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Sample records for chronic obstructive airways

  1. Airway distensibility in Chronic Obstructive Airway Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winkler Wille, Mathilde Marie; Pedersen, Jesper Holst; Dirksen, Asger

    2013-01-01

    Rationale – Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is a combination of chronic bronchitis and emphysema, which both may lead to airway obstruction. Under normal circumstances, airway dimensions vary as a function of inspiration level. We aim to study the influence of COPD and emphysema......-20% (mild), 20%-30% (moderate) or >30% (severe). Spirometry was performed annually and participants were divided into severity groups according to the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD). Data were analysed in a mixed effects regression model with log(airway lumen diameter...... and emphysema, respectively. Conclusions – Airway distensibility decreases significantly with increasing severity of both GOLD status and emphysema, indicating that in COPD the dynamic change in airway calibre during respiration is compromised. Chronic bronchitis and emphysema appear to be interacting...

  2. Within-breath respiratory impedance and airway obstruction in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Karla Kristine Dames da; Faria, Alvaro Camilo Dias; Lopes, Agnaldo José; Melo, Pedro Lopes de

    2015-07-01

    Recent work has suggested that within-breath respiratory impedance measurements performed using the forced oscillation technique may help to noninvasively evaluate respiratory mechanics. We investigated the influence of airway obstruction on the within-breath forced oscillation technique in smokers and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients and evaluated the contribution of this analysis to the diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Twenty healthy individuals and 20 smokers were assessed. The study also included 74 patients with stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. We evaluated the mean respiratory impedance (Zm) as well as values for the inspiration (Zi) and expiration cycles (Ze) at the beginning of inspiration (Zbi) and expiration (Zbe), respectively. The peak-to-peak impedance (Zpp=Zbe-Zbi) and the respiratory cycle dependence (ΔZrs=Ze-Zi) were also analyzed. The diagnostic utility was evaluated by investigating the sensitivity, the specificity and the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01888705. Airway obstruction increased the within-breath respiratory impedance parameters that were significantly correlated with the spirometric indices of airway obstruction (R=-0.65, pdisease patients presented significant expiratory-inspiratory differences (p90%). We conclude the following: (1) chronic obstructive pulmonary disease introduces higher respiratory cycle dependence, (2) this increase is proportional to airway obstruction, and (3) the within-breath forced oscillation technique may provide novel parameters that facilitate the diagnosis of respiratory abnormalities in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

  3. Within-breath respiratory impedance and airway obstruction in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla Kristine Dames da Silva

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Recent work has suggested that within-breath respiratory impedance measurements performed using the forced oscillation technique may help to noninvasively evaluate respiratory mechanics. We investigated the influence of airway obstruction on the within-breath forced oscillation technique in smokers and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients and evaluated the contribution of this analysis to the diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. METHODS: Twenty healthy individuals and 20 smokers were assessed. The study also included 74 patients with stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. We evaluated the mean respiratory impedance (Zm as well as values for the inspiration (Zi and expiration cycles (Ze at the beginning of inspiration (Zbi and expiration (Zbe, respectively. The peak-to-peak impedance (Zpp=Zbe-Zbi and the respiratory cycle dependence (ΔZrs=Ze-Zi were also analyzed. The diagnostic utility was evaluated by investigating the sensitivity, the specificity and the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01888705. RESULTS: Airway obstruction increased the within-breath respiratory impedance parameters that were significantly correlated with the spirometric indices of airway obstruction (R=−0.65, p90%. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude the following: (1 chronic obstructive pulmonary disease introduces higher respiratory cycle dependence, (2 this increase is proportional to airway obstruction, and (3 the within-breath forced oscillation technique may provide novel parameters that facilitate the diagnosis of respiratory abnormalities in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

  4. Airway inflammation in nonobstructive and obstructive chronic bronchitis with chronic haemophilus influenzae airway infection. Comparison with noninfected patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bresser, P.; Out, T. A.; van Alphen, L.; Jansen, H. M.; Lutter, R.

    2000-01-01

    Nonencapsulated Haemophilus influenzae often causes chronic infections of the lower respiratory tract in both nonobstructive and obstructive chronic bronchitis. We assessed airway inflammation in clinically stable, chronically H. influenzae-infected patients with nonobstructive (CB-HI, n = 10) and

  5. Airway hyperresponsiveness in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease : A marker of asthma-chronic obstructive pulmonary disease overlap syndrome?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tkacova, Ruzena; Dai, Darlene L. Y.; Vonk, Judith M.; Leung, Janice M.; Hiemstra, Pieter S.; van den Berge, Maarten; Kunz, Lisette; Hollander, Zsuzsanna; Tashkin, Donald; Wise, Robert; Connett, John; Ng, Raymond; McManus, Bruce; Man, S. F. Paul; Postma, Dirkje S.; Sin, Don D.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The impact of airway hyperreactivity (AHR) on respiratory mortality and systemic inflammation among patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is largely unknown. We used data from 2 large studies to determine the relationship between AHR and FEV1 decline, respiratory

  6. Childhood-onset asthma in smokers. association between CT measures of airway size, lung function, and chronic airflow obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Alejandro A; Hardin, Megan E; Come, Carolyn E; San José Estépar, Raúl; Ross, James C; Kurugol, Sila; Okajima, Yuka; Han, MeiLan K; Kim, Victor; Ramsdell, Joe; Silverman, Edwin K; Crapo, James D; Lynch, David A; Make, Barry; Barr, R Graham; Hersh, Craig P; Washko, George R

    2014-11-01

    Asthma is associated with chronic airflow obstruction. Our goal was to assess the association of computed tomographic measures of airway wall volume and lumen volume with the FEV1 and chronic airflow obstruction in smokers with childhood-onset asthma. We analyzed clinical, lung function, and volumetric computed tomographic airway volume data from 7,266 smokers, including 590 with childhood-onset asthma. Small wall volume and small lumen volume of segmental airways were defined as measures 1 SD below the mean. We assessed the association between small wall volume, small lumen volume, FEV1, and chronic airflow obstruction (post-bronchodilator FEV1/FVC ratio childhood-onset asthma, those with childhood-onset asthma had smaller wall volume and lumen volume (P childhood-onset asthma, those with the smallest wall volume and lumen volume had the lowest FEV1 and greatest odds of chronic airflow obstruction. A similar tendency was seen in those without childhood-onset asthma. When comparing these two groups, both small wall volume and small lumen volume were more strongly associated with FEV1 and chronic airflow obstruction among subjects with childhood-asthma in multivariate models. In smokers with childhood-onset asthma, smaller airways are associated with reduced lung function and chronic airflow obstruction. Clinical trial registered with www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT00608764).

  7. Airway Epithelial Barrier Dysfunction in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease : Role of Cigarette Smoke Exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aghapour, Mahyar; Raee, Pourya; Moghaddam, Seyed Javad; Hiemstra, Pieter S.; Heijink, Irene H.

    The epithelial lining of the airway forms the first barrier against environmental insults, such as inhaled cigarette smoke, which is the primary risk factor for the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The barrier is formed by airway epithelial junctions, which are

  8. Airway inflammation in severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turato, Graziella; Zuin, Renzo; Miniati, Massimo

    2002-01-01

    Very few studies have been made in-patient with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and some of them carried out, have demonstrated an increment in the intensity of the inflammatory answer in the space and these patients' alveolar walls. However, there are not enough studies on the inflammatory answer in the small airway and in the lung glasses, object of the present study, comparing it with patient with light (COPD) or without COPD, in spite of similar history of smoker

  9. Airway wall thickening and emphysema show independent familial aggregation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Patel, Bipen D; Coxson, Harvey O; Pillai, Sreekumar G

    2008-01-01

    RATIONALE: It is unclear whether airway wall thickening and emphysema make independent contributions to airflow limitation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and whether these phenotypes cluster within families. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether airway wall thickening and emphysema (1...... to airflow obstruction in COPD. These phenotypes show independent aggregation within families of individuals with COPD, suggesting that different genetic factors influence these disease processes....... the severity of airway wall thickening and emphysema. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: A total of 3,096 individuals were recruited to the study, of whom 1,159 (519 probands and 640 siblings) had technically adequate high-resolution computed tomography scans without significant non-COPD-related thoracic disease...

  10. Nano-based theranostics for chronic obstructive lung diseases: challenges and therapeutic potential

    OpenAIRE

    Vij, Neeraj

    2011-01-01

    The major challenges in the delivery and therapeutic efficacy of nano-delivery systems in chronic obstructive airway conditions is airway defense, severe inflammation and mucous hypersecretion. Chronic airway inflammation and mucous hypersecretion are hallmarks of chronic obstructive airway diseases, including asthma, COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) and CF (cystic fibrosis). Distinct etiologies drive inflammation and mucous hyper secretion in these diseases, that is further induc...

  11. Overlap Syndrome in Respiratory Medicine: Asthma and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandru Corlateanu; Valeria Pripa; Gloria Montanari; Victor Botnaru

    2014-01-01

    Asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are highly prevalent chronic diseases in the general population. Both are characterized by similar mechanisms: airway inflammation, airway obstruction, and airway hyperresponsiveness. However, the distinction between the two obstructive diseases is not always clear. Multiple epidemiological studies demonstrate that in elderly people with obstructive airway disease, as many as half or more may have overlapping diagnoses of asthma and COPD...

  12. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease - adults - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... coughing up dark mucus Your fingertips or the skin around your fingernails are blue Alternative Names COPD - adults - discharge; Chronic obstructive airways disease - adults - discharge; Chronic obstructive lung disease - adults - discharge; ...

  13. Airway inflammation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD): a true paradox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eapen, Mathew Suji; Myers, Stephen; Walters, Eugene Haydn; Sohal, Sukhwinder Singh

    2017-10-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is primarily an airway condition, which mainly affects cigarette smokers and presents with shortness of breath that is progressive and poorly reversible. In COPD research, there has been a long held belief that airway disease progression is due to inflammation. Although this may be true in the airway lumen with innate immunity activated by the effect of smoke or secondary to infection, the accurate picture of inflammatory cells in the airway wall, where the pathophysiological COPD remodeling occurs, is uncertain and debatable. Areas covered: The current review provides a comprehensive literature survey of the changes in the main inflammatory cells in human COPD patients and focuses on contrarian views that affect the prevailing dogma on inflammation. The review also delves into the role of oxidative stress and inflammasomes in modulating the immune response in COPD. Further, the effects of inflammation in affecting the epithelium, fibroblasts, and airway remodeling are discussed. Expert commentary: Inflammation as a driving force for airway wall damage and remodelling in early COPD is at the very least 'oversimplified' and is likely to be misleading. This has serious implications for rational thinking about the illness, including pathogenesis and designing therapy.

  14. Assessment of airway lesion in obstructive lung diseases by CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niimi, Akio; Matsumoto, Hisako; Ueda, Tetsuya; Mishima, Michiaki

    2002-01-01

    Airway lesion in obstructive pulmonary diseases, such as asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), has recently been assessed quantitatively. Especially in asthma, wall thickening of central airways, and its relation to the severity of disease or airflow obstruction has been clarified. Pathophysiologic importance of peripheral airway lesion has also been highlighted by pathologic or physiologic studies. However, direct evaluation of peripheral airway lesion is beyond resolutional limitation of CT. To assess airway trapping, an indirect CT finding of peripheral airway disease, by quantitative and semiquantitative measures and compare them with clinical indices such as pulmonary function, airway responsiveness, or airway inflammation. Patients with stable asthma (n=20) were studied. HRCT at 3 levels of both lungs were scanned. Low attenuation area (LAA)% and mean lung density were quantitatively assessed by an automatic method. Distribution of mosaic pattern was visually scored semiquantitatively. LAA% and mean lung density at full expiratory phase correlated with the degree of airflow obstruction. Mosaic score at full inspiratory phase correlated with the severity of disease and airflow obstruction. Expiratory/inspiratory ratio of mean lung density was also associated with airway responsiveness or residual volume/total lung capacity (RV/TLC). These CT findings may be useful as markers of asthma pathophysiology. (author)

  15. Old dilemma : asthma with irreversible airway obstruction or COPD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fattahi, Fatemeh; Vonk, Judith M.; Bulkmans, Nicole; Fleischeuer, Ruth; Gouw, Annette; Grunberg, Katrien; Mauad, Thais; Popper, Helmut; Felipe-Silva, Aloisio; Vrugt, Bart; Wright, Joanne L.; Yang, Hui-Min; Kocks, Janwillem W. H.; Hylkema, Machteld N.; Postma, Dirkje S.; Timens, Wim; ten Hacken, Nick H. T.

    2015-01-01

    Older asthmatic patients may develop fixed airway obstruction and clinical signs of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We investigated the added value of pathological evaluation of bronchial biopsies to help differentiate asthma from COPD, taking into account smoking, age, and inhaled

  16. Pulmonary haemodynamics in coal workers pneumoconiosis and non-plneumoconiotic patients with chronic obstructive airways disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bugalho de Almeida, A A; Schott, D; Zimmermann, I; Ulmer, W T

    1980-01-01

    The pulmonary haemodynamics of 22 patients with advanced forms of coal workers pneumoconiosis and chronic obstructive airways disease, and 24 patients with advanced forms of COAD without pneumoconiosis were studied. The results obtained permitted a haemodynamic distinction between these two groups of patients. The differences, at rest and during 25 W exercise, are discussed.

  17. Gender disparity of changes in heart rate during the six-minute walk test among patients with chronic obstructive airway disease

    OpenAIRE

    Esmaeil Alibakhshi; Luis Lores Obradors; Raffaele Fiorillo; Mostafa Ghaneii; Ali Qazvini

    2017-01-01

    Background Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a major cause of chronic morbidity and mortality worldwide. Clarify; COPD is the fifth leading cause of death and disease burden globally. Aims The purpose of this study is to compare the gender disparity of changes in heart rate during 6-minute walk test (6MWT) among patients with chronic obstructive airway disease (COPD). We also aimed to assess the relationship between change in heart rate and body mas...

  18. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karabulut, N.

    2012-01-01

    Full text: Chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD) denote progressive lung diseases characterized by airway obstruction. COPD exhibits specific morphologic changes in the lung parenchyma, central and peripheral airways and pulmonary vasculature. A person with COPD may have either emphysema or chronic bronchitis, but most have both. Some people with COPD may also have an asthma-like or reactive component. Imaging modalities play important role in the detection or exclusion of COPD, distribution and extent of disease processes. Combined inspiratory and expiratory high resolution CT allows phenotyping of COPD (emphysema predominant, airway predominant, or mixed) and quantification of severity. Magnetic resonance imaging enables functional evaluation and demonstrates ventilation defects correlating closely with pulmonary function tests. Imaging techniques are also helpful in guiding the treatment, such as bullectomy in patients with bullous emphysema, lung volume reduction surgery or endoscopic interventions in those with severe emphysema, and smoking cessation and medical treatment designed to stop lung destruction in patients with mild or moderate emphysema or bronchiectasis.

  19. The protective effect of a beta 2 agonist against excessive airway narrowing in response to bronchoconstrictor stimuli in asthma and chronic obstructive lung disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bel, E. H.; Zwinderman, A. H.; Timmers, M. C.; Dijkman, J. H.; Sterk, P. J.

    1991-01-01

    Beta 2 agonists reduce airway hypersensitivity to bronchoconstrictor stimuli acutely in patients with asthma and chronic obstructive lung disease. To determine whether these drugs also protect against excessive airway narrowing, the effect of inhaled salbutamol on the position and shape of the dose-response curves for histamine or methacholine was investigated in 12 patients with asthma and 11 with chronic obstructive lung disease. After pretreatment with salbutamol (200 or 400 micrograms) or placebo in a double blind manner dose-response curves for inhaled histamine and methacholine were obtained by a standard method on six days in random order. Airway sensitivity was defined as the concentration of histamine or methacholine causing a 20% fall in FEV1 (PC20). A maximal response plateau on the log dose-response curve was considered to be present if two or more data points for FEV1 fell within a 5% response range. In the absence of a plateau, the test was continued until a predetermined level of severe bronchoconstriction was reached. Salbutamol caused an acute increase in FEV1 (mean increase 11.5% predicted in asthma, 7.2% in chronic obstructive lung disease), and increase in PC20 (mean 15 fold in asthma, fivefold in chronic obstructive lung disease), and an increase in the slope of the dose-response curves in both groups. In subjects in whom a plateau of FEV1 response could be measured salbutamol did not change the level of the plateau. In subjects without a plateau salbutamol did not lead to the development of a plateau, despite achieving a median FEV1 of 44% predicted in asthma and 39% in chronic obstructive lung disease. These results show that, although beta 2 agonists acutely reduce the airway response to a given strength of bronchoconstrictor stimulus, they do not protect against excessive airflow obstruction if there is exposure to relatively strong stimuli. This, together with the steepening of the dose-response curve, could be a disadvantage of beta 2

  20. Nano-based theranostics for chronic obstructive lung diseases: challenges and therapeutic potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vij, Neeraj

    2011-09-01

    The major challenges in the delivery and therapeutic efficacy of nano-delivery systems in chronic obstructive airway conditions are airway defense, severe inflammation and mucous hypersecretion. Chronic airway inflammation and mucous hypersecretion are hallmarks of chronic obstructive airway diseases, including asthma, COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) and CF (cystic fibrosis). Distinct etiologies drive inflammation and mucous hypersecretion in these diseases, which are further induced by infection or components of cigarette smoke. Controlling chronic inflammation is at the root of treatments such as corticosteroids, antibiotics or other available drugs, which pose the challenge of sustained delivery of drugs to target cells or tissues. In spite of the wide application of nano-based drug delivery systems, very few are tested to date. Targeted nanoparticle-mediated sustained drug delivery is required to control inflammatory cell chemotaxis, fibrosis, protease-mediated chronic emphysema and/or chronic lung obstruction in COPD. Moreover, targeted epithelial delivery is indispensable for correcting the underlying defects in CF and targeted inflammatory cell delivery for controlling other chronic inflammatory lung diseases. We propose that the design and development of nano-based targeted theranostic vehicles with therapeutic, imaging and airway-defense penetrating capability, will be invaluable for treating chronic obstructive lung diseases. This paper discusses a novel nano-theranostic strategy that we are currently evaluating to treat the underlying cause of CF and COPD lung disease.

  1. CITRIC-ACID COUGH THRESHOLD AND AIRWAY RESPONSIVENESS IN ASTHMATIC-PATIENTS AND SMOKERS WITH CHRONIC AIR-FLOW OBSTRUCTION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    AUFFARTH, B; DEMONCHY, JGR; VANDERMARK, TW; POSTMA, DS; KOETER, GH

    The relation between citric acid cough threshold and airway hyperresponsiveness was investigated in 11 non-smoking patients with allergic asthma (mean FEV1 94% predicted) and 25 non-atopic smokers with chronic airflow obstruction (mean FEV1 65% predicted). Cough threshold was determined on two

  2. Efficacy of a Conservative Weight Loss Program in the Long-Term Management of Chronic Upper Airway Obstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan C. Case

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Obesity is a significant contributor to oxygen demand and dynamic airway obstruction. The objective of the current study is to determine the long-term success of conservative measures directed toward weight reduction on airway management without respect to specific airway disease etiology. Methods. Patients with chronic airway obstruction secondary anatomic lesions or obstructive sleep apnea were recruited and followed prospectively. Demographics, initial and final weights, diagnosis, and followup information were recorded. Patients were referred to a registered dietician, provided counseling, and started on a weight-loss regimen. Outcome measures were change in body mass index (BMI and rate of decannulation from weight loss alone. Results. Of fourteen patients, ten remained tracheostomy-dependent and four had high-grade lesions with the potential for improvement in oxygen demand and dynamic airway collapse with weight loss. The mean follow up period was 25 months. The mean change in BMI was an increase of 1.4 kg/m2 per patient. Conclusions. Conservative measures alone were not effective in achieving weight reduction in the population studied. This may be due to comorbid disease and poor compliance. The promise of decannulation was an insufficient independent motivator for weight loss in this study. Although the theoretical benefits of weight loss support its continued recommendation, the long-term success rate of conservative measures is low. More aggressive facilitated interventions including pharmacotherapy or bariatric surgery should be considered early in the course of treating airway disease complicated by obesity.

  3. Scaled experiments for improving diagnosis of pathological lower-airway obstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chang; Kiger, Ken; Hariprasad, Daniel; Sul, Bora; Wallqvist, Anders; Reifman, Jaques

    2017-11-01

    Many lung diseases, such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, are characterized by obstructed airflow, particularly, in the lower airway branches in the lung. Existing diagnostic tools cannot detect some diseases due to a lack of instrumentation capable of resolving the flow in the lower airways. Recent developments in MRI techniques using hyperpolarized 3He now permit measurement of velocity profiles within the trachea. Motivated by these advances, we aim to provide a better understanding of the connection between lower-airway obstruction and velocity profiles within the trachea. Specifically, we asked whether the flow deficits created by lower-airway obstructions could be detected in the trachea to permit diagnosis of the pathology. To test this idea, we used refractive index-matched materials to construct a scaled, patient-specific, transparent lung model, and coupled it to 5 independently controlled piston pumps that could generate arbitrary flow histories (healthy or diseased) for the 5 different lung lobes. Results obtained by stereo PIV within various regions of the airway network will be presented documenting the system performance and examining the detectability of under-performing lobes within the tracheal flow profile. This work supported by the Henry M. Jackson Foundation under award #3270.

  4. Cordyceps sinensis inhibits airway remodeling in rats with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lei; Jiao, Xingai; Wu, Jinxiang; Zhao, Jiping; Liu, Tian; Xu, Jianfeng; Ma, Xiaohui; Cao, Liuzao; Liu, Lin; Liu, Yahui; Chi, Jingyu; Zou, Minfang; Li, Shuo; Xu, Jiawei; Dong, Liang

    2018-03-01

    Cordyceps sinensis is a traditional Chinese herbal medicine that has been used for centuries in Asia as a tonic to soothe the lung for the treatment of respiratory diseases. The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of C. sinensi s on airway remodeling in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and investigate the underlying molecular mechanisms. Rats with COPD were orally administered C. sinensis at low, moderate or high doses (2.5, 5 or 7.5 g/kg/day, respectively) for 12 weeks. Airway tissue histopathology, lung inflammation and airway remodeling were evaluated. C. sinensis treatment significantly ameliorated airway wall thickening, involving collagen deposition, airway wall fibrosis, smooth muscle hypertrophy and epithelial hyperplasia in model rats with COPD. Additionally, C. sinensis administration in rats with COPD reduced inflammatory cell accumulation and decreased inflammatory cytokine production, including tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-8 and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Meanwhile, the increased levels of α-smooth muscle actin and collagen I in the COPD group were also markedly decreased by C. sinensis treatment. Furthermore, compared with untreated rats with COPD, C. sinensis reduced the expression level of phosphorylated (p)-Smad2, p-Smad3, TGF-β1 and its receptors, with the concomitant increased expression of Smad7 in the lungs of rats with COPD. These results indicated that treatment with C. sinensis may be a useful approach for COPD therapy.

  5. Chronic airway obstruction in children. Most common causes, diagnosis and Surgical and Endoscopic Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Isabel NAVAZO-EGUÍA

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Obstructive airway pathology in children may be congenital or acquired. Fortunately, it is a rare condition, but in most cases, it implies a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. Endoscopic techniques have experienced in the last years a breakthrough in the treatment of these lesions, but open surgery still plays an important role. Objective: Our objective was to review the most frequent causes of obstruction of the central airway in the child, their diagnostic and current treatment status. Conclusions: Obstructive airway pathology in children requires immediate stabilization, detailed assessment, meticulous planning and individualized treatment. Management of patients with airway obstruction requires a close cooperation between specialists organized in multidisciplinary teams, whose main objective is the diagnosis and timely resolution of the various congenital malformations and acquired lesions that affect the larynx, trachea and bronchi. In many cases the decision of the treatment of choice is not easy. Selection of the most suitable treatment depends on the patient’s clinical situation and the anatomic type of stenosis. The surgeon must master all available techniques, to solve each specific situation.

  6. Central Airway Obstruction: Benign Strictures, Tracheobronchomalacia, and Malignancy-related Obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murgu, Septimiu Dan; Egressy, Katarine; Laxmanan, Balaji; Doblare, Guillermo; Ortiz-Comino, Rosamaria; Hogarth, D Kyle

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide an update on methods for palliating symptoms in patients with histologically benign and malignant central airway obstruction. We review the published literature within the past decade on postintubation, posttracheostomy, and TB- and transplant-related airway strictures; tracheobronchomalacia; and malignant airway obstruction. We review terminology, classification systems, and parameters that impact treatment decisions. The focus is on how airway stent insertion fits into the best algorithm of care. Several case series and cohort studies demonstrate that airway stents improve dyspnea, lung function, and quality of life in patients with airway obstruction. Airway stenting, however, is associated with high rates of adverse events and should be used only when curative open surgical interventions are not feasible or are contraindicated. Copyright © 2016 American College of Chest Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. PPARγ as a Potential Target to Treat Airway Mucus Hypersecretion in Chronic Airway Inflammatory Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongchun Shen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Airway mucus hypersecretion (AMH is a key pathophysiological feature of chronic airway inflammatory diseases such as bronchial asthma, cystic fibrosis, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. AMH contributes to the pathogenesis of chronic airway inflammatory diseases, and it is associated with reduced lung function and high rates of hospitalization and mortality. It has been suggested that AMH should be a target in the treatment of chronic airway inflammatory diseases. Recent evidence suggests that a key regulator of airway inflammation, hyperresponsiveness, and remodeling is peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ, a ligand-activated transcription factor that regulates adipocyte differentiation and lipid metabolism. PPARγ is expressed in structural, immune, and inflammatory cells in the lung. PPARγ is involved in mucin production, and PPARγ agonists can inhibit mucin synthesis both in vitro and in vivo. These findings suggest that PPARγ is a novel target in the treatment of AMH and that further work on this transcription factor may lead to new therapies for chronic airway inflammatory diseases.

  8. Analysis of the Airway Microbiota of Healthy Individuals and Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease by T-RFLP and Clone Sequencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zakharkina, Tetyana; Heinzel, Elke; Koczulla, Rembert A

    2013-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a progressive, inflammatory lung disease that affects a large number of patients and has significant impact. One hallmark of the disease is the presence of bacteria in the lower airways....

  9. [Anaesthesia for patients with obstructive airway diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groeben, H; Keller, V; Silvanus, M T

    2014-01-01

    Obstructive lung diseases like asthma or chronic obstructive lung diseases have a high prevalence and are one of the four most frequent causes of death. Obstructive lung diseases can be significantly influenced by the choice of anesthetic techniques and anesthetic agents. Basically, the severity of the COPD and the degree of bronchial hyperreactivity will determine the perioperative anesthetic risk. This risk has to be assessed by a thorough preoperative evaluation and will give the rationale on which to decide for the adequate anaesthetic technique. In particular, airway instrumentation can cause severe reflex bronchoconstriction. The use of regional anaesthesia alone or in combination with general anaesthesia can help to avoid airway irritation and leads to reduced postoperative complications. Prophylactic antiobstructive treatment, volatile anesthetics, propofol, opioids, and an adequate choice of muscle relaxants minimize the anesthetic risk, when general anesthesia is required In case, despite all precautions intra-operative bronchospasm occurs, deepening of anaesthesia, repeated administration of beta2-adrenergic agents and parasympatholytics, and a single systemic dose of corticosteroids represent the main treatment options.

  10. RAGE: a new frontier in chronic airways disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukkar, Maria B; Ullah, Md Ashik; Gan, Wan Jun; Wark, Peter AB; Chung, Kian Fan; Hughes, J Margaret; Armour, Carol L; Phipps, Simon

    2012-01-01

    Asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are heterogeneous inflammatory disorders of the respiratory tract characterized by airflow obstruction. It is now clear that the environmental factors that drive airway pathology in asthma and COPD, including allergens, viruses, ozone and cigarette smoke, activate innate immune receptors known as pattern-recognition receptors, either directly or indirectly by causing the release of endogenous ligands. Thus, there is now intense research activity focused around understanding the mechanisms by which pattern-recognition receptors sustain the airway inflammatory response, and how these mechanisms might be targeted therapeutically. One pattern-recognition receptor that has recently come to attention in chronic airways disease is the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE). RAGE is a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily of cell surface receptors that recognizes pathogen- and host-derived endogenous ligands to initiate the immune response to tissue injury, infection and inflammation. Although the role of RAGE in lung physiology and pathophysiology is not well understood, recent genome-wide association studies have linked RAGE gene polymorphisms with airflow obstruction. In addition, accumulating data from animal and clinical investigations reveal increased expression of RAGE and its ligands, together with reduced expression of soluble RAGE, an endogenous inhibitor of RAGE signalling, in chronic airways disease. In this review, we discuss recent studies of the ligand–RAGE axis in asthma and COPD, highlight important areas for future research and discuss how this axis might potentially be harnessed for therapeutic benefit in these conditions. PMID:22506507

  11. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease : a proteomics approach

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandre, Bruno Miguel Coelho, 1980-

    2011-01-01

    Tese de doutoramento, Biologia (Biologia Molecular), Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade de Ciências, 2012 Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by chronic airflow limitation that is not fully reversible even under bronchodilators effect, caused by a mixture of small airway disease – obstructive bronchiolitis – and parenchymal destruction – emphysema. At the present time, COPD is the fourth leading cause of death and its prevalence and mortality are expected to contin...

  12. Pathway reconstruction of airway remodeling in chronic lung diseases: a systems biology approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Najafi

    Full Text Available Airway remodeling is a pathophysiologic process at the clinical, cellular, and molecular level relating to chronic obstructive airway diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, asthma and mustard lung. These diseases are associated with the dysregulation of multiple molecular pathways in the airway cells. Little progress has so far been made in discovering the molecular causes of complex disease in a holistic systems manner. Therefore, pathway and network reconstruction is an essential part of a systems biology approach to solve this challenging problem. In this paper, multiple data sources were used to construct the molecular process of airway remodeling pathway in mustard lung as a model of airway disease. We first compiled a master list of genes that change with airway remodeling in the mustard lung disease and then reconstructed the pathway by generating and merging the protein-protein interaction and the gene regulatory networks. Experimental observations and literature mining were used to identify and validate the master list. The outcome of this paper can provide valuable information about closely related chronic obstructive airway diseases which are of great importance for biologists and their future research. Reconstructing the airway remodeling interactome provides a starting point and reference for the future experimental study of mustard lung, and further analysis and development of these maps will be critical to understanding airway diseases in patients.

  13. Association of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and obstructive sleep apnea consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Zamarrón

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Carlos Zamarrón1, Vanesa García Paz1, Emilio Morete1, Felix del Campo Matías21Servicio de Neumología, Hospital Clínico Universitario de Santiago, Santiago, Spain; 2Servicio de Neumologia, Hospital Universitario Rio Ortega de Vallaclolid, Vallaclolid, SpainAbstract: Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD are two diseases that often coexist within an individual. This coexistence is known as overlap syndrome and is the result of chance rather than a pathophysiological link. Although there are claims of a very high incidence of OSAS in COPD patients, recent studies report that it is similar to the general population. Overlap patients present sleep-disordered breathing associated to upper and lower airway obstruction and a reduction in respiratory drive. These patients present unique characteristics, which set them apart from either COPD or OSAS patients. COPD and OSAS are independent risk factors for cardiovascular events and their coexistence in overlap syndrome probably increases this risk. The mechanisms underlying cardiovascular risk are still unclear, but may involve systemic inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, and tonic elevation of sympathetic neural activity. The treatment of choice for overlap syndrome in stable patients is CPAP with supplemental oxygen for correction of upper airway obstructive episodes and hypoxemia during sleep.Keywords: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, overlap syndrome, sleep, cardiovascular disease

  14. RAGE: a new frontier in chronic airways disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukkar, Maria B; Ullah, Md Ashik; Gan, Wan Jun; Wark, Peter A B; Chung, Kian Fan; Hughes, J Margaret; Armour, Carol L; Phipps, Simon

    2012-11-01

    Asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are heterogeneous inflammatory disorders of the respiratory tract characterized by airflow obstruction. It is now clear that the environmental factors that drive airway pathology in asthma and COPD, including allergens, viruses, ozone and cigarette smoke, activate innate immune receptors known as pattern-recognition receptors, either directly or indirectly by causing the release of endogenous ligands. Thus, there is now intense research activity focused around understanding the mechanisms by which pattern-recognition receptors sustain the airway inflammatory response, and how these mechanisms might be targeted therapeutically. One pattern-recognition receptor that has recently come to attention in chronic airways disease is the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE). RAGE is a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily of cell surface receptors that recognizes pathogen- and host-derived endogenous ligands to initiate the immune response to tissue injury, infection and inflammation. Although the role of RAGE in lung physiology and pathophysiology is not well understood, recent genome-wide association studies have linked RAGE gene polymorphisms with airflow obstruction. In addition, accumulating data from animal and clinical investigations reveal increased expression of RAGE and its ligands, together with reduced expression of soluble RAGE, an endogenous inhibitor of RAGE signalling, in chronic airways disease. In this review, we discuss recent studies of the ligand-RAGE axis in asthma and COPD, highlight important areas for future research and discuss how this axis might potentially be harnessed for therapeutic benefit in these conditions. © 2012 The Authors. British Journal of Pharmacology © 2012 The British Pharmacological Society.

  15. Airways obstruction, coal mining, and disability.

    OpenAIRE

    Lapp, N L; Morgan, W K; Zaldivar, G

    1994-01-01

    It has recently been suggested that the inhalation of coal in the absence of complicated coal workers' pneumoconiosis (CWP) or smoking can lead to disabling airways obstruction. The cause of such obstruction has been variously attributed to emphysema or bronchitis. The frequency of significant airways obstruction in a group of United States coal miners seeking compensation for occupationally induced pulmonary impairment was therefore determined. In a sample of 611 "Black Lung" claimants there...

  16. Treatable traits: toward precision medicine of chronic airway diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agusti, Alvar; Bel, Elisabeth; Thomas, Mike; Vogelmeier, Claus; Brusselle, Guy; Holgate, Stephen; Humbert, Marc; Jones, Paul; Gibson, Peter G.; Vestbo, Jørgen; Beasley, Richard; Pavord, Ian D.

    2016-01-01

    Asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are two prevalent chronic airway diseases that have a high personal and social impact. They likely represent a continuum of different diseases that may share biological mechanisms (i.e. endotypes), and present similar clinical, functional,

  17. Chlamydophila spp. infection in horses with recurrent airway obstruction: similarities to human chronic obstructive disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hotzel Helmut

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recurrent airway obstruction (RAO in horses is a naturally occurring dust-induced disease mainly characterized by bronchiolitis which shows histological and pathophysiological similarities to human chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. In human COPD previous investigations indicated an association with Chlamydophila psittaci infection. The present study was designed (1 to clarify a possible role of this infectious agent in RAO and (2 to investigate the suitability of this equine disorder as a model for human COPD. Methods Clinico-pathological parameters of a total of 45 horses (25 horses with clinical signs of RAO and 20 clinically healthy controls were compared to histological findings in lung tissue samples and infection by Chlamydiaceae using light microscopy, immunohistochemistry, and PCR. Results Horses with clinical signs of RAO vs. controls revealed more inflammatory changes in histology (p = 0.01, and a higher detection rate of Chlamydia psittaci antigens in all cells (p OmpA sequencing identified Chlamydophila psittaci (n = 9 and Chlamydophila abortus (n = 13 in both groups with no significant differences. Within the group of clinically healthy horses subgroups with no changes (n = 15 and slight inflammation of the small airways (n = 5 were identified. Also in the group of animals with RAO subgroups with slight (n = 16 and severe (n = 9 bronchiolitis could be formed. These four subgroups can be separated in parts by the number of cells positive for Chlamydia psittaci antigens. Conclusion Chlamydophila psittaci or abortus were present in the lung of both clinically healthy horses and those with RAO. Immunohistochemistry revealed acute chlamydial infections with inflammation in RAO horses, whereas in clinically healthy animals mostly persistent chlamydial infection and no inflammatory reactions were seen. Stable dust as the known fundamental abiotic factor in RAO is comparable to smoking in human disease. These

  18. X-ray upper airway changes in individuals suffering from obstructive respiratory disorders during sleep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shakhov, A.A.; Rabukhina, N.A.; Nerobeev, A.I.; Vasil'ev, A.Yu.

    2000-01-01

    Obstructive respiratory disorders during sleep present an important medical and social problem. Serious dysfunctions of cardiovascular, nervous, endocrine and other vital systems of the body reduce longevity and life quality. On the other hand, load nocturnal snore and abnormal during sleepiness cause great damage to family life, reduce working capacity and induce accidents. X-ray visualization of the upper airways is essential in diagnosing obstructive upper airway states and selecting patients for surgical treatment. The paper presents the author's own experience in using various X-ray diagnostic methods in patients with chronic snore and obstructive sleep apnoea-hypopnoea syndrome [ru

  19. Post-extubation airway obstruction. Literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro SÁNCHEZ-TABERNERO

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and objective: airway obstruction after extubation in any surgery is a critical event with low incidence, which may require reintubation or tracheostomy, which often otolaryngologist is required. Objective: To determine the prevalence of BVA and its causes through systematic literature review. Method: Literature review in PubMed, Scopus and Cochrane clinical trials, meta-analysis, reviews and case series and control over airway obstruction after extubation that requires reintubation in adults. Results: 6 studies and one clinical practice guidelines were selected. The most common cause of extubation failure is blocking the airway for various reasons (pharyngeal muscle weakness residual effect -often farmacologycal-, laryngospasm, vocal cord paralysis, edema of upper respiratory tract, cervical postoperative hematoma, foreign bodies or secretions. Most cases of re-intubation occurred within 2 hours after extubation. Conclusions: The most common cause of failure after general anesthesia extubation is blocking the airway generally caused by residual neuromuscular blocking effect. Airway obstruction risk increases in airway and head and neck surgery. Difficult intubation guidlines have improved performance and reduced adverse events and similar strategies must be implemented in extubation. The procedure extubation and reintubation should be documented. Working groups airway must be multidisciplinary and include specialists in otolaryngology.

  20. Hydrogen-rich saline inhibits tobacco smoke-induced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease by alleviating airway inflammation and mucus hypersecretion in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zibing; Geng, Wenye; Jiang, Chuanwei; Zhao, Shujun; Liu, Yong; Zhang, Ying; Qin, Shucun; Li, Chenxu; Zhang, Xinfang; Si, Yanhong

    2017-09-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease induced by tobacco smoke has been regarded as a great health problem worldwide. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the protective effect of hydrogen-rich saline, a novel antioxidant, on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and explore the underlying mechanism. Sprague-Dawley rats were made chronic obstructive pulmonary disease models via tobacco smoke exposure for 12 weeks and the rats were treated with 10 ml/kg hydrogen-rich saline intraperitoneally during the last 4 weeks. Lung function testing indicated hydrogen-rich saline decreased lung airway resistance and increased lung compliance and the ratio of forced expiratory volume in 0.1 s/forced vital capacity in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease rats. Histological analysis revealed that hydrogen-rich saline alleviated morphological impairments of lung in tobacco smoke-induced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease rats. ELISA assay showed hydrogen-rich saline lowered the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-8 and IL-6) and anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and serum of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease rats. The content of malondialdehyde in lung tissue and serum was also determined and the data indicated hydrogen-rich saline suppressed oxidative stress reaction. The protein expressions of mucin MUC5C and aquaporin 5 involved in mucus hypersecretion were analyzed by Western blot and ELISA and the data revealed that hydrogen-rich saline down-regulated MUC5AC level in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and lung tissue and up-regulated aquaporin 5 level in lung tissue of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease rats. In conclusion, these results suggest that administration of hydrogen-rich saline exhibits significant protective effect on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease through alleviating inflammation, reducing oxidative stress and lessening mucus hypersecretion in tobacco smoke-induced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease rats

  1. Overlap Syndrome in Respiratory Medicine: Asthma and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru Corlateanu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD are highly prevalent chronic diseases in the general population. Both are characterized by similar mechanisms: airway inflammation, airway obstruction, and airway hyperresponsiveness. However, the distinction between the two obstructive diseases is not always clear. Multiple epidemiological studies demonstrate that in elderly people with obstructive airway disease, as many as half or more may have overlapping diagnoses of asthma and COPD. A COPD-Asthma overlap syndrome is defined as an airflow obstruction that is not completely reversible, accompanied by symptoms and signs of increased obstruction reversibility. For the clinical identification of overlap syndrome COPD-Asthma Spanish guidelines proposed six diagnostic criteria. The major criteria include very positive bronchodilator test [increase in forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1 ≥15% and ≥400 ml], eosinophilia in sputum, and personal history of asthma. The minor criteria include high total IgE, personal history of atopy and positive bronchodilator test (increase in FEV1 ≥12% and ≥200 ml on two or more occasions. The overlap syndrome COPD-Asthma is associated with enhanced response to inhaled corticosteroids due to the predominance of eosinophilic bronchial inflammation.The future clinical studies and multicenter clinical trials should lead to the investigation of disease mechanisms and simultaneous development of the novel treatment.

  2. THE ROLE OF MICROBIAL COMMUNITIES OF AIRWAYS IN PATHOGENESIS OF CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE PULMONARY DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Fedosenko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This review summarizes the results of studies on the composition of microbial communities in the airways of healthy subjects and in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Modern technologies of molecular-genetic identification methods of microorganisms allow to perform a deep analysis  of  the  respiratory  microbiom.  It  is  of  considerable  interest  to  determine  the  role  of  the microbiome in the development of human diseases of the bronchopulmonary system, and to understand the impact of the microbes communities as a course of disease and the important factor for the efficacy of current therapy.

  3. ANESTHETIC CONSIDERATION S IN CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE PULMON ARY DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awati

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is a spectrum of diseases that includes emphysema, chronic bronchitis, and small airway disease. It i s characterized by progressive increased resistance to breathing. Patients with marked obstructive pulmonary disease are at increased risk for both intraoperative and Postoperative pulmonary complications. These patients require thorough preoperative prepa ration, meticulous intraoperative management & postoperative care. This article describes anesthetic considerations in a patient with COPD.

  4. Management of airway obstruction and stridor in pediatric patients [digest].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchese, Ashley; Langhan, Melissa L; Pade, Kathryn H

    2017-11-22

    Stridor is a result of turbulent air-flow through the trachea from upper airway obstruction, and although in children it is often due to croup, it can also be caused by noninfectious and/or congenital conditions as well as life-threatening etiologies. The history and physical examination guide initial management, which includes reduction of airway inflammation, treatment of bacterial infection, and, less often, imaging, emergent airway stabilization, or surgical management. This issue discusses the most common as well as the life-threatening etiologies of acute and chronic stridor and its management in the emergency department. [Points & Pearls is a digest of Pediatric Emergency Medicine Practice].

  5. Airway malacia in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: prevalence, morphology and relationship with emphysema, bronchiectasis and bronchial wall thickening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sverzellati, Nicola; Rastelli, Andrea; Schembri, Valentina; Filippo, Massimo de [University of Parma, Department of Clinical Sciences, Section of Radiology, Parma (Italy); Chetta, Alfredo [University of Parma, Department of Clinical Sciences, Section of Respiratory Diseases, Parma (Italy); Fasano, Luca; Pacilli, Angela Maria [Policlinico Sant' Orsola-Malpighi, Unita Operativa di Fisiopatologia Respiratoria, Bologna (Italy); Di Scioscio, Valerio; Bartalena, Tommaso; Zompatori, Maurizio [University of Bologna, Department of Radiology, Cardiothoracic Institute, Policlinico S.Orsola-Malpighi, Bologna (Italy)

    2009-07-15

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of airway malacia and its relationship with ancillary morphologic features in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). A retrospective review was performed of a consecutive series of patients with COPD who were imaged with inspiratory and dynamic expiratory multidetector computed tomography (MDCT). Airway malacia was defined as {>=}50% expiratory reduction of the airway lumen. Both distribution and morphology of airway malacia were assessed. The extent of emphysema, extent of bronchiectasis and severity of bronchial wall thickness were quantified. The final study cohort was comprised of 71 patients. Airway malacia was seen in 38 of 71 patients (53%), and such proportion was roughly maintained in each stage of COPD severity. Almost all tracheomalacia cases (23/25, 92%) were characterised by an expiratory anterior bowing of the posterior membranous wall. Both emphysema and bronchiectasis extent did not differ between patients with and without airway malacia (p > 0.05). Bronchial wall thickness severity was significantly higher in patients with airway malacia and correlated with the degree of maximal bronchial collapse (p < 0.05). In conclusion, we demonstrated a strong association between airway malacia and COPD, disclosing a significant relationship with bronchial wall thickening. (orig.)

  6. Airway malacia in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: prevalence, morphology and relationship with emphysema, bronchiectasis and bronchial wall thickening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sverzellati, Nicola; Rastelli, Andrea; Schembri, Valentina; Filippo, Massimo de; Chetta, Alfredo; Fasano, Luca; Pacilli, Angela Maria; Di Scioscio, Valerio; Bartalena, Tommaso; Zompatori, Maurizio

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of airway malacia and its relationship with ancillary morphologic features in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). A retrospective review was performed of a consecutive series of patients with COPD who were imaged with inspiratory and dynamic expiratory multidetector computed tomography (MDCT). Airway malacia was defined as ≥50% expiratory reduction of the airway lumen. Both distribution and morphology of airway malacia were assessed. The extent of emphysema, extent of bronchiectasis and severity of bronchial wall thickness were quantified. The final study cohort was comprised of 71 patients. Airway malacia was seen in 38 of 71 patients (53%), and such proportion was roughly maintained in each stage of COPD severity. Almost all tracheomalacia cases (23/25, 92%) were characterised by an expiratory anterior bowing of the posterior membranous wall. Both emphysema and bronchiectasis extent did not differ between patients with and without airway malacia (p > 0.05). Bronchial wall thickness severity was significantly higher in patients with airway malacia and correlated with the degree of maximal bronchial collapse (p < 0.05). In conclusion, we demonstrated a strong association between airway malacia and COPD, disclosing a significant relationship with bronchial wall thickening. (orig.)

  7. Models of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung K Fan

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is a major global health problem and is predicted to become the third most common cause of death by 2020. Apart from the important preventive steps of smoking cessation, there are no other specific treatments for COPD that are as effective in reversing the condition, and therefore there is a need to understand the pathophysiological mechanisms that could lead to new therapeutic strategies. The development of experimental models will help to dissect these mechanisms at the cellular and molecular level. COPD is a disease characterized by progressive airflow obstruction of the peripheral airways, associated with lung inflammation, emphysema and mucus hypersecretion. Different approaches to mimic COPD have been developed but are limited in comparison to models of allergic asthma. COPD models usually do not mimic the major features of human COPD and are commonly based on the induction of COPD-like lesions in the lungs and airways using noxious inhalants such as tobacco smoke, nitrogen dioxide, or sulfur dioxide. Depending on the duration and intensity of exposure, these noxious stimuli induce signs of chronic inflammation and airway remodelling. Emphysema can be achieved by combining such exposure with instillation of tissue-degrading enzymes. Other approaches are based on genetically-targeted mice which develop COPD-like lesions with emphysema, and such mice provide deep insights into pathophysiological mechanisms. Future approaches should aim to mimic irreversible airflow obstruction, associated with cough and sputum production, with the possibility of inducing exacerbations.

  8. Anaesthesia and subglottic airway obstruction

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-07-14

    Jul 14, 2009 ... Introduction. Surgery on the upper airway remains challenging for both surgeon and ... from her upper airway obstruction rather than asthma.1 She had made a long ... patient was well oxygenated with oxygen saturation above. 95%. .... Difficulties relate to tidal volume measurement, CO2 detection and the.

  9. Airway Epithelial Barrier Dysfunction in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: Role of Cigarette Smoke Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghapour, Mahyar; Raee, Pourya; Moghaddam, Seyed Javad; Hiemstra, Pieter S; Heijink, Irene H

    2018-02-01

    The epithelial lining of the airway forms the first barrier against environmental insults, such as inhaled cigarette smoke, which is the primary risk factor for the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The barrier is formed by airway epithelial junctions, which are interconnected structures that restrict permeability to inhaled pathogens and environmental stressors. Destruction of the epithelial barrier not only exposes subepithelial layers to hazardous agents in the inspired air, but also alters the normal function of epithelial cells, which may eventually contribute to the development of COPD. Of note, disruption of epithelial junctions may lead to modulation of signaling pathways involved in differentiation, repair, and proinflammatory responses. Epithelial barrier dysfunction may be particularly relevant in COPD, where repeated injury by cigarette smoke exposure, pathogens, inflammatory mediators, and impaired epithelial regeneration may compromise the barrier function. In the current review, we discuss recent advances in understanding the mechanisms of barrier dysfunction in COPD, as well as the molecular mechanisms that underlie the impaired repair response of the injured epithelium in COPD and its inability to redifferentiate into a functionally intact epithelium.

  10. Atopic asthmatic immune phenotypes associated with airway microbiota and airway obstruction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin A Turturice

    Full Text Available Differences in asthma severity may be related to inflammation in the airways. The lower airway microbiota has been associated with clinical features such as airway obstruction, symptom control, and response to corticosteroids.To assess the relationship between local airway inflammation, severity of disease, and the lower airway microbiota in atopic asthmatics.A cohort of young adult, atopic asthmatics with intermittent or mild/moderate persistent symptoms (n = 13 were assessed via bronchoscopy, lavage, and spirometry. These individuals were compared to age matched non-asthmatic controls (n = 6 and to themselves after six weeks of treatment with fluticasone propionate (FP. Inflammation of the airways was assessed via a cytokine and chemokine panel. Lower airway microbiota composition was determined by metagenomic shotgun sequencing.Unsupervised clustering of cytokines and chemokines prior to treatment with FP identified two asthmatic phenotypes (AP, termed AP1 and AP2, with distinct bronchoalveolar lavage inflammatory profiles. AP2 was associated with more obstruction, compared to AP1. After treatment with FP reduced MIP-1β and TNF-α and increased IL-2 was observed. A module of highly correlated cytokines that include MIP-1β and TNF-α was identified that negatively correlated with pulmonary function. Independently, IL-2 was positively correlated with pulmonary function. The airway microbiome composition correlated with asthmatic phenotypes. AP2, prior to FP treatment, was enriched with Streptococcus pneumoniae. Unique associations between IL-2 or the cytokine module and the microbiota composition of the airways were observed in asthmatics subjects prior to treatment but not after or in controls.The underlying inflammation in atopic asthma is related to the composition of microbiota and is associated with severity of airway obstruction. Treatment with inhaled corticosteroids was associated with changes in the airway inflammatory response to

  11. [Correlation between obstructive apnea syndrome and difficult airway in ENT surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pera, Marcia Hiray; Tardelli, Maria Angela; Novo, Neil Ferreira; Juliano, Yara; Silva, Helga Cristina Almeida da

    2017-12-21

    ENT patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome have a tendency of collapsing the upper airways in addition to anatomical obstacles. Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome is related to the increased risk of difficult airway and also increased perioperative complications. In order to identify these patients in the preoperative period, the STOP Bang questionnaire has been highlighted because it is summarized and easy to apply. Evaluate through the STOP Bang questionnaire whether patients undergoing ENT surgery with a diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome have a higher risk of complications, particularly the occurrence of difficult airway. Measurements of anatomical parameters for difficult airway and questionnaire application for clinical prediction of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome were performed in 48 patients with a previous polysomnographic study. The sample detected difficult airway in about 18.7% of patients, all of them with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. This group had older age, cervical circumference > 40cm, ASA II and Cormack III/IV. Patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome had higher body mass index, cervical circumference, and frequent apnea. In subgroup analysis, the group with severe obstructive sleep apnea syndrome showed a significantly higher SB score compared to patients without this syndrome or with a mild/moderate obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. The STOP Bang questionnaire was not able to predict difficult airway and mild obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, but it identified marked obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. All patients with difficult airway had moderate and marked obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, although this syndrome did not involve difficult airway. The variables Cormack III/IV and BMI greater than 35 Kg.m -2 were able to predict difficult airway and obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, respectively. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  12. Airway Obstruction Among Latino Poultry Processing Workers in North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    MIRABELLI, MARIA C.; CHATTERJEE, ARJUN B.; MORA, DANA C.; ARCURY, THOMAS A.; BLOCKER, JILL N.; CHEN, HAIYING; GRZYWACZ, JOSEPH G.; MARÍN, ANTONIO J.; SCHULZ, MARK R.; QUANDT, SARA A.

    2015-01-01

    This analysis was conducted to evaluate the prevalence of airway obstruction among Latino poultry processing workers. Data were collected from 279 poultry processing workers and 222 other manual laborers via spirometry and interviewer-administered questionnaires. Participants employed in poultry processing reported the activities they perform at work. Participants with forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) or FEV1/forced expiratory volume (FVC) below the lower limits of normal were categorized as having airway obstruction. Airway obstruction was identified in 13% of poultry processing workers and 12% of the comparison population. Among poultry processing workers, the highest prevalence of airway obstruction (21%) occurred among workers deboning chickens (prevalence ratio: 1.75; 95% confidence interval: 0.97, 3.15). These findings identify variations in the prevalence of airway obstruction across categories of work activities. PMID:24965321

  13. Morphological measurements in computed tomography correlate with airflow obstruction in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease : systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xie, X.Q.; de Jong, P.A.; Oudkerk, M.; Wang, Y.; ten Hacken, N.H.T.; Miao, J.T.; Zhang, GuiXiang; de Bock, G.H.; Vliegenthart, R.

    2012-01-01

    To determine the correlation between CT measurements of emphysema or peripheral airways and airflow obstruction in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). PubMed, Embase and Web of Knowledge were searched from 1976 to 2011. Two reviewers independently screened 1,763 citations to identify

  14. Physiological and morphological determinants of maximal expiratory flow in chronic obstructive lung disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.A.W.M. Tiddens (Harm); J.M. Bogaard (Jan); J.C. de Jongste (Johan); W.C.J. Hop (Wim); H.O. Coxson (Harvey); P.D. Pare

    1996-01-01

    textabstractMaximal expiratory flow in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) could be reduced by three different mechanisms; loss of lung elastic recoil, decreased airway conductance upstream of flow-limiting segments; and increased collapsibility of airways.

  15. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and obstructive sleep apnea. Association, consequences and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pronzato, C

    2010-12-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are two diseases that often co-exist within an individual. This co-existence, known as overlap syndrome (OS), is the result of chance rather than a pathophysiological linkage and epidemiological studies indicate a prevalence of 1% in adult males. Patients vith OS have a more important sleep-related O2 desaturation than COPD patients with the same degree of bronchial obstruction and show an increased risk of developing hypercapnic respiratory failure and pulmonary hypertension when compared with patients affected by only one of he diseases. COPD and OSAS are independent risk factors for cardiovascular events and their co-existence in OS probably increases this risk. Evidence of systemic inflammation in COPD and sleep apnea and consequentely OS, is interesting because it may contribute to the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases. Treatment consists of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) or non-invasive positive pressure ventilation (NIPPV), with or without associated O2, for correction of the upper airway obstructive episodes and hypoxemia during sleep.

  16. A PAF receptor antagonist inhibits acute airway inflammation and late-phase responses but not chronic airway inflammation and hyperresponsiveness in a primate model of asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. H. Gundel

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available We have examined the effects of a PAF receptor antagonist, WEB 2170, on several indices of acute and chronic airway inflammation and associated changes in lung function in a primate model of allergic asthma. A single oral administration WEB 2170 provided dose related inhibition of the release of leukotriene C4 (LTC4 and prostaglandin D2 (PGD2 recovered and quantified in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL fluid obtained during the acute phase response to inhaled antigen. In addition, oral WEB 2170 treatment in dual responder primates blocked the acute influx of neutrophils into the airways as well as the associated late-phase airway obstruction occurring 6 h after antigen inhalation. In contrast, a multiple dosing regime with WEB 2170 (once a day for 7 consecutive days failed to reduce the chronic airway inflammation (eosinophilic and associated airway hyperresponsiveness to inhaled methacholine that is characteristic of dual responder monkeys. Thus, we conclude that the generation of PAF following antigen inhalation contributes to the development of lipid mediators, acute airway inflammation and associated late-phase airway obstruction in dual responder primates; however, PAF does not play a significant role in the maintenance of chronic airway inflammation and associated airway hyperresponsiveness in this primate model.

  17. Pre- and post-bronchodilator airway obstruction are associated with similar clinical characteristics but different prognosis – report from a population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sawalha S

    2017-04-01

    airway obstruction. When COPD was divided into Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD stages, GOLD 2 and 3–4 had an increased risk for death when compared to the nonobstructive group, also when adjusted for common confounders and comorbidities such as heart disease, diabetes, and anxiety/depression.Conclusion: Even though subjects with COPD and pre- not post-BD obstruction had fairly similar presentation of clinical characteristics, only those with COPD, specifically GOLD stage ≥2, had increased risk for death when compared with nonobstructive subjects. Keywords: epidemiology, spirometry, chronic airflow obstructions, mortality

  18. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V K Vijayan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The global prevalence of physiologically defined chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD in adults aged >40 yr is approximately 9-10 per cent. Recently, the Indian Study on Epidemiology of Asthma, Respiratory Symptoms and Chronic Bronchitis in Adults had shown that the overall prevalence of chronic bronchitis in adults >35 yr is 3.49 per cent. The development of COPD is multifactorial and the risk factors of COPD include genetic and environmental factors. Pathological changes in COPD are observed in central airways, small airways and alveolar space. The proposed pathogenesis of COPD includes proteinase-antiproteinase hypothesis, immunological mechanisms, oxidant-antioxidant balance, systemic inflammation, apoptosis and ineffective repair. Airflow limitation in COPD is defined as a postbronchodilator FEV1 (forced expiratory volume in 1 sec to FVC (forced vital capacity ratio <0.70. COPD is characterized by an accelerated decline in FEV1. Co morbidities associated with COPD are cardiovascular disorders (coronary artery disease and chronic heart failure, hypertension, metabolic diseases (diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome and obesity, bone disease (osteoporosis and osteopenia, stroke, lung cancer, cachexia, skeletal muscle weakness, anaemia, depression and cognitive decline. The assessment of COPD is required to determine the severity of the disease, its impact on the health status and the risk of future events (e.g., exacerbations, hospital admissions or death and this is essential to guide therapy. COPD is treated with inhaled bronchodilators, inhaled corticosteroids, oral theophylline and oral phosphodiesterase-4 inhibitor. Non pharmacological treatment of COPD includes smoking cessation, pulmonary rehabilitation and nutritional support. Lung volume reduction surgery and lung transplantation are advised in selected severe patients. Global strategy for the diagnosis, management and prevention of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

  19. Patient-Centered Medical Home in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ortiz G

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Gabriel Ortiz1, Len Fromer21Pediatric Pulmonary Services, El Paso, TX; 2Department of Family Medicine, David Geffen School of Medicine, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA, USAAbstract: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is a progressive and debilitating but preventable and treatable disease characterized by cough, phlegm, dyspnea, and fixed or incompletely reversible airway obstruction. Most patients with COPD rely on primary care practices for COPD management. Unfortunately, only about 55% of US outpatients with COPD receive all guideline-recommended care. Proactive and consistent primary care for COPD, as for many other chronic diseases, can reduce hospitalizations. Optimal chronic disease management requires focusing on maintenance rather than merely acute rescue. The Patient-Centered Medical Home (PCMH, which implements the chronic care model, is a promising framework for primary care transformation. This review presents core PCMH concepts and proposes multidisciplinary team-based PCMH care strategies for COPD.Keywords: Patient-Centered Medical Home, chronic care model, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, patient education, physician assistants, nurse practitioners

  20. [Diaphragm dysfunction in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verheul, A.J.; Dekhuijzen, P.N.R.

    2003-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterised by alterations in the airways and lung parenchyma resulting in an increased respiratory workload. Besides an increased load and hyperinflation of the thorax, additional factors, such as systemic inflammation, oxidative stress, hypoxia and

  1. Morphological measurements in computed tomography correlate with airflow obstruction in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: systematic review and meta-analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, XueQian; Oudkerk, Matthijs; Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn [University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Center for Medical Imaging-North East Netherlands (CMI-NEN), Department of Radiology, Hanzeplein 1, P.O. Box 30.001, RB, Groningen (Netherlands); Jong, Pim A. de [University Medical Center Utrecht, University of Utrecht, Department of Radiology, Heidelberglaan 100, P.O. Box 85.500, CX, Utrecht (Netherlands); Wang, Ying [Tianjin Medical University General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Tianjin (China); Hacken, Nick H.T. ten [University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Pulmonary Diseases, Hanzeplein 1, P.O. Box 30.001, RB, Groningen (Netherlands); Miao, Jingtao; Zhang, GuiXiang [Shanghai Jiao Tong University Affiliated First People' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Shanghai (China); Bock, Geertruida H. de [University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Epidemiology, Hanzeplein 1, P.O. Box 30.001, RB, Groningen (Netherlands)

    2012-10-15

    To determine the correlation between CT measurements of emphysema or peripheral airways and airflow obstruction in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). PubMed, Embase and Web of Knowledge were searched from 1976 to 2011. Two reviewers independently screened 1,763 citations to identify articles that correlated CT measurements to airflow obstruction parameters of the pulmonary function test in COPD patients, rated study quality and extracted information. Three CT measurements were accessed: lung attenuation area percentage < -950 Hounsfield units, mean lung density and airway wall area percentage. Two airflow obstruction parameters were accessed: forced expiratory volume in the first second as percentage from predicted (FEV{sub 1} %pred) and FEV{sub 1} divided by the forced volume vital capacity. Seventy-nine articles (9,559 participants) were included in the systematic review, demonstrating different methodologies, measurements and CT airflow obstruction correlations. There were 15 high-quality articles (2,095 participants) in the meta-analysis. The absolute pooled correlation coefficients ranged from 0.48 (95 % CI, 0.40 to 0.54) to 0.65 (0.58 to 0.71) for inspiratory CT and 0.64 (0.53 to 0.72) to 0.73 (0.63 to 0.80) for expiratory CT. CT measurements of emphysema or peripheral airways are significantly related to airflow obstruction in COPD patients. CT provides a morphological method to investigate airway obstruction in COPD. (orig.)

  2. Non-invasive assessment of right ventricular function at rest and on exercise in obstructive airways disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tweddel, A.; Martin, W.; McGhie, I.; Neilly, B.; Stevenson, R.; Hutton, I.

    1985-01-01

    Non-invasive assessment of right ventricular function is of clinical interest in the patient with obstructive airways disease. Gated Xenon 133 scanning allows right ventricular function to be evaluated in isolation from the left ventricle, and with rapid clearance from the lungs, scans may be repeated within 5 minutes. 400mBq of Xenon 133 were injected intravenously over 20 seconds and images were obtained using a mobile gamma camera. Maximal symptom limited exercise was performed on a supine bicycle ergometer. The normal range for right ventricular ejection fraction (RVEF) was obtained from 10 volunteers - 40-55% at rest rising by 5-15% during exercise. In 10 patients with acute obstructive airways disease, all had reduced RVEF 21 +- 3%. In chronic obstructive airways disease, if resting RVEF was greater than 30%, ejection fraction increased on exercise. If resting ejection fraction was abnormal than RVEF was reduced or unchanged on exercise (mean 15 +- 9%), and this was associated with dilatation of both the right ventricle and atrium. In conclusion, gated Xenon 133 offers a simple method of assessing right ventricular function at rest and on exercise in the patient with obstructive airways disease

  3. Crisis management during anaesthesia: obstruction of the natural airway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visvanathan, T; Kluger, M T; Webb, R K; Westhorpe, R N

    2005-06-01

    Obstruction of the natural airway, while usually easily recognised and managed, may present simply as desaturation, have an unexpected cause, be very difficult to manage, and have serious consequences for the patient. To examine the role of a previously described core algorithm "COVER ABCD-A SWIFT CHECK", supplemented by a specific sub-algorithm for obstruction of the natural airway, in the management of acute airway obstruction occurring in association with anaesthesia. The potential performance for this structured approach for each of the relevant incidents among the first 4000 reported to the Australian Incident Monitoring Study (AIMS) was compared with the actual management as reported by the anaesthetists involved. There were 62 relevant incidents among the first 4000 reports to the AIMS. It was considered that the correct use of the structured approach would have led to earlier recognition of the problem and/or better management in 11% of cases. Airway management is a fundamental anaesthetic responsibility and skill. Airway obstruction demands a rapid and organised approach to its diagnosis and management and undue delay usually results in desaturation and a potential threat to life. An uncomplicated pre-learned sequence of airway rescue instructions is an essential part of every anaesthetist's clinical practice requirements.

  4. In Vitro Microfluidic Models of Mucus-Like Obstructions in Small Airways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, Molly K.; Grotberg, James B.; Sznitman, Josué

    2012-11-01

    Liquid plugs can form in the lungs as a result of a host of different diseases, including cystic fibrosis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The existence of such fluid obstructions have been found as far down in the bronchiole tree as the sixteenth generation, where bronchiole openings have diameters on the order of a hundred to a few hundred microns. Understanding the propagation of liquid plugs within the bifurcating branches of bronchiole airways is important because their presence in the lungs, and their rupture and break-up, can cause injury to the epithelial cells lining the airway walls as a result of high wall shear stresses. In particular, liquid plug rupture and break-up frequently occurs at airway bifurcations. Until present, however, experimental studies of liquid plugs have generally been restricted to Newtonian fluids that do not reflect the actual pseudoplastic properties of lung mucus. The present work attempts to uncover the propagation, rupture and break-up of mucus-like liquid plugs in the lower generations of the airway tree using microfluidic models. Our approach allows the dynamics of mucus-like plug break-up to be studied in real-time, in a one-to-one in vitro model, as a function of mucus rheology and bronchial tree geometry.

