phosphorus removal processes. Knowledge of its inhibition effect is key for guiding treatment of roxarsone-contaminated wastewater, and is unfortunately keeping unclear. We study the inhibition of roxarsone on biological phosphorus removal processes for roxarsone-contaminated wastewater treatment, in terms of the removal and rates of chemical oxygen demand (COD), phosphate. Results showed that presence of roxarsone considerably limited the COD removals, especially at roxarsone concentration exceeding 40 mg L(-1). Additionally, roxarsone inhibited both phosphorus release and uptake processes, consistent with the phosphate profiles during the biological phosphorus removal processes; whereas, roxarsone is more toxic to phosphorus uptake process, than release function. The results indicated that it is roxarsone itself, rather than the inorganic arsenics, inhibit biological phosphorus removal processes within both aerobic and anaerobic roxarsone-contaminated wastewater treatment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Interaction between viologen-phosphorus dendrimers and {alpha}-synuclein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milowska, Katarzyna, E-mail: milowska@biol.uni.lodz.pl [Department of General Biophysics, Faculty of Biology and Environmental Protection, University of Lodz, Pomorska 141/143, 90-236 Lodz (Poland); Grochowina, Justyna [Department of General Biophysics, Faculty of Biology and Environmental Protection, University of Lodz, Pomorska 141/143, 90-236 Lodz (Poland); Katir, Nadia [Laboratoire de Chimie de Coordination CNRS, 205 route de Narbonne, 31077 Toulouse (France); El Kadib, Abdelkrim [Institute of Nanomaterials and Nanotechnology (INANOTECH)-MAScIR (Moroccan Foundation for Advanced Science, Innovation and Research), ENSET, Avenue de I' Armee Royale, Madinat El Irfane, 10100 Rabat (Morocco); Majoral, Jean-Pierre [Laboratoire de Chimie de Coordination CNRS, 205 route de Narbonne, 31077 Toulouse (France); Bryszewska, Maria; Gabryelak, Teresa [Department of General Biophysics, Faculty of Biology and Environmental Protection, University of Lodz, Pomorska 141/143, 90-236 Lodz (Poland)

    2013-02-15

    In this study the interaction between viologen-phosphorus dendrimers and {alpha}-synuclein (ASN) was examined. Polycationic viologen-phosphorus dendrimers (two positive charges per viologen unit) are novel compounds with relatively unknown properties. The influence of these viologen dendrimers on ASN was tested using fluorimetric and circular dichroism methods. ASN contains four tyrosine residues; therefore, the influence of dendrimers on protein molecular conformation by measuring the changes in the ASN fluorescence in the presence of dendrimers was evaluated. The interaction of dendrimers with free L-tyrosine was also monitored. Results show that viologen-phosphorus dendrimers interact with ASN; they quenched the fluorescence of ASN as well as free tyrosine by dynamic and static ways. However, the quenching was not accompanied by modifications in the ASN secondary structure. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Interaction between viologen-phosphorus dendrimers and {alpha}-synuclein (ASN) was investigated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Viologen-phosphorus dendrimers can quench the fluorescence of tyrosine in ASN. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dendrimers caused red-shift in maximum of fluorescence. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Viologen-phosphorus dendrimers did not change the secondary structure of ASN.

  6. Ocean acidification: One potential driver of phosphorus eutrophication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Changzi; Chai, Yanchao; Wang, Haiqing; Kan, Manman

    2017-02-15

    Harmful algal blooms which may be limited by phosphorus outbreak increases currently and ocean acidification worsens presently, which implies that ocean acidification might lead to phosphorus eutrophication. To verify the hypothesis, oxic sediments were exposed to seawater with different pH 30days. If pH was 8.1 and 7.7, the total phosphorus (TP) content in sediments was 1.52±0.50 and 1.29±0.40mg/g. The inorganic phosphorus (IP) content in sediments exposed to seawater with pH8.1 and 7.7 was 1.39±0.10 and 1.06±0.20mg/g, respectively. The exchangeable phosphorus (Ex-P) content in sediments was 4.40±0.45 and 2.82±0.15μg/g, if seawater pH was 8.1 and 7.7. Ex-P and IP contents in oxic sediments were reduced by ocean acidification significantly (pocean acidification was one potential facilitator of phosphorus eutrophication in oxic conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Present status of phosphorus removal technology and its future prospect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Kazuaki

    1988-10-10

    This report outlines the special features of two representative processes of the technology for phosphorus removal from municipal sewage: a physical and chemical method and a biological method. In Japan, coagulating precipitation is carried out using aluminum sulphate or polyaluminum chloride but it is pointed out that this method increases the developed amount of sludge and drops the concentration and dehydration of sludge. Recently, crystallization dephosphorization technology is drawing much attention. This technology precipitates phosphorus as hydroxyapatite using phosphorus ore and bone black as crystal druse under the condition of the addition of lime. For biological dephosphorization, a phostrip method and an anaerobic-aerobic method are being developed. According to the estimation in Japan, it is possible to lower the concentration of total phosphorus in municipal sewage from 5mg*1/sup /minus/1/ to less than 1.0mg*1/sup /minus/1/ by this anaerobic-aerobic method. It is desirable that in the future technical features of the physical and chemical phosphorus removal method and the biological phosphorus removal method will be comparatively studied and a most effective and economic method of preventing eutrophication will be developed and selected. 6 references, 3 figures, 1 table.

  8. Phosphorus and nitrogen regulate arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis in Petunia hybrida.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Nouri

    Full Text Available Phosphorus and nitrogen are essential nutrient elements that are needed by plants in large amounts. The arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis between plants and soil fungi improves phosphorus and nitrogen acquisition under limiting conditions. On the other hand, these nutrients influence root colonization by mycorrhizal fungi and symbiotic functioning. This represents a feedback mechanism that allows plants to control the fungal symbiont depending on nutrient requirements and supply. Elevated phosphorus supply has previously been shown to exert strong inhibition of arbuscular mycorrhizal development. Here, we address to what extent inhibition by phosphorus is influenced by other nutritional pathways in the interaction between Petunia hybrida and R. irregularis. We show that phosphorus and nitrogen are the major nutritional determinants of the interaction. Interestingly, the symbiosis-promoting effect of nitrogen starvation dominantly overruled the suppressive effect of high phosphorus nutrition onto arbuscular mycorrhiza, suggesting that plants promote the symbiosis as long as they are limited by one of the two major nutrients. Our results also show that in a given pair of symbiotic partners (Petunia hybrida and R. irregularis, the entire range from mutually symbiotic to parasitic can be observed depending on the nutritional conditions. Taken together, these results reveal complex nutritional feedback mechanisms in the control of root colonization by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi.