  5. Morphological measurements in computed tomography correlate with airflow obstruction in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: systematic review and meta-analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, XueQian; Oudkerk, Matthijs; Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn; Jong, Pim A. de; Wang, Ying; Hacken, Nick H.T. ten; Miao, Jingtao; Zhang, GuiXiang; Bock, Geertruida H. de

    2012-01-01

    To determine the correlation between CT measurements of emphysema or peripheral airways and airflow obstruction in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). PubMed, Embase and Web of Knowledge were searched from 1976 to 2011. Two reviewers independently screened 1,763 citations to identify articles that correlated CT measurements to airflow obstruction parameters of the pulmonary function test in COPD patients, rated study quality and extracted information. Three CT measurements were accessed: lung attenuation area percentage 1 %pred) and FEV 1 divided by the forced volume vital capacity. Seventy-nine articles (9,559 participants) were included in the systematic review, demonstrating different methodologies, measurements and CT airflow obstruction correlations. There were 15 high-quality articles (2,095 participants) in the meta-analysis. The absolute pooled correlation coefficients ranged from 0.48 (95 % CI, 0.40 to 0.54) to 0.65 (0.58 to 0.71) for inspiratory CT and 0.64 (0.53 to 0.72) to 0.73 (0.63 to 0.80) for expiratory CT. CT measurements of emphysema or peripheral airways are significantly related to airflow obstruction in COPD patients. CT provides a morphological method to investigate airway obstruction in COPD. (orig.)

  6. Endotracheal tube connector defect causing airway obstruction in an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    detected during routine visual inspection before their use, while some go unnoticed during such inspection and can lead to partial or complete airway obstruction in intubated patients. We report one case of partial airway obstruction resulting from manufacturing defect in the ET connector. A 3-month-old infant girl weighing 5 ...

  7. [Airway clearance techniques in chronic obstructive pulmonary syndrome : 2011 update].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opdekamp, C

    2011-09-01

    For many years the airway clearance techniques used in chest physical therapy were assimilated with the singular technique of postural drainage, percussions and vibrations. However the side effects and counter indications and the lack of scientific proof regarding this technique have forced reflection and development of other techniques more comfortable and without deleterious effects. If all these techniques show a high efficiency in terms of improved mucociliary clearance, the literature is unanimous on how little effect these techniques have in the short and the long-term with regards to lung function and arterial blood gases. In view of the scientific literature, it is clear that the airway clearance techniques don't have the same recognition concerning their efficiency in all obstructive pulmonary diseases. As the cornerstone in the management of cystic fibrosis, the efficiency of the bronchial hygiene techniques are in general poorly documented in the management of the non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis, bronchitis or emphysema. The use of the chest physical therapy seems more to do with the interpretation of the imagery and symptomatology. The airway clearance techniques should be individualised according to symptoms, the amount of expectorated mucus and the objectives signs of secretions retention or subjective signs of difficulty expectorating secretions with progression of the disease.

  8. Prenatal MRI Findings of Fetuses with Congenital High Airway Obstruction Sequence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guimaraes, Carolina V. A.; Linam, Leann E.; Kline-Fath, Beth M. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati (United States)] (and others)

    2009-04-15

    To define the MRI findings of congenital high airway obstruction sequence (CHAOS) in a series of fetuses. Prenatal fetal MR images were reviewed in seven fetuses with CHAOS at 21 to 27 weeks of gestation. The MRI findings were reviewed. The MRI parameters evaluated included the appearance of the lungs and diaphragm, presence or absence of hydrops, amount of amniotic fluid, airway appearance, predicted level of airway obstruction, and any additional findings or suspected genetic syndromes. All the fetuses viewed (7 of 7) demonstrated the following MRI findings: dilated airway below the level of obstruction, increased lung signal, markedly increased lung volumes with flattened or inverted hemidiaphragms, massive ascites, centrally positioned and compressed heart, as well as placentomegaly. Other frequent findings were anasarca (6 of 7) and polyhydramnios (3 of 7). MRI identified the level of obstruction as laryngeal in five cases and tracheal in two cases. In four of the patients, surgery or autopsy confirmed the MRI predicted level of obstruction. Associated abnormalities were found in 4 of 7 (genetic syndromes in 2). Postnatal radiography (n = 3) showed markedly hyperinflated lungs with inverted or flattened hemidiaphragms, strandy perihilar opacities, pneumothoraces and tracheotomy. Two fetuses were terminated and one fetus demised in utero. Four fetuses were delivered via ex utero intrapartum treatment procedure. MRI shows a consistent pattern of abnormalities in fetuses with CHAOS, accurately identifies the level of airway obstruction, and helps differentiate from other lung abnormalities such as bilateral congenital pulmonary airway malformation by demonstrating an abnormally dilated airway distal to the obstruction.

  9. Equine recurrent airway obstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur Niedźwiedź

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Equine Recurrent Airway Obstruction (RAO, also known as heaves or broken wind, is one of the most common disease in middle-aged horses. Inflammation of the airway is inducted by organic dust exposure. This disease is characterized by neutrophilic inflammation, bronchospasm, excessive mucus production and pathologic changes in the bronchiolar walls. Clinical signs are resolved in 3-4 weeks after environmental changes. Horses suffering from RAO are susceptible to allergens throughout their lives, therefore they should be properly managed. In therapy the most importanthing is to eliminate dustexposure, administration of corticosteroids and use bronchodilators to improve pulmonary function.

  10. Computed tomography-based subclassification of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dirksen, Asger; Wille, Mathilde M W

    2016-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) is an obvious modality for subclassification of COPD. Traditionally, the pulmonary involvement of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in smokers is understood as a combination of deleterious effects of smoking on small airways (chronic bronchitis and small airways...... observed in COPD are subtle. Furthermore, recent results indicate that emphysema may also be the essential pathophysiologic mechanism behind the airflow limitation of COPD. The definition of COPD excludes bronchiectasis as a symptomatic subtype of COPD, and CT findings in chronic bronchitis...... and exacerbations of COPD are rather unspecific. This leaves emphysema as the most obvious candidate for subclassification of COPD. Both chest radiologists and pulmonary physicians are quite familiar with the appearance of various patterns of emphysema on HRCT, such as centrilobular, panlobular, and paraseptal...

  11. Covered Bronchial Stent Insertion to Manage Airway Obstruction with Hemoptysis Caused by Lung Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sae Ah; Kim, Do Hyeong [Dankook University College of Medicine, Dankook University Hospital, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of); Jen, Gyeong Sik [Bundang CHA General Hospital, CHA University, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-07-15

    Malignant airway obstruction and hemoptysis are common in lung cancer patients. Recently, airway stent is commonly used to preserve airway in malignant airway obstruction. Hemoptysis can be managed through various methods including conservative treatment, endobronchial tamponade, bronchoscopic intervention, embolization and surgery. In our case studies, we sought to investigate the effectiveness of airway stents for re-opening the airway as well as tamponade effects in four patients with malignant airway obstruction and bleeding caused by tumors or lymph node invasions.

  12. EFFECTS OF CORTICOSTEROIDS ON BRONCHODILATOR ACTION IN CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE LUNG-DISEASE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WEMPE, JB; POSTMA, DS; BREEDERVELD, N; KORT, E; VANDERMARK, TW; KOETER, GH

    Background Short term treatment corticosteroids does not usually reduce airflow limitation and airway responsiveness in patients with chronic obstructive lung disease. We investigated whether corticosteroids modulate the effects of inhaled salbutamol and ipratropium bromide. Methods Ten non-allergic

  13. Two cases of airway obstruction after radiation therapies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Yuki; Hashimoto, Kazuyoshi; Yoshida, Ryu; Shimazu, Yuzou; Hattori, Hisashi; Kan, Keiichi

    2016-01-01

    We report two cases of airway obstruction due to several radiotherapies. In the first case, although a “cannot ventilate, cannot intubate” (CVCI) situation arose, we performed cricothyrotomy, thus saving the patient. In the second case, we were able to perform bronchoscopy early to assess her laryngeal edema before nasal intubation and tracheotomy were performed. As a result, a potentially distressing situation for the patient was prevented. We must be careful of airway obstructions that can occur in patients after several radiotherapies. (author)

  14. Obstructive sleep apnea in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lee, Ruth

    2012-02-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) represent two of the most prevalent chronic respiratory disorders and cardiovascular diseases are major co-morbidities in both. Co-existence of both disorders (overlap syndrome) occurs in 1% of adults and overlap patients have worse nocturnal hypoxemia and hypercapnia than COPD and OSA patients alone. The present review discusses recent data concerning the pathophysiological and clinical significance of the overlap syndrome. RECENT FINDINGS: The severity of obstructive ventilatory impairment and hyperinflation, especially the inspiratory capacity to total lung capacity (TLC) ratio, correlates with the severity of sleep-related breathing disturbances. Early treatment with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) improves survival, reduces hospitalization and pulmonary hypertension, and also reduces hypoxemia. Evidence of systemic inflammation and oxidative stress in COPD and sleep apnea provides insight into potential interactions between both disorders that may predispose to cardiovascular disease. Long-term outcome studies of overlap patients currently underway should provide further evidence of the clinical significance of the overlap syndrome. SUMMARY: Studies of overlap syndrome patients at a clinical, physiological and molecular level should provide insight into disease mechanisms and consequences of COPD and sleep apnea, in addition to identifying potential relationships with cardiovascular disease.

  15. Correlations of sleep disorders with severity of obstructive airway disease in mustard gas-injured patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahedi, Ensieh; Taheri, Saeed; Alaedini, Farshid; Poursaleh, Zohreh; Ameli, Javad; Ghanei, Mostafa

    2012-06-01

    Mustard gas has serious adverse effects on several organs and functions in humans. In this study, we analyzed potential correlations between obstructive airway disease and sleep disorders in Iranian mustard gas-injured patients. We enrolled 30 male mustard gas-injured veterans and civilians from the Chemical Warfare Exposure Clinic at Baqiyatallah Hospital, Tehran. All the subjects underwent comprehensive polysomnographic and spirometric evaluations for diagnosis of sleep disorders. Patients were categorized into three groups according to the severity of their obstructive airway disease based on the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) criteria: group 1 (GOLD I and II), group 2 (GOLD III), and group 3 (GOLD IV). Patients with less severe obstructive airway disease had significantly higher rate of hypopnea (p = 0.05) and AHI (p = 0.05). The number of REM events was significantly higher in patients with less severe airway disease (p = 0.028). Stage 1 sleep among patients with higher FEV1 significantly constituted a higher proportion of sleep, and stage 4 sleep was significantly longer in patients with higher DLCO (p = 0.043, both). We found that sleep parameters in SM-exposed patients have some relations with spirometric parameters. Future studies with large patient populations are needed for confirmation of our results, and therapeutic interventions are needed to evaluate endeavors we can do to enhance health and quality of life in our mustard gas-injured population.

  16. Chronic obstructive airway diseases: Is the EDL sufficient? A study ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STG's) and Essential Drug List (EDL) in 1996 some of the traditional medication for the treatment of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) were removed from the medication list, e.g. slow release oral theophylline.

  17. Effect of lung volume on airway luminal area assessed by computed tomography in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenta Kambara

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although airway luminal area (Ai is affected by lung volume (LV, how is not precisely understood. We hypothesized that the effect of LV on Ai would differ by airway generation, lung lobe, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD severity. METHODS: Sixty-seven subjects (15 at risk, 18, 20, and 14 for COPD stages 1, 2, and 3 underwent pulmonary function tests and computed tomography scans at full inspiration and expiration (at functional residual capacity. LV and eight selected identical airways were measured in the right lung. Ai was measured at the mid-portion of the 3(rd, the segmental bronchus, to 6(th generation of the airways, leading to 32 measurements per subject. RESULTS: The ratio of expiratory to inspiratory LV (LV E/I ratio and Ai (Ai E/I ratio was defined for evaluation of changes. The LV E/I ratio increased as COPD severity progressed. As the LV E/I ratio was smaller, the Ai E/I ratio was smaller at any generation among the subjects. Overall, the Ai E/I ratios were significantly smaller at the 5(th (61.5% and 6(th generations (63.4% and than at the 3(rd generation (73.6%, p<0.001 for each, and also significantly lower in the lower lobe than in the upper or middle lobe (p<0.001 for each. And, the Ai E/I ratio decreased as COPD severity progressed only when the ratio was corrected by the LV E/I ratio (at risk v.s. stage 3 p<0.001, stage 1 v.s. stage 3 p<0.05. CONCLUSIONS: From full inspiration to expiration, the airway luminal area shrinks more at the distal airways compared with the proximal airways and in the lower lobe compared with the other lobes. Generally, the airways shrink more as COPD severity progresses, but this phenomenon becomes apparent only when lung volume change from inspiration to expiration is taken into account.

  18. Quantitative computed tomography measurements to evaluate airway disease in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: Relationship to physiological measurements, clinical index and visual assessment of airway disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nambu, Atsushi; Zach, Jordan; Schroeder, Joyce; Jin, Gongyoung; Kim, Song Soo; Kim, Yu-IL; Schnell, Christina; Bowler, Russell; Lynch, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To correlate currently available quantitative CT measurements for airway disease with physiological indices and the body-mass index, airflow obstruction, dyspnea, and exercise capacity (BODE) index in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Materials and methods: This study was approved by our institutional review board (IRB number 2778). Written informed consent was obtained from all subjects. The subjects included 188 current and former cigarette smokers from the COPDGene cohort who underwent inspiratory and expiratory CT and also had physiological measurements for the evaluation of airflow limitation, including FEF25-75%, airway resistance (Raw), and specific airway conductance (sGaw). The BODE index was used as the index of clinical symptoms. Quantitative CT measures included % low attenuation areas [% voxels ≤ 950 Hounsfield unit (HU) on inspiratory CT, %LAA −950ins ], percent gas trapping (% voxels ≤ −856 HU on expiratory CT, %LAA −856exp ), relative inspiratory to expiratory volume change of voxels with attenuation values from −856 to −950 HU [Relative Volume Change (RVC) −856 to −950 ], expiratory to inspiratory ratio of mean lung density (E/I-ratio MLD ), Pi10, and airway wall thickness (WT), luminal diameter (LD) and airway wall area percent (WA%) in the segmental, subsegmental and subsubsegmental bronchi on inspiratory CT. Correlation coefficients were calculated between the QCT measurements and physiological measurements in all subjects and in the subjects with mild emphysema (%LAA −950ins <10%). Univariate and multiple variable analysis for the BODE index were also performed. Adjustments were made for age, gender, smoking pack years, FEF25-75%, Raw, and sGaw. Results: Quantitative CT measurements had significant correlations with physiological indices. Among them, E/I-ratio MLD had the strongest correlations with FEF25-75% (r = −0.648, <0.001) and sGaw (r = −0.624, <0.001) while in the subjects with

  19. Fatal Airway Obstruction in a Man With a Cystic Hygroma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wygant, Cassandra Maria; Cohle, Stephen D

    2018-05-03

    We describe a 24-year-old man with a cystic hygroma of the left side of the lower neck that led to sudden death. Cystic hygroma (cystic lymphangioma) is a congenital malformation of the lymphatic system. The patient, who had a tracheostomy because of airway obstruction from the cystic hygroma, was found dead with his tracheostomy tube on the floor next to him. Complications of cystic hygroma include infiltration of the neck causing airway obstruction, dysphagia, pain, and obstructive sleep apnea.

  20. Elevated circulating PAI-1 levels are related to lung function decline, systemic inflammation, and small airway obstruction in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang H

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Hao Wang,1,2,* Ting Yang,1,2,* Diandian Li,1,2 Yanqiu Wu,1,2 Xue Zhang,1,2 Caishuang Pang,1,2 Junlong Zhang,3 Binwu Ying,3 Tao Wang,1,2 Fuqiang Wen1,2 1Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan, People’s Republic of China; 2Division of Pulmonary Diseases, State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy of China, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan, People’s Republic of China; 3Department of Laboratory Medicine, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1 and soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR participate in inflammation and tissue remolding in various diseases, but their roles in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD are not yet clear. This study aimed to investigate if PAI-1 and suPAR were involved in systemic inflammation and small airway obstruction (SAO in COPD. Methods: Demographic and clinical characteristics, spirometry examination, and blood samples were obtained from 84 COPD patients and 51 healthy volunteers. Serum concentrations of PAI-1, suPAR, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1, Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9, and C-reactive protein (CRP were detected with Magnetic Luminex Screening Assay. Differences between groups were statistically analyzed using one-way analysis of variance or chi-square test. Pearson’s partial correlation test (adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, cigarette status, and passive smoke exposure and multivariable linear analysis were used to explore the relationships between circulating PAI-1 and indicators of COPD. Results: First, we found that serum PAI-1 levels but not suPAR levels were significantly increased in COPD patients compared with healthy volunteers (125.56±51.74 ng/mL versus 102.98±36.62 ng/mL, P=0.007. Then, the

  1. Guideline-oriented perioperative management of patients with bronchial asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamakage, Michiaki; Iwasaki, Sohshi; Namiki, Akiyoshi

    2008-01-01

    Increased airway hyperresponsiveness is a major concern in the perioperative management of patients with bronchial asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Guidelines using evidence-based medicine are continually being updated and published regarding the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of these respiratory disorders. Perioperative management in these patients involves: (1) adequate control of airway hyperresponsiveness, including detection of purulent sputum and infection before surgery; (2) evidence-based control of anesthesia; and (3) the aggressive use of beta-2 adrenergic stimulants and the systemic administration of steroids for the treatment of acute attacks. Good preoperative control, including the use of leukotriene antagonists, can reduce the incidence of life-threatening perioperative complications. Awareness of recent guidelines is thus important in the management of patients with airway hyperresponsiveness. This review covers the most recent guidelines for the perioperative management of patients with bronchial asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

  2. Role of the inflammasome in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colarusso, Chiara; Terlizzi, Michela; Molino, Antonio; Pinto, Aldo; Sorrentino, Rosalinda

    2017-10-10

    Inflammation is central to the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), a pulmonary disorder characterized by chronic bronchitis, chronic airway obstruction, emphysema, associated to progressive and irreversible decline of lung function. Emerging genetic and pharmacological evidence suggests that IL-1-like cytokines are highly detected in the sputum and broncho-alveolar lavage (BAL) of COPD patients, implying the involvement of the multiprotein complex inflammasome. So far, scientific evidence has focused on nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptors protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome, a specialized inflammatory signaling platform that governs the maturation and secretion of IL-1-like cytokines through the regulation of caspase-1-dependent proteolytic processing. Some studies revealed that it is involved during airway inflammation typical of COPD. Based on the influence of cigarette smoke in various respiratory diseases, including COPD, in this view we report its effects in inflammatory and immune responses in COPD mouse models and in human subjects affected by COPD. In sharp contrast to what reported on experimental and clinical studies, randomized clinical trials show that indirect inflammasome inhibitors did not have any beneficial effect in moderate to severe COPD patients.

  3. Controlled expiration in mechanically-ventilated patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.G.J.V. Aerts (Joachim); B.W. van den Berg (Bart); J.M. Bogaard (Jan)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractIn patients with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), lung emptying may be affected by flow limitation. We tested the hypothesis that the airway compression leading to flow limitation can be counteracted by controlling the expiratory flow. The effects

  4. Gastroesophageal Reflux Symptoms in Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlatica Goseva

    2014-09-01

    CONCLUSION: GER symptoms are more prevalent in patients with severe airways obstruction when compared to less airways obstructed group and controls. We could suggest an association between the degree of airways obstruction in patients with COPD and the increased rate of GER symptoms.

  5. Epiglottic abscess causing acute airway obstruction in an adult

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasileiadis, I.; Kapetanakis, S.; Vasileiadis, D.; Petousis, A.

    2013-01-01

    Acute epiglottitis is an acute inflammation in the supraglottic region of the oropharynx which is a potentially life-threatening condition leading to rapid upper airway obstruction. An infrequent sequel of acute epiglottitis is the epiglottic abscess. Less than 50 cases have been reported in the international literature and even less are the cases that acute surgical intervention was necessary to secure the airway. We report a young man with sudden onset of odynophagia, dysphonia and dyspnea and rapidly progression of upper airway obstruction. Clinical examination with fiberoptic nasopharyngolaryngoscope in emergency department demonstrated an epiglottic abscess. An urgent tracheostomy was performed in order to secure patient's airway and afterward, the patient underwent direct laryngoscopy and drainage of abscess and intravenous antibiotics were administrated. The diagnosis of epiglottic abscess should be considered in adult patients with odynophagia and dysphonia. Principles of treatment include aggressive airway management, surgical drainage of abscess and intravenous antibiotics. (author)

  6. Increased YKL-40 and Chitotriosidase in Asthma and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    James, Anna J.; Reinius, Lovisa E.; Verhoek, Marri; Gomes, Anna; Kupczyk, Maciej; Hammar, Ulf; Ono, Junya; Ohta, Shoichiro; Izuhara, Kenji; Bel, Elisabeth; Kere, Juha; Söderhäll, Cilla; Dahlén, Barbro; Boot, Rolf G.; Dahlén, Sven-Erik; Gaga, Mina; Siafakas, Nikos M.; Papi, Alberto; Fabbri, Leonardo M.; Joos, Guy; Brusselle, Guy; Rabe, Klaus F.; Kanniess, Frank; Hiemstra, Pieter; Johnston, Sebastian L.; Chanez, Pascal; Vachier, Isabelle; Gjomarkaj, Mark; Sterk, Peter J.; Howarth, Peter H.; Nizankowska-Mogilnicka, Ewa; Middelveld, Roelinde; Holgate, Stephen T.; Wilson, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Serum chitinases may be novel biomarkers of airway inflammation and remodeling, but less is known about factors regulating their levels. To examine serum chitotriosidase activity and YKL-40 levels in patients with asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and evaluate clinically

  7. Increased YKL-40 and Chitotriosidase in Asthma and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    James, Anna J.; Reinius, Lovisa E.; Verhoek, Marri; Gomes, Anna; Kupczyk, Maciej; Hammar, Ulf; Ono, Junya; Ohta, Shoichiro; Izuhara, Kenji; Bel, Elisabeth; Kere, Juha; Soderhall, Cilia; Dahlen, Barbro; Boot, Rolf G.; Dahlen, Sven-Erik

    2016-01-01

    Rationale: Serum chitinases may be novel biomarkers of airway inflammation and remodeling, but less is known about factors regulating their levels. Objectives: To examine serum chitotriosidase activity and YKL-40 levels in patients with asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and

  8. Anticholinergic treatment in airways diseases.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Flynn, Robert A

    2009-10-01

    The prevalence of chronic airways diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma is increasing. They lead to symptoms such as a cough and shortness of breath, partially through bronchoconstriction. Inhaled anticholinergics are one of a number of treatments designed to treat bronchoconstriction in airways disease. Both short-acting and long-acting agents are now available and this review highlights their efficacy and adverse event profile in chronic airways diseases.

  9. Quantitative computed tomography measurements to evaluate airway disease in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: Relationship to physiological measurements, clinical index and visual assessment of airway disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nambu, Atsushi, E-mail: nambu-a@gray.plala.or.jp [Department of Radiology, National Jewish Health, 1400 Jackson Street, Denver, CO, 80206 (United States); Zach, Jordan, E-mail: ZachJ@NJHealth.org [Department of Radiology, National Jewish Health, 1400 Jackson Street, Denver, CO, 80206 (United States); Schroeder, Joyce, E-mail: Joyce.schroeder@stanfordalumni.org [Department of Radiology, National Jewish Health, 1400 Jackson Street, Denver, CO, 80206 (United States); Jin, Gongyoung, E-mail: gyjin@chonbuk.ac.kr [Department of Radiology, National Jewish Health, 1400 Jackson Street, Denver, CO, 80206 (United States); Kim, Song Soo, E-mail: haneul88@hanmail.net [Department of Radiology, National Jewish Health, 1400 Jackson Street, Denver, CO, 80206 (United States); Kim, Yu-IL, E-mail: kyionly@chonnam.ac.kr [Department of Medicine, National Jewish Health, Denver, CO (United States); Schnell, Christina, E-mail: SchnellC@NJHealth.org [Department of Medicine, National Jewish Health, Denver, CO (United States); Bowler, Russell, E-mail: BowlerR@NJHealth.org [Division of Pulmonary Medicine, Department of Medicine, National Jewish Health (United States); Lynch, David A., E-mail: LynchD@NJHealth.org [Department of Radiology, National Jewish Health, 1400 Jackson Street, Denver, CO, 80206 (United States)

    2016-11-15

    Purpose: To correlate currently available quantitative CT measurements for airway disease with physiological indices and the body-mass index, airflow obstruction, dyspnea, and exercise capacity (BODE) index in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Materials and methods: This study was approved by our institutional review board (IRB number 2778). Written informed consent was obtained from all subjects. The subjects included 188 current and former cigarette smokers from the COPDGene cohort who underwent inspiratory and expiratory CT and also had physiological measurements for the evaluation of airflow limitation, including FEF25-75%, airway resistance (Raw), and specific airway conductance (sGaw). The BODE index was used as the index of clinical symptoms. Quantitative CT measures included % low attenuation areas [% voxels ≤ 950 Hounsfield unit (HU) on inspiratory CT, %LAA{sub −950ins}], percent gas trapping (% voxels ≤ −856 HU on expiratory CT, %LAA {sub −856exp}), relative inspiratory to expiratory volume change of voxels with attenuation values from −856 to −950 HU [Relative Volume Change (RVC){sub −856} {sub to} {sub −950}], expiratory to inspiratory ratio of mean lung density (E/I-ratio {sub MLD}), Pi10, and airway wall thickness (WT), luminal diameter (LD) and airway wall area percent (WA%) in the segmental, subsegmental and subsubsegmental bronchi on inspiratory CT. Correlation coefficients were calculated between the QCT measurements and physiological measurements in all subjects and in the subjects with mild emphysema (%LAA{sub −950ins} <10%). Univariate and multiple variable analysis for the BODE index were also performed. Adjustments were made for age, gender, smoking pack years, FEF25-75%, Raw, and sGaw. Results: Quantitative CT measurements had significant correlations with physiological indices. Among them, E/I-ratio {sub MLD} had the strongest correlations with FEF25-75% (r = −0.648, <0.001) and sGaw (r = −0

  10. Proportional positive airway pressure: a new concept to treat obstructive sleep apnoea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juhász, J; Becker, H; Cassel, W; Rostig, S; Peter, J H

    2001-03-01

    Proportional positive airway pressure (PPAP) was designed to optimize airway pressure for the therapy of obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA). In a randomized crossover prospective study, the clinical feasibility of PPAP and its immediate effects on the breathing disorder and sleep in comparison with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) was evaluated. Twelve patients requiring CPAP therapy underwent CPAP and PPAP titration in a random order. Obstructive and mixed respiratory events could be completely abolished with both forms of treatment. This efficacy could be achieved at a significantly lower mean mask pressure during PPAP titration (8.45+/-2.42 cmH2O) compared to CPAP (9.96+/-2.7 cmH2O) (p=0.002). The mean minimal arterial oxygen saturation (Sa,O2) (82.8+/-6.5%) on the diagnostic night increased significantly (pPPAP titration. Total sleep time, slow wave sleep and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep increased significantly by the same amount during both CPAP and PPAP titration (pPPAP titration night, four patients did not have a preference, and two patients preferred CPAP. The present data show that proportional positive airway pressure is as effective as continuous positive airway pressure in eliminating obstructive events and has the same immediate effect on sleep. The lower average mask pressure during proportional positive airway pressure implies potential advantages compared to continuous positive airway pressure. Proportional positive airway pressure presents a new effective therapeutic approach to obstructive sleep apnoea.

  11. Work of breathing as a tool to diagnose severe fixed upper airway obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khirani, S; Pierrot, S; Leboulanger, N; Ramirez, A; Breton, D; Couloigner, V; Fauroux, B

    2014-03-01

    A 4-year-old girl with bilateral vocal fold palsy was successfully decannulated from tracheotomy after seven laryngeal procedures. But an important stridor and dyspnea recurred 13 months after decannulation. Nocturnal gas exchange was normal but her daytime work of breathing was increased by fourfold, without any beneficial effect of nasal noninvasive continuous positive airway pressure ventilation (CPAP), reflecting a severe fixed airway obstruction. Endoscopic examination confirmed the work of breathing findings showing glottic and supraglottic stenosis. This upper airway obstruction was successfully treated with a recannulation. In conclusion, the major message of this case report is that measurement of the work of breathing was able to document the "fixed" nature of the airway obstruction, by showing no improvement even with highest tolerated levels of nasal CPAP. As such, the work of breathing may be proposed as a screening tool to quantify and assess the reversibility of severe upper airway obstruction in children. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. The role of endotoxin in grain dust exposure and airway obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Von Essen, S

    1997-05-01

    Grain dust exposure is a common cause of respiratory symptoms in grain workers, feed mill employees, and farmers. Many of these workers develop wheezing and acute and chronic bronchitis symptoms, which can be associated with obstructive changes on pulmonary function testing. It has recently been demonstrated that grain dust exposure causes neutrophilic airways inflammation and systemic symptoms related to release of interleukin-1, tumor necrosis factor, interleukin-6, and other mediators of inflammation. Although grain dust is a heterogenous substance, endotoxin has received the greatest amount of attention as a possible cause of the airway inflammation that occurs after grain dust exposure. Although endotoxin undoubtedly causes a portion of the changes seen after grain dust exposure, it is becoming clear that other substances play a role as well.

  13. C-reactive protein as a predictor of prognosis in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Morten; Vestbo, Jørgen; Lange, Peter

    2007-01-01

    RATIONALE: Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have an ongoing systemic inflammation, which can be assessed by measuring serum C-reactive protein (CRP). OBJECTIVE: To determine whether increased serum CRP in individuals with airway obstruction predicts future hospitalization...... and death from COPD. METHODS: We performed a cohort study with a median of 8-yr follow-up of 1,302 individuals with airway obstruction selected from the ongoing Copenhagen City Heart Study. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: We measured serum CRP at baseline, and recorded COPD admissions and deaths as outcomes...... consumption, and ischemic heart disease, the hazard ratios for hospitalization and death due to COPD were increased at 1.4 (95% confidence interval, 1.0-2.0) and 2.2 (1.2-3.9) in individuals with baseline CRP > 3 mg/L versus

  14. Quantitative evaluation of inhaled radioactive aerosol deposition patterns in the lungs in obstructive airways disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teshima, Takeo; Isawa, Toyoharu; Hirano, Tomio; Ebina, Akio; Shiraishi, Koichiro; Konno, Kiyoshi

    1985-12-01

    Uneven distribution of inhaled aerosol in the lungs is the characteristics of obstructive airways disease such as chronic bronchitis and pulmonary emphysema, and has been classified typically into peripheral and central deposition patterns, respectively by visual inspection, whereas in the normal the distribution is homogeneous throughout the lungs. The purpose of the present study was to analyse the distribution of inhaled radioactivity in the lungs by way of matrixes by a computer. The seemingly homogeneous distribution pattern in normal subjects has been found to indicate a gradual change in count profile between the neighboring matrixes. The peripheral pattern indicates the patchy presence of small number of matrixes with excessive radioactivity throughout the lungs, and the central pattern, the presence of matrixes of excessive radioactivity along the major central airways forming a comma-like configuration superimposed on the peripheral pattern. Our computer analysis has a potentiality to characterize obstructive airways disease for a better understanding of their pathophysiology, which is not feasible by a simple visual inspection of images on a polaroid picture.

  15. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and obstructive sleep apnea: overlaps in pathophysiology, systemic inflammation, and cardiovascular disease.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McNicholas, Walter T

    2012-02-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and obstructive sleep apnea syndrome represent two of the most prevalent chronic respiratory disorders in clinical practice, and cardiovascular diseases represent a major comorbidity in each disorder. The two disorders coexist (overlap syndrome) in approximately 1% of adults but asymptomatic lower airway obstruction together with sleep-disordered breathing is more prevalent. Although obstructive sleep apnea syndrome has similar prevalence in COPD as the general population, and vice versa, factors such as body mass index and smoking influence relationships. Nocturnal oxygen desaturation develops in COPD, independent of apnea\\/hypopnea, and is more severe in the overlap syndrome, thus predisposing to pulmonary hypertension. Furthermore, upper airway flow limitation contributes to nocturnal desaturation in COPD without apnea\\/hypopnea. Evidence of systemic inflammation in COPD and sleep apnea, involving C-reactive protein and IL-6, in addition to nuclear factor-kappaB-dependent pathways involving tumor necrosis factor-alpha and IL-8, provides insight into potential basic interactions between both disorders. Furthermore, oxidative stress develops in each disorder, in addition to activation and\\/or dysfunction of circulating leukocytes. These findings are clinically relevant because systemic inflammation may contribute to the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases and the cell\\/molecular pathways involved are similar to those identified in COPD and sleep apnea. However, the pathophysiological and clinical significance of systemic inflammation in COPD and sleep apnea is not proven, and thus, studies of patients with the overlap syndrome should provide insight into the mechanisms of systemic inflammation in COPD and sleep apnea, in addition to potential relationships with cardiovascular disease.

  16. Effects of inhaled corticosteroids on airway inflammation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jen R

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Rachel Jen,1 Stephen,1 Rennard,2 Don D Sin1,31Department of Medicine, Respiratory Division, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada; 2Internal Medicine Section of Pulmonary and Critical Care, Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE, USA; 3Institute of Heart and Lung Health and the UBC James Hogg Research Center, St Paul's Hospital, Vancouver, BC, CanadaBackground: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is characterized by chronic inflammation in the small airways. The effect of inhaled corticosteroids (ICS on lung inflammation in COPD remains uncertain. We sought to determine the effects of ICS on inflammatory indices in bronchial biopsies and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of patients with COPD.Methods: We searched Medline, Embase, Cinahl, and the Cochrane database for randomized, controlled clinical trials that used bronchial biopsies and bronchoalveolar lavage to evaluate the effects of ICS in stable COPD. For each chosen study, we calculated the mean differences in the concentrations of inflammatory cells before and after treatment in both intervention and control groups. These values were then converted into standardized mean differences (SMD to accommodate the differences in patient selection, clinical treatment, and biochemical procedures that were employed across the original studies. If significant heterogeneity was present (P < 0.1, then a random effects model was used to pool the original data; otherwise, a fixed effects model was used.Results: We identified eight original studies that met the inclusion criteria. Four studies used bronchial biopsies (n = 102 participants and showed that ICS were effective in reducing CD4 and CD8 cell counts (SMD, −0.52 units and −0.66 units, 95% confidence interval. The five studies used bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (n = 309, which together showed that ICS reduced neutrophil and lymphocyte counts (SMD, −0.64 units and −0.64 units, 95% confidence interval. ICS on the other hand

  17. Epithelial and endothelial cell plasticity in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohal, Sukhwinder Singh

    2017-03-01

    Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is mainly caused by smoking and presents with shortness of breath that is progressive and irreversible. It is a worldwide health problem and the fourth most common cause of chronic disability and mortality (even in developed countries). It is a complex disease involving both the airway and lung parenchyma. Small-airway fibrosis is the main contributor to physiological airway dysfunction in COPD. One potential mechanism contributing to small-airway fibrosis is epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT). When associated with angiogenesis (EMT-type-3), EMT may well also be linked to the development of airway epithelial cancer, which is closely associated with COPD and predominantly observed in large airways. Vascular remodeling has also been widely reported in smokers and patients with COPD but the mechanisms behind it are poorly understood. It is quite possible that the process of endothelial to mesenchymal transition (EndMT) is also active in COPD lungs, in addition to EMT. Understanding these pathological mechanisms will greatly enhance our knowledge of the immunopathology of smoking-related lung disease. Only by understanding these processes can new therapies be developed. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. PAI-1 gain-of-function genotype, factors increasing PAI-1 levels, and airway obstruction: The GALA II Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherenian, M G; Cho, S H; Levin, A; Min, J-Y; Oh, S S; Hu, D; Galanter, J; Sen, S; Huntsman, S; Eng, C; Rodriguez-Santana, J R; Serebrisky, D; Avila, P C; Kalhan, R; Smith, L J; Borrell, L N; Seibold, M A; Keoki Williams, L; Burchard, E G; Kumar, R

    2017-09-01

    PAI-1 gain-of-function variants promote airway fibrosis and are associated with asthma and with worse lung function in subjects with asthma. We sought to determine whether the association of a gain-of-function polymorphism in plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) with airway obstruction is modified by asthma status, and whether any genotype effect persists after accounting for common exposures that increase PAI-1 level. We studied 2070 Latino children (8-21y) with genotypic and pulmonary function data from the GALA II cohort. We estimated the relationship of the PAI-1 risk allele with FEV1/FVC by multivariate linear regression, stratified by asthma status. We examined the association of the polymorphism with asthma and airway obstruction within asthmatics via multivariate logistic regression. We replicated associations in the SAPPHIRE cohort of African Americans (n=1056). Secondary analysis included the effect of the at-risk polymorphism on postbronchodilator lung function. There was an interaction between asthma status and the PAI-1 polymorphism on FEV 1 /FVC (P=.03). The gain-of-function variants, genotypes (AA/AG), were associated with lower FEV 1 /FVC in subjects with asthma (β=-1.25, CI: -2.14,-0.35, P=.006), but not in controls. Subjects with asthma and the AA/AG genotypes had a 5% decrease in FEV 1 /FVC (P<.001). In asthmatics, the risk genotype (AA/AG) was associated with a 39% increase in risk of clinically relevant airway obstruction (OR=1.39, CI: 1.01, 1.92, P=.04). These associations persisted after exclusion of factors that increase PAI-1 including tobacco exposure and obesity. The decrease in the FEV 1 /FVC ratio associated with the risk genotype was modified by asthma status. The genotype increased the odds of airway obstruction by 75% within asthmatics only. As exposures known to increase PAI-1 levels did not mitigate this association, PAI-1 may contribute to airway obstruction in the context of chronic asthmatic airway inflammation. © 2017

  19. Supra-Epiglottic Upper Airway Volume in Elderly Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea Hypopnea Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutet, Claire; Abdirahman Mohamed Moussa, Syad; Celle, Sébastien; Laurent, Bernard; Barthélémy, Jean-Claude; Barral, Fabrice-Guy; Roche, Frédéric

    2016-01-01

    Small upper airway measurements areas and high body mass index are recognized risk factors for obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) in non-elderly populations; however, there is limited information regarding elderly patients. We evaluated whether upper airway volume is associated with OSAS and OSAS treated with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment and whether BMI is correlated with upper airway volume and measurements in elderly subjects. In 60 volunteers aged 75.58±0.9 years: 20 OSAS, 20 OSAS chronically treated with CPAP, and 20 controls, semi-automatic segmentation, retropalatal distance and transverse diameter of the supra-epiglottic upper airway were evaluated using 3DT1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging. Anteroposterior to transverse diameter ratio was defined as retropalatar diameter/transverse diameter. There were no significant differences in supra-epiglottic upper airway volume between OSAS, CPAP treated patients, and controls. There were significant differences in retropalatal distance and anteroposterior to transverse diameter ratio between OSAS, CPAP treated patients, and controls (P = 0.008 and Psupra-epiglottic upper airway volume. In elderly subjects, OSAS and body mass index are not associated with changes in supra-epiglottic upper airway volume but are associated with modification of pharynx shape.

  20. Bronchopulmonary hygiene physical therapy for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and bronchiectasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, A P; Rowe, B H

    2000-01-01

    Bronchopulmonary hygiene physical therapy is a form of chest physical therapy including chest percussion and postural drainage to remove lung secretions. These are applied commonly to patients with both acute and chronic airway diseases. Despite controversies in the literature regarding its efficacy, it remains in use in a variety of clinical settings. The various forms of this therapy are labour intensive and need to be evaluated. The objective of this review was to assess the effects of bronchial hygiene physical therapy in people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and bronchiectasis. We searched the Cochrane Airways Group trials register and reference lists of articles up to July 1997. We also wrote to study authors. Randomised trials in which postural drainage, chest percussion, vibration, chest shaking, directed coughing or forced exhalation technique was compared to other drainage or breathing techniques, placebo or no treatment. Two reviewers applied the inclusion and exclusion criteria on masked publications independently. They assessed the trial quality independently. Only data from the first arm of crossover trials were included. The seven included trials involved six comparisons and a total of 126 people. The trials were small and not generally of high quality. The results could not be combined as trials addressed different patient groups and outcomes. In most comparisons, bronchial hygiene physical therapy produced no significant effects on pulmonary function, apart from clearing sputum in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and in bronchiectasis. There is not enough evidence to support or refute the use of bronchial hygiene physical therapy in people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and bronchiectasis.

  1. The saw-tooth sign as a clinical clue for intrathoracic central airway obstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakajima Akira

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The saw-tooth sign was first described by Sanders et al in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome as one cause of extrathoracic central airway obstruction. The mechanism of the saw-tooth sign has not been conclusively clarified. The sign has also been described in various extrathoracic central airway diseases, such as in burn victims with thermal injury to the upper airways, Parkinson’s disease, tracheobronchomalacia, laryngeal dyskinesia, and pedunculated tumors of the upper airway. Case presentation A 61-year-old man was referred to our hospital with a two-month history of persistent dry cough and dyspnea. He was diagnosed with lung cancer located in an intrathoracic central airway, which was accompanied by the saw-tooth sign on flow-volume loops. This peculiar sign repeatedly improved and deteriorated, in accordance with the waxing and waning of central airway stenosis by anti-cancer treatments. Conclusion This report suggests that the so-called saw-tooth sign may be found even in intrathoracic central airway obstruction due to lung cancer.

  2. Headache in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: effects of chronic hypoxaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozge, Aynur; Ozge, Cengiz; Kaleagasi, Hakan; Yalin, Osman Ozgür; Unal, Ozgür; Ozgür, Eylem S

    2006-02-01

    The frequency and characteristics of headache in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are not clear and there are only a few studies that have assessed the relationship between chronic hypoxaemia and headache. We performed this study in order to evaluate the frequency and characteristics of headache in COPD patients. A total of 119 patients, with a mean age of 63.4 +/- 8.2 years, diagnosed with moderate or severe stable COPD were included in the study. Overall 31.9% of the patients complained of headache and 45.4% were reported to have sleep disorders. There were significant effects of family history of COPD, having other systemic disorders or sleep disorders (snoring, bruxism, restless leg syndrome, etc.) and laboratory data of chronic hypoxaemia and airway obstruction on headache co-morbidity. In conclusion, possibly being a specific subtype of elderly headache, headache in patients with moderate or severe COPD is a common problem and future studies are needed to obtain more knowledge about its pathophysiological and clinical basis.

  3. Postmortem magnetic resonance appearances of congenital high airway obstruction syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arthurs, Owen J. [Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Radiology, London (United Kingdom); UCL Institute of Child Health, London (United Kingdom); Chitty, Lyn S. [UCL Institute of Child Health, Genetics and Genomic Medicine, London (United Kingdom); Great Ormond Street and UCLH NHS Foundation Trusts, London (United Kingdom); Judge-Kronis, Lydia [Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Histopathology, London (United Kingdom); Sebire, Neil J. [UCL Institute of Child Health, London (United Kingdom); Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Histopathology, London (United Kingdom)

    2015-04-01

    Congenital high airway obstruction syndrome (CHAOS) is a rare life-threatening condition characterised by complete or near-complete developmental obstruction of the foetal airway. Although antenatal imaging findings have been described, the postmortem MRI findings have not been reported. To present postmortem MRI features of CHAOS. We retrospectively reviewed our hospital pathology and imaging databases for cases of CHAOS over a 2-year period. We identified two cases of CHAOS. In both cases, postmortem plain radiographs demonstrated gross abdominal distension with distortion and splaying of the rib cage. Both foetuses had characteristic postmortem MRI findings including large-volume fluid-filled lungs on T2-weighted imaging, diaphragmatic eversion, fluid-filled airway dilatation below the level of obstruction, centrally positioned and compressed heart, and massive ascites. One foetus had an associated limb abnormality. Postmortem MRI in foetuses suspected of having CHAOS allows confirmation of the diagnosis, determination of the anatomical level of the atresia or stenosis, and identification of associated abnormalities without the need for invasive autopsy. (orig.)

  4. Lung disease with chronic obstruction in opium smokers in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Costa, J. L.; Tock, E. P. C.; Boey, H. K.

    1971-01-01

    Fifty-four opium smokers with chronic obstructive lung disease were studied for two-and-a-half years. Forty-eight patients had a cough for at least two years before the onset of inappropriate exertional dyspnoea. Fine, bubbling adventitious sounds suggesting small airway disease were heard on auscultation over the middle and lower lobes in 38 patients. The prevalence of inflammatory lung disease and chronic respiratory failure in this series is suggested as the main cause for the frequent finding of right ventricular hypertrophy and congestive heart failure. Physiological studies revealed moderate to severe airways obstruction with gross over-inflation and, in 32 patients, an additional restrictive defect probably due to peribronchiolar fibrosis. Radiological evidence of chronic bronchitis and bronchiolitis was observed in 45 patients, `pure' chronic bronchiolitis in six patients, and `widespread' emphysema in 25 patients respectively. Necropsy examinations in nine patients, however, showed destructive emphysema of variable severity in all. Chronic bronchiolitis often associated with striking bronchiolectasis was present in six cases. More severe bronchiolar rather than bronchial inflammation was noted. The heavy opium smokers had characteristic nodular shadows on chest radiography, sometimes associated with a striking reticular pattern not seen in `pure' cigarette smokers. This was due to gross pigmented dust (presumably carbon) deposition in relation to blood vessels, lymphatics, and bronchioles, and also within the alveoli. It is speculated that the initial lesion is an acquired bronchiolitis. Opium smoking induces an irritative bronchopathy favouring repeated attacks of acute bronchiolitis and eventually resulting in obliterative bronchiolitis, peribronchiolar fibrosis, chronic bronchitis, and destructive emphysema. Images PMID:5134057

  5. Endotracheal tube defects: Hidden causes of airway obstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofi Khalid

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Manufacturing defects of endotracheal tube (ETT are still encountered in anesthesia practice. Many such defects go unnoticed during routine inspection prior to their use. Such defects in ETT may lead to partial or complete airway obstruction in an intubated patient. We report a case of partial airway obstruction with a prepacked, single use, uncuffed ETT due to a manufacturing defect in the form of a plastic meniscus at the distal end of the tube. This case report highlights the significance of standard monitoring of ventilation and the role of a vigilant clinician in detecting such defects in avoiding critical events as can arise from the use of such defective ETTs. It also emphasizes the need for double checking ETTs prior to their use.

  6. The role of impulse oscillometry in assessment of airway obstruction in smokers and ex-smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taher El-Naggar

    2012-10-01

    Conclusion: IOS is an effective, easy to perform, and a non invasive method for the assessment of airway obstruction in obstructive pulmonary disorders. Although, there is no significant difference between impulse oscillometry and spirometry parameters in early detection of airway obstruction in smokers and ex-smokers groups.

  7. Analysis of airways in computed tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jens

    Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is major cause of death and disability world-wide. It affects lung function through destruction of lung tissue known as emphysema and inflammation of airways, leading to thickened airway walls and narrowed airway lumen. Computed Tomography (CT) imaging...

  8. Congenital high airway obstruction syndrome (CHAOS) associated with cervical myelomeningocele.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adin, Mehmet Emin

    2017-10-01

    Congenital high airway obstruction syndrome (CHAOS) is a rare and potentially fatal entity resulting from complete or near complete developmental airway obstruction. Although most reported cases of CHAOS are sporadic, the condition may also be associated with certain syndromes and a variety of cervical masses. Meningocele and myelomeningocele have not yet been reported in association with CHAOS. We describe the typical constellation of sonographic findings in a case of early diagnosis of CHAOS associated with cervical myelomeningocele. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Clin Ultrasound 45:507-510, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. [Electrocautery and bronchoscopy as a first step for the management of central airway obstruction and associated hemoptysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalilie, Alfredo; Carvajal, Juan Carlos; Aparicio, Rodrigo; Meneses, Manuel

    2016-11-01

    Central airway obstruction caused by malignant or benign lesions, associated in some cases with hemoptysis, is a condition with high morbidity and mortality. The use of electrocautery by flexible bronchoscopy is an initial treatment option with immediate improvement of obstruction symptoms. It is as effective as Nd: YAG laser. To describe the usefulness of electrocautery in the management of central obstruction of the airway and hemoptysis. A retrospective, descriptive study of patients referred for management of central airway obstruction or associated hemoptysis. Diagnoses, symptoms (dyspnea, cough, and hemoptysis) and radiology before and after the procedures were analyzed. Eighteen patients aged 59 ± 12 years (66% males) were evaluated, registering 25 endoscopic procedures. Three conditions were found: partial or complete airway obstruction, hemoptysis and post lung transplant bronchial stenosis. Seventy two percent presented with dyspnea, 61% with cough and 33% with hemoptysis. Sixty six percent of patients had airway obstruction caused by malignant metastatic lesions. After electrocautery, 17 patients (94.4%) improved their symptoms and achieved complete airway clearing. Three patients had significant bronchial stenosis after lung transplant achieving subsequent clearing after electrocautery. Electrocautery during flexible bronchoscopy is an effective and safe procedure for the management of central airway obstruction and associated hemoptysis.

  10. Differential distribution of inflammatory cells in large and small airways in smokers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Battaglia, Salvatore; Mauad, Thais; van Schadewijk, Annemarie M.; Vignola, Antonia M.; Rabe, Klaus F.; Bellia, Vincenzo; Sterk, Peter J.; Hiemstra, Pieter S.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Smoking induces structural changes in the airways, and is considered a major factor in the development of airflow obstruction in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. However, differences in inflammatory cell distribution between large airways (LA) and small airways (SA) have not been

  11. Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia as an Unusual Cause of Rapid Airway Compromise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian R. Bersabe

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL is the most prevalent form of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL in Western countries predominantly affecting adults over the age of 65. CLL is commonly indolent in nature but can present locally and aggressively at extranodal sites. Although CLL may commonly present with cervical lymphadenopathy, manifestation in nonlymphoid regions of the head and neck is not well described. CLL causing upper airway obstruction is even more uncommon. We describe a case of a patient with known history of CLL and stable lymphocytosis that developed an enlarging lymphoid base of tongue (BOT mass resulting in rapid airway compromise.

  12. Detection of the airway obstruction stage in asthma using impulse oscillometry system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Guang-Sheng; Zhou, Zhi-Cai; Gu, Wen-Chao; Xi, Feng; Wu, Hao; Yang, Wen-Lan; Liu, Jin-Ming

    2013-02-01

    Although spirometry is the most common method for evaluating the airway obstruction stage in asthma patients, it is difficult to perform in some patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether impulse oscillometry, an easy-to-perform technique, can detect asthmatic airway obstruction stage. A total of 80 subjects, including healthy volunteers and patients with asthma, were enrolled in this study. The asthma patients were classified into three groups according to American Thoracic Society (ATS)/European Respiratory Society (ERS)-2005: the mild group (forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV(1)) ≥ 70% predicted (Pred), n = 20), the moderate group (50% Pred ≤ FEV(1) IOS) parameters were obtained from every subject. Correlation analysis was used to compare spirometry measurements and IOS parameters. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed to compare IOS parameters among different groups. The potential of using all individual IOS parameters to detect the different stages of asthmatic airway obstruction was evaluated by the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. The correlation analysis showed that IOS parameters, such as respiratory resistance at 5 Hz (R(5)), respiratory resistance at 10 Hz (R(10)), respiratory resistance at 20 Hz (R(20)), difference in resistance between 5 Hz and 20 Hz (R(5-20)), impedance at 5 Hz (Z(5)), resonant frequency (Fres), and area of reactance (AX) were negatively correlated with FEV(1) and peak expiratory flow (PEF), while reactance at 5 Hz (X(5)) was positively correlated with FEV(1) and PEF. The increase in R(5), R(10), R(20), Z(5), R(5-20), Fres, (-X(5)), and AX parameters corresponded significantly with an increase in the airway obstruction stage, as determined by one-way ANOVA . ROC curve analysis revealed that all the IOS parameters studied, except for Fres, were capable of classifying asthmatic airway obstruction. R(5), R(5-20), and Z(5) were the most accurate parameters. IOS provides an

  13. Haemophilus influenzae genome evolution during persistence in the human airways in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettigrew, Melinda M; Ahearn, Christian P; Gent, Janneane F; Kong, Yong; Gallo, Mary C; Munro, James B; D'Mello, Adonis; Sethi, Sanjay; Tettelin, Hervé; Murphy, Timothy F

    2018-04-03

    Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) exclusively colonize and infect humans and are critical to the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In vitro and animal models do not accurately capture the complex environments encountered by NTHi during human infection. We conducted whole-genome sequencing of 269 longitudinally collected cleared and persistent NTHi from a 15-y prospective study of adults with COPD. Genome sequences were used to elucidate the phylogeny of NTHi isolates, identify genomic changes that occur with persistence in the human airways, and evaluate the effect of selective pressure on 12 candidate vaccine antigens. Strains persisted in individuals with COPD for as long as 1,422 d. Slipped-strand mispairing, mediated by changes in simple sequence repeats in multiple genes during persistence, regulates expression of critical virulence functions, including adherence, nutrient uptake, and modification of surface molecules, and is a major mechanism for survival in the hostile environment of the human airways. A subset of strains underwent a large 400-kb inversion during persistence. NTHi does not undergo significant gene gain or loss during persistence, in contrast to other persistent respiratory tract pathogens. Amino acid sequence changes occurred in 8 of 12 candidate vaccine antigens during persistence, an observation with important implications for vaccine development. These results indicate that NTHi alters its genome during persistence by regulation of critical virulence functions primarily by slipped-strand mispairing, advancing our understanding of how a bacterial pathogen that plays a critical role in COPD adapts to survival in the human respiratory tract.

  14. Cut-off value of FEV1/FEV6 as a surrogate for FEV1/FVC for detecting airway obstruction in a Korean population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung KS

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Kyung Soo Chung,1,2 Ji Ye Jung,1,2 Moo Suk Park,1,2 Young Sam Kim,1,2 Se Kyu Kim,1,2 Joon Chang,1,2 Joo Han Song1,2 1Division of Pulmonology, Department of Internal Medicine, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea; 2Institute of Chest Disease, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea Background: Forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1/forced expiratory volume in 6 seconds (FEV6 has been proposed as an alternative to FEV1/forced vital capacity (FVC for detecting airway obstruction. A fixed cut-off value for FEV1/FEV6 in a Korean population is lacking. We investigated a fixed cut-off for FEV1/FEV6 as a surrogate for FEV1/FVC for detecting airway obstruction.Materials and methods: We used data obtained in the 5 years of the Fifth and Sixth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. A total of 14,978 participants aged ≥40 years who underwent spirometry adequately were the study cohort. “Airway obstruction” was a fixed cut-off FEV1/FVC <70% according to the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease guidelines. We also used European Respiratory Society/Global Lung Initiative 2012 equations for the FEV1/FVC lower limit of normal.Results: Among the 14,978 participants (43.5% male, 56.5% female; mean age: 56.9 years for men and 57.0 years for women, 14.0% had obstructive lung function according to a fixed cut-off FEV1/FVC <70%. Optimal FEV1/FEV6 cut-off for predicting FEV1/FVC <70% was 75% using receiver operating characteristic curve analyses (area under receiver operating characteristic curve =0.989, 95% confidence interval 0.987–0.990. This fixed cut-off of FEV1/FEV6 showed 93.8% sensitivity, 94.8% specificity, 74.7% positive predictive value, 98.9% negative predictive value, and 0.8 Cohen’s kappa coefficient. When compared with FEV1/FVC < lower limit of normal, FEV1/FEV6 <75% tended to over-diagnose airflow limitation (just like a fixed cut

  15. Fetal tracheolaryngeal airway obstruction: prenatal evaluation by sonography and MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Courtier, Jesse; Poder, Liina; Wang, Zhen J.; Westphalen, Antonio C.; Yeh, Benjamin M.; Coakley, Fergus V. [University of California San Francisco, Department of Radiology, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2010-11-15

    We reviewed the sonographic and MRI findings of tracheolaryngeal obstruction in the fetus. Conditions that can cause tracheolaryngeal obstruction include extrinsic causes such as lymphatic malformation, cervical teratoma and vascular rings and intrinsic causes such as congenital high airway obstruction syndrome (CHAOS). Accurate distinction of these conditions by sonography or MRI can help facilitate parental counseling and management, including the decision to utilize the ex utero intrapartum treatment (EXIT) procedure. (orig.)

  16. Physiologic correlates of airspace size and airway remodeling in the smoke exposed guinea pig model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wright, J. L.; Postma, D. S.; Kerstjens, H. A. M.; Timens, W.; Whittaker, P.; Churg, A.

    2007-01-01

    Although small airway remodeling (SAR) leading to airflow obstruction is a common consequence of human cigarette smoking, the airways have been largely ignored in animal models of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease ( COPD). We examined lung structure in a guinea pig model of chronic cigarette

  17. Biomarker Discovery In Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Using Epithelial Lining Fluid : A Proteomic Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franciosi, L.; Govorukhina, N.; Fusetti, F.; Poolman, B.; Hacken, N. ten; Postma, D.; Bischoff, R.

    2011-01-01

    RATIONALE Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is the third most frequent disease worldwide with increasing mortality. Cigarette smoking is the principle risk factor and 15-20% of smokers develop COPD. Epithelial Lining Fluid (ELF) covers the internal part of the airways and can be collected

  18. Implementation of a Targeted Screening Program to Detect Airflow Obstruction Suggestive of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease within a Presurgical Screening Clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chantal Robitaille

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Targeted spirometry screening for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD has been studied in primary care and community settings. Limitations regarding availability and quality of testing remain. A targeted spirometry screening program was implemented within a presurgical screening (PSS clinic to detect undiagnosed airways disease and identify patients with COPD/asthma in need of treatment optimization.

  19. Different Labelling of Obstructive Airway Diseases in Estonia, Finland, and Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pallasaho, Paula; Meren, Mari; Raukas-Kivioja, Aet; Roenmark, Eva

    2005-01-01

    Large differences in prevalence of asthma have been reported between westernised countries and the former Eastern European countries, and still no consensus about the reasons for the differences exists. The aim of this study was to assess diagnostic labelling of obstructive airway diseases, comparing subjects with respiratory symptoms and the diagnoses obtained in Estonia, Finland, and Sweden. A postal questionnaire was sent to population-based random samples, and 44,483 (76%) answers were obtained from the 58,661 invited in 1996. Among men, current smoking was most common in Estonia, 60%, followed by Finland, 39%, and Sweden, 28%. In all three countries, 30% of women were current smokers. Most respiratory symptoms including wheezing were most common in Estonia, also among non-smokers. The prevalence of asthma was 2.0% and chronic bronchitis 10.7% in Estonia, while the opposite was found in Sweden with an asthma prevalence of 7.8% and a chronic bronchitis prevalence of 3.1%. The pattern in Finland was similar to that of Sweden. The same differences between the three countries were found also among young subjects. The total proportion of diagnosed obstructive lung diseases in subjects with respiratory symptoms was similar, but the diagnosis of asthma was considerably more common in Finland and Sweden. Chronic bronchitis was favoured in Estonia, also among young adults irrespectively of what symptoms were present. In a multivariate model with correction for confounders, the risk (OR) for having a diagnosis of asthma was 5.65 (95% CI: 4.86-6.56) when living in Sweden, and 3.51 (95% CI: 3.00-4.12) in Finland, whereas risk for chronic bronchitis was 0.28 (0.25-0.31) and 0.22 (0.19-0.25), respectively, compared to Estonia. The study indicates differences in diagnostic practices of obstructive lung diseases between the three countries

  20. Supplemental oxygen prevents exercise-induced oxidative stress in muscle-wasted patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helvoort, H.A.C. van; Heijdra, Y.F.; Heunks, L.M.A.; Meijer, P.L.; Ruitenbeek, W.; Thijs, H.M.; Dekhuijzen, P.N.R.

    2006-01-01

    RATIONALE: Although oxygen therapy is of clear benefit in patients with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), recent studies have shown that short-term supplementary oxygen may increase oxidative stress and inflammation within the airways. OBJECTIVE: We investigated whether systemic

  1. WITHDRAWN: Bronchopulmonary hygiene physical therapy for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and bronchiectasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Arthur P; Rowe, Brian H

    2011-07-06

    Bronchopulmonary hygiene physical therapy is a form of chest physical therapy including chest percussion and postural drainage to remove lung secretions. These are applied commonly to patients with both acute and chronic airway diseases. Despite controversies in the literature regarding its efficacy, it remains in use in a variety of clinical settings. The various forms of this therapy are labour intensive and need to be evaluated. The objective of this review was to assess the effects of bronchial hygiene physical therapy in people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and bronchiectasis. We searched the Cochrane Airways Group trials register and reference lists of articles up to January 2007. We also wrote to study authors. Randomised trials in which postural drainage, chest percussion, vibration, chest shaking, directed coughing or forced exhalation technique was compared to other drainage or breathing techniques, placebo or no treatment. Two reviewers applied the inclusion and exclusion criteria on masked publications independently. They assessed the trial quality independently. Only data from the first arm of crossover trials were included. The seven included trials involved six comparisons and a total of 126 people. The trials were small and not generally of high quality. The results could not be combined as trials addressed different patient groups and outcomes. In most comparisons, bronchial hygiene physical therapy produced no significant effects on pulmonary function, apart from clearing sputum in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and in bronchiectasis. An update search carried out in January 2007 did not identify any new studies for inclusion. There is not enough evidence to support or refute the use of bronchial hygiene physical therapy in people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and bronchiectasis.

  2. Plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D, lung function and risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afzal, Shoaib; Lange, Peter; Bojesen, Stig Egil

    2014-01-01

    25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) may be associated with lung function through modulation of pulmonary protease-antiprotease imbalance, airway inflammation, lung remodelling and oxidative stress. We examined the association of plasma 25(OH)D levels with lung function, lung function decline and risk o...... of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).......25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) may be associated with lung function through modulation of pulmonary protease-antiprotease imbalance, airway inflammation, lung remodelling and oxidative stress. We examined the association of plasma 25(OH)D levels with lung function, lung function decline and risk...

  3. The role of airway stenting in pediatric tracheobronchial obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antón-Pacheco, Juan L; Cabezalí, Daniel; Tejedor, Raquel; López, María; Luna, Carmen; Comas, Juan V; de Miguel, Eduardo

    2008-06-01

    Tracheobronchial obstruction is infrequent in the pediatric age group but it is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this study is to review the results of a single institution experience with endoscopic stent placement in children with benign tracheobronchial obstruction, and with special concern on safety and clinical effectiveness. Twenty-one patients with severe airway stenosing disease in which stent placement was performed between 1993 and 2006. Inclusion criteria according to the clinical status were: failure to wean from ventilation, episode of apnea, frequent respiratory infections (>3 pneumonia/year), and severe respiratory distress. Additional criteria for stent placement were: failure of surgical treatment, bronchomalacia, and tracheomalacia refractory to previous tracheostomy. Selection of the type of stent depended on the site of the lesion, the patient's age, and the stent availability when time of presentation. The following variables were retrospectively evaluated: age, type of obstruction, associated malformations, stent properties, technical and clinical success, complications and related reinterventions, outcome and follow-up period. Thirty-three stents were placed in the trachea (n=18) and/or bronchi (n=15) of 21 patients with a median age of 6 months (range, 9 days-19 years). Etiology of the airway obstruction included severe tracheomalacia and/or bronchomalacia in 19 cases (90%), and postoperative tracheal stenosis in two. Twelve children had a total of 20 balloon-expandable metallic stents placed, and 10 had 13 silicone-type stents (one patient had both). In nine patients (42%) more than one device was placed. Stent positioning was technically successful in all but one patient. Clinical improvement was observed in 18 patients (85%) but complications occurred in five of them (27%). Eight patients died during follow-up but only in one case it was related to airway stenting. Thirteen patients (62%) are alive and

  4. Durability of Silicone Airway Stents in the Management of Benign Central Airway Obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karush, Justin M; Seder, Christopher W; Raman, Anish; Chmielewski, Gary W; Liptay, Michael J; Warren, William H; Arndt, Andrew T

    2017-10-01

    The literature is devoid of a comprehensive analysis of silicone airway stenting for benign central airway obstruction (BCAO). With the largest series in the literature to date, we aim to demonstrate the safety profile, pattern of re-intervention, and duration of silicone airway stents. An institutional database was used to identify patients with BCAO who underwent rigid bronchoscopy with dilation and silicone stent placement between 2002 and 2015 at Rush University Medical Center. During the study period, 243 stents were utilized in 63 patients with BCAO. Pure tracheal stenosis was encountered in 71% (45/63), pure tracheomalacia in 11% (7/63), and a hybrid of both in 17% (11/63). Median freedom from re-intervention was 104 (IQR 167) days. Most common indications for re-intervention include mucus accumulation (60%; 131/220), migration (28%; 62/220), and intubation (8%; 18/220). The most common diameters of stent placed were 12 mm (94/220) and 14 mm (96/220). The most common lengths utilized were 30 mm (60/220) and 40 mm (77/220). Duration was not effected by stent size when placed for discrete stenosis. However, 14 mm stents outperformed 12 mm when tracheomalacia was present (157 vs. 37 days; p = 0.005). Patients with a hybrid stenosis fared better when longer stents were used (60 mm stents outlasted 40 mm stents 173 vs. 56 days; p = 0.05). Rigid bronchoscopy with silicone airway stenting is a safe and effective option for the management of benign central airway obstruction. Our results highlight several strategies to improve stent duration.

  5. Fetal tracheolaryngeal airway obstruction: prenatal evaluation by sonography and MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtier, Jesse; Poder, Liina; Wang, Zhen J.; Westphalen, Antonio C.; Yeh, Benjamin M.

    2010-01-01

    We reviewed the sonographic and MRI findings of tracheolaryngeal obstruction in the fetus. Conditions that can cause tracheolaryngeal obstruction include extrinsic causes such as lymphatic malformation, cervical teratoma and vascular rings and intrinsic causes such as congenital high airway obstruction syndrome (CHAOS). Accurate distinction of these conditions by sonography or MRI can help facilitate parental counseling and management, including the decision to utilize the ex utero intrapartum treatment (EXIT) procedure. PMID:20737145

  6. Woodstove exposure as a risk factor for airway obstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandros Mpagordakis

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The recent financial crisis in Greece has significantly increased woodstove use and therefore the indoor air pollution of the household atmosphere. Related studies have shown that indoor air pollution is associated with the onset of obstructive airway diseases, especially in women who are occupied with household duties. Aim: To investigate whether the woodstove exposure is a risk factor of obstructive airway disease especially in nonsmoking women. Methods: In this cross-sectional study participated 410 individuals (51.7% women, mean age 56,1 ± 13,0 years, ranging from 40 to 93 years old who visited eight Primary Health Care Settings on the island of Crete, Greece. A spirometry testing was performed to assess the degree of airflow limitation setting criteria the fixed ratio of spirometry values (FEV1 / FVC 17] were establish in non-smoker women who were exposed for 30.2 years to woodstove smoke compared to non-COPD non-smoker women (11.8 years exposure, despite the fact that interactions terms (female gender, smoking, woodstove use, cough with sputum production were not associated with COPD development. Conclusion: The present study confirms that woodstove exposure (about 30 years is associated with Airway Obstruction in non-smoker women. Also, a greater woodstove exposure is indicative of a greater prevalence of airflow limitation and a greater COPD-related symptoms.