  9. Phosphorus and nitrogen regulate arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis in Petunia hybrida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouri, Eva; Breuillin-Sessoms, Florence; Feller, Urs; Reinhardt, Didier

    2014-01-01

    Phosphorus and nitrogen are essential nutrient elements that are needed by plants in large amounts. The arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis between plants and soil fungi improves phosphorus and nitrogen acquisition under limiting conditions. On the other hand, these nutrients influence root colonization by mycorrhizal fungi and symbiotic functioning. This represents a feedback mechanism that allows plants to control the fungal symbiont depending on nutrient requirements and supply. Elevated phosphorus supply has previously been shown to exert strong inhibition of arbuscular mycorrhizal development. Here, we address to what extent inhibition by phosphorus is influenced by other nutritional pathways in the interaction between Petunia hybrida and R. irregularis. We show that phosphorus and nitrogen are the major nutritional determinants of the interaction. Interestingly, the symbiosis-promoting effect of nitrogen starvation dominantly overruled the suppressive effect of high phosphorus nutrition onto arbuscular mycorrhiza, suggesting that plants promote the symbiosis as long as they are limited by one of the two major nutrients. Our results also show that in a given pair of symbiotic partners (Petunia hybrida and R. irregularis), the entire range from mutually symbiotic to parasitic can be observed depending on the nutritional conditions. Taken together, these results reveal complex nutritional feedback mechanisms in the control of root colonization by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi.

  10. Innovative methods for removing phosphorus from wastewaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Palma, L.; Merli, C.; Petrucci, E. [Rome Univ. La Sapienza, Rome (Italy). Dipt. di Ingegneria Chimica dei Materiali, delle Materie Prime e Metallurgia

    2001-04-01

    Wastewater containing a mixture of hypophosphites and phosphites was treated in order to assess the possibility of attaining high levels of phosphorus oxidation to phosphate. An initial series of tests based on chemical oxidation by means of Fenton's reagent demonstrated the feasibility of this process for solutions containing 250-750 mg/l of phosphorus. Removal yields of up to 98% were attained at ph 3.5 by using variable ratios of (H{sub 2}O{sub 2})/(Fe{sup 2}+). The second series involved the electrolytic generation of Fenton's reagent at p H 2-2.5 through cathodic oxygen reduction. This demonstrated the possibility of obtaining quantitative yields for solutions containing 80-160 mg/l P with a constant (H{sub 2}O{sub 2})/(Fe{sup 2}+) ratio of 3.94. Economic comparison of the two processes showed that the operative cost of the electrochemical treatment is comparable to that of the chemical process. [Italian] Sono state effettuate prove sperimentali di trattamento di reflui contenenti una miscela di ipofosfiti e fosfiti allo scopo di valutare la possibilita' di raggiungere elevate rese di ossidazione del fosforo. Una prima serie di prove, eseguita realizzando l'ossidazione chimica tramite reattivo di Fenton, ha dimostrato la fattibilita' del processo per soluzioni di composizioni comprese tra 250 e 750 mg/l P. A pH 3.5, sono state conseguite rese di abbattimento fino al 98% impiegando rapporti di reagenti (H{sub 2}O{sub 2})/(Fe{sup 2}+) variabili. Una seconda serie di prove, eseguita elettrogenerando, per riduzione catodica dell'ossigeno. Il reattivo di Fenton a pH 2 from to 2.5, ha dimostrato la possibilita' di ottenere rese quantitative per soluzioni di composizioni comprese tra 80 e 160 mg/l P e con un rapporto (H{sub 2}O{sub 2})/(Fe{sup 2}+) il costo operativo del trattamento elettrochimico dipenda essenzialmente dal consumo di energia elettrica e sia paragonabile a quello del trattamento chimico.

  11. Freeze concentration for enrichment of nutrients in yellow water from no-mix toilets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulyas, H; Bruhn, P; Furmanska, M; Hartrampf, K; Kot, K; Lüttenberg, B; Mahmood, Z; Stelmaszewska, K; Otterpohl, R

    2004-01-01

    Separately collected urine ("yellow water") can be utilized as fertilizer. In order to decrease storage volumes and energy consumption for yellow water transport to fields, enrichment of nutrients in yellow water has to be considered. Laboratory-scale batch freeze concentration of yellow water has been tested in ice-front freezing apparatus: a stirred vessel and a falling film freeze concentrator (coolant temperatures: -6 to -16 degrees C). With progressing enrichment of the liquid concentrate, the frozen ice was increasingly contaminated with yellow water constituents (ammonia, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, TOC, and salts determined as conductivity). The higher the initial salinity of the yellow water and the lower the mechanical agitation of the liquid phase contacting the growing ice front, the more the frozen ice was contaminated. The results indicate, that in ice-front freezing devices multistage processes are necessary, i.e. the melted ice phase has to be purified (and the concentrates must be further enriched) in a second or even in a third stage. Energy consumption of this process is very high. However, technical scale suspension freeze concentration is reasonable in centralized ecological sanitation schemes if the population exceeds 0.5 million and distance of yellow water transportation to fields is more than 80 km.

  12. Deuterium enrichment of interstellar dusts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Ankan; Chakrabarti, Sandip Kumar; Majumdar, Liton; Sahu, Dipen

    2016-07-01

    High abundance of some abundant and simple interstellar species could be explained by considering the chemistry that occurs on interstellar dusts. Because of its simplicity, the rate equation method is widely used to study the surface chemistry. However, because the recombination efficiency for the formation of any surface species is highly dependent on various physical and chemical parameters, the Monte Carlo method is best suited for addressing the randomness of the processes. We carry out Monte-Carlo simulation to study deuterium enrichment of interstellar grain mantle under various physical conditions. Based on the physical properties, various types of clouds are considered. We find that in diffuse cloud regions, very strong radiation fields persists and hardly a few layers of surface species are formed. In translucent cloud regions with a moderate radiation field, significant number of layers would be produced and surface coverage is mainly dominated by photo-dissociation products such as, C, CH_3, CH_2D, OH and OD. In the intermediate dense cloud regions (having number density of total hydrogen nuclei in all forms ˜2 × 10^4 cm^{-3}), water and methanol along with their deuterated derivatives are efficiently formed. For much higher density regions (˜10^6 cm^{-3}), water and methanol productions are suppressed but surface coverage of CO, CO_2, O_2, O_3 are dramatically increased. We find a very high degree of fractionation of water and methanol. Observational results support a high fractionation of methanol but surprisingly water fractionation is found to be low. This is in contradiction with our model results indicating alternative routes for de-fractionation of water.

  13. Nutrient addition differentially affects ecological processes of Avicennia germinans in nitrogen versus phosphorus limited mangrove ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feller, Ilka C.; Lovelock, C.E.; McKee, K.L.

    2007-01-01

    Nutrient over-enrichment is a major threat to marine environments, but system-specific attributes of coastal ecosystems may result in differences in their sensitivity and susceptibility to eutrophication. We used fertilization experiments in nitrogen (N)- and phosphorus (P)-limited mangrove forests to test the hypothesis that alleviating different kinds of nutrient limitation may have different effects on ecosystem structure and function in natural systems. We compared a broad range of ecological processes to determine if these systems have different thresholds where shifts might occur in nutrient limitation. Growth responses indicated N limitation in Avicennia germinans (black mangrove) forests in the Indian River Lagoon (IRL), Florida, and P limitation at Twin Cays, Belize. When nutrient deficiency was relieved, A. germinans grew out of its stunted form by increasing wood relative to leaf biomass and shoot length relative to lateral growth. At the P-limited site, P enrichment (+P) increased specific leaf area, N resorption, and P uptake, but had no effect on P resorption. At the N-limited site, +N increased both N and P resorption, but did not alter biomass allocation. Herbivory was greater at the P-limited site and was unaffected by +P, whereas +N led to increased herbivory at the N-limited site. The responses to nutrient enrichment depended on the ecological process and limiting nutrient and suggested that N- versus P-limited mangroves do have different thresholds. +P had a greater effect on more ecological processes at Twin Cays than did +N at the IRL, which indicated that the P-limited site was more sensitive to nutrient loading. Because of this sensitivity, eutrophication is more likely to cause a shift in nutrient limitation at P-limited Twin Cays than N-limited IRL. ?? 2007 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  14. Impacts of anthropic pressures on soil phosphorus availability, concentration, and phosphorus forms in sediments in a Southern Brazilian watershed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pellegrini, Joao Batista Rossetto; Rheinheimer dos Santos, Danilo; Goncalves, Celso Santos; Copetti, Andre Carlos Cruz [Dept. de Solos, Univ. Federal de Santa Maria, Centro de Ciencias Rurais, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Bortoluzzi, Edson Campanhola [Faculdade de Agronomia e Medicina Veterinaria da Univ. de Passo Fundo, RS (Brazil); Tessier, Daniel [Inst. National de la Recherche Agronomique, Versailles (France)

    2010-04-15

    Purpose: The transfer of soil sediments and phosphorus from terrestrial to aquatic systems is a common process in agricultural lands. The aims of this paper are to quantify the soil phosphorus availability and to characterize phosphorus forms in soil sediments as contaminant agents of waters as a function of anthropic pressures. Materials and methods On three subwatersheds with different anthropic pressure, water and sediment samples were collected automatically in upstream and downstream discharge points in six rainfall events during the tobacco growing season. Phosphorus desorption capacity from soil sediments was estimated by successive extractions with anion exchange resins. First-order kinetic models were adjusted to desorption curves for estimating potentially bioavailable particulate phosphorus, desorption rate constant, and bioavailable particulate phosphorus. Results and discussion The amount of bioavailable particulate phosphorus was directly correlated with the iron oxide content. The value of desorption rate constant was directly related with the total organic carbon and inversely with the iron oxide contents. Phosphate ions were released to solution, on average, twice as rapidly from sediments collected in subwatersheds with low anthropic activity than from those ones of highly anthropic subwatersheds. Anthropic pressure on watershed can engender high sediment discharge, but these solid particles seem to present low phosphorus-releasing capacity to water during transport due to the evidenced high affinity between phosphorus and iron oxide from sediments. Conclusions Anthropic pressure was related with sediment concentration and phosphorus release to aquatic systems. While natural vegetation along streams plays a role on soil and water depuration, it is unable to eliminate the phosphorus inputs intrinsic to the agricultural-intensive systems. Recommendations and perspectives The contamination of water in watershed by phosphates is facilitated by the

  15. Novel Alleles of Phosphorus-Starvation Tolerance 1 Gene (PSTOL1 from Oryza rufipogon Confers High Phosphorus Uptake Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumari Neelam

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Limited phosphorus availability in the soil is one of the major constraints to the growth and productivity of rice across Asian, African and South American countries, where 50% of the rice is grown under rain-fed systems on poor and problematic soils. With an aim to determine novel alleles for enhanced phosphorus uptake efficiency in wild species germplasm of rice Oryza rufipogon, we investigated phosphorus uptake1 (Pup1 locus with 11 previously reported SSR markers and sequence characterized the phosphorus-starvation tolerance 1 (PSTOL1 gene. In the present study, we screened 182 accessions of O. rufipogon along with Vandana as a positive control with SSR markers. From the analysis, it was inferred that all of the O. rufipogon accessions undertaken in this study had an insertion of 90 kb region, including Pup1-K46, a diagnostic marker for PSTOL1, however, it was absent among O. sativa cv. PR114, PR121, and PR122. The complete PSTOL1 gene was also sequenced in 67 representative accessions of O. rufipogon and Vandana as a positive control. From comparative sequence analysis, 53 mutations (52 SNPs and 1 nonsense mutation were found in the PSTOL1 coding region, of which 28 were missense mutations and 10 corresponded to changes in the amino acid polarity. These 53 mutations correspond to 17 haplotypes, of these 6 were shared and 11 were scored only once. A major shared haplotype was observed among 44 accessions of O. rufipogon along with Vandana and Kasalath. Out of 17 haplotypes, accessions representing 8 haplotypes were grown under the phosphorus-deficient conditions in hydroponics for 60 days. Significant differences were observed in the root length and weight among all the genotypes when grown under phosphorus deficiency conditions as compared to the phosphorus sufficient conditions. The O. rufipogon accession IRGC 106506 from Laos performed significantly better, with 2.5 times higher root weight and phosphorus content as compared to the

  16. Recycling phosphorus by fast pyrolysis of pig manure: concentration and extraction of phosphorus combined with formation of value-added pyrolysis products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Azuara, M.; Kersten, Sascha R.A.; Kootstra, A.M.J.