  7. High-Dose-Rate Endobronchial Brachytherapy for Recurrent Airway Obstruction From Hyperplastic Granulation Tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tendulkar, Rahul D.; Fleming, Peter A.; Reddy, Chandana A.; Gildea, Thomas R.; Machuzak, Michael; Mehta, Atul C.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Benign endobronchial granulation tissue causes airway obstruction in up to 20% of patients after lung transplantation or stent placement. High-dose-rate endobronchial brachytherapy (HDR-EB) has been successful in some cases refractory to standard bronchoscopic interventions. Methods and Materials: Between September 2004 and May 2005, 8 patients with refractory benign airway obstruction were treated with HDR-EB, using one to two fractions of Ir-192 prescribed to 7.1 Gy at a radius of 1 cm. Charts were retrospectively reviewed to evaluate subjective clinical response, forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV 1 ), and frequency of therapeutic bronchoscopies over 6-month periods before and after HDR-EB. Results: The median follow-up was 14.6 months, and median survival was 10.5 months. The mean number of bronchoscopic interventions improved from 3.1 procedures in the 6-month pretreatment period to 1.8 after HDR-EB. Mean FEV 1 improved from 36% predicted to 46% predicted. Six patients had a good-to-excellent subjective early response, but only one maintained this response beyond 6 months, and this was the only patient treated with HDR-EB within 24 h from the most recent bronchoscopic intervention. Five patients have expired from causes related to their chronic pulmonary disease, including one from hemoptysis resulting from a bronchoarterial fistula. Conclusion: High-dose-rate-EB may be an effective treatment for select patients with refractory hyperplastic granulation tissue causing recurrent airway stenosis. Performing HDR-EB within 24-48 h after excision of obstructive granulation tissue could further improve outcomes. Careful patient selection is important to maximize therapeutic benefit and minimize toxicity. The optimal patient population, dose, and timing of HDR-EB should be investigated prospectively

  8. Neutrophil and macrophage apoptosis in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from healthy horses and horses with recurrent airway obstruction (RAO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Dysregulation of apoptosis has been implicated in a range of diseases including tumors, neurodegenerative and autoimmine diseases, as well as allergic asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in humans. Although it has a different pathophysiology, delayed apoptosis of various inflammatory cells may play a pivotal role in the development of recurrent airway obstruction (RAO) in horses. Reduction of inflammatory cell apoptosis or a dysregulation of this process could lead to chronic inflammation and tissue injury. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the rate of apoptosis and necrosis of neutrophils and macrophages in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid obtained from seven horses suffering from RAO (study group) and seven control horses. Results We demonstrated that neutrophil/macrophage apoptosis is altered in RAO-affected horses compared with the control group in the BAL fluid. We found a significant difference between the median percentage of early and late apoptosis of neutrophils between the study and control group of horses. Moreover, we found a positive correlation between the rate of apoptosis and the median percentage of macrophages in RAO-affected horses. Conclusion The findings suggest that apoptosis dysregulation may play a significant role in the pathogenesis of RAO. However, further studies are needed to clarify the role of altered apoptosis in the course of equine recurrent airway obstruction. PMID:24460911

  9. Antithyroid drug-induced agranulocytosis complicated by pneumococcal sepsis and upper airway obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishimaru, Naoto; Ohnishi, Hisashi; Nishiuma, Teruaki; Doukuni, Ryota; Umezawa, Kanoko; Oozone, Sachiko; Kuramoto, Emi; Yoshimura, Sho; Kinami, Saori

    2013-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is a rare pathogen of sepsis in patients with antithyroid drug-induced agranulocytosis. We herein describe a case of antithyroid drug-induced agranulocytosis complicated by pneumococcal sepsis and upper airway obstruction. A 27-year-old woman who was previously prescribed methimazole for nine months presented with a four-day history of a sore throat. She nearly choked and was diagnosed with febrile agranulocytosis. She was successfully treated with intubation, intravenous antibiotics and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor. Her blood cultures yielded S. pneumoniae. Emergency airway management, treatment of sepsis and the administration of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor can improve the clinical course of antithyroid drug-induced pneumococcal sepsis in patients with airway obstruction.

  10. PERCEPTION OF AIRWAY-OBSTRUCTION IN A RANDOM-POPULATION SAMPLE - RELATIONSHIP TO AIRWAY HYPERRESPONSIVENESS IN THE ABSENCE OF RESPIRATORY SYMPTOMS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BRAND, PLP; RIJCKEN, B; SCHOUTEN, JP; KOETER, GH; WEISS, ST; POSTMA, DS

    Subjects with asymptomatic airway hyperresponsiveness in epidemiologic studies may have variable airway obstruction that is not perceived as dyspnea. We tested the hypothesis that such subjects are less likely to report an increase in dyspnea during histamine-induced bronchoconstriction than

  11. Radioaerosol lung imaging in small airways disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, T; Dorow, P; Felix, R

    1981-06-01

    Aerosol inhalation lung imaging was performed in 35 asymptomatic smokers who have been selected on the basis of abnormal findings in small airways pulmonary function tests. Qualitative (image inspection) and quantitative (aerosol distribution index = ADI) analysis of the radioaerosol lung patterns was accomplished. Compared to healthy subjects as well as to patients with chronic obstructive lung disease significant differences of mean aerosol distribution homogeneity were observed. A characteristic type of abnormal aerosol pattern, indicating peripheral airways obstruction, was found in 71% of the patients with small airways disease.

  12. Advantage of impulse oscillometry over spirometry to diagnose chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and monitor pulmonary responses to bronchodilators: An observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantine Saadeh

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This retrospective study was a comparative analysis of sensitivity of impulse oscillometry and spirometry techniques for use in a mixed chronic obstructive pulmonary disease group for assessing disease severity and inhalation therapy. Methods: A total of 30 patients with mild-to-moderate chronic obstructive pulmonary disease were monitored by impulse oscillometry, followed by spirometry. Lung function was measured at baseline after bronchodilation and at follow-up (3–18 months. The impulse oscillometry parameters were resistance in the small and large airways at 5 Hz (R5, resistance in the large airways at 15 Hz (R15, and lung reactance (area under the curve X; AX. Results: After the bronchodilator therapy, forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1 readings evaluated by spirometry were unaffected at baseline and at follow-up, while impulse oscillometry detected an immediate improvement in lung function, in terms of AX (p = 0.043. All impulse oscillometry parameters significantly improved at follow-up, with a decrease in AX by 37% (p = 0.0008, R5 by 20% (p = 0.0011, and R15 by 12% (p = 0.0097. Discussion: Impulse oscillometry parameters demonstrated greater sensitivity compared with spirometry for monitoring reversibility of airway obstruction and the effect of maintenance therapy. Impulse oscillometry may facilitate early treatment dose optimization and personalized medicine for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients.

  13. Laryngeal debridement: an alternative treatment for a laryngopyocele presenting with severe airway obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, L; Pittore, B; Frampton, S; Brennan, P; Puxeddu, R

    2011-04-01

    The laryngocele is an abnormal saccular dilatation of the ventricle of Morgagni, which maintains its communication with the laryngeal vestibule. Three types of laryngoceles have been described: internal, external, and combined or mixed in relation to the position of the sac with respect to the thyrohyoid membrane. If the laryngocele becomes obstructed and infected it leads to the so-called laryngopyocele which, although a rare disease (8% of laryngoceles), can become an emergency causing severe airway obstruction needing urgent management, even tracheostomy. An alternative method is presented of emergency management of an internal laryngopyocele causing severe airway obstruction using a laryngeal microdebrider and avoiding tracheostomy.

  14. Insomnia complaints in lean patients with obstructive sleep apnea negatively affect positive airway pressure treatment adherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eysteinsdottir, Bjorg; Gislason, Thorarinn; Pack, Allan I; Benediktsdottir, Bryndís; Arnardottir, Erna S; Kuna, Samuel T; Björnsdottir, Erla

    2017-04-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the determinants of long-term adherence to positive airway pressure treatment among patients with obstructive sleep apnea, with special emphasis on patients who stop positive airway pressure treatment within 1 year. This is a prospective long-term follow-up of subjects in the Icelandic Sleep Apnea Cohort who were diagnosed with obstructive sleep apnea between 2005 and 2009, and started on positive airway pressure treatment. In October 2014, positive airway pressure adherence was obtained by systematically evaluating available clinical files (n = 796; 644 males, 152 females) with moderate to severe obstructive sleep apnea (apnea-hypopnea index ≥15 events per h). The mean follow-up time was 6.7 ± 1.2 years. In total, 123 subjects (15.5%) returned their positive airway pressure device within the first year, 170 (21.4%) returned it later and 503 (63.2%) were still using positive airway pressure. The quitters within the first year had lower body mass index, milder obstructive sleep apnea, less sleepiness, and more often had symptoms of initial and late insomnia compared with long-term positive airway pressure users at baseline. Both initial and late insomnia were after adjustment still significantly associated with being an early quitter among subjects with body mass index insomnia are associated with early quitting on positive airway pressure among non-obese subjects. © 2016 European Sleep Research Society.

  15. Nasopharyngeal encephalocele: a rare cause of upper airway obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalkan, Gokhan; Paksu, Sukru; Asilioglu, Nazik; Kiliç, Mehmet

    2013-04-01

    Nasopharyngeal encephalocele is a rare, benign congenital anomaly. It has the potential to be fatal due to airway obstruction. Here, we report on a 34-day-old infant with pneumonia who underwent mechanical ventilation. An upper airway evaluation was performed due to prolonged intubation, and revealed the presence of a nasopharyngeal encephalocele. The patient tolerated extubation and oral feeding after surgical resection of the lesion. Awareness of the condition can help clinicians arrive at an earlier diagnosis and enhance management.

  16. Congenital high airway obstruction syndrome: MR/US findings, effect on management, and outcome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mong, Andrew; Johnson, Ann M.; Kramer, Sandra S.; Jaramillo, Diego [Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Coleman, Beverly G. [Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Hedrick, Holly L.; Flake, Alan; Johnson, Mark; Wilson, R.D.; Adzick, N.S. [Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, The Center for Fetal Diagnosis and Treatment, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Kreiger, Portia [Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2008-11-15

    Congenital high airway obstruction syndrome (CHAOS) is a rare disorder defined as any fetal abnormality that obstructs the larynx or trachea. Prompt airway intervention at delivery after accurate prenatal diagnosis may allow survival of this otherwise fatal condition. To identify prenatal MRI findings in CHAOS, to compare these findings with those of fetal US, to determine if imaging alters diagnosis and management decisions, and to correlate prenatal with postnatal imaging findings. Records and MRI scans of ten fetuses with CHAOS were reviewed, and the findings correlated with outside and same-day fetal US and postnatal imaging findings. Fetal lung volumes were measured on MRI scans. Large lung volumes were found in 90% of the fetuses. Increased lung signal intensity, inverted diaphragm, and a dilated, fluid-filled lower airway were identified in all. The obstruction level was identified in 90%. MRI changed screening US diagnosis in 70%, but was concordant with the tertiary care US imaging in 90%. Seven fetuses were terminated or died in utero, and three fetuses survived after ex utero intrapartum tracheostomy placement. Autopsy or bronchoscopy performed in 60% confirmed CHAOS. Postnatal chest radiographs and CT showed hyperinflation, while US and fluoroscopy showed diminished diaphragmatic motion. MRI demonstrates large lung volumes, increased lung signal intensity, inverted diaphragm, and dilated fluid-filled lower airway, and usually identifies the obstruction level. The degree of correlation between MRI and tertiary prenatal US is high, but CHAOS is frequently misdiagnosed on screening US. Correct diagnosis may enable planned airway management. Voluminous lungs and diaphragmatic abnormalities persist on postnatal imaging. (orig.)

  17. Congenital high airway obstruction syndrome: MR/US findings, effect on management, and outcome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mong, Andrew; Johnson, Ann M.; Kramer, Sandra S.; Jaramillo, Diego; Coleman, Beverly G.; Hedrick, Holly L.; Flake, Alan; Johnson, Mark; Wilson, R.D.; Adzick, N.S.; Kreiger, Portia

    2008-01-01

    Congenital high airway obstruction syndrome (CHAOS) is a rare disorder defined as any fetal abnormality that obstructs the larynx or trachea. Prompt airway intervention at delivery after accurate prenatal diagnosis may allow survival of this otherwise fatal condition. To identify prenatal MRI findings in CHAOS, to compare these findings with those of fetal US, to determine if imaging alters diagnosis and management decisions, and to correlate prenatal with postnatal imaging findings. Records and MRI scans of ten fetuses with CHAOS were reviewed, and the findings correlated with outside and same-day fetal US and postnatal imaging findings. Fetal lung volumes were measured on MRI scans. Large lung volumes were found in 90% of the fetuses. Increased lung signal intensity, inverted diaphragm, and a dilated, fluid-filled lower airway were identified in all. The obstruction level was identified in 90%. MRI changed screening US diagnosis in 70%, but was concordant with the tertiary care US imaging in 90%. Seven fetuses were terminated or died in utero, and three fetuses survived after ex utero intrapartum tracheostomy placement. Autopsy or bronchoscopy performed in 60% confirmed CHAOS. Postnatal chest radiographs and CT showed hyperinflation, while US and fluoroscopy showed diminished diaphragmatic motion. MRI demonstrates large lung volumes, increased lung signal intensity, inverted diaphragm, and dilated fluid-filled lower airway, and usually identifies the obstruction level. The degree of correlation between MRI and tertiary prenatal US is high, but CHAOS is frequently misdiagnosed on screening US. Correct diagnosis may enable planned airway management. Voluminous lungs and diaphragmatic abnormalities persist on postnatal imaging. (orig.)

  18. Serious neonatal airway obstruction with massive congenital sublingual ranula and contralateral occurrence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish M. George

    2015-06-01

    Conclusions: The prenatal diagnosis of congenital ranulas have been seldom reported, with no reported cases of contralateral occurrence and airway obstruction from an intraoral ranula. This rare case highlights the need for a well considered contingency plan when surgery is required for a neonatal airway at risk.

  19. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke from husband more strongly impacts on the airway obstruction of nonsmoking women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suyama, Kazuaki; Kozu, Ryo; Tanaka, Takako; Ishimatsu, Yuji; Sawai, Terumitsu

    2018-01-01

    The impact of airway obstruction of nonsmoking women caused by their husband's smoking is unclear, despite the association between environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure at home and obstructive pulmonary diseases among nonsmoking women. The aim of this study was to provide evidence that ETS exposure from the husband at home has a more significant influence on the airway obstruction of nonsmoking women than other housemates. Nonsmoking women aged 40 years or older were recruited from the health checkup during May 2015-December 2016, Japan. They answered structured questionnaires, including ETS exposure from their husbands and other housemates (parents, siblings and dependants), and performed spirometry. We categorized the women with any history of ETS exposure from housemates into three groups (A = husband, B = others and C = both of husband and others) and defined the control group as those with no ETS exposure from housemates. A total of 811 nonsmoking women completed questionnaires and spirometry. The proportion of nonsmoking women who had airway obstruction (forced expiratory volume in 1 second [FEV 1 ]/forced vital capacity [FVC] <70%) among Group A (7.5%) was significantly higher than those in the control group (1.1%, p <0.01) and Group B (0.8%, p <0.01). The proportion of airway obstruction in Group C (6.4%) was also higher than that in the control group ( p <0.05) and Group B ( p <0.05). ETS exposure from husband (odds ratio [OR], 3.53; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.48-8.42) remained strongly associated with airway obstruction after multiple logistic regression analysis, adjusting for age, housemate's smoking habits, family history and ETS exposure in childhood and at work. Nonsmoking women who were exposed to ETS from their husband had the lowest FEV 1 /FVC, and a higher proportion of them had airway obstruction when compared to nonsmoking women who experienced ETS from housemates other than their husbands. The findings suggest that tobacco control in

  20. Safety and Efficacy of Thoracic External Beam Radiotherapy After Airway Stenting in Malignant Airway Obstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rochet, Nathalie, E-mail: nrochet@partners.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany); Hauswald, Henrik; Schmaus, Martina; Hensley, Frank [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany); Huber, Peter [Department of Radiotherapy, German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany); Eberhardt, Ralf; Herth, Felix J. [Department of Pulmonology and Respiratory Care Medicine, Thoraxklinik at University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany); Debus, Juergen; Neuhof, Dirk [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2012-05-01

    Purpose: We retrospectively evaluated the outcome and toxicity of external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) after airway stents were placed in patients treated for malignant airway obstruction. Methods and Materials: Between 2004 and 2009, we performed airway stenting followed by EBRT in 43 patients for symptomatic primary lung cancer (n = 31) or other thoracic malignancies (n = 12). The median time interval between stent placement and first irradiation was 14 days. A median total dose of 50 Gy was delivered. Sixty-seven percent of the patients had reduced performance status (Karnofsky performance score, {<=}70). Results: EBRT had to be stopped prematurely in 16 patients (37%), at a median total dose of 17 Gy, for various reasons. In this group of patients, the survival was poor, with a median overall survival (OS) of only 21 days. Twenty-seven patients (63%) completed radiotherapy as planned, with a median OS of 8.4 months. Fourteen of 43 patients (33%) developed at least one Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Event of grade 3 to 5. The most common event was a malignant restenosis of the stent leading to asphyxia (n = 7), followed by fistula formation (n = 4), necrosis (n = 3), mediastinitis with abscess (n = 1), secondary nonmalignant airway stenosis (n = 1), and hemoptysis (n = 1). With the exception of one event, all events were associated with a local progression of the tumor. Conclusions: Although the long-term prognosis for patients with malignant airway obstruction is poor, airway stenting combined with EBRT offers a possible therapeutic option, achieving fast relief of acute respiratory distress with an associated antitumor effect, resulting in a potential survival benefit. However, due to local advanced tumor growth, increased rates of adverse events are to be expected, necessitating careful monitoring.

  1. Safety and Efficacy of Thoracic External Beam Radiotherapy After Airway Stenting in Malignant Airway Obstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rochet, Nathalie; Hauswald, Henrik; Schmaus, Martina; Hensley, Frank; Huber, Peter; Eberhardt, Ralf; Herth, Felix J.; Debus, Juergen; Neuhof, Dirk

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: We retrospectively evaluated the outcome and toxicity of external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) after airway stents were placed in patients treated for malignant airway obstruction. Methods and Materials: Between 2004 and 2009, we performed airway stenting followed by EBRT in 43 patients for symptomatic primary lung cancer (n = 31) or other thoracic malignancies (n = 12). The median time interval between stent placement and first irradiation was 14 days. A median total dose of 50 Gy was delivered. Sixty-seven percent of the patients had reduced performance status (Karnofsky performance score, ≤70). Results: EBRT had to be stopped prematurely in 16 patients (37%), at a median total dose of 17 Gy, for various reasons. In this group of patients, the survival was poor, with a median overall survival (OS) of only 21 days. Twenty-seven patients (63%) completed radiotherapy as planned, with a median OS of 8.4 months. Fourteen of 43 patients (33%) developed at least one Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Event of grade 3 to 5. The most common event was a malignant restenosis of the stent leading to asphyxia (n = 7), followed by fistula formation (n = 4), necrosis (n = 3), mediastinitis with abscess (n = 1), secondary nonmalignant airway stenosis (n = 1), and hemoptysis (n = 1). With the exception of one event, all events were associated with a local progression of the tumor. Conclusions: Although the long-term prognosis for patients with malignant airway obstruction is poor, airway stenting combined with EBRT offers a possible therapeutic option, achieving fast relief of acute respiratory distress with an associated antitumor effect, resulting in a potential survival benefit. However, due to local advanced tumor growth, increased rates of adverse events are to be expected, necessitating careful monitoring.

  2. Airway Obstruction and the Unilateral Cleft Lip and Palate Deformity: Contributions by the Bony Septum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friel, Michael T; Starbuck, John M; Ghoneima, Ahmed M; Murage, Kariuki; Kula, Katherine S; Tholpady, Sunil; Havlik, Robert J; Flores, Roberto L

    2015-07-01

    Patients with unilateral cleft lip and palate (CLP) deformities commonly develop nasal airway obstruction, necessitating septoplasty at the time of definitive rhinoplasty. We assessed the contribution of the bony septum to airway obstruction using computed tomography (CT) and cone beam CT (CBCT). A 2-year retrospective review of all subjects with unilateral CLP who underwent CBCT imaging (n = 22) and age-matched controls (n = 9) who underwent CT imaging was conducted. Control CT scans were used to determine the segment of nasal septum comprised almost entirely of bone. The CBCT of the nasal airway was assessed using Dolphin software to determine the contribution of the bony septum to septal deviation and airway obstruction. The nasal septum posterior to the midpoint between anterior and posterior nasal spine is comprised of 96% bone. The nasal airway associated with this posterior bony segment was 43.1% (P < 0.001) larger by volume on the non-cleft side in patients with unilateral CLP. The average septal deviation within the posterior bony segment was 5.4 mm, accounting for 74.4% of the maximal deviation within the nasal airway. The average airway stenosis within the posterior bony nasal airway was 0.45 mm (0-2.2 mm). In patients with unilateral CLP, the bony nasal septum can demonstrate significant deviation and airway stenosis. Surgeons should consider a bony septoplasty in their treatment algorithm in unilateral CLP patients who have reached skeletal maturity.

  3. Use of radioisotope techniques for the diagnosis of obstructive airway disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furudate, M; Itoh, K; Shida, A; Minami, Y [Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan). School of Medicine

    1981-07-01

    Perfusion scintigraphy, radioaerosol inhalation scintigraphy, /sup 133/Xe studies and sup(81m)Kr studies are useful radioisotope techniques for the detection of regional pulmonary abnormalities in obstructive airway disease. The patient during asthmatic attack shows the perfusion defects with indefinite boundary, which may change during the following several days. Decreased ventilation are seen on the regions with perfusion defects, and ventilatory defects are more marked than those of perfusion. On the other hand, these abnomal findings are reversible. In chronic emphysema or chronic bronchitis, the regions with decreased perfusion usually cannot be correlated with any specific segments, and scintigraphys done repeatedly fail to show re-vascularization on the regions. In the radioaerosol inhalation scintigraphy, deposition pattern reveal the severity of COPD. In addition, xenon studies in the diseases show marked or moderate prolongation of wash-out from the abnormal region, and the abnormalities of ventilation are equal to or exceed the abnormalities of perfusion.

  4. Gender disparity of changes in heart rate during the six-minute walk test among patients with chronic obstructive airway disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmaeil Alibakhshi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is a major cause of chronic morbidity and mortality worldwide. Clarify; COPD is the fifth leading cause of death and disease burden globally. Aims The purpose of this study is to compare the gender disparity of changes in heart rate during 6-minute walk test (6MWT among patients with chronic obstructive airway disease (COPD. We also aimed to assess the relationship between change in heart rate and body mass index (BMI. Methods We randomly selected 59 elderly subjects with COPD (made up of 45 men and 14 women. The selected patients all had Medical Research Council (MRC dyspnea index of ≥3. All patients in this study had informed written consent and carried out the 6 minute walk tests (6MWT according to standards. Data analysis was carried out with SPSS version 21.0 software and Excel 2016 with level of significance taken as p<0.05. We used of ANOVA to identify difference in the means among three or more groups. Results As the BMI range is 15–50 while the mean BMI was 26±00 include the standard deviation has been observed overweight in all patients with COPD. There was significant difference in the distance covered during the 6MWT between men and women (Men=397.00, Women=375.00 at p<0.001. Also, we can be seeing lowest significant different in heart rate basic (Mean Square=0.0 and oxygen saturation at rest (Mean Square=2.0 in value p<0.00 between men and women. Conclusion In this study, distance, SPO2, resting heart rate and 1-minute heart rate variables were evaluated for assessing exercise capacity and then the amount of breathlessness and exercise in patients with COPD.

  5. Sleep and upper airway obstruction in children with achondroplasia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zucconi, M; Weber, G; Castronovo, [No Value; FeriniStrambi, L; Russo, F; Chiumello, G; Smirne, S

    Objective: The features of achondroplasia, the most common form of dwarfism, includes short cranial base and midface hypoplasia; both abnormalities increased the risk of upper airway obstruction during sleep, The aim of our study was to evaluate sleep and respiratory function of children with

  6. Sleep and upper airway obstruction in children with achondroplasia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zucconi, M; Weber, G; Castronovo, [No Value; FeriniStrambi, L; Russo, F; Chiumello, G; Smirne, S

    1996-01-01

    Objective: The features of achondroplasia, the most common form of dwarfism, includes short cranial base and midface hypoplasia; both abnormalities increased the risk of upper airway obstruction during sleep, The aim of our study was to evaluate sleep and respiratory function of children with

  7. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke from husband more strongly impacts on the airway obstruction of nonsmoking women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suyama K

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Kazuaki Suyama, Ryo Kozu, Takako Tanaka, Yuji Ishimatsu, Terumitsu Sawai Department of Cardiopulmonary Rehabilitation Science, Nagasaki University Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Nagasaki, Japan Background: The impact of airway obstruction of nonsmoking women caused by their husband’s smoking is unclear, despite the association between environmental tobacco smoke (ETS exposure at home and obstructive pulmonary diseases among nonsmoking women. The aim of this study was to provide evidence that ETS exposure from the husband at home has a more significant influence on the airway obstruction of nonsmoking women than other housemates. Participants and methods: Nonsmoking women aged 40 years or older were recruited from the health checkup during May 2015–December 2016, Japan. They answered structured questionnaires, including ETS exposure from their husbands and other housemates (parents, siblings and dependants, and performed spirometry. We categorized the women with any history of ETS exposure from housemates into three groups (A = husband, B = others and C = both of husband and others and defined the control group as those with no ETS exposure from housemates. Results: A total of 811 nonsmoking women completed questionnaires and spirometry. The proportion of nonsmoking women who had airway obstruction (forced expiratory volume in 1 second [FEV1]/forced vital capacity [FVC] <70% among Group A (7.5% was significantly higher than those in the control group (1.1%, p<0.01 and Group B (0.8%, p<0.01. The proportion of airway obstruction in Group C (6.4% was also higher than that in the control group (p<0.05 and Group B (p<0.05. ETS exposure from husband (odds ratio [OR], 3.53; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.48–8.42 remained strongly associated with airway obstruction after multiple logistic regression analysis, adjusting for age, housemate’s smoking habits, family history and ETS exposure in childhood and at work. Conclusion: Nonsmoking

  8. Review of adult tracheomalacia and its relationship with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandaswamy, Chitra; Balasubramanian, Vijay

    2009-03-01

    This review summarizes the literature on adult or acquired tracheobronchomalacia (TBM) and explores its association with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Dynamic imaging of central airways, a noninvasive test as effective as bronchoscopy to diagnose TBM, has increased the recognition of this disorder. Airway stabilization techniques using stents placed via bronchoscopy have also furthered the interest in TBM. The association of TBM with COPD is of growing interest particularly in the face of worldwide rise in COPD incidence. The pathobiology behind this condition may share significant common ground with COPD. Despite the lack of uniformly accepted diagnostic criteria and the uncertain correlation to clinical manifestations and course, technologic advances in imaging and interventional bronchoscopy have spurred clinicians' interest in TBM. In exploring the association of TBM and COPD, an intriguing consideration is whether TBM could be an extension of peripheral airway disease.

  9. Upper airway obstruction and pulmonary abnormalities due to lymphoproliferative disease following bone marrow transplantation in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fletcher, B.D. [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, St. Jude Children`s Research Hospital, 332 N. Lauderdale St., Memphis, TN 38105 (United States)]|[Departments of Radiology and Pediatrics, University of Tennessee, Memphis, Tennessee (United States); Heslop, H.E. [Department of Hematology/Oncology, St. Jude Children`s Research Hospital, Department of Pediatrics, University of Tennessee, Memphis, Tennessee (United States); Kaste, S.C. [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, St. Jude Children`s Research Hospital, Department of Radiology, University of Tennessee, Memphis, Tennessee (United States); Bodner, S. [Department of Pathology, St. Jude Children`s Research Hospital, Department of Pathology, University of Tennessee, Memphis, Tennessee (United States)

    1998-07-01

    We report three patients who developed severe supraglottic airway obstruction due to Epstein-Barr virus lymphoproliferative disease following allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. In addition to enlarged pharyngeal lymphoid tissue seen in all three patients, two had supraglottic airway narrowing and two developed pulmonary lymphoproliferative disease. They were treated with unmanipulated T cells or EBV-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes. Life-threatening upper airway obstruction is a radiologically detectable complication of allogeneic bone marrow transplantation in children. (orig.) With 3 figs., 1 tab., 12 refs.

  10. The use of expandable metallic airway stents for tracheobronchial obstruction in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filler, R M; Forte, V; Fraga, J C; Matute, J

    1995-07-01

    Expandable metallic angioplasty stents (Palmaz stent) have been implanted in the trachea and/or bronchi of seven children. Three children had severe tracheal stenosis after tracheoplasty for congenital tracheal stenosis repair, and four had tracheomalacia or bronchomalacia with or without vascular compression. The mean age at stenting was 9.7 months (range, 2 to 15 months). Balloon expandable stents were inserted into the trachea or bronchus through a 3.5-mm bronchoscope under fluoroscopic control. Initially a single tracheal stent was used for all patients except for one with obstruction in the trachea and both bronchi, in whom three stents were implanted. Three children had recurrent airway obstruction 1 month later; one was cured with a second stent; one child died 1 year later; and the other is being treated for heart disease. The others have no serious respiratory problems. The stents in all have been in place for 1 to 25 (mean, 11) months. No immediate complications were noted. Early and late bronchoscopy showed incomplete epithelialization of the stent and patches of granulation tissue on it. Two stents were removed bronchoscopically, one at the completion of treatment for tracheomalacia and the other at the time of recurrent airway obstruction. This preliminary experience indicates that expandable metallic stents have a useful role in the treatment of selected lower airway obstructions.

  11. Recurrent airway obstructions in a patient with benign tracheal stenosis and a silicone airway stent: a case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriram, KB; Robinson, PC

    2008-01-01

    Airway stents (silicone and metal stents) are used to treat patients with benign tracheal stenosis, who are symptomatic and in whom tracheal surgical reconstruction has failed or is not appropriate. However airway stents are often associated with complications such as migration, granuloma formation and mucous hypersecretion, which cause significant morbidity, especially in patients with benign tracheal stenosis and relatively normal life expectancy. We report a patient who had frequent critical airway obstructions over 8 years due to granuloma and mucus hypersecretion in a silicone airway stent. The problem was resolved when the silicone stent was removed and replaced with a covered self expanding metal stent. PMID:18840299

  12. Particulate matter air pollution exposure: role in the development and exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean H Ling

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Sean H Ling, Stephan F van EedenJames Hogg iCAPTURE Centre for Pulmonary and Cardiovascular Research and Heart and Lung Institute, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, CanadaAbstract: Due to the rapid urbanization of the world population, a better understanding of the detrimental effects of exposure to urban air pollution on chronic lung disease is necessary. Strong epidemiological evidence suggests that exposure to particulate matter (PM air pollution causes exacerbations of pre-existing lung conditions, such as, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD resulting in increased morbidity and mortality. However, little is known whether a chronic, low-grade exposure to ambient PM can cause the development and progression of COPD. The deposition of PM in the respiratory tract depends predominantly on the size of the particles, with larger particles deposited in the upper and larger airways and smaller particles penetrating deep into the alveolar spaces. Ineffective clearance of this PM from the airways could cause particle retention in lung tissues, resulting in a chronic, low-grade inflammatory response that may be pathogenetically important in both the exacerbation, as well as, the progression of lung disease. This review focuses on the adverse effects of exposure to ambient PM air pollution on the exacerbation, progression, and development of COPD.Keywords: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, particulate matter, air pollution, alveolar macrophage

  13. Use of spirometry in detecting airway obstruction in asymptomatic smokers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bangash, M.H.; Zaidi, S.B.H.; Zaidi, S.M.A.; Khan, I.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: To detect spirometric abnormalities in asymptomatic smokers in relation to duration of smoking. Study Design: Cross sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out at PNS Shifa from Oct 2006 to June 2007. Subjects and Methods: Hundred individuals were included in this study who fulfilled the required criteria. Spirometry was done after briefing the patient about the procedure. Smokers were divided into two groups. Group I (5 to 9 pack years) and group II (= 10 pack years). All relevant information were recorded on Performa (Annex-A). The data was analyzed through SPSS-10, in terms of Mean +- SD (Standard Deviation) for numeric response variables and independent sample T test was applied to compare significance of proportion for numeric response variables at p < 0.05. Categorical variables were compared by applying Chi-square test at p < 0.05 level of significance. Results: Significant statistical difference was found between the mean age in the two groups with p-value of 0.011. This may be due to the longer duration of smoking history in Group II. Strong association was found between number of cigarette smoked and the pattern of airway obstruction as significant statistical difference of airway obstruction and early airflow limitation was found between the two groups of smokers at p value of 0.004. Conclusion: There is strong association between duration of smoking and development of airway obstruction even before the smoker become symptomatic. (author)

  14. Obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome in children and anaesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Rudra

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS is a common medical disorder among adults, which is increasingly being recognized in children too. It is a breathing disorder characterized by upper airway obstruction with or without intermittent complete obstruction that disrupts normal breathing during sleep. Anatomical and neuromuscular disorders are mainly responsible for this disorder. This disorder leads to a state of chronic hypoxemia, which has significant cardiac, pulmonary and central nervous system implications. Diagnosis of OSAS is based on thorough history and clinical examination along with appropriate sleep studies including polysomnography. The mainstay of treatment of paediatric OSAS is adenotonsillectomy. Good anaesthetic practice in Paediatric patients with OSAS revolves around good and ideal airway management. Early detection of airway obstruction, intense monitoring to warn of impending airway problems and appropriate and early intervention of airway compromise are good anaesthetic practices. Coexisting medical problems should be adequately addressed and safe analgesic techniques in the perioperative period go towards improving outcomes in patients with paediatric OSAS.

  15. Airways obstruction in survivors of thoracoplasty: reversibility is greater in non-smokers.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Connor, Terence M

    2012-02-03

    OBJECTIVE: Before the advent of antituberculous chemotherapy, thoracoplasty (TPL) was the definitive form of therapy for cavitary pulmonary tuberculosis. This study aimed to characterize the late functional sequelae of TPL, and to establish the degree of reversibility of any consequent airway obstruction. METHODOLOGY: Pulmonary function was studied in 21 long-term (mean 35 years) survivors of TPL between the years 1990-2001. RESULTS: A mixed obstructive\\/restrictive defect was found in this patient cohort. After inhalation of bronchodilator, marginal increases in FEV(1) and FVC and marginal decreases in FRC, RV and TLC were observed. Maximum mid-expiratory flow rate was severely reduced (28.8% of predicted), but reversibility after inhaled beta(2)-agonist was highest for this parameter of pulmonary function (mean 11%). Smokers had a higher RV (P = 0.04), suggesting hyperinflation, while non-smokers had a larger increase in FEV(1)\\/FVC ratio postbronchodilator (P = 0.004), suggesting more marked reversibility of airways obstruction in this group. CONCLUSIONS: Long-term survivors of TPL have an obstructive as well as a restrictive ventilatory defect. These patients have partial reversibility of the obstructive defect. The degree of reversibility found suggests that bronchodilator therapy may help these patients.

  16. Non-smoking Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Attributed to Occupational Exposure to Silica Dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchiya, Kazuo; Toyoshima, Mikio; Kamiya, Yosuke; Nakamura, Yutaro; Baba, Satoshi; Suda, Takafumi

    2017-01-01

    An 85-year-old, never-smoking man presented with exertional dyspnea. He had been exposed to silica dust in the work place. Chest computed tomography revealed bronchial wall thickening without emphysema. A pulmonary function test showed airflow obstruction without impaired gas transfer. Airway hyperresponsiveness and reversibility were not evident. A transbronchial lung biopsy showed findings suggestive of mineral dust exposure, such as fibrosis and slight pigmentation of bronchioles. He was diagnosed with non-smoking chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) due to occupational exposure to silica dust. His symptoms were improved using an inhaled long-acting bronchodilator. The clinical characteristics of non-smoking COPD are discussed in this report.

  17. The Nature and Causes of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: A Historical Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Peter W Warren

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is the currently favoured name for the diseases formerly known as emphysema and bronchitis. COPD has been recognized for more than 200 years. Its cardinal symptoms are cough, phlegm and dyspnea, and its pathology is characterized by enlarged airspaces and obstructed airways. In the 19th century, the diagnosis of COPD depended on its symptoms and signs of a hyperinflated chest, and reduced expiratory breath sounds. The airflow obstruction evident on spirometry was identified in that century, but did not enter into clinical practice. Bronchitis, and the mechanical forces required to overcome its obstruction, was believed to be responsible for emphysema, although the inflammation present was recognized. The causes of bronchitis, and hence emphysema, included atmospheric and domestic air pollution, as well as dusty occupations. Cigarette smoking only became recognized as the dominant cause in the 20th century. The lessons learned of the risks for COPD in 19th-century Britain are very pertinent to the world today.

  18. [Clinical characteristics and condition of the bronchial tree in patients with bronchial asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in combination with hyperoxaluria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedoseev, G B; Petrova, M A; Shaĭlieva, L O; Kakliugin, A P; Zorina, M L; Sakharov, A N; Pavliukova, N O

    2007-01-01

    To evaluate peculiarities of a clinical course and changes in bronchial mucosa in bronchial asthma (BA) patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in combination with hyperoxaluria (HOU); informative value of some laboratory and device findings including oxalates assay in bronchial lavage fluid for specification of the diagnosis, role of oxalates in development of obstructive syndrome and choice of optimal therapy. Oxalates were examined in daily urine, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and exhaled air condensate of 104 patients with BA and COPD, 77 of which had HOU and an atypical course of bronchial obstruction syndrome. Conception of airways inflammation in patients with oxalate metabolism disturbances is proposed. It is shown that insoluble oxalates participate in pathogenesis of bronchial obstruction. Oxalate metabolism disturbances are an important factor in pathogenesis of airways inflammation and development of bronchial obstruction in predisposed patients. Therefore, administration of insoluble oxalates lowering therapy may effectively prevent formation and progression of obstructive pulmonary diseases in this group of patients.

  19. Reduced survival in patients with ALS with upper airway obstructive events on non-invasive ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georges, Marjolaine; Attali, Valérie; Golmard, Jean Louis; Morélot-Panzini, Capucine; Crevier-Buchman, Lise; Collet, Jean-Marc; Tintignac, Anne; Morawiec, Elise; Trosini-Desert, Valery; Salachas, François; Similowski, Thomas; Gonzalez-Bermejo, Jesus

    2016-10-01

    Non-invasive ventilation (NIV) is part of standard care in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Intolerance or unavailability of NIV, as well as the quality of correction of nocturnal hypoventilation, has a direct impact on prognosis. We describe the importance of NIV failure due to upper airway obstructive events, the clinical characteristics, as well as their impact on the prognosis of ALS. Retrospective analysis of the data of 190 patients with ALS and NIV in a single centre for the period 2011-2014. 179 patients tolerating NIV for more than 4 h per night without leaks were analysed. Among the 179 patients, after correction of leaks, 73 remained inadequately ventilated at night (defined as more than 5% of the night spent at NIV, no difference was demonstrated between patients with and without upper airway obstructive events. In all patients, upper airway obstruction was concomitant with reduction of ventilatory drive. This study shows that upper airway obstruction during NIV occurs in patients with ALS and is associated with poorer prognosis. Such events should be identified as they can be corrected by adjusting ventilator settings. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  20. The influence of radiographic phenotype and smoking status on peripheral blood biomarker patterns in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica M Bon

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is characterized by both airway remodeling and parenchymal destruction. The identification of unique biomarker patterns associated with airway dominant versus parenchymal dominant patterns would support the existence of unique phenotypes representing independent biologic processes. A cross-sectional study was performed to examine the association of serum biomarkers with radiographic airway and parenchymal phenotypes of COPD.Serum from 234 subjects enrolled in a CT screening cohort was analyzed for 33 cytokines and growth factors using a multiplex protein array. The association of serum markers with forced expiratory volume in one second percent predicted (FEV1% and quantitative CT measurements of airway thickening and emphysema was assessed with and without stratification for current smoking status. Significant associations were found with several serum inflammatory proteins and measurements of FEV1%, airway thickening, and parenchymal emphysema independent of smoking status. The association of select analytes with airway thickening and emphysema was independent of FEV1%. Furthermore, the relationship between other inflammatory markers and measurements of physiologic obstruction or airway thickening was dependent on current smoking status.Airway and parenchymal phenotypes of COPD are associated with unique systemic serum biomarker profiles. Serum biomarker patterns may provide a more precise classification of the COPD syndrome, provide insights into disease pathogenesis and identify targets for novel patient-specific biological therapies.

  1. Thin-section CT imaging that correlates with pulmonary function tests in obstructive airway disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arakawa, Hiroaki, E-mail: arakawa@dokkyomed.ac.jp [Department of Radiology, Dokkyo Medical University, 880 Kita-Kobayashi, Mibu, Tochigi 321-0293 (Japan); Fujimoto, Kiminori [Department of Radiology, Kurume University School of Medicine (Japan); Fukushima, Yasutugu [Department of Pulmonary Medicine and Clinical Immunology, Dokkyo Medical University (Japan); Kaji, Yasushi [Department of Radiology, Dokkyo Medical University, 880 Kita-Kobayashi, Mibu, Tochigi 321-0293 (Japan)

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to identify independent CT findings that correlated with pulmonary function tests (PFTs) in patients with obstructive airway diseases. Materials and methods: Sixty-eight patients with obstructive airway disease and 29 normal subjects (mean age, 52 years; 36 men and 61 women) underwent inspiratory and expiratory thin-section CT and PFTs. Patient with obvious emphysema was excluded. Two radiologists independently reviewed the images and semi-quantitatively evaluated lung attenuation (mosaic perfusion, air trapping) and airway abnormalities (extent and severity of bronchial wall thickening and bronchiectasis, bronchiolectasis or centrilobular nodules, mucous plugging). Univariate, multivariate and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses were performed with CT findings and PFTs. Results: Forty-two patients showed obstructive PFTs, 26 symptomatic patients showed near-normal PFTs. On univariate analysis, air trapping and bronchial wall thickening showed highest correlation with obstructive PFTs such as FEV1.0/FVC, MMEF and FEF75 (r ranged from -0.712 to -0.782; p < 0.001), while mosaic perfusion and mucous plugging showed moderate correlation, and bronchiectasis, bronchiolectasis and nodules showed the least, but significant, correlation. Multiple logistic analyses revealed air trapping and bronchial wall thickening as the only significant independent determinants of obstructive PFTs. ROC analysis revealed the cut-off value of air trapping for obstructive PFTs to be one-third of whole lung (area under curve, 0.847). Conclusions: Our study confirmed air trapping and bronchial wall thickening are the most important observations when imaging obstructive PFTs. The cut-off value of air trapping for identifying obstructive PFTs was one-third of lung irrespective of inspiratory CT findings.

  2. The use of radioisotope techniques for the diagnosis of obstructive airway disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furudate, Masatsugu; Itoh, Kazuo; Shida, Akira; Minami, Yukisato

    1981-01-01

    Perfusion scintigraphy, radioaerosol inhalation scintigraphy, 133 Xe studies and sup(81m)Kr studies are useful radioisotope techniques for the detection of regional pulmonary abnormalities in obstructive airway disease. The patient during asthmatic attack shows the perfusion defects with indefinite boundary, which may change during the following several days. Decreased ventilation are seen on the regions with perfusion defects, and ventilatory defects are more marked than those of perfusion. On the other hand, these abnomal findings is reversible. In chronic emphysema or chronic bronchitis, the regions with decreased perfusion usually cannot be correlated with any specific segments, and scintigraphys done repeatedly fail to show re-vascularization on the regions. In the radioaerosol inhalation scintigraphy, deposition pattern reveal the severity of COPD. In addition, xenon studies in the diseases show marked or moderate prolongation of wash-out from the abnormal region, and the abnormalities of ventilation are equal to or exceed the abnormalities of perfusion. (author)

  3. Airway inflammation in patients affected by obstructive sleep apnea syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salerno, F G; Carpagnano, E; Guido, P; Bonsignore, M R; Roberti, A; Aliani, M; Vignola, A M; Spanevello, A

    2004-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) has been shown to be associated to upper airway inflammation. The object of the present study was to establish the presence of bronchial inflammation in OSAS subjects. In 16 subjects affected by OSAS, and in 14 healthy volunteers, airway inflammation was detected by the cellular analysis of the induced sputum. OSAS patients, as compared to control subjects, showed a higher percentage of neutrophils (66.7+/-18.9 vs. 25.8+/-15.6) (Pbronchial inflammation characterized by a significant increase in neutrophils.

  4. A retropharyngeal-mediastinal hematoma with supraglottic and tracheal obstruction: The role of multidisciplinary airway management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birkholz Torsten

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A 77-year-old man suffered hypoxemic cardiac arrest by supraglottic and tracheal airway obstruction in the emergency department. A previously unknown cervical fracture had caused a traumatic retropharyngeal-mediastinal hematoma. A lifesaving surgical emergency tracheostomy succeeded. Supraglottic and tracheal obstruction by a retropharyngeal-mediastinal hematoma with successful resuscitation via emergency tracheostomy after hypoxemic cardiac arrest has never been reported in a context of trauma. This clinically demanding case outlines the need for multidisciplinary airway management systems with continuous training and well-implemented guidelines. Only multidisciplinary staff preparedness and readily available equipments for the unanticipated difficult airway solved the catastrophic clinical situation.

  5. A Rare Cause of Upper Airway Obstruction in a Child

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, H.; Ndiaye, C.; Barry, M. W.; Thiongane, Aliou; Mbaye, A.; Zemene, Y.; Ndiaye, I. C.

    2017-01-01

    Ventricular band cyst is a rare condition in children but can result in severe upper airway obstruction with laryngeal dyspnea or death. The diagnosis should be considered in any stridor in children with previous history of intubation or respiratory infections. We report a case of a 4-year-old girl, received in an array of severe respiratory distress, emergency endoscopy was done, and a large ventricular tape band cyst obstructing the air way was found. Complete excision was made, and postope...

  6. [Severe iatrogenic airway obstruction due to lingual lymphangioma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segado Arenas, A; Flores González, J-C; Rubio Quiñones, F; Quintero Otero, S; Hernández González, A; Pantoja Rosso, S

    2011-09-01

    Lymphangioma of the tongue is a rare and benign tumour involving congenital and cystic abnormalities derived from lymphatic vessels. Treatment modalities include surgery and a large number of different intralesional injections of sclerosing agents. Presently, OK-432 (Picibanil(®)) is the preferred sclerosant and when administered intralesionally will result in inflammation, sclerosis, and cicatricial contraction of the lesion. We report a case of microcystic lymphangioma of the tongue in a 5-year-old boy treated with an intralesional injection of OK-432. In the immediate postoperative period, the patient suffered severe diffuse swelling, progressive upper airway obstruction with inspiratory stridor, and respiratory distress requiring emergency fiberoptic nasotracheal intubation. Although OK-432 injections are found to be safe and effective as a first line of treatment for lymphangiomas, local swelling with potentially life-threatening airway compromise should be anticipated, especially when treating lesions near the upper airway. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Overlap syndrome: obstructive sleep apnea in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weitzenblum, Emmanuel; Chaouat, Ari; Kessler, Romain; Canuet, Matthieu

    2008-02-15

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (SAHS) are both common diseases affecting respectively 10 and 5% of the adult population over 40 years of age, and their coexistence, which is denominated overlap syndrome, can be expected to occur in about 0.5% of this population. A recent epidemiologic study has shown that the prevalence of SAHS is not higher in COPD than in the general population, and that the coexistence of the two conditions is due to chance and not through a pathophysiologic linkage between these two diseases. Patients with overlap have a more important sleep-related O(2) desaturation than do patients with COPD with the same degree of bronchial obstruction. They have an increased risk of developing hypercapnic respiratory insufficiency and pulmonary hypertension when compared with patients with SAHS alone and with patients with "usual" COPD. In patients with overlap, hypoxemia, hypercapnia, and pulmonary hypertension can be observed in the presence of mild to moderate bronchial obstruction, which is different from "usual" COPD. Therapy of the overlap syndrome consists of nasal continuous positive airway pressure or nocturnal noninvasive ventilation (NIV), with or without associated nocturnal O(2). Patients who are markedly hypoxemic during daytime (Pa(O(2)) < 55-60 mm Hg) should be given conventional long-term O(2) therapy in addition to nocturnal ventilation.

  8. [The research progress of relationship between the obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome and asthma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jinfeng; Xie, Yuping; Ma, Wei

    2015-02-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS) is characterized by repeated episodes of upper airway obstruction that results in brief periods of breathing cessation (apnea) or a marked reduction in airflow (hypopnea) during sleep. Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease of the airways characterized by revesible air-flow obstruction and bronchial hyperresponsiveness. This article reviewed related reseaches progress of relationship between the obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrom and asthma in the vascular endothelial growth factor, systemic inflammation, leptin, obesity, gastroesophageal reflux disease and upper airway diseases, excessive daytime sleepiness and asthma control.

  9. Effects of Inhaled Fenoterol and Positive End-Expiratory Pressure on the Respiratory Mechanics of Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claude Guerin

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: During acute ventilatory failure in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, applying external positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEPe will reopen small airways and, thus, may enhance peripheral deposition as well as the physiological effects of inhaled beta-2 agonists.

  10. Lifetime environmental tobacco smoke exposure and the risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    OpenAIRE

    Balmes John; Eisner Mark D; Katz Patricia P; Trupin Laura; Yelin Edward H; Blanc Paul D

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), which contains potent respiratory irritants, may lead to chronic airway inflammation and obstruction. Although ETS exposure appears to cause asthma in children and adults, its role in causing COPD has received limited attention in epidemiologic studies. Methods Using data from a population-based sample of 2,113 U.S. adults aged 55 to 75 years, we examined the association between lifetime ETS exposure and the risk of developing...

  11. Continuous positive airway pressure for the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurwidya, Fariz; Susanto, Agus Dwi; Juzar, Dafsah A; Kobayashi, Isao; Yunus, Faisal

    2016-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a recurrent episode of partial or complete upper airway obstruction during sleep despite ongoing respiratory efforts and is implicated as the risk factor of cardiovascular disease. The OSA syndrome is typified by recurring partial or total occlusion of the pharynx, sleep fragmentation, episodes of gasping, and, eventually, daytime sleepiness. If it is left untreated, OSA syndrome can cause hypertension, coronary artery disease congestive heart disease, insulin resistance and death. In this review, we describe the pathogenesis and diagnosis of OSA. We also focused on the continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) as the main therapy for OSA. CPAP has been shown to provide benefit for not only respiratory system, but also for cardiovascular system and metabolic system. Finally, we discussed briefly about the issue of adherence of using CPAP that could contribute to lower compliant in patient with OSA.

  12. Hypertrophic anterior cervical osteophytes causing dysphagia and airway obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Harrison W; Quesnel, Alicia M; Holman, Allison S; Curry, William T; Rho, Michael B

    2009-10-01

    Hyperostosis of anterior cervical vertebral osteophytes can produce otolaryngological symptoms ranging from mild dysphagia, dysphonia, and foreign body sensation to severe food impaction and stridulous dyspnea. Airway compromise necessitating a tracheostomy is very rare. We discuss the case of an elderly man who presented with progressive dysphagia and a large hypopharyngeal mass as his initial manifestations of hypertrophic anterior cervical osteophytes. After a biopsy of the mass, the patient went into airway distress due to bilateral vocal fold fixation by the enlarging mass and consequently required a surgical airway. A combined team approach to the removal of the osteophytes successfully resolved his symptoms. The clinical, diagnostic, radiologic, and therapeutic principles involved in this case are presented and discussed. The recognition of hypertrophic osteophytes as a potential cause of common otolaryngological symptoms in the elderly population is paramount, as these symptoms can rapidly progress and lead to life-threatening airway obstruction. Medical and surgical interventions can be employed for the treatment of hypertrophic anterior cervical osteophytes, and they often result in favorable outcomes.

  13. Relationships between respiratory and airway resistances and activity-related dyspnea in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plantier L

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Bruno Mahut1,2, Aurore Caumont-Prim3,4, Laurent Plantier1,5, Karine Gillet-Juvin1,6, Etienne Callens1, Olivier Sanchez5,6, Brigitte Chevalier-Bidaud3, Plamen Bokov1, Christophe Delclaux1,5,71Assistance Publique – Hôpitaux de Paris (AP-HP, Hôpital Européen Georges Pompidou, Service de Physiologie – Clinique de la Dyspnée, F-75015 Paris, France; 2Cabinet La Berma, 4 avenue de la Providence; F-92160 Antony, France; 3AP-HP, Hôpital Européen Georges Pompidou, Unité d'Épidémiologie et de Recherche Clinique, F-75015 Paris, France; 4INSERM, Centre d'Investigation Épidémiologique 4, F-75015 Paris, France; 5Université Paris Descartes, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Faculté de Médecine, F-75015 Paris, France; 6AP-HP, Hôpital Européen Georges Pompidou, Service de Pneumologie; F-75015 Paris, France; 7CIC 9201 Plurithématique, Hôpital Européen Georges Pompidou, F-75015 Paris, FranceBackground: The aims of the study were: (1 to compare numerical parameters of specific airway resistance (total, sRawtot, effective, sRaweff and at 0.5 L • s-1, sRaw0.5 and indices obtained from the forced oscillation technique (FOT: resistance extrapolated at 0 Hz [Rrs0 Hz], mean resistance [Rrsmean], and resistance/frequency slope [Rrsslope] and (2 to assess their relationships with dyspnea in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD.Methods: A specific statistical approach, principal component analysis that also allows graphic representation of all correlations between functional parameters was used. A total of 108 patients (mean ± SD age: 65 ± 9 years, 31 women; GOLD stages: I, 14; II, 47; III, 39 and IV, 8 underwent spirometry, body plethysmography, FOT, and Medical Research Council (MRC scale assessments.Results: Principal component analysis determined that the functional parameters were described by three independent dimensions (airway caliber, lung volumes and their combination, specific resistance and that resistance parameters of the two techniques

  14. Th-2 signature in chronic airway diseases: towards the extinction of asthma-COPD overlap syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosío, Borja G; Pérez de Llano, Luis; Lopez Viña, Antolin; Torrego, Alfons; Lopez-Campos, Jose Luis; Soriano, Joan B; Martinez Moragon, Eva; Izquierdo, Jose Luis; Bobolea, Irina; Callejas, Javier; Plaza, Vicente; Miravitlles, Marc; Soler-Catalunya, Juan Jose

    2017-05-01

    We aimed to describe the differences and similarities between patients with chronic obstructive airway disease classified on the basis of classical diagnostic labels (asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), or asthma-COPD overlap (ACOS)) or according to the underlying inflammatory pattern (Th-2 signature, either Th-2-high or Th-2-low).We performed a cross-sectional study of patients aged ≥40 years and with a post-bronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 s to forced vital capacity ratio ≤0.7 with a previous diagnosis of asthma (non-smoking asthmatics (NSA)), COPD or ACOS, the latter including both smoking asthmatics (SA) and patients with eosinophilic COPD (COPD-e). Clinical, functional and inflammatory parameters (blood eosinophil count, IgE and exhaled nitric oxide fraction ( F eNO )) were compared between groups. Th-2 signature was defined by a blood eosinophil count ≥300 cells·μL -1 and/or a sputum eosinophil count ≥3%.Overall, 292 patients were included in the study: 89 with COPD, 94 NSA and 109 with ACOS (44 SA and 65 with COPD-e). No differences in symptoms or exacerbation rate were found between the three groups. With regards the underlying inflammatory pattern, 94 patients (32.2%) were characterised as Th-2-high and 198 (67.8%) as Th-2-low. The Th-2 signature was found in 49% of NSA, 3.3% of patients with COPD, 30% of SA and 49.3% of patients with COPD-e. This classification yielded significant differences in demographic, functional and inflammatory characteristics.We conclude that a classification based upon the inflammatory profile, irrespective of the taxonomy, provides a more clear distinction of patients with chronic obstructive airway disease. Copyright ©ERS 2017.

  15. Sleep apnea is associated with bronchial inflammation and continuous positive airway pressure-induced airway hyperresponsiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devouassoux, Gilles; Lévy, Patrick; Rossini, Eliane; Pin, Isabelle; Fior-Gozlan, Michèle; Henry, Mireille; Seigneurin, Daniel; Pépin, Jean-Louis

    2007-03-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSA) is associated with systemic and upper airway inflammation. Pharyngeal inflammation has a potential role in upper airway collapse, whereas systemic inflammation relates to cardiovascular morbidity. However, the presence of an inflammatory involvement of lower airway has been poorly investigated. The aim of the study was to demonstrate an inflammatory process at the bronchial level in patients with OSA and to analyze effects of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) application and humidification on bronchial mucosa. The study was conducted by using sequential induced sputum for cell analysis and IL-8 production, nitric oxide exhalation measurement, and methacholine challenge before and after CPAP. Bronchial neutrophilia and a high IL-8 concentration were observed in untreated OSA compared with controls (75% +/- 20% vs 43% +/- 12%, P Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome is associated with bronchial inflammation. Our data demonstrate CPAP effect on the development of AHR, possibly facilitated by the pre-existing inflammation. Both issues should be evaluated during long-term CPAP use. Results showing a spontaneous bronchial inflammation in OSA and the development of a CPAP-related AHR require a long-term follow-up to evaluate consequences on chronic bronchial obstruction.

  16. Enhanced bronchial expression of vascular endothelial growth factor and receptors (Flk-1 and Flt-1) in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.R. Kranenburg (Andor); W.I. de Boer (Pim); V.K.T. Alagappan (Vijay Kumar Thyagarajan); P.J. Sterk (Peter); H.S. Sharma (Hari)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: Ongoing inflammatory processes resulting in airway and vascular remodelling characterise chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its receptors VEGFR-1 (Flt-1) and VEGFR-2 (KDR/Flk-1) could play a role in

  17. Tissue factor pathway inhibitor prevents airway obstruction, respiratory failure and death due to sulfur mustard analog inhalation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rancourt, Raymond C.; Veress, Livia A.; Ahmad, Aftab; Hendry-Hofer, Tara B.; Rioux, Jacqueline S.; Garlick, Rhonda B.; White, Carl W.

    2013-01-01

    Sulfur mustard (SM) inhalation causes airway injury, with enhanced vascular permeability, coagulation, and airway obstruction. The objective of this study was to determine whether recombinant tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI) could inhibit this pathogenic sequence. Methods: Rats were exposed to the SM analog 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES) via nose-only aerosol inhalation. One hour later, TFPI (1.5 mg/kg) in vehicle, or vehicle alone, was instilled into the trachea. Arterial O 2 saturation was monitored using pulse oximetry. Twelve hours after exposure, animals were euthanized and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and plasma were analyzed for prothrombin, thrombin–antithrombin complex (TAT), active plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) levels, and fluid fibrinolytic capacity. Lung steady-state PAI-1 mRNA was measured by RT-PCR analysis. Airway-capillary leak was estimated by BALF protein and IgM, and by pleural fluid measurement. In additional animals, airway cast formation was assessed by microdissection and immunohistochemical detection of airway fibrin. Results: Airway obstruction in the form of fibrin-containing casts was evident in central conducting airways of rats receiving CEES. TFPI decreased cast formation, and limited severe hypoxemia. Findings of reduced prothrombin consumption, and lower TAT complexes in BALF, demonstrated that TFPI acted to limit thrombin activation in airways. TFPI, however, did not appreciably affect CEES-induced airway protein leak, PAI-1 mRNA induction, or inhibition of the fibrinolytic activity present in airway surface liquid. Conclusions: Intratracheal administration of TFPI limits airway obstruction, improves gas exchange, and prevents mortality in rats with sulfur mustard-analog-induced acute lung injury. - Highlights: • TFPI administration to rats after mustard inhalation reduces airway cast formation. • Inhibition of thrombin activation is the likely mechanism for limiting casts. • Rats given TFPI had

  18. Tissue factor pathway inhibitor prevents airway obstruction, respiratory failure and death due to sulfur mustard analog inhalation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rancourt, Raymond C., E-mail: raymond.rancourt@ucdenver.edu; Veress, Livia A., E-mail: livia.veress@ucdenver.edu; Ahmad, Aftab, E-mail: aftab.ahmad@ucdenver.edu; Hendry-Hofer, Tara B., E-mail: tara.hendry-hofer@ucdenver.edu; Rioux, Jacqueline S., E-mail: jacqueline.rioux@ucdenver.edu; Garlick, Rhonda B., E-mail: rhonda.garlick@ucdenver.edu; White, Carl W., E-mail: carl.w.white@ucdenver.edu

    2013-10-01

    Sulfur mustard (SM) inhalation causes airway injury, with enhanced vascular permeability, coagulation, and airway obstruction. The objective of this study was to determine whether recombinant tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI) could inhibit this pathogenic sequence. Methods: Rats were exposed to the SM analog 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES) via nose-only aerosol inhalation. One hour later, TFPI (1.5 mg/kg) in vehicle, or vehicle alone, was instilled into the trachea. Arterial O{sub 2} saturation was monitored using pulse oximetry. Twelve hours after exposure, animals were euthanized and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and plasma were analyzed for prothrombin, thrombin–antithrombin complex (TAT), active plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) levels, and fluid fibrinolytic capacity. Lung steady-state PAI-1 mRNA was measured by RT-PCR analysis. Airway-capillary leak was estimated by BALF protein and IgM, and by pleural fluid measurement. In additional animals, airway cast formation was assessed by microdissection and immunohistochemical detection of airway fibrin. Results: Airway obstruction in the form of fibrin-containing casts was evident in central conducting airways of rats receiving CEES. TFPI decreased cast formation, and limited severe hypoxemia. Findings of reduced prothrombin consumption, and lower TAT complexes in BALF, demonstrated that TFPI acted to limit thrombin activation in airways. TFPI, however, did not appreciably affect CEES-induced airway protein leak, PAI-1 mRNA induction, or inhibition of the fibrinolytic activity present in airway surface liquid. Conclusions: Intratracheal administration of TFPI limits airway obstruction, improves gas exchange, and prevents mortality in rats with sulfur mustard-analog-induced acute lung injury. - Highlights: • TFPI administration to rats after mustard inhalation reduces airway cast formation. • Inhibition of thrombin activation is the likely mechanism for limiting casts. • Rats given TFPI

  19. Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: management considerations for the dental team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devlin, J

    2014-09-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) affects an estimated 3 million people in the United Kingdom, and is most common among elderly smokers. Patients may present with recurrent coughing of mucoid secretions (chronic bronchitis) or breathlessness caused by destruction of the airways (emphysema). If possible, it is advisable to treat the severely affected patients with them sitting upright in the dental chair as they may find it difficult to breathe when lying in the horizontal position. Periodontal bacteria can be carried into the lung where they can cause respiratory infection; therefore oral hygiene instruction should be emphasised in these patients. The objective of this article is to describe the oral and dental implications of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. In particular, there have been a number of recent developments in the management of patients with COPD that have direct relevance to the dentist. The drug regime used in the treatment of patients with COPD can have profound implications for clinical dental practice, manifested as dry mouth or oral candidiasis. There is also increasing evidence of a link between COPD and both gastro-oesophageal reflux disease and periodontal disease.

  20. Oral hygiene in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Ulrich; Uhrenfeldt, Lisbeth; Larsen, Palle

    2017-01-01

    SCOPING REVIEW OBJECTIVE: It is hypothesized that systematic oral hygiene may reduce airway infections in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Before considering doing a systematic review, a scoping review is necessary to explore and map literature on the subject and identify......-invasive interventions that have been carried out to improve oral hygiene and relieve and/or reduce respiratory tract infections, exacerbation and/or hospital readmission in patients with diagnosed with COPD. A further objective is to undertake a comprehensive search to identify qualitative literature reporting...... on the experiences of oral hygiene in people diagnosed with COPD and/or their relatives and/or healthcare providers (HCPs).Specifically, the scoping review questions are as follows....

  1. Enhanced bronchial expression of vascular endothelial growth factor and receptors (Flk-1 and Flt-1) in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kranenburg, A. R.; de Boer, W. I.; Alagappan, V. K. T.; Sterk, P. J.; Sharma, H. S.

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Ongoing inflammatory processes resulting in airway and vascular remodelling characterise chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its receptors VEGFR-1 (Flt-1) and VEGFR-2 (KDR/Flk-1) could play a role in tissue remodelling and

  2. Measures of symptoms and life quality to predict emergent use of institutional health care resources in chronic obstructive airways disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traver, G A

    1988-11-01

    Thirty subjects with severe chronic obstructive airways disease participated in a study to identify differences in symptoms and life quality between those with high and low emergent use of institutional health care resources. Emergent use was defined as care obtained through unscheduled, nonroutine methods of access to health care providers. There were 15 subjects in each group; the groups had similar sex distribution and were not significantly different for percent predicted forced expiratory volume in 1 second (mean 29.8%), use of home oxygen (15 of 30 subjects), or prevalence of CO2 retention (nine of 30). Symptoms and life quality were measured by using three paper and pencil tests, the Bronchitis-Emphysema Symptom Checklist, the Sickness-Impact Profile, and the Katz Adjustment Scale for relatives. Findings demonstrated consistently more symptoms and impairment of life quality in the "high emergent" group. The differences reached statistical significance for irritability, anxiety, helplessness, nervousness, peripheral sensory complaints, alienation, social interaction, and emotional behavior. Discriminant analysis provided a prediction formula that yielded 80% correct prediction for the two groups.