    2013-01-01

    In order to recycle phosphorus from the livestock chain back to the land, fast pyrolysis of concentrated pig manure at different temperatures (400 °C, 500 °C, 600 °C), was undertaken to concentrate the phosphorus in the char fraction for recovery. Results show that 92%–97% of the phosphorus present

  17. Phosphorus sorption-desorption and effects of temperature, pH and salinity on phosphorus sorption in marsh soils from coastal wetlands with different flooding conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Junhong; Ye, Xiaofei; Jia, Jia; Zhang, Guangliang; Zhao, Qingqing; Cui, Baoshan; Liu, Xinhui

    2017-12-01

    Wetland soils act as a sink or source of phosphorus (P) to the overlaying water due to phosphorus sorption-desorption processes. Litter information is available on sorption and desorption behaviors of phosphorus in coastal wetlands with different flooding conditions. Laboratory experiments were conducted to investigate phosphorus sorption-desorption processes, fractions of adsorbed phosphorus, and the effects of salinity, pH and temperature on phosphorus sorption on soils in tidal-flooding wetlands (TW), freshwater-flooding wetlands (FW) and seasonal-flooding wetlands (SW) in the Yellow River Delta. Our results showed that the freshly adsorbed phosphorus dominantly exists in Occluded-P and Fe/AlP and their percentages increased with increasing phosphorus adsorbed. Phosphorus sorption isotherms could be better described by the modified Langmuir model than by the modified Freundlich model. A binomial equation could be properly used to describe the effects of salinity, pH, and temperature on phosphorus sorption. Phosphorus sorption generally increased with increasing salinity, pH, and temperature at lower ranges, while decreased in excess of some threshold values. The maximum phosphorus sorption capacity (Qmax) was larger for FW soils (256 mg/kg) compared with TW (218 mg/kg) and SW soils (235 mg/kg) (p water bodies through increasing P sorption. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. PHOSPHORUS-POTASSIUM AND NITROGEN-PHOSPHORUS-POTASSIUM FERTILIZER BASED ON WASHED AND DRIED CONCENTRATE FROM CENTRAL KYZYLKUM PHOSPHORITE

    OpenAIRE

    NAZIROVA RAXNAMO MUXTAROVNA; TADJIEV SAYFUDDIN MUKHTAROVICH; TUKHTAYEV SAYDIAXRAL

    2016-01-01

    In this article the findings on the production of complex phosphorus-potassium and nitrogen-phosphorus-potassium fertilizer by decomposition of washed and dried phosphoconcentrate from Central Kyzylkum phosphorite with incomplete norms of sulfuric acid with the addition of potassium chloride, sulfate, ammonium nitrate and urea have been given. It has been revealed that the addition of potassium chloride and ammonium salts significantly affect on expansion coefficient and NP and NPK fertilizer...

  19. Phosphorus component in AnnAGNPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Y.; Bingner, R.L.; Theurer, F.D.; Rebich, R.A.; Moore, P.A.

    2005-01-01

    The USDA Annualized Agricultural Non-Point Source Pollution model (AnnAGNPS) has been developed to aid in evaluation of watershed response to agricultural management practices. Previous studies have demonstrated the capability of the model to simulate runoff and sediment, but not phosphorus (P). The main purpose of this article is to evaluate the performance of AnnAGNPS on P simulation using comparisons with measurements from the Deep Hollow watershed of the Mississippi Delta Management Systems Evaluation Area (MDMSEA) project. A sensitivity analysis was performed to identify input parameters whose impact is the greatest on P yields. Sensitivity analysis results indicate that the most sensitive variables of those selected are initial soil P contents, P application rate, and plant P uptake. AnnAGNPS simulations of dissolved P yield do not agree well with observed dissolved P yield (Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient of efficiency of 0.34, R2 of 0.51, and slope of 0.24); however, AnnAGNPS simulations of total P yield agree well with observed total P yield (Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient of efficiency of 0.85, R2 of 0.88, and slope of 0.83). The difference in dissolved P yield may be attributed to limitations in model simulation of P processes. Uncertainties in input parameter selections also affect the model's performance.

  20. Bifunctional Phosphorus Dendrimers and Their Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caminade, Anne-Marie; Majoral, Jean-Pierre

    2016-04-23

    Dendrimers are hyperbranched and monodisperse macromolecules, generally considered as a special class of polymers, but synthesized step-by-step. Most dendrimers have a uniform structure, with a single type of terminal function. However, it is often desirable to have at least two different functional groups. This review will discuss the case of bifunctional phosphorus-containing dendrimers, and the consequences for their properties. Besides the terminal functions, dendritic structures may have also a function at the core, or linked off-center to the core, or at the core of dendrons (dendritic wedges). Association of two dendrons having different terminal functions leads to Janus dendrimers (two faces). The internal structure can also possess functional groups on one layer, or linked to one layer, or on several layers. Finally, there are several ways to have two types of terminal functions, besides the case of Janus dendrimers: either each terminal function bears two functions sequentially, or two different functions are linked to each terminal branching point. Examples of each type of structure will be given in this review, as well as practical uses of such sophisticated structures in the fields of fluorescence, catalysis, nanomaterials and biology.

  1. Bacteria as transporters of phosphorus through soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glæsner, N.; Bælum, Jacob; Jacobsen, C. S.

    2016-01-01

    The transport of phosphorus (P) from agricultural land has led to the eutrophication of surface waters worldwide, especially in areas with intensive animal production. In this research, we investigated the role of bacteria in the leaching of P through three agricultural soils with different......RNA genes cell−1. Leaching of bacteria was in the range of 2.5–4.5 × 105 cells ml−1 prior to application of slurry to the three soil textures. After slurry application, leaching increased to 1.1 × 106 cells ml−1 in the loamy sand, 4.9 × 106 cells ml−1 in the sandy loam and 5.0 × 106 cells ml−1 in the loam....... Based on the reported P content of soil bacteria, 0.3–1.8% of the total P leached was present in the bacterial biomass when no slurry was applied, whereas slurry application increased the leaching of P from the bacterial biomass to 3−7.9% of total P leached. Bacterial leaching was related...

  2. Metagenomic analysis of phosphorus removing sludgecommunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Martin, Hector; Ivanova, Natalia; Kunin, Victor; Warnecke,Falk; Barry, Kerrie; McHardy, Alice C.; Yeates, Christine; He, Shaomei; Salamov, Asaf; Szeto, Ernest; Dalin, Eileen; Putnam, Nik; Shapiro, HarrisJ.; Pangilinan, Jasmyn L.; Rigoutsos, Isidore; Kyrpides, Nikos C.; Blackall, Linda Louise; McMahon, Katherine D.; Hugenholtz, Philip

    2006-02-01

    Enhanced Biological Phosphorus Removal (EBPR) is not wellunderstood at the metabolic level despite being one of the best-studiedmicrobially-mediated industrial processes due to its ecological andeconomic relevance. Here we present a metagenomic analysis of twolab-scale EBPR sludges dominated by the uncultured bacterium, "CandidatusAccumulibacter phosphatis." This analysis resolves several controversiesin EBPR metabolic models and provides hypotheses explaining the dominanceof A. phosphatis in this habitat, its lifestyle outside EBPR and probablecultivation requirements. Comparison of the same species from differentEBPR sludges highlights recent evolutionary dynamics in the A. phosphatisgenome that could be linked to mechanisms for environmental adaptation.In spite of an apparent lack of phylogenetic overlap in the flankingcommunities of the two sludges studied, common functional themes werefound, at least one of them complementary to the inferred metabolism ofthe dominant organism. The present study provides a much-needed blueprintfor a systems-level understanding of EBPR and illustrates thatmetagenomics enables detailed, often novel, insights into evenwell-studied biological systems.

  3. Black phosphorus radio-frequency transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Han; Wang, Xiaomu; Xia, Fengnian; Wang, Luhao; Jiang, Hao; Xia, Qiangfei; Chin, Matthew L; Dubey, Madan; Han, Shu-jen

    2014-11-12

    Few-layer and thin film forms of layered black phosphorus (BP) have recently emerged as a promising material for applications in high performance nanoelectronics and infrared optoelectronics. Layered BP thin films offer a moderate bandgap of around 0.3 eV and high carrier mobility, which lead to transistors with decent on-off ratios and high on-state current densities. Here, we demonstrate the gigahertz frequency operation of BP field-effect transistors for the first time. The BP transistors demonstrated here show respectable current saturation with an on-off ratio that exceeds 2 × 10(3). We achieved a current density in excess of 270 mA/mm and DC transconductance above 180 mS/mm for hole conduction. Using standard high frequency characterization techniques, we measured a short-circuit current-gain cutoff frequency fT of 12 GHz and a maximum oscillation frequency fmax of 20 GHz in 300 nm channel length devices. BP devices may offer advantages over graphene transistors for high frequency electronics in terms of voltage and power gain due to the good current saturation properties arising from their finite bandgap, thus can be considered as a promising candidate for the future high performance thin film electronics technology for operation in the multi-GHz frequency range and beyond.

  4. Determination of Phosphorus in Cola Drinks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano-Calero, Diego; Martìn-Palomeque, Pilar; Madueño-Lorguillo, Silvia

    1996-12-01

    Laboratory experiments can improve student interest in science. However, the contrary effect could occur if they are not well designed and seem tedious, too laborious, and disconnected from daily life. Cola beverages are one of the most widely consumed drinks and are most popular among students. Much attention is being paid to possible consequences of excessive consumption for human health. Intensive efforts are being made to assess the erosive potential for teeth because of the beverages' acidity (1, 2); adverse effects secondary to high caffeine intake (e.g., hypertension, allergic reactions, gastrointestinal disturbances) (3 - 5); and adverse effects on calcium metabolism due to their high phosphoric acid content, which combined with low dietary calcium intake could increase the risk of suffering from bone diseases (6 - 9). We propose here the quantification of the phosphorus content in this kind of drinks by a different procedure from that previously described by Murphy in this Journal (10). We think this laboratory experiment will seem very interesting to students.

  5. Expert systems guide biological phosphorus removal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krichten, D.J.; Wilson, K.D.; Tracy, K.D. (Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., Allentown, PA (United States))

    1991-10-01

    There is a large body of knowledge regarding optimum control strategies for new secondary wastewater treatment technology using an anaerobic selector to provide biological phosphorus removal. However, because the selector technology is new and the concepts differ somewhat from those used in conventional activated sludge wastewater treatment, a method of communicating this knowledge to plant operators is needed. Traditional methods such as classroom training and operating manuals are of limited effectiveness. The commonplace availability and low cost of the personal computer (PC) makes it practical to use a computer program to communicate the type of information required to control a wastewater treatment plant. Knowledge-based systems technology, commonly referred to as expert systems (ES) technology, is easy to use, provides useful information regarding a consistent control strategy, relieves the anxiety associated with learning a new process,' and provides instruction for inexperienced personnel. ES technology does not require special formatted input and is therefore easily accessible. All information required by the program is readily available through routine laboratory analysis, common plant instrumentation, or direct user observation. The program was designed for all levels of computer users and will run on all IBM-compatible or Apple MacIntosh systems.

  6. The role of phosphorus in eutrophication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdanović Darinka M.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Eutrophication is an increase in the biological productivity of water basins resulting from the accumulation of biogenic elements under the influence of anthropogenic factors. Natural eutrophication is a slow and inevitable process. Artifical eutrophica-tion is caused by human activity and it can be very rapid, especially in technologically developed countries. Eutrophication does not represent a mere change of water but a change in the metabolism of the entire ecosystem and hence a change of the ecosystem itself. In Serbia and Montenegro, all factors are present that promote eutrophication in both still (especially in lowland areas and running waters. This paper deals with the results of eutrophication monitoring and prognostication for the DTD canal network and major rivers and lakes in Serbia, including a special review of the trophic status of lakes in the country's main lowland region, the Vojvodina Province. As phosphorus concentration is an important factor in the process of eutrophication of a body of water, the study has devoted particular attention to the control of this element.