  3. Management of tracheal chondrosarcoma almost completely obstructing the airway: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andolfi, Marco; Vaccarili, Maurizio; Crisci, Roberto; Puma, Francesco

    2016-07-11

    Primary malignant tracheal tumors account for only 0.2 % of all malignancies of the respiratory tract. Tracheal chondrosarcoma is a rare condition and only 17 cases have been described in the literature from 1965 to date. Herein we report the very unusual case of a patient with a tracheal chondrosarcoma, electively treated by curative surgery despite the virtually complete obstruction of the airway. We present the case of a 79-year old Caucasian man with long-lasting wheezing misdiagnosed as asthma and affected by a tracheal chondrosarcoma almost completely obstructing the airway. Videobronchoscopy and imaging investigations revealed a well-circumscribed mass arising from the cartilaginous rings of the cervical trachea with a posterior residual respiratory space of about 1 mm. Because of the mobility and flaccidity of the uninvolved pars membranacea, the tiny respiratory space slightly expanded during inspiration and expiration allowing the patient to be treated without an essential emergency procedure. Standard tracheal intubation was impossible. Rigid bronchoscopy enabled placement of a small tracheal tube distally to the tumor. Successful cervical tracheal resection and reconstruction was then performed, achieving complete tumor excision. Histologically, the mass was characterized as a low-grade tracheal chondrosarcoma. Videobronchoscopy performed 9 months after surgery showed a wide, well healed tracheal anastomosis. Ten months after surgery, the patient is alive and disease free. Complete surgical resection is the treatment of choice for tracheal chondrosarcoma. Rigid bronchoscopy is an essential tool for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. It allows the palliative maneuvers for obstruction relief but also, in resectable patients, the intraoperative safe and straightforward management of the obstructed airway.

  4. A Rare Cause of Upper Airway Obstruction in a Child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Ahmed

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Ventricular band cyst is a rare condition in children but can result in severe upper airway obstruction with laryngeal dyspnea or death. The diagnosis should be considered in any stridor in children with previous history of intubation or respiratory infections. We report a case of a 4-year-old girl, received in an array of severe respiratory distress, emergency endoscopy was done, and a large ventricular tape band cyst obstructing the air way was found. Complete excision was made, and postoperative prophylaxis tracheotomy was done. The postoperative course was uneventful with improvement of clinical and endoscopic signs.

  5. Role of eosinophils in airway inflammation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tashkin DP

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Donald P Tashkin,1 Michael E Wechsler2 1Department of Medicine, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA, USA; 2Department of Medicine, National Jewish Health, Denver, CO, USA Abstract: COPD is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. In some patients with COPD, eosinophils contribute to inflammation that promotes airway obstruction; approximately a third of stable COPD patients have evidence of eosinophilic inflammation. Although the eosinophil threshold associated with clinical relevance in patients with COPD is currently subject to debate, eosinophil counts hold potential as biomarkers to guide therapy. In particular, eosinophil counts may be useful in assessing which patients may benefit from inhaled corticosteroid therapy, particularly regarding exacerbation prevention. In addition, several therapies targeting eosinophilic inflammation are available or in development, including monoclonal antibodies targeting the IL5 ligand, the IL5 receptor, IL4, and IL13. The goal of this review was to describe the biologic characteristics of eosinophils, their role in COPD during exacerbations and stable disease, and their use as biomarkers to aid treatment decisions. We also propose an algorithm for inhaled corticosteroid use, taking into consideration eosinophil counts and pneumonia history, and emerging eosinophil-targeted therapies in COPD. Keywords: lung disease, pulmonary diseases, corticosteroids, asthma, pneumonia

  6. Obstructive sleep apnea in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lee, Ruth

    2011-03-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) represent two of the most prevalent chronic respiratory disorders and cardiovascular diseases are major co-morbidities in both. Co-existence of both disorders (overlap syndrome) occurs in 1% of adults and overlap patients have worse nocturnal hypoxemia and hypercapnia than COPD and OSA patients alone. The present review discusses recent data concerning the pathophysiological and clinical significance of the overlap syndrome.

  7. Comparative efficacy of indacaterol in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ribeiro M

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Marcos Ribeiro, Kenneth R ChapmanAsthma and Airway Centre, University Health Network, Toronto Western Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, CanadaAbstract: Long-acting bronchodilators have been shown to improve multiple clinical outcomes in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD including lung function, symptoms, dyspnea, quality of life, and exacerbations. Indacaterol is a novel, inhaled, long-acting β2-agonist providing 24-hour bronchodilation with once-daily dosing. It is currently approved for the maintenance treatment of COPD to be administered as 150 or 300 µg once-daily doses as licensed in many countries and 75 µg as licensed in the US by means of a single-dose dry powder inhaler. The data from clinical development support a favorable safety and tolerability profile within the β2-agonist drug class, with no relevant issues identified. Current evidence indicates that indacaterol is suitable for use as first-line monotherapy in COPD patients with moderate disease (Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease [GOLD] stage II and beyond that do not require an inhaled corticosteroid (ICS as per GOLD guidelines, or in combination with an ICS in severe or very severe patients with repeated exacerbations. Data from trials with the novel once-daily β2-agonist, indacaterol, indicate superior bronchodilation and clinical efficacy over twice-daily long-acting β2-agonists and at least equipotent bronchodilation as once-daily tiotropium. Bronchodilators are central in the symptomatic management of COPD. It is likely that once-daily dosing of a bronchodilator would be a significant convenience and probably a compliance-enhancing advantage, leading to improved overall clinical outcomes in patients with COPD.Keywords: indacaterol, onset of action, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, bronchodilators, once-daily, long-acting β2-agonists

  8. Long-term prognosis of asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and asthma-chronic obstructive pulmonary disease overlap in the Copenhagen City Heart study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, Peter; Çolak, Yunus; Ingebrigtsen, Truls Sylvan

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Long-term prognosis of patients with characteristics of both chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma, named asthma-COPD overlap, is poorly described. We investigated the long-term prognosis of individuals with different types of chronic airway disease, with a special...... were 39·48 (95% CI 25·93-60·11) in asthma-COPD overlap with early-onset asthma, 83·47 (61·67-112·98) in asthma-COPD overlap with late-onset asthma, 23·80 (17·43-33·50) in COPD, and 14·74 (10·06-21·59) in asthma compared with never-smokers without lung disease (all p... focus on individuals with asthma-COPD overlap. METHODS: We assigned participants from the Copenhagen City Heart Study into six subgroups: healthy never-smokers, ever-smokers without asthma and COPD, those with asthma with low cumulated smoking exposure and no airflow limitation, those with COPD, those...

  9. Profile of aclidinium bromide in the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sims MW

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Michael W Sims, Reynold A Panettieri, Jr. Pulmonary, Allergy, and Critical Care Division, Airways Biology Initiative, Department of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USA Abstract: Bronchodilators provide the mainstay of pharmacologic therapy for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, and anticholinergic bronchodilators, in particular, appear to be the most effective. There are currently two anticholinergic agents available in the US for the treatment of COPD (ipratropium bromide and tiotropium bromide, but several others are in various stages of development. Aclidinium bromide, a novel, long-acting, anticholinergic bronchodilator, is currently in Phase III trials for the management of COPD. Available evidence suggests that aclidinium is a safe and well tolerated drug with a relatively rapid onset and a sufficient duration of action to provide once-daily dosing. This article will provide a pharmacologic profile of aclidinium bromide and review the preclinical and clinical studies evaluating its safety and efficacy in the treatment of COPD. Keywords: aclidinium bromide, bronchodilators, pulmonary disease, chronic obstructive, muscarinic antagonists, pharmacokinetics, pharmacology

  10. Prognostic value of nutritional status in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landbo, C; Prescott, E; Lange, P

    1999-01-01

    The association between low body mass index (BMI) and poor prognosis in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a common clinical observation. We prospectively examined whether BMI is an independent predictor of mortality in subjects with COPD from the Copenhagen City Heart...... Study. In total, 1,218 men and 914 women, aged 21 to 89 yr, with airway obstruction defined as an FEV(1)-to-FVC ratio of less than 0.7, were included in the analyses. Spirometric values, BMI, smoking habits, and respiratory symptoms were assessed at the time of study enrollment, and mortality from COPD...... with that in subjects of normal weight of 1.64 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.20 to 2.23) in men and 1.42 (95% CI: 1.07 to 1.89) in women. However, the association between BMI and survival differed significantly with stage of COPD. In mild and moderate COPD there was a nonsignificant U-shaped relationship...

  11. Continuous Positive Airway Pressure Prevents Hypoxia in Dental Patient with Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome under Intravenous Sedation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasatkin, Anton A; Reshetnikov, Aleksei P; Urakov, Aleksandr L; Baimurzin, Dmitrii Y

    2017-01-01

    Use of sedation in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in dentistry is limited. Hypoxia may develop during medication sleep in dental patients with OSA because of repetitive partial or complete obstruction of the upper airway. In this regard, anesthesiologists prefer not to give any sedative to surgical patients with OSA or support the use of general anesthesia due to good airway control. We report a case where we could successfully sedate a dental patient with OSA using intraoperative continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) without hypoxia. Use of sedation and intraoperative CPAP in patients with OSA may be considered only if the effectiveness at home CPAP therapy is proven.

  12. Precision medicine in airway diseases: moving to clinical practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agustí, Alvar; Bafadhel, Mona; Beasley, Richard; Bel, Elisabeth H.; Faner, Rosa; Gibson, Peter G.; Louis, Renaud; McDonald, Vanessa M.; Sterk, Peter J.; Thomas, Mike; Vogelmeier, Claus; Pavord, Ian D.

    2017-01-01

    On February 21, 2017, a European Respiratory Society research seminar held in Barcelona discussed how to best apply precision medicine to chronic airway diseases such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. It is now clear that both are complex and heterogeneous diseases, that often

  13. Prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease according to BTS, ERS, GOLD and ATS criteria in relation to doctor's diagnosis, symptoms, age, gender, and smoking habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindberg, Anne; Jonsson, Ann-Christin; Rönmark, Eva; Lundgren, Rune; Larsson, Lars-Gunnar; Lundbäck, Bo

    2005-01-01

    Guidelines and standards for diagnosis and management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have been presented by different national and international societies, but the spirometric criteria for COPD differ between guidelines. To estimate prevalence of COPD using the guidelines of the British Thoracic Society (BTS), the European Respiratory Society (ERS), the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD), and the American Thoracic Society (ATS). Further, to evaluate reported airway symptoms, contacts with health care providers, and physician diagnosis of COPD in relation to the respective criteria, and gender differences. In 1992 a postal questionnaire was sent to a random sample of adults aged 20-69 years, 4,851 (85%) out of 5,681 subjects responded. In 1994-1995 a random sample of the responders, 970 subjects, were invited to a structured interview and a lung function test; 666 (69%) participated. The prevalence of COPD was 7.6, 14.0, 14.1, 12.2 and 34.1% according to BTS, ERS, GOLD, clinical ATS (with symptoms or physician diagnosis), and spirometric ATS criteria, respectively. Prevalent COPD was related to age, smoking habits and family history of obstructive airway disease but not to gender. Physician diagnosis of chronic bronchitis or emphysema was only reported by 16.3, 12.2, 11.0, 23.4 and 8.2% of subjects fulfilling the respective criteria, though a majority reported airway symptoms. The main determinants for prevalent COPD were age, smoking habits and spirometric criteria of COPD. Though a majority reported airway symptoms and contact with health care providers due to respiratory complaints, only a minority was diagnosed as having COPD, indicating a large underdiagnosis. Copyright (c) 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Occupational chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Omland, Oyvind; Würtz, Else Toft; Aasen, Tor Børvig

    2014-01-01

    Occupational-attributable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) presents a substantial health challenge. Focusing on spirometric criteria for airflow obstruction, this review of occupational COPD includes both population-wide and industry-specific exposures....

  15. Use of tidal breathing curves for evaluating expiratory airway obstruction in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hevroni, Avigdor; Goldman, Aliza; Blank-Brachfeld, Miriam; Abu Ahmad, Wiessam; Ben-Dov, Lior; Springer, Chaim

    2018-01-15

    To evaluate tidal breathing (TB) flow-volume and flow-time curves for identification of expiratory airway obstruction in infants. Pulmonary function tests were analyzed retrospectively in 156 infants aged 3-24 months with persistent or recurrent respiratory complaints. Parameters derived from TB curves were compared to maximal expiratory flow at functional residual capacity ([Formula: see text]maxFRC) measured by rapid thoracoabdominal compression technique. Analyzed parameters were: inspiratory time (t I ), expiratory time (t E ), tidal volume, peak tidal expiratory flow (PTEF), time to peak tidal expiratory flow (t PTEF ), expiratory flow when 50% and 25% of tidal volume remains in the lungs (FEF 50 , FEF 25 , respectively), and the ratios t PTEF /t E , t I /t E , FEF 50 /PTEF, and FEF 25 /PTEF. Statistical comparisons between flow indices and TB parameters were performed using mean squared error and Pearson's sample correlation coefficient. The study population was also divided into two groups based on severity of expiratory obstruction (above or below z-score for [Formula: see text]maxFRC of -2) to generate receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves and calculate discriminatory values between the groups. TB parameters that were best correlated to [Formula: see text]maxFRC were: t PTEF /t E , FEF 50 /PTEF, and FEF 25 /PTEF, with r = 0.61, 0.67, 0.65, respectively (p < 0.0001 for all). ROC curves for FEF 50 /PTEF, FEF 25 /PTEF and t PTEF /t E showed areas under the curve of 0.813, 0.797, and 0.796, respectively. Cutoff value z-scores of -0.35, -0.34, and -0.43 for these three parameters, respectively, showed an 86% negative predictive value for severe airway obstructions. TB curves can assist in ruling out severe expiratory airway obstruction in infants.

  16. Anesthetic considerations in the patients of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease undergoing laparoscopic surgeries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khetarpal, Ranjana; Bali, Kusum; Chatrath, Veena; Bansal, Divya

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to review the various anesthetic options which can be considered for laparoscopic surgeries in the patients with the chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The literature search was performed in the Google, PubMed, and Medscape using key words "analgesia, anesthesia, general, laparoscopy, lung diseases, obstructive." More than thirty-five free full articles and books published from the year 1994 to 2014 were retrieved and studied. Retrospective data observed from various studies and case reports showed regional anesthesia (RA) to be valid and safer option in the patients who are not good candidates of general anesthesia like patients having obstructive pulmonary diseases. It showed better postoperative patient outcome with respect to safety, efficacy, postoperative pulmonary complications, and analgesia. So depending upon disease severity RA in various forms such as spinal anesthesia, paravertebral block, continuous epidural anesthesia, combined spinal epidural anesthesia (CSEA), and CSEA with bi-level positive airway pressure should be considered.

  17. Diagnostic Accuracy of Obstructive Airway Adult Test for Diagnosis of Obstructive Sleep Apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasparini, Giulio; Vicini, Claudio; De Benedetto, Michele; Salamanca, Fabrizio; Sorrenti, Giovanni; Romandini, Mario; Bosi, Marcello; Saponaro, Gianmarco; Foresta, Enrico; Laforì, Andreina; Meccariello, Giuseppe; Bianchi, Alessandro; Toraldo, Domenico Maurizio; Campanini, Aldo; Montevecchi, Filippo; Rizzotto, Grazia; Cervelli, Daniele; Moro, Alessandro; Arigliani, Michele; Gobbi, Riccardo; Pelo, Sandro

    2015-01-01

    The gold standard for the diagnosis of Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) is polysomnography, whose access is however reduced by costs and limited availability, so that additional diagnostic tests are needed. To analyze the diagnostic accuracy of the Obstructive Airway Adult Test (OAAT) compared to polysomnography for the diagnosis of OSA in adult patients. Ninety patients affected by OSA verified with polysomnography (AHI ≥ 5) and ten healthy patients, randomly selected, were included and all were interviewed by one blind examiner with OAAT questions. The Spearman rho, evaluated to measure the correlation between OAAT and polysomnography, was 0.72 (p diagnostic accuracy for the diagnosis of OSA. It has also been shown to be able to discriminate among the different degrees of severity of OSA. Additional large studies aiming to validate this questionnaire as a screening or diagnostic test are needed.

  18. New frontiers in CT imaging of airway disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grenier, Philippe A.; Beigelman-Aubry, Catherine; Fetita, Catalin; Preteux, Francoise; Brauner, Michel W.; Lenoir, Stephane

    2002-01-01

    Combining helical volumetric CT acquisition and thin-slice thickness during breath hold provides an accurate assessment of both focal and diffuse airway diseases. With multiple detector rows, compared with single-slice helical CT, multislice CT can cover a greater volume, during a simple breath hold, and with better longitudinal and in-plane spatial resolution and improved temporal resolution. The result in data set allows the generation of superior multiplanar and 3D images of the airways, including those obtained from techniques developed specifically for airway imaging, such as virtual bronchography and virtual bronchoscopy. Complementary CT evaluation at suspended or continuous full expiration is mandatory to detect air trapping that is a key finding for depicting an obstruction on the small airways. Indications for CT evaluation of the airways include: (a) detection of endobronchial lesions in patients with an unexplained hemoptysis; (b) evaluation of extent of tracheobronchial stenosis for planning treatment and follow-up; (c) detection of congenital airway anomalies revealed by hemoptysis or recurrent infection; (d) detection of postinfectious or postoperative airway fistula or dehiscence; and (e) diagnosis and assessment of extent of bronchiectasis and small airway disease. Improvement in image analysis technique and the use of spirometrically control of lung volume acquisition have made possible accurate and reproducible quantitative assessment of airway wall and lumen areas and lung density. This contributes to better insights in physiopathology of obstructive lung disease, particularly in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma. (orig.)

  19. Acrolein effects in pulmonary cells: relevance to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretto, Nadia; Volpi, Giorgia; Pastore, Fiorella; Facchinetti, Fabrizio

    2012-07-01

    Acrolein (2-propenal) is a highly reactive α,β-unsaturated aldehyde and a respiratory irritant that is ubiquitously present in the environment but that can also be generated endogenously at sites of inflammation. Acrolein is abundant in tobacco smoke, which is the major environmental risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and elevated levels of acrolein are found in the lung fluids of COPD patients. Its high electrophilicity makes acrolein notorious for its facile reaction with biological nucleophiles, leading to the modification of proteins and DNA and depletion of antioxidant defenses. As a consequence, acrolein results in oxidative stress as well as altered intracellular signaling and gene transcription/translation. In pulmonary cells, acrolein, at subtoxic concentrations, can activate intracellular stress kinases, alter the production of inflammatory mediators and proteases, modify innate immune response, induce mucus hypersecretion, and damage airway epithelium. A better comprehension of the mechanisms underlying acrolein effects in the airways may suggest novel treatment strategies in COPD. © 2012 New York Academy of Sciences.

  20. Elective use of the Ventrain for upper airway obstruction during high-frequency jet ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fearnley, Robert A; Badiger, Sheela; Oakley, Richard J; Ahmad, Imran

    2016-09-01

    The safety of high pressure source ventilation (jet ventilation) is dependent upon upper airway patency to facilitate adequate passive expiration and prevent increasing intrathoracic pressure and its associated deleterious sequelae. Distortions in airway anatomy may make passive expiration inadequate or impossible in some patients. We report the elective use of the Ventrain device to provide ventilation in a clinical setting of upper airway obstruction in a patient with post radiation fibrosis that had previously prevented passive expiration during attempted high pressure source ventilation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. COMPARISON OF 3 NORMAL BREATHING TECHNIQUES TO ASSESS REVERSIBILITY OF AIRWAY-OBSTRUCTION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    GIMENO, F; POSTMA, DS; VANALTENA, R

    1992-01-01

    Measurement of forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) is generally used to assess airway obstruction. Function tests during normal breathing are used as complementary tests as well as alternatives. Studies have been done comparing the esophageal pressure method with body plethysmography, and

  2. The influence of upper airways diameter on the intensity of obstructive sleep apnea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolanta Szymańska

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and Objective. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA is characterized by at least 5 ten-second-long episodes of apnea or hypopnea, per hour of sleep. This disease may lead to severe, life-threatening complications. Therefore, risk analysis and its influence on disease intensity is crucial for proper implementation of preventive treatments. Objective. To determine the relation between the intensity of OSA expressed in Apnea-Hypopnea Index (AHI, and the anterior-posterior diameter of upper airways at the levels of soft palate and tongue base. Material and Method. Medical records of 41 patients with sleep apnea (AHI>4 diagnosed through polysomnographic examination obstructive were used for the study. The data consisted of: age and gender, polysomnographic examination results (AHI, lateral cephalogram with cephalomertic analysis, together with measurements of the upper and lower pharyngeal depth according to McNamara. Statistical analysis was carried out in accordance with Pearson’s r correlation coefficient test (Statistica 8.0 software package. Results. Analysis of the influence of upper airways diameter on the intensity of OSA showed that the value of upper Airways diameter at the tongue base level had no statistically significant impact on the value of AHI (p=0.795. However, a statistically significant impact of the value of upper airways diameter on the AHI value (p=0.008 at the soft palate level was observed. Patients with OSA have narrowed upper airways diameter. The value of AHI increases with the decrease of upper diameter and is not dependent on a lower diameter value. Patients with a decreased upper airways diameter should be informed about potential breathing disorders during sleep.

  3. Asthma-chronic obstructive pulmonary disease overlap syndrome – Literature review and contributions towards a Portuguese consensus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Araújo

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Phenotypic overlap between the two main chronic airway pulmonary diseases, asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, has been the subject of debate for decades, and recently the nomenclature of asthma-COPD overlap syndrome (ACOS was adopted for this condition. The definition of this entity in the literature is, however, very heterogeneous, it is therefore important to define how it applies to Portugal. Methods: A literature review of ACOS was made in a first phase resulting in the drawing up of a document that was later submitted for discussion among a panel of chronic lung diseases experts, resulting in reflexions about diagnosis, treatment and clinical guidance for ACOS patients. Results: There was a consensus among the experts that the diagnosis of ACOS should be considered in the concomitant presence of: clinical manifestations characteristic of both asthma and COPD, persistent airway obstruction (post-bronchodilator FEV1/FVC 300 eosinophils/μL or >5% of leukocytes and previous history of atopy should also be considered. The recommended first line pharmacological treatment in these patients is the ICS/LABA association; if symptomatic control is not achieved or in case of clinical severity, triple therapy with ICS/LABA/LAMA may be used. An effective control of the exposure to risk factors, vaccination, respiratory rehabilitation and treatment of comorbidities is also important. Conclusions: The creation of initial guidelines on ACOS, which can be applied in the Portuguese context, has an important role in the generation of a broad nationwide consensus. This will give, in the near future, a far better clinical, functional and epidemiological characterization of ACOS patients, with the ultimate goal of achieving better therapeutic guidance. Keywords: Asthma, Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, Overlap syndrome, Portuguese consensus

  4. The objective evaluation of obstructive pulmonary diseases with spirometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özkaya S

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Sevket Ozkaya,1 Adem Dirican,2 Tibel Tuna3 1Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Bahçes¸ehir University, Istanbul, 2Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Samsun Medical Park Hospital, 3Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Samsun Chest Diseases and Thoracic Surgery Hospital, Samsun, Turkey Abstract: Airway obstruction is variable in asthma, while it is progressive and persistent in chronic bronchitis and emphysema. However, some of the patients presenting with symptoms of chronic airway diseases have clinical features of both asthma and COPD. The group with “Asthma–COPD Overlap Syndrome” (ACOS phenotype was characterized by definitely irreversible airway obstruction accompanied by symptoms and signs of reversibility. In this study, we aimed to classify obstructive airway diseases by clinical, radiological, and pulmonary function tests. Patients at Samsun Medical Park Hospital Chest Diseases outpatient clinic were evaluated between January 2013 and April 2016, and a total of 235 patients were included in this study. Mean age of the patients was 55.3±14.5 (15–88 years, and the male/female ratio was 45/190. The baseline pulmonary function test results of the patients were as follows: mean forced vital capacity (FVC values 2,825±1,108 (710–6,870 mL and 74.3±22.4 (24–155%, forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1 values 1,789±774 (480–4,810 mL and 58.1±20.0 (20–130%, FEV1/FVC values 62.5±6.8 (39–70%. Reversibility criteria following bronchodilator treatment were present in 107 (45.5% patients. We specified five subgroups for patients according to their clinical, radiological, and pulmonary test findings, namely Group 1 (asthma, Group 2 (ACOS, Group 3 (chronic bronchitis, and Group 4 (emphysema. Additionally, a group of patients who had clinical and spirometric features of both asthma and chronic bronchitis in association with underlying emphysema (emphysema with chronic bronchitis and emphysema with asthma

  5. Haemophilus influenzae from Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Exacerbation Induce More Inflammation than Colonizers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Cecilia L.; Manzel, Lori J.; Lehman, Erin E.; Humlicek, Alicia L.; Shi, Lei; Starner, Timothy D.; Denning, Gerene M.; Murphy, Timothy F.; Sethi, Sanjay; Look, Dwight C.

    2005-01-01

    Rationale: Airway infection with Haemophilus influenzae causes airway inflammation, and isolation of new strains of this bacteria is associated with increased risk of exacerbations in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Objective: To determine whether strains of H. influenzae associated with exacerbations cause more inflammation than strains that colonize the airways of patients with COPD. Methods: Exacerbation strains of H. influenzae were isolated from patients during exacerbation of clinical symptoms with subsequent development of a homologous serum antibody response and were compared with colonization strains that were not associated with symptom worsening or an antibody response. Bacterial strains were compared using an in vivo mouse model of airway infection and in vitro cell culture model of bacterial adherence and defense gene and signaling pathway activation in primary human airway epithelial cells. Results: H. influenzae associated with exacerbations caused more airway neutrophil recruitment compared with colonization strains in the mouse model of airway bacterial infection. Furthermore, exacerbation strains adhered to epithelial cells in significantly higher numbers and induced more interleukin-8 release after interaction with airway epithelial cells. This effect was likely mediated by increased activation of the nuclear factor-κB and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathways. Conclusions: The results indicate that H. influenzae strains isolated from patients during COPD exacerbations often induce more airway inflammation and likely have differences in virulence compared with colonizing strains. These findings support the concept that bacteria infecting the airway during COPD exacerbations mediate increased airway inflammation and contribute to decreased airway function. PMID:15805181

  6. Acute effects of short term use of e-cigarettes on airways physiology and respiratory symptoms in smokers with and without airways obstructive diseases and in healthy non smokers

    OpenAIRE

    Anastasios Palamidas; Stamatoula Tsikrika; Paraskevi A. Katsaounou; Sofia Vakali; Sofia-Antiopi Gennimata; George kaltsakas; Christina Gratziou; Nikolaos Koulouris

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Although the use of e-cigarettes is increasing worldwide, their short and long-term effects remain undefined. We aimed to study the acute effect of short-term use of e-cigarettes containing nicotine on lung function and respiratory symptoms in smokers with airways obstructive disease (COPD, asthma), “healthy” smokers, and healthy never smokers. Methods Respiratory symptoms, vital signs, exhaled NO, airways temperature, and airways resistance (Raw), specific airway condu...

  7. Danish Register of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, Peter; Tøttenborg, Sandra Søgaard; Sorknæs, Anne Dichmann

    2016-01-01

    AIM OF DATABASE: The Danish Register of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (DrCOPD) is a nationwide database aiming to describe the quality of treatment of all patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in Denmark. STUDY POPULATION: DrCOPD comprises data on all patients...

  8. Spi2 gene polymorphism is not associated with recurrent airway obstruction and inflammatory airway disease in thoroughbred horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Correa da Silva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim was to detect the presence of polymorphisms at exons 1, 2, 3 and 4 of the Spi2 gene, and evaluate a possible association between them and recurrent airway obstruction (RAO or inflammatory airway disease (IAD in thoroughbred horses, through single-strand conformational-polymorphism (SSCP screening. Although polymorphism was not detected in exons 1, 2 and 3, three alleles and six genotypes were identified in exon 4. The frequencies of allele A (0.6388 and genotype AA (0.3888 were higher in horses affected by RAO, although no association was found between polymorphism and horses with either RAO or IAD.

  9. Pulmonary function tests and impulse oscillometry in severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients′ offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babak Amra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Several studies have showed an increased prevalence of airflow obstruction in first degree relatives of individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Considering no specific research had evaluated airway resistance in offspring of patients with severe COPD, we utilized a spirometry and a impulse oscillometry (IO to evaluate this population. Materials and Methods: In this case control study, from November 2011 to July 2012, we consecutively evaluated 54 offsprings of severe COPD patients (case group admitted in the pulmonary ward, affiliated to the Isfahan University of Medical Sciences and control group. Pulmonary function tests and the IO were obtained for both groups. Student′s t-test was used for inter-group comparisons, and P values below 0.05 were taken as significant. Results: Abnormal increased airway resistance was seen in cases in comparison with controls (R5 Hz [46.29%, P = 0.01], R25 Hz [42.59%, P < 0.001]. Also, considering the spirometry, case group had pulmonary function parameters less than control group (forced vital capacity [FVC]; P = 0.02, forced expiratory volume in 1 st s; P < 0.001, forced expiratory flow (FEF 25-75; P < 0.001, FEF 25-75/FVC; P < 0.001 but they were in normal range. Conclusion: This study demonstrated increased airway resistance among the severe COPD offsprings. The IO may be a sensitive tool for detection of high risk subjects in families with COPD.

  10. Volumetric MR imaging of the upper airway in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gefter, W.B.; Nordberg, J.E.; Hoffman, E.A.

    1989-01-01

    Structural abnormalities in the upper airway and surrounding soft tissues may contribute to the obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). The authors have utilized MR imaging (3-mm contiguous T1-weighted sagittal images obtained with a local coil at 1.5 T) combined with a computer graphics-based analysis of three-dimensional geometry to study the upper airways of 10 awake, supine normal subjects (29--50 years-old), seven patients with OSAS (34--54 years old), and a nonapneic snorer (24 years old). Upper-airway anatomic segments were compared with regard to regional volumes, minimum cross-sectional areas, and pharyngeal wall thickness. Results to date show a smaller retropalatial airway volume in the patients with OSAS (1.8 cm 3 ± 0.8 [SEM]) and a smaller minimum cross-sectional retropalatal area in patients with OSAS (0.45 cm 2 ) than in the nonapneic snorer (0.9 cm 2 ) and the normal subjects (2.5 cm 2 ± 0.2)

  11. Practice parameters for the surgical modifications of the upper airway for obstructive sleep apnea in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aurora, R Nisha; Casey, Kenneth R; Kristo, David; Auerbach, Sanford; Bista, Sabin R; Chowdhuri, Susmita; Karippot, Anoop; Lamm, Carin; Ramar, Kannan; Zak, Rochelle; Morgenthaler, Timothy I

    2010-10-01

    Practice parameters for the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) in adults by surgical modification of the upper airway were first published in 1996 by the American Academy of Sleep Medicine (formerly ASDA). The following practice parameters update the previous practice parameters. These recommendations were reviewed and approved by the Board of Directors of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine. A systematic review of the literature was performed, and the GRADE system was used to assess the quality of evidence. The findings from this evaluation are provided in the accompanying review paper, and the subsequent recommendations have been developed from this review. The following procedures have been included: tracheostomy, maxillo-mandibular advancement (MMA), laser assisted uvulopalatoplasty (LAUP), uvulopalatopharyngoplasty (UPPP), radiofrequency ablation (RFA), and palatal implants. The presence and severity of obstructive sleep apnea must be determined before initiating surgical therapy (Standard). The patient should be advised about potential surgical success rates and complications, the availability of alternative treatment options such as nasal positive airway pressure and oral appliances, and the levels of effectiveness and success rates of these alternative treatments (Standard). The desired outcomes of treatment include resolution of the clinical signs and symptoms of obstructive sleep apnea and the normalization of sleep quality, the apnea-hypopnea index, and oxyhemoglobin saturation levels (Standard). Tracheostomy has been shown to be an effective single intervention to treat obstructive sleep apnea. This operation should be considered only when other options do not exist, have failed, are refused, or when this operation is deemed necessary by clinical urgency (Option). MMA is indicated for surgical treatment of severe OSA in patients who cannot tolerate or who are unwilling to adhere to positive airway pressure therapy, or in whom oral

  12. RELATIONSHIP OF AIRWAY HYPERRESPONSIVENESS TO RESPIRATORY SYMPTOMS AND DIURNAL PEAK FLOW VARIATION IN PATIENTS WITH OBSTRUCTIVE LUNG-DISEASE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BRAND, PLP; POSTMA, DS; KERSTJENS, HAM; KOETER, GH

    This study reports on the relationship of airway hyperresponsiveness (AH) with respiratory symptoms and diurnal peak flow expiratory (PEF) variation in 221 hyperresponsive patients with moderately severe airways obstruction. The disease was in a stable phase in all patients. Closely adhering to the

  13. Magnetic resonance imaging of the pediatric airway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auringer, S.T.; Bisset, G.S. III; Myer, C.M.

    1991-01-01

    Evaluation of the pediatric airway is often complex and may require multiple imaging techniques and invasive procedures. We performed magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of the airway in 34 children with clinical evidence of chronic airway obstruction and compared MR findings with those obtained by surgery and/or endoscopy. MR diagnoses included vascular compression in 15 patients, primary tracheomalacic states in 12 patients, and mediastinal masses in 4 patients. Findings were normal for 3 patients. The MR findings were in agreement with the endoscopic findings in 25 to 28 cases and in agreement with the surgical findings in 21 to 21 cases. (orig./GDG)

  14. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and chronic heart failure: two muscle diseases?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troosters, Thierry; Gosselink, Rik; Decramer, Marc

    2004-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and congestive heart failure are two increasingly prevalent chronic diseases. Although care for these patients often is provided by different clinical teams, both disease conditions have much in common. In recent decades, more knowledge about the systemic impact of both diseases has become available, highlighting remarkable similarities in terms of prognostic factors and disease management. Rehabilitation programs deal with the systemic consequences of both diseases. Although clinical research also is conducted by various researchers investigating chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and chronic heart failure, it is worthwhile to compare the progress in relation to these two diseases over recent decades. Such comparison, the purpose of the current review, may help clinicians and scientists to learn about progress made in different, yet related, fields. The current review focuses on the similarities observed in the clinical impact of muscle weakness, the mechanisms of muscle dysfunction, the strategies to improve muscle function, and the effects of exercise training on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and chronic heart failure.

  15. Short-term effects of positive expiratory airway pressure in patients being weaned from mechanical ventilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo de Mello Rieder

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the feasibility and the cardiorespiratory effects of using positive expiratory airway pressure, a physiotherapeutic tool, in comparison with a T-tube, to wean patients from mechanical ventilation. METHODS/DESIGN: A prospective, randomized, cross-over study. SETTING: Two intensive care units. PATIENTS AND INTERVENTIONS: We evaluated forty patients who met weaning criteria and had been mechanically-ventilated for more than 48 hours, mean age 59 years, including 23 males. All patients were submitted to the T-tube and Expiratory Positive Airway Pressure devices, at 7 cm H2O, during a 30-minute period. Cardiorespiratory variables including work of breathing, respiratory rate (rr, peripheral oxygen saturation (SpO2, heart rate (hr, systolic, diastolic and mean arterial pressures (SAP, DAP, MAP were measured in the first and thirtieth minutes. The condition was analyzed as an entire sample set (n=40 and was also divided into subconditions: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (n=14 and non-chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (non- chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (n=26 categories. Comparisons were made using a t-test and Analysis of Variance. The level of significance was p < 0.05. RESULTS: Our data showed an increase in work of breathing in the first and thirtieth minutes in the EPAP condition (0.86+ 0.43 and 1.02+1.3 as compared with the T-tube condition (0.25+0.26 and 0.26+0.35 (p<0.05, verified by the flow-sensor monitor (values in J/L. No statistical differences were observed when comparing the Expiratory Positive Airway Pressure and T-tube conditions with regard to cardiorespiratory measurements. The same result was observed for both chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and non- chronic obstructive pulmonary disease subconditions. CONCLUSIONS: Our study demonstrated that, in weaning patients from mechanical ventilation, the use of a fixed level of Expiratory Positive Airway Pressure caused an increase in work of

  16. Effects of the Airway Obstruction on the Skin Microcirculation in Patients with Bronchial Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikhonova, I V; Kosyakova, N I; Tankanag, A V; Chemeris, N K

    Pulmonary hemodynamic disorders depend on the inflammatory phases and severity of the obstructive syndrome. However, the effect of asthma bronchial obstruction on the state of peripheral hemodynamics remains insufficiently known. To study the effects of airway obstruction on skin blood flow parameters and its regulatory systems in patients with persistent atopic bronchial asthma in the remission state. A comparative study of the skin peripheral blood flow in patients with bronchial asthma with severe airway obstruction (1st group) and without obstruction (2nd group) was conducted. 20 patients with confirmed diagnosis of atopic asthma of 50–74 years old participated in the study. All patients received basic therapy in a constant dosing of high doses of inhaled glucocorticosteroids/long-acting beta-2-agonists. The control group included 20 healthy volunteers without evidence of bronchial obstruction. The study lasted for 3 months. The forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) was used to evaluate the bronchial obstruction by spirometry technique. Skin blood perfusion changes were recorded by laser Doppler flowmetry at rest and in response to short-term local ischemia. Registered peripheral blood flow signals were examined using the amplitude temporal filtering in five frequency intervals to identify the functional features of the peripheral blood flow regulation systems. Consistent two-fold decrease of the oscillation amplitudes was found in the neurogenic interval at rest (p=0.031), as well as in the myogenic (p=0.043; p=0.031) and endothelial intervals (p=0.037; p≤0.001) both at rest and during the postocclusive reactive hyperemia respectively in the 1st group of patients with bronchial obstruction (FEV1 obstruction, FEV1 >80%) in comparison to control subjects. The presence of bronchial obstruction has a significant impact on the changes of the amplitudes of skin blood flow oscillations in patients with bronchial asthma in the myogenic, neurogenic and endothelial

  17. Increased iron sequestration in alveolar macrophages in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quentin Philippot

    Full Text Available Free iron in lung can cause the generation of reactive oxygen species, an important factor in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD pathogenesis. Iron accumulation has been implicated in oxidative stress in other diseases, such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases, but little is known about iron accumulation in COPD. We sought to determine if iron content and the expression of iron transport and/or storage genes in lung differ between controls and COPD subjects, and whether changes in these correlate with airway obstruction. Explanted lung tissue was obtained from transplant donors, GOLD 2-3 COPD subjects, and GOLD 4 lung transplant recipients, and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL cells were obtained from non-smokers, healthy smokers, and GOLD 1-3 COPD subjects. Iron-positive cells were quantified histologically, and the expression of iron uptake (transferrin and transferrin receptor, storage (ferritin and export (ferroportin genes was examined by real-time RT-PCR assay. Percentage of iron-positive cells and expression levels of iron metabolism genes were examined for correlations with airflow limitation indices (forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1 and the ratio between FEV1 and forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC. The alveolar macrophage was identified as the predominant iron-positive cell type in lung tissues. Furthermore, the quantity of iron deposit and the percentage of iron positive macrophages were increased with COPD and emphysema severity. The mRNA expression of iron uptake and storage genes transferrin and ferritin were significantly increased in GOLD 4 COPD lungs compared to donors (6.9 and 3.22 fold increase, respectively. In BAL cells, the mRNA expression of transferrin, transferrin receptor and ferritin correlated with airway obstruction. These results support activation of an iron sequestration mechanism by alveolar macrophages in COPD, which we postulate is a protective mechanism against iron induced oxidative

  18. Impact of Polysomnographic Parameters on Continuous Positive Airway Pressure in Patient with Obstructive Sleep Apnea in 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolfazl Mozafari

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives : O bstructive sleep apnea is a preventable and prevalent major health hazard with serious health consequences including excessive daytime sleepiness, cognitive disturbances, depression, cardiovascular diseases and hypertension. Obstructive sleep apnea is a disorder affecting 2 to 4% of the adult population. The continuous positive airway pressur e (CPAP i s the most efficacious therapy and is often the first option for these patients. The pressure titration during laboratory polysomnography is required for treatment by CPAP.   Methods: The patients with obstructive sleep apnea requiring continuous positive airway pressure treatment were selected . CPAP titration was done according to American Academy of Sleep Medicine protocol. Comparison among continuous positive airway pressure with polysomnographic parameters was performed and analyzed with Pearson correlation coefficient. For analysis of qualitative parameters, we used chi-square and then checked with SPSS version 18 software.   Results: From 125 patients with obstructive sleep apnea, there were 112 cases with inclusion criteria. Mean age of participants was 55.07 ± 12, male frequency was 59.2%, apnea hypopnea index was 43.62 and mean continuous positive airway pressure was 12.50 . There was significant relationship among the pressure of continuous positive airway pressure with apnea hypopnea index (P=0.028, arousal index (P=0.011, body mass index (P=0.041 and O2 desaturation index (P=0.022, although age was not significantly related.   Conclusion: In accordance to this data, we found out a prediction equation for optimal CPAP in our patients

  19. Analysis of electrocardiogram in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazović, Biljana; Svenda, Mirjana Zlatković; Mazić, Sanja; Stajić, Zoran; Delić, Marina

    2013-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is the fourth leading cause of mortality worldwide. It is defined as a persistent airflow limitation usually progressive and not fully reversible to treatment. The diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and severity of disease is confirmed by spirometry. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease produces electrical changes in the heart which shows characteristic electrocardiogram pattern. The aim of this study was to observe and evaluate diagnostic values of electrocardiogram changes in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients with no other comorbidity. We analyzed 110 electrocardiogram findings in clinically stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients and evaluated the forced expiratory volume in the first second, ratio of forces expiratory volume in the first second to the fixed vital capacity, chest radiographs and electrocardiogram changes such as p wave height, QRS axis and voltage, right bundle branch block, left bundle branch block, right ventricular hypertrophy, T wave inversion in leads V1-V3, S1S2S3 syndrome, transition zone in praecordial lead and QT interval. We found electrocardiogram changes in 64% patients, while 36% had normal electrocardiogram. The most frequent electrocardiogram changes observed were transition zone (76.36%) low QRS (50%) and p pulmonale (14.54%). Left axis deviation was observed in 27.27% patients. Diagnostic values of electrocardiogram in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease suggest that chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients should be screened electrocardiographically in addition to other clinical investigations.

  20. Phenotype and Functional Features of Human Telomerase Reverse Transcriptase Immortalized Human Airway Smooth Muscle Cells from Asthmatic and Non-Asthmatic Donors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burgess, J. K.; Ketheson, A.; Faiz, A.; Rempel, K. A. Limbert; Oliver, B. G.; Ward, J. P. T.; Halayko, A. J.

    2018-01-01

    Asthma is an obstructive respiratory disease characterised by chronic inflammation with airway hyperresponsiveness. In asthmatic airways, there is an increase in airway smooth muscle (ASM) cell bulk, which differs from non-asthmatic ASM in characteristics. This study aimed to assess the usefulness

  1. Application of Dual Mask for Postoperative Respiratory Support in Obstructive Sleep Apnea Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jahan Porhomayon

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In some conditions continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP or bilevel positive airway pressure (BIPAP therapy alone fails to provide satisfactory oxygenation. In these situations oxygen (O2 is often being added to CPAP/BIPAP mask or hose. Central sleep apnea and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA are often present along with other chronic conditions, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, congestive heart failure, pulmonary fibrosis, neuromuscular disorders, chronic narcotic use, or central hypoventilation syndrome. Any of these conditions may lead to the need for supplemental O2 administration during the titration process. Maximization of comfort, by delivering O2 directly via a nasal cannula through the mask, will provide better oxygenation and ultimately treat the patient with lower CPAP/BIPAP pressure.

  2. Management of airway obstruction with nebulised adrenaline resulting in takotsubo cardiomyopathy: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshtkar, F; Dale, O T; Bennett, W O; Hall, C E

    2016-09-01

    Takotsubo cardiomyopathy has been associated with the use of catecholamines; however, its development after the use of nebulised adrenaline for the management of acute airway obstruction has not previously been described. A 66-year-old man with squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx, with tumour-node-metastasis staging of T3N2cM0, confirmed by biopsy and computed tomography, presented to the emergency department with acute airway obstruction. He was treated twice with nebulised adrenaline and intravenous dexamethasone. After a period of 24 hours, cardiac rhythm changes were noted on telemetry. A 12-lead electrocardiogram showed widespread T-wave inversion and QT prolongation suggestive of an acute coronary syndrome. Coronary angiography demonstrated no coronary artery disease, but left ventricular angiography showed marked apical ballooning and apical wall akinesia consistent with a diagnosis of takotsubo cardiomyopathy. Takotsubo cardiomyopathy can mimic true ischaemic heart disease and the diagnosis requires a high index of suspicion in patients managed with nebulised adrenaline.

  3. Osteoporosis in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Niklas Rye; Schwarz, Peter

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to examine the state of knowledge and clinical practice in the association of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease to osteoporosis and fracture incidence.......The purpose of this review is to examine the state of knowledge and clinical practice in the association of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease to osteoporosis and fracture incidence....

  4. The use of electrocautery as the primary ablation modality for malignant and benign airway obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahidi, Momen M; Unroe, Mark A; Adlakha, Natasha; Beyea, Mathew; Shofer, Scott L

    2011-09-01

    Laser has been the main ablative modality in the airways, but a growing experience with endobronchial electrocautery suggests a comparable efficacy and safety profile. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of electrocautery as the primary heat therapy for malignant and benign airway obstruction. A retrospective review of all patients undergoing endobronchial electrocautery, alone or in combination with other airway tools, at Duke University Medical Center between April 2004 and November 2009. Data on efficacy (luminal patency, symptomatic, radiographic, or physiologic improvement) and safety (complication rate) were collected. Ninety-four patients underwent 117 procedures with endobronchial electrocautery for endobronchial malignant and nonmalignant disease. Endoscopic improvement was seen in 94% of cases. Seventy-one percent of patients reported symptomatic improvement. Radiographic studies demonstrated luminal improvement in 78% of patients on chest computed tomography, improved aeration on chest computed tomography and chest x-ray in 63% and 43% of patients, respectively. The rate of major complications was 0.8%, whereas minor complications occurred in 6.8% of cases. There was no perioperative mortality. Endobronchial electrocautery is effective and safe when used as an ablative modality in malignant and benign airway obstruction and has a comparable profile to laser with the advantage of lower cost.

  5. Treatment of malignant central airway obstruction with Y-type metallic stent placement under general anaesthesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Zhengqiang; Shi Haibin; Zhou Weizhong; Leng Derong; Li Linsun

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To report the clinical experience in treating malignant central airway obstruction with the placement of a domestic Y-shaped stent under general anaesthesia. Methods: The placement of a domestic Y-stent under general anaesthesia together with tracheal intubation was performed in three male patients of central lung cancer with the involvement of carina and subsequent malignant airway stenosis. The combination of Y-stent delivering and tracheal intubation had not been reported in the literature so far, so the technical experience was introduced in this paper. Results: The placement of Y-stent was successfully completed in all 3 patients. The whole procedure was smoothly carried out with no severe complications. After the operation the dyspnea was markedly relieved in all the patients. Conclusion: As a safe and effective treatment for malignant central airway obstructions, the placement of a domestic Y-stent under general anaesthesia can reduce patient's discomfort during the stent delivering process. A large cohort of patients is required in order to evaluate the long-term efficacy and related complications of this technique. (authors)

  6. Role of aberrant WNT signalling in the airway epithelial response to cigarette smoke in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijink, Hilde; de Bruin, Harold G.; van den Berge, Maarten; Bennink, Lisa J. C.; Brandenburg, Simone M.; Gosens, Reinoud; van Oosterhout, Antoon J.; Postma, Dirkje S.

    Background WNT signalling is activated during lung tissue damage and inflammation. We investigated whether lung epithelial expression of WNT ligands, receptors (frizzled; FZD) or target genes is dysregulated on cigarette smoking and/or in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Methods We

  7. Socioeconomic impact of asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma-COPD overlap syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jinhee; Kim, Young Sam; Kim, Kyungjoo; Oh, Yeon-Mok; Yoo, Kwang Ha; Rhee, Chin Kook; Lee, Jin Hwa

    2017-06-01

    Asthma-chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) overlap syndrome (ACOS) is defined as having both features of asthma and COPD, which are airway hyper-responsiveness and incompletely reversible airway obstruction. However, socioeconomic impact of ACOS have not been well appreciated. Adults with available wheezing history and acceptable spirometry were selected from the fourth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES IV) in 2007-2009. Their data were merged with the Korean National Health Insurance claim data. 'Asthma group' was defined as having self-reported wheezing history and FEV 1 /FVC ≥0.7, 'COPD group' was defined as having FEV 1 /FVC COPD, 8.4%; asthma, 5.8% and NAD, 83.6%. Total length of healthcare utilization and medical costs of ACOS group was the top among four groups (PCOPD group (P=0.025). Multiple linear regression analyses showed that ACOS group (β=12.63, P<0.001) and asthma group (β=6.14, P<0.001) were significantly associated with longer duration of healthcare utilization and ACOS group (β=350,475.88, P=0.008) and asthma group (β=386,876.81, P<0.001) were associated with higher medical costs. This study demonstrated that ACOS independently influences healthcare utilization after adjusting several factors. In order to utilize limited medical resources efficiently, it may be necessary to find and manage ACOS patients.

  8. Corticosteroid therapy and airflow obstruction influence the bronchial microbiome, which is distinct from that of bronchoalveolar lavage in asthmatic airways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denner, Darcy R.; Sangwan, Naseer; Becker, Julia B.; Hogarth, D. Kyle; Oldham, Justin; Castillo, Jamee; Sperling, Anne I.; Solway, Julian; Naureckas, Edward T.; Gilbert, Jack A.; White, Steven R.

    2016-05-01

    The lung has a diverse microbiome that is modest in biomass. This microbiome differs in asthmatic patients compared with control subjects, but the effects of clinical characteristics on the microbial community composition and structure are not clear. OBJECTIVES: We examined whether the composition and structure of the lower airway microbiome correlated with clinical characteristics of chronic persistent asthma, including airflow obstruction, use of corticosteroid medications, and presence of airway eosinophilia. METHODS: DNA was extracted from endobronchial brushings and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid collected from 39 asthmatic patients and 19 control subjects, along with negative control samples. 16S rRNA V4 amplicon sequencing was used to compare the relative abundance of bacterial genera with clinical characteristics. RESULTS: Differential feature selection analysis revealed significant differences in microbial diversity between brush and lavage samples from asthmatic patients and control subjects. Lactobacillus, Pseudomonas, and Rickettsia species were significantly enriched in samples from asthmatic patients, whereas Prevotella, Streptococcus, and Veillonella species were enriched in brush samples from control subjects. Generalized linear models on brush samples demonstrated oral corticosteroid use as an important factor affecting the relative abundance of the taxa that were significantly enriched in asthmatic patients. In addition, bacterial α-diversity in brush samples from asthmatic patients was correlated with FEV1 and the proportion of lavage eosinophils. CONCLUSION: The diversity and composition of the bronchial airway microbiome of asthmatic patients is distinct from that of nonasthmatic control subjects and influenced by worsening airflow obstruction and corticosteroid use. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Malignant Cervical Teratoma in an Adult Presenting with Impending Airway Obstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Rashid Lukman

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Extragonadal teratomas and germ cell tumours are uncommon. Most teratomas of the head and neck present in the paediatric age group. Occurrence of such tumours in an adult is extremely rare and, to date, less than 40 cases have been reported in the literature. We report a case of a young man presenting with impending airway obstruction secondary to a malignant teratoma of the neck.

  10. Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Javad Moghaddam

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Seyed Javad Moghaddam1, Cesar E Ochoa1,2, Sanjay Sethi3, Burton F Dickey1,41Department of Pulmonary Medicine, the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA; 2Tecnológico de Monterrey School of Medicine, Monterrey, Nuevo León, Mexico; 3Department of Medicine, University at Buffalo, State University of New York, Buffalo, NY, USA; 4Center for Inflammation and Infection, Institute of Biosciences and Technology, Texas A&M Health Science Center, Houston, TX, USAAbstract: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is predicted to become the third leading cause of death in the world by 2020. It is characterized by airflow limitation that is not fully reversible. The airflow limitation is usually progressive and associated with an abnormal inflammatory response of the lungs to noxious particles and gases, most commonly cigarette smoke. Among smokers with COPD, even following withdrawal of cigarette smoke, inflammation persists and lung function continues to deteriorate. One possible explanation is that bacterial colonization of smoke-damaged airways, most commonly with nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi, perpetuates airway injury and inflammation. Furthermore, COPD has also been identified as an independent risk factor for lung cancer irrespective of concomitant cigarette smoke exposure. In this article, we review the role of NTHi in airway inflammation that may lead to COPD progression and lung cancer promotion.Keywords: COPD, NTHi, inflammation

  11. Peak flow as predictor of overall mortality in asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ejvind Frausing; Vestbo, Jørgen; Phanareth, K

    2001-01-01

    Lung function is a strong predictor of overall mortality in asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). FEV1 is considered to be the "gold standard," whereas peak expiratory flow (PEF) is mostly used in absence of FEV1 measurements. We compared the predictive power of PEF and FEV1......, measured after maximal bronchodilation, which included a short course of oral corticosteroids. The study population comprised 491 asthmatics and 1,095 subjects with COPD. Pulmonary function tests were performed between 1983 and 1988, and survival data were obtained by September 1997, when 127 asthmatics...... reflecting different components of COPD, i.e., chronic bronchitis, small airways disease, and emphysema. Furthermore, extrapulmonary components such as muscle mass and general "vigour" probably affect PEF to a greater extent than they affect FEV1....

  12. [Airway oxidative stress and inflammation markers in chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases(COPD) patients are linked with exposure to traffic-related air pollution: a panel study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J; Zhao, Q; Liu, B B; Wang, J; Xu, H B; Zhang, Y; Song, X M; He, B; Huang, W

    2016-05-01

    To investigate the effects of short-term exposure to traffic-related air pollution on airway oxidative stress and inflammation in chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD) patients. A panel of forty-five diagnosed COPD patients were recruited and followed with repeated measurements of biomarkers reflecting airway oxidative stress and inflammation in exhaled breath condensate (EBC), including nitrate and nitrite, 8-isoprostane, interleukin-8 and acidity of EBC (pH), between 5(th) September in 2014 and 26(th) May in 2015. The associations between air pollution and biomarkers were analyzed with mixed-effects models, controlling for confounding covariates. The concentration of PM2.5, black carbon, NO2 and number concentration of particles with diameter less than 100 nm (PNC100), and particles in size ranges between 100 nm to 200 nm (PNC100-200) during the first follow-up were (156.5±117.7), (10.7±0.7), (165.9±66.0)μg/m(3) and 397 521±96 712, 79 421±44 090 per cubic meter, respectively; the concentration were (67.9±29.6), (3.4±1.3), (126.1±10.9) μg/m(3) and (295 682±39 430), (24 693±12 369) per cubic meter, respectively during the second follow-up. The differences were of significance, with t value being 3.10, 4.42, 2.61, 4.02, 5.12, respectively and P value being 0.005,stress. For an IQR increase in PM2.5, black carbon and PNC100-200, respective increases of 0.17 ng/ml (95% CI: 0.02-0.33), 0.12 ng/ml (95% CI: 0.01-0.24) and 0.13 ng/ml (95% CI:0.02-0.24) in interleukin-8 in EBC reflecting airway inflammation were also observed. An IQR increase in ozone was also associated with a 0.24 (95%CI: 0.05-0.42) decrease in pH of EBC reflecting increased airway inflammation. No significant association observed between air pollution and 8-isoprostane in EBC in COPD patients. Our results suggested that short-term exposure to traffic-related air pollution was responsible for exacerbation of airway oxidative stress and inflammation in COPD patients.

  13. Airway obstruction and gas leak during mask ventilation of preterm infants in the delivery room.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2011-07-01

    Preterm infants with inadequate breathing receive positive pressure ventilation (PPV) by mask with variable success. The authors examined recordings of PPV given to preterm infants in the delivery room for prevalence of mask leak and airway obstruction.

  14. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: Does gender really matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N K Jain

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Limited data is available on the clinical expression of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD from India. The impact of gender on expression of COPD has received even less attention. Apart from tobacco smoke, indoor air pollution, especially from biomass fuel may play an important role in development of COPD in women. Materials and Methods: Seven hundred and two patients of COPD were studied regarding the etiological and risk factors leading to COPD, gender-related differences in clinical presentation, radiological expression of COPD and the co-morbidities in COPD. Results: Tobacco smoke in the form of beedi smoking was the predominant smoke exposure in males, whereas smoke from biofuel burning was the predominant exposure in females. As compared to males, females were younger, reported more dyspnea, more severe bronchial obstruction, more exacerbations, and exhibited higher prevalence of systemic features. Also, females smoked less and had lesser incidence of productive cough, lower body mass index, lesser co-morbidities and less number of hospital admissions as compared to males. Males were more likely than females to have an emphysema-predominant phenotype, while airway-predominant disease was more common among females. Conclusion: The current study shows that gender-related differences do exist in COPD patients. Understanding these differences in etiological agent and clinical picture will help early diagnosis of COPD in females.

  15. Airway stents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyes, Colleen

    2018-01-01

    Stents and tubes to maintain the patency of the airways are commonly used for malignant obstruction and are occasionally employed in benign disease. Malignant airway obstruction usually results from direct involvement of bronchogenic carcinoma, or by extension of carcinomas occurring in the esophagus or the thyroid. External compression from lymph nodes or metastatic disease from other organs can also cause central airway obstruction. Most malignant airway lesions are surgically inoperable due to advanced disease stage and require multimodality palliation, including stent placement. As with any other medical device, stents have significantly evolved over the last 50 years and deserve an in-depth understanding of their true capabilities and complications. Not every silicone stent is created equal and the same holds for metallic stents. Herein, we present an overview of the topic as well as some of the more practical and controversial issues surrounding airway stents. We also try to dispel the myths surrounding stent removal and their supposed use only in central airways. At the end, we come to the long-held conclusion that stents should not be used as first line treatment of choice, but after ruling out the possibility of curative surgical resection or repair. PMID:29707506

  16. Ectopic Intratracheal Thyroid: A Rare Cause of Airway Obstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waheed Rahman

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Ectopic intratracheal thyroid tissue (EITT is a rare abnormality with only limited cases reported so far. The presenting symptoms can be very similar to those of bronchial asthma. We discuss the case of a 29-year-old man with subglottic ectopic thyroid, with a history of thyroid surgery for goiter, which has been managed with laser-assisted endoscopic approach. We have also included presenting symptoms, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and management of EITT. We aim to include EITT in the differentials of airway obstruction, particularly in those patients who have goiter or previous thyroid surgeries.

  17. Acute airway obstruction, an unusual presentation of vallecular cyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameer M Jahagirdar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A 18-year-old female presented to us with acute respiratory obstruction, unconsciousness, severe respiratory acidosis, and impending cardiac arrest. The emergency measures to secure the airway included intubation with a 3.5-mm endotracheal tube and railroading of a 6.5-mm endotracheal tube over a suction catheter. Video laryngoscopy done after successful resuscitation showed an inflamed swollen epiglottis with a swelling in the left vallecular region, which proved to be a vallecular cyst. Marsupialisation surgery was performed on the 8 th post admission day and the patient discharged on 10 th day without any neurological deficit.

  18. Contributions of COPD, asthma, and ten comorbid conditions to health care utilization and patient-centered outcomes among US adults with obstructive airway disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murphy TE

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Terrence E Murphy,1 Gail J McAvay,1 Heather G Allore,1 Jason A Stamm,2 Paul F Simonelli2 1Department of Internal Medicine, Section of Geriatrics, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA; 2Department of Internal Medicine, Section of Thoracic Medicine, Geisinger Medical Center, Danville, PA, USA Background: Among persons with obstructive airway disease, the relative contributions of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, asthma, and common comorbid conditions to health care utilization and patient-centered outcomes (PCOs have not been previously reported.Methods: We followed a total of 3,486 persons aged ≥40 years with COPD, asthma, or both at baseline, from the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS cohorts enrolled annually from 2008 through 2012 for 1 year. MEPS is a prospective observational study of US households recording self-reported COPD, asthma, and ten medical conditions: angina, arthritis, cancer, coronary heart disease, cognitive impairment, diabetes, hypertension, lung cancer, myocardial infarction, and stroke/transient ischemic attack. We studied the separate contributions of these conditions to health care utilization (all-cause and respiratory disease hospitalization, any emergency department [ED] visit, and six or more outpatient visits and PCOs (seven or more days spent in bed due to illness, incident loss of mobility, and incident decline in self-perceived health.Results: COPD made the largest contributions to all-cause and respiratory disease hospitalization and ED visits, while arthritis made the largest contribution to outpatient health care. Arthritis and COPD, respectively, made the greatest contributions to the PCOs.Conclusion: COPD made the largest and second largest contributions to health care utilization and PCOs among US adults with obstructive airway disease. The twelve medical conditions collectively accounted for between 52% and 61% of the health care utilization outcomes and between 53

  19. Airway mucosal permeability in chronic bronchitics and bronchial asthmatics with hypersecretion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honda, I.; Shimura, S.; Sasaki, T.; Sasaki, H.; Takishima, T.; Nakamura, M.

    1988-01-01

    To determine airway mucosal permeability, radiolabeled albumin in sputum was examined on the basis of a 2-h period of sputum collection for as long as 8h after intravenous administration of 131 I-labeled human serum albumin. This technique was applied to 12 patients with bronchial asthma associated with hypersecretion or chronic bronchitis. Group A consisted of 6 asthmatics (2 females and 4 males, 56.0 +/- 6.4 yr of age, mean +/- SEM); Group B consisted of 6 bronchitics (3 females and 3 males, 53.8 +/- 6.5 yr of age). Between Groups A and B, there was no significant difference in sputum volume per day or in obstructive impairment. Radiolabeled albumin concentration (cpm/ml) was obtained from radiocount of each sputum sample and then divided by serum concentration at the time of each sampling (2, 4, 6, and 8 h after administration). Group B showed large values compared with those in Group A. In Group A, the ratios were 2.0 +/- 0.8, 2.5 +/- 0.5, 2.2 +/- 0.2, and 1.5 +/- 0.4% (mean +/- SEM) at 2, 4, 6, and 8 h after the administration, respectively, whereas in Group B, the ratios were 3.0 +/- 0.6, 7.0 +/- 1.8, 7.2 +/- 1.8, and 7.4 +/- 2.4%, respectively. The differences between Groups A and B were statistically significant (two-way analysis of variance). These findings suggest that an increase in airway mucosal permeability is due to mucosal epithelial damage by chronic inflammation in bronchitics and not to the underlying abnormality of asthma

  20. Emergency percutaneous tracheostomy in a severely burned patient with upper airway obstruction and circulatory arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlossmacher, Pascal; Martinet, Olivier; Testud, Richard; Agesilas, Fabrice; Benhamou, Léon; Gauzëre, Bernard Alex

    2006-02-01

    We report the life-saving use of Griggs percutaneous tracheostomy in an arrested patient with complex upper airway obstruction, as a result of burns, smoke injuries and iterative tracheal intubation attempts. The technique was performed blindly at bedside to treat an acute episode of failed ventilation and intubation and cardiac arrest in a patient with altered neck anatomy. The intervention salvaged the situation, leaving a definitive airway. The feasibility of using an emergency Griggs percutaneous tracheostomy versus cricothyroidotomy is suggested in selected cases.

  1. Inflammatory biomarkers and exacerbations in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Mette; Ingebrigtsen, Truls Sylvan; Marott, Jacob Louis

    2013-01-01

    Exacerbations of respiratory symptoms in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have profound and long-lasting adverse effects on patients.......Exacerbations of respiratory symptoms in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have profound and long-lasting adverse effects on patients....

  2. Frequency of undiagnosed chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in patients with coronary artery disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ullah, R.; Ghaffar, T.; Khan, I.; Muhammad, R.; Salman, S.

    2017-01-01

    Chronic obstructive airway disease (COPD) is considered as risk factor for coronary artery disease (CAD) along with other risk factors. This study was conducted to determine the frequency of undiagnosed chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in patients with coronary artery disease. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in the Pulmonology and Cardiology wards/OPD's of Khyber Teaching Hospital Peshawar. Patients more than 35 years of age, diagnosed with CAD of either gender were included. Patients already diagnosed with COPD, recent myocardial infarction (within 7 days), left ventricular impairment, pneumothorax, bronchiectasis, comatose patient, asthmatic and those with chest trauma were excluded. All the patients underwent spirometry examination before and after administration of salbutamol (5 mg for 5 minutes) via nebulizer. FEV1/FVC less than 70% confirmed the presence of COPD. Results: Out of 151 patients, 57 (37.7%) were found to have COPD. Among them, 39 (68.42%) were male and 18 (31.57%) were female. Among male patients with COPD, 82.05% (n=32) were smokers and 17.94% (n=7) were nonsmokers while in females with COPD no one was smoker. Conclusion: COPD is an under-diagnosed progressive disease in patients with high risk patients with coronary artery disease. (author)

  3. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Includes: Chronic Bronchitis and Emphysema

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Submit Button NCHS Home Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Includes: Chronic Bronchitis and Emphysema Recommend on Facebook ... Percent of visits to office-based physicians with COPD indicated on the medical record: 3.2% Source: ...

  4. Impact of Facial Conformation on Canine Health: Brachycephalic Obstructive Airway Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packer, Rowena M. A.; Hendricks, Anke; Tivers, Michael S.; Burn, Charlotte C.

    2015-01-01

    The domestic dog may be the most morphologically diverse terrestrial mammalian species known to man; pedigree dogs are artificially selected for extreme aesthetics dictated by formal Breed Standards, and breed-related disorders linked to conformation are ubiquitous and diverse. Brachycephaly–foreshortening of the facial skeleton–is a discrete mutation that has been selected for in many popular dog breeds e.g. the Bulldog, Pug, and French Bulldog. A chronic, debilitating respiratory syndrome, whereby soft tissue blocks the airways, predominantly affects dogs with this conformation, and thus is labelled Brachycephalic Obstructive Airway Syndrome (BOAS). Despite the name of the syndrome, scientific evidence quantitatively linking brachycephaly with BOAS is lacking, but it could aid efforts to select for healthier conformations. Here we show, in (1) an exploratory study of 700 dogs of diverse breeds and conformations, and (2) a confirmatory study of 154 brachycephalic dogs, that BOAS risk increases sharply in a non-linear manner as relative muzzle length shortens. BOAS only occurred in dogs whose muzzles comprised less than half their cranial lengths. Thicker neck girths also increased BOAS risk in both populations: a risk factor for human sleep apnoea and not previously realised in dogs; and obesity was found to further increase BOAS risk. This study provides evidence that breeding for brachycephaly leads to an increased risk of BOAS in dogs, with risk increasing as the morphology becomes more exaggerated. As such, dog breeders and buyers should be aware of this risk when selecting dogs, and breeding organisations should actively discourage exaggeration of this high-risk conformation in breed standards and the show ring. PMID:26509577

  5. Impact of Facial Conformation on Canine Health: Brachycephalic Obstructive Airway Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packer, Rowena M A; Hendricks, Anke; Tivers, Michael S; Burn, Charlotte C

    2015-01-01

    The domestic dog may be the most morphologically diverse terrestrial mammalian species known to man; pedigree dogs are artificially selected for extreme aesthetics dictated by formal Breed Standards, and breed-related disorders linked to conformation are ubiquitous and diverse. Brachycephaly--foreshortening of the facial skeleton--is a discrete mutation that has been selected for in many popular dog breeds e.g. the Bulldog, Pug, and French Bulldog. A chronic, debilitating respiratory syndrome, whereby soft tissue blocks the airways, predominantly affects dogs with this conformation, and thus is labelled Brachycephalic Obstructive Airway Syndrome (BOAS). Despite the name of the syndrome, scientific evidence quantitatively linking brachycephaly with BOAS is lacking, but it could aid efforts to select for healthier conformations. Here we show, in (1) an exploratory study of 700 dogs of diverse breeds and conformations, and (2) a confirmatory study of 154 brachycephalic dogs, that BOAS risk increases sharply in a non-linear manner as relative muzzle length shortens. BOAS only occurred in dogs whose muzzles comprised less than half their cranial lengths. Thicker neck girths also increased BOAS risk in both populations: a risk factor for human sleep apnoea and not previously realised in dogs; and obesity was found to further increase BOAS risk. This study provides evidence that breeding for brachycephaly leads to an increased risk of BOAS in dogs, with risk increasing as the morphology becomes more exaggerated. As such, dog breeders and buyers should be aware of this risk when selecting dogs, and breeding organisations should actively discourage exaggeration of this high-risk conformation in breed standards and the show ring.

  6. Impact of Facial Conformation on Canine Health: Brachycephalic Obstructive Airway Syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rowena M A Packer

    Full Text Available The domestic dog may be the most morphologically diverse terrestrial mammalian species known to man; pedigree dogs are artificially selected for extreme aesthetics dictated by formal Breed Standards, and breed-related disorders linked to conformation are ubiquitous and diverse. Brachycephaly--foreshortening of the facial skeleton--is a discrete mutation that has been selected for in many popular dog breeds e.g. the Bulldog, Pug, and French Bulldog. A chronic, debilitating respiratory syndrome, whereby soft tissue blocks the airways, predominantly affects dogs with this conformation, and thus is labelled Brachycephalic Obstructive Airway Syndrome (BOAS. Despite the name of the syndrome, scientific evidence quantitatively linking brachycephaly with BOAS is lacking, but it could aid efforts to select for healthier conformations. Here we show, in (1 an exploratory study of 700 dogs of diverse breeds and conformations, and (2 a confirmatory study of 154 brachycephalic dogs, that BOAS risk increases sharply in a non-linear manner as relative muzzle length shortens. BOAS only occurred in dogs whose muzzles comprised less than half their cranial lengths. Thicker neck girths also increased BOAS risk in both populations: a risk factor for human sleep apnoea and not previously realised in dogs; and obesity was found to further increase BOAS risk. This study provides evidence that breeding for brachycephaly leads to an increased risk of BOAS in dogs, with risk increasing as the morphology becomes more exaggerated. As such, dog breeders and buyers should be aware of this risk when selecting dogs, and breeding organisations should actively discourage exaggeration of this high-risk conformation in breed standards and the show ring.

  7. Clinical-anthropometric characteristics of COPD outpatients belonging to the different groups and having different severity of airway obstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gashynova K.Y.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to compare the clinical and anthropometric characteristics of patients with COPD, which differ in the degree of airways obstruction and belong to groups A, B, C, D in accordance with GOLD, 2011 classification. A total of 112 ambulatory COPD patients in remission made the study sample. Anthropometric data, body mass index, medical history, dyspnea by mMRC scale, and spirometry was performed for all patients. There was confirmed that outpatients with COPD is a heterogeneous group, in which the majority are those with moderate (48.22 % and severe (30.36 %, airway obstruction. Despite the vast majority of men among outpatients, the percentage of women among patients with mild to moderate obstruction (22.58±5.31 % was significantly higher (p=0.002 as compared with those with severe or very severe limitation of airflow (6.00±3.36 %. Patients with severe and very severe obstruction were of significantly older age (p = 0.024. At the same time, the distribution of patients according to the GOLD, 2011 classification, demonstrate that all groups did not differ on any of the anthropometric indicators, including gender and age (p > 0.050. Distribution of patients by groups with different risk for future exacerbations is not a mirror image of gradation in accordance with the degree of airway obstruction. Every second (50.00±4.43 % of cases patient is included in group C and every tenth (10.20±4.32 % belongs to the group D not due to degree of bronchial obstruction, but due to the number of exa­cerbations in the past year. Therefore, in future studies it is advisable to use both principles of patients’ classification.

  8. Comorbidities in obstructive lung disease in Korea: data from the fourth and fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park HJ

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Hee Jin Park, Ah Young Leem, Sang Hoon Lee, Ju Han Song, Moo Suk Park, Young Sam Kim, Se Kyu Kim, Joon Chang, Kyung Soo Chung Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Severance Hospital, Institute of Chest Disease, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea Background: Comorbidities can occur frequently in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and can influence mortality and morbidity independently. It is increasingly recognized that many patients with COPD have comorbidities that have a major impact on their quality of life and survival. Therefore, we investigated the prevalence of comorbidities in Korean COPD populations. Methods: We used data obtained in the 6 years of the fourth and fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES IV and V. Among 50,405 subjects, 16,151 subjects aged ≥40 years who performed spirometry adequately were included in this study. Airway obstruction was defined as forced expiratory volume in 1 second/forced vital capacity <0.7, and the Global Initiative For Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease stage was used to evaluate the severity of airway obstruction. Statistical analyses were performed using SAS 9.2. Results: Among the 16,151 subjects (43.2% male, 56.8% female; mean age: 57.1 years for men and 57.2 years for women, 13.1% had obstructive lung function; 11.3%, restrictive lung function; and 75.6%, normal lung function. Among individuals with obstructive lung function, 45.3%, 49.4%, and 5.3% had mild, moderate, and severe and very severe airflow limitation. The prevalence of hypertension, diabetes mellitus (DM, underweight, and hypertriglyceridemia was higher in the obstructive lung function group than in the normal lung function group (49.6% vs 35.2%; 16.8% vs 10.5%; 3.3% vs 1.3%; 19.7% vs 17.0%. According to the severity of airway obstruction, hypertension and underweight were more common as severity increased

  9. Frequency of Streptococcus pneumonia and Haemophilus influenza in acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive airway disease and their sensitivity to levofloxacin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furqan, S.; Paracha, S.A.U.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the frequency of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae in acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and their sensitivity to levofloxacin. Methods: The cross-sectional study was conducted at the Department of Medicine, AbbasiShaheed Hospital, Karachi, between July 2009 and January 2010. Patients already diagnosed with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and admitted with symptoms of acute exacerbation were included in the study and their sputum samples were sent for microbiological evaluation. SPSS 16 was used for statistical analysis. Results: Of the total 105 patients in the study, 90 (85.17%) were males. Overall mean age at presentation was 62+-10.2 years. S. pneumoniae was isolated from sputum culture of 33 (31.4%) patients, while 13 (12.4%) patients showed growth of H. influenzae. Out of the 33 sputum specimens of S. pneumoniae, 32 (97.0%) were sensitive to levofloxacin, while 1 (3.0%) was resistant. All the 13 isolates of H. influenzae were sensitive to levofloxacin. Conclusion: S. pneumoniae and H. influenzae are still the most prevalent organisms isolated in acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in our population. Levofloxacin is still considered a highly sensitive antibiotic against these common micro-organisms in our population, but S. pneumoniae has started developing resistance against levofloxacin. Therefore, intermittent surveillance regarding development of resistance pattern of common micro-organisms against commonly prescribed antibiotics is required. (author)

  10. Inflammatory biomarkers and comorbidities in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Mette; Dahl, Morten; Lange, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have evidence of systemic inflammation that may be implicated in the development of comorbidities.......Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have evidence of systemic inflammation that may be implicated in the development of comorbidities....

  11. Airway Inflammation in Chronic Rhinosinusitis with Nasal Polyps and Asthma: The United Airways Concept Further Supported

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Håkansson, Kåre; Bachert, Claus; Konge, Lars

    2015-01-01

    Background It has been established that patients with chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) often have co-existing asthma. Objective We aimed to test two hypotheses: (i) upper and lower airway inflammation in CRSwNP is uniform in agreement with the united airways concept; and (ii) bro...

  12. CD8 chemokine receptors in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smyth, L J C; Starkey, C; Gordon, F S

    2008-01-01

    Increased lung CD8 cells and their expression of chemokine receptors CXCR3 and CCR5 have been previously reported in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Alterations of CD8-CCR3 and -CCR4 expression and their ligands in COPD patients have not been fully investigated. The objective...... there was low level CCL11 production. CD8CCR3 and CCR5 expression appear to be regulated by cigarette smoke exposure. We show that COPD lung tissue released more CCL5, suggesting a role for CCL5-CCR3 signalling in pulmonary CD8 recruitment in COPD....... of this study was to assess in COPD patients: (i) broncho-alveolar lavage (BAL) CD8 CCR3 and CCR4 expression in COPD patients; and (ii) airway levels of the CCR3 ligands, CCL11 and CCL5. Multi-parameter flow cytometric analysis was used to assess BAL CD3 and CD8-chemokine receptor expression in COPD patients...

  13. Manifesto on small airway involvement and management in asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: an Interasma (Global Asthma Association - GAA and World Allergy Organization (WAO document endorsed by Allergic Rhinitis and its Impact on Asthma (ARIA and Global Allergy and Asthma European Network (GA2LEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Braido

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Evidence that enables us to identify, assess, and access the small airways in asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD has led INTERASMA (Global Asthma Association and WAO to take a position on the role of the small airways in these diseases. Starting from an extensive literature review, both organizations developed, discussed, and approved the manifesto, which was subsequently approved and endorsed by the chairs of ARIA and GA2LEN. The manifesto describes the evidence gathered to date and defines and proposes issues on small airway involvement and management in asthma and COPD with the aim of challenging assumptions, fostering commitment, and bringing about change. The small airways (defined as those with an internal diameter <2 mm are involved in the pathogenesis of asthma and COPD and are the major determinant of airflow obstruction in these diseases. Various tests are available for the assessment of the small airways, and their results must be integrated to confirm a diagnosis of small airway dysfunction. In asthma and COPD, the small airways play a key role in attempts to achieve disease control and better outcomes. Small-particle inhaled formulations (defined as those that, owing to their size [usually <2 μm], ensure more extensive deposition in the lung periphery than large molecules have proved beneficial in patients with asthma and COPD, especially those in whom small airway involvement is predominant. Functional and biological tools capable of accurately assessing the lung periphery and more intensive use of currently available tools are necessary. In patients with suspected COPD or asthma, small airway involvement must be assessed using currently available tools. In patients with subotpimal disease control and/or functional or biological signs of disease activity, the role of small airway involvement should be assessed and treatment tailored. Therefore, the choice between large- and small-particle inhaled

  14. X-ray diagnosis of bronchial obstruction in chronic pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamilyaev, R.M.

    1981-01-01

    Combined radiobronchological examination of patients with chronic pneumonia in the phase of reverse development of the disease has been performed. Severity, localization and extent of bronchial obstruction have been studied, depending on the phase of chronic pneumonia and aspects of lung tissue alterations. Bronchial lesions characteristic of chronic pneumonia were defined, as well as importance of x-ray examination methods for bronchial obstruction diagnosis. Three types of bronchial obstruction were distinguished: bronchoconstriction, bronchodilatation and their combination. With regard to the character and severity of bronchial and pulmonary tissue lesions 3 variants of chronic pneumonia are offered to be differentiated: bronchitic, bronchoectatic, and abscess-forming. The main significance in diagnosis of chronic pneumonia is attributed to combined x-ray examination, which also includes radiobronchological investigation in the first two variants of the disease [ru

  15. Asthma–COPD Overlap. Clinical Relevance of Genomic Signatures of Type 2 Inflammation in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiling, Katrina; van den Berge, Maarten; Hijazi, Kahkeshan; Hiemstra, Pieter S.; Postma, Dirkje S.; Lenburg, Marc E.; Spira, Avrum; Woodruff, Prescott G.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a heterogeneous disease and likely includes a subgroup that is biologically comparable to asthma. Studying asthma-associated gene expression changes in COPD could add insight into COPD pathogenesis and reveal biomarkers that predict a favorable response to corticosteroids. Objectives: To determine whether asthma-associated gene signatures are increased in COPD and associated with asthma-related features. Methods: We compared disease-associated airway epithelial gene expression alterations in an asthma cohort (n = 105) and two COPD cohorts (n = 237, 171). The T helper type 2 (Th2) signature (T2S) score, a gene expression metric induced in Th2-high asthma, was evaluated in these COPD cohorts. The T2S score was correlated with asthma-related features and response to corticosteroids in COPD in a randomized, placebo-controlled trial, the Groningen and Leiden Universities study of Corticosteroids in Obstructive Lung Disease (GLUCOLD; n = 89). Measurements and Main Results: The 200 genes most differentially expressed in asthma versus healthy control subjects were enriched among genes associated with more severe airflow obstruction in these COPD cohorts (P COPD cohorts. Higher T2S scores correlated with increased airway wall eosinophil counts (P = 0.003), blood eosinophil percentage (P = 0.03), bronchodilator reversibility (P = 0.01), and improvement in hyperinflation after corticosteroid treatment (P = 0.019) in GLUCOLD. Conclusions: These data identify airway gene expression alterations that can co-occur in asthma and COPD. The association of the T2S score with increased severity and “asthma-like” features (including a favorable corticosteroid response) in COPD suggests that Th2 inflammation is important in a COPD subset that cannot be identified by clinical history of asthma. PMID:25611785

  16. MRI analysis on soft tissue around upper airway in obese adolescent patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zhengjiao; Yuan Haibo; Peng Liping; Li Dan; Hua Shucheng

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the correlation of soft tissue structure of upper airway with the pathogenesis of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) in adolescents age group by analyzing magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of upper airway. Methods: The subjects were divided into obese OSAS, obese controls and normal weight controls groups according to the results from polysomnography and body mass index measurements; Upper airway was scanned by MRI sagittally and axially; upper airway at all levels and soft tissue was analyzed by Amira Medical image analysis system. Results: Tongue volumes in obese OSAS and obese controls were significantly greater than that in normal weight controls (P<0.05); tonsil and adenoid volumes in obese OSAS were significantly higher than those in two control groups (P<0.05 or P<0.001), but no significant difference was found between two control groups. The volumes of lateral pharyngeal wall in obese OSAS were higher than those in obese controls and normal weight controls (P<0.05 or P<0.001), and they were higher in obese controls compared with normal weight controls (P<0.05). In obese OSAS group, positive correlations were found between volumes of lateral pharyngeal wall and apnea/hypopnea index (AHI) (r=0.879, P<0.01), as well volumes of tonsils and AHI (r=0.824, P<0.01). Conclusion: Obesity can increase the soft tissue volumes around upper airway, there by increase the upper airway obstruction; lateral pharyngeal wall and adenoid volumes play major roles in evaluating the severity of OSAS in adolescents. (authors)

  17. Simulated driving in obstructive sleep apnoea-hypopnoea : effects of oral appliances and continuous positive airway pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekema, Aarnoud; Stegenga, Boudewijn; Bakker, Marije; Brouwer, Wiebo H.; de Bont, Lambert G. M.; Wijkstra, Peter J.; van der Hoeven, Johannes H.

    Impaired simulated driving performance has been demonstrated in obstructive sleep apnoea-hypopnoea syndrome (OSAHS) patients. Although continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) generally improves simulated driving performance, the effects of oral-appliance (OA) therapy are unknown. The aims of this

  18. Small airways disease: time for a revisit?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stockley JA

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available James A Stockley,1 Brendan G Cooper,1 Robert A Stockley,2 Elizabeth Sapey3 1Department of Lung Function and Sleep, 2Department of Respiratory Medicine, University Hospital Birmingham, 3Institute of Inflammation and Ageing, Centre for Translational Inflammation Research, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, UK Abstract: It is increasingly acknowledged that delays in the diagnosis of chronic inflammatory lung conditions have hampered our understanding of pathogenesis and thus our ability to design efficacious therapies. This is particularly true for COPD, where most patients are diagnosed with moderate-to-severe airflow obstruction and little is known about the inflammatory processes present in early disease. There is great interest in developing screening tests that can identify those most at risk of developing COPD before airflow obstruction has developed for the purpose of research and clinical care. Landmark pathology studies have suggested that damage to the small airways precedes the development of airflow obstruction and emphysema and, thus, presents an opportunity to identify those at risk of COPD. However, despite a number of physiological tests being available to assess small airways function, none have been adopted into routine care in COPD. The reasons that tests of small airways have not been utilized widely include variability in test results and a lack of validated reference ranges from which to compare results for some methodologies. Furthermore, population studies have not consistently demonstrated their ability to diagnose disease. However, the landscape may be changing. As the equipment that delivers tests of small airways become more widely available, reference ranges are emerging and newer methodologies specifically seek to address variability and difficulty in test performance. Moreover, there is evidence that while tests of small airways may not be helpful across the full range of established disease severity

  19. Altered Sputum Microstructure as a Marker of Airway Obstruction in Cystic Fibrosis Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Gregg; Jung, James; West, Natalie; Boyle, Michael; Suk, Jung Soo; Hanes, Justin

    In the lungs of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients, highly viscoelastic mucus remains stagnant in the lung leading to obstructed airways prone to recurrent infections. Bulk-fluid rheological measurement is primarily used to assess the pathological features of mucus. However, this approach is limited in detecting microscopic properties on the length scale of pathogens and immune cells. We have shown in prior work based on the transport of muco-inert nanoparticles (MIP) in CF sputum that patients can carry significantly different microstructural properties. In this study, we aimed to determine the factors leading to variations between patients in sputum microstructure and their clinical implications. The microrheological properties of CF sputum were measured using multi-particle tracking experiments of MIP. MIP were made by grafting polyethylene glycol onto the surface of polystyrene nanoparticles which prior work has shown prevents adhesion to CF sputum. Biochemical analyses show that sputum microstructure was significantly altered by elevated mucin and DNA content. Reduction in sputum pore size is characteristic of patients with obstructed airways as indicated by measured pulmonary function tests. Our microstructural read-out may serve as a novel biomarker for CF.

  20. The Role of Innate and Adaptive Immune Cells in the Immunopathogenesis of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurwidya, Fariz; Damayanti, Triya; Yunus, Faisal

    2016-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a chronic and progressive inflammatory disease of the airways and lungs that results in limitations of continuous airflow and is caused by exposure to noxious gasses and particles. A major cause of morbidity and mortality in adults, COPD is a complex disease pathologically mediated by many inflammatory pathways. Macrophages, neutrophils, dendritic cells, and CD8+ T-lymphocytes are the key inflammatory cells involved in COPD. Recently, the non-coding small RNA, micro-RNA, have also been intensively investigated and evidence suggest that it plays a role in the pathogenesis of COPD. Here, we discuss the accumulated evidence that has since revealed the role of each inflammatory cell and their involvement in the immunopathogenesis of COPD. Mechanisms of steroid resistance in COPD will also be briefly discussed.

  1. Ventilation abnormalities in obstructive airways disorder. Detection with pulmonary dynamic densitometry by means of spinal CT versus dynamic Xe-133 SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suga, Kazuyoshi; Nishigauchi, Kazuya; Kume, Norihiko; Takana, Katsuyuki; Koike, Shinji; Shimizu, Kensaku; Matsunaga, Naofumi

    1999-01-01

    The usefulness of pulmonary dynamic densitometry (PDD) acquired by spiral computed tomography (CT) to detect ventilation abnormalities in obstructive airway disorders was evaluated in comparison with dynamic xenon-133 (Xe-133) SPECT. Eight-second, continuous spiral CT scan was performed over 2-3 respiratory cycles in six healthy volunteers, 19 patients with airways disorder, and six patients with restrictive lung disease. The data set were reconstructed as 36 one-second temporally overlapping images at 0.2-second intervals, and regional PDD curves were displayed. Regional ventilation was assessed by Xe-133 clearance-time on Xe-133 SPECT. Normal lungs showed smooth, sinusoidal PDD curves with maximal amplitude in lung attenuation change (MALAC) of 54.9+24.5 HU; whereas, obstructive airways disorders with prolonged Xe-133 clearance showed significantly diminished MALAC (31.6+20.1 HU, P<0.0001), accompanied by irregularity, asynchronous phase, and deterioration of normal ventral-to-dorsal gradients in MALAC and lung attenuation. Restrictive diseases without prolonged Xe-133 clearance did not show statistically significant reduction in MALAC. In total 251 lung regions, regional MALAC correlated inversely with Xe-133 clearance-time (r=842). PDD acquired by spiral CT is acceptable for detecting ventilation abnormalities in obstructive airways disorder. (author)

  2. Pulmonary artery hypertension in chronic obstructive lung disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinkel, E.; Mundinger, A.; Reinbold, W.D.; Wuertemberger, G.

    1989-01-01

    Standard biplane chest X-rays were tested for the validity of morphometric criteria in the diagnosis of pulmonary artery hypertension. Twenty-seven patients suffering from chronic obstructive lung disease were examined and compared with a control group without cardiopulmonary disease. The diameter of the right and left pulmonary artery, pulmonary conus and the hilar-to-thoracic ratio were significantly increased in patients with chronic obstructive lung disease (p [de

  3. Upper airway finding on CT scan with and without nasal CPAP in obstructive sleep apnea patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akashiba, Tsuneto; Sasaki, Iwao; Kurashina, Keiji; Yoshizawa, Takayuki; Otsuka, Kenzo; Horie, Takashi

    1991-01-01

    The area of upper airway (from the nasopharynx to the hypopharynx) was measured by means of computed tomography (CT) scan in 15 confirmed cases of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and in 4 normal controls while they were awake. The minimum cross-sectional area (MA) of the upper airway was 14.7±20.0 mm 2 in OSA patients and 80.0±33.1 mm 2 in normal controls and the difference was statistically significant (p 2 and lowest SO 2 . MA was also measured with OSA patients while nasal continuous positive airway pressure (NCPAP) of 10 cmH 2 O was applied and it was found that MA was significantly widened when NCPAP therapy was performed. We conclude that upper airway narrowing is consistent finding in OSA patients but the degree of narrowing does not correlate with parameters of apnea and gas exchange during sleep, and NCPAP is effective to widen the area of upper airway in OSA patients. (author)

  4. Role of chemical drive in recruiting upper airway and inspiratory intercostal muscles in patients with obstructive sleep apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okabe, S; Chonan, T; Hida, W; Satoh, M; Kikuchi, Y; Takishima, T

    1993-01-01

    Upper airway dilating muscle activity increases during apneic episodes in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). To elucidate the relative contribution of chemical and nonchemical stimuli to augmentation of the upper airway dilating muscle, we measured the response of genioglossus muscle (GG) and inspiratory intercostal muscle (IIM) activities to obstructive apnea during non-REM sleep and compared them with the response to progressive hypoxia and hypercapnia during awake periods in seven male patients with OSA. GG EMG was measured with a wire electrode inserted percutaneously, and IIM EMG was measured with surface electrodes placed in the second intercostal space parasternally. Responses to hypoxia and to hypercapnia were assessed by rebreathing methods in the supine position while awake. Following these measurements, a sleep study was conducted with the EMG electrodes placed in the same locations. The relationship between GG and IIM activities during the cycle of apnea and postapneic ventilation in non-REM sleep was quasi-linear, and the slope of the regression line was significantly greater than those during progressive hypoxia and progressive hypercapnia. The amplitude of GG activity at 70% of maximum IIM activities in the hypoxic test was 140 +/- 20% (mean +/- SEM) during non-REM sleep, which was also significantly greater than that during hypoxia (51 +/- 10%) and that during hypercapnia (59 +/- 15%). These results suggest that nonchemical factors contribute considerably to augmentation of GG activity during obstructive apneic episodes. The nonchemical stimuli may arise from mechanoreceptors activated by upper airway obstruction and behavioral factors associated with change in sleep states.

  5. Interleukin-6 and airflow limitation in chemical warfare patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davood Attaran

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Davood Attaran1, Shahrzad M Lari1, Mohammad Towhidi1, Hassan Ghobadi Marallu2, Hossein Ayatollahi1, Mohammad Khajehdaluee1, Mostafa Ghanei3, Reza Basiri11Lung Disease and Tuberculosis Research Center, Mashhad University of Medical Science, 2Ardabil University of Medical Sciences, 3Research Center of Chemical Injuries, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IranObjectives: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is one of the main late complications of sulfur mustard poisoning. The aim of this study was to evaluate serum levels of interleukin (IL-6 in war veterans with pulmonary complications of sulfur mustard poisoning and their correlation with severity of airways disease.Methods: Fifty consecutive patients with sulfur mustard poisoning and stable COPD, and of mean age 46.3 ± 9.18 years were enrolled in this study. Thirty healthy men were selected as controls and matched to cases by age and body mass index. Spirometry, arterial blood gas, six-minute walk test, BODE (body mass index, obstruction, dyspnea, and exercise capacity, and St George’s Respiratory Questionnaire about quality of life were evaluated. Serum IL-6 was measured in both patient and control groups.Results: Fifty-four percent of patients had moderate COPD. Mean serum IL-6 levels were 15.01 ± standard deviation (SD 0.61 pg/dL and 4.59 ± 3.40 pg/dL in the case and control groups, respectively (P = 0.03. There was a significant correlation between IL-6 levels and Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease stage (r = 0.25, P = 0.04 and between IL-6 and BODE index (r = 0.38, P = 0.01. There was also a significant negative correlation between serum IL-6 and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1, r = -0.36, P = 0.016.Conclusion: Our findings suggest that serum IL-6 is increased in patients with sulfur mustard poisoning and COPD, and may have a direct association with airflow limitation.Keywords: sulfur mustard, chronic obstructive pulmonary

  6. Influence of risk factors on development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and legislative foundations for copd medical care in Ukraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mykhalchuk, Vasyl M; Vasyliev, Averian G

    2018-01-01

    Introduction: Out of all respiratory diseases COPD is the leading cause of death and is characterized with diffuse non-reversible airway obstruction. Many various components play role in development and progression of this disease, while COPD risk factors play the most prominent role. Further progress in healthcare system development around COPD in Ukraine requires analysis of legislation, regulating pulmonological medical service in Ukraine. The aim: To analyze the influence of major risk factors on the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and to determine key legislative aspects of the organization of medical care for COPD patients in Ukraine. Materials and methods: 50 medical literature sources were systematically reviewed as the material for the research of COPD risk factors and their impact on studies disease. Also, an analysis of existing legislative acts regulating the pulmonological medical care in Ukraine, specifically, in patients with COPD, was conducted. Conclusions: There is a need to develop and implement a set of organizational and medical measures aiming at addressing the priorities of public healthcare, and specifically improvement of the quality of medical care for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in Ukraine.

  7. Chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabbard, Scott L; Lacy, Brian E

    2013-06-01

    Chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction (CIP) is a rare and serious disorder of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract characterized as a motility disorder with the primary defect of impaired peristalsis; symptoms are consistent with a bowel obstruction, although mechanical obstruction cannot be identified. CIP is classified as a neuropathy, myopathy, or mesenchymopathy; it is a neuropathic process in the majority of patients. The natural history of CIP is generally that of a progressive disorder, although occasional patients with secondary CIP note significant symptomatic improvement when the underlying disorder is identified and treated. Symptoms vary from patient to patient depending on the location of the luminal GI tract involved and the degree of involvement; however, the small intestine is nearly always involved. Common symptoms include dysphagia, gastroesophageal reflux, abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, bloating, abdominal distension, constipation or diarrhea, and involuntary weight loss. Unfortunately, these symptoms are nonspecific, which can contribute to misdiagnosis or a delay in diagnosis and treatment. Since many of the symptoms and signs suggest a mechanical bowel obstruction, diagnostic tests typically focus on uncovering a mechanical obstruction, although routine tests do not identify an obstructive process. Nutrition supplementation is required for many patients with CIP due to symptoms of dysphagia, nausea, vomiting, and weight loss. This review discusses the epidemiology, etiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of patients with CIP, with an emphasis on nutrition assessment and treatment options for patients with nutrition compromise.

  8. Ventilation therapy for patients suffering from obstructive lung diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungblut, Sven A; Heidelmann, Lena M; Westerfeld, Andreas; Frickmann, Hagen; Körber, Mareike K; Zautner, Andreas E

    2014-01-01

    Severe bronchial obstruction due to one of the major pulmonary diseases: asthma, COPD, or emphysema often requires mechanical ventilation support. Otherwise, patients are at risk of severe hypooxygenation with consecutive overloading and dilatation of the right cardiac ventricle with subsequent failure. This review focuses on how to manage a calculated ventilation therapy of patients suffering from bronchial obstruction and relevant patents. Options and pitfalls of invasive and non-invasive ventilation in the intensive care setting regarding clinical improvement and final outcome are discussed. The non-invasive ventilation is very efficient in treating acute or chronic respiratory failure in COPD patients and is capable of shortening the duration of hospitalization. Further non-invasive ventilation can successfully support the weaning after a long-lasting ventilation therapy and improve the prognosis of COPD patients. "Permissive hypercapnia" is unequivocally established in invasive ventilation therapy of severe bronchial obstruction in situations of limited ventilation. When intrinsic positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) and elevated airways resistance are present PEEP may be useful although external-PEEP application relieves over-inflation only in selected patients with airway obstruction during controlled mechanical ventilation. Upper limit of airways peak pressure used in "protective ventilation" of adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) patients can be exceeded under certain circumstances.

  9. Work-related chronic obstructive pulmo- nary disease

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Society.3 The disease includes the symptoms of chronic productive cough, airway .... approximately 19% in the total population, ... fertiliser manufacture, food processors, farmers/agriculture, cotton .... maintenance of equipment is stipulated.

  10. Chronic idiopathic intestinal pseudo-obstruction in an English bulldog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvir, E; Leisewitz, A L; Van der Lugt, J J

    2001-05-01

    A case of chronic idiopathic intestinal pseudo-obstruction in an English bulldog is described. The dog was presented with chronic weight loss and vomiting. An intestinal obstruction was suspected based on clinical and radiological findings. A diagnosis of chronic idiopathic intestinal pseudo-obstruction was made on the basis of full thickness intestinal biopsies. The dog was refractory to any antiemetic therapy. Necropsy revealed marked atrophy and fibrosis of the tunica muscularis, together with a mononuclear cell infiltrate extending from the duodenum to the colon. This case was presented with clinical findings consistent with visceral myopathy in humans--namely, atony and dilatation of the whole gut--but the histological findings resembled sclerosis limited to the gastrointestinal tract.

  11. C reactive protein and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Morten; Vestbo, Jørgen; Zacho, Jeppe

    2011-01-01

    It is unclear whether elevated plasma C reactive protein (CRP) is causally related to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The authors tested the hypothesis that genetically elevated plasma CRP causes COPD using a Mendelian randomisation design.......It is unclear whether elevated plasma C reactive protein (CRP) is causally related to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The authors tested the hypothesis that genetically elevated plasma CRP causes COPD using a Mendelian randomisation design....

  12. Contributions of COPD, asthma, and ten comorbid conditions to health care utilization and patient-centered outcomes among US adults with obstructive airway disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Terrence E; McAvay, Gail J; Allore, Heather G; Stamm, Jason A; Simonelli, Paul F

    2017-01-01

    Among persons with obstructive airway disease, the relative contributions of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, and common comorbid conditions to health care utilization and patient-centered outcomes (PCOs) have not been previously reported. We followed a total of 3,486 persons aged ≥40 years with COPD, asthma, or both at baseline, from the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS) cohorts enrolled annually from 2008 through 2012 for 1 year. MEPS is a prospective observational study of US households recording self-reported COPD, asthma, and ten medical conditions: angina, arthritis, cancer, coronary heart disease, cognitive impairment, diabetes, hypertension, lung cancer, myocardial infarction, and stroke/transient ischemic attack. We studied the separate contributions of these conditions to health care utilization (all-cause and respiratory disease hospitalization, any emergency department [ED] visit, and six or more outpatient visits) and PCOs (seven or more days spent in bed due to illness, incident loss of mobility, and incident decline in self-perceived health). COPD made the largest contributions to all-cause and respiratory disease hospitalization and ED visits, while arthritis made the largest contribution to outpatient health care. Arthritis and COPD, respectively, made the greatest contributions to the PCOs. COPD made the largest and second largest contributions to health care utilization and PCOs among US adults with obstructive airway disease. The twelve medical conditions collectively accounted for between 52% and 61% of the health care utilization outcomes and between 53% and 68% of the PCOs. Cognitive impairment, diabetes, hypertension, and stroke also made significant contributions.

  13. Fluid structure interaction simulations of the upper airway in obstructive sleep apnea patients before and after maxillomandibular advancement surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Kwang K; Kim, Ki Beom; McQuilling, Mark W; Movahed, Reza

    2018-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze pharyngeal airflow using both computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and fluid structure interactions (FSI) in obstructive sleep apnea patients before and after maxillomandibular advancement (MMA) surgery. The airflow characteristics before and after surgery were compared with both CFD and FSI. In addition, the presurgery and postsurgery deformations of the airway were evaluated using FSI. Digitized pharyngeal airway models of 2 obstructive sleep apnea patients were generated from cone-beam computed tomography scans before and after MMA surgery. CFD and FSI were used to evaluate the pharyngeal airflow at a maximum inspiration rate of 166 ml per second. Standard steady-state numeric formulations were used for airflow simulations. Airway volume increased, pressure drop decreased, maximum airflow velocity decreased, and airway resistance dropped for both patients after the MMA surgery. These findings occurred in both the CFD and FSI simulations. The FSI simulations showed an area of marked airway deformation in both patients before surgery, but this deformation was negligible after surgery for both patients. Both CFD and FSI simulations produced airflow results that indicated less effort was needed to breathe after MMA surgery. The FSI simulations demonstrated a substantial decrease in airway deformation after surgery. These beneficial changes positively correlated with the large improvements in polysomnography outcomes after MMA surgery. Copyright © 2018 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Airway contractility and remodeling : Links to asthma symptoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    West, Adrian R.; Syyong, Harley T.; Siddiqui, Sana; Pascoe, Chris D.; Murphy, Thomas M.; Maarsingh, Harm; Deng, Linhong; Maksym, Geoffrey N.; Bosse, Ynuk

    Respiratory symptoms are largely caused by obstruction of the airways. In asthma, airway narrowing mediated by airway smooth muscle (ASM) contraction contributes significantly to obstruction. The spasmogens produced following exposure to environmental triggers, such as viruses or allergens, are

  15. Nonantibiotic macrolides restore airway macrophage phagocytic function with potential anti-inflammatory effects in chronic lung diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, Sandra; Tran, Hai B; Hamon, Rhys; Roscioli, Eugene; Hodge, Greg; Jersmann, Hubertus; Ween, Miranda; Reynolds, Paul N; Yeung, Arthur; Treiberg, Jennifer; Wilbert, Sibylle

    2017-05-01

    We reported defective efferocytosis associated with cigarette smoking and/or airway inflammation in chronic lung diseases, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, severe asthma, and childhood bronchiectasis. We also showed defects in phagocytosis of nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi), a common colonizer of the lower airway in these diseases. These defects could be substantially overcome with low-dose azithromycin; however, chronic use may induce bacterial resistance. The aim of the present study was therefore to investigate two novel macrolides-2'-desoxy-9-(S)-erythromycylamine (GS-459755) and azithromycin-based 2'-desoxy molecule (GS-560660)-with significantly diminished antibiotic activity against Staphylococcus aureus , Streptococcus pneumonia , Moraxella catarrhalis , and H. influenzae We tested their effects on efferocytosis, phagocytosis of NTHi, cell viability, receptors involved in recognition of apoptotic cells and/or NTHi (flow cytometry), secreted and cleaved intracellular IL-1β (cytometric bead array, immunofluorescence/confocal microscopy), and nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor family pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3) using primary alveolar macrophages and THP-1 macrophages ± 10% cigarette smoke extract. Dose-response experiments showed optimal prophagocytic effects of GS-459755 and GS-560660 at concentrations of 0.5-1 µg/ml compared with our findings with azithromycin. Both macrolides significantly improved phagocytosis of apoptotic cells and NTHi (e.g., increases in efferocytosis and phagocytosis of NTHi: GS-459755, 23 and 22.5%, P = 0.043; GS-560660, 23.5 and 22%, P = 0.043, respectively). Macrophage viability remained >85% following 24 h exposure to either macrolide at concentrations up to 20 µg/ml. Secreted and intracellular-cleaved IL-1β was decreased with both macrolides with no significant changes in recognition molecules c-mer proto-oncogene tyrosine kinase; scavenger receptor class A, member 1; Toll

  16. Prognostic value of weight change in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prescott, E; Almdal, T; Mikkelsen, K L

    2002-01-01

    An association between low body mass index (BMI) and poor prognosis in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has been found in a number of studies. The prevalence and prognostic importance of weight change in unselected subjects with COPD was examined. Subjects with COPD...... change: in the normal-to-underweight (BMI or = 25), best survival was seen in stable weight. A high proportion of subjects with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease experienced a significant weight loss......, which was associated with increased mortality. The results support further intervention studies that aim at avoiding weight loss in normal-to-underweight chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients....

  17. Equine protease inhibitor system as a marker for the diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinocur Myriam E.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The protease inhibitor system (PI was investigated to ascertain if it can be used as a marker of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD in thoroughbred horses. Serum samples were taken from healthy thoroughbreds (n = 13 and those diagnosed as having COPD (n = 24 or inflammatory airway disease (IAD, n = 38 as well as from 3,600 undiagnosed thoroughbred horses. PI allelic and genotypic frequencies were estimated using protein electrophoresis on starch and polyacrylamide gels. The four groups of horses showed high genotypic similarity and none of the observed alleles or genotypes of the equine PI system were found to be associated with COPD.

  18. Multiple hypothesis tracking based extraction of airway trees from CT data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raghavendra, Selvan; Petersen, Jens; de Bruijne, Marleen

    Segmentation of airway trees from CT scans of lungs has important clinical applications, in relation to the diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Here we present a method based on multiple hypothesis tracking (MHT) and template matching, originally devised for vessel...... segmentation, to extract airway trees. Idealized tubular templates are constructed and ranked using scores assigned based on the image data. Several such regularly spaced hypotheses are used in constructing a hypothesis tree, which is then traversed to obtain improved segmentation results....

  19. SEPARATE AND COMBINED EFFECTS OF CORTICOSTEROIDS AND BRONCHODILATORS ON AIR-FLOW OBSTRUCTION AND AIRWAY HYPERRESPONSIVENESS IN ASTHMA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WEMPE, JB; POSTMA, DS; BREEDERVELD, N; ALTINGHEBING, D; VANDERMARK, TW; KOETER, GH

    We have investigated separate and interactive effects of corticosteroids and bronchodilators on airflow obstruction and airway hyperresponsiveness. Twelve allergic subjects with asthma were treated in a double-blind, crossover, randomized study with budesonide, 1.6 mg daily for 3 weeks, prednisone,

  20. Positional effects on distribution of ventilation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shim, C.; Chun, K.J.; Williams, M.H. Jr.; Blaufox, M.D.

    1986-01-01

    Ventilation is distributed predominantly to the dependent lung in normal persons in the decubitus position. We evaluated the distribution of ventilation in four patients with mild-to-moderate chronic obstructive pulmonary disease using 81mKr gas. Patients were tested in the sitting and right and left decubitus positions with and without the application of positive end expiratory pressure (PEEP). In contrast to findings in controls, ventilation was predominantly distributed to the nondependent lung in patients in the decubitus position. Mean ventilation in the right lung decreased from 51% of the total in the sitting position to 31% in the right decubitus position; it increased with the application of 10 cm PEEP. Reduced ventilation in the dependent lung most likely is caused by closure of the airways after a decrease in volume. Application of PEEP resulted in increased lung volume and preferential distribution of ventilation to the dependent lung

  1. Biomarkers in Airway Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janice M Leung

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The inherent limitations of spirometry and clinical history have prompted clinicians and scientists to search for surrogate markers of airway diseases. Although few biomarkers have been widely accepted into the clinical armamentarium, the authors explore three sources of biomarkers that have shown promise as indicators of disease severity and treatment response. In asthma, exhaled nitric oxide measurements can predict steroid responsiveness and sputum eosinophil counts have been used to titrate anti-inflammatory therapies. In chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, inflammatory plasma biomarkers, such as fibrinogen, club cell secretory protein-16 and surfactant protein D, can denote greater severity and predict the risk of exacerbations. While the multitude of disease phenotypes in respiratory medicine make biomarker development especially challenging, these three may soon play key roles in the diagnosis and management of airway diseases.

  2. Natural histories of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rennard, Stephen I; Vestbo, Jørgen

    2008-01-01

    Concepts relating to the natural history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) arise most importantly from the classic study of Fletcher and colleagues (The Natural History of Chronic Bronchitis and Emphysema, Oxford University Press, New York, 1976). This study, which evaluated working...

  3. EPIDEMIOLOGY OF OBSTRUCTIVE PULMONARY DISEASE IN SHAHRE-KORD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B AMRA

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. There is no published data regarding prevalence of obstructive airway diseases in Iran. We have investigated the prevalence of respiratory symptoms in Shahre-kord to be compared with those in Europe and USA. Methods. Two thousands subjects (977 male and 1016 female were selected by proportional random cluster sampling from Shahre-kord residents aged 1 to 87 years. They were interviewed to complete a respiratory questionnaire and those who were suspected to have airways disorders were invited for physical examinations and spirometry. Findings. The most frequently reported symptoms were: chronic cough (7/4 percent, wheeze ever in life time (5/5 percent, morning cough (6 percent, history of chronic bronchitis (1/8 percent, dyspnea associated with wheeze (3/2 percent, exertional dyspnea (2/9 percent. Cigarette smoking was less popular in our group than the Europ-American populations. Conclusion. Obstructive pulmonary disease are less prevalent in Shahre-kord than those reported in Europe and USA. This finding may be due to smoking habits and less polluted air in Shahre-kord.

  4. Factors influencing self-management in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: an integrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disler, R T; Gallagher, R D; Davidson, P M

    2012-02-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is a common, chronic and burdensome condition requiring the individual to engage in a range of self-management strategies. The capacity to engage in self-management is dependent on a range of internal (e.g., personal) and external (e.g., health service) factors. This paper seeks to define self-management, identify the determinants which influence the individual's ability to cope and adjust to living with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in the community, and identify implications for clinical practice and research. Integrative review. Medline, Embase, PubMed, CINAHL, Google Scholar. Integrative review using prospective research questions. Papers were included in the review if they were published in peer reviewed journals and written in English between 2000 and 2010. Articles were accepted for inclusion if they discussed the determinants that influenced self-management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in the community. Confirmation of results and discussion themes was validated by specialists in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and complex care. Self-management is less well characterised in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease compared with other chronic conditions. Functional limitation and the need to balance disease management with everyday life are the two key elements that patients face in managing their condition. Provider characteristics, socioeconomic status and health literacy are sparsely discussed yet are known to influence chronic obstructive pulmonary disease self-management. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease self-management must be a key focus internationally as the disease incidence increases. Collaborative care is required between patients and health providers in order facilitate patients in confident management of their condition. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Upper airway alterations/abnormalities in a case series of obstructive sleep apnea patients identified with cone-beam CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shigeta, Y.; Shintaku, W.H.; Clark, G.T.; Enciso, R.; Ogawa, T.

    2007-01-01

    There are many factors that influence the configuration of the upper airway and may contribute to the development of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). This paper presents a series of 12 consecutive OSA cases where various upper airway alteration/abnormalities were identified using 3D anatomic reconstructions generated from cone-beam CT (CBCT) images. Some cases exhibited more than one type of abnormality and below we describe each of the six types identified with CBCT in this case series. (orig.)

  6. Upper airway alterations/abnormalities in a case series of obstructive sleep apnea patients identified with cone-beam CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shigeta, Y; Shintaku, W H; Clark, G T [Orofacial Pain/Oral Medicine Center, Div. of Diagnostic Sciences, School of Dentistry, Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Enciso, R [Div. of Craniofacial Sciences and Therapeutics, School of Dentistry, Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Ogawa, T [Dept. of Fixed Prosthodontic Dentistry, Tsurumi Univ., School of Dental Medicine, Tsurumi (Japan)

    2007-06-15

    There are many factors that influence the configuration of the upper airway and may contribute to the development of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). This paper presents a series of 12 consecutive OSA cases where various upper airway alteration/abnormalities were identified using 3D anatomic reconstructions generated from cone-beam CT (CBCT) images. Some cases exhibited more than one type of abnormality and below we describe each of the six types identified with CBCT in this case series. (orig.)

  7. PROGRESSIVE MUSCLE RELAXATION INCREASE PEAK EXPIRATORY FLOW RATE ON CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE PULMONARY DISEASE PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tintin Sukartini

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Limited progressive air flow in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD can caused by small airway disease (bronchiolitis obstructive and loss of elasticity of the lung (emphysema. Further it can be decreasing the quality of life in COPD patients because dyspnea and uncomfortable in activity. Progressive muscle relaxation (PMR is one of the relaxation technique that can repair pulmonary ventilation by decreasing chronic constriction of the respiratory muscles. The objective of this study was to analyze the effect of progressive muscle relaxation on raised peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR. Method: A pre-experimental one group pre-post test design was used in this study. Population was all of the COPD patients at Pulmonary Specialist Polyclinic Dr Mohamad Soewandhie Surabaya. There were 8 respondents taken by using purposive sampling. PEFR was counted by using peak flow meter every six day. Data were analyzed by using Paired t-Test with significance level  p≤0.05. Result: The result showed that PMR had significance level on increasing of PEFR (p=0.012. Discussion: It can be concluded that PMR has an effect on raise PEFR. Further studies are recommended to measure the effect of PMR on respiratory rate (RR, heart rate (HR subjective dyspnoe symptoms, forced expiration volume on the first minute (FEV1 and mid maximum flow rate (MMFR in COPD patients.

  8. Preclinical murine models of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlahos, Ross; Bozinovski, Steven

    2015-07-15

    Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is a major incurable global health burden and is the 4th leading cause of death worldwide. It is believed that an exaggerated inflammatory response to cigarette smoke causes progressive airflow limitation. This inflammation, where macrophages, neutrophils and T lymphocytes are prominent, leads to oxidative stress, emphysema, small airway fibrosis and mucus hypersecretion. Much of the disease burden and health care utilisation in COPD is associated with the management of its comorbidities and infectious (viral and bacterial) exacerbations (AECOPD). Comorbidities, defined as other chronic medical conditions, in particular skeletal muscle wasting and cardiovascular disease markedly impact on disease morbidity, progression and mortality. The mechanisms and mediators underlying COPD and its comorbidities are poorly understood and current COPD therapy is relatively ineffective. Thus, there is an obvious need for new therapies that can prevent the induction and progression of COPD and effectively treat AECOPD and comorbidities of COPD. Given that access to COPD patients can be difficult and that clinical samples often represent a "snapshot" at a particular time in the disease process, many researchers have used animal modelling systems to explore the mechanisms underlying COPD, AECOPD and comorbidities of COPD with the goal of identifying novel therapeutic targets. This review highlights the mouse models used to define the cellular, molecular and pathological consequences of cigarette smoke exposure and the recent advances in modelling infectious exacerbations and comorbidities of COPD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Relationship of airway dimensions with airflow limitation or lung volumes in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaru Hasegawa

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available We have recently developed new software to obtain longitudinal images and accurate short axis images of airways with an inner diameter > 2 mm located anywhere in the lung, using curved multiplanar reconstruction. Using this software, we demonstrated in patients with COPD that FEV1 (%predicted was highly correlated with airway dimensions and the correlation coefficients improved as the airway became smaller in size (3. In this study, our aims are to further confirm the significant relationship between airway dimensions and airflow limitation in larger number of subjects, and to examine the relationship of airway dimensions with lung volumes in 95 patients with COPD (stage 0, 10; stage I, 23; stage II, 35; stage III, 24; stage IV, 3. We analyzed the airway dimensions from the 3rd to the 6th generations of the apical bronchus (B1 of the right upper lobe and the anterior basal bronchus (B8 of the right lower lobe. Lung volumes were measured by the helium closed circuit method. Both airway luminal area (Ai and wall area percent (WA% of all the generations, except a few, from the two bronchi were significantly correlated with RV and RV/TLC, but not with TLC or FRC. More importantly, the correlation coefficients (r between airway dimensions and RV/TLC improved as the airways became smaller in size from the 3rd to 6th generations in both bronchi (r = –0.483, –0482, –0.553, –0.624 for Ai of B8; r = 0.316, 0.380, 0.499, 0.551 for WA% of B8. These findings provide further evidence that distal (small airways rather than proximal (large airways are the determinants for airflow limitation in COPD.

  10. Volvulus as a complication of chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Betue, Carlijn T.; Boersma, Doeke; Oomen, Matthijs W.; Benninga, Marc A.; de Jong, Justin R.

    2011-01-01

    Chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction syndrome (CIPS) is a severe motility disorder of the gastrointestinal tract that presents with continuous or recurrent symptoms and signs of intestinal obstruction without evidence of a structural lesion occluding the intestinal lumen. Mechanical obstruction

  11. Pulmonary Microvascular Blood Flow in Mild Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and Emphysema. The MESA COPD Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hueper, Katja; Vogel-Claussen, Jens; Parikh, Megha A; Austin, John H M; Bluemke, David A; Carr, James; Choi, Jiwoong; Goldstein, Thomas A; Gomes, Antoinette S; Hoffman, Eric A; Kawut, Steven M; Lima, Joao; Michos, Erin D; Post, Wendy S; Po, Ming Jack; Prince, Martin R; Liu, Kiang; Rabinowitz, Dan; Skrok, Jan; Smith, Ben M; Watson, Karol; Yin, Youbing; Zambeli-Ljepovic, Alan M; Barr, R Graham

    2015-09-01

    Smoking-related microvascular loss causes end-organ damage in the kidneys, heart, and brain. Basic research suggests a similar process in the lungs, but no large studies have assessed pulmonary microvascular blood flow (PMBF) in early chronic lung disease. To investigate whether PMBF is reduced in mild as well as more severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and emphysema. PMBF was measured using gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) among smokers with COPD and control subjects age 50 to 79 years without clinical cardiovascular disease. COPD severity was defined by standard criteria. Emphysema on computed tomography (CT) was defined by the percentage of lung regions below -950 Hounsfield units (-950 HU) and by radiologists using a standard protocol. We adjusted for potential confounders, including smoking, oxygenation, and left ventricular cardiac output. Among 144 participants, PMBF was reduced by 30% in mild COPD, by 29% in moderate COPD, and by 52% in severe COPD (all P emphysema-950HU and radiologist-defined emphysema, particularly panlobular and centrilobular emphysema (all P ≤ 0.01). Registration of MRI and CT images revealed that PMBF was reduced in mild COPD in both nonemphysematous and emphysematous lung regions. Associations for PMBF were independent of measures of small airways disease on CT and gas trapping largely because emphysema and small airways disease occurred in different smokers. PMBF was reduced in mild COPD, including in regions of lung without frank emphysema, and may represent a distinct pathological process from small airways disease. PMBF may provide an imaging biomarker for therapeutic strategies targeting the pulmonary microvasculature.

  12. Determining the optimal approach to identifying individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: The DOC study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronaldson, Sarah J; Dyson, Lisa; Clark, Laura; Hewitt, Catherine E; Torgerson, David J; Cooper, Brendan G; Kearney, Matt; Laughey, William; Raghunath, Raghu; Steele, Lisa; Rhodes, Rebecca; Adamson, Joy

    2018-06-01

    Early identification of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) results in patients receiving appropriate management for their condition at an earlier stage in their disease. The determining the optimal approach to identifying individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (DOC) study was a case-finding study to enhance early identification of COPD in primary care, which evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of a series of simple lung function tests and symptom-based case-finding questionnaires. Current smokers aged 35 or more were invited to undertake a series of case-finding tools, which comprised lung function tests (specifically, spirometry, microspirometry, peak flow meter, and WheezoMeter) and several case-finding questionnaires. The effectiveness of these tests, individually or in combination, to identify small airways obstruction was evaluated against the gold standard of spirometry, with the quality of spirometry tests assessed by independent overreaders. The study was conducted with general practices in the Yorkshire and Humberside area, in the UK. Six hundred eighty-one individuals met the inclusion criteria, with 444 participants completing their study appointments. A total of 216 (49%) with good-quality spirometry readings were included in the analysis. The most effective case-finding tools were found to be the peak flow meter alone, the peak flow meter plus WheezoMeter, and microspirometry alone. In addition to the main analysis, where the severity of airflow obstruction was based on fixed ratios and percent of predicted values, sensitivity analyses were conducted by using lower limit of normal values. This research informs the choice of test for COPD identification; case-finding by use of the peak flow meter or microspirometer could be used routinely in primary care for suspected COPD patients. Only those testing positive to these tests would move on to full spirometry, thereby reducing unnecessary spirometric testing. © 2018 John Wiley

  13. Predictors of objective cough frequency in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sumner, Helen; Woodcock, Ashley; Kolsum, Umme

    2013-01-01

    Cough is one of the principal symptoms of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) but the potential drivers of cough are likely to be multifactorial and poorly understood.......Cough is one of the principal symptoms of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) but the potential drivers of cough are likely to be multifactorial and poorly understood....

  14. Positive outcome of average volume-assured pressure support mode of a Respironics V60 Ventilator in acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okuda Miyuki

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction We were able to treat a patient with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease who also suffered from sleep-disordered breathing by using the average volume-assured pressure support mode of a Respironics V60 Ventilator (Philips Respironics: United States. This allows a target tidal volume to be set based on automatic changes in inspiratory positive airway pressure. This removed the need to change the noninvasive positive pressure ventilation settings during the day and during sleep. The Respironics V60 Ventilator, in the average volume-assured pressure support mode, was attached to our patient and improved and stabilized his sleep-related hypoventilation by automatically adjusting force to within an acceptable range. Case presentation Our patient was a 74-year-old Japanese man who was hospitalized for treatment due to worsening of dyspnea and hypoxemia. He was diagnosed with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and full-time biphasic positive airway pressure support ventilation was initiated. Our patient was temporarily provided with portable noninvasive positive pressure ventilation at night-time following an improvement in his condition, but his chronic obstructive pulmonary disease again worsened due to the recurrence of a respiratory infection. During the initial exacerbation, his tidal volume was significantly lower during sleep (378.9 ± 72.9mL than while awake (446.5 ± 63.3mL. A ventilator that allows ventilation to be maintained by automatically adjusting the inspiratory force to within an acceptable range was attached in average volume-assured pressure support mode, improving his sleep-related hypoventilation, which is often associated with the use of the Respironics V60 Ventilator. Polysomnography performed while our patient was on noninvasive positive pressure ventilation revealed obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (apnea-hypopnea index = 14, suggesting that his chronic

  15. Clinical and fiberoptic endoscopic assessment of swallowing in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macri, Marina Rodrigues Bueno

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is characterized by progressive and partially reversible obstruction of pulmonary airflow. Aim: To characterize swallowing in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and correlate the findings with the degree chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, heart and respiratory rate, oxygen saturation, and smoking. Method: We conducted a prospective cohort study of 19 patients (12 men and 7 women; age range, 50–85 years with confirmed medical diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. This study was performed in 2 stages (clinical evaluation and functional assessment using nasolaryngofibroscopy on the same day. During both stages, vital signs were checked by medical personnel. Results: Clinical evaluation of swallowing in all patients showed the clinical signs of cough. The findings of nasolaryngofibroscopy highlighted subsequent intraoral escape in 5 patients (26.5%. No patient had tracheal aspiration. There was no association of subsequent intraoral escape with degree of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, heart and respiratory rate, oxygen saturation, or smoking. Conclusion: In patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, there was a prevalence of oral dysphagia upon swallowing and nasolaryngofibroscopy highlighted the finding of subsequent intraoral escape. There was no correlation between intraoral escape and the degree of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, heart and respiratory rate, oxygen saturation, or smoking.

  16. Changes in sleep characteristics and airway obstruction in OSAHS patients with multi-level obstruction following simple UPPP, UPPP-GA, or UPPP-TBA: a prospective, single-center, parallel group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shicai; Shi, Song; Xia, Yanghui; Liu, Fei; Chen, Donghui; Zhu, Minhui; Li, Meng; Zheng, Hongliang

    2014-01-01

    To investigate changes in S3 sleep and the apnea hypopnea index (AHI), SpO2 desaturation and CT90, and to determine changes in the degree of airway collapse and in the cross-sectional area of the retropalatal and lingual region in obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome patients. All subjects underwent overnight polysomnography and were evaluated using Müller's test and magnetic resonance imaging at baseline, 3, and 12 months following surgery. The mean S3 scores in patients receiving uvulopalatopharyngoplasty combined with genioglossus advancement (UPPP-GA) or UPPP combined with tongue base advancement using the Repose™ system (UPPP-TBA) noticeably increased. Marked improvement was seen in the mean AHI, LSO2, and CT90 scores 3 and 12 months following surgery compared to baseline. Airway collapsed by 25-50% in the greatest proportion undergoing surgery at the tongue base. UPPP-GA and UPPP-TBA more effectively improve S3 sleep, and mean AHI, LSO2, and CT90 scores. In addition, they effectively alleviate airway obstruction by improving the cross-sectional area of these regions. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Interleukin-6 and airflow limitation in chemical warfare patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attaran, Davood; Lari, Shahrzad M; Towhidi, Mohammad; Marallu, Hassan Ghobadi; Ayatollahi, Hossein; Khajehdaluee, Mohammad; Ghanei, Mostafa; Basiri, Reza

    2010-01-01

    Objectives Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is one of the main late complications of sulfur mustard poisoning. The aim of this study was to evaluate serum levels of interleukin (IL)-6 in war veterans with pulmonary complications of sulfur mustard poisoning and their correlation with severity of airways disease. Methods Fifty consecutive patients with sulfur mustard poisoning and stable COPD, and of mean age 46.3 ± 9.18 years were enrolled in this study. Thirty healthy men were selected as controls and matched to cases by age and body mass index. Spirometry, arterial blood gas, six- minute walk test, BODE (body mass index, obstruction, dyspnea, and exercise capacity), and St George’s Respiratory Questionnaire about quality of life were evaluated. Serum IL-6 was measured in both patient and control groups. Results Fifty-four percent of patients had moderate COPD. Mean serum IL-6 levels were 15.01 ± standard deviation (SD) 0.61 pg/dL and 4.59 ± 3.40 pg/dL in the case and control groups, respectively (P = 0.03). There was a significant correlation between IL-6 levels and Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease stage (r = 0.25, P = 0.04) and between IL-6 and BODE index (r = 0.38, P = 0.01). There was also a significant negative correlation between serum IL-6 and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1, r = −0.36, P = 0.016). Conclusion Our findings suggest that serum IL-6 is increased in patients with sulfur mustard poisoning and COPD, and may have a direct association with airflow limitation. PMID:21037957

  18. Outcome of advanced lung cancer with central airway obstruction versus without central airway obstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Akash; Goh, Soon Keng; Tai, Dessmon Y.H.; Kor, Ai Ching; Seow, Debra G.F.; Sein, Zin Nge Nge; Samol, Jens; Abisheganaden, John

    2018-01-01

    Patients with central airway obstruction (CAO) from advanced lung cancer present with significant morbidity and are assumed to have lower survival. Hence, they are offered only palliative support. We asked if patients who have advanced lung cancer with CAO (recanalised and treated) will behave similarly to those with advanced lung cancer without CAO. This study was a retrospective review of the medical records of the patients managed for advanced lung cancer during 2010 and 2015 at our institution. 85 patients were studied. Median survival and 1-, 2- and 5-year survival were 5.8 months, 30.3%, 11.7% and 2.3% versus 9.3 months, 35.7%, 9.6% and 4.7%, respectively, in the CAO and no CAO groups (p=0.30). More patients presented with respiratory failure (15 (35%) versus none; p=0.0001) and required assisted mechanical ventilation (10 (23.3%) versus none; p=0.001) in the CAO group compared with the no CAO group. Fewer patients received chemotherapy in the CAO group (11 (25.5%)) compared with the no CAO group (23 (54.7%); p=0.008). There was no difference in survival among patients with advanced lung cancer whether they presented with CAO or without CAO. Survival was similar to those without CAO in patients with recanalised CAO despite greater morbidity and lesser use of chemotherapy, strongly advocating bronchoscopic recanalisation of CAO. These findings dispel the nihilism associated with such cases. PMID:29637076

  19. Long-acting beta 2-agonists in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llewellyn-Jones, Carol

    2002-01-01

    Until recently, the use of long-acting beta 2-agonists in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease has been understated. There is now evidence that they may offer benefits beyond bronchodilation. This article reviews the management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and looks at the place of long-acting beta 2-agonists as a first-line treatment option.

  20. Infection with Mycoplasma pneumoniae is not related to asthma control, asthma severity, and location of airway obstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalil Ansarin,Siavoush Abedi,Reza Ghotaslou

    2010-12-01

    20 (13.75–24 in patients with and without remote M. pneumoniae infection, respectively (P > 0.05. In addition, the medians of the predicted values of the pulmonary function test parameters (FEV1, FEV1/FVC, FRC, FRC/TLC, RV/TLC, maximal mean expiratory flow 25%–75%, forced expiratory flow [FEF] 50%, and FEF 75% and actual values of 5 Hz and 20 Hz resistance were not different between asthmatic patients with and without evidence of mycoplasma infection (P > 0.05.Conclusions: The present study revealed that the asthma control status and parameters of lung function tests did not differ between asthmatic patients with and without evidence of chronic M. pneumoniae infection. The latter indicates the similar location of airway obstruction and comparable severity of asthma between the two groups.Keywords: Mycoplasma pneumoniae, asthma, asthma control test, airway, pulmonary function test

  1. Iliocaval Confluence Stenting for Chronic Venous Obstructions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graaf, Rick de, E-mail: r.de.graaf@mumc.nl [Maastricht University Medical Centre (MUMC), Department of Radiology (Netherlands); Wolf, Mark de, E-mail: markthewolf@gmail.com [Maastricht University Medical Centre (MUMC), Department of Surgery (Netherlands); Sailer, Anna M., E-mail: anni.sailer@mumc.nl [Maastricht University Medical Centre (MUMC), Department of Radiology (Netherlands); Laanen, Jorinde van, E-mail: jorinde.van.laanen@mumc.nl; Wittens, Cees, E-mail: c.wittens@me.com [Maastricht University Medical Centre (MUMC), Department of Surgery (Netherlands); Jalaie, Houman, E-mail: hjalaie@ukaachen.de [University Hospital Aachen, Department of Surgery (Germany)

    2015-10-15

    PurposeDifferent techniques have been described for stenting of venous obstructions. We report our experience with two different confluence stenting techniques to treat chronic bi-iliocaval obstructions.Materials and MethodsBetween 11/2009 and 08/2014 we treated 40 patients for chronic total bi-iliocaval obstructions. Pre-operative magnetic resonance venography showed bilateral extensive post-thrombotic scarring in common and external iliac veins as well as obstruction of the inferior vena cava (IVC). Stenting of the IVC was performed with large self-expandable stents down to the level of the iliocaval confluence. To bridge the confluence, either self-expandable stents were placed inside the IVC stent (24 patients, SECS group) or high radial force balloon-expandable stents were placed at the same level (16 patients, BECS group). In both cases, bilateral iliac extensions were performed using nitinol stents.ResultsRecanalization was achieved for all patients. In 15 (38 %) patients, a hybrid procedure with endophlebectomy and arteriovenous fistula creation needed to be performed because of significant involvement of inflow vessels below the inguinal ligament. Mean follow-up was 443 ± 438 days (range 7–1683 days). For all patients, primary, assisted-primary, and secondary patency rate at 36 months were 70, 73, and 78 %, respectively. Twelve-month patency rates in the SECS group were 85, 85, and 95 % for primary, assisted-primary, and secondary patency. In the BECS group, primary patency was 100 % during a mean follow-up period of 134 ± 118 (range 29–337) days.ConclusionStenting of chronic bi-iliocaval obstruction shows relatively high patency rates at medium follow-up. Short-term patency seems to favor confluence stenting with balloon-expandable stents.

  2. The effect of obstructive sleep apnea and treatment with continuous positive airway pressure on stroke rehabilitation: rationale, design and methods of the TOROS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aaronson, J.A.; van Bennekom, C.A.M.; Hofman, W.F.; van Bezeij, T.; van den Aardweg, J.G.; Groet, E.; Kylstra, W.A.; Schmand, B.A.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Obstructive sleep apnea is a common sleep disorder in stroke patients. Obstructive sleep apnea is associated with stroke severity and poor functional outcome. Continuous positive airway pressure seems to improve functional recovery in stroke rehabilitation. To date, the effect of

  3. Efficacy of daytime continuous positive airway pressure titration in severe obstructive sleep apnoea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudkowski, J C; Verschelden, P; Kimoff, R J

    2001-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate manual nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP) titration during daytime polysomnography compared with conventional overnight titration for patients with severe obstructive sleep apnoea. Thirty-two patients who underwent daytime titration were retrospectively matched (for age, sex, body mass index and apnoea/hypopnoea index (AHI)) to a group titrated overnight during the same period. Successful titration was defined as the identification of the nCPAP level (effective nCPAP (Peff)) required to eliminate respiratory events during all sleep stages. After 3 months of therapy on nCPAP at Peff, nCPAP utilization history was obtained and a group of patients underwent a repeat polysomnogram (PSG) and completed a follow-up Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) score. Initial titration was successful in 91% of daytime patients and 91% of overnight patients. The success of daytime titration was not related to diagnostic AHI or ESS score. Subjective nCPAP utilization was statistically similar in both groups. On the follow-up PSG, there were no significant differences between daytime (n=11) and overnight (n=11) patients in measures of sleep quality or respiratory disturbance. Both groups demonstrated similar and significant improvements in ESS score. These findings suggest that the effective nasal continuous positive airway pressure can be accurately established during daytime titration in a substantial proportion of severe, symptomatic obstructive sleep apnoea patients.