  7. Global phosphorus retention by river damming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maavara, Taylor; Parsons, Christopher T; Ridenour, Christine; Stojanovic, Severin; Dürr, Hans H; Powley, Helen R; Van Cappellen, Philippe

    2015-12-22

    More than 70,000 large dams have been built worldwide. With growing water stress and demand for energy, this number will continue to increase in the foreseeable future. Damming greatly modifies the ecological functioning of river systems. In particular, dam reservoirs sequester nutrient elements and, hence, reduce downstream transfer of nutrients to floodplains, lakes, wetlands, and coastal marine environments. Here, we quantify the global impact of dams on the riverine fluxes and speciation of the limiting nutrient phosphorus (P), using a mechanistic modeling approach that accounts for the in-reservoir biogeochemical transformations of P. According to the model calculations, the mass of total P (TP) trapped in reservoirs nearly doubled between 1970 and 2000, reaching 42 Gmol y(-1), or 12% of the global river TP load in 2000. Because of the current surge in dam building, we project that by 2030, about 17% of the global river TP load will be sequestered in reservoir sediments. The largest projected increases in TP and reactive P (RP) retention by damming will take place in Asia and South America, especially in the Yangtze, Mekong, and Amazon drainage basins. Despite the large P retention capacity of reservoirs, the export of RP from watersheds will continue to grow unless additional measures are taken to curb anthropogenic P emissions.

  8. NEAT: an efficient network enrichment analysis test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Signorelli, Mirko; Vinciotti, Veronica; Wit, Ernst C

    2016-09-05

    Network enrichment analysis is a powerful method, which allows to integrate gene enrichment analysis with the information on relationships between genes that is provided by gene networks. Existing tests for network enrichment analysis deal only with undirected networks, they can be computationally slow and are based on normality assumptions. We propose NEAT, a test for network enrichment analysis. The test is based on the hypergeometric distribution, which naturally arises as the null distribution in this context. NEAT can be applied not only to undirected, but to directed and partially directed networks as well. Our simulations indicate that NEAT is considerably faster than alternative resampling-based methods, and that its capacity to detect enrichments is at least as good as the one of alternative tests. We discuss applications of NEAT to network analyses in yeast by testing for enrichment of the Environmental Stress Response target gene set with GO Slim and KEGG functional gene sets, and also by inspecting associations between functional sets themselves. NEAT is a flexible and efficient test for network enrichment analysis that aims to overcome some limitations of existing resampling-based tests. The method is implemented in the R package neat, which can be freely downloaded from CRAN ( https://cran.r-project.org/package=neat ).

  9. Synchronous Upgrading Iron and Phosphorus Removal from High Phosphorus Oolitic Hematite Ore by High Temperature Flash Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deqing Zhu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an effective method was developed to remove phosphorus and upgrade iron from high phosphorus oolitic hematite ore by high temperature flash reduction—a wet magnetic separation process. A thermodynamic analysis of iron and phosphorus mineral reactions and experiments with Fe-P separation process were performed, and the mechanism of phosphorus removal and beneficiation of iron is discussed as well. The results show that under the proper conditions, a final metallic iron powder assaying over 91% Fe and 0.25% P was obtained with iron recovery of 90% and phosphorus removal rate of 91.79% using the new process, indicating that the high temperature flash reduction process is a feasible and efficient way to process this kind of complex and refractory iron ore. Moreover, sodium sulfate is found to be capable of improving the removal of phosphorus and the upgrading of iron, as well as enhancing the growth of metallic iron grains significantly for higher recovery of iron.

  10. Effect of supplemented fungal phytase on performance and phosphorus availability by phosphorus-depleted juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), and on the magnitude and composition of phosphorus waste output

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Anne Johanne Tang; Schøn Ekmann, K.; Pedersen, Per Bovbjerg

    2009-01-01

    The effect of a supplemental fungal phytase on performance and phosphorus availability by juvenile rainbow trout fed diets with a high inclusion of plant based protein and on the magnitude and composition of the waste phosphorus production was tested in a 2 × 3 factorial design at a temperature...... of plant-derived protein. Conversely, the results demonstrated that fungal phytase should not be supplemented to diets in which the available phosphorus level already meets the requirement of the fish, as this will lead to a significant increase in the dissolved/suspended phosphorus waste output....... of 11 °C. Two factors comprised of two dietary fungal phytase levels (0 or 1400 U kg− 1 feed− 1), and three dietary total phosphorus levels (0.89, 0.97 or 1.12%). All fish were acclimated to the lowest total phosphorus diet for 16 days, which included 0.29% phytate-phosphorus and no supplemental fungal...

  11. Evaluating the significance of wetland restoration scenarios on phosphorus removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daneshvar, Fariborz; Nejadhashemi, A Pouyan; Adhikari, Umesh; Elahi, Behin; Abouali, Mohammad; Herman, Matthew R; Martinez-Martinez, Edwin; Calappi, Timothy J; Rohn, Bridget G

    2017-05-01

    Freshwater resources are vital for human and natural systems. However, anthropogenic activities, such as agricultural practices, have led to the degradation of the quality of these limited resources through pollutant loading. Agricultural Best Management Practices (BMPs), such as wetlands, are recommended as a valuable solution for pollutant removal. However, evaluation of their long-term impacts is difficult and requires modeling since performing in-situ monitoring is expensive and not feasible at the watershed scale. In this study, the impact of natural wetland implementation on total phosphorus reduction was evaluated both at the subwatershed and watershed levels. The study area is the Saginaw River Watershed, which is largest watershed in Michigan. The phosphorus reduction performances of four different wetland sizes (2, 4, 6, and 8 ha) were evaluated within this study area by implementing one wetland at a time in areas identified to have the highest potential for wetland restoration. The subwatershed level phosphorus loads were obtained from a calibrated Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model. These loads were then incorporated into a wetland model (System for Urban Stormwater Treatment and Analysis IntegratioN-SUSTAIN) to evaluate phosphorus reduction at the subwatershed level and then the SWAT model was again used to route phosphorus transport to the watershed outlet. Statistical analyses were performed to evaluate the spatial impact of wetland size and placement on phosphorus reduction. Overall, the performance of 2 ha wetlands in total phosphorus reduction was significantly lower than the larger sizes at both the subwatershed and watershed levels. Regarding wetland implementation sites, wetlands located in headwaters and downstream had significantly higher phosphorus reduction than the ones located in the middle of the watershed. More specifically, wetlands implemented at distances ranging from 200 to 250 km and 50-100 km from the outlet had the