  4. Relationship between lung function and quantitative computed tomographic parameters of airway remodeling, air trapping, and emphysema in patients with asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: A single-center study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, Ruth A; Barker, Bethan L; Newby, Chris; Pakkal, Mini; Baldi, Simonetta; Kajekar, Radhika; Kay, Richard; Laurencin, Marie; Marshall, Richard P; Sousa, Ana R; Parmar, Harsukh; Siddiqui, Salman; Gupta, Sumit; Brightling, Chris E

    2016-05-01

    There is a paucity of studies comparing asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) based on thoracic quantitative computed tomographic (QCT) parameters. We sought to compare QCT parameters of airway remodeling, air trapping, and emphysema between asthmatic patients and patients with COPD and explore their relationship with airflow limitation. Asthmatic patients (n = 171), patients with COPD (n = 81), and healthy subjects (n = 49) recruited from a single center underwent QCT and clinical characterization. Proximal airway percentage wall area (%WA) was significantly increased in asthmatic patients (62.5% [SD, 2.2]) and patients with COPD (62.7% [SD, 2.3]) compared with that in healthy control subjects (60.3% [SD, 2.2], P Emphysema assessed based on lung density measured by using Hounsfield units below which 15% of the voxels lie (Perc15) was a feature of COPD only (patients with COPD: mean, -964 [SD, 19.62] vs asthmatic patients: mean, -937 [SD, 22.7] and healthy subjects: mean, -937 [SD, 17.1], P < .001). Multiple regression analyses showed that the strongest predictor of lung function impairment in asthmatic patients was %WA, whereas in the COPD and asthma subgrouped with postbronchodilator FEV1 percent predicted value of less than 80%, it was air trapping. Factor analysis of QCT parameters in asthmatic patients and patients with COPD combined determined 3 components, with %WA, air trapping, and Perc15 values being the highest loading factors. Cluster analysis identified 3 clusters with mild, moderate, or severe lung function impairment with corresponding decreased lung density (Perc15 values) and increased air trapping. In asthmatic patients and patients with COPD, lung function impairment is strongly associated with air trapping, with a contribution from proximal airway narrowing in asthmatic patients. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Identification of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) by measurement of plasma biomarkers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaker, S.B.; Wachenfeldt, K.A. von; Larsson, S.

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: Inflammation is an important constituent of the pathology of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), leading to alveolar destruction and airway remodelling. Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the difference in plasma biomarkers of inflammation between asymptomatic...... smokers and patients with COPD. Methods: We used commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits to measure the plasma levels of tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin-8 (IL-8), matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), tissue inhibitor...... of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2) on two occasions with a 2-week interval in patients with COPD (n = 20), asymptomatic smokers (n = 10) and healthy life-long non-smokers (n = 10). The participants were characterised clinically, physiologically and by quantitative...

  6. Upper airway finding on CT scan with and without nasal CPAP in obstructive sleep apnea patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akashiba, Tsuneto; Sasaki, Iwao; Kurashina, Keiji; Yoshizawa, Takayuki; Otsuka, Kenzo; Horie, Takashi (Nihon Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1991-04-01

    The area of upper airway (from the nasopharynx to the hypopharynx) was measured by means of computed tomography (CT) scan in 15 confirmed cases of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and in 4 normal controls while they were awake. The minimum cross-sectional area (MA) of the upper airway was 14.7+-20.0 mm{sup 2} in OSA patients and 80.0+-33.1 mm{sup 2} in normal controls and the difference was statistically significant (p<0.01). In OSA patients, MA did not correlate with age, body weight, apnea index, desaturation index, mean nadir-SO{sub 2} and lowest SO{sub 2}. MA was also measured with OSA patients while nasal continuous positive airway pressure (NCPAP) of 10 cmH{sub 2}O was applied and it was found that MA was significantly widened when NCPAP therapy was performed. We conclude that upper airway narrowing is consistent finding in OSA patients but the degree of narrowing does not correlate with parameters of apnea and gas exchange during sleep, and NCPAP is effective to widen the area of upper airway in OSA patients. (author).

  7. The genetics of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silverman Edwin K

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is a significant cause of global morbidity and mortality. Previous studies have shown that COPD aggregates in families, suggesting a genetic predisposition to airflow obstruction. Many candidate genes have been assessed, but the data are often conflicting. We review the genetic factors that predispose smokers to COPD and highlight the future role of genomic scans in identifying novel susceptibility genes.

  8. The effect of obstructive sleep apnea and treatment with continuous positive airway pressure on stroke rehabilitation: rationale, design and methods of the TOROS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aaronson, Justine A.; van Bennekom, Coen A. M.; Hofman, Winni F.; van Bezeij, Tijs; van den Aardweg, Joost G.; Groet, Erny; Kylstra, Wytske A.; Schmand, Ben A.

    2014-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea is a common sleep disorder in stroke patients. Obstructive sleep apnea is associated with stroke severity and poor functional outcome. Continuous positive airway pressure seems to improve functional recovery in stroke rehabilitation. To date, the effect of continuous positive

  9. Increased oxidative stress in asymptomatic current chronic smokers and GOLD stage 0 COPD

    OpenAIRE

    Rytilä, Paula; Rehn, Tiina; Ilumets, Helen; Rouhos, Annamari; Sovijärvi, Anssi; Myllärniemi, Marjukka; Kinnula, Vuokko L

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is associated with increased oxidative and nitrosative stress. The aim of our study was to assess the importance of these factors in the airways of healthy smokers and symptomatic smokers without airway obstruction, i.e. individuals with GOLD stage 0 COPD. Methods Exhaled NO (FENO) and induced sputum samples were collected from 22 current smokers (13 healthy smokers without any respiratory symptoms and 9 with symptoms i.e. stage...

  10. Chronic respiratory aeroallergen exposure in mice induces epithelial-mesenchymal transition in the large airways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill R Johnson

    Full Text Available Chronic allergic asthma is characterized by Th2-polarized inflammation and leads to airway remodeling and fibrosis but the mechanisms involved are not clear. To determine whether epithelial-mesenchymal transition contributes to airway remodeling in asthma, we induced allergic airway inflammation in mice by intranasal administration of house dust mite (HDM extract for up to 15 consecutive weeks. We report that respiratory exposure to HDM led to significant airway inflammation and thickening of the smooth muscle layer in the wall of the large airways. Transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGF-β1 levels increased in mouse airways while epithelial cells lost expression of E-cadherin and occludin and gained expression of the mesenchymal proteins vimentin, alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA and pro-collagen I. We also observed increased expression and nuclear translocation of Snail1, a transcriptional repressor of E-cadherin and a potent inducer of EMT, in the airway epithelial cells of HDM-exposed mice. Furthermore, fate-mapping studies revealed migration of airway epithelial cells into the sub-epithelial regions of the airway wall. These results show the contribution of EMT to airway remodeling in chronic asthma-like inflammation and suggest that Th2-polarized airway inflammation can trigger invasion of epithelial cells into the subepithelial regions of the airway wall where they contribute to fibrosis, demonstrating a previously unknown plasticity of the airway epithelium in allergic airway disease.

  11. Importance of back blow maneuvers in a 6 month old patient with sudden upper airway obstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinar Gencpinar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Foreign body aspiration in children under four years old is one of the most frequently observed reasons for accident related deaths. It is more common in this age group due to inadequate swallowing functions and exploration of objects with the mouth. The most frequently encountered foreign bodies are food and toy parts. Life threatening complete laryngeal obstruction is rarely observed. Dyspnea, hypersalivation, cough and cyanosis can be seen. The basic and life-saving treatment approach is complete removal of foreign body maneuvers in the sudden onset of total obstruction. Here we report a six-month old male, who ingested a foreign body and was treated with back blow maneuvers successfully. In this case we emphasized the importance of back blow maneuvers. Keywords: Upper airway obstruction, Child, Back blows maneuvers

  12. Obstructive Sleep Apnoea

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cheyne-Stokes respiration), obstructive sleep apnoea and mixed or complex sleep apnoea.1. Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is the most common of these three disorders and is defined as airway obstruction during sleep, accompanied by at least ...

  13. Noninvasive ventilation in hospitalized patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey N. Avdeev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of noninvasive ventilation (NIV of lungs during the last two decades significantly improved the results of management of severe COPD patients with acute or chronic respiratory failure during both periods of exacerbation and stability. At present, NIV is considered to be the first-line therapy for acute exacerbation of COPD with hypercapnia and respiratory acidosis. This method of airway support turned out to be effective in patients after extubation both for the relief of excommunication from a respirator and for prophylaxis and treatment of postextubation respiratory failure. NIV was proven to be successful in patients with a combination of COPD and obstructive sleep apnea (overlap syndrome, in COPD with pneumonia and in postoperative COPD patients who have undergone lung resectional surgery. The efficacy of NIV under intensive care and intensive therapy unit conditions has stimulated the interest to the use of mask ventilation in hospitals and out-patient departments (for a prolonged domestic therapy. This article presents a review of NIV use in patients with COPD during both periods of exacerbation and stability. 

  14. Cost-Effectiveness of Interventions for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Using an Ontario Policy Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, K; Blackhouse, G; McCurdy, BR; Bornstein, M; Campbell, K; Costa, V; Franek, J; Kaulback, K; Levin, L; Sehatzadeh, S; Sikich, N; Thabane, M; Goeree, R

    2012-01-01

    Pulmonary Disease (COPD): An Evidence-Based Analysis Pulmonary Rehabilitation for Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): An Evidence-Based Analysis Long-Term Oxygen Therapy for Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): An Evidence-Based Analysis Noninvasive Positive Pressure Ventilation for Acute Respiratory Failure Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): An Evidence-Based Analysis Noninvasive Positive Pressure Ventilation for Chronic Respiratory Failure Patients With Stable Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): An Evidence-Based Analysis Hospital-at-Home Programs for Patients With Acute Exacerbations of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): An Evidence-Based Analysis Home Telehealth for Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): An Evidence-Based Analysis Cost-Effectiveness of Interventions for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Using an Ontario Policy Model Experiences of Living and Dying With COPD: A Systematic Review and Synthesis of the Qualitative Empirical Literature For more information on the qualitative review, please contact Mita Giacomini at: http://fhs.mcmaster.ca/ceb/faculty_member_giacomini.htm. For more information on the economic analysis, please visit the PATH website: http://www.path-hta.ca/About-Us/Contact-Us.aspx. The Toronto Health Economics and Technology Assessment (THETA) collaborative has produced an associated report on patient preference for mechanical ventilation. For more information, please visit the THETA website: http://theta.utoronto.ca/static/contact. Background Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by chronic inflammation throughout the airways, parenchyma, and pulmonary vasculature. The inflammation causes repeated cycles of injury and repair in the airway wall— inflammatory cells release a variety of chemicals and lead to cellular damage. The inflammation process also contributes to the loss of elastic recoil pressure

  15. INTERPRETATION OF BRONCHODILATOR RESPONSE IN PATIENTS WITH OBSTRUCTIVE AIRWAYS DISEASE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BRAND, PLP; QUANJER, PH; POSTMA, DS; KERSTJENS, HAM; KOETER, GH; DEKHUIJZEN, PNR; SLUITER, HJ

    Background There is no agreement on how a bronchodilator response should be expressed. Ideally, the index used should be able to distinguish asthma from chronic obstructive lung disease and be independent of initial FEV1. Methods Two hundred and seventy four adult (aged 18-60 years) outpatients with

  16. Inhalation device options for the management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DePietro, Michael; Gilbert, Ileen; Millette, Lauren A; Riebe, Michael

    2018-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by chronic respiratory symptoms and airflow limitation, resulting from abnormalities in the airway and/or damage to the alveoli. Primary care physicians manage the healthcare of a large proportion of patients with COPD. In addition to determining the most appropriate medication regimen, which usually includes inhaled bronchodilators with or without inhaled corticosteroids, physicians are charged with optimizing inhalation device selection to facilitate effective drug delivery and patient adherence. The large variety of inhalation devices currently available present numerous challenges for physicians that include: (1) gaining knowledge of and proficiency with operating different device classes; (2) identifying the most appropriate inhalation device for the patient; and (3) providing the necessary education and training for patients on device use. This review provides an overview of the inhalation device types currently available in the United States for delivery of COPD medications, including information on their successful operation and respective advantages and disadvantages, factors to consider in matching a device to an individual patient, the need for device training for patients and physicians, and guidance for improving treatment adherence. Finally, the review will discuss established and novel tools and technology that may aid physicians in improving education and promoting better adherence to therapy.

  17. Functional imaging using computer methods to compare the effect of salbutamol and ipratropium bromide in patient-specific airway models of COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Backer LA

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available LA De Backer1, WG Vos2, R Salgado3, JW De Backer2, A Devolder1, SL Verhulst1, R Claes1, PR Germonpré1, WA De Backer11Department of Respiratory Medicine, 2FluidDA, 3Department of Radiology, Antwerp University Hospital, Antwerp, BelgiumBackground: Salbutamol and ipratropium bromide improve lung function in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. However, their bronchodilating effect has not yet been compared in the central and distal airways. Functional imaging using computational fluid dynamics offers the possibility of making such a comparison. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of salbutamol and ipratropium bromide on the geometry and computational fluid dynamics-based resistance of the central and distal airways.Methods: Five patients with Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease Stage III COPD were randomized to a single dose of salbutamol or ipratropium bromide in a crossover manner with a 1-week interval between treatments. Patients underwent lung function testing and a multislice computed tomography scan of the thorax that was used for functional imaging. Two hours after dosing, the patients again underwent lung function tests and repeat computed tomography.Results: Lung function parameters, including forced expiratory volume in 1 second, vital capacity, overall airway resistance, and specific airway resistance, changed significantly after administration of each product. On functional imaging, the bronchodilating effect was greater in the distal airways, with a corresponding drop in airway resistance, compared with the central airways. Salbutamol and ipratropium bromide were equally effective at first glance when looking at lung function tests, but when viewed in more detail with functional imaging, hyporesponsiveness could be shown for salbutamol in one patient. Salbutamol was more effective in the other patients.Conclusion: This pilot study gives an innovative insight into the modes of

  18. Role of Alveolar Macrophages in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlahos, Ross; Bozinovski, Steven

    2014-01-01

    Alveolar macrophages (AMs) represent a unique leukocyte population that responds to airborne irritants and microbes. This distinct microenvironment coordinates the maturation of long-lived AMs, which originate from fetal blood monocytes and self-renew through mechanisms dependent on GM-CSF and CSF-1 signaling. Peripheral blood monocytes can also replenish lung macrophages; however, this appears to occur in a stimuli specific manner. In addition to mounting an appropriate immune response during infection and injury, AMs actively coordinate the resolution of inflammation through efferocytosis of apoptotic cells. Any perturbation of this process can lead to deleterious responses. In chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), there is an accumulation of airway macrophages that do not conform to the classic M1/M2 dichotomy. There is also a skewed transcriptome profile that favors expression of wound-healing M2 markers, which is reflective of a deficiency to resolve inflammation. Endogenous mediators that can promote an imbalance in inhibitory M1 vs. healing M2 macrophages are discussed, as they are the plausible mechanisms underlying why AMs fail to effectively resolve inflammation and restore normal lung homeostasis in COPD. PMID:25309536

  19. Optimal surface segmentation using flow lines to quantify airway abnormalities in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jens; Nielsen, Mads; Lo, Pechin Chien Pau

    2014-01-01

    are not well suited for surfaces with high curvature, we therefore propose to derive columns from properly generated, non-intersecting flow lines. This guarantees solutions that do not self-intersect. The method is applied to segment human airway walls in computed tomography images in three-dimensions. Phantom.......5%, the alternative approach in 11.2%, and in 20.3% no method was favoured. Airway abnormality measurements obtained with the method on 490 scan pairs from a lung cancer screening trial correlate significantly with lung function and are reproducible; repeat scan R(2) of measures of the airway lumen diameter and wall...

  20. Genetic influences on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease - a twin study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sylvan Ingebrigtsen, Truls; Thomsen, Simon Francis; Vestbo, Jørgen

    2010-01-01

    Genes that contribute to the risk of developing Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) have been identified, but an attempt to accurately quantify the total genetic contribution to COPD has to our knowledge never been conducted.......Genes that contribute to the risk of developing Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) have been identified, but an attempt to accurately quantify the total genetic contribution to COPD has to our knowledge never been conducted....

  1. Sialendoscopy-assisted treatment for chronic obstructive parotitis related to Sjogren syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yong-Feng; Sun, Ning-Ning; Wu, Chuan-Bin; Xue, Lei; Zhou, Qing

    2017-03-01

    Chronic obstructive parotitis related to Sjogren syndrome is not uncommon, but it is rarely reported in the literature. The aim of this study was to describe our experience in the treatment of chronic obstructive parotitis related to Sjogren syndrome. Seventeen cases of chronic obstructive parotitis related to Sjogren syndrome treated with sialendoscopy from June 2014 to June 2015 at the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, School of Stomatology, China Medical University, were retrospectively reviewed. The cohort underwent ultrasonography, salivary gland scintigraphy, and sialography before sialendoscopy. All patients were asked to complete a visual analogue scale (VAS) evaluation before and 6 months after surgery. A paired t test was conducted, and P parotid glands) successfully underwent interventional sialendoscopy under local anesthesia. The mean preoperative VAS score was 6, and the mean VAS score 6 months after sialendoscopy was significantly lower at 4.5 (P < .05). Interventional sialendoscopy plays a significant role in the treatment of chronic obstructive parotitis related to Sjogren syndrome. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Saber-sheath trachea as a marker of severe airflow obstruction in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciccarese, Federica; Poerio, Antonio; Stagni, Silvia; Attinà, Domenico; Fasano, Luca; Carbonara, Paolo; Bacchi Reggiani, Maria Letizia; Zompatori, Maurizio

    2014-02-01

    Saber-sheath trachea is a specific radiographic parameter for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), which consists of marked coronal narrowing associated with sagittal widening (tracheal index saber-sheath trachea and clinical-radiological findings in a group of patients with COPD of varying severity. We evaluated the chest radiographs of 71 patients with COPD distributed as follows: GOLD class I, 8/71 (11.3 %); class II, 34/71 (47.9 %); class III, 16/71(22.5 %); class IV, 13/71 (18.3 %). In 52/71 (73.2 %) patients we also evaluated chest computed tomography (CT) scans. We analyzed the prevalence of saber-sheath trachea and its correlation with the Tiffenau index, GOLD stage and radiological signs of COPD. Moreover, we evaluated the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of chest radiography as compared to CT taken as the gold standard, and the correlation between the radiographic and CT tracheal index. Saber-sheath trachea was found in 18/71 (25.4 %) patients, with a greater prevalence in patients with lower Tiffenau Index (p = 0.02), GOLD stages III-IV and visual severity score 3 (severe) on chest CT. Saber-sheath trachea was not found to be related to other radiological signs of COPD. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy values of radiography were 72.2, 97.0 and 88.5 %, with perfect concordance between the radiographic and CT tracheal index (p Saber-sheath trachea is linked to the functional severity of airway obstruction, but not to other radiological signs of COPD. Thus, evaluation of the trachea at chest radiography is strongly recommended.

  3. Neutrophil targeted nano-drug delivery system for chronic obstructive lung diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vij, Neeraj; Min, Taehong; Bodas, Manish; Gorde, Aakruti; Roy, Indrajit

    2016-11-01

    The success of drug delivery to target airway cell(s) remains a significant challenge due to the limited ability of nanoparticle (NP) systems to circumvent protective airway-defense mechanisms. The size, density, surface and physical-chemical properties of nanoparticles are the key features that determine their ability to navigate across the airway-barrier. We evaluated here the efficacy of a PEGylated immuno-conjugated PLGA-nanoparticle (PINP) to overcome this challenge and selectively deliver drug to specific inflammatory cells (neutrophils). We first characterized the size, shape, surface-properties and neutrophil targeting using dynamic laser scattering, transmission electron microscopy and flow cytometry. Next, we assessed the efficacy of neutrophil-targeted PINPs in transporting through the airway followed by specific binding and release of drug to neutrophils. Finally, our results demonstrate the efficacy of PINP mediated non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug-(ibuprofen) delivery to neutrophils in murine models of obstructive lung diseases, based on its ability to control neutrophilic-inflammation and resulting lung disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Therapeutic CPAP Level Predicts Upper Airway Collapsibility in Patients With Obstructive Sleep Apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landry, Shane A; Joosten, Simon A; Eckert, Danny J; Jordan, Amy S; Sands, Scott A; White, David P; Malhotra, Atul; Wellman, Andrew; Hamilton, Garun S; Edwards, Bradley A

    2017-06-01

    Upper airway collapsibility is a key determinant of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) which can influence the efficacy of certain non-continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatments for OSA. However, there is no simple way to measure this variable clinically. The present study aimed to develop a clinically implementable tool to evaluate the collapsibility of a patient's upper airway. Collapsibility, as characterized by the passive pharyngeal critical closing pressure (Pcrit), was measured in 46 patients with OSA. Associations were investigated between Pcrit and data extracted from patient history and routine polysomnography, including CPAP titration. Therapeutic CPAP level, demonstrated the strongest relationship to Pcrit (r2=0.51, p CPAP level (6.2 ± 0.6 vs. 10.3 ± 0.4 cmH2O, p -2 cmH2O). A therapeutic CPAP level ≤8.0 cmH2O was sensitive (89%) and specific (84%) for detecting a mildly collapsible upper airway. When applied to the independent validation data set (n = 74), this threshold maintained high specificity (91%) but reduced sensitivity (75%). Our data demonstrate that a patient's therapeutic CPAP requirement shares a strong predictive relationship with their Pcrit and may be used to accurately differentiate OSA patients with mild airway collapsibility from those with moderate-to-severe collapsibility. Although this relationship needs to be confirmed prospectively, our findings may provide clinicians with better understanding of an individual patient's OSA phenotype, which ultimately could assist in determining which patients are most likely to respond to non-CPAP therapies. © Sleep Research Society 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep Research Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 channel localized to non-neuronal airway cells promotes non-neurogenic inflammation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nassini, Romina; Pedretti, Pamela; Moretto, Nadia

    2012-01-01

    The transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) channel, localized to airway sensory nerves, has been proposed to mediate airway inflammation evoked by allergen and cigarette smoke (CS) in rodents, via a neurogenic mechanism. However the limited clinical evidence for the role of neurogenic...... inflammation in asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease raises an alternative possibility that airway inflammation is promoted by non-neuronal TRPA1.By using Real-Time PCR and calcium imaging, we found that cultured human airway cells, including fibroblasts, epithelial and smooth muscle cells express...... functional TRPA1 channels. By using immunohistochemistry, TRPA1 staining was observed in airway epithelial and smooth muscle cells in sections taken from human airways and lung, and from airways and lung of wild-type, but not TRPA1-deficient mice. In cultured human airway epithelial and smooth muscle cells...

  6. Bronchoscopic management of patients with symptomatic airway stenosis and prognostic factors for survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okiror, Lawrence; Jiang, Li; Oswald, Nicola; Bille, Andrea; Rajesh, Pala; Bishay, Ehab; Steyn, Richard; Naidu, Babu; Kalkat, Maninder

    2015-05-01

    Interventional bronchoscopy is effective in the management of patients with symptomatic airway obstruction for both malignant and benign conditions. The main aim of this study is to report our experience with emergency interventional bronchoscopy in patients with symptomatic airway obstruction and identify prognostic factors for survival. This is a retrospective observational study of patients undergoing emergency interventional bronchoscopy over a 4-year period. Survival times were analyzed separately for patients with benign and malignant airway obstruction by the Kaplan-Meier method. Between June 2009 and July 2013, 168 emergency interventional bronchoscopies were performed in 112 patients for airway obstruction. The median age was 63 years (range, 20 to 86), and 91 patients (54%) patients were female. Seventy-two cases (43%) had airway obstruction due to malignant disease. There were 3 in-hospital deaths (2.7%). Median survival of the study population was 5.6 months (range, 0 to 51) with a median follow-up of 7.3 months (range, 0 to 51). Median survival for patients with malignant airway obstruction was 3.5 months (range, 0 to 21), and 9.8 months (range, 0.1 to 51) for those with benign disease. Airway intervention facilitated palliative chemotherapy in 32 patients (44%) of those with malignant airway obstruction. At multivariate analysis in patients with malignant airway obstruction, presence of stridor (hazard ratio 1.919, 95% confidence interval: 1.082 to 3.404, p = 0.026) and not receiving postprocedure chemotherapy (hazard ratio 2.05, 95% confidence interval: 1.156 to 3.636, p = 0.014) were independent prognostic factors for death. Emergency interventional bronchoscopy for airway obstruction is safe, relieved symptoms, and facilitated palliative chemotherapy, which improved survival. Copyright © 2015 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Association between the length of the MUC8-minisatellite 5 region and susceptibility to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Se-Ra; Kim, Won-Tae; Kim, Tae Nam; Nam, Jong Kil; Kim, Woo Jin; Leem, Sun-Hee

    2018-01-01

    In asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), mucins display disease-related alterations caused by airway mucus obstruction. MUC5AC, MUC5B and MUC8 are known as the major secretory mucins in human airway epithelial cells. Analysis of mucin genes has identified the presence of several features with a variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR; minisatellites) in the central region of each mucin. In our previous study, six minisatellites in the region of the MUC8 gene were identified, and the MUC8-MS5 minisatellite showed the highest heterozygosity among them. In this study, we evaluated the relationship between MUC8-MS5 and susceptibility to asthma and COPD. A case-control study was performed with 229 controls, 123 COPD cases and 77 asthma cases. A significant association (OR 3.96) between short alleles (2/2 repeats) and the occurrence of COPD was observed [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.32-11.88; p = 0.008]. Hence, the increased frequency of 2/2 homo-short alleles were also found in asthma cases (3.11; CI 0.88-11.05; p = 0.066), though this association was not statistically significant. These results revealed a genetic association between MUC8 and COPD, and that the specific short minisatellite alleles (2/2) of MUC8-MS5 may be a risk factor for COPD.

  8. [Bronchial inflammation during chronic bronchitis, importance of fenspiride].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melloni, B

    2002-09-01

    PATHOPHYSIOLOGY OF CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE PULMONARY DISEASE (COPD): Chronic inflammation of the upper airways, pulmonary parenchyma and pulmonary vasculature is the characteristic feature of COPD. Two mechanisms besides inflammation are also involved: oxidative stress and imbalance between proteinases and antiproteinases. Cellular infiltration of the upper airways involved neutrophils, macrophages, T lymphocytes and eosinophils. Inflammatory mediators appear to play a crucial role in the interaction between inflammation and obstruction. PROPERTIES OF FENSPIRIDE: A nonsteroidal drug, fenspiride, exhibits interesting properties documented in vitro: anti-bronchoconstriction activity, anti-secretory activity, and anti-inflammatory activity (reduction in the activity of phospholipase A2 and release of proinflammatory leukotriens). Two french clinical trials have studied the efficacy of fenspiride in patients with acute excerbation or stable COPD and have demonstrated an improvement in the group treated with fenspiride compared with the placebo group.

  9. The impact of different spirometric definitions on the prevalence of airway obstruction and their association with respiratory symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meteran, Howraman; Miller, Martin R; Thomsen, Simon Francis

    2017-01-01

    The fixed ratio criterion of forced expiratory volume in 1 s/forced vital capacity <0.70 for diagnosing airway obstruction may overdiagnose the condition, particularly in the elderly, so the lower limit of normal (LLN) is recommended as the most appropriate criterion. Our aim was to compare LLN v...

  10. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykkegaard, Jesper; Kristensen, Gustav N

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: During the 80s and 90s the mortality and number of hospitalisations due to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in the country of Denmark almost doubled. Since then there has been a plateau. OBJECTIVE: To analyse age, period, and cohort effects on rates of deaths and first...

  11. Caecal volvulus in a patient with chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Khatib, C

    2011-01-01

    Chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction (CIPO) is a rare disorder characterised by recurrent symptoms and signs of intestinal obstruction without an underlying mechanical cause. Caecal volvulus remains a rare cause of intestinal obstruction that often requires operative intervention. We describe the previously unreported case of caecal volvulus occurring in an adult patient with CIPO, together with his subsequent management. PMID:22004621

  12. Alcohol and airways function in health and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisson, Joseph H

    2007-08-01

    The volatility of alcohol promotes the movement of alcohol from the bronchial circulation across the airway epithelium and into the conducting airways of the lung. The exposure of the airways through this route likely accounts for many of the biologic effects of alcohol on lung airway functions. The effect of alcohol on lung airway functions is dependent on the concentration, duration, and route of exposure. Brief exposure to mild concentrations of alcohol may enhance mucociliary clearance, stimulates bronchodilation, and probably attenuates the airway inflammation and injury observed in asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Prolonged and heavy exposure to alcohol impairs mucociliary clearance, may complicate asthma management, and likely worsens outcomes including lung function and mortality in COPD patients. Nonalcohol congeners and alcohol metabolites act as triggers for airway disease exacerbations especially in atopic asthmatics and in Asian populations who have a reduced capacity to metabolize alcohol. Research focused on the mechanisms of alcohol-mediated changes in airway functions has identified specific mechanisms that mediate alcohol effects within the lung airways. These include prominent roles for the second messengers calcium and nitric oxide, regulatory kinases including PKG and PKA, alcohol- and acetaldehyde-metabolizing enzymes such as aldehyde dehydrogenase 2. The role alcohol may play in the pathobiology of airway mucus, bronchial blood flow, airway smooth muscle regulation, and the interaction with other airway exposure agents, such as cigarette smoke, represents opportunities for future investigation.

  13. Volvulus as a complication of chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.T. de Betue (Carlijn); D. Boersma (Doeke); M.W. Oomen (Matthijs W.); M.A. Benninga (Marc); J.R. de Jong (Justin)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractChronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction syndrome (CIPS) is a severe motility disorder of the gastrointestinal tract that presents with continuous or recurrent symptoms and signs of intestinal obstruction without evidence of a structural lesion occluding the intestinal lumen. Mechanical

  14. Advancing the management of Obstructive Airways Diseases through Translational Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Porsbjerg, Celeste; Sverrild, Asger; Baines, Katherine J

    2018-01-01

    Obstructive airways diseases (OAD) represent a huge burden of illness worldwide, and in spite of the development of effective therapies, significant morbidity and mortality related to asthma and COPD still remains. Over the past decade, our understanding of OAD has improved vastly, and novel...... treatments have evolved. This evolution is the result of successful translational research, which has connected clinical presentations of OAD and underlying disease mechanisms, thereby enabling the development of targeted treatments. The next challenge of translational research will be to position...... these novel treatments for OAD for optimal clinical use. At the same time, there is great potential in these treatments providing even better insights into disease mechanisms in OAD, by studying the effects of blocking individual immunological pathways. To optimise this potential, there is a need to ensure...

  15. The lung tissue microbiota of mild and moderate chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pragman, Alexa A; Lyu, Tianmeng; Baller, Joshua A; Gould, Trevor J; Kelly, Rosemary F; Reilly, Cavan S; Isaacson, Richard E; Wendt, Chris H

    2018-01-09

    Oral taxa are often found in the chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) lung microbiota, but it is not clear if this is due to a physiologic process such as aspiration or experimental contamination at the time of specimen collection. Microbiota samples were obtained from nine subjects with mild or moderate COPD by swabbing lung tissue and upper airway sites during lung lobectomy. Lung specimens were not contaminated with upper airway taxa since they were obtained surgically. The microbiota were analyzed with 16S rRNA gene qPCR and 16S rRNA gene hypervariable region 3 (V3) sequencing. Data analyses were performed using QIIME, SourceTracker, and R. Streptococcus was the most common genus in the oral, bronchial, and lung tissue samples, and multiple other taxa were present in both the upper and lower airways. Each subject's own bronchial and lung tissue microbiota were more similar to each other than were the bronchial and lung tissue microbiota of two different subjects (permutation test, p = 0.0139), indicating more within-subject similarity than between-subject similarity at these two lung sites. Principal coordinate analysis of all subject samples revealed clustering by anatomic sampling site (PERMANOVA, p = 0.001), but not by subject. SourceTracker analysis found that the sources of the lung tissue microbiota were 21.1% (mean) oral microbiota, 8.7% nasal microbiota, and 70.1% unknown. An analysis using the neutral theory of community ecology revealed that the lung tissue microbiota closely reflects the bronchial, oral, and nasal microbiota (immigration parameter estimates 0.69, 0.62, and 0.74, respectively), with some evidence of ecologic drift occurring in the lung tissue. This is the first study to evaluate the mild-moderate COPD lung tissue microbiota without potential for upper airway contamination of the lung samples. In our small study of subjects with COPD, we found oral and nasal bacteria in the lung tissue microbiota, confirming that

  16. Chronic constipation causing obstructive nephropathy in a delayed toddler.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Barrett, Michael Joseph

    2012-01-01

    Chronic constipation causing obstructive nephropathy is very rare in children. However, it can cause urinary tract obstruction with acute impairment of renal function with a need for emergent disimpaction. The authors discuss a 2 years 4 months old child who presented to our emergency department with acute renal failure due to faecal impaction.

  17. Bile Duct Obstruction Secondary to Chronic Pancreatitis in Seven Dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cribb, Alastair E.; Burgener, David C.; Reimann, Keith A.

    1988-01-01

    Seven icteric dogs were determined to have bile duct obstruction secondary to chronic pancreatitis. All dogs had histories of intermittent vomiting and diarrhea. Alkaline phosphatase and alanine aminotransferase activities and total bilirubin concentrations were markedly elevated. Diagnosis was based on exploratory laparotomy and histological examination. Each dog had a 3 to 10 cm mass in the body of the pancreas and obstruction of the common bile duct. Three dogs treated with pancreatectomy, gastrojejunostomy, and cholecystojejunostomy died within five weeks. Three dogs treated with conservative surgical procedures were alive at 8, 16, and 26 months postoperatively. One dog was euthanized because of suspected neoplasia. Hepatic enzyme activity and bilirubin levels decreased markedly in the surviving dogs. Histological examination of the pancreatic masses indicated chronic pancreatitis. Hepatic biopsies revealed evidence of cholestasis. Chronic pancreatitis should be included in the differential diagnoses of icterus, bile duct obstruction, and masses in the pancreas. PMID:17423102

  18. Positive signature-tagged mutagenesis in Pseudomonas aeruginosa: tracking patho-adaptive mutations promoting airways chronic infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Bianconi

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa can establish life-long chronic infections in the airways of cystic fibrosis (CF patients. Persistent lifestyle is established with P. aeruginosa patho-adaptive variants, which are clonal with the initially-acquired strains. Several reports indicated that P. aeruginosa adapts by loss-of-function mutations which enhance fitness in CF airways and sustain its clonal expansion during chronic infection. To validate this model of P. aeruginosa adaptation to CF airways and to identify novel genes involved in this microevolution, we designed a novel approach of positive-selection screening by PCR-based signature-tagged mutagenesis (Pos-STM in a murine model of chronic airways infection. A systematic positive-selection scheme using sequential rounds of in vivo screenings for bacterial maintenance, as opposed to elimination, generated a list of genes whose inactivation increased the colonization and persistence in chronic airways infection. The phenotypes associated to these Pos-STM mutations reflect alterations in diverse aspects of P. aeruginosa biology which include lack of swimming and twitching motility, lack of production of the virulence factors such as pyocyanin, biofilm formation, and metabolic functions. In addition, Pos-STM mutants showed altered invasion and stimulation of immune response when tested in human respiratory epithelial cells, indicating that P. aeruginosa is prone to revise the interaction with its host during persistent lifestyle. Finally, sequence analysis of Pos-STM genes in longitudinally P. aeruginosa isolates from CF patients identified signs of patho-adaptive mutations within the genome. This novel Pos-STM approach identified bacterial functions that can have important clinical implications for the persistent lifestyle and disease progression of the airway chronic infection.

  19. First pass and gated blood pool in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vargas, F.S.; Meneguetti, J.C.; Cukier, A.; Terra Filho, M.; Tiss, E.; Romeiro Neto, M.; Camargo, E.E.

    1986-01-01

    Twenty patients with chronic obstructive lung disease were studied. The spirometry demonstrated predominantly reduction of vital capacity with signs of pulmonary hyperinflation. Obstruction of the proximal and distal airways was also noted. Total pulmonary resistance and static lung compliance were increased in the majority of these patients. Hypoxemia was present in the entire group, with no carbon dioxide retention. Various degrees of pulmonary artery dilatation were detected on the radioisotopic examination, suggesting pulmonary hypertension, confirmed by the increased mean pulmonary transit time. Regional disturbance of myocardial motility of the right ventricle was observed in 90% of the patients, being severe in 15%. The end-systolic volume was increased in 95% of the patients and the end-diastolic in 55%. These changes represent an initial functional disturbance, which does not allow to draw conclusions about reduction of the cardiac output or the ejection fraction. Left ventricular motility was normal in 85% of the patients, reduced in 15% and severely reduced in only one patient. Left ventricular volume was discrete or moderately increased in six patients (20%). The ejection fraction was decreased in one patient (5%). The increased ejection fraction observed in three patients is likely a consequence of a rise in the ejected volume by a normal myocardium. The aorta was elongated in 75% of the patients. Taking into consideration the patients' age, it could be concluded that aortosclerosis with structural changes of its caliber is the cause of the elongation. (author) [pt

  20. Current status of nuclear medicine in chronic airflow limitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, S.W.; Agnew, J.E.; Royal Free Hospital, London

    1987-01-01

    Radionuclide imaging, quite apart from its role in the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism, offers information about the distribution of ventilatory and perfusion abnormalities within the lung. The extent of ventilatory abnormality seen can be related to the severity of airways obstruction as assessed spirometrically, whilst abnormalities in the matching of perfusion to ventilation can be related to the severity of hypoxaemia in patients with chronic airflow limitation. Clearance of mucus from the lungs of patients with chronic mucus hypersection may be assessed by following the clearance rate of insoluble radioaerosol particles; by such means the relative contributions of mucociliary transport and of cough to the overall clearance can be observed. Clearance is often severely impaired in patients with airways obstruction; the radioaerosol technique can be used to determine the effects of drug or physiotherapy treatment. Chronic airflow limitation leading to hypoxaemia can be associated with pulmonary artery hypertension and right ventricular hypertrophy - this may be investigated noninvasively by a radionuclide test of right ventricular ejection fraction. (orig.)

  1. Current status of nuclear medicine in chronic airflow limitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clarke, S.W.; Agnew, J.E.

    1987-06-01

    Radionuclide imaging, quite apart from its role in the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism, offers information about the distribution of ventilatory and perfusion abnormalities within the lung. The extent of ventilatory abnormality seen can be related to the severity of airways obstruction as assessed spirometrically, whilst abnormalities in the matching of perfusion to ventilation can be related to the severity of hypoxaemia in patients with chronic airflow limitation. Clearance of mucus from the lungs of patients with chronic mucus hypersection may be assessed by following the clearance rate of insoluble radioaerosol particles; by such means the relative contributions of mucociliary transport and of cough to the overall clearance can be observed. Clearance is often severely impaired in patients with airways obstruction; the radioaerosol technique can be used to determine the effects of drug or physiotherapy treatment. Chronic airflow limitation leading to hypoxaemia can be associated with pulmonary artery hypertension and right ventricular hypertrophy - this may be investigated noninvasively by a radionuclide test of right ventricular ejection fraction.

  2. Hyperpolarized 3He magnetic resonance imaging: Preliminary evaluation of phenotyping potential in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathew, Lindsay; Kirby, Miranda; Etemad-Rezai, Roya; Wheatley, Andrew; McCormack, David G.; Parraga, Grace

    2011-01-01

    Rationale and objectives: Emphysema and small airway obstruction are the pathological hallmarks of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The aim of this pilot study in a small group of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients was to quantify hyperpolarized helium-3 ( 3 He) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) functional and structural measurements and to explore the potential role for 3 He MRI in detecting the lung structural and functional COPD phenotypes. Materials and methods: We evaluated 20 ex-smokers with stage I (n = 1), stage II (n = 9) and stage III COPD (n = 10). All subjects underwent same-day plethysmography, spirometry, 1 H MRI and hyperpolarized 3 He MRI at 3.0 T. 3 He ventilation defect percent (VDP) was generated from 3 He static ventilation images and 1 H thoracic images and the 3 He apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) was derived from diffusion-weighted MRI. Results: Based on the relative contribution of normalized ADC and VDP, there was evidence of a predominant 3 He MRI measurement in seven patients (n = 3 mainly ventilation defects or VDP dominant (VD), n = 4 mainly increased ADC or ADC dominant (AD)). Analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed significantly lower ADC for subjects with predominantly elevated VDP (p = 0.02 compared to subjects with predominantly elevated ADC; p = 0.008 compared to mixed group) and significantly decreased VDP for subjects with predominantly elevated ADC (p = 0.003, compared to mixed group). Conclusion: In this small pilot study, a preliminary analysis shows the potential for 3 He MRI to categorize or phenotype COPD ex-smokers, providing good evidence of feasibility for larger prospective studies.

  3. Endoscopic or surgical intervention for painful obstructive chronic pancreatitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ali, U. Ahmed; Pahlplatz, J.M.; Nealon, W.H.; Goor, H. van; Gooszen, H.G.; Boermeester, M.A.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Endoscopy and surgery are the treatment modalities of choice for patients with chronic pancreatitis and dilated pancreatic duct (obstructive chronic pancreatitis). Physicians face, without clear consensus, the choice between endoscopy or surgery for this group of patients. OBJECTIVES: To

  4. Epidemiology and treatment effects in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.S.M. Afonso (Ana)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractChronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a major health epidemic, which has important consequences for patients and community, and still receives insufficient attention from the health care professionals and scientists. COPD is a leading cause of chronic morbidity (affects 210

  5. Nutritional status is related to fat-free mass, exercise capacity and inspiratory strength in severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pollyane Galinari Sabino

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Being overweight or obese is associated with a higher rate of survival in patients with advanced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. This paradoxical relationship indicates that the influence of nutritional status on functional parameters should be further investigated. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the impact of nutritional status on body composition, exercise capacity and respiratory muscle strength in severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients. METHODS: Thirty-two patients (nine women were divided into three groups according to their body mass indices (BMI: overweight/obese (25 < BMI < 34.9 kg/m², n=8, normal weight (18.5 < BMI < 24.9 kg/m², n=17 and underweight (BMI <18.5 kg/m², n=7. Spirometry, bioelectrical impedance, a six-minute walking distance test and maximal inspiratory and expiratory pressures were assessed. RESULTS: Airway obstruction was similar among the groups (p=0.30; however, overweight/obese patients had a higher fat-free mass (FFM index [FFMI=FFM/body weight² (mean±SEM: 17±0.3 vs. 15±0.3 vs. 14±0.5 m/kg², p<0.01], exercise capacity (90±8 vs. 79±6 vs. 57±8 m, p=0.02 and maximal inspiratory pressure (63±7 vs. 57±5 vs. 35±8 % predicted, p=0.03 in comparison to normal weight and underweight patients, respectively. In addition, on backward multiple regression analysis, FFMI was the unique independent predictor of exercise capacity (partial r=0.52, p<0.01. CONCLUSIONS: Severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD patients who were overweight or obese had a greater FFM, exercise capacity and inspiratory muscle strength than patients with the same degree of airflow obstruction who were of normal weight or underweight, and higher FFM was independently associated with higher exercise capacity. These characteristics of overweight or obese patients might counteract the drawbacks of excess weight and lead to an improved prognosis in COPD.

  6. [Acute pulmonary edema in adult caused by tonsillar hypertrophy following removal of laryngeal mask airway].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iizuka, Toru; Shimoyama, Naohito; Notoya, Atsuko

    2010-12-01

    Negative pressure pulmonary edema (NPPE) has been described after acute airway obstruction. In the following case, we observed a rare occurrence of pulmonary edema caused by chronic tonsillar hypertrophy in a woman following removal of laryngeal mask airway (LMA). A 38-year-old woman with breast cancer underwent mastectomy under general anesthesia using the LMA. With the patient fully awake, the LMA was removed. Abruptly 7 minutes afterward, she showed signs of intense dyspnea, generalized rhonchus and progressive desaturation, and obstructive tonsillar hypertrophy was noticed. Acute lung edema was suspected and treatment started with oxygen therapy, bronchodilators, intravenous corticoids and loop diuretics. She was then intubated to secure airway and provide adequate ventilation with PEEP. Fortunately, the symptoms progressively remitted satisfactorily, and she was subsequently extubated 18 hours later with no complications. NPPE is an infrequent medical emergency and its early diagnosis and recognition are likely to lead to successful management of this potentially serious complication.

  7. The boundaries of mild chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD): design of the searching clinical COPD onset (SOON) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labarca, Gonzalo; Bustamante, Andrea; Valdivia, Gonzalo; Díaz, Rodrigo; Huete, Álvaro; Mac Nab, Paul; Mendoza, Laura; Leppe, Jaime; Lisboa, Carmen; Saldías, Fernando; Díaz, Orlando

    2017-08-11

    Clinical onset of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the point at which the disease is first identifiable by physicians. It is a poorly defined stage which seems to include both mild spirometric and non-spirometric disease, and could be described as early grade COPD, for practical purposes. While dyspnoea; chronic bronchitis and CT imaging evidence of emphysema and airway disease may be present very early, the lone significance of dyspnoea, the most relevant symptom in COPD in identifying these individuals, has been scarcely assessed.The Searching Clinical COPD Onset (SOON) Study was designed primarily to detect clinical, physiological and structural differences between dyspnoeic and non-dyspnoeic individuals with early grade COPD. It is hypothesised that presence of dyspnoea in early disease may identify a subtype of individuals with reduced exercise capacity, notwithstanding of their spirometry results. In addition, dyspnoeic individuals will share worse quality of life, lower physical activity, greater lung hyperinflation greater emphysema and airway thickness and reduced peripheral muscle mass than their non-dyspnoeic counterpart. SOON is a monocentric study, with a cross sectional design aimed at obtaining representative samples of current or ex-smoker-adults aged ≥45 and ≤80 years. Two hundred and forty participants will be enrolled into four strata, according to normal spirometry or mild spirometric obstruction and presence or not of dyspnoea modified Medical Research Council score ≥1. The primary outcome will be the difference between dyspnoeic and non-dyspnoeic individuals on the 6-min walk test performance, regardless of their spirometry results. To account for the confounding effect of heart failure on dyspnoea, stress echocardiography will be also performed. Secondary outcomes will include clinical (quality of life, physical activity), physiological (exercise testing) and structural characteristics (emphysema, airway disease and

  8. Long-term survival in patients hospitalized for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudmundsson, Gunnar; Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli; Gislason, Thorarinn

    2012-01-01

    Mortality rate is high in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Our aim was to investigate long-term mortality and associated risk factors in COPD patients previously hospitalized for a COPD exacerbation.......Mortality rate is high in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Our aim was to investigate long-term mortality and associated risk factors in COPD patients previously hospitalized for a COPD exacerbation....

  9. Curcumin regulates airway epithelial cell cytokine responses to the pollutant cadmium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rennolds, Jessica; Malireddy, Smitha; Hassan, Fatemat; Tridandapani, Susheela; Parinandi, Narasimham; Boyaka, Prosper N.; Cormet-Boyaka, Estelle

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Cadmium induces secretion of IL-6 and IL-8 by two distinct pathways. ► Cadmium increases NAPDH oxidase activity leading to Erk activation and IL-8 secretion. ► Curcumin prevents cadmium-induced secretion of both IL-6 and IL-8 by airway cells. ► Curcumin could be use to suppress lung inflammation due to cadmium inhalation. -- Abstract: Cadmium is a toxic metal present in the environment and its inhalation can lead to pulmonary disease such as lung cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. These lung diseases are characterized by chronic inflammation. Here we show that exposure of human airway epithelial cells to cadmium promotes a polarized apical secretion of IL-6 and IL-8, two pivotal pro-inflammatory cytokines known to play an important role in pulmonary inflammation. We also determined that two distinct pathways controlled secretion of these proinflammatory cytokines by human airway epithelial cells as cadmium-induced IL-6 secretion occurs via an NF-κB dependent pathway, whereas IL-8 secretion involves the Erk1/2 signaling pathway. Interestingly, the natural antioxidant curcumin could prevent both cadmium-induced IL-6 and IL-8 secretion by human airway epithelial cells. In conclusion, curcumin could be used to prevent airway inflammation due to cadmium inhalation.

  10. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease – diagnosis and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease – diagnosis and classification of ... biomass fuel exposure/household pollution, tuberculosis, HIV and mining ... There is a very high prevalence of COPD in SA and it is the third leading cause of mortality ...

  11. Airflow obstruction: is it asthma or is it COPD?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogliani P

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Paola Rogliani, Josuel Ora, Ermanno Puxeddu, Mario Cazzola Department of Systems Medicine, Tor Vergata University of Rome, Rome, Italy Abstract: Despite the availability of guideline recommendations, diagnostic confusion between COPD and asthma appears common, and often it is very difficult to decide whether the obstruction is caused by asthma or COPD in a patient with airway obstruction. However, there are well-defined features that help in differentiating asthma from COPD in the presence of fixed airflow obstruction. Nonetheless, the presentations of asthma and COPD can converge and mimic each other, making it difficult to give these patients a diagnosis of either condition. The association of asthma and COPD in the same patient has been designated mixed asthma–COPD phenotype or overlap syndrome. However, since the absence of a clear definition and the inclusion of patients with different characteristics under this umbrella term, it may not facilitate treatment decisions, especially in the absence of clinical trials addressing this heterogeneous population. We are realizing that neither asthma nor COPD are single diseases, but rather syndromes consisting of several endotypes and phenotypes, consequently comprising a spectrum of diseases that must be recognized and adequately treated with targeted therapy. Therefore, we must treat patients by personalizing therapy on the basis of those treatable traits present in each subject. Keywords: airway obstruction, asthma, ACOS, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

  12. Update on the "Dutch hypothesis" for chronic respiratory disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestbo, J; Prescott, E

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Many patients with chronic obstructive lung disease show increased airways responsiveness to histamine. We investigated the hypothesis that increased airways responsiveness predicts the development and remission of chronic respiratory symptoms. METHODS: We used data from 24-year follow......-up (1965-90) of 2684 participants in a cohort study in Vlagtwedde and Vlaardingen, Netherlands. Increased airways responsiveness was defined as a PC10 value (concentration of histamine for which challenge led to a 10% fall in forced expiratory volume in 1 s) of less than 8 mg/ml. Information on respiratory...... symptoms was collected by means of a standard questionnaire every 3 years. Logistic regression was used to control for age, area of residence, cigarette smoking status, and sex. FINDINGS: Participants with increased airways responsiveness (1281 observations) were more likely than those without increased...

  13. Endoscopic or surgical intervention for painful obstructive chronic pancreatitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ahmed Ali, Usama; Pahlplatz, Johanna M.; Nealon, Wiliam H.; van Goor, Harry; Gooszen, Hein G.; Boermeester, Marja A.

    2015-01-01

    Endoscopy and surgery are the treatment modalities of choice for patients with chronic pancreatitis and dilated pancreatic duct (obstructive chronic pancreatitis). Physicians face, without clear consensus, the choice between endoscopy or surgery for this group of patients. To assess and compare the

  14. Identification of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) by measurement of plasma biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaker, Saher B; von Wachenfeldt, Karin A; Larsson, Susanne; Mile, Iréne; Persdotter, Sofia; Dahlbäck, Magnus; Broberg, Per; Stoel, Berend; Bach, Karen S; Hestad, Marianne; Fehniger, Thomas E; Dirksen, Asger

    2008-01-01

    Inflammation is an important constituent of the pathology of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), leading to alveolar destruction and airway remodelling. The aim of this study was to assess the difference in plasma biomarkers of inflammation between asymptomatic smokers and patients with COPD. We used commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits to measure the plasma levels of tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin-8 (IL-8), matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2) on two occasions with a 2-week interval in patients with COPD (n = 20), asymptomatic smokers (n = 10) and healthy lifelong non-smokers (n = 10). The participants were characterised clinically, physiologically and by quantitative computed tomography by measuring the relative area of emphysema below -910 Hounsfield units (RA-910). The results of the biomarker measurements on the two occasions were highly reproducible. Patients with COPD had significantly higher plasma levels of IL-8 (P = 0.004) and significantly lower levels of TIMP-1 (P = 0.02) than smokers and non-smokers. There was no statistically significant difference between the three groups in the level of TNF-alpha, MMP-9, MCP-1 and TIMP-2. The IL-8/TIMP-1 ratio correlated significantly with the degree of airway obstruction measured as forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV(1)) % predicted (r = -0.47, P < 0.01); with the diffusion capacity (r = -0.41, P < 0.01); and with the grade of emphysema measured as RA-910 (r = 0.39, P = 0.01). These findings suggest that the measurement of plasma biomarkers, such as IL-8/TIMP-1, may aid to discriminate patients with COPD from smokers at lower risk of developing COPD.

  15. A pediatric case of life-threatening airway obstruction caused by a cervicomediastinal thymic cyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komura, Makoto; Kanamori, Yutaka; Sugiyama, Masahiko; Iwanaka, Tadashi [University of Tokyo Hospital, Department of Pediatric Surgery, Tokyo (Japan); Fukushima, Noriyoshi [University of Tokyo Hospital, Department of Pathology, Tokyo (Japan)

    2010-09-15

    Most patients with thymic cysts complain of a slowly enlarging, asymptomatic cervical mass. Only 6-10% suffer dysphagia, dyspnoea, stridor, cervical pain or vocal paralysis. In some rare cases sudden onset of severe dyspnoea or asphyxia is the first symptom, especially in neonates and small infants. We report a unique case of a 20-month-old child, who required emergency tracheal intubation due to asphyxia. Cervicomediastinal thymic cyst might need to be included in causes of life-threatening airway obstruction in young children. (orig.)

  16. Predicting uptake of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy in obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skinner, Timothy; McNeil, Lindsay; Olaithe, Michelle

    2013-01-01

    diagnosed with OSA. Epworth sleepiness scale (ESS), Fatigue Severity Scale, Depression Anxiety Stress Scale and Illness Perception Questionnaire-Revised (IPQ-R) were administered at time of sleep study. These, patient demographics and sleep study variables were used to determine factors predicting patient......Purpose: Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is a common disorder, for which continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy is a standard treatment. Despite its well-established efficacy, many patients choose not to initiate CPAP treatment. The present study investigated the degree to which...

  17. Upper airway obstruction in infants and children: evaluation by tracheobronchography with a non-ionic contrast agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee Tain; Lee, S.K.

    1997-01-01

    The clinical benefits of tracheobronchograms using nonionic contrast medium were evaluated prospectively in ten infants and children with suspected airway obstruction who could not be weaned from endotracheal intubation and were in incubators. All patients were examined usedated. The contrast agent was injected via the intubation tube, pumped with an Ambu-bag (Manual Resuscitator, Formosa-CJ Health Business Corporation, Taiwan), and then a chest radiograph was obtained immediately in both anteroposterior and lateral views using portable equipment. Imaging results were correct in eight of ten cases as judged from bronchoscopic, surgical, and clinical data. No complications occurred during or after these examinations. This method provides an easy, safe, and helpful technique for diagnosis of the airway in nonsedated infants and children whose condition is critical. (orig.)

  18. Myocardial infarction and other co-morbidities in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sode, Birgitte F; Dahl, Morten; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2011-01-01

    Myocardial infarction is nominally the most important co-morbidity in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and the one with the greatest potential for treatment and prevention to improve the overall prognosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients. We assessed the extent...

  19. Role of IL-4 receptor α-positive CD4(+) T cells in chronic airway hyperresponsiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirstein, Frank; Nieuwenhuizen, Natalie E; Jayakumar, Jaisubash; Horsnell, William G C; Brombacher, Frank

    2016-06-01

    TH2 cells and their cytokines are associated with allergic asthma in human subjects and with mouse models of allergic airway disease. IL-4 signaling through the IL-4 receptor α (IL-4Rα) chain on CD4(+) T cells leads to TH2 cell differentiation in vitro, implying that IL-4Rα-responsive CD4(+) T cells are critical for the induction of allergic asthma. However, mechanisms regulating acute and chronic allergen-specific TH2 responses in vivo remain incompletely understood. This study defines the requirements for IL-4Rα-responsive CD4(+) T cells and the IL-4Rα ligands IL-4 and IL-13 in the development of allergen-specific TH2 responses during the onset and chronic phase of experimental allergic airway disease. Development of acute and chronic ovalbumin (OVA)-induced allergic asthma was assessed weekly in CD4(+) T cell-specific IL-4Rα-deficient BALB/c mice (Lck(cre)IL-4Rα(-/lox)) and respective control mice in the presence or absence of IL-4 or IL-13. During acute allergic airway disease, IL-4 deficiency did not prevent the onset of TH2 immune responses and OVA-induced airway hyperresponsiveness or goblet cell hyperplasia, irrespective of the presence or absence of IL-4Rα-responsive CD4(+) T cells. In contrast, deficiency of IL-13 prevented allergic asthma, irrespective of the presence or absence of IL-4Rα-responsive CD4(+) T cells. Importantly, chronic allergic inflammation and airway hyperresponsiveness were dependent on IL-4Rα-responsive CD4(+) T cells. Deficiency in IL-4Rα-responsive CD4(+) T cells resulted in increased numbers of IL-17-producing T cells and, consequently, increased airway neutrophilia. IL-4-responsive T helper cells are dispensable for acute OVA-induced airway disease but crucial in maintaining chronic asthmatic pathology. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Outpatient Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Management: Going for the GOLD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellinger, Christina R; Peters, Stephen P

    2015-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the fourth leading cause of death in the United States with a burden of $50 billion in direct health care costs. The Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) defines airflow obstruction as spirometry where the ratio of forced expiratory volume in the first second to forced vital capacity after bronchodilation is less than 0.70. The guidelines also provided graded recommendations on current therapy for COPD. Treatment can be guided based on severity of disease and severity of symptoms. We review the GOLD guidelines to provide an overview of treatment modalities aimed at improving lung function, reducing hospitalization, and reducing mortality. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The effect of PPE-induced emphysema and chronic LPS-induced pulmonary inflammation on atherosclerosis development in APOE*3-LEIDEN mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khedoe, P.P.S.J.; Wong, M.C.; Wagenaar, G.T.M.; Plomp, J.J.; Eck, M. van; Havekes, L.M.; Rensen, P.C.N.; Hiemstra, P.S.; Berbée, J.F.P.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by pulmonary inflammation, airways obstruction and emphysema, and is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, the contribution of these individual COPD components to this increased risk is unknown. Therefore,

  2. Acute superior vena caval syndrome with airway obstruction following elective mediastinoscopy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Power, C K

    2012-02-03

    A 47-year-old female patient had a subclinical superior vena caval syndrome which developed into the \\'full blown\\' acute condition when she was placed into the left lateral position after mediastinoscopy. She developed airway obstruction requiring urgent re-intubation and subsequent admission to the intensive care unit. This subclinical condition might have been suspected pre-operatively if closer attention had been paid to the history, physical examination and review of the computerised axial tomography scan: she had a history of intermittent dysponea, wheeze and cough which was worse on waking and improved as the day progressed, she had a positive Pemberton\\'s sign and the computerised axial tomography scan showed that the lesion was encroaching on the superior vena cava.

  3. Autoantibodies in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lifang Wen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, the fourth leading cause of death worldwide, is characterized by irreversible airflow limitation based on obstructive bronchiolitis, emphysema, and chronic pulmonary inflammation. Inhaled toxic gases and particles, e.g., cigarette smoke, are major etiologic factors for COPD, while the pathogenesis of the disease is only partially understood. Over the past decade, an increasing body of evidence has been accumulated for a link between COPD and autoimmunity. Studies with clinical samples have demonstrated that autoantibodies are present in sera of COPD patients and some of these antibodies correlate with specific disease phenotypes. Furthermore, evidence from animal models of COPD has shown that autoimmunity against pulmonary antigens occur during disease development and is capable of mediating COPD-like symptoms. The idea that autoimmunity could contribute to the development of COPD provides a new angle to understand the pathogenesis of the disease. In this review article, we provide an advanced overview in this field and critically discuss the role of autoantibodies in the pathogenesis of COPD.

  4. ChronicOnline: Implementing a mHealth solution for monitoring and early alerting in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitsaki, Marina; Koutras, Christos; Koutras, George; Leymann, Frank; Steimle, Frank; Wagner, Sebastian; Wieland, Matthias

    2017-09-01

    Lack of time or economic difficulties prevent chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients from communicating regularly with their physicians, thus inducing exacerbation of their chronic condition and possible hospitalization. Enhancing Chronic patients' Health Online proposes a new, sustainable and innovative business model that provides at low cost and at significant savings to the national health system, a preventive health service for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients, by combining human medical expertise with state-of-the-art online service delivery based on cloud computing, service-oriented architecture, data analytics, and mobile applications. In this article, we implement the frontend applications of the Enhancing Chronic patients' Health Online system and describe their functionality and the interfaces available to the users.

  5. All-cause mortality from obstructive sleep apnea in male and female patients with and without continuous positive airway pressure treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jennum, Poul; Tønnesen, Philip; Ibsen, Rikke

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: More information is needed about the effect on mortality of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), especially in women. METHODS: We employed a historical cohort study design, using data from 25,389 patients with a diagnosis of OSA...

  6. Obstructive sleep apnoea and atopy among middle aged chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and bronchial asthma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Raj; Nagar, Devender; Mallick, Adeeb; Kumar, Manoj; Tarke, Chandrakant R; Goel, Nitin

    2013-09-01

    Obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome is associated with significant morbidity. A high prevalence of obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) symptoms has been reported in patients with asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). There are limited studies regarding relationship between atopy and OSA. To study the risk of obstructive sleep apnoea among middle aged chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma patients by a home based sleep study and its association with atopy. Patients with asthma and COPD were evaluated for OSA symptoms by Epworth sleepiness scale (ESS) and Berlin questionnaire (BQ). ESS score > or = 9 was considered as high risk for OSA. Patients having high risk for OSA by ESS and BQ were further evaluated for OSA by home based sleep study. Skin prick test against common allergens was done to diagnose atopy in these patients. Among 400 patients (229, 57.25% male and 171, 42.75% female) 328 were asthmatics and 72 were COPD patients. ESS and BQ was positive in 11.25% (45/400) and 18.25% (73/400) patients respectively. ESS was positive in 10.67% (35/328) of asthma and 13.88% (10/72) of COPD patients. BQ was positive in 18.29% (60/328) of asthmatic and 18.05% (13/72) of COPD patients. Skin prick test was positive in 74.16% patients. The maximum positivity was found in asthmatics (139/155, 89.68%) compared to COPD patients (16/155, 10.32%). Skin prick test was done for 40 patients out of 73 of Asthma and COPD patients who were found positive by ESS and BQ. 72.5% patients were found to be atopic. Out of 19 patients in whom home polysomnography was done, 13 patients consented for skin prick test with common aeroallergens and 9 (69.23%) patients were found to be atopic. There is an increased risk of obstructive sleep apnoea among middle aged chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma patients. Atopy could be associated with OSA. The association needs to be proved in a larger study.

  7. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kornum, Jette Brommann; Sværke, Claus; Thomsen, Reimar Wernich

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about the risk of cancer in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), including which cancer sites are most affected. We examined the short- and long-term risk of lung and extrapulmonary cancer in a nationwide cohort of COPD patients....

  8. Pulmonary biomarkers in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barnes, Peter J.; Chowdhury, Badrul; Kharitonov, Sergei A.; Magnussen, Helgo; Page, Clive P.; Postma, Dirkje; Saetta, Marina

    2006-01-01

    There has been increasing interest in using pulmonary biomarkers to understand and monitor the inflammation in the respiratory tract of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In this Pulmonary Perspective we discuss the merits of the various approaches by reviewing the current

  9. THE ELECTROCARDIOGRAM IN CHRONIC BRONCmTIS AND ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1971-02-20

    Feb 20, 1971 ... diseases, including bronchiectasis and pneumoconiosis, though the majority of cases have been diagnosed as chronic bronchitis and emphysema. Some articles included various lung function tests, but these usually provided evidence of airway obstruction and we could find no paper in which the degree ...

  10. CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE PULMONARY DISEASE: DEFINITION, EPIDEMIOLOGY, PATHOPHYSIOLOGY, CLINICAL PICTURE AND TREATMENT (GOLD 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. T. Vatutin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: definition, epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical picture (GOLD 2013. Vatutin M.T., Smyrnova G.S., Taradin G.G. The represented translation of the new international guidelines (GOLD 2013 reflected the epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical picture and treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

  11. Spirometric abnormalities associated with chronic bronchitis, asthma, and airway hyperresponsiveness among boilermaker construction workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hauser, R.; Eisen, E,A,; Pothier, L,; Lewis, D,; Bledsoe, T,; Christiani, D.C. [Harvard University, Boston, MA (United States). School of Public Health

    2002-06-01

    In a 2-year longitudinal study of boilermaker construction workers, authors found a significant association between working at oil-fired, coal-fired, and gas-fired industries during the past year and reduced lung function. In the present study, authors investigated whether chronic bronchitis, asthma, or baseline methacholine airway responsiveness can explain the heterogeneity in lung function response to boilermaker work. Exposure was assessed with a work history questionnaire. Spirometry was performed annually to assess lung function. A generalized estimating equation approach was used to account for the repeated-measures design. One hundred eighteen boilermakers participated in the study. Self-reported history of chronic bronchitis and asthma were associated with a larger FEV1 reduction in response to workplace exposure at coal-fired and gas-fired industries. Although a high prevalence (39%) of airway hyperresponsiveness (provocative concentration of methacholine causing a 20% fall in FEVI of {lt} 8 mg/mL) among boilermakers was found, there was no consistent pattern of effect modification by airway responsiveness. Conclusions: Although chronic bronchitis and asthma were associated with a greater loss in lung function in response to hours worked as a boilermaker, and therefore they acted as effect modifiers of the exposure-lung function relationship, airway hyperresponsiveness did not. However, the high prevalence of airway hyperresponsiveness found in the cohort may be a primary consequence of long-term workplace exposure among boilermakers.

  12. Lung volume reduction in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lung volume reduction in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. ... loss to improve pulmonary mechanics and compliance, thereby reducing the work of breathing. ... of obtaining similar functional advantages to surgical lung volume reduction, ...

  13. Hyperpolarized {sup 3}He magnetic resonance imaging: Preliminary evaluation of phenotyping potential in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathew, Lindsay, E-mail: lmathew@imaging.robarts.ca [Imaging Research Laboratories, Robarts Research Institute, London (Canada); Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Western Ontario, London (Canada); Kirby, Miranda, E-mail: mkirby@imaging.robarts.ca [Imaging Research Laboratories, Robarts Research Institute, London (Canada); Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Western Ontario, London (Canada); Etemad-Rezai, Roya, E-mail: Roya.EtemadRezai@lhsc.on.ca [Department of Medical Imaging, University of Western Ontario (Canada); Wheatley, Andrew, E-mail: awheat@imaging.robarts.ca [Imaging Research Laboratories, Robarts Research Institute, London (Canada); McCormack, David G., E-mail: David.McCormack@lhsc.on.ca [Imaging Research Laboratories, Robarts Research Institute, London (Canada); Division of Respirology, Department of Medicine, University of Western Ontario, London (Canada); Lawson Health Research Institute, London (Canada); Parraga, Grace, E-mail: gep@imaging.robarts.ca [Imaging Research Laboratories, Robarts Research Institute, London (Canada); Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Western Ontario, London (Canada); Department of Medical Imaging, University of Western Ontario (Canada); Lawson Health Research Institute, London (Canada)

    2011-07-15

    Rationale and objectives: Emphysema and small airway obstruction are the pathological hallmarks of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The aim of this pilot study in a small group of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients was to quantify hyperpolarized helium-3 ({sup 3}He) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) functional and structural measurements and to explore the potential role for {sup 3}He MRI in detecting the lung structural and functional COPD phenotypes. Materials and methods: We evaluated 20 ex-smokers with stage I (n = 1), stage II (n = 9) and stage III COPD (n = 10). All subjects underwent same-day plethysmography, spirometry, {sup 1}H MRI and hyperpolarized {sup 3}He MRI at 3.0 T. {sup 3}He ventilation defect percent (VDP) was generated from {sup 3}He static ventilation images and {sup 1}H thoracic images and the {sup 3}He apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) was derived from diffusion-weighted MRI. Results: Based on the relative contribution of normalized ADC and VDP, there was evidence of a predominant {sup 3}He MRI measurement in seven patients (n = 3 mainly ventilation defects or VDP dominant (VD), n = 4 mainly increased ADC or ADC dominant (AD)). Analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed significantly lower ADC for subjects with predominantly elevated VDP (p = 0.02 compared to subjects with predominantly elevated ADC; p = 0.008 compared to mixed group) and significantly decreased VDP for subjects with predominantly elevated ADC (p = 0.003, compared to mixed group). Conclusion: In this small pilot study, a preliminary analysis shows the potential for {sup 3}He MRI to categorize or phenotype COPD ex-smokers, providing good evidence of feasibility for larger prospective studies.

  14. Upper airway morphology in Down Syndrome patients under dexmedetomidine sedation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeev Subramanyam

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and objectives: Children with Down Syndrome are vulnerable to significant upper airway obstruction due to relative macroglossia and dynamic airway collapse. The objective of this study was to compare the upper airway dimensions of children with Down Syndrome and obstructive sleep apnea with normal airway under dexmedetomidine sedation. Methods: IRB approval was obtained. In this retrospective study, clinically indicated dynamic sagittal midline magnetic resonance images of the upper airway were obtained under low (1 mcg/kg/h and high (3 mcg/kg/h dose dexmedetomidine. Airway anteroposterior diameters and sectional areas were measured as minimum and maximum dimensions by two independent observers at soft palate (nasopharyngeal airway and at base of the tongue (retroglossal airway. Results and conclusions: Minimum anteroposterior diameter and minimum sectional area at nasopharynx and retroglossal airway were significantly reduced in Down Syndrome compared to normal airway at both low and high dose dexmedetomidine. However, there were no significant differences between low and high dose dexmedetomidine in both Down Syndrome and normal airway. The mean apnea hypopnea index in Down Syndrome was 16 ± 11. Under dexmedetomidine sedation, children with Down Syndrome and obstructive sleep apnea when compared to normal airway children show significant reductions in airway dimensions most pronounced at the narrowest points in the nasopharyngeal and retroglossal airways.

  15. Upper airway morphology in Down Syndrome patients under dexmedetomidine sedation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanyam, Rajeev; Fleck, Robert; McAuliffe, John; Radhakrishnan, Rupa; Jung, Dorothy; Patino, Mario; Mahmoud, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    Children with Down Syndrome are vulnerable to significant upper airway obstruction due to relative macroglossia and dynamic airway collapse. The objective of this study was to compare the upper airway dimensions of children with Down Syndrome and obstructive sleep apnea with normal airway under dexmedetomidine sedation. IRB approval was obtained. In this retrospective study, clinically indicated dynamic sagittal midline magnetic resonance images of the upper airway were obtained under low (1mcg/kg/h) and high (3mcg/kg/h) dose dexmedetomidine. Airway anteroposterior diameters and sectional areas were measured as minimum and maximum dimensions by two independent observers at soft palate (nasopharyngeal airway) and at base of the tongue (retroglossal airway). Minimum anteroposterior diameter and minimum sectional area at nasopharynx and retroglossal airway were significantly reduced in Down Syndrome compared to normal airway at both low and high dose dexmedetomidine. However, there were no significant differences between low and high dose dexmedetomidine in both Down Syndrome and normal airway. The mean apnea hypopnea index in Down Syndrome was 16±11. Under dexmedetomidine sedation, children with Down Syndrome and obstructive sleep apnea when compared to normal airway children show significant reductions in airway dimensions most pronounced at the narrowest points in the nasopharyngeal and retroglossal airways. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  16. [Upper airway morphology in Down Syndrome patients under dexmedetomidine sedation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanyam, Rajeev; Fleck, Robert; McAuliffe, John; Radhakrishnan, Rupa; Jung, Dorothy; Patino, Mario; Mahmoud, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    Children with Down Syndrome are vulnerable to significant upper airway obstruction due to relative macroglossia and dynamic airway collapse. The objective of this study was to compare the upper airway dimensions of children with Down Syndrome and obstructive sleep apnea with normal airway under dexmedetomidine sedation. IRB approval was obtained. In this retrospective study, clinically indicated dynamic sagittal midline magnetic resonance images of the upper airway were obtained under low (1mcg/kg/h) and high (3mcg/kg/h) dose dexmedetomidine. Airway anteroposterior diameters and sectional areas were measured as minimum and maximum dimensions by two independent observers at soft palate (nasopharyngeal airway) and at base of the tongue (retroglossal airway). Minimum anteroposterior diameter and minimum sectional area at nasopharynx and retroglossal airway were significantly reduced in Down Syndrome compared to normal airway at both low and high dose dexmedetomidine. However, there were no significant differences between low and high dose dexmedetomidine in both Down Syndrome and normal airway. The mean apnea hypopnea index in Down Syndrome was 16±11. Under dexmedetomidine sedation, children with Down Syndrome and obstructive sleep apnea when compared to normal airway children show significant reductions in airway dimensions most pronounced at the narrowest points in the nasopharyngeal and retroglossal airways. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  17. Blood lipid levels associate with childhood asthma, airway obstruction, bronchial hyperresponsiveness, and aeroallergen sensitization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinding, Rebecca K; Stokholm, Jakob; Chawes, Bo Lund Krogsgaard

    2016-01-01

    -density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglyceride levels were measured at ages 5 to 7 years in the Copenhagen Prospective Studies on Asthma in Childhood2000 at-risk birth cohort. Asthma and allergic rhinitis were diagnosed based on predefined algorithms at age 7 years along......BACKGROUND: Studies of children's blood lipid profiles in relation to asthma are few, and the results are ambiguous. OBJECTIVE: We sought to examine whether the lipid profile is associated with concurrent asthma, altered lung function, and allergic sensitization in children. METHODS: High...... associated with concurrent asthma (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.93; 95% CI, 1.06-3.55; P = .03) and airway obstruction: 50% of forced expiratory flow (aβ coefficient, -0.13 L/s; 95% CI, -0.24 to -0.03 L/s; P = .01) and specific airway resistance (aβ coefficient, 0.06 kPa/s; 95% CI, 0.00-0.11 kPa/s; P = .05...

  18. A randomized clinical trial of a new orthodontic appliance to improve upper airway obstruction in infants with Pierre Robin sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchenau, Wolfgang; Urschitz, Michael S; Sautermeister, Judit; Bacher, Margit; Herberts, Tina; Arand, Joerg; Poets, Christian F

    2007-08-01

    To test the hypothesis that a new orthodontic appliance with a velar extension that shifts the tongue anteriorly would reduce upper airway obstruction in infants with Pierre Robin sequence (PRS). Eleven infants with PRS (median age, 3 days) and an apnea index (AI) >3 were studied. The effect of the new appliance on the AI was compared with that of a conventional appliance without a velar extension by using a crossover study design with random allocation. Compared with baseline (mean AI, 13.8), there was a significant decrease in the AI with the new appliance (3.9; P value appliance (14.8; P = .842). Thus, the relative change in AI was -71% (95% CI, -84--49) for the new appliance and +8% (95% CI, -52-142) for the conventional appliance, which was significantly different (P = .004). No severe adverse effects were observed. This new orthodontic appliance appears to be safe and effective in reducing upper airway obstruction in infants with PRS.

  19. Prediction of the clinical course of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, using the new GOLD classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, Peter; Marott, Jacob Louis; Vestbo, Jørgen

    2012-01-01

    The new Global Initiative for Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) stratification of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) into categories A, B, C, and D is based on symptoms, level of lung function, and history of exacerbations.......The new Global Initiative for Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) stratification of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) into categories A, B, C, and D is based on symptoms, level of lung function, and history of exacerbations....

  20. [Clinicofunctional features of arterial hypertension in chronic broncho-obstructive syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zadionchenko, V S; Kuz'micheva, N V; Sviridov, A A; Ol'kha, R P; Kashcheeva, E V

    2000-01-01

    To describe clinicofunctional features of essential and pulmogenic hypertension in chronic bronchoobstructive syndrome, 24-h profile of arterial pressure (AP), intracardiac hemodynamics and to propose differential diagnostic criteria for these hypertension forms. 24-h monitoring of arterial pressure (MAP), cardiohemodynamics, external respiration function (ERF) and blood gases examinations were made in 100 hypertensive subjects with chronic obstructive bronchitis and bronchial asthma. Significant differences were found between the groups of essential and pulmogenic hypertension by major values of MAP, echo-CG and ERF. Early disturbances in diastolic function of both the ventricles in essential and pulmonary hypertension in chronic bronchial obstruction arise long before clinical, x-ray and ECG signs of chronic pulmonary heart. The findings enable formulation of criteria of differential diagnosis of essential and pulmogenic hypertension and identify the latter as an independent nosological entity.

  1. [Nutritional abnormalities in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gea, Joaquim; Martínez-Llorens, Juana; Barreiro, Esther

    2014-07-22

    Nutritional abnormalities are associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease with a frequency ranging from 2 to 50%, depending on the geographical area and the study design. Diagnostic tools include anthropometry, bioelectrical impedance, dual energy radioabsortiometry and deuterium dilution, being the body mass and the lean mass indices the most frequently used parameters. While the most important consequences of nutritional abnormalities are muscle dysfunction and exercise limitation, factors implicated include an imbalance between caloric intake and consumption, and between anabolic and catabolic hormones, inflammation, tobacco smoking, poor physical activity, hypoxemia, some drugs and aging/comorbidities. The most important molecular mechanism for malnutrition associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease appears to be the mismatching between protein synthesis and breakdown. Among the therapeutic measures proposed for these nutritional abnormalities are improvements in lifestyle and nutritional support, although the use of anabolic drugs (such as secretagogues of the growth hormone) offers a new therapeutic strategy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  2. Research highlights from the 2017 ERS International Congress: airway diseases in focus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Andersson

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available For another year, high-quality research studies from around the world transformed the annual ERS International Congress into a vivid platform to discuss trending research topics, to produce new research questions and to further push the boundaries of respiratory medicine and science. This article reviews only some of the high-quality research studies on asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, bronchiectasis and chronic cough that were presented during the congress through the Airway Diseases Assembly (ERS Assembly 5 and places them into the context of current knowledge and research challenges.

  3. Paediatric airway management: basic aspects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm-Knudsen, R J; Rasmussen, L S

    2009-01-01

    Paediatric airway management is a great challenge, especially for anaesthesiologists working in departments with a low number of paediatric surgical procedures. The paediatric airway is substantially different from the adult airway and obstruction leads to rapid desaturation in infants and small...... children. This paper aims at providing the non-paediatric anaesthesiologist with a set of safe and simple principles for basic paediatric airway management. In contrast to adults, most children with difficult airways are recognised before induction of anaesthesia but problems may arise in all children...

  4. Emerging bronchoscopic treatments for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Geffen, Wouter H.; Kerstjens, Huib A. M.; Slebos, Dirk-Jan

    2017-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a progressive lung disease characterized by pathophysiological factors including airflow limitation, hyperinflation and reduced gas exchange. Treatment consists of lifestyle changes, lung rehabilitation and pharmacological therapies such as long acting

  5. Curcumin regulates airway epithelial cell cytokine responses to the pollutant cadmium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rennolds, Jessica; Malireddy, Smitha; Hassan, Fatemat; Tridandapani, Susheela; Parinandi, Narasimham [Division of Pulmonary, Allergy, Critical Care and Sleep Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Boyaka, Prosper N. [Department of Veterinary Biosciences, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Cormet-Boyaka, Estelle, E-mail: Estelle.boyaka@osumc.edu [Division of Pulmonary, Allergy, Critical Care and Sleep Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States)

    2012-01-06

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cadmium induces secretion of IL-6 and IL-8 by two distinct pathways. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cadmium increases NAPDH oxidase activity leading to Erk activation and IL-8 secretion. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Curcumin prevents cadmium-induced secretion of both IL-6 and IL-8 by airway cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Curcumin could be use to suppress lung inflammation due to cadmium inhalation. -- Abstract: Cadmium is a toxic metal present in the environment and its inhalation can lead to pulmonary disease such as lung cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. These lung diseases are characterized by chronic inflammation. Here we show that exposure of human airway epithelial cells to cadmium promotes a polarized apical secretion of IL-6 and IL-8, two pivotal pro-inflammatory cytokines known to play an important role in pulmonary inflammation. We also determined that two distinct pathways controlled secretion of these proinflammatory cytokines by human airway epithelial cells as cadmium-induced IL-6 secretion occurs via an NF-{kappa}B dependent pathway, whereas IL-8 secretion involves the Erk1/2 signaling pathway. Interestingly, the natural antioxidant curcumin could prevent both cadmium-induced IL-6 and IL-8 secretion by human airway epithelial cells. In conclusion, curcumin could be used to prevent airway inflammation due to cadmium inhalation.

  6. [Effectiveness of fenspiride in patients with chronic obstructive bronchitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorokhova, T D; Medvedeva, I V; Lapik, S V; Solov'eva, O G; Gracheva, E Iu; Iusupova, R S

    2001-01-01

    Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease of moderate severity were investigated for two months for assessment of fenspiride activity. Examination of the patients (age 42.6 +/- 5.3) took place before and after fenspiride therapy. In comparison to the control group, fenspiride patients showed improvement of external respiration function: FEV 1, FVC, FEF 50-75, PEF increased. Dienic conjugates, malonic dialdehyde levels decreased, alpha-tocopherol in platelet membranes rose, functional activity of platelets fell. Side effects were rare and not serious. It is concluded that fenspiride has an antiinflammatory effect, reduces bronchoconstriction and depresses platelet aggregation, is well tolerated. Fenspiride is an effective drug for the treatment of moderate chronic obstructive bronchitis.

  7. Effects of Continuous Positive Airway Pressure on Cognitive and Functional Outcome of Stroke Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea : A Randomized Controlled Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aaronson, J.A.; Hofman, W.F.; van Bennekom, C.A.M.; van Bezeij, T.; van den Aardweg, J.G.; Groet, E.; Kylstra, W.A.; Schmand, B.

    2016-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVES: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in stroke patients is associated with worse functional and cognitive status during inpatient rehabilitation. We hypothesized that a four-week period of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment would improve cognitive and functional

  8. Interaction in COPD experiment (ICE): a hazardous combination of cigarette smoking and bronchodilation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dijk, W D; Heijdra, Y; Scheepers, P T J; Lenders, J W M; van Weel, C; Schermer, T R J

    2010-02-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a highly prevalent disease, characterised by poorly reversible, obstructive airflow limitation. Alongside other comorbidities, COPD is associated with increased morbidity and mortality resulting from cardiovascular disease - mainly heart failure and ischemic heart disease. Both diseases share an important risk factor, namely, smoking. About 50% of COPD patients are active cigarette smokers. Bronchodilation is the cornerstone of pharmaceutical treatment for COPD symptoms, and half of all COPD patients use long-acting bronchodilating agents. Discussion about these agents is currently focusing on the association with overall mortality and morbidity in COPD patients, of cardiovascular origin in particular. Bronchodilation diminishes the hyperinflated state of the lung and facilitates the pulmonary deposition of cigarette smoke by deeper inhalation into the smaller airways. Smaller particles, as in smoke, tend to penetrate and depose more in these small airways. In addition, bronchodilation indeed increases carbon monoxide uptake in the lungs, an important gaseous compound of cigarette smoke. Since the number of cigarettes smoked is positively correlated to mortality from cardiac events, we therefore hypothesise that chronic bronchodilation increases cardiovascular disease and mortality in COPD patients who continue smoking by increasing pulmonary retention of pathogenic smoke constituents. Indeed, a recent meta-analysis is suggestive that long-acting anticholinergics might increase cardiovascular disease if patients exceed a certain number of cigarettes smoked. To demonstrate the fundamental mechanism of this pathogenic interaction we will perform a randomised placebo-controlled cross-over trial to investigate the effect of maximum bronchodilation on the retention of cigarette smoke constituents. In 40 moderate to severe COPD patients we measure the inhaled and exhaled amount of tar and nicotine, as well during maximum

  9. Sleep-related disorders in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Crinion, Sophie J

    2014-02-01

    Sleep may have several negative consequences in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Sleep is typically fragmented with diminished slow wave and rapid-eye-movement sleep, which likely represents an important contributing factor to daytime symptoms such as fatigue and lethargy. Furthermore, normal physiological adaptations during sleep, which result in mild hypoventilation in normal subjects, are more pronounced in COPD, which can result in clinically important nocturnal oxygen desaturation. The co-existence of obstructive sleep apnea and COPD is also common, principally because of the high prevalence of each disorder, and there is little convincing evidence that one disorder predisposes to the other. Nonetheless, this co-existence, termed the overlap syndrome, typically results in more pronounced nocturnal oxygen desaturation and there is a high prevalence of pulmonary hypertension in such patients. Management of sleep disorders in patients with COPD should address both sleep quality and disordered gas exchange. Non-invasive pressure support is beneficial in selected cases, particularly during acute exacerbations associated with respiratory failure, and is particularly helpful in patients with the overlap syndrome. There is limited evidence of benefit from pressure support in the chronic setting in COPD patients without obstructive sleep apnea.

  10. Barriers for recruitment of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease to a controlled telemedicine trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broendum, Eva; Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli; Gregersen, Thorbjorn

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this analysis is to investigate reasons why patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease decline to participate in a controlled trial of telemedicine. Patients with previous chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exacerbations were invited to participate in a 6-month randomized...... not want to participate in clinical research. Compared to consenting patients, subjects declining participation were significantly older, more often female, had higher lung function (%predicted), lower body mass index, higher admission-rate for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in the previous year...

  11. Effects of Continuous Positive Airway Pressure on Cognitive and Functional Outcome of Stroke Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aaronson, Justine A.; Hofman, Winni F.; van Bennekom, Coen A. M.; van Bezeij, Tijs; van den Aardweg, Joost G.; Groet, Erny; Kylstra, Wytske A.; Schmand, Ben

    2016-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in stroke patients is associated with worse functional and cognitive status during inpatient rehabilitation. We hypothesized that a four-week period of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment would improve cognitive and functional outcomes. We performed a

  12. Multislice helical CT analysis of small-sized airway wall thickness in smokers and patients with bronchial asthma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekimura, Kenshi; Ito, Harumasa; Nakamura, Yutaka; Kobayashi, Hitoshi; Oikawa, Hirobumi; Inoue, Hiroshi; Ehara, Shigeru; Yamauchi, Kohei

    2010-01-01

    There is accumulating evidence that airway remodeling, which contributes to airway narrowing, plays a role in the pathogenesis of bronchial asthma (BA) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Development of the multislice helical CT (MSCT) with improved spatial resolution has made it possible to obtain more precise imaging of small-sized airways. Small-sized airway wall-thickness was measured using the MSCT scan to analyze small-sized airways of smokers and BA patients, and examine the effects of a β 2 agonists on small-sized airway wall-thickness of BA patients. Thirty-six non-asthmatics who participated in the Health Check Program of Iwate Medical University and 25 patients with asthma were recruited. Amongst the 36 non-asthmatics were 20 healthy never-smokers and 15 smokers. The other 25 asthmatics were recruited from the outpatient clinic at Iwate Medical University. MSCT was performed and the right B10 bronchus was chosen for dimensional analysis. Airway wall thickness was expressed as a percentage of wall area (WA%). WA% of the 7 asthmatics before and 30 mim after procaterol (20μg) inspiration were compared. Small-sized airway wall thickness was significantly increased in smokers and patients with asthma compared to healthy never-smokers, when determined by MSCT. Both %V 50 and %V 25 had significant negative correlations with WA% among the healthy never-smokers and smoker population. Procaterol inspiration reduced WA% in the small airway of patients with asthma. Increase of small-sized airway thickness measured by MSCT scan may reflect peripheral obstructive lesions of smokers and BA patients. (author)

  13. Contribution of CT Quantified Emphysema, Air Trapping and Airway Wall Thickness on Pulmonary Function in Male Smokers With and Without COPD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoesein, F.A.A.M.; Jong, P.A. de; Lammers, J.-W.J.; Mali, W.P.Th.; Mets, O.M.; Schmidt, M.; Koning, H.J. de; Aalst, C. van der; Oudkerk, M.; Vliegenthart, R.; Ginneken, B. van; Rikxoort, E.M. van; Zanen, P.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Emphysema, airway wall thickening and air trapping are associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). All three can be quantified by computed tomography (CT) of the chest. The goal of the current study is to determine the relative contribution of CT derived parameters on

  14. Contribution of CT Quantified Emphysema, Air Trapping and Airway Wall Thickness on Pulmonary Function in Male Smokers With and Without COPD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoesein, Firdaus A. A. Mohamed; de Jong, Pim A.; Lammers, Jan-Willem J.; Mali, Willem P. Th. M.; Mets, Onno M.; Schmidt, Michael; de Koning, Harry J.; van der Aalst, Carlijn; Oudkerk, Matthijs; Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn; van Ginneken, Bram; van Rikxoort, Eva M.; Zanen, Pieter

    Emphysema, airway wall thickening and air trapping are associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). All three can be quantified by computed tomography (CT) of the chest. The goal of the current study is to determine the relative contribution of CT derived parameters on spirometry,

  15. Influenza and Pneumonia Vaccination Rates and Factors Affecting Vaccination among Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Aka Akt?rk, ?lk?; G?rek Dilekta?l?, Asl?; ?eng?l, Aysun; Musaffa Salep?i, Banu; Oktay, Nuray; D?ger, Mustafa; Ar?k Ta?y?kan, Hale; Durmu? Ko?ak, Nagihan

    2017-01-01

    Background: Influenza and pneumococcal vaccinations are recommended in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients to decrease associated risks at all stages. Although the prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is high in our country, as previously reported, vaccination rates are low. Aims: To assess the vaccination rates of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients and factors that may affect these. Study Design: Multi-centre cross-sectional study. Methods: Patients admi...

  16. Susceptibility to exacerbation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hurst, John R; Vestbo, Jørgen; Anzueto, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although we know that exacerbations are key events in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), our understanding of their frequency, determinants, and effects is incomplete. In a large observational cohort, we tested the hypothesis that there is a frequent-exacerbation phenotype...... of follow-up were 0.85 per person for patients with stage 2 COPD (with stage defined in accordance with Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease [GOLD] stages), 1.34 for patients with stage 3, and 2.00 for patients with stage 4. Overall, 22% of patients with stage 2 disease, 33% with stage 3...... of COPD that is independent of disease severity. METHODS: We analyzed the frequency and associations of exacerbation in 2138 patients enrolled in the Evaluation of COPD Longitudinally to Identify Predictive Surrogate Endpoints (ECLIPSE) study. Exacerbations were defined as events that led a care provider...

  17. Severity of Airflow Obstruction in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): Proposal for a New Classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coton, Sonia; Vollmer, William M; Bateman, Eric; Marks, Guy B; Tan, Wan; Mejza, Filip; Juvekar, Sanjay; Janson, Christer; Mortimer, Kevin; P A, Mahesh; Buist, A Sonia; Burney, Peter G J

    2017-10-01

    Current classifications of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) severity are complex and do not grade levels of obstruction. Obstruction is a simpler construct and independent of ethnicity. We constructed an index of obstruction severity based on the FEV 1 /FVC ratio, with cut-points dividing the Burden of Obstructive Lung Disease (BOLD) study population into four similarly sized strata to those created by the GOLD criteria that uses FEV 1 . We measured the agreement between classifications and the validity of the FEV 1 -based classification in identifying the level of obstruction as defined by the new groupings. We compared the strengths of association of each classification with quality of life (QoL), MRC dyspnoea score and the self-reported exacerbation rate. Agreement between classifications was only fair. FEV 1 -based criteria for moderate COPD identified only 79% of those with moderate obstruction and misclassified half of the participants with mild obstruction as having more severe COPD. Both scales were equally strongly associated with QoL, exertional dyspnoea and respiratory exacerbations. Severity assessed using the FEV 1 /FVC ratio is only in moderate agreement with the severity assessed using FEV 1 but is equally strongly associated with other outcomes. Severity assessed using the FEV 1 /FVC ratio is likely to be independent of ethnicity.

  18. Upper airway sensory function in children with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapia, Ignacio E; Bandla, Preetam; Traylor, Joel; Karamessinis, Laurie; Huang, Jingtao; Marcus, Carole L

    2010-07-01

    Children with the obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) have impaired responses to hypercapnia, subatmospheric pressure, and inspiratory resistive loading during sleep. This may be due, in part, to an impairment in the afferent limb of the upper airway sensory pathway. Therefore, we hypothesized that children with OSAS had diminished upper airway sensation compared to controls. Case-control. Academic hospital. Subjects with OSAS aged 6-16 years, and age- and BMI-matched controls. Two-point discrimination (TPD) was measured during wakefulness with modified calipers in the anterior tongue, right interior cheek, and hard palate. Thirteen children with OSAS and 9 controls were tested. The age (mean +/- SD) for OSAS and controls was 11 +/- 4 vs. 13 +/- 2 years (NS); OSAS BMI Z score 2.4 +/- 0.5, controls 2.2 +/- 0.5 (NS); OSAS apnea hypopnea index 31 +/- 48, controls 0.4 +/- 0.5 events/hour (P Children with OSAS had impaired TPD in the anterior tongue (median [range]) = 9 [3-14] mm, controls 3 [1-7], P = 0.002) and hard palate (OSAS 6 [3-9] mm, controls 3 [1-4], P children with OSAS during wakefulness. We speculate that this impairment might be due to a primary sensory function abnormality or secondary to nerve damage and/or hypoxemia caused by OSAS. Further studies after treatment of OSAS are needed.

  19. Continuing the Original Stanford Sleep Surgery Protocol From Upper Airway Reconstruction to Upper Airway Stimulation: Our First Successful Case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Stanley Yung; Riley, Robert Wayne

    2017-07-01

    In 1993, a surgical protocol for dynamic upper airway reconstruction in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) was published, and it became commonly known as the Stanford phase 1 and 2 sleep surgery protocol. It served as a platform on which research and clinical studies have continued to perfect the surgical care of patients with OSA. However, relapse is inevitable in a chronic condition such as OSA, and a subset of previously cured surgical patients return with complaints of excessive daytime sleepiness. This report describes a patient who was successfully treated with phase 1 and 2 operations more than a decade previously. He returned at 65 years of age with relapse of moderate OSA, and after workup with polysomnography and drug-induced sleep endoscopy, he underwent upper airway stimulation of the hypoglossal nerve that resulted in a cure of OSA. This case shows why upper airway stimulation is an appropriate option for patients with OSA relapse, after previously successful maxillomandibular advancement. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Neutralisation of interleukin-13 in mice prevents airway pathology caused by chronic exposure to house dust mite.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate L Tomlinson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Repeated exposure to inhaled allergen can cause airway inflammation, remodeling and dysfunction that manifests as the symptoms of allergic asthma. We have investigated the role of the cytokine interleukin-13 (IL-13 in the generation and persistence of airway cellular inflammation, bronchial remodeling and deterioration in airway function in a model of allergic asthma caused by chronic exposure to the aeroallergen House Dust Mite (HDM. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Mice were exposed to HDM via the intranasal route for 4 consecutive days per week for up to 8 consecutive weeks. Mice were treated either prophylactically or therapeutically with a potent neutralising anti-IL-13 monoclonal antibody (mAb administered subcutaneously (s.c.. Airway cellular inflammation was assessed by flow cytometry, peribronchial collagen deposition by histocytochemistry and airway hyperreactivity (AHR by invasive measurement of lung resistance (R(L and dynamic compliance (C(dyn. Both prophylactic and therapeutic treatment with an anti-IL-13 mAb significantly inhibited (P<0.05 the generation and maintenance of chronic HDM-induced airway cellular inflammation, peribronchial collagen deposition, epithelial goblet cell upregulation. AHR to inhaled methacholine was reversed by prophylactic but not therapeutic treatment with anti-IL-13 mAb. Both prophylactic and therapeutic treatment with anti-IL-13 mAb significantly reversed (P<0.05 the increase in baseline R(L and the decrease in baseline C(dyn caused by chronic exposure to inhaled HDM. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These data demonstrate that in a model of allergic lung disease driven by chronic exposure to a clinically relevant aeroallergen, IL-13 plays a significant role in the generation and persistence of airway inflammation, remodeling and dysfunction.

  1. Role of Proteases in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kailash C. Pandey

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is generally associated with progressive destruction of airways and lung parenchyma. Various factors play an important role in the development and progression of COPD, like imbalance of proteases, environmental and genetic factors and oxidative stress. This review is specifically focused on the role of proteases and their imbalance in COPD. There are three classes (serine, mettalo, and cysteine of proteases involved in COPD. In serine proteases, neutrophil elastase, cathepsin G, and proteinase-3 are involved in destruction of alveolar tissue. Matrix-mettaloproteinase-9, 12, 13, plays an influential role in severity of COPD. Among cysteine proteases, caspase-3, caspases-8 and caspase-9 play an important role in controlling apoptosis. These proteases activities can be regulated by inhibitors like α-1-antitrypsin, neutrophil elastase inhibitor, and leukocyte protease inhibitor. Studies suggest that neutrophil elastase may be a therapeutic target for COPD, and specific inhibitor against this enzyme has potential role to control the disease. Current study suggests that Dipeptidyl Peptidase IV is a potential marker for COPD. Since the expression of proteases and its inhibitors play an important role in COPD pathogenesis, therefore, it is worth investigating the role of proteases and their regulation. Understanding the biochemical basis of COPD pathogenesis using advanced tools in protease biochemistry and aiming toward translational research from bench-to-bedside will have great impact to deal with this health problem.

  2. Oligonucleotide Therapy for Obstructive and Restrictive Respiratory Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wupeng Liao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Inhaled oligonucleotide is an emerging therapeutic modality for various common respiratory diseases, including obstructive airway diseases like asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and restrictive airway diseases like idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF. The advantage of direct accessibility for oligonucleotide molecules to the lung target sites, bypassing systemic administration, makes this therapeutic approach promising with minimized potential systemic side effects. Asthma, COPD, and IPF are common chronic respiratory diseases, characterized by persistent airway inflammation and dysregulated tissue repair and remodeling, although each individual disease has its unique etiology. Corticosteroids have been widely prescribed for the treatment of asthma, COPD, and IPF. However, the effectiveness of corticosteroids as an anti-inflammatory drug is limited by steroid resistance in severe asthma, the majority of COPD cases, and pulmonary fibrosis. There is an urgent medical need to develop target-specific drugs for the treatment of these respiratory conditions. Oligonucleotide therapies, including antisense oligonucleotide (ASO, small interfering RNA (siRNA, and microRNA (miRNA are now being evaluated both pre-clinically and clinically as potential therapeutics. The mechanisms of action of ASO and siRNA are highly target mRNA specific, ultimately leading to target protein knockdown. miRNA has both biomarker and therapeutic values, and its knockdown by a miRNA antagonist (antagomir has a broader but potentially more non-specific biological outcome. This review will compile the current findings of oligonucleotide therapeutic targets, verified in various respiratory disease models and in clinical trials, and evaluate different chemical modification approaches to improve the stability and potency of oligonucleotides for the treatment of respiratory diseases.

  3. Effect of metabolic alkalosis on respiratory function in patients with chronic obstructive lung disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bear, R.; Goldstein, M.; Phillipson, E.; Ho, M.; Hammeke, M.; Feldman, R.; Handelsman, S.; Halperin, M.

    1977-01-01

    Eleven instances of a mixed acid-base disorder consisting of chronic respiratory acidosis and metabolic alkalosis were recognized in eight patients with chronic obstructive lung disease and carbon dioxide retention. Correction of the metabolic alkalosis led to substantial improvement in blood gas values and clinical symptoms. Patients with mixed chronic respiratory acidosis and metabolic alkalosis constitute a common subgroup of patients with chronic obstructive lung disease and carbon dioxide retention; these patients benefit from correction of the metabolic alkalosis. PMID:21028

  4. Integrated care pathways for airway diseases (AIRWAYS-ICPs)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bousquet, J.; Addis, A.; Adcock, I.; Agache, I.; Agusti, A.; Alonso, A.; Annesi-Maesano, I.; Anto, J. M.; Bachert, C.; Baena-Cagnani, C. E.; Bai, C.; Baigenzhin, A.; Barbara, C.; Barnes, P. J.; Bateman, E. D.; Beck, L.; Bedbrook, A.; Bel, E. H.; Benezet, O.; Bennoor, K. S.; Benson, M.; Bernabeu-Wittel, M.; Bewick, M.; Bindslev-Jensen, C.; Blain, H.; Blasi, F.; Bonini, M.; Bonini, S.; Boulet, L. P.; Bourdin, A.; Bourret, R.; Bousquet, P. J.; Brightling, C. E.; Briggs, A.; Brozek, J.; Buhl, R.; Bush, A.; Caimmi, D.; Calderon, M.; Calverley, P.; Camargos, P. A.; Camuzat, T.; Canonica, G. W.; Carlsen, K. H.; Casale, T. B.; Cazzola, M.; Cepeda Sarabia, A. M.; Cesario, A.; Chen, Y. Z.; Chkhartishvili, E.; Chavannes, N. H.; Chiron, R.; Chuchalin, A.; Chung, K. F.; Cox, L.; Crooks, G.; Crooks, M. G.; Cruz, A. A.; Custovic, A.; Dahl, R.; Dahlen, S. E.; de Blay, F.; Dedeu, T.; Deleanu, D.; Demoly, P.; Devillier, P.; Didier, A.; Dinh-Xuan, A. T.; Djukanovic, R.; Dokic, D.; Douagui, H.; Dubakiene, R.; Eglin, S.; Elliot, F.; Emuzyte, R.; Fabbri, L.; Fink Wagner, A.; Fletcher, M.; Fokkens, W. J.; Fonseca, J.; Franco, A.; Frith, P.; Furber, A.; Gaga, M.; Garcés, J.; Garcia-Aymerich, J.; Gamkrelidze, A.; Gonzales-Diaz, S.; Gouzi, F.; Guzmán, M. A.; Haahtela, T.; Harrison, D.; Hayot, M.; Heaney, L. G.; Heinrich, J.; Hellings, P. W.; Hooper, J.; Humbert, M.; Hyland, M.; Iaccarino, G.; Jakovenko, D.; Jardim, J. R.; Jeandel, C.; Jenkins, C.; Johnston, S. L.; Jonquet, O.; Joos, G.; Jung, K. S.; Kalayci, O.; Karunanithi, S.; Keil, T.; Khaltaev, N.; Kolek, V.; Kowalski, M. L.; Kull, I.; Kuna, P.; Kvedariene, V.; Le, L. T.; Lodrup Carlsen, K. C.; Louis, R.; MacNee, W.; Mair, A.; Majer, I.; Manning, P.; de Manuel Keenoy, E.; Masjedi, M. R.; Melen, E.; Melo-Gomes, E.; Menzies-Gow, A.; Mercier, G.; Mercier, J.; Michel, J. P.; Miculinic, N.; Mihaltan, F.; Milenkovic, B.; Molimard, M.; Momas, I.; Montilla-Santana, A.; Morais-Almeida, M.; Morgan, M.; N'Diaye, M.; Nafti, S.; Nekam, K.; Neou, A.; Nicod, L.; O'Hehir, R.; Ohta, K.; Paggiaro, P.; Palkonen, S.; Palmer, S.; Papadopoulos, N. G.; Papi, A.; Passalacqua, G.; Pavord, I.; Pigearias, B.; Plavec, D.; Postma, D. S.; Price, D.; Rabe, K. F.; Radier Pontal, F.; Redon, J.; Rennard, S.; Roberts, J.; Robine, J. M.; Roca, J.; Roche, N.; Rodenas, F.; Roggeri, A.; Rolland, C.; Rosado-Pinto, J.; Ryan, D.; Samolinski, B.; Sanchez-Borges, M.; Schünemann, H. J.; Sheikh, A.; Shields, M.; Siafakas, N.; Sibille, Y.; Similowski, T.; Small, I.; Sola-Morales, O.; Sooronbaev, T.; Stelmach, R.; Sterk, P. J.; Stiris, T.; Sud, P.; Tellier, V.; To, T.; Todo-Bom, A.; Triggiani, M.; Valenta, R.; Valero, A. L.; Valiulis, A.; Valovirta, E.; van Ganse, E.; Vandenplas, O.; Vasankari, T.; Vestbo, J.; Vezzani, G.; Viegi, G.; Visier, L.; Vogelmeier, C.; Vontetsianos, T.; Wagstaff, R.; Wahn, U.; Wallaert, B.; Whalley, B.; Wickman, M.; Williams, D. M.; Wilson, N.; Yawn, B. P.; Yiallouros, P. K.; Yorgancioglu, A.; Yusuf, O. M.; Zar, H. J.; Zhong, N.; Zidarn, M.; Zuberbier, T.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of Integrated Care Pathways for Airway Diseases (AIRWAYS-ICPs) is to launch a collaboration to develop multi-sectoral care pathways for chronic respiratory diseases in European countries and regions. AIRWAYS-ICPs has strategic relevance to the European Union Health Strategy and will

  5. Integrated care pathways for airway diseases (AIRWAYS-ICPs)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bousquet, J.; Addis, A.; Adcock, I.; Agache, I.; Agusti, A.; Alonso, A.; Annesi-Maesano, I.; Anto, J. M.; Bachert, C.; Baena-Cagnani, C. E.; Bai, C.; Baigenzhin, A.; Barbara, C.; Barnes, P. J.; Bateman, E. D.; Beck, L.; Bedbrook, A.; Bel, E. H.; Benezet, O.; Bennoor, K. S.; Benson, M.; Bernabeu-Wittel, M.; Bewick, M.; Bindslev-Jensen, C.; Blain, H.; Blasi, F.; Bonini, M.; Bonini, S.; Boulet, L. P.; Bourdin, A.; Bourret, R.; Bousquet, P. J.; Brightling, C. E.; Briggs, A.; Brozek, J.; Buh, R.; Bush, A.; Caimmi, D.; Calderon, M.; Calverley, P.; Camargos, P. A.; Camuzat, T.; Canonica, G. W.; Carlsen, K. H.; Casale, T. B.; Cazzola, M.; Sarabia, A. M. Cepeda; Cesario, A.; Chen, Y. Z.; Chkhartishvili, E.; Chavannes, N. H.; Chiron, R.; Chuchalin, A.; Chung, K. F.; Cox, L.; Crooks, G.; Crooks, M. G.; Cruz, A. A.; Custovic, A.; Dahl, R.; Dahlen, S. E.; De Blay, F.; Dedeu, T.; Deleanu, D.; Demoly, P.; Devillier, P.; Didier, A.; Dinh-Xuan, A. T.; Djukanovic, R.; Dokic, D.; Douagui, H.; Dubakiene, R.; Eglin, S.; Elliot, F.; Emuzyte, R.; Fabbri, L.; Wagner, A. Fink; Fletcher, M.; Fokkens, W. J.; Fonseca, J.; Franco, A.; Frith, P.; Furber, A.; Gaga, M.; Garces, J.; Garcia-Aymerich, J.; Gamkrelidze, A.; Gonzales-Diaz, S.; Gouzi, F.; Guzman, M. A.; Haahtela, T.; Harrison, D.; Hayot, M.; Heaney, L. G.; Heinrich, J.; Hellings, P. W.; Hooper, J.; Humbert, M.; Hyland, M.; Iaccarino, G.; Jakovenko, D.; Jardim, J. R.; Jeandel, C.; Jenkins, C.; Johnston, S. L.; Jonquet, O.; Joos, G.; Jung, K. S.; Kalayci, O.; Karunanithi, S.; Keil, T.; Khaltaev, N.; Kolek, V.; Kowalski, M. L.; Kull, I.; Kuna, P.; Kvedariene, V.; Le, L. T.; Carlsen, K. C. Lodrup; Louis, R.; MacNee, W.; Mair, A.; Majer, I.; Manning, P.; Keenoy, E. de Manuel; Masjedi, M. R.; Meten, E.; Melo-Gomes, E.; Menzies-Gow, A.; Mercier, G.; Mercier, J.; Michel, J. P.; Miculinic, N.; Mihaltan, F.; Milenkovic, B.; Molimard, M.; Mamas, I.; Montilla-Santana, A.; Morais-Almeida, M.; Morgan, M.; N'Diaye, M.; Nafti, S.; Nekam, K.; Neou, A.; Nicod, L.; O'Hehir, R.; Ohta, K.; Paggiaro, P.; Palkonen, S.; Palmer, S.; Papadopoulos, N. G.; Papi, A.; Passalacqua, G.; Pavord, I.; Pigearias, B.; Plavec, D.; Postma, D. S.; Price, D.; Rabe, K. F.; Pontal, F. Radier; Redon, J.; Rennard, S.; Roberts, J.; Robine, J. M.; Roca, J.; Roche, N.; Rodenas, F.; Roggeri, A.; Rolland, C.; Rosado-Pinto, J.; Ryan, D.; Samolinski, B.; Sanchez-Borges, M.; Schunemann, H. J.; Sheikh, A.; Shields, M.; Siafakas, N.; Sibille, Y.; Similowski, T.; Small, I.; Sola-Morales, O.; Sooronbaev, T.; Stelmach, R.; Sterk, P. J.; Stiris, T.; Sud, P.; Tellier, V.; To, T.; Todo-Bom, A.; Triggiani, M.; Valenta, R.; Valero, A. L.; Valiulis, A.; Valovirta, E.; Van Ganse, E.; Vandenplas, O.; Vasankari, T.; Vestbo, J.; Vezzani, G.; Viegi, G.; Visier, L.; Vogelmeier, C.; Vontetsianos, T.; Wagstaff, R.; Wahn, U.; Wallaert, B.; Whalley, B.; Wickman, M.; Williams, D. M.; Wilson, N.; Yawn, B. P.; Yiallouros, P. K.; Yorgancioglu, A.; Yusuf, O. M.; Zar, H. J.; Zhong, N.; Zidarn, M.; Zuberbier, T.

    The objective of Integrated Care Pathways for Airway Diseases (AIRWAYS-ICPs) is to launch a collaboration to develop multi-sectoral care pathways for chronic respiratory diseases in European countries and regions. AIRWAYS-ICPs has strategic relevance to the European Union Health Strategy and will

  6. The neuropharmacology of upper airway motor control in the awake and asleep states: implications for obstructive sleep apnoea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horner Richard L

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Obstructive sleep apnoea is a common and serious breathing problem that is caused by effects of sleep on pharyngeal muscle tone in individuals with narrow upper airways. There has been increasing focus on delineating the brain mechanisms that modulate pharyngeal muscle activity in the awake and asleep states in order to understand the pathogenesis of obstructive apnoeas and to develop novel neurochemical treatments. Although initial clinical studies have met with only limited success, it is proposed that more rational and realistic approaches may be devised for neurochemical modulation of pharyngeal muscle tone as the relevant neurotransmitters and receptors that are involved in sleep-dependent modulation are identified following basic experiments.

  7. Symptoms of insomnia among patients with obstructive sleep apnea before and after two years of positive airway pressure treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björnsdóttir, Erla; Janson, Christer; Sigurdsson, Jón F; Gehrman, Philip; Perlis, Michael; Juliusson, Sigurdur; Arnardottir, Erna S; Kuna, Samuel T; Pack, Allan I; Gislason, Thorarinn; Benediktsdóttir, Bryndis

    2013-12-01

    To assess the changes of insomnia symptoms among patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) from starting treatment with positive airway pressure (PAP) to a 2-y follow-up. Longitudinal cohort study. Landspitali--The National University Hospital of Iceland. There were 705 adults with OSA who were assessed prior to and 2 y after starting PAP treatment. PAP treatment for OSA. All patients underwent a medical examination along with a type 3 sleep study and answered questionnaires on health and sleep before and 2 y after starting PAP treatment. The change in prevalence of insomnia symptoms by subtype was assessed by questionnaire and compared between individuals who were using or not using PAP at follow-up. Symptoms of middle insomnia were most common at baseline and improved significantly among patients using PAP (from 59.4% to 30.7%, P insomnia tended to persist regardless of PAP treatment, and symptoms of late insomnia were more likely to improve among patients not using PAP. Patients with symptoms of initial and late insomnia at baseline were less likely to adhere to PAP (odds ratio [OR] 0.56, P = 0.007, and OR 0.53, P insomnia. Symptoms of initial and late insomnia, however, tended to persist regardless of positive airway pressure treatment and had a negative effect on adherence. Targeted treatment for insomnia may be beneficial for patients with obstructive sleep apnea comorbid with insomnia and has the potential to positively affect adherence to positive airway pressure.

  8. The European Respiratory Society study on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (EUROSCOP) : recruitment methods and strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lofdahl, CG; Postma, DS; Laitinen, LA; Ohlsson, SV; Pauwels, RA; Pride, NB

    The European Respiratory Society's study on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (EUROSCOP) is a multicentre study performed initially in 12 countries to assess the effect of 3 years' treatment with inhaled corticosteroids on lung function decline in smokers with chronic obstructive pulmonary

  9. The discovery and development of aclidinium bromide for the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malerba, Mario; Radaeli, Alessandro; Santini, Giuseppe; Morjaria, Jaymin; Mores, Nadia; Mondino, Chiara; Macis, Giuseppe; Montuschi, Paolo

    2018-06-01

    Bronchodilators, including long-acting muscarinic receptor antagonists (LAMAs), are a mainstay of the pharmacological treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). LAMAs act as bronchodilators principally by antagonizing airway smooth muscle cells M 3 muscarinic receptors. Aclidinium bromide is a twice-daily LAMA which was developed to improve on the efficacy and/or safety of previous LAMAs. Area covered: Herein, the authors present the pharmacotherapeutic role of aclidinium in COPD and point out unmet need in this research area. The following aspects are covered: a) the discovery and medicinal chemistry of aclidinium bromide; b) an overview of the market; c) its mechanism of action; d) its pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic profile derived from pre-clinical studies; e) the clinical studies which led to its licensing; f) the evidence from meta-analyses; g) the aclidinium/formoterol fixed dose combination for COPD and h) priorities in this area of research. Expert opinion: Aclidinium bromide has the pharmacological properties, safety and efficacy profile and inhaler characteristics which makes it a valuable therapeutic option for pharmacological management of patients with COPD. Due to its rapid biotransformation into inactive metabolites, aclidinium is potentially one of the safest LAMAs. Further head-to-head randomized clinical trials are required to define efficacy and safety of aclidinium when compared to once-daily LAMAs. The clinical relevance of airway anti-remodeling effects of aclidinium has to be defined.

  10. Natural history of abdominal aortic aneurysm with and without coexisting chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindholt, Jes Sanddal; Heickendorff, Lene; Antonsen, Sebastian

    1998-01-01

    To study the relation between abdominal aortic aneurysms and chronical obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), in particular the suggested common elastin degradation caused by elastase and smoking.......To study the relation between abdominal aortic aneurysms and chronical obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), in particular the suggested common elastin degradation caused by elastase and smoking....

  11. Can a giant cervical osteophyte cause dysphagia and airway obstruction? A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapetanakis, Stylianos; Vasileiadis, Ioannis; Papanas, Nikolaos; Goulimari, Reggina; Maltezos, Eustratios

    2011-05-01

    Cervical spondylosis is a common disorder mainly affecting elderly people. It frequently presents with excessive bone formation (osteophytes). These may lead to pain and neurological deficits due to root compression. Dysphagia and airway obstruction due to a giant anterior osteophyte of the cervical spine are extremely rare. We present the case of an 81-year-old patient suffering from dysphagia and slight dyspnoea due to a giant cervical osteophyte. Osteophyte resection was performed and the patient was relieved from symptoms. This case highlights that a large cervical osteophyte may, albeit rarely, be the cause of simultaneously presenting dysphagia and dyspnoea, and should, therefore, be included in the diagnostic workup in such cases.

  12. Laringocele: uma causa de obstrução de vias aéreas superiores Laryngocele: a cause of upper airway obstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Antonio de Paula Felix

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Laringoceles são dilatações anormais do sáculo do ventrículo de Morgani da laringe, localizando-se entre a falsa prega vocal e a face interna da cartilagem tireóide. Relevância clínica é rara, sendo o achado de laringoceles assintomáticas em necropsia muito alto. Algumas vezes, pode se apresentar já como uma grande massa cervical, levando à obstrução de vias aéreas e necessitando de intervenção de urgência. Neste trabalho, os autores relatam um caso de laringocele levando à obstrução de vias aéreas superiores, necessitando de traqueostomia de urgência e fazem uma revisão da literatura sobre o tema. Complicações de laringocele incluem infecção (formação de piocele, aspiração de patógenos e subseqüente bronquite e pneumonia, infecção do espaço lateral da faringe (depois de ruptura e obstrução de vias aéreas superiores, como no caso apresentado. A laringocele, apesar de ser uma doença benigna, é uma causa potencial de obstrução respiratória que pode ameaçar a vida do paciente. O correto diagnóstico e manejo adequado precoce podem evitar que situações de emergência, como a do paciente do caso relatado, levem à morte.Laryngoceles are abnormal dilatations of the laryngeal saccule, which rises between the ventricular folds, the base of the epiglottis and the inner surface of the thyroid cartilage. Clinical symptoms are rare, and the find of asymptomatic laryngoceles in pathology studies are frequent. Sometimes it is presented as cervical swelling causing airway obstruction in need of emergency intervention. In this study, we report a case of upper airway obstruction due to laryngocele treated by emergency tracheotomy and we review of the literature. Laryngocele complications include infection (pyocele formation, pathogens aspirations with subsequent bronchitis and pneumonia and upper airway obstruction, as in the case reported. Despite being benign tumors, laryngoceles cause relevant airway obstruction

  13. Sexual function and obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea : A randomized clinical trial evaluating the effects of oral-appliance and continuous positive airway pressure therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekema, Aarnoud; Stel, Anna-Lucia; Stegenga, Boudewijn; van der Hoeven, Johannes H.; Wijkstra, Peter J.; van Driel, Mels F.; de Bont, Lambert G. M.

    Introduction. The obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS) is associated with sexual dysfunction. Although successful treatment with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) has been demonstrated to improve sexual function, the effects of oral-appliance therapy are unknown. Aim. The aims

  14. Lung Metastases from Bile Duct Adenocarcinoma Mimicking Chronic Airway Infection and Causing Diagnostic Difficulty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Mitsuo; Okachi, Shotaro; Fukihara, Jun; Shimoyama, Yoshie; Wakahara, Keiko; Sakakibara, Toshihiro; Hase, Tetsunari; Onishi, Yasuharu; Ogura, Yasuhiro; Maeda, Osamu; Hasegawa, Yoshinori

    2018-05-15

    We herein report a case of lung metastases with unusual radiological appearances that mimicked those of chronic airway infection, causing diagnostic difficulty. A 60-year-old woman who underwent liver transplantation from a living donor was incidentally diagnosed with bile duct adenocarcinoma after a histopathological analysis of her explanted liver. Six months later, chest computed tomography (CT) revealed bilateral bronchogenic dissemination that had gradually worsened, suggesting chronic airway infection. A biopsy with bronchoscopy from a mass lesion beyond a segmental bronchus revealed adenocarcinoma identical to that of her bile duct adenocarcinoma, leading to the diagnosis of multiple lung metastases from bile duct adenocarcinoma.

  15. MR imaging appearance of laryngeal atresia (congenital high airway obstruction syndrome): unique course in a fetus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuwashima, Shigeko; Kitajima, Kazuhiro; Kaji, Yasushi [Dokkyo Medical University, Department of Radiology, Mibu, Shimotsuga-gun, Tochigi (Japan); Watanabe, Hiroshi [Dokkyo Medical University, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Mibu (Japan); Watabe, Yoshiyuki; Suzumura, Hiroshi [Dokkyo Medical University, Department of Pediatrics, Mibu (Japan)

    2008-03-15

    Congenital high airway obstruction syndrome (CHAOS) is a rare life-threatening syndrome. Most cases are diagnosed prenatally by US. We report a fetus with this syndrome that showed a unique course revealed on MRI. Ultrasonography at 22 weeks demonstrated that the fetus had ascites and bilaterally enlarged hyperechoic lungs. Congenital infection, congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation or CHAOS was suspected. Subsequent MRI performed at 24 weeks demonstrated bilaterally enlarged high-signal lungs, dilated bronchi, massive ascites, subcutaneous oedema and polyhydramnios. MRI confirmed the diagnosis of CHAOS. A second MRI at 35 weeks showed that the bilateral lung enlargement, ascites, oedema and polyhydramnios had resolved, but that the appearance of the airway was unchanged. The infant was delivered by caesarean section at 38 weeks of gestation and immediate tracheostomy was performed. This spontaneous regression was explained by a tracheo-oesophageal fistula that may have decreased the intrathoracic pressure. (orig.)

  16. MR imaging appearance of laryngeal atresia (congenital high airway obstruction syndrome): unique course in a fetus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuwashima, Shigeko; Kitajima, Kazuhiro; Kaji, Yasushi; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Watabe, Yoshiyuki; Suzumura, Hiroshi

    2008-01-01

    Congenital high airway obstruction syndrome (CHAOS) is a rare life-threatening syndrome. Most cases are diagnosed prenatally by US. We report a fetus with this syndrome that showed a unique course revealed on MRI. Ultrasonography at 22 weeks demonstrated that the fetus had ascites and bilaterally enlarged hyperechoic lungs. Congenital infection, congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation or CHAOS was suspected. Subsequent MRI performed at 24 weeks demonstrated bilaterally enlarged high-signal lungs, dilated bronchi, massive ascites, subcutaneous oedema and polyhydramnios. MRI confirmed the diagnosis of CHAOS. A second MRI at 35 weeks showed that the bilateral lung enlargement, ascites, oedema and polyhydramnios had resolved, but that the appearance of the airway was unchanged. The infant was delivered by caesarean section at 38 weeks of gestation and immediate tracheostomy was performed. This spontaneous regression was explained by a tracheo-oesophageal fistula that may have decreased the intrathoracic pressure. (orig.)

  17. Short telomere length, lung function and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in 46,396 individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Line; Bojesen, Stig Egil; Weischer, Maren

    2013-01-01

    A previous case-control study of 100 individuals found that short telomere length was associated with a 28-fold increased risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).......A previous case-control study of 100 individuals found that short telomere length was associated with a 28-fold increased risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)....

  18. Mortality prediction in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease comparing the GOLD 2007 and 2011 staging systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soriano, Joan B; Lamprecht, Bernd; Ramírez, Ana S

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is no universal consensus on the best staging system for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Although documents (eg, the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease [GOLD] 2007) have traditionally used forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) for staging, clin...

  19. Multi-component assessment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease : an evaluation of the ADO and DOSE indices and the global obstructive lung disease categories in international primary care data sets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jones, Rupert C.; Price, David; Chavannes, Niels H.; Lee, Amanda J.; Hyland, Michael E.; Stallberg, Bjorn; Lisspers, Karin; Sundh, Josefin; van der Molen, Thys; Tsiligianni, Ioanna

    2016-01-01

    Suitable tools for assessing the severity of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) include multi-component indices and the global initiative for chronic obstructive lung disease (GOLD) categories. The aim of this study was to evaluate the dyspnoea, obstruction, smoking, exacerbation (DOSE)

  20. Inhaled Steroids and Active Smoking Drive Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Symptoms and Biomarkers to a Greater Degree Than Airflow Limitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silkoff, Philip E; Singh, Dave; FitzGerald, J Mark

    2018-01-01

    RATIONALE: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a heterogeneous disease, and development of novel therapeutics requires an understanding of pathophysiologic phenotypes. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of the Airways Disease Endotyping for Personalized Therapeutics (ADEPT) study was to correlate...... clinical features and biomarkers with molecular characteristics in a well-profiled COPD cohort. METHODS: A total of 67 COPD subjects (forced expiratory volume in the first second of expiration [FEV1]: 45%-80% predicted) and 63 healthy smoking and nonsmoking controls underwent multiple assessments including...... patient questionnaires, lung function, and clinical biomarkers including fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FENO), induced sputum, and blood. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: The impact of inhaled corticosteroids (ICSs), and to a lesser extent current smoking, was more associated with symptom control...

  1. Current concepts on oxidative/carbonyl stress, inflammation and epigenetics in pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao Hongwei; Rahman, Irfan

    2011-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a global health problem. The current therapies for COPD are poorly effective and the mainstays of pharmacotherapy are bronchodilators. A better understanding of the pathobiology of COPD is critical for the development of novel therapies. In the present review, we have discussed the roles of oxidative/aldehyde stress, inflammation/immunity, and chromatin remodeling in the pathogenesis of COPD. An imbalance of oxidants/antioxidants caused by cigarette smoke and other pollutants/biomass fuels plays an important role in the pathogenesis of COPD by regulating redox-sensitive transcription factors (e.g., NF-κB), autophagy and unfolded protein response leading to chronic lung inflammatory response. Cigarette smoke also activates canonical/alternative NF-κB pathways and their upstream kinases leading to sustained inflammatory response in lungs. Recently, epigenetic regulation has been shown to be critical for the development of COPD because the expression/activity of enzymes that regulate these epigenetic modifications have been reported to be abnormal in airways of COPD patients. Hence, the significant advances made in understanding the pathophysiology of COPD as described herein will identify novel therapeutic targets for intervention in COPD.

  2. Multidimensional Analyses of Long-Term Clinical Courses of Asthma and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toru Oga

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD are chronic respiratory disorders involving obstructive airway defects. There have been many discussions on their similarities and differences. Although airflow limitation expressed as forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1 has been considered to be the main diagnostic assessment in both diseases, it does not reflect the functional impairment imparted to the patients by these diseases. Therefore, multidimensional approaches using multiple measurements in assessing disease control or severity have been recommended, and multiple endpoints in addition to FEV1 have been set recently in clinical trials so as not to miss the overall effects. In particular, as improving symptoms and health status as well as pulmonary function are important goals in the management of asthma and COPD, some patient-reported measurements such as health-related quality of life or dyspnea should be included. Nonetheless, there have been few reviews on the long-term clinical course comparing asthma and COPD as predicted by measurements other than airflow limitation. Here, we therefore analyzed and compared longitudinal changes in both physiological measurements and patient-reported measurements in asthma and COPD. Although both diseases showed similar long-term progressive airflow limitation similarly despite guideline-based therapies, disease progression was different in asthma and COPD. In asthma, patient-reported assessments of health status, disability and psychological status remained clinically stable over time, in contrast to the significant deterioration of these parameters in COPD. Thus, because a single measurement of airflow limitation is insufficient to monitor these diseases, multidimensional analyses are important not only for disease control but also for understanding disease progression in asthma and COPD. KEY WORDS: asthma, COPD, longitudinal survey, multidimensional analysis, patient

  3. Trefoil factor-2 reverses airway remodeling changes in allergic airways disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royce, Simon G; Lim, Clarice; Muljadi, Ruth C; Samuel, Chrishan S; Ververis, Katherine; Karagiannis, Tom C; Giraud, Andrew S; Tang, Mimi L K

    2013-01-01

    Trefoil factor 2 (TFF2) is a small peptide with an important role in mucosal repair. TFF2 is up-regulated in asthma, suggesting a role in asthma pathogenesis. Given its known biological role in promoting epithelial repair, TFF2 might be expected to exert a protective function in limiting the progression of airway remodeling in asthma. The contribution of TFF2 to airway remodeling in asthma was investigated by examining the expression of TFF2 in the airway and lung, and evaluating the effects of recombinant TFF2 treatment on established airway remodeling in a murine model of chronic allergic airways disease (AAD). BALB/c mice were sensitized and challenged with ovalbumin (OVA) or saline for 9 weeks, whereas mice with established OVA-induced AAD were treated with TFF2 or vehicle control (intranasally for 14 d). Effects on airway remodeling, airway inflammation, and airway hyperresponsiveness were then assessed, whereas TFF2 expression was determined by immunohistochemistry. TFF2 expression was significantly increased in the airways of mice with AAD, compared with expression levels in control mice. TFF2 treatment resulted in reduced epithelial thickening, subepithelial collagen deposition, goblet-cell metaplasia, bronchial epithelium apoptosis, and airway hyperresponsiveness (all P < 0.05, versus vehicle control), but TFF2 treatment did not influence airway inflammation. The increased expression of endogenous TFF2 in response to chronic allergic inflammation is insufficient to prevent the progression of airway inflammation and remodeling in a murine model of chronic AAD. However, exogenous TFF2 treatment is effective in reversing aspects of established airway remodeling. TFF2 has potential as a novel treatment for airway remodeling in asthma.

  4. Radioaerosol lung scanning in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and related disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yong Whee Bahk; Soo Kyo Chung

    1994-01-01

    As a coordinated research project of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), a multicentre joint study on radioaerosol lung scan using the BARC nebulizer has prospectively been carried out during 1988-1992 with the participation of 10 member countries in Asia [Bangladesh, China, India, Indonesia, Japan, Korea, Pakistan, Philippines, Singapore and Thailand]. The study was designed so that it would primarily cover chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and the other related and common pulmonary diseases. The study also included normal controls and asymptomatic smokers. The purposes of this presentation are three fold: firstly, to document the usefulness of the nebulizer and the validity of user's protocol in imaging COPD and other lung diseases; secondly, to discuss scan features of the individual COPD and other disorders studied and thirdly, to correlate scan alterations with radiographic findings. Before proceeding with a systematic analysis of aerosol scan patterns in the disease groups, we documented normal pattern. The next step was the assessment of scan features in those who had been smoking for more than several years but had no symptoms or signs referable to airways. The lung diseases we analyzed included COPD [emphysema, chronic bronchitis, asthma and bronchiectasis], bronchial obstruction, compensatory overinflation and other common lung diseases such as lobar pneumonia, tuberculosis, interstitial fibrosis, diffuse panbronchiolitis, lung edema and primary and metastatic lung cancers. Lung embolism, inhalation bums and glue-sniffer's lung are separately discussed by Dr. Sundram of Singapore elsewhere in this book. The larger portion of this chapter is allocated to the discussion of COPD with a special effort made in sorting out differential scan features. Diagnostic criteria in individual COPD were defined for each category of disease and basic clinical symptoms and signs and pertinent laboratory data as well as radiographic manifestations are

  5. Radioaerosol lung scanning in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and related disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahk, Yong Whee [Departments of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Kangnam St. Mary' s Hospital, Catholic University Medical College, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Soo Kyo [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Kangnam St. Mary' s Hospital, Catholic University Medical College, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-07-01

    As a coordinated research project of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), a multicentre joint study on radioaerosol lung scan using the BARC nebulizer has prospectively been carried out during 1988-1992 with the participation of 10 member countries in Asia [Bangladesh, China, India, Indonesia, Japan, Korea, Pakistan, Philippines, Singapore and Thailand]. The study was designed so that it would primarily cover chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and the other related and common pulmonary diseases. The study also included normal controls and asymptomatic smokers. The purposes of this presentation are three fold: firstly, to document the usefulness of the nebulizer and the validity of user's protocol in imaging COPD and other lung diseases; secondly, to discuss scan features of the individual COPD and other disorders studied and thirdly, to correlate scan alterations with radiographic findings. Before proceeding with a systematic analysis of aerosol scan patterns in the disease groups, we documented normal pattern. The next step was the assessment of scan features in those who had been smoking for more than several years but had no symptoms or signs referable to airways. The lung diseases we analyzed included COPD [emphysema, chronic bronchitis, asthma and bronchiectasis], bronchial obstruction, compensatory overinflation and other common lung diseases such as lobar pneumonia, tuberculosis, interstitial fibrosis, diffuse panbronchiolitis, lung edema and primary and metastatic lung cancers. Lung embolism, inhalation bums and glue-sniffer's lung are separately discussed by Dr. Sundram of Singapore elsewhere in this book. The larger portion of this chapter is allocated to the discussion of COPD with a special effort made in sorting out differential scan features. Diagnostic criteria in individual COPD were defined for each category of disease and basic clinical symptoms and signs and pertinent laboratory data as well as radiographic manifestations are

  6. Upper airway surgery of obstructive sleep apnea in pycnodysostosis: case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testani, Elisa; Scarano, Emanuele; Leoni, Chiara; Dittoni, Serena; Losurdo, Anna; Colicchio, Salvatore; Gnoni, Valentina; Vollono, Catello; Zampino, Giuseppe; Paludetti, Gaetano; Della Marca, Giacomo

    2014-08-01

    Pycnodysostosis is an autosomal recessive disorder due to a mutation in the cathepsin K gene, which causes a decrease of the bone turnover; a review of the literature suggests that pycnodysostosis is frequently associated with severe respiratory obstruction, which needs surgical treatment. The aim of this paper is to describe the surgical treatment of a 3½-year-old girl affected by Pycnodysostosis complicated by a severe sleep-related respiratory disorder. The surgical treatment, consisting of adenotonsillectomy and palatoplasty, resulted in a striking amelioration of respiratory parameters and increased posterior airway space, and allowed the patient to avoid tracheotomy while awaiting for maxillo-mandibular surgery. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Substantial need for early diagnosis, rehabilitation and treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, Peter; Marott, Jacob Louis; Dahl, Morten

    2012-01-01

    Our goal was to estimate the number of individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in the Capital Region of Denmark and the need of resources required to implement the regional management programme for COPD.......Our goal was to estimate the number of individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in the Capital Region of Denmark and the need of resources required to implement the regional management programme for COPD....