  12. A gradient of nutrient enrichment reveals nonlinear impacts of fertilization on Arctic plant diversity and ecosystem function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prager, Case M; Naeem, Shahid; Boelman, Natalie T; Eitel, Jan U H; Greaves, Heather E; Heskel, Mary A; Magney, Troy S; Menge, Duncan N L; Vierling, Lee A; Griffin, Kevin L

    2017-04-01

    Rapid environmental change at high latitudes is predicted to greatly alter the diversity, structure, and function of plant communities, resulting in changes in the pools and fluxes of nutrients. In Arctic tundra, increased nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) availability accompanying warming is known to impact plant diversity and ecosystem function; however, to date, most studies examining Arctic nutrient enrichment focus on the impact of relatively large (>25x estimated naturally occurring N enrichment) doses of nutrients on plant community composition and net primary productivity. To understand the impacts of Arctic nutrient enrichment, we examined plant community composition and the capacity for ecosystem function (net ecosystem exchange, ecosystem respiration, and gross primary production) across a gradient of experimental N and P addition expected to more closely approximate warming-induced fertilization. In addition, we compared our measured ecosystem CO 2 flux data to a widely used Arctic ecosystem exchange model to investigate the ability to predict the capacity for CO 2 exchange with nutrient addition. We observed declines in abundance-weighted plant diversity at low levels of nutrient enrichment, but species richness and the capacity for ecosystem carbon uptake did not change until the highest level of fertilization. When we compared our measured data to the model, we found that the model explained roughly 30%-50% of the variance in the observed data, depending on the flux variable, and the relationship weakened at high levels of enrichment. Our results suggest that while a relatively small amount of nutrient enrichment impacts plant diversity, only relatively large levels of fertilization-over an order of magnitude or more than warming-induced rates-significantly alter the capacity for tundra CO 2 exchange. Overall, our findings highlight the value of measuring and modeling the impacts of a nutrient enrichment gradient, as warming-related nutrient

  13. Dynamics in phosphorus retention in wetlands upstream of Delavan Lake, Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Dale M.; Elder, John F.; Goddard, Gerald L.; James, William F.

    2009-01-01

    A phosphorus budget was constructed for Delavan Lake Inlet, a perennial riverine wetland with submersed and floating aquatic vegetation in southeastern Wisconsin, to better understand the phosphorus dynamics in natural wetlands and the role of wetlands in lake-rehabilitation efforts. During the growing season, the inlet served as a net source of phosphorus, primarily due to the release of phosphorus from the sediments. More phosphorus was released from the sediments of the inlet (600 kg) than was input from the upstream watershed (460 kg). This release was caused by high pH associated with high photosynthetic activity. During the remainder of the year, the inlet served as a net sink for phosphorus, retaining 6% of die phosphorus input from the watershed. Over the entire year, this wetland was a net source of over 500 kg of phosphorus to downstream Delavan Lake. A constructed riverine wetland upstream of Delavan Lake Inlet demonstrated a similar periodic release of phosphorus. However, in this case, the summer release of phosphorus was less than that trapped during the remainder of the year. The constructed wetland served as a net sink for approximately 20% of the input phosphorus on an annual time scale. The role of existing and constructed wetlands as phosphorus traps is complex. Wetlands can act as a source or a sink for phosphorus depending on the ambient conditions in die wetland. Howa wetland fits into a rehabilitation plan depends upon its net retention efficiency and the importance of the periodic releases of phosphorus to downstream waters.

  14. Dietary Sources of Phosphorus among Adults in the United States: Results from NHANES 2001–2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Scott T.; Chang, Alex R.; Selvin, Elizabeth; Rebholz, Casey M.; Appel, Lawrence J.

    2017-01-01

    Interest in the health effects of dietary phosphorus is burgeoning, yet sources and trends in phosphorus consumption have not been well characterized. We describe trends in and primary sources of dietary phosphorus in a nationally representative sample of 34,741 US adults, 20+ years old (NHANES 2001–2014). Dietary sources of phosphorus were estimated in nine food groups and 26 food categories. Phosphorus consumption was expressed in absolute intake, phosphorus density, and proportion contributed by dietary sources. Between 2001 and 2014, dietary phosphorus intake increased from 1345 to 1399 mg/day (p-trend = 0.02), while calorie intake slightly declined (p-trend = 0.1). Grains were the largest dietary phosphorus source, followed by meats, and milk products. Soft drinks accounted for just 3.3% of total dietary phosphorus. Phosphorus intake from grains increased 68 mg/day (p phosphorus intake and the phosphorus density of the diet are increasing. Grains are an important dietary phosphorus source that has increased in total consumption and phosphorus density. Further research is needed to determine if this is due to individuals’ selection of grains or the composition of those available. PMID:28146091

  15. Dietary Sources of Phosphorus among Adults in the United States: Results from NHANES 2001-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Scott T; Chang, Alex R; Selvin, Elizabeth; Rebholz, Casey M; Appel, Lawrence J

    2017-01-30

    Interest in the health effects of dietary phosphorus is burgeoning, yet sources and trends in phosphorus consumption have not been well characterized. We describe trends in and primary sources of dietary phosphorus in a nationally representative sample of 34,741 US adults, 20+ years old (NHANES 2001-2014). Dietary sources of phosphorus were estimated in nine food groups and 26 food categories. Phosphorus consumption was expressed in absolute intake, phosphorus density, and proportion contributed by dietary sources. Between 2001 and 2014, dietary phosphorus intake increased from 1345 to 1399 mg/day (p-trend = 0.02), while calorie intake slightly declined (p-trend = 0.1). Grains were the largest dietary phosphorus source, followed by meats, and milk products. Soft drinks accounted for just 3.3% of total dietary phosphorus. Phosphorus intake from grains increased 68 mg/day (p phosphorus intake and the phosphorus density of the diet are increasing. Grains are an important dietary phosphorus source that has increased in total consumption and phosphorus density. Further research is needed to determine if this is due to individuals' selection of grains or the composition of those available.