  8. Lifestyle modification for obstructive sleep apnoea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shneerson, J; Wright, J

    2001-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnoeas are due to transient closure of the upper airway during sleep and merge into hypopnoeas in which the airway narrows, but some airflow continues. They are due to the forces compressing the airway overcoming those which stabilise its patency. The commonest association is obesity in which fatty tissue is deposited around the airway. Exercise has been recommended as a method of losing weight, but other techniques which achieve this are also thought to improve symptoms due to sleep apnoeas. Sleep hygiene may alter the sleep structure and the control of the upper airway during sleep and thus promote its patency. The objectives of this review are to determine whether weight loss, sleep hygiene and exercise are effective in the treatment of obstructive sleep apnoeas. The Cochrane Airways Group Trials Register, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL and reference lists of review articles have been searched. Randomised, single or double blind placebo controlled, either parallel group or crossover design studies of any of these interventions were to have been included. No completed trials have been identified. No randomised trial data were available for analysis. There is a need for randomised controlled trials of these commonly used treatments in obstructive sleep apnoeas. These should identify which sub groups of patients with sleep apnoeas benefit most from each type of treatment and they should have clear and standardised outcome measures.

  9. Obstructive sleep apnea therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekema, A.; Stegenga, B.; Wijkstra, P. J.; van der Hoeven, J. H.; Meinesz, A. F.; de Bont, L. G. M.

    In clinical practice, oral appliances are used primarily for obstructive sleep apnea patients who do not respond to continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy. We hypothesized that an oral appliance is not inferior to CPAP in treating obstructive sleep apnea effectively. We randomly assigned

  10. Craniofacial morphology and sleep apnea in children with obstructed upper airways: differences between genders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Francesco, Renata; Monteiro, Roberta; Paulo, Maria Luiza de Melo; Buranello, Fernando; Imamura, Rui

    2012-06-01

    To correlate sleep apnea with craniofacial characteristics and facial patterns according to gender. In this prospective survey we studied 77 male and female children (3-12 years old) with an upper airway obstruction due to tonsil and adenoid enlargement. Children with lung problems, neurological disorders and syndromes, obstructive septal deviation, previous orthodontic treatment, orthodontic surgeries or oral surgeries, or obesity were excluded. Patients were subjected to physical examinations, nasal fiberoptic endoscopy, teleradiography for cephalometric analysis, and polysomnography. Cephalometric analysis included the following skeletal craniofacial measurements: facial axis (FA), facial depth (FD), mandibular plane angle (MP), lower facial height (LFH), mandibular arch (MA), and vertical growth coefficient (VERT) index. The prevalence of sleep apnea was 46.75% with no statistical difference between genders. Among children with obstructive sleep apnea (Apneia Hypopnea Index - AHI ≥ 1) boys had higher AHI values than girls. A predominance of the dolichofacial pattern (81.9%) was observed. The following skeletal craniofacial measurements correlated with AHI in boys: FD (r(s)=-0.336/p=0.020), MP (r(s)=0.486/p=0.00), and VERT index (r(s)=-0.337/p=0.019). No correlations between craniofacial measurements and AHI were identified in girls. Craniofacial morphology may influence the severity of sleep apnea in boys but not in girls. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Measurement of the square measure of the pharynx and the positional diagnosis of airway obstruction during obstructive sleep apnea syndrome by dynamic MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozuki, Taizo; Ohkubo, Yasuo; Abe, Kimihiko

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to apply dynamic MRI for the positional diagnosis of airway obstruction during snoring and sleep apnea and to compare the apnea hypopnea index (AHI) and the square measure of the pharynx obtained before and after laser-assisted uvula-palate-pharyngoplasty (LAUP). From December 1997 to October 1998, dynamic MRI and overnight monitoring were performed at the hospital of Tokyo Medical University on 42 patients who complained of snoring and symptoms related to sleep apnea syndrome (SAS). Of the 42 patients, four exhibited collapse at the position of the soft palate (soft palate type) as diagnosed by dynamic MRI, and four exhibited collapse at the position of the soft palate as well as the tongue (complex type). LAUP was performed on these eight patients with obstructive SAS (OSAS). After LAUP, the AHI of these eight patients with OSAS decreased significantly (p<0.05). The square measure of the pharynx of these eight patients was increased (p<0.01). The AHI of all four patients with soft-palate obstruction decreased, and the square measure of the pharynx of three of these four patients increased. The AHI of three of four patients with the complex type decreased, while the square measure of the pharynx of two of these four patients increased. (author)

  12. Measurement of the square measure of the pharynx and the positional diagnosis of airway obstruction during obstructive sleep apnea syndrome by dynamic MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozuki, Taizo; Ohkubo, Yasuo; Abe, Kimihiko [Tokyo Medical Coll. (Japan)

    2000-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to apply dynamic MRI for the positional diagnosis of airway obstruction during snoring and sleep apnea and to compare the apnea hypopnea index (AHI) and the square measure of the pharynx obtained before and after laser-assisted uvula-palate-pharyngoplasty (LAUP). From December 1997 to October 1998, dynamic MRI and overnight monitoring were performed at the hospital of Tokyo Medical University on 42 patients who complained of snoring and symptoms related to sleep apnea syndrome (SAS). Of the 42 patients, four exhibited collapse at the position of the soft palate (soft palate type) as diagnosed by dynamic MRI, and four exhibited collapse at the position of the soft palate as well as the tongue (complex type). LAUP was performed on these eight patients with obstructive SAS (OSAS). After LAUP, the AHI of these eight patients with OSAS decreased significantly (p<0.05). The square measure of the pharynx of these eight patients was increased (p<0.01). The AHI of all four patients with soft-palate obstruction decreased, and the square measure of the pharynx of three of these four patients increased. The AHI of three of four patients with the complex type decreased, while the square measure of the pharynx of two of these four patients increased. (author)

  13. Integrated care pathways for airway diseases (AIRWAYS-ICPs)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bousquet, J; Addis, A; Adcock, I

    2014-01-01

    The objective of Integrated Care Pathways for Airway Diseases (AIRWAYS-ICPs) is to launch a collaboration to develop multi-sectoral care pathways for chronic respiratory diseases in European countries and regions. AIRWAYS-ICPs has strategic relevance to the European Union Health Strategy...... and will add value to existing public health knowledge by: 1) proposing a common framework of care pathways for chronic respiratory diseases, which will facilitate comparability and trans-national initiatives; 2) informing cost-effective policy development, strengthening in particular those on smoking...... and environmental exposure; 3) aiding risk stratification in chronic disease patients, using a common strategy; 4) having a significant impact on the health of citizens in the short term (reduction of morbidity, improvement of education in children and of work in adults) and in the long-term (healthy ageing); 5...

  14. Lower airway colonization and inflammatory response in COPD: a focus on Haemophilus influenzae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Finney LJ

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Lydia J Finney,1 Andrew Ritchie,1 Elizabeth Pollard,2 Sebastian L Johnston,1 Patrick Mallia1 1Airway Disease Infection Section, National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College, London, United Kingdom; 2King's College London, London, United Kingdom Abstract: Bacterial infection of the lower respiratory tract in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD patients is common both in stable patients and during acute exacerbations. The most frequent bacteria detected in COPD patients is Haemophilus influenzae, and it appears this organism is uniquely adapted to exploit immune deficiencies associated with COPD and to establish persistent infection in the lower respiratory tract. The presence of bacteria in the lower respiratory tract in stable COPD is termed colonization; however, there is increasing evidence that this is not an innocuous phenomenon but is associated with airway inflammation, increased symptoms, and increased risk for exacerbations. In this review, we discuss host immunity that offers protection against H. influenzae and how disturbance of these mechanisms, combined with pathogen mechanisms of immune evasion, promote persistence of H. influenzae in the lower airways in COPD. In addition, we examine the role of H. influenzae in COPD exacerbations, as well as interactions between H. influenzae and respiratory virus infections, and review the role of treatments and their effect on COPD outcomes. This review focuses predominantly on data derived from human studies but will refer to animal studies where they contribute to understanding the disease in humans. Keywords: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, Haemophilus influenzae, nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae, respiratory viruses, vaccination

  15. Physical inactivity and obesity: relation to asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ten Hacken, Nick H T

    2009-12-01

    Physical inactivity and obesity are modifiable risk factors for many chronic diseases, including cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, osteoporosis, osteoarthritis, and depression. Both physical inactivity and obesity are associated with low-grade systemic inflammation that may contribute to the inflammatory processes present in many chronic diseases. In asthma, almost no studies are available in which physical inactivity has been studied using performance-based instruments. In contrast, the association between obesity and a higher prevalence of asthma has often been suggested in a large number of studies. In chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) physical inactivity has been demonstrated in a few studies that used performance-based instruments; this was associated with the higher COPD Global Initiative on Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) stages and a higher degree of systemic inflammation, independent of body mass index. In contrast to physical inactivity, obesity in COPD is associated with the lower GOLD stages. Additionally, obesity is associated with the chronic obstructive phenotype and features of the metabolic syndrome. To elucidate the independent relation of physical inactivity and obesity with systemic inflammation, performance-based studies of physical inactivity in asthma and COPD are highly needed.

  16. Rescue patient from tracheal obstruction by dislocated bronchial stent during tracheostomy surgery with readily available tools: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hung-Yu; Man, Kee-Ming; Liao, Kate Hsiurong; Chiang, Yi-Ying; Chen, Kuen-Bao

    2017-09-01

    Airway stenting is a well-established method that relieves symptoms and maintains airway patency in patients with airway obstruction. Serious complications caused by airway stents such as stent dislocation and airway obstruction during surgery are life-threatening. An 80-year-old man was treated with bronchial stent for left bronchus obstruction caused by metastatic esophageal cancer. During tracheostomy surgery, he suffered from acute tracheal obstruction caused by dislocated bronchial stent. Esophageal cancer, left bronchus obstruction, respiratory failure, tracheal obstruction. Threading a 5.0-sized endotracheal tube combined with an Eschmann tracheal tube introducer to prop up the collapsed stent. The bronchial stent was re-expanded and threaded into right main bronchus and ventilation restored. Patient with airway stent undergoing surgery with airway involved should be performed under the support of a backup physician and equipment that are capable of handling potentially life-threatening complications of airway stent. If not, in the emergent situation of tracheal obstruction due to tracheal/bronchial stent, protruding through the stent with a suitable, small-sized endotracheal tube with Eschmann tracheal tube introducer may be an alternative skill for saving life weighted with possible complications.

  17. Predominant constitutive CFTR conductance in small airways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lytle Christian

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The pathological hallmarks of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD are inflammation of the small airways (bronchiolitis and destruction of lung parenchyma (emphysema. These forms of disease arise from chronic prolonged infections, which are usually never present in the normal lung. Despite the fact that primary hygiene and defense of the airways presumably requires a well controlled fluid environment on the surface of the bronchiolar airway, very little is known of the fluid and electrolyte transport properties of airways of less than a few mm diameter. Methods We introduce a novel approach to examine some of these properties in a preparation of minimally traumatized porcine bronchioles of about 1 mm diameter by microperfusing the intact bronchiole. Results In bilateral isotonic NaCl Ringer solutions, the spontaneous transepithelial potential (TEP; lumen to bath of the bronchiole was small (mean ± sem: -3 ± 1 mV; n = 25, but when gluconate replaced luminal Cl-, the bionic Cl- diffusion potentials (-58 ± 3 mV; n = 25 were as large as -90 mV. TEP diffusion potentials from 2:1 NaCl dilution showed that epithelial Cl- permeability was at least 5 times greater than Na+ permeability. The anion selectivity sequence was similar to that of CFTR. The bionic TEP became more electronegative with stimulation by luminal forskolin (5 μM+IBMX (100 μM, ATP (100 μM, or adenosine (100 μM, but not by ionomycin. The TEP was partially inhibited by NPPB (100 μM, GlyH-101* (5–50 μM, and CFTRInh-172* (5 μM. RT-PCR gave identifying products for CFTR, α-, β-, and γ-ENaC and NKCC1. Antibodies to CFTR localized specifically to the epithelial cells lining the lumen of the small airways. Conclusion These results indicate that the small airway of the pig is characterized by a constitutively active Cl- conductance that is most likely due to CFTR.

  18. Six-minute-walk test in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Polkey, Michael I; Spruit, Martijn A; Edwards, Lisa D

    2013-01-01

    Outcomes other than spirometry are required to assess nonbronchodilator therapies for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Estimates of the minimal clinically important difference for the 6-minute-walk distance (6MWD) have been derived from narrow cohorts using nonblinded intervention....

  19. Electrocardiographic Characteristics of Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warnier, M.J.; Rutten, F.H.; Numans, M.E.; Kors, J.A.; Tan, H.L.; de Boer, A.; Hoes, A.W.; de Bruin, M.L.

    2013-01-01

    Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are at increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Electrocardiography (ECG) carries information about cardiac disease and prognosis, but studies comparing ECG characteristics between patients with and without COPD are lacking. We related ECG

  20. Correlation of six minute walk test with spirometric indices in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients: A tertiary care hospital experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhijit Kundu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Six-minute walk test (6MWT is a simple, objective, reproducible test which correlated well with different spirometric indices, and thus able to predict severity of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and can replace spirometry in resource poor set-up. Aims and Objectives: To find out correlation between spirometric indices (forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV 1 , forced vital capacity (FVC, and peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR and 6-minute walk distance (6MWD in COPD patients, and thus to assess whether 6MWT can replace spirometry. Settings and Design: Institution based cross-sectional observational study. Materials and Methods: Eighty patients of COPD (diagnosis confirmed by Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD 2010 criteria were enrolled for the study after applying exclusion criteria. All patients underwent spirometric measurement of FEV 1 , FVC, PEFR, and ratio of FEV 1 and FVC and test repeated after bronchodilation by 200-400 μg of salbutamol. 6MWT was performed following American Thoracic Society (ATS protocol of 6MWT and distance was measured in meters. Results: We found significant linear correlation of 6MWT with post-FEV 1 (r = 0.478, P < 0.001, post-FVC (r = 0.454, P < 0.001, and post-PEFR (r = 0.408, P < 0.001, but no correlation with FEV 1 /FVC (r = 0.250, P = 0.025. We also found significant correlation of 6MWT with BODE (body mass index (BMI, airway obstruction, dyspnea, and exercise capacity index (r = −0.419, P < 0.001. Conclusions: 6MWT can be a useful replacement of spirometry in assessment of severity of COPD.

  1. Neutralization of TSLP inhibits airway remodeling in a murine model of allergic asthma induced by chronic exposure to house dust mite.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuang-Gui Chen

    Full Text Available Chronic allergic asthma is characterized by Th2-typed inflammation, and contributes to airway remodeling and the deterioration of lung function. However, the initiating factor that links airway inflammation to remodeling is unknown. Thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP, an epithelium-derived cytokine, can strongly activate lung dendritic cells (DCs through the TSLP-TSLPR and OX40L-OX40 signaling pathways to promote Th2 differentiation. To determine whether TSLP is the underlying trigger of airway remodeling in chronic allergen-induced asthma, we induced allergic airway inflammation in mice by intranasal administration of house dust mite (HDM extracts for up to 5 consecutive weeks. We showed that repeated respiratory exposure to HDM caused significant airway eosinophilic inflammation, peribronchial collagen deposition, goblet cell hyperplasia, and airway hyperreactivity (AHR to methacholine. These effects were accompanied with a salient Th2 response that was characterized by the upregulation of Th2-typed cytokines, such as IL-4 and IL-13, as well as the transcription factor GATA-3. Moreover, the levels of TSLP and transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1 were also increased in the airway. We further demonstrated, using the chronic HDM-induced asthma model, that the inhibition of Th2 responses via neutralization of TSLP with an anti-TSLP mAb reversed airway inflammation, prevented structural alterations, and decreased AHR to methacholine and TGF-β1 level. These results suggest that TSLP plays a pivotal role in the initiation and persistence of airway inflammation and remodeling in the context of chronic allergic asthma.

  2. Bilateral parotitis in a patient under continuous positive airway pressure treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullayev, Ruslan; Saral, Filiz Cosku; Kucukebe, Omer Burak; Sayiner, Hakan Sezgin; Bayraktar, Cem; Akgun, Sadik

    Many conditions such as bacterial and viral infectious diseases, mechanical obstruction due to air and calculi and drugs can cause parotitis. We present a case of unusual bilateral parotitis in a patient under non-invasive continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exacerbation in intensive care unit. A 36-year-old patient was admitted to intensive care unit with the diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exacerbation. Antibiotherapy, bronchodilator therapy and non-invasive positive pressure ventilation were applied as treatment regimen. Painless swellings developed on the 3rd day of admission on the right and a day after this on the left parotid glands. Amylase levels were increased and ultrasonographic evaluation revealed bilateral parotitis. No intervention was made and the therapy was continued. The patient was discharged on the 6th day with clinical improvement and regression of parotid swellings without any complications. Parotitis may have occurred after retrograde air flow in the Stensen duct during CPAP application. After the exclusion of possible viral and bacteriological etiologies and possible drug reactions we can focus on this diagnosis. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  3. Bile Duct Obstruction Secondary to Chronic Pancreatitis in Seven Dogs

    OpenAIRE

    Cribb, Alastair E.; Burgener, David C.; Reimann, Keith A.

    1988-01-01

    Seven icteric dogs were determined to have bile duct obstruction secondary to chronic pancreatitis. All dogs had histories of intermittent vomiting and diarrhea. Alkaline phosphatase and alanine aminotransferase activities and total bilirubin concentrations were markedly elevated. Diagnosis was based on exploratory laparotomy and histological examination. Each dog had a 3 to 10 cm mass in the body of the pancreas and obstruction of the common bile duct. Three dogs treated with pancreatectomy,...

  4. Plethysmographic evaluation of airway obstruction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quanjer, Philippus Hermanus

    1971-01-01

    A number of aspects of body plethysmography were investigated in this study: measurement of airway resistance and thoracic gas volume, the relationship of these variables with other parameters of lung mechanics, with indices of alveolar ventilation and with arterial blood gases. Furthermore the

  5. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in patients admitted with heart failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, K K; Kjaergaard, J; Akkan, D

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is an important differential diagnosis in patients with heart failure (HF). The primary aims were to determine the prevalence of COPD and to test the accuracy of self-reported COPD in patients admitted with HF. Secondary aims were to study...... valve. CONCLUSION: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is frequent in patients admitted with HF and self-reported COPD only identifies a minority. The prevalence of COPD was high in both patients with systolic and nonsystolic HF....... a possible relationship between right and left ventricular function and pulmonary function. DESIGN: Prospective substudy. SETTING: Systematic screening at 11 centres. SUBJECTS: Consecutive patients (n = 532) admitted with HF requiring medical treatment with diuretics and an episode with symptoms...

  6. Vitamin D deficiency: What does it mean for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)? a compherensive review for pulmonologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokturk, Nurdan; Baha, Ayse; Oh, Yeon-Mok; Young Ju, Jung; Jones, Paul W

    2018-02-01

    Vitamin D deficiency and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) are both under-recognized health problems, world-wide. Although Vitamin D has long been known for calcemic effects it also has less known noncalcemic effects. Recent data have shown that Vitamin D deficiency is highly prevalent in patients with COPD and correlates with forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV 1 ) and FEV 1 decline. The objective of this work was to review the current literature on vitamin D deficiency in relation with COPD. A literature search, using the words "vitamin D" and "COPD", was undertaken in Pubmed database. The noncalcemic effects of vitamin D relating with COPD may be summarised as increasing antimicrobial peptide production, regulation of inflammatory response and airway remodelling. Vitamin D inhibits the production of several proinflammatory cytokines and leads to suppression Th1 and Th17 responses which may be involved in the pathogenesis of COPD. Vitamin D insufficiency may also contribute to chronic respiratory infections and airway colonization so returning vitamin D concentrations to an optimal range in patients with COPD might reduce bacterial load and concomitant exacerbations.Vitamin D is also important for COPD-related comorbodities such as osteoporosis, muscle weakness and cardiovascular diseases. Data about the effect of Vitamin D supplementation on those comorbidities in relation with COPD are been scarce. Improving the blood level of Vitamin D into the desired range may have a beneficial effect bones and muscles, but more studies are needed to test to test that hypothesis. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Endoscopic or surgical intervention for painful obstructive chronic pancreatitis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ahmed Ali, U.; Pahlplatz, J.M.; Nealon, W.H.; Goor, H. van; Gooszen, H.G.; Boermeester, M.A.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Endoscopy and surgery are the treatment modalities of choice in patients with obstructive chronic pancreatitis. Physicians face the decision between endoscopy and surgery for this group of patients, without clear consensus. OBJECTIVES: To assess and compare the effectiveness and

  8. Endoscopic or surgical intervention for painful obstructive chronic pancreatitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ahmed Ali, Usama; Pahlplatz, Johanna M.; Nealon, Wiliam H.; van Goor, Harry; Gooszen, Hein G.; Boermeester, Marja A.

    2012-01-01

    Background Endoscopy and surgery are the treatment modalities of choice in patients with obstructive chronic pancreatitis. Physicians face the decision between endoscopy and surgery for this group of patients, without clear consensus. Objectives To assess and compare the effectiveness and

  9. Inhaled corticosteroids and mortality in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sin, DD; Wu, L; Anderson, JA; Anthonisen, NR; Buist, AS; Burge, PS; Calverley, PM; Connett, JE; Lindmark, B; Pauwels, RA; Postma, DS; Soriano, JB; Szafranski, W; Vestbo, J

    2005-01-01

    Background: Clinical studies suggest that inhaled corticosteroids reduce exacerbations and improve health status in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, their effect on mortality is unknown. Methods: A pooled analysis, based on intention to treat, of individual patient data from

  10. Evolution of the Immune Response to Chronic Airway Colonization with Aspergillus fumigatus Hyphae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urb, Mirjam; Snarr, Brendan D; Wojewodka, Gabriella; Lehoux, Mélanie; Lee, Mark J; Ralph, Benjamin; Divangahi, Maziar; King, Irah L; McGovern, Toby K; Martin, James G; Fraser, Richard; Radzioch, Danuta; Sheppard, Donald C

    2015-09-01

    Airway colonization by the mold Aspergillus fumigatus is common in patients with underlying lung disease and is associated with chronic airway inflammation. Studies probing the inflammatory response to colonization with A. fumigatus hyphae have been hampered by the lack of a model of chronic colonization in immunocompetent mice. By infecting mice intratracheally with conidia embedded in agar beads (Af beads), we have established an in vivo model to study the natural history of airway colonization with live A. fumigatus hyphae. Histopathological examination and galactomannan assay of lung homogenates demonstrated that hyphae exited beads and persisted in the lungs of mice up to 28 days postinfection without invasive disease. Fungal lesions within the airways were surrounded by a robust neutrophilic inflammatory reaction and peribronchial infiltration of lymphocytes. Whole-lung cytokine analysis from Af bead-infected mice revealed an increase in proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines early in infection. Evidence of a Th2 type response was observed only early in the course of colonization, including increased levels of interleukin-4 (IL-4), elevated IgE levels in serum, and a mild increase in airway responsiveness. Pulmonary T cell subset analysis during infection mirrored these results with an initial transient increase in IL-4-producing CD4(+) T cells, followed by a rise in IL-17 and Foxp3(+) cells by day 14. These results provide the first report of the evolution of the immune response to A. fumigatus hyphal colonization. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  11. Angiogenesis is induced by airway smooth muscle strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasaneen, Nadia A; Zucker, Stanley; Lin, Richard Z; Vaday, Gayle G; Panettieri, Reynold A; Foda, Hussein D

    2007-10-01

    Angiogenesis is an important feature of airway remodeling in both chronic asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Airways in those conditions are exposed to excessive mechanical strain during periods of acute exacerbations. We recently reported that mechanical strain of human airway smooth muscle (HASM) led to an increase in their proliferation and migration. Sustained growth in airway smooth muscle in vivo requires an increase in the nutritional supply to these muscles, hence angiogenesis. In this study, we examined the hypothesis that cyclic mechanical strain of HASM produces factors promoting angiogenic events in the surrounding vascular endothelial cells. Our results show: 1) a significant increase in human lung microvascular endothelial cell (HMVEC-L) proliferation, migration, and tube formation following incubation in conditioned media (CM) from HASM cells exposed to mechanical strain; 2) mechanical strain of HASM cells induced VEGF expression and release; 3) VEGF neutralizing antibodies inhibited the proliferation, migration, and tube formations of HMVEC-L induced by the strained airway smooth muscle CM; 4) mechanical strain of HASM induced a significant increase in hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1alpha) mRNA and protein, a transcription factor required for VEGF gene transcription; and 5) mechanical strain of HASM induced HIF-1alpha/VEGF through dual phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and ERK pathways. In conclusion, exposing HASM cells to mechanical strain induces signal transduction pathway through PI3K/Akt/mTOR and ERK pathways that lead to an increase in HIF-1alpha, a transcription factor required for VEGF expression. VEGF release by mechanical strain of HASM may contribute to the angiogenesis seen with repeated exacerbation of asthma and COPD.

  12. Supplemental Oxygen During High-Intensity Exercise Training in Nonhypoxemic Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neunhäuserer, Daniel; Steidle-Kloc, Eva; Weiss, Gertraud; Kaiser, Bernhard; Niederseer, David; Hartl, Sylvia; Tschentscher, Marcus; Egger, Andreas; Schönfelder, Martin; Lamprecht, Bernd; Studnicka, Michael; Niebauer, Josef

    2016-11-01

    Physical exercise training is an evidence-based treatment in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and patients' peak work rate is associated with reduced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease mortality. We assessed whether supplemental oxygen during exercise training in nonhypoxemic patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease might lead to superior training outcomes, including improved peak work rate. This was a randomized, double-blind, controlled, crossover trial. Twenty-nine patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (aged 63.5 ± 5.9 years; forced expiratory volume in 1 second percent predicted, 46.4 ± 8.6) completed 2 consecutive 6-week periods of endurance and strength training with progressive intensity, which was performed 3 times per week with supplemental oxygen or compressed medical air (flow via nasal cannula: 10 L/min). Each session of electrocardiography-controlled interval cycling lasted 31 minutes and consisted of a warm-up, 7 cycles of 1-minute intervals at 70% to 80% of peak work rate alternating with 2 minutes of active recovery, and final cooldown. Thereafter, patients completed 8 strength-training exercises of 1 set each with 8 to 15 repetitions to failure. Change in peak work rate was the primary study end point. The increase in peak work rate was more than twice as high when patients exercised with supplemental oxygen compared with medical air (0.16 ± 0.02 W/kg vs 0.07 ± 0.02 W/kg; P work rate was 39.1% of the overall training effect, whereas it had no influence on strength gain (P > .1 for all exercises). We report that supplemental oxygen in nonhypoxemic chronic obstructive pulmonary disease doubled the effect of endurance training but had no effect on strength gain. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Chronic intestinal obstruction due to rectosigmoid endometriosis: a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chronic intestinal obstruction due to rectosigmoid endometriosis: a case report. AO Tade. Abstract. No Abstract. Nigerian Journal of Medicine Vol. 15(2) 2006: 165-166. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/njm.v15i2.37104.

  14. Improvement in headaches with continuous positive airway pressure for obstructive sleep apnea: a retrospective analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Karin G; Ziemba, Alexis M; Garb, Jane L

    2013-02-01

    We aimed to identify clinical features in patients with severe headaches that predicted obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and determine clinical and sleep study characteristics that predicted headache improvement with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP). Many patients with headaches complain of sleep symptoms and have OSA. There is often improvement of headaches with CPAP treatment. We conducted a retrospective chart review of all patients referred to adult neurology clinic for headaches and sent for polysomnography between January 2008 and December 2009. Follow-up ranged from 18 to 42 months. Eighty-two headache patients (70 females, 12 males) were studied. Mean age was 45±13 years (females 45±13, males 43±11) and mean body mass index was 32±9. Headache types included 17% chronic migraine without aura, 22% episodic migraine without aura, 32% migraine with aura, 21% tension-type headache, 6% chronic post-traumatic headache, 11% medication overuse headache, and 7% other types. All patients were receiving standard treatment for their headaches by their neurologist. Fifty-two patients (63%) had OSA. Increasing age, female gender, and chronic migraine without aura were predictive of OSA. Of the patients with OSA, 33 (63%) used CPAP and 27 (82%) were adherent to CPAP. Headache improvement was reported by 40 patients (49%) due to either standard medical therapy or CPAP. Patients with OSA who were CPAP adherent (21/27) were more likely to have improvement in headaches than patients intolerant of CPAP (2/6), those that did not try CPAP (8/19), and those who did not have OSA (16/30) (P=.045). Of the 33 patients who used CPAP, 13 reported improvement in headaches specifically due to CPAP therapy and 10 additional patients noted benefit in sleep symptoms. The presence of witnessed apneas (P=.045) and male gender (P=.021) predicted improvement in headaches due to CPAP. Headache patients should be evaluated for the presence of OSA. Treating OSA improves headaches in some

  15. Global Strategy for the Diagnosis, Management and Prevention of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, GOLD Executive Summary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestbo, Jørgen; Hurd, Suzanne S; Agusti, Alvar G

    2013-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a global health problem and since 2001 the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) has published its strategy document for the diagnosis and management of COPD. This executive summary presents the main contents of the second 5...

  16. Tracheostomy and radiotherapy in the management of laryngeal carcinoma causing airway obstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dawes, P.J.D. [Sunderland District General Hospital (United Kingdom); Agrawal, R.K.; Dawes, P.J.D.K. [Newcastle General Hospital (United Kingdom); Williams, S. [Otago Univ., Dunedin (New Zealand)

    1997-09-01

    Between 1977 and 1985, 66 patients presenting with airway obstruction due to laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma were treated by tracheostomy and subsequent radiotherapy. Female survival (64% at 2 years and 35% at 5 years) was significantly better than male survival (19% at 2 years and 10% at 5 years). When four forms of management were compared, it appeared that 40 Gy in ten fractions over 21 days was associated with better survival. Because two of the treatment groups contained few patients, these were excluded from further analysis. When adjustments were made for sex, delay between tracheostomy and treatment, and residual disease, the difference in treatment response between those receiving 60+ Gy in 28-30 fractions over 42 days and those receiving 40 Gy in ten fractions over 21 days was not significant (hazard ratio 1.37; 95% CI 0.64-3.91). (author).

  17. Tracheostomy and radiotherapy in the management of laryngeal carcinoma causing airway obstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dawes, P.J.D.; Agrawal, R.K.; Dawes, P.J.D.K.; Williams, S.

    1997-01-01

    Between 1977 and 1985, 66 patients presenting with airway obstruction due to laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma were treated by tracheostomy and subsequent radiotherapy. Female survival (64% at 2 years and 35% at 5 years) was significantly better than male survival (19% at 2 years and 10% at 5 years). When four forms of management were compared, it appeared that 40 Gy in ten fractions over 21 days was associated with better survival. Because two of the treatment groups contained few patients, these were excluded from further analysis. When adjustments were made for sex, delay between tracheostomy and treatment, and residual disease, the difference in treatment response between those receiving 60+ Gy in 28-30 fractions over 42 days and those receiving 40 Gy in ten fractions over 21 days was not significant (hazard ratio 1.37; 95% CI 0.64-3.91). (author)

  18. Impact of nutritional status on body functioning in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and how to intervene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aniwidyaningsih, Wahju; Varraso, Raphaëlle; Cano, Noel; Pison, Christophe

    2008-07-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is the fifth leading cause of mortality in the world. This study reviews diet as a risk or protective factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, mechanisms of malnutrition, undernutrition consequences on body functioning and how to modulate nutritional status of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Different dietary factors (dietary pattern, foods, nutrients) have been associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and the course of the disease. Mechanical disadvantage, energy imbalance, disuse muscle atrophy, hypoxemia, systemic inflammation and oxidative stress have been reported to cause systemic consequences such as cachexia and compromise whole body functioning. Nutritional intervention makes it possible to modify the natural course of the disease provided that it is included in respiratory rehabilitation combining bronchodilators optimization, infection control, exercise and, in some patients, correction of hypogonadism. Diet, as a modifiable risk factor, appears more as an option to prevent and modify the course of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Reduction of mechanical disadvantage, physical training and anabolic agents should be used conjointly with oral nutrition supplements to overcome undernutrition and might change the prognosis of the disease in some cases. Major research challenges address the role of systemic inflammation and the best interventions for controlling it besides smoking cessation.

  19. [Features of neurologic semiotics at chronic obstructive pulmonary disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litvinenko, I V; Baranov, V L; Kolcheva, Iu A

    2011-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is actual pathology, when it forms the mixed hypoxemia. In the conditions of a chronic hypoxemia structures of organism with high level of metabolic processes, namely brain tissues, suffer. Character of defeat of the central nervous system at that pathology is insufficiently studied. In this article we studied and analysed the presence of such changes as depression, anxiety, cognitive impairment and features of neurologic semiotics at COPD in 50 patients.

  20. Airway management of a rare huge-size supraglottic mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abou-Zeid, Haitham A.; Al-Ghamdi, Abdel Mohsin A.; Al-Qurain, Abdel-Aziz A.; Mokhazy, Khalid M.

    2006-01-01

    Laser excision of a huge-sized supraglottic mass nearly obstructing the airway passage is a real challenge to anesthesiologists. Upper airway obstruction due to neoplasm in supraglottic region, is traditionally managed by preoperative tracheostomy, however, such a common procedure can potentially have an impact on long-term outcome. A 26-year-old patient presented with dysphagia caused by left cystic vallecular synovial sarcoma. The airway was successfully secured via fiberoptic bronchoscopy, followed by excision of the supraglottic tumor with CO2 laser surgery. Tracheostomy was not required. The patient was discharged from the hospital on the 4th day of surgery. This case, highlights the possibility to secure the airway passage without performing preoperative tracheostomy resulting in good outcome and short hospital stay. (author)

  1. Continuous positive airway pressure treatment increases bronchial reactivity in obstructive sleep apnea patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korczynski, Piotr; Gorska, Katarzyna; Przybylowski, Tadeusz; Bielicki, Piotr; Zielinski, Jan; Chazan, Ryszarda

    2009-01-01

    The effects of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment on the function of the lower airways are poorly understood. One of the methods used to determine the influence of positive pressure breathing on lower airways is the bronchial hyperreactivity test. Some authors report that CPAP increases bronchial hyperreactivity, while others report decreases. To assess the influence of CPAP treatment on bronchial reactivity and the effects of bronchial hyperreactivity on compliance to CPAP treatment. The study group consisted of 101 obstructive sleep apnea syndrome patients (88 men and 13 women) with a mean age of 51 ± 11 years, mean apnea-hypopnea index of 53 ± 20 and mean body mass index of 32.6 ± 5.4. Patients were randomly assigned to a treatment group that received 3 weeks of CPAP therapy (group 1) or to a nontreatment control group (group 2). Pulmonary function tests and the methacholine bronchial provocation test were performed at baseline and 3 weeks later. There were no statistically significant differences between treated and control groups in anthropometry and polysomnography variables. At baseline, bronchial hyperreactivity was found in 6 patients from group 1 and 5 patients from group 2. A significant increase in bronchial reactivity was observed after CPAP treatment. Log PC20M decreased from 1.38 ± 0.30 at baseline to 1.26 ± 0.50 (p bronchial hyperreactivity during CPAP treatment were characterized by significantly lower FEV1, FVC and MEF50 values. CPAP produces statistically significant bronchial hyperreactivity. However, there were no clinical symptoms and it is not necessary to withdraw previous therapies. Copyright © 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Attenuation of cigarette smoke-induced airway mucus production by hydrogen-rich saline in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunye Ning

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Over-production of mucus is an important pathophysiological feature in chronic airway disease such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and asthma. Cigarette smoking (CS is the leading cause of COPD. Oxidative stress plays a key role in CS-induced airway abnormal mucus production. Hydrogen protected cells and tissues against oxidative damage by scavenging hydroxyl radicals. In the present study we investigated the effect of hydrogen on CS-induced mucus production in rats. METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups: sham control, CS group, hydrogen-rich saline pretreatment group and hydrogen-rich saline control group. Lung morphology and tissue biochemical changes were determined by immunohistochemistry, Alcian Blue/periodic acid-Schiff staining, TUNEL, western blot and realtime RT-PCR. RESULTS: Hydrogen-rich saline pretreatment attenuated CS-induced mucus accumulation in the bronchiolar lumen, goblet cell hyperplasia, muc5ac over-expression and abnormal cell apoptosis in the airway epithelium as well as malondialdehyde increase in the BALF. The phosphorylation of EGFR at Tyr1068 and Nrf2 up-regulation expression in the rat lungs challenged by CS exposure were also abrogated by hydrogen-rich saline. CONCLUSION: Hydrogen-rich saline pretreatment ameliorated CS-induced airway mucus production and airway epithelium damage in rats. The protective role of hydrogen on CS-exposed rat lungs was achieved at least partly by its free radical scavenging ability. This is the first report to demonstrate that intraperitoneal administration of hydrogen-rich saline protected rat airways against CS damage and it could be promising in treating abnormal airway mucus production in COPD.

  3. Obstructive sleep apnea: role of intermittent hypoxia and inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Anna M; Mehra, Reena

    2014-10-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea results in intermittent hypoxia via repetitive upper airway obstruction leading to partial or complete upper airway closure, apneas and hypopneas, respectively. Intermittent hypoxia leads to sympathetic nervous system activation and oxidative stress with a resultant systemic inflammatory cascade. The putative mechanism by which obstructive sleep apnea has been linked to numerous pathologic conditions including stoke, cardiovascular disease, hypertension, and metabolic derangements is through these systemic effects. Treatment of obstructive sleep apnea appears to reduce systemic markers of inflammation and ameliorates the adverse sequelae of this disease. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  4. Airway Surface Dehydration Aggravates Cigarette Smoke-Induced Hallmarks of COPD in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seys, Leen J M; Verhamme, Fien M; Dupont, Lisa L; Desauter, Elke; Duerr, Julia; Seyhan Agircan, Ayca; Conickx, Griet; Joos, Guy F; Brusselle, Guy G; Mall, Marcus A; Bracke, Ken R

    2015-01-01

    Airway surface dehydration, caused by an imbalance between secretion and absorption of ions and fluid across the epithelium and/or increased epithelial mucin secretion, impairs mucociliary clearance. Recent evidence suggests that this mechanism may be implicated in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, the role of airway surface dehydration in the pathogenesis of cigarette smoke (CS)-induced COPD remains unknown. We aimed to investigate in vivo the effect of airway surface dehydration on several CS-induced hallmarks of COPD in mice with airway-specific overexpression of the β-subunit of the epithelial Na⁺ channel (βENaC). βENaC-Tg mice and wild-type (WT) littermates were exposed to air or CS for 4 or 8 weeks. Pathological hallmarks of COPD, including goblet cell metaplasia, mucin expression, pulmonary inflammation, lymphoid follicles, emphysema and airway wall remodelling were determined and lung function was measured. Airway surface dehydration in βENaC-Tg mice aggravated CS-induced airway inflammation, mucin expression and destruction of alveolar walls and accelerated the formation of pulmonary lymphoid follicles. Moreover, lung function measurements demonstrated an increased compliance and total lung capacity and a lower resistance and hysteresis in βENaC-Tg mice, compared to WT mice. CS exposure further altered lung function measurements. We conclude that airway surface dehydration is a risk factor that aggravates CS-induced hallmarks of COPD.

  5. Asthma outcomes improve with continuous positive airway pressure for obstructive sleep apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano-Pariente, J; Plaza, V; Soriano, J B; Mayos, M; López-Viña, A; Picado, C; Vigil, L

    2017-05-01

    Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) in asthma patients with concomitant obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) seems to have a favorable impact on asthma, but data are inconsistent due to methodological limitations of previous studies. Prospective, multicenter study. We examined asthma outcomes after 6 months of CPAP in 99 adult asthma patients (mean age 57 years) with OSAS (respiratory disturbance index ≥20). Asthma control and quality of life were assessed with the Asthma Control Questionnaire (ACQ) and the Mini Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire (MiniAQLQ), respectively. Data were analyzed by intention-to-treat basis. The mean ± SD score of the ACQ decreased from 1.39 ± 0.91 at baseline to 1.0 ± 0.78 at 6 months (P = 0.003), the percentage of patients with uncontrolled asthma from 41.4% to 17.2% (P = 0.006), and the percentage of patients with asthma attacks in the 6 months before and after treatment from 35.4% to 17.2% (P = 0.015). The score of the mAQLQ increased from 5.12 ± 1.38 to 5.63 ± 1.17 (P = 0.009). There were also significant improvements in symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux and rhinitis, bronchial reversibility, and exhaled nitric oxide values (all P obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. © 2016 The Authors. Allergy published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Sibutramine versus continuous positive airway pressure in obese obstructive sleep apnoea patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferland, A; Poirier, P; Sériès, F

    2009-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the efficacy of 1 yr of sibutramine-induced weight loss versus continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment on sleep-disordered breathing, cardiac autonomic function and systemic blood pressure in obese patients with obstructive sleep apnoea. Subjects with a body mass index of > or =30 kg.m(-2) without previous treatment for obstructive sleep apnoea underwent either sibutramine (n = 22) or CPAP (n = 18) treatment for 1 yr. Sibutramine induced a 5.4+/-1.4 kg decrease in body weight compared to the CPAP group, in which no changes in anthropometric variables were observed. The CPAP treatment improved all sleep and respiratory variables, whereas sibutramine-induced weight loss improved only nocturnal arterial oxygen saturation profile. Only CPAP treatment improved night-time systolic and diastolic blood pressure and 24-h and daytime ambulatory diastolic blood pressure. Sibutramine-induced weight loss had no impact on indices of heart rate variability, whereas CPAP treatment increased daytime time domain indices. CPAP treatment for 1 yr had beneficial impacts on nocturnal breathing disturbances, and improved nocturnal oxygenation, night-time systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and daytime cardiac parasympathetic modulation. Sibutramine did not improve sleep-disordered breathing, systemic blood pressure or heart rate variability. There were no adverse effects, such as increment in blood pressure or arrhythmias, associated with this treatment regimen.

  7. Extraction of airway trees using multiple hypothesis tracking and template matching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raghavendra, Selvan; Petersen, Jens; Pedersen, Jesper Johannes Holst

    2016-01-01

    used in constructing a multiple hypothesis tree, which is then traversed to reach decisions. The proposed modifications remove the need for local thresholding of hypotheses as decisions are made entirely based on statistical comparisons involving the hypothesis tree. The results show improvements......Knowledge of airway tree morphology has important clinical applications in diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. We present an automatic tree extraction method based on multiple hypothesis tracking and template matching for this purpose and evaluate its performance on chest CT images...

  8. Imaging in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaker, Saher B; Dirksen, Asger; Bach, Karen S; Mortensen, Jann

    2007-06-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is divided into pulmonary emphysema and chronic bronchitis (CB). Emphysema is defined patho-anatomically as "permanent enlargement of airspaces distal to the terminal bronchiole, accompanied by the destruction of their walls, and without obvious fibrosis" (1). These lesions are readily identified and quantitated using computed tomography (CT), whereas the accompanying hyperinflation is best detected on plain chest X-ray, especially in advanced disease. The diagnosis of CB is clinical and relies on the presence of productive cough for 3 months in 2 or more successive years. The pathological changes of mucosal inflammation and bronchial wall thickening have been more difficult to identify with available imaging techniques. However, recent studies using Multi-detector row CT (MDCT) reported more reproducible assessment of air wall thickening.

  9. Consequences of physical inactivity in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartman, Jorine E; Boezen, H Marike; de Greef, Mathieu H G; Bossenbroek, Linda; ten Hacken, Nick H T

    2010-01-01

    The many health benefits of regular physical activity underline the importance of this topic, especially in this period of time when the prevalence of a sedentary lifestyle in the population is increasing. Physical activity levels are especially low in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary

  10. Self-management programmes for people living with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a call for a reconceptualisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonsdottir, Helga

    2013-03-01

    To synthesise findings from previously published studies on the effectiveness of self-management programmes for people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Self-management is a widely valued concept to address contemporary issues of chronic health problems. Yet, findings of self-management programmes for people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease are indecisive. Literature review of (1) previously published systematic reviews and (2) an integrative literature review. Synthesis of findings from previously published systematic reviews (n = 4) of the effectiveness of self-management programmes for people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and an integrated review that was performed on papers published between January 2007-June 2012 (n = 9). Findings demonstrate that there are few studies on the effectiveness of self-management programmes on people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease despite more than a decade of research activities. Outcomes of the studies reveal some increase in health-related quality of life and reduction in use of healthcare resources. The methodological approaches vary, and the sample size is primarily small. Families are not acknowledged. Features of patient-centredness exist in self-management programmes, particularly in the more recent articles. The effectiveness of self-management programmes for people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease remains indecisive. A reconceptualisation of self-management programmes is called for with attention to a family-centred, holistic and relational care focusing on living with and minimising the handicapping consequences of the health problems in their entirety. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. Physical Activity Recommendations in Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartman, Jorine E.; Boezen, H. Marike; Zuidema, Menno J.; de Greef, Mathieu H. G.; ten Hacken, Nick H. T.; Boezen, Hendrika

    2014-01-01

    Background: Physical activity recommendations are hardly studied in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and specifically recommendations that are individualized to a patient's aerobic fitness level are not studied. Objectives: To compare individualized (relative) and

  12. Role of clinical questionnaires in optimizing everyday care of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jones, Paul W.; Price, David; van der Molen, Thys

    2011-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a leading cause of disability in all its stages, and death in patients with moderate or severe obstruction. At present, COPD is suboptimally managed; current health is often not measured properly and hardly taken into account in management plans, and

  13. Defining and targeting health disparities in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pleasants RA

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Roy A Pleasants,1–3 Isaretta L Riley,1–3 David M Mannino4 1Duke Asthma, Allergy, and Airways Center, 2Division of Pulmonary, Allergy, and Critical Care Medicine, Duke University School of Medicine, 3Durham VA Medical Center, Durham, NC, 4Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care, and Sleep Medicine, Pulmonary Epidemiology Research Laboratory, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY, USA Abstract: The global burden of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD continues to grow in part due to better outcomes in other major diseases and in part because a substantial portion of the worldwide population continues to be exposed to inhalant toxins. However, a disproportionate burden of COPD occurs in people of low socioeconomic status (SES due to differences in health behaviors, sociopolitical factors, and social and structural environmental exposures. Tobacco use, occupations with exposure to inhalant toxins, and indoor biomass fuel (BF exposure are more common in low SES populations. Not only does SES affect the risk of developing COPD and etiologies, it is also associated with worsened COPD health outcomes. Effective interventions in these people are needed to decrease these disparities. Efforts that may help lessen these health inequities in low SES include 1 better surveillance targeting diagnosed and undiagnosed COPD in disadvantaged people, 2 educating the public and those involved in health care provision about the disease, 3 improving access to cost-effective and affordable health care, and 4 markedly increasing the efforts to prevent disease through smoking cessation, minimizing use and exposure to BF, and decreasing occupational exposures. COPD is considered to be one the most preventable major causes of death from a chronic disease in the world; therefore, effective interventions could have a major impact on reducing the global burden of the disease, especially in socioeconomically disadvantaged populations. Keywords: health disparities

  14. Application of Kr-81m gas for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. A comparison of various inhalation techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawakami, K; Katsuyama, N i; Anno, I i; Harada, J; Kuroda, T [Jikei Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine

    1978-11-01

    The Kr-81m ventilation study was performed by the following four inhalation techniques. 1) Spontaneous respiration with Kr-81m in air (Sp). 2) Serial inhalation of Kr-81m from residual volume to total lung capacity (VC). 3) Bolus inhalation of 50 ml of Kr-81m from the level of functional residual capacity (FRC), and 4) residual volume (RV), followed by air, to total lung capacity. Scintiphotos were taken during 10 sec of breathholding for VC, FRC, RV inhalation techniques and during tidal breathing for Sp technique, in a sitting position, by a scinticamera (Pho/Gamma HP). Twenty-three of the 28 subjects showed uneven distribution of the washout time in the Xe-133 study, 5 cases have a normal Xe-133 study. In severe obstructive changes with marked delay of the Xe-133 washout time, inhalation defects of Kr-81m were imaged in all techniques. In minor degrees of obstruction associated with slight delay of the washout, FRC and RV techniques detected abnormalities, whilst images by Sp and VC techniques showed homogeneous distribution of Kr-81m. This is due to rebreathing effect on Sp and to opening of partial airway obstruction in a high lung volume on VC technique. RV technique had a disadvantage for imaging of abnormalities in the lower lung fields, because Kr-81m concentration is low in the lower lung fields, due to physiological closure of the small airway. In 3 of 5 cases of asymptomatic asthma with a normal Xe-133 study, uneven distribution in RV technique was the only abnormality detected. FRC technique was most sensitive for slight obstructive changes in the upper lung fields as well as in the lower. For the ventilation study using Kr-81m, a combined test of Sp, VC, RV and FRC inhalation techniques is useful for early detection of the small airway disease and evaluation of the degree of abnormalities.

  15. Excessive visceral fat accumulation in advanced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Furutate R

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Ryuko Furutate1, Takeo Ishii1,2, Ritsuko Wakabayashi1, Takashi Motegi1,2, Kouichi Yamada1,2, Akihiko Gemma2, Kozui Kida1,21Respiratory Care Clinic, Nippon Medical School, Kudan-Minami, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo, Japan; 2Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Pulmonary Medicine, Infectious Diseases and Oncology, Nippon Medical School, Sendagi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, JapanBackground: Previous studies have suggested links between chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, cardiovascular disease, and abdominal obesity. Although abdominal visceral fat is thought to be associated with cardiovascular risk factors, the degree of visceral fat accumulation in patients with COPD has not been directly studied. The aim of this study was to investigate the abdominal visceral fat accumulation and the association between visceral fat and the severity and changes in emphysema in COPD patients.Methods: We performed clinical and laboratory tests, including pulmonary function, dyspnea score, and the six-minute walking test in COPD patients (n = 101 and control, which included subjects with a smoking history but without airflow obstruction (n = 62. We used computed tomography to evaluate the abdominal visceral fat area (VFA, subcutaneous fat area (SFA, and the extent of emphysema.Results: The COPD group had a larger VFA than the control group. The prevalence of non-obese subjects with an increased VFA was greater in the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease Stages III and IV than in the other stages of COPD. The extent of emphysema was inversely correlated with waist circumference and SFA. However, VFA did not decrease with the severity of emphysema. VFA was positively correlated with the degree of dyspnea.Conclusion: COPD patients have excessive visceral fat, which is retained in patients with more advanced stages of COPD or severe emphysema despite the absence of obesity.Keywords: abdominal obesity, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, emphysema

  16. Study of inflammatory markers and BODE index in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

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    Priti Lokesh Meshram

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is a common preventable and treatable disease characterized by progressive airflow limitation and associated with enhanced chronic inflammatory response of the airways to a variety of noxious stimuli. The current concept of COPD, however, extends beyond the respiratory system to include a variety of extrapulmonary manifestations which includes raised inflammatory markers. Methods: This was a single, center observational open-labeled case–controlled study which included fifty patients of diagnosed COPD and 50 age- and gender-matched controls. All patients were evaluated by detailed history taking, pulmonary function test, 6-min walk test, and calculation of BODE scores. Levels of serum inflammatory markers such as cortisol, tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-6 (IL-6, lactate dehydrogenase, and C-reactive protein were estimated using standard quality equipments. Observations: Majority of the patients in the study and control groups were males and were aged above 40 years. Thirty-eight of the fifty COPD patients had BODE scores of more than 3. All the studied inflammatory markers were significantly higher in the COPD group as compared to the control group. Of all the studied markers, only IL-6 showed a significant correlation with BODE index, i.e., higher IL-6 values were associated with higher BODE scores. No correlation was seen between the other markers and BODE scores. Conclusions: Our data suggest that IL-6 is a biomarker that correlates with BODE score. IL-6 as a target for therapy in COPD needs to be further studied. Follow-up studies are needed to validate findings.

  17. Biomarkers in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sin, Don D; Vestbo, Jørgen

    2009-01-01

    Currently, with exception of lung function tests, there are no well validated biomarkers or surrogate endpoints that can be used to establish efficacy of novel drugs for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, the lung function test is not an ideal surrogate for short-term drug...... trials because it (1) does not provide information regarding disease activity or the underlying pathologic process, (2) cannot separate the various phenotypes of COPD, (3) is not specific for COPD, and (4) is relatively unresponsive to known therapies that prolong survival. Accordingly, there are large...

  18. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and genetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingebrigtsen, T.; Thomsen, S.F.; Vestbo, J.

    2008-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterised by airflow limitation and is associated with an inflammatory response of the lungs primarily caused by cigarette smoking. Cigarette smoking is by far the most important environmental risk factor for COPD, but less than half of all heavy...... smokers develop COPD. This indicates a genetic contribution to the individual disease susceptibility. Although many genes have been examined, the puzzle of COPD genetics seems still largely unsolved. It is therefore important to measure phenotypes and to perform genome-wide scans of COPD patients in order...

  19. In vivo models of human airway epithelium repair and regeneration

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    C. Coraux

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite an efficient defence system, the airway surface epithelium, in permanent contact with the external milieu, is frequently injured by inhaled pollutants, microorganisms and viruses. The response of the airway surface epithelium to an acute injury includes a succession of cellular events varying from the loss of the surface epithelium integrity to partial shedding of the epithelium or even to complete denudation of the basement membrane. The epithelium has then to repair and regenerate to restore its functions. The in vivo study of epithelial regeneration in animal models has shown that airway epithelial cells are able to dedifferentiate, spread, migrate over the denuded basement membrane and progressively redifferentiate to reconstitute a functional respiratory epithelium after several weeks. Humanised tracheal xenograft models have been developed in immunodeficient nude and severe combined immunodeficient (SCID mice in order to mimic the natural regeneration process of the human airway epithelium and to analyse the cellular and molecular events involved during the different steps of airway epithelial reconstitution. These models represent very powerful tools for analysing the modulation of the biological functions of the epithelium during its regeneration. They are also very useful for identifying stem/progenitor cells of the human airway epithelium. A better knowledge of the mechanisms involved in airway epithelium regeneration, as well as the characterisation of the epithelial stem and progenitor cells, may pave the way to regenerative therapeutics, allowing the reconstitution of a functional airway epithelium in numerous respiratory diseases, such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, cystic fibrosis and bronchiolitis.

  20. Chronic airflow obstruction after successful treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis

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    Anthony L. Byrne

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Cross-sectional studies reveal an association between tuberculosis (TB and chronic airflow obstruction, but cannot adequately address confounding. We hypothesised that treated pulmonary TB is an independent risk factor for chronic airflow obstruction. The Pulmones Post TB cohort study enrolled participants from Lima, Peru, aged 10–70 years with a history of drug-susceptible (DS- or multidrug-resistant (MDR-TB who had completed treatment and were clinically cured. Unexposed participants without TB were randomly selected from the same districts. We assessed respiratory symptoms, relevant environmental exposures, and spirometric lung function pre- and post-bronchodilator. In total, 144 participants with DS-TB, 33 with MDR-TB and 161 unexposed participants were fully evaluated. Compared with unexposed participants, MDR-TB patients had lower lung volumes (adjusted mean difference in forced vital capacity −370 mL, 95% CI −644– −97 and post-bronchodilator airflow obstruction (adjusted OR 4.89, 95% CI 1.27–18.78. Participants who had recovered from DS-TB did not have lower lung volumes than unexposed participants, but were more likely to have a reduced forced expiratory volume in 1 s/forced vital capacity ratio <0.70 (adjusted OR 2.47, 95% CI 1.01–6.03. Individuals successfully treated for TB may experience long-lasting sequelae. Interventions facilitating earlier TB treatment and management of chronic respiratory disease should be explored.

  1. Pharyngeal airway changes following mandibular setback surgery

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    Babu Ramesh

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of dentofacial deformities with jaw osteotomies has an effect on airway anatomy and therefore mandibular setback surgery has the potential to diminish airway size. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of mandibular setback surgery on airway size. 8 consecutive patients were examined prospectively. All patients underwent mandibular setback surgery. Cephalometric analysis was performed preoperatively and 3 months post operatively with particular attention to pharyngeal airway changes. Pharyngeal airway size decreased considerably in all, patients thus predisposing to development of obstructive sleep apnea. Therefore, large anteroposterior discrepancies should be corrected by combined maxillary and mandibular osteotomies.

  2. Influenza and Pneumonia Vaccination Rates and Factors Affecting Vaccination among Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

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    Ülkü Aka Aktürk

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Influenza and pneumococcal vaccinations are recommended in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients to decrease associated risks at all stages. Although the prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is high in our country, as previously reported, vaccination rates are low. Aims: To assess the vaccination rates of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients and factors that may affect these. Study Design: Multi-centre cross-sectional study. Methods: Patients admitted to the chest diseases clinics of six different centres between 1 February 2013 and 1 January 2014 with a pre-diagnosis of Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease according to the Global initiative for chronic obstructive lung disease criteria, who were in a stable condition were included in the study. The survey, which included demographic characteristics, socio-economic status, severity of disease and vaccination information, was first tested on a small patient population before the study. The survey was completed by the investigators after obtaining written informed consent. Results: The average age of the 296 included patients was 66.3±9.3 years and 91.9% were male. Of these, 36.5% had the influenza vaccination and 14.1% had the pneumococcal vaccination. The most common reason for not being vaccinated was ‘no recommendation by doctors’: 57.2% in the case of influenza vaccinations, and 46.8% in the case of pneumococcal vaccinations. Both vaccination rates were significantly higher in those patients with comorbidities (influenza vaccination p0.05. Vaccination rates were significantly higher in those with a white-collar occupation and higher education level, and who presented to a university hospital (p<0.001. Conclusion: Medical professionals do not request vaccinations as often as the International Guidelines suggest for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients. Awareness of the importance of these vaccinations among both doctors and patients

  3. Approaches to daily body condition management in patients with stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawada, Terue

    2016-11-01

    To clarify the characteristics of sub-groups of patients with stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease having similar approaches to daily body condition management. Prior literature has shed light on the experience of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and revealed that these patients engage in many activities and try different things in their daily lives to regulate and manage their body condition. The research so far has all been qualitative, comprising mostly interviews, and no quantitative studies have been performed. In this study, cluster analysis was used to show that subgroups of patients with similar characteristics undertake similar approaches to body condition management. Descriptive, correlational study. Invitations to participate in the survey were extended to patients with stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Cluster analysis was performed on the basis of questionnaire scores relating to nine different categories of daily body condition management actions. The characteristics of the body condition management approaches, in each subgroup, were investigated using analysis of variance and multiple comparisons. The cluster analysis produced six subgroups, each defined by the effort expended as part of their body condition management. The subgroups also differed depending on patient age and disease severity. Body condition management approaches taken by patients with stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease are overall, comprehensive approaches. Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease were subgrouped based on their engagement in body conditioning. Relationships between the subgroups and the engagement in body conditioning, age and shortness of breath severity were observed. The care of patient support should be comprehensive and depend on their age and the duration of the disease. In addition, it should be long term and recognise that the patients are living their own respective lives. Such considerations and

  4. Determining the diagnostic value of endogenous carbon monoxide in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease exacerbations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dogan, N. O.; Corbacioglu, S. K.; Bildik, F.; Kilicaslan, I.; Hakoglu, O.; Gunaydin, G. P.; Cevik, Y.; Ulker, V.; Gokcen, E.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether endogenous carbon monoxide levels in exacerbations of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease patients were higher compared to healthy individuals and to investigate alteration of carbon monoxide levels across the three different severity stages of Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease criteria related to Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease exacerbations. Methods: The prospective study was conducted from January to March 2011 at two medical institutions in Ankara, Turkey, and comprised patients of acute Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease exacerbations. The severity of the exacerbations was based on the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease criteria. Patients with active tobacco smoking, suspicious carbon monoxide poisoning and uncertain diagnosis were excluded. healthy control subjects who did not have any comorbid diseases and smoking habitus were also enrolled to compare the differences between carboxyhaemoglobin levels A two-tailed Mann-Whitney U test with Bonferroni correction was done following a Kruskal-Wallis test for statistical purposes. Results: There were 90 patients and 81 controls in the study. Carboxyhaemoglobin levels were higher in the patients than the controls (p<0.001). As for the three severity stages, Group 1 had a median carboxyhaemoglobin of 1.6 (0.95-2.00). The corresponding levels in Group 2 (1.8 (1.38-2.20)) and Group 3 (1.9 (1.5-3.0)) were higher than the controls (p<0.001 and p<0.005 respectively). No statistically significant difference between Group 1 and the controls (1.30 (1.10-1.55)) was observed (p<0.434). Conclusion: Carboxyhaemoglobin levels were significantly higher in exacerbations compared with the normal population. Also, in more serious exacerbations, carboxyhaemoglobin levels were significantly increased compared with healthy individuals and mild exacerbations. (author)

  5. Intestinal smooth muscle response to chronic obstruction : possible applications in jejunoileal atresia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloutier, R

    1975-02-01

    Hyperplasia is the main change occurring in intestinal smooth muscle above a chronic obstruction and explains the functional obstruction seen in the proximal bowel of a jejunoileal atresia. With an experimental model in dogs, this hyperplasia has been shown to be reversible. However, changes are extreme in atresia, and experiments in animals with induced atresia will best evaluate various kinds of treatment.

  6. Cleaning at Home and at Work in Relation to Lung Function Decline and Airway Obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svanes, Øistein; Bertelsen, Randi J; Lygre, Stein H L; Carsin, Anne E; Antó, Josep M; Forsberg, Bertil; García-García, José M; Gullón, José A; Heinrich, Joachim; Holm, Mathias; Kogevinas, Manolis; Urrutia, Isabel; Leynaert, Bénédicte; Moratalla, Jesús M; Le Moual, Nicole; Lytras, Theodore; Norbäck, Dan; Nowak, Dennis; Olivieri, Mario; Pin, Isabelle; Probst-Hensch, Nicole; Schlünssen, Vivi; Sigsgaard, Torben; Skorge, Trude D; Villani, Simona; Jarvis, Debbie; Zock, Jan P; Svanes, Cecilie

    2018-05-01

    Cleaning tasks may imply exposure to chemical agents with potential harmful effects to the respiratory system, and increased risk of asthma and respiratory symptoms among professional cleaners and in persons cleaning at home has been reported. Long-term consequences of cleaning agents on respiratory health are, however, not well described. This study aimed to investigate long-term effects of occupational cleaning and cleaning at home on lung function decline and airway obstruction. The European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS) investigated a multicenter population-based cohort at three time points over 20 years. A total of 6,235 participants with at least one lung function measurement from 22 study centers, who in ECRHS II responded to questionnaire modules concerning cleaning activities between ECRHS I and ECRHS II, were included. The data were analyzed with mixed linear models adjusting for potential confounders. As compared with women not engaged in cleaning (ΔFEV 1  = -18.5 ml/yr), FEV 1 declined more rapidly in women responsible for cleaning at home (-22.1; P = 0.01) and occupational cleaners (-22.4; P = 0.03). The same was found for decline in FVC (ΔFVC = -8.8 ml/yr; -13.1, P = 0.02; and -15.9, P = 0.002; respectively). Both cleaning sprays and other cleaning agents were associated with accelerated FEV 1 decline (-22.0, P = 0.04; and -22.9, P = 0.004; respectively). Cleaning was not significantly associated with lung function decline in men or with FEV 1 /FVC decline or airway obstruction. Women cleaning at home or working as occupational cleaners had accelerated decline in lung function, suggesting that exposures related to cleaning activities may constitute a risk to long-term respiratory health.

  7. Accelerated decline in lung function in smoking women with airway obstruction: SAPALDIA 2 cohort study

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    Zemp Elisabeth

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim was to determine if effects from smoking on lung function measured over 11 years differ between men and women. Methods In a prospective population based cohort study (Swiss Study on Air Pollution and Lung Diseases in Adults current smokers in 1991 (18 – 60 yrs were reassessed in 2002 (n = 1792. Multiple linear regression was used to estimate effects from pack-years of cigarettes smoked to 1991 and mean packs of cigarettes smoked per day between 1991 and 2002 on change in lung volume and flows over the 11 years. Results In both sexes, packs smoked between assessments were related to lung function decline but pack-years smoked before 1991 were not. Mean annual decline in FEV1 was -10.4 mL(95%CI -15.3, -5.5 per pack per day between assessments in men and -13.8 mL(95%CI-19.5,-8.1 in women. Decline per pack per day between 1991 and 2002 was lower in women who smoked in 1991 but quit before 2002 compared to persistent smokers (-6.4 vs -11.6 mL, p = 0.05 but this was not seen in men (-14.3 vs -8.8 mL p = 0.49. Smoking related decline was accelerated in men and women with airway obstruction, particularly in women where decline in FEV1 was three fold higher in participants with FEV1/FVC Conclusion There are differences in effects from smoking on lung function between men and women. Lung function recovers faster in women quitters than in men. Women current smokers with airway obstruction experience a greater smoking related decline in lung function than men.

  8. Dioscorin pre-treatment protects A549 human airway epithelial cells from hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Jeng-Yuan; Chu, Jao-Jia; Chou, Ming-Chih; Chen, Ya-Wen

    2013-10-01

    Hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) is a highly reactive oxygen species involved in lung and bronchial epithelium injury. Increased H(2)O(2) levels have been reported in expired breath condensates of patients with inflammatory airway diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Protecting