  16. Serum Phosphorus Concentrations in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III)

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Boer, Ian H.; Rue, Tessa C.; Kestenbaum, Bryan

    2011-01-01

    Background Higher serum phosphorus concentrations within the normal laboratory range have been associated with cardiovascular events and mortality in large prospective cohort studies of individuals with and without kidney disease. Reasons for interindividual variation in steady-state serum phosphorus concentrations are largely unknown. Study Design Cross-sectional study. Setting & Participants 15,513 participants in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Predictors Demographic data, dietary intake measured by means of 24-hour dietary recall and food-frequency questionnaire, and established cardiovascular risk factors. Outcome & Measurements Serum phosphorus concentration. Results Mean serum phosphorus concentrations were significantly greater in women (+0.16 mg/dL versus men; P phosphorus and phosphorus-rich foods were associated only weakly with circulating serum phosphorus concentrations, if at all. Higher serum phosphorus levels were associated with lower calculated Framingham coronary heart disease risk scores, which are based on traditional atherosclerosis risk factors. In aggregate, demographic, nutritional, cardiovascular, and kidney function variables explained only 12% of the variation in circulating serum phosphorus concentrations. Limitations Results may differ with advanced kidney disease. Conclusions Serum phosphorus concentration is weakly related to dietary phosphorus and not related to a diverse array of phosphorus-rich foods in the general population. Factors determining serum phosphorus concentration are largely unknown. Previously observed associations of serum phosphorus concentrations with cardiovascular events are unlikely to be a result of differences in dietary intake or traditional cardiovascular risk factors. PMID:18992979

  17. Profile of World Uranium Enrichment Programs - 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laughter, Mark D [ORNL

    2007-11-01

    It is generally agreed that the most difficult step in building a nuclear weapon is acquiring weapons grade fissile material, either plutonium or highly enriched uranium (HEU). Plutonium is produced in a nuclear reactor, while HEU is produced using a uranium enrichment process. Enrichment is also an important step in the civil nuclear fuel cycle, in producing low enriched uranium (LEU) for use in fuel for nuclear reactors. However, the same equipment used to produce LEU for nuclear fuel can also be used to produce HEU for weapons. Safeguards at an enrichment plant are the array of assurances and verification techniques that ensure uranium is only enriched to LEU, no undeclared LEU is produced, and no uranium is enriched to HEU or secretly diverted. There are several techniques for enriching uranium. The two most prevalent are gaseous diffusion, which uses older technology and requires a lot of energy, and gas centrifuge separation, which uses more advanced technology and is more energy efficient. Gaseous diffusion plants (GDPs) provide about 40% of current world enrichment capacity, but are being phased out as newer gas centrifuge enrichment plants (GCEPs) are constructed. Estimates of current and future enrichment capacity are always approximate, due to the constant upgrades, expansions, and shutdowns occurring at enrichment plants, largely determined by economic interests. Currently, the world enrichment capacity is approximately 53 million kg-separative work units (SWU) per year, with 22 million in gaseous diffusion and 31 million in gas centrifuge plants. Another 23 million SWU/year of capacity are under construction or planned for the near future, almost entirely using gas centrifuge separation. Other less-efficient techniques have also been used in the past, including electromagnetic and aerodynamic separations, but these are considered obsolete, at least from a commercial perspective. Laser isotope separation shows promise as a possible enrichment technique

  18. Species and distribution of inorganic and organic phosphorus in enhanced phosphorus removal aerobic granular sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wenli; Huang, Weiwei; Li, Huifang; Lei, Zhongfang; Zhang, Zhenya; Tay, Joo Hwa; Lee, Duu-Jong

    2015-10-01

    The species and distribution of phosphorus (P) in an enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR)-aerobic granular sludge (AGS) were fractionated and further analyzed. Results showed that microbial cells, extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) and mineral precipitates contributed about 73.7%, 17.6% and 5.3-6.4% to the total P (TP) of EBPR-AGS, respectively. Inorganic P (IP) species were orthophosphate, pyrophosphate and polyphosphate among which polyphosphate was the major P species in the AGS, cells and EPS. Monoester and diester phosphates were identified as the organic P (OP) species in the AGS and cells. Hydroxyapatite (Ca5(PO4)3OH) and calcium phosphate (Ca2(PO4)3) were the dominant P minerals accumulated in the core of the granules. Cells along with polyphosphate were mainly in the outer layer of AGS while EPS were distributed in the whole granules. Based on the above results, the distribution of IP and OP species in AGS has been conceived. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Phosphorus fertilization of 'Fuyutoyo' cabbages in phosphorus-rich Eutrustox soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur Bernardes Cecílio Filho

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Crop fertilization with P is a practice that constantly needs to be improved because of its high cost, natural reserve constraints, and environmental impact caused by the excessive use of nutrients. Phosphorus rates (0, 120, 240, 360, 480, 600, and 720 kg P2O5 ha-1 in the cultivation of 'Fuyutoyo' cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata in a P-rich Eutrustox soil (93 mg P dm-3 in Jaboticabal (21°15'22'' S, 48°15'58" W; 575 m a.s.l., São Paulo, Brazil, were evaluated in an experiment with a randomized complete block design with three replicates. Phosphorus rates influenced plant characteristics and soil P content. Maximum leaf and soil P content was obtained with 720 kg P2O5 ha-1, but maximum values of leaf area, leaf dry mass, cabbage head mass, and productivity were obtained with 420, 310, 430, and 437.5 kg ha-1 P2O5, respectively. Results indicate that even crops grown in a P-rich soil benefit from applying P fertilizer, which has a positive effect on the growth and productivity of the 'Fuyutoyo' cabbage.

  20. Short Communication. Effect of phosphorus nutrition and grain position within maize cob on grain phosphorus accumulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhamamad Nadeem

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Nutritional status of grains may vary due to external nutrient supply and their position within parent maize cob. Phosphorus (P is the least mobile nutrient in the soil and therefore newly growing seedlings are largely dependent on the stored grain P contents which are accumulated during the crop maturity period. Objective of this study was to access the effects of different P applications and grain positions on P and dry matter contents in grains. Phosphorus application and grain position has significant (p<0.05 effects on P contents in grains whereas dry weight and P content are highly correlated. Grain weight and P contents decreased linearly from base to apical position possibly due to flow of nutrients from base towards apical position within cob. Significantly higher grain dry weight (0.35±0.01 g and P contents (962±57 µg P are recorded in high P application (92.50 kg ha-1 rate on base position whereas minimum grain dry weight (0.14±0.01 g and P contents (219±11 µg P were recorded on apical grain position in low P application (5.60 kg ha-1 rate. The results suggest that for better seedling P nutrition especially in soils of low inherent P, maize grains should be selected from base or middle position where maximum dry weight and P contents are concentrated to support the seedlings to reach at growth at which roots are capable of external P uptake